Acta Scientific Agriculture

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1 Nature has its Own Ways!!! , S Jeevananda Reddy
People around the world are currently facing three “viruses”, namely global warming, Covid-19 and pollution costing trillions of dollars with the lopsided policies of governments and internation-al agencies affecting billions of people around the world
2 Construction of Farmland Solar Radiation DB Using GIS to Solve the Problem of Abandoned Cultivated Land and Select Cultivated Crops for AI , Atsushi Shiota, Thongchart Kerdphol and Yasunori Mitani
In Japan, abandoned cultivated lands have increased due to labor shortages caused by aging, low productivity, lack of farmland recipients, and poor land conditions. The increase of abandoned agriculture land causes problems such as a decline in the multifunctionality of agriculture, the occurrence of pests, birds, and animals. For this reason, the Japanese government has enacted legislation considering the measures to reduce or prevent the abandoned agricultural land. As a result, the area of abandoned agriculture lands was 423,000 ha in 2015, and the rate of increase has slowed.On the other hand, there is RUE (Radiation Use Efficiency) as a numerical value, representing the relationship between the amount of crop production and the amount of solar radiation. RUE is obtained by dividing the dry matter production amount by the accumulated light reception amount during the same period, and it is known that the dry matter production amount increases as the accumulated light reception amount increases, although there is a difference depending on the crop. Our research team has constructed a solar radiation simulation system using GIS (Geographic Information System) and DSM (Digital Surface Model) considering the shadow of buildings and trees. As a result, it has become possible to support the selection of a place, where the amount of solar radiation falling on the solar power generation system can be efficiently obtained, and to understand how much solar radiation can be obtained when the solar power generation system is installed. In addition, it has been incorporated with the weather conditions into this simulation system. Finally, a solar radiation simulation considering the weather conditions is successfully built.Based on these circumstances, this research focuses on the amount of solar radiation falling on farmland, and constructs a farm-land solar radiation DB in consideration of the shadow of buildings and trees and weather conditions for each farmland. The purpose of this research is to visualize farmlands that can receive a large amount of solar radiation and to establish a mechanism to support prioritization during the selecting abandoned agriculture lands and supporting the reuse of abandoned agriculture lands. In addition, the farmland solar radiation DB is designed to build an farmland DB that can manage items such as precipitation, temperature and soil in addition to solar radiation, assuming a mechanism to be able to propose crops grown using AI(Artificial Intelligence) in the future
3 Efficacy of Compatibility between Endophytic Biocontrol Agents and Abiotic Agents as Fungicides Alternatives for Controlling Root Rot of Grapevine , El-Sayed Hussein Ziedan, Moataza Mahmoud Saad, Mohamed Abd-El-All El-Naggar, Khames Ahmed Hemida, Magdy Gad El-Rab El Samman and Mostafa Helmy Mostafa
Root rot of grapevine an epidemic disease causing by several soil borne fungi recorded high loss plant growth of productivity. Nine endophytic biocontrol fungal and bacterial isolates of Trichoderma spp, Bacillus spp and Pseudomonasfluorescens were tested against growth of aggressive fungal isolates causing root rot of grapevine i.e. Fusarium spp. and Botryodiplodia theobromae. Results showed that the best antagonistic endophytic isolates were Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis. Trichoderma harzianum isolate sig-nificantly reduced mycelial linear growth and conidial sporulation of fungi tested as well as over lapping growth of fungi tested. In addition, Bacillus subtilis recorded high zone inhibition toward all pathogenic fungi tested than another bacterial isolates in this study. Some promising essential oils, organic, antioxidants acids and their combinations were tested on growth of endophytic biocontrol agents of Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis. Results obtained indicated that sorbic acid followed by propionic acid were the least effect on mycelial linear growth and conidial sporulation of Trichoderma harzianum. In addition, sorbic acid, propionic acid (0.1%), black seed oil (4.0%) and their combination had no effect negatively on Bacillus subtilis growth. In greenhouse experiment soil drench by propionic + sorbic acids, propionic acid + sorbic acid + T. harzianum + B. subtilis were the best and significantly treat-ments its completely suppress (100%) root rot disease percentage and disease severity on shoots and roots of grapevine plants fol-lowed by T. harzianum as individual or combination with B. subtilis were increased morphological characters of grapevine plant i.e. length, fresh and dry weight of and root size. So, combined soil treatment by propionic acid + sorbic acid or propionic acid + sorbic acid + T. harzianum + B. subtilis as the safe fungicide alternatives for management root rot disease of grapevine
4 The Harmony of the Physical Vacuum , Anatolii Pavlenko
This paper is a summary of ideas and methods related to protection of people from the negative impact of electronic technology. While conducting research, the author intended to clearly define the prevailing negative impact of torsion fields in comparison with electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic fields warm the tissues of a person using all sorts of gadgets, while torsion fields provide influence at the gene level. Much attention is paid to the technology of protection from torsion fields. For a more complete under-standing of the problem of protecting the population from the negative influence of torsion fields, the authors considered the concept of the “fabric of the universe” developed by several authors, which enabled representing the processes occurring in Physical Vacuum in a more distinct way. The fact that virtual particles have their own subconscious nature, which differs from ours that was predicted by N. Tesla, has been confirmed
5 First Report of Cophinforma atrovirens and Trichoderma ghanense Associated with Inflorescence Dieback of Cashew and Soil in Nigeria , Dele Omoyele Adeniyi, David Adedayo Animasaun, Olusola Thomas Oduoye and Ramar Krishnamurthy
Cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L.) is a plant of great economic value not only to growers but other players in the val-ue chain. The crop is mostly cultivated for the nut and can thrive in many agro-ecologies of Nigeria. A case study survey of major cashew plantations and soils of major growing areas in North Central, Nigeria comprising of Oro (Kwara State) and Ejule (Kogi States) showed typical symptom of dieback on cashew panicles re-corded in around 35% and 45% of established cashew trees in the plantations respectively. This disease situation typically referred to as inflorescence dieback of cashew in Nigeria, and this also oc-cur on cashew seedlings both in the nursery and newly established fields. This disease condition and incidence has earlier been as-sociated with Lasiodiplodia species, while the isolated fungi from the soil have priorly been classify as Trichoderma harzianum. The molecular study in this situation depicts the organisms as Cophin-forma atrovirens and Trichoderma ghanense respectively in which very close morphological resemblances were observed
6 Historical Perspectives of Agricultural Extension and Research- Extension-Farmers Linkage in Ethiopia , Solomon Yokamo
Country profile • Ethiopia is a landlocked country in the Eastern parts of Africa (horn of Africa). • It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, South Su-dan to the west and Sudan to the northwest. • Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world and the second- most populous nation on the African continent with a total area of 1,100,000 square kilometres (420,000 sq mi) and with the population size of > 110 million.Figure 1: AEZ of Ethiopia based on Global 16 classification system.Country profile The nation is a land of natural contrasts, with its vast fertile west, its forests, and numerous rivers, and the world's hottest set-tlement of Dallol in its north.
7 Botanical, Geographical, Herbicidal Aspects of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) , Barbara Sawicka, Piotr Pszczółkowski, Piotr Barbaś and Bernadetta Bienia
The botanical, geographical and herbicidal aspect of the species of the genus Melissa is presented. These species, especially Melissaofficinalis, have been assigned a number of biological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, antiviral, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and flatulence inhibiting, inhibiting germination and weed growth. The traditional pharmacological properties of lemon balm herb can be associated with the presence of bioactive phytochemicals such as terpenoids, alcohols, rosmarinic acid and phenolic antioxidants. A rich source of bioactive substances, of various Melissa species, can be considered as a promising candidate for the development of nutra-pharmaceuticals and bioherbicides. This review covers the botanical, geographical, nutritional, phytochemical and traditional medical aspects as well as the numerous biological activities of some commonly available Melissa sp. to prove their potential use in the food processing industry, the nutra-pharmaceutical and cosmetics-nutraceutical industry.
8 Estimation of Exserohilum turcicum Efficiency in Quality Protein Maize Crosses: Component of Resistance , Saket Kumar, Rajeev Pratap Singh and Rajesh Singh
NCLB is a seasonal maize crop disease which affected maize leaf under humid environment but in some cases QPM hybrid showed resistance to this disease. Author was selected 5 QPM and 6 non QPM inbred line from the screening and developed 30 crosses of QPM hybrid. These crosses were showing in two different environments (Irrigated and Rain-fed) along with two checks (Malviya Makka Hybrid 2 and local hybrid). After days to 50% tasseling NCLB observation was performed. QPM hybrid crosses showed better growth and development but checks infected to NCLB at 50% tasseling and silking which provide less amount of food supplements due to losses major amount of chlorophyll content
9 Outbreak of Novel Corona Virus in India: Lethal Pandemic , Ankita Awasthi and Sangeeta Avasthi
According to World Health Organization virus diseases still to emerge and represent a significant issue to public health. In De-cember 2019, a pneumonia outbreak was reported in Wuhan, China. This outbreak was traced to a completely unique strain of coronavirus. COVID-19 is a communicable disease caused by a newly discovered corona virus. This new virus seems to be very contagious and has quickly spread globally. As of April 03, 2020, there have been a minimum of 52,869 confirmed death and quite 10,10,066 confirmed cases within the corona virus pandemic. Lockdown, curfews, massive airport screening, quarantines and social distancing became the norms across the world. At an equiv-alent time, scientists round the world work tirelessly and knowl-edge about the transmission mechanism, the clinical spectrum of disease, new diagnostics and prevention and therapeutic strate-gies are rapidly developing
10 Improving the Durability of Agricultural Machinery Parts by Applying Antifriction Coatings , Yakov Nemyrovskyi, Ihor Shepelenko and Olha Medvedieva
An analysis of the literature showed that the problem of increasing the durability of the friction parts of agricultural machinery (AGM) can be successfully solved by applying antifriction coatings on their surface. The analysis of the existing anti-friction coating application schemes showed that the most simple, resource-saving and environmentally friendly is the method of finishing anti-friction non-abrasive treatment (FANT). The possibility and feasibility of using FANT with respect to AGM friction units have been proved. To achieve higher performance properties of parts with anti-friction coatings, combined processing using FANT and deform-ing broaching is proposed. Using cylinder liners as an example, it is proved that the use of the proposed technology improves the working capacity and durability of rubbing parts of AGM, thereby increasing the life of tribo-joints of mobile AGM and can be recom-mended both in the manufacture and in the restoration of friction parts of mobile agricultural machines.
11 The Super Cyclonic Storm Amphan Inflicts Massive Damage to Coastal Aquaculture in Bangladesh , Shoaibe Hossain Talukder Shefat
The monstrous cyclone Amphan, formed in the Bay of Bengal was the strongest tropical cyclone affecting the Ganges delta after Sidr in 2007 that caused severe damage in India and Bangladesh in May 2020. It was also the first tropical cyclone in the North Indian Ocean in 2020. Originating from a low-pressure area in Colombo, Sri Lanka on 13 May 2020, Amphan reached its maximum intensity on 18 May that sustained for 4-minutes with a wind speed of 240 - 260 km/h (150 - 160 mph), and a minimum central barometric pressure (925 mbar) (Figure 1). However, the intensity gradually weakened by continuous and combined dry air and wind shear ef-fects and reached a residuum level on 21 May. During this period, Amphan caused severe destruction of more than US$13 billion in India and Bangladesh.
12 Chemical Variation of Essential Oils from Peels of Citrus kinokuni Tanaka, C. reticulata ‘Dahongpao’, and C. reticulata ‘Zhang Shuensis , Ting-Li Han, Inam Ullah, Jian Wang
The chemicals in essential oils from peels of three varieties of Citrus reticulata Blanco like C. kinokuni Tanaka (K), C. reticulata ‘Dahongpao’ (D) and C. reticulata ‘zhang shuensis’ (Z) were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID), respectively. A total of 97 compounds were quantified in which 80 components were identified and 17 unknown components were detected. The quantitation results of D and Z were profoundly different from previous studies due to the different treatment to peels. The different oil-types from K, D, and Z were high in β-myrcene, p-cymene, limonene, γ-terpinene, α-terpineol, thymol, (E, E)-α-farnesene, spathulenol and isospathulenol. The chemicals’ fluctuation in oils of D and Z was more pronounced than that of K. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed the peel of K, D and Z could be classified as three kinds according to their chemical changeability, respectively, consisting with the usage of these peels in Chinese medicine. Lastly, the oils’ chemotypes of K, D, Z and other cultivars were analyzed, showing that the % variation of six characteristic components including limonene, γ-terpinene, methyl N-methylanthranilate, linalool, (E, E)-α-farnesene, and thymol, played an important role in discriminating oil-types from varieties of C. reticulata.
13 Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Soil Profile, Growth Physiology and Antioxidant Activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni , Shashi Kant Shukla, S Krithika, Shraddha Shukla and Anupam Dikshit
The present study was performed with the main objective of investigation of enhancement in the growth and antioxidant activity of Stevia rebaudiana, Bertoni, a medicinal plant and chief source of stevioside, natural sweetener. The whole experiment was followed by macro and micronutrients analysis of used soil for pot experiment. In the analysed concentration ratio; potassium was greater than and phosphorous. So, there was a need to dissolve these nutrients into the usable form; Paenibacillus polymyxa was selected due to having these characteristics. The results, observed in 0, 10 and 20 days, showed that in comparison to control, inoculation with ex-perimented soil bacterium, considerably increased root and shoot length as well as no and size of leaves in plant. The positive impact of the performed experiments was obtained after 10 and 20 days respectively. Furthermore, antioxidant efficacy of S. rebaudiana was done using DPPH method which confirms the plant to be free radical scavenger. The conclusion of the experiment showed the efficacy of P. polymyxa on escalation of Stevia.
14 Effect of Yield and Quality on Olive and Olive Oil in Olive Orchards Located at Different Altitudes , Ayça Akça Uçkun and Uygun Aksoy
Olive trees can be grown in marginal areas and adapt to different climatic and soil conditions which is easier to grow than other plants. It has positive effect of olive oil for human health. Therefore, olive cultivation is increasing day by day with the modern of olive techniques and it is preferred to grow by farmers thanks to the positive effects of olive oil and olive. The study was carried out in Ayvalik olive fields in which have different altitudes, in order to examine the current status of olive cultivation in Manisa/Ahmetli area, to soil and leaf analyzes and nutritional status and to determine the suitable harvest periods on high altitude and low altitude in terms of olive and olive oil quality. The current status (age, education, land positions) of the olive farmers were determined by survey in the Manisa/Ahmetli area. Fruit samples were harvested during 4 different periods (10 October, 13 November, 23 November and 5 December). In fruit samples: fruit weight (g), maturity index, color (CIE L*, a*, b*), dry matter (%) were determined. Oil samples, free fatty acidity and fatty acid composition were determined on high altitude and low altitude.In conclusion soil and leaf analyzes indicated that there were nutrient deficiencies and recommendations were made about olive cultivation in olive farmers. The suitable harvest periods were determined of high altitude and low altitude in terms of olive and olive oil quality. In this research, suggestions were given about olive cultivation and it is provided to shed light on future studies
15 Precious Supply Chain Management of Onion (Allium cepa L) by Examining the Production, Quality Expansion and Market Analysis for Food Safety , Sidhartha Kar
Onion is an important and indispensable vegetable in kitchen as condiment and vegetable which captures an extensive internal as well as external market. The green leaves matured and immature bulbs are eaten raw or used in preparation of vegetables. It is used as salad and cooked in various ways, in all curries fries boiled or scorched onion. It is also used in processed form e.g. flakes, powder, paste, pickles and some seasoning foods. It is valued much on account of its characteristics pungency which is due to presence of sul-phur compound (Ally propyl disulphide). It possesses some important medicinal properties. The organic onion is flourishing mainly due to consumer choice. The organic onion is much preferred than traditionally grown. It makes an increase in varieties and selection of onion in retail, supermarket and restaurant. The market plays an important role in determining the pattern as well as the pace of diversification in favor of high-value crops like onion. An increase in production is of little value unless there is a good marketing system.Keeping the above view a research analysis on “Precious supply chain management of onion (Allium cepa l) by examining the pro-duction, quality expansion and market analysis for food safety” was carried out and found among two zones selected such as eastern coastal plateau zone and mid central table land zone, Mid central table land zone found most suitable for onion farming and fulfilling all most all farming requirements. Effect of organic nutrient and botanical pesticides on onion applied, the best onion varieties re-sponse to vermi compost (50%) that is 2 t/ha + NPK (50:50:50) 50 Kg each/ha was remarkable and best organic treatment. Effect of cultivation of different onion varieties found best results with onion variety Agri found Dark Red which has got best results in concern to growth and yield. Effect of integrated weed management on weed density, Dry matter weight of weeds and weed control efficiency found best results with weed control treatment one hand weeding at 20 Days After Transplanting + Ridge and furrow making (6” X 6”) length X breadth in onion variety N-53. Market survey found best results with variation within experimental period of time analysis found Bhubaneswar has lowest varia-tions of onion price from wholesale to retail sell price. And also experimental State have best control over onion price hike during the market research and experiment year that is survey results from year 2013 - 2017. Supply chain management models analyses it is concluded that onion SCM developed after survey that is a new model from research to different marketing channel partner involvement and then grass root label point coverage’s prepared and samples are tested in field found best results.E-Onion marketing and digitalization found a new and best technology to reduce marketing costs and examined during experi-ment founds best response among primary, secondary and tertiary stock holders.Among different onion farming treatments integrated organic onion production technology found best economic results in com-parison to conventional onion farming technology that is C:B = 1.97 (Cost Benefit ratio) and net returns are best with organic onion production technology that is Rs. 1,95,802/- (Rs/ha).
