International Journal of Remote Sensing Applications (IJRSA)
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|1 The Potential of LiDAR Application in Malaysia, Mohd Hasmadi Ismail, Mohamad Sam Manaf
Information on forest properties have grown over time and will continue crucially in the future. The focus on timber for commercial trade in early 1960’s in Malaysia has been changed towards multi function forestry, supported by multi resources survey. Starting with high demand of the latest data and accurate information, and cost effective monitoring system, application of various technology of sensing system is applied into forestry. The introduction of precision forestry concept is not new but in Malaysi
|2 GIS Based Terrain Modeling of the Area NW of Karimnagar, Southern India, D. Prakash, C. K. Singh, C. K. Singh, Deepak -, Amit Kumar
GIS based DEM has been used in conjunction with detailed field work to extract geomorphic features and their control on drainage pattern in a part of Karimnagar granulite terrain (KGT), Southern India. Study revealed that the Precambrian metamorphic terrain has an uneven rugged topography represented by raised hillocks forming different patterns surrounded by flat and ponded low lying areas. These distinctly different types of geomorphic domains are characterized by different slope aspects, channel patterns
|3 Precision Water Management in Corn Using Automated Crop Yield Modeling and Remotely Sensed Data, Sudhanshu Sekhar Panda, Suranjan Panigrahi, Dean D. Steele, Daniel P. Ames
The ability to forecast seasonal crop water use estimates is necessary for better resource allocation. Mid-season estimation of entire seasonal crop water requirements can reduce unnecessary water application and spatial water stress, thus increasing crop yield. A crop yield versus seasonal water use model was developed. The crop yield was estimated from late July and early August vegetation aerial image data; bare soil image data; land elevation data; climatic data such as temperature, accumulated growing degree days (AGDD), solar radiation, rainfall; and non-climatic non-imagery data such as irrigation application. All these crop growth-influencing parameters were integrated from the germination date to the aerial image acquisition date. A radial basis functional network (RBFN) was used in the yield prediction model development. The optimized RBFN crop yield prediction model provided an average prediction accuracy of 91% along with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.65 using the test data. The standard error of prediction (SEP) and Root Mean Square error (RMSE) obtained from the model was only 9.62% and 10.2% of the average actual yield of the test dataset. A linear fit model was created using the spatially predicted corn yields versus the corresponding estimated ET for the crop. An R2 of 0.65 was obtained from the model. Residual analysis was performed as an effective tool to detect outliers because there were a few malfunctioning lysimeters during some years. A performed studentized residual test and Q-test suggested several probable outliers. After the elimination of outliers, the linear fit model between estimated ET and predicted corn yield provided improved R2 of 0.81. Farmers could use the developed water use model to estimate the seasonal water requirement for corn in a midseason cropping period.
|4 Identifying Similar Biophysical Characteristics among Nesting Beaches of Green Turtles of Turkey Using Remote Sensing Techniques, Kristina H. Yamamoto, Sharolyn J. Anderson, Rebecca L. Powell, Donald G. Sullivan, Paul C. Sutton
We introduce the use of remote sensing analysis in providing new insight in characterizing green turtle nesting habitat. A maximum likelihood classification (MLC) and a multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) were conducted on a Landsat image that contained six nesting beaches in Turkey that represent varying degrees of importance. Both techniques highlighted similarities of the vegetative cover as a function of distance from the shoreline for beaches of similar importance. These similarities in percentage and change of vegetative cover allow for categorization of nesting beaches which may be applied to other nesting areas throughout the green turtle’s range.
|5 Thirty years of evolution of the Sedrun landslide (Swisserland) from multitemporal orthorectified aerial images, differential Digital Terrain Models and field data, Pascal Allemand, Christophe Delacourt, Daniela Gasperini, Johan Kasperski, Pierre Pothérat
The 3D displacement fields of the Sedrun landslide located in Switzerland in the Grison canton have been computed for two periods (1973 to 1990 and 1990 to 2003) by combining Digital Terrain Models (DTM) differences and correlation of aerial ortho-images. The displacement fields, which are similar for the two periods, have been compared to the tectonic structures which exist at the surface of the landslide. Zones of major velocity gradient visible on displacement maps correspond to areas marked by strong br
|6 Snow Cover Mapping using Satellite Remote Sensing Data, Hosni Ghedira, AbuDhabi UAE, Juan-Carlos Arevalo
This paper discusses neural network based approach to generate the spatial distribution of snow accumulation using multi-channel Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data. Five SSM/I channels (19H, 19V, 22V, 37V, and 85V) were used to remotely sense snow accumulation during 2001/2002 winter season. Ground snow depth measurements were acquired from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) through the Cooperative Observer Network for snow monitoring in the United States. The snow depths were compiled and gridded into 25 km x 25 km grid to match the final SSM/I spatial resolution. Neural network based approach was tested and compared with the filtering algorithm developed by Grody and Basist  in the Northern Midwest region of the United States. The results indicate that the neural-network-based approach has a great potential in identifying snow pixels from SSM/I data by providing a significant improvement in snow mapping accuracy over the filtering algorithm.
