European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research

ISSN(p):2394-3211 | ISSN(e):2394-3211
Journal Papers (1587) Details

European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research

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1 COVID-19 A PANORAMIC VIEW (PART 3) , Dr. Sunanda Gaddalay, *Dr. Ruchi Rathi, Dr. Anita Kale, Dr. Revtee Birajdar, Dr. Madhuri Agrawal, Dr. Abhishek Badade and Dr. Akshay Gelda
flulike symptoms to severe respiratory distress syndrome. Identification of COVID-19 patients at early stages will allow prompt intervention for patients with life-threatening complications. Broad categorization of the testing modalities results in 2 major types of tests- molecular assays for detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques or nucleic acid hybridization-related strategies. Viral RNA testing identifies infected individuals during the acute phase of infection. Serological and immunological assays are included in the second category and they largely depend on detection of antibodies. RT-PCR-based viral RNA detection can neither be used to monitor the progress of the disease stages nor can be applied for identification of past infection and immunity. Antibody tests have an important role to play in these cases, as they provide an assessment of both short-term and long-term trends of antibody response, as well as antibody abundance and diversity. Consequently, these tests are of vital importance for dental professionals. Endodontists being on the front line to address dental emergencies are consequently at a higher risk than other health workers since most procedures involve aerosol generation. Understanding the disease process and the various testing modalities will help to ensure safety of the clinician while ensuring adequate patient care.
2 REVIEW ON EFFECTIVE AND COMPATIBLE WAY OF DELIVERING THE INSULIN THROUGH NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS , Kayalvizhie Su.*, Padmapriya S. and Rajalakshmi A. N.
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder arises due to the insufficient insulin present and improper utilisation of fat in the body. Diabetes mellitus is categorised into Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, Non-Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and Gestational diabetes mellitus. Type I Diabetes mellitus is treated using Insulin and Type II Diabetes mellitus is treated with oral hypoglycaemic agents. Gestational diabetes mellitus is treated either with Insulin or oral hypoglycaemic agents. Insulin is always administered by parenteral route for treating type I diabetes mellitus which causes pain due to repeated injections, to overcome this problem and to improve the patient compliance, currently various novel drug delivery systems of Insulin are being developed and used. This article is aimed to enlighten on the diverse novel drug delivery systems of Insulin which is primarily used in the case of Type-I Diabetes mellitus.
3 HYPERTENSIVE URGENCY WITH BEYOND-THE-SPHYGMOMANOMETER SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE IN GENERAL HOSPITAL OJI RIVER, ENUGU STATE, SOUTHEAST NIGERIA , Emmanuel I. Umegbolu*and David C. Ikwuka
Hypertensive urgency is defined as severe hypertension (with diastolic pressure > 120 mm Hg) without end-organ damage. The case reported was that of a 64-year old woman, a known hypertensive, who presented to our hospital, General Hospital Oji River, with a systolic blood pressure (BP) that was above 300 mmHg, and therefore could not be measured. Her general condition was stable, hence she was managed as a case of hypertensive urgency with a parenteral antihypertensive drug after a period of rest. After about 4 hours on admission, following the initial treatment, her systolic BP came down to 220/80 mm Hg. She was discharged home the next day to continue with her oral drugs, and to return to the hospital in one week’s time for a follow-up.
4 A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON MATRIX TYPE TRANSDERMAL PATCHES , Bhawan Singh, Kapil Kumar* and Deepak Teotia
Transdermal drugs are self‐contained, discrete dosage form. Drug delivery through the skin to achieve a systemic effect without producing any fluctuations in plasma concentration of the drug. Topical administration of therapeutic agents offers many advantages over conventional oral and invasive methods of drug delivery. And also provide controlled release of the drug for extended period of the time. This review article covers brief outline advantages, skin pathways for transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS), various components of transdermal patch, and approaches for preparation of transdermal patches, evaluation of transdermal system, general clinical considerations in the use of tdds and limitation of tdds.
5 GASTRO RETENTIVE FLOATING BEADS – A NEW TREND OF GASTRO RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Suraj Singh Rawat, Kapil Kumar* and Deepak Teotia
The main object of any drug delivery system is to bring about the desire concentration of the drug in blood or tissue, which is therapeutically effective and non-toxic for a prolong period. The recent research and developement of FDDS(Float drug delivery system) affect gastric retention, approaches to design single unit and multiple unit floating systems. Floating beads are used for controlled drug release as they have gastroretentive properties without affecting the gastric emptying rate. This can be achieved by using natural polymers.
6 A STUDY ON THE SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION IN ADULTS IN A DISTRICT HEADQUARETRS HOSPITAL , Dr. K. Sridharan*
Introduction:Intestinal obstruction remains as one of the most common intra-abdominal pathologies encountered by surgeons whether it is caused by hernia, neoplasm, adhesions or any biochemical disturbances. Intestinal obstruction of the small or large bowel continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study is to analyse the clinical features, treatment and outcome of patients with acute intestinal obstruction along with the cause of obstruction and causes of bowel ischaemia, necrosis and perforation. Methodology: The materials for the clinical study of bowel obstruction were collected from various Cases getting admitted to surgical wards. 50 cases of acute intestinal obstruction have been studied. Patients were belonging to the age groups from 12 years to 85 years, paediatric age group (<12 yrs) is excluded from this study. Results: The prevalent age groups are 31-40 and 51-60 age group with around 20% each in the total study. The most common cause of acute intestinal obstruction in the adults in this study series has been post-operative Adhesions (40%) and the next being obstructed Hernia (30%). The clinical features of abdominal pain, vomiting, constipation have been the main symptoms in this study. The commonest type of obstruction has been due to adhesions or band arising from the previous surgeries.The complication rate in this study was 18%. Overall mortality of this study was 14%. Discussion and Conclusion: Acute intestinal obstruction remains to be an important surgical emergency in the surgical field. Success in the treatment of acute bowel obstruction depends mainly on the early diagnosis and efficient management and treating the pathological effects of the obstruction as much as the treatment of the cause itself. Erect abdomen X-ray is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of acute intestinal obstruction. Postoperative adhesions have been the most common cause to produce bowel obstruction. Clinical, radiological and operative findings when put together can diagnose the intestinal obstruction. Mortality is still significantly high in acute intestinal obstruction in adults.
7 VYADHIKSHAMATVA (IMMUNITY) – CONCEPT OF AYURVEDA WHICH IS A BOON DURING COVID-19 PANDEMIC- A REVIEW ARTICLE , M. B. Gaur and Vartika Kashyap*
Covid-19 caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV- 2), is an unprecedented pandemic which has impacted the entire world and continues to do so. Despite the best of efforts even by the best health care providing countries of the world, the disease has spread globally and doesn’t seem to stop unless we come up with evidence based and clinically proved prophylactic measures. Ever since this pandemic emerged, there has been a constant conflict whether ayurveda can prove to play a vital role in current crisis. Well, trials are going on for evidence based study which is conducted in large institutions in collaboration with the MoHFW. The most worked upon concept of ayurveda in present crisis of Covid 19 is vyadhikshamatva (immunity/resistance against diseases). Varying response of individuals towards corona virus makes the concept of immune response all the more significant. Ayurveda has defined vyadhikshamatva and factors aiding to it in detail that will be discussed in present study.
8 APPLIED ASPECT OF AGNI IN AYUVEDA SCIENCE , Dr. Vikas Singh Rathore and Dr. Hari Krishna Shriwas*
According to Vedas the ancient texts of India and Ayurveda, Agni is worshipped in its divine form as the bringer and sustainer of life. When we honor our Agni thus, we become mindful of what we eat and how we accept it in ourselves. The term Agni is best represented by biological fire. Agni is vital at physiological and pathological levels. As we take food stuffs to feed ourselves for nutrition, in the same way digestive fire also require constant feeding, therefore to carry out various biochemical pathways going on in our body. Agni is the cause of all diseases means majority of the diseases are outcome of malfunctioning of the Agni, which rightly has been called as central to health. Agni plays not only vital role in absorption of macro as well as micronutrients, but is destructive to pathogens also.
9 MANAGEMNET OF OBESITY IN AYURVEDA: A REVIEW , Dr. Vikas Singh Rathore and Dr. Hari Krishna Shriwas*
Obesity is an abnormal accumulation of fat usually 20% or more over an individual’s ideal body weight. People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI) is 30kg/m, with the range 25-30kg/m2 defined as overweight. In Ayurveda, obesity (Medo-roga) is described as a condition in which buttocks; abdomen and breast become flabby due to fat accumulation and move while walking. The incidences of obesity are increasing very rapidly. In 2015, 600 million adults and around 100 million children were obese. Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food energy intake and a lack of physical activity. Some genetical factors, medical reasons or psychiatric illness also causes obesity. In Ayurveda, high calorie food, frequent eating, avoidance of physical work and sleeping in day time are described as causative factors of obesity (Medo-roga). Diet and life style play important role in management of obesity. Indulgence in physical work and use of low calorie food are mentioned in the treatment of Medo-roga. Various herbs such as Triphala (combination of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica and Emblica officinalis in equal parts.), Sunthi (Zingiber officinale), Amalaki (Emblica officinalis), Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia), Guggulu (Commiphora mukul), Madhu (Honey) and Munga (a type of cereal) etc. should be used by obese person.
10 PADA ABHYANGA- A DINACHARYA - A REVIEW ARTICLE , Dr. Rashma. S.*
Ayurveda aimed in prevention and cure of physical and mental health. In Ayurveda, Dinacharya is one of the concepts which helps to fulfill this aim of Ayurveda. Vitality enhancing technique which is incorporated in massage of the feet is called Pada abhyanga. It is one of the prophylactic principles mentioned in Ayurvedic dinacharya. The hectic computerised life style, faulty food habits, stress and strain, irregular sleeping habits and negligence in following daily and seasonal regimen provoke many health issues. By doing Pada abhyanga, Kharatwa, Stabdata, Rukshata, Shrama, Suptata of pada relieved and Bala, Sthairya improved, Drustiprasaadakara. It also prevents Gridhrasi vaata, Pada sputana, Sirasnaayu sankocha. The science of reflexology states that the sole of the feet is connected to various organs of the body. According to this science, organs such as the heart, lungs, kidney, brain, and intestines can be stimulated by foot massage, a duration of 30 minutes is required for Pada abhyanga to gain its maximum benefits. Many different techniques exist for giving a foot massage but one need to modify the techniques according to the convenience of a patient. Thus, here an effort made to explain the importance of possible techniques and duration.
11 OCULAR COMPLICATIONS OF ANTI TUBERCULAR DRUGS , Dr. Manpreet Bhalla MD*, Dr. Shayana Bhumbla, Dr. J. S. Bhalla
Infecting millions of people worldwide, TB is still the commonest infectious disease and a major public health problem. Frequently used Anti tubercular drugs including Ethambutol, INH,Streptomycin, & even newer ones like Linezolid are associated with Ocular adverse reactions. It is extremely important for treating physicians to be aware of these potentially sight threatening side effects, so that safe dosage is prescribed & drug should be stopped or withdrawn before irreversible damage occurs. Besides sensitising them, educating the patients for early detection of the ocular manifestations is extremely important so that proper Ophthalmic evaluation of affected patients at follow-up visits is undertaken.
12 THE CLINICAL STATUS OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE (CKD) PATIENTS , Dr. Shah Newaz Dewan*, Dr. Masud Iqbal, Dr. M. Mahibur Rahman, Dr. Md. Abdullahel Kafee and Dr. Hasina Momtaz
Objective: In this study our main goal is to evaluate the clinical status of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Method: This cross-sectional study was carried out in the outpatient department of nephrology, Sir Salimullah Medical College and Mitford hospital; Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and National institute of nuclear medicine and allied sciences (NINMAS), BSMMU, Dhaka from June 2016 to May 2017. A total of 120 Chronic kidney disease patients attending outpatient departments in above institutions were included in the study. Results: during the study, HTN was found as highest (88.9%) and CVD as least (3.7%) co-morbid condition among the study subject. Majority were found in CKD stage 3 (n=63). CKD stage 4 was found (n=44). The least number was found CKD stage 5 (n=5).Best correlation and substantial agreement was found between m-GFR and e-GFR Hoek’s method (Kappa=0.740, p<0.001). Fair agreement was found between m-GFR and MDRD method (Kappa=0.347, p<0.001). Moderate agreement was found between m-GFR, CKD-EPI and CG method. Conclusion: from our study we can conclude that, Patients with CKD present several complex management issues to health care providers. With early identification and quick staging policy is necessary for management of CKD.
13 A CLINICAL REVIEW ON APARA NIRMITI (PLACENTA FORMATION) AND ITS ABNORMALITIES , *Dr. Prashant Chandrakant Sarade, Dr. Ganesh Sopanrao Kapse and Dr. Sagar Fulaji Magar
Ayurveda has been a part of the culture of India and as such is mixed up in the entire Indian documents. The shastras has given its own manner of explaining the ancient rituals which has a significant scientific impact on the health of the human beings. Considering woman as a vital entity for reproduction, Acharyas have given more importance to well being of woman. The classics have given detailed quotes on the rules to be followed through out the prenatal, antenatal and postnatal period of conception.
14 A THEMATIC REVIEW ON POTENTIAL ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF BACTERIOCINS FROM LACTIC ACID BACTERIA , Nimra Riaz, Saleha Mahnoor Faheem and Muhammad Usman Ahmad*
The world-wide emergence of resistant pathogenic strains against the currently available antibiotics and the toxicity associated with them has compelled scientific community to increase their quests in finding other natural antimicrobial alternatives. In this regard recent discoveries on antimicrobial arsenals secreted by bacterial species against competing strains are gaining utmost importance not only because of their antimicrobial but also due to their anti-cancer potential. These natural bacterial arsenals are ribosomally synthesized low-molecular weight, heat stable, membrane active, proteolytically degradable and pore-forming, cationic peptides known as “Bacteriocins”. Owing to their anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal, and anti-biofilm potential, bacteriocins seem to be the immediately available promising option for mitigation of AMR (antimicrobial Resistance) crisis and minimization of toxic effects of antibiotics on Host‟s microbiome. The non-toxic and Generally Regarded as Safe (GRAS) status of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) bacteriocins signifies their huge commercialization potential, and research on their biology is currently the most extensively studied subject of biotechnology. Their intrinsic food preservative and therapeutic potential can be enhanced by combinatorial approaches with other antimicrobial substances. However, their potential to be used as AGP (antimicrobial Growth Promoter) in animal production must also be evaluated. The initial half of this review focuses on the significance and biological aspects of LAB bacteriocins, while the latter half addresses the potential antimicrobial aspects of bacteriocins in various sectors.
15 RUPTURE ECTOPIC PREGNANCY-A PROSPECTIVE STUDY AT FARIDPUR MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL , Dr. Binoy Krishna Golder*, Dr. Most. Zakia Sultana, Dr. Mahbubur Rahman and Dr. Begum Shamsun Nahar Shirin
Introduction: Ectopic pregnancy is a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality as well as fetal loss and a leading cause of pregnancy related death. In first trimester. ultrasonography and other test rarely done in developing countries like Bangladesh. Method: It is a prospective study of 60 cases of rupture ectopic pregnancy designed to find-out the prevalence, analyze clinical presentation and per-operative findings of laparotomy, usually pfannenstiel (transverse) incision given, and repaired intradermally without retaining abdominal drain tube, done in Obstetrics and Gynaecology department, Faridpur Medical College Hospital, Faridpur Bangladesh from September 2003 to August 2005. Result: 68 cases of ectopic pregnancy patients was found during the study period, 60 cases was rupture ectopic and 8 cases was chronic and silent ectopic among the total gynaecologic patients of 1213. All the patients were treated by laparotomy most of the patents were pre-pregnant anaemic and was in critical condition due to poverty and lack of knowledge. There was no death after operation or after admission in gynae. ward. Peak age of ectopic pregnancy was 21-25 years (35%) and low parity was most cases (36.67%). Symptoms of presentation was abdominal pain, amenorrhoea, shock and syncopal attack. Duration of amenorrhoea was 6-8 weeks 65% cases, history of PID was 40% patients, right tubal affection was 65% cases. Conclusion: It reveals different parameters of ectopic pregnancy of Bangladesh, much of morbidity can be prevented by better obstetrics and family planning care.
16 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFICACY OF THE ENDOTRACHEAL TUBE WITH A SUBGLOTTIC SUCTION SYSTEM TO MINIMIZE THE RISK OF VENTILATOR-ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA , Montosh Kumar Mondal*, Debasish Banik, Sabina Yeasmeen and Debabrata Banik
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common condition in patients who are endotracheally intubatedin intensive care units (ICU). Subglottic secretion drainage (SSD) has been shown to be associated with a lower incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Objective: The main objective of this prospective study is to establish the effect of endotracheal tube (ETT) with a subglottic suction device in reducing the risk of VAPin patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Method: This prospective observational study included 80 adult patients on mechanical ventilation from the ICU of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka from July 2017 to June 2019. Patients were divided into two groups: one with an endotracheal tube with a subglottic suction device(SSD) (Group-A, n = 40) and the other with a conventional endotracheal tube (Group-B, n = 40). Data were collected by taking a comprehensive history, clinical review, investigation, including tracheal aspiration culture, to determine the presence or absence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in mechanically ventilated patients. The occurrence of VAP was compared between Group-A and Group-B and the relative risk (RR) of developing VAP was estimated in patients with SSD. Results: Group-A and Group-B were almost the same in terms of demographic characteristics (age and sex). Smoking practices were almost similar between classes. The purpose of admission to the ICU was not different between groups (p = 0.294). The mean length of mechanical ventilation was also statistically comparable. Related co-morbidities in the distribution between groups were also similar. 10 of the 40 (25%) patients in Group-A and 22 (55%) of the 40 patients in Group-B developed VAP. The probability of developing VAP in Group-A was lower than in Group-B. The predominantly cultivated microorganisms were acinatobacter (in both groups). Conclusion: Endotracheal tube with intermittent SSD on mechanical ventilator helps to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia.
17 18F-FDG PET/CT THYROID INCIDENTALOMA REVEALING PAPILLARY THYROID CARCINOMA: A CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW , S. El Mselmi*, F. Foukoué, N. Abaouz and N. Ismaili Alaoui
Thyroid incidentalomas are rarely discovered during 18F-FDG PET/CT exams for extrathyroid conditions. We report a case of papillary thyroid cancer discovered during 18F-FDG PET/CT examination carried out as part of the management of Hodgkin lymphoma. Through this observation, we underline the interest of exploring any hypermetabolic thyroid focus visualized on 18F-FDG PET/CT, by fine needle aspiration biopsy to determine its nature which may be neoplastic.
18 REVIEW OF RESEARCH STUDIES CONDUCTED ON KSHARA KARMA IN GYNECOLOGY , Dr. Manju Chouksey*, Dr. Suresh Kumar Solanki and Dr. Hetal H. Dave
kshara the substance. possessing properties i.e. ksharat and ksharan means it has property to remove unhealthy twacha mansadi. Kshara destroy only the abnormal tissue. It is a milder procedure compared to surgery and thermal cautery. This property of kshara is due to its chedana, bhedana, lekhana and patan karma. It is versatile, because even such places that are difficult in approach by ordinary measures can be treated by Kshara Karma. Kshara Karma is useful as the substitute of surgical instruments, because they can be used safely on the patients who are afraid of surgery. The aim of this review study is to highlight the potential of Kshara in gynecology. The data related to the Kshara Karma has been collected by hand search and through the internet which was published in the scientific journals. This article gives direction to the new researcher for further study on Kshara Karma in different forms.
19 EFFECT OF THERAPEUTIC EXERCISES AND ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING INSTRUCTIONS IN PROLAPSED LUMBAR INTERVERTEBRAL DISC , Md. Imam Shahriar*, Md. Mahfuzur Rahman, Mohammad Ilias, A. B. M. Zafar Sadeque, Fahad Islam
Background: Low back pain with or without sciatica is a major cause of morbidity throughout the world with the life time incidence of 50-70%. However clinically significant sciatica due to disc prolapse occurs in 4-6% of the population. Among various options for treatment of PLID Pharmacotherapy, thermotherapy & exercise therapy are commonly used/Therapeutic exercises and ADL instruction can enable greater return of neurological function and improves long term outcome and quality of life. Objective: The aim of study is to compare in this study an attempt has been made to see the effects of therapeutic exercises and ADL instruction in the treatment of prolapsed disc and their outcome. Methods: This prospective randomized clinical trial study was performed to find out the effect of therapeutic exercises and activity of daily (ADL) instructions in Patients with prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc (PLID) in the department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Chittagong medical college hospital, over a period of six months. Study populations was all the patients of prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc attending in the outpatient department of physical medicine & rehabilitation, during the study period. Evaluation was made at initial visit and follow up was done at third and sixth week by same investigator. In each visit measurement of pain intensity level was performed by using straight leg raising test, Visual Analogue scale (VAS) respectively. Post intervention result was compared with baseline result. Results: Among 70 participants 53(75.7%) were male and 17(24.3%) were female. The male: female ratio was 3.1:1. Mean age of patients were 43.81 years. Most of the patients were from poor in both groups which were 21 (60%) cases and 24 (68.6%) cases in group A and group B respectively. Only few patients were rich in both groups. pain was mild in 11.4% cases of group A and 17.1% cases of group B (p=0.587). LBP was intermittent in most of the cases in both groups which was 71.4% cases and 80.0% cases in group A and group B respectively. Pain aggravates in most of the patient by walking (28.6%) and bending (21.3%) in both groups. However significant difference between group A and group B was found at week 6 follow up (p=<.005). During the study the SLR was improved significantly on week 6 follow up. significant difference between group A and group B was found at week 6 follow up (p=<.005) regarding straight leg raising test (SLR) score. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the superiority of Therapeutic exercises and activities of daily living in reduction of pain in management of patients with prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc.
20 AN UPDATED REVIEW: PREPARATION, EVALUATION AND APPLICATIONS OF HERBOSOME , Suman Sahu, Rudra Pratap Singh Rajput*, Poonam Verma, Rishabh Sahu, Chandrika Chouhan
The herbal therapeutic agents are widely used to treat and prevent disease and disorders. Recently introduced new herbal formulation for better action such as herbosomes, liposomes, neosomes, ethosomes, iscoms, cubosomes etc. Herbosomes have enhanced absorption rate, producing excellent bio-availability, good penetration power. In this article includes complete description of advantage, dis-advantages, methods of herbosome preparation and evaluation of herbosome. Different type of techniques used for preparation of herbosome such as solvent evaporation technique, anti-solvent precipitation technique, rotary evaporation technique, ethanol injection technique. An evaluation parameters are physicochemical evaluations, microscopical evaluations and in-vitro, in-vivo evaluations. Through this review article we are concluding that the article would be helpful for the researchers in terms of the preparation and evaluation of nano technology based drug delivery system.
21 METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR ELEMENTAL IMPURITIES ANALYSIS OF MAGNESIUM STEARATE USP BY ICP-OES , ABM Mahfuz ul Alam*, Shahana Shilpi and M. I. R. Mamun
Method of analysis for determination of CADMIUM, LEAD & NICKEL in magnesium stearate USP was developed in inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The Methods were found to be highly sensitive, selective, rapid, precise, accurate and affordable which can be followed by pharmaceutical industries. The method in ICP-OES was achieved at wavelength Cd (214.439 nm), Ni (231.604 nm) Pb (220.353 nm), with a measurement condition of Read time (s): 5, RF power (kW): 1.20, Stabilization time (s): 15, Nebulizer flow (L/min): 0.70, Plasma flow (L/min): 12.0, Aux flow (L/min): 1.00, Make up flow (L/min): 0.00, Viewing mode: Radial, Viewing height (mm): 8, Use multiple conditions: 2, Viewing mode: Axial. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines for Accuracy, Precision, Ruggedness, LOD and LOQ which showed that proposed method was simple, sensitive, and highly robust for routine analysis.
22 APPLIED ASPECT OF BRAHMA MUHURT IN DAILY LIFE , Dr. Vikas Singh Rathore and Dr. Hari Krishna Shriwas*
Brahma muhurt (time of Brahma) is a period (muhurta) one and a half hours before sunrise or more precisely, 1 hour and 36 minutes before sunrise. Literally meaning "The Creator's Hour", it is traditionally the penultimate phase or muhurta of the night and is considered an auspicious time for all practices of yoga and most appropriate for meditation, worship or any other religious practice. Spiritual activities performed early in the morning have a greater effect than in any other part of the day. Each muhurta lasts 48 minutes, and therefore the Brahma muhurta begins 1 hour and 36 minutes before sunrise, and ends 48 minutes after sunrise. The time of sunrise varies each day, according to geographic location and time of year, thus the time of the Brahma muhurta also varies. For example, if sunrise is at 6am, the brahma muhurta begins at 4:24am. If sunrise is at 7am, brahma muhurta begins at 5:24am, and so on Brahma Muhurta increases the intellectual land of inhabit in changed right biological occasion that development the neurons and essential organs of the body. Awakening in Brahma Muhurta are considered to be the best tool to lead a healthy life. Health management is enjoyable and free but disease management is painful and costly, so we always says that “prevention is better than cure”. In short we can say that wake up in Brahma muhurta is very favorable that boost physical, mental, social and spiritual health as well.
23 A REVIEW ON PHARMACOVIGILANCE; PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE PROSPECTIVE IN INDIA , Dr. Pooja Agrawal, *Dr. Virendra Kushwaha and Dr. Mangeshkumar Tripathi
The main responsibility of any drug regulatory authority is to ensure the quality, efficacy, and safety of all marketed products. The first two criteria can be established through data obtained from in vitro testing to ensure compliance with acceptable standards and data obtained from animal studies, preclinical and clinical trials involving humans. It is a well-established fact that pre-marketing clinical trials do not have the statistical power to detect rare adverse drug reactions (ADRs) nor do they have significant follow-up to identify delayed ADRs or effects from long-term exposure. In view of this, Pharmacovigilance plays a prominent role in establishing the safety profile of marketed drugs. Originally a modest appendix of drug regulation; it has become a major activity now.
24 REVIEW ON THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH COVID-19 , Gauri R. Kaphare*, Rupali S. Avhad and Harshada A. Kadam
SARS-COV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus) that initially came to notice in December 2019 is still spreading rapidly in whole world and it is presently a potent danger to world and also to the economy. Patients with COVID-19 are at still risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), respiratory failure and death. Patients aged > 60 years with comorbidities, children and health care worker are highly vulnerable to this virus patients shows various symptoms most commonly cough, fever, difficulty in breathing, fatigue, sore throat. The detailed information about the analysis of death rate by different factors like age, sex and health condition are given. Various diagnostic test for diagnosis of Covid 19 such as paper based test, RNA vaccine, molecular assay, in house develop molecular assay are discussed. General treatment can cure the disease symptomatic treatment, by using antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, immunomodulators, antibiotics, anti-inflammatory, vitamin D, Convalescent plasma therapy, oxygen therapy and by enhancing the immune system. Numerous clinical trials are currently under progress to test the efficacy and safety of variety of approved drugs to treat Corona virus. The review focus on latest development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and treatment approaches for COVID-19. Here in this review all therapeutic agents against COVID-19 reported in recent times after the outbreak are being discussed.
25 CRITICAL REVIEW OF DISEASES OF ANNAVAHA SROTAS IN CHAKRADATTA WITH REFERENCE TO CONTEMPORARY COMPENDIUM , *Dr. Jyotima Pandey, Dr. Deepak Tiwari, Dr. Manohar Ram, Dr. Ramnihor Tapsi Jaiswal and Dr. Ajay Kumar
As eon progressed many Acharyas came into existence & expounded different Samhitas as per suitability of changing environment, habit & habitat. The origin of this system goes back to a far past to Vedic and Pre-Vedic period. Agnivesa Samhita, Bhela Samhita, Harita Samhita, Sushruta Samhita, Kashyapa Samhita and many more Samhitas are expounded with full of compassion & for the service of mankind; in the ancient time. Earlier treatises are very voluminous; apart from treatment part, subject matters related with every aspects of life like social ethics, spiritual ethics, personal ethics are endorsed too much elaborately. Chakradatta is very peculiar in its presentation. It emerged as best handy book for clinical practices. He has directly described treatment protocol for several diseases as well as Panchkarma procedures are also described. He compiled all daily and seasonal regimens in only one chapter named as ‘Susthadhikar’. It reduces the need to go through all the Samhitas so in a sand of time a physician can get best of treatment protocol for any disease as Chakradatta has the best essence of all the Granthas prevailing in that period. Incorporation of herbo-mineral formulation is also a unique feature of Chakradatta.
26 AN ATTEMPT TO DECIPHER THE AMBIGUITIES OF INCREASED SIX MONTHS HOSPITAL READMISSION IN HEART FAILURE PATIENTS , Ashraf Shaat, MD, Amal Zakout, MD, Khaled Alkhodari, MD and Mohammed Habib, MD, PHD
Background: Heart failure (HF) has high in-hospital mortality and is associated with high readmission rates. Reasons for and ways to avoid HF readmissions are unclear. Approximately one-third of patients admitted for HF are readmitted within 6 months. We still desperately need to know some of the independent variables that would define high-risk groups of HF patients for re-hospitalization. Methods and Results: This is a prospective, observational study enrolled patients with ejection fraction (EF) <40%, were admitted because of acute decompensation. Out of the total 164 patients 63% were male. The mean age of the study population was 65.79 ±14.118. Male vs female, living at home independently and self -pay were statistically significant in the readmitted group (P=0.042, 0.007, 0.001). Co morbidity and clinical finding which showed significance increase with readmission include; hypertension(P=0.013), Acute coronary syndrome (P=0.015), mitral regurgitation (P=0.002), aortic regurgitation (P=0.014), LBBB (P=0.048), Urosepsis (P=0.008), and EF (P=0.041). Parameters on logistic regression analysis anemia (OR,1.7; CI,0.8-3.4), hypertension (OR,2.5; CI,1.2-5.4), ejection fraction less than 30% (OR, 1.9; CI, 0.9-3.7), mitral regurgitation (OR, 2.8; CI, 1.4-5.6), hyponatremia (OR,2.0. CI, 0.5-7.6), and high creatinine (OR, 1.3; CI,0.6-2.8) were independently increased the risk of rehospitalization at six months of discharge. Conclusion: Rehospitalization rate was 33%. Higher rates of readmission were noted in those with older male, hypertensive patients, low EF, mitral regurgitation, impaired kidney function, anemia, hyponatremia, living at home independently and infections.
27 COVID19: A PANORAMIC VIEW (PART 2) , Dr. Sunanda Gaddalay, *Dr. Ruchi Rathi, Dr. Anita Kale, Dr. Revtee Birajdar, Dr. Ramchandra Kabir and Dr. Amol Badgire
COVID-19 has led to more than 3.39 million confirmed cases accross the country and is known to be caused by a highly pathogenic strain of human corona virus (HCoV) - SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2). The pandemic began in December 2019, when a cluster of 41 cases with severe pneumonia of unknown origin emerged from Wuhan, China. Extensive research and scientific response has helped to fight the pandemic by availing more information about the disease. The surface of the virus displays prominent club shaped projections, composed of its spike protein, under the electron microscope; which imparts the virus its pathogenicity. virus being a potent inducer of inflammatory cytokines; activates immune cells thereby resulting in profound cytokine storm and ARDS. Knowledge of incubation period, basic reproduction number, pathogenesis, viral structure and viral life cycle will help to provide better treatment to those infected.
28 GARBHINI PARICHARYA: A BRIEF REVIEW , Dr. Richa Saxena, Dr. Manohar Ram and *Dr. Ramnihor Tapsi Jaiswal
Even today, the desire of offspring /progeny is one of the basic desires /pursuit of an individual starting from the existence of human civilization. Upnishad (one of the most religious scripture of Indian culture) also describes it under the three basic pursuits/desires named as Triaishna are Vittaaishna, putraaishna and lokaishna. Charak describes the importance of offspring as: A person earns Dharma (righteousness), Artha(wealth), Preeti(love), Yash(fame) through his progeny. Hence has utmost desire to procreate children.(ch. Chi.2/1/3)
29 DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF SOLID DISPERSION OF TADALAFIL BY FUSION AND SOLVENT EVAPORATION METHOD , Ikram*, Kapil Kumar and Deepak Teotia
Tadalafil, basically is a phosphor- diesterase-5, selective and potent inhibitor. It is recommended in erectile dysfunction. It is also used in arterial hypertension. It is having low aqueous solubility thus it shows poor bioavailability of about 28% by after oral administration. in current study an attempt was made to study Tadalafil SD formulations to enhance its solubility and dissolution, increase in solubility and thus improvement in its bioavailability. Two different methods were used to prepare SD formulations of Tadalafil, fusion method and solvent evaporation method. Preapred SD formulations were evaluated on different parameters. In the FTIR spectra Tadalafil+PVP K30 and Tadalafil+PEG 6000, there was not any significant change in the peaks, it indicates that the compatibility of Tadalafil with PVP K30 and PEG 6000. The bulk densities of the prepared granules was found to be in between 0.414±0.08 to 0.496±0.06. All SD formulations has shown good flow properties. Repose angle values were in between 21.28±0.08-29.66±0.09. SD formulations are capable to improve the solubility profile of Tadalafil. On basis different evaluation parameters, current study concludes, formulation of batch SD4 was the optimum formulation.
30 AN INTRODUCTION TO VIRECHANA KARMA , Dr. Harikishan Bamoriya*, Dr. Rani Singh2 and Dr. Shachi Chandil
Panchakarma is a science for purification of the body. It is a bio-cleansing procedureconsist of five methods, which helpfor enhancement bio availability of the pharmacological therapies, ease to bring about homeostasis of body and verify the recurrence and progression of diseases. Panchakarma treats the sickness as well as keeps up all strength of the body in great and excellent way.In Ayurveda, five types of methods are comprises Panchakarma. In whichVirechana is a therapeutic medicated purgative therapy that is meant for expelling out vitiated Dosha and Mala (waste material) through the anal route.Virechana is mostly used in the disorders originated from vitiated Pitta. It is worth mentioning that Virechana Karma, unlike the modern purgatives, is not merely an act to open the bowel, but is a complete therapeutic measure which has systemic as well as local effects. Its wide range of indications the specific classical method, and mode of action given in Ayurvedic literature.
31 HYDROXYL RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY IN RAW AND COOKED BROWNISH YELLOW AND PURPLE POTATO TUBERS , Man Kyu Huh* and Ji-Young Hwang
This study was to evaluate and compare the hydroxyl radical (OH) scavenging activity of extracts from common brownish yellow potato and purple potato cultivars during cooking methods. The potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the third most important food crop in the world after rice and wheat in terms of human consumption. The amount of malonaldehyde produced by disassembling deoxyribose from hydroxyl radiological by Fenton reaction was measured to check the hydroxyl radical scavenging ability. OH scavenging activity of raw extract (common brownish yellow potato) evaluated at 2.0 mg/ml was 52.6% and that of boiled potatoes was only 19.3% at same concentration. OH scavenging activity of the roasted potato evaluated only 17.0%. Raw and cooked potatoes at all concentrations showed significant differences in OH scavenging ability (p<0.05-0.001). Boiling and roasting treatments showed reducing effects on the OH scavenging activity of common brownish yellow potato and purple potato cultivars.  
32 USE OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF COSMOS SULPHUREUS (SULFUR COSMOS) FLOWERS AS PH INDICATOR , Prasad S. Kshirsagar* and Shriniwas P. Patil
Objective: Cosmos sulphureus is ornamental plant. Present study was carried out for evaluation of ethanolic extract of its petals acts as pH indicator. Material & Methods: The previously dried and powdered flower petals of C.Sulphureus was extracted with 0.5% Acetic acid in ethanol then extract was studied preliminary for phytochemicals present and added to of buffer of different pH to note in change in colour. Result & Conclusion: on phytochemical screening pH sensitive anthocyanins which is present in extract used as pH indicator.
33 SPIGELIAN HERNIA IN ADULTS: ABOUT A CASE AT THE MAMAN ELISABETH DOMITIEN UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL CENTER OF BANGUI , Dibert Bekoy Nouganga Emmanuel*, Issa Mapouka Pierre Alfred, Laleye Christel Marie, Doui Doumgba Antoine4 and Gaudeuille Alfred
Spigelian hernia is a dehiscence of the anterolateral or ventro-lateral wall of the abdomen, through which the digestive loops can pass. It is a rare digestive pathology, which involves a significant risk of strangulation justifying surgical treatment. We report a case in a 52 year old patient with a history of right inguinal hernia repair by raphia who presented a left para rectal swelling, gradually increasing in volume, the clinical diagnosis of a Spiegel hernia was evoked and the patient underwent a hernial cure by plasty of a polypropylene plate. The following operations were simple.
34 OUTCOME OF CLINICAL INDICATION OF UPPER GASTRO-INTESTINAL ENDOSCOPY IN POPULAR DIAGNOSTICS CENTER LTD. (BADDA BRANCH), DHAKA, BANGLADESH , Md. Mamunur Rashid* and Sultana Jasmin
Introduction: Upper gastrointestinal symptoms like heartburn, belching, dyspepsia are increasing in modern world due to changes in food habits and increased use of refined food. In this regard Upper gastro intestinal endoscopy (UGIE) carries utmost importance in diagnosis and treatment and is a common indication inpatients of upper gastrointestinal complaints with normal ultrasonography/CT abdomen. Objective: This study was done to identify different causes of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in Popular Diagnostics Center Ltd. (Badda Branch) and incidence of the same in the modern world, in comparison with previous study. Methodology: This was a retrospective study in Popular Diagnostics Center Ltd. (Badda Branch), Dhaka, Bangladesh from Jun 2019 to Jun 2020 on a study population of 911 considering all patients who had come with anemia, dyspepsia, suspected gastrointestinal bleed, dysphagia, and melena. The upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was done in our gastroenterology department the patients who were selected were aged more than 15 years, both genders were included. Results: A total of 911 patients who underwent UGIE during the three-year study period were analyzed. Among them 645 were males (70.8%) and 266 were females (29.2%). The maximum number of people who underwent the procedure were within 20-60 year age group and there was decreasing trends before and after this age group. Patients underwent esophago gastro dudodenoscopy mainly because of dyspepsia 265(29%) and pain abdomen 247(27.1%), followed by gastro esophageal reflux symptoms. The indication for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was considered appropriate according to ASGE criteria, endoscopy was normal in 319 (35%) patients. The study documented that erosive gastritis (16.13%) and Non-erosive gastritis (14.16%), esophagitis (11.96%) and esophageal varices as the main common diseases encountered in upper esophagoscopy. Conclusion: We have demonstrated increased frequency of gastrointestinal diseases such as gastritis (erosive and non-erosive), gastro esophageal reflux disease as a frequent endoscopic findings and dyspepsia was the main indication to perform endoscopy in our Diagnostics Center Ltd. (Badda Branch), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
35 CT SCAN FINDINGS IN CRITICALLY ILL ICU PATIENTS WITH COVID-19 IN BANGLADESH , Dr. Soheli Parvin*, Dr. Syed Shamsul Arephen, Dr. Shahryar Nabi Shakil, Dr. S. M. Rokonuzzaman, Dr. Faisal Mohammed Pasha, Dr. R. N. sarker and Dr. Tariqul Islam
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is spreading across the world at an alarming rate. Many of the patients infected with the coronavirus have become critical ill requiring ICU support. Critical care triage will allow the rationing of scarce ICU resources that might be needed. The CT scan of chest can assist in identifying the patients who are most likely to be critically affected by the disease and will require ICU support. The study describes the radiological findings of critically ill COVID-19 patients in ICU with the hope that this will provide information and offer the best chance of survival for the critically ill by identifying them in due time. Methods: This cross-sectional study has been carried out among the critically ill patients of COVID-19 pneumonia (confirmed by RT-PCR) admitted in ICU aged 30-70 years. The data were collected by a checklist, where the particulars of the patient, history of the illness, biochemical investigation profile and radiological findings of chest were recorded. Quality of data is strictly maintained and ethical issues are properly maintained in all the steps of this study. Results: 125 patients admitted in ICU of Kuwait Bangladesh Friendship Government Hospital between March 15, 2020, and August 31, 2020, were included in this study. The cohort included 80 (64.0%) men and 45 (36.0%) women, and the mean age was 58· 6 years (SD 7.2). In the CT chest findings, 114 (91.2%) patients had abnormal findings and the remaining 11 (8.8%) were normal. Among the abnormal CT findings, the predominant pattern of abnormality observed in 90 (72.0%) patients was extensive ground-glass opacity followed by crazy paving in 66 (52.8%) patients. Conclusion: The CT scan findings of critically ill patients admitted in ICU study provides essential information which will assist in critical care triage and uplift the chances of survival in life-and-death scenarios.
36 VARIATIONS IN LIVER BIOCHEMICAL TESTS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HCV AND HEPATITIS B IN LIBYA , Jbireal J. M., Altayeb Elazomi*, Kamal E. Alshebani, Fawzia Shawesh and Abdurraouf Zaet
Chronic hepatitis is not a single disease, but rather a complex clinico-pathological syndrome with multiple causes, varying stages of necro-inflammatory and sclerosing liver damage, different prognoses and responses to treatment. This research was a comparative case control study. It implicated about 120 blood samples from patients with chronic viral hepatitis, where 60 with HCV and 60 with HBV infection. The results of this study showed a highly significant difference regarding liver biochemical tests. The mean concentration of Total Bilirubin, Direct Bilirubin, Indirect Bilirubin and ALT enzyme in HCV and HBV patients (0.74 ±0.054, 0.26±0.24,0.48 ±0.033 mg/L and 23.45±1.18 u/L), (0.81±0.049, 0.30±0.024, 0.51±0.029 mg/dl and 26.20±1.38 u/L), (0.55 ± 0.039, 0.18 ± 0.17, 0.37 ± 0.026 mg/dl and 15.80 ± 1.54 u/L) when compared with the control group with P values (0.030, 0.036, 0.049 and 0.000), respectively.
37 COMORBID CONDITION IN ULCERATIVE LESIONS OF THE STOMACH AND DUODENUM IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY HEART DISEASE , Kodirov Sh. S.*
Currently, the problem of comorbid diseases remains important both for science and for practical health care. At the present stage of medical development, the concept of comorbidity is of great importance and requires the study of cardiovascular and gastroduodenal pathologies.
38 ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF TOTAL ALKALOID OF MITRAGYNA CILIATA (RUBIACEAE) IN FEMALE RATS , Dr. Yemié Aby Alain*, Oungbé Monkoué Désiré, Konan Armand Marcelin, N'guessan Jean-David
Mitragyna ciliata (MYTA) is a plant species whose stem barks are traditionally used in the treatment of malaria. The toxicity of total alkaloids extracted from this plant was studied in female rats. The extract was administered orally in single doses of 2000 mg / kg and 5000 mg / kg bw. The animals were observed continuously for 24 h and daily for 14 days. During this period, the clinical signs were recorded, and the body weight of the animals noted once a week. The blood of the rats was also drawn weekly for the determination of the biochemical and hematological parameters. The results obtained revealed an absence of toxic effect of the alkaloids of this plant, with a lethal dose 50 (LD50) greater than 5000 mg / kg bw. It emerges from these results that the total alkaloids of MYTA are therefore classified in category 5 of the globally harmonized classification system for chemical substances, a category characterizing substances of low toxicity.
39 A BRIEF REVIEW OF SUTIKA PARICHARYA AND ITS CLINICAL IMPORTANCE , Dr. Manju Chouksey*, Dr. Suresh Kumar Solanki and Dr. Hetal H. Dave
Motherhood is all about loving, sharing, sacrificing & struggling. Ayurveda emphasizes much importance of the care of women especially in the prenatal & postnatal period. After delivery of baby, after the placenta is expelled then woman is termed as Sutika. The regimen that helps the woman to regain her lost vitality and helps her body to revert back to prepregnant state is called Sutika Paricharya. Majority of the alarming complications arise immediately following delivery. Puerperal pyrexia and sepsis are among the leading causes of preventable maternal mortality and morbidity, not only in developing countries but also in developed countries as well. So, the present study has been selected to review Sutika-Paricharya & its clinical importance.
40 FORENSIC AND CLINICAL ISSUES IN LIQUOR ANALYSIS: AN UPDATE , *Gaurav Kumar Singh, Shivam Gujarathi B., Spandita Hati and Rahul Verma
The alcohol and psychotropic substance are widely consumed all over the globe. Among them alcohol is one of the preferred drinks over western countries and even in India it is manufactured on large scale. The alcohol is administered by varying age groups but, according a survey 18 to 30 years of peoples are highly addicted. This paper precisely discusses the forensic and clinical issues which are encountered by forensic professionals. The alcohol analysis for antemortem and postmortem cases are possessing significantly different aspects. Here we have discussed the issues occurring in sample collection, its analysis and interpretation of results. Some important aspects are focused on sampling, the interference of medications on results and use of biochemical science in postmortem cases. Also, the clinical professional should give importance to medication history, specimen type, its advantages and disadvantages while performing the Ethanol Testing on subject.
41 A REVIEW ON MICROENCAPSULATED AND NANOENCAPSULATED NASAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Harshada A. Kadam* and Nikhil A. Gade
The utilization of a nasal route for drug delivery has been used in recent years within the pharmaceutical field , because it has been reveal that the many drugs have better better by nasal route than oral route. Local and systemic drug delivery are also achieved by this route of administration. But the nasal route of delivery isn’t applicable to all or any drugs. The nasal delivery route has the advantages, including convenience and easy use, they have rapid onset of action, the avoidance of immediate hepatic metabolism, gut wall metabolism or destruction in the gastrointestinal tract, also the possibilities of to reduce systemic exposure, higher the bioavailability, and have a rapid brain access through the nerves. Drug delivery systems including liposomes, cyclodextrins, micro- and nanoparticles are being investigated to increase the bioavailability of medicines delivered intranasally. This criticism discusses recent progress and specific development issues regarding to colloidal drug delivery systems used in the nasal drug delivery.
42 APPROACH TO HEALTHY LIFESTYLE W.S.R TO DINCHARYA-A REVIEW , Dr. Ramanand Saini, *Dr. Ramnihor Tapsi Jaiswal, Dr. Manohar Ram and Dr. Jyoti Singh
The science of life, Ayurveda has been the best way to keep a person healthy since ancient times. Ayurveda has two main objectives- first to protect and maintain health of a healthy person and secondly to cure the disease of patients. Ayurveda fulfills its first objective via Dincharya. To protect and maintain the health of a healthy person, many rules have been enumerated in Ayurveda out of which Dincharya is one. It has been stated by Acharyas “Achar Llabhate Aayu” which means “achar ethics is very important for long Hita Aayu.” To explain Achar, Dincharya has been explained to maintain a healthy lifestyle.
43 A STUDY OF TYPE-I TYMPANOPLASTY BY UNDERLAY TECHNIQUE-RISK FACTORS AND THEIR EFFECT ON OUTCOME , Lt. Col. Dr. Salah Uddin Ahmmed*, Mejbah Uddin Ahmed, Col. A. K. M Asaduzzaman, Col. Md. Tauhidul Islam, Lt. Col. Md. Bashir Ahmed, Lt. Col. Md. Iftekharul Alam and Lt. Col. Md. Misbah Al Kabir
Background: Type 1 Tympanoplasty is a common and established surgical procedure involving reconstruction of the tympanic membrane defect along with elimination of disease, if any, from the middle ear. It is very safe and effective procedure with a variation in the outcome. The success rate varies in different setups and there are some confounding factors like; the size, type and location of perforation which affect the result. The purpose of this study was to determine risk factors and to assess their effect on the success rate. Methods: This study was conducted at Combined Military Hospital, Rangpur and Border Guard Hospital, Dhaka from June 2018 to June 2020. All the patients who presented with dry ears, no nasal disease and persistent tympanic membrane perforations during this period were operated upon and overall success rate was calculated. In addition, the relationship between the site of perforation, size of perforation and the type of perforation and the success rate of Type-I Tympanoplasty was also calculated. Results: A total of 132 patients were included in this study. Out of these 121 (91.66%) showed complete healing after surgery. The success rate was highest 95.34% in central perforation and lowest 85.71% of the cases in anterior perforation. 100% of the small perforation healed completely while only 74.07% of the large perforations showed successful result after surgery. Conclusion: Tympanoplasty is an effective procedure that can lead to improvement in hearing function in patients and prevention of recurrent ear discharge. Optimal results can be achieved through use of the appropriate surgical technique.
44 LUBANRELIEF A NOVEL NATURAL TOPICAL FOR OSTEOARTHRITIS , Dr. Luay Rashan, Dr. Mohammed Rishan and Dr. Rafie Hamidpour*
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis. It is also known as degenerative arthritis or degenerative joint disease or “wear and tear” arthritis. It occurs when the cartilage or cushion between joints breaks down leading to pain, stiffness and swelling. The most common symptoms of osteoarthritis are stiffness, particularly first thing in the morning or after resting, and pain. Affected joints may get swollen after extended activity. OA is the major cause of disability in both the developed and developing countries. The worldwide estimate for symptomatic OA is 9.6% among men and 18% among women. In USA only OA affects approximately 27 million people. Osteoarthritis has no specific cause, however, there are several factors lead to the development of OA including excess weight, injury or overuse and genes, among others. As far as treatment of OA is concerned, this disease cannot be reversed, but treatment can reduce primary pain. There are several options that can help reduce pain and helps patients move better. It includes using oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, nabumetone and naproxen. It is sometimes possible to use NSAIDs temporarily and then discontinue them for periods of time without recurrent symptoms, thereby, decreasing the risk of side effects. Further, topical diclofenac topical gel (voltaren) is used to relieve osteoarthritis pain in the knees. It works by stopping the body's production of a substance that causes pain. Among other conventional treatment of OA is surgery, joint injection of glucocorticoids and hyaluronic acid. On the other hand, there are several non-conventional treatments used for OA including glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, curcumin, Boswellia serrata extracts and others. In addition, acupuncture, electrostimulation and electromagnetic field and others are also used. We describe in this paper a new topical herbal remedy named LubanRelief with potent anti -inflammatory and analgesic properties that make it a promising treatment for osteoarthritis when taken alongside with OsteoLuban capsule.
45 HUMAN BONE MARROW DERIVED STEM CELL MIGRATION AND PROLIFERATION UPON PLATELET RICH FIBRIN CONDITION , My NT Nguyen*, Hoang M. Lam, Ha LB Tran and Thuy AV Pham
Background: Periodontal diseases cause destruction of periodontal tissues and ultimately resulting into tooth loss. Various approaches including including guided tissue regeneration and bone grafts have been employed to accelerate either soft or hard tissue in periodontal repair. Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) is obtained by centrifuging peripheral wholeblood without anticoagulants. PRF has been used in clinical practice as a bioactive material in facilitating tissue regeneration. Aim of study: The study aimed to obtain and evaluate PRF effects on human bone marrow stem cells. Materials & Methods: PRF was prepared by centrifuging wholeblood without anticoagulants at 2500 rpm for 15 min. Liquid extract of PRF was obtained and evaluation for growth factors secretion by ELISA, including PDGF and TGF-1. hBMSC proliferation and migration upon PRF condition were assessed by MTT assay and scratch wound healing assay, respectively. Results: PRF clots were formed after centrufugation, which exhibited the release of PDGF and TGF-1 for up to three days of investigation. PRF liquid showed great biocompatibility to hBMSCs. Furthermore, PRF liquid significantly promoted the proliferation and migration in vitro. Conclusion: These results confirmed that PRF is completely suitable to be used as bioactive material for periodontal regeneration.
46 BRONCHODILATION EFFECTS OF KALACHUCHI LEAVES (PLUMERIA ACUMINATA, FAMILY: APOCYNACEAE) OF ETHANOL EXTRACTS ON CAT-INDUCED BRONCHOCONSTRICTION , Anthony R. Marin*, Irene M. Roco, Virginus K. Okanya, Jehan Nicole C. Olin and Jastine Jewel E. Pancho
Bronchodilation is an expansion of the air passages through the bronchi of the lungs. This is accomplished in medicine by the use of bronchodilator which is a substance that dilates the bronchi and bronchioles, decreasing resistance in the respiratory airway and increasing airflow to the lungs. Bronchodilators may be endogenous (originating naturally within the body), or they may be medications administered for the treatment of breathing difficulties. They are most useful in obstructive lung diseases, of which asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are the most common conditions.
47 PREVALENCE OF MENINGITIS DISEASE AMONG HIGH RISK GROUPS IN IRAQ , Dr. Alaa Habib Abdulrahman*
Background: Meningitis is a serious and widespread disease that can lead to death or permanent disability if the infection is severe or delayed. Aim: To identify the high risk groups and regions in Iraq. Method: A retrospective cross sectional study undertaken in the Statistic department of MOH in Baghdad, Iraq. Information regarding vaccination and history of contact with a case of meningitis was obtained. Detailed clinical examination was done. Statistical analysis was done by using the software package for social studies (SPSS) version 19. The categorical variables were presented as number and percentage. Result: A total of 2046, the highest percentage of cases (50.2%) still in the age groups less than 10 years, male cases (58.6%) were higher than female cases (41.4%). (49.9%) of cases had viral types, followed by (46.2%) had bacterial type. rate of meningitis was higher in Kerbela province 3.08, followed by Wasit province 2.23 and in Baghdad was 1.4 and was less in Al-Anbar 0.01. Conclusion: The majority of cases were under age less than 10 years; viral disease is common type, the rate of disease was higher among south region in Iraq. Protection of high-risk groups (such as those with complement deficiencies, laboratory workers, migrants and refugees) is recommended.
48 DETERMINATION OF RANITIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN FIVE MARKETED TABLET PREPARATION , Larisa Alagić-Džambić*, Minela Dacić, Anita Raguž and Mirsad Džambić
This study was aimed to evaluate the pharmaceutical quality of ranitidine hydrochloride in five randomly selected samples registered on the market of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This samples were assayed spectrophotometrically and their various physical parameters such as appaearance, weight variation and uniformity of dosage units. Acceptance criteria were set according to European Pharmacopoeia and British Pharmacopoeia (95 – 105% of claimed potency).
49 THE EFFECT OF EDUCATION PROGRAM ON PERFORMANCE OF CLINICAL NURSE INSTRUCTORS IN NURSING FACULTIES IN KHARTOUM STATE 2019 , Mahasin Almahi Balla Fadil Alla* and Hayat Fadallah Mukhtar
Introduction: Clinical training is different and more complicated than theoretical education. In the nursing profession, a well-trained and educated, experienced workforce is very important. Improving the quality and quantity of every profession depends on increasing the knowledge and proper functioning of its staff. It also requires them to have professional and correct training. Aim: to evaluate the effect of education program on medical –surgical clinical nurse instructors’ performance regarding supervision of nursing students, demonstration of procedure, applying nursing process and case presentation. Method: aquasi – experimental design was conducted in 9 faculties of nursing sciences at Khartoum state. Total coverage for 46 clinical nurse instructors. Data were collected though assessment questionnaire and observational checklist. Result: there was high significant improvement in the performance of clinical nurse instructors after implantation of education program. Conclusion: education program has a positive effect on clinical nurse instructors’ performance. The findings suggest the important of prerequisite training courses for clinical instructor and using guidelines for training nursing students.
50 EVALUATION OF THE POSSIBLE PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF CAPTOPRIL AND VALSARTAN ON METHOTREXATE-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS , Sanaa A. Ahmed*, Wafaa A. Abd Elaa and Mayada M. Ahmed
The aim of this study was to evaluate the ameliorating effect of both captopril and valsartan on methotrexate (MTX)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Forty two adult male albino rats weighing 180-250 g were divided into 6 groups; n= 7. Groups 1, 2, and 3 were orally received saline (control), captopril (20 mg/kg/day) and valsartan (30 mg/kg/day) respectively for 3 weeks. Groups 4, 5, and 6 were orally pretreated with saline (toxicity control), captopril and valsartan respectively in the same doses and duration as three previous groups. At the end of treatment, groups 4, 5, and 6 were subjected to single dose of MTX 5 mg/kg I.P. The impacts of MTX on the hepatic injury and its prevention by captopril and valsartan were assessed by estimation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (T.Bil), total protein and albumin. In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in serum and liver homogenates. MTX resulted in significant increases (P < 0.01) in AST, ALT T.Bil, NO and MDA levels and decrease in serum albumin and protein levels and SOD activity; as well as severe congestion and inflammation in liver tissues compared to control group. On the other hand, pre-treatment with captopril or valsartan decreased MTX-induced alterations in liver function, NO, and MDA levels and SOD activity; also, ameliorated the induced changes in liver tissues. The oxidative stress plays an essential role in MTX-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Captopril and valsartan have a protective effect on MTX-induced hepatotoxicity; which may be created by their antioxidant effect.
51 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THREE ANTIRETROVIRAL DRUGS ON LIVER ENZYMES (ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE, ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE AND ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE) , George Adieboye Oforibika* and Augustine Amadikwa Uwakwe
This study comparatively evaluate the effects of nevirapine (nevran), lamivudine and zidovudine on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities of normal albino rats. A total of 63 albino rats were randomly divided into 5 groups labelled A, B, C, D and E and kept in a well ventilated room. Group A served as control and these rats were treated with distilled water. Rats in the groups B, C, D and E were treated with 4 different doses of the drugs (0.7, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8mg/Kgbw) respectively. The drugs were administered once daily for 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks consecutively. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last treatment. Blood samples were collected into heparinized sample bottles for analysis. Results obtained revealed that AST levels were highest in Nevran at week 3 of group B (178.00±1.15 IU/L) when compared to the control (122.6±8.45IU/L). Significant differences (p<0.05) existed among the 3 drugs at group B of week 1 and there was no significant differences between any at group E of week 5. Lamivudine had the highest activity for ALT at group D of week 3(80.00±1.15IU/L) as compared to the control (44.67±2.60IU/L). Nevran and zidovudine were significantly different with the other drugs at group B of week 1 and group E of week 5. Mean ALP activity was greatest in Lamivudine at group C of week 1 (58.20±0.06IU/L) when compared to the control (46.73±3.54IU/L). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between any drug at group B of week1 while at group E of week5 Lamivudine was significantly different (p<0.05) with the other drugs. Treatment of HIV/AIDS with ARVs could result to liver damage by hepatocellular injury or by necrosis of the liver due to prolonged treatment.
52 HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA AS A PRESENTATION OF VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY: A CASE REPORT , *Dr. Zahoor Hussain Daraz, Dr. Pramesh Kumar Yadav and Dr. Berkheez Shabir
Vitamin B12, a water soluble vitamin is synthesized by micro-organisms of human gut. Vitamin B12 absorption takes place in the terminal ileum after binding with intrinsic factor which is a type of glycoprotein secreted by the parietal cells of the stomach. Pernicious anemia is commonly seen in vitamin B12 deficiency which is due to lack of intrinsic factor. Usually, this is secondary to autoimmune phenomenon against gastric parietal cells. Complete blood count findings in Vitamin B12 deficiency include anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and peripheral blood film shows macrocytosis and hypersegmented neutrophils. Vitamin B12 deficiency is a very uncommon cause of hemolytic anemia (approximately 1.5% of cases). Here, we present a case of an 11-year-old male found to have severe anemia (obvious hemolytic features) secondary to marked vitamin B12 deficiency and improved after vitamin supplementation and provide a brief review of literature.
53 PARASITES ASSOCIATED WITH HOUSEFLIES FROM SOME DUMP SITES IN ILISAN AND IKENNE, OGUN STATE, SOUTHWEST NIGERIA , Nwadike Faith Ugochi* and Agbolade Olufemi Moses
The common synanthropic housefly (Musca domestica) frequents many filthy places such as dump sites where it picks diverse human pathogens, including parasites, which are eventually mechanically transmitted. Four hundred houseflies collected using baited traps from four dump sites near some food vendors in Ilisan and Ikenne towns, Ogun State, Nigeria, between April and June 2017, were examined parasitological using sedimentation technique. A statistically higher percentage (76.3%, 305/400) of the flies was positive for human parasites’ ova/cysts (P < 0.001). Among positive houseflies, the percentages of occurrence of parasites’ ova/cysts on the body surface in both Ilisan (86.8%) and Ikenne (86.4%) were statistically higher than in the intestinal tract (P < 0.001 in both cases). Parasites’ ova/cysts recorded include those of Ascaris lumbricoides, Hookworm, Enterobius vermicularis, Taenia sp., Fasciola sp., and Entamoeba histolytica. A. lumbricoides (66.7% for Ilisan, 62.5% for Ikenne) had statistically highest prevalences of occurrence (P < 0.001 in both cases). The statistically commonest case of mixed parasites’ species was Ascaris + Hookworm + E. histolytica (36.8%), followed by Ascaris + E. histolytica (24.1%) (P < 0.001). This study has shown that houseflies positive for ova/cysts of soil-transmitted helminths and some other human parasites are present and widespread in the study area. Prompt measures should be taken to check the population and breeding of houseflies, properly and sustainably manage dump sites, and educate the inhabitants of the study area.
54 COMPARISON OF MORBIDITIES IN LATE PRETERM AND TERM NEONATES: A STUDY CONDUCTED IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN DELHI , Dr. Mayank Jain*, Dr. Poonam Sidana, Dr. Shailabh Gupta, Dr. Arvind Kant Manipal, Dr. A. P. Mehta and Anubhav Singhal
This is a retrospective study to evaluate clinical outcome of late preterm (LPT) infants (34 to 36 weeks at birth) in comparison to term babies in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi from January 2019 to October 2019. Total of 863 babies were born in this period. Out of these, 650 were term and 205 were preterm babies. Out of these preterm babies, 158 babies were born as late preterm. Majority late preterm babies were admitted in NICU for complications like Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), Sepsis, Transient tachypnea of newborn (TTNB), Neonatal jaundice (NNH), Feeding issue, Hypoglycemia. Morbidities were compared between term and late preterm (LPT) babies in this study of sick neonates. In our study we conclude that late preterm is associated with significant morbidity compared to term babies and need more supportive and supervised care.
55 ASSESSMENT OF URINARY ALBUMIN-TO-CREATININE RATIO IN PATIENTS WITH DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY IN SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIA , *Orugbo V. P.
Introduction: Screening for diabetic nephropathy (DN) facilitates early detection, evaluation, and treatment. A spot urine sample used to measure the albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) accurately reflect the total 24 hour level of urine albumin excretion and the ACR is now recommended by the American Kidney Foundation as the screening tool for patients with diabetes. There are however many drawbacks to the cut off value of 30mg/g. Thus this study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of spot Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio in diabetic nephropathy based on the cut off value of 30mg/g. Method: A hospital based cross sectional study involving 80 DN cases being managed in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. The controls were 80 non diabetic persons from the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. The cases were selected using systematic sampling method and data collected using structured questionnaire after obtaining informed consent. They were sampled for Serum Creatinine, Serum Urea, Urinary Albumin and Creatinine. Urinary albumin-to- creatinine ratio and creatinine based glomerular filtration rate were calculated from the results. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS version 25 and presented in form of tables, charts and graphs. Results: Of the total of 160 patients, 80 were DN cases and 80 were non diabetic controls. The study showed a significant difference between the mean levels of serum creatinine and urea, urinary creatinine and albumin, urinary albumin –to- creatinine ratio, and eGFR between the cases and controls. The diagnostic accuracy of UACR was higher with cut off value 57.8182mg/g. Conclusion: Serum UACR was shown to have a higher diagnostic accuracy in diagnosing diabetic nephropathy at 57.8182mg/g compared to 30mg/g.
56 DETECTION OF CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS AND THEIR VIRULENCE TOXINS IN BROILER CHICKEN , Abdelrhman Salah Elsharkawy, Dalia Talat, Asmaa Sh. Elnaggar and Madiha Salah Ibrahim*
The present study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of C. Perfringens in broiler chickens in El Behiera, Alexandria and Matrouh governorates. Samples (n= 400) were collected from intestine (n=200; 100 apparently healthy and 100 diseased birds), feed (n=100) and litter (n=100). The prevalence of C. Perfringens was 57, 88, 52 and 60% in apparently healthy birds, diseased birds, feed and litter, respectively. Isolates were confirmed by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI). Antimicrobial sensitivity of isolated C. perfringens showed sensitivity to Cefotaxime, Chloramphenicol, Bacitracin, Norfloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Doxycycline, Amoxicillin + Clavulanic acid and Clindamycin. The isolates were resistant to Gentamycin, Erythromycin, Amoxicillin, Ampicillin and Neomycin. Eighteen C. perfringens isolates from different samples were examined by PCR for Alpha, Beta, Epsilon and Iota genes. The alpha gene was detected in 17 of the examined isolates. Only five isolates were positive for the Tpel toxin gene. Further, the Net-B toxin gene was detected in one isolate. Environmental factors (feed & litter) in poultry farms represent an important source of C. perfringens infection (toxigenic types) and apparently healthy birds may act as a major source of infection. Alpha toxin was the predominant major toxin in our investigation and the Tpel gene was detected more than the Net-B gene.
57 ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME PLANT EXTRACTS ON DIFFERENT BACTERIA IN CHICKEN FILLET , Reda Mohamed Bahi Eldin, Dalia Talaat, Azza Hussien Elbaba and Madiha Salah Ibrahim*
Foodborne diseases affect millions of people each year. More effective treatment methods are needed to reduce incidence of food poisoning organisms in food. In the present study, the prevalence of S. aureus, E. coli and salmonella was evaluated in 100 samples of chicken fillet collected from chicken processing shops in Cairo governorate. The prevalence of S. aureus, E. coli and salmonella was 56%, 70% and 12%, respectively. The effect of marinating chicken fillet with some medicinal plants such as extracts of Moringa, lemon and green tea against S. aureus, E. coli and Salmonella was studied. The 100% lemon extract showed the best antibacterial activity decreasing count of S. aureus, E. coli and salmonella 3, 3.5, 3-log cfu/g, respectively. On the other hand, the 6% moringa extract was better than the 4% and the 2.5% green tea extract was better than the 1% in decreasing the bacterial count. This indicates the effectiveness of such extracts in controlling bacterial growth in chicken meat and can be applied as well to other meats.
58 ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF LUMPY SKIN DISEASE VIRUS IN EGYPT DURING 2017- 2018 , Ahmed Hodhod, Emad Elgendy, Mervat I. Abd El-Moniem and Madiha S. Ibrahim*
Lumpy skin disease is not associated with high mortalities, but the economic losses accompanying its eruption are higher in cattle trade. Lumpy skin disease virus is a member of genus Capripoxvirus (CaPV), family Poxviridae and is the cause of lumpy skin disease. In our study, we isolated and molecularly characterized Lumpy skin disease virus circulating in Egypt from April 2017 to September 2018. A total number of 295 samples including skin biopsies (243), whole blood samples (50) and tick groups (2) were tested by real-time PCR. The results showed that 91.3%, 76% and 100% of skin biopsies, whole blood and tick samples were positive, respectively. Thirty positive samples were isolated on embryonated chicken eggs chorioallantoic membranes. The results showed that 24 samples (80%) displayed characteristic pock lesions. The results were confirmed by conventional PCR and all 24 samples were confirmed as lumpy skin disease virus. Two samples were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis showed high similarity between the isolated lumpy skin disease virus and sheep and goat poxviruses. Furthermore, the tick samples and skin biopsies showed higher viral titration indicating their usefulness for viral detection in suspected cases. Moreover, the real-time PCR is one of the rapid diagnostic tools that can be used for viral detection in endemic areas with high specificity and sensitivity compared to other routinely used tools.
59 PROBLEMS OF LEUKEMIA IN CHILDREN , *R. A. Amanov, L. X. Sharipova and D. R. Aslonova
The article covers issues on acute leukemia in children in the hospital of the Bukhara regional children's multidisciplinary medical center. The aim of the study was to study the lifestyle of a family of sick children with acute leukemia with a retrospective analysis method. Under supervision were 75 children aged 1 to 15 years who are in the Bukhara regional children's medical multidisciplinary center from 2012 to 2015. The authors concluded that the mothers of children with leukemia during pregnancy were more likely to suffer from anemia, infectious and other diseases, in children with artificial feeding, the incidence of acute leukemia was higher, the mortality of children from acute leukemia at 1 year of age and at the age of 2-7 years was higher, in relation to other ages, the harmful habits of parents in the form of smoking and drinking alcohol increases the risk of developing leukemia in young children, the early use of PCT increases the life expectancy of children.