16 Soil Organic Fertilization in Long-Term Low-Input Cropping System and its Effect on the Bread Making Flour Properties Determined by Albumen-Protein Complex , Nankova Margarita, Doneva Sonya, Iliya Iliev and Stefan Krustev
The results of the study on the quality of flour of 20 wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in a long-term low-input crop-ping system of Haplic Chernozems are reported. The cultivars were developed at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, General Toshevo. They were sown on two soil nutrition regimes: 1. Control - natural soil fertility and 2. Organic fertilization with ExcellOrga, produced in France. In addition to these variants we used a humine preparation Plantagra for pre-sowing seed treatment of sowing material (150 ml/100 kg seeds).Main soil organic fertilization with ExcellOrga especially in combination with seed material treatment (SMT) positively influenced on the sedimentation values and bread volume. The average value in this variant is 42.55 ml with increasing over control variant with 3.65%. The highest and relatively stable by variants were the sedimentation values of cultivar Pchelina (51.25 ml), followed by culti-vars Kiara (50.25 ml) and Galateya (46.75 ml). The bread volume in this condition exceeded the control with 3.75%. The maximum value in the trail was reached from cv. Bojana - 795 ml.Organic fertilization lead to increasing a wet gluten content according to the control with 2.60%. The cultivates Kiara and Bojana has a leader position according to the value of this index - 23.35% and 23.25% respectively. A tendency was established for decreas-ing of values of wet gluten content in variants with SMT. However, an exception to the tendency the genotypes specificity is strongly expressed - cultivars Pchelina, Kosara and Kiara reacted positively to the SMT.Flour stability is subject to highly expressed dynamics of values according to the genotype. Cultivars Enola and Katarjina were distinguished with maximum average values - 3.88 and 3.80. Soil organic fertilization increased values of this index according to the control variant with 4.60%. Valorimetric values were negatively influenced by soil organic fertilization and especially with combina-tion with SMT.We established also highly expressed correlations between yields (grain and protein) with chemical composition of grain, physical grain properties, rheological properties of flour and bread making qualities
17 The Development of Analytical Methodologies and Advances in Plant Physiology, Measurable Amounts of Elements in Nutrients Contribution and Carbon Assimilation by Five Grain Legumes, Bambara Groundnut; Groundnut, Cowpeas, Blackgram and Mungbeans Planted in Mpumalanga province, South Africa during 2011/2012 Season , MD Lengwati
A field experiment was carried out in the 2011/2012 summer cropping season at the Lowveld Research Station, Nelspruit (Bom-bela), in Mpumalanga province, where five grain legumes planted under field conditions during the planting season 2011 replicated four times as randomized complete block design (RCBD). The grain legume species cultivars for discussion were Bambara-groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) (cv. Brianbeck MB 51), Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) ( cv. JL 24), Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) (cv. Pan 311), Blackgram (Vigna mungo) (Local market seed), and Mungbean (Vigna radiata) (cv. VC 1973A).Recent consideration of essential and other (non-essential and toxic) nutrient elements in crops, both macro- and micro-elements - can cause nutrient imbalances, reduction in growth and yield losses. Beneficial “elements”, they are not required by all plants but can promote plant growth and may be essential for several plant species. Recently, nutrient content is expressed as element content in dry matter (DM) percentages in DM for macro-elements, in DM for micro-elements (also known as ppm= pars pro million, 1 mg per 106 kg). Average concentration ranges of essential nutrient elements in crops, Oxygen (45), Carbon (45), Hydrogen (6), Sulphur (0.1 - 0.4), Chlorine (0.2 - 2.0), Na (Sodium) (0.01 - 10), Silicon (0.2 - 2.0), Manganese (0.1 - 0.4), Calcium (0.2 - 1.0), Potassium (0.2 - 6.0), Phosphorus (0.01 - 0.7), Nitrogen (0.1 - 6.0) and Concentration range percentages in DM Macro-elements Cobalt (0.02). Carbon (C) is ranked along N and P as mineral nutrients that are needed the most by plants for their growth and development. For C3 plants such as grain legumes, C is acquired through the process of photosynthesis and these C compounds play a significant role in the growth and development of C3 plants. However, the disproportionate alteration of the microbial C and N contents led to a distinct decrease of the C:N ratio for mung-bean residues at flowering but no change in the groundnut and Bambara-groundnut treatments. This suggests that the changes in microbial C:N ratio are mainly caused by the ‘recoverable’ residue inputs.Basically, the composition of the C isotopes is compared to that in the air to reveal water-use efficiency of the test plant species during its growth period. Calculated as δ13C, the water-use efficiency provides information on the ability of C3 plants to balance the process of acquiring carbon through the process of photosynthesis in relation to the water that get lost in the process. With regards to grain legumes such as cowpea, Bambara-groundnut, groundnut, mung-bean and black gram, quality residues include that which have a C/N ratio that is < 24 g g-1. There is a need to select crops particular that cultivated by smallholder farmers which can tolerate drought because South Africa has had high temperatures, and evapotranspiration coupled with reduced and scanty rainfall.The implications of future increases in atmospheric CO2 for the productivity of indeterminate C3 crops grown in rain-fed subsis-tence agricultural systems in the semi-arid tropics are stress resistance, therefore JL 24 cultivar in the study at Nelspruit, under field conditions manage to have shoot C content of 45% as best performer legume species planted. Plants also affect the residue turnover by excreting easily available organic C and N compounds which can interact directly with the microbial biomass and affect its size, ac-tivity, turnover rate or physiological status. However, following this concept, N will be set free from the microbial biomass as microbial residues, the relation between the parameters is difficult to prove because data concerning the residue quality are only available for the ‘recoverable’ residues and not for the rhizo-deposits.
18 Preparation of Moringa Capsules , Mohammed Shoeib Ahmer
Moringa oleifera, native to India, grows in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. It is also known as ‘horseradish tree’. It can be grown in both dry and mild ice conditions and hence widely cultivated across the world. With its high nutritive values, each fragment of the Moringa is suitable for nutritional or busi-ness purposes. Leaves have ample amount of minerals, vitamins and other essential plant chemicals. Extraction of leaves helps to reduce malnutrition, supplement milk in mothers. Moringa also acts as agent against oxidation, cancer, diabetes, bacterial and mi-crobial properties. Moringa oleifera seed, acts as a inborn clotting agent which is used in water treatment. For business purpose Mo-ringa is used a cure for diabetes and cancer. It is known as “Miracle tree” as Moringa has medicinal, commercial, nutritional and phar-macological properties.
19 The Techniques of Hydroponic System , Anbarasu Mariyappillai, Gurusamy Arumugam and V B Raghavendran
Hydroponics is soilless cultures where plants are created using a mineral enhancement for without soil. It redesigns genuine root limits, deftly water, agreeable oxygen and enhancements to the plant while giving physical, substance and natural assistance to the plant. When orchestrating a hydroponic nursery or home nursery, ought to pick a suitable space and techniques. Hydroponics systems are requested as open and shut methods. A hydroponic system implies the procedure for applying supplement answer for the plant roots. The hydroponics ended up being logically notable in a short period of time and this strategy lead to begin indoor and outdoor hydroponic planting rapidly.
20 A Dual Approach for Model Construction of Two-Dimensional Horizontal Flow   , Tinh Ton That, The Hung Nguyen and Dong Anh Nguyen
The two-dimensional horizontal flow model in the classical integration approach is integrated from the three-dimensional Na-vier-Stokes system of equations. Using the classical theory, the integral is taken directly from the bed to the free water surfaces. Consequently, the effects between the channel bed and free water surface, in the process of integration, was disappeared. However, with the proposed dual-process approach, the integral can be performed locally several times. The receiving equations thus allow to contain many physical phenomena which may be lost in the classical integral process. As a result, the derived model based on the proposed dual approach will be more complex and accurate than the classical one. In this paper, the authors perform twice integrals. The improved two-dimensional horizontal flow model was received from the dual approach which allows the calculation of flow pa-rameters, which, having the unusual phenomena in the channel as solid objects, liquids containing other added ingredients, external forces, reversals, and so on. Moreover, it provides flexible parameter adjustment based on the experimental data
21 The Arsenal of Morphological and Physiological Mechanisms Adopted by Barley (Hordeum vulgare. L) to Face Salt Stress Damage , Zied Hammami, Nawel Ahmed, Nejia Ben Hmida, Soumaya Tounsi, Sawsen Ayadi and Youssef Trifa
The success of programmes improving barley performance under abiotic stress must go through an understanding of mecha-nisms developed by the plant to counteract this stress. Our study fits into this framework. It aims to evaluate six barley genotypes from the MENA region, treated with two salinity levels: 1.2 and 14 dS/m. Three genotypes are salt-tolerant, and three are sensitive. They were grown under a controlled environment and in 40L PVC tubes using sand and perlite as substrate. The evaluation was based on 15 morpho-physiological parameters related to water, ion content, temperature, and chlorophyll fluorescence.The results confirm the existence of genetic variability for salt tolerance. Two Tunisian landraces ‘Suihli’ and ‘Ardhaoui’ and Oma-nis landraces ‘Batini 100/1B’ were not affected. Conversely, ‘ICARDA20’ and ‘Barley Mednine’ appeared to be sensitive to salt stress with a maximum reduction of 35% for improved genotype ‘Konous’. Results also show that salt tolerance in barley cannot be exclusively attributed to a single mechanism. All studied parameters significantly (p < 0.001) contributed to it. However, Stepwise regression revealed that plant water status expected by RWC is the key for salinity tolerance as well as a positive effect of K+ content, Fm/Fv, and leaf Temperature on proper water status. The results highlight the effeteness of one visual trait, the salinity damage index (DI), to estimate barley tolerance. Indeed, a strong correlation was observed between DI and the biomass reduction (P < 0.001, r2 = 0.96). In addition, correlation analyses showed that all parameters were inversely correlated with the DI.
22 Response of Carnation (Dianthus chinensis x barbatus) to Different Levels of Foliar Spraying of Amino Acid and Chemical Fertilizers , Yasser Ismail El-Nashar and Fatma El-Zahara Hussein El-Tony
The objective of this investigation was to measure the growth and flower response of carnation plants to the application of vari-ous levels (0, 2, 4 g.l-1) of amino acid (Terra-Sorb and Triamin) and chemical fertilization (Turo-fort and Nami), three times during the growing period, as a possible program for the production of quality plants through fertilization. Carnations (Dianthus chinensisx barbatus) were pot-grown in an unheated green-net greenhouse. The results showed that plants sprayed with fertilizer solutions showed a significant increase in the growth parameters. The results also showed that the treatments stimulated the flowering pa-rameters (number of inflorescences per plant, inflorescences diameter, flowering date, and inflorescences dry mass) and increased the number, diameter, and dry mass of inflorescences per plant, when compared to the untreated plants (control). The a, b, and total chlorophyll (a+b), carotenoid and anthocyanin content, gas exchange measurements and leaf mineral content (P, N, K, and Total car-bohydrates) were significantly increased compared to the control, as a result of the application of different levels of the chemical fo-liar fertilizer spraying solutions (Turo-fort and Nami). Carnations plants with foliar fertilizer solution application had higher leaf gas exchange (stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E), photosynthetic rate (PN) and plant intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci)).
23 Influence of Foliar Application of Sulfur at Various Stages on Yield and Oil Content of Olive (Olea eurapaea L.) , Zari Said, Yasir Ali, Mehboob Alam, Naveed Ahmad and Azmat Ali Awan
The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of foliar application of sulfur at various stages on yield and oil con-tent of olive (Olea europaea L.) during the year 2018. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with two factors having split plot arrange-ment and treatments were replicated three times. Factor A was time of foliar application (pre-blooming, fruit set, after 20 days of fruit set) allotted to main plots and factor B foliar spray of Sulfur concentrations (0, 500, 1000, 1500 ppm) were allotted to sub plots. Results showed that maximum number of fruits panicle-1 (5.33), number of fruits plant-1 (5235.6), minimum fruit drop (55.11%), maximum fruit length (2.79 cm), fruit diameter (2.32 cm), fruit volume (5.35 ml), single fruit fresh weight (7.33g), fruit dry weight (2.04g), fruit pulp (83.34%) and minimum fruit stone (21.44%), maximum yield plant-1 (21.72 kg), yield hectare-1 (17.73 tons) and oil content (12.62%) were observed in plants treated with 1500 ppm sulfur foliar application. In conclusion better yield of olive is on 1500 ppm should be applied at pre-blooming stage while for maximum oil contents same concentration of sulfur should be applied at fruit set stage.
24 Pharmacological Approaches to Investigate the Potential Herbal Medicine (Decoction) in Treating COVID-19 , Reshma Kumari and Sanjay Kumar
Since December 2019, COVID-19 infection is spreading rapidly throughout worldwide. Every virus has a unique structure, behavior and infectious agent to create infections. The ayurvedic herbal medicine that seem to work for other viral infections should be tested against COVID-19. Qingfei Paidu decoction, Shuanghuanglian oral liquid (SHL), Mahuang Gancao Ganjiang Decoction (MGGD) and licorice are remedies that officials in China have recommended against COVID-19. Simultaneously, an Ayush Ministry advisory suggested that drinking decoction (ginger, turmeric, tulsi leaves) as ‘home remedies’ to boost immune system against Covid-19 in India. Likewise, Barleria lupulina leaves decoction is also one of the potential candidates which may be helpful for the treatment of COVID-19
25 Genetic Variability Assessment of Tossa Jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) Genotypes Using Morpho-Agronomic Traits , Arju Miah, Nihar Ranjan Saha, AKM Shahadat Hossain, Md Younus Ali and Amit Kumar Basunia
Forty accessions with three check varieties of tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) were characterized on the basis of morpho-ag-ronomic traits in genetic variability at Jute Agriculture Experiment Station, Manikganj during kharif season in 2016. The accessions were characterized for twenty-two morpho-agronomic attributes as per Corchorus descriptor in order to select superior genotypes for the genetic improvement of jute. Considerable ranges of variability were observed in stem colour, petiole colour, stipule colour, plant technical height, base diameter, dry fibre weight and dry stick weight. Considering the major yield contributing characters ac-cession no. 1039, 1115, 1124, 1234 and1245 performed better in most of the cases than the control varieties O-9897 O-3820 and BJRI Tossa Pat-4 (O-72).
26 Effect of the Use of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza for Plant Growth Promotion on Morpho-physiological Properties of Antirrhinum majus L. Under Salinity Stress , Fatma El-Zahara Hussein El-tony
The impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation with mixed water irrigation on the vegetative and flowering growth, leaf mineral content, and chlorophyll (Chl) content of Antirrhinum majus L. (snapdragon) plants was studied through two seasons under two irrigation water sources. Five irrigation water treatments were applied as follows: T1 as a control (100% desalinized (DW)), T2 (75% DW + 25% well water, WW), T3 (50% DW + 50% WW), T4 (25% DW + 75% WW), and T5 (100% WW). The imposed salt stress conditions (T5) significantly reduced all vegetative and flowering growth, leaf mineral content (P, Na, K, Cl, and Ca), and chlorophyll content of the plants compared to those of the non-salted plants (T1). Inoculated snapdragon with AM fungi exhibited significantly higher values for most vegetative growth characters, flowering date, and spike length than those of non-mycorrhizal plants. With regard to interaction effects, the highest value of proline content of the leaves was detected with 100% WW (T5) and AM fungi treatments, which improved the salt stress tolerance compared to other treatments. Inoculated snapdragon plants with AM fungi showed both improved vegetative and flowering growth, mostly under salt stress conditions. With (T3) under mycorrhizal treatment, snapdragon plants showed the best results with earlier flowering dates, greater number of spikes, and longer spike length
27 Investigation of the Complex Influence of High- and Low-Molecular Glutenins and Crude Protein on the Quality of Bread Wheat (T. aestivum L.) , Sonya Doneva, Margarita Nankova and Stefan Krustev
The relation between high- (HMW) and low-molecular (LMW) glutenins with the quality indicators - sedimentation value, valorimetric value and bread loaf of a collection of Bulgarian wheat varieties was studied.A total of about 63% of the sedimentation value, 44% of the valorimetric value and 39% of the bread loaf was controlled by the two groups of glutenins and the crude protein. The high-and low-molecular weight glutenins had an almost equal share in controlling the sedimentation value and the valorimetric value. The LMW glutenins had a significantly higher share in controlling bread loaf than that of HMW glutenins. The participation of individual glutenin loci in quality control was not one-sided. It was mainly determined by genetic diversity and by the linking with the quality of the individual glutenin subunits.The relative contribution of crude protein to the control of quality indicators during the various harvest years was highly variable, but its optimum quantity was a necessary condition for showing the positive effect of glutenin subunits on the quality of the wheat varieties.
28 Food Supply Chain Disruptions and Resilience Under the Stress of COVID-19: Evidence from Nepal , Saugat Khanal, Padam Bahadur Poudel, Jeevan Lamichhane and Alagathurai Ajanthan
The food supply chain is a complex web with a number of stakeholders. Though the stocks of cereal at present are at satisfactory level, its stock in future is going to be depleted resulting from the disruptions in the food supply chain. Supply of agric-inputs has been severely affected. Developing countries and low income countries are most vulnerable to the impact of disruptions in the supply chain. Secondary sources of information are used for studying the food supply disruptions and resilience. Supply chain resilience has drained the curiosity of local to multinational companies and policymakers in remodeling the chain. As per the alarming projections to leave the long-term negative consequences, the importance of food availability has further risen. Consumer’s anticipation of future food crises has created panic and chaos in the food market; affecting the demand-supply chain. Transportation and public restrictions including transnational boundaries lockdown have created inconvenience to producers and distributors. With numerous noted obstacles from farm to firm, unemployment and poverty among low and middle class have been particularly hard hit. In this regard there is a need for behavioral change of the consumer, diversification of the supply chain and consumption of the local food.
29 Advanced Yield Trial of Early Seeding, Higher Yield and Low Temperature Tolerant Breeding Lines of White Jute , Arju Miah, Nihar Ranjan Saha, Amit Kumar Basunia, AKM Shahadat Hossain and Md Younus Ali
The experiment was carried out at four regional stations (Rangpur, Chandina, Faridpur and Kishoreganj) and JAES, Manikganj to develop breeding lines with better performance in respect of seeding time and growth. Significant differences were observed among the treatments for plant population, plant height, base diameter and fibre weight at Manikganj, plant height and fibre weight at Rangpur and Chandina station. Pooled mean over stations revealed that the tested strains C-2234 (4.37 t/ha), C-2236 (4.12 t/ha) and C-2281 (3.87 t/ha)out yielded both the check varieties BJRI Deshi Pat-5 (3.68 t/ha) and CC-45 (3.57 t/ha) in terms of fiber.
30 Characterization of Deshi Jute (Corchorus capsularis) Germplasm Collected from Different Sources , Arju Miah, Nihar Ranjan Saha, Md. Jahangir Alam, Md. Younus Ali and Amit Kumar Basunia
Forty accessions of white jute germplasm collected from different sources were characterized at JAES, Manikganj during kharif season in 2015. The accessions were characterized for twenty morpho-agronomic attributes as per Corchorus descriptor in order to select superior genotypes for the genetic improvement of jute. Considerable ranges of variability were observed in stem colour, petiole colour, stipule colour, plant technical height, base diameter, dry fiber weight and dry stick weight. Based on major yield contributing characters accessions 4869, 4621, 3394, 2199, 2839, 1478, 1777, 1923 and 2675 performed better in most of the cases than the control variety CVL-1 and CVE-3.
31 Response of Three Soybean Genotypes to Lima Bean Pod Borer (Etiella zinckenella) Infestation Using Some Bio and Chemical Insecticides , Eman I Abdel-Wahab, S M Tarek, Marwa Kh A Mohamed and Soheir F Abd El-Rahman
The present investigation was carried out at Giza Agricultural Experiments and Research Station, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza, Egypt during the two successive seasons 2018 and 2019 to evaluate three soybean genotypes (Giza 35, Crawford and DR10l) to infestation with lima bean pod borer using four bio and chemical insecticides (Diple-2x 6.4% DF, Biover10 % WP, Suncide Agri-pest and Lannate 25% WP) for increasing seed yield and net return. The treatments were four insecticides (Diple-2x 6.4% DF, Biover10 % WP, Suncide Agri-pest and Lannate 25% WP) beside water as control and three soybean genotypes (Giza 35, Crawford and DR10l). Split-plot distributions in a randomized complete block design with three replications were used. Insecticide sources were randomly assigned to main plots and soybean genotypes were allocated in subplots. The results showed that the bacterial insecticide Diple-2x 6.4% DF recorded lower pod infestation and seed damage than the other insecticides. Soybean genotype DR10l had lower pod infestation and seed damage, meanwhile the reverse was true for soybean genotype Crawford. Soybean variety Giza 35 recorded higher most yield traits than the soybean genotypes Crawford and DR10l. Soybean genotypes x insecticide sources interaction was significant for pod infestation, seed damage, seed yield per plant, 100-seed weight, seed yield per ha, and HI in both seasons. Spraying of the bacterial insecticide Diple-2x 6.4% DF in the flowering stage of soybean variety Giza 35 enhanced its tolerance to lima bean pod borer infestation with higher seed yield and net return than the other treatments.
32 Post Pandemic World Scenario and the Road to Food Sustainability , Himanshu Yadav
A century ago, when the world was fighting it’s Great war, which they didn’t know was going to be either the greatest or the first, a flu was spreading. Millions of lives were lost in that decade. Argu-ably, it was the decade which saw most deaths due to anthropo-genic and natural reasons combined. The virus killed 50 million people, while the war killed 38 million. On one frontier, masks were being used to protect self from Mustard gas and on the other, masks were used to prevent infection. The world, specially Europe was in a turmoil. The origin of the flu is still debated but it certainly did not originate in Spain.
33 Study of Physico-Chemical Status for Augmentation of Kamvari River Flow and Restoration of Water Quality in Bhiwandi City (MS)   , Snehal S Donde
Kamvari river was once a huge commercial navigation port, is now a diminishing perennial river of total 34 Km length flowing pol-luted through the Bhiwandi city, Kalyan Taluka, Maharashtra. Researcher being a Jalnayak recognized by Government of Maharashtra has taken initiative to revive and rejuvenate the river Kamvari along with other water bodies to restore its historic glory. The aim is to make all water bodies pollution free. Thus, origin to confluence of river course was located with Google Earth app and remote sensing images and documented for first time the origin in Depoli and Lamaj village and confluence in Thane creek, ultimately drain-ing in Arabian sea. The investigation of point and non-point sources of pollution, showed the establishment of most of the Textile Units, Slaughter houses and Tabelas in blue line area of river and direct release of untreated effluents from these sources along with untreated sewage water in the river. Water samples of river and other water bodies across Bhiwandi city was collected from multiple sites with intercept method, were subjected to Physico-chemical parameters tests. Almost status of all parameters in every sample was against the permissible limits and indicated percolation and mixing of creak water in ground water, among other factors. Re-spondents response during social assessment was very crucial to understand the rising pollution issues and risk to human health.Low capacity Sewage Treatment Plants (28%), no or non- functional Effluents Treatment Plants (ETP) in textile units, solid waste disposal in water bodies, power-looms without toilets need immediate action. An integrated approach working model has been rec-ommended to the administrative authorities in Bhiwandi region and District Collector office to work in tandem for revival of water bodies with appropriate restoration plans.
34 Advantage of Agrivoltaics Across the Food-Energy-Water Connection , JM Makavana, SV Kalaiya, PM Chauhan and MS Dulawat
Agricultural crop production, Food and energy security need not be competing objectives. In fact, taking a holistic, integrated approach to food-energy-water decision making can increase resil-iency of both food, water harvesting and energy methods.
35 Fresh, Tiny, Crunchy, Green, Healthy… So Many Words Come to My Mind to Describe these Small Leafy Vegetables: Microgreens , Soniyo Yomichan
My lockdown days were boring like everyone’s. Since I travelled from UAE to Kerala, I was asked to stay in quarantine for 14 days initially, then later on more 14 days, a total of 28 days. I seriously didn’t want to waste those days. So, I thought gardening would be a better option and started planting my favorite table roses. The print media and broadcast media these days discuss how the whole economy is suffering from COVID-19. During these days the green leafy veggies, which are inevitable in our daily diet may not be easily available, as most of the markets are closed. I myself re-discovered those ingredients, which are far better than those veg-gies we buy from markets. Which can been grown in our kitchen, that neither require land nor fertilizers
36 Interplanting Soybean with Three Species of Orchard Trees Under Two Soybean Plant Distributions in Sandy Soils , Mohamed AF Selim, Yaser AA Hefny and Mostafa AM Ebrahim
A two-year study was carried out at El-Kassaseen Agricultural Research Station, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Ismailia government, Egypt, during 2018 and 2019 summer seasons to evaluate the optimum interplanting system of soybean with orange, mandarin and mango for achieving high productivity of crops, land usage, and profitability under sandy soil conditions. Ten treat-ments were the combinations of three orchards trees (mango, orange and mandarin) and two soybean plant distributions with the same plant density (one row/ridge and two rows/ridge) in a strip plot design with three replications were taken. The rhizosphere of mandarin trees had higher soil CO2 and organic carbon (OC), meanwhile the reverse was true for mango trees under interplanting conditions. Wide soybean plant distribution increased fruit yield per ha by 10.23 and 10.06% for orange trees and by 7.49 and 6.29% for mandarin trees in the first and second seasons, respectively than the narrow one as a result of increased soil CO2 and OC, mean-while, all the studied traits of mango trees were not affected. On the other hand, interplanting soybean with mandarin trees recorded higher light intensity at the middle of soybean plant, the number of branches and pods per plant, as well as seed yields per plant and per ha than the other interplanting systems soybean + orange and soybean + mango in both seasons. Also, wide soybean plant dis-tribution gave higher all the studied soybean traits (except plant height) than the narrow one in both seasons. Moreover, soybean of wide plant distribution in soybean + mandarin system gave higher all the studied soybean traits (except plant height) compared with the other treatments in both seasons. Land equivalent ratio (LER) and land equivalent coefficient (LEC) values for intercrops were much greater than 1.00 and 0.25, respectively, indicating the advantage of the interplanting system than solid culture of the studied orchards. Growing four ridges of soybean variety Giza 22 (one row per ridge at distance 25 cm between hills) between mango trees cultivar Naomy is more profitable for Egyptian farmers followed by growing four ridges of the same soybean variety (two soybean rows per ridge at distance 50 cm between hills) with mandarin trees (Fremont cultivar).
37 Evaluation of Some Faba Bean Genotypes Under Natural Infection with Chocolate Spot and Rust Diseases , Marwa Kh A Mohamed and AM El-Bakery
A two year study was conducted at Sakha Agricultural Research Station, Kafr EL-Sheikh Governorate during 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 seasons. The objective of this study was to evaluate productivity of fifteen faba bean genotypes under natural infections with chocolate spot and rust diseases. Faba bean genotypes (Giza 40, Atona, Giza 3, Sakha 1, Misr 1, Santamora, Misr 3, Giza 843, Sakha 3, Sakha 4, Nubaria 1, L 1, L 2, L 3 and L 4) were randomly distributed in a randomized complete block design with three rep-licates. The results showed that faba bean genotypes Santamora, L2, Giza 843, Sakha 4, and Sakha 3 showed higher resistance to rust and chocolate spot diseases. This was positively reflected on seed yield in both seasons. However, the reverse was true for Giza 40 and Atona genotypes. A significant positive correlation was obtained between flowering or maturity date and each of rust and chocolate spot diseases. There is a highly negative correlation between days to 50% flowering or maturity date and each of number of pods per plant, seed weight per plant and seed yield per ha. There is a negative correlation between rust or chocolate spot disease and each of number of pods per plant, seed weight per plant and seed yield per ha. Conversely, there is a positive correlation between number of pods per plant and each of seed weight per plant and seed yield per ha. This study indicated that Santamora, L2, Giza 843, Sakha 4, and Sakha 3 genotypes could be grown to tolerate rust and chocolate spot diseases coincided with high productivity under Sakha region conditions.
38 Farmers’ Knowledge and Perception on Major Insect Pests of Rice and their Integrated Management in Gorkha, Nepal , Sudip Neupane, Resham Bahadur Thapa and Radhika Regmi.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the major staple crop of Nepal. Various insect pests cause high yield loss in field and storage condition. The study was carried in September-October 2018 to assess farmer’s knowledge and perception on major insect pests of rice and their integrated management in Gorkha, Nepal. Respondents were selected randomly from among the study area. 120 samples were taken from 750 sampling population. Household survey was used to collect information by using a semi-structured questionnaire. The collected data were processed and analyzed by using MS-Excel and SPSS. The study revealed that rice gundhi bug, yellow stem borer and grasshopper were the major rice field pest while rice weevil and rice Angoumois moth was the major storage pest of rice in the study area. Biological practices were the least adopted practice. Use of resistant variety, use of well decomposed fertilizer, crop rotation, adjustment of planting date were the least adopted cultural practices while use of traps, rouging and clipping were the least adopted mechanical practice. All of the respondents were found to use chemical method without using all the protective wearing and safety measures. Only, few respondents had the knowledge of IPM and attended training on IPM
39 Socio-Economic Factors of Cooperative Farmer’s and their Food Intake in Yewa North Local Government Area of Ogun State , Oluwasanya OP, Nwankwo FO, Aladegoroye OR and Ojewande AA
The study analysed effect of socio-economic characteristics of cooperative farmers’ on their food intake in Yewa North Local Gov-ernment Area, Ogun State with a view to providing policy information toward enhancing the nutritional status of Nigeria. Hunger and malnutrition in developing countries like Nigeria requires the improvement of goals to lower the rate of frequently malnourished individual. There is problem of food and nutrition security in the world today. The data was collected through multistage sampling to obtain useful data from 112 households. It was revealed that 76.8% of the household farmers had average income below N30,000 per month. The household farmer’s expenditure was N4,961.24 and per capital average expenditure was N925.605. This showed that poverty level is very critical and needs urgent attention in the study area. On this note, it was recommended that appropriate, attainable and practicable programme should be done to alleviate poverty and enhance income among rural farmers and that there should be a redistribution of income to favour low income earner so as to benefit the identified poor and likewise be extended to all Nigerians most especially food insecure and vulnerable individual.
40 Effects of Gamma Radiation and Electron Beam on Samples of the Food-green Peanuts, Organic Peanuts, and Eco-labelling Green Peanuts Industry Artificially Inoculate with Aspergillus flavus , Gisele Ferreira de Souza and Jair Ribeiro dos Santos Junior
The purpose of this research was to assess the effects of Gamma Radiation as well as Electron Beam on samples of Brazil nuts that are contaminated with Aspergillus flavus under temperatures of 30uC and a humidity of 93%. The process taked place in fifteen days of incubation where aflatoxins and mycobation are analyzed. The samples was further grouped into three groups namely, control, group 1 and group 2 which receive radiation of 0, 5 and 10 kGy dosage of electron beam (EB) and gamma radiation (GR). Some sam-ples of not inoculated were illuminated with a similar dosage to evaluate the sensors. The results indicated that 0.80 of the samples had an average water capacity. Illumination or irradiation of gamma radiation and electron beam at a dosage of 5 and 10 kGy were able to eliminate the A. flavus fungi in the samples of Brazil nuts. Analyzes of aflatoxin indicated that electron beam doses of 5 and 10 kGy lowers aflatoxins levels by 53.32 and 65.66%, respectively. Moreover, this same dosage of gamma radiation lowered the levels of toxins by 70.61 and 84.15%, respectively, as compared to the control group. Sensory assessment showed that texture and smell or the illuminated samples of Brazil nuts were acceptable
41 Assessment of Soil Microbes and Enzyme Activities in the Degraded Soils Adjacent to Industries and Mines and its Relation with Heavy Metal Contaminants , K Laxminarayana, Sulekha Pradhan, M Madhumita Das and M Nedunchezhiyan
A study was undertaken to assess the microbial diversity and enzyme activities and their relationship with soil properties in the soils adjacent to chromium, iron and coal mining areas of Jajpur, Keonjhar and Jharsuguda districts and adjacent to industrial areas as well as ash ponds of thermal power plant and aluminium refinery of Angul, Koraput, Rayagada, Jagatsinghpur, Sundargarh, Bhadrak, Balasore, Mayurbhanj, Cuttack, and Ganjam districts of Odisha, India. The effluents from the mines are discharged to nearby arable lands and water bodies causing acid mine drainage. The soils of the study area are strongly acidic to slightly alkaline in reaction (pH 4.23 - 7.85), non saline, and having very low to high organic carbon (0.15 - 1.88%), low to medium in available ni-trogen (N), low to high in available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). The soils contain toxic levels of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and relatively higher status of available zinc (Zn). Highest available Fe (240.8 mg kg-1) was observed in the soils adjacent to sugar factory of Ganjam district, Mn in the soils of coal mining areas of Jharsuguda (146.0 mg kg-1), highest Cr (178.4 mg kg-1) and Ni (12.4 mg kg-1) in the soils of chromium mining areas of Jajpur and highest Pb (18.9 mg kg-1) in the bauxite mining areas of Koraput district of Odisha. However, highest available Cu (9.02 mg kg-1) and Zn (6.36 mg kg-1) contents were recorded adjacent to Rourkela steel plant areas of Sundargarh district. Toxicity of heavy metals in the soils of Jagatsinghpur district led to very low biological activities in terms of dehydrogenase (0.186 μg TPF hr-1g-1), fluorescein diacetate (0.152 μg g-1 hr-1) and alkaline phosphatase (9.68 μg PNP g-1 hr-1). The study emphasized that toxic levels of heavy metals in these mining and industrial areas and consequently their uptake in to the plant system is very much harmful to the livestock and human beings and there is an urgent need to advocate the people in these areas to adopt proper remedial measures so as to minimize the levels of these elements in the soil-plant-animal-human chain.
42 Impacts of Climate Change on Communal Livestock Production: Experiences in Chiredzi District , Nhara RB, Halimani TE and Masunda B
The study sought to find and measure climate change impacts on livestock production in Chiredzi district. Purposive sampling was done on 6 selected wards. Primary data on perceived climate change impacts was collected using a pretested questionnaire and 150 households were sampled. Secondary data on climatic records were collected from meteorological department. Climate data was used to establish climatic patterns. Empirical Ricardian regression model and descriptive statistics were used to measure climate change impacts on livestock. Increase in temperatures and decrease in rainfall events were highlighted by 98% and 84% of the farmers, respectively. In relation to forage and water availability 92% and 93% perceived a decrease respectively. Respondents perceived an increase in incidence of climate influenced diseases to include Heart water in goats, Foot and Mouth disease in cattle and Newcastle disease in poultry. Ricardian model concluded that climate change has an economic impact on livestock production at P < 0.05. In conclusion, climate change had an impact on livestock production in Chiredzi district as perceived by farmers. Proper livestock adaptation and mitigation strategies to reduce climate change vulnerability are required.
43 Impact of COVID 19 on Agriculture Globally , Sudhir Pradhan
Corona viruses are a family of viruses which are zoonotic, means they are transmitted between animals and people, if they come in contact.Investigation showed that SARS-COV was transmitted from civet cats to human and MERS-COV from dromedary camels to hu-mans. COVID means CO=Corona, VI=Viruses, and D=Disease. The impact of COVID-19 on the agriculture is devastating, complex and varied across diverse segments that form the agricultural value chain. This impact will reverberate across the larger economy and will linger longer than few months.
44 Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in Butwal Sub-metropolitan City, Nepal , Pooja Bhusal, Kopila Bashyal, Rishav Pandit and Bikash Adhikari
Urbanization and land use affect the quantity and characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste in a fast-growing municipality. Man-agement of increasing amounts of solid waste has become a major challenge in many cities in developing countries. The present study was conducted for analysis of MSW in Butwal Sub-Metropolitan City. For quantitative analysis per capita waste generation was calculated by using digital weighing machine and for qualitative analysis, waste is categorized into mainly eight category i.e. Organic, Paper and paper product, Rubber and Leather, Plastic, Metals, Textile, Glass, and Others. Stratified random survey was conducted in three sub areas: Rural, semi-urban and core urban city using standard questionnaire and KII for qualitative analysis and to know about present status of waste management in Butwal. The per capita waste generation rate of Butwal Sub-metropolitan city is found to be 244.33 g/day. The quantity of waste generation is found to be 47.56 tons/day and 17359.4 tons/year which include wastes from household, commercial and institutional sector. The overall composition of solid waste is made up of 54% organic, 17% paper and paper products, 15% plastic, 5% glass, 2% metal, 1% rubber and leather, 1% textiles and 5% others. After the study the composition of organic waste was found dominant among household, institutional and commercial areas.
45 Potential Use of Angiosperm353 to Help Bio-prospectors Differentiate between Members of the Genus Attalea , Jonathan Daniel Hulse
The family of palm trees, Arecaceae, provides to the incredible biological diversity in the tropics, and currently includes 181 gen-era and over 2600 species. Of these 2600 plus species, only a portion of these species have been molecular characterized because many of these species had little or no economic value to Americans and Europeans, so they have simply not been a priority to bio-prospectors, until now. The advancement of Angiosperm353® a biotechnology kit, can differentiate the inner workings of this vast plant family, and minute details can finally be resolved. In particular, there have been discrepancies between the species of the genera Attalea, which include agriculturally and economically important members, that share similar morphology, which are hard to differ-entiate morphologically. Every member of this genus have not been molecularly characterized at this point in time, and this manu-script proposes the use of Angiosperm353® to help resolve the inner workings of this enormous plant family, to help bio-prospectors correctly identify members of this genus.
46 An Analysis of the Relation between Garbage Pickers and Women's Health Risk   , M Pires, GF Souza and JS Junior
The waste influences women's health. The quantity of waste is influencing the quality of the environment. The different coopera-tives produce different types and amounts of garbage, virus, bacteria and fungi that affect the quality of life. Several protections must be used, such as masks, gloves, and boots. Solid waste is a common health problem. The analysis of different health problems is essen-tial to verify the consequences of its inadequate management and final disposition. This paper analyses three different cooperatives about the prevalence of various diseases. The risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was associated with sex and smoking, verifying that it is higher in smokers. Finally, the consequences of the inadequate management and final disposition can reflect on the health of the population.
47 Assessment of Postharvest Supply Chain Loss of Banana and Tomato in Asella Town , Yonas Tega Gebeyehu, Tesfaye Mekuriyaw and Yidersail Hune
Postharvest loss is quantitative and qualitative food loss in the postharvest system which is a serious problem in Ethiopia. Fruit ripening is a complex process that dramatically changes in colour, texture, flavour, and chemical compositions. Tomato fruit ripening happens after harvest this ripening processes and storage temperature can severely affect the final product. Banana is a climacteric fruit with poor storage characteristics as it presents a high respiration rate after harvest and ethylene production, which make it highly perishable and prone to postharvest losses. This study was conducted in Arsi zone, Asella town. The objective of this research was to assess the postharvest supply chain loss of banana and tomato, Study the extent of loss in the supply chain (from wholesaler to consumer), put suggestive solutions to reduce such postharvest loss of banana and tomato. Asella town was selected purposely to study due it is known as major marketing activity in the region. In this study, the survey was conducted with about 102 respondents to assess for such fruit losses. The result revealed with 18.2% and 11.82% loss of banana and tomato postharvest supply chain re-spectively. Transportation, loading and unloading and storage condition were the main factors in postharvest supply chain loss of banana and tomato and storage condition is identified as the key issue for product loss.
48 COVID-19 Lockdown Time and Horticulture Therapy   , Sumit Nadeem
As we the whole world is suffering the deadly disease affecting people worldwide. No age specification, area, culture or anything everyone is getting infected with this pandemic disease Covid-19.Ages ago when some other pandemics attacked on world were Spanish influenza, malaria, chicken pox or others. At that time people also lost their lives and their love ones the whole families becomes a part of soil.
49 Selenium Content in Soil and Wheat Grain in Bulgaria , Stefan Krustev, Violina Angelova, Penka Zaprjanova, Margarita Nankova and Krasimir Ivanov.
Selenium (Se) is an essential but highly toxic element. Its organic compounds play an important role in biochemistry and nutrition of the cells. Shortage or surplus of this element leads to the occurrence of socially significant diseases. Se concentrations in different regions of the world and its levels in different foods vary widely. Bulgaria does not appear in the World Atlas of Se, and the scarcity of data about the neighboring countries shows serious lack of Se, causing concern about human health in the region. As a result of the present study, data on the status of selenium in soils and wheat from 60 points from the main grain-producing regions of Bulgaria. The results show that there is a significant deficiency of selenium in the soil and especially in the grain of wheat, which is a major source of selenium and its entry into the human body for our geographical areas through the bread.
50 Experimental Measurement of Creep Deformations of an Unsaturated Silty Soil with Matric Suction , Tomoyoshi Nishimura and Masafumi Matsumoto
Geotechnical engineers often encourage geological disaster in ground related to saturated soil and unsaturated soil. Landslide, settlement and slope failure related to creep phenomena are typical problems in geotechnical practices. Creep behavior of saturated soils can explain including time-dependent on effective stress of saturated soil by Terzaghi effective stress theory. Some papers al-ready published to apply the practice problems related soft ground settlements. Landslide in unsaturated conditions was induced by changing of matric suction as one stress of unsaturated soil stress variables, and some experimental researchers have reported inter-esting test results and effectively models for unsaturated soil creeping deformations. This study conducted out unsaturated soil creep test, which suction controlling has a low range with two lateral confining pressures using revised unsaturated triaxial compression apparatus. Solving the practical problems regard to unsaturated soils consider the properties of unsaturated soil that are subjected to creep before occurrence instability of natural slope. Excess pore-water pressures were measured and evaluated matric suction in unsaturated creep test using pressure membrane technique that creep stress increased step by step till unsaturated soil was failure. Comparison failure condition obtained from conventional triaxial compression test under undrained condition and mean effective principal stresses against creep stress. It was found out mean effective principal stress reached to failure line. In addition, soil-water characteristic curve was investigated in order to interpret hydro-mechanical properties and relationship between unconfined com-pressive strength and matric suction was obviously useful that shear resistance of unsaturated soil depend on matric suction.
51 Fruit Flies in Citrus Fruits with Special Reference to Chinese Citrus Fly, Bactrocera minax (Enderlin) (Diptera: Tephritidae): Status and Management Options in Nepal , Janjit Adhikari, Ashmita Karki and Bhola Gautam
Fruit fly is one of the serious pest of Citrus. Among 16 species of fruit fly reported in Nepal, 6 species of fruit flies were found in citrus fruits. According to pest surveys done in Dhankuta and Sindhuli, the species found are: Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae), Ori-ental fruit fly (B. dorsalis), Peach fruit fly (B. zonata), B. tau, B. scutellaris and Dacus longicornis. Chinese fruit fly, B. minax (Enderlein) (Diptera: Tephritidae) has created devastation in the sweet orange orchards in eastern hills of Nepal and the infestation rate have been found up to 100%. Unlike other Bactrocera species, B. minax is univoltine and oligophagous and adult flies becomes active from April to July. The two highly attractive para-pheromones, Cue lure and Methyl Eugenol used for many Bactrocera species are not at-tractive for this species. For B. minax, food based lure i.e. protein baits are used. Maintaining field sanitation by proper disposal of infested fruits, winter/summer ploughing, visual cue lures such as colored sticky spheres, mass trapping by using para-pheromones and food based lures, foliar insecticidal spray are the pest management strategies adopted in China, Bhutan, Sikkim and Nepal. Area Wide control program has been launched using technologies: monitoring, Great Fruit Fly Bait (Protein Hydrolysate 25%+0.1% Ab-amectin) developed by Ecoman Biotech, China, trapping and field sanitation in the year 2018 which has proved successful in control of B. minax in the sweet orange orchards of Sindhuli.
52 Empowerment of SC/ST Communities Through Watershed Activities in Rayalaseema Region , PVRM Reddy, B Janardha Reddy and BV Ramana Kumar
Semi-arid regions like Rayalaseema of Andhra Pradesh were adopted by programmes like Integrated Watershed Management Program in order to improve productivity and livelihoods especially marginalized sections such as SC/STs. These are poor, asset less, socially depressed, and economically backward. With this aim, IWMP provided financial assistance to improve their lives by engaging them through farm-based and non-farm based activities under the components of Natural Resources Management, Productivity Sup-port Improvements and Livelihoods for the period 2017-2020. To evaluate their performance and improvement, the study carried out a detailed field-based study with extensive field surveys; in-depth interviews focused group discussions, case studies and also collected secondary data for effective analysis. The results can be seen in the target-based activities of financial assistance and works provided to develop their land and livelihoods. This further led them to move towards sustainable development in all spheres of life especially, their self-esteem and social imagery.
53 Comparison Between Value of Indian Major Carps and Air Breathing Carps in Open Inland Fishery Sector , Swapna Ghosh and Pratik Majumdar
In India, 75% population are live in rural area and agriculture fish farming are major occupation of them who are live in village. The total fish production of 10.07 million metric tonnes in India presently has nearly 65% contribution from the inland sector and nearly the same from culture fisheries. Actually Fish constitutes a major source of protein in our diet. Fish apart from being important in human diet, its fatty acid are currently under intense scientific investigation because of numerous health benefits attributed by them. The amount of protein in fish muscle is usually somewhere between 15-20%, but values lower as 15% or as high as 28% are occasionally met with in some species. IMC are demandable and easily acceptable for consumers, it can fulfil population demand for their nutritional value in everyday life and air breathing fish are not easily available and acceptable by all classes of consumer. Among IMC Rohu (Labeo rohita) achieve the 1st position as it can fulfil population demand for their nutritional value at a lower cost for the above reasons. Even induced breeding become more popular in IMC where as the anthropogenic activity is tough for air breathing fishes. Their seeds collected from the natural environment, but due to exposure of chemicals in land and water the population be-come enough less day to day. So we have to save them from the list of endangered species for their nutritious value as compare to protein and lipid.
54 Phytoremediation Potential of Castor Bean ( Ricinus Communis L.) , Violina Angelova and Mariana Perifanova Nemska
The goal of this research was to investigate the potential use of Ricinus communis L. (castor oil plant) for the remediation of metal-polluted sites. This field study was performed in industrially polluted soils that contain high concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd situated at different distances (0.1, 2.0 and 15.0 km) from the source of pollution – KCM (Non-Ferrous Metal Works) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The amount of heavy metals in different part of castor oil plant (roots, stems, leaves, capsule, seeds) and oils was determined by ICP. The castor oil plant is tolerant to heavy metals. Bioaccumulation factor and translocation factor values were greater than one, which suggests that heavy metals accumulate efficiently in the shoots. The presence of low levels of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as high levels of monounsaturated acids result in the production of a high quality biodiesel. The castor bean is a plant that can be used simultaneously for phytoextraction of heavy metals from soils and as biofuel. It can be grown on soils heavily con-taminated with heavy metals, which are not suitable for the cultivation of food crops.
55 An Application of Markov Chain Model to Study on Trade Direction of Export of FCV Tobacco from India   , Yogesh HC and SK Srivastava
Tobacco is one of the important commercial crops of India and also called as “golden leaf ”. It provides employment directly and indirectly to 38 millions of people. Indian tobacco is exported to over 119 countries across the globe. During 2015-16, India’s un-manufactured tobacco (FCV and non-FCV) exports accounted for about 86 per cent of total exports of tobacco and tobacco products in terms of quantity and 71 per cent in terms of value in rupees. Out of the total Indian unmanufactured tobacco exports, FCV tobacco exports constituted 72 per cent in terms of quantity and 81% in terms of value. FCV tobacco exports were in the order of 1,51,670 Metric tons valued ₹ 3,495.81 crores ($ 531.48 million) against 1,49,700 Metric tons valued at ₹ 3,201.71 crores ($ 486.73 mil-lion) during the same period last year showing an increase of 1 per cent and 9 per cent in terms of quantity and value, respectively. Therefore, the present study has been conducted with reference to FCV tobacco; to examine the pattern of export destination of FCV (Flue-cured virginia) tobacco. To achieve this, annual export data on region-wise for the period 2010-11 to 2015-16 has been used and analysed by using the first order Markov chain approach. The study reveals that West Europe followed by Africa and North and South America are the best and loyal importer of unmanufactured tobacco from India. Also, it is suggested that India should not only depend on these trade partners only but also diversify its exports to other regions too.
56 Philosophy in the Design of River Training Works , The Hung Nguyen
The stabilization of river system is crucial in socio-economic development, especially in agricultural development, for example irrigation water withdrawal, flood drainage to reduce the impacts of flooding on crop production, etc.
57 Stability and Scrutiny Using (Ammi): Model of Bread Wheat Over the Years in Cold Arid Harsh Conditions of Kargil and Zanaskar (Ladakh)- India , Mushtaq Ahmad1, Faizan Ahmad1, Ejaz Ahmad Dar, Rizwan Rashid, Shahnowaz Ahmad, MH Khan, Rohie Hassan and NR Sofi
Field experiments were carried out using 20 genotypes for 3 consecutive years (2017-2019) under two randomly completed conditions (Zanaskar Kargil or irrigation rainfall) to identify high-grain infarct-able wheat genotypes obtained by a single parameter. RBD with three copies in each environment. Combination testing of variation showed significant differences for the GE (genotype-environment) cardinal. The results of AMMI (additive main effect and multiplicative interaction) show that the first two AMMI (AMMI 1 - AMMI 2) are symbolic (P < 0.01). It became clear that the division of whole squares was a major source of environmental impact variability, followed by interplay and genetic type effect. The GE cardinal genotype is three times greater than the effect, indicating the presence of different environmental groups. The AMMI Invisibility Value (ASV) lost the G12, G18, G13, G14 and G11 genotypes, respectively. Differentiation to SE is not a physical selection criterion because most incomplete genotypes do not provide the best yield performance and, therefore, grain yield and ASV can be considered simultaneously in a single parameter-free index. Depending on the rainfall and irrigation conditions, the G1 and G18 genes and the High Grain Genome Type Selection Index (GSI) were matched to the results of the biplot observation.
58 The Role of Indigenous Knowledge and Livelihood to Adapt to Floods in Sustainable Development in Mekong Delta, Vietnam (A Case Study in An Giang Province) , Pham Xuan Phu and Ngo Thuy Bao Tran
This research was carried out to explore the role of the appropriateness of farmer’s indigenous knowledge and their adaptive capacity to floods in An Giang province. KAP (Knowledge-Attitude-Practice), PRA (KIP and focus group discussion) and household survey have been applied to collect data. The results showed that indigenous knowledge plays an important role in adapting to changes in the environment. The Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) in different Zone (upper zone, middle zone, and lower zone) was decreasingly based on major components as social networks, knowledge and skills, natural resources, finance and incomes, livelihood strategies, natural disaster and climate variability. The research also suggested some solutions to conserve the valuable indigenous knowledge in adapting the change of climate of local people.
59 Effect of Larval Parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes on Chilo partellus Under Laboratory Conditions , Zulnorain Sajid, Muhammad Ammar Latif, Muhammad Abdul Basit, Muhammad Usman, Wasim Javaid, Bilal Jafar, Hafiza Sehrish Bashir and Rashid Ameen
Maize is third most important crop of Pakistan that attacked by many insect pests, among all these Chilo partellusis a notorious pest of crop. Chilo partellus is caused huge economic losses of crops in Pakistan. An experimental study was conducted in insect Bio Control Lab at the Department of Entomology, PMAS UAAR during 2018 to check the effect of Cotesia flavipes on Chilo partellus under control conditions. Adult duration of Cotesia sp. was 41.46 hours. Rate of parasitism was 76 percent in 4th instar larvae of C. partellus. Mean number of pupae per larvae were 41-46 pupae per larvae. The mean pupal duration of Cotesia sp. was 8 days. Rate of parasitism was 73 percent in 3rd instar larvae of C. partellus. From each parasitized larvae the mean adult emergence was 28 adults per larvae. The mean pupal duration of Cotesia sp. was 9 days.
60 Breeding Approaches for Climate Resilience in Maize (Zea mays L.): An Overview , Anurag Tripathi, Rahul Kumar, Suresh Yadav, Jeet ram Choudhary, Mukesh Choudhary and H C Lohithaswa
Climate change impacts agriculture in numerous ways including rising average temperatures, rainfall, changes in pests and dis-eases, rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide, ozone concentrations at ground level and changes in the nutritional quality of certain foods. Therefore, achieving global food security for rising global population under limited arable land is a major challenge in the twenty-first century. Maize plays an ever more vital role in the growth of global grains. Maize being a C4 plant has a high yield po-tential as witnessed from highest compound annual growth rate over last decade. However, in many countries maize production has been plateaued due to full exploitation of hybrid and manufacturing technologies. Therefore, maize ideotypes with favourable traits architecture need to be developed for increased stress resistance and higher yield under changing climate. In maize abiotic stress such as drought leads to delay in silking that result in an increase in the anthesis-silking interval, which is a major cause of yield losses. Acidic soils also conflict with maize production (Zea mays L.) resulting in yield losses of up to 69%. In this review, we have discussed the current challenges and different breeding approaches for sustainable maize production under changing climate i.e. climate resilience. With the advent of recent advances in omics approaches including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, great opportunity exists for development of elite climate resilient maize cultivars
61 Scientific and Technical Scientific and Technical Progress and Innovation in Agriculture Grass and Innovation in Agriculture , Ikram Abdullaev
Scientific and technological progress in agriculture is a system-atic progressive process of improving the means of production, technology and organization based on the widespread use of the achievements of science and technology.
62 Economic Growth and Expansion of the Agricultural Frontier, Case Study: Ecuador (1985 - 2015) , Rafael Reyes, Wilman-Santiago Ochoa-Moreno, Luis Rojas Ojeda, Elisa Toledo and Viviana Torres
In this research, the relationship between the agricultural frontier and production for Ecuador in the period 1985 - 2015 is ana-lyzed. It begins with a review of the existing literature, then, econometric models of autoregressive vectors and error correction are used. The results show that as production rises, an increase in the agricultural frontier is generated; results that are consistent when additional covariates are added. Among the main results, it is observed that the autoregressive vector model demonstrates that the variables (production and agricultural frontier) have a long-term equilibrium relationship. Also, the error correction model indicates that as the gross domestic product increases, the agricultural frontier expands. In conclusion, the results are coherent with each oth-er and reinforce the idea that the Ecuadorian economy in the period of the analysis is still tied to dependence on livestock products.
63 Linseed (Linnum usitatissimum L.) - An Oilseed Crop with Potential to be Used in Many Ways: Review Article , Anand Paul Bunga and Pragnya Reddy Patlolla
Linseed is an important, yet underutilised oilseed crop of the world. It can be used as food and feed, as raw material for pharma-ceuticals, industrial use, textile industries etc. It is an excellent source of omega 3 fatty acid and can be used as a substitute for non-fish eaters. The fatty acid composition is comparable to that of soybean. Apart from oil, it also contains good amount of proteins and secondary metabolites. The nutritional value of the linseed can be further improved by research in various fields like plant breeding, agronomy, food science etc. More knowledge is needed on how the quality of the oil is affected by various biotic and abiotic factors. New ways should be brought up to include linseed in our daily diet.
64 Is Plant Nitrogen Depletion Really Linked to the Biosynthesis of Carbon-Rich Defense-Related Compounds in Organic Products? , Simona Fabroni and Paolo Rapisarda
Previous studies speculated on the existence of an inverse re-lationship between the available nitrogen and the accumulation of defense-related secondary metabolites in plants [1], as a con-sequence of C:N ratio unbalance. According to this hypothesis, the lower nitrogen contents of organically grown plants lead to a shift from the N-containing compounds to the production of carbon-rich defense-related phenylpropanoids. It has been also suggested that this behavior is putatively linked to the increased resilience to pest attacks and damage exerted by organic plants [2-4]. Re-cent research [5] showed that long-term organic fields have been associated with no consistent difference in nitrogen and carbon content, nor in C:N ratio, between the organic and conventional produces. In parallel, pest attacks were preferentially settled on conventional plants respect to organic ones. Organic management reduced insect population but no evidence about plant nutrient unbalance was directly linked with. The study demonstrated that organic soil management promoted salicylic acid build-up, which resulted in discouraging plant–insect interactions. Indeed, salicylic acid accumulation was not associated with lower nitrogen content of organic plants but it depended on alterations in soil microbial communities associated with long-term organic management. The study showed that over-presence of specific microbial groups in-duced plant resistance to pest attacks. By this way, it can be pos-tulated that organic practices promotes plant resistance through derived changes in soil microflora.
65 Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectrum of “Sweet Shrub” Stevia , LK Rajkhowa, R Mahanta, A Hazarika1, J Saikia and GD Baruah
Laser Induced Fluorescence spectrum of acetone extract of stevia has been excited with the help of a blue diode laser (415 nm, 10 mW) and recorded on a mini spectrometer. The spectrum exhibits three prominent bands at 444, 474 and 503 nm along with the well known chlorophyll bands at 685 nm and 730 nm.
66 Effect of Wheat Plant Distribution, Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilizer Levels on Wheat-sugar Beet Association , Ahmed M Sheha, Amr S Shams and Mohamed M Lamlom
A two-season field experiment was conducted at Gemmeiza Research Station, Egypt, during 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 to study the effect of some wheat plant distribution systems (2, 3 and 4 rows), three N fertilizer levels (80, 100, 120 kg N fed-1) and three K fer-tilizer levels (24, 48, 72 kg K fed-1) on the productivity of both crops and farmers benefit. Sugar beet was planted on both sides of the bed (120 cm width), wheat was planted in all intercropping treatments at 25% of sole culture seed rate. A split-split plot design with three replications was used. Wheat plant distribution allocated to the main plots, N fertilizer arranged in the sub-plots and K fertilizer is presented in the sub-sub plots. Wheat plant height and spike length recorded the highest values by wheat planting in 2 rows fol-lowed by in 3 and 4 rows was showed the lost values in both seasons. Simultaneously; the other characters of wheat i.e. spike grains wt., 1000-grain wt., no. of grains spike-1, no. of spikes m-2, grain yield fed-1 and straw yield ton fed-1 recorded the highest values with 4 wheat rows in both seasons. All studied characters of wheat were increased by increasing N fertilizer levels from 80 to 100 up to 120 kg N fed-1 in both seasons. Most wheat characters were decreased by increasing K fertilizer levels from 24 to 48 up to 72 kg K fed-1in both seasons. Most of the wheat characters were significantly influenced by the different interaction under study in both seasons. Sugar beet yield and its components as well as sugar% recorded the highest values when wheat was planted in 2 rows. Increasing N fertilizer levels increased all studied characters in both seasons. All sugar beet characters were recorded the highest values by using 48 kg K fed-1 followed by 72 and 24 kg K fed-1 in both seasons. Most sugar beet characters were significantly affected by the different interactions between factors under study in both seasons. The best land equivalent ratio (LER) and Land Equivalent Coefficient (LEC) achieved the highest values with treatment included 2 wheat rows with 120 kg N and 24 or 48 kg K fed-1. Simultaneously, Aggressivity (A), wheat was the dominant crop and sugar beet was dominated in both seasons. The treatment of wheat planting in 4 rows with 120 kg N fed-1 and 24 kg K fed-1 recorded the highest values for both total income and net return in both seasons
67 Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding , Kannan CS Warrier
More than 10 million different species of animals, plants, fungi and other micro-organisms inhabit the Earth. They and the habi-tats in which they live represent the world's biological diversity. It has been recorded that humans use about 40,000 species of plants and animals for food, shelter, clothing and medicinal needs. For-ests are the most diverse ecosystems on land, because they hold the vast majority of the world's terrestrial species. Priceless bio-diversity is threatened by deforestation, forest fragmentation and degradation, hunting and the arrival of invasive species from other habitats. We are losing the invaluable treasure at an alarming rate that, it has been estimated that, within the next 10 years, one out of every four known species may have been wiped off the planet. It has also been estimated that to meet the innumerable demands that humans make on nature each year, we may require about more than an additional half of Earth. That is about 1.6 earths to satisfy our greeds!
68 Evaluation of Herbicidal Potential of Selected Mycoherbicidal Strain against a Noxious Weed Cassia otusifolia L , Ajay Kumar Singh and Akhilesh Kumar Pandey
The management of weeds by chemical herbicides creating adverse effect on human and animal health so there is urgent need for alternative weed control option to save environment by an environmental friendly and sustainable options. Bioactive compound of fungi is great source for the development of new herbicide and its offer an ecofriendly alternative to control weeds. Here We have evaluated mycoherbicidal activity of cell free culture broth (CFCF) of selected strains against Cassia obtusifolia. Phytotoxic contents of natural metabolites present in CFCF of Curvularia lunata (FGCCW#33), Phoma herbarum (FGCCW#07), Myrothecium roridum(FGCCW#03) and Fusarium roseum (FGCCW#61) against Cassia obtusifolia were evaluated by seedling bioassays. In preliminary bioassay, the CFCF of FGCCW#03 of 28 days old were shown maximum phytotoxic effect on seedling of Cassia obtusifolia at 100% concentration. The symptoms were observed as browning and necrosis of weeds. With effective formulation and cheap mass produc-tion of this mycoherbicidal strains can possibly use as mycoherbicide for control of Cassia obtusifolia in future.
69 Alternaria Blight of Tomato: A Review of Disease and Pathogen Management Approaches , Surbhi Garg, Data Ram Kumar, Suresh Yadav, Mohit Kumar and Jagdish Yadav.
Taxonomically, genus Alternaria comes under Deuteromycetes phylum which includes different saprophytic and endophytic spe-cies. It is famous due to its notoriously destructive pathogens. It majorly affects various plant families e.g. Cucurbitaceae, Cruci-feraceae and Solanaceae which are agriculturally important crops possess high nutritional and economical values. The crops suffer from various bacterial, viral, fungal and nematode diseases. Among the above mentioned diseases, early leaf spot disease caused by pathogen Alternaria solani is one of the most devastating diseases resulting in loss upto 78%. Most of the species of Alternaria lacking in teleomorphic stage whereas few species have teleomorphs in their disease cycle. Alternaria being necrotrophic it leads to severe damage to plant and its produce. Besides the involvement of toxins in pathogenesis or invasion, few genes or gene products also have major effect on pathogenicity. In the present review, we described in detail about efficiency of plant and herbal extract, bio control agents, cow by products and fungicides against A. solani, that not only effective in managing the disease but also economic and ecofriendly.
70 Diallel Studies and Heritability Estimates Using Hayman's Approach in Ocimum spp.   , Smita Singh
Diallel analysis of Hayman was performed removing reciprocal in basil, the experimental material consisted of morphological diverse genotypes and their 21 direct crosses i.e. F1 populations. The traits days-to-flowering (50%), plant height (cm), no of branch-es/plant, inflorescence length (cm), fresh herb yield (g)/plant, oil content (%), oil yield (g)/plant, days-to-maturity, methyl-chavicol content (%), linalool content (%), citral content (%), eugenol content (%) explored additive type of gene effects. t2 for all the charac-ters are non-significance so its indicate validity of the hypothesis postulated by Hayman. Regression line for days-to-flowering (50%), days-to-maturity were below the origin showing the presence of over-dominance while for branches/plant, ocimene content, linalool content, camphor content and methyl-chavicol it was above the origin suggesting the presence of partial-dominance. Regression line for plant height, inflorescence length, fresh herb yield, oil content and oil yield were through the origin indicating the presence of complete-dominance. Narrow sense heritability estimates 2∧h(ns)% ranged from 7.9% (lowest) for inflorescence length to 59% (highest) for oil content. Genetic advance over mean ranged from 0.54 (days-to-maturity) to 53.11 (branches/plant)
71 Dwarfing Responses of Leonotis leonurus (L.) R.Br. Lamiaceae Using Foliar Growth Regulator Applications to Induce Compactness in Flowering Potted Plants , Khanyisa Boyce, Charles P Laubscher and Mack A Moyo
The insatiable demand for novel floral forms in the ornamental horticulture industry continues to drive the search for such plant species, particularly in biodiversity-rich regions such as South Africa. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Cycocel®, a plant growth retardant, in manipulating growth and compactness in Leonotisleonurus, a plant with potential high or-namental value in the potted flower industry. Application of Cycocel®, especially at a concentration of 4 mg/L significantly reduced both height and plant width of L. leonurus plants growing in a soilless hydro culture system. In addition, application of the growth retardant had a significant influence on increasing the shoot proliferation in L. leonurus plants. The number of new shoots produced in week 6 of the 8-week growing period was about threefold higher compared to the control. The reduction in height and width observed in the present study may be due to the interference with key enzymes involved in the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway. Overall, application of Cycocel® had the desired effect in controlling growth parameters in L. leonurus plants, thereby improving com-pactness and enhancing its commercial value in the flowering potted plant market.
72 Assessment of Essential Metals in Selected Fish Feeds and Cultivated Fish Species in Bangladesh and their Impacts on Human Body , Biraj Saha, Md Abdul Mottalib and ANM Al-razee
Cultivated fishes are major protein and microelement sources for all sorts of people in Bangladesh due to its availability and af-fordability. Essential metals are persistent in the environment and are subject to bioaccumulation in the food chain. Fish is at the top of the aquatic food chain and normal metabolism of fish may accumulate large amounts of different essential metals from water, food or sediment. This study was carried out to determine essential metal concentrations in the flesh of some cultivated fish species and commercial fish feeds available in Bangladesh. The essential metal concentration in fish and consumed fish feed were assessed by Inductive Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) with significant variation (P < 0.05). The concentration (mg/kg - dry weight) of Fe, Cu, Zn, Na, K, and Ca were observed 23.33 - 63.3, 12.80 - 20.62, 10.00 - 26.25, 214.2 - 367.68, 285.71 - 485.71, 256.89 - 432.65 in selected commercial fish feeds whereas those were found 33.33 - 80.83, 14.00 - 31.80, 20.60 - 49.25, 250.98 - 500.78, 400.76 - 587.32, 408.16 - 857.14 in cultivated fish species. All analyzed metal concentrations were within the acceptable of World Health Organization (WHO, 2004), Food and Agricultural organization (FAO, 2004), European Union (EU, 2010) and US Envi-ronmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 2011) and Total Hazardous Quotient (THQs) value of all the selected metals were lower than 1, which suggesting no remarkable non - carcinogenic health hazards for adult population
73 Agriculture during Pandemic , Lirola Keri
The year 2020 since its inception has started with a situation different from normal. The outbreak of the epidemic in several countries simultaneously led to the creation of the pandemic de-clared worldwide by the WHO itself. This change came unexpect-edly. At the center of world attention was health. The social and economic life of mankind around the world changed suddenly. The prolongation of the pandemic created the belief that isolation was no longer a solution but a choice of the moment. For all sectors to be revitalized and continue their activity they had to adapt to new conditions of physical distancing. But some activities much needed for basic needs could not be accomplished in this form. One of them is also agricultural and livestock activity. The supply of consumers with agricultural and livestock products and products had to continue normally, especially in this period when the de-mand would be higher due to two factors; first, people had enough time to consume food at home, and; second, the closure of restau-rants, bars and hotels. An additional supply had to respond to the increase in demand. But if the pandemic increased demand, the same cannot be said for supply. Not only is the supply of such prod-ucts, as of any other product, limited in the short term, but also because exchanges of goods and products between countries were temporarily suspended. For net exporting countries supply could not have a significant difference from demand. For net importing countries traders had to find other resources to meet demand. Such places where demand remained undiscovered turned their eyes away from domestic production. This situation was presented as a golden opportunity for local producers who had to guarantee the sale of their agricultural and livestock products.
74 Sustainable Agriculture through Food Security , Sharon Idahosa
Though, much progress has been made towards food security in the past decades. But overtime, the food security challenges faced has become rather too alarming and in years to come, many of the world’s population will be subjected to extreme poverty, hunger, malnutrition and even deaths.It is expedient that the issue of food security is tackled as the world’s population is expected to climb to 8.5 billion in 2025. The need to improve agricultural productivity to facilitate a sustainable agriculture, thereby improving food security is very key. This module explains sustainable agriculture to a large extent, food security challenges, as well as food security measures, giving a direct guide on how sustainable farming can boost the food production systems in Nigeria.
75 Standardized Methods were Established to Measure Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in the Various Land-Use System of Planting Legumes Under Field Conditions Calculations of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Accumulation When One Land-Use Type is Converted to Another Crop Rotation , Makkies David Lengwati
Nitrogen fixation potential and residual effects of selected grain legumes in a South African soil with the back-up of nitrogen economy of pulse crop production in the Nelspruit/Mbombela Lowveld area was studied. Rhizobium - legume symbiosis and nitrogen fixation under severe conditions and in an arid climate and using kraal manure as a fertilizer in growing vegetables in the home garden were also observations for nitrogen supply to plant growth. Measuring plant-associated nitrogen fixation in agricultural systems has a potential precision of the δ15N natural abundance method in field estimates of nitrogen fixation by crop and pasture legumes in South Africa thus provided influence of mycorrhizal associations on foliar δ15N values of legume and non-legume shrubs and trees in the fynbos of South Africa, Western Cape province with implications for esti-mating N2 fixation using the 15N natural abundance method
76 Characterization and Distribution of Potyvirus Species Infecting Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) in Burkina Faso , Fidèle Tiendrébéogo, Ezechiel B Tibiri, Koussao Somé, James Bouma Neya and Nicolas Barro
Virus species belonging to the genus Potyvirus are the most common viruses infecting sweet potato crop. Among these viruses, Sweet potato Feathery Mottle Virus (SPFMV) is the most damaging and widespread in the world. To assess the potyvirus disease on sweet potato in Burkina Faso, a total of 300 samples were collected from the nine largest sweet potato producing regions. Samples were analyzed using RT-PCR and products were Sequenced. Bioinformatic analyzes were performed to know the strains of the virus-es. The results revealed that SPFMV is the main Potyvirus infecting sweet potato in Burkina Faso with a prevalence of about 28.33%. A total of seven isolates of SPFMV were successfully sequenced and used for phylogenetic analyzes. These isolates have shown 99% nucleotide identity with the phylogroup A-II (SPFMV-O), and some of them had 95% nucleotide identity with phylogroup B (SPFMV-RC). This study showed that SPFMV is the main Potyvirus-infecting sweet potato in Burkina Faso
77 Reducing Global Hunger Way Forward , Sachin Regmi
Global population already hit 7.7 billion mark; another million-feeding mouth are being added every 14 months in average. This aggressive population growth doesn’t seem to slowing anytime sooner. More population has high demand for consumption of natural resources, but the real concern is, can our earth be able to withstand this population pressure? Clear indication on steadily increasing income elasticity of demand for food is indicating to-wards the verge of catastrophic failure of human civilization as earth hospitality may not remain the same. To amply feed the glob-al population we need to expand our framework on current agri-culture practices and food distribution network. Poverty, food se-curity and food safety are major challenges to address. Agriculture innovation and technology adaptation are our vital tools for the change. These must be supported by modernization prescribed on scientific ground. The increasing demand for adequate and safer food can be addressed by smart agriculture, green revolution and sustainable agriculture aided by mechanization. To ensure food for all advanced tools like biotechnology and agrigenomics can also be used
78 Effect of Foliar Application of Salicylic Acid in Marigold , Samir Poudel and Nisha Subedi
Marigold (Tagetes patula) is one of the popular annual, herbaceous, attractive flowers. Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic phytohor-mone and is found in plants with roles in plant growth and development, photosynthesis, transpiration, ion uptake and transport. This research was conducted to assess the effects of foliar application of salicylic acid on growth and yield of marigold from July 2019 to November 2019. The research was conducted in the horticulture field of IAAS, Lamjung Campus, Nepal under Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications and six treatments viz. (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500) ppm of salicylic acid. The marigold flowers were harvested when the outer petals unfold nearly perpendicular to the stem. Parameters like plant height, plant width, days to flowering, number of flower diameter and total yield were observed and analyzed using SPSS. Greater plant height was found on treatment 500 ppm which is statistically on par with 400 ppm and 300 ppm and lowest at 0 ppm. Similarly, plant width is greater in 500 ppm while the lowest in 0ppm. Days to flowering were lower in 500 ppm which is statistically similar with 400 ppm, 300 ppm and 200 ppm and higher in 0 ppm. Best results were found in 500 ppm with the number of flowers, the diameter of the flower, and flower yield. Thus, results revealed that increasing the concentration of salicylic acid increases the production of marigold.
79 Postharvest Quality of Sein Ta Lone Mango (Mangifera indica L.) as Affected by Different Wrapping Materials and Storage Temperature , Phyu Phyu Lei Yi, Than Than Soe and Khin Thida Myint.
The experiment was conducted to assess the postharvest quality and storage life of Sein Ta Lone mango affected by wrapping materials and storage temperature. It was carried out at the Laboratory of Department of Horticulture, Yezin Agricultural University during the mango harvest season of May 2018. Treatments were laid out in factorial arrangement, randomized complete block design with four replications. Factor A was the storage at controlled temperature (13 ̊C) and at room temperature (35 - 38 ̊C) and factor B was wrapping materials of white net sack, white fruit wrapping paper and without wrapping (control). Sein Ta Lone mangoes were collected from Myanadi mango orchard, Department of Agriculture, Myittha Township, Mandalay Region. The data on physiological weight loss (%), color index, fruit firmness (kgcm-2), total soluble solid (TSS%), total titratable acidity (TTA%), respiration rate (mg CO2 kg-1h-1), ethylene production rate (μl kg-1h-1) and shelf-life (days) were collected at two days intervals throughout the experiment. Control fruits stored at 13 ̊C significantly showed the longer shelf-life (14 days) than those under room temperature (7 days). The fruits wrapped with paper showed the longest shelf life of 16 days at 13 ̊C while the fruits wrapped with net sack maintained the lon-gest shelf-life of 8 days at room temperature. The ethylene production and respiration rates of Sein Ta Lone mango under 13 ̊C were considerably lower than those of the fruits under room temperature but not significantly different among the treatments. The mini-mum respiration and ethylene production rate of unwrapped mangoes were 10.84 CO2 mg kg-1h-1 and 0.07ul kg-1h-1, respectively. The color value rapidly increased in all treatments stored at room temperature at 4 days after storage. However, the color development of the fruits stored at 13 ̊C gradually increased with lower value than that of those under room temperature. There were no significant differences in TTA% and TSS% among the treatments at respective temperatures. The results from this study revealed that net sack wrapping should be used at room temperature to protect injury and paper wrapping should be used in low temperature storage of 13 ̊C to absorb moisture and maintain fruit quality.
80 Covid 19 and the Impact on the Hydroponic Market , Aashray Mody.
It is projected that the global COVID-19 pandemic effect on the hydroponics market will generate revenues of USD 17 billion with a CAGR of about 11.5% from 2020 to 2024 (forecast period). The study outlines the strengths, opportunities, threats and potential business risks and provides an extensive summary of the influence of COVID-19 on the global market situation. Hydroponics refers to an agricultural process, such as a mineral nutrient and a water so-lution, used to grow plants in a soil-free medium. In a particular climate, crops have historically been cultivated, but in hydropon-ics, they are cultivated in a controlled setting. Hydroponics uses two methods, a solid medium crop and a solution crop, to grow crops.
81 Thematic Study on Machine Farm Ponds with Farm Bund-Integrated Watershed Management Programme – Ananthapuramu , PVRM Reddy, B Janardha Reddy, BV Ramana Kumar, R Jhansi Rani and Pullanna Vidyapogu.
The meaning of Farm pond is small tank or reservoir like constructions, are constructed for the purpose of storing the surface runoff, generated from the catchment area. The farm ponds are the water harvesting structures, solve several purposes of farm needs such as supply of water for irrigation, cattle feed, fish production etc. Farm Ponds are shielding the vagaries of drought and help the farmers to keep their farm activity and provide ability to store water during an occasional rain and use the same to feed water to crops during the dry spells. All these have been evidenced in Ananthapuramu district through watershed intervention.
82 Intercropping Cowpea with Some Yellow Maize Hybrids Under Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates , Amr S Shams and Mohamed M Lamlom.
Field trial was carried out at Sids Agricultural Research Station, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Beni-Sweif governorate (Lat. 29o 12' N, Long. 31o 01'E, 32 m a.s.l.), Egypt, during 2017 and 2018 summer seasons to study the interaction between three nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates (100, 120 and 140 Kg N fed-1) and three yellow maize hybrids (SC 176, TWC 353 and TWC 360) on maize-cowpea association. Treatments were randomly assigned in a split-plot design with three replications. The main plots were devoted to N fertilizer rates. However, the sub-plots were allocated to hybrids of yellow maize. Sole culture plots of both maize and cowpea were included in each replicate for competitive relationships and economic evaluation essays. The highest values of maize grain yield (22.86 and 23.00 ard fed-1) were recorded for yellow maize hybrid SC 176 when the combination received 140 kg N fed-1 whereas the lowest values were recorded for yellow maize hybrid TWC 353 when the combination received 100 kg N fed-1 while the highest values cowpea fresh forage yield (18.75 and 15.59 ton fed-1) were recorded for cowpea intercropped with yellow maize hybrid SC 176 when the combination received 140 kg N fed-1 whereas the lowest values were recorded for cowpea intercropped with yellow maize hybrid TWC 360 when the combination received 100 kg N fed-1 in first and second seasons, respectively. The aggressivity value of maize was positive for all treatments indicating that maize was dominant component whereas the aggressivity value of cowpea was negative for all treatments indicating that cowpea was dominated component in the present study. Results also revealed that intercropping cow-pea cv. Cream7 with yellow maize hybrid SC 176 under rate of 140 kg N fed-1 for the combination resulted in maximum values of LER estimated to 1.61 and 1.62, gross income of LE 16,598 and 15,717 and net return of LE 8,301 and 7,420 in first and second seasons, respectively. The study recommends the importance of selecting maize variety (the over-story crop), as short hybrid with less leaf area index, which is preferred to provide a better chance for the growth of cowpea (the under-story crop) when planting cowpea with 100% of its sole culture on the other side of maize rows sown at 100% of its density in sole culture in order to achieve the maximum land equivalent ratio, less competition between both crops, and largest income and net return for farmer.
83 Arsenic Mitigation by Natural Resources , Ashok Kumar Jha, Sourav Majumder and Yogesh Chandra Gupta.
This paper deals with the eco-friendly and low cost recent techniques of removal of arsenic from aqueous medium keeping in mind the health hazards of arsenic contamination.Arsenic contamination in ground water of the Gangetic plain in Holocene newer alluvial due to arsenic bearing chemicals has become a matter of grave concern. As a result researches on arsenic mitigation using natural resources are going on in different parts of the world. Natural resources e.g. bentonite mineral of Rajmahal hills and aquatic plants have been utilized for removal of arsenic from aqueous medium. Aquatic plants remove arsenic through their roots and leaves known as phytoremediation and dried biomass is also useful for removal of arsenic known as bio-remediation. The presence of unsaturated carboxylic acid, hemicellulose and amino groups present on the surface of the biomass bind arsenic on the surface but bentonite mineral removes arsenic by adsorption and ion exchange both due to the presence of unsatisfied charges on the surface. Percentage removal of arsenic with varying time by bentonites and aquatic plants have been calculated and experimental data have been used to explain the nature of adsorption
84 Effect of Tillage and Nutrient Management on Economics and Soil Status by Maize + Pigeon Pea Intercropping System , Pradeep Kumar, Mritunjay Kumar, Santosh Kumar Singh, Gharsiram and Satish Bhutekar.
A field experiment was carried out during the summer (kharif) seasons of 2019-20 at research farm field in TCA, Dholi, under Dr. RPCAU, Pusa, Samastipur (Bihar). The experiment was laid out in split plot design with 4 main plot treatment viz., T 1: Permanent bed (PB), T 2: Zero tillage (ZT), T 3: Fresh bed (FB) and T 4: Conventional tillage and 3 sub-plot treatment viz., N 1: 100% Recom-mended dose of fertilizer (RDF), N 2: 120% Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) and N 3: 80% Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) witch were replicated thrice. Considering the overall impact of conservation agriculture practices, growing maize+pigeon pea intercropping under PB, crop recorded higher maize equivalent yield (130.7 q/ha) at par with ZT (120.7 q/ha) over the FB (112.1 q/ha) and CT (108.4 q/ha) while, 120% RDF application recorded (127.7 q/ha) over the 100% RDF (117.7 q/ha) and 80% RDF (108.6 q/ha) application under nutrient management. The gross return, net return and B:C ratio from maize+pigeon pea intercropping ob-tained significantly higher under PB (244839, 189239 and 3.4) compared to FB (210514, 153665 and 2.7) and CT (203320, 147070 and 2.6) while under nutrient management, the gross return, net return and B:C ratio recorded higher with 120% RDF application (239028, 181223 and 3.1) compared to 80% RDF (204076, 150031 and 2.8). the soil physico-chemical properties viz., bulk density, pH, EC, organic carbon, available N, P and K were also favourably influenced by PB and ZT practices but it’s were not significantly affected by nutrient management practices. Appropriate tillage practices and nutrient management are some of the reasons behind the increasing economics or net returns of crop. Therefore, the study was conducted to identify the appropriate tillage practices and suitable nutrient management in new immersing maize + pigeonpea intercropping system in an alternative conventional farming.
85 A Review on Rice False Smut, it’s Distribution, Identification and Management Practices , Bhanu Dangi, Saugat Khanal and Shubekshya Shah.
Rice (Oryza sativa) is the major source of food security for most of the population in the world. False smut is recently emerging as a major Rice disease which was previously considered to have a negligible impact. An ascomycetes fungus, Villosiclava virens is the pathogen that causes the False Smut disease of rice. It is found in two different stages sexual and asexual and both spores can infect the spikelet and lead to the formation of smut ball of rice grain. The disease has been reported from all across the world after being reported for the first time in Tamil Nadu by Cooke in 1878. Rice False Smut has been reported to cause 40% of the yield losses and this disease can be controlled with the proper management practices and the control approaches. The disease is found to have linked with the higher nitrogen usages and the occurrence of heavy rainfall during Reproductive stage. Preventive approaches include crop rotation, optimum nitrogen usages, selection of the resistant variety, scheduling of the crop plantation to avoid raining during sensitive stages and field preparation. While control of the disease could be done with different methods, application of fungicides Triûoxystrobin 25%+ Tebuconazole 50% and Propiconazole 25 EC in vitro and in vivo condition showed 100% inhibition to growth of fungal mycelium being the most effective chemical among other contemporary fungicides. Among the different fungicides tested azoxystrobin (18.2%) SC showed better efficacy at 0.1 per cent and enhanced the paddy yield under field condition. The study done by Raji 2016 shows significant control of the False smut using the extract of garlic, turmeric, lantana and Bael, whereas plant oils of lemon grass and cinnamon have completely inhibited the growth of U. virens. Andargie., et al. (2017) reported Antennariella placitaea bio-control agent to be effective against rice false smut (Ustilaginoidea virens) both in vitro and in vivo condition. This review aims to educate about the disease and its effective management strategies.
86 The Space Weather Related to the M7+ Seismic Activity Recorded on a Global Scale between 28 January and 25 March 2020 , Valentino Straser, Gabriele Cataldi and Daniele Cataldi.
This research aims to discuss the variation of solar activity and in particular the proton density connected to seismic events of magnitude greater than 7. Between January 28, 2020 and March 25, 2020, our planet was shaken by three M7+ earthquakes (January 28, 2020 in Jamaica with magnitude of M7.7; February 13, 2020 in Russia with magnitude of M7.0 and, again in Russia, on March 25, 2020 with magnitude of M7.5) and provided the opportunity to carry out the research. The changes in the ionic density of the solar wind that preceded the global seismic sequence occurred after major increases in the proton density of the solar wind. In this regard, the authors analyzed space weather to verify the existence of a correspondence between solar activity and the three M7+ seismic events. The data showed a close relationship between the two variables, in a temporal sense and from a qualitative point of view. The time intervals between the proton density increase and the main tremors were 28 hours, 12 hours, and 112 hours, respectively.
87 Application of Bentonite Mineral in Removal of Heavy Metals , Ashok Kumar Jha.
Bentonite deposits are widely distributed in different parts of the world associated with volcanic rocks and tuffaceous sediments of Miocene and Oligocene age. Other important minerals are illite, kaolinite and vermiculite. Bentonite mineral is smectite group of minerals having a montmorillonite unit which consists of two tet-rahedral silica sheets and one octahedral sheet [1-3]. These come under clay minerals abundant in Rajasthan and Jharkhand. A vast deposit of bentonite occurs in a place Wyoming in U.S.A, Montmo-rillon in France, Japan and some countries of the world. So, this bentonite has been named after its place known as Wyoming ben-tonite and montmorillonite has gained its name after its discovery locality at Montmorillon 70 Km NNW of Limoges, France. Natural bentonite is 98% montmorillonite giving positive stain test with benzidine solution [4-6]. Owing to low cost and abundance in na-ture, a new vistas of research on bentonites has been opened up with a view to remove heavy metals and toxic elements from aque-ous medium. Clay minerals have residual charges on the surface due to partial substitution of tetrahedral Si4+ by Al3+ or Al3+ or Fe3+ by Fe2+ or Mg2+. Thus, substitution of tetravalent cations by triva-lent cations leaves deficit charge on the surface of the clay. Main constituents of clay minerals are SiO2, Al2O3 along with Na2O, K2O, CaO and MgO [7]. Characterization of bentonites are done by XRD, FTIR, SEM, TGA, DSC and physico chemical tests. Bentonites of dif-ferent colour and grade of Rajmahal hills of Jharkhand have been used commercially for various industrial purposes. High swell-ing power, plastic properties, adsorption potential and cation ex-change capacity of bentonite have made it a low cost adsorbent of Cr, Cd, As, F and organic dyes.
88 Agriculture, Biodiversity and Technological Innovations , Tiziana Sirangelo.
The loss of biodiversity is a complex problem affecting both the environmental and economic field, because the natural capital pro-vides essential resources for industry and agriculture.
89 Animal Identification , Subhranil Mustafi.
As per the Livestock Census of 2019, current goat population in India is about 148 million and that of pigs are 9.06 million in India. They are identified using physical tagging, stenciling, tat-tooing, branding, etc. that can easily be manipulated extravagantly creating opportunities for poachers and middle men to poach the animals for their bones, meat, etc. and illegal transfer across inter-national borders. However, to prevent this, a unique, non-invasive, non-manipulative method of identification based on behavioral patterns must be incorporated, also termed as biometrics. Such unique character trait or ‘fingerprints’ become a mandate in the process of unique animal identification. Several character traits have been examined and investigated to develop the unique identi-fication and has later been proved that irises of goats and auricular vein pattern of pigs have been found to be the most feasible one in such identification.
90 Foxnut (Euryale ferox Salisb.): A Health Promising Fruit , Saima Tehseen, Fatima Sarfraz, Sidra-tul-Muntaha, Naila Ateeq, Faiza Ashfaq1, Iqra Yasmin and Tayyaba Mehmood.
Foxnut (Euryale ferox Salisb.) commonly known as makhana is a flowering plant with gigantic and floating leaves. Foxnut is a high-ly-valued aquatic crop due to its high amount of carbohydrate, protein, ash, crude fiber, minerals and phytochemical content. Foxnut plant species can take part remarkably towards the betterment of human health, fight against hunger and providing traditional medicinal effects. Owing to their powerful medicinal properties, foxnut pops are used against many human disorders that affect the respiratory, circulatory, gastrointestinal, excretory and reproductive system. It is used as an important source of natural antioxidants with antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic potential and used as food additives. The amino acids arginine and methionine are the cre-atine precursors that are necessary for beautiful skin nails and hairs. Creatine obtained from arginine and methionine plays a crucial part for healthy skin. It is used as a functional food for the treatment of diabetes and the alleviation of its complications. Euryale ferox Salisb seed reduces hyperglycemia that could be triggered by the release of insulin from the remnant. It contains low sodium and high potassium, which reduces blood pressure and contains very low levels of monosaturated fat that prevent blood sugar from rising. It has all the nutritional and potential health benefits necessary to be regarded as a super food.
91 The World Agriculture and Technology , Wesley Machado
World agriculture is evolving every moment. This evolution has accompanied the technologies inserted in rural areas. The tech-nologies help the producer to achieve high productivity in his ag-ricultural fields. In some places, the technology is still remote and there has been no evolution, following the large producing centers. Thus, agriculture in these places is still incipient or has primitive agriculture
92 Influence of Heat and Water Stress Around Meiosis on Pollen Quality in Two Pollen Parents of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Used in Control Hybridization in Sri Lanka , KGAPK Amarasinghe, CS Ranasinghe, DC Abeysinghe and AAFLK Perera
Climate resilient and high yielding Dwarf x Tall hybrids is the main strategy to meet increasing demand of coconut in a changing climate where sexual reproduction is susceptible to heat and drought stress (HTDS). Fruit set failures are mainly attributed to high sensitivity of pollen and ovules to stress, particularly around meiosis, in many crops. This study focused to assess the influence of heat (monthly mean Tmax > 330C) and water stress (monthly rainfall < 90 mm) around meiosis on the quality of pollen in San Ramon (SR) and Sri Lanka Tall (SLT) cultivars that used in controlled hybridization. We measured carbohydrates, germination (PG%) and tube length (PTL) in pollen developed under heat and/or drought stress and unstressed (control) around meiosis (final four months prior to flower opening).San Ramon showed significantly higher PG% and PTL (43%, 517 μm respectively) compared to that of SLT (37%, 481 μm respec-tively) cultivar. Unstressed male flowers had significantly higher PG%, PTL and starch compared to flowers in stress at any stage around meiosis. The cumulative rainfall, number of dry days (rainfall < 3 mm/day), total number of heat stress days (Tmax < 330C) and average maximum temperature during the period around meiosis had merge impact on pollen starch (R2 = 0.96), total soluble sugar (TSS) (R2 = 0.71), pollen germination (PG%) (R2 = 0.61) and pollen tube length (PTL) (R2 = 0.89). The study concluded that heat and/or water stress around meiosis is very critical for pollen quality in two tested cultivars of coconut. This information will be of great importance to manipulate the pollination strategy to minimize stress-affected fruit set failures under controlled pollination.
93 Facing the Challenge of Water Scarcity for Mediterranean Agriculture , Manuela Moreira da Silva
The Mediterranean is under a severe climate change scenario and suffering an increasing anthropogenic pressure, mainly in coastal zones, due to urbanization, agriculture and tourism. The depletion of surface water and groundwater resources is a com-mon reality. Water scarcity is increasing and water should be man-aged attending to the food needs, but also to the protection of the habitats and biodiversity. The aquifers have an important role for freshwater storage and water transmission, but some of them are contaminated with nitrates from intensive agriculture. In several coastal areas, groundwater over-pumping for irrigation is promot-ing saline intrusion phenomena.
94 Processing of Nungu (Ice Apple) into Milk Shake   , Mittapally Kishore Reddy
Now a days many cool drinks avail in market with different names can help us to hydrate our body during Summer which is harm-ful practice as these products are filled with different chemicals, pesticides etc.Nungu (Ice apple) can hydrate our body and can supplement healthy nutrients to our diet.Processing of the fruit makes it stay fresh for long time with the same nutrient content and flavour and processing can make the product attractive to the children and easy way of consuming the same nutrients
95 Soil Treatment Using Biopolymers , S Smitha and K Rangaswamy
In the present day sustainability has become the latest trend and environment-friendly and economic feasible solution to any prob-lem is gaining popularity in all realms. Soil is a major component responsible for the functioning of the ecosystem as it houses abun-dant organic components, nutrients and even acts as a habitat for many living organisms. It is also the medium of plant growth. From the engineering point of view, soil acts as a base for load dissipation either through the foundation or as a subgrade under the pave-ment. But in some areas, the soil doesn’t satisfy the strength or sta-bility criteria required for use as an engineering material. It might be too weak having a low bearing capacity and shear strength, it might be prone to wind or water erosion, it might have too low or too high permeability and compressibility or it might even be prone to liquefaction under dynamic loads. Such a situation de-mands and calls for soil stabilization and ground improvement.
96 Modelling for Forecasting of Monsoon Rains in Areas Affected by Farmers Suicides , Anand M Sharan
This research work is to come up with a rainfall model for monsoon rains in India. The goal is to forecast the rainfall amount about 7 months in advance. This advance forecasting is to help farmers in making decisions to plant crop based on the availability of water in the next season. This forecast is for helping hydro power generators and city water suppliers also. The methods selected are based on the past 32 year rainfall history where four methods are used to determine the rainfall amount. These methods are: The Time Series method, the Root Mean Square method, The Fast Fourier Transform method, and the Artificial Neural Network method. A forecasting model is considered valid if it falls within 19% of the actual rainfall amount. The number 19% is used by Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) to define a normal rainfall based on long term average.
97 COVID-19 Pandemic and Lockdown: Effects on Agricultural Activities and Value Chains in the Six States of South-western Nigeria , Janet T Ojediran, Ayodeji F Ajayi, Gbenga E Fanifosi, Rasheed G Adeola, Olajide A Ajao, Samuel A Babarinde, Akhigbe T Maryanne, Muritala D Shittu, Olaolu E Dawodu and Taiwo K Ojediran
COVID 19 pandemic and lockdown have dealt a blow at various spheres of human life. The impact transcends the health to agri-culture and many other sectors. A multidisciplinary team of experts in agriculture including crop, livestock, economics and exten-sion drew out a questionnaire with areas of impact, mitigation and constraints imposed by COVID-19 and accompanied lockdown. The survey was administered online to farmers in South-west, Nigeria. A total of 1319 farmers responded 340 from Oyo, 289 from Osun, 231 from Ekiti, 212 from Ogun, 185 from Ondo and only 62 from Lagos State respectively. Obtained data for this study were analyzed using descriptive statistics, including frequency count, percentage, mean and standard deviation. The study revealed that COVID 19 pandemic and lockdown had a devastating impact on Agriculture activities and the value chain. Most of the respondents were at their active and productive age (44 years)
98 Comparative Economics and Evaluation of Constrains of Chickpea Production in Rajasthan with Reference to Gangour Variety   , Keshav Kumar, Vikram Yogi, Shubham Arya and Mukesh Godara
The Comparative Economics of the chickpea production in Rajasthan with reference to the Gangour variety was evaluated in this study. The evaluation was based on a household survey of Bengal gram grower in 4 villages of Bikaner District of Rajasthan. The es-timated cost of cultivation was ₹32068.10, Net Income ₹44599.90 in case of the Gangour variety while cost of cultivation ₹30535.43, Net Income ₹15494.07 was in case of local cultivar. The gross income from the Gangour variety was greater than local variety that is ₹76668 and ₹46029.50 per hectare, respectively because of higher yield and low cost of production of former as compared to latter one and their yield was of 17.70q and 10.65q, respectively and the cost of production was ₹1811.75and ₹2867.18 respectively. The Output- Input Ratio for the Gangour variety was 2.39 and for local variety was1.51. Cultivation of Gangour variety are profitable than local varieties. The survey revealed that improved chickpea variety showed distinctly superior performance over local cultivars but it also have some constrains viz., chickpea growers were not getting satisfactory price of their produce in both Gangour and local variety grower. The another problem faced by chickpea grower is, require more water with reference to Gangour and problem of labour with reference to local variety.
99 Back to Past; Organic Agriculture   , Muhammad Adnan and Muhammad Zohaib Anjum
National economy significantly depended on agriculture sector [1]. Organic farming is a crop production system in which farmer avoided all synthetic farm inputs but depends on biological, agro-nomic and mechanical methods like the utilization of crop resi-dues, off-farm organic waste, mineral grade rock additives, animal manures, biological system of nutrient mobilization and plant protection; which enhance and promote biological cycles, biodi-versity, and agro-ecosystem health [2]. Organic agriculture evolves thousand years ago. The ancient farmer’s starts their crop culti-vation along the belts of rivers by using many natural resources [3]. Furthermore, modern era of organic agriculture emerged in 1924 in Germany.
100 Evaluation of the Phytoremediation Ability of Amaranthus cruentus, Brassica oleracea var. capitata and Helianthus annus in Metal Contaminated Soil , I. R. Hassan, AA Manga and R Abdullahi
Artisanal mining for Gold in Zamfara state of Nigeria led to massive contamination of the environment with lead (Pb) leading to poisoning and death. The approach for the clean-up involves excavation of the soil and dumping it somewhere which is a temporary solution that is equal to postponement of the reckoning day. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of some plants as a cheaper solution to this problem. The treatments consisted of three plant species (Amaranthus cruentus, Brassica oleracea var. capitata and Helianthus annus) factorially combined with four soils (the top soils of Regular Agricultural soil from BUK, Lead (Pb) contaminated soil from Zamfara, Soil from Sheka area peri-urban garden along the banks of Salanta stream contaminated with tannery effluents from Sharada Industrial Estate and BUK soil artificially polluted with a standard addition of Nitrate salts of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni at the rate of 200 mg/kg for Pb and Cr, and 40 mg/kg for Ni and Cd), all laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and replicated three times. Results have shown that Amaranth emerged as the plant with the highest accumulation of metal in its tissue. Across the three plant species, Pb is the most highly accumulated metal and Ni is the least concentrated. The Bioconcentra-tion Factor (BCF) index >2 was recorded for Cr, Mn, and Cd in the tissue of Amaranth. The Translocation Factor index >1 was recorded for Mn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn. Cabbage had relatively high BCF index for some metals, meaning it can sequester Cd, Cr, Mn and Pb. The TF index >1was recorded for all of the metals. The implication of this is that Cabbage had the ability to translocate all the tested met-als. Sunflower has also accumulated a good amount of the various heavy metals. BCF index >2 was recorded with Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Pb. But the TF index >1 was seen across all the metals. Soil from Zamfara was observed to produce plants with significantly higher Pb in the shoot, while differences in metal content in the shoot tissue among plant species was not significant.
101 Soil Health: Key to Success , Mike Orzolek
Success in vegetable crop production has focused on crop plant health for the last fifty years. However, in the last five years soil health has emerged as a critical factor in determining vegetable crop yields and quality. Soil which demonstrates biological health has the continued capacity of soil to function as a living ecosystem that beneficially sustains plants, animals, and humans. Viewing soil as a living ecosystem that has 'health' reflects a fundamental shift in the way we think about soil. Soil isn't an inert growing medium that needs to be filled up with water and nutrients for plants to grow from. Rather, soil must be biologically healthy, teeming with large and small organisms that live together in a dynamic, complex web of relationships. Farm crops and animals were at one time a major part of this unique 'cycle of life’, however today that may not be true on major acres farmed.
102 Effect of Tillage Methods on Soil Properties and the Yield of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) , Suleiman AA, Yit Arn Teh, Ella FA and Ejeanobi
Tillage methods as a soil management practice improves crop quality and yield. An experiment was conducted in the 2019 dry season-farming, to evaluate the effect of tillage methods on soil properties and the yield of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in the department of Agricultural science education, student demonstration farm; of the Federal College of Education (Technical), Umunze, Anambra State. Nigeria. The experiment consisted of three tillage methods (Ridge, Flat and Bed) with three replicates in a (3 × 1) fac-torial experiment. Tillage effects of plots under the flat (F) method performed significantly (p < 0.05), with a total number of 40friuts. The Flat (F) tillage method equally produced the highest mean fruit size of (18cm) as compared to bed (B) and the ridge (R) tillage method. Consequently, watermelon fruits under the bed (B) method of tillage had the highest mean fruit weight of (6.2kg), which was significantly different from mean weight obtained under the flat (F) and the ridge (R) methods of tillage. Planting on the flat (F) produced significantly higher number of fruits and size compared to planting on the bed and ridge. Therefore, both the flat and the bed methods of tillage has the potential for watermelon production in terms of number of fruits, fruit size and weight respectively in the study area.
103 Entrepreneurship Possibility on Goat Farming in India , Subhranil Mustafi, Pritam Ghosh, Sanket Dan, Kaushik Mukherjee, Kunal Roy and Satyendra Nath Mandal
The aim of this study is to focus on the entrepreneurship possibilities in the livestock sector (particularly Goat) in India. After studying the market, the authors discovered that there is a lack of a unique, tamper-proof and reliable identification system. Due to this, the animal insurance has drastically reduced to around 25-30% of the original claimed value. As a result, the authors have developed an image-based identification system based on iris pattern of goats to generate a unique biometric tag to each individual without hurting it. After the invention of unique trait of the species, the authors moved on to commercialise it. The Primary Market Research has been conducted and market segments have been identified. The goat breeding farms, processors and animal husband-ries are the systematic market segments identified respectively. Eventually, the authors calculated the total addressable market and predicted that on charging Rs 100 per biometric tag, a total of 1.16Billion INR can be generated by selecting Goat population in west Bengal as beachhead market i.e., 11.6 million. The quantification can be visualized as, the average cost of each goat would be: Rs 10000-12000, where 2-3 out of 10 goats distributed, are stolen and misinterpreted during verification. Thus, out of 11.6 million goats, more than 2.5-3million goats get misinterpreted resulting in loss of Rs 12000*2.5m = 30 Billion INR pan India. Our technology shall help to curb the loss completely. Low insurance claim, poaching, un-accounted international transfers of goats can easily be eradicated using this biometric technology
104 Effect of Foliar Application of Moringa Leaf Extract (MLE) on Growth and Yield of Gossypium hirsutum   , Madiha Nisar, Muhammad Nasir, Shahid Saleem, Muhammad Umar Iqbal and Tabinda Athar
Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) is rich in nutrients having ascorbate, amino acids, minerals, zeatin, antioxidants, vitamins, iron, calcium, potassium, and numerous other compounds that have the potential of growth enhancement. An experiment was con-ducted in Rahim Yar Khan in 2019 during the cotton cropping season to study the effects of MLE on cotton crop. The growing site was properly prepared by using appropriate cultivation practices. A recommended dose of chemical fertilizers NPK 150:50:50 was applied with an interval of 15 days. Moringa leaf extract was made by using 3 kg healthy moringa leaves and was sprayed on the crop in 3 replications and 3 treatments i.e., MLE + NPK (T1), NPK (T2) and Control (T3) where no MLE and NPK was applied. The experi-ment was conducted by following Randomized Complete Block Design and separate blocks were used for each treatment. The data was collected before each application of (MLE) and maximum yield was observed in the treatment having MLE extract and NPK. The results showed that application of MLE significantly increased the yield of cotton and therefore, it can be used as an organic fertilizer for maximizing cotton yield.
105 Artificial Intelligence in Agriculture , Archana Chougule
Artificial intelligence (AI) has wide application in all sectors including agriculture. There are many challenges with traditional methods of agricultural tasks. Due to climate changes and defor-estation, agricultural production has had an adverse impact and farming has become more challenging. Artificial intelligence is a promising technique which can help farmers to overcome such challenges and increase gross production.
106 Towards Greater Sustainability in The Sundarbans , Gargi De
The remote geographical location of the Sundarbans with its proximity to the sea, complex river system - crisscrossing of tidal streams, channels and creeks, renders it extremely vulnerable to natural calamities like sporadic floods and cyclonic storms. This results in intrusion of saline water causing frequent damage to crops; insufficient sweet water resources necessary for drinking pur-pose, pisciculture, fisheries; occasional floods and cyclonic hazards causing loss of life and property – habitats of people are washed away by floods every year. Added to this is the highly onerous task of monitoring the huge length of embankments, lack of proper drainage facilities, inadequate electricity supply and lack of adequate communication facilities.The problems enumerated above need to be addressed on an urgent basis for greater resilience, ecological viability and sustain-ability in the Sunderbans, overcoming the obstacles faced due to the changing climatic scenario. Radical solutions to these problems may be achieved by taking the following measures: Construction of closure dams across the main estuaries and interconnecting them by strong dykes encircling the entire western Sundarbans; the electricity problem may be solved by generating electricity by utilisa-tion of unconventional energy (renewable energy) sources like wind, tides, solar energy etc. Eco tourism to be encouraged and devel-oped, as this would ultimately benefit the local people economically. The adherence to precepts necessary for maintaining ecological balance will obviously engender environmental equilibrium. A deep water international port may be constructed in the vicinity of the Sundarbans, considering the fact that the Kolkata Port and Haldia Port are facing huge siltation problem. This will automatically foster the growth of allied industries centring around these ports and give a boost to the economy.Detailed discussion regarding an overall development of The Sunderbans is given below.
107 Mechanism of Sugar Signaling in Plants   , Stephen K, Beena R, Manju RV, Viji MM and Roy Stepehn
Plants produce a wide range of sugars that are involved in growth and developmental processes. To coordinate and integrate all these processes plants have developed specific mechanisms. A complex network of metabolic and hormone signaling pathways is present in plants that are intimately linked to diverse sugar responses. One of the mechanisms that has been found to modulate actively with other systems is the ‘sugar signaling mechanism’. In order to integrate these changes in the different processes and en-vironmental conditions, plants have developed a mechanism to sense these ‘sugar signals’. While hormonal signals are generated at micro-molar concentrations, sugar signals are generated at milli-molar concentrations. The sugar signals modulate gene expression by acting on various kinases and phosphatases. Sugar signals are generated through metabolic processes such as relative concen-trations of carbohydrates and other nutrients, through the action of specific enzymes or through various sensors and transporters that are present in the nucleus, cytosol or on the surface of certain organelles.After detection of sugars by sensors, the information is passed on through signal transduction and amplifying cascades, resulting in appropriate responses. Signaling cascades ultimately lead to gene regulation. Sugars regulate gene expression by translating nutrient status to modulate growth and development with available carbohydrate content.
108 Characterization of Bacillus weihenstephanensis AGII: A Psychrotolerant Bacteria Isolated from Rhizosphere of Medicinal Plant Gentiana kurroo Royle , Neha Gautam, Pankaj Sharma, JC Rana and Mohar Singh
The beneficial bacteria present in the area around the plant roots. These are termed as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR). These bacteria are useful to enhance plant growth and curb plant diseases. The objectives of the present study were to iso-late, identify and characterize PGPR traits in psychrotolerant bacteria native to rhizosphere of a threatened high valued medicinal plant Gentiana kurroo Royle. In total 10 bacterial isolates were isolated, out of which isolate AGII showed maximum antagonism against tested phytopathogens. Therefore, isolate AGII was selected further to study in vitro growth promoting attributes and for phylogenetic identification. Bacterial isolate AGII was identified as Bacillus weihenstephanensis by 16SrRNA gene sequence and has been registered in NCBI under the accession number MF593886. Plant growth promoting traits of this isolate were studied by per-forming following assays viz., Phosphate solubilization, Ammonia Production, HCN production, Protease production. The isolated bacterial strain was studied for its inhibitory potential against deadly plant pathogens by using a dual culture in vitro assay. In the present investigation, Bacillus weihenstephanensis MF593886 was tested against deadly plant pathogens viz., Alternaria solani MTCC 2101, Botrytis cinerea MTCC 2350, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 7677, Rhizoctonia solani MTCC 4633, Colletotrichum gloeosporioidesMTCC 9664 and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum MTCC 8785. It is capable to produce siderophore, HCN, ammonia, proteases and has a po-tential to solubilize phosphates. The present study proposes the potential of Bacillus weihenstephanensis as a PGPR in the context of cold agro-ecosystems.