|7 Spatial Variability of Ground Water Quality in Mathura District (Uttar Pradesh, India) with Geostatistical Method, Er. Kishan Singh Rawat, Dr. Anil Kumr Mishra, Dr. Vinay Kumar Sehgal, Dr. Vinod Kumar Tripathi
Groundwater is one of the major sources of water in arid and semi -arid regions. Groundwater quality data and its spatial distribution are important for the purpose of planning and management. Geo-statistical methods are one of the most advanced techniques for interpolation of groundwater quality. In this study, kriging methods were used for predicting spatial distribution of some groundwater quality parameters such as: Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, TDS, EC, F?, HCO3?, NO3?, Cl?, SO42?and PO42?. Data were collected from 13 wells in Mathura district (Uttar Pradesh, India). After normalization of data, semi-variogram was drawn. For selecting suitable model for fitness on experimental semi-variogram, residual sum of squares (RSS) value was used. Use of geo-statistics (i.e., kriging) on our well sampling results provided valuable insight on the nature of the spatial and temporal variability of groundwater quality parameters. In analysis, found high values of NO3? (=104.77 mg/l), K+ (=141.51 mg/l), PO4?2 (=2.99 mg/l) and high F? value with a maximum of 4.6 mg/l (at Shahpur) are observed in ground water samples.
|8 Multi-tone Measurement Infrastructure for Microwave Power Transistor Characterization under Wideband Multi-tone Stimuli, M. Akmal, J. Lees, V. Carrubba, Z. Yusoff, J. Benedikt, P. J. Tasker, S. Bensmida, K. Morris, M. Beach, J. McGeehan
This paper presents a refined multi-tone waveform measurement system for the robust characterization of nonlinear microwave devices when driven by broadband multi-tone stimuli. This enhanced system has the ability to present specific, constant impedances, not only to a large number of baseband (IF) components, but also to signals located around the carrier and significant harmonic frequencies. Achieving such comprehensive impedance control across wide modulation bandwidths is critical in allowing the 'emulation' of new power amplifier modes and architectures, and the subsequent waveform characterization of devices operating in these complex and often dynamic impedance environments. The enhanced system is demonstrated through a number of applications: firstly the experimental investigation and baseband optimization of a 10W GaN HEMT under nine-tone excitation, and secondly, the emulation of a modulated Class-J impedance environment that interestingly highlights the presence of separate optimum baseband impedance conditions necessary for the reduction of individual IM products.
|9 Identification of Hotspots and Safe Zones of Crime in Uttar Pradesh, India: Geo-spatial Analysis Approach, Jitendra Kumar, Sripati Mishra, Neeraj Tiwari
The crime is act not accepted by society and closely associated with geographical and demographic variables. Present study aims to identify the area suffering major crime acts named hotspots and the area has less crime named safe zone with respect to different heads of crime against body. The data collected by State Crime Record Bureau, Uttar Pradesh, India are taken for study and using the cluster analysis the hotspots and safe zones of crime are identified.
|10 Comparison of Large Aperture Scintillometer and Satellite-based Energy Balance Models in Sensible Heat Flux and Crop Evapotranspiration Determination, Mcebisi Mkhwanazi, José L. Chávez, Evan H. Rambikur
The estimation of crop water use or evapotranspiration (ET) is an important aspect of water management especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Various methods have been used in the estimation of ET including remote sensing (RS) based models, and these have an added advantage of estimating ET over a large area (e.g., regionally). This study looked at two models of estimating ET using remote sensing and limited weather data; Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration (METRIC) and the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL). Satellite images from Landsat 5 for 2010 for two alfalfa fields in Rocky Ford, Colorado were processed and analyzed to obtain sensible heat flux. Both RS models employ the energy balance method and estimate net radiation and soil heat flux similarly. However, they differ in the estimation of the sensible heat flux (H) component. The objective of the study was to compare the estimates of H using these models with sensible heat flux actually measured using a Large Aperture Scintillometer (LAS). Further comparison was done for ET. Various model performance evaluations were then determined. Both RS methods overestimated the sensible heat flux when compared to the LAS, with SEBAL having an H Mean Bias Error (MBE) of 31.79 Wm-2 (or a 36.7% relative error), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 59.6 Wm-2 (68.9%) and Nash-Sutcliffe Coefficient of Efficiency (NSCE) of -0.13 when calculated on seasonal basis. METRIC performed slightly better with RMSE of 28.9 Wm-2 (33.4%) and NSCE of 0.48. For hourly ET, SEBAL had an error relative to LAS ET ranging between 0.35% and 38% while METRIC had error ranging between 1.4% and 11 %. There were larger errors in dry fields without full vegetation cover. It was concluded that METRIC more accurately estimated H and ET than SEBAL, and that both models incurred larger errors with dry patched fields. There is an opportunity to improve the remote sensing methods by researching the incorporation of surface heterogeneity and perhaps the correction of radiometric surface temperature for atmospheric effects.