60 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE’S STRESS LEVELS AND SUBJECTIVE ORAL HEALTH CONDITIONS AND BEHAVIOUR , Young-Hee Jeong*
The study was performed to identify the relationship between employees’ stress and subjective oral health conditions and behaviour. The survey was done from April 20th to 25th, 2018 and targeted on people who are week days part timers and workers using a document preparation service, ‘Naver form’. The collected data was analysed by using SPSS ver. 24.0 and a one-way ANOVA. As a result, The highest average stress level was 20.74 for the ‘service workers’ and the lowest with 18.60 was for ‘other’ occupations. There was no statistically significant difference by occupations. The average stress level of those who answered ‘Very good’ of their subjective oral health condition was the lowest with 17.00, and the highest level was 21.48 for those who answered ‘Poor’. There was no statistical significance between the average stress level and their subjective oral health condition. The average stress level according to oral health care behaviour, such as scaling and smoking, showed no statistically significant difference. And to conclude, the better the oral condition, the lower the stress level. The more stressed, the lower the oral health behaviour and the poorer the subjective oral health status.
61 SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF SOME NEW SCHIFF BASES OF AMINO-THIOPHENE DERIVATIVES , Mokhtar Abd-Hafiz Al-Ghorafi*, Aliaa Mohamed Kamal, Jalal H. Abdullah, Tawfeek Ahmed Ali Yahya, Shada H. Yassin
A new series of amino-thiophene Schiff bases (IIa-i) was synthesized and characterized using spectroscopic methods. Schiff bases were prepared via condensation reactions of different aromatic aldehydes and amino-thiophene. All Schiff bases were tested against MCF7 and HCT116 cell lines, the imine compounds exhibited selectivity excellent cytotoxic for aforementioned carcinoma cell lines. Especially, compound IIc and IIh were the most active compounds against both cell lines, it is well known that, the difference in the characteristics of substituents attached to the Schiff base function leads to interesting variations within pharmacological actiivty of resultant molecular systems.
62 THE ROLE OF CYTOKINES IN PATHOGENESIS, DIAGNOSTICS, AND PROGNOSIS CERVICAL NEOPLASIA , *Kalandarova Amina Nurullayevna
Background: It is generally recognized that the problem of cervical tumors is associated not only with a persistently high incidence of cancer, but also with the difficulties in diagnosing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, which is one of the stages of malignancy of cervical epithelium. Objective: A prospective study was conducted of 177 patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of the cervix uteri who were examined. Methods: Determination of the concentration of cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, TGF-β in cervical mucus was carried out using standard commercial ELISA kits. Result: The obtained data convincingly indicate a pronounced imbalance of the cytokine regulation of the mechanisms of immune control of cell homeostasis against the background of viral infection, which determines the formation and progression of neoplastic lesions of the cervix. Conclusion: Clinical and morphological factors for the prognosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer have a direct correlation with infection of the cervix, production of cytokines.
63 ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT IN ANXIETY , Jihe Zhu*, Blagica Arsovska and Kristina Kozovska
Anxiety is a natural response of the body to stress and it is most common form of emotional disorder, accompanied with constant and intense feeling of fear. Anxiety is a key element of several other disorders: phobia, panic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), separation and illness anxiety disorders. According to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) anxiety occurs due to excessive (heat) energy in the head. Symptoms include excessive worry, insomnia, racing thoughts and other. In this research are included 10 patients, 5 female and 5 male, aged from 25 to 59. All patients were experiencing anxiety in their everyday life. Other accompanied symptoms were fear, insomnia, restlessness, panic attacks, stress and other. Most of the patients were on age from 20 to 40. Most of them have made 1-5 treatments. Treatments were made in a clinic for TCM and acupuncture in Skopje, Macedonia by a doctor specialist in acupuncture. Treatment were with duration of 30-45 minutes, one treatment per week. Acupoints used in the treatment are: Ex-HN-1(SiShenCong), DU24 (ShenTing), DU3 (YaoYangGuan), DU6 (JiZhong), DU7 (ZhongShu), HN3 (YinTang), HN5 (TaiYang), HN14 (YiMing), ST25 (TIanShu), RN11 (JianLi), RN4 (QuanYuan), LI4 (HeGu), SP6 (SanYinJiao), ST36 (ZuSanLi) and LI3 (SanJian). Anxiety can be successfully treated with acupuncture. The treatment is directed more on treating the patient on a deeper level, treating both physical and emotional symptoms and nourishing all the organs and parts of the body.
64 IMMUNE DEFENSE MECHANISMS FOR CERVICAL INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASIA , *Kalandarova A. N.
The results of a comprehensive survey of 111 women of reproductive age with varying degrees of CIN residing were studied in the Republic of Karakalpakstan. From surveyed women, CIN I - was detected in 45, who made up the 1st group, CIN II - in 35 women - the 2nd group, and 31 women with CIN III - the 3rd group. Immunological studies were conducted by studying some parameters of the cellular (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, CD20, CD25, CD95) humoral (IgG, IgA, IgM) and cytokine (IL-1b, IL-6, TNFα and IFNγ) status. The following research methods were used: clinical, ultrasound, endoscopic (colposcopy), cytological, immunological, bacterioscopic, bacteriological, PCR. It was revealed that the severity of immunological disorders is correlated with the nature of pathological changes in cervical intraepithelial tissue, which indicates the involvement of the immune system in the pathogenesis of CIN.
65 DEVELOPMENT OF FAST DISINTERGRATING TABLET (FDT) LEAF EXTRACT Graptophyllum pictum L. Griff WITH VARIATION OF Ac-Di-Sol CONCENTRATION AND SWEET TYPE , Nhadira Nhestricia*, Lily Elfrida, Erni Rustiani, Riska Handayani
Graptophyllum pictum L. Griff have traditionally been used for generations and a lot of research has been done to develop these plants. This plant contains nutritious chemical compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, triterpenoids, steroids, and glycosides. Fast Disintegrating Tablet (FDT) is a tablet that is easy to use without the need to use drinking water. FDT is designed to be destroyed quickly without chewing and without the aid of water for no more than 3 minutes (Bhowmik et al., 2009). This study aims to determine the type of sweetener favored by panelists with a concentration of Ac-Di-Sol 3%. Sweeteners for Formula 1 (sucralose) and formula 2 (aspartame). Tablet quality parameters include organoleptic, uniformity of weight, uniformity of size, hardness, friability, time of in vitro dispersion, hedonic test, and determination of flavonoid levels of Graptophyllum pictum extract and the best formulation of tablet formulas. The results of tablet quality testing on each formula showed a grayish black tablet, flat round shape with a flat bottom surface and top surface had a diameter, aromatic distinctive odor, had a sweet taste at the beginning of contact with saliva but in a long time gave bitter taste on the tongue. Tablet quality evaluations for all formulas meet the requirements of Pharmacopoeia III and IV. The results of this study indicate that formula 1 is the best formula for extracting Graptophyllum pictum extract with sweetener sucralose.
66 CURATIVE EFFECTS OF CACTUS "OPUNTIA STREPTACANTHA" TO REDUCE PHOTO-INDUCED DERMATOSIS IN PUBERTAL MICE , Mohamed Nizar Zourgui, Sabrine Ben Lataief, Lazhar Zourgui* and Mohamed Amri
In traditional medicine extracts of plants (Cactus) are widely employed for the treatment of skin, epithelium wounds and mucous membrane irritation. Photo-induced dermatosis is the result of the harmful effect of UV irradiations on the skin. The aim of this study was to clarify whether O. streptacantha cladodes has a curative effect against the irradiations ultraviolet C (UVC). We examined the effects of cactus extract on skin damage including changes in cutaneous cover and histological modifications caused by long-term ultraviolet C irradiation. The extract of the cactus cladodes (50mg/kg every day) restored the normal tissular architecture of the skin irradiated better than that observed for the treatment by the MTX (0.5mg/kg/week). Our present study has shown that the irradiation of mice is made by their exhibition an ultraviolet hand lamp (UVC) of wavelength 254 nm evidenced by a significant increase or decrease of certain biochemical parameters.
67 ALTERATIONS IN HISTO-ARCHITECTURE OF SELECTED TISSUES IN CO-ADMINISTRATION OF IPOMOEA BATATA EXTRACT AND ANTI-OXIDANT VITAMIN TO DIABETIC WISTAR RATS , *A. A. Aigbiremolen, O. M. Odigie, I. O. Iribhogbe and C. P. Aloamaka
Reports on the importance of potato leaf (Ipomoea Batata) extract on various physiological systems of the human body are rife; with most showing it to be medicinal, pharmacological, and efficacious in the management of disease conditions, including blood related ailments. However, little or no record(s) have detailed its hypoglycaemic effect on body weights in relation to changes in the histo-architecture of selected tissues. Current study examined the effect of Ipomoea Batata leaf aqueous extract on blood sugar levels, body weights and histology of selected visceral [pancreas, liver and kidney]; in alloxan induced diabetic wistar rats. Twenty five (25) healthy Wistar rats of an average weight of between 140 – 200g were procured from the animal unit of the Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State. They were then acclimatized for two (2) weeks and randomly grouped into five (5) [G1, G2, G3, G4 and G5]; G1 (Control) received standard rat diets ad libitum, While G2 was fed daily with calculated doses of aqueous extract of sweet potato leaf per kg body weight after inducing diabetes mellitus (DM) with alloxan monohydrate. G3 and G4 (DM induced) were orally given (by mixing with diets, daily for two weeks) vitamin C and extract + vitamin C (Co-administration) respectively, group 5 (G5) received calculated doses of extract + vitamin E per kg body weight for 2weeks. For each group, Body weights were checked weekly, at the end of which animals were sacrificed with their liver, pancreas and kidneys harvested for histo-architectural changes. Blood samples were also obtained (using cardiac puncture) for analysis of changes in glucose levels. Following comparison (using the student t-test), study found a statistically significant increase (p < 0.05) in body weights and blood sugar levels of experimental groups [G2 – G5] compared with control [G1]; study also observed ameliorative changes in pancreatic, liver and renal histo-architectures (using H and E x 40) of DM induced rats as against non-diabetic (control) rats.
68 NURSES AWARENESS REGARDING CLINICAL HANDOVER AMONG CRITICAL CARE NURSES IN ALMEK NIMER UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL –RIVER NILE STATE - SUDAN , Us. Abdalrhman Akasha Abdalrhman, Dr. Higazi Mohammed Ahmed Abdallah*, Dr. Amna Omer Abdalrhman
Background: Clinical handover involves the transfer of accountability and responsibility of clinical information from one health professional to another. The main role of clinical handover is to transmit accurate, relevant and current details about the patients' care, treatment, health service needs, clinical assessment monitoring and evaluation, and goal planning.[4] Objective: To assess nurses awareness about clinical handover among critical care nurses. Methods: this was descriptive across-sectional study, conducted in Elmek Nimer hospital among nurses work in intensive care unit. The data was collected by close ended questionnaire which composed (18question) and it is analysis by SPSS vision (20). Result and conclusion: Result conducted that all most (90%) of study group had good knowledge about elements of handover also majority (76.7% ) of them had fair knowledge about barriers to effective communication and majority (83.3%) of them had good knowledge about Transfer of patient, patient satisfaction during change of duty and (73.3%) had fair knowledge about type of teaching points.
69 VARIATION IN HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HEPATITIS B AND HEPATITIS C IN LIBYA , Kamal E. Alshebani, Jbireal J. M., Fawzia Shawesh and Altayeb Elazomi*
Chronic viral hepatitis is an important health problem in the world, where hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are the main causes of liver insufficiency. This study was a comparative case control study. It aimed to assess the variations in haematological parameters in patients infected with HCV and HBV viruses in the western region of Libya. A total of 120 blood samples from patients with chronic viral hepatitis were collected; 60 with HCV and 60 with HBV infection. Twenty healthy individuals were included as a control group. Out of the 60 patients with HBV, 43 (36%) were males and 17 (14%) were females, while 38 (32%) patients with HCV were males and 22 (18%) were females. The mean age for HBV patients was 36.9 ± 15.8 years and for HCV patients the mean was 39.9 ±14.2 year. Though the mean concentration and count of haematological profile (total white blood cell count and haemoglobin estimation of infected patients), showed low significant difference in HCV patients (WBC 5.98 ± 0.29 cell/mm3, Hb 12.96 ± 0.20g/dl) as compared with control group (WBC 7.48 ± 0.42 cell /mm3, Hb 13.75 ± 0.30g/dl) with P value 0.027 and 0.005, respectively. However, there was no significant difference between HBV patients and control group regarding haemoglobin concentration. Additionally, platelets count revealed low significant difference in HCV and HBV patients (193.2 ± 9.73 ×10(9)/L) (177.2 ± 6.57×10(9)/L), respectively, in comparison with control group (242.0 ± 13.53×10(9)/L, P value (0.001)). In conclusion, there were significant difference in haematological profile.
70 PREIMPLANTATION GENETIC DIAGNOSIS APPLICATION INDICATIONS AND TECHNIQUES, A REVIEW , Samah Awad AbduRahim*, Marwa Abdullah Al-Amoudi, Leena Babiker Mirghani
Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is a reproductive technology that is being proposed to improve the effectiveness of in vitro fertilization (IVF) by screening for embryonic aneuploidy using fixed embryo samples prior to implantation. Indications for PGD varies depending on center, but in general they include advanced maternal age, recurrent pregnancy loss, recurrent IVF failure, severe male factor infertility, confirmed chromosomal rearrangement carrier, and bad obstetric history. Several diseases and disorders that can be screened prior to preimplantation are categorized generally as chromosomal abnormalities and monogenic diseases. The genetic analysis is performed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for cytogenetic diagnosis, or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for molecular diagnosis. To improve the accuracy of the diagnosis, new technologies are emerging, with comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and microarrays.
71 EFFECT OF EXAMINATION STRESS ON BLOOD CELLS PARAMETERS AMONG MEDICAL TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF ZAWIA, LIBYA , Fawzia Shawesh*, Arwa Khdeir*, Rowida Alzaruge*, Maram Abu-Alqasim*, Abobaker Kharbash* and Altayeb Elazomi*
Medical university examinations are known to cause mental stress. Stress can lead to various changes in the normal functioning of the human body. This study was carried out among student of faculty of medical technology in University of Zawia. This investigation aimed to determine whether academic stress can affect the levels ofWBCs, lymphocytes, hemoglobin, and platelets of students. Forty samples were collected from both male and female students aged 18 to 23 years. The collection was carried out before and during their exam periods. The blood  sampleswere then assayed for cell count by using the routine method (complete blood count). Data were analyzed and compared with pre-examination results. There was no significant different in white blood cells, lymph counts and hemoglobin levels. On the contrary, a significant increase in platelet count was observed. The academic examinations in medical technology faculty are stressful enough to aggravate changes in platelet counts, even in healthy students.
72 CONCEPT OF VIRUDDHA AHARA AND ITS ROLE IN ORIGINATION OF MANOVIKAR , Dr. Prabhat Patel*, Rashmi Choudhary, Dr. Smt. Gunwanti Ratre and Dr. Rupendra Chandrakar
Ayurveda emphasis mainly on role Ahara and believes that healthy nutrition nourishes the mind, body, and soul. Mind is directly influenced by the quality of food eaten, food preparation, appearance, aroma and freshness of the food. According to Charak samhita, complexion, good voice, long life, understanding, happiness, satisfaction, growth, strength and intelligence are all established through food. Wholesome diet is a main cause for the growth and development of the body and mind. On the other hand, when person indulged in unwholesome diet (Viruddha Ahara), produces various diseases like unmad(insanity), mada(narcosis) etc. Viruddha Ahara (unwholesome diet) is a unique concept mentioned in Ayurveda resulting from unsuitable combination, contradictory qualities, faulty processing method, time, place, dose, faulty consumption method. Frequent intake of unwholesome diet creates Ama which vitiates the doshas and obstruct the shrotas(channels) of the body. This Ama visha spread over hridaya and manovaha shrotas leading to the malfunctioning of mental activities, so as resulting in damaged mind and unstable intellect. Therefore, for a good health, person should always eat wholesome food and avoid Viruddha Ahara (incompatible diet) as in Kashyap Samhita also, it is mentioned that food plays an important role to treat illness and maintain health and that’s why he called food as Mahabhaishajya.
73 A MODERN APPROACH FOR DRUG DELIVERY IN SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLE (SLN) , CH. Suryakumari*, G. Durgarao, S. Suresh Babu, K. Venketeswerarao and K. Chinnababu
Lipid nanoparticles were developed in the last decade of the last century as alternative carrier system to emulsions, liposome and polymeric nanoparticles. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) are the two main types of lipid nanoparticles. The present review focuses on the utility of SLN in terms of their advantages, production methodology, characterization and applications. Due to their unique size-dependent properties, lipid nanoparticles offer the possibility to develop new therapeutics. The ability to incorporate drugs into nanocarrier offers a new prototype in drug delivery that could be used for secondary and tertiary levels of drug targeting. Hence, solid lipid nanoparticles hold great promise for reaching the goal of controlled and site specific drug delivery and hence have attracted wide attention of researchers.
74 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A STABILITY-INDICATING METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF SAXAGLIPTIN HYDROCHLORIDE AND DAPAGLIFLOZIN PROPENEDIOL MONOHYDRATE IN QTERN® BY REVERSED-PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY , Parbati Kirtania* and Dr. Neemala Appalaraju
High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is commonly used for the separation and identification of compounds in a sample. Reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) is the most commonly used separation mechanism in liquid chromatography. This mechanism consists of a polar mobile phase and a non-polar stationary phase. The purpose of this research was to develop a simple, fast, precise and accurate RP-HPLC stability-indicating method that can be applied to the drug Qtern®, as it contains both Saxagliptin Hydrochloride and Dapagliflozin Propenediol monohydrate.
75 PHYTOCHEMICAL, PHARMACOLOGICAL AND BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF CAMELLIA SINENSIS (L.) KUNTZE , Sachin Kotwal*, Sonali Gadhave, Ashwini Bankar and Manoj Jograna
The medicinal plant Camellia sinensis also known as tea yields a variety of white, green and black tea. (Family- Theaceae). It is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world, after water for enjoyment and health. In general, green tea has been found to be superior to black tea in terms of health benefits. The major constituents of interest are the polyphenols which are responsible for the antioxidant and other health benefits of green tea. The major polyphenols in green tea are flavonoids. The four major flavonoids in green tea are the catechins, epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). Epigallocatechin gallate is referred as the most significant active component. Much research is available depicting the health benefits of green tea for a wide variety of implications, including different types of cancer, heart disease, liver disease, etc. There is also a wide range of uses for green tea in diabetes, exercise enhancement, inflammatory bowel disease, skin disorders, hair loss, weight loss and iron overload. The present review complies the existing literature related to botanical description, morphology, climate and soil, phyto-chemical constituents, biochemical properties, biological activity of Camellia sinensis also this paper will review the major health benefits of camellia sinensis.
76 CONCEPT OF PRANA VAYU –A SHAREERA KRIYATMAK (PHYSIOLOGICAL) UNDERSTANDING , Dr. Sampat Singh*, Dr. Gitanjali Sasmal and Dr. Ashok Kumar
Vata, the most important among Tridoshas is described by Acharya as “Tantra Yantra dhara” and its function in the body is broadly mentioned as “vaa-Gati- Gandhanayoh.” Among the 5 types of Vata, Prana vayu is of utmost importance as the karya it performs help in sustenance of the body. The general function of tantra yantra dharana of vayu can be attributed to Prana vayu. As it is Harshotsaaha yoni, it helps in sarvendriya udyoga and is shareerasya pravartaka. Loka vayu Karma as explained by Charakacharya are similar to prana vayu karma. Vikriti of loka vayu leads to Prana vayu vikriti, therefore, protection of Lok vayu is essential to avoid or minimize Prana vayu dushti.
77 EFFECT OF BONE TURNOVER MARKERS IN DIABETIC RETINOPATHY , Sabah S., Khan S., Waris A.* and Siddiqui S. S.
Diabetic retinopathy is the most frequent microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus and one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Diabetic retinopathy has a complex process and various bone turnover markers play a key role in pathogenesis and progression of diabetic retinopathy. Previous studies have shown that bone turnover markers such as serum calcium, vitamin D, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, alkaline phosphatase have significant effect on microvascular changes in diabetic patients. Further studies should be done to evaluate the level of various bone turnover markers in diabetic retinopathy and critically appraise the level and quality of existing studies.
78 HARNESSING NANOTECHNOLOGY , *Vijai Malik
Nanotechnology offers great potential for benefits to mankind. It will affect every aspect of our lives, from the medicine we use, to the power of our computers, the energy supplies we require, the food we eat, the cars we derive, the building we live in, and the cloths we wear. It is emerging as one of the most rapidly growing areas of science and technology with application in biology, physics, chemistry, earth sciences and material sciences. The present paper reflects some achievements, types of nanomaterials and applications of nanotechnology.
79 REVIEW ON SATVA KALPANA , Gazala Hussain*
Ayurveda pharmaceutics have two aspects Rasashastra and Bhaishajya kalpana. Ayurveda Pharmaceutics deals with designing of formulations by employing drugs of different origin. Herbs, minerals, metals, marine products, etc. are used in formulations. The latter mainly deals with preparation of formulation using herbal drugs. Satva kalpana is one such dosage form where water extractable solid substance is collected It is a simple preparation with abundant therapeutic efficacy. The dose of it is less with shelf life of two years. A literary review of books and open accessed articles give a brief note on this formulation. Only a few satva kalpas (satva formulations) are found in literature of Ayurveda. Researches also done on these are few. This article throws light on this unique pharmaceutical preparation.
80 A REVIEW ARTICLE ON THE FOUR STANCHIONS OF CHIKITSA , *Dr. Savita Hiremath and Dr. Pallavi Y. C.
Ayurveda a biological science, which is based on the three principles of life which are termed as : Trisutra viz, Hetu, Linga and Aushadha. Thus, the concept of Chikitsa is considered as a complete holistic approach to the elimination of the root cause of any disease. The success of Chikitsa depends totally upon four factors which are known as Chikitsa Chatuspada. These Chatushpada includes Bhishak, Dravya, Upastha and Rogi. Chatushpada endowed with their qualities are then responsible for the cure of disease. These four factors are mutually dependent on each other. These Chatushpadas are considered mandatory to provide relief to the patient. In absence of any one of these, the treatment would not be possible. Each of the four factors possess four qualities essential for a treatment to be successful. When all these four factors are favourable, then treatment will be successful. In this review article, an attempt is made to explain the importance of ChikitsaChatushpada in detail.
81 ENDODONTIC CONSIDERATIONS IN CARDIOVASCULAR PATIENTS , Dr. Vinayak Singh*, Dr. Manoj Hans, Dr. Rhitu Shekhar, Dr. Rohit Paul
Oral health is mirror of general health. Oral health care professionals must be able to identify patients with systemic diseases, compromising conditions, and disabilities that have an impact on and can be impacted by, oral and maxillofacial health care. The ability to properly practice dentistry within the context of the larger health care system is often a challenge for the dental practitioner Inappropriate identification of a patient with a compromising systemic condition through improper history taking and interpretation, can create ineffective, or even detrimental, oral health care. The common medical conditions encountered by the dentist in daily practice include patients with cardiac diseases, pulmonary diseases, hypertension, diabetes, bleeding disorders, pregnant patients and patients undergoing radiation therapy.
82 A LITERARY REVIEW ON THE MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE OF AGNIMANTHA , Dr. Nishant Aggarwal* and Dr. Ritu Rani
An Ayurveda science has got a peculiarity in the management of diseases. Agnimantha is one of such drugs which play a very important role in the management of many diseases. It is an important medicinal plant which has been used in Indian system of medicine since antiquity for the treatment of various disorders. The present study aim to review of this drug both Ayurvedic as well as modern point of view. It contains various active principles raffinose, apigenin, betulin, premnenol etc. On the basis of Ayurvedic literature, experimental and clinical studies conducted in various institutes drug possess that the drug having various properties like Kapha-Vata-Hara, Sothahara, Dipana etc.
83 TO EVALUATE THE EFFICACY OF THE DURVA-NISHA LEPA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF DADRU , Vd. Suraj V. Birajdar*, Dr. Yeshwant R. Patil, Dr. Bhaskar M. Perke, Dr. Shital O. Chavan
In recent years skin diseases have gained more importance & attention. The petients of skin diseases are more prone to experience physical, emotional & socioeconomic embarrassment in the society due to disfigured appearance. In Ayurveda skin diseases are mentioned under the name of kushtha. It is the Tridoshaj avyadhi in which Rasa, Rakta, Mamsa & Lasika are the main dushyas. Dadru is one of the most common type of kushtha which affects the population of all the age of group & it stands as challenge to different medical systems. Dadru is kapha pitta Pradhan vyadhi & the management of which includes Shodhana, Shamana & Bahirparimarjanachikitsa. Among this Shamanachikitsa measures in the form of lepaa has appreciable results. Here an efforts is made to see the effect of Durva(cynadonDactylon), Nisha(Curcuma longa) churna in Dadru. This is study with sample size 10. Daignosed cases of Dadruwere selected from O.P.D. of Govt. Ayurved College & Hospital Nanded. The Petients were treated with external application of Durva-Nisha lepa along with water for 7 days. All the results were analyzed statistically for comparing the effects before after treatment. The results revealed significant effect of lepaa in various subjective parameters like Kandu, Raga, Pidika after treatment.
84 DETERMINATION OF CHEILOSCOPY AND DACTYLOSCOPY AMONG TRIBAL BELT PHYSIOTHERAPY COLLEGE STUDENT IN CHHATTISGARH. , Rajni Thakur* and Deepti Gautam
Background: So many problem faced by human being in past to provide the identity of an individual, identification of human being was requisite for personal, social and legal reason; cheiloscopy, dactylographic pattern being uniform throughout the life, so the research of cheiloscopy, dactylographic pattern, distinctive and permanent in the present century is the most reliable method of human being identification. Aim: To study of cheiloscopy, dactylographic pattern on all the fingers of both hands among tribal students. Materials and Methods: This research were conducted in 300 students 200 females and 100 males 17 to 25 years age groups in tribal belt Government Physiotherapy College in Chhattisgarh, India. In this research were Students selected those family are tribe belongs to Chhattisgarh state, students without any disease related to lips, normal lip mucosa and finger and cleft lip and any inflammation, allergic to the lip stick, and with any kind of disease in lip and finger were excluded from our study. Result: In this research we obtained 300 students, maximum number of case in 22- 22 years students in 167 and in female 109 and in 58 male, 100 (33.33%) were males and 200 (66.66%), most common lip pattern was II branched 56.66% and least common types of V mixed indefinite 1.35%, dactylographic pattern in female and male total highest number were obtained whorl 2000 (66.66%) and least pattern was composite 10 (0.33%). Conclusion: In the present research, lip pattern more in II type and dactylographic pattern highest number of pattern was whorl. Further in future research concerning standardization of the pressure applied to lip print dactylographic pattern during recording the prints is recommended and development for biometric system, identification of tribes races to allow fast and accurate assessment of lip print patterns and dactylographic pattern.
85 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BILAYERED TABLET OF ATORVASTATIN , B. Kalpana*, P. Prasuna Sundari and Dr. M. Bhagavan Raju
Piperine is an alkaloid isolated from piper nigrum Linn (family: piperaceae) a natural bioenhancer. It enhances the bioavailability of drugs by inhibiting cytochrome p450 enzyme. Atorvastatin is a lipid lowering agent. It has approximately 12% bioavailability. Hence, the objective of present study is to enhance bioavailability of atorvastatin using piperine as a bioenhancer. The study was carried out to formulate bilayered tablets of atorvastatin with different concentration of piperine using superdisintegrants (sodium starch glycolate, croscarmellose sodium, crospovidone) by direct compression method. The prepared formulation was subjected to evaluation for hardness, weight variation, friability, content uniformity, invitro release studies. Among all the formulation F3 containing piperine (15mg), sodium starch glycolate, microcrystalline cellulose and magnesium stearate is considered as the best formulation when compared to all other formulations and compared with the marketed formulation of atorvastatin (Lipitor)
86 IN VITRO STUDY OF AN ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ECLIPTA ALBA HASSK. FOR HEPG2 CELL LINE , Dr. Kulkarni D. V., Dr. Tathe Mangal Suresh* and Dr. Harke Sanjay Ningappa
For developing bridge way between Ayurveda and modern researches with advance technologies in Ayurveda we tried here an ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba against hepatic cancer. Eclipta alba has potent anti-cancer activity and therefore can be successfully used in cancer management both as mainline treatment and an adjuvant medication with minimum side effects. With the help of this paper the Eclipta alba which will prove to be beneficial for the researcher planning clinical trial and it can be used in the clinical practices for treating hepatic cancer in near future. Future research on such a topic would help to identify safe and effective anticancer drugs and will further the discovery of their mechanism of action. We have used an ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba Hassk. for phytochemical analysis, TLC, HPLC analysis to test active chemical components in it. All tests proved that an ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba Hassk. containing many active chemical components, therefore our experiment showed the positive results for an ethanolic extract of Eclipta alba Hassk. against hepatic cancer. The srb assay results were used to evaluate the anti-cancer activity of the extract. The effects of whole plant extract on cancer cell line were studied and evaluated. The percentage of cell growth and cell viability were calculated from tabulated result values of srb assay. The experiment revealed that the average percentage of growth inhibition was 79.33%. Cell viability srb assay also showed significant growth inhibition, at the same time statistical analysis of srb assay also proved significant results. The research performed here is very useful for setting up of different extract studies of Bhringraj for its anticancer activity.
87 EFFICACY OF LOW DOSE INTRATHECAL CLONIDINE AS AN ADJUVANT TO 0.5% HYPERBARIC BUPIVACAINE FOR SPINAL ANAESTHESIA , Dr. Ujjwala Bhiku Khairmode, *Dr. Saee Laxmikant Gosavi and Dr. Snehal Mohan Vhatkar
Introduction: Spinal anaesthesia is a safe, reliable, inexpensive technique with the advantage of providing surgical anaesthesia and prolonged postoperative pain relief by using various adjuvant drugs along with local anaesthetic agents. The possibility that intracthecal administration of Clonidine may produce better analgesic effect compared to epidural administration, with fewer side effects and at lower doses, provides rational of evaluating intrathecal clonidine. Primary objective: To determine effectiveness of sensory and motor blockade with bupivacaine alone and Bupivacaine with low dose clonidine. Secondary objective: To study hemodynamic changes, side effects and postoperative analgesia between two groups. Methods: After institutional review, board approval and written informed consent, 100 patients with ASA physical status I-II, aged 20-50 years scheduled for elective lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries were included in this study. Patients with comorbidities like diabetes, hypertension and any absolute contraindication for spinal anaesthesia were excluded. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups with 50 patients in each group. Group B received 0.5% hyperbaric Bupivacaine and Group BC received 0.5% hyperbaric Bupivacaine+ 1microgram/kg of inj.clonidine. Adequate block to initiate surgery was defined as a sensory block bilaterally. The onset, degree and duration of motor block were measured in both legs by using a modified Bromage scale. The sedation was judged by Ramsay sedation score and postoperative analgesia was judged by VAS score. Observations and Results: The differences in parameters were statistically significant. Onset was seen earlier in Group BC than in Group B. Sensory maximum Level T was seen at higher level in Group BC than in Group B.Lesser time was required in Group B to achieve two segment regression than group BC. Higher duration of sensory blockade was seen in Group BC than in group B. Higher duration of Motor blockade was seen in Group BC than in group B. There was no significant difference in basal and minimum pulse rate, basal systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, minimum systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, mean basal SPO2 between two groups. In the study there was no complications noted among all the subjects in both the groups. Conclusion: This study concludes that intrathecal clonidine in the dose of 1microgram/kg along with 12.5mg 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine leads to earlier onset and prolonged duration of sensory and motor blockade, excellent postoperative analgesia with minimal side effects with good hemodynamic stability.
88 AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF EFFECT OF ESMOLOL ON ATTENUATION OF PRESSOR RESPONSE TO LARYNGOSCOPY AND INTUBATION , Dr. Prakash Dhumal, *Dr. Saee Gosavi and Dr. Deviprasad Shivade
Introduction: Endotracheal intubation and laryngoscopy provides an intense noxious stimulus via vagal and glossopharyngeal afferents that result in a reflex autonomic activation, which is usually manifested as hypertension and tachycardia. This reflex is termed as pressor response. Esmolol possesses several properties to attenuate this response. Primary objective- to study the effect of 0.4mg/kg esmolol on attenuation of pressor response Secondary objective- assess hemodynamic changes during laryngoscopy and intubation. Methods: After institutional review, board approval and written informed consent, 62 patients with ASA physical status I-II aged 18-50 years to undergo elective surgery under general anaesthesia were studied. Patients with known allergies, hypertension ,diabetes, heart blocks, ischemic heart disease, brain disease and baseline HR<60 and SBP<100 were excluded. Patients were randomly divided into two groups, group E received injection Esmolol 0.4mg/kg and group C received normal saline 3min before intubation. All hemodynamic changes were monitored at baseline, before induction, before intubation and after intubation. Observation and results: The differences in parameters was statistically significant. The rise in heart rate 30sec after intubation was more in group C than group E. The blood pressure, mean arterial pressure and rate pressure product were more in group C than group E after intubation. No significant ECG changes were seen in both groups. Conclusions: This study confirmed that there is significant increase in hemodynamic variables on laryngoscopy and intubation and concludes that esmolol in low dose attenuates pressor response to some extent.
89 DESENSITIZING EFFECT OF SODIUM BICARBONATE (BAKING SODA) MOUTHWASH IN REDUCING DENTINAL HYPERSENSITIVITY AFTER ULTRASONIC SCALING , *Dr. Komal Gaikwad
Sodium bicarbonate commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3, Composed of a sodium cation (Na+) and a bicarbonate anion (HCO3-).
90 THE EFFECT OF EDUCATION PROGRAM ON PERFORMANCE OF CLINICAL NURSE INSTRUCTORS IN NURSING FACULTIES IN KHARTOUM STATE 2019 , *Mahasin Almahi Balla Fadil Alla and Hayat Fadallah Mukhtar
Introduction: Clinical training is different and more complicated than theoretical education. In the nursing profession, a well-trained and educated, experienced workforce is very important. Improving the quality and quantity of every profession depends on increasing the knowledge and proper functioning of its staff. It also requires them to have professional and correct training. Aim: to evaluate the effect of education program on medical –surgical clinical nurse instructors’ performance regarding supervision of nursing students, demonstration of procedure ,applying nursing process and case presentation. Method: Aquasi – experimental design was conducted in 9 faculties of nursing sciences at Khartoum state. Total coverage for 46 clinical nurse instructors. Data were collected though assessment questionnaire and observational checklist. Result: There was high significant improvement in the performance of clinical nurse instructors after implantation of education program. Conclusion: Education program has a positive effect on clinical nurse instructors’ performance. The findings suggest the important of prerequisite training courses for clinical instructor and using guidelines for training nursing students.
91 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF VORICONAZOLE TRANSFEROSOMAL GEL , Pravallika T.*, Dr. P. Prasuna Sundari, Dr. M. Bhagavan Raju
The aim of this research work is to develop voriconazole Transferosomal gel for better transdermal permeation and to produce sustained release of drug for local antifungal activity. Voriconazole is a triazole antifungal drug. It is used orally and intravenously. Formulation of voriconazole as transferosomal gel reduces dose dumping and increases therapeutic efficacy. Transferosomes are appropriate delivery system for skin. They are ultra-deformable vesicles. Voriconazole transferosomes were prepared by Thin Film Hydration method using Phosphatidylcholine and Edge Activators in different ratios. The edge activators used in the formulation are Span 60, Span 80 and Tween 80. The prepared transferosomes were evaluated for entrapment efficiency, drug content and in vitro drug release. Formulation F3 containing phosphatidylcholine (85mg) and Span 60 (15mg) was selected based on entrapment efficiency and drug release. Entrapment efficiency and drug release was 87.62±0.26 and 82.52±0.35. The selected formulation shows Zeta potential of -57.7mV and vesicle size of 597.4nm. The selected formulation F3 was incorporated into gel using Carbopol 934 of different concentrations. Formulated gels were evaluated for visual appearance, pH, drug content and In vitro diffusion studies. The selected transferosomal gel of voriconazole shows pH value 6.7, drug content 91.56 and drug release percentage 79.54
92 A COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY ON EFFECT OF NASYA AND NASAL SPRAY WITH OR WITH-OUT SHAMANOUSHADI IN VATAJA PRATISHYAYA VIS-À-VIS ALLERGIC RHINITIS , *Dr. Manasa S. D. and Dr. Suma K. J.
Pratishyaya is one among the Nasa rogas explained by Acharyas in detail in all classical books. Among the types of Pratishyaya, Vataja Pratishyaya can be co-related with Allergic rhinitis because of its similarities in aetiopathogenesis and symptomatology. Allergic Rhinitis (AR) is an immunoglobulin (Ig) E mediated inflammatory disease caused by the inflammation of airway mucosa with hypersensitivity resulting from seasonal or perennial responses to specific allergens. According to Ayurvedic texts Nasya is indicated in treatment of diseases of head and neck. The present study is intended to compare the efficacy of Surasadi taila Nasya with or without Shamanoushadhi Grutha bhrushta Haridra and Surasadi Nasal spray in Vataja Pratishyaya. This is a comparative clinical study with pre and post-test design. 45 patients diagnosed as Vataja Pratishyaya were selected and assigned randomly into three groups of 15 patients each. In Group A, patients were given Nasya with Surasadi taila, in Group B, patients were given Nasal spray with surasadi compound and in Group C, patients were given Nasya with Surasadi taila and Shamanoushadi as Grutha Brushta Haridra. The subjective and objective parameters were assessed and statistically analysed. The result obtained was statistically insignificant therefore, effect of treatment was almost same in all the three groups. All the patients responded favourably to the treatment and in follow up, but in Group C the therapy has shown less recurrence when compared with other groups.
93 USG IS A POOR TOOL IN IDENTIFICATION OF PANCREATIC INJURY:– A CASE REPORT , Dr. Abhaykumar B. Dheeraj*, Dr. Krishnadutt H. Chavali, Dr. Pankaj S. Ghormade, Dr. Bedanta Sarma, Dr. Lekheshwar Yadav
In blunt abdominal trauma most commonly involved solid organs are liver and spleen.[1] Pancreas injured only in 5% cases of all blunt trauma injury to abdomen whereas in 20-30% cases of penetrating trauma with morbidity in 30-60% cases and mortality in 10-30% cases.[3,4] Most commonly head and body of pancreas get injured in approximately 65% of pancreatic lesions; neck and tail contributes for the rest.[6] In the present case, a young adult came to a Tertiary care center with blunt trauma over the abdomen, hip and lower limbs following road traffic accident. Two consecutive abdominal USG investigations including FAST done failed to diagnose pancreatic injury during first week of hospital stay. It was diagnosed much later and operated but the patient succumbed due to septicaemic shock probably due to a delayed diagnosis. Due to relatively high mortality associated with pancreatic injuries, though their incidence is low, it is suggested that in cases of BTA, a serum amylase and lipase level should be done for early diagnosis and better outcome of such cases.
94 AN OBSERVATIONAL AND SCIENTIFIC APPROACHED RESEARCH STUDY OF VAMAN KARMA , Vd. Vrushali P. Sali and Dr. Prashant G. Sali*
Vaman is treatment in which dosha eliminated from body via emesis. Kaphoutkeshan is prime need of vaman karma. Vaman is three step procedure. Each step is equally important if vaman procedure is done under scientific approach it will be uncomplicated and fearless. In modern age certain modern pre-procedure investigation will bust our vaman procedure confidence as well as minimize unwanted complication.
95 DRUG UTILIZATION OF ANALGESICS IN POST-OPERATIVE ORTHOPAEDIC INPATIENTS IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, BELAGAVI: A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY , Dr. Srinivasa B. and *Dr. Aruna Bhushan
Objectives: To evaluate the prescribing pattern of analgesics and to analyze the rational use of analgesics in orthopaedic post operative in-patient. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted from April to June 2019 in orthopaedic post operative in-patient department of tertiary care teaching hospital, BIMS, Belagavi. Prior permission from institutional ethical committee was taken. Detailed data of the inpatients including demographic, diagnosis, treatment and drug details was collected and entered in a proforma and expressed statistically. The prescribed drugs was assessed using National Model List of Essential Medicines(NLEM) 2015. The rationality of prescriptions was determined using the WHO indicators of drug utilization. Results: Out of 300 orthopaedic post operative in-patients, 192(64%) were males and 108(36%) were females. Patients of age group ≥51years were more prone for fractures. The common indication for operative procedures was road traffic accidents inflicted fractures. The average number of drugs per prescription was 6.28. The average no of analgesics per prescription was 1.13. In this study, 87.3% of patients had received single analgesic and tramadol (58.3%) was commonly prescribed drug. Majority of patients received parenteral preparation (86.6%). Antibiotics (32.7%) were most frequently prescribed concomitant drugs. All 338 analgesics used were from NLEM and 245(72.5%) analgesics were prescribed by generic name. Conclusions: Tramadol was the commonly prescribed analgesic. Most of the analgesics prescribed were rationally from NLEM and by generic name.
96 STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF IVACAFTOR AND TEZACAFTOR IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM , Dharmamoorthy G., G. Sarath Kumar*, Poornima B., P. Jayachandra Reddy and K. Chandan Kumar
A new simple, accurate, rapid and precise method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Ivacaftor and Tezacaftor in pharmaceutical dosage form. Chromatogram was run through Inertsil ODS C18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5μ) Column. Mobile phase contains Phosphate buffer and Acetonitrile taken in the ratio 40:60 was pumped through column at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. The pH was adjusted to 3.2 with Orthophosphoric acid. Temperature was maintained at 25°C. Optimized wavelength selected was 259 nm. The retention times were found to be 3.285 and 4.635 minutes for Ivacaftor and Tezacaftor. % RSD of the Ivacaftor and Tezacaftor were found to be 0.1 and 0.7 respectively. % Recovery was obtained as 99.96% and 99.98% for Ivacaftor and Tezacaftor respectively. Signal to Noise ratio for LOD, LOQ values obtained from regression equations of Ivacaftor and Tezacaftor were found to be 3, 9.98 and 3.02, 10 respectively. Retention times were decreased and run time was decreased, so the method developed was simple and economical that can be adopted in regular Quality control test in Industries.
97 A CLINICAL STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFICACY OF MADANPHALADI VATI IN THE MANAGEMENT OF STHOULYA W.S.R. TO OBESITY-A PILOT STUDY , *Vd. Archana Pandurang Kashid
Aim: “To study the efficacy of Madanphaladivati in the management of Sthoulya w.s.r. Obesity.” Objective  To evaluate the efficacy of Madanphaladivati in the management of sthouly (Obesity).  Conceptual study of Sthoulya in Ayurvedic texts and Obesity in modern medicine. Methodology: In present study, Thirty obese subjects fulfiling the diagnostic criteria of sthoulya who visited OPD, IPD of D.Y. Patil Ayurvedic Hospital, Nerul, Navi Mumbai has been selected & administered orally Madanphaladi vati 3 gm two times a day before food with lukewarm water & minimal diet, excercise for two months, follow up was done one month interval. The sign and symptoms and the BMI level, waist hip ratio were observed before and after treatment. Lipid profile was done before and after treatment. Conclusion: A significant weight loss was observed. The result shows marked improvement of sign and symptoms along with decrease in BMI, lipid profile level & waist hip ratio. Though the subjects was given treatment for short term, the result was encouraging .Moreover, further study with large sample size & long duration is desirable to establish the treatment.
98 BACTERIAL CONDITIONED MEDIA: AN EFFECTIVE AGENT AGAINST MYCOBACTERIUM SMEGMATIS BIOFILM , Goutam Mukherjee, Rusha Roy and Alok Kumar Sil*
Biofilm plays a major role in the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Due to the presence of this polymeric matrix, anti-mycobacterial agents fail to exert their activity and thus Mycobacterium exhibits drug resistance phenotypes. Considering this, the current study investigated anti-biofilm activity of several conditioned media obtained after different bacterial culture using Mycobacterium smegmatis as model organism. For this purpose, logarithmically growing Mycobacterium smegmatis cells were treated with 11 different conditioned media prepared from different soil bacteria. Among these, five of the conditioned media exhibited considerable activity against biofilm. Thereafter, these five conditioned media were added to biofilm encapsulated mycobacterial cells to verify their ability to disperse preformed biofilm. The result showed that all these five conditioned media have ability to disperse preformed biofilm. Consistent with this, when any of these five conditioned media was added along with either isoniazid or rifampicin to biofilm encapsulated mycobacterial cells, cell viability was reduced drastically indicating the fact that these five conditioned media augment anti-mycobacterial activity of isoniazid and rifampicin. Thus the present study identified five bacterial strains, the conditioned medium of which exhibited anti-mycobacterial biofilm activity and augmented the activity of isoniazid and rifampicin against biofilm encapsulated cells. Thus, the current study provides agents that have the potential to be used in anti-mycobacterial therapy and may help in public health management.
99 IVEMARK SYNDROME IN A NEONATE- CASE REPORT , *Dr. Sachin Dangi and Namita Gwasikoti
Ivemark syndrome is an uncommon congenital disorder which is characterized by involvement of multiple organ systems. Patients with this condition may have cardiac malformations, hypoplasia or aplasia of the spleen and the abnormal anatomy of abdominal and thoracic viscera. It is often associated with severe cardiac abnormalities, which are the usual causes of death in early neonatal life. To our knowledge only a few cases of Ivermark syndrome has been described in Indian literature. Here we report a case of a neonate who was diagnosed as Ivemark syndrome.
100 A SUCCESSFUL MANAGEMENT OF ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS - A CASE REPORT , *Santosh L. Yadahalli, Santosh S. Tadapatri and Ananta S. Desai
Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis affecting the spine & large joints. It causes pain, stiffness & inflammation from neck to lower back leading to a hunched-over posture with impairment of spinal mobility. AS is one of the most common rheumatic diseases frequently referred as spondyloarthropathies (SPA). The incidence is 0.4-14 per 1,00,000 persons, occurs more frequently in men than women (2:1). Prevalence in India is 0.03%. In Ayurveda the management of AS is similar to that of Amavata. Amavata is one of the most common and crippling joint disorder, where in the Ama with aggravated Vata plays an important role in pathogenesis and prognosis of the disease. In contemporary science this condition can be managed by NSAIDs, Corticosteroids, and DMARDs but still remains challenging. In Ayurveda a detail description regarding the management of Amavata has been explained by Chakradatta which includes Langhana, Swedana, Deepana, Virechana and Basti Karma. Hence here a successful management of the condition is made with various treatment methods of Panchakarma. A 39 year old male patient diagnosed as SPA+ with HLA-B27+Ve approached OPD of SJIIM Hospital, Bangalore. The patient was treated in 3 phases. Phase 1-Dashamoola Kashaya Seka, Dhanyamla Dhara, Churna Basti, Vaitarana Basti, Erandamoola Niruha Basti & Vardhamana Pippali Rasayana. Phase 2-Valuka Sweda, Ishtika Sweda, Chinchalavana Pinda Sweda, Madhutailika Basti & Vardhamana Pippali Rasayana. Phase 3- Sarvanga Abhyanga, Nadi Sweda, Erandamoola Yapana Basti. The patient reported significant improvement in signs and symptoms of the disease. The treatment adopted after assessing the Ama and Nirama Lakshanas of the disease has given significant relief in signs and symptoms.
101 SYNTHESIS, EVALUATION AND MOLECULAR DOCKING OF SULPHONAMIDE/ISOTHIOCYANATE LINKED QUINAZOLINONE DERIVATIVES AS ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY , Pournima A. Bhalekar* and Shailaja B. Jadhav
A series of Quinazolinone linked sulphonamide and isothiocynates derivatives was designed synthesized and evaluated for type 2 diabeties study. Designed compound were docked using AutoDock tool software with DPP-IV inhibitor protein (PDB: 3OPM). And the good dock score compounds is synthesized and evaluated for antidiabetic study in STZ- Nicotinamide model of wistar rats. Amongst all the compounds designed in the study we identified compounds A3 and C6 as potent, selective and orally active agents.
102 ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES OF EDIBLE OIL EXTRACTED FROM INDIGENOUS SEEDS , Kiran A. Suryavanshi*, Dr. Yogesh V. Ushir and Dr. Venkat Chellam
Now a days ayurvedic dosage forms are preferred over allopathic. So for the safer use these plants and its preparations need to be evaluated for their toxicity. The main aim of this study was to test the acute toxicity of natural oils extracted from indigenously edible such as Buchanania lanzan spreng. belonging to family Anacardiaceae, commonly known as Chironji in Hindi, Buchanania lanzan spreng is a tree of 12-15 mt high, with straight trunk, and Simmondsia chinesis., belonging to family from Simmondsiacea commonly known as Jojoba in Hindi is a large, evergreen, forest tree more than 30 mt in height a tree. These two plants are easily available and their various parts are used in treatment of various diseases traditionally. The acute toxicity study was studied on Swiss mice with a dose of 2 g/Kg body weight orally. The single administration exposure of the seed oil on Swiss mice was carried out and the exposure route was oral with water as a vehicle. The observations of changes in body weight, food and water intake as well as cage side observations were reported. The plants were found to be nontoxic as no mortality was recorded even at the highest dose level.
103 ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF COCCINTIA GRANDIS IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS , Shubham G. Suryawanshi*, Kalyani R. Shinde, Prof. P. N. Folane, Prof. S. L. Khedekar and Prof. S. D. Sagrule
Diabetes mellitus is lifestyle disease rapidly spreading in India. It has been major health issue in south-east Asia and world’s largest numbers of diabetics are found in India. By 2019, 60.8 million diabetics arefound and this will rise up to 97 million by 2030. Therefore looking at the scenario and possible complications of uncontrolled B.G.L, different modes of therapy have been practiced. The present work is an effort to study Antidiabetic’s activity of coccintia grandis in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Coccintia grandis is commonly known as Gram (ivy gourd. Family- CCucurbitaece). A single dose of (150 mg/kg) alloxan prepared in normal saline solution was injected intraperitonially to induce diabetes in rats. The age matched control rats receives an equal volume of citrate buffer and used along with diabetic animals. Diabetes was confirmed after 48 hr of alloxan injection.The rats having plasma glucose level more than 300 mg/dl were selected and study was conducted for 21 days. The rats were divided into six groups and serum glucose levels were assessed by GOD - PAP method. The BGL and body weights were taken at day 1, day 3, day 7 and day 21.This investigation proves that coccintia grandis shows beneficial effect in diabetes. It is found to reduce the BGL and prevented loss of Body weight in diabetic rats and does not have any effect on normal glycemic level. Thus, it can be concluded that coccintia grandis can be used as supportive therapy for diabetes mellitus.
104 CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS FROM THE RHIZOMES OF ACORUS CALAMUS, AERIAL PARTS OF DIGERA MURICATA, FRUITS OF GREWIA ASIATICA AND LEAVES OF OCIMUM SANCTUM , Shahnaz Sultana, Mohammed Ali*, Showkat Rassol Mir and Shazia Usmani
The rhizomes of Acorus calamus L. (Acoraceae), aerial parts of Digera muricata (L.) Mart. (Amaranthaceae), fruits of Grewia asiatica L. (Malvaceae) and leaves of Ocimum sanctum L. (Lamiaceae) are used to treat various diseases. This study was planned to isolate phytoconstituents from these plant materials and to characterize their structures. The air-dried powders of the herbal drugs (1.0 kg each) were exhaustively extracted with methanol individually and the concentrated each extract was adsorbed on silica gel separately for preparation of slurries. Each dried slurry was subjected to silica gel column packed in petroleum ether. The columns were eluted with organic solvents in order of increasing polarity to isolate the compounds. The rhizomes of A. calamus afforded stearyl oleate (1) and eudesman-11-ol-8β, 13-olide (2). The aerial parts of D. muricata furnished phenolic glucosides identified as 3-isopropanoic acid phenyl 1-O-α-D-glucopyranoside (3) and resorcinyl 1-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(6′→1′′)-O- β-D-glucopyranoside (4). An acyclic sesquiterpenic acid 2,10-dimethyl-6-methylene dodecan-1-oic acid (5) and cerotic acid (6) were isolated from the fruits of Grewia asiatica. The leaves of O. sanctum gave a carotenol carot-4,6,8,10,12,14,2′(17′), 6′(8′), 10′(19′),14′(20′)-decaene-1′-ol (ocimum xanthin, 7) and a diterpenic ester kaur-5,15(17)-dien-7β-olyl vanillate (kaurdienoyl vanillate, 8). The structures of these phytoconstituents have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions.
105 INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASE- CLINICAL FEATURES AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS AT TERTIARY CARE CENTRE UJJAIN , Nipun Agrawal*, Lokendra Dave, Arti Julka and Parag Sharma
Introduction: Out of more than 200 distinct entities of ILDs, a limited number of disorders, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, sarcoidosis, and connective tissue disease-related ILDs, account for majority of ILDs. The present study was undertaken at a tertiary care centre to assess the pattern in spirometry and differential diagnosis of ILD. Methodology: This cross sectional study was done at a tertiary care centre, Ujjain over a period of one year on 25 cases of ILD diagnosed by HRCT. A detailed history along with occupational history was obtained from all the patients. All patients were examined clinically and underwent relevant investigations to reach a diagnosis. This was followed by assessment of pulmonary functions by spirometry. Findings thus obtained were recorded in questionnaire. Data was compiled using Ms Excel and analysed using SPSS Version 20. Results: The study was conducted on 25 diagnosed cases of Interstitial lung disease based on HRCT. Mean age of all patients were 53.68 year. Most common compliant was shortness of breath was present in all 100% patients whereas a cough was present in 24 (94%) cases. Most of the subjects had restriction PFT Pattern i.e 10(40%). IPF was seen in most of the subjects i.e 18(72.0%). Conclusion: Interstitial lung diseases are observed in India. They present with non specific symptoms such as dyspnea and cough thus they require careful history taking and relevant investigations to reach to a definitive diagnosis. The most common diagnosis was IPF and maximum cases may be misdiagnosed as TB.
106 THE PERFORMANCE OF NUCLEIC ACID AMPLIFICATION TESTS FOR THE DIAGNOSIS OF TUBERCULOSIS AND RESISTANCE TO RIFAMPICIN IN DOTS CENTRES OF A DISTRICT IN SOUTH INDIA , Rebecca Ann Jose, Dr. Jijo Oommen Roy, Dr. Anna Mathew*, Nisha M. and John Michael Raj
Title of Study: The Performance of Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests for the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and resistance to rifampicin in DOTS centres of a district in South India. Background and Objectives: According to WHO the number of new tuberculosis (TB) cases reported in India in 2017 was 2740 and the rate of incidence of MDR-TB was 10/100,000 population. Early diagnosis facilitates treatment initiation and can limit the spread of the disease. The Revised National Tuberculosis Programme (RNTCP) has scaled up the use of the Cartridge Based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (CBNAAT), also known as GeneXpert, and provides it free of cost to the patient. In addition to the existing 628 Machines, 507 machines have been deployed to cover all districts of the entire country. The CBNAAT is provided free of cost This study was undertaken to assess the performance of the CB-NAAT test in peripheral DOTS centres of this predominantly rural district. Methods: The diagnostic accuracy of the CB-NAAT test in diagnosing tuberculosis in patients presenting at the various DOTS centres of this district was assessed. After approval from ethics committee and written permission from the district tuberculosis officer, patients suspected to have tuberculosis, registered at the DOTS clinic for CB-NAAT 178 participants were serially recruited. Results: Of the 178 samples studied, 81 (45.5%) had a positive CBNAAT, while 71 (39.9%) had positive smear microscopy. The remaining 107 smear samples and 97 CBNAAT samples were negative. Of the 81 mycobacteria positive samples diagnosed by CBNAAT, 62 were also diagnosed by smear microscopy, giving a sensitivity of 87.3% while 19 cases identified by CBNAAT were sputum smear negative. Of the 107 smear microscopy negative samples, CBNAAT was negative in 91 subjects giving a specificity of 82.2%. The high positive predictive value (85.2%) indicates the strong probability that a person with a positive test has tuberculosis. The high negative predictive value (95.7%) shows that a negative test in effect rules out tuberculosis. The high likelihood ratio of nearly 5 with a confidence interval of 3.24 to 7.46 tells us that the test has a high probability to identify the presence of mycobacteria. Interpretation & Conclusions: The sensitivity of the CB-NAAT test obtained in our study was 87.3% and specificity was 82.20%. Rifampicin resistance was present in less than one-tenth of the samples (7.3%). The study showed that CB-NAAT is an equally sensitive and specific rapid molecular diagnostic test to detect TB and rifampicin resistance in biological specimens in patients suspected to have tuberculosis.
107 SYNCHRONOUS RENAL CELL CARCINOMA AND TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF URINARY BLADDER: A RARE CASE REPORT AND LITERATURE REVIEW , Mayank Bhasin, Rajeev Sarpal* and Shikhar Agrawal
Introduction: Simultaneous occurrence of different primary genitourinary malignancies is a rare entity. First case of simultaneous dual urological malignancy was reported by Graves and Templeton in 1921. Since then many cases of dual or triple genitourinary malignancy have been reported but due to limited literature treatment has not been standardized and poses a challenge in its management. Case summary: 73/M presented with complaints of hematuria with clot retention from 6 hours and painless hematuria from 15 days. Hematological profile showed neutrophilic predominant leucocytosis. CECT abdomen showed heterogeneously enhancing mass lesion at middle and lower pole of left kidney 72 x 67 x 65 mm with normal right kidney and a small nodular hypotense lesion in right lateral wall of urinary bladder. Patient was planned for Cystoscopy and left open Radical Nephrectomy. Cystoscopy showed mass on right lateral wall of bladder for which TURBT was done. Postoperative period was uneventful. Histopathological examination showed left Renal cell carcinoma clear cell type (Fuhrman grade III) (pT 3NxMX). TURBT chips showed high grade TCC (pT1NoMo). Patient is currently on regular follow up from 15 months with no evidence of recurrence. Discussion: Synchronous occurrence of multiple urological malignancies is a rare finding. Review of literature shows that RCC is associated with prostate, bladder, rectal cancer, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and lung cancer on long-term follow-up. Association with these in a synchronous way is very rare. So there is a great need for careful diagnostic work-up to detect others in the presence of one. Similar case was reported by Srinath et al in year 2005 for which radical nephro-uretectomy was done. Similarly in a study done by Nienie et al on 17 cases of concurrent RCC with TCC bladder none of cases emerged with ureter recurrence during follow up. So we believe that management plans should be individualized.
108 ROLE OF PATOLYADI LEPA AND LOCAL APPLICATION OF PRAPOUNDRIKADYA GHRITA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF DUSHTA-VRANA , Dr. Santosh Kumar Singh*, Dr. Balendra Singh, Dr. Uttam Nirmalker and Dr. Satrupa Nirmal
Dustavrana (non healing ulcer) are a often encountered problem faced in surgical practice present era produced commonly as a complication of trauma or pathologic insult and it causes long term agony to the patient. The presence of Dushta Vrana worsens the condition of the patient with different complications and may become fatal. Local factors on wound like slough, infection and foreign body, affect the normal process of healing. The healing of wound or an ulcer is the natural response of the body. Naturally wound will heal in one week if no doshic invasion or infection takes place. The vrana more than a week called dushta vrana which fail to heal for a long period and result into chronic wound(dheergha kalanubandhi dushta vrana), such vrana needs shodhana (Bahya) and ropana (Bahya) chikitsa. Shodhana by Patolyadi lepa[2] and Ropana by Prapoundrikadya Ghrita[3] is a best line of treatment for Dushta Vrana. These medicaments possess vranashodhana and ropana properties. It was used topically in non healing ulcer once daily for 28 days. A case report of 68 year old female, who presented with complaint of an ulcer formed at left thigh medial aspect spontaneously associated with pain, pus discharge, foul smell, swelling and discoloration of the skin since 10-15 days has been presented here.
109 EFFECTIVENESS OF LENALIDOMIDE IN A PATIENT OF POEMS SYNDROME WITH THROMBOCYTOSIS: A CASE REPORT , Narendra Prasad Yadav, Chengsi Gui, Shangqin Liu*
POEMS syndrome is a rare multisystem disease associated with plasma cell dyscrasia. We report herein a case of POEMS syndrome with thrombocytosis who had multiple hospitalizations during five year interval. The patient was treated under five chemotherapy regimen. We focus on progress of her disease and effect of Lenalidomide on blood platelets. Thrombocytosis is seen in almost 50% of the cases of POEMS syndrome and use of Lenalidomide chemotherapy regimen may lower the increased blood platelets.
110 A CASE REPORT ON HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTION WITH METFORMIN , Rohit Bangwal* and Nadeem
Metformin is a biguanide derivative widely used for treatment of diabetic patients. The most common toxic effects of metformin are gastrointestinal (anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort and diarrhoea). As with other drugs, allergic reactions can occur with metformin also, but these are very rare. A case of hypersensitivity reaction with metformin was reported in adverse drug monitoring centre. A 56-year-old female, newly diagnosed case of Type-2 diabetes mellitus, started on Tablet Metformin 500 mg twice daily, now few days after starting the drug (tablet metformin 500 mg) developed purpuric and skin rashes lesions on her legs, arms and back. Physician was immediately stopped the metformin and patient was put on tablet glimepiride 2 mg. The lesions slowly started subsiding after stopping metformin.
111 A CASE REPORT ON GANGRENE OF RIGHT FOURTH TOE , P. Naga Jyothi*, G. Sree Mahalakshmi and Dr. A. Sandeep
Gangrene is defined as focal or extensive necrosis of the skin and underlying tissue. However, this definition presents difficulties. There are several etiologies for gangrene, as there are for foot ulcers. One is LEAD (Lower Extremities Arterial Disease) of the large or small vessels, but infection and neuropathy may also play a role. Gangrene is better correlated with LEAD than is foot ulcer. The demonstration of clinical or subclinical LEAD is essential if gangrene is to be considered a manifestation of the progression of LEAD in the individual patient. The prevalence of gangrene is greater in selected diabetic patient populations than in the general community. However, prevalence is not a satisfactory indicator of the importance of gangrene in diabetes, compared with incidence, because of the poor survival experience of these patients and their consequent loss from the prevalent population. Risk factors for gangrene have not been adequately quantified for diabetic patients. They include LEAD, peripheral neuropathy, infection, trauma, and delayed healing. The grafting was done to reduce the spread of infection. Antibiotics like Amoxicillin + clavulanic acid and metronidazole along with some analgesics (Aceclofenac, tramadol) and anti-platelets like cilastazole for 2 weeks reduced the infection spread and may not lead to the further complications.
112 MANAGEMENT OF PSOARIASIS THROUGH AYURVEDA: A SUCCESSFUL CASE REPORT , Khare Manish*, Khare Kumudini Mala and Khuntia B. B.
Psoriasis is one of the most persistent autoimmune skin disorder, representing an inflammatory pattern of the skin to various stimuli and is characterized by sharply demarcated erythematous plaque/patches/ papules covered with silvery scaling. Management of Allopathic medicine concerned with control of disease rather than cure. There is recognition on the effectiveness of Ayurveda treatment in the management of Psoriasis. Psoriasis is characterized by hyperproliferation and abnormal differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes, infiltration by T-lymphocytes and various endothelial vascular changes in the dermis. The study was carried out at Specialised Therapy center, Govt. BDM Hospital Champa dist. janjgir champa chhattisgarh to evaluate the efficacy of selected Ᾱyurveda regimen in the management of Psoriasis. The male patient was 30 years old with a history of seven years, presented with the symptoms of chronic Plaque Psoriasis. Clinical and morphological features of Ekakustha are correlated with psoriasis by many scholars. Ekakustha is a vata-kapha predominant tridoshaja vikara. The patient was treated with Vamana karma followed by Ayurveda medication. The clinical features were gradually reduced within three months. After treatment result noticed in his symptoms like as in erythematous lesion, scales, disturbed sleep were decreased without any adverse effect. It can be concluded selected Ᾱyurveda regimen is effective successfully for this case. The improvement was significantly increased during course of oral medications with Nidan parivarjana.
113 A CASE OF FUNGAL MASS (ASPERGILLOMA) MIMICKING AS LUNG CARCINOMA– RARE CASE REPORT , Dilbag Singh*, Amritpal Kaur, Naveen Pandhi, N. C. Kajal, Mukul Sharma, Srijna
There are varieties of pulmonary infectionswhich can produce radiologic findings that mimic lung cancers. To differentiate these infectious lesions from lung cancer remains challenging for clinicians and radiologists. In such cases, clinicalmanifestations and radiographic features can be highly suggestive of lung cancer, and misdiagnosis can be made leading to significantly delay in the initiation of appropriate treatment and causing increasing in the morbidity and mortality. To diagnose the infectious nature of the lesions, a biopsy is usually required. A detailed history, clinical examination, radiological examination, and histological tests helped in the diagnosis of the patient. We highlight the importance of suspicion, careful general examination, radiological assessment and histological tests to confirm the diagnosis of fungal mass(aspergilloma) mimicking as lung carcinoma.
114 AN UNUSUAL FOREIGN BODY – A METAL TACK IN NASAL CAVITY , *Dr. Nagargoje Punam N., Dr. Mazgaonkar Firdos S., Dr. Waghule Ridhima M., Dr. Kale Tushar R.
Adult with nasal foreign bodies are rare. Whenever the adult patients present with nasal foreign bodies, the underlying psychiatric disorder must be searched for. This report describes an undetected nasal foreign object in a mentally retarded 15 year old girl. A metal tack was discovered in lateral cephalograph lodged in the patient’s left nostril. Which was subsequently removed under general anesthesia. We present here a unique case of foreign body inside nasal cavity which was accidentally discovered preoperatively.
115 RESEARCH IN AYURVEDA , *Dr. Maheshkumar Nilkanth Chaudhari, M.S., Ph.D. (Shalya-Tantra)
 Research is an unending process. It is necessary and a requisite for the development process and enhancement of the subject. The research yields more effective & quicker result gives benefit in multiple directions. Hence research is a must in the field of Ayurveda also. To a class of great thinker, Ayurveda is a such fund of knowledge, which contains in its self. The basic theory & principles which requires no research. Ayurvedic theory & principles are themselves self supported & scientific. They are eternals & require no change at all. As for example, the principle & laws of gravitation, electricity, electronics etc. These do not requires any more research may be that the further research may make a contribution to the main stream of the principles. The flow of modern research, in the law of gravitation may throw more light on the basic principle go more deep & find out the details of the law of gravitation in origin. The original law of gravitation remain the same untouch, but by new research work, we get clear cut picture of the same original law. Regarding Ayurveda, Ayurveda has such laws, rules, theories & basic principles which requires no change & no research work in them to make it clear, for instance. The most proven laws & principles of upto this date, by diagnosing the causes of disease & selection of the appropriate drug in treating the same disease. In this article, I discuss regarding some fundamental principles of Ayurveda research is essential in Ayurveda but without disturbing it‟s basic principle. More explaination of these principles according to current era rather than research in literature because it is timely tested. So it is more important to decide first the direction of research in Ayurveda. Though, there is high scope of research in Ayurveda. Research has to be made as per subject wise. Most of the things in Ayurveda are new for modern world. Which they don‟t touch till today. So this topic of research in Ayurveda is elucidate here.
116 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM WITH MARKETED MATRIX TABLET AS CONTROLLED RELEASE , Rina G. Maskare*, Nitin H. Indurwade and Vijaya Patle
The objective of the present study was to develop hydrophilic polymer and hydrophobic polymer based matrix Losartan potassium controlled release tablets which can release the drug up to time of 12 hrs in predetermined rate using 32 factorial design. The CR (controlled release) tablets of Losartan potassium were prepared employing different concentrations of HPMC K100 and ethyl cellulose in different combinations as rate retardants by Direct Compression technique. Statistical elucidations of polynomials were established for all the responses. The formulations were evaluated for pre compression and post compression parameters. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed design for development of Losartan potassium sustained release tablets with optimized properties. The formulation was fabricated with a very less polymer ratio and show a very a good release profile at the end of 20th hours.
117 PALITYA AND ITS TREATMENT PROTOCAL , Dr. Jyoti Gabel* and Dr. Namrata Khobragade*
In our samhita Granthas has not described Palitya Rog as a separated chapter but it has mention under the kshudra Rog chapter. It has described charak samhita chikitsa sthan 26, sushrut Sanhita 13, ashtang Hriday 23, bhav prakash madhyam Khand 61, yogratnakar 44. Also it has described madhav nidan, sharangdhar Samhita, the meaning of kshudra roga is minute, diminuative, tiny, very small and Little means which disease who has described very small is called kshudra roga. In palitya Roga dost dosa, dushya, nidan, samprapti are not cleared so it is described under the kshudra Roga.
118 EXTERNAL APICAL ROOT RESORPTION IN ORTHODONTIC PATIENTS: AN OVERVIEW , Dr. Tulika Tripathi*
External apical root resorption (EARR) is an inevitable complication of fixed orthodontic treatment. EARR is multifactorial, influenced by a combination of environmental and host factors. Orthodontist should know the risk factors of EARR and do everything to reduce this. This review describes the literature regarding the association between orthodontic treatment and EARR.
119 Q ABSORBANCE METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF PARACETAMOL AND ORPHENADRINE CITRATE IN THEIR COMBINED PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS , Mahmoud M. Sebaiy* and Amr A. Mattar
A simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric method was settled for simultaneous determination of paracetamol and orphenadrine citrate in their pure form and in pharmaceutical formulation. Q Absorbance has been used in simultaneous determination of both drugs without prior separation. Q Absorbance method parameters were validated according to ICH guidelines in which accuracy, precision, repeatability and robustness were found in accepted limits. Advantages and disadvantages of Q Absorbance were discussed and statistical comparison between the proposed method and the reference method was performed.
120 SYNTHESIS OF SOME DIPEPTIDES CONTAINING HETEROCYCLE ISO-NICOTINIC ACID AS AN ANTIMICROBIAL AGENT , Khushi Dethe* and Kundan Tiwari
Proteins and peptides are continued to grow in medications for their potential use in current drug therapy and in protein drug market. The Peptide based drugs are use to cure cancer as well as antimicrobial agent. Most of the synthetic molecules have been design to prevent cell proliferation, Multiplication of microbial cells. Most of the peptide when attach to heterocyclic compounds shows most of the activity like antimicrobial activity, antifungal, antiemetics etc. The wide varieties of biopeptides have been discovered from last two decades. Condensation of heterocyclic moiety viz nicotinic acid, thiazole, coumarin, quinoline, furan, imidazole etc with peptides containing amino acids shows potent biological activities.
121 A CASE REPORT OF INCIDENTAL LEIOMYOMA OF GE JUNCTION IN A CASE OF CHRONIC CHOLECYSTITIS , *Jessicka S. Shah, Girish D. Bakhshi, Abhijeet A. Jain, Aditya B. Marathe and Avinash V. Gonnade
Esophageal leiomyomas are rare tumors. They may be symptomatic or an incidental finding. Leiomyomas of gastroesophageal junction may mimic Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). Surgical excision followed by histological analysis gives the final diagnosis. We present a case of incidental esophageal leiomyoma which was diagnosed as GIST on imaging done for cholecystitis. A brief case report with review of literature is presented.
122 STUDY OF EFFECT OF STERCULIA FOETIDA LINN.(STERCULIACEAE) SEEDS ON INSULIN RESISTANCE IN TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS IN RATS , *Hemalata Dange and Dr. Pramod Ingale
Diabetes prevalence is increasing at an accelerating rate approaching epidemic levels. Type II Diabetes is heterogeneous, progressive disorder initially characterized by glucose intolerance and compensatory hyperinsulinaemia which in later stages progress to insulin resistance and impaired beta cell function. Type II Diabetes which accounts for 90-95% of diabetic cases is largely caused by social and Lifestyle that can be readily controlled. Obesity is one of the major factors which contribute in development of Diabetes Mellitus.[1] Obesity leads to an increase in the adipose tissue mass. This in turn triggers insulin Resistance in fat, skeletal muscle and liver leading to Type II Diabetes Mellitus. Current research is focused on the development of newer drug leads from phytoconstituents of medicinal plants which have been used in traditional practices, so as to get more potential and effective agents with lesser side effects than existing agents.[3]
123 PREVALENCE OF ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA AMONG PUPILS OF ALMAJIRI INTEGRATED MODERN BOARDING SCHOOL, SOKOTO, SOKOTO STATE-NIGERIA , Ibrahim J.*, Lema S. Y., Suleiman J. and H. A. Dalijan
Entamoeba histolytica is still considered a major public health problem and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries of the world because of lack of safe portable water and low level of hygiene due to high level of poverty. This study determined the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica among pupils of Almajiri School Sokoto, sokoto State, Nigeria. A total of 120 stool samples were examined for E. histolytica cyst and trophozoites using microscopic formal ether sedimentation techniques. Sixty (50%) of the samples were found positive for the parasite. Male 60/120 (50%) were positive for amoebiasis since no female subjects were recruited for this research, but there was no statistical association between prevalence and gender (P˂0.05). Pupils within age group 7-8 years old (63.83%) has the highest rate of infection. There was a positive association between prevalence and age (P˂0.05). Insignificance highest prevalence of (85.00%) and (53.33%) was recorded in class one pupils and Fulani tribe (P˂0.05). the highest prevalence of (60.94), (60.66) and (53.33) was recorded among pupils who drinking water fetched from river/stream, use bush as toilet and lives in rural areas (P˂0.05). Improved sanitation, personal hygiene, health education and policy for regular de-worming of pupils by parents and government will decrease the rate of infections.
124 IMPORTANCE OF AYURVEDIC DIETARY GUIDELINES W.S.R. To AAHAARA VIDHI VIDHANA , *Dr. N. R. Navoday Raju and Joshi B. Ravi and Vaishnav Mauli
Aahaara (food) is an essential element for creation and continuation of life. There are many principles prescribed in the form of dietary guidelines but Ayurvedic dietary guidelines are unique in their own way. Aahaara Vidhi Vidhana focuses on multi-dimensional health benefits of Aahaara. This article aims at understanding the importance of Ayurvedic dietary guidelines with respect to vast health benefits.
125 STUDY OF CHOLESTEATOMA CASES AT ALMOUWASAT UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL, DAMASCUS, SYRIA , Louei Darjazini Nahas, Ahmad Hamsho, Karim AlHenedi*, Imad Al Khija and Mohamd Hasan AlSousi
Objective: This study aimed to study the prevalence of cholesteatomas and its complications and the effect it conducts on auditory ossicles. Materials and Methods: This study was a retrospective study of the files of the patients who reviewed AlMouwasat University Hospital and were diagnosed with middle ear cholesteatomas. This study included all cases from 1/1/2016 to 30/11/2019. Only the authors to ensure the privacy collected all the data and all the names and personal information were blinded. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 25.0. Results: 27% of all patients were children (≤16 years old) and 73% were adults (>16 years old). Males were more dominant with 54% compared to females with 46%. Otorrhea was found in 91.2%, hypoacusis in 87.8%, tinnitus in 32.7% and vertigo in 24.5%. Labyrinthine fistula was found in 2 cases and neurological symptoms (facial nerve palsy) in 4 cases. Erosion of ossicles was found in 79% with the Incus in 91.3%, Stapes in 50% and Malleus in 38%. Conclusion: The etiology of cholesteatomas remains unknown. Bigger epidemiological and statistical data, surgical reports, and conclusions of experimental studies are needed, as they may provide support for clarifying the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma.
126 ROLE OF PHARMACIST IN MANAGEMENT OF DRUG INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY , Mohamed Ashraf PT* and Nehal Ahmed ElKilany
Drug induced kidney injury is a frequent adverse event which can be costly and may require multiple interventions even leading to hospitalization.[4] A growing number of patients are developing drug-induced nephrotoxicity due to a number of factors including polypharmacy and exposure to potentially nephrotoxic therapeutic & diagnostic procedures. Pharmacists can play a key role in identifying possible causes of drug-induced kidney injury and limit their toxic effect by identifying causative agents and suggesting appropriate substitutions.[6]
127 PEUTZ-JEGHERS SYNDROME: ABOUT A NEW CASE REPORT , M. A. Lkousse*, K. Gharbi, A. Elfarouki, S. Roudi, A. Aiterrami, S. Oubaha and Z. Samlani and K. Krati
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is an unusual gastrointestinal hamartomatous polyposis, inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, defined by the association of periorificial lentiginosis with gastrointestinal, pulmonary and reproductive organs involvement. The case of a 18 years old man with an intussusception is reported. A polyp was proved to be the cause of the intussusception. Histologically, it was a hamartoma. Most of these patients have recurrent episodes of intussusception caused by polyps, with an increased risk of malignant disease, and require endoscopic screening and regular periodic monitoring.
128 SELECTED RENAL OXIDATIVE STRESS MARKERS AND LIPID PROFILE CHANGES DUE TO LONG TERM CONSUMPTION OF INSTANT NOODLES IN ADULT WISTAR RATS , Garba Abdullahi, Adjene Josiah Obaghwarhievwo and *Odigie Mike Osagie
Reports have linked the levels of renal antioxidant markers to the development of kidney disease. Though the effects of instant noodles consumption on the levels of these markers and serum lipid profile remain vague and poorly established, this study sought to investigate the long term consumption of instant noodles on selected oxidative stress markers and lipid profile levels of Wistar rats. Fifty (50) adult wistar rats of an average weight of 200g were purchased for the study. After fourteen (14) days of acclimatization, the rats were then grouped into five (5) groups of ten (10) rats each. While Group A was fed with cooked instant noodle (Type A), group B received cooked instant noodles mixed with its spice, whereas, group C and D were respectively fed with cooked instant noodles (type B) and type B with spice. Lastly, group E (Control) rats received standard rat chow and the other animals were given water ad libitum. At the end of administration of test substances, rats were sacrificed (by cervical dislocation) and kidney tissue harvested and homogenized for assay of selected oxidative stress markers [Catalase, Malonyldialdehyde (MDA), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide Dismutase (SOD)]. Blood sample was also collected and subjected to biochemical analysis of various levels of lipid profile [Triglycerides (TG) Total Cholesterol (TC), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)]. After data collation, result showed a statistically insignificant increase (p < 0.05) in serum lipid levels of all treated animals as against those of the control group. Renal antioxidant enzyme levels, we observed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) decrease in Catalase, SOD and GPx concentrations in the treatment group. However there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in MDA levels in the treatment groups as compared with control, which was a strong indication that renal cortical structures were compromised. Study also observed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) increase in all assayed lipid profiles levels. We strongly recommend further studies aimed at corroborating these findings.
129 SERUM PENTOSIDINE ASSAY AMONG DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY PATIENTS IN SOUTH-SOUTH NIGERIA , *Orugbo V. P.
Introduction: AGEs have been implicated in the causation of chronic renal failure, long term dialysis-related amyloidosis and atherosclerosis. One of such is pentosidine on which there is a paucity of literature on its biomarker properties for nephropathy in sub-saharan Africa. This study aimed to assess serum Pentosidine levels in diabetic nephropathy. Method: A hospital based cross sectional study involving 80 DN cases being managed in the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. The controls were 80 non diabetic persons from the University of Benin Teaching Hospital. The cases were selected using systematic sampling method and data collected using structured questionnaire after obtaining informed consent. They were sampled for plasma Pentosidine, Serum Creatinine, Serum Urea, Urinary Albumin and Creatinine. Urinary albumin-to- creatinine ratio and creatinine based glomerular filtration rate were calculated from the results. Data was analyzed using IBM SPSS version 22 and presented in form of tables, charts and graphs. Results: Of the total of 160 patients, 80 were DN cases and 80 were non diabetic controls. The study showed a significant difference between the mean levels of serum creatinine and urea, urinary creatinine and albumin, eGFR, and serum pentosidine levels between the cases and controls. The diagnostic accuracy of pentosidine assay in DN was 96.86% compared to 95.62% of UACR. Conclusion: Serum pentosidine assay was shown to have a high diagnostic accuracy in diagnosing diabetic nephropathy.
130 LUBANOID - A NEW NATURAL TOPICAL FOR ANAL FISSURE , Dr. Luay Rashan, Dr. Mohammed Rishan and Dr. Rafie Hamidpour*
An anal fissure is a small tear in the thin, moist tissue (mucosa) that lines the anus. An anal fissure may occur when you pass hard or large stools during a bowel movement or frequent diarrhea can also tear the skin around the anus. Anal fissures typically cause pain and bleeding with bowel movements. You also may experience spasms in the ring of muscle at the end of the anus. Anal fissures are very common in young infants but can affect people of any age and it is often seen in infants and young children since constipation is a common problem in these age groups. Other common causes include; straining during childbirth or bowel movements, inflammatory bowel disease, such as Crohn’s disease, decreased blood flow to the anorectal area overly tight or spastic anal sphincter muscles. In rare cases, an anal fissure may develop due to anal cancer, HIV, tuberculosis, syphilis and herpes. Anal fissures affect males and females equally; however, an anterior fissure is more likely to develop in women (25%) than in men (8%). Although anal fissures are the most common cause of rectal bleeding in infants, they are primarily seen in young adults. Eighty-seven percent of people with a chronic anal fissure are between the ages of 20 and 60 years. The incidence of anal fissure is around 1 in 350 adults. Anal fissures in children may indicate sexual abuse. Most anal fissures get better with simple treatments, such as increased fiber intake or sit baths. Some people with anal fissures may need medication or, occasionally, surgery. Lubanoid is an herbal-based evidence topical product formulated from six natural, safe and monographic herbal ingredients, which is designed specifically as a remedy for anal fissures, foot fissures, piles and inflamed veins such as varicose and spider veins. Studies conducted in vitro, in vivo and clinically showed that Lubanoid is a novel synergistic composition with potential anti-inflammatory, analgesic and healing effects and found superior in its activity compared with some drugs used currently in the clinics.
131 PROSTALUBAN - A NOVEL REMEDY FOR BENIGN PROSTATE HYPERPLASIA , Dr. Luay Rashan, Dr. Mohammed Rishan and Dr. Rafie Hamidpour*
Benign prostatic hyperplasia also called prostate gland enlargement, is a non-malignant enlargement hyperplasia, is one of the most common diseases in ageing men, which can lead to lower urinary tract symptoms. An enlarged prostate gland can cause uncomfortable urinary symptoms, such as blocking the flow of urine out of the bladder. It can also cause bladder, urinary tract or kidney problems. It can also cause bladder, urinary tract or kidney problems. The prevalence of BPH increases after the age of 40 years, with a prevalence of 8%-60% at age 90 years. Although the exact cause is unknown, however, the prevalence of benign prostatic hyperplasia depends on many factors such as, age, race, hormones, persistent inflammation, genetics, lifestyle, bacterial infection, obesity. Recent reports suggest the strong relationship of clinical BPH with metabolic syndrome and erectile dysfunction. A wide variety of treatments are available for enlarged prostate, including medication, minimally invasive therapies and surgery. Among medications there are two main medication classes for benign prostatic hyperplasia management , these are the alpha-blockers and 5α-reductase inhibitors. On the other hand, there are also natural remedies that may work to combat enlarged prostate symptoms such as using saw palemetto, stinging nettle, beta-sitosterols and others. However, the evidence is debatable on whether these treatments actually work, and research continues to look into a multi-targeted and multi-channel molecule with potential anti-inflammatory activity that modulate several targeting properties. ProstaLuban is a novel synergistic composition that combines potentially multi targeted well-researched standardized extract from Omani frankincense Boswellia sacra oleaogum resin with other know researched ingredients such as pygeum, saw palemetto extracts, nettle extracts and zinc oxide. This product is significantly better as an anti-inflammatory agent compared with other available natural remedies.
132 LUBANHEAL – A NATURAL TOPICAL REMEDY FOR BURNS AND WOUND HEALING , Dr. Luay Rashan, Dr. Mohammed Rishan and Dr. Rafie Hamidpour*
Burns are a type of injury caused by injury to the skin from excessive heat or another injury. The heat can be the result of thermal, electrical, chemical, or electromagnetic energy. Most burn accidents happen at home. About 75% of all burn injuries in children are preventable. Both infants and older adults are at the greatest risk for burn injury. Whereas, wounds are injuries that break the skin or other body tissues. They include cuts, scrapes, scratches, and punctured skin. They often happen because of an accident, but surgery, sutures, and stitches also cause wounds. An estimated 180 000 deaths every year are caused by burns – the vast majority occur in low- and middle-income country. A 2018 retrospective analysis of Medicare beneficiaries identified that 8.2 million people had wounds with or without infections.es. In the United States, 3% of the population>65 years of age have open wounds. By 2020, the US government estimates that the elderly population will be over 55 million, suggesting that chronic wounds will continue to be an increasingly persistent problem in this population. Treatment options depends on type and severity of both burns and wounds and whether other structures beyond the dermis are affected. LubanHeal is a new herbal-based evidence topical preparation formulated from five natural, safe and monographic ingredients which is designed specifically as a remedy for both burns and wounds. It combines Commiphora myrrh gum resin standardized extract mixed with two other standardized extracts obtained from Omani Boswellia sacra gum resin and Aloe vera plus natural honey and sesame oil. This unique blend of ingredients showed simultaneous anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antibacterial and healing benefits.
133 MICRODISCECTOMY FOR LUMBAR DISC USING CASPAR RETRACTOR , *Dr. Md. Moshiur Rahman, Dr. S.I.M. Khairun Nabi Khan, Dr. Robert Ahmed Khan, Dr. Md Rokibul Islam, Dr. K. M. Ziaur Rahman and Prof. Mainul Haque Sarker
Background: Caspar retractor is being used by many neurosurgeons over the years for microdiscectomy in lumbar disc prolapse surgery. Microdiscectomy and minimally invasive discectomy decrease surgical exposure and trauma and have success rates of approximately 90%. Minimal access spinal technologies aim primarily at minimizing the trauma associated with surgical exposure of the spine. This technique offers a small incision, excellent magnification, gentle handling of the nerve root, and good exposure. The outcome of surgery depends on the correct level diagnosis and patient selection. Objective: The main aim of the study is to assess the surgical outcome of microdiscectomy for lumbar disc prolapse using Caspar retractor. Method: This is a retrospective study. A total 650 cases were observed in a private hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Male was 433 and female 217. Study period was 2009 to 2017. Minimum follow up period was 2 years. More than one level surgery was in 24 cases. Inclusion criteria was back pain with sciatica which was not relieved by conservative treatment for 8 weeks. Patients having cauda equina syndrome was excluded from the study. Results: Immediately after surgery all patients were pain free. 32 patients needed revision surgery. 14 patients had iatrogenic dural tears. 6 patients had discitis. Wrong level exploration was in 16 patients in whom the nerve root was not tight, and the next level found pathological intra-operatively. There was no direct nerve root injury though 3 patients had weak extensors of toes after surgery which was recovered over 2-3 months probably due to traction injury. Conclusion: Microdiscectomy in lumbar disc surgery using Casper retractor through a paramedian incision has many advantages including short hospital stay, less tissue trauma and early recovery. Surgical outcome of this procedure depends on clinical correlation and the correct level surgery.
134 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PHYTOMEDECINE MATHESIA, A DRUG USE AGAINST BURULI ULCER IN REPUBLIC DEMOCRATIC OF THE CONGO (DRC) , Helmont Nkasa Liwata, Clément Inkoto Liyongo*, Jean Claude Muzomwe Mayaliwa, Edith Masengo Ilunga, Caleb Muzomwe Mumba, Christophe Mulenga Mbombo and Taba Kalulu Muzele
Buruli ulcer is a debilitating skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. In recent years, the disease has become an important public health problem in an increasing number of tropical and subtropical countries. In this study the aims was to determine the phytochemical composition and to assess the antibacterial activity of Phytomedecine Mathesia. This study has place and duration in Faculty of Science, University of Kinshasa, between November 2012 and April 2013. The antibacterial activity of Mathesia extract was assessed using disc diffusion and micro-dilution methods respectively. The disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of extract while the micro-dilution method was performed to determine their Minimal Inhibitory Concentration. This study revealed presence of alkaloids reducing sugars, steroids, terpenes and total polyphenols like tannins, flavonoids and saponins in Mathesia extract. The results of this study revealed that extract of Mathesia possesses antibacterial activity. This study provides a scientific basis for the antibacterial activity of Mathesia extract. Isolation and purification of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial new leads compounds.
135 BRUNNER'S GLAND HAMARTOMA: A CASE REPORT , M. A. Lkousse*, K. Gharbi, A. Elfarouki, Y. Ismail, J. Atmani, A. Aiterrami, S. Oubaha, Z. Semlani, K. Krati
Adenomas or hamartomas of the Brunner glands are small benign lesions, extremely rare and most often discovered by chance during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. These lesions tend to be asymptomatic, but patients may present with symptoms of duodenal obstruction or bleeding. Histologically, a Brunner's adenoma comprises the cells components of the Brunner gland, fat and muscle cells. We report the case of a 64-year-old woman with chronic epigastric pain secondary to a lesion in the second duodenum. The lesion was successfully removed by surgery. No significant complications were observed. Histology was compatible with a hamartoma of the Brunner's gland.
136 COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN MICROSCOPIC AND ENDOSCOPIC SURGERY IN INTRACRANIAL ARACHNOID CYSTS , *Dr. Md. Moshiur Rahman, Dr. S.I.M. Khairun Nabi Khan, Dr. Robert Ahmed Khan, Dr. Md. Rokibul Islam, Dr. K. M. Ziaur Rahman and Prof. Mainul Haque Sarker
Background: Endoscopic or microscopic management for patient of intracranial arachnoid cysts are a surgeons choice and according to availability. Depending on the location of the cyst the surgeon may choose the procedure. Cortical cysts are challenging. Endoscopic fenestrations are less invasive and patients choice though the outcome is similar in both procedures. Objective: The main objective of this study is to compare the surgical outcome of endoscopic and microscopic management of intracranial arachnoid cysts. Method: A total 28 patients were studied retrospectively from 2009 to 2017 in private hospitals Dhaka, Bangladesh. The male and female ratio was 3:2. Both groups carry equal number of patients (14). [Endoscopic and microscopic] Results: Over 85% patients had satisfactory recovery. One patient required epilepsy surgery unrelated to cyst. Higher success rate in endoscopic procedure is noted. Sylvian cysts are most common in both groups. Conclusion: Both microscopic and endoscopic procedures are safe in intracranial arachnoid cysts. Endoscopic fenestration is less traumatic and gives better result though the outcome of surgery is almost similar.
137 METASTATIC RECURRENCE OF PARA TESTICULAR RHABDOMYOSARCOMA: ABOUT A CASE WITH REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE , *K. Mazouz, M. Saadoun, M. Raouah Y. Ammor, S. Barkich, H. Abourazzek, H. Eddaoualline, H. Sami, A. Zayan, D. Nimbuna, Z. Kaitoni, A. Elmatlini, M. Laanigri, Y. Bouchabaka, S. Laatitioui, M. Darfaoui, I. Lalya, A. El Omrani and M. Khouchani
Para-testicular rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a rare mesenchymal tumor that can develop from the spermatic cord, epididymis or testicular vaginal. It constitutes 7% of cases of rhabdmyosarome The diagnosis requires histological confirmation. The treatment must be multimodal in view of the aggressiveness of these tumors, based on surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We report the observation of a paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma case in metastatic recurrence. In the light of these clinical data we will discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities.
138 AQUEOUS ROOT BARK EXTRACT OF NAUCLEA LATIFOLIA PREVENTS INFLAMMATION AND REDUCES PAIN IN MICE , Etti, Imaobong Christopher*, Akpan, Mary Richard and Akwaowo Mfonobong
Nauclea latifolia Smith is a valuable medicinal plant used in the traditional medicine and reported to possess a wide spectrum of medicinal properties. The focus of this study was to evaluate the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous root bark extract of Nauclea latifolia, in mice after determining its median lethal dose. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using a phlogistic agent (egg albumin) and xylene-induced ear edema, while the anti-nociceptive activity was evaluated using the acetic acid induced mouse writhing and the hot-plate test. These activities were compared to those of a standard, acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg). Nauclea latifolia root bark extract (150, 299 & 449 mg/kg) inhibited xylene-induced ear edema in mice (inhibition ratio: 3.5 %, 27.6 %, and 69.0 %, respectively) and dose dependently decreased the hind paw edema with a percentage inhibition of 10 %, 63 % and 90 % respectively. There was a significant amelioration of acetic acid increased vascular permeability in mice (inhibition ratio: 47.9 %, and 72.0 %) pretreated with 299 & 449 mg/kg of the aqueous root back extract respectively. A significant increase in pain reaction time (17.5s, 44.2s) was observed in animals treated with 299 mg/kg and 449 mg/kg of the extract in the hot-plate test when compared to the control group treated with distilled water whose pain threshold was seen within 7.7 seconds. In each of the different models used, the 449 mg/kg dose of the extract showed a greater anti-inflammatory as well as anti-nociceptive effect than 100 mg/kg of acetylsalicylic acid. The Nauclea latifolia root bark extract if exploited may be a better alternative for the management of pain and inflammation.
139 FEATURES OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS AND THE HUMAN ORGANISM IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISEASES , *Abdiganieva S. R.
The role of the virus in the induction of carcinogenesis is still not fully understood. It can participate in genetic alterations of lymphocytes, leading to malignant transformation of these cells, and contribute to immunodeficiency states, against the background of which there is an increased proliferation of neoplasm. There is no direct relationship between the already developed oncopathology in conditions of virus association and the worst outcome of the disease, however, antiviral prophylaxis has a positive effect on the course of lymphoma treatment.
140 PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES IN RELATION TO RISK FACTORS AMONG SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN IN GWANDU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KEBBI STATE, NIGERIA , *Dalijan H. A., Adamu T., Yahaya M. M., Isah B. A. and Suleiman J.
Epidemiological information on the prevalence of various intestinal parasitic infections and identification of local risk factors in different region/localities is a prerequisite to develop appropriate control measures. Hence the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in relation to risk factors among school aged children in Gwandu LGA. A cross sectional study involving 331 school pupils was conducted from December 2015 to May 2016. Structured questionnaires were used to identify environmental, socio-demographic and behavioral factors. Stool specimens were collected from the study subjects and examined for parasites using formol-ether concentration technique. An overall prevalence of 26.9% (89 of 331 children) was obtained. The most prevalent intestinal parasites identified were Ascaris lumbricoides 74(22.4%), Trichuris trichiura 4(1.2%) and mixed infection had the prevalence of 3.3%(11). Intestinal parasites prevalence was higher in children lacking access to safe drinking water as well as those taking fresh/raw vegetables (p<0.05). In conclusion, intestinal parasites infection is a health problem among school aged children. Therefore, interventions including improvement of sanitation, provision of safe drinking water, and health education on personal hygiene to the students should be given (Asrat, et al., 2011).
141 EVALUATION OF PROXIMATE, MINERALS AND PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF GARCINIA KOLA CULTIVATED IN ESSIEN UDIM, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA , E. J. Abai*, K. E. Essien and I. O. Ekpenyong
Garcinia kola is a dicotyledonous plant found in moist rain forests and swamps. It seeds are edible and are consumed for their multiple property. Samples of Garcinia kola seeds were analysed for their nutritional composition, minerals constituents and phytochemical composition. The proximate analyses showed that the seed sample has high level of carbohydrate 75.03%, little amount of Crude fibre 3.94%, ash content 4.17%, crude fat 3.80% and protein 3.06%. Also, a considerable level 9.28% of Moisture was shown. This composition shows that the sample could be a good source of carbohydrate, fibre, fat and protein. The phytochemical parameters carried out were flavonoids, Alkaloids, Saponins, Tannin, Oxalate, Phytate, and HCN. The result shows a high level of flavonoids (9.20%), Oxalate (8.85%) and Saponins (8.70%). Alkaloids and HCN were present in considerable amount 6.50% and 4.55% respectively. But Phytates and Tannins were present in negligible amount, 0.57% and 1.02% respectively. The mineral contents were found in moderate amount. Garcinia kola seed could be a good source of minerals despite the negligible amount of anti-nutrients found that could prevent the adsorption of these minerals.
142 PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL PARASITES IN SCHOOL AGED PUPILS IN GWANDU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF KEBBI STATE, NIGERIA , *Dalijan H. A., Adamu T., Yahaya M. M., Isah B. A., and Suleiman J.
Intestinal parasites are one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in Nigeria. The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites among school aged pupils of six selected primary schools in Wando Local Government Area of Kebbi State. The study was carried out during the period of December 2015 to May 2016. A total of three hundred and thirty one (331) samples were examined using the formol ether concentration technique revealing an overall prevalence of 89(26.9%). Ascaris lumbricoides had the prevalence of 74(22.4%), Trichuris trichiura had the prevalence of 4(1.2%), while multi-parasitism had the prevalence of 11(3.3%). The prevalence of infection was noted to be higher in females pupils 49(31.0%) compared with the male pupils 40(23.1%). Also among the age group examined, a higher prevalence was observed in children between 5 and 9 years with 61(28.1%) than 10 and 14 years with 28(24.6%). However, in both cases, the difference in the prevalence was not statistically significant (p>0.05).
143 KOHL AN EYE COSMETIC PRODUCT: LEAD EXPOSURE AND RISK MANAGEMENT. REVIEW , Brahim Mojemmi*, Yassir El Alaoui, Badr Adouani, Rachid Nejjari, Mohammed O. B. Idrissi, M. Bouatia
Kohl (surma) is a traditional cosmetic product for the eyes applied using a wooden or plastic stick. It is a powdery substance, usually of a dark color. It is widely used by women in different region of the world (Asia and North Africa). Kohl is traditionally prepared at home or industrially under different names and a variety of packaging. The chemical composition of kohl is different to from one product to another, but the lead is the most element find in the form of galena (lead sulfide). multiple of analytical methods are used to measure the content of lead and other element in kohl such Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEP) and Raman spectroscopy. Many studies correlate lead poisoning with use of Kohl. To reduce the lead content in cosmetics the regulatory agencies in some countries have established prerogatives for the import and use of cosmetics based on lead. The aim of this article is to carry out a literature review on established studies to list the different types of kohl and their composition and analytical techniques used for the control, and also report the declared cases of kohl poisoning.
144 IS ROUTINE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF CERVICAL POLYPS NECESSARY? , Faten Limaiem* and Saadia Bouraoui
Background: Cervical polyps are the foremost common benign neoplasms of the cervix with the range of prevalence reported as 1.5-10%. Although most cervical polyps are benign, 0.2-1.7% of them are related to malignancy. Aim: To assess the prevalence of malignancy and dysplasia in cervical polyps and to judge whether cervical polyps got to be removed routinely. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 541 cases of cervical polyps that were diagnosed at the pathology department of Mongi Slim hospital over a nine-year period (January 2007 - October 2016). Patients’ age, menopausal status and pathological findings were recorded. Results: The age of our patients ranged between 23 and 86 years aged (mean = 47 years). Forty-seven women with cervical polyps presented with vaginal bleeding (8.68%) while the remaining were either asymptomatic or the rationale for presentation wasn't documented. Among 541 cervical polyps, only two cases (0.37%) of malignancy were encountered which were endometrioid adenocarcinoma and cervical adenosarcoma. Two leiomyomas, one adenomyoma and four condylomas were also diagnosed. There have been also dysplastic (0.74%), metaplastic (3.69%) and inflammatory (26%) changes. Accompanying endometrial pathologies were endometrial polyp (0.92%) (n=5) and endometrial hyperplasia without atypia (0.18%) (n=1). Conclusions: Our data indicate that the prevalence of malignancy (0.37%) and dysplasia (0.74%) is comparatively uncommon on cervical polyps. Routine removal of cervical polyps, although not mandatory, seems clinically prudent because pathological evaluation is required to verify the diagnosis and to rule out other possibilities.
145 IMPACT OF TYG RELATED PARAMETERS (TYG INDEX, TYG-BMI, TYG-WC) AND ADIPOSITY INDICATORS (VAI, LAP, BAI) ON ADULT POPULATION , Dr. Shamima Yasmin*, Dr. Md. Sarwar Murshed Alam, Dr. Shamima Afrin, Dr. Md. Shohorab Hossain, Dr. Sharkia Khanam Rosy, Dr. Sharmin Sultana and Dr. Md. Matiur Rahman
Background: Since the measurement of fasting insulin is cumbersome with no standard assay available, an insulin-free equation for estimating insulin resistance was sought and developed. In 2010, the product of the fasting levels of triglycerides and glucose (TyG), the so-called triglycerides and glucose index (TyG index), was suggested as a useful surrogate measure for insulin resistance in healthy adults. Objective: To calculate TyG related parameters (TyG index, TyG-BMI, TyG-WC) and adiposity indicators (VAI, LAP, BAI) of study subjects. Method: Cross sectional analytical study. Result: Our study recommended TyG-WC, TyG-BMI and TyG index as better predictors of IR in adult individuals.
146 DETERMINATION OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN TABLETS FROM EU AND BOSNIAN MARKETS , Larisa Alagić-Džambić*, Minela Dacić, Tea Ferhatović and Mirsad Džambić
The subject of this study are six samples of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride film tablets, through product identification and characterization, in accordance with applicable pharmacopoeias and guidelines. Objectives of the thesis are: Test the process parameters of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride film tablet and test the content of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride film tablets.
147 PREVALENCE OF MICROALBUMINURIA AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS AT BENUE STATE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL, MAKURDI, NORTH CENTRAL, NIGERIA , Monday O. Ogiator*, Joy Ugwuanyi, Paul Asor, Ochoche O. Ijachi and Samuel Onogwu
Microalbuminuria is an early marker of overt nephropathy and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients. Owing to the above, monitoring microalbuminuria in diabetes is important to prevent or delay overt nephropathy and cardiovascular events which is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria and associated risk factors among Type 2 diabetic patients seen at Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi. Methods: One hundred and four type 2 diabetic patients attending clinic at Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi were screened for microalbuminuria. Result: Thirty eight (36.5%) patients had microalbuminuria while 66 (63.5%) had microalbuminuria. The study also revealed that poor glycaemic control, hypertension and duration of diabetes mellitus is associated with microalbuminuria. Conclusion: The prevalence of 36.5% microalbuminuric Type 2 diabetic patients from our study indicates high predisposition to cardiovascular events and renal impairment in these patients. This calls for prevention and early intervention to stop or delay progression to renal damage and end stage renal failure.
148 FUNCTIONAL CHANGES OF KIDNEYS IN PATIENTS WITH PNEUMONIA , *Muminov Davron Kadirovich
The aim of the study: Assess the functional state of the kidneys in patients with pneumonia, depending on the premorbid background (the presence of CKD). Material and methods: 120 patients with pneumonia (Pn) were examined, of which 80 patients developed the disease against the background of chronic kidney disease (Pn+ CKD group). A comparative study of the functional state of the kidneys in the groups Pn and Pn + CKD was carried out. AKI was diagnosed in 68 patients of the PN group + CKD (85%) and in 23 patients of the PN group (57.5%). It is also proven that in patients with pneumonia, creatinine concentration gradually increases, and the peak load is 3-4 days, and then decreases. Conclusion: Changes in renal function indicators are less favorable for patients with background CKD.
149 BIOCHEMICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF RADISH MICROGREEN AND CLOVER ETIOLATED SPROUTS AGAINST DIABETIC MELLITUS RATS , Tahany A. A. Aly, Fayed Attia Koutb, Farid M.*, Sayed A. Fayed, Amal M. Ahmed and Emam A. ELRahim
In this work, radish microgreen and clover etiolated sprouts were added of semi-modified diet (10%) for 6 weeks in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (60 mg/kg) to investigate their effect on blood sugar, liver and kidneys function and organ histopathology. The results revealed a significant elevation in blood sugar, urea, AST, ALT activities, creatinine and uric acid in rat than the control group animal. Also, the increased and decreased values by STZ-diabetic animal were improved by 10% semi-modified diet. Histopathological analysis of various organ tissues resulted in a significant alteration which is attributable to the STZ injection, while radish microgreen and clover etiolated sprouts semi-modified diet showed amelioration in STZ influences on organ. From the data, it may be concluded that Radish microgreen and clover etiolated sprouts has the potential to alleviate hyperglycemia and possess antioxidant effects in cases of diabetic state or for prevention of this disease.
150 KNOWLEDGE ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE REGARDING ANTIBIOTIC USE, A SAMPLE OF VISITORS TO PRIMARY HEALTH CARE CENTERS , Dr. Jehan Jawdat Faraj and *Dr. Ahmed Najim Manea
Background: antibiotic is any substance that has been produced by microorganisms to arrest the growth of other microorganisms in high dilution. Objectives: to estimate the proportion of knowledge, attitude appropriate belief and good behavior regarding antibiotic use and to find the association between these with participant’s socio-demographic characteristics and other study variables in primary health care centers. Design: descriptive cross- sectional study done from beginning of May 2017 to end of July 2017 collected 2 days per week, 4 hours/day during the period of study, convenient sampling (429 participants) were participated, the questionnaires were filled by distributing the paper of questionnaires among visitors in primary health care centers (P.H.C.C) and ask them to fill it, after take the verbal consent, p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: from 429 participants (48,8%) presented with age between 18-27years, (57.3%) of them were female, (86.6%) came from urban area, (36.6%) of them were employed, (67.5%) of them were married, (39.8%) were with secondary education. (58.7%) have no relative with health job, (64.8%) presented with no visit to (P.H.C.C) during the last year, (54,5%) had appropriate knowledge, (45.5%) poor knowledge, (26,61%) had appropriate attitude, (73,4%) poor attitude, (43,9%) had poor practice and (56,1%) had appropriate practice about antibiotic use. Conclusion: This study has been found approximately half of the participants have appropriate knowledge and two thirds of them have poor attitude while approximately half of them have appropriate practice. There was significant association between knowledge and sociodemographic characteristic; there is association between attitude and residence, occupation and educational level but not with age, gender and marital status. Also there is association between behavior and age, residence, occupation and educational level but not with gender and marital status. There was strong association between knowledge and practice with other study variables, and there was association between attitude and presence of relative with health job, but not with number visits to the clinic in the last months.
151 PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF TUNISIAN OPUNTIA DILLENII PEEL FRUITS , Sabrine Ben Lataief, Mohamed-Nizar Zourgui, Wissal Affi, Amal Daoud, Néji Gharsallah and Lazhar Zourgui*
Considering that the chemical additives are generally toxic, Opuntia dillenii is known by their natural bioactive compounds useful as an added ingredient in drug and cosmetic product preservatives. The purpose of this study was to analyze the phytochemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of peel fruit extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) from O.dillenii growing in southern Tunisia, especially in Djerba Island. The effect of two solvents (water and ethanol) on the phenolic composition of O.dillenii peel fruits and their biological activities were studied. The results showed that the ethanolic extract was the most effective solvent for the polyphenolic extraction, as confirmed by HPLC-MS. The quinic acid was the major compound in both extracts. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 9 bioactive compounds identified in the ethanolic extract. The little mean values of IC50 were recorded by ethanolic extract (IC50 DPPH= 0.32 ±0.001 mg/mL and IC50 NO=0.1±0.0006 mg/mL) and the highest mean values of FRAP (optical density= 1.84±0.002) and TAC (91.81±0.92 mg EAA/g) were observed also in this extract (p<0.05). S. aureus, M. luteus, and P. Catenulatum were found to be the most sensitive strains. The Pearson’s coefficient revealed a strong correlation between the TPC, TFC and the parameters of antioxidant activity. The finding suggested that Opuntia dillenii is an edible plant that could improve the proprieties of drug and cosmetic products as a natural additive.
152 DIAGNOSTIC VALUE OF SYNOVIAL BIOPSY IN A TUNISIAN INSTITUTION: ABOUT 43 CASES , *Dr. Faten Limaiem and Saadia Bouraoui
Introduction: histopathological study of synovial biopsy is one of the most valuable means for the diagnosis of joint diseases, as clinical diagnosis has its own limitations. Aim: to evaluate the reliability of the synovial biopsy in the etiological diagnosis of mono- and oligo-arthropathies. Methods: our retrospective study concerned 43 synovial biopsies collected at the department of pathology of the university hospital Mongi Slim La Marsa hospital over a three-year period (March 2015- March 2018). Results: the average age of our patients was 56.18 years with extremes ranging from 24 to 80 years old. In our series, synovial biopsies were performed exclusively in large joints. They interested in order of frequency the knee (79%), the hip (9%), the elbow (7%) and the ankle (5%). Histopathological examination classified synovial biopsies into septic arthritis (n=23), mechanical arthropathy (n=5), rheumatic synovitis (n=5), reactive synovitis (n =7), chondrocalcinosis (n=1) and metastatic adenocarcinoma of synovium (n=1). The definitive diagnosis was based on a set of arguments including clinical, biology, radiological examination, histology and evolution data. The pathological examination was consistent with the suspected clinical diagnosis in 90% of the cases. Conclusion: Synovial biopsy is an important and final tool for definitive diagnosis of joint disorders. Correlation with clinical, radiological, and serological findings helps to arrive at an accurate diagnosis.
153 ANTICANCER EFFECTS OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF LIBYAN SALVIA FRUTICOSA MILL ON MCF7, T47D AND (MDA-MB-468) BREAST CELLS LINES , Salwa I. Eltawaty*, Sanaa O. Yagoub, Samia A. Shouman, Asim Ahmed and Fayza A Omer
Because of the well-known health benefits of the Salvia species plant, this plant has been used globally for traditional medicine for long time. More importantly however many extracts of Salvia species have been exhibited significant in vitro and in vivo anticancer performance on a range of different cancer cell types. This in vitro study as the first one highlighted the anti-proliferative activity of methanol extract of bark of the Libyan Salvia fruticosa on three breast cancer cells lines (MCF-7, T47D and MDA-MD-468) to reveal the potential of this plant species to be used as natural anticancer agent and add new insight for further research of this species of the plant Salvia, specifically. SRB assay was used in this study and the results showed good cytotoxic activity against tested breast cell lines. Conclusion: Our results suggest that polar methanol extract of bark of Salvia fruticosa Mill can produce good therapeutic effect in treatment of breast cancer of MCF-7, T47D and MDA-468 cell lines types and could be considered as the potential source of raw material in pharmaceutical industry for the extraction and isolation of natural compounds with a good spectrum of biological cytotoxic activity in breast malignancy therapy.
154 OPTIMIZATION OF THE TREATMENT OF WOMEN WITH PROLACTINOMAS SUFFERING FROM ENDOCRINE INFERTILITY , *Kh.K. Nasirova and Z.Yu. Khalimova
Fertility is a person’s ability to reproduce, in accordance with the UN international demographic dictionary.[2,8] Infertility is the absence of pregnancy with regular sexual intercourse during the year, without observing any contraceptive measures.[3,5] Despite active scientific activity aimed at developing various schemes for the treatment of infertility, the development of assisted reproductive technologies, its prevalence is quite high, according to various authors, 12-18%.[2,11] The highest rates of primary infertility (inability to give birth to a first child) - over 2.5% of all women - were obtained for a number of developing countries and for Moldova. The lowest - 0.5-0.7% - for the countries of South America (Peru, Bolivia, Venezuela, Ecuador) and Poland. In Russia, secondary infertility covers 3.2% of all women aged 20-44 (for comparison: in the USA, Norway and Finland, this share is 1%, that is three times lower). Primary infertility in Russia is 1.9%, which coincides with the global average.[5] According to various studies conducted in Uzbekistan, the proportion of women suffering from primary infertility, from among the married, is from 4.9% to 5.3%. Residents of African countries (9-12% of all women) suffer the most from secondary infertility. At least this problem characteristic to the highly developed countries. So, in Finland, Norway and the USA, this figure does not exceed 1% of women. At the global level, the number of infertile couples in 2010 was estimated at 48.5 million. Of these, 29.3 million cannot give birth to another child, in addition to existing children. In 2010, 1.9% of women aged 20-44 years “at risk of pregnancy” in the world were unable to give birth to their first child (primary infertility), according to a study by Victoria Sakevich. And 10.5% of women who already have children could not give birth again (secondary infertility). Coverage of primary infertility ranges from a minimum of 1.5% in Latin America to a maximum of 2.6% in the North Africa / Middle East region. Experts note a high level of primary infertility in Eastern and Central Europe and Central Asia - 2.3%. In the same region, the most depressing situation with secondary infertility is 18%. There are many causes of infertility, for each woman they are individual, often have a combined character. Therefore, the treatment of a patient with infertility is long, accompanied by high material costs.[7,16] The influence of the pituitary adenoma on menstrual irregularities and reproductive function remains an urgent problem of modern endocrinology and gynecology.[2,15] The pituitary adenoma is a benign neoplasm originating from the glandular tissue of the adenohypophysis, which can cause hyper- or hyposecretion of hormones.[13,22] Between all intracranial tumors it is the third most common after gliomas and meningiomas.[1,4] The percentage of this disease between all primary CNS tumors is from 7.3 to 18% and is detected at the age of 20 to 50 years. It is more common in women 20-30 and 50-60 years old.[2.21] In addition to serious neurological disorders, this pathology can lead to no less serious violations of the reproductive function of women. Prolactinomas are most common among pituitary adenomas and make up 40-50% of them. This is a hormonally active tumor that secrets an increased amount of prolactin.[8,12] It is observed in women of childbearing age 6-10 times more often than in men. Normally, prolactin, along with follicle-stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing hormones (LH), has a regulatory effect on the fertile function of women. The functions of prolactin include: - synchronizes follicular maturation and ovulation together with LH; - supports the existence of the corpus luteum and the formation of progesterone through participation in the synthesis of cholesterol; - prepares the mammary glands for lactation; - regulates the volume and composition of amniotic fluid.[10,19]
155 IMPACT OF MATERNAL OBESITY AND OTHER RISK FACTORS ON THE MODE OF DELIVERY , *Dr. Khetam Jehad Dawood
Background: Obesity is one of the most important threats to health in general and the health of pregnant women and pregnancy in particular. Aim: To determine the association between BMI and mode of delivery among pregnant during the study period. Method: A case-control study was conducted among pregnant women attending the labor room with induced or spontaneous labor at obstetrics department of Fatima Al-Zahra with the age range 15 to 45 years in Baghdad, Iraq. The case and controls were selected randomly from the list of patient admission. Sample size of this study was 362 (181 cases, 181 controls). Structured questionnaires were used for data collection. Data was checked for quality and statistical assumptions. STATA version 14 statistical packages were used to analyze the data and type 1 error was set at 5%. Results: - Our finding found that (38.4%) still in the age more than 35 years old. (77.3%) of pregnant were housewives, 265/362 (73.2%) of pregnant without university degree, 149 /362 (41.2%) were living under low SES. Overweight mothers had increased odds of caesarian birth (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.72; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.8- 1.91), and also among women with obesity had increased the odds of caesarian (AOR=2.7 with 95%CI (1.23 to 4.11). Conclusion: There are associations between overweight and obese women with the mode of delivery at the p. value less than 0.05. Healthy lifestyle behaviors appear to protect females in professional and associate professional occupations from overweight and obese.
156 EFFECT OF FOOD ADDITIVES; CARMOISINE AND ACESULFAME POTASSIUM ON THE LIVER OF ADULT WISTAR RAT , Ezejindu D. N., Aguwa U. S.*, Ugwuja J. O., Ezejindu I. O., Akukwu Cyprian D., Uloneme Godwin C., Okafor E. C.1, Okeke S. M.
Carmoisine and acesulfame potassium are widely used as food additives. This study examined the effects of oral administration of carmoisine and acesulfame potassium on some biochemical parameters and histology of the liver of Wistar rats. Twenty adult Wistar rats (average weight 120-200g) were divided into four groups of five animals each. Group A (control) was given rat feed and water, group B received 500mg/kg/bw of carmoisine, group C received 500mg/kg/bw of acesulfame potassium while group D was co-administered 250mg/kg body weight each of carmoisine and acesulfame potassium. All food additives were given daily by oral gavage method for twenty-one days. Twenty-four hours after the last administration, the rats were sacrificed. The liver tissues were harvested, weighed and fixed in 10% formaline for histological studies. Blood for serum chemistry was collected through ocular puncture for histochemical studies from all the rats. Evaluation of liver function enzymes was carried out using randox kit method. The serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), in groups B, C & D were significantly higher (P<0.05) than the control group A. Histological observation showed that administration of carmoisine and acesulfame potassium resulted in necrosis of liver tissue and this correlates with the biochemical results. This study revealed that exposure of rats to carmoisine and acesulfame pottassium at these concentrations caused impaired hepatic functions which may constitute a risk factor for hepatic disorders.
157 RISK FACTORS FOR ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN YOUNG AND MIDDLE-AGED PATIENTS , *U. R. Turaev and L. V. Kadirova
We investigated 300 patients with primary and repeat MI, among them 197 have been complicated by myocardial infarction, including 142 patients with - myocardial infarction with tooth Q. Patients were divided into two age groups: young (under 45 years) - 70 people and middle-aged (46 to 60 years) - 230. All patients were treated between 2006 and 2012 in Bukhara branch and regional RSCEMH Heart Hospital.
158 DYNAMICS OF IMMUNE STATUS INDICATORS IN PATIENTS WITH NON-SPECIFIC AORTO-ARTERITIS ON THE BACKGROUND OF COMBINED THERAPY , *Abdullaeva M. A.
The article considers the results of the study of the immune status in patients with non-specific aortoarteritis in the dynamics of combined therapy.Сalcium antagonists, ACE inhibitors, and antiplatelet agents. Data were obtained on the undeniable advantages of combined antihypertensive therapy with equator and plavix, which affect a large number of different parts of the pathogenesis of NAA - the activity of immune inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, myocardial hypertrophy and vascular wall.
159 MODERN ASPECTS OF ETIOPATOGENEZ OF THE GENERALIZED PERIODONTAL DISEASE (REVIEW OF LITERATURE) , *F. Klichova
Now diseases of the parodont represent one of widespread and difficult pathologies in modern stomatology. Approximately at 50% of the population of various regions of the world at the age of 17-60 years various forms of diseases of the parodont are noted. At the same time nearly 90% of the population in the developed countries have gingivit symptoms, for 50% are diagnosed the generalized periodontal disease (GPD) of moderate severity, and for 3% of heavy. According to WHO data (2005), the functional violations of a stomatologic system caused by loss of teeth from parodont diseases develop in 5 times more often than at caries complications, and take the second place on distribution frequency among all dental diseases. At a periodontal disease there is a suppression of regulatory mechanisms in the system of microcirculation of the parodont which extent of frustration depends on severity of a disease and it leads to decrease in lability of microvessels. At easy degree of a periodontal disease inflammatory changes proceed against the background of a spasm the precapillyare of links of the microcirculator course and the increased permeability of a wall of post-capillary faded, being followed by initial rheological changes of blood, developments of stagnation in microvessels and increase in reactivity of endotelialny layer in the venule.
160 A REVIEW ON VRISCHIKA VISHA MANAGEMENT W.S.R VISHA VAIDYA JYOTSNIKA , Pavan K. Sreerudran, Krishnapriya S., Gazala Hussain, Ashwinkumar S. Bharati
Vrischika (scorpion) is said to be oldest poisonous creature on the earth. Among 800-1000 species, 30 species are lethal to humans. Due to scorpion bite casualty of life is very less, but it causes local pain, inflammation, oedema and redness of skin. Ayurvedic texts explain various variety of Vrischika based on its origin, structure and its sting effect. In Kerala, Agada tantra has an ancient and established background. In olden times, a good number of books on toxicology were written by eminent scholars of Kerala. Many toxicological clinics where established at that time in Kerala by adopting the treatment principles mentioned in those books. Visha vaidya jyotsinika is one of such textbook which gives immense knowledge about the practice of visha chikitsa. In this text many clinically relevant aspects of visha chikitsa is explained. This text contributes largely to the practice as well as research in Agada tantra. In this article there are some commonly used drugs in visha vaidya jyotsinika for Vrischika visha.
161 A REVIEW ON MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI-ARTHRITIC ACTIVITY , P. Anjali, *R. Vimalavathini and S. Kavimani
Inflammation is a complex response of body’s tissue in response to noxious stimuli. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disorder affecting joints throughout the body. Currently available drugs such as non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), disease modifying anti-rheumatoid drugs and biological agents provides only symptomatic relief and severe adverse effects. Herbs produce anti-arthritic action with fewer risks and improve the quality of life in patients with RA.
162 PRECIPITATION REACTIONS IN IMMUNOLOGY , Amol S. Deshmukh*, Pravin R. Dighe, Kundan J. Tiwari and Supriya T. Garud
Precipitation reactions in immunology are based on the interaction between antigens and antibodies. These are based on two reactants which are soluble that combine to make one product which is insoluble, and that product is called precipitate. The interaction of the antigen and antibody is a chemical reaction and is specific. When antigen and antibody exist in optimal proportions there is a formation of lattices (cross-links). The molecules are held together by intermolecular forces which are effective only when the antibody combining site and the antigenic determinant group are able to make close contact. Present review gives detail study about the precipitation reactions in immunology.
163 SYNTHETIC ADVANCES FOR DIVERSIFIED PYRAZOLES AND PIPERIDINES , Abdul Ahad, Zaheer Shaikh, Showkat Patel and Maqdoom Farooqui*
Substituted pyrazoles and pyridines are important classes of heterocyclic compounds established as privileged scaffolds. The article describes biological importance and synthetic developments of these heterocycles and provides useful information by giving instant references of previous works and their importance.
164 CHEMICAL CHARECTERISTICS, SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF QUINAZOLINE DERIVATIVES , Dhanya S.*, Prasobh G. R., S. M. Sandhya and Sebha M. C.
Quinazoline is a fused aromatic ring system where a benzene ring is fused to 5th and 6th positions of pyrimidine ring. Quinazolines are medicinally important as anti-convulsant, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, and anti-tubercular properties etc. They target epidermal growth factor receptors on tumour cells. This work is aimed to review the quinazoline derivatives which could deliver drug specifically various receptors and can use as lead in future drug development processes.
165 A LITERARY REVIEW ON THE MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE OF MUSTAKA , Dr. Nishant Aggarwal* and Dr. Ritu Rani
Ayurveda is a science which helps a individual to live a healthy life, also it helps in management of diseases. Ayurveda states that every substance on earth can be used as medicine either it is in dry form or fresh form. There are many diseases which can be cure with the use of Mustaka. It is an important herbal drug which can be used in various forms in the treatment of various disorders mainly in Kapha-Pitta. The present study shows the various properties of Mustaka from various Ayurvedic texts books as well as from modern concept of it. It includes the Rasa Panchaka, Guna-Karma, indications, and therapeutic uses, also with latest research on Mustaka.
166 TRANSDERMAL SUSTAINED AND SAFE RELEASE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Gulafshan Parveen* and Poonam Joshi
Transdermal drug delivery system is most preferable route of drug administration. This route has high acceptability because of safe and effective delivery of drug. The human skin is a readily accessible surface for drug delivery. Skin of an average adult body covers a surface of approximately 2 m2 and receives about one- third of the blood circulating through the body. Over the past decades, developing controlled drug delivery has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. The human skin surface is known to contain, on an average, 10- 70 hairs follicle and 200-250sweat duct on every square centimeters of the skin area. It is one of the most readily accessible organ of the human body. There is considerable interest in the skin as a site of drug application both for local and systemic effect. However, the skin, in particular the stratum corneum, poses a formidable barrier to drug penetration thereby limiting topical and transdermal bioavailability. Skin penetration enhancement technique have been developed to improve bioavailability and enhance the range of drugs for which topical and transdermal delivery is a viable option. During the past decades, the number of drugs formulated in the patches has hardly enhance, and there has been little change in the composition of the patch system. Modification have been mostly limited to refinement of the material used. The present review article explores the overall study on transdermal drug delivery system which lead to novel drug delivery system.
167 ITERATIVE IMPLEMENTATION FOR SEGMENTATION OF NORMAL AND ABNORMAL TISSUES OF BRAIN , *Priyanka Banerjee and Prof. Samir Kumar Bandyopadhyay
Central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the human nervous network which integrates the coordination and processing of receiving neural information. In this paper, an iterative implementation level set methodology has been proposed for the precise segmentation of normal and abnormal tissues in MRI of brain.
168 MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW , K. Malleswari*, D. Rama Brahma Reddy and D. Nipson
The main route of administration for drug products is the oral route, yet biologics are initially developed as injectables due to their limited stability through the gastrointestinal tract and solubility issues. In order to avoid injections, a myriad of investigations on alternative administration routes that can bypass enzymatic degradation and the first-pass effect are found in the literature. As an alternative site for biologics absorption, the buccal route presents with a number of advantages. The buccal mucosa is a barrier, providing protection to underlying tissue, but is more permeable than other alternative routes such as the skin. Buccal films are polymeric matrices designed to be mucoadhesive properties and usually formulated with permeability enhancers to improve bioavailability. Conventionally, buccal films for biologics are manufactured by solvent casting, yet recent developments have shown the potential of hot melt extrusion, and most recently ink jet printing as promising strategies. This review aims at depicting the field of biologics-loaded mucoadhesive films as buccal drug delivery systems. In light of the literature available, the buccal epithelium is a promising route for biologics administration, which is reflected in clinical trials currently in progress, looking forward to register and commercialize the first biologic product formulated as a buccal film.
169 TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW , K. Sravanthi*, D. Rama Brahma Reddy, A. Sirisha, A. Pavani, B. Kanaka Mahalakshmi and B. Sowjanya
A Transdermal Patch is a Medical Adhesive Patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. Often, this promotes healing to an injured area of the body. An advantage of a transdermal drug delivery route over other types of medication delivery such as oral, topical, intravenous, intramuscular, etc. is that the patch provides a controlled release of the medication into the patient, usually through either a porous membrane covering a reservoir of medication or through body heat melting thin layers of medication embedded in the adhesive. First-generation transdermal delivery has delivered small, lipophilic, low dose drugs. Second-generation transdermal delivery has used ultrasound, iontophoresis and chemical enhancers in delivering the drug. Third-generation transdermal delivery has used microneedles, electroporation, thermal ablation, microderm abrasion, in topical application. The main aim of transdermal drug delivery system is to deliver the drug into systemic circulation with minimal inter and intra subject variability.
170 SCOPE OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , M. Pratyusha*, M. Rohitha, M. Meghana Devi, K. Madhuri, B. Rajitha, CH. Tulasi Bhavani, S. Madhumitha, G. Usha Kiran
Nanoscience mainly includes the study the control of matter on an atomic and molecular scale. This molecular level investigation is at range of below 100nm. This is nowadays a widespread and ascertained knowledge that materials in the nano meter range of size have different physical, Chemical and biological properties than materials in large scale.
171 ALIEN HAND SYNDROME - A MINI REVIEW , Anitha Nandagopal*, Fatima Umaira Saeed and Anupama Koneru
Alien hand syndrome (AHS) also called as Dr. Strangelove syndrome or anarchic hand is autonomous, motor, involuntary movement of limb. It is caused when a person had two brain hemispheres surgically separated, as seen in epilepsy, psychosis, migraine, parkinsonism, Creuzfeldt Jacob disease, HIV, tumor etc. This disorder is associated with frontal, occipital and parietal lobes of brain. Any damage to these lobes results in prior activation of primary motor cortex, disconnection between hemispheres of brain and loss of inhibitory control in pre motor system which results in uncoordinated movements of afflicted limb. AHS can be diagnosed by using neuroimaging techniques like FMRI, FDG-PET, DTT, rCBF using SPECT. AHS can be treated through direct physical interventions such as by using of cane, drugs like Clonazepam, botulinum toxin (butox) and visualization strategies.
172 MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLE: A REVIEW , Kalyani Nirwan*, Shahajiyan Pathan and Tikesh Agrawal
MDT is ever-increasing demand in the formulation department since the last decade. The popularity and utility of the formulation resulted in development of several MDT technologies. These techniques provide the disintegration of tablet rapidly and dissolve in mouth in few seconds with the help of mouth saliva. Formulation of a convenient dosage form for administration, by considering swallowing difficulty and poor patient compliance, leads to development of orally disintegrating tablets. Conventional preparation methods are spray drying, freeze drying, direct compression. This review gives an idea of formulating MDT and its, evaluation parameters.
173 CONTRIBUTION OF YOGA TO AYURVEDA , *Dr. Maheshkumar Nilkanth Chaudhari, M.S., Ph.D. (Shalya-Tantra)
 The Yoga is originated in India & Maharishi Patanjali constructs this science for human society. This science is still exists because of it‟s good result. Yoga & Adhyatma are the complimentary to each other & both are included in Ayurveda. These are the inseparable part of Ayurveda. Role of Yoga has high significance in Ayurveda to maintain the health of complete healthy person,. Now a days, due to miracle result of Yoga, entire world are accepting Yoga & practicing daily. It is moneyless therapy, anybody can do it at home after duly trained under master. Yoga, rejuvenates the body, mind & soul. All the ancient scriptures of India, admits the presence of mind & soul in the body. Practicing of different types of Asanas, provides good digestion, because indigestion are the root cause of all disease as per Ayurveda & it‟s true too. Yoga helps to avoid all these problems. Yoga is not limited upto Asanas but these are 8 angas of Yoga & all angas contributes to Ayurveda. To achieve the Dharma, Artha, Kaam & Moksha, the Arogya (Health) is most important. One can not achieve above all without a sound health. There are Shat- chakras & Shat- Kriya Shuddhi. Yoga contains like Yam, Niyam, Pranayam, Nauli, Dhauti, Kapal-Bhati. Another types of Yoga like Mantra, Hatha, Laya & Raj yoga. Dhyan, Dharana, Samadhi & finally Moksha, is the final destiny of Yogi person. Various types of Mudras / Bandhas in yoga. Importance of pronounce of word „OM‟, during yoga practice. As well as illustration of.diet & Achar Rasayan during yogic kriya. Kundalini yoga has it‟s own importance. Only high celibacy observing person can able to achieve this state & awake his Kundalini. Role of Adhyatma holds a great significance in yoga & Ayurveda. This article elaborates / covers all these points. In this way, Yoga has contributed Ayurveda in high manner.
174 MEDICAL TREATMENT OF ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS , *Dr. Suhasish Ray (M.Ch- Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Spine Surgeon)
The diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis is often delayed due to ambiguous clinical manifestations and strict diagnostic criteria. However, imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging have been found effective for the early diagnosis of non-radiographic sacroiliitis. New tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors have good efficacy for patients with persistently high disease activity despite conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment which are effective in low disease scores. Thus, early diagnosis and aggressive treatments are essential for ankylosing spondylitis patients. Though the disease can be stayed with conventional DMARDs and NSAIDs in low score diseases, in high score diseases TNF- α inhibitors are more effective. In this review, we discuss new diagnostic criteria for ankylosing spondylitis, administration methods of TNF-αinhibitors, comparative review between conventional AS drugs and TNF- α inhibitors and the long-term follow-up results for patients treated with TNF-αinhibitors.
175 A REVIEW ON FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , *Sayali Patil
Pharmaceutical industries have received much interest in pharmaceutical research in the area of oral drug delivery more over on Gastro retentive drug delivery system that is Floating Drug Delivery System (FDDS). Oral delivery of medicine is far and away the foremost desirable route of drug delivery. This route has high patient acceptableness, primarily because of easy administration. The purpose of writing this review on floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) was to compile the recent literature with special focus on the principal mechanism of floatation to achieve gastric retention. The recent developments of FDDS together with the physiological and formulation variables moving viscous retention, approaches to style single-unit and multiple-unit floating systems, and their classification and formulation aspects square measure covered in detail. This review additionally summarizes the in vitro techniques and in vivo studies to judge the performance and application of floating systems, and applications of those systems.
176 SYNTHESIS OF QUINOLONE DERIVATIVES SHOWING ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY , Syeda Saniya Fatima*, Syeda Wasfiya Noor, Afreen Begum and Imam Pasha Syed
We have synthesized a few novel quinoline analogs combining with distinctive substituted fragrant and hetero cyclic aldehydes ring structure to obtain some better antifungal agents. We have successfully synthesized five derivatives from quinoline compound as qd1, qd2, qd3, qd4, qd5 and thier IUPAC names are. a) N-benzylidene-4-(7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxoquinolin-1(2H)- yl)benzenesulfonamide. b) N-benzylidene-4-(7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxoquinolin-1(2H)-yl)-N-(4- methoxybenzylidene) benzenesulfonamide. c) N-benzylidene-4-(7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxoquinolin-1(2H)-yl)-N-(3- methoxybenzylidene) benzenesulfonamide. d) N-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-(7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxoquinolin-1(2H)- yl)benzenesulfonamide. e) N-{2-[(1E)-3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl]benzylidene}-4-(7-hydroxy-4-methyl-2- oxoquinolin-1(2H)-yl)benzenesulfonamide. This work aims to outline the recent advances in quinolone derivatives showing excellent antifungal activity equipped with conventional drugs. This review covers the recent advances in quinolone derivatives as potential antifungal agents.[1] From the results of the anti-fungal activity it is clearly concluded that the synthesized compounds are promising, great antimicrobial agents.[2] The substituted quinoline moieties are as of now known for diverse organic exercises. Presence of groups like -methoxy group, -Nitrogen Dioxide, -Bromine, -N-CH3, at the different positions of phenyl nucleus and heterocyclic system attached to quinoline nucleus showed excellent antifungal activity. As future prospects the Qd3 compound showed significant antifungal activity and may apparently comparable with the standard drug ketoconazole if it is purified with much better quality and standards.
177 MANAGEMENT OF FOURNIERS GANGRENE WITH CHEDANA AND SANDHANA KARMA : A CASE STUDY , Dr. Yogeshwar Namdev Surnar* and Dr. Mahesh Vaijainath Dhumale
Fournier‟s Gangrene is a one of the rare, but life threatening disease. It is a fulminant form of necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, genital or perianal regions with infective etiology caused by a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms.[1] In the present paper the effect of Chedana Karma & Sandhana Karma in a case of Fournier‟s gangrene is documented. The study was conducted on a 42 years old male patient who was admitted in. Dhanwantri Ayurved Medical College and Hospital, udgir. In Shalya Tantra IPD, with the complaints of pain & swelling around scrotum, pain in lower abdomen, fever and pus discharge from scrotum for 12 days. The condition was diagnosed as Kotha (Fournier‟s gangrene). Chedana Karma (Early and exhaustive debridement) of the scrotal gangrenous tissues was done followed by Shodhana karma (Daily cleaning and dressing) with Panchvalkala and Triphala kwatha. Scrotoplasty was done after 3 weeks of Shodhana karma when Shudha vrana features were found. Oral medications- Panchatiktaghrita guggulu, Gandhaka rasayana, Amlaki churna were given. Significant improvement was observed in the patient in subjective parameters. Patient resumed his routine work and there was no discomfort, side effect or complication or recurrence after treatment and in follow up period.
178 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL AND ANDROGRAPHOLIDE CONTENTS IN ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA (L.) NEES AND ANDROGRAPHIS ECHIOIDES (L.) NEES , Venkatachalam Vigneshwaran, Balasubramanian Muthusamy and *Girija Shanmugam
Andrographis paniculata and Andrographis echioides are well-known species of Indian and south Asian traditional medicines. Andrographis paniculata (AP) commonly known as Nilavembu is recently, attracted as a valuable therapeutic plants for treating Dengue fever. Andrographis echioides (AE) is a closely related species of Andrographis paniculata. Hence, the phytochemical contents was screened and compared between the two species. In the present investigation, protocols for methanolic extract of in vivo plant parts like leaf, stem, root, have been standardized. Maximum percentage of Andrographolide was obtained in both the species. Andrographis echioides. Methanolic extracts of both plant parts (leaf, stem, and root) have showed antioxidant activity in DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, H2O2, reducing power, metal chelating efficiency with little variation. Similarly, Andrographolide contents were also varied among the plant parts of two species where maximum content was present in leaf (381.72 mg/g DW) of AP and 347.93mg/g DW in stems of AE.
179 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PAEDERIA FOETIDA.L AGAINST ENTEROPATHOGENS , *Dr. Paramita Gangopadhyay Bhattacharya, Ankita Guha Barman, Dr. Amit Chakravarty and Deepanwita Dey
Ayurvedic medicine Kolthee churna, known to be effective in diarrhoea diseases. Paederia foetida L. commonly known as the Gandal patta. The antibacterial activities of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate fractions of methanolic extracts of the whole plants Paederia foetida L. (family Rubiaceae) were screened against various pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sp. Vibrio cholereae, by „agar cup plate method‟. The Ethanol extract of the whole plant possesses antimicrobial activity but the n-hexane fractions exhibited moderate to less activity against some organisms tested compared with the standard antibiotic Metronidazole. The ethanol and the hexane extract showed highest antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, Moderate antibacterial activity against, Enterobacter sp, E.coli. lowest antibacterial activity against Enterococcus sp., Bacillus substilis.
180 LEAD ACETATE INDUCED TOXICITY ON LIPID METABOLITES IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF DANIO RERIO (ZEBRA FISH) , Syeda Viquar Unnisa, Dr. Ghousia Begum*, Khwaja Amtul Raouf Qazi
Aquatic toxicology refers to impact of natural materials and manufactured chemicals on marine sources. Metal contamination is widely spread particularly in regions influenced by anthropogenic and industrial activities. The acute toxicity study (LC50) of lead acetate to Danio rerio (zebrafish) at 96 hrs is determined as 354.8 ppm. The sub – lethal concentration 118.26 ppm of lead acetate is selected to carry out the biochemical estimations in tissues of zebrafish for 4 days by using standard methods. The results of the study indicated decrease in total lipids and increase in free fatty acid and cholesterol in gills, viscera and body of fish. The behavioral patterns such as irregular, erratic jerky swimming movement around the experimental aquaria, followed by drowning down has been observed during the exposure period. Therefore, measurement of biochemical parameter is considered to be significant tool in toxicology to diagnose the health status of fishes in the aquatic ecosystem.
181 ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CAESALPINIA BONDUCELLA LEAVES IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS , *Dr. Vijay Patel M. Pharm., Ph.D. and Meena Joshi M. Pharm.
The aim of present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of Caesalpinia bonducella leaves in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The extract was obtained by cold maceration process and the animals were induced diabetes by single dose streptozotocin method. A comparison was made between the action of different concentration of leaves extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg of body wt. and a known antidiabetic drug glibenclamide (4mg). Results shows successive decline in blood glucose level in diabetic animal. Antioxidants have been reported to prevent oxidative damage caused by free radical and may prevent the body from various diseases. The enzymatic antioxidants like catalase, superoxide dismutase have also been evaluated in the aqueous leaves extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella they were found to be the good sources of natural antioxidants and can be useful in treating the diseases associated with oxidative stress.
182 HISTOLOGY AS A GOLD STANDARD IN DIAGNOSING GLIOMATOSIS PERITONEI ASSOCIATED WITH IMMATURE TERATOMA OF OVARY , Dr. Anu Singh, Dr. D. S. Chauhan*, Dr. Arvind Ahuja, Dr. Vikas Jindal, Dr. Vinita Singh, Dr. Sunita Singh
Gliomatosis peritonei (GP) is an infrequent occurrence, exclusively associated with mature or immature teratoma of the ovary. GP is defined as miliary implantation of glial tissues on the surface of the visceral or parietal peritoneum with secondary maturation into glial nodules. A 19 year-old female presented with rapidly enlarging lump in right lower abdomen over the last 2 months. Her past and family history were unremarkable. Local examination revealed a huge mass in abdominopelvic region. Rest of the general and systemic examination were within normal limits. Contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) whole abdomen revealed a mass with altered signal intensity lesion in abdomen and pelvis extending into adjacent bowel loops measuring 17.8× 17.1 × 10 cm showing areas of calcification. Serum tumor markers were elevated. Patient underwent laparotomy followed by right salpingo-oophorectomy and excision of nodules on peritoneal surface, omentum and pouch of Douglas. On histopathology examination, a diagnosis of immature teratoma (grade 3) with GP was rendered. GP with an immature teratoma of the ovary is associated with favourable prognosis, although more frequent recurrence is noted. Extensive sampling and multiple biopsies followed by histopathology is the gold standard because it can be mistaken for intra-abdominal carcinomatosis or tuberculosis, and a close follow-up is required to monitor recurrence and rare malignant transformation.  
183 BIOTECHNOLOGICAL INTERVENTION USING PROBIOTIC MICROBES TO SUSTAIN THE SHELF LIFE QUALITY OF MILK PRODUCTS , Dhasarathan P. C. Padmalatha and A. J. A. Ranjitsingh*
Dairy products are highly perishable at room temperature. To enhance their storage at ambient temperatures, biotechnological intervention is warranted. For this operation microbes can be used as tools. Probiotic microbes isolated from fermented milk product like curd can be used to extend the shelf life of milk products by combining it with other commercial strains. Prolonged storage of milk products like curd in ambient temperature promotes spoilage by enhancing the growth of microbes and converts it in to a highly acidic product with unpleasant odour and rejection. To overcome these issues and to enhance the shelf life period at ambient temperature starter microbial inoculums can be applied. In the present study. Bacillus brevis (MMI strain) a bacterial isolate from curd and yoghurt was combined with a commercial probiotic starter strain Lactobacillus acidophilus in different ratios and this bacterial combination was used as starter culture to ferment raw and pasteurized milk in the curd formation. L. acidophilus and B. brevis mixture in the ratio 1:1(v/v) was found to yield a good quality curd with a short curdling period without any whey formation. The acidity of the curd was 0.45% to 0.64% and PH ranged between 6.95 - 6.61 during the storage time of 0 – 144 hours. The microbial count ranged between 10 - 342 108CFU/ml, during 0 - 144 hours. The shelf life, taste and sensory qualities of curd developed from raw and pasteurized milk remained in good quality for five days while applying L. acidophilus and B. brevis combinations as starter cultures. The present report will ensure the commercial availability of the curd for an enhanced shelf life period.
184 OPTIMIZING GREEN ITINERARY FOR SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING BOX-BEHENKEN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN , Maurya Pooja* and Dr. Itishree Vaidya
Silver nanoparticles by virtue of stronger optical absorption have facilitated the development of biomedical sciences and engineering. The green bio-reduction approach was followed for synthesizing silver nanoparticles. Box-Behenken experimental design was employed as statistical method for optimization of synthetic experimental design. The method was optimized with respect to wavelength maxima obtained from UV-Vis spectroscopy analysis as a response. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that silver nanoparticles could be effectively synthesized by tuning significant parameters of greener route.
185 HISTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PLANTS WITH ANOMALOUS SECONDARY STRUCTURES , Dr. C. Sathya, M. Vinothini and Dr. M. N. Abubacker*
Four anomalous secondary structure plants were selected [Achyranthes aspera L. (Amaranthaceae), Bignonia suberosa Roxb. (Bignoniaceae), Boerhaavia diffusa L. (Nyctaginaceae) and Nyctanthes arbor-tristis (Oleaceae)] and secondary metabolites like alkaloids, ascorbic acids, polyphenols tannins, and terepenoids were identified using histochemical methods. Stem hand sections were treated with respective reagents and the colour indication proved the presence of respective compounds. Alkaloid and ascorbic acid were present in all the four plants in higher concentration. Nyctanthes arbor-tristis have shown the presence of Terpenoid and Tannin also in higher concentration. Tannin is present in moderate concentration in A. aspera, B. suberosa and B. diffusa. Terpenoid present in lower concentration in A. aspera, B. suberosa and B. diffusa. Polyphenol is present only in A. aspera and found to be absent in other three plants. Antimicrobial screening was conducted using ethanolic leaf extracts of these plants. Two ml of leaf extracts were introduced into 10 ml of Nutrient Agar Medium. Clinical strains of bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris and Streptococcus pneumoniae were inoculated using streak plate method. A. aspera as well as B. diffusa leaf extract was effective for K. pneumoniae and S. pneumoniae as total inhibition of growth in the culture plants. B. suberosa ineffective to all the four bacteria, whereas N. arbor-tristis is effective for P. vulgaris bacteria as total inhibition of growth was noticed.
186 DESIGN AND EVALUTION OF RIFAXIMIN EFFERVESCENT FLOATING TABLETS , B. Raja Narender* and N. Mounika
In the present research work effervescent floating of RFXMN (Rifaximin) by utilizing different polymers. At first systematic strategy improvement was accomplished for the medication atom. Assimilation maxima were resolved dependent on that alignment bend was created by utilizing various fixations. Gas creating specialist sodium bicarbonate was utilized. At that point the definition was created by utilizing various convergences of polymers of different polymers. The detailing mix was exposed to different preformulation thinks about; stream properties and every one of the plans were observed to be great demonstrating that the powder mix has great stream properties. Among every one of the details the F7 arranged by utilizing Guar gum 50mg created greatest medication discharge contrasted with different plans thus it was considered as the best formulation.
187 STUDY ON ETHNO-MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR THE CURE OF ANAEMIA IN RANCHI DISTRICT OF JHARKHAND, INDIA , Farha Fatma* and Anil Kumar
This paper enumerates traditional uses of various plant species for the cure of anaemia by local people of Ranchi district of Jharkhand. Medicinal plants contains so many chemical compounds that are major source of therapeutic agents that have been used to cure various human diseases. Anemia affects one fourth of the world’s population. It is a condition in which the quantity of red blood cells or their oxygen conveying limit is deficient to meet physiologic requirements, which changes by age, gender, height, smoking etc. Iron deficiency is believed to be the most widely recognized reason for anaemia. Nutritional deficiency, inadequate amount of some of the vitamins and minerals that are needed for hemoglobin production, may cause iron deficiency. Various medicinal plants having anti-anemic potential includes Spinach (Spinacia oleracea), beetroot (Beta vulgaris), Broccoli(Brassica oleraceae), Drumstick (Moringa oleifera), Bhringraj (Eclipta alba), Garlic (Allium sativum), Ginger (Zingiber officinale), soyabean (Glycine max) etc. The natural medications with anti-anemic activity are widely formulated because they show better compatibility with human body, easily available and less side effects.
188 SYNTHESIS, MOLECULAR DOCKING AND ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF SOME SULPHONAMIDE BEARING QUINAZOLINONE MOIETIES , Shweta S. Gaikwad*, Shailaja B. Jadhav and Deepti D. Banadawane
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a lifestyle disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Herein, the design and synthesis of 17 novel quinazolinone incorporating sulphonamide scaffold are described. Designed compound were docked using AutoDock (4.2.6) tool software with DPP-IV inhibitor protein (PDB: 3OPM). Synthesized compounds (4a-q) were evaluated for antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Most of these synthesized compounds showed significant reduction in blood glucose level. Amongst all the compounds designed in this study, we identified compound 4q as a potent, selective and orally active antidiabetic agent, which exhibited in vivo efficacy in diabetic rat model.
189 RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED A PILOT CLINICAL STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFICACY OF MEHA-MUDGARA RASA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF MADHUMEHJANYA NADIPRATHAN SHOTHA W.R.T. DIABETIC NEUROPATHY , *Dr. Ashish Hasuram Mhatre, M.D
Aim and Objectives: To evaluate clinical Efficacy of Meha-Mudgara Rasa in the management of Madhumehajanya Nadipratan Shotha w.r.t Diabetes Neuropathy. Methodology: The 40 subjects were enrolled randomly in two groups, Group A (Meha Mudagara Rasa) & Group B (Pregabalin 75 mg) for the duration of 1 month. Meha-Mudgara Rasa contains Rasanjana, Bida Lavana, Devdar, Bilvaphala, Gokshurbeeja, Dadim, Bhunimba, Pippalimula, Trikatu, Triphala, Trivrita, Lohabhasma, Shudha Guggulu & Go-Ghrita. Pregabalin is described chemically as (S) -3-(aminomethyl)-5-methylnexanoic acid, indicated in the Management of neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Conclusion: Results obtained with respect to the parameter burning sensation, Tingling sensation, numbness, weakness & Neuropathy Disability Score had shown statistically significant improvement. Meha-Mudgara Rasa presents window of opportunity in the clinical management of Diabetic Neuropathy.
190 FABRICATION OF MICROSPONGE AS DRUG DELIVERY OF AN ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUG , Gopa Roy Biswas*, Sayantan Bhattacharya, Poulami Ghoshal and Sutapa Biswas Majee
Microsponges are polymeric delivery systems composed of porous microspheres used for topical controlled drug delivery as well as oral controlled drug delivery system. They are small, spherical particles having a porous surface. Moreover, they can enhance stability, modify drug release favorably and reduce side effects. Microsponge technology has several favorable characteristics, which make it a versatile drug delivery system. They can suspend or entrap a wide variety of substances, and can then be incorporated into a formulated product such as a gel, cream, liquid or powder. The outer surface is usually porous, permitting a sustained flow of substances out of the sphere. Quasi-emulsion diffusion method has been used here for the preparation of microsponges with cellulosic and acrylic polymers. Drug loading of the microsponge were estimated by UV Spectrophotometric method and was found to be within 33%- 53%. Formulations shows good buoyancy to prove it as floating microsphere. Morphology of the formulations were observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Almost all microsponges were found to be highly porous. Drug Release of Atenolol from prepared microsponges followed Higuchi kinetics from the formulation.
191 QUALITY BY DESIGN APPROACH FOR DEVELOPMENT OF AZITHROMYCIN ORAL RECONSTITUTABLE SUSPENSION AND ITS COMPARISON WITH MARKETED PRODUCT , Devika Sonawane*, Dr. Pravin Chaudhari, Vikas Thorat and Shrikant Dhavale
The aim of this work was to develop stable suspension containing Azithromycin was suitable for large scale manufacturing. The product developed by QbD was found comparable with marketed product. The present investigation concerns with the evaluation of the effect of formulation variables on viscosity and phase separation volume in developing stable reconstitution suspension containing azithromycin by applying Quality by Design. The quality by design (QbD) approach was applied for optimizing the formulation of Azithromycin dry powder for oral suspension using Design-Expert Software (version 10.0 state ease, USA).A Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed in formulating the suspension containing Xanthan Gum (XG) and Hydroxy Propyl Cellulose (HPC). To optimize this formulation a Quality Target Product Profile (QTTP) was established in which Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) such as viscosity and phase separation volume quantified. As Critical Process Parameters (CPP) that was evaluated for their effect on the CQAs the percentage of XG and the percentage of HPC were chosen.CCD was used to evaluate the effects of the CPPs on the CQAs of the final product. The main effect and interaction terms were evaluated by quadratic model to predict formulation with the desired viscosity and phase separation volume. The concentration of suspending agent and its quadratic term were found to be significantly effective for all the response variables.
192 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LAPAROSCOPIC APPENDICECTOMY VERSUS OPEN APPENDICECTOMY , Pramod D. Nichat, Sanjitkumar M. Sant, *Dr. Kavita V. Jadhav, Rukmini Waghmare
Appendicitis is one of the best known medical entities often requiring removal of the inflammed appendix. It is sometimes confusing and often a treacherous cause of acute abdomen at all ages, which requires utmost skill and care of the attending surgeon besides good clinical evaluation.[1] Aims and objectives: To compare the effectiveness of laparoscopic and conventional open appendicectomy in the treatment of acute appendicitisover duration of procedure, post operative pain, complications, wound infection, return to bowel activity, subjective full recovery and return to normal activity, post operative length of hospital stay, cost analysis, cosmetic benefit. Material & methods: Present study is prospective observational comparative type of study. It was conducted at tertiary hospital of Mumbai. Total 100 patients were included with clinical features suggestive of acute appendicitis with alvarado score >7. They were divided in two groups as to be operated with laparoscopy and to be operated with open approach. Patients with <12 years of age, patients with appendicular mass or lump or abscess or with pregnancy were excluded from study. Results: Laparoscopic appendicectomy was found to be better than open appendicectomy with respect to lesser postoperative pain, lesser duration of postoperative hospital stay, lesser rate of wound infection and post operative complications, earlier return to normal day to day activities and better cosmesis. However, these advantages outweighs drawbacks of more operating time and cost for laparoscopic appendicectomy. Conclusion: The change in the surgical approach from open to laparoscopic appendicectomy in management cases of uncomplicated appendicitis is safe and effective even in emergency.    
193 STANDARDIZATION OF A CLASSICAL SIDDHA POLY HERBAL FORMULATION “NANNARI MATHIRAI” THROUGH ORGANOLEPTIC CHARACTER, PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS , Monika T.*, Ilavarasi L.1 Abinaya T., Saravanadevi M. D., Karolin Daisy Rani R., Meenakumari R.
Organoleptic character, physiochemical and phytochemical analysis of a Siddha poly herbal drug Nannari mathirai which is widely used to treat Hepatic diseases such as Jaundice etc. Many infectious diseases were cured by single herbs as well as poly herbal remedies throughout the history of mankind. Standardization of the drug brings the validation to be used as a medicine by subjecting the drug to many analyses and determining its quality and effectiveness. Standardization includes many studies such as its organoleptic properties, physical characteristics, physicochemical, phytochemical properties and also to assess the active principles and elements present in the drug. In the preparation of Nannari mathirai each drug has the action to treat against Jaundice. This action is due to the presence of various compounds includes glycosides, tannins, alkanes, amides, alkyl halides, nitro compounds, aromatics, aliphatic amines etc., Due to the change in our lifestyle, we are all exposed to many unknown diseases. Siddha medicine includes Herbal, Metals, Minerals, Marine living organisms. Nowadays Standardisation of traditional medicines is much important for establishing the biological activity. The results are indicative of active ingredients responsible for therapeutic effect of Nannari mathirai, therefore this study leads to the evidence for future clinical studies.
194 PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HYGROPHILA SCHULLI , Manisha U. Mishra*, Nitin H. Indurwade, Shubham R. Ukey, Rahul Chaurasia, Sanket S. Murmurwar
Hygrophila schulli is an important plant described in Indian Ayurvedic literature. The main objective of the present study was to carry out preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of antibacterial activity of H.schulli collected from local areas of Gondia city, Maharashtra State, India. The plant material was identified and fresh leaves were collected. The dried leaf powder was extracted by hydro-alcoholic solvent extraction method using Soxhlet apparatus. The extract was qualitatively analyzed for presence of active phytochemicals prior to study of the antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration. The extracts containing different concentrations of H.schulli were investigated against clinically effective bacterial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escheria coli. Streptomycin powder was used as a standard drug for analyzing antibacterial activity. The highest inhibition zone of 20 mm was observed against Bacillus subtilis with plant extract in the concentration of 100μg/ml. The results revealed that the hydroalcoholic extract of H.schulli possesses antibacterial potential as reported in earlier investigations and have the potential in the treatment of bacterial infections. Further the studies were extended to formulate a cream containing hydroalcoholic extract of H.schulli for topical application and its evaluation. It was found that the hydroalcoholic extract of H.schulli can be formulated as cream and used for topical application.
195 FLAVONOIDS FROM THE AERIAL PARTS OF CUBA SPECIOSA SPRENG., FRUITS OF MALLOTUS PHILIPPENSIS (LAM.) MÜLL. ARG. AND FLOWERS OF PUNICA GRANATUM L. , Mohammed Ali*, Shahnaz Sultana and Showkat Rassol Mir
Cuba speciosa Spreng. (Leguminosae) is a Leguminous plant and these species are used for improving human health, play an important role in nitrogen fixation in atmosphere and are taken as a source of fat, oil and proteins. Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) Müll. Arg. (family Euphorbiaceae) is useful to treat abdominal diseases, bronchitis, dysentery, fever, hepatic diseases, malaria, skin diseases, spleen enlargement and as an oral contraceptive. Punica granatum L. (Lythraceae, Punicaceae) is a deciduous, multi-stemmed, small tree and its flowers are used to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, haematuria, haemoptysis, nasal haemorrhage, leucorrhoea, sore throat and ulcers of the uterus and rectum. Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts of C. speciosa gave apigenin-4′-rutinoside (1). The fruits of M. philippensis afforded 7,4′-dihydroxy-3′′, 3′′-dimethyl-(5,6-pyrano-1′′-one)-8- (3′′′, 3′′′-dimethyl allyl)- flavanone (mallotusflavanone, 2). The flowers of P. granatum led to the isolation of four new chemical constituents identified as 4′β-hydroxynon-6′(Z)-enyl benzoate (3), 13-(15,19,19- trimethylcyclohex-16- en)-yl-2, 6,10-trimethyl-tridec-10-en-6,13-diol (punicasesterterpene diol, 4), 3,7,8,4- tetrahydroxy- 3- myrt-1′′- en- yl flavone (punicaflavonyl 3′-myrt-1′′-ene, 5) and α-D-galactopyranosyl-(6→1′)-O-α-D-galactopyranosyl- (6′→1′′)-O-α-D-galactopyranosyl-(6′′→1′′′)-O-α-D- galactopyranosyl-(6′′′→1′′′′)-O-α-D-rhamnopyranoside (tetragalactosidic rhamnoside, 6). The structures of all these compounds have been established on the basis of spectral data analyses and chemical reactions.
196 DOSHA PRAKOPA NIDANA EVALUATION QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGNING AND VALIDATION , Mahejabeen A. K.* and Ajantha
Ayurveda is time tested and effective since centuries and a health system of choice due to its fundamental principles and methods of research inculcated in Ayurveda texts. With advent of time the life style, method of education, environment etc has changed including the research methodology. To make Ayurveda easily acceptable, as per the current trends in research, a review of previously proved fundamentals of Ayurveda in line with currently followed method of research is essential to achieve easy application in field of clinical research. Five step process of designing and validation of questionnaire ensure a research tool for clinical research. Although diseases like Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is an endocrine disorder known as hyperandrogenic state along with genetic factors. It is now increasingly perceived as disorder of changed life style. Hence evaluation of Dosha Prakopa Nidana finds merit.
197 A PATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION , *Dr. C. Rajmohan, MS and Dr. Selladurai
Introduction: Gastric outlet obstruction is due to obstruction in first part of duodenum at the site of chronic scarring from ulceration or antrum where a benign gastric ulcer (type II and type III) or carcinoma is a problem. Stenotic complications of peptic ulcer disease are hour glass deformity and tea pot deformity (gastric ulcer). Stenotic complications arise from repeated cycles of ulceration and healing resulting in dense fibrosis with narrowing and deformity. Common causes of gastric outlet obstruction are Chronic duodenal ulceration / fibrosis, Antral gastric carcinoma, Carcinoma of the head of pancreas. Aim of The Study: To evaluate the age and sex incidence of gastric outlet obstruction. Also Pathological study on causes of gastric outlet obstruction and to correlate the results of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, biopsy and peroperative findings in gastric outlet obstruction. Materials and Methods: This was a pathological study on gastric outlet obstruction comprising of 34 cases of gastric outlet obstruction. The patients have been selected from Tirunelveli Medical College Hospital in the Surgery department from December 2010 to December 2011. The cases were selected with following inclusion and exclusion criteria. An elaborate study of all the patients with regard to history, clinical features, routine investigations, endoscopy and biopsy report, pre operative management, per-operative findings, post operative management and complications during post operative period is managed. Patient general condition, nutrition status, hydration and co-morbid conditions were managed before surgery. Results: Gastric outlet obstruction is common in age less than 50 years is 14 (40%). In 10 patients it is due to malignancy and in 4 patients it is due to benign lesion. In age between 50 to 55 years 8 pateints (24%) develop gastric outlet obstruction. In 7 patients the cause is malignant lesion and in one patient the cause is cicatrized duodenal ulcer in 1st part of duodenum. In age between 56 to 60 years 4 patients had gastric outlet obstruction and in all 4 patients cause was malignant lesion. In age between 61 to 65 years 5 patients had gastric outlet obstruction. In 3 patients the cause is malignant lesion and in 2 patients it was due to benign lesion. In age above 65 years 3 patients develop gastric outlet obstruction and the cause is malignant lesion. In this study young age to develop gastric outlet obstruction is 30 years due to cicatrized duodenal ulcer and oldest age is 75 years due to gastric carcinoma. The age incidence is 30 to 75 years with mean of 52.5 years. The young age to develop gastric carcinoma is 35 years. Conclusion: The present study is a pathological study on gastric outlet obstruction. The observations from the data and results obtained in the present study were Male patients are more commonly affected by gastric outlet obstruction. Carcinoma in pyloric antral region was the most common cause of gastric outlet obstruction. Vomiting and dehydration are the common symptoms and signs of gastric outlet obstruction. Upper gastro intestinal endoscopy and biopsy are the Gold standard investigation for gastric outlet obstruction. It has been used for both diagnostic purpose and taking biopsy from the lesion. All patients above 40 years with symptoms of dyspepsia should undergo upper gastro intestinal endoscopy and biopsy examination.
198 BUPIVACAINE IN POSTOPERATIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT , *Dr. Anupam Nath Gupta and Dr. Paras Nath
Pain is an unpleasant experience associated with tissue damage. Peripheral tissue injury results in functional disturbances in the nervous system. Modern anaesthesiologists are not only concerned about pre-operative and intra operative care of the patient but also with postoperative welfare of the patient. In present study we have compared the efficacy of injection Bupivacaine 0.25% infiltration preoperatively versus postoperatively on duration of post operative analgesia, VAS at the onset of pain, total analgesia requirement in 24 hours. 150 patients belonging to ASA Class I and II between the age of 15 and 75 who underwent lower abdominal surgeries belonging to either sex were included in the study. The patients were randomly allocated to three groups. Control Group (C) received 20ml normal saline, preoperative group (A) received 0.25% bupivacaine before incision, postoperative group (B) received 0.25% bupivacaine before closure. Duration of analgesia, VAS score at the time of first request of analgesia and total doses of analgesia over 24hrs were recorded. The total analgesia requirement was reduced over 24 hours in the group B in which the infiltration was done postoperatively.
199 MANAGEMENT OF DISCOLORED & FRACTURED INCISOR WITH MINIMALLY INVASIVE APPROACH – CASE REPORT , Dr. R. K. Tewari, Dr. Sana Shadab, Dr. Sadaf Tamanna*
Discolouration and fracture, especially when of the front teeth means a significant disturbance of aesthetics and may decrease a patient’s self-esteem. Public demand for aesthetic dentistry, including tooth whitening and conservative restoration of fractured tooth, has increased in recent years. Dental bleaching offers a conservative, simplified, and low cost approach to change the color of discoloured teeth. The pigments oxidation is responsible for tooth bleaching and can be carried out with two different products; carbamide peroxide and hydrogen peroxide. This case report presents non-vital bleaching of maxillary central incisor with composite resin buildup of fractured incisal edge with the remarkable change of tooth colour by walking bleaching technique.
200 A CASE OF SCLERODERMA MISDIAGNOSED AS PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS , Dilbag Singh*, Amritpal Kaur, Naveen Pandhi, N. C. Kajal, MukulSharma, Srijna
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic autoimmune disease that is characterised by endothelial dysfunction resulting in a small-vessel vasculopathy, fibroblast dysfunction with resultant excessive collagen production and fibrosis, and immunological abnormalities. We present a case of scleroderma misdiagnosed as a case of pulmonary tuberculosis Antibody profile was done were found to be positive for ANA. She also had most of the classical features of scleroderma on clinical examination thus confirming the diagnosis. A detailed history, clinical examination, radiological examination, and immunological test helped in the diagnosis of the patient. We highlight the importance of suspicion, careful general examination, radiological assessment to confirm the diagnosis of scleroderma misdiagnosed as a case of pulmonary tuberculosis.
201 A CASE STUDY ON ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES TO EFFECT CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASES IN UDDANAM COSTAL BELT, SRIKAKULAM, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA , *Dr. K. Rama Rao
A comparative study on causative agents related to kidney diseases were more salt consumption, pain killers, lack of proper drinking water, heat stress, consumption of tobacco, alcohol and using of pesticides at that the victims of chronic kidney diseases in Uddanam area of a coastal belt in Srikakulam Dist, Andhra Pradesh. The research oriented information related to this study obtained from 45 to 68 years aged peoples by structured questionnaire and comparison of other CKDs geographical areas. Most of the researchers published in various causative agents to effect of kidney diseases basing on that we selected 17 related questions from framed questionnaire. The study results were revealed that 62.5± 5.57% of the people were agricultural labors and the salts range from 8 to 14 ppt was recorded in vegetarian and non-vegetarian foods. Each person took on an average 3.5 glasses of water per day this is equal to 1.5±0.2 lits. of water. 63.25±7.03 candidates were approached to RMPs, 22.47±3.56 candidates were approached to ayurvedic medicines and few peoples were approached to trained doctors. The study report contains to that the CKDs affectd is not a single problem and it may leads to multiple disorders affect in the Uddanm costal belt.
202 ISONIAZID INDUCED GYNAECOMASTIA - A RARE CASE REPORT , *Dr. C. Sumalata, Dr. G. Rajeswari, Dr. Jaya Krishna and Dr. Sneha Shukla
Background: Gynaecomastia, a glandular enlargement of breast in males, due to Anti-Tubercular drugs is a very rare entity. There had been few studies showing isoniazid, ethambutol and thioacetazone are the drugs causing gynaecomastia. We present a case where gynaecomastia was seen in male patient after intake of isoniazid as part of treatment of tuberculosis. Case Report: A 31 year old man was diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis, after doing sputum smear microscopy. After taking 3 months of Anti tuberculosis drugs, the patient felt swelling in Breast region presenting as painless bilateral gynaecomastia. Physical examination of external genitalia no abnormality and all secondary sexual characteristics were intact. Isoniazid was suspected as the reason for gynaecomastia and it was stopped. Consequently the breast swelling reduced, patient was reassured and Isoniazid was restarted to complete the treatment. Discussion: Adverse drug event management is a very important during the course of Anti tuberculosis therapy. In the above case, the gynaecomastia or the pain was subsided after stopping of the suspected drug. Gynaecomastia related to use of Isoniazid was first recognized in1953. The mechanism of Isoniazid causing Gynaecomastia is not known. The plausible proposed mechanism is altered androgen-estrogen balance due to disturbance in pyridoxine metabolism. Defective androgen receptors may also contribute to Gynaecomastia. Other mechanisms might be refeeding Gynaecomastia which is caused by restoration of weight, Gonadotrophin secretion and gonadal function.
203 EFFICACY OF AYURVEDIC MEDICINE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF RECURRENT ACUTE PANCREATITIS- A CASE STUDY , *Dr. Chandreshwar Prasad Sinha, Dr. Shailendra Kumar Singh, Dr. Narendra Kunjam, Dr. P. K. Majhi and Dr. Heera Chand Patel
A pre diagnosed case of 17 years old male patient suffering from recurrent pancreatitis since last 12 months. Serum biochemical investigation shows high level of serum lipase and amylase while liver function test was within limit. Ultra sound examination of the abdomen and pelvis showed enlarged Pancreas with minimal peripancreatic fluid, prominent pancreatic duct and changes of recurrent acute or chronic pancreatitis (RACP). The classical symptoms abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, indigestion, oily stool and weight loss were present in the patient. After six months modern medications he didn’t get proper relief, for which patients came to visit the OPD of kayachikitsa GAC Bilaspur Chhattisgarh. Patients was examined as per routine procedure and advised for specific herbominiral medications. Tamra sindur yoga along with supportive Ayurvedic medicine was given by orally twice a day. This treatment regimen was continued for two months. During this period the patients was under medical supervision with strict diet control and had taken the medicine at home with every week follow up to the hospital. After three months of therapy serum amylase and lipase level was compared before and after the treatment. The patient responded well to the above treatment and observed a significant reduction in the biochemical parameters.
204 QUACKERY A QUANDARY- FATE OF DENTISTRY EVEN IN 21ST CENTURY- CASE SERIES , *Dr. Lakkappa S. Ganiger, Dr. Sanjayagouda B. Patil, Dr. S. Anantha Narayanan and Dr. Ashmi Sebastian
Since the services of qualified practitioners are not easily accessible to colossal majority of the population, the gap is bridged by the ubiquitous unqualified practitioner. In many developing countries of the world where dental health‑care facilities are limited, the underprivileged of the society go to unqualified persons (known as quacks) to get dental treatment. This mockery of dental practice imparts unethical dental care to people and results in complications. It is thus a challenge to the dental practitioners to not only fight against this fraudulent of dental quackery but also to educate and convince the patients to distinguish between the quacks and dentists, so that they get guided to take the right treatment. It is incumbent upon dentists everywhere to protect this hard-earned reputation by weeding out quacks from among them. The present article emphasizes on the deleterious practice which the quacks exercise for the replacement of natural teeth.
205 INTRAMYOCARDIAL TUBERCULOSIS: AN INCIDENTAL FINDING ON AUTOPSY , Dr. Renuka Verma, Dr. Gauri Munjal, Dr. Manali Satiza*, Dr. Sunita Singh, Dr. Richa Pawar, Dr. Arushi Goel, Dr. Rajeev Sen
TB is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide and has been identified as a global emergency by WHO.[1] According to global tuberculosis report 2018, 10 million people worldwide developed TB in 2017, of which 5.8 million were men, 3.2 million were women and 1 million were children. The term Miliary TB is derived from the latin word “Miliarius” meaning millet seed, depicting granulomas of a size of millet seed (1-2mm) in various organs affected by tubercle bacilli. This term was coined by John Jacob Manget in 1700.[2]
206 MANAGEMENT OF PULPAL FLOOR PERFORATION BY USING BIODENTINE: A CLINICAL REPORT , Romana Nisar*, Pooja Tiwari, Vikrant Kumar, Sarish Mahajan and Shobhamoyee Baruah
Furcal perforation may be the consequence of procedural error or a pathologic process such as caries and root Resorption. Furcal perforations are one of the most challenging cause of endodontic failure of multirooted teeth. Inadequacy of the repair materials has been a contributing factor to the poor outcome of repair procedures. Several materials including MTA, GIC have been used for non-surgical repair of furcal perforations. On the basis of physical and biological property this material may be suitable for closing the communication between the pulp chamber and the underlying periodontal tissues. The presence of bismuth oxide in MTA formulation may darken the tooth. Significant downside to MTA is the prolonged setting time of approximately 2 hours and 45 minutes. This requires that pulp capping with MTA can be in two-steps. Recently, new materials such as, Biodentine® Biodentine (Septodont: Saint Maurdes Fosses France) with similar composition was introduced with shorter setting time (10 minutes), greater biocompatibility, bioactivity and biomineralization properties than MTA. Moreover, Biodentine shows improved antibacterial property and low cytotoxic effect as compared to MTA. The purpose of this case report was to describe the treatment of furcal perforation using Biodentine® in molar teeth. The tooth was endodontically treated and the perforations were cleaned with NaOCl and saline solution and sealed with Biodentine®. Finally, the coronal portion of tooth is restored with composite resin and then a ceramic veneer crown is placed over it. After six months, absence of any periradicular radiolucent lesion, pain, and swelling along with abnormal functional tooth stability indicated a successful outcome of the sealing perforations.
207 EVALUATION OF ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF SWERTIA CHIRAYITA AND PANAX GINSENG , *Samreen Begum, Dr. A. Srinivasa Rao and M. Sri Ramachandra
Diabetes mellitus, one of the most common endocrine disorders has caused significant morbidity and mortality due to macro vascular and micro vascular complications. Currently available therapies for diabetes include insulin and various oral anti diabetic drugs have number of serious adverse effect; therefore the search for more effective and safer hypoglycemic agents is one of the important areas of investigation. Some medicinal plants have been reported to be useful in diabetes worldwide. The herbs like swertia chirayata shown to protect the liver. It contains xanthones which is reputedly effective against Malaria, Tuberculosis. It also cures constipation and used for treating dyspepsia with all other properties the swertia chirayita shows good anti diabetic activity. The other herb which was used to carry out the experiment panax ginseng is well effective in case of anti-sterility in men, it prevents cancer and fight chemical dependency (anti proliferative). The study was conducted to examine the possible antidiabetic activity of swertia chirayata and panax ginseng leaf extraction on male wistar rats. Gold thio glucose method was used to induce diabetes in rats. Initially blood glucose levels were increased abruptly after induction. After giving the oral administration of ethanolic extract of swertia chirayat (100mg/ Kg, 200mg/kg) and panax gingseng (250mg/kg, 100mg/kg). Finding of this research showed that ethanolic extract of a plant swertia possess phytochemicals like steroids, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and panax ginseng possess alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids and tannins significant (P< 0.05) anti diabetic activity. The results were compared with standard drug metformin (400mg/kg).
208 EFFECTIVENESS OF AMULYA AMRITATULSI RASAYAN AND AMULYA ENERGY Z CAPSULES IN TREATING TYPHOID: A CASE STUDY , Shashi Gupta, Vinti, Parikshit Bansal, Kakoli Biswas and Rajesh Biswas*
Amulya Amritatulsi Rasayan- containing extracts of just two plants - Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and Geloye (Tinospora cordifolia) is a proprietary anti-infective herbal (Ayurvedic) formulation being manufactured by Amulya Herbs Pvt. Limited, Panchkula (India). In combination with Amulya Energy Z capsules, the formulation is found to be highly effective in the treatment of typhoid. Amulya Energy Z capsules are a dietary supplement containing Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera), Safed Musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum), vitamins and minerals. Tulsi is considered as one of the holiest and most healthiness giving herbs in India. Geloy, Ashwagandha and Safed Musli the other three herbs used in formulation are available in India and known for medicinal use since ancient times. These plants are used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for total rejuvenation, immunomodulation, antibacterial activity and as antioxidants. Since ages the therapeutic uses of these plants are considered as safe, inexpensive and efficient. They heal many diseases due to chemical constituents present in different parts of plants. Antibacterial activity of chemical constituents of Geloy, Tulsi, Ashwagandha and Safed Musli against Salmonellosis is well documented. Thirty „Widal test positive‟ Typhoid Patients, who were given 400mg Cefixime 1BD and paracetamol 500mg SOS by allopathic doctor for 15 days with no sign of recovery were successfully treated in Ayusham Health Care, Plot No 293, Industrial area, Phase-1, Panchkula, Haryana, India, using Amulya Amritatulsi Rasayan capsule 500mg, containing 50:50 combination of Ocimum sanctum and Tinospora cordifolia, twice a day for thirty days, along with Amulya Energy Z capsules 500mg, containing herbal extracts of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) 300mg, Safed Musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum)100mg, vitamins and minerals once a day for 30 days. The present case study suggests that the biologically active components of Tulsi and Geloy in combination with Ashwagandha and Safed Musli had synergistic activity against Salmonella typhi and show promise as an alternative cheap non-antibiotic combination for the effective treatment of for S. typhi infection.
209 EFFECT OF TYPES OF MEDICATIONS, PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES, AND DRINKING WATER ON CONTROLLING BLOOD PRESSURE IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS , *Taher M. Abdelhameed, Baraa B. Osman and Malath T. Yousef
Background: Hypertension is a chronic disease that affects the lives of more than 30% of the population worldwide. Regulating blood pressure within the acceptable ranges is the key element to reduce the risks of collateral damages of hypertension on hypertensive people. The aim of the study: to survey the effect of types of hypertension medications, physical activities, water consumption on controlling blood pressure in hypertensive people. Material and Methods: - In this study, a questionnaire was carried on a total of 32 males and females aged 38 to 90 years. The effects of types of medications, performing daily physical activities, and consuming adequate amounts of water were examined on these patients. Results: Since the causes of hypertension is not known in the vast majority of cases (essential hypertension), medications such as ACEI that can give desirable results in controlling blood pressure for some patients were not effective for some other patients. Combining two or more types of medications could improve their effect on controlling blood pressure. Physical activity and regular exercise are very effective in reducing blood pressure and control it at a moderate level. Drinking adequate amounts of water also might help in controlling blood pressure. The results suggest that life style of hypertensive patients should include regular physical activities and drinking adequate amounts of water. Medications, on the other hand, are case specific where one type of medication is suitable and adequate for some patients and have small or no effect for some others. Furthermore, some patients need to take multiple medications in order to have the required effect. And some patients might be resistant to all types of medications.
210 THE EFFECTS OF GESTATIONAL DIABETES AND INFANT SEX ON THE INCIDENCE OF BRACHIAL PLEXUS INJURY , Elhadi Araibi, Fatma Alashkham, Altayeb Elazomi*, Abd Alla A. Mohamed, Taher M. Abdelhameed, Heba Abdulrahman and Reem Eshibani
The brachial plexus is a bundle of nerves that carry signals from the spinal cord to the shoulder, arm, hand, and fingers. Brachial plexus birth palsy (BPBP) primarily involving the C5-C6 (the upper trunk) and sometimes the C7 (the middle trunk) of the brachial plexus. Studies have shown that several risk factors including fetal, maternal, and labor factors are responsible for the incidence of brachial plexus injury. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of maternal factor of gestational diabetes and the fetal factor of infant gender on the incidence of brachial plexus injury. 170 patients were admitted to physiotherapeutic center of Abogalasha in the city of Zawia, Libya between July 2012 and July 2017. From the clinic records, information including the maternal age, number of deliveries, incidence of gestational diabetes, birth weight, degree of macrosomia, degree and location of brachial plexus injury were collected and statistically analyzed. Results: Among 170 patients, the most frequent indication for admission of infants to the physiotherapeutic center was Erb's palsy in 124 patients (72.94%), followed by muscle atrophy in 27 patients (15.88%), and hypoesthesia in 19 patients (11.18%). Among 124 cases with Erb's palsy, 108 patients (87.1%) were born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Out of 108 patients, 74 patients (59.68%) were males, and 34 patients (27.42%) were females. There were 16 patients with Erb’s palsy (13%) born to non-gestational diabetic mothers. Of these babies, 9 patients (7.26%) were males, and 7 patients (5.65%) were females. The type of delivery was vaginal delivery in most of patients. The incidence of Erb’s palsy is a multifactorial in which both maternal factor of gestational diabetes and fetal factor of male gender are affecting the incidence of the disorder than any of these factors alone. Therefore, gestational diabetes mellitus and male gender both would be indicators for C/S to avoid the incidence of Erb's palsy.
211 COLONLUBAN - A NATURAL REMEDY FOR INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE , Dr. Luay Rashan, Dr. Mohammed Rishan and Dr. Rafie Hamidpour*
Inflammatory bowel diseases cover a diverse range of conditions generally grouped into Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) based on clinical, laboratory, radiological, endoscopic, and histological criteria. CD affects the small intestine and large intestine, as well as the mouth, esophagus, stomach and the anus; whereas UC primarily affects the colon and the rectum.[2-4] The exact cause of inflammatory bowel disease remains unknown. One possible cause is an immune system malfunction. Heredity also seems to play a role in that IBD is more common in people who have family members with the disease. In 2015 an estimated 1.3% of US adults (3 million) reported being diagnosed with IBD (either Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis). This was a large increase from 1999 (0.9% or 2 million adults). Inflammatory bowel diseases are increasing in Europe. IBS affects 10-25% of the population globally with a slightly higher prevalence in females compared to males. IBD treatment usually involves either drug therapy or surgery. Among drugs used to treat IBD are anti-inflammatory drugs, immune system suppressor, antibiotics, anti-diarrheal, pain relievers, iron supplements. Complementary and alternative medicine approaches have been used in inflammatory bowel disorders such as using Plantago ovata and curcumin especially in UC maintenance therapy. We describe in this paper a new oral herbal remedy oral that consists of six monographic herbs with potent anti -inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antibacterial and antispasmodic properties that make it a promising multi-targeted treatment for IBD.
212 PATTERN OF DRUGS PRESCRIBING IN OSTEOARTHRITIC PATIENTS IN OUT PATIENT DEPARTMENT OF CRIMSON HOSPITAL, RUPANDEHI , *Mukesh Kumar Chaudhary, Deepa Bhattarai, Dikshya Kafle, Mausami Kunwar and Ranju Panthi
Osteoarthritis is universally known as one of most common musculoskeletal disorder. It normally implicates as pain involving several joints, mainly occurring in the elderly with a radiographic prevalence of nearly 70% in persons over age 65. Drug utilization research was defined by WHO in 1977 as the marketing, distribution, prescription and use of drugs in a society, with special emphasis on the resulting medical, social and economic consequences. The main objective of the study is to know about the prescription pattern of drugs in osteoarthritis based on the WHO drug prescribing indicators. The study design was prospective observational study. Total 100 patients were included who were clinically diagnosed with osteoarthritis. The result of this study shows that most of the patients were from age group 50-60. Female patients were more (71%) than male (29%). Most of the patients were from urban region (91%). Out of hundred patients, 82 patients had Knee OA and 18 patients had hip OA. Our study showed that preferred route of drug administration as oral route 91% followed by topical route 9%. The average number of drugs prescribed for the patients of OA was 4.48%. Our study concludes that NSAIDS were prescribed most commonly. However the drug paracetamol was lesser prescribed than other drugs Diclofenac (2.003%), aceclofenac (11.38%). Various other drugs were also used as adjunct therapy that included gastro protective agents in 23.42% of patients, Vitamin and minerals 51% and symptomatic slow acting drug for OA which included diacerin and glucosamine in 23% of patients.
213 STRUCTURED ORAL VIVA EXAMINATION AS AN ASSESSMENT TOOL IN PHARMACOLOGY , Dr. Shalini Salwan*, Dr. Jagminder Kaur Bajaj and Dr. Poonam Salwan
Background: The traditional viva examination which is still predominantly used in most of the medical institutions as one of the assessment methods has been associated with some demerits like lack of standardization, objectivity & reliability. It involves many faculty members resulting in variations in the time allotted to each student, number of questions asked, and difficulty level of the questions. To some extent, these can be resolved by structuring the oral examination to make it a better assessment tool. The present study was conducted to introduce structured oral examination (SOE) as a novel formative assessment tool for 3rd semester M.B.B.S. students in Pharmacology and evaluating the process by taking feedback from the students and faculty. Aim and Objectives: The study aims to introduce SOE in formative assessment of pharmacology and to sensitize the faculty about the process and to record the students’ and faculty’s perceptions about SOE. Methodology: All the subjects [3rd semester M.B.B.S. students (n=152)] were assessed by structured oral viva, thrice for different topics. Feedback in the form of a questionnaire was collected from the students. Questionnaire included various questions based on Likert scales ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. Topic for the structured oral examination was pre-decided by the faculty members. A checklist of questions to be asked in the structured viva was prepared and their probable/most correct answers were discussed with the faculty. Students were intimated about the viva process well in advance. Results: One hundred fifty two second professional students participated and majority of them were satisfied after being assessed in oral structured viva exam. The results obtained were: Examiner’s mood affecting performance: 49 (32%); appropriate time to answer the questions: 101 (66.4%), organization of the questions according to their difficulty level: 100 (65.8%); Stress level reduction with SOE: 58(38.2%); Reduction of bias by examiner: 68 (44.7%); Helpful in enhancing performance in final exam: 81(53.3%); covered whole of the topic: 76(50%); Interested in continuation of SOE: 85(56%) and Overemphasis on Examiner’s topic of interest in traditional viva : 32 (21%) Faculty members also expressed that structured oral examinations are better in terms of reducing bias and minimizing luck factor. In addition, uniformity of questions makes SOE a fair assessment tool. Conclusions: Most of the students and faculty favored structured oral examination approach of taking viva. It can be a better assessment tool and with some modifications in blueprinting will gain acceptance among the students as well as faculty.
214 STANDARDIZATION OF BILWADI AGADA THROUGH HPTLC , Sk. Hafiz Hasan*, Anjali W. G., Gazala Hussain and Sudipana Sarkar
The quality control standards for the Ayurvedic polyherbal medicinal preparation is the need for the day in view of commercialization. Despite availability of modern equipments and techniques only a few Ayurvedic drugs have been standardized. Bilwadi agada (BA), an herbal preparation; mentioned in the text of Ayurveda in the context of treatment of poisoning, is one of those. High-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) is an instrumental techniques and an analytical tool for chromatographic information. In this present study an effort has been made to standardize BA through HPTLC. TLC photo documentation of BA showed 13, 12 and 11 spots under short UV, long UV and under white light after derivatization respectively. Densitometric scan at 254 nm revealed 3 high peaks corresponding to 3 different compounds in the ethanol extract, compounds, at 366 nm and 620 nm there were three high peaks. These physico-chemical constants, TLC photo documentation, the unique Rf values and densitogram obtained at different wavelengths can be used as fingerprint to identify BA.
215 HEPATOTOXICITY DUE TO ANTITUBERCULOSIS THERAPY: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY FROM A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE , Dr. Achal Sharma and Dr. Akanksha Mathur*
Objective: Tuberculosis is a significant problem in developing countries like India. The objective of the study was to find out the prevalence of anti-tubercular treatment induced hepatotoxicity and to determine the predisposing risk factors, if any. Methods: It was a prospective observational study involving 150 newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients on antitubercular therapy at a tertiare care centre. Clinical and epidemiological data including the risk factors predisposing to liver toxicity were collected through history taking and review of medical records. Baseline liver function tests were conducted before starting the therapy, one week after the therapy and whenever symptoms of hepatotoxicity arise. ATT induced hepatotoxicity was defined in accordance with the international consensus criteria. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS version 20.0 in terms of mean ± SD, absolute numbers and percentage. The chi-square test was used to compare the differences in variables between the two groups. p<0.05 was considered as significant. Results: 32(21.48%) out 150 tuberculosis patients developed hepatotoxicity during the course of treatment out of which 53% were males. ATT induced hepatotoxicity was most commonly associated with TB lymphadenitis 13(40.6%) followed by pleural effusion 9(28.5%), TB meningitis and miliary TB 3(9.3%). Smoking was found to favour development of ATT induced hepatotoxicity (p value-0.030). Rest other risk factors were not found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: Smoking was found to be related with the incidence of ATT induced hepatotoxicity significantly although it demands further analysis.
216 ASSESSMENT OF ANAEMIA IN CHILDREN WITH JUVENILE IDIOPATHIC ARTHRITIS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH DISEASE ACTIVITY AND DISEASE DURATION , Rumana Riaaz*, Susmita Das, Md. Imnul Islam and Shahana A. Rahman
Background: Anaemia is a common complication of JIA and it usually correlates with disease activity and duration. Objective: To assess anaemia in JIA patients including its severity, morphological types and determine its relationship with disease activity and duration. Methodology: This cross sectional study was done in the department of paediatrics, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) from January 2017 to June 2018. Eighty new cases of JIA fulfilling ILAR classification criteria were included in this study. A detailed questionnaire was completed for each participant which included clinical and laboratory characteristics, severity of anaemia and disease activity. Results: Mean age of JIA patients was 9.36 years with male: female ratio 1.57:1. Most of the JIA patients (91.25%) were suffering from anaemia. Ninety six percent of polyJIA patients were anaemic followed by SJIA (95%), ERA (88%) and Oligoarticular cases (71%). All the patients with severe disease activity were anaemic of which majority were moderately anaemic (47.7%) followed by severly anaemic (29.5%). Significant relationtionship of anaemia with disease activity and disease duration were observed in this study. Conclusion: Most of the JIA patients were suffering from anaemia. Disease duration and disease activity of JIA patients were significantly related with anaemia in this study.
217 GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFIENCY VIRUS (HIV) PATIENTS ATTENDING HIV CLINIC AT BENUE STATE UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL, MAKURDI, NIGERIA. , Monday O. Ogiator*, Joseph E. Ojobi, Ochoche O. Ijachi and Matthew Okpe
Background: Glomerular disease with proteinuria and renal failure are common complications of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) – related renal diseases are important causes of end stage renal disease in Africa. HIV positive individuals are routinely screened for creatinine and urea levels in HIV clinics in Nigeria but glomerular filtration rate is not routinely calculated and as a result early renal dysfunction is usually missed. We aimed to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of HIV positive individuals seen at the HIV clinic of Benue State University Teaching Hospital (BSUTH), Makurdi, Nigeria. Objectives: To determine the glomerular filtration rate of HIV positive individuals attending HIV clinic at BSUTH, Makurdi Nigeria Method: One Hundred and fifty two HIV positive individuals attending HIV clinic and 65 age and sex matched HIV sero-negative individuals (controls) from Medical Outpatient Department were recruited. Result: Forty three (28.3%) of HIV positive individuals attending had estimated GFR ≤ 60mLs/minute compared to 5(7.7%) of HIV sero-negative individuals (control). The result was statistically significant. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of HIV positive individuals with renal insufficiency attending HIV clinic at BSUTH. This finding emphasizes the need for routine estimation of GFR of HIV positive individuals.
218 TOBACCO-INDUCED METAL TOXICITY: ROLE OF VITAMINS , Soumita Dey, Amit Nandi, Sandip Kumar Sinha and Sankar Kumar Dey*
Recently, the main theme of world is urbanization as well as industrialization as a result; there has been a growing concern about increase in toxic metals contamination. Nicotine is one of the major constituents of different types of smoking and is the more toxic part also. Thirty metals have been detected in tobacco smoke, including nickel, arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead. Arsenic and arsenic compounds and chromium and some chromium compounds are causally associated with cancer in humans, while nickel and cadmium and their compounds are probably carcinogenic to humans. So, the present review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the risks of tobacco consumption which contains several toxic metals. Vitamins consumption through food stuffs, act as an antioxidant. Antioxidants are substances which may play a role in heart disease, cancer and other diseases. Antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E and carotenoids, may help to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. Several studies reported that metals-induced toxicity can be attributed to oxidative stress started from glutathione mediated metal reductive activation and continued by mitochondrial/lysosomal toxic interaction. Vitamins play a vital role to counteract such alterations in response to heavy metals.
219 ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CASSIA AURICULATA AND EUGINEA JAMBOLANA AGAINST METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS , R. Kanchana, Dr. B. Bharathi* and Dr. Deepa C. Philip
Background: Various medicinal properties have been attributed to natural herbs. The antibiotic resistant microorganisms has increased in past three decades. The Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) is a problematic pathogen in the field of medical science. This organism tends to cause serious infection in the burn patients and causing higher mortality. Thereby our study aims to control these micro-organisms using various plants extracts. Natural products of higher plant may possess a new source of antimicrobial agent with possible novel mechanism of action. Aim: The main objective of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial activity of E.jambolana and C.auriculata against MRSA and to do screening for phytochemical constituents. Materials and methods: A prospective study was conducted to analyse the phytochemical components and to compare the efficacy of ethanolic, ethylacetate, diethyl ether, hexane and aqueous extracts of E.jambolana and C.auriculata on MRSA. Results: The highest inhibition zone 20mm was observed in 45 μl ethylacetate and aqueous extracts of C.auriculata and 18mm highest zone was observed in 45μl ethylacetate extracts of E.jambolana. Conclusion: The inhibitory effect of the extracts justified the medicinal use of both plants Cassia auriculata and Eugenia jambolana. In future after the detailed study these medicinal plants can be used as potent biochemical drugs to overcome the infections caused by these organisms.
220 ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CASSIA AURICULATA AND EUGINEA JAMBOLANA AGAINST METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS , R. Kanchana, Dr. B. Bharathi* and Dr. Deepa C. Philip
Background: Various medicinal properties have been attributed to natural herbs. The antibiotic resistant microorganisms has increased in past three decades. The Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA) is a problematic pathogen in the field of medical science. This organism tends to cause serious infection in the burn patients and causing higher mortality. Thereby our study aims to control these micro-organisms using various plants extracts. Natural products of higher plant may possess a new source of antimicrobial agent with possible novel mechanism of action. Aim: The main objective of this study is to evaluate the antibacterial activity of E.jambolana and C.auriculata against MRSA and to do screening for phytochemical constituents. Materials and methods: A prospective study was conducted to analyse the phytochemical components and to compare the efficacy of ethanolic, ethylacetate, diethyl ether, hexane and aqueous extracts of E.jambolana and C.auriculata on MRSA. Results: The highest inhibition zone 20mm was observed in 45 μl ethylacetate and aqueous extracts of C.auriculata and 18mm highest zone was observed in 45μl ethylacetate extracts of E.jambolana. Conclusion: The inhibitory effect of the extracts justified the medicinal use of both plants Cassia auriculata and Eugenia jambolana. In future after the detailed study these medicinal plants can be used as potent biochemical drugs to overcome the infections caused by these organisms.
221 ULTRASONOGRAPHY AS A RELIABLE TOOL IN DIAGNOSIS AND IMAGING BASED FOLLOW-UP PROCEDURE IN CONSERVATIVELY MANAGED TRANSIENT SMALL BOWEL INTUSSUSCEPTION , Dr. Emhmed Mohamed Saaid*, Dr. Emraga Abohamod and Dr. Momen Abdu Alkhir
The paper aim is to evaluate the ultra-sonographic features of transient small bowel intussusceptions (TSBI) in paediatrics age group. In our unit, we came across six cases with TSBI cases (4 males and 2 females, the age ranges between 7–120 months (mean 38.months). Retrospective analysis of the demographic characteristics and ultrasonographic findings was done The radiological findings as location, calibre, outer rim thickness, and inclusion of mesenteric lymph nodes within intussuscipiens were compared. In TSBI, the intussusception head was located in the abdominal right lower quadrant (RLQ) in 3 (50%), the right upper quadrant (RUQ) in 1 (16%) and the periumbilical area in 2 (33%) cases. The anteroposterior (AP) diameter ranged from 0.9–2.5 cm (mean 1.38 cm), and thickness of outer rim ranged from 0.10–0.34 cm (mean 0.26 cm). No mesenteric lymph nodes were contained within the intussuscipiens. In conclusion, ultrasound examination is the preferred primary radiological diagnostic modality to evaluate and diagnose the acute abdomen with a suspected small bowel intussusception.
222 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF NELUMBO NUCIFERA PETALS , D. Suja, Dr. A. Rohini* and Dr. A. Chandramohan
For a long period of time, plants have been a valuable source of medicines. Phytochemicals like alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins, phenols are the non-nutritive, chemical compounds that occur naturally on plants and have diverse protective properties. Reactive oxygen species are formed in biological system as part of normal metabolism. To avoid damage caused by these excess ROS, plants have developed elaborate mechanism to manage them at sustainable level. Enzyme play an important role in lowering the ROS level and and avoid oxidative stress. Catalase, play vital role in combating oxidative stress. Measuring these enzymes activities provide an easy and precise way to study and understand an important part of the defense against oxidative stress.
223 ANALYSIS OF NECK MASSES IN A GROUP OF SYRIAN PATIENTS AT ALMOUWASAT UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL , Khaled Alhomsi*
Objective: This study was done to assess the distribution of neck masses related to gender, age, pathology, and anatomical location. Materials and Methods: This study was a retrospective study of the files of the patients who reviewed AlMouwasat University Hospital with neck masses. This study included all cases from January 2016 to November 2019. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 25.0. Results: We had 265 patients with neck masses in our study divided into 55.4% males and 44.6% females. The median age of presentation was 48 years old. 20.7% of all cases were in the pediatric group, 25.3% of all cases were in the young adult group, and 54% of all cases were in the adult group. Lymph nodes were the most common affected tissues in all age groups. Furthermore, in males and females, lymph nodes were the most common affected tissues. Neoplasms were the most common lesions in both genders. Conclusion: In our study, the median age of presentation was 48 years old. The age of our patients ranged from 2 months to 89 years old. Lymph nodes were the most common affected tissues in all age groups and in both males and females.
224 KNOW THE FRUITS BEFORE YOU EAT - A NUTRITIVE REVIEW ON PHALA VARGA , Dr. Mahesh Raju B.* and Sneha P.
Fruits are the integral part of healthy diet since the Vedic era. Ayurveda mentions fruits under the classification of Phala Varga. Explanation regarding Rasa Panchaka, Pathya, Apathya of the fruits has been mentioned in classics. This article gives the correlation of the Ayurvedic and modern aspects of the fruits. Every fruit differs from each other because of its different Rasa Panchaka, nutritional values etc. It is necessary to know which fruit is indicated in which condition, when to eat which type of fruit. As most of the time non communicable diseases like sthoulya, prameha, cancers are increasing every year, so as a part of improvement in public health it‘s very important to concentrate on some of the factors like Poor diet, physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol intake which are the major responsible epidemiological factors in causing some non communicable diseases. In this article it is focused on aspect of supplementary nutrition with fruits along with the regular diet which may be beneficial in fulfilling the lack of vitamins, minerals, fibres etc, if such type of fruits consumed regularly in sufficient quantities also helpful in maintaining their diet in a healthy way as well as helping in preventing various nutritional disorders and also non communicable, life style disorders.
225 ENDOSCOPIC INTRALUMINAL TREATMENT OF ESOPHAGEAL STENOSIS IN CHILDREN IN POST BURN PERIOD , Arifjanov N.S.*, Aliev M.M., Tilavov U.K., Karimov B.A., Umargaliev S.D.
The number of chemical burns of the esophagus and cicatricial stenoses in children does not have a tendency to decrease, which is caused by a significant increase in the use in everyday life of household chemicals containing acids and alkalis, which can cause severe burns of the esophagus, less often stomach.[1, 12]
226 PREVALENCE OF ALLERGIC DISEASES AMONG THE AGE GROUP 0-18 YEARS OF THE POPULATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKISTAN , *Razikova Ilmira Sadullaevna, Razikova Gulmira Rustamovna, Aidarova Nargiza Pulatovna, Baybekova Venera Faridovna, Akhmedov Khushnud Saparbayevich
Allergic diseases (AD) in recent decades have attracted more attention due to the increasing prevalence among the population. Numerous epidemiological studies studying the degree of prevalence of AD in Russia and abroad objectively reflect the steady increase in allergopathology, especially in children.[1] According to WHO forecasts, by 2050 most of the world's population will be affected by allergic diseases, which will be 50-60%.[2] To obtain reliable statistics on the prevalence of allergic diseases in children 0-18 years old in Uzbekistan, the Republican Scientific and Specialized Allergological Center (RSSAC) for the first time in the execution of the Decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan (DP RUz) dated 05/11/2018 No. 3715 "On measures to fundamentally improve prevention, diagnostics and treatment of allergic diseases”, according to the developed questionnaire, the State screening program was conducted in the period from January 1 to July 1, 2019. Objective: To identify the prevalence of allergopathology among children from 0 to 18 years in Uzbekistan, taking into account various risk factors and regional characteristics, to conduct a retrospective and prospective analysis of allergopathology in children of the republic, to obtain reliable statistical data on nosologies of allergic diseases and to develop a set of preventive measures to prevent them.
227 RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF RELATED COMPOUNDS OF OCTREOTIDE ACETATE DEPOT SUSPENSION (MICROSPHERES) , Jerripothula Ganesh* and Bandi Veera Babu*
The analysis of Octreotide Acetate and related compounds Depot Suspension (Microspheres) By using RP-HPLC method using columm Waters X-Bridge C18 (250 X 4.6 )mm, 5μm with Flow rate 1.0 mL/min, Injection volume 50 μL, Wavelength 210 nm, Run time 70 minutes, Elution using Gradient programm, the Rt for Octreotide was found to be 28.23, related compunds like N- Acetyl Octreotide was found to be 24.32 Des Threoninol Octreotide was found to be 34.24. The suitable was developed for the indetification of the related compounds present in the Octreotide Acetate formulation.
228 MALARIA TREATMENT BY COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS IN PORT HARCOURT, NIGERIA , *Chijioke-Nwauche Ifeyinwa and Ogoh Christian
Adherence to guidelines for the treatment of malaria is a very important key factor in effective control of malaria. Self-medication and high rates of treatment seeking in private sector are among the major challenges to malaria control because they contribute to the misuse and poor administration of antimalarial drug thereby increasing the possibility of increased drug resistance. A prospective, descriptive, cross sectional study was carried out to assess the malaria treatment and consumption of anti-malarial drugs in community pharmacies in Port-Harcourt between the months of December 2016 to January, 2017. Collected data include mode, pattern and cost of treatment, drugs used, and pharmacists’ basis of choice of treatment. Results show that 81.1% of the pharmacists treated the malaria according to the national policy of testing before treatment as well as use of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) based drugs. The most sold/recommended ACT was artemether-lumefantrine (78.2%) followed by dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (15.4%). Median cost for treating one episode of malaria inclusive of co-medications was N1, 250 ($3.45). Sale of monotherapy and other non-ACT drugs was also observed from the study. Need for strict enforcement of national guidelines for malaria treatment is advocated.
229 GLUTATHIONE METABOLISM AND ITS STATE IN ACUTE PANCREATITIS DEPENDING ON THE BODY'S ANTIOXIDANT STATUS , I. Shukurov* and H. Amonova
The article analyzes the exchange of glutathione and its relationship with the processes of detoxification and lipoperoxidation in acute experimental pancreatitis, depending on the antioxidant state of the body.
230 CELL PHONE COMMUNICATION AND RISK OF ROAD TRAFFIC CRASH , *Sunday Ogunsuyi Popoola, Mouruf Babatunde Yusuf, Johnson Dare Ogunlusi and Kehinde Sunday Oluwadiya
Background: Consecutive communication apparatuses are revolutionizing the world of Homo sapiens loquens right from pre-historic era to modern-day internet epoch’s global village. Untoward utility of cell phones is a likelihood of road traffic crash. This study investigated attitudes of driver/conductor and pedestrian/passenger categories on roads and made recommendations. Methods: In Southwestern Nigeria, a self-administered questionnaire with Likert-style was formulated. Participants were engaged at weeks in different commercial motor parks and fuel stations across a city. Data entered into a statistical package. Statistical-significance was taken as p<0.05. Results: Randomized sample of 1000 individuals participated with equal ratio of drivers and pedestrians. Modal age group was 41-50years; male:female=3:2. Majority (54.4%) attained tertiary education. Civil servants 254(25.4%) was the largest in occupation. Five-hundred and seventy people (57.0%) had been using cell phone for the past 6-10years and 770(77.0%) had inbuilt camera incorporated. Less than 50% never practiced picking/making calls while on roads. Greater than and less than 50% never sent/read text messages and never enjoyed music with earpiece on roads respectively. Less than 50% switched off cell phones on roads. More than 50% knew the moral obligations associated with cell phone communication. Conclusion: Majority recognized cell phone communication on roads as a potential risk of crash. One-fifth of respondents never heard anything about abuse of cell phone on roads causing crash. A quarter never obeyed the idea of pulling over/stopping at a convenient spot to utilize cell phone. Legislation against abuse of cell phone should be extended to pedestrians on or by roads.
231 EVIDENCE OF SALMONELLA TYPHI IN BAGHDAD CITY , Khiaria J. Tothli*, Qasim I. Hussein, Thaer M. A. Al Baqer
A total of 986 blood bolts of carrier Salmonella typhi were transplanted to patients hospitalized in Ibn Al-Baladi Hospital between July and December of 2018 and from January to June 2019. Ten cases were recorded in 2018 compared to 2019, with 48 cases recorded .at an increase rate of 58% It was found that the most infections in the winter and unlike previous years and the most infections recorded between the ages of 6 to 10 years and more infections among males than females, as well as recorded the highest casualties in Sadr City, It is highly populated.
232 THE CLINICAL COURSE OF JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS OF THE CHILDREN FROM THE ADVERSE RESIDENCE AREA , *Kaypbekova G. K. and Musadjanova L. Kh.
Background: According to the results of various studies, prevalence of JRA is from 2 to 19 cases per year per 100,000 of the population, and frequency of the disease varies in different ethnic groups, in connection with which a genetic predisposition is assumed in etiology of this pathology, as well as influence of environmental factors, such as climatic-environmental and geographical conditions Objective: to achieve this goal dynamic observation data were analyzed including the results of a complex examination of 315 children with JRA at the age of 7-16. Result: The risk factors contributing to occurrence of juvenile idiopathic arthritis include: a burden of a family history of rheumatic diseases; a complicated obstetric and gynecological history of a mother; a pathology of pregnancy and childbirth; early conversion to artificial feeding; frequent infectious morbidity preceding development of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The clinical picture of children with JRA living in an environmentally favorable region was different from that of children living in an unfavorable region by the course nature of the disease. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis of children from an unfavorable region was characterized by torpidity, a tendency to persistence and prevalence of a pathological process.
233 TNF ALPHA LEVELS OF BCG VACCINATED NEONATES IN PARTS OF EDO AND DELTA STATE, NIGERIA , Eyaufe A. A. O.,* Esumeh F. I., Osagie R. N., Adeniran K., Alikah S., Festus O. O., Iserhienihien O., Unuabonah F. H. and Okodua M. A.
This study assesses BCG uptake by determining quantitatively TNF alpha levels pre(before BCG was administered) and post BCG vaccination(six weeks after BCG was administered). The cytokine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) plays a paramount role in curtailing infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in humans. M. tuberculosis can counter this TNFα based defense by decreasing host cell TNF production. Three hundred and seventy three serum samples were analyzed for TNF α using the human TNF ELISA kit (Boster Biological Technology Co. Ltd, USA). In Irrua, 191 samples (130 pre- BCG vaccination and 61 post-vaccination) were analyzed, while in Asaba, 182 samples (120 pre-BCG vaccination and 62 post BCG vaccination) were analyzed. In Asaba, TNFα levels was the same pre-BCG vaccination in both centres. Post vaccination, TNFα levels in Asaba was significantly higher (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in TNFα levels of male and female infants pre and post BCG vaccinations. There was weak correlation between age and TNF alpha levels. The decrease in TNF levels post BCG vaccination reveals that, the vaccine did not enhance TNFα levels, which is crucial in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Thus it is necessary to develop tuberculosis vaccines that can enhance TNFα production. This study also shows that in neonates, age and gender did not affect TNF alpha response.
234 COMPARATIVE CHANGES IN BODY AND RELATIVE ORGAN WEIGHTS OF WISTAR RATS FED WITH COFFEE AND CAFFEINE , Esegbue P. R. C., Enaohwo T. M., *Ogagayere L. O., Uyovwiesevwa A. J. and Olowe G. T.
Caffeine Active ingredient in coffee is an alkaloid (C8H10O2N4·H2O) found in tea, cacao, and numerous other beverages. Overtime, caffeine has been shown increase the blood pressure, stimulate the central nervous system, promote urine formation, plus stimulate the action of the heart and lungs. However, controversies exist as to its effect on the body weight, relative to those of selected organs. Current study hitherto investigated the comparative effect(s) of coffee and caffeine on the body and relative organ weights of wistar rats. Seventy (70) adult male rats of between 140 – 250 grams were procured and randomly grouped into seven (7) of ten (10) rats each. All group A rats (Control) were fed with normal rat chow and water ad libitum; whereas, Experimental rats (groups B through G) received 40mg/kg, 60mg/kg and 80mg/kg doses of Coffee; and 30mg/kg, 45mg/kg and 60mg/kg doses of Caffeine for four (4) weeks respectively. After period of administration of test substances, the rats were weighed on weekly basis, sacrificed via cervical dislocation and selected visceral (Kidney, Liver, Heart and Testes) harvested (weekly) to ascertain the effect of duration and dose changes on their body and relative organ weights. Following statistical analysis (Using the one way analysis of variance – ANOVA and Student t-test), study found a significant difference (p < 0.05) in relative heart weight among groups (control, high dose, medium dose and high dose) except in low dose caffeine. There was also a significant (p < 0.05) increase in relative liver and testicular weight for medium and high doses of Caffeine but only in high dose of coffee treatment when compared to control and high dose respectively. This proved however insignificant for the kidney. Other than kidney, coffee and caffeine consumption therefore caused a dose and/or duration dependent effect on body and relative organ weights in wistar rats. Further studies aimed at corroborating the findings from this work are highly recommended.
235 NEW SIMPLE AND VALIDATED DENSITOMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF AMOXICILLIN AND CLOXACILLIN INTERACTION , Dr. Yahya Abduh Salim Mohamed*
Drug-drug interaction of amoxicillin and cloxacillin was studied by this method. The proposed method depends on measuring the optical density of the inhibited zone area using digital camera and Image J software. Image J software can measure the area even when the inhibition zone is irregular in shape thus avoiding measurement errors during diameter measurement by help of ruler. Good correlations were obtained between the area and the antibiotics concentrations in the range (0.990-0.992). The limits of detection and limits of quantitation were 44.82, 14.51 and 10.86 μgmL-1 and 135.82, 43.98 and 32.91 μgmL-1 for amoxicillin, cloxacillin and their binary mixture; respectively. The proposed method was validated according to US-Food and drug administration (FDA) guidance for bioanalytical method validation and USP 31 guidelines.
236 DISEASES OF CHILDREN WITH HELMINTHIASIS AND THE ROLE OF MASS DEWORMING IN CONFRONTATION AGAINST WORMS IN CHILDREN , *Yuldasheva G. G., Amonov R. A. and Sadullaev N. S.
The actual exposure of helminthsis of children under the age of 14 at the primary health care level has been studied. Structural analysis of children’s infection rates of helminthasis has been carried out. In particular, by age, by visiting children’s institution’s, by gender. The tactics of children recovery from helminthiases in primary health care system have been developed. The importance of mass deworming in a sharp decrease in helminthiases is shown. It has been established that a double massive deworming in a short period of time achieves a sharp reduction in the incidence of children enterobiosis and hymenolipediasis. The importance of the level of knowledge and competence of specialists performing laboratory diagnostics of helminthiases is shown.
237 ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT IN ASTHMA , Jihe Zhu*, Blagica Arsovska and Kristina Kozovska
Asthma is a chronic obstructive airway inflammation that causes breathing problems. It is characterized by an unusually strong immune response and chronic inflammation of the tracheobronchial stem. Typical symptoms are: cough, shortness of breath, wheezing and chest tightness and often these symptoms are triggered by external factors as allergens, exercise, exposure to irritants, viral respiratory infections or change in the weather. The Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for asthma involves treatments with acupuncture, herbal medicine and tai chi. The aim of the acupuncture treatment is to achieve a good control of the symptoms. In the research are included 19 patients, 15 female and 4 male, on age from 10 to 73. All patients were diagnosed with asthma. All patients were treated with acupuncture treatment on the same acupuncture points. Acupuncture points used in the treatment are: ST25 (TIanShu), RN11 (JianLi), RN4 (QuanYuan), LI4 (HeGu), SP6 (SanYinJiao), ST36 (ZuSanLi), Ex-HN-1(SiShenCong), GV20 (BaiHui), Ex-HN-3 (YinTang), Ex-HN-5 (TaiYang), Ex-HN-8 (ShangYingXiang), CV22 (TianTu) and LR3 (TaiChong). Most common age group is from 40 to 50. All treated patients responded well to the treatments. In all patients was achieved positive effect with certain number of treatments. Most of the patients - 13 have done 1 to 5 treatments. The acupuncture treatment in asthma gives positive results and helps in the improvement of the symptoms, the lung function, the breathing and decreases the inflammation in airways and medication dosages.
238 AWARENESS, PERCEPTION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF CHILD FOSTERING AND ADOPTION AMONG INFERTILE WOMEN IN A NIGERIAN TERTIARY HEALTH CENTRE , *Abubakar A. Panti, Asmau M. Nasir, Abdulhadi D. Saidu, Jamila A. Garba, Karima A. Tunau and Rukayya Ibrahim
Background: Infertility is a worldwide problem that has devastating social and psychological consequences on the affected couples, especially in Africa. However, the role of child adoption or fostering in the management of infertile couples has not been extensively evaluated in this part of the world. This study aimed to determine the awareness, perception and acceptability of child fostering and child adoption among infertile women attending gynaecological clinic of UDUTH Sokoto and also to determine the factors associated with knowledge and acceptability of child fostering and adoption. Methodology: The study was a cross-sectional study involving 146 infertile women seen at the Gynaecological clinic of Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital Sokoto. Results: Majority 106(72.6%) had knowledge of fostering and 98 (67.1%) had knowledge of child adoption. Majority of the respondents 98(67.1%) perceived child fostering and adoption as good options for infertility management. However, 88(60.3%) would accept child fostering as an option for their infertility management, while 67(45.9%) would accept adoption. The number of living children, tribe, occupation and educational status were significantly associated with knowledge of child fostering while Age, tribe and occupation were associated with knowledge of adoption. The number of living children, duration of infertility, tribe, occupation and educational status were associated with acceptance of fostering while parity, number of living children, duration of infertility, age and occupation were associated with acceptability of child adoption. Conclusion: The knowledge of child fostering and adoption was high and good number of women would accept fostering but acceptability of adoption was lower. Continuous education of women and the community is necessary to improve their knowledge of child adoption and fostering which are viable and fulfilling options of fertility management.
239 PREVALENCE, PATTERN OF PRESENTATION AND MANAGEMENT OF BARTHOLIN’S GLAND CYST/ABSCESS AT USMANU DANFODIO UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL, SOKOTO: A TEN YEAR REVIEW , *Ahmed Yabuku, Isah U. Mani, Abubakar A. Panti, Garba A. Jamila, Tukur D. Sagir, Rabiu F. Anas and Chappa M. Aliyu
Background: The Bartholin’s gland cysts and abscesses are one of the common vulva cyst or abscesses in gynaecological practice. Symptomatic cases give significant discomfort to affected individuals and have a negative impact on their quality of life. Aim of Study: The study was aimed at determining the prevalence, pattern of presentation and management of Bartholin’s gland cysts and abscesses at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto State. Material and Method: This was a ten-year retrospective study of cases of Bartholin’s gland cysts and abscesses that were managed at UDUTH from 1st January 2009 to 31st December 2018. Results: During the study period, there were 3,924 gynaecological surgical cases managed, among which 81 were Bartholin’s gland cysts and abscess (19 were cysts and 62 were abscesses) giving prevalence of 2.02%. The mean age of the patients was 26.3 ± 3.9 years with 44% of them being within the age range of 25 to 29 years. There was previous history of the condition in 52% of the cases. Previous history was the commonest risk factor that was found for the occurrence of Bartholin’s gland cyst or abscess and this was followed by previous history of sexually transmitted disease in 40% of the cases. Pain and swelling were the commonest presenting symptoms in 65.3% of cases. The left vulva was the commonest site affected as seen in 70.7% of the patients. Swab culture result were retrieved only in 30 patient and Escherichia coli was the commonest organism isolated in 86.7% of the cases. The disease presented commonly in form of abscess as observed in 58 (77.3%) of patients then cyst in 17(22.7%). All the patients had Marsupialisation as the modality of treatment. Conclusion: The prevalence of Bartholin’s gland cyst and abscess in this study was 2.02%. Left bartholin’s gland was the commonest site affected. Escheriria coli was the predominant organisms isolated among the cases managed during the years under review. Marsupialisation remains the mainstay of treatment in low resource setting.
240 PERCEPTION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF CERVICAL RIPENING AND INDUCTION OF LABOUR AMONG WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CARE IN USMANU DANFODIO UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL, SOKOTO , *Ahmed Yabuku, Isah U. Mani, Abubakar A. Panti, Garba A. Jamila, Tukur D. Sagir, Rabiu F. Anas and Chappa M. Aliyu
Background: Induction of labour is the one of the most important intervention in obstetrics practice. It is the initiation of uterine contraction after age of viability with intact foetal membranes with the aim of achieving vaginal delivery. Aim of The Study: The aim of this study was to assess perception and acceptability of cervical ripening and induction of labour among women attending antenatal care at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study involving 316 pregnant women seen at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching hospital Sokoto from 1st June to 31st August 2017. They were interviewed using self/interviewer administered questionnaire. The questionnaire contained items on socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive profile, and assessments of awareness, perception and acceptability of cervical ripening and induction of labour. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 22 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). Level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: The majority of respondents were between 25 and 29 years; among them 63.3% were Hausa and 70.6% were Muslims. Most of the respondents were multigravidae. Majority of the respondents (73.1%) were aware of cervical ripening and induction of labour. Their main source of information was from their friends. Overall perception was 64.6% and only 31.6% were willing to accept the procedure if indicated. Most respondents (54.2%) would reject the procedure because they thought it was painful. Conclusion: The awareness of cervical ripening and induction of labour was good but the perception and acceptability of the procedure was low among the women attending antenatal care at Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital. Regular and proper counselling is recommended in order to correct wrong perceptions and to further increase acceptability of cervical ripening and induction of labour when indicated.
241 CASE REPORT OF AN EXTRALOBAR SEQUESTRATION HYBRID LUNG LESION ASSOCIATED WITH TWO CYSTIC PULMONARY AIRWAY MALFORMATIONS IN THE IPSILATERAL LEFT HEMITHORAX , Érika Mailaro Jordão; Fabricio Nunes Zacca MD; Anna Carolina Chiorino Lopez Poloni MD; Beatriz Durante Pasin MD; Leonan Tavares Galvão MD, Mauricio Giusti Calderon MD, MsC*
Extralobar sequestration is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by a mass of pulmonary parenchyma with it is own pleura, lacking communication with the tracheobronchial tree, with a blood supply from descending aorta and varied venous drainage. In this case we report the association of a congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, a lesion that communicates with the tracheobronchial tree and has a direct arterial supply to the pulmonary circulation. The risk factors and etiology are not completely elucidated, and the scarcity of reports about the occurrence of both of these pathologies makes the rarity of the case even greater and demonstrates the relevance of this study. We describe a case of ipsilateral left hemithorax lesions in a newborn patient who was diagnosed prenatally by a 32-week ultrasound. Early surgical intervention on the ninth day after birth instituted an effective operative excision with curative intention to treat.
242 SYNTHESIS OF SOME DIHYDROPYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVES CARRYING 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE MOIETY AS ANTICANCER AGENTS , Shada H. Yassin, Tawfeek A. Yahya* and Jalal H. Abdullah
A series of dihydropyrimidines (4a-d) were synthesized by reaction of 3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2(1H)-thione (3a-d) with 2-(chloromethyl)-5-chlorophenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole. The compound 4b showed the highest anticancer activity (IC50= 28.2 µM) when compared to standard drug doxorubicin (IC50= 36.3 µM).
243 PREVALENCE OF CHILDHOOD PNEUMONIA DURING 5 YEARS IN BAGHDAD , Dr. Yasir Khudhair Abbas*
Background: Pneumonia is one of the respiratory diseases caused by exposure to both lungs, or one of them for infection, or inflammation. Aim: To identify the prevalence of pneumonia during the study period among childhood. Method: A retrospective cross sectional study was carried out at the Life Statistics Center of the Iraqi Ministry of Health within 3 months. Data was entered to Excel sheet and the STATA software program was used to analyze this data and make tables and graphs. Results: We found the highest percentage of pneumonia cases were (31.5%) in the 2015, followed by (25.5%), (15.6%), (14.5%) and (12.9%) in 2014, 2017, 2018 and in 2016, respectively. Conclusion: We conclude that the higher percentage of pneumonia cases occurs during 2014 and the low percentage was in 2018. There is a highly significant relation found between the patient condition and years at the p. value less than 0.05. Children should also be vaccinated against other potential causes of pneumonia, including influenza, H. influenza type b, pertussis, varicella, and measles.
244 ADVANCED TECHNICAL AND MATHEMATICAL ASSESSMENT OF PEAK PURITY AND IDENTITY IN SALTING- OUT THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR DETERMINATION OF SOME ORAL HYPOGLYCEMIC DRUGS , Yahya Abduh Salim Mohamed*
Four advanced technical and mathematical methods for assessment of peak purity and identity in salting out thin layer chromatography (SOTLC) of some oral hypoglycemic drugs have been concluded. The concluded methods help in accurate assessment of coefficient of similarity between the spectra for each compound as a pure substance or exists in pharmaceutical preparations. The study extended to derive equations for calculating the overlapped peak area between two adjacent peaks when the resolution between 0.0 and 1.0 and helping in reducing measurement errors (manual and automatic integration of the integrators).
245 ERYTHROPLASIA OF QUEYRAT (BOWEN DISEASE OF THE GLANS PENIS) AND ROLE OF DERMOSCOPY IN DIAGNOSIS , *Dr. Ramadan Sayed Hussein
Erythroplasia of Queyrat (EOQ) is a squamous cell carcinoma in situ most commonly located on the glans penis or prepuce. EOQ accounts for roughly 10 % of all penile malignancies and may lead to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Using of dermoscopy as adiagnostic tool can help in differentiating between noninfectious balanitis (Zoon’s plasma cell balanitis, psoriatic balanitis, seborrheic dermatitis and non-specific balanitis) and erythroplasia of Queyrat. Standard therapy includes local excision, partial or total penectomy, cryotherapy, and topical cytotoxic agents. Treatment of EOQ has proven to be challenging due to low response rates and recurrence. In addition, radical procedures can significantly affect sexual function and quality of life. Alternative laser treatments and photodynamic therapy (PDT) offer promising results for treating EOQ.[1,18,20]
246 HISTOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECT OF GRADED DOSES OF PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA ON THE LIVER OF MALE WISTAR RATS , Nweke Elizabeth O.*, Opara Julia K. and Okafor Igwe J.
Various parts of Phoenix dactylifera (Date palm) are used in traditional medicine to treat various disorders such as fever, abdominal troubles, etc. This study evaluated the histological and biochemical effects of graded doses of ethanolic extract of Phoenix dactylifera on the liver of adult male wistar rats. Dried fruit were pulverized, and the ethanolic extract obtained after soaking in ethanol for 48hrs. Twenty adult male wistar rats weighing between (188.00±4.89) were used for the study. They were distributed into four groups (A, B, C & D) of five animals each. Group A served as the control, groups B, C & D served as the treated groups and were orally administered 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg of the extract for fourteen days. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed, blood samples collected and liver harvested for examination. There was significant increase in body weights of the rats at the end of the experiment. Significant increase was observed in serum AST level of the treated groups when compared with the control. Histological findings revealed cytoarchitectural changes in the treated groups. In conclusion, this study indicated that high doses of the P. dactylifera could result in hepatic damage.
247 PREVALENCE OF CANDIDIASIS AMONG PEOPLE. A RETROSPECTIVE CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN IRAQ , *Dr. Israa Tareq Mahmood
Background: Candidiasis is an infection caused by Candida fungi, most of by Candida albicans.[1] These fungi are found almost everywhere in the environment. Aim: To determine the prevalence of candidiasis among people at different age groups which are attending the clinics in the hospitals during the study period. Methods: A retrospective cross sectional study was carried out at the Life Statistics Center of the Iraqi Ministry of Health within 6months. During this period, the study samples were 24149. Data was entered to Excel sheet and the STATA software program was used to analyze this data and make tables. Results: - The highest percentage of cases were (78.1%) in the age 15 to 49 years old, (2.8%) were male and (97.2%) were female [Table 2]. The high frequency of cases occurred in Baghdad (32.2%), followed by (13.8%), (12.3%) in Nieveh, Salah Al-Deen, respectively. Conclusion: Majority of cases occurred in the age groups 15 to 49 years old, the female cases were more than male cases. The most of cases occurred in the east and north of Iraq. We need awareness of the burden of fungal infections by the healthcare stakeholders in Iraq.
248 PALLIATIVE MANAGEMENT OF PERSISTENT HICCUPS IN A PATIENT WITH PROSTATE CANCER AFTER ROBOTIC PROSTATECTOMY , Mohanned Mohammed Alamin, Sami Ayed Alshammary*
Persistent hiccups are an uncommon problem in terminally ill patients. We report our management of persistent hiccups in a 63-year- old man following a long robotic prostatectomy for advanced prostate cancer. Several measures and drugs were tried before introducing gabapentin and dexamethasone for the treatment of persistent hiccups.
249 DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF A NOVEL PYRAZOLO[3,4-B]QUINOLINYL ACETOHYDRAZIDE AND SCHIFF BASE DERIVATIVES , Nader M. Mahmoud*, Farag A. El-Essawy and Eman Farouk
A novel series of pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinolinyl acetohydrazide and Schiff base derivatives were prepared via various regents started from the key-intermediate 2-(6-methyl-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]quinolin-1-yl)acetohydrazide 9. most of the novel-prepared compounds have been elucidated using spectroscopic analyses (NMR, and EI-MS).
250 FUNCTIONAL STATE OF VESSEL ENDOTHELIAL CELLS IN HYPERTROPHIC GINGIVITIS IN ADOLESCENTS , *Kamilov K. P. and Saidova N. A.
Endothelium - the inner lining of blood vessels - takes an active part in the regulation of vascular tone, producing various biologically active substances (BAS). Biologically active substances that act on the endothelium are produced by platelets, leukocytes, mast cells or are activated in the blood plasma, some of the substances are synthesized in the endothelium itself and act on the endotheliocytes either after they are brought into the bloodstream or paracrine.[5,11,12] The effect on the endotheliocytes of biologically active substances is associated with the presence of specific receptors on endotheliocytes, the stimulation of which causes vasodilation or vasocostriction.
251 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND FREE REDICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF RHODODENDRON ARBOREUM (FLOWERS) , Mohammad Moniruzzaman*, Md. Abul Bashar, Emratunnesa Rima and Ohidul Islam
Cancer prevention agents expel free radicals from the body which can run wild and really harm cells, causing genuine sickness. Numerous wellbeing experts use them for medicines of stroke and neurodegenerative illnesses, for example, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. They have additionally been useful in treating mind damage and may slow and even anticipate advancement of malignancies. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) was utilized to decide the free radical rummaging movement. IC50 value of standard ascorbic acid corrosive for DPPH was 4.46μg/ml and the IC50 of the methanol concentration of Rhododendron arboreum was 12.06μg/ml that was huge at all contrast and ascorbic acid corrosive. In the present examination, methanol concentration of Rhododendron arboreum was screened to assess its free radical rummaging impact.
252 IMPACT OF FUNGAL INFECTIONS AND SIGNIFICANT COUNT STATUSES ON FERTILITY PARAMETERS IN COMMERCIAL MOTORCYCLISTS AND NON-CYCLISTS IN NNEWI, NIGERIA , Ochiabuto O.M.T.B.* and Chukwura E. I.
Fungal infections cause male assessory gland infections (MAGI) affecting male fertility especially in high - risk occupations. A case- control study on the impact of fungal infection and significant count statuses on fertility parameters was conducted in commercial motorcyclists and non-cyclists in Nnewi, Nigeria. A total of 304 samples consisting of 152 semen and blood samples from 49 commercial motorcyclists and 103 non-cyclists, aged 19-79 years old were analyzed. Subjects were recruited using non-probability sampling technique, data was collected using questionnaire, yeasts isolated using semen-dilution method and identified. Significant counts were calculated, semen quality and biomarkers assessed using WHO methods, serum hormone by ELISA technique. Fertility index was mathematically deducted and statistics analyzed with SPSS version 21. Results identified seven kinds of yeast isolates; Candida guilliermondii (47.2%), C. tropicalis(30.3%), C. albicans(13.2%), C. glabrata (2.6%), C. famata (2.0%), C. krunzi (1.3%) and Cryptococcus laurentii (0.7%), with C. guilliermondii highest in both groups, more types isolated from controls (7) than test groups (6). Fungal (73.5%) and mixed fungal infections (MFI) (42.9%) were higher in test groups; significant single and mixed fungal count statuses (FCS 1 and FCS 2) were higher in controls (60.9%; 58.6%). Age-wise, 45-64 years old groups had higher (FCS 1) (64.3%), while for (FCS 2), it was 19- 44 years (38.7%). Mean ranks of some serum hormones, semen qualities and biomarkers were affected by fungal infections and their significant count statuses in both groups, P < 0.05, and affected fertility index of test groups. Middle-aged and younger males are at risk for fungal infections which in significant count affected fertility parameters, more in semen quality and fertility index in test groups. Prompt treatment and awareness is necessary.
253 EVALUATION OF DRUGS CONSUMPTION IN HOSPITAL SERVICES OF YAOUNDÉ UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL, CAMEROON , Vanessa Edwige TCHADJI, Evrad Marcel NGUIDJOE, Olivia FOSSI TANKOUA, Rose NGONO MBALLA, Estella TEMBE-FOKUNANG, Tabi Yves Omgba, Eustace Bongham BERINYUY, Kathleen NGU, Charles Ntungwen FOKUNANG*
Background. Health facilities use large quantities of different groups of chemical compounds such as disinfectants, solvents, and drugs which all present a certain level of risk. For drugs in particularly, it is important to know the type and quantities used, in order to investigate risk assessment to the environment and human health. Methods. A survey therefore was conducted for 4 months in the University Teaching Hospital of Yaoundé; (CHUY), in order to establish the list of the most consumed drugs in 2014. This was based on the medical files in the hospitalization services (pediatric, gynecology, reanimation and intensive care unit, emergency, internal medicine). Results. Antiparasitics (artesunate and artemether) were the most used drugs, followed by antiacids, anagelsics, antihypertensives and antibiotics. Conclusion. The high use of drugs found in hospital waste water could have serious consequences on the environment and therefore the need for control and regulation of these drugs in hospital waste water and proper disposal channel system to be developed.
254 RECORDING OF POISONOUS SUBSTANCES DELIVERANCE IN PRESCRIPTION BOOK , Ndao Y.*, Mbaye G. and Fall D.
Introduction: Deliverance of a drug subject to poisonous substances class must be recorded in the prescription book. However, most licensees don't comply with this obligation. The objective of this work is to study compliance with recording of poisonous substances deliverance in the prescription book, at Guediawaye municipality. Materials and Method: This is a survey conducted from January 1st, 2010 to December 31th, 2014 within forty five (45) pharmacies at Guediawaye. Data collected were related to staff, level of knowledge of the prescription book, recording of deliverance in the prescription book. Results: Pharmacy staff is mainly made up of sellers (60%), pharmacists holders (33.3%) and pharmacists assistants (6.7%). Pharmacy personal exercise is not respected at 58%, and activities are entrusted to a seller, or a pharmacist and a seller. Regulatory details of authorizing officer and importance of recording deliveries are more or less known. However, the average number of recording is estimated at 2.348 dispensations among 27% pharmacies visited. Obstacles to recording are forgetfulness and understaffing, neglect, laziness and laxity, neighborhood with customers, impatience of customers and ignorance of prescription book importance. Also, non-compliance with profession rules, commercial aspect dominant, unauthorized prescribers, absence of inspection were mentioned. Conclusion: Recording of poisonous substances deliverance in the prescription book is not systematic at Guédiawaye. Among reasons, non-compliance with personal exercise, insufficient inspections and unauthorized prescribers were mentioned. However, it would be useful to conduct the same study in urban areas for a better appreciation.
255 EFFECTS OF PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEURO MUSCULAR FACILITATION STRETCHING AND BALLISTIC STRETCHING COMBINED WITH SPORTS SPECIFIC ACTIVITY ON JUMP PERFORMANCE IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS , *Sharmila S. and Selvakumar S.
Introduction: Basketball is a popular sport played worldwide as a recreational and competitive sport of all age group. Flexibility and muscle power of the lower limb is considered to play a vital role in determining an athlete's performance and physical fitness. This study aims at comparing whether ballistic stretching or PNF stretching is effective in improving vertical jump and flexibility aspect with a major focus on muscle group of rectus femoris, hamstrings, iliopsoas, and gastrocnemius which are generally involved in jumping activities. Methods: 40 male basket ball players were selected and randomly allocated in to two groups and in this group A received PNF hold relax technique, and group B received ballistic stretching and data analysis was done to find out the effectiveness in both the groups. Results: SPSS version 2.0 was used to analyse the data the intra-group analysis clearly showed that Treatment B (BALLISTIC STRETCHIG) is effective than Treatment A (PNF STRETCHING) in terms of improvement in vertical jump test, hip flexion and WBLT both right and left. Conclusion: both the groups showed the significant improvements but group B was found to be more superior than group A.
256 MODERN CONCEPTS OF SPACE MAINTAINERS AND SPACE REGAINERS: A REVIEW ARTICLE , *Pheiroijam Herojit Singh, Herojit Naorem, Thokchom Chaoba Devi and Nirmal Debbarma
Children lose their teeth in their early childhood due to dental caries, trauma, infection and crowding. Maintenance of space created by the lost teeth especially molars is necessary till the eruption of their permanent successors. Space maintainers are appliances used to maintain or regain minor amount of space created by the lost teeth. However due to delay in interception just after extraction or early loss of space it becomes difficult for permanent successor to occupy the space. In such cases space regainers are used to regain the loss space to accommodate the mesio-distal dimension of their successors. Many space maintainers and regainers have been introduced in Pediatric dentistry. It would be wise to consider their advantages over disadvantages while selecting which appliance to be used.
257 PREVENTIVE AND CURATIVE ASPECTS OF VYAYAMA: A REVIEW ARTICLE , *Dr. Manasa S. D.
Ayurveda is the science of life with the goal of Swasthya rakshanam and Vikaraprashmanam. Vyayama has its role both in swatha-rakshana and vikara prashamana. All ancient scholars have explained Vyayama as a part of Dinacharya for maintainance of health and as type of niragni sweda for the cure of disease. This article emphasizes on the effect of vyayama or physical exercise in physiology of human body and pathology of disease.
258 A LITERARY REVIEW ON THE MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE OF VATA , Dr. Nishant Aggarwal* and Dr. Ritu Rani
From medical history one can know about recognition of the continuity of medical thoughts. It tells us about the conception and misconceptions of the past from which one can draw inferences for the present and future times. Literary review of any drug gives insight into its morphology, properties and therapeutic or dietary utility as conceived by various authors at different stages of the history. Several drugs have been mentioned in Ayurvedic treatises, vata is one of them which is being utilized in day to day practice.
259 JALAUKAVACHARANA: A PARA-SURGICAL MEASURE IN VARTMAGATA ROGA , *Ranjana Negi, Gunjan Sharma, Renu Rao and Priyanka Rani
Jalaukavacharana is one of the oldest and widely used Para surgical procedures in ancient Indian medicine for the treatment of Pitta and Rakta pradhan diseases (blood borne diseases). It is described as one of the methods of Raktamokshana (bloodletting) by great pioneer of Ayurveda, Acharya Sushruta and it can be easily done for bloodletting in children, delicate people, females, and in those who are afraid of surgery. According to Ayurveda, Jalauka is used to expel out the vitiated blood safely, quickly and effectively. From modern perspective, the saliva of leech contains about a hundred biological active substances that help to cure the disease. Vartmagata Rogas (Lid disorders) occurs mainly due to involvement of Rakta and Mamsa and Tridosha which are responsible for inflammatory conditions in eyes. Many Acharyas have indicated Jalaukavacharana for the treatment of inflammatory eye diseases. In the present article efforts are made to elaborate the significance of Jalaukavacharana in Vartmagata Roga in a very candid way and review of various salivary gland secretions in terms of its pharmacological action for future perspective of its role in treating eye diseases.
260 CONCEPTUAL STUDY OF VISARPA IN AYURVEDA , Dr. Priyanka Gupta* and Dr. Aradhana Kande
Skin is the first and largest organ of the body interacting with environmental agents like physical, chemical and biological agents. Visarpa in one of the skin disease which is described in our ancient classics of Ayurveda. Visarpa is one of the major skin disease which is explained in detail apart from Kushhtha vyadhi in all the classics. Visarpa is characterised by quick manifestation of swelling, having their own special features, spreading to all parts of body, lesion is wide and doesn't develop swelling. It is called Visarpa, because it spreads to all the parts of the body. Visarpa is classified into seven types namely- Vataja, Pittaja, Kaphaja, Sannipataja, Agneya (Vata-Pittaja), Granthi (Kapha-Vataja) and Kardamaka (Pitra-Kaphaja). Place of manifestation of Visarpa is external, internal and both. Visarpa manifested by single Dosha either Vata, Pitta or Kapha predominance is said to be curable, Sannipataja and Kshataja Visarpa are incurable, Pitta-Vataja Visarpa (Agneya Visarpa) with complete symptomatology indicates incurability of the disease. So the present article tries to explain the Panchnidan and Pathayapathya of Visarpa vyadhi so that we will more effective treatment and prevention from this disease.
261 REVIEW ARTICLE OF MANAGEMENT OF NETRA ROGA: MODERN DIAGNOSTIC METHODS AND SPECIFIC AYURVEDA TREATMENT , Dr. Farahat M. Alaskar*, Dr. Tabassum A. Shaikh and Dr. Asifjaha A. G. Shaikh
Shalakyatantra is one of the branches of Ayurveda which associated with disorders related to eye, ear, nose and throat or disorders related to above clavicle region. The eye is very important and sensitive part of our body and responsible for visibility therefore the disease related to eye must be handled carefully. The line of treatment for the management of eye diseases is very specific or selected due to hypersensitive and delicate nature of eye. Shalakyatantra emphasized management of eye related disorders using validated approaches with great expertise. The Ayurveda and modern science described use of formulation, instruments and physical exercise, etc. For the treatment of eye disorders or to enhance vision. This article summarizes some Ayurveda and modern approaches for the management of eye disorders.
262 CONCEPT OF ETIOPATHOGENESIS OF MADHUMEHA AND ITS MANAGEMENT-A REVIEW , Dr. Seema Patley*, Dr. Aradhana Kande and Dr. Rashmi Diwan
Madhumeha (i.e. Diabetes Mellitus) is a huge burden of illness globally. Globally, an estimated 422 million adults are living with diabetes according to the latest 2016 data from the WHO and statistically India is now considered as the diabetic capital. In Ayurveda, this condition can be explained under Vatika Prameha. It is a disease known to mankind since Vedic period. It is one of the Astha Mahagadas. Madhumeha manifests due to complex interaction of three types of Doshas & ten types of Dushyas. Doshas like Kapha, Pitta and Vata & Dushyas like Meda, Rakta, Shukra, Ambu, Vasa, Lasika, Majja, Rasa, Oja, Lasika are responsible for the causation. In this the patient passes honey like sweet urine in excessive amount which is due to various physical and chemical changes of body tissues. The main causative factor is said to be sedentary lifestyle and sedentary food habits, which can be manage conservatively with correction of life style, regular practice of exercise, healthy `diet and internal medication. The problem with diabetes is that its very difficult to diagnose in the early stages. However, a person stick to an Ayurvedic preventive strategy right from the beginning can easily prevent or control it. The Ayurvedic management of Madhumeha aims not only to achieve a good glycemic control but also to treat the root cause.
263 DIABETES MELLITUS AND PERIODONTAL DISEASES; A TWO WAY RELATIONSHIP , Angad Singh, Sargun Singh and Kawaljit Kaur*
People with diabetes have a higher than normal risk of periodontal diseases. On the other hand, gum disease can often be the first sign of diabetes. Periodontal diseases are caused by dental plaque which consists of colorless soft sticky film of saliva, food particles and bacteria. These bacteria produce toxic substances that cause inflammation of gums. Chronic Periodontitis impairs the body‟s ability to utilize insulin whereas insulin resistance makes it difficult to achieve and sustain optimal glycemic control resulting in hyperglycemia. Poor glycemic control causes increased susceptibility to re-infection and more severe periodontal disease. That is why the relationship between diabetes and periodontal disease is sometimes referred to as a two-way path. Prevention and control of periodontal disease just like optimal glycemic control is essential in the medical management of diabetes. There is a need for appropriate health education as good oral health is important for diabetic individuals.
264 REVIEW ON BHASMA GUNA OF MAHARASA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO RASA RATNA SAMUCCHAYA , Dr. Sunil Mandal*, Dr. Gazala Husain and Dr. Govinda Sharma K.
Introduction: Rasashastra is a specialized branch of Ayurveda dealing mainly with drugs that are of mineral origin, metals, gemstones, etc. The classification of rasa dravya is done on the basis of its properties and use of it in the processing of mercury. Maharasa is one among the important group of minerals which have been recognized as they are useful for the potentiation of the properties of Parada. Bhasma, which are unique Ayurvedic metallic/ minerals preparations, are prepared by subjecting them to trituration with herbal juices or decoction and exposed for certain quantum of heat termed as puta to procure the calyx of the minerals or metals. These bhasma are utilized in the treatment of variety of diseases and are said to be potent enough even to manage the ashadhya (incurable) diseases. Materials and methods: Literary search on the text books of Rasashastra namely Rasatarangini, Rasaratnasamucchaya, Ayurveda Prakasha, Rasaprakashsudhakara and Rasarnava. The indication of the bhasma from all the treatises to understand the mode of action based on the properties of the drug was carried out. Observation and Results: In Rasa Ratna Samucchaya there are eight Maharasa namely, Abhraka, Vaikranta, Makshika, Vimala, Shilajitu, Sasyaka, Chapala and Rasaka. In Rasatarangini, seven maharasa are mentioned that are same as told in Rasaratna samucchaya except vimala. In Rasaprakashsudhakara only seven maharasa are described omitting Chapala. In Rasarnavam only six maharasa are mentioned except abhraka and vaikranta. In Ayurveda Prakash, only parada is mentioned as maharasa and all other rasadravyas like abhraka, makshika, etc. in total eight dravyas are termed as uparasa. The properties of the maharasa quoted in the treatise have similar properties and indications. Discussion: The drugs exhibit their actions either based on the virtue of their rasa (taste) or by their virya (potency) or by their guna (quality) or by their vipaka (specific change after digestion) or by virtue of their prabhava (unexplainable action) or it could be a combined effect of any of these. Conclusion: All Bhasma have some common properties like rasayana, yogavahi, etc. Rasayana indicates immune-modulation and anti-aging quality, and yogavahi indicates ability of drug to carry and targeted drug delivery by bhasmas. Properly prepared bhasmas is nontoxic and must be readily absorbable, adaptable and assimiable in the body. Shighravyapti indicates that after marana, bhasma becomes easily absorbable and assimiable in the body and spreads quickly in the body. Under agnideepana, bhasma increases metabolism at cellular level and acts as catalyst. These attributes of bhasmas are comparable with the action of nanoparticles in the body. The probable mode of action and the use of the bhasma in various disorders can be understood based on the attributes of the drug.
265 SINGLE-INHALER TRIPLE THERAPY FOR COPD EXACERBATION , Jisna Babu, *Juby Bensen and Dr. Akhila S. Arjun
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a progressive lung disease that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema and is characterized by airflow limitation. Triple inhaled therapy consists of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs), and long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs) has been recommended for COPD patients who still have clinically significant symptoms following the use of a dual inhaler with LABA plus LAMA or LABA plus ICS and those who have a higher risk of exacerbation. Studies have shown that triple inhaled therapy has positive effects on lung function and COPD symptoms as compared with dual therapy. This review concludes that triple inhaled therapy is more effective than dual therapy for COPD patients.
266 RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENT , Priyanka Maurya*, Dr. Jai Narayan Mishra and Dhaneshwer Kumar Vishwakarma
Through years of evolutionary selection pressures, organisms have developed potent toxins that coincidentally have marked antineoplastic activity. These natural products have been vital for the development of multiagent treatment regimens currently employed in cancer chemotherapy and are used in the treatment of a variety of malignancies. Therefore, this review catalogs recent advances in natural product-based drug discovery via the examination of mechanisms of action and available clinical data to highlight the utility of these novel compounds in the burgeoning age of precision medicine. The review also highlights the recent development of antibody-drug conjugates and other immunotoxins, which are capable of delivering highly cytotoxic agents previously deemed too toxic to elicit therapeutic benefit preferentially to neoplastic cells. Finally, the review examines products not currently used in the clinic that have novel mechanisms of action, and may serve to supplement current chemotherapeutic protocols.
267 A CLINICAL PROFILE AND OUTCOME OF CEREBRAL VENOUS SINUS THROMBOSIS IN TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL , *Dr. P. Sankara Narayanan MD DM,
Background: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon form of stroke, usually affecting young population. Clinical features of CVT are diverse, and for this reason, high degree of clinical suspect is mandatory to diagnose the conditions. The objectives of the study were to analyse the commonest clinical modes of presentation, possible etiologies, and to evaluate clinical outcome. Methods: This study was performed as a hospital based retrospective & prospective observational study at Tiruneveli medical college, Tiruneleveli . All the patients admitted in our hospital with thediagnosis of CVT were subjected to neuroimaging techniques, fulfilling the study criteria were recruited by simple random sampling and data collected was analyzed by correlation studies All patients hospitalized in between the period of 1 year (June 2018 to May 2019) with the final diagnosis of CVT (confirmed by imaging MRI/MRV OR angiography) to be included. All patients should above 18 years of age. Patients who were initially diagnosed as CVT, But MRV/angiogram were normal; Patients below 18years of age and known case of seizure disorder, migraine, cranial nerve palsies, and hemiplegic patients were excluded. Results: In our study, we found that CVT was more common in third decade of life. Puerperium was the common age group among female patients. In male patients, dehydration is the most common etiology. SSS thrombosis more common and involvement of more than one sinus is more common. Headache is the commonest complaint. Overall CVT had good prognosis and recanalisation was complete in most of the follow up cases. Conclusion: Suspicion and imaging were most crucial part of diagnosis. Prognosis of CVT mainly depend of early diagnosis and treatment.
268 A REVIEW ON MOUTH DISSOLVING FILMS , Quazi Bilal*, Shrikrushna Unhale, Snehal Shelke, Purva Kale, Prof. Rahul Sarode and Dr. K. R. Biyani
Oral route is considered as one of the most convenient route for administration of various pharmaceutical dosage forms like, tablet, capsule, syrup, suspension and emulsion. Fast Dissolving Drug Delivery systems have developed various fast disintegrating preparations like mouth dissolving film, MDT. Oral thin film are new dosage form that are prepared from hydrophilic polymer which are when placed in mouth, buccal cavity disintegrate rapidly. Mouth dissolving film is superior as compare to mouth dissolving tablet as the cost of production is low. Geriatric and pediatric patients are facing difficulty in swallowing of tablet and capsule, the oral film can bypass it, along with that it has other advantages like self-administrable, fast dissolving, rapid absorption that make it versatile dosage form. The aim of present study is to enlighten specifically different polymer along with their concentrations and applications. This study also focuses on use of plasticizer, polymer, sweetener, different methods which are used for the preparation of oral films and various evaluation parameter of the film.
269 NOVEL CORONAVIRUS (2019-NC0V) OUTBREAK: THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW , Monica Verma* and Abhishek Soni
Coronaviruses are the RNA viruses, belonging to family Coronaviridae. In past 15 years, 2 highly pathogenic human coronaviruses (HCoVs)—severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have emerged out as threaten. The world is again shaken by the emergence of third more dangerous coronavirus strain - 2019n-CoV. Although, still there are many unknown facts regarding this new virus, but the global community seems more engaged and prepared to battle against this virulent strain this time. As we are still in early stages of emergence of this novel coronavirus, additional research studies are required to study in detail regarding pathogenesis, mechanism of action, transmission rates, treatment guidelines etc. of the HCoVs, because these three attacks of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and 2019n-CoV have threatened the global public health and had resulted in higher and higher mortality rate.
270 ROLE OF OCULAR REJUVENATION MODALITIES IN PREVENTIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY , *Prof. (Dr.) Gunjan Sharma, **Dr. Arun Kumar and ***Dr. Anchal Pathak
Vision 2020 is a global initiative that aims to eliminate avoidable blindness by the year 2020. It is a collaborative effort of many programmes, which comes under Community ophthalmology or preventive ophthalmology, to improve eye care programs; gaining and sharing knowledge and think solutions together to achieve quality, comprehensive and equitable eye care. Our exacting and demanding lifestyle has resulted in many ailments including adverse effect on eyes. In present era, there are lots of causes which can disturb the natural health of eyes like continuous work on computer, watching television for long time, very frequent & prolong use of mobile phones, late night arousal, pollution, reading in poor source of light, unhealthy dietary habits physical and mental stress. Association between such defective lifestyle measures and subsequent eye diseases and their prevention procedures are searched and reviewed from different Ayurvedic literatures and online sources. Ayurveda which gives great significance to maintaining the health through its main “Swasthyaswasthya rakshanam” ideal, gives an elaborate account of protection of eyes and preservation of vision. In this consideration centuries ago our Acharyas has described many non pharmacological modalities while describing the dincharya (daily regime) and ritucharya (seasonal regime) and pathya- apathya (dietary regime), yogabhyasa, ocular exercises and many other discrete reference throughout the text are also available to rejuvenate ocular tissue. So an attempt has been made to explore the procedures for preservation of eye health in relation to certain factors like- relation of eye diseases with mind, diet and activities, sleep, daily and seasonal regimen related to eye health, occupational eye health and disorders, aging process and poor vision and rasayan (Rejuvenation) therapy for preserving good vision. Time tested procedures like Anjana (collyrium), Aschyotan (eye drop), Snana(bath),Padabhyanga(foot massage with oil), Nasya (nasal application of drugs), Abhyanga (oil massage) are considered as highly effective daily procedures for the maintenance of eye health. Various Yogasan and Satkriya and ocular exercises are also effective for ocular health and better eye sight.
271 ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE: GLOBAL THREAT TO PUBLIC HEALTH , *Kasekar N. M., Hajare F. P., Jadhav K. V., Kadam V. J.
Antibiotics are a type of antimicrobials used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections in human and in animals. Infections from resistant bacteria are now universal, and some pathogens have even become resistant to multiple types or classes of antibiotics. The loss of effective antibiotics declines the ability to fight infectious diseases and manage the infectious complications. Bacteria, not humans or animals, become antibiotic-resistant. These bacteria could infect humans and animals, and therefore the infections they cause are more durable to treat than those caused by passive resistor bacteria. The matter of antibiotic resistance may be reduced solely by concerted efforts of all members of society for guaranteeing the continued potency of antibiotics. Wherever antibiotics may be bought for human or animal use without a prescription, the emergence and unfold of resistance is created worse. Similarly, in countries without standard treatment tips antibiotics are typically over-prescribed by medical examiners and veterinarians and over-used by the general public. A worldwide and interdisciplinary approach should be considered for the development of recent screening and diagnostic tools. This review article focuses on prevention of antibiotic resistance, its safe use, its mechanism and its global awareness. It is mainly concerned with resistance of antibiotic which is becoming a global threat to public health.
272 LIFESTYLE MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSION ACCORDING TO AYURVED , Dr. Nidhi Netam*, Dr. Smt. Gitanjali Sasmal, Dr. Ashok Kumar
The world health organization (WHO) has identified India as one of those nations is going to have most of the lifestyle disorder in the near future. Hypertension is life style disorder. It is treated life style management. Lifestyle modification is one of the most important tools for effective lowering of blood pressure. Approaches to stop hypertension demonstrate that a diet rich in fruit, vegetables low fat dairy product, fiber and minerals (calcium, potassium and magnesium) produce a patient antihypertensive effective. They are mostly common in developed nation where people are inclined towards stress, eating unhealthy foods having a sedentary life style and unhealthy habits like smoking and excessive alcohol intake. This life style results in higher level of risk factors, such as hypertension. According to WHO 1.2 billion people will be suffering from hypertension. According to Ayurved hypertension can be correlated with Raktagata vata and it is consider as Tridoshaya vyadhi.
273 A TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANT “BUTEA MONOSPERMA”: A REVIEW , Vishwajeet P. Kore*, Sheetal K. Kamble, Sachin S. Mali, Shrikant S. Magdum
In recent era of modernization we are well aware about herbal medicines although we are unaware of medicinal plants which we have being seeing in day to day life. The plant which are surrounded by us are being ignored by us consciously. Butea monosperma (palas) belonging to the family leguminosae grown wildly in many parts of India. The plant parts are used in the form of extract, juice, infusion, powder and gum. The plant is highly uses by the rural and tribal people in curing various purposes. Flowers are used as drug in many ailments like eye disease, chronic fever, enlargement of spleen, leucorrhoea, epilepsy, leprosy, anti-fungal activity, anti-inflammatory activity, liver disorders, anti-fertility activity and gout etc.
274 ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MOOTRAVAHA SROTAS: A REVIEW , Dr. Stuti Patel*, Dr. Geetanjali Sasmal and Dr. Vinay Bhardwaj
The Srotas or channels in the body act like paths or transporting blood and sensory information, absorbing nutrients and expelling waste products from the body. In our Ayurvedic classics many Acharyas mentioned many Srotas like Pranvaha, Raktavaha, Udakvaha, Mansvaha, Medovaha, Anavaha, Asthivaha, Majjavaha, Shukravaha, etc. In this row Mootravaha srotas is one of the most important and functional Srotas. Mootravaha srotas concerned with Utpatti, Visarjana of Mootra and maintaining the Kleadata in the body. As long as these channels are in a condition of health, so long the whole body is free from disorders. There is a need to study the fundamental and applied aspect of Mootravaha srotas in order to understand Ayurvedic biology and disease processes in depth.
275 THE EFFECT OF STHOULYAHARA CHIKITSA THAT IS VIRECHAN, LEKHAN BASTI AND EKAKALA BHOJAN ON ASSOCIATED SYMPTOMS THAT IS SANDHISHOOL, SANDHIGRAHA AND ANGAGAURAV , *Vd. Minakshi C. Kale and Vd. V. E. Gogate
This is an era of modernization and fast moving life. The dramatic changes have taken place in dietary habits, mode of life style and various regimen of life. This result into various metabolic disease and these are popularly called as lifestyle disorders. Obesity is one among them and it has been described as sthoulya or medoroga in ayurvedic texts. A 43year old female patient reported to the hospital with pain and stiffness of knee joint, low back pain, heaviness in body since last 2 years. Diagnosis of shtoulya was made based on history taking, hetu, samprapti along with clinical symptoms. Ayurvedic treatment protocol was advised with sequential administration of virechana, ekakal bhojana along with lekhana basti. The assessment done subjectively based on clinical symptoms. There was substantially significant improvement in symptoms of patients after the treatment.
276 A REVIEW ON LEGAL AND CLINICAL DUTIES OF REGISTERED MEDICAL PRACTITIONER IN CASE OF SUSPECTED POISONING , *Dr. Amrit Malik, Dr. Sudhir Malik and Dr. Chinky Goyal
Poisoning in the present era is very common and a threat to the life of patient. Broadly the medico legal cases of poisoning are divided into three main categories: namely suicidal poisoning, homicidal poisoning and accidental poisoning. Doctor plays a very important role in saving the life of patients and fulfilling ethical and legal liabilities in such cases. Immediate treatment makes the prognosis better and compliance of legal duties helps in solving the poisoning cases. Hiding or concealing of information in poisoning cases may bring punishment to the doctor. Preserving the gastric lavage fluid, viscera and other articles like bottles, syringes etc. itself lead to important clues for investigation after chemical analysis. Role of Doctor is equally important in treatment of patient and in medico-legal duties.
277 OBESITY AND ITS AYURVEDIC MANAGEMENT , Dr. Meghaa Agrawal*, Dr. Prashant Singh Bhadauria and Dr. Ankita Agrawal
Ayurveda is 5000-year-old and has a holistic approach to life. In Ayurveda, Sthoulya (obesity) is an abnormal and excess accumulation of Meda Dhatu, which includes fat tissue and fat metabolism. Frequent and excess intake of foods which increase Kapha and Medodhatu. “Obesity” specifically refers to an excessive amount of body weight that includes muscle, bone, fat, and water, which may lead to negative effects on health, reduced life expectancy or increased health problems. Obesity is a penalty of the modern era, the world-wide latest report on prevalence of obesity according to W.H.O states that around 250 million cases of obesity are being reported every year. Preven-tion of this condition is the need of the hour. Prevention of obesity can be done initially in early stage of life by adopting regimens mentioned in Ayurvedic classics. As secondary prevention following Shamana- Sho-dhanoushadhis and Pathyapathya is highly beneficial.
278 EXPLORATION OF PARENTS KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE TOWARDS THE USE OF ANTIBIOTICS AND ITS RESISTANCE IN PAEDIATRICS IN A RURAL AREA - NAMAKKAL, TAMILNADU , Dr. N. SenthilKumar, Dr. Sivasakthi, *Sirajul Muneer M. A., Aswin P. Raj, Abhirami Jayachandran, Annmary Joseph
Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing global problem. Misuse and overuse of antibiotics is the major contribution to the emergence of resistant bacteria in humans. The purpose of the study is to describe the parents knowledge about when and how to use antibiotics for an infection, their attitude towards doctor and antibiotic use in general. The objective of the study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of parents towards the use of antibiotics and its resistance, factors associated with parents self-medicating their children with antibiotics, interaction between parents and physician regarding antibiotic treatments. 150 parents of pediatrics qualifying the study criteria were enrolled in the study for a period of 6 months. Self-made questionnaire had been used in the study. most of the parents were uneducated (69%) had not been attended any medical training (84%). Most of the parents rely on antibiotic as over the counter drugs for common diseases without proper knowledge (58%). 77.30% parents were unaware about the antibiotic resistance respectively. 72% parents believe that antibiotics are used for viral infection. 96% were unaware about overuse and misuse of antibiotic increase the risk of antibiotics resistance. 51% of parents wish to further informed about judicious use of antibiotics. 62.6% parents never give antibiotics to their children with less dose than drug instruction in consideration of safety. Only 23% were always follows pediatrician‟s instructions and advice regarding the antibiotics. Pharmacist can play an active role in making a better interaction with parents, leads to proper guidance of their children to antibiotic usage. Strategies of effective counselling, appropriate prescriptions, periodic upgraded training programs for health care team, strengthening and application of regulations related to OTC sale of antibiotics in community level can eventually reduce these unhealthy practices and improving the knowledge and attitude regarding antibiotic use. Develop educational programs to improve awareness of population about rational antibiotic usage.
279 A CLINICAL STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFICACY & SAFETY OF CURCUVAIL IN PATIENT WITH CHRONIC JOINT PAIN (RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS) , Dr. Harisha. S, Director*
Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis is a systemic inflammatory and destructive joint disease with a prevalence of about 1–2% of the adult population worldwide. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that can cause joint pain and damage throughout body. It typically results in warm, swollen, and painful joints. The major goal of Rheumatoid Arthritis treatment is to reduce joint pain induced by inflammation in the joints, daily wear and tear of joints, and muscle strains. The existing pharmaceuticals for treating Rheumatoid Arthritis are analgesics, steroids, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which reduce the symptoms such as severe pain and inflammation. Classical NSAIDs are cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors that inhibit prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis, thereby reducing inflammation. New NSAIDs selectively inhibit COX-2 and are usually specific to inflamed tissue, which decreases the risk of peptic ulcer. The Curcuminoid are natural phenols that are responsible for the yellow color of turmeric. Curcumin can exist in several tautomeric forms, including a 1, 3-diketo form and two equivalent enol forms. The present study is conducted to evaluate safety and efficacy of Curcumin in Patients with Chronic joint pain (Rheumatoid Arthritis). Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of Curcumin in Patients with Chronic joint pain (Rheumatoid Arthritis). Conclusion: The study concludes that, TEST -CURCUVAIL (CURCUMIN) due to its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effect it is more efficacious and safer in comparison to PLACEBO (B) in treatment of chronic joint pain due to rheumatoid arthritis.
280 PREVALENCE AND PATTERNS OF DYSLIPIDEMIA AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS IN THE CITY OF HYDERABAD: AN OBSERVATIONAL STUDY , Dr. P. Srinivas Rao, Gandla Radhika, Deepak Raghava, K. Kavya Priya, Sowmya Bairavi and *Dr. Deepika M. L. N.
Background: India is considered as the world's diabetes capital with an estimated incidence of 8.7% in metropolitan (urban) regions while 7.9% in rural regions. Till date, several studies had shown an association of dyslipidemia with type 2 diabetes with an increased risk of cardio vascular disease (CVD). The present study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of dyslipidemia among type 2 diabetes patients in the city of Hyderabad, Telangana. Methodology: The present retrospective study was carried out by Cytomol Labs, Hyderabad, Telangana, India. A total of 1481 type 2 diabetic subjects comprising of 728 males and 753 females were enrolled over a period of 2016-2017. Clinical data on fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose level, HbA1c, lipid profile TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TG-C were collected from lab records. Results: The percentages of male and females were 728 (49%) and 753 (51%) respectively. Dyslipidemia was seen in 95% (1402) of cases with a prevalence being 97.8% and 91.6% in males and females respectively that differed significantly between the groups (p<0.05). Proportion of patients with combined dyslipidemia was highest affecting 307 (43.1%) dyslipidemic males. Isolated single parameter dyslipidemia was seen in 706 (51%) patients, while only 10% patients revealed a mixed pattern. In females high LDL was the most common pattern of isolated single parameter dyslipidemia followed combined dyslipidemia with high TG and high HDL. Conclusion: The present study marks the importance of early diagnosis of dyslipidemia and regular follow up for early detection of CAD among subjects with type 2 diabetes.
281 RANDOMIZED DOUBLE BLIND, PLACEBO CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL TO ASSESS THE SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF NRL/LP/201901 CAPSULES AS ADJUVANT THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS , Dr. Omkar Kulkarni*, Dr. Anuj Agarwal, Priya Khare, Gayatri Ganu and Dr. Medha Kulkarni
Background: Diabetes is swiftly gaining the status of a potential epidemic in India with more than 62 million diabetic individuals currently diagnosed with the disease. Herbal supplements target the different pathological events from different mechanistic approaches, to manage glucose homeostasis and to improve the quality of life of the patient. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of NRL/LP/201901 capsules in type 2 diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: A randomized double blind, placebo controlled, comparative, interventional, multi-centric, prospective clinical Study was conducted. Subjects were advised to take a dose of 1 capsule orally after evening/night meal with water for 90 days. Following parameters were assessed during study- Fasting Plasma Glucose (FPG), 2-hr Post-Meal Glucose (PMG), Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), Fasting Insulin (FI) and 2-hr Post-Meal Insulin (PMI), b-cell functions by [HOMA]-b, insulin resistance (IR) by HOMA-IR, anthropometric measurements from baseline to end of visit. Results: 100 subjects completed the study. It was evident that NRL/LP/201901 capsules significantly reduced fasting and post meal glucose levels along with HbA1c, there was significant reduction in insulin resistance evident by HOMA IR score. The quality of life in patients was improved in NRL/LP/201901 capsule treated group. It also improved lipid profile and anthropometric parameters which may be helpful in preventing CVS complications in diabetes mellitus. C - reactive protein (CRP) levels were significantly reduced after treatment of test drug. Conclusion: Thus “NRL/LP/201901” capsule is safe and effective medicine as an adjuvant for the treatment of Diabetes type 2.
282 FEATURES OF REPRODUCTIVE DISORDERS IN WOMEN WITH HYPOTHYROIDISM AND HYPERTHYROIDISIS , *A. L. Amilova, G. D. Narimova and H. K. Nasyrova
This article examined the features of the problems of the relationship of reproductive disorders in women of reproductive age with thyroid gland pathologies. Material and methods. 220 women of reproductive age were examined, of which 78 (35.4%) were taken for research with various reproductive disorders. Patients were divided into 2 groups depending on the hormonal activity of the thyroid gland. Group 1 (33) of patients with hypothyroidism of various etiologies and group 2 (45) of patients with hyperthyroidism. The complex of laboratory and clinical examinations included: anamnesis, examination; clinical and biochemical research methods; a study in the blood plasma of hormones (thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin, St.T3, St. T 4, antibodies to thyroid peroxidase (AT-TPO); luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, progesterone, testosterone); ultrasound of the thyroid gland (thyroid gland), mammary glands, pelvic organs; fine needle thyroid biopsy, pituitary MRI. The aim of the study was to study the features of the problems of the relationship of reproductive disorders in women of childbearing age with thyroid gland pathologies. Results. A comparative analysis of various pathologies of reproductive function in both clinical groups showed that menstrual dysfunction in the first clinical group was dominated by oligomenorrhea - 30%, and in the second group, opsenomenorrhea - 24% and dysmenorrhea-24.4%. In women with hypothyroidism (12%), I degree galactorrhea was detected. In the second group, pathology of the cervix was detected in 27% with a predominance of pseudo-erosion (33.3%), and in 12.5% - uterine fibroids. The presence of chronic salpingoophoritis was detected in 47.5%, cystic changes in the ovaries in 27% of women of the first clinical group. Conclusions. In women with a deficiency of thyroid hormones, a decrease in the pituitary gonadotropic function occurs with the development of hyperprolactinemia, a decrease in steroidogenesis, and a deficiency of the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. With hyperthyroidism in women, hyperestrogenism is observed, which, according to the feedback mechanism, leads to a decrease in the concentration of FSH. At the same time, the level of progesterone remains quite low due to a decrease in the sensitivity of ovarian tissues to luteinizing hormone in conditions of FSH deficiency.
283 THE IMMUNE SYSTEM INDICATOR FEATURES OF PATIENTS WITH JUVENILE RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS , Kaypbekova G. K. and Musakhodjaeva D. A.*
Background: It has been established that JRA is a multifactorial disease, the pathogenesis of which is very complex and is largely insufficiently studied. Based on the modern concepts, one of the key links in the development of the pathological process in rheumatoid arthritis is the dysfunction of the immune system. Objective: 53 children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis were taken a clinical and immunological examination. Methods: We studied a concentration of circulating immune complexes (CIC), phagocytic activity, and the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) among the children with various forms of the disease depending on the duration of the course of JRA. Result: It was revealed that the children with the juvenile disease are characterized by changes in indicators of innate immunity and cytokine status. Probably, these changes are associated in the active phase of the disease with a bright protective reaction of the body, and with prolonged antigenic stimulation, with a depletion of the functional activity of the immune system. Conclusion: Summarizing the foregoing, we can conclude that among the children with juvenile deformity there is a desynchronization of the immune system what is manifested in the increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The most pronounced disorders are observed among the patients with a systemic form of the disease accompanied by a visual activity of the pathological process and depending on the duration of the disease.
284 COMPARISON OF CLINICAL AND ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF RHEUMATIC FEVER IN CHILDREN: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY , Taru Sharma, MD and Mithilesh Kumar*, MD
ARF / RHD in a developing country is very much preventable and has significant burden on public health resources.; It’s cross sectional study of children of 5-15 yrs age, attending OPD or admitted to VIMS, Bellary satisfying the WHO RHD criterion. Mean age was 10.96 yrs with the M; F; 1.3:1. Clinical Profile has: carditis being commonest followed by fever, polyarthritis/ arthralgia and chorea. Overcrowding observed in 68 %, low socioeconomic status in 92%. Lab parameter mean Hb 10.85 gm%, elevated anti- ASO titer 68%, positive throat swab 64%, elevated CRP 68%, ESR 39.96, prolonged PR interval 12%, Mitral valve was the most commonly involved. Echo found significantly higher TR in patient than clinically. Additionally, echo detected subclinical patient and IE Children with ARF may present with joint symptoms or chorea, features that could be recognized by community health workers. Echo had advantage in detection of TR, subclinical cases and IE.
285 THE MANAGEMENT OF MENOPAUSAL SYNDROME WITH SHIRODHARA AND SHAMAN YOGA - A PILOT STUDY , Dr. Shrawan N. Kamble*, Dr. Vishwalata Dhole, Dr. Shilpa Donga, Dr. Yogesh L. Manani, Dr. Hemant Patel
The present clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Shirodhara and Shaman Yoga in the management of menopausal syndrome, along with the assessment of vatic and Paittik symptoms. . It was randomized open clinical trial. Total 10 patients were registered in the study and completed the course of therapy. Specialized rating scales like Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and Menopause Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaires were adopted for diagnostic as well as assessment criteria. The effects were examined based on MRS and MENQOL. Results were analyzed statistically using ‘t’ test. The effects were examined on the chief complaints as well as the associated complaints.Patients undergoing therapy had better relief of the disturbances of Manasa Bhavas and psychic symptoms of menopause also showed encouraging results in management the associated somatic symptoms. Hence, we conclude that it can be used as an alternative therapy to HRT.
286 INJECTABLE TRAMADOL VS DICLOFENAC AS AN ANALGESIC FOR POST-OPERATIVE HYSTERECTOMY , Dr. Namrata Rajendra Pawar*, Dr. Yogita Surendra Karandikar and Dr. Uma Anand Bhosale
Background: Postoperative pain may be a significant reason for delayed discharge from hospital, increased morbidity, and reduced patient satisfaction. Nowadays opioids are the mainstay in the treatment of acute postoperative pain. Tramadol is an atypical opioid having an additional mechanism by inhibitory reuptake of NA and 5HT. But opioids produce side effects like nausea, vomiting, sedation, pruritis. Diclofenac is a non-selective NSAIDs with good tissue permeability. NSAIDs are particularly effective in cases of somatic inflammatory pain. Objectives: We conducted this study to compare the efficacy of Injection tramadol and Injection diclofenac as an analgesic for post-operative patients undergoing Hysterectomy. Methods: This was an open-label prospective study that included 60 female patients undergoing hysterectomy aged 20 years and above. Randomly allocated 30 patients were given Tramadol 50 mg IV three times a day and the rest 30 patients were given Diclofenac 75mg IV two times a day. Post-operative pain scores were recorded using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and Facial Rating Scale (FRS) at 6,12,24 and 48 hrs respectively and the ASSIST scale was recorded at 24hrs. Statistical analysis was done using unpaired t-test. Results: The mean pain score was found less in the diclofenac group compared to the tramadol group at all intervals by VAS and FRS (p<0.05). As per ASSIST, patient and caregiver satisfaction score was better in the diclofenac group. Nausea and dizziness were more commonly reported in the tramadol group. Conclusion: Diclofenac provides effective and better analgesia in acute post-hysterectomy pain than tramadol with fewer adverse effects.
287 PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND MOLLUSCICIDAL EFFICACY OF ALLIUM SATIVUM (LINN.) AGAINST BULINUS GLOBOSUS IN SOKOTO, NIGERIA , *Suleiman J., Kiran Singh, Bala A. Y., Mohammed A. A., Lema S. Y., Rabi'atu M. S. and Yakubu M. S.
Phytochemical constituents and molluscicidal effectiveness of Allium sativum against Bulinus globosus in Sokoto was investigated. The plants were purchased from Ramin Kura Market, Sokoto, identified and authenticated by botanist, fresh cloves of the plants were air dried, grinded in to powdered form and extracts were obtained by using maceration method with methanol; column purifications of the extract was conducted using silica gel as a stationary phase and 1:1 of N-hexane and ethyl acetate as mobile phase, thirteen fractions each containing ten mil (10ml) of the eluent were collected. Data obtained were analyzed by descriptive statistics, ANOVA and probate analysis. Qualitative phytochemicals analysis showed excess Saponins, flavonoids, Tannins, Glycosides and Antraqunones, while, Alkaloids, Volatile oils, Saponin-glycosides and steroids were moderately presents and Balsams were quietly presents. Mortalities of B. globosu snails were significanly high in fraction seven of the experimental set up, the LC50 was 15.599mg/l. Finally, based on finding from this research Allium sativum was very effective and sufficient for control of Bulinus globosus for villagers and drugs industries.
288 PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND MOLLUSCICIDAL EFFICACY OF ALLIUM SATIVUM (LINN.) AGAINST BULINUS GLOBOSUS IN SOKOTO, NIGERIA , *Suleiman J., Kiran Singh, Bala A. Y., Mohammed A. A., Lema S. Y., Rabi'atu M. S. and Yakubu M. S.
Phytochemical constituents and molluscicidal effectiveness of Allium sativum against Bulinus globosus in Sokoto was investigated. The plants were purchased from Ramin Kura Market, Sokoto, identified and authenticated by botanist, fresh cloves of the plants were air dried, grinded in to powdered form and extracts were obtained by using maceration method with methanol; column purifications of the extract was conducted using silica gel as a stationary phase and 1:1 of N-hexane and ethyl acetate as mobile phase, thirteen fractions each containing ten mil (10ml) of the eluent were collected. Data obtained were analyzed by descriptive statistics, ANOVA and probate analysis. Qualitative phytochemicals analysis showed excess Saponins, flavonoids, Tannins, Glycosides and Antraqunones, while, Alkaloids, Volatile oils, Saponin-glycosides and steroids were moderately presents and Balsams were quietly presents. Mortalities of B. globosu snails were significanly high in fraction seven of the experimental set up, the LC50 was 15.599mg/l. Finally, based on finding from this research Allium sativum was very effective and sufficient for control of Bulinus globosus for villagers and drugs industries.
289 PERCEPTION OF MEDICAL STUDENTS: COMPUTER ASSISTED LEARNING VERSUS TRADITIONAL ANIMAL EXPERIMENT IN PHARMACOLOGY PRACTICALS , Dr. Dhanasekaran R., Dr. Sumitha A.*, Dr. Ankita Bist, Dr. Ajay Kandal, Dr. Kalaiselvi B., Dr. Sridevi S. A.
Background of study: Computer assisted learning method is followed in pharmacology practical session for undergraduate medical students as advised by medical council of India. This study was done to analyse perception of medical students among computer assisted learning and traditional animal experiment in pharmacology practicals. Method of study: 140 second year MBBS students studying at ACS medical college, chennai who have completed their university examination in pharmacology subject were included in this questionnaire based study. Perception of faculty members regarding CAL method and traditional animal experiment method of teaching was also included in this study. Results: For more interesting and having better interactive session with teachers, 64% of students opted for conventional animal experiments over CAL. To observe variation in drug response, conventional animal experiments was preferred (72%) over CAL (28%) by students. 69% students found CAL method as user friendly over traditional animal experiment. Conclusion: Computer assisted learning will be an alternative for animal experiments for teaching UG medical students, but to instill research enhancing skills among students: traditional animal experiments play a major role. Animal experiments can be considered to teach students for minimal invasive and non dissecting animal experiments in Practicals.
290 STUDY OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS PROFILE IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL: A RETROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY , Sahana M. Mogali, Aruna Bhushan* and Md. Ajmat Khan
Objective: To study adverse drug reactions (ADRs) profile in a tertiary care hospital and to determine seriousness, predictability, causality, severity and outcome of ADRs. Method: A retrospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital over a period of five years. Recorded data was collected from various department regarding details of patients, drugs, ADRs and entered in a proforma. It was evaluated using appropriate scales. Simple descriptive statistics was used for analysis. Results: Total number of ADRs reported in five years were 410. As per criteria 330 ADRs were included and analyzed out of which female patients were 217 (65.76%) and males 113 (34.24%). Majority of patients were in age group of 21 to 50 years (69.7%). Among these reactions 29 (8.78%) were serious and 301 (91.21%) non-serious. Maximum ADRs reported from medicine department 188 (56.9%). Cutaneous ADRs were most frequent 134 (40.6%). Antiretroviral agents were most common drugs causing 80 (24.2%) ADRs. Overall predictability was 69.7%. When causality assessment was done 2 (0.6%) ADRs were certain, 121 (36.7%) probable and 207 (62.7%) possible. Severity assessment showed 129 (39.1%) reactions were mild, 201 (60.9%) moderate and none in severe grade. Outcome was 256 (77.6%) patients had recovered, 69 (21%) were recovering and 2 (0.6%) had not recovered from ADR. Conclusion: Most of ADRs in our study was due to polypharmacy. Due to these ADRs there is prolonged hospitalization and increase in economic burden. Hence there is always a need for prevention and periodical monitoring of ADRs.
291 PRIORITY MEDICINES (PRIME) SCHEME: EVALUATION OF MEDICINES PREVIOUSLY CATEGORIZED IN THE SCHEME AND THEIR CURRENT STATUS , Garima Mishra*
Present review article includes analysis of recently launched PRIME scheme of EMA with the criteria for enrolment. The information related to the benefits that patients and medicine developers can get if they register their drug under this scheme are also discussed. Article also discusses enrolled medicines from the perspective of their therapeutic area/indication, current state of development and authorization status.
292 ISOLATION AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF OSCILLATORIA ANNAE , Pallavi K. Vawhal* and Shailaja B. Jadhav
Oscillatoria is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria which is named for the oscillation in its movement. Oscillatoria annae are a morphologically diverse group of oxygenic photosynthetic prokaryotes, which are phylogenetically closed related to each other and to chloroplasts. Oscillatoria annae widely useful in agriculture, bioremediation, clinical diagnosis, pharmacological aspect etc. It is very important organism for the health and growth of many plants. Many of these produce enzymes with unique properties. The present study was undertaken to assess anti-inflammatory activities of its ethanolic extract. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan induced paw edema. Ethanolic extract of Oscillatoria annae (EEOA) was studied for the anti-inflammatory activity by in vivo albino rat models. Diclofenac sodium was employed as reference drugs for anti-inflammatory studies. In the present study, the ethanolic extract of Oscillatoria annae (EEOA) demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models.
293 EFFECT OF CHANGE OF ANTIPSYCHOTIC DRUG THERAPY IN PATIENTS EXPERIENCING EXTRAPYRAMIDAL SIDE EFFECTS , *Dr. Maheshi Chhaya
Extra-pyramidal side effects are commonly seen with anti-psychotic drugs and are a major cause of non-compliance. In an effort to reduce the severity of these EPS, either an additional anticholinergic drug is prescribed, the dose of the offending drug is altered or the class of the antipsychotic drug is changed. To understand the effect of these changes, the alterations in the prescriptions of 100 patients with extra-pyramidal side effects due to anti-psychotic drugs were analyzed. Only, 83 prescriptions underwent alterations; 53 as dose reduction. An antipsychotic drug was removed, added or substituted in 9, 8 and 13 cases, respectively, while 17 remained unchanged. 73 of these 100 prescriptions already had an anticholinergic drug since initiation. The severity of the EPS was measured before and after change in anti-psychotic drug therapy. The difference in the mean score for tremors (1.14, 95% CI 0.99-1.28), akathisia (2.79, 95% CI 2.02-3.57) and acute muscle dystonia (3.43, 95% CI 1.84-5.02) at the end of 30 days was statistically significant (p: <0.0001, <0.0001 and 0.0019 respectively).
294 DRUG UTILIZATION STUDY AND ADVERSE DRUG REACTION OF ANTI RETROVIRAL DRUGS AMONG HIV INFECTED PATIENTS IN AN ART CENTER , Jeena M. Joy and Aruna Bhushan*
Objective: To i) Evaluate the drug utilization pattern of antiretroviral drugs in Human immunodeficiency virus infected patients and ii) Monitor adverse drug reactions associated with anti-retroviral drugs. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study was carried out by collecting the data of HIV infected patients visiting ART center of Civil Hospital, Belagavi for a period of six months. The detailed data from case file was collected and noted in a proforma. Simple descriptive statistics was used for analysis. Results: The total numbers of patients were 230. Of which majority were males 122(53.04%). Most common age group affected were 30-45years 92(40%) and common risk factor being heterosexual group 197(85.65%). Occurrence of HIV was more among illiterates (33.91%) and agricultural laborers (13.4%). CD4 count was done prior to ART, most of the patient 93(40.43%) showed less than 200 cells/μL. The most commonly prescribed ART regimen was combination of Tenofovir +Lamivudine +Efavirenz 177(76.96%) and among NRTI 460(45.9%), lamivudine was commonly prescribed 230(22.95%). The concomitant medication prescribed was antibacterial agents 251(25.05%) and others were hematinics (3%). The most common adverse drug reaction was anemia due to drug zidovudine. Tuberculosis was the common opportunistic infection among the patients. Conclusion: Anti-retroviral drugs utilized in our study was in accordance with national guidelines and rational. Incidence of ART associated ADRs were less and more frequent only in patients with prolonged treatment.
295 ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF CHROMOBACTERIUM VIOLACEUM FROM DIFFERENT DISTRICTS OF MEGHALAYA, INDIA , Barry Cooper Hynniewta* and Wadamika Lyngdoh
Objectives: The study was aimed at isolating and identifying violacein-producing bacteria from the different districts of the Indian state of Meghalaya. Methods: The violet colour pigment (violacein) producing bacteria was isolated and identified through different microbiological techniques. Results: A total of 41 bacterial Chromobacterium violaceum were isolated from different water sources across different districts in Meghalaya. Conclusion: The result of this investigation points to the fact that C. violaceum is likely to occur in significant concentrations in particular groundwaters and springwaters, which is of potential health relevance. Further bacteriological studies are crucial to clarify its environmental behaviour, distribution and the potential public health implications.
296 IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT STUDY OF LYOPHILIZED EXTRACT OF NILAVEMBU KUDINEER CHOORANAM– A TRADITIONAL SIDDHA FORMULATION , Abinesh Raj, D. Anusha*, K. Punnagai and D. Chamundeeswari
Nilavembu kudineer chooranam (NVK) is a traditional Siddha poly herbal formulation controls all types of fever associated with body ache. It exhibits potent antiviral activity against viruses causing Dengue and Chikungunya fever. In fevers associated with inflammatory conditions such as abscess it counteracts the inflammation and reduces body temperature. several studies have established that oxidative stress as a determinant of vascular homeostasis besides its involvement in the pathogenesis of various infectious diseases, such as chronic hepatitis C, Japanese encephalitis, leptospirosis, respiratory syncytial virus-induced acute lung inflammation, malaria, chagas cardiomyopathy, schistosomiasis, sepsis, acute herpes simplex virus type 1, measles subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, and dengue. Literature revealed that no antioxidant studies have been carried out in this traditional formulation. So in the present study the antioxidant potential of lyophilized extract of NVK was evaluated using different methods such as DPPH, nitric oxide free radical scavenging assay and FRAP reducing power assay. The results revealed that significant free radical scavenging activity was observed with NVK in DPPH and Nitric oxide free radical scavenging assay methods. The NVK exhibited potent antioxidant power in FRAP assay.
297 ANTIMICROBIAL AND SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF SASSUREA LAPPA ON GRAM POSITIVE, GRAM NEGATIVE AND METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ,
Thara K. Menon*
298 EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF AYURTEJAS DENTAL PASTE: A CLINICAL STUDY , *Dr. Sunil Kumar, Dr. Lokesh P., Anupama Singh, Dr. S. V. Devasthale, Dr. Arun Gupta
In recent years, there is shift of interest towards herbal products on oral care as these are presumed to be free from harmful chemicals and their effects. Current study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a poly-herbal dentifrice ‘Ayurtejas’ in reducing gingivitis and plaque in comparison to baseline. Material & Method: This was an open label, single arm, mono-centric, 12 weeks clinical study conducted in forty (40) male and female adult subjects between 18-65 years, who were advised to brush two times a day with Ayurtejas. Subjects were followed up at weeks 2, 4, 8 & 12 from baseline. Results were assessed in comparison to baseline. Subject’s self-assessment was recorded in a subject diary. Results & Observation: Thirty-nine (39) subjects completed the study. A significant reduction in gingivitis, halitosis, dental staining, gum bleeding, gum pain, tooth pain and Significant improvement in overall oral hygiene were observed in all the subjects in comparison to baseline. A significant reduction the microbial count and increases in the overall pH of saliva was observed. The improvement in dental quality was also found to be significant as per the DQoL (Dental Quality of Life) questionnaires in comparison to baseline. Overall, the product was well tolerated and assessed to be safe. Conclusion: Ayurtejas helped in reduction of dental problem with usages over a period of 3 months two times daily. It was assessed to be safe and well tolerated.
299 STUDY OF LIPID PROFILE IN PREECLAMPSIA - RISK FACTOR FOR FUTURE MATERNAL CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES , Sudeshna Sil* and Dipanjan Rakshit
Introduction: Preeclampsia is a multi-system disorder of unknown etiology characterised by the development of hypertension of 140/90mmHg or more with proteinuria after 20 weeks of gestation in previously normotensive and non-proteinuric patients. It is a common complication of pregnancy, causing maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Disorders of the lipoprotein metabolism are a major cause of endothelial dysfunction that may result in hypertension and proteinuria, the clinical hallmarks of preeclampsia. Epidemiological studies demonstrate a relation between preeclampsia and increased risk of maternal cardiovascular diseases. Aim: To study the alteration of lipid profile in preeclampsia and to compare the cardiovascular risk ratios of preeclamptic women with normal pregnant women. Methodology: Case control study comprising 30 preeclampsia patients as cases and 30 age matched normal primigravida women in third trimester as controls were taken from ESI Hospital Maniktala Kolkata. Blood pressure was measured and serum lipid profile was estimated and the cardiovascular risk ratios were calculated and statistically analysed. Results and Conclusion: The systolic and diastolic blood pressures of the cases are significantly elevated than controls. Total cholesterol, Triglycerides, LDL and VLDL are significantly increased and HDL significantly decreased in cases as compared to the control group. The risk ratios TC/HDL, TGL/HDL, LDL/HDL are significantly increased and HDL/VLDL significantly decreased as compare to the control group.
300 A STUDY OF CORELATION OF CLINICAL PROFILE WITH BIOCHEMICAL & RADIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN ACUTE PANCREATITIS , Dr. Santosh Dalavi and Dr. Swapnil Chopade*
Introduction: Acute pancreatitis is a common condition involving the pancreas. Gall stone disease and alcohol account for greater than 80% of all patients with acute pancreatitis, with biliary disease accounting for 45% and alcohol found in 35% of patients1 Acute pancreatitis includes a wide spectrum of disease, from one with mild self- limiting symptoms, to fulminant processes with multiorgan failure and high mortality. Given the wide spectrum of disease seen, the care of patients with pancreatitis must be highly individualized. Primary Objective: To study of correlation of clinical profile with biochemical & radiological investigations in acute pancreatitis. Secondary Objective: To study the outcome of treatment and complications of acute pancreatitis. Methods: After admission to the hospital, a detailed clinical history and examination of the patient was done. Routine investigations like Complete hemogram, Blood urea, Serum amylase; serum lipase were performed. USG Abdomen and contrast CT ABDOMEN. The patients were classified as having mild acute pancreatitis or severe acute pancreatitis. The treatment plan was focussed on adequate initial resuscitation and supportive care, early detection of complications and definitive treatment of the associated biliary disease. Observations & Results: Serum Lipase was the diagnostic test with a sensitivity of 0%. Serum amylase is a strong indicator of development of pseudocysts as 70% of patients with levels more than twice the upperlimit developed pseudocysts. Ultrasonography visualized pancreas on about 92% patients with findings of acute bulky oedematous & bulky hypoechoic pancreatitis whereas CT visualized pancreas in 100% patients. CT is a confirmative investigation in diagnosis and staging of Acute pancreatitis. CT Severity Index is prognostic score in assessing severity & outcome of disease. Conclusion: Acute pancreatitis is a clinical diagnosis supplemented by serum amylase, serum lipase, Ultrasonography & CECT. Ultrasonography visualized pancreas on about 92% patients and its limitations were overcome by CECT.
301 COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF SEED GERMINATION ACTIVITY OF SEAGRASS EXTRACTS WITH PLANT HORMONES ON GREEN GRAM (PHASEOLUS RADIATA L) , Dominic Sahaya Rajan R.*, Stella C. and Siva J. and Gokila S.
Background: Aim: To find out the influence of seed germination activity on Phaseolus radiata L by seagrass extracts, gibberellic acid and naphthalene acetic acid. Materials and Method: The present study was conducted during rabi season 2016-2017 using healthy seeds of green gram. Grouped into five different strata including control group. The parameters include the number of seeds germinated, percentage of germination after 12 days, % Survival after 14 days, the seeding height, shoot length, root length, root/shoot ratio and thickness (width length) of young leaf of survived plant were measured and compared. Result: Seed germination or plant growth was justified on the basis of parameters such as percentage of germination, survival, seedling height, shoot length, root length, root/shoot ratio and thickness of young leaf[22] Conclusion: The seed germination activity of seagrass extracts (Thalassia hemprichii) with gibberellic acid and naphthalene acetic acid on Phaseolus radiata L have been studied at 50ppm and 100ppm. Foliar applications of seagrass extracts and gibberellic acid 50 ppm were found to be superior in seed germination by measurement of parameters like percentage of germination, survival, seedling height, shoot length, root length, root/shoot ratio and width of young leaf.
302 PEDI PARTIAL APPLIANCE: A NOVEL APPROACH FOR FUNCTIONAL ESTHETIC REHABILITATION OF SEVERELY DECAYED PRIMARY INCISORS , *Reena Rani, Sanjay Chachra, Kumar Shrikant, Manu Sharma, Ankita Sundan, Khushboo Sinhmar
Restoration of primary maxillary incisors severely decayed by caries or trauma is a clinical challenge for pedodontists. An anterior esthetic fixed or removable appliance is generally the choice to replace the lost tooth/teeth. The aim of this article is to describe the rehabilitation of primary anterior teeth in a five year old child using fixed bilateral space maintainer ; pedi partial or Groper appliance. The appliance delivered to the patient was functional and aesthetically acceptable to the patient and the parents.
303 ASSESSMENT OF ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS OF DRUGS USED IN TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL , Dr. Virendra Kushwaha, *Dr. Pooja Agrawal, Dr. Mangeshkumar Tripathi, Mr. Sumit Kumar
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and pattern of adverse drug reactions reported from different department of Tertiary care hospital. Methods: The reports of ADRS were recorded as per the standard guidelines of Pharmacovigilance programme of India (PvPI). Causality, Severity and Types of ADR was assessed by using Naranjo Probability scale, Modified Hartwigs criteria and Rawlins &Thompson classification respectively, Seriousness of ADR was assessed by criteria given by WHO. Results: A total 146 ADRs were reported from 126 patients. Majority of the ADRs were Type A reactions, Highest incidence 65.06% of ADRs was observed between (31-60) years of age, 61.11% of patients were female and 38.88% were male. In the assessment of severity mild and moderate were 99.31% and 0.68% respectively and causality assessment 86.98% were probable, 12.32% possible and 0.68% Unlikely. Conclusion: A careful attention is needed in monitoring and reporting of ADR because most of drugs have ADRs and in our country ADR reporting is in growing phase. There is need of more work on spontaneous reporting and awareness among health care Professional and practitioner to report all the adverse drug event to Pharmacovigilance center.
304 CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS FROM THE SEEDS OF CELASTRUS PANICULATUS WILLD., LEAVES OF CAESALPINIA BONDUC (L.) ROXB. AND ROOT BARKS OF PREMNA MOLLISSIMA ROTH , Mohammed Ali*, Shahnaz Sultana and Showkat Rasool Mir
 Celastrus paniculatus Willd. (Celastraceae) is a woody liana. Its seeds are used to treat abdominal disorders, arthritis, asthma, body ache, leprosy, dysmenorrhea, gout, menorrhea, paralysis, rheumatism, ulcers and skin diseases. The leaves of Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. (family Caesalpinaceae) are beneficial to cure amenorrhea, asthma, body ache, chest pain, cough, diarrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, elephantiasis, fevers, headache, hepatomegaly, hydrocele, indigestion, intestinal worms, menstruation disorders, rheumatism, skin infections, smallpox and splenomegaly. Premna mollissima Roth (family Lamiaceae) is found in southern Asia. Its roots are useful to relieve abscess, asthma, bronchitis, cardiac disorders, cough, diabetes, diarrhoea, inflammations, neuralgia, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis, rhinitis, stomach disorders and as a post-delivery tonic for women. Our study was planned to isolate chemical constituents of the methanolic extracts obtained from the seeds of C. paniculatus, leaves of C. bonduc and root barks of P. mollissima and to characterize their structures. The air-dried plant materials were exhaustively extracted with methanol separately in a Soxhlet apparatus. Each concentrated methanolic extract was adsorbed on silica gel (60-120 mesh) one by one for the preparation of slurries. The dried slurries were chromatographed over silica gel columns individually packed in petroleum ether. The columns were eluted with petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol successively in order of increasing polarity to isolate a variety of phytoconstituents. Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of the seeds of C. paniculatus gave a mixed glyceride identified as glycerol-1-linoleio-2-oleo-3-stearate (1). The leaf methanolic extract of C. bonduc afforded a new fatty acid characterized as n-triacont-5(Z),19(Z)-dienoic acid. The root bark methanolic extract of P. mollissima furnished the known phytoconstituents characterized as myristyl lignocerate (tetradecyl tetracosanoate, 3), β-sitosteryl oleate (4), 1-hexacosanol (5) and new monoterpenic esters 1-benzoyloxy-10-plamityloxy geranilane (6), 1-benzoyloxy-10-(octadec-9ꞌꞌ-enoyl) geranilane (7) and 1-benzoyloxy-10-octadecanyl geranilane (8). Their structures were established by analysis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions.
305 COMPARISON OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE-PROPOFOL WITH FENTANYL-PROPOFOL COMBINATION IN FLEXIBLE FIBREOPTIC BRONCHOSCOPY , Dr. Masrat Jan*, Dr. Wasim Muhammad Bhat, Dr. Arif Amin Bhat and Prof. Basharat Ahad
Background: Flexible fibreoptic brochoscopy is a widely used therapeutic and diagnostic procedure. Currently different anaesthetic agents are used for sedation during fibreoptic bronchoscopy. The primary aim of our study is to compare the respiratory and hemodynamic variables between dexmedetomidine-propofol with fentanyl-propofol during flexible bronchoscopy. Our secondary aim is to see cough reflex response, recovery time, number of propofol rescue doses used and satisfaction of bronchoscopist. Patients and methods: 100 patients were enrolled in the study and were randomised into two groups. [Group D (Dexmedetomidine-propofol) and Group F (Fentanyl-propofol)]. In group D, dexmedetomidine was given 1μg /kg slowly over a period of 10 minutes and group F received fentanyl 1μg/kg for sedation. An infusion of propofol at the rate of 100 μg/kg/min was started in both the groups for maintenance. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were recorded at baseline and at 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes after induction and comparison was made between the two groups. Secondary objectives were cough reflex scores and discomfort level as assessed by the bronchoscopists. Results: The mean heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were less in group D than Group F and were statistically significant. The mean respiratory rate and SPO2 was statistically insignificant between the two groups. The RSS score at 5, 10 and 15 minutes between the two groups is statistically significant. The recovery time for D group was longer than the F group and was statistically significant. The development of bradycardia and hypotension was more in group D than in group F and was statistically significant. The number of propofol rescue doses between the two groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: Although Group D has better sedation score than group F during bronchoscopic procedures, but at the same time it also causes hemodynamic instability. Recovery time is also more in the group D group than group F. Therefore, we conclude that combination of fentanyl-propofol is better modality than dextmedetomidine-propofol in bronchoscopic procedures.
306 ENHANCING ESTHETICS WITH METAL -FREE PROSTHESIS - CASE REPORTS , *Dr. Ulfat Majeed, Dr. Samarth Kumar Agarwal, Dr. Romil Singhal and Dr. Beenish Javed
Metal free restorations are widely and successfully used for a fixed dental prosthesis. This veneering material is becoming popular among both dental practitioners as well as patients because of its excellent properties such as biocompatibility, high strength, and superior esthetics. This case report series describes the esthetic enhancement by replacing missing anterior with ridge defect and posterior teeth with zirconia- based all- ceramic prosthesis.
307 FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITE BRIDGE: A CASE REPORT , *Dr. Sabeeha Hussain, Dr. Samarth Kumar Agarwal, Dr. Romil Singhal, Dr. Ulfat Majeed, Dr. Dipti Nayak, Dr. Kanchan Chaukiyal
The development of fiber reinforced composite prosthesis offers new possibilities in minimally invasive tooth replacement approaches. This article describes the use of pre-impregnated glass fiber for the chair-side fabrication of a definitive fixed partial denture for replacement of missing mandibular central incisor.
308 SINGLE TOOTH IMPLANT RESTORATION: A CONVENTIONAL APPROACH , Dr. Beenish Javed*, Dr. Romil Singhal, Dr. Samarth Kumar Agarwal, Dr. Vaibhav Seth, Dr. Nimra Mehraj and Dr. Deepti Nayak
Dental implants have become most widely accepted treatment option for missing dentition. The clinical success of dental implant therapy has made it to be a form of standard of care as it donot exposes the abutment teeth as well as the reconstruction to several biological and technical risks such as endodontic complications, secondary caries, difficult access for plaque control resulting in periodontal complications, loss of retention, fractures of teeth and/or the FPD.
309 MALIGNANT TRANSFORMATION OF INTRADUCTAL PAPILLARY MUCINOUS NEOPLASM OF THE PANCREAS: A NEW CASE REPORT , *Dr. Faten Limaiem and Saadia Bouraoui
Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) are a heterogeneous group of mucin producing cystic tumours that involve the main pancreatic duct and/or branch ducts and may be associated with invasive carcinoma. A 71 year-old male patient with a past medical history of hypertension and ischemic heart disease, presented with paroxysmal epigastralgia, weight loss, asthenia and steatorrhea. Abdominal computed CT scan showed a cystic lesion of the pancreas communicating with an accessory pancreatic duct associated with segmental dilation of the wirsung duct. The preoperative diagnosis was mixed type IPMN. The patient underwent pancreatoduodenectomy. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen coupled with immunohistochemical study established the diagnosis of intestinal type IPMN associated with invasive ductal adenocarcinoma. Postoperative course was uneventful. At present, the patient is still being followed-up. Despite recent advanced technologies, diagnosis of IPMN is still challenging, especially in western countries due to its rarity. Early identification and resection of lesions, even in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients, are however important prognostic factors.
310 CROHN'S DISEASE WITHIN MECKEL'S DIVERTICULUM: CASE REPORT , Dr. Faten Limaiem* and Saadia Bouraoui
Meckel's diverticulum has been reported in patients with Crohn's disease with an incidence of 6 to 18.5%. The direct involvement of a Meckel's diverticulum by Crohn's disease is less common and is usually the result of contiguous spread. A 24-year-old male patient with no particular medical history, presented with severe abdominal pain for the past 24 hours. Abdominal examination revealed mild distension with generalized guarding and marked rebound tenderness. Computed tomography scan showed ileal wall thickening with partial obstruction. It also disclosed enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes. The patient underwent ileal resection and mesenteric lymphadenectomy. Grossly, the specimen consisted of a 28-cm segment of thickened ileum with a Meckel's diverticulum measuring 3 cm. Microscopic study revealed typical transmural Crohn's disease involving the ileum as well as Meckel's diverticulum, with narrow ulcerated fissures coated by granulation tissue, fibrin and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The final pathological diagnosis was Meckel's diverticulum involved by the inflammatory lesions of Crohn's disease. Postoperative course was uneventful.
311 A PREVENTIVE CLINICAL STUDY TO ACCESS THE EFFICACY OF KUMARYADI CREAM ON KIKKISA (STRIAE GRAVIDARUM) , Dr. Hemant Patel*, Dr. Shilpa Donga, Prof. L. P. Dei, Dr. Yogesh Manani, Dr. Shrawan Kamble
Reproduction is an important part of the life of female. Some physiological, hormonal and metabolic modifications occur in mother’s body to accommodate and support the fetus throughout pregnancy. Striae gravidarum (SG) is the most common change in connective tissue of pregnant women and may cause cosmetic concerns. Striae gravidarum on women’s body symbolizes love and life, it also symbolizes the pain that comes with motherhood. Striae gravidarum do not pose a health risk. However, they are often symptomatic, causing discomfort as well as psychological distress in pregnant women, when severe. Among the common disorders of pregnancy as recognized by various pioneers of Ayurveda, Kikkisa is a common ailment which appears on the abdomen during late phase of second trimester. If we look at the etiology of Kikkisa, Vitiation of Tridosha due to the growing fetus which leads to burning sensation and itching as symptoms and stretch marks as a sign. Above said causative factors and symptomatology of Kikkisa has close resemblance with Striae Gravidarum as described in modern texts. There is great demand of Ayurveda in the field of cosmetology. Ayurveda has unique concept of beauty and can offer effective, cheaper and long lasting beauty therapy without any side effects. In present study, 17 patient had given Kumaryadi cream for local application for 2 months trial period out of them 15 patients completed the course of treatment. Patients were assessed thoroughly for a total period of 3 months including 1 month follow up period. From the above study it has concluded that the drug Kumaryadi cream effective to prevent Kikkisa (Striae gravidarum) with no apparent evidence of complication.
312 ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION CONTAINING CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS, PIPER NIGRUM, ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS, CINNAMOMUM TAMALA (CPAC) IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS , Prof. Pavan Folane*, Shrikrushna Unhale, Purva Kale, Snehal Shelke and Prof. Suraj Sagrule
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of polyherbal formulation containing Citrullus colocynthis, piper nigrum, Asparagus racemomusin, and Cinnamomum tamala alloxan induced diabetic rats. The polyherbal CPAC, is one of such herbal remedies prepared from the fruit of Citrullus colocynthis, seeds of piper nigrum, roots of Asparagus Racemomus and leaves of Cinnamomum Tamala used to evaluate antidiabetic activity. The dose of the formulation was determined from acute toxicity study. The polyherbal formulation of CPAC had shown significant protection and lowered the blood glucose levels to normal in glucose tolerance test. The antidiabetic effect of polyherbal formulation was studied in Alloxan (120mg/kg b.w., i.p.) induced diabetes in male wistar rats for doses 200 mg/kg b.w. and 400 mg/kg b.w. (p.o.) daily for 21 days, and the effect was compared with oral dose of 5mg/kg, b.w. glibenclamide. The administration of extracts were continued for 21 days was evaluated through the estimation of HDL, LDL, VLDL levels, SGPT and SGOT levels, Total cholesterol levels and Total triglycerides levels. Blood samples were collected through the tail vein on days 1, 7, 14 and 21 after drug administration and the blood glucose levels were estimated using Accu-check glucometer. Diabetes caused by Alloxan treatment increases the level of glucose and biochemical parameter in blood sample but treatment with polyherbal formulation, protects from diabetes and significant decrease the elevated glucose, LDL, VLDL levels, SGPT and SGOT levels, Total cholesterol levels and Total triglycerides levels, increased in HDL level.
313 UNDERSTANDING HYPERTENSION ACCORDING TO UNANI PROSPECTIVE – AN ANALYTICAL REVIEW , Saima Saleem, Abdul Haseeb Ansari* and Aysha Ansari
Introduction: Hypertension is one of the major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. Nowadays, considered as a global public health issue and, in recent decades it has shown a growing trend due to sedentary life style. Objectives: Purpose of this study was to understand the concept of hypertension in term of classical Unānī medical books and to find a disease that has maximally coincided with the symptoms of hypertension. Materials and Methods: In this study, reliable sources of Unānī System of Medicine are the ancient literatures of Unānī System of Medicine and some reliable resources of conventional medicine such as Harrison‟s principles of internal medicine and databases such as Pub Med, Scopus, were probed, base on keywords to find a disease that had the most overlapping symptoms with hypertension. By taking notes from the relevant materials, the extracted texts were compared and analyzed. Results: Findings showed that the hypertension mostly overlaps with Imtilā’ (congestion). Although this is not a complete overlap and there are also other causes and reasons including Sū’-i-Mizāj Yābis (dry dys-temperament) of vessel wall which causes lāb t-i-Shīryān (atherosclerosis), Sū’-i-Mizāj rr (hot dys-temperament) of heart or damages to other organs like liver, kidney and nervous system that could also lead to hypertension according to Unānī System of Medicine. Conclusions: We can approach towards hypertension with recommendations for reducing Imtilā’ (Congestion) when we are dealing with hypertension that most probable similar to Imtilā’. Therefore, if patient is suffering from another type of hypertension like Sū’-i-Mizāj Yābis (dry dys-temperament) of vessel wall, it surely requires another treatment approach for reducing vessel wall dryness.
314 INFANTILE COLIC: A REVIEW STUDY , Dr. Aparna K. Chaudhari and Dr. D. B. Chavan
Infantile colic is a common condition of recurrent abdominal pain in young infants occurring first to fourth month of life. The attacks of sudden screaming with flexion of thighs and flushing or frowning of face occur at a precise time in the evening in a clockwise regularity and may lost for a couple of minutes or hours. These babies are typically healthy throughout the day but develop paroxysmal excessive crying spells in evening. Infantile colic can be correlated with Udarashoola in Ayurveda Samhitas. Udarshoola is condition where one express high intensive pain in abdomen. Stanya dushti is one of the principle causative factors for disease development in an infant. according to acharya bhavaprakasha Local application of (asafoetida) hingu over the periumbilical area is useful and effective home remedy for Udarshoola (infantile colic) and flatulence in infants.
315 3D PRINTING TECHNOLOGY FOR TABLETS: OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES , Rameesha N. K.*, Sirajudheen M. K., Shiji Kumar P. S. and Sherin A.
The 3D printing has a role in medical devices industry & pharmaceutical industry due to its application on various channels of health care industry. It has become one of the most revolutionary & powerful tool serving as a technology of precise manufacturing of individually developed dosage forms, tissue engineering & disease modeling. This technology exist for a long time it is of public interest highly now due to the approval of 3D printed tablet, other medical devices & also with the arrival of USFDA‘s guidance on technical considerations specific to devices using additive manufacturing with possess 3D printing has triggered many thoughts about this technology which needs to be considered for successful delivery of intended product. This review summarizes the newest achievement & challengers of additive manufacturing in the field of pharmaceutical & biomedical research that have been published since 2015. Currently developed techniques of 3D printing are briefly described while extensive analysis of extrusion – based methods as the most intensively investigated is provided. And also this paper presents regulatory agencies expectations, limitations, problems in establishing such setups in production of drug products, advantages, disadvantages, applications, methods and associated risks involved in manufacturing. The issue of printlets attributes,I.e. shape & size is described with regard to personalized dosage forms and medical devices manufacturing. The undeniable benefit of 3D printing are highlighted, however a critical view resulting from the limitation & challenges of the additive manufacturing is also included. It provides the extensive review of the current status of research and development on this platform. As well as the regulatory issue is pointed.
316 A REVIEW ARTICLE ON OPHTHALMIC INSERTS , Noora Thasni*, R. V. Celestin Baboo, Shiji Kumar P. S., Sirajudheen M. K. and Sherin A.
Administering drugs to the eyes is one of the most challenging tasks that pharmacists face. The main barriers to eye medication are the ability to maintain a therapeutic level of the drug at the site of action over a long period of time. The ophthalmic preparations are available as a sterile, buffered isotonic solution. Different types of dosage forms are used as a delivery system for eye delivery of drugs. The most commonly prescribed dosage form is the eye drop solution because drops are easier to administer. Suspensions, gelled systems and ointments are also used to extend the therapeutic effect. The properties of eye preparations should not irritate the eye tissue. Homogeneous, i.e. Particles that are evenly distributed smooth and free of lumps or agglomerates. Relatively non-greasy. Shouldn't cause blurry vision. Should not cause an unbearable feeling of foreign bodies. Sterile and sufficiently preserved. Physically and chemically stable. Effective. New systems for administering medicinal products to the eye: The administration of medicinal products with eye drops requires frequent use. Prolonged drug release can be achieved with ophthalmic inserts with fixed devices placed in the eye. However, the inserts must be removed when they are no longer needed. Ocuserts are the new drug delivery systems designed to release the drug at predetermined and predictable rates, eliminating the need for frequent drug delivery. The systems generally include bio-erodible implantable elements with controlled, delayed and / or delayed release with multiple layers of different materials and / or different material concentrations. The elements generally comprise an inner layer or core containing a therapeutic agent and one or more outer layers made of polymeric materials, for example essentially pure polymeric materials. Important efforts in the area of topical eye administration relate to the design and conception of new ophthalmic drug delivery systems that can extend.
317 ANTI-DIABETIC MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY INDIGENOUS PEOPLE OF RANCHI DISTRICT OF JHARKHAND, INDIA , Farha Fatma* and Anil Kumar
Plants have been the major source of drugs in Indian system of medicine and other ancient system in the world. Charak Samhita and Sushrut Samhita give extensive description on various medicinal herbs. Diabetes is one of the leading disease of the world. It is a long term condition that causes high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. This is due to either the pancreas not producing enough insulin or the cells of the body not responding properly to the insulin produced. This paper enumerates traditional uses of various plant species belonging to few genera, which are used by tribal people of Ranchi District of Jharkhand for the treatment of diabetes. There are several glucose lowering drugs in the market, however they may have side effects such as liver cell injury, headache, dizziness and digestive discomfort etc. The natural medications with anti-diabetic activity are widely formulated because they are better compatible with human body, easily available and less side effects.
318 THE PREVALENCE AND THE IMPACT OF INSOMNIA AMONG THE POPULATION OF AL-DAWADMI REGION OF SAUDI ARABIA , Aljarah Saad Alqowiz, Abdullah Alsaidan, Sanjay Kumar Deshwali* and Dr. Mohammad Arshad*
The sleeping disorder, Insomnia is the common complaint in adults because of several factors. However, epidemiologic studies targeting insomnia and its effect among Al- Dawadmi population, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have never been reported. We performed an epidemiologic survey based study to understand the status of insomnia among Al- Dawadmi population, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by an online questionnaire on 850 subjects (201 men and 649 women) using a random sampling method. More than one third (n=317, 34.5%) of the 850 subjects complained of chronic insomnia, with the prevalence being significantly higher in women (38.5%) than in men (33.3%) and (n:356, 38.5%) is complained of intermittent insomnia being significantly higher in women (43.8%) than in men (35.8%). The finding stated that insomnia is a common complaint in dawadmi city, and its prevalence in the young females is higher than in males.
319 A REVIEW ON DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ULTRA PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR ESTIMATION OF DRUG IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM , Pradnya G. Shelke*, Vijay S. Wakale and Ganesh Y. Dama
In recent years, remarkable technological advances have been made in particle chemistry performance, system optimization, detector design, and data processing and control. When brought together, the individual achievements in each discipline have created a step-function improvement in chromatographic performance ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) is a modern technique which gives a new direction for liquid chromatography. UPLC which enhance mainly three areas of liquid chromatography: speed, resolution, and sensitivity. UPLC system column containing bridged ethylsiloxane / silica hybrid (BEH) structure with fine particle size (less than 1.7 m) is utilized and particle less than 2μm in diameter to acquire better resolution, speed, and sensitivity compared with HPLC. In twenty first centenary pharmaceutical industries are focusing for new ways to in economy and shorten time for development of drugs and drug product. The separation and quantification in UPLC is done under very high pressure (up to 100m pa). As contrast to HPLC, under high pressure it is observed that not any negative influence on analytical column and also other components like time and solvent consumption is less in UPLC. The commence review article is an endeavor to offer pervasive awareness around the development and Validation details about the UPLC and related techniques with the aim on practice to an estimation of medicinal Active agents in the last 10 years. The article also focused on general overview of UPLC. Method development and validation of UPLC method for estimation of drug and drug product.
320 INVIVO AND EXVIVO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF PERSEA AMERICANA EXTRACTS ON ALBINO WISTAR RATS , Iloh E. S., C. S. Nworu, *M. A. Omoirri, N. U. Madubogwu, B. C. Ugwu
For many years now, plants and plant products have been used in traditional medicine for treatment of infectious diseases. This study investigated the anti-oxidant activity of Persia americana extract under invivo and ex vivo conditions. The antioxidant activity of the leaf extract/fractions of P. americana was carried out in vivo using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydraxyl (DPPH) assay. A total of sixty five (65) healthy adult Albino rats of either sexes, weighing between 200 - 250 g were procured and housed in the animal house of the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria. They were maintained under standard environmental conditions with free access to standard diet and water ad libitum. They were then grouped into 13 groups of five rats per group. For the aqueous extract unit, group 1 received 10ml/kg of distilled water, while group 2 received 50mg/kg of diclofenac. Groups 3, 4 and 5 received 50mg/kg, 150mg/kg and 400mg/kg body weights of crude extract respectively. Fractions extract unit received 10ml/kg of distilled water (Group 1, control) and 50mg/kg of diclofenac (Group 2). Groups 3 and 4 were then given 150mg/kg of ethyl acetate fraction and 400mg/kg of ethyl acetate fraction respectively, while groups 5, 6, 7 and 8 got 150mg/kg, 400mg/kg of n-hexane fraction and 150mg/kg of butanol fractions respectively. Phytochemical evaluation of the plant confirmed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, proteins, and coumarins. In the antioxidant assay, the crude extract and fractions of the P. americana leaves were administered to adult albino rats at variable doses. Various degrees of antioxidant activities at the concentration range of 31.25 -500 μg/mL were observed, with inhibition ranging from 4.2 – 41.8%. The crude extract showed best antioxidant activity compared with the fractions with IC50 = 587 μg/mL. Thus, the results of this study investigated the antioxidant properties of P. americana leaves extract, providing scientific information that validates the ethnobotanical use of P. americana leaves in disease management. Findings of this study also reveal that potentially P. americana could be a source of pharmacologically active compounds of pharmaceutical importance.
321 ESTIMATION OF MEDICATION ADHERENCE IN GERIATRIC PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC ILLNESS , Shaziya Tarannum*, Bhavana Keshetti and Sandeep Kumar Beemreddy
Background: Adherence to medication is an important part of patient care to achieve clinical goals in patients suffering from chronic illness. Medication nonadherence in patients leads to increased healthcare costs, substantial worsening of disease and death. Aim is to estimate medication adherence in geriatric patients with chronic illness. Methods: This study is a prospective, questionnaire-based observational study conducted for 6 months in a tertiary care teaching hospital. MMAS-8 and BMQ were used to know the extent of medication adherence. Results: Data was collected from a total of 155 geriatric patients suffering from chronic illness of the age distribution 60-85 years with a mean age of 68.76±6.37 years of which 89 were males and 66 were females. The age group of 65-69 patients are 50 (27%) higher when compared to other age groups. Out of all the study population, the patients suffering from only one chronic illness were found to be 95, and two chronic illnesses were 50, three chronic illnesses were 9 and four chronic illnesses were 1. The percentage of people with poor adherence is high (63%) with MMAS-8 and the percentage of people with potential nonadherence is high (63.2%) with BMQ. Conclusion: Medication adherence is poor in geriatric patients with chronic illness. Therefore, effort should be made by the health care team to identify the reasons for nonadherence and initiate steps to improve medication adherence by promoting patient education and about disease and treatment.
322 RECENT TRENDS IN NANOSCALE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A REVIEW , Fesmitha Harif, Nishad K. M.*, Sirajudheen M. K. and Shiji Kumar P. S.
The prominent trends in manufacturing carrier system for chemical, biological and medical application are to make stable non toxic and uniform dimension particles by using various macromolecules. In this aspect the emergency field of nanoparticle enables various approaches towards optimising synthesis protocols and health methodologies. The aim of this study is to overall environment of the intellectual property concerning the development of cancer targeting nanoparticle and various trends. This analysis gives an estimated technology growth that has taken in geographical regions over years. The review presents an updated summary of recent trends in the field of Nano medicine and Nano based drug delivery system through discovery and application of nanomaterial in improving both efficacy and use. The main convert is focused on improving drug delivery efficiencies which are generally described in low disruptions sustainability and accurate and precise targeted delivery control. The aim objectives are bioavailability, satisfactory, accurate consistent dose, lower manufacturing costs and favourable factors. These new approaches can protect drug from external factors like photodegradation, oxidation, etc. These also offers benefits in treating chronic human diseases by site specific and target oriented delivery of precise medicine. Recently there are number of outstanding applications of Nano based medical agents, biological agents in the treatment of various diseases. These can make with the introduction various development with the new trends in the delivery system.
323 THE USE OF PHYTOTHERAPY FOR ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME IN ANCIENT ROME , Dr. Valentine Belfiglio*
Thesis statement: Comparative perspectives about treatment of acute coronary syndrome arising from the study of cardiology across time and space enrich and challenge our perspectives about the treatment of coronary artery disease. Methodology: Historiography and conceptual analysis of the writings of modern and ancient physicians, inscriptions, pictorial sources, coins, and archaeological discoveries. Results: Ancient and modern physicians employ a similar protocol involving subjective information from the patient, objective findings of the examining physician, assessment of the patient’s condition and treatment options. However, modern physicians have diagnostic techniques and treatment options unavailable to ancient physicians. Conclusion and Implications: The past is prologue to the future. Comparative perspectives about treatment of acute coronary syndrome arising from the study of cardiology across time and space enrich and challenge our perspectives about the treatment of coronary artery disease.
324 ESTIMATION OF BODY COMPOSITION PARAMETERS FROM WEIGHT, BMI AND SUM OF SKIN FOLD OF WOMEN FROM KADUNA AND RIVERS STATES OF NIGERIA , Victor P. D.*, Danborno B., Adebisi S. S., Gbaranor K. B., Ajie P. C. and Okpara E. P.
Aim: This study was intended to estimate body composition parameters from weight, BMI and sum of skinfold of women from Kaduna and Rivers states of Nigeria. Materials and methods: A total of 788 (Rivers state, n=401 and Kaduna, n=387) apparently healthy females participated in this study. Weight and height was measured using stadiometer. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated as weight (kg)/height (m2) and categorized according to ferro- Luzziet al. (1992).Skinfold calliper was used to measure the iliac and biceps skinfold thickness. Body composition parameters (muscle mass, total body water, percentage body fat, bone mass, physique rating, visceral fat rating, basal metabolic rate, metabolic age) were measured using bio impedance analyser (Tanita, Japan). A correlation test and linear regression test was used to analyse results using SPSS version 18. Results: This study showed that weight, BMI, biceps and iliac skinfold correlated positive with all body composition parameters except for total body water and physique rating which showed negative correlation. The mean Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was 2074± 158.89 and 2136.48 ± 201.86 for Kaduna women and Rivers women respectively. Conclusion: In Kaduna women, weight can be used to predict all body composition parameters except bone mass, BMI can be used to predict all body composition parameters exceptbone mass and physique rating, sum of skinfold can also be used to predict body composition parameters except for bone mass, muscle mass and BMR. In Rivers women, weight can be used to predict body composition parameters, BMI can also be used to predict body composition parameters except for total body water, sum of skinfold can also be used to predict body composition parameters except for bone mass.
325 NEPHROPROTECTIVE ASSAY MODELS: A REVIEW , A. K. Anjana, P. L. Rajagopal*, P. N. Sajith Kumar, I. Arthi, Meera B. Nair and S. Aneeshia
Nephrotoxicity is one of the major cause that affects the mankind resulting from the use of medications or from the use of diagnostic agents. It is mainly due to the accumulation of toxic chemicals and delayed excretion of the same from the body by the kidneys. It may lead to several other diseases and even can be fatal. Nephrotoxicity can be assessed by using different study models so that the safe dose of drugs can be determined to be used safely in the humans. Animals are used for the assessment and from the studies the effective and toxic doses of the chemicals can be found out.
326 ROLE OF SAMPRAPTI IN AYURVEDA , Dr. Priyanka Gupta* and Dr. Aradhana Kande
Ayurveda is the science of life which provides healthy long life as it deals with prevention and promotion of health as well as the treatment of diseases. All the ancient Ayurvedic classics discussed the Tridosha theory as a base. The equilibrium of Tridosha causes health where as disequilibrium of the same leads to different types of diseases depending upon specific pathogenesis. Ayurveda, the Indian system of medicine, has its own branch of speciality for understanding the disease process and proper diagnosis of a disease. The Ayurvedic diagnostic approach is of two types comprising of Rogi Pariksha and Roga Pariksha separately. Among them Roga Pariksha gives us the complete knowledge about a disease starting from the etiological aspect to the actual manifestation of disease. In Ayurveda there are five means of diagnosis i.e. Nidana Panchaka namely Nidana, Purvarupa, Rupa, Upashaya and Samprapti which are included under Roga Pariksha. Out of Nidana Panchaka Samprapti is important tools. Entire process of manifestation of disease is called Samprapti. The Samprapti gives knowledge about provocating doshas, route of the disease, involved dhatus and srotas affected and their prognosis. According to prognosis, the disease is curable, incurable and difficult to cure. So this Samprapti helps in prognosis of disease. The knowledge of Samprapti is very important because it gives a precised and comprehensive picture of the nature of the disease. Thus the term Samprapti can be correlate to the modern term pathogenesis.
327 EXTRAMEDULLARY PLASMACYTOMA OF THE TRACHEA: A RARE CASE REPORT , Dr. Joy Augustine, Dr. Sumi Thomas*, and Dr. Divya S.
Trachea is an extremely rare site of Extramedullary plasmacytoma(EMP). We report an incidentally detected solitary tracheal plasmacytoma in a 43 -year old man. Bronchoscopy revealed lobulated lesions around the carina obstructing the lumen. Pathologic analysis revealed EMP. Additional investigations excluded multiple myeloma.
328 ROLE OF AYURVEDA IN PREVENTION OF PSYCHOSOMATIC DISORDERS , Dr. Bhaskar M. Perke and *Vd. Suraj V. Birajdar
Psychosomatic - psyche (mind) and soma (body) -A psychosomatic disorder is a disease, which involves both, mind and body. Both mind and body are a single identity, so the involvements of one definitely affect the others. It is the outcome of the modern way of life, hence their incidence is rapidly increasing. In Ayurveda, detail description has given about psychic (Manasika), Somatic (Sharirika) and psychosomatic disorders (Manodaihika Vyadhi). The scope of practice of Yoga, Medhya rasayana, Satvik ahara, Dinacharya palan, Rutucharya palan and Sadvritta palan, are the major ancient health measures, which can be used in the prevention and treatment of psychosomatic disorders.
329 TOXIC ALKALOIDS IN GLORIOSA SUPERBA , Nubla M.*, Sajeena C.H., Shiji Kumar P.S. and Sirajudheen M.K.
Aim of the review is to update the information regarding the toxic alkaloids in Gloriosa superba and their effect on body Gloriosa superba is a perennial creeper in the Liliaceae family It is widely used as a medicinal. plant and it has two toxic alkaloid namely colchicines and gloriosine are used in the treatment of gout and rhumatism G superba has long history. of use in folk medicine Whole plant of G superba keeps several biological. activities such as antioxidant antibacterial, antimicrobial, antihelminthic properties Fatal ingestion of the tubers of Gloriosa superba with an. intention of dibrate self harm,leading to systemic coagulopathy and progressive multiple organ dysfunction. Colchicine is known to cause alopecia The plant can be dangerous for cats,dogs,horses In chronic diseases that require life long treatment with. medications, adverse effects can arise with long periods of use This review include most update information about toxic alkaloids in G superba and their human use and poisonous effect.
330 CERVICAL CANCER ASSOCIATED WITH EXTERNALIZED GENITAL PROLAPSE: ABOUT 02 CASES , Mossé B. A. Wilfried*, Mouhcine Hommadi, N’da Guy, El-Abbassi Sara, Hanan El-Kacemi, Tayeb Kebdani, Sanaa El-Majjaoui and Noureddine Benjaafar
The treatment of cervical cancer has been protocolled, but the management of uterovaginal prolapse associated with carcinoma of the cervix is not standardized and therapy strategies vary considerably among authors. We report a 58-year-old woman presenting a prolapse genital evolving for 2 years and neglected by the patient. Allowed in our department in January 2018. The physical examination found a hysterocele of stage III according to the classification of ICS POP-Q. Cervical biopsies were carried out and examination histopathologic revealed a well-differentiated and invasive carcinoma epidermoid. The pelvic scanner with an injection of a product of contrast showed: a bulky urogenital prolapse with rectocele, cystocele and elytrocele, FIGO IVA. She underwent Concomitant radio chemotherapy. After a multidisciplinary conciliation meeting, taking into account the character locally advanced, a surgery of correction was proposed. Second case: a-79-year-old female presented with 11 months history of post-menopausal bleeding, pelvic pain and sensation of heaviness which was increasing in intensity over than 8 months. Physical assessment showed a large genital prolapse third degree and ulcerous and necrotic lesion at the lower part prolapse. Histopathological examination of cervical biopsies revealed well differentiated and invasive squamous cell carcinoma. She was staging according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system 2009 as FIGO IIIB. The patient was treated by palliative chemotherapy. After 3 months, the patient died. Conclusion: The rarity of this association explains the difficulties of care encountered and its pathogeny has poorly known hence the importance of multidisciplinary consultation.
331 SYNTHESIS OF POLYHYDROQUINOLINES USING PHENYL PHOSPHONIC ACID AS CATALYST , Sanjeev M. Reddy and Jitendra S. Pulle*
A facile and efficient method has been developed for the one pot synthesis of polyhydroquinolines via four component reaction of ethyl acetoacetate, aldehyde, dimedone and ammonium acetate in the presence of catalytic amount of phenyl phosphonic acid in ethanol through Hantzsch reaction. The method described herein is simple, environmentally benign and provides good yields of the products.
332 AFTIMOON HINDI (CUSCUTA REFLEXA ROXB.): A MIRACULOUS HERB , Irfat Ara, Shazad Yaqoob, Basharat Bukhari, Nighat Ara, Weeqar Younis Raja and Mudasir Maqbool*
Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. is a twining parasite and makes a tangled mass covering on the host plants. It is commonly known as dodder plant, amarbel, akashabela. Traditionally it is called as miracle plant. Medicinal properties of the plant are used to cure various diseases. These medicinal properties of the plant are due to the active phytoconstituents of the plants. Parasitic weed plant Cuscuta reflexa has been studied for the identification of its pharmacological activities. Various chemicals have been isolated from this miracle plant having therapeutic potential possessing ethnomedical and pharmacological activities. It contains important chemicals like cuscutin, cuscutalin, bergenin, kaempferol, amarbelin and sterol glycosides etc. Diverse pharmacological studies of Aftimoon have been reported such as anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antipyretic, hepatoprotective, anticonvulsant, nematicide, anti-androgenic, hypocholestrolemic, antiandrogenic, hemolytic, diuretic, dermatigenic, immunostimulant, antiarthritic, antiasthma and anticancer activities. In this paper, an attempt has been made to summarize the information described in classical Unani text and scientific research conducted on different parts of Cuscuta reflexa plant.
333 CLINICAL ASPECTS AND METHODS OF TREATMENT OF NEUROSIS-LIKE DISORDERS IN HEROIN ADDICTION , Dr. Kuchkarov U. I.*, Mukhtarova Kh K., Muhamadieva N. B., Ergasheva Yu Y. and Rustamov U. T.
Narcotic substances, affecting the neurotransmission of the brain weakens and disrupts the conduction of nerve impulses. Antidepressants, eliminating the imbalance of neurotransmitters, have a positive effect on psychopathological symptoms and on the formation of remission. The antidepressant venlaxor inhibits the reuptake of serotonin and norepinephrine, the use of the drug in heroin addiction for 1 month. improves the patient's quality of life.
334 CONSTITUENTS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF SELECTED GENERA OF THE IRANIAN LABIATAE (LAMIACEAE) FAMILY- A REVIEW (PART ONE) , Prof. Abdolhossein Rustaiyan*, Afsaneh Faridchehr PhD., Mahdieh Ariaee Fard MSc. and Zahra Sadat Aghakhah Razlighi MSc.
Lamiaceae or Labiatae is a family of flowering plants commonly known as the mint or deadnettle family. Many of the plants are aromatic in all parts and include widely used culinary herbs, such as basil, mint, rosemary, sage, savory, marjoram, oregano, hyssop, thyme, lavender, and perilla. Some species are shrubs, trees (such as teak), or rarely, vines. Many members of the family are widely cultivated, for not only their aromatic qualities but also their ease of cultivation, since stem cuttings readily propagate them. References such as Phytochemistry, Journal of Essential Oil Research, Flavour and Fragrance Journal and Journal of Herbal Drugs etc. used to search scientific contribution until 2017, using relevant keywords. Literature focusing on Essential Oil, Chemical Composition and their chemical structure and in short we refere to the Biological Activities from the some genus. Treatments with Essential Oil from genera in this review have shown positive result in biological activities such as traditionally used in rheumatism, anti-bacterial effects, free radical scavenging and activity in cancer cell line. In this review, we will be discussing the constituents and biological activities of some of the genera of the Iranian Labiatae family namely: Ajuga; Ballota; Cyclotrichium; Eremostachys; Hymenocrater; Marrubium; Melissa; Mentha; Micromeria; Nepeta; Ocimum and Perovskia.
335 CONSTITUENTS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES SOME OF THE SELECTED SALVIA SPECIES: A REVIEW , Abdolhossein Rustaiyan Prof.*, Afsaneh Faridchehr, PhD, Zahra Sadat Aghakhah Razlighi MSc. and Mahdieh Ariaee-Fard MSc.
Salvia is a fascinating plant genus and one of the wide spread members of the Labiate family, which comprises about 900 herbs and shrubs, growing in the temperate and warmer zones of the world. Some of these species feature prominently in the pharmacopoeias of many countries throughout the world. The range of traditional applications of the herbs in domestic medicine seems to be endless: they have been used as a medication against perspiration and fever, as a carminative; a spasmolytic; an antiseptic/ bactericide; an astringent; a gargle or mouthwash against inflammation of the mouth, tongue and throat; a wound-healing agent; skin and hair cure; against rheumatism and sexual debility; in treating mental and nervous conditions; and as an insecticide. We will discuss about the following Salvia species: Salvia sharifi Rech. f. and Esfan.; Salvia hypoleuca Benth.; Salvia leriefolia Benth.; Salvia mirzayani Rech f. and Esfan.; Salvia reuterana Boiss. and Salvia limbata C.A. Mey.
336 CONSTITUENTS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES SOME OF THE SELECTED Ocimum SPECIES: A REVIEW , Prof. Abdolhossein Rustaiyan* and Zahra Sadat Aghakhah Razlighi MSc.
The genus Ocimum (family Lamiaceae), collectively called basil, consists of about 160 species, and is spread over the tropical, subtropical and warmer parts of the temperate regions of both hemispheres raging from sea level to 1800 ft altitude. Basil has traditionally been used to treat head colds and as a cure for warts and worms, as well as an appetite stimulant, carminative, and diuretic. In addition, it has been used as a mouthwash and astringent to cure inflammations of the mouth and throat. Alcoholic extracts of basil have been used in creams to treat slowly healing wounds. Basil is more widely used as a medicinal herb in the Far East, especially in China and India. It was first described in a major Chinese herbal around A.D 1060 and has since been used in China for spasms of the stomach and kidney ailments, among other applications. It is especially recommended for use before and after parturition to promote blood circulation. The whole herb is also used to treat snakebite and insect bites.
337 FURTHER CONSTITUENTS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF THE IRANIAN LABIATAE FAMILY , Prof. Abdolhossein Rustaiyan*, Afsaneh Faridchehr PhD., Mahdieh Ariaee Fard MSc. and Zahra Sadat Aghakhah Razlighi MSc.
A very important medicinal plant family is the Labiatae family, also known as the mint family. Plants in this family are herbs or shrubs often with an aromatic smell. They are common in the Maltese Islands and other Mediterranean countries for the fact that some of them produce a high amount of essential oil that enables them to survive the hot summer season. Some examples from this family include mints, thyme, tulsi, spearmint and coleus. It is widely cultivated for medicinal, traditional and folk medicine, perfumery, culinary and ornamental purposes. Also they are used as culinary and ornamental plants. Medicinal constituents include the strong aromatic essential oil, tannins, saponins and organic acids. This family contains a wide variety of chemicals. A wide range of compounds such as terpenoids, iridiods, phenolic compounds and flavonoides have been reported from the members of the family. The oil is obtained by steam distillation. In aromatherapy, the oil is used for its soothing effects. The plant has sedative, diuretic, tonic, antispasmodic and antiseptic properties.
338 THE PATIENT RECORD IN PHARMACY: CURRENT SITUATION AND PROSPECTS IN MOROCCO , H. Fettah*, M. R. Sefrioui, M. Moussa Ali, A. Benmoussa and S. Derraji
Aim: This study initially consists of drawing up an inventory on the use of the patient record in Morocco, by carrying out a survey in the capital and the greater Rabat area. Secondly, we launched a pilot phase, which consists of creating and implementing a patient record model. This model is presented to a sample of patients in order to estimate the degree of feasibility of its implementation. Material and method: A four-month prospective study was conducted in 50 community pharmacies. A questionnaire was used to draw up the present state of the use of the patient record in pharmacies in Morocco. Data collected was processed using SPHINX PLUS version 5.0 software. A prototype patient record was developed and tested on a sample of 10 patients to detect drug-drug interactions. Results: The investigation revealed that of the 50 pharmacies: 44 pharmacies had records. Among these, 40 claimed to have a credit file and only 4 pharmacies had both the credit file and the patient record. 06 pharmacies stored their data in paper format, 22 in electronic format and 16 used both formats. 76% of pharmacists surveyed believed that the patient record should serve as a credit file, 74% said that it would allow monitoring of medical prescriptions, 68% were for the detection of drug-drug interactions. With the collaboration of pharmacists, we designed a prototype patient record applied to a sample of 10 patients, we found six drug-drug interactions. Conclusion: Our study revealed the absence of the patient record in pharmacies. 94% of pharmacists surveyed recognized the importance of the patient record in the early detection of drug-drug interactions. They welcomed the idea of establishing the patient record in Morocco but by associating the patient record with a credit-file component.
339 SEVERE SYMPTOMTIC SINUS BRADYCARDIA ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROIDS IN BODYBUILDING , Amin Ahminedache*, M.D, Saeed Hatem, M.D, Mustapha Elbekkali, Ph.D and Halima Benjelloun M.D.
The use of anabolic androgenic steroids is a widespread practice in bodybuilding for its well-known effect on enhancing skeletal muscle gain despite their adverse effects on cardiovascular system. We report a first case of a 27 years old male amateur bodybuilder who presented a severe symptomatic sinus bradycardia after using an anabolic androgenic steroids to gain muscle mass. Learning objective: Cardiovascular screening should be performed in every amateur or professional athlete who has used anabolic androgenic steroids.
340 TAKOTSUBO SYNDROME IS A COMPLICATION OF ACUTE ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL , Amin Ahminedache*, M.D, Saeed Hatem, M.D, Honoré Kabuya Buana and Mohammed Cherti, M.D.
Acute alcohol withdrawal (AAW) breaks the neuroadaptive mechanisms to chronic alcoholism resulting in a hyper adrenergic environment, which is a breeding ground for the occurrence of Takotsubo (TTS) syndrome and life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. We report a case of a 49-year-old woman who presented TTS following AAW complicated by acute heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias with a brief review of the literature on the subject.
341 A HYPOTHESIS THAT CORRELATE MOLECULAR WEIGHTS AND NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES AS AN OPTIMIZATION TOOL TO DESIGN ESTERS WITH POTENTIAL ANTICANCER ACTIVITY , Luay Rashan, Heinz-Herbert Fiebig, Gerhardt Kelter, Thabit Sultan Mohammed, Ahmmed S. Ibrahim, Talal Al-Allaf and Rafie Hamidpour*
The present work relates to a hypothesis that correlates between the molecular weights and the application of numerical techniques such as Newton-Raphson for the first time as an optimization tool to design water soluble esters with potential anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. The results obtained from this application suggested a consistent and clear correlation between the experimental and numerical analysis results. However, further studies are required to confirm this correlation.
342 TASTE MASKING: MOST COMMON TECHNIQUES USED IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY , Ouhaddouch Hind*, Fahry Aicha, Cherkaoui Nawal and Elalaoui Yassir
There is four primary taste sensation which pose difficulty with the acceptability of oral drugs: bitter, sour, sweet and salty taste. the bitter taste is the one most accused of formulation problems due to its low threshold concentration. to remedy this situation, several taste masking techniques have been developed by playing with various parameters such as the decrease in the solubility of the drug in contact with saliva or the decrease in its surface of contact with taste buds. These techniques include adding of sweeteners, flavouring agents, use of granulation, microencapsulation, coating agents, complexing agents, ion exchange resins, viscosity enhancers and formation of prodrug and solid dispersion. The aim of this paper is to review the most methodologies and taste masking techniques used in pharmaceutical industry.
343 PREVALENCE OF CYTOMEGALOVIRUS ANTIBODIES AMONG PATIENTS WITH TYPE1 DIABETES MELLITUS IN ADEN CITY-YEMEN , *Abdul Rahman A. Humaid, Al-Ofairi B. A. and Al-Khaledi Y. S.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an enveloped deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) virus belongs to the herpes viruses family. It has been implicated as inducers Type1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The association between CMV and T1DM has been well described in the medical literatures. The study was a Case – Control and experimental combining the use of a structured questionnaire and analysis of serum samples obtained from 100 children (1- 19 years) who had history of TIDM as case group compared with 100 healthy children as control group in Al-madaen laboratories in Aden city, during the period from November 2016 to December 2017. The serum samples were analyzed for Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to CMV by Electro-Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (ECLIA). Sera of two hundred (200) of children were collected. The samples were tested for anti-cytomegalovirus IgG, 69 (34.5%) of the total children of study were sero-positive CMV IgG, 13 (13%) of sero-positive CMV IgG were non-diabetic children (control group), while most of them, 43 (21.5%) were diabetic children which represent the case group, the results indicate association (P-value 0.011) of CMV IgG antibody with TIDM in children. The seroprevalence of CMV antibodies among children (1- 19 years) in Aden City, Yemen is slightly high 69 (34.5%), and the study reveals significant relationship of CMV IgG antibodies with TIDM in children.
344 THE NATURE OF BIOCHEMICAL SHIFTS IN RED BLOOD CELLS UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF RADIO FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION RANGE (EXPERIMENTAL STUDY) , Khamidova G.M.*
An experimental study on 72 white rats was carried out, which were divided into 4 groups: 1, 2, and 3 experimental groups of 20 animals in each with the power of radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RFEMR) 50, 500 and mW/cm2, respectively. Group 4 was a control group of 12 animals, without affecting RFEMR. The dynamics of the processes of free radical oxidation in the structures was studied that are most sensitive to the effects of RFEMR in erythrocytes. Based on the results of the study found that exposure to RFEMR within one month accompanied by more pronounced changes of the studied parameters in the red blood cells, in particular, destruction of membrane structures due to accumulation inside the cell peroxidation products compared with three months exposure.
345 NOVEL ASSAY OF VARDENAFIL. HCL IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL WATER SAMPLES , Nief Rahman Ahmed*, Mohammad Jassim Essa and Omaima Salim Waleed
A simple, rapid, accurate and sensitive spectrophotometric method for determination of vardenafil hydrochloride has been developed. The proposed method is based on the reaction between chloride ion and mercuric thiocyanate, formation of a colored complex by the reaction between released thiocyanate and ferric ions to form red soluble product with maximum absorption at 460 nm. Beer’s law is obeyed over the concentration range of 4-40μg/ml, with molar absorptivity of 0.819x104 l/mol.cm. The present method is considered to be simple because it does not need either heating or hydrolysis or solvent extraction steps. The ingredients often formulated with vardenafil hydrochloride have been shown not to interfere, and the proposed method is suitable for the routine determination of vardenafil hydrochloride. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of vardenafil hydrochloride in pure form, pharmaceutical formulations (Tablets) and environmental water sample.
346 A SENSITIVE ESTIMATION OF TAMOXIFEN IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL WASTEWATER SAMPLES , Nief Rahman Ahmed*1, Najlaa Saadi Sheet and Mohammad Jassim Essa
A simple, accurate, precise, rapid, economical and high sensitive ultraviolet spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of Tamoxifen citrate in pharmaceutical preparations and environmental wastewater samples, which shows maximum absorbance at 235 nm in distilled water. Beer's law was obeyed in the range of 2.5-40μg/ ml, with molar absorptivity of 1.324x104 L.mol-1.cm-1, relative standard deviation of the method was less than 1.9%, and accuracy (average recovery %) was 100 ± 0. 8. No interference was observed from common excipients and additives often accompany with Tamoxifen citrate in pharmaceutical preparations. The method was successfully applied to the determination of Tamoxifen citrate in some pharmaceutical formulations (tablets) and industrial wastewater samples. The proposed method was validated by sensitivity and precision which proves suitability for the routine analysis of Tamoxifen citrate in true samples.
347 ANTIMALARIAL ACTIVITY OF THE DIFFERENT FRACTIONS OF THE ROOT EXTRACTS OF SALACIA NITIDA (BENTH) (CELASTRACEAE) ON PLASMODIUM BERGHEI INFECTION IN MICE , Dooka Barido Donatus* and Kagbo Hope Delesi
Background: Resistance to antimalarial agents is a major challenge in the treatment of malaria. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimalarial activity of the root extract of Salacia nitida in Plasmodium berghei infection in mice. Method: The plant material was successively extracted with N-hexane, Dichloromethane, Ethyl acetate, and Methanol. In suppressive test Plasmodium berghei inoculated mice were randomly divided into eight groups of 5 mice each. Group 1, was treated with the vehicle (10 ml/kg distilled water), the treated groups received 100 and 200 mg / kg of DCM, Et Ac and MeOH respectively. Group VIII was treated with Artesunate 5 mg /kg. In the chemoprophylactic and curative test, the treated received 100,200 and 400 mg / kg. The variation in level of parasitemia, survival time and weight of the mice, were used to determine the activity of the extract. Results: In the suppressive test; 100 mg /kg of DCM, Et Ac. And Me OH activities were 25.58, 26.51 and 11.90% (P<0.05) and 200 mg/ kg. produced activities 63.95%, 28.83, 25.58% respectively and Artesunate 61.40% (p<0.05).In chemoprophylactic activities were: 38.02%, 55.97%, 71.81 and Artesunate 65.40% while curative activities were 28.16%, 31.36%, and 63.36% at doses of 100mg/kg, 200gm/kg, and 400mg/kg respectively of the Dichloromethane extract showed significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results of the study showed that the Dichloromethane root extract of Salacia nitida possesses good chemoprophylactic and moderate curative activity, which could be exploited in the search for malaria drugs.
348 ENHANCEMENT OF CLINICAL TEACHING IN NURSING GUIDED BY ADULT LEARNING THEORIES - A CRITICAL REVIEW REPORT , Annie Rosita*
“Using Adult learning theory to enhance clinical teaching” The article “Using Adult learning theory to enhance clinical teaching” by Jill Wilkinson addresses four theories of adult learning theory (self-directed learning; experiential learning; constructivist theory and critical thinking) as well as theories about motivation to learn. The author also suggests how the theory may be applied to the clinical learning environment. That was the reason, the article seemed relevant for me to explore and review. Being lecturer in college of Nursing, I’m teaching and dealing with the students who are young adults in the nursing program. This article was found very relevant to my area of work and experience and it would guide the other nursing faculties.
349 ASSESSMENT OF FACTORS HINDERING IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NURSING PROCESS AMONG NURSES IN MSAMBWENI DISTRICT HOSPITAL , Penninah I. Nambuki, Mutinda A. Kasusu, Eunice Omondi, Gabriel Kishoyian*
Background: Nursing procedures are systematic, patient-centered methods of problem unraveling in order to achieve quality in health care provision. Although the nursing process is a global concept, there are many factors that hinder the implementation of nursing processes. This study was aimed at determining factors that hinder the implementation of the nursing process by registered nurses at Msambweni District hospital. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to conduct this study. A total population of 100 registered nurses was used in this study. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The data was analyzed by use of statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 17. Pearson chi-square analysis was done to determine relationship between variables. Results: Factors significantly associated with hindering implementation of the nursing process were lack of hospital administration support (p=0.02). Lack of supervisory support (p=0.003), Inadequate staffing (p=0.02), and lack of motivation (p=0.04). Majority of the respondents (96%) cited the inadequate supply of equipment as a factor in the implementation of the nursing process. Conclusion: The majority of the participants were not implementing the nursing process adequately. Strong administrative support of the nursing process is recommended for so to implement the process.
350 A CASE OF MALIGNANT MELANOMA OF THE UTERINE CERVIX , *Mossé Wilfried B. A., Oswald Houessou, Kietga Gael G., Hanan El-Kacemi, Tayeb Kebdani, Sanaa El-Majjaoui and Noureddine Benjaafar
Malignant melanoma of the cervix uteri is rare cancer. It constitutes less than 2% of cases of malignant melanoma of the genital tract. We reported a 52 years old woman with a 4-month history of peri-menopausal bleeding and leucorrhea. She had no medical history. The pathology of cervical punch biopsy showed malignant melanoma; the nuclei are frankly enlarged, rounded or oval, rarely irregular and always hyperchromatic with prominent nucleoli. There are some atypical mitoses and important melanic deposits. The final diagnosis was stage IIA1 primary cervical melanoma with involvement of the vaginal wall according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging system (FIGO). She underwent a total colpohysterectomy expanded to the left lateral wall and the posterior wall of the vagina without pelvic lymph node dissection. The patient further underwent adjuvant fractionated radiotherapy to the pelvis with a dose of 50Gy; 2Gy/ fraction, 5 sessions per week in 5 weeks. In general, the prognosis of primary cervical melanoma is poor, because it is diagnosed at an advanced stage.
351 VACTERL ASSCIATION: IMPACT OF HERBAL AND OTHER ABORTIFACIENTS , *Azikiwe Cca and Ifezulike Cc
Background: Misoprostol is a prostaglandin analogue used to ripen the cervix, an anti peptic ulcer disease, oxytocics and as an abortifacient. Momordica foetida is a tropical flowering plant used in folkore for treatment of stomach upsets and aid in labour during childbirth. Case Report: We report a case of a 17year old social mother who worked as a food vendor. She took repeated doses of cytotec (Misoprostol) and aqueous extract of the freshly shoot and seeds of Momordica foetida in order to abort her unwanted pregnancy. All attempts up to 25weeks of gestation however failed to terminate her pregnancy. She though experienced intermittent blood spotting and very occasional frank bleeding between 7and 20 weeks of her gestation, there was no expulsion of the foetus. She came into spontaneous labour at 39 weeks 3days but, had an obstruction necessitating her referral for a caesarean section at our facility. Anaesthesia was regional spinal and baby was delivered within a few minutes. The baby however gave a single shrill cry with the only present left eye wide open and passed on. Further examination revealed a hydroencephalous with an amorphous indentation, deformed ear lobes, club feet, absence of anal perforation, pigeon chest and polydactyl. Conclusion: We conclude that repeated doses of misoprostol and Momortica foetida by the young mother led to the VACTERL association of the child. There is a potential and dangerous teratogenic synergism between herbal and orthodox abortifacients. Timely public enlightenment is highly advised. We recommend further full researches on Momordica foetida and its synergism with misoprostol or other prostaglandin agonist or analogue.
352 DANDELION (TARAXACUM OFFICINALE) LEAVES PROTECTS AGAINST CHROMIUM-INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY AND GENOTOXICITY IN RATS , Mbarka Hfaiedh*, Dalel Brahmi and Lazhar Zourgui
Chromium is a toxic and carcinogenic compound widely distributed in environment. In this study dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) leaves extract (TOE) was evaluated for its antioxidant and antigenotoxicity efficacy against sodium dichromate-induced kidney injury. The modulatory effects of TOE upon sodium dichromate-induced renal dysfunction and genotoxicity in Wistar albino rat model were investigated by assaying oxidative stress biomarkers, serum kidney toxicity markers, DNA fragmentation and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. Our results clearly showed that sodium dichromate induced significant alterations in all tested oxidative stress markers. In addition, it induced DNA damage as indicated by DNA fragmentation and chromosomal aberrations. On the other hand pre-treatment with TOE was found to provide significant protection against sodium dichromate-induced nephrotoxicity by inhibiting lipid peroxidation, preserving normal antioxidant activities and protecting the renal tissues from lesions and DNA damage. Present findings suggest a prominent role of TOE against sodium dichromate-induced kidney dysfunction and genotoxicity.
353 A REVIEW ON ANTIEPILEPTIC ACTIVITY OF CENTELLA ASIATICA , Anagha V.*, Jerrin Jose K., Dr. Shijikumar P. S., Dr. Sirajudheen M. K. and Sherin A.
This present review on antiepileptic activity on centella asiatica focused on various experiments to demonstrate its antiepileptic activity compared to other antiepileptic drugs. Centella asiatica, commonly known as “gotu kola, Asiatic pennywort, Indian pennywort, wild violet, and tiger herb” a tropical plant, cultivated successfully due to its medical importance in some countries including turkey, and it has a utilization in ayurvedic and Chinese traditional medicines since centuries. From the various experiments, It is found that aqueous extract of centella asiatica contain constituents like triterpeniods, vitamins, aminoacids, Asiatic, asiaticoside, centellic, centoic and pectic acids which is responsible for antiepileptic activity. Centella asiatica also used different diseases like asthma, skin disorders, kidney troubles and elephantiasis etc. Since centella asiatica is important in epilepsy because of its longer duration of action and less adverse effect that compared to other antiepileptic drugs.
354 EVALUTION OF THE STATUS OF COGNITIVE DISORDERS IN PATIENTS SUFFERED FROM STROKE , *Khalimova Dilrabo Jalilovna and Babadjanova Zamira Hikmatovna
Annotation. Cognitive disorders in patients suffered from stroke. We’ve analyzed 36 patients (20 men and 16 women, the mean age was 57,4±3,4 and the history of stroke was 9,2±3,8 years). Stroke is the disease that results in cognitive disorders mainly occur in patients over 60 years of age. Cognitive disorders depend on the age of patients, the scope of damaged zones after stroke, and the number of recurrent stroke. In order to evaluate cognitive disorders we’ve used neuropsychological test MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination) scales.
355 D. DIMER LEVEL IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA PATIENTS PRE AND POST TREATMENT , Hiba Habeb Alla Mohammed Hussein* and Hiba Khalil
Background: Thromboembolism is relatively common and serious event in individuals with malignancy and different type of cancer. Patients with Multiple Myeloma are at higher risk for venous thromboembolism with reported incidences of this complication being up to 30% especially in patients receiving multi agent chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic drugs. This study aimed to evaluate (D. dimer) level among Multiple Myeloma Patients pre and post thalidomide treatment, in Khartoum state -Sudan. Materials and Methods: The selection criteria of Sudanese MM patients depend on CBC results, bone marrow examination and hemoglobin electrophoresis. While exclusion criteria include Inflammatory, hypertension and DM to avoid the false positive results .Blood samples from 30 Sudanese MM patients were collected before and after one month of thalidomide treatment .The treatment protocol is thalidomide admitted 100mg/OD, Dexamethasone 40mg every week and Aspirin 100mg/day. 67% were males and 33%were females, with mean age was 44 years. The D. dimer level was measured by I ChromaTM. based on immunoassay principle. Data were analyzed by using statistical package for the social science (SPSS) version 21. Results and Conclusion: Our study revealed statistically significant difference of D. dimer level before and after administration of thalidomide treatment. The mean of D. dimer level among Sudanese patients of MM after treatment (1293.96 ng/ml ±928.45) was significantly higher than the level before treatment (478.85ng/ml ±317.37), (P. value 0.001). D. dimer level should be considered as follow up test before and after treatment to monitor the prognostic situation of the patient from the risk of thrombosis.
356 IN-VIVO PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF RHODODENDRON ARBORETUM (LEAVES) ON EXPERIMENTAL MICE , Mohammad Moniruzzaman*, Mohammed Tareq Aziz, Md. Ariful Mondol Arif, S. M. Farzana
The point of this examination was to explore the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic exercises of methanol concentrate of Rhododendron arboretum leaves alongside the nearness of significant phytochemicals. The rough leaf concentrate of Rhododendron arboretum was examined for analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic exercises utilizing different exploratory models. Against diabetic movement was dictated by Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT). To decide the analgesic movement, acidic corrosive actuated squirming model was utilized on mice. For anti-inflammatory movement test Inflammation (paw edema) was actuated by infusing 0.1ml of 1% Carrageenan. The concentrate caused a significant portion subordinate decrease of glucose, aggravation and torments instigated by various operators utilized. The phytochemical screening demonstrated the nearness of glycoside, alkaloid, flavonoid, saponin, tannin and steroid kind of mixes. Leaf separate has calming and pain relieving impacts which might be intervened through the phytochemical constituents of the plant.
357 CYSTADENOMA OF THE EXTRAHEPATIC BILIARY TRACT AND PANCREATIC TAIL CYST RUPTURE AMONG SURGICAL CONDITIONS OF PREGNANT WOMEN , Dobrosława L. Sikora-Szczęśniak*
Objective: Evaluation of the results of surgical interventionsforemergency surgical conditionsin pregnancy. Material and methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records of 11 women hospitalized in 2012-2017, who underwent surgery during pregnancy for emergency surgical conditions. The analysis included the patients’ age, gestational age at the time of surgical treatment, type of treatment, histopathological results of the material obtained as a result of surgical procedures, and obstetric outcomes. Results: Emergency surgical interventions (11 cases, 0.108%) selected from10,160 deliveries during the 6-year-period. Appendicitis (7 cases, 63.6%) was the most frequent condition requiring surgical intervention.Other conditions were: cholecystitis (2 cases, 18.2%), giant cyst of the extrahepatic biliary ducts(1 case, 9.1%), and rupture of the pancreatic tail cyst concomitant with acute pancreatitis and peritonitis (1 case, 9.1%). Laparotomy and laparoscopy were performed in 10and 1 woman respectively. Pretermdeliveries related to the surgery were recorded twice (18.2%). Reoperation was necessary in one of three (27.3%) cases complicated by peritonitis. Conclusions: Surgical intervention due to surgical emergenciesin pregnancy poses a risk of complications threatening the health and life of the pregnant woman and obstetric failure such as preterm delivery.
358 UNDERSTANDING THE 2019 NOVEL CORONAVIRUS OUTBREAK , *Dr. Mohamed Ashraf PT. and Dr. Nehal ElKilany
Coronaviruses are medium-sized enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses, that belong to the beta coronavirus cluster, whose name is derived from the Latin “corona” meaning crown or halo, referring to their image under electron microscopy with crown like spikes on their surface similar to the solar corona. Covid-19 is the third known zoonotic corona virus disease after SARS and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Coronaviruses cause acute and chronic respiratory, enteric and central nervous system (CNS) disease in many species of animals, including humans.
359 A REVIEW ON MARFAN SYNDROME , Sruthy S. A.*, Sreelekshmi R. S. and Prashob G. R.
Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects connective tissue, which is the material between cells of the body that gives the tissues form and strength. Connective tissue is found all over the body and multiple organ systems may be affected in individuals with Marfan syndrome. The heart and blood vessels (cardiovascular), skeletal, and eye (ocular) systems are most often affected. Major symptoms include overgrowth of the long bones of the arms and legs, abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis), indentation or protrusion of the chest wall (pectus deformity), dislocation of the lenses of the eyes (ectopia lentis), nearsightedness (myopia), widening (aneurysm) and tear (dissection) of the main artery that carries blood away from the heart (aorta), floppiness of the mitral valve (mitral valve prolapse) and backward flow of blood through the aortic and mitral valves (aortic and mitral regurgitation). The specific symptoms and the severity of Marfan syndrome vary greatly from person to person. Marfan syndrome is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, meaning that only one abnormal copy of the Marfan gene inherited from one parent is sufficient to have the condition. Defects or disruptions (mutations) of the fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene have been linked to Marfan syndrome and related disorders.
360 ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ANTICANCER DRUG PROCARBAZINE , *Nowreena K., Shiji Kumar P. S., Sirajudheen M. K. and Sherin A.
Today the importance of the drugs for the treatments are very valuable, the number of patients receiving chemotherapy for cancer treatment. The cytotoxic drugs are mainly used for chemotherapy. Here procarbazine is a cytotoxic moiety and the action against cancer. The development of reliable analytical methods to analyze became necessary for treatments. From the discovery of new substances to patient administration, all types of analysis must verify the drug action in all direction. In this review, the various methods for the analysis of procarbazine and the its major metabolic products, is discussed.
361 A NARRATIVE REVIEW ARTICLE ON THE ROLE OF CLINICAL PHARMACIST IN DETECTION AND MANAGEMENT OF MEDICATION ERRORS , Nafitha E.*, Dr. Lita Susan Thomas, Dr. Shijikumar P. S., Dr. Sirajudheen M. K., Sherin A.
The aim of this narrative review is to study the role of clinical pharmacist in detection and management of medication errors. Medication errors is a night mare among the health care professionals. It leads to morbidity and mortality which in turn prolong the length of hospitalization. The frequency with which the various types of medication error occur and role of clinical pharmacist in detection and prevention of these error were evaluated in the study. Medication errors can occur at any stage of medication use, process, ordering, dispensing, administering or monitoring. The pharmacist, the prescriber and all health care professional must work together to ensure that patient achieve therapeutic out comes with safe and effective use of medication. The drug dosing, selection of drug regimen, uses and interaction of drugs, increased work load are found to be the cause of medication errors. All these error to be detected, reported and prevented by clinical pharmacist. A clinical pharmacist can initiate medication error reporting system which would improve the patient safety and visit the patient during pre-ward rounds and ward rounds of the prescriber to check bed side medication errors The medication errors were analyzed by medication chart review and the severity assessment index of national coordinating council for medication error reporting and prevention (NCCMERP). Therefore a clinical pharmacist can play a vital role in identification and prevention of medication errors by conducting awareness programmes for all the health care professionals and educate the public, minimizing the incidence of medication errors.
362 A REVIEW ON PHARMACEUTICAL PACKAGING WITH TAMPER EVIDENT AND ANTICOUNTERFEIT FEATURES , Nafeesa Nada M.*, Dr. Sirajudheen M. K., Dr. Shijikumar P. S. and Sherin A.
Nowadays, the safety, efficacy and quality of drugs are gradually declining due to the use of counterfeit drugs-both generic as well as branded too. The application of counterfeit drugs results to public health risks. In such conditions, there reflects the needs of tamper evident ideas and anti- counterfeit features which ensure the way to oppose drug counterfeiting. Tamper evident ideas solves use of drugs by its unique features of distinction. The tamper evident features like induction seals and wads, heat shrink bands and film wrappers are discussed in this work. Also the anti-counterfeit ideas like barcodes, security inks, invisible markers and sealing techniques with covert and overt technologies. But to reduce risk of tampering consumer education and updating on packaging must be considered.
363 A REVIEW ON PLANT TOXIN , Ramla P.*, R.V. Celestin Baboo, Shiji Kumar P.S., Sirajudheen M.K. and Sherin A.
Since ancient times, plants have been used in many areas of life due to their characteristic secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, phenols and terpenoids, especially for medical purposes. Toxins naturally occur in a variety of plants. Plants develop to produce natural products as a means of fighting animals. The alkaloids are by far the most common plant toxins. Due to their enormous structural diversity and different mechanisms of action, examples can be selected that serve as paradigms for practically every type of herbivore interaction. Plant toxins show many useful effects that can be used in the treatment of the respective diseases, and they can be modified to show better affinity and effectiveness. Most of the non-nutrient chemicals that people ingest in their normal diet are naturally occurring secondary metabolites of food crops. It has been proposed to define inherent plant toxins as plant components that can have adverse effects on human consumption of plants or plant products.
364 A REVIEW ARTICLE ON ANTI CANCER ACTIVITY OF ELLAGIC ACID AND ITS DERIVATIVES , Aseem Farhan P. V.*, Deepika P., Dr. Shijikumar P. S., Dr. Sirajudheen M. K., Sherin A.
Ellagic acid is anti oxidant and anti proliferative compound present in fruit, nuts, and vegetables. Many researches based on its potential health benefits has been conducted and evidence for anti cancer activity in various cancer cell lines was found. The ellagic acid and its derivatives is used to suppress the growth of cancerous cells with enhancement of human immunity and without any undesirable side effects. It is mainly used to treat several cancer like prostate cancer, colon cancer and also used to treat bacterial infection and viral infection. The derivatives of ellagic acid like 4,4’-Di-O-Methylellagic acid and ellagic acid peracetate show anti cancer efficiency, enabling of immunity and induction of apoptosis.
365 A REVIEW ARTICLE ON ROLE OF LIPIDS IN DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Shafin P.*, Dr. Sirajudheen M. K., Dr. Shijikumar P. S., Sherin A.
Lipids drug delivery system is used in nowadays due to their properties to improve the stability and bioavailability of poorly water soluble drugs. In these drug development world many of newly discovered oral drugs are less water soluble in nature. Lipid based drugs can be formulated for different routes. oral, parenteral etc.. it will also provide cost effective and sufficient stability and efficacy.
366 OCULAR INSERT: A NOVEL CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Dr. Sonali P. Mahaparale* and Arti Muneshwar Yadav
A visual addition speak to a cutting edge innovation in eye infection treatment .visual medication conveyance framework is one of the most challanging task looked by pharmaceutical specialist. Serious issue in visual prescription are the capacity of the medication at the site of activity for long duration. Eye drop arrangements are most recommended measurements structure in eye sickness therapy. Characterstics of opthalmic arrangement are it ought to be homogeneous, non-disturbing and liberated from protuberances. Visual addition in the new treatment structured so that it discharge the medication for significant stretch of time and it should be effectively removable when they are no longer needed. The frameworks for the most part incorporate controlled, postponed and additionally supported discharge bioerodible implantable components having various layers of various materials or potentially various groupings of materials. The components for the most part incorporate an inward layer, or center, including a helpful operator, and at least one external layers made of polymeric materials, for instance generously unadulterated polymeric materials. In the region of topical visual organization, significant endeavors concern the structure and the origination of new ophthalmic medication conveyance frameworks ready to delay the living arrangement time.
367 A REVIEW ON DIFFERENT METHODS FOR MANDIBULAR EXPANSION , *Dr. Saptarshi Roy, Dr. Kuldeep D’mello, Dr. Atul Singh, Dr. Nibedita Biswas and Dr. Sachin Kumar Mishra
Mandibular Expansion is a very challenging task in the Orthodontic treatment procedure due to the very increased chance of relapse. But so many authors have done this very efficiently and got good results. Clinical Relevance- This review article will help clinicians to compare different methods of Mandibular Expansion methods.
368 A REVIEW ARTICLE ON THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF BOSWELLIC ACID IN PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF CHRONIC AND INFLAMMATORY DISEASES , Nahala Thasnim P.*, Jasna K., Shiji Kumar P. S., Sirajudheen M. K., Nishad K. M.
Boswellic acids are pentacyclic triterpenes, Belongs to the active pharmacological compounds of oleo gum resin of different Boswellia species of the family Bursuraceae. Among the various boswellic acids,11-keto-beta-Boswellic acid (KBA) and acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid(AKBA) are pharmacologically active and potent inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase.Animal experiments show the anti-inflammatory activity of the extract. The action is due to several mechanisms of boswellic acid, such as the inhibition of lipoxygenase and reduce the synthesis of prostaglandin. The pharmacological activity of boswellic acid was also evaluated by both preclinical and clinical studies. Boswellic acd is attributed to its ability to induce anti-inflammatory, expectorant, anxiolytic, analgesic, tranquilizing and anti-bacterial effects.
369 OVERVIEW OF PAPERS PUBLISHED ON THE FORMULATIONS OF OLANZAPINE API , Dr. Shubhangi C. Daswadkar* and Abhijit Vasant Atole
Olanzapine is an Antipsychotic drug used for the treatment of Schizophrenia disease. Nowadays Schizophrenia disease is increases day to day because of having very modern life. Olanzapine is a class II atypical Antipsychotic drug which having Low solubility and High permeability. Due to that, there bioavailability also decreases and so that the amount of drug which is required for the treatment of Schizophrenia cannot get. So for that reason there are some researchers worked on that disadvantage and tried to get a good bioavailability and hepatic first pass metabolism. For that purpose they discovered the new dosage forms like Olanzapine Injection, Olanzapine Tablets in that category there also different types such as Sustained release tablets, Orodispersible tablets, Matrix pellets, Sustained release matrix tablets, Mouth dissolving tablets, Micro emulsions, Polymeric Nanoparticles, Solid Lipid Nanoparticles, Quick dispersible tablets, Olanzapine Microspheres, Solid Dispersion. With using of that type of dosage forms they get good bioavailability and good hepatic first pass metabolism also get direct treatment to brain by brain targeting nanoparticles. The main objective of that review article is to provide information regarding the, which dosage forms are already prepared on Olanzapine API which are helpful to the students for the literature review in future.
370 SOLRIAMFETOL - BREAKING NEW GROUND IN THE TREATMENT OF NARCOLEPSY , M. Mark Praveen Kumar, Dr. Pearlsy Grace Rajan, Dr. D. K. Sriram, *Dr. Melvin George
Narcolepsy is a chronic, disabling neurologic disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and, in up to 60% of patients, cataplexy. Despite major advances in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of NT1, management remains nowadays only symptomatic. The main and most disabling symptom, EDS, is managed with psychostimulants, such as modafinil/ armodafinil, methylphenidate, or amphetamines as a third-line therapy. Narcolepsy is an active area for drug development, and new wake-promoting agents have been developed over the past years. Solriamfetol, is a phenylalanine derivative used activity for treating EDS. Solriamfetol is an orally active, selective dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that was recently approved in the USA as a treatment for excessive daytime sleepiness (hypersomnia) associated with narcolepsy. Clinical trials showed that solriamfetol could significantly improve the ability to stay awake and subjective symptoms of excessive sleepiness in adults with narcolepsy. Solriamfetol was well tolerated. Very common adverse reactions were headache, nausea, decreased appetite, insomnia, and anxiety. This review summarizes the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety/tolerability of solriamfetol in the treatment of narcolepsy.
371 CURCUMIN: PHARMACOLOGICAL ADVANCES AND DEVELOPMENT , Shashwat Garg, *Himanshu Joshi, Shweta Gupta and Mayuri Goyal
Now a days there is a growing interest in herbal medicines. Curcumin is a spice which is of bright yellow color and its derived form rhizome of curcuma longa Linn. It belongs to the family zingerberaceae. It has been proven that curcumin is a highly pleiotropic molecule which can be a modulator of intracellular signaling pathways that control cell growth, inflammation, and apoptosis. Curcumin may be a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of some diseases due to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory. The most common method of isolation of curcumin is extraction with organic solvents mainly using ethanol and by various methods like Soxhlet, ultrasonic and microwave extraction. It has various properties like anti-inflammatory, chemoprotective, gastro protective and anti-cancer. It affects the neuro system and also it is one of the most investigated bioflavonoids. We present the concise knowledge on curcumin and its therapeutic effects.
372 PREVELENCE OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE AND ITS COMORBIDITIES – A REVIEW , Sivakshari Makkapati*, Akhila Yerubandi, Sreenu Thalla and Padmalatha Kantamneni
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] is a common, complex, heterogeneous condition in which it is responsible for growing morbidity and mortality. The study describes about the prevalence of COPD and its comorbidities in two different studies. Study 1, the prevalence of different comorbidities in COPD patients by gender and GOLD stage. This study was a non-interventional, cross-sectional investigation. Study 2, Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pattern of comorbidities in a general population. This is an epidemiological cross-sectional study. The total number of patients involved in study 1 was 1,216. Males were 880 members and females were 336 members. The comorbidities mentioned were Cardiovascular, respiratory, Metabolic, Oncologic, Neuropsychiatric, Gastroenterology, Osteo – Articular and other diseases. The overall percentage of comorbidities found was 3,198 and the male percentage was 2,182 and the female percentage was 1,016. In study 2, the total population examined in this study was 7,731,628 who are NHS users. Out of which the 3,535,371 were about 45 years old and above. In that 462,894 were using respiratory agents. The number of male patients was 1,603,364 and the percentage is about 45% of ≥45 years of age and the number of patients exposed to ≥ 1 respiratory drug was 205,711 and the percentage was about 44%. The number of female patients was 1,932,007 and the percentage is about 55% of ≥45 years of age and the number of patients exposed to ≥1 respiratory drug was 257,183 and the percentage was about 56%.
373 ANALYTICAL AND BIOANALYTICAL PROFILE FOR ATORVASTATIN: AN EXPLORATORY REVIEW , R. M. Shroff, P. A. Bachhav, S. B. Ganorkar, A. A. Shirkhedkar* and S. S. Chalikwar
Statins are exceptional in lowering total cholesterol and low- density lipoproteins present in the human body. These are inhibitors of HMG CoA reductase; which are rate the limiting enzymes in Cholesterol biosynthesis. Atorvastatins used in the treatment of atherosclerosis and cardiac risks. Atorvastatin calcium is calcium salt of atorvastatin and a trihydrate. The atorvastatin is a medicine used to cure high cholesterol and marketed as calcium salt with the name Lipitor. Atorvastatin is generally combined with pharmaceutical formulations because they block the Niemann-Pick C1-Like protein cholesterol transporter and inhibit the absorption of cholesterol. The present review critically assesses various methods for the analysis of atorvastatin as well as atorvastatin calcium as bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms and or in the biological fluid. This exhaustive review displays the assortment, correlation and assimilation of more than 80 analytical and bioanalytical approaches. These reported investigations are not limited to sophisticated chromatographic, spectrophotometric techniques but also literates about hyphenated stability-indicating analyses and its precise applications towards pharmaceutical estimation. The exhaustive tabular presentation of essential analytical information would be of great significance to pharmaceutical analysts. The compilation therefore explores the scope for comparison of the existing methods at once for better utility and effective future estimation.
374 HOUSEHOLD POISON: AN UNINTENTIONAL POISON , Negi Deepti*, Singh Anoop Kumar, Tiwari R. C., Dikshit Manisha, and Sharma Ved Bhushan and Painuly J. K.
As population is increasing the requirements are also being increased. We are using so many things according to our convenience for cleaning the home or keeping safe from pests. But we should also know about these chemicals (poisons) which we are using in our daily life, intentionally or unintentionally. It is so important to be aware of the potential poisons currently present at home. The unintentional poison in daily use may be conveniently dealt within these groups, those are domestic/ house hold poisons, poisoning by medicine and garden poisons. Things those are most accessible to people, such as cosmetics and personal care products, cleaning products, analgesics, and cough and cold medicines, are responsible for the majority of unintentional exposures and poisonings at the present time. As requirement is increasing the poisonous substance is also noticed in dietary supplements. Household poisons are not only acute poisons but also the chronic one. Long time of exposure of cosmetics, preservatives, fertilizers, and pesticides cause chronic poisoning as they contain heavy metals like lead, mercury etc. This article deal with various house hold poison, sign symptoms and their basic treatment.
375 AMA AND ITS EFFECTS ON BODY-A REVIEW , Dr. Shraddha*, Dr. Nikhila Ranjan Nayak and Dr. Aradhna Kande
Ayurveda has its own concepts about agni and ama. Life, health, acitveness, growth, brightness and immunity all depend upon dehagni. If dehagni is extignuished, everything is lost including life. Hence agni is the basis of life. Jatharagni is the source of remaining all agnis including bhutagni and dhatwagni. It not only maintains digestion and metabolic activities, it also maintains body temperature in such a manner so that all enzymatic actions and reactions occur normally. Jatharagni is the source of thermo genesis. All hormones are chemical in nature similar to agni. Agni functions are delivered by hormones with highly specialized mechanisms in the target tissue to exert powerful control over the physiological systems without which there is no life. The Concept of ama and free radical theory has various similarities. Free radicals are unstable chemicals formed in the body during normal metabolism or exposure to environmental toxins such as air, food and water pollutants. Ama is also said to be produced from vishaja dravyas.
376 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF GLICLAZIDE NANOSUSPENSION BY PRECIPITATION METHOD , Paladugu Raja Saran*, R. B. Desireddy, G. Sivareddy, G. Suresh, G. Avulaiah, G. Naga Durga Prasad, K. Raghavendra Rao
In the present study, an attempt was made to prepare Nanosuspension of Gliclazide which is an oral antihyperglycemic agent used for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Nanosuspension containing the drug was prepared by precipitation method using combination of polymers such as PVP K-30, poloxamer (407), Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS), and acetone. Estimation of Gliclazide was carried out spectrophotometrically at 232nm. The Oral Nanosuspension were evaluated for various physical and biological parameters, drug content uniformity, particle size analysis, zeta potential, in-vitro drug release, short-term stability, drug-excipient interactions (FTIR). IR spectroscopic studies indicated that there are no drug-excipient interactions. The formulations F1 to F9 (containing PVP K-30,Eudragit S 100, SLS, Poloxamer (407), and Acetone) used different ratio were found to be promising, of that formulation F9 containing Eudragit S 100 and PVP K-30 releases 99.43% at the end of 20min & it follows first order drug release kinetics. These formulations have displayed good Nanosuspension strength.
377 A REVIEW ON FAST DISSOLVING FILMS ALONG WITH THE METHODS OF PREPARATION AND THEIR ASSESSMENT CONSIDERATIONS , Kajol, Nikhil Saxena, Shubham, Ashish Kumar, Sujit Bose, Amneet Kaur*
Drug delivery plays an important role in delivering the main API to the targeted organ. The delivery of the drug depends on certain factors and one of the important factors is the ease of administration along with overcoming the first-pass metabolism of the drug. The oral route is having a loophole of the first-pass metabolism and to overcome this loophole, fast dissolving oral film (FDF) is an alternative route with respect to the conventional oral dosage form. The FDF can be consumed by pediatric, geriatric and dyphagic patients. The dosage form will give the complete bioavailability of the drug. The dosage form depends on the type of drug candidate, plasticizers, disintegrants, sweeteners, and flavoring agents. The main problem related to the FDF is not to incorporate the drug candidate which cannot withstand the buccal environment. There are several marketed forms that are available for the treatment of hypersensitivity, nausea, and acid reflux. The methods preferred for the preparation of the films are solvent casting, freeze-drying, etc. The main evaluation parameters for the films are disintegrating time, elongation property and wetting time.
378 A REVIEW ON EVIDENCE-BASED GUIDELINES AND CLINICAL PATHWAYS IN STROKE REHABILITATION , Rajakumari Mannepalli*, Sreeenu Thalla and Padmalatha Kantamneni
Increase in stroke-related disability was globally observed over the last 3 decades as high societal burden. Multidisciplinary stroke rehabilitation reduces stroke-related disability both in older and younger stroke survivors of either sex and independent of stroke severity. There is rapidly increasing evidence to support the clinical effectiveness of specific stroke rehabilitation interventions. For best possible clinical practice Evidence-based guidelines can help and promote better outcome. A systematic review of literature indicates that the currently published stroke rehabilitation guidelines have a national background and focus and represent the health care situations in high-income countries. Such knowledge could facilitate a more wide-spread development of valid comprehensive up-to-date evidence-based national guidelines. In addition, the development of genuine international evidence-based stroke rehabilitation guidelines that focus on therapeutic approaches rather than organizational issue, could be used by many to structure regional or local stroke rehabilitation pathways and to develop their resources in a way that will eventually achieve effective stroke rehabilitation. Such international practice recommendations for stroke rehabilitation are currently under development by the World Federation for neuro rehabilitation (WFNR).
379 RECENT UPDATES ON ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF NOVEL COUMARIN DERIVATIVES , Sweety Birla*, Sudhir and Vivek
Microbial diseases and inflammatory disorders are claiming millions of deaths worldwide every year as per reports of World Health Organization (WHO) therefore discovery and development of effective antimicrobial and anti - inflammatory drugs with novel mechanism of action has become the highest priority task for researchers in this area. Bacterial resistance development has become a very serious clinical problem for many classes of antibiotics. Approximately half of all deaths caused by infectious diseases each year can be attributed to just three diseases: tuberculosis, malaria, and AIDS. Tuberculosis causes nearly 2 million deaths every year, and WHO estimates that nearly 1 billion people will be infected between 2000 and 2020 if more effective preventive procedures are not adopted. Infectious diseases are common diseases all over the world.
380 NIRGUNDI (VITEX NEGUNDO): A REVIEW ARTICLE , Mishra Ankur*, Tiwari R. C. and Srivastava Kumar Alok
Traditional medicines were originally used with vast knowledge about the pharmacological activity of numerous plants. Medicinal plants have been widely used to treat a variety of infectious and non-infectious ailments. According to one estimate, 25% of the commonly used medicines contain compounds isolated from plants. Vitex negundo (nirgundi), is a deciduous shrub naturalized in many parts of the world. Some consider it to have originated in India and the Philippines. There is no reference to nirgundi in the Vedas, while several references occur in post-Vedic works. In India, Vitex nirgundo (Nirgundi) is one of the very useful plant in Indian System of Medicine. The genus Vitex contains 270 species distributed around the world. The present review aims to compile information on its, medicinal values it is an interesting source of potential bioactive molecules, as iridoids compounds, flavonoids, diterpenoids derivatives, phytosteroids, with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, Hepatoprotective activity, analgesic and antihistamine.
381 ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER AND ITS AYURVEDIC MANAGEMENT – A REVIEW , Susmitha C.*, Vinod R., Dinesh K. S., Sreekumar N. and Jithesh M.
In the context of neuro-developmental disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), there is a real need to understand the role of mind along with bodily factors in its psychopathology, leading to the manifestation. Characteristic descriptions of symptoms of ADHD including hyperactivity, inattention and impulsivity can be incorporated under the various areas in Ayurveda such as unmāda spectrum disorders, mānasika doṣa and mānasika prakṛti (psychic constitution and trait) and sarīra doṣa and sarīra prakṛti (bodily constitution and trait). The basic psychopathology in ADHD can be explained as the derangement of the mental functions and the faculties related with manas such as dhī, dhṛti and smṛti. Ācārya Caraka explained mano vyāpāra or the functions of manas as indriyābhigraha and svanigraha. ADHD symptoms when critically analyzed can be linked to the disease unmāda with various neuro-behavioural symptoms categorised under the eight factors known as ashta vibrama. Causative factors, prodromal features, symptoms and treatment modalities are being explained as per the Ayurveda context. ADHD is characterized by the three core symptoms such as inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, which is to be explained as per the concepts of Ayurveda manifesting as vāta-pitta pradhāna vyādhi with dhī, dhṛti and smriti vibrama
382 REVIEW OF TAMBUL SEVAN AS A DAILY REGIMEN ON MUKHA SWASTHYA (ORAL HEALTH) , Singh Khilendra Pratap*, Sharma Anita and Singh Rajesh Kumar
The mukha swasthya (Oral health) is the impact on general health and wellbeing at every stage of life. The oral disease continues to be a major health problem. The incidence of the oral cavity is continue increased some habits like tobacco chewing drinking, smoking, etc. in ayurvedic literature describes some methods of Mukha swasthya for prevention to oral disease. A daily practice like Dantdhawan, Jivhanirlekhan, kawal, gandusa, tambula sevan, etc. the tambula sevan is one of the best methods as dincharya to the maintenance of good oral health and prevention of disease of the oral cavity. It also acts post-meal digestive stimulant erotic and improves physical and mental health. Here in these articles, we have tried to give a detailed study of the ingredient of tambula as Ayurvedic textbooks.
383 A REVIEW ARTICLE ON STATISTICAL COMPARISON OF DISSOLUTION PROFILE , Asla C. K.*, Rashidah K. Ansari, Dr. Nishad K. M., Dr. Shijikumar P. S. and Dr. Sirajudheen M. K.
Solid dosage forms are mainly taken orally to get it's therapeutic action. After the administration the drug undergo disintegration, followed by dissolution and then diffuse into the systemic circulation. Dissolution testing is an in vitro method that deals with how an active molecule extracted out of solid dosage form. The comparison of dissolution profile can be done by model-dependent and model-independent approaches. In the model-dependent approach including zero order, first order, Hixson- Crowell, Higuchi, and Weibull models are applied to the utilization of fit factors. Model- independent approaches including ANOVA-based procedures, ratio test procedure, and pair wise procedure. The ratio test includes percentage, area under the curve, mean dissolution time, while the pair wise procedure belongs difference factor (f1), similarity factor (f2), and Rescigno index e.t.c. All this approaches are valuable in statistical and clinical aspects, supporting the objectives of current dissolution profile.
384 CELL WALL COMPOSITION AS AN AID IN THE IDENTIFICATION OF MICRO-ORGANISMS – A STUDY OF BIO-ACTIVE SOIL ACTINOMYCETE D-85 , P. Ellaiah and V. S. Venkateswara Rao*
The actinomycetes are well known as a group of filamentous, Gram-positive bacteria that produce many useful secondary metabolites, including antibiotics and enzymes. A classification of any microbial order is a temporary and man-made arrangement in which similar individuals sharing certain common features are grouped together as taxonomic units at different levels in a taxonomic hierarchy. The success of a classification can be measured by the consistency found when different classes of information are used. Cell wall composition has also become widely accepted as an aid in the identification of genera. In many instances however, the analysis of whole-cell hydrolyzates is sufficient for identification. In the present investigation an attempt was made to determine the cell wall composition for selected best isolate(D-85). The selected bioactive actinomycete, D-85 was grown in yeast extract- malt extract broth at 28o C for 48 hrs. The cells were collected by centrifugation at 4000 rpm for 20 min and washed 3 times with sterile water. Then they were analyzed for amino acids and sugars by chromatographic methods. The results indicate that the cell wall of the strain D-85 contained LL-diaminopimelic acid & glycine with xylose and arabinose as diagnostic sugar components. The above data suggested that the strain D-85 belongs to cell wall type I with sugar pattern D. Further studies are in progress, published and presented elsewhere.
385 THE MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE OF FEW IMPORTANT PLANT SPECIES OF LAHAUL AND SPITI (COLD DESERT), SITUATED IN THE WESTERN HIMALAYAS , Vivek Kumar*
The present paper is focussed on herbal potential and medicinal value of the plants of the cold desert of Lahaul and Spiti which is situated in the western Himalayas. Most of the plant species of this area have medicinal importance; but very less information is available. Various field surveys and research were carried out for getting the herbal potential and medicinal value of the plants of the study area. The first hand information was recorded on the plants used as herbal remedies for the treatment of various diseases through personal interviews or personal contact with the local people of different remote localities. This is an effort to highlight the medicinal information of the studied medicinal plants of this area so that the population of these plants can be preserved from the natural habitat and their herbal benefits can be delivered for the betterment of the human beings and moreover society.
386 A STUDY TO EVALUATE MEDICATION ADHERENCE OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL , Nimmy N. John*, Athira Krishnan, Midhun JV and Riya Juan
Background: Adherence to prescribed medication is an imperative issue which can be directly linked with the management of hypertension. Failure to adherence can affect the effectiveness of medications as well as efficiency of health care system. A prospective observational study was conducted in in-patients admitted to general medicine department diagnosed with hypertension aimed to find out the medication adherence. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from case sheets of patients for age, gender, socio- economic data. Informed consent was obtained from patients or bystanders before study. Direct interview was conducted with patients using standardized questionnaire known as MMAS-8. Patients adherence to medications was assessed using scores obtained from the adherence scale. Results: Among 110 in-patients 50 (45.5%) patients were male and 60 (54.5%) patients were female. Most of the patients had low adherence among both genders. Patients under age group of 41-60 years were more (53.6%) in which 39.1% had low adherence. When taking account of education of the patient, graduates and above were only 7 patients (6.4%) but most of them (4.5%) had moderate adherence. MMAS-8 questions were scored appropriately. Education of the patients had a significant positive correlation (i.e., p value = 0.017) between low adherence and high adherence of patients. Conclusion: This study showed that adherence to antihypertensive medications in hypertensive patients were very less. It needs to be continuously evaluated in order to reduce complications and improve quality of life of patients.
387 TO STUDY AND EVALUATION OF NEUROPROTECTIVE POTENTIAL OF BENIDIPINE IN FERRIC CHLORIDE INDUCED POST TRAUMATIC EPILEPSY IN MICE , Rinki*, Shiva Yadav*, Yashpal Singh* and Vivek
Background:- Post-traumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a form of symptomatic epilepsy defined by the presence of recurrent seizures secondary to traumatic brain injury, presenting with variable latency of onset and course. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) greatly increases the risk for a number of mental health problems and is one of the most common causes of medically intractable epilepsy in humans. Objective: To study and evaluation of neuroprotective potential of benidipine in post traumatic epilepsy in mice. Methods: In present study, post traumatic epilepsy was induced by intracortical injection of ferric chloride. Mice were anesthetized with intraperitoneal injection of ketamine (80mg/kg) and xylazine (20 mg/kg). A midline sagittal incision of 1cm was made on scalp. Bregma and lambda were located and the centre point between the two was marked. The skull was exposed and a burr hole was made in the location over the left sensorimotor cortex, 1mm posterior and 2mm lateral to bregma. Ferric chloride solution (100mM, 5μl) was injected 2mm below skull at rate of 1μl/min through a hamilton syringe. Result:- In present study, PTE was induced by ferric chloride induced model of post-traumatic epilepsy & benidipine 9mg/kg; p.o. showed most neuroprotective potential improving behavioral parameters ( open field test, rota rod test, actophotometer test and anhedonia test) and oxidative damage. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the neuroprotective potential of benidipine in post traumatic epilepsy in mice.
388 EVALUATION OF ANTI-CANCER ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCONSTITUENTS OF BIOPHYTUMSENSITIVUM LINN: AN INVITRO STUDY , Tharani M.*, Tamilselvan T., Ponnudurai K., Malaisamy N., Vignesh Mirthick R., Wafa Ahmed Saadeldin Badr and Sabari Murthy V.
Objective: In the current research phytochemical and invitro, anticancer activity was evaluated using petroleum ether extract and methanol extract of Biophytumsensitivum Linn. Materials and Methods: The whole plant was dried for fifteen days and grounded using mechanical blender. The extraction was carried out using the Soxhlet apparatus with 10 volumes of 75% Methanol and another extraction with Petroleum Ether (10 volumes of 75% solution). The extract was evaporated and dried. Preliminary phytochemical screening and FTIR techniques were performed to identify the basic components. Using DLA and EAC cell lines the anti-cancer activity was carried out. Results: The whole plant showed the presence of phenols and flavonoids at a higher rate than steroids, glycosides, and Ketones. Its presence was confirmed using FTIR reports. The cytotoxicity studies were highly significant in Methanol extract of Biophytumsensitivum Linn than Petroleum Ether extract. Conclusion: The effective anti-cancer activity was reported in the whole plant Methanolic extract of Biophytumsensitivum Linn as compared with petroleum ether extract. Further specific studies are required to find out the specific individual components.
389 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CIPROFLOXACIN COLON TARGETED TABLETS BY COMPRESSION COATING TECHNIQUE , T.J. Mohan Rao*, R.B. Desireddy, K. Krishna Reddy, K. Nagaraju, M. Pavan Kumar and M. Mahesh Reddy
The aim of the present study is to develop colon targeted drug delivery system for ciprofloxacin using various proportions of guargum and HPMC K4M to treat the crohn’s disease. The compression coated tablets of ciprofloxacin were prepared and were evaluated for hardness, thickness, friability, diameter, drug content, weight variation and invitro drug release studies. The amount of ciprofloxacin released from tablets at different time intervals was estimated by UV visible spectroscopy. From these evaluations it is observed that release of the drug was comparatively less in gastric and intestinal fluids and increased in colonic fluids. When the dissolution study was continued in simulated colonic fluids, the compression coated tablets with 175 mg of HPMC K4M coat released 96.07% (F8) and 99.02% (F9) of ciprofloxacin after degradation by colonic bacteria at the end of 24 h of the dissolution study. The compression coated tablets with 175mg of guar gum: HPMC K4M coat released about 98.09% (F14) of ciprofloxacin, respectively, in simulated colonic fluids indicating the susceptibility of the guar gum formulations to the rat caecal contents. The mean percentage of ciprofloxacin released at various time intervals was calculated and plotted against time. The mechanism of drug release with the formulations F8 and F9 was dominantly case-2 transport diffusion and followed zero order kinetics, where as the formulation F14 followed Korsemeyerpeppas equation.ciprofloxacin compression coated tablets showed no change either in physical appearance, drug content or in dissolution pattern. Based on the R² values obtained F9 is considered as the best formulation.
390 PREVALENCE OF SERUM MAGNESIUM LEVELS IN PATIENTS OF ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION AND IT'S ASSOCIATION WITH VENTRICULAR ARRHYTHMIA AS A COMPLICATION , Dr. Sumit Kant Jha, *Dr. Shivang Sharma and Dr. Saurabh Singhal
Aim and Objective: TO STUDY THE PREVALANCE OF SERUM MAGNESIUM LEVEL IN PATIENTS OF ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH VENTRICULAR ARRHYTHMIA AS A COMPLICATION. Material Method: The present prospective observational study was conducted in the department of Medicine at Chattrapati Shivaji Subharti Hospital from 2017 to 2019. -The study group comprised of 50 patients with acute myocardial infarction. Patients were enrolled in the study On the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria and after obtaining written informed consent from parents and approval from Institutional Ethical Committee. Results: Serum magnesium level (mg/dL) i.e. <1.6, 1.7-2.4 and >2.4 was found in 40%, 60% and 0% of the subjects respectively on day 1. Sixteen percent (8) of the subjects with arrhythmia were having serum magnesium level (mg/dL) <1.6 while only 4% of the subjects with arrhythmia reported 1.7-2.4 serum magnesium level (mg/dL). It can be said that patients with acute myocardial infarction with low magnesium level are more prone to develop ventricular arrhythmias compared to those who are having normal magnesium levels. Magnesium replacement therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction who is having low serum magnesium level may reduce the incidence of arrhythmias. Conclusion: Serum magnesium levels on admission were significantly low in patients of arrhythmia as compared with or without arrhythmia. Hypomagnesemia is often associated with arrhythmia. Magnesium therapy reduces the incidence of arrhythmias and mortality even in the absence of demonstrable magnesium deficiency. The present study is a good enough reason to include I.V. magnesium sulfate as an add-on prophylactic treatment in the acute coronary syndrome’s management protocol.
391 A STUDY ON ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF BENINCASA HISPIDA LEAVES IN ULCER INDUCED RAT , Mastanaiah Juturu*, Chakrapani Bestha, Madhavi Latha Chennuru, Ushasree C.
Aim: The main aim of the study was to investigate antiulcer activity of aqueous, ethanol leaf extract of Benincasa Hispida by using various ulcer induced agents in rats. Methods: The authenticated drug Benincasa hispida was dried in shade and powdered coarsely. Extraction was done according to standard procedure using analytical grade solvents. The coarse powder of the Benincasa hispida was Sox let extracted with the solvents with increasing order of polarity i.e. Ethanol (64.5-65.5oc), and distilled water. The extracts obtained were concentrated under reduced pressure. Qualitative chemical tests were conducted for ethanol and aqueous extract of benincasa hispida. To identify the various phytoconstituents. BH powder extracts or standard drug or control vehicle was administered 30min. prior to pyloric ligation. Mean ulcer score for each animal is expressed as ulcer index. Results: Anti ulcer activity of BH Leaves was confirmed by using different rat models (pylorous ligation model.) and different doses of aqueous and ethanol extracts i.e. 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of bodyweights. 8 mg/kg body weight of lansoprazole (pylorus ligation model) treated group increased the pH of gastric fluid to slightly neutral and reduced the volume of gastric fluid when compared to controlgroup. aqueous and ethanol extracts treated groups at the dose level of 250 mg/kg and 500mg/kg body weight showed nearly same results of pH as that of control group i.e. acidic. The volume of gastric fluids in aqueous and ethanol extracts treated groups at the dose level of 500mg/kg body weight has decreasedsignificantly. Among all the treated groups, aqueous and ethanol extracts of BH Leaves at the dose level 500 mg/kg body weight offered greater percentage protection by reducing ulcer index in (pylorus ligation model) studied when compared with standards. Lansoprozole (pylorus ligation model) respective standardused. Conclusion: Flavonoid is an anti-oxidant and its mucosal barrier protecting capacity may be responsible for the anti ulcer activity of BHLeaves.
392 EVALUATION OF ANTI-DEPRESSANT ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS , Mastanaiah Juturu*, Chakrapani Bestha, Krishnasree Nallamala, Madhavi Latha Chennuru, Sushma M., Ushasree C.
Aim: The main aim of the study is to evaluate the antidepressant activity of Terminalia catappa using different animal models in mice. Methods: The leaves of Terminalia catappa were collected and shade dried at room temperature and grinded coarsely before extraction. The leaves were extracted by hot maceration by using distil water. The resulting extract was collected in to air tight container. Thus, the prepared extract was used for further pharmacological evaluation. All the animals were fed with pellets standard diet and water was supplied ad libitum under strict hygienic conditions. All the experimental protocols were approved by Institutional Animal Ethical Committee (IAEC).All the animal studies were performed as per rules and regulations in accordance to guideline of CPCSEA registration. All the animals were fasted 3hrs & 1 hr according to experiment done prior to oral administration of vehicle/standard/test compounds. All experiments were carried out during the light period (9:00 to 17:00 h) to avoid circadian rhythm. Results: Results indicated that the organization of the AETC delivered a decrease of term of idleness time of mice presented to the both FST and TST. What's more, in the present investigation, the AETC (500mg/kg, po) directed to mice delivered note worthy. Anti depressant effect in both FST & TST and their efficacies were found to be comparable to Fluoxetine (25mg/kg, po). Conclusion: Anti depressant activity of aqueous extract of Terminalia catappa was found to be significant at high dose (500mg/kg, po). The flavanoids and tannins present in AETC may be facilitating monoaminergic transmission there by producing antidepressant effects.
393 SYNTHESIS OF OCTAHYDROQUINAZOLINONE DERIVATIVES AND ITS ANTICANCER ACTIVITY EVALUATION , S. C. Jadhavar, H. M. Kasraliker, S. V. Goswami, V. R. Choudhari and S. R. Bhusare*
A convenient method was expanded for the synthesis of octahydroquinazolinones by one-pot reaction of a different salicylaldehyde, dimedone and urea/thiourea using [Hmim]HSO4 in catalytic amount. The synthesized derivatives were tested for inhibition of cancer cell. The primary analysis showed that number of synthesized molecules exhibited considerably admirable inhibition activities against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell.
394 FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF BILAYER TABLETS OF SUMATRIPTAN SUCCINATE , *B. Raja Narender and D. Meghana
The aim of this work was to design mucoadhesive bilayered buccal tablets of Sumatriptan succinate. Sumatriptan succinate is a serotonin 5-HT1 receptor agonist, used in treatment of migraine. It is absorbed rapidly but incompletely when given orally and undergoes first-pass metabolism, resulting in a low absolute bioavailability. Mucoadhesive polymers like xanthun gum and guar gum along with methyl crystalline cellulose were used for the preparation of mucoadhesive bilayered tablets. The optimized formulation followed Non-Fickian release mechanism. The percentage relative bioavailability of Sumatriptan succinate from selected bilayered buccal tablets was found to be 98.7%. Bilayered buccal tablets of Sumatriptan succinate was successfully prepared and evaluated with improved bioavailability.
395 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORAL DISPERSIBLE TABLETS OF KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE , M. Karthik*, Dr. G. Sandhya Rani, P. Swetha and D. Priyinaka
Oral disintegrating tablets of Ketorolac tromethamine were developed by using different disintegrants to avert the problem of swallowing and to provide rapid onset of action, which improves patient compliance and quality of life. The results of this study concluded that super disintegrants addition technique was an interesting way of formulating oral disintegrating tablets using direct compression technique which is easy, inexpensive and does not require special production equipment. Oral disintegrating tablets were formulated by using various disintegrants like sodium starch glycolate, Croscarmellose sodium & Crospovidone. The disintegrants were taken in concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15% and microcrystalline cellulose was used as diluent. Formulations F6 & F9 which contains 15% of Croscarmellose sodium & Crospovidone respectively along with microcrystalline cellulose showed least in- vitro disintegration time i.e., below 30 seconds and more than 90% drug release within 8 minutes. So, for the above formulations even in-vivo disintegration time and palatability (mouth feel) studies were carried out on healthy human volunteers.
396 STUDY THE PROTECTIVE EFFICACY OF MIXED SOLVENT EXTRACT OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA NEES IN DIFFERENT PROPORTIONS AGAINST CHROMIUM (VI)-INDUCED TOXICITY , Durga Pada Dolai, Somenath Roy and Sankar Kumar Dey*
Potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) has been demonstrated to induce oxidative stress and carcinogenic in nature. In the present study, the protective effect of aqueous and methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata in different proportions was studied against Cr (VI) induced toxicity of liver and lung mitochondria of male albino rat. A group of male albino rats (80-100 g) were obtained and divided into six groups. The animals of five groups were induced by interperitonial injection with K2Cr2O7 at a dose of 0.8 mg per 100 g body weight per day (20% LD50) for a period of 28 days. The animals of four of the chromium treated groups serving as the supplemented groups were injected with mixed hydro-methanol extract in the ratio of 70:30, 60:40; 50:50; 40:60 at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight daily at an interval of six hours after injection of K2Cr2O7 for a period of 28 days. The animals of the remaining group received only the vehicle (0.9% physiological saline), served as control. After completion of chromium-treatment the animals were sacrifice and intact liver and lungs were dissected out for further use. Measurement of lipid peroxidation (MDA), conjugated dienes and antioxidants were used to monitor the antiperoxidative effects of different solvent extract in liver and lungs mitochondria. The increased lipid peroxides, conjugated dienes and NO release in liver and lungs of chromium-treated rats was accompanied by a significant decrease in the levels of glutathione (GSH and GSSG) and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (G-S-T), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). The important findings in this study corroborated the facts that particular 60:40 mixed hydro-methanol solvent extract of Andrographis paniculata has greater potential benefit than other ratio of mixed hydro-methanol solvent extract like 70:30, 60:40, 50:50 and 40:60 in maintenance of oxidative equilibrium, scavenging of ROS and augmented anti-oxidant defense against chromium-induced toxicity in liver and lungs mitochondria.
397 CURRENT CHALLENGES IN PROCESS VALIDATIONS , P. Swetha*, M. Karthik and Dr. G. Sandhya Rani
From the study, it can be stated that current challenges in process validation is a major requirement of cGMP regulation for finished pharmaceutical products. It is a key element in assuring that the quality goals are met. Successfully validating a process may reduce the dependence upon intensive in process and finished product testing. Finally, it can be concluded that Process validation is a key element in the quality assurance of pharmaceutical product as the end product testing is not sufficient to assure quality of finished product.
398 ENHANCEMENT OF SOLUBILITY OF VILAZODONE DRUG BY LIQUI-SOLID COMPACT TECHNIQUE , G. Y. Srawan Kumar*, R. B. Desireddy, P. Kasi Reddy, S. Saikrishna reddy, S. Durga Prasad and U. Naga Ravi
The aim of present work is to enhance the solubility rate of Vilazodone by using liqui-solid compacts. Liquisolid compacts were formulated using PEG 400 as a non volatile solvent along with avicel and aerosol as carrier and coating materials in R:2 ratio, by direct compression method. Totally nine formulations were formulated using different ratios of carrier to coating material, and the concentration of super disintegrant. Drug and Excipient compatability studies revealed that the drug and excipients were found to be compatable and there weren‟t any interactions between them. Prepared formulations were evaluated for pre-compression and post compression parameters. All the studies revealed that the all parameters were found to be in acceptable range for the Liquisolid compacts. From the in-vitro studies we can say that formulation F9 shows best drug release of 97.32% within 40 minutes where as all the other formulations takes about 50-60 minutes to release the drug. Based on the regression values it was concluded that the optimized formulation F9 follows First order kinetics.
399 ORAL HEALTH CARE AND ORAL HYGIENE PRODUCTS RELATED KNOWLEDGE AND BEHAVIOUR AMONG LOCAL PHARMACISTS IN SRINAGAR- A CROSS‑SECTIONAL SURVEY , Asif Yousuf*, Mohsin Sidiq and Iram Jan
Background: Early screening of the diseases and referral by health professionals may benefit to improve the access to oral health measures and to reduce the associated morbidity and mortality. Majority of the population approach pharmacists for their health problems. Hence, Pharmacists should have adequate knowledge about oral health and also they should play an active role in oral health promotion, identification and referral. The aim of the present study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of local pharmacists regarding oral healthcare and oral hygiene products in Srinagar. Material and Methods: A survey was conducted among local pharmacists working within Srinagar city using a self‑structured, pre‑tested, closed‑ended questionnaire. The study was conducted among 72 pharmacists of Srinagar city. The data was collected and analyzed. Comparison between variables by Chi square test and ANOVA test with the level of significance set at P <0.05. Results: The response rate was 97.29%. Majority of the pharmacists stocked and dispensed oral health-related products. Toothbrush (34.72%) was the most common oral healthcare product stocked followed by toothpaste and dental floss. Pharmacists advised patients complaining of dental pain to consult a dentist in 45.83% of cases, prescribed medication in 30.55% of cases. Conclusions: Pharmacists working within Srinagar city had moderate knowledge, attitude and practice regarding oral health care and oral hygiene products. There is a need for training and comprehensive educational programs to promote good oral hygiene and impart education about correct oral hygiene practices among pharmacists. Oral health knowledge should be inculcated in the curriculum for all health care professionals including Pharmacists.
400 STUDY THE EFFICACY OF RASANJAN PRATISARAN IN ANAJANNAMIKA , *Dr. Mehetre Sharada Raosaheb and Dr. Mehetre D. P.
Every human being has panchdnyanendriyas. Eye is one of the panchdnyanendriya,eyes are said to be most important than all other indriyas because they are considered as the reflectors of the mind. Eyes consider of 2 vartmapatalas, which covers the eyes and also protect from dust, foreign body, helps to open and close eyes are called vartma i.e; eyelids and the diseases occurred over this patal are vartmagatvyadhis. Anjannamika is one of them. A small boil in the eyelid margin which is soft, moderately painful, copper-red in color and characterized by burning and pricking sensation is known as "ANJANNAMIKA". The disease taken anjannamika as described in ayurvedic text has sign and symptoms similar to stye. Anjana is one of the kriyakalpa described by our great ancient Acharya. Acharya Yogratnakara has explained "Rasanjan Pratisaran" for Anjannamika-as it is used in Raktaj doshas and contain properties of tikta, kashaya, katu, ushna, laghu, ruksha, pittaghna, kaphagan gunas.
401 CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF URINARY CALCULI AND ITS BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS , Dr. Prakash Gurav, Dr. Santosh Dalavi and Dr. Anand H. D.*
Introduction: Urolithiasis represents a major problem met within urological practice. Urinary calculi are the third most common affliction of the urinary tract, exceeded only by UTI and pathological conditions of prostate.[1] It is estimated that up to 5% of the world population is affected by this disease and the lifetime risk of getting urinary stone is 8-15%. Of course, this data varies from region to region depending upon the local climate and dietary habits of the local population. Even more so, fifty percent of patients will have recurrent stone disease within 5 years, so it can be considered a disease for life.[2] The knowledge of chemical composition of Urinary calculi may be of great importance both as a guide for the clinical management of urinary calculi and also for better understanding of physicochemical principles underlying the calculi formation that may help to give advice and suggestions for the people and educate patients to carry out preventive measures in reducing the risk of prevalence and mainly to lower the chance of recurrence of urolithiasis in this region. Primary Objective: To study the clinical profile of Urinary calculi and its biochemical analysis. Secondary Objective: To study the aetio-pathology of urinary calculi in this region and the management of urinary calculi. Methods: After admission to the hospital, a detailed clinical history and examination of the patient was done as per proforma. Routine blood and urine investigations were done. Specific investigations to confirm the diagnosis of Urolithiasis like CT IVP. Depending on the size and site of the calculus, the appropriate treatment for the patient will be decided. The treatment included both medical as well as surgical management. Among surgical management the procedures observed were Nephrolithotomy, Pyelolithotomy, URS guided lithotripsy, Cystolithotripsy and cystolithotomy. The calculi extracted from patients were analyzed by wet chemical method for composition of urinary calculi. Observations and Results: Renal calculus was the most common overall comprising 33.33% of total study subjects. Majority of the (90%) study subjects were consuming predominantly non vegetarian diet with staple diet being wheat more than rice. Urinary tract infection is the most commonly associated genito urinary disease in patients of urolithiasis found in 64.8% of study subjects. 88% of calculi were casting shadow on plain radiograph. 33.33% of study subjects urine was positive for calcium oxalate crystals which was found most commonly n this study, and other crystals identified on urine microscopy being struvite crystals and Urate crsytals. The commonest organism was E coli, next to E coli commonest were K. Aerogenosa, Staphylococci, Pseudomonas and Proteus Mirabilis. that Calcium was the most common basic radical and Oxalate was the most common acidic radical. Overall calcium oxalate and Phosphate stones(92.51%) were most common in our study, followed by uric acid stones(68.5%) and magnesium ammonium phosphate stones(33.33%). Conclusion: Dietary habits being an important etiological factor has not been studied in detail, so more studies should be taken up to analyze relationship between diet and urolithiasis in respective geographical areas. Urinary calculi analysis should be done on routine basis in every case of urolithiasis and based on composition dietary and lifestyle advices should be given to patient in order to prevent recurrences.
402 INVITRO CYTOTOXIC EFFECT AND APOPTOSIS INDUCTION OF HYDROALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF BOERHAAVIA DIFFUSA LINN AGAINST HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES , *G. Nalini, N. Chidambaranathan, S. A. Syed Ibrahim and K. Marihrishnaa
The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of in-vitro anticancer activity of the Hydroalcoholic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa linn against MCF-7 breast cancer & HCT-116 colon cancer cell lines. The viability of cells were evaluated by direct observation of cells by Inverted phase contrast microscope and followed by MTT assay method. The percentage of cell viability was found to be 97% at 6.25μg/ml on HCT-116 which decrease to 28% with increase in concentration of extract at 100μg/ml. Similarly for MCF-7 cell line, cell viability shows 70% at a concentration of 6.25μg/ml that reduced to 40% at 100μg/ml. The effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of Boerhaavia diffusa linn on cell morphology of MCF-7 and HCT-116 cells was examined using phase-contrast microscope. Treatment with plant extract showed typical morphological changes on MCF-7 & HCT-116 exhibited condensed chromatin, apoptotic bodies with membrane blebs and cell shrinkage. Apoptosis changes and chromatin condensation were also determined by fluorescent microscope. The results indicate that Boerhaavia diffusa is a considerable source of natural bioactive substances with antiproliferative activity on HCT-116 & MCF-7 cells & significant morphological effects.
403 CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS FROM THE ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS STEM BARK, ECLIPTA PROSTRATA AERIAL PARTS AND MORUS ALBA STEM BARK , Mohammed Ali*, Shahnaz Sultana and Showkat Rassol Mir
Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. (family Apocynaceae) is a large, evergreen, tropical tree and its stem bark is used to treat abdominal and respiratory complaints, fevers, gonorrhoea, headache, hypertension, influenza, irregular menstruation, malaria, skin diseases, snakebites and urticaria. Eclipta prostrata L. (family Asteraceae) is a small, erect, annual herb and used to relieve acidity, allergy, alopecia, asthma, baldness, cuts, dandruff, gingivitis, hypertension, insomnia, jaundice, leucoderma, lice infection, menorrhagia, piles, pimples, pneumonia, ringworm, scorpion sting, skin diseases, snake bites, sores, wounds and wrinkles. Morus alba L. (family Moraceae) is a fast-growing, deciduous, evergreen tree and its bark is taken orally to expel tape worms and to cure toothache. This research work was undertaken to characterize structures of chemical constituents isolated from these plants. The air-dried plant materials were exhaustively extracted with methanol individually in a Soxhlet apparatus. The concentrated methanol extracts were adsorbed on silica gel for column and chromatographed over silica gel columns separately. Each column was eluted with petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol successively to isolate the phytoconstituents. Phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of A. scholaris afforded two lupene-type pentacyclic triterpenoids identified as lup-5, 12, 20(29)-trien- 3β-acetoxy-22α-ol (alstrinine acetate, 1) and lup-5, 12, 20(29)-trien- 3β, 22α-diol (alstrinine, 2) along with 3-epi-stigmasterol (3), β-sitosterol (4) and β-sitosterol-3β-O-glucoside (5). The aerial parts of E. prostrata furnished a new tetracyclic triterpenoid characterized as lanost-5, 24-dien-7β-ol -18, 21-olide -3β-olyl palmitate (6). The stem bark of M. alba yielded two known pentacyclic triterpenoids marked as α-amyrin acetate (urs-12-en-3β-yl acetate, 7) and 3-epi-betulinic acid (8). The structures of these phytoconstituents have been established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions.
404 SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF AN ATYPICAL VERRUCA VULGARIS (COMMON WARTS) THROUGH UNANI MEDICINE: A CASE REPORT , Qutubuddin Khan*
Verruca (Warts) is an infection of the epidermis with human papilloma viruses. A number of clinical variants depend on the type of virus, mode of entry and immune status of host. Verruca vulgaris manifest mostly single or multiple, circumscribed, firm, spiny papules or nodules with verrucous dry surface on hands and feet. In Unani System of Medicine (USM) many types of Busoorat, described with their pathology, clinical presentation and treatment are almost related to warts. Various therapies like Moaddilate Dam (Blood purifier), given orally and Jali (Cleanser) are used topically in the treatment. In this case apple cider vinegar was used as topical application as a cleanser, have antiviral and cytotoxic properties. Here, a case study of 32 years male, with the complaints of multiple papules, hyperpigmented, coarsy, firm eruption on both lower legs (Left>right) for about one year, diagnosed as Verruca vulgaris was treated with oral & topical Unani drugs. After 100 days of treatment a significant improvement was observed and depicted here in photograph of the skin lesions.
405 ROLE OF ‘VAMANA KARMA’ AND ‘SHASHANKALEKHA GHANA VATI’ IN MANDALA KUSHTHA (PSORIASIS): A CASE STUDY , Dr. Hemlata Soni and Dr. Kartar Singh Bansal*
Psoriasis is a papulosquamous disorder of the skin, characterized by an unpredictable course of remission and relapses of papules and plaques which are well defined erythematous large, silvery, loose scales, present particularly over extensor surfaces and scalp. The exact etiology is still unknown. It tends to run in families and precipitated by climate, Streptococcal infections, psychological stress etc. This condition is comparable with Mandala Kushtha in Ayurvedic system of medicine. The unique treatment modality of Ayurveda provides long lasting results and a better life for patients through its three basic principles of treatment i.e. - Shodhana, Shamana and Nidana Parivarjana. Panchakarma (Shodhana) therapy is a unique type of treatment for various chronic, auto-immune disorders etc. A case of Mandala Kushtha (Guttate psoriasis) discussed here. Patient successfully treated with Shodhana (Vamana karma) & Shaman Chikitsa. After course of 3 months treatment provides significant relief in skin lesion, itching, dryness.
406 AN INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO ENHANCE FACIAL AESTHETICS USING DETACHABLE CHEEK PLUMPER – A CASE REPORT , Jyoti Tripathi*, Medhavi Singh and Nivedita Tripathi
Aesthetics plays an important role in a person’s social and professional life. Complete denture treatment includes not only the replacement of missing teeth but also the restoration of facial appearance. Prosthetic rehabilitation of a completely edentulous patient no longer confines to replacement of missing teeth. Patients are increasingly demanding improvement in aesthetics at the end of treatment. This article describes a simple and innovative approach to improve the aesthetic of an edentulous patient with flaccid cheeks using detachable cheek plumper prosthesis.
407 CYTODIAGNOSIS OF AN UNUSUAL CAUSE OF CHEST WALL LUMP ,  *Behera Pushpanjali, Jain Swasti, Kumar Vijay, Pramanik Anup Kumar and Kaushal Manju  
Metastasis to the breast from an extramammary site is very rare. Breast metastasis is most commonly seen in association with contralateral breast carcinoma while colorectal carcinoma metastases forms a smaller part. Only handful of cases, of metastatic colorectal carcinoma in breast has been reported in the literature. Hereby we present a rare case of breast metastasis from colorectal adenocarcinoma, in a 35-year-old female. Post mastectomy, recurrence was noted near scar site. Breast metastasis is rare and chest wall metastasis is even rarer. So, our patient showed metastasis at two uncommon sites, which are seen quite infrequently.
408 UNUSUAL PRESENTATION OF PAPILLARY CARCINOMA OF THYROID AS PRIMARY ANTERIOR CHEST WALL MASS: A CASE REPORT , Dr. Seema Chadha, Dr. Shilpa Ruhela* and Dr. Rakesh Kumar
Papillary carcinoma of thyroid presenting as a metastatic midline anterior chest wall mass with silent primary lesion in thyroid is a rare event. This case is discussed because of diagnostic challenge faced by us in a case of 61yrs old male presenting as painless cystic midline anterior chest wall mass since 1 year with no other co morbidities. USG examination revealed a soft tissue cystic lesion in anterior chest wall, following which excision was done and histopathological examination confirmed metastatic papillary carcinoma of thyroid which was further supported by immunohistochemistry. On further evaluation, MRI neck was done which showed 0.6 x0.6cm lesion in lower pole of left lobe of thyroid. Patient underwent total thyroidectomy and histopathological examination confirmed follicular variant of micro papillary carcinoma of thyroid in background of autoimmune thyroiditis.
409 WELL DIFFERENTIATED NEUROENDOCRINE TUMOR OF THE KIDNEY: CASE REPORT OF A RARE NEOPLASM AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE , Dr. Seema Chadha, Dr. Rakesh Kumar*, Dr. Shilpa Ruhela, Dr. Sanjeev Singhal
Primary renal neuroendocrine tumors are extremely rare. They exhibit a wide range of neuroendocrine differentiation and clinical behavior. Primary renal NETs include renal carcinoid tumor, atypical carcinoid, small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma. Well differentiated neuroendocrine tumors are slow growing whereas SCC and LCNEC are aggressive tumors with higher incidence of local recurrences and metastasis. We herein report a case of 37 year old male who presented with a large renal mass. Microscopic features suggested a well differentiated primary renal neuroendocrine tumor which was later on confirmed by immunohistochemistry. A little is known about the pathogenesis and parameters that may predict prognosis at diagnosis.
410 PLEOMORPHIC CARCINOMA OF LUNG: AN UNUSUAL MALIGNANCY DIAGNOSED ON SMALL BIOPSY , *Behera Pushpanjali, Jain Swasti and Pramanik Anup Kumar
Pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung is a rare malignancy and it is classified as a subtype of sarcomatoid carcinomas of the lung. These tumors are highly aggressive and are composed of tumor cells with significant cytological aytpia and contain a variable proportion of spindle and giant cells. This malignancy shows a high degree of tumor heterogeneity and thus, diagnosing this lesion on cytology or small biopsy can be challenging.  
411 A REVIEW ARTICLE ON THE COMBINATION OF HPC AND HPMC TO STUDY THE EFFECT ON MODIFIED RELEASE TABLETS , Naseera P., Rashidah K. Ansari*, Dr. Nishad K. M., Dr. Shijikumar P. S. and Dr. Sirajudheen M. K.
The aim of this review work was to study the effect of the combination of HPC and HPMC on modified release tablets. Modified release dosage and its variants are mechanisms used in tablets and capsules to dissolve a drug over time in order to be released slower and steadier into the bloodstream while having the advantage of being taken at less frequent intervals than immediate release formulation of the same drug. The polymers have significant role in modified release formulations. The main role of polymer is to protect the drug from physiological environment and prolong release of drug to improve its stability. The drug release from polymer is takes place by diffusion, degradation and swelling. Hydroxypropyl cellulose and Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose are the examples for such type of polymers. HPMC, also known an hydromellose, is one of the best known cellulose polymer. It is available in various grades. It act as an excellent hydrophilic gel forming polymer. HPMC is used as a matrix that swells and expands after absorbing water. Hydroxypropyl cellulose[HPC] is a cellulosic derivative which has characters such as non-polar, water solubility and highly pH sensitive. It acts as a thickening agent by altering the viscosity. It can be used for the binding of tablet dosage forms. It serves as a film coating agent. In this work, the properties of polymers are considered at various level.
412 DETERMINATION OF IRON(II) IN POLYVITAMIN COMPOUNDS BY USING 6-[2’-(5-BROMOTHIAZOLYLAZO)]-3,5- DIHYDROXY-1,2-BENZENEDISOLFONIC ACID AS COMPLEXANT (BR-TDB) , Vitor Hugo Migues*
Objective: The goal of this work was to determine iron in pharmaceutical formulations and the formed species during complexation with 6-[2'-(5-bromothiazolylazo)]-1,2-dihydroxy-3,5-benzenedisulfonic reagent (Br-TDB). Material and Methods: pharmaceutical preparations were purchased from drugstore, subjected to humid digestion and analysis by ultraviolet and ICP-OES. Results: The log β values for the formed complex species ML2H24-, ML2H5- and ML26- (M = Fe(II) and L = Br-TDB4-) were 29.26 ± 0.03, 25.11 ± 0.04 and 16.7 ± 0.11. The stoichiometry of the complex is 1:2. The complex absorbs at 528 nm. The limits of quantification and detection were equal to 0.008 and 0.027 mg L-1, respectively. The analytical curve presented an unusual pattern with negative angular coefficient. The pattern is intrinsic to the complexation system with Br-TDB, once the same behavior was observed in determination of manganese, lead, cadmium and iron ions by UV-Vis. The methodology was validated by ICP OES. Conclusion: The concentration of iron in analyzed drugs samples was coincidente with manufactorer’s. Moreover, both UV-Vis and ICP OES yielded similar results at a confidence level ρ<0.05.
413 TO STUDY THE SUSTAINED EFFECT OF PROSTAGLANBIN INHIBITORS ON INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE IN NORMAL TENSION GLAUCOMA , *Dr. Shilpa Kulkarni (M.S., D.N.B., F.R.C.S.Ed)
AIM: To study the sustained effect of prostaglandin inhibiters on intraocular pressure in normal tension glaucoma. Methods: A retrospective study was done on 19 eyes of patients of Normal-tension glaucoma(NTG) for a period of 12 months. All patients were treated with once daily topical latanoprost.0.005%. Baseline IOP done by Goldman applanation tonometer were considered and mean IOP reduction were noted at 1,3,6,9,12 months in comparison to baseline mean IOP. Results: The mean baseline IOP was 16±2.98 mm Hg. There was a statistically significant reduction in mean IOP from the baseline in 1 month 2.86±0.2 mm Hg (p < 0.05) and after 12 months, the reduction was 2.94±0.2 mm Hg (p< 0.05). This shows a consistent reduction with once daily instillation of latanoprost. There was a significant higher reduction in intraocular pressures in patients with baseline IOP > 16 mm Hg as compared to patients with baseline IOP of < 16mm Hg (p <0.05). Conclusions: Latanoprost was found to be well tolerated and significantly reduced IOP in NTG patients along with sustained effect. IOP intraocular pressure, NTG normal- tension glaucoma, CCT central corneal thickness.
414 TRANSGENDER: HEALTH AND RIGHTS , Dr. Rajni Sharma and Dr. Purnendu Mishra*
India has approximately 700,000 transgender persons. Sexuality is an issue that has created social divides. Sexual minorities have been oppressed in our society on the ground of them being deviant. Their existence has been listed as unnatural. Therefore, the issues related to the rights of genders, their health problems and also do not find place in the top agendas of the governments and human rights movements. Trans people worldwide experience substantial health disparities and barriers to appropriate health care services that keep them from achieving the highest possible health status. Among other disparities, Trans people are significantly more likely than the general population to be targeted for violence and harassment, to contract HIV, and to be at risk for mental health concerns such as depression and attempted suicide. Barriers to health care experienced by trans communities include discriminatory treatment by health care providers, a lack of providers who are trained to offer appropriate health care to trans people, and refusal by many national health systems and health insurance programs to cover services for trans people. This article is centered on transgender health and their rights in India and also their present situation in India.
415 DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF METOPROLOL SUSTAINED RELEASE MICROSPHERES , Anandas Sneha*
The study was aimed to Formulate Metoprolol sustained release microspheres. Microspheres were prepared by Ionic-Gelation method using Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC), Eudragit S100and Ethyl cellulose for sustained release in view to prolong drug release. Metoprolol is an adreno receptor beta blocking agent used in the treatment of hypertension. It belongs to BCS class I drug means having high solubility and high permeability. Its biological half life ranges from 3 to 7 hours & oral bioavailability is 50% hence requires frequent oral administration for adequate treatment of hypertension. Conventional dosage form administration of Metoprolol has been reported to exhibit fluctuations in plasma drug levels resulting in either manifestation side effects or reduction in drug concentration at receptor site. Hence oral sustained dosage form of microspheres was developed. The microspheres were evaluated for various characteristics like encapsulation efficiency, percentage yield, partial size and the In vitro release. The Microspheres were found to be spherical, free-flowing, uniform in size and the microencapsulation efficiency was in the range of 87.4%.
416 INTRACYTOPLASMIC SPERM INJECTION IN PARTIAL GLOBOZOOSPERMIA-A CASE STUDY , Ahmed B.*, Angel and Sharma S.
Partial globozoospermia (PG) is a currently described kind of tera-tozoospermia that is characterized by an elevated amount of round-headed sperm cells and traditional acrosome defects. Remarkably, the oval spermatozoa derived from PG patients show an elevated incidence of differentiation defects as well. To compare the result of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in patient couples the place the male accomplice has partial globozoospermia with the effect in an accepted ICSI population. In the partial globozoospermia group, the stay birth charge used to be 66.7% in contrast with 50.0% in the control group. In partial globozoospermia, three out of 21 pregnancies ended in a miscarriage, one important beginning defect occurred, and one pregnancy ended in a neonatal loss of life due to sepsis in a premature child, in contrast with 4 stillborn in the control group. ICSI is a high-quality treatment in couples that failed to conceive spontaneously within 1 year blended with male infertility due to partial globozoospermia. The fertilization fees and the live beginning fees in this unique group did no longer range from those of the established ICSI population.
417 EFFECT OF SELENIUM AGAINST NALUFIN INDUCED MORPHOLOGICAL AND ENDO-SKELETAL ABNORMALITIES IN CHICK EMBRYOS , Marwa N. Atallah*, Gamal M. Badawy, Islam M. El-Garawani, Fatma S. Abdallah, Hend T. El-Borm
Opioids administration during pregnancy can affect the embryonic development and can lead to different malformations in the developing embryo such as growth retardation, spontaneous abortion, skeletal defects and many limb deformities. The present study aimed to determinate the possible hazard effects of the new generation opioid pain killer nalufin on the morphology and endo-skeletal system of the developing chick embryo. Another aim was to investigate the ameliorative role of selenium on these effects. The fertilized eggs of leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) were in ovo injected with 0.2ml of either nalufin (20mg/egg, single dose) or selenium (0.1 mg/kg, single dose) or combined injection. The injection of nalufin resulted in increased mortality rate and reduction in lengths and weights of embryos with many malformations including omphalocele, limb deformities, head enlargement, scanty feather, exencephaly, short beak and subcutaneous hemorrhage. Furthermore, nalufin led to many endo-skeletal malformations in the skull, vertebral column, ribs, pubis, limbs, incomplete ossifications of the bones and decreased length of the long bones. The co-injection of selenium ameliorated the mentioned malformations induced by nalufin.
418 EVALUATION OF JOINT CONVERGENCE ANGLE AFTER PROXIMAL FIBULAR OSTEOTOMY IN OSTEOARTHRITIS OF KNEE , Dr. Ashok Vidyarthi and *Dr. Mayank Pratap Singh
The aim of this was to study the effect of PFO on the predominant medial compartment osteoarthritis knee. In a period of one year, 40 patients with predominant medial compartment osteoarthritis were operated in our department of orthopaedics. 2cm long fibula was resected 7 cm to 9 cm distally from the head of fibula. In our study, the average age of presentation was 64.1 year. The outcome was evaluated radiologically by using JCA. Follow up was done according to set proforma. At final follow up JCA improved to 3.13+ 1.223 degree from 1.3+ 0.853 degree preoperatively(both values were significant P<0.001). It was concluded that PFO is a new and cost effective surgery for predominant medial compartment osteoarthritis of knee with obvious opening of the joint space and correction in varus angulation of the knee.
419 A NOVEL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF PANTOPRAZOLE IN PURE AND CAPSULE DOSAGE FORMS BY USING UV- SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD , Suresha D. N.*, Akza T. Moncy, Anagha Vinod, Lukman, Sachith M. P. and Shebin John
A Novel, simple, accurate, and precise Area under curve spectroscopic method was developed and validated for the estimation of Pantoprazole in Pure and Capsule dosage forms and has an absorption maximum between 288-298nm in 0.1N Sodium hydroxide. The stock solution was made to produce 1000 μg/ml with 0.1N Sodium hydroxide. The linearity was found in the concentration range of 3-18 μg/ml. The correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9999. The regression equation was found to be Y=0.031x+0.0025. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, limit of quantitation and ruggedness. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation for estimation of Pantoprazole was found to be 0.03632μg/ml and 0.3632μg/ml, respectively. Recovery of Pantoprazole was found to be in the range of 99.29% - 99.92%. The %RSD values were less than 2. The method has been validated according to ICH guidelines. The Proposed method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of Pantoprazole in Capsule dosage forms.
420 COMPARISON OF FEMOROTIBIAL ANGLE BEFORE AND AFTER PROXIMAL FIBULAR OSTEOTOMY IN OSTEOARTHRITIS KNEE IN INDIAN POPULATION , Dr. Ashok Vidyarthi and *Dr. Mayank Pratap Singh
The aim of this was to study the effect of PFO on the predominant medial compartment osteoarthritis knee. In a period of one year, 40 patients with predominant medial compartment osteoarthritis were operated in our department of orthopaedics. 2cm long fibula was resected 7 cm to 9 cm distally from the head of fibula. In our study, the average age of presentation was 64.1 year. The outcome was evaluated radiologically by using FTA. Follow up was done according to set proforma. Post operatevily mean FTA improved to 181.8 +1.159 degree from 184.05 + 1.694 degreespreoperatively (bothvalues were significant P<0.001). It was concluded that PFO is a new and cost effective surgery for predominant medial compartment osteoarthritis of knee with obvious correction of FTA and varus malalignment of lower limb axis.
421 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF MEDICAL EXAMINATION OF PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY OPEN-ANGLE GLAUCOMA IN THE BUKHARA REGION , G.R. Odilova* and M. Haydari
Objective: To study the nature of the course of the glaucoma process in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) undergoing medical observation at ophthalmologists at polyclinics, depending on the age of the patients and the duration of the disease. Material and methods: a continuous retrospective study of case histories of 72 patients (144 eyes) of POAG was taken for follow-up in 2016-2017 and observed by ophthalmologists of territorial polyclinics of the Bukhara region for 5 years, with the study of the effectiveness of the clinical examination. Results: long-term follow-up monitoring of the course of the glaucoma process in patients with POAG in a clinic showed its low efficiency. Disease progression has occurred in all age groups. The greatest progression was noted in the age groups of 40-49 and 70-79 years. Deterioration of visual functions depending on the age of glaucoma in patients with initial and developed stages began at 2-3 years and continued throughout the follow-up. In patients with a far advanced stage, the transition to the terminal began at 4-5 years.
422 INSILICO STUDY OF ‘DNA POLYMERASE I’ IN CAUDOVIRALES’S FAMILY WITH THEIR HOST CELL TO CONCLUDE THE INVOLVEMENT OF HORIZONTAL GENE TRANSFER , *Subodh Choukidar, Dr. Sanjay Harke and Dr. Talib Y.A.
Viruses which infects bacterium are known as bacteriophages. They utilize host‟s machinery to encode their own proteins needed to develop the new progeny. They are the vectors of horizontal gene transfer and drivers of bacterial evolution. A phage can exhibits two types of life cycles one is lytic and another is lysogenic. In lytic life cycle phage infects and rapidly kill the bacterial host via the process of generalized transduction. In lysogenic life cycle phage instead of killing the host integrates in its genome or exists as plasmid in the host cell. bacteriophages and bacteria are co-existed and evolved together in evolutionary time. Caudovirales is an order of tailed bacteriophages also known as class I bacteriophages or DNA phages. They exists in three families namely myoviridae, siphoviridae, and podoviridae. bioinformatics is playing significant role in all the areas of life sciences specially in evolutionary studies and tertiary structure prediction of macromolecules like protein, With the help of various algorithms and methods. Here in this paper an attempt is made to identify the horizontal gene transfer events in these three families of caudovirales and their hosts using „DNA polymerase I‟ as a molecular marker. The said study is to implement the correlation between bacteria & caudovirales with the aid of advanced computational Biology named Bioinformatics which will help to pull the evolutionary relationship, thier structure and able to predict the functional elements in the said samples. SWISS model(Automated protein structure homology-modelling server),MEGA (Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis), DALI (Network service for comparing protein structures in 3D) above said server and program is used to analyse the activity.
423 KNOWLEDGE OF AGE AND HORMONAL IMBALANCE ON FEMALE FERTILITY IN PORT HARCOURT , Barinua K. Gbaranor*, Nazor P. Barinua-Gbaranor, Progress Dakuro Victor, Peace E. Okpara, Amadi Choice N. and Abiye Tamuno-Opubo
Age and hormonal imbalance are important factors that cannot be overlooked in terms of fertility. As women are getting older, there ova are decreasing and menopause may set in. Hormone is another factor that play a key role in infertility because decrease or increase affects fertility. The aim of the study is X-ray the knowledge of age and hormonal imbalance on female fertility. The study revealed that 44.0% (22/50) of the participants were between the ages 38-43 years. 58.0% (29/50) of the women do not have the knowledge that age is one of the determinants of fertility and 42.0% (21/50) of the participants are aware that age is one of the determinants of fertility. Also, the study revealed that 62.0% (31/50) of the participants have no knowledge that hormonal imbalance delays fertility and 38.0% (19/50) of the said participants are aware that hormonal imbalance delays fertility in female. The study also revealed that 34.0% (17/50) are not sure, 34.0% (17/50) agreed and 32.0% (16/50) strongly agree that age and hormonal imbalance determines fertility.
424 CORTICOSTERONE ASSAY – ANALYTICAL METHOD VALIDATION FOR THE ANALYSIS OF CORTICOSTERONE IN RAT SERUM BY HPLC , T. Jyothi Kiran* and B. S. Ramakrishna
Plasma/serum corticosterone concentration is one of the most reliable physiological markers of ‘stress’since stress is characterized by elevated glucocorticoids. Most of the animal studies in behavioural research involve estimation of plasma/serum corticosterone levels along with behavioural assays. However a vast majority of these studies utilize the radio immuno assay technique which is quick and reliable but quite expensive. In this study, we demonstrate the validation of a method using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with a diode array detector for the determination of serum corticosterone concentrations which is a cost effective and reliable alternative to the routine radio immune assay. The linearity was done at a concentration range of 0 to 1000 ng/ml (R2=0.996).The percentage recovery was more than 90% and relative standard deviation was less than 8%. The limit of detection was 5ng/ml and limit of quantification was 10 ng/ml. This method has demonstrated reliability and can be used for the routine estimation of serum corticosterone levels for behavioural research.
425 COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF FLAX SEED AND CHLORHEXIDINE MOUTHWASH IN THE TREATMENT OF GINGIVITIS – A CLINICO-IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDY , *Dr. Georgina George Ettiyil, Dr. Harsha Mysore Babu, Dr. Vivekananda M. R., Dr. Shivaprasad D., Dr. S. Ravindra
Background and Objectives: One of the noteworthy developments in this age of dentistry is that the dental practice is based on preventive measures and the surfacing of a philosophy. Chemical agents have been advocated as adjuncts to mechanical methods to augment the plaque control. Flax seed is known for its anti-inflammatory action. Studies evaluating its effects on gingivitis are scarce. Hence, the present study was aimed to compare and evaluate the efficacy of Flax seed as an anti-inflammatory agent with chlorhexidine gluconate in the treatment of plaque induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 30 subjects were randomly assigned to two groups with 15 subjects in each group, Group A received Scaling+ Flax seed mouthwash and Group B received Scaling + Chlorhexidine mouthwash. Clinical parameters like Plaque index (PI), Gingival index (GI), Sulcular Bleeding Index (PBI) and immunological parameters i.e., Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were assessed at baseline and at one month. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software 2.0. Results: The results of the current study showed that the mean scores of PI, GI, SBI and the levels of IL-6 at baseline and at one month had consistently decreased to lower values in both Group A (7.586 ± 4.04) and Group B (11.716 ± 8.19) which was statistically significant on intragroup analysis. The results from baseline to one month were comparable on intergroup analysis with no statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Flax seed mouthwash was found to be equally effective as chlorhexidine gluconate in treating chronic generalized gingivitis.
426 COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF GLYCINE POWDER AIR POLISHING AND PROPHYLACTIC PASTE IN REDUCTION OF PLAQUE ACCUMULATION IN GINGIVITIS PATIENTS- A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL , *Dr. Georgina George Ettiyil, Dr. Harsha Mysore Babu, Dr. Vivekananda M. R., Dr. Shivaprasad D., Dr. S. Ravindra
Background and Objectives: Glycine air polishing has been proved to be safe, comfortable and time-saving. Whether it could substitute ultrasonic scaling to remove dental plaque biofilm during periodontal therapy remains unclear. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the efficacy of Glycine powder air polishing (GPAP) over prophylactic paste polishing in reduction of plaque retention in treatment of gingivitis. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 30 subjects were randomly assigned to two groups with 15 subjects in each group, Group A- Scaling + Glycine powder air polishing, Group B- Scaling + Prohylactic paste polishing. Clinical parameters like Plaque index (PI) and Gingival index (GI) were assessed at baseline and at 14 days. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS software 2.0. Results: Significant improvement in plaque and gingival index scores were noted in Scaling + Glycine powder air‐polishing group. Conclusion: GPAP results in clinically significant improvement in plaque and gingival index scores when compared to Prophylactic paste. Supragingival glycine air polishing had a reliable effect in removing dental plaque biofilm when used as an adjunct to scaling.
427 ANTIMYCOTIC POTENTIAL OF SOME HERBAL EXTRACTS AGAINST HUMAN PATHOGENIC FUNGI , Deshpande Aarti R.*
Present study was conducted to evaluate the antimycotic potential of some medicinal plants. Organic extracts of parts of eight medicinal plants viz. Abrus precatorius, Careya arborea, Emblica officinalis, Soymida febrifuga, Syzygium cumini, Woodfordia fruticosa, Terminalia bellirica and Terminalia chebula were prepared by successive extraction with petroleum ether, acetone and 90% methanol. The extracts were tested against human fungal pathogens viz. Microsporum gypseum, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans using disk diffusion method. Extracts of Plumbago zeylanica having strong antimycotic potential were also tested for comparative purpose. Extracts of all the plants exhibited strong antifungal activity against Microsporum gypseum. Antifungal activity against Candida albicans was detected only in Terminalia bellirica, Terminalia chebula and Plumbago zeylanica extracts. Besides P.zeylanica, significant antifungal activity was exhibited by extracts of five plants against Cryptococcus neoformans.
428 A CASE REPORT ON PHYLLODE TUMOUR IN SECOND DECADE EPILEPTICS , Manashwini Jageer*, I. Saiteja, R. Vidya, Tabassum and D. Shravya
Breast tissues are glandular, ducal stoma which is respond to ovarian hormones, phyllode are the rare type of breast tumors which include a group of lesions of varying malignant potential which grow rapidly within a period of weeks or months to a size up to 10cm and not usually painful. Phyllode are classified as benign, borderline and malignant on the basis of tumor margins.[1] Clinically, tumors are smooth, rounded and multinodular with or without skin ulceration. These tumors are more tend to affect the aged women of 35-55 years. The recurrent rates are 2.7% for benign and 33% for malignant in adolescent, 20% benign and 7% malignant in adult according to Briggs et al.[2] We report a case of 19 years old mentally retarded female patient admitted in our surgical ward with complaints of swelling of the right breast since 15days which gradually increases in size in last 5 days. Physical examination reveals that the breast is associated with blackish discoloration and lump measuring 14x10cm. Interestingly she has a history of no menarche and a known case of epilepsy and had been taking anticonvulsants. Patient was diagnosed with Right breast phyllode by high resolution ultra-sonography of both breast and axilla.
429 HAND SANITIZERS BID FAREWELL TO GERMS ON SURFACE AREA OF HANDS , *Dipra Dastider, *Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen, Dr. Sudip Kumar Mandal, Dr. Sankhadip Bose, Dr. Shubhabrata Ray, Dr. Beduin Mahanti
Hand sanitizers work by dissolving the cell membrane of the bacterium and then denaturing the proteins that are essential to bacterial life. Sanitizers are type of antimicrobial that kills or irreversibly inactivates at least 99.9% of all bacteria, fungi and viruses (called microbials, microbiologicals, microorganisms) present on a surface. Most sanitizers are based on toxic chemicals such as chlorine, iodine, phenol, or quaternary ammonium compounds and which (unlike some antiseptics) may never be taken internally.
430 MODELLING THE THYROID CAUSING PROTEIN AND THEIR INHIBITOR STUDIES USING COMPUTATIONAL METHODS , *Pallavi Kaulwar and Prof. Archana Panche
Types of thyroid are. Causes of thyroid. Advantages by using some techniques or solutions for cure for thyroid. Disadvantages of thyroid. Drugs available for thyroid. Genes involved in thyroid. Receptors that play role during thyroid. Proteins that play role in thyroid disease are SIRT7- NAD dependent protein deacetylase that specifically mediates deacetylation of histone. GRB14- Adapter protein which modulates coupling of cell surface receptor kinases with specific signaling pathways. RPS6KB1- Regulates protein synthesis. ABCA1- cAMP dependent and sulfonylurea, sensitive anioin transporter. SLC5A5/NIS protein- Mediates iodine uptake in the thyroid gland. BCL6- Play role in immunoglobulin. MRAS- May serve as an important signal transducer for a novel upstream stimuli in controlling cell proliferation. P21 Capsid protein- Regulate immune response and prevents destruction of infected cells by cytotoxic. Nef protein- Bypasses host T-cell signaling by inducing, cell activation.
431 DRUG UTILIZATION STUDY IN THE INDOOR WARD OF THE SURGERY DEPARTMENT IN MARKS MEDICAL COLLEGE & HOSPITAL, DHAKA, BANGLADESH , Iqbal Masud Khan*, Nishat Farhana Khan, Md. Zakir Hossain, Nabaneeta Sarker and Nayeem
Pharmacotherapy with multiple agents before, during and after surgery is marked in present day indoor hospital setting. The main objective of drug utilization research being to assess the rationality of drug use, the present study intends to evaluate the drug utilization patterns using WHO/INRUD indicators in the inpatient ward of the Gastro Intestinal Laparoscopic Onco Surgery department in Marks Medical College & Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh, and to assess how much it conforms to standard treatment guidelines. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted for 2 months in which 75 prescriptions were screened. In an average 6.27±1.31 (mean ±SD) were prescribed per patient, with all of them receiving at least one injection and 78.67 % of the cases being given an antibiotic. Percentage of drugs prescribed by generic was a modest 68.51 % while only 54.89 % of all drugs were from WHO list for essential medicines. In this study we observed that the prescribing practices for antibiotic and injection deviates from the standard recommended by WHO. Widespread polypharmacy, lack of generic prescribing and very low incidence of prescribing medicines from essential drug list are other concerns that need to be addressed in order to conform to rational drug therapy.
432 ACUTE GENERALIZED EXANTHEMATOUS PUSTULOSIS INDUCED BY ACETAZOLAMIDE , R. Frikh*, H. Titou, T. Hanafi, M. Elamraoui, N. Hjira and M. Boui
Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is mostly caused by drugs. The combination of high fever, leucocytosis and pustules is often misinterpreted as acute infectious disease. We report a case of AGEP caused by acetazolamide, a diuretic agent, rarely incriminate in adverse drug reactions.
433 CHANGE IN INCSIOR INCLINATION AND PERCEIVED TOOTH COLOUR CHANGE IN MALE AND FEMALE SUBJECTS , Dr. Mahendra Kondle*, Dr. Pravinkumar Marure, Dr. Suresh Kangane, Dr. Anand Ambekar, Dr. Yatish Joshi, Dr. Sujit Zadake
Introduction: Attractiveness of person is influenced by a variety of different smile-related factors. We evaluated whether the degree of upper central incisor proclination can result in tooth colour change. Methods: Forty young adult subjects (20–25 years, 20 Males and 20 females) in good health with a complete sound dentition were selected. The subjects were seated in standardized light conditions with an above-directed light source. Their natural head position was stated as 0 degrees using NHP device. To mimic the range of possible anterior torque movements they were asked to tilt their heads upward +20 degrees (upward tilting) and downward −20 degrees (downward tilting). Frontal macro photographs of the patient’s natural head position were taken at the three head angulations (+20, 0, and −20 degrees). Photographs were analysed for colour differences at the centre of the incisor clinical crowns with a CIE L*a*b* colour model based software. A paired t-test was used to test for significance between each value for each inclination. Results: Differences were found between the CIE L*a*b* colour values for: upward tilting, downward tilting, and −20 to +20 degrees (total tilting) except for b* values for downward tilting. As the inclination of the subject’s head changed downward, the upper incisors were retroclined and the CIE L*a*b* values indicated a darker and less green but redder colour component. As the inclination of the subject’s head changed upwards the upper incisors were proclined and the L*a*b* values indicated a lighter and less green and yellow but redder and bluer colour component. Conclusions: Proclination of upper incisors caused lighter tooth colour parameters compared to retroclined incisors and colour changes. Orthodontic change of upper incisor inclination may induce alterations on how tooth colour is perceived.
434 HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PORTULACA OLERACEA (WHOLE PLANT), FRUITS AND SEEDS OF ERIOBOTRYA JAPONICA ON KIDNEYS OF STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS , Sabeeha Shafi* and Nahida Tabassum
Background: The present study was undertaken for histopathological study of ethanolic extract of Portulaca oleracea (whole plant), fruits and seeds of Eriobotrya japonica on kidneys of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: The phytochemical screening of the plant extracts was done. Initially nine groups of rats were taken and each group comprising of six animals were employed in present study. Different doses of plant extracts were administered during experiment. The first group was Normal Control group which received only the vehicle. The 2nd group was toxic group which included those animals in which diabetes was induced by streptozotocin. The 3rd group were those animals which received streptozotocin and standard antidiabetic drug-glibenclamide. 4th group was diabetic animals receiving 50 mg/kg b.w dose of plant extract of Portulaca oleracea. 5th group included those diabetic animals which received 100mg/kg b.w of the plant extract of Portulaca oleracea 6th group was diabetic animals receiving 50 mg/kg b.w dose of fruits of Eriobotrya japonica. 7th group included those diabetic animals which received 100mg/kg b.w of the fruit extract of Eriobotrya japonica 8th group was diabetic animals receiving 50 mg/kg b.w dose of seed extract of Eriobotrya japonica. 9th group included those diabetic animals which received 100mg/kg b.w of the seed extract of Eriobotrya japonica The biochemical parameters that were evaluated were blood glucose levels. At the end, the animals were sacrificed and histopathology of kidneys was also done. Results: The results showed significant decrease in blood glucose levels in animals treated with different doses of the plant extracts. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of various bioactive components such as alkaloids, glycosides and flavonoids. Conclusion: It can be assumed that the potential pharmacological activity might be due to the presence of phytochemicals present in the seeds. The histopathology of kidneys also showed protective results.
435 PROFICIENCY, RECOGNITION AND PRAXIS ABOUT DENGUE PYREXIA AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS IN CHHATTISGARH , Rajni Thakur*, Deepti Gautam and Sangeeta Khare
Background: Dengue is the mosquito born viral condition a particular ensue in equatorial and semitropical field of the universe. Dengue creates for leading element of paradise in children. WHO endorse bestows to avert dengue endemic is to yield proficiency around dengue and precautionary quota to nation. Bestow to WHO, always it was predicted that almost 70-100 trillion populations were affect each one panorama. The latest nationwide audit evidence express a particular ubiquity of dengue amidst community is hush on the boost. Aim: To divine the proficiency, recognition and praxis of selected medical College students in Chhattisgarh regarding Dengue pyrexia. Materials and Methods: Total of 405 medical students aged 16 years and above in Pt.J.N.M. Medical College, Raipur, Chhattisgarh were using pre-tested census regarding Proficiency, Recognition and Praxis about Dengue pyrexia, after assessing proficiency focusing on stoppage of dengue pyrexia. Result: This research we found that 405 medical students, 88.88% 16 – 20 years, 53.08 % male and 46.91% female students perceived 100%, had 60% proficiency about dengue pyrexia and 61.47% had recognition, proficiency of executive, 71.23% had praxis about mosquito – man approach, 64.81% had knew how to remove mosquito rearing location. Conclusion: It is concluded in medical students were having average proficiency regarding stoppage of dengue pyrexia. Therefore, there is require for additional facts, instruction and exchanging information agenda regarding stoppage of dengue pyrexia and this may be execute by arrange well - being breeding campaigns in society including colleges.
436 EFFECT OF HYDRO ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF Oroxylum indicum linn AGAINST DIMETHYL BENZ [A] ANTHRACENE INDUCED MAMMARY GLAND TUMOUR IN FEMALE SPARGUE-DAWLEY RATS , Syed Ibrahim S. A.*, Rampriya A. R., Chidambaranathan N. and Nalini G.
The present study aimed that investigate the antitumor potential of Hydro alcoholic extract of Oroxylum indicum linn for 45 days against 7, 12-dimethyl Benz[a]anthracene (DMBA- 7.5mg/Kg) induced oxidative stress and mammary carcinogenesis in female spargue-dawley rats. The treatment protocol started from the day immediately after DMBA administration. Results obtained indicated that there was a significant elevation in the terms of tumour incident and tumour multiplicity in DMBA injected rats. The potential reduction in tumour volume was observed in treatment groups whereas treated with HAEOI reverse these changes. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidise (free radical scavengers) were found to be potentially higher in treatment groups when compared to toxic control. Histopathological examination revealed the formation of tumour in DMBA induced rats. Whereas treatment with extract significantly reduced the proliferation and replacement of normal ductular and alveolar structure of mammary gland. Therefore it can be concluded that the HAEOI was provided antioxidant defence, with strong anti-tumour activity against DMBA- induced mammary tumours.
437 COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF FRESH AND DRY LEAF EXTRACTS OF HUGONIA MYSTAX LINN , Vasuki Balakrishnan*, Vijayabaskaran Manickam, Mahadevan Nanjaian, Srinivasan Kulandaivel, Sambathkumar Ramanathan
Hugonia Mystax is a valued medicinal plant in traditional folk medicine used in siddha and ayurveda for various ailments. It is a woody evergreen liana distributed throughout India in the dry tropical forest, mostly found in south Indian forest (Tamilnadu and Kerala). Hugonia Mystax locally known as modirakanni, mainly used for skin diseases, rheumatism, antidote for snake bite, anthelmintic, febrifuge, astringent, fever, verminosis, peptic ulcers and intestinal worms. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of Hugonia Mystax extracts showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, phenolic groups, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. In vitro antioxidant activity of n-hexane, chloroform and ethanol extracts of fresh and dry leaves of Hugonia Mystax showed significant activity by reducing power assay method using ascorbic acid as a standard drug. Absorbance was measured at 700 nm using UV-spectrophotometer showed significant activity. In conclusion, the results of this study clearly indicated that the extracts of Hugonia Mystax possess significant antioxidant activity and could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant agent that may be due to the presence of phytochemicals.
438 ASSESSMENT OF HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN DIABETES MELLITUS AND ASSOCIATION OF COMPLICATIONS USING EQ-5D SCALE , *Dr. E. Pavan Kumar, Dr. V. Sreedhar, A. Lavanya, K. Vinitha and B. Prashanthi
Introduction: “Diabetes” is a group of metabolic diseases categorized by hyperglycaemia principally from defect in pancreatic phrase, insulin along with or both.[1] Aim: AIM of the study is to describe how diabetes and its complications influence the health related quality of life of individuals using the individual EQ-5D dimensions. Objective: The objective of the study is to measure the health related quality of life of diabetes mellitus patients and its complications using the Indian version of EQ-5D and examined the relationship between clinical condition and health. Methodology  Study Design: Observational study  Study Period: 6months  Study Site: Government general hospital, Anantapuramu  Sample Size: During the study period of 6 months the total sample size was 200.  Inclusion Criteria: Diabetes mellitus patients, pregnant women.  Exclusion Criteria: Lactating mothers Results: In our study out of 200 patients, 123 patients are identified as male patients and 77 patients are female. In 200 sample size 150 patients are suffering with complications. Discussion: In this study with diabetic related complications has reduced Health related quality of life. In the present study, it was found that the major complications seen in male and female diabetic patients are stroke, Hypertension, coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease, cirrhosis of liver. Conclusion: In this study of individuals with diabetes and associating complications with EQ-5Dscore. It was found that strong determinants of reduced Health related quality of life were HTN, stroke, CAD, CKD and cirrhosis of liver.
439 ETIOLOGY AND PRECAUTIONS OF CORONA VIRUS , Kundan J. Tiwari*, Amol Deshmukh, Kiran Suryavanshi and Dr. Yogesh Ushir
The Coronaviruses (CoV) belong to the genus Coronavirus with its high mutation rate in the Coronaviridae. The objective of this manuscript is to have a preliminary opinion about the disease and prevention in this early stage of COVID-19 outbreak.
440 ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT IN PATIENTS WITH EPILEPSY , Jihe Zhu, Blagica Arsovska and Kristina Kozovska*
Epilepsy is a transient disorder of the brain function. The epileptic seizures, which occur in a form of convulsion, are the result of excessive irritation of the nerve structures. Acupuncture as part of Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment mainly focuses on resolving the blood stagnation in the cerebrovascular system. According to the TCM theory there are 4 patterns that may represent as an underlying contributing factors for developing epilepsy: Kidney QI deficiency, Liver Wind, Liver Yang rising and Liver and Gallbladder Damp Heat. In the research are included 38 patients, 24 male and 14 female, on age from 9 months to 71. All patients were treated with acupuncture for epilepsy. The patients were also taking prescribed medications from doctors. Striking fact is that most of the patients were children, starting from 9 month old baby. Most of the patients – 9, were on age from 10 to 20. Most of the patients have done between 10 and 20 treatments. The number of treatments indicates how many treatments were needed to completely eliminate epileptic seizures. The patients continue with acupuncture treatments in combination with medicament therapy. The acupuncture treatment for epilepsy is a long-term treatment and requires lot of patience and effort to reach the positive results. The treatment helps to reduce the frequency of epileptic seizures, improves the patient's overall physical and mental health, raises the QI energy, regulates and restores the proper flow of the energy and blood, restores the normal balance of the organism and helps as an adjunct to the medication therapy.
441 EVALUATION OF ANXIETY LEVEL AMONG DENTAL STUDENTS UNDERGOING THIRD MOLAR EXTRACTION , Dr. Sami Faisal Jamdar* and Dr. Aaminah Fatima Jamdar
Background and Aim: This study was conducted to quantitate the anxiety associated with third molar extraction in dental students. And to compare the anxiety levels between males and females, among impacted and non-impacted mandibular third molar. Methods: This study was conducted on 200 Dental students, requiring extraction of mandibular third molar. Patients were randomly enrolled for the study, consecutively as and when they reported. All the patients under the study were given a questionnaire before removal of mandibular third molar. The anxiety levels were evaluated based on the scores of the Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale. Results: The results of this study showed Dental Anxiety Scores among female patients was higher than male patients; however the difference between male and female patients was statistically not significant. Among impacted and non-impacted groups Dental Anxiety Score was higher among impacted third molar group, but the difference between impacted and non-impacted groups was statistically not significant too. Conclusion and Interpretation: In conclusion, maxillofacial surgeons should consider that patients initially visit dental office for treatment of third molar with sever anxiety which could be due to conditioning or learned responses that these patients have experienced. And thus a prior awareness of the patient’s predisposition dental anxiety may thus be of value, enabling to take appropriate and/or therapeutic measures or care. Thus giving anxiety free treatment to the patients and better postoperative recovery.
442 GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY MASS SPECTROMETRY PROFILING, PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOL FLOWER EXTRACT OF BRASSICA OLERACEA VAR. ITALICA-BROCCOLI , Arumugam.P*, Saraswathi.K, Dhivya.M, Akshaya.J, Monica Joicy.C, Sivaraj.C
There are over a two lakh twenty thousand phytochemicals out of which fruits and vegetables have hundred different phytochemicals and two hundred and fifty thousand species of plants exists on this planet containing different kinds of secondary metabolites, known as Phytochemicals.Natural antioxidants having low or no side effects are used in prevention of diseases plants produce secondary metabolites, most of the antioxidant compounds are flavonoids, phenols ,anthocyanins, carotenoids are used to overcome the oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species.Current research studies were carried out for evaluating the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of ethanol flower extract of Brassica oleracea var. italica-Broccoli. Antioxidant activities such as DPPH˙ radical, Superoxide (O2.-) radical, ABTS●+ radical cation, phosphomolybdenum reduction and Fe3+ reduction were carried out for ethanol flower extract of Brassica oleracea var. italica-Broccoli. The maximum DPPH˙ radical and Superoxide (O2.-) radical scavenging activities were 54.39±0.42% and 73.07±0.29% at 120 μg/mL concentration and the IC50 values were 80.67 μg/mL and 57.59 μg/mL concentrations respectively. The maximum ABTS●+ radical cation scavenging activity was 87.63±0.42% at 12 μg/mL concentration and the IC50 value was 6.50 μg/mL concentration respectively. The maximum Mo6+ reduction and Fe3+ reduction were 90±0.26% and 52±0.31% at 120 μg/mL concentration and the RC50 values were 15.15 μg/mL and 104.16 μg/mL concentrations respectively. The antibacterial activity of ethanol flower extract of Brassica oleracea var. italica-Broccoli showed maximum zone of inhibition of 23 mm for Escherichia coli at 750 μg/mL concentration. Oleic acid, Quinoxaline, 2-isopropyl-3-phenyl, 4-oxide, n-Hexadecanoic acid were found to be the active compounds detected from GCMS analysis.
443 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF GLUCOSAMINE SULPHATE KCL 1500 MG & CHONDROITIN SULPHATE 200 MG FILM COATED TABLET , Jameel Abbas*, Dr. Malik Tauheed Ahmad, Dr. Md. Ashfaque, Dr. Shaikh Muzaffar Ahmad, Dr. Ateequrrahman MD and Dr. Masarat Begum
Chondroitin is a component of human connective tissues found in cartilage and bone. In supplements, Chondroitin sulfate usually comes from animal cartilage. Reduces pain and inflammation, improves joint function and slows progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Believed to enhance the shock-absorbing properties of collagen and block enzymes that break down cartilage. Helps cartilage retain water and may reverse cartilage loss when used with glucosamine. The largest study to date, the 2006 Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT) looked at 1,600 people with knee OA. The first phase found that a small subset of patients with moderate-to-severe arthritis experienced significant pain relief from combined glucosamine and Chondroitin. The 2008 phase found that glucosamine and Chondroitin, together or alone, did not slow joint damage. And in the two-year-long 2010 phase, glucosamine and Chondroitin were found as effective for knee OA as celecoxib (Celebrex). But a 2010 meta-analysis of 10 trials involving more than 3,000 patients published in BMJ found no benefit from Chondroitin, glucosamine or both. A separate 2011 study showed a significant improvement in pain and function in patients with hand OA using Chondroitin alone. Benefits of Chondroitin and glucosamine remain controversial, but the supplements appear extremely safe. Glucosamine is naturally hygroscopic is nature when exposed to air and moisture and degradable whether in the form of tablet or raw material. To overcome this problem Glucosamine needs to bond with suitable stabilizer. Glucosamine Sulphate in the form of Salt i.e. Sodium chloride and potassium chloride are stable. The normal dose of Glucosamine is 500-1500 mg TID. It is very difficult to compress the tablet at the label claim 1500 mg Glucosamine and Chondroitin 200 mg because some additive is also required in the formulation and the average weights are 2000 mg. As per the pre-formulation studies it is concluded that tablet average weight less than 70 mg are very difficult to compress and more than 1500 mg are difficult to swallow in adult patient. Glucosamine and Chondroitin is a special formulation that proves the pharmacological value to nourish the joint health. Glucosamine and Chondroitin stimulates the formation or manufacture of collagen, the protein portion of the fibrous substance that holds joints together and provides a shock-absorbing cushion, as a person ages, the cartilage that cushions the joints often loses its ability to support healthy cellular growth. In addition, the synovial fluid which lubricates these joints also deteriorates. This condition, called osteoarthritis, often leads to rough bones that rub together and cause distress with every twist or bend. In this condition patient regularly required the Glucosamine tablet in 1500 mg and Chondroitin 200 mg three times a day. But it’s very difficult to compress the tablet at huge weight because D tooling compression machine have maximum limit is 1500 mg. For such critical formulation weight cam is adjusted in lower direction to increase the weight and feeding of granules in feed frame through force feeder resolve the dissolution problem. This tablet is prepared by wet granulation method by using Non Aqueous binding showed good results physical evaluation parameters and chemical parameters such as Assay, and Dissolution values. The granules are lubricated using suitable lubricants / Glidant / Antiadhrants were good in their flow properties. Assay and dissolution studies were conducted by the HPLC method.
444 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LANSOPROZOLE DELAY RELEASE PELLETS , Ch. Saibabu*, K. Harikrishna, S. K. Karishma, G. Praveen Kumar, N. Yajjari and Y. Sri Sruthi
The work was carried out to delay the release of Lansoprazole by using enteric polymer Methacrylic acid copolymer (type C). The study includes preformulation of drug and excipients, formulation and evaluation, release kinetics and stability studies of capsules. Drug Loading was given to sugarsheres by using different binders i.e., Klucel- LF and L- HPC with different concentrations. The amount of drug bound to sugarsheres increases with an increased concentration of HPC(L-type) (17.5% and 22%). But at high concentration of HPC (22%), lumps were observed. Finally, 17.5% w/w HPC was optimized as binder for drug coating. Sub coating was given to drug loaded pellets to avoid direct contact with enteric coating. Sub coating was given with HPC and Corn starch combination at an average weight build-up of 6.1% w/w of sub coated pellets. Enteric coating was given to Lansoprazole pellets by Methacrylic acid copolymer type C (30% aqueous dispersion). Enteric coating was optimized at an average weight build-up of 53% w/w of enteric coated pellets and release profile was compared with Innovator. In enteric coating, plasticizer plays major role in film formation of pellets. Among TEC and PEG 6000, TEC was found to have good film forming capacity. Plasticizer concentration was optimized at 20% of dry polymer weight. Enteric coated pellets were evaluated for assay, acid resistance and dissolution; E6 enteric coated pellets were found to be optimized and were filled into capsules. These capsules were evaluated and the results were found to be more similar with innovator. Different kinetic models were applied to optimized enteric coated formulation (E6) and observed that it follows zero order kinetics with Higuchi diffusion mechanism. Stability studies were conducted at 40ºC / 75% RH (accelerated stability testing) for 3 months. Assay, acid resistance, dissolution release profile of optimized enteric coated formulation (E6) complies with Innovator and was found to be stable.
445 THE ETIOCLINICAL PROFILE OF RECURRENT ABDOMINAL PAIN IN CHILDREN , Dr. Susanta Kumar Ghosh*, Dr. Santosh Kumar Saha and Dr. Milia Islam
Objective: In this study our main goal is to evaluate the etioclinical profile of recurrent abdominal pain in Children. Method: This prospective observational study was done in the tertiary medical college and hospital from September July 2016 to July 2018. A total of 102 consecutive children who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were considered in this study. Results: during the study patients functional abdominal pain found 28.12% followed by urinary tract infection (UTI) were 14%, appendicitis were 13.59%, peptic ulcer diseases were 10.73%, habitual constipation were 9%, gastroesophageal reflux diseases were 8.76%, tonsillitis were 6%, abdominal tuberculosis 5.8% and fits were 4%. Conclusion: From our study we can say that, specific diagnosis is needed to be distinguished from anatomic, infectious, inflammatory, or metabolic causes of abdominal pain. Because hard evidence on either aetiology or management remains scarce, clinicians must adopt a pragmatic approach. A uniform management protocol should be developed for proper investigations to minimize the cost and for judicious use of drugs in order to help these children. Also, a symptom-based subclassification should be helpful in both clinical management and research.
446 MEMORY ALTERATION AND POTENTIAL NON-ADDICTIVE EFFECTS INDUCED BY A CHRONIC INTAKE OF HOME MADE ALCOHOLIC DRINKING “ODONTOL” , AYISSI MBOMO Rigobert-Espoir*, TENE TADOUM Samuel Boris, NGUIDJOE Evrard Marcel, MOTO OKOMOLO Fleur Clarisse, NANGA Léopold Didier, NGOA MANGA Elisabeth Sylvie, NJAMNSHI KONGNYU Alfred
The last decade in Cameroon has been the seat of increased consumption of artisanal drinks including «Odontol». Appreciated by youngest and adults, this beverage has induced numerous deaths attributed to its poor manufacturing. Being in a context of emergency by 2035, this beverage of unknown composition and effects on human health still little explored. We have undertaken the study of possible addictive effects of «Odontol» as well as its effects on various essential functions for memory. Experimental analysis of behaviors associated with addiction and memory disorders in mice using various behavioral tests including conditioned place preference, object recognition and Y maze tests were performed. Results showed that the time spent in the «Odontol» associated compartment significantly decreases between the pre-conditioning and test (28.57%) in the conditioned place preference test, as well the time spent in the «Odontol» associated compartment compared to NaCl compartment during the test. In the object recognition test, animals of the test group spent less time exploring the new object than the control animals with a 57 times higher discrimination index when compared to test group animals. In the Y maze, test mice significantly spent less time (15.78%) in the new arm compared to control animal which spent 48.27% of time exploring the new arm. These results bring the light of possible aversion induced by «Odontol» and a severe attack of mnesic function in short and long term memories.
447 UNDERSTANDING PRE-DIABETES? WHAT ARE THE DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA AND WHAT IS THE CURRENT CONSENSUS OF MANAGING PRE-DIABETES? , Dr. Muhammad Iqbal*
The World Health Organization (1999) defined Diabetes Mellitus (DM) as “a metabolic disorder of multiple etiology characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both”.[2] Diabetes is commonly associated with obesity, physical inactivity, raised blood pressure, disturbed blood lipid levels and a tendency to develop thrombosis, and therefore is recognised to have an increased cardiovascular risk. It is associated with long-term microvascular and macrovascular complications, together with reduced quality of life and life expectancy. Globally, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been high and is rising across all world regions. Some 425 million people worldwide aged 20-79 years, are estimated to have diabetes. By 2045, 693 million people 18-99 years old, or 629 million of people 20-79 years, will have diabetes. (International Diabetes Federation).[4] It is important to understand the condition of pre-diabetes. The aim of this article to increase awareness about pre-diabetes and the need for timely intervention. As most people with prediabetes have no symptoms or not bothered at all.
448 EFFECTS OF PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING ON DENTAL HYGIENE COURSE STUDENTS’ CORE COMPETENCIES , Jung- Hyun Park and Mi-Suk Cho*
This study applied a one-group pre/post-test design to investigate the effects of a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) method on dental hygiene course student’s core abilities. The data was analysed by SPSS ver. 24.0 using the paired samples t-test. Used core competencies were classified according to the following categories: ‘Basic core competency’ and ‘Major core competency’. As a result of comparing both competencies before and after the introduction of PBL education, in both areas, the score after introducing the technique was higher than before the introduction, and both had the same results for all sub-competences as well showing a significant result(p<0.001). And to conclude, this investigation illustrates that PBL-based education influences learners to develop their core competencies and suggests that it is necessary to build a creative curriculum and employ new teaching methods, for students to have both basic and major core competencies for students.
449 COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF PALM KERNEL OIL, OLIVE OIL, CRUDE OIL AND HONEY ON LIVER FUNCTION OF MALE ALBINO RATS , Chinedu Imo*, Kayode Adebisi Arowora, Michael Sunday Abu and Florence Ashe Angbas
Background: Comparative effects of palm kernel oil, olive oil, crude oil and honey on liver function of male albino rats was evaluated in this study because of their wide use in traditional medicine. Methods: A total of 35 healthy male albino rats were used in this study. The rats were randomly placed into 5 groups with 6 rats in each group. The rats were administered the chemical substances for 21 days before being sacrificed and their blood samples and livers collected for biochemical and histological analysis respectively. Results: ALT reduced non-significantly (p>0.05) in groups 2, 4 and 5, but increased non-significantly in group 3 compared to the control. ALP increased non-significantly (p>0.05) in groups 2 and 5, but increased significantly (p<0.05) in groups 3 and 4 compared to the control. AST reduced non-significantly (p>0.05) in group 2, but increased significantly (p<0.05) in groups 3 and 4, and non-significantly (p>0.05) in group 5 compared to the control. Total proteins increased non-significantly (p>0.05) in groups 2 and 3, but increased significantly (p<0.05) in groups 4 and 5 compared to the control. Albumin and globulin increased significantly (p<0.05) in all the test groups compared to the control. Bilirubin increased non-significantly (p>0.05) in groups 2, 3 and 5, but increased significantly (p<0.05) in group 4 compared to the control. Photomicrographs of histoarchitectural state of the liver tissues showed some mild alterations in some part of the tissues of the test animals administered olive oil and crude oil when compared with the control. Conclusion: Comparative evaluation of long-term administration of palm kernel oil, olive oil, crude oil and honey as in this study showed that olive oil and crude oil may negatively alter liver function than palm kernel oil and honey. Palm kernel oil and honey may support certain liver functions.
450 AN UNEXPECTED DIAGNOSIS OF ECTOPIC PANCREAS IN THE LIVER , Faten Limaiem* and Saâdia Bouraoui
A 54-year-old hypertensive female patient underwent surgical resection of the sigmoid colon two years ago for a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma classified as pT3N1b. During the follow-up period, CT scan disclosed multiple metastases predominant in the right hepatic lobe, hence the initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (4 courses FOLFOX - ERBITUX). The patient underwent a right hepatic lobectomy. Histological examination of the different samples taken from the liver confirmed the presence of a secondary hepatic localization of a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of colorectal origin with healthy limits of excision. In the surrounding liver there was macrovacuolar steatosis estimated at 20%. In addition, we noted a focus of pancreatic heterotopia including acini and excretory ducts organized in a lobule. The final pathological diagnosis was that of pancreatic heterotopia type II according to Heinrich classification. Postoperative course was uneventful. During the follow-up period, the patient developed liver metastases in the left hepatic lobe. The diagnosis of heterotopic pancreas prior to surgery is difficult due to its non-specific clinical signs and symptoms. Diagnosis can only be established based on histopathological examination.
451 MESENTERIC PSEUDOCYST OF THE SMALL BOWEL: CASE REPORT , Faten Limaiem* and Saâdia Bouraoui
Introduction: Mesenteric pseudocysts are rare types of mesenteric cysts, which are often asymptomatic and found incidentally on imaging or during an unrelated surgery. Case report: A 40-year-old man consulted for intermittent abdominal pain for the past four months. Physical examination found discreet abdominal tenderness with no palpable mass. Computed tomography showed a hypodense unilocular mesenteric cyst measuring 6 cm in diameter. The patient had an excision of the small intestine and cystic formation of the mesentery. On cut section, the mesenteric cyst contained a white clayish material. Histological examination of the samples taken from the cystic formation showed a fibrous and inflammatory cystic wall devoid of epithelial lining. The final pathological diagnosis was that of a mesenteric pseudocyst. Conclusion: Mesenteric pseudocysts are difficult to diagnose due to the lack of specific clinical, laboratory and imaging findings. Only histopathological examination of the surgical specimen establishes the correct diagnosis. Despite their rarity, mesenteric pseudocysts must be considered in the differential diagnosis of intra-abdominal masses.
452 INCIDENCE OF OBESITY IN OKRIKA , *Gbaranor K. B., Ofuya Z. Y., Victor P. D., Orupabo D. C., Okpara E. P., Amadi C. N., John D. H. and Nmehielle I.
There is paucity of knowledge and awareness on the incidence of obesity in the country. The incidence of obesity study was carried out in Riverine area of Rivers State, Okrika as a case study. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of obesity in Okrika. The study revealed that 50.0% of the female and 45.5% of the male were obessed respectively. Body mass index of 52 participants, 42.3% were males and 57.7% were females with ages between 22 to 60 years. The study shows that BMI (kg/m2) were: Mean±SD = 28.58±8.58; Minimum (Min)= 16.22; Maximum (Max) = 44.15 for males(N =22) and Mean±SD = 28.82±6.71; Min =18.37 and Max= 44.06 for females (N =30 ). Total participants (N =52), Mean±SD =28.72±7.48; Min = 16.22; and Max= 44.15. Also, the height(m2) were: Mean±SD =1.63±0.07; Min = 1.49; Max =1.72 for males, while Mean±SD = 1.60±0.08; Min = 1.41; and Max= 1.78 for females. Total participants: Mean±SD = 1.62±0.08; Min = 1.41 and Max = 1.78. However, total participants’ weight (kg) were: Mean±SD = 74.44±18.08; Min = 46.00; and Max = 112.00. For male’s participants, Mean±SD = 75.41±20.01; Min = 46.00; Max = 112.00 and for females participant, Mean±SD = 73.73±16.84; Min = 46.00 and Max = 110.00.
453 NUTRIENTS COMPOSITION IN SELECTED KEY FOODS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN OF BANGLADESH , Tasnim Jannaty*, Dr. Md. Raknuzzaman, Dr. Abu Shams Md. Hasan Ali Masum, Dr. Kazi Jannat Ara, Dr. Md. Anis Ahmed and Yearul Kabir, PhD.
Food composition analysis provides detailed information about nutrientsand other important food components, which are important tohuman nutrition. Nutritional status of a person depends on the consumption of foods and intake of various nutrients related to the composition of foods. The aim of the study was to determine nutrients composition of selected animal source foods consumed in Bangladesh. Method and Materials: Composite samples are used for analysis. To analyze the proximate composition, B-vitamins and retinol of the commonly consumed animal source foods of Bangladesh prioritized by “Key Foods” approach The samples were three cultured fish (Pangas, Rohu and Tilapia), farmed chicken (breast and leg portion), farmed chicken egg and milk (cow, pasteurized). There are 30 AEZ (agro-ecological zones) in Bangladesh, categorized mainly on crop production. Samples were collected from 2-3 sites of each division that automatically cover all major AEZ. Selected animal source food samples were collected from 14 Haats across all seven divisions (considering 70% of rural population) and wholesale/retail markets of city corporation areas (considering 30% of urban population). Food samples collected following the stratified sampling frame. Result: Proximate composition of analyzed cultured fishes shows that moisture, protein and fat content of Rohu and Tilapia are quite similar, whereas Pangas contain higher fat and lower protein content. As pangas contain much higher fat, energy values is higher than other two fishes. Ash content of three fish is almost same. Proximate composition of two portions of chicken does not vary significantly, except for fat. As chicken leg contain much higher fat, energy values is higher than chicken breast. Among the proximate nutrients egg contain higher amount of protein and fat than milk. B-vitamins analysis of three cultured fish shows that thiamin content of three fishes is Tilapia, Rohu and Pangas. Riboflavin content is high in Rohu and low in Pangas. Vitamin B6content of three fish is almost same. In terms of these three B-vitamins, Rohu and Tilapia are better than Pangas. Among the B-vitamin content of chicken, thiamin content of chicken breast is higher than leg and riboflavin content is higher in chicken leg than breast. Vitamin B6 content of two portions is almost same. B-vitamin content of analyzed milk and egg shows that thiamin content of milk is almost one third of egg. Milk contains highest amount of riboflavin among the analyzed samples. Egg contains almost three times higher vitamin B6 as compare to milk. Among the three fish, retinol content is relatively higher in Pangas and low in Tilapia. Chicken breast contains higher retinol than chicken leg. Egg has highest amount of retinol among analyzed samples. Conclusion: The food composition data of selected key foods provided in the study can be used for formulating the nutritive diets and calculating the value of diets, quantitatively assessing for individuals or different population groups for diet therapy and nutritive diets management in Bangladesh. Bangladesh could over comenutritional challenges as an under developed country through this types of very essential food values and nutrient composition studies today & in near future.
454 ARE YOUNG INDIVIDUALS TRANSMITTING SARS-COV-2 INFECTION? , Takuma Hayashi* and Ikuo Konishi
Previous studies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mainly focused on epidemiological, clinical, and radiological features of patients with confirmed infection. However, in SARS-CoV-19 infected people, many cases have not been reported whose transmission route has not been determined. We report a small cluster of novel coronaviruses disease-2019 (COVID-19) to evidence that a potential transmission of the COVID-19 during the incubation period. The first patient in this small cluster was identified in presymptomatic period, as a close contact of a confirmed patient. The participants of the music festival held at the live house had close contact with the first patient during their incubation period, participants were confirmed to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the subsequent sampling test.
455 ACUTE PANCREATITIS: DIAGNOSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF SEVERITY WITH MARKERS OF INFLAMMATION. (RESEARCH ARTICLE) , Mohamed Dahir Aden and Dr. Tao Deng*
Acute pancreatitis is determinate as a life threatening concept that bring limitation of study in its management therapy on judging the absolute unknown specificity and reduced sensitivity in terms of biochemical selective C- Reactive Protein methodology. To counter as a better choice for upstreaming the severity of biomarkers it mediates the process of inflammation typically cytokines and interleukin-6 pre-eliminate the faster reaction of compromising result. The study show the initiation of injured sites bring the reliability of 60% accuracy in severity rate that simply resolve the diagnostic parameter on activating the trypsinogen i.e. TAP in its pathophysiological understanding. On studying further, the spectrum of illness in disease of acute pancreatitis it ranges the self-resolved measure dependent on inceptive of fatal symptom relative to control group comparison mainly to carry-out the etiology of infection in frequent cases. Despite, to accept the prematurity of activating enzymatic reaction it evolves the acinar pancreatic cells which infiltrate the leukocyte prognostic to its assessment. Moreover, the recently used c- reactive protein along with interleukin-6 reviewing the 2 phasic protein prediction responsible for inflammation within time duration of days stratify the rationale emerging risk ratio of categorized different biomarkers patter. However, the role of fibrinogen triggering the receptors affect the solubility which make the evidence of oxidative stress presence dysregulating the environmental reasons resolving the autophagy defensive process that mention the great importance in cellular terms to access the area of future research. The possibilities of acute pancreatitis is well understood by cross-sectional literature utilizing the image module profound the natural form of complications which similarly bring out the aim for configuring the use of CT scan as an alternative to localize the pancreatic defects. However, to intervene the extra pancreatitis therapeutic we use the diagnostic of ERCP, MRCP, MRI and ultrasound to remain to be complementary for discussing the consequences and major influences addressing treatment event. Firstly, the main focus of study is noticeable on diagnosis and symptoms suffered by patients thoroughly i.e. upper mild abdominal pain in normal functioning of the body that concomitant the serum lipase and amylase concentration respectively. Based on APACHE study, the emerging new biomarkers potentially evaluate the addition of greater score that detect the proportion of reproducible sequence. Whereas, alcohol consumption and gallstones are considered to be highly the optimized result of criteria in severity when exhibiting the biological time period of 24hrs that affect the rapid case of potentially targeted sites. Secondly, cause of severe jaundice obscure the presentation of hypertriglyceridemia in chronic symptoms using trypsinogen-2 with 99% of predictive value negatively proceed the measure of serum calcium and triglyceride for calculating the novel at idiopathic reoccurrences of acute pancreatitis. Thirdly, the objective of studying correlation in organ dysfunction interact the death rate consecutively impact the CT scan study rate 50-60% regressed logistic associating extend of necrosis. However, the effect of acute pancreatitis >30% reaching to >55% significance greatly affect the multiple organ failure MODS with odd ratio P=0.03 separating the mechanism of physiology independently conclude the far most P=0.006. Lastly, the aim of our study is to identify the MODS of study in long term course manifesting the likely rule out cohort of n=260 validity as defined in prospective studies. However, pulmonary, cardiovascular and renal risk factors lasting 24-48hrs modest the accuracy in scoring system appear with a curve in statistic of references when calculated on admission and after discharge analysis. The providing relative information of serum creatinine and BUN discriminate the sets of each group cases to confirm the maximal efficacy of dosing sophisticate the cumbersome of combined prediction commercially enable the approaches of αTNF and interleukin-6 as better option to analyze acute pancreatitis.
456 EFFECTS OF GASTRIC BYPASS ON NON-OBESE TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS , *Dr. Mohamed Dahir Aden, Prof. Dr. Deng Tao
Objective: To assess the therapeutic effect of gastric bypass on non-obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: Databases including PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI and Wan fang database were searched from 1985 to November 2016, and references of articles were also searched to collect randomized controlled trails or before-after self-controlled trails on gastric bypass in treating T2DM. We screened articles according to the predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data, and evaluated quality of the included studies. Then meta-analyses were performed using RevcMan 5.2. Results: A total of 7 before-after self-controlled trials involving 230 patients were finally included. All these trials were graded as low quality, and all is three scores by Jadad scale. The results of meta-analysis showed that the therapeutic effect of gastric bypass on non-obese T2DM after twelve months treatment was good, There were significant reductions in both glycosylated hemoglobin[MD=-2.76,95%CI (-3.55,-1.97), P<0.00001] and fasting plasma glucose[MD=- 4.13,95%CI (-5.70,-2.56), P<0.00001], And the level of glycosylated hemoglobin to reduce postoperative twelve months after six months significantly[MD=0.27, 95% CI(0.05,0.49), P=0.02] the therapeutic effect of gastric bypass on non-obese T2DM after six months treatment was good. There were significant reductions in both glycosylated hemoglobin [MD=-2.78, 95%CI (-3.48,-2.08), P<0.00001] and fasting plasma glucose [MD=-4.62, 95% CI (-5.86,- 3.38), P<0.00001], the same time, the differences were statistically significant. Sensitivity analysis indicated that these results were stable, but funnel-plots indicated possible publication bias existed. Conclusion: The short-term therapeutic effect of gastric bypass on non-obese type 2 diabetes mellitus is better, medium-term curative effect is stable, but because of the small sample size into literature, methodological quality defects, still need to high quality, large sample and long-term follow-up studies to further verify the therapeutic effect.
457 THE BREASTFEEDING EDUCATION FOR STUDENTS OF THE FACULTY OF PHARMACY AND BIOCHEMISTRY IN ZAGREB , Čatipović M.*, Hrgović Z., Fehir Šola K., Vladimir-Knežević S., Fureš R., Grgurić J., Jaška S.
The aim of the study was to examine the knowledge, attitudes and intentions of the students of the Faculty of Pharmacy and Chemistry and the effectiveness of structured breastfeeding education on positive changes. The research was carried out as part of the "Breastfeeding Friends Universities and Polytechnics" and "Breastfeeding Friendship Pharmacies" projects. The experimental group consisted of 27 students of the Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry in Zagreb, year 5, and a control group of 30 students at the Polytechnic of Bjelovar, nursing course, year I. A structured breastfeeding training was carried out with the experimental group, which is part of the course ―Friends of Breastfeeding Pharmacies‖. Testing the normality of the distribution of results and the impact of outliers allowed the use of parametric statistical procedures. Results The paired samples t-test confirmed the positive effects of education in the experimental group, the total score on the BIAKQ questionnaire improved by 79.48 points (t (26) = 25.24, p = 0.00). However, even after the education with intentions (t (55) = 0.57, p = 0.57) and the total results (t (55) = -1.55, p = 0.13) on the BIAKQ questionnaire, students of the experimental group did not achieve statistically significantly better results compared to control group. A one-time, even several-day education consisting of lectures and workshops is sufficient to improve the intentions, attitudes and knowledge of pharmacy students, but to equate with the level of intentions and overall results on the BIAKQ questionnaire of other health professionals (nursing students), longer continuing education is required. Weak correlation after knowledge education with attitudes (r (25) = -0.06 p <0.05) and intentions (r (25) = -0.00 p <0.05) and overall results (r (25) = - 0.00 p <0.05). points to the conclusion that changes in intention and attitude are conditioned by action and other factors, not just by a change in knowledge.
458 OUTCOME OF ELDERLY PATIENTS UNDERGOING ACUTE SURGICAL PROCEDURES: A STUDY IN MARKS MEDICAL COLLEGE & HOSPITAL, DHAKA, BANGLADESH , Iqbal Masud Khan*, Nishat Farhana Khan, Md. Zakir Hossain, Nabaneeta Sarker and Nayeem
Introduction: Life expectancy and the geriatric population have increased steadily in recent decades. By 2030, people more than 65 years will account for 20% of overall population. The society is continuing to age and with luck, fortunately this trend is continuing. Objective: To evaluate the outcome of elderly patients undergoing acute surgical procedures. Methods: This was a non-comparative and non-randomized prospective clinical study in MARKS Medical College & Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh during from January to December-2017. All the patients of age 65 years & above who underwent emergency general surgeries under general/epidural/spinal anaesthesia in the institute were included in the study. Patients comorbid conditions, post-hospital complications and in-hospital mortality were assessed. Charlson Comorbidity Index Score was calculated. Results: More than one third of patients were between 65-70 years of age (46.3%). Perforation peritonitis was the most common diagnosis (46.3%). The overall mortality was in 5 (9.3%, 95%CI=4.0-19.9) patients. Diabetes mellitus and hypertension was present among 44.4% and 40.7% patients respectively. Charlson Comorbidity Index <5 was among 53.7% patients and Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥5 was among 46.3% patients. Gastrointestinal was the most common post-op complication (48.1%). Conclusion: The surgical outcome of a surgical operation in the elderly will be dependent on the physical status of the patient preoperatively. More than the age per say, the delay in presentation may be the cause for mortality in this age group.
459 LATE INFECTIVE ENDOCARDITIS AFTER TRANSCATHETER CLOSURE OF A PATENT FORAMEN OVALE , Sawssane Khalloud*, Elke De Vuyst, Badih El Nakadi and and Philippe Dubois
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious and potentially fatal complication of implanted heart devices and requires the highest caution. Concerning devices for percutaneous transcatheter closure of a patent foramen oval (PFO), this complication is extremely rare and occurs typically early during the first six months after device implantation. We report a case of a 64-year-old male who presented late Staphylococcal infective endocarditis of an Amplatzer patent foramen oval occluder device thirteen years after implantation with a brief review of the literature on the subject.
460 EFFECT OF A PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL INTERVENTION ON SELF-ESTEEM AS A PROTECTIVE FACTOR AGAINST THE USE OF DRUGS IN ADDICTED ADOLESCENTS