|11 The Calculation and Analysis of Water Resource Carrying Capacity in Chongqing, China., Ming Li
The fast urbanization in Chongqing has had a great impact on the environment and resources. The water resource has been recognized as one of the key elements to the sustainable development of this region. This paper presents a method of predicting the regional Water Resource Carrying Capacity (WRCC) using the supply-demand balance model. The method predicts that the WRCC of Chongqing is from 110 million persons to 160 million persons in 2020 and it will not become the bottleneck of the social and economic development of Chongqing in the coming period of time. However the climate change and its impact on the regional ecology will have an effect on it. The results show that the climate is the most important element of the WRCC of Chongqing and the protection of the ecological environment in the upstream area is also very important. This paper has proposed tangible advice on the sustainable social and economic development in context of water resource.
|12 Preparation of spherical monodispersed titanium dioxide by Microwave assisted, Meilong Hu, Chenguang Bai, Mei Song, Xuewei Lv, Shengfu Zhang, Guibao Qiu
Spherical Titania (TiO2) with narrow size distribution and nice dispersibility has been obtained by hydrolysis in the mixed solvent of 1-propanol to de-ionized water under microwave assisted. The results show that the main effects on preparation of spherical TiO2 with small particle size, narrow size distribute and nice dispersibility include precursor concentration, microwave heating method and pH value. And microwave power is not obvious effect on the particle morphology and size distribution.
|13 Ground-Based Scatterometer Measurements and Inversion of Surface Parameters Using Neural Networks, Mingquan Jia, Ling Tong
In this study, a multi-band FM-CW ground-based scatterometer is used to measure the backscattering coefficient of bare soil surface. And then combined with the neural network (NN) which can be simulated in any non-linear problem in theory, and Advance Integrated Equation Model(AIEM) which has a wide range of surface roughness, inverses all of the soil parameters, including dielectric constant, rms height and correlation length. According to different data sources, the NN is constituted to the different input-output mapping mode. The training and testing data are simulated by the AIEM. The results have a better consistency with the actual measurement parameters, and the difference among different angles inversion results reflects the uneven characteristics of reality surface. The results also show that retrieval of multi-parameter using neural networks to be effective. In addition, the simultaneous measurement both backscattering coefficient and surface parameter is an effective means that study features of microwave scattering.
|14 The UAV Video Image Stitching Based On Improved Moravec Corner Matching Method, Chaokui Li, Gang Yang, Jun Wu, Fang Wang
As one kind of new image sources,UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) Video is more and more used. In this paper, the image matching based on corner feature is used to achieve image stitching. Moravec operator is one kind of simple and efficient method for corner feature extraction. In this paper we do special treatment on it, which covers the distributed conjugate points over full frame with virtual grid,to improve the precision of corner feature extraction. In the process of image mosaic, we use fade in/out method to achieve video image seamless stitching.
|15 Effects in Ionosphere During Partial Solar Eclipses over Kharkiv: Experimental and Simulation Results, Mykhaylo Lyashenko, Leonid Chernogor, Igor Domnin
The observation results of the effects in the ionosphere in the altitude range 200 – 700 km during the two partial solar eclipses (SE) on 3 October 2005 and 29 March 2006 are presented. The experimental data were obtained by the Kharkiv incoherent scatter radar that is unique one in the Central Europe. The results of theoretical modeling of dynamic and thermal process variations in the plasma during the SEs are showed. It is shown that the SEs led to a substantial transformation of the structure of the ionosphere, and also impact on the dynamic and thermal modes of the ionospheric plasma.
|16 Metalo-dielectric structure with negative refractive index for millimeter applications, Riad Yahiaoui, Valérie Vigneras, Patrick Mounaix
We numerically and experimentally investigated a composite (metal-dielectric) metamaterial at millimeter wavelengths. Our proposed low cost metamaterial exhibits a negative refractive index around 85GHz, which makes it very promising for super-resolution applications in the millimeter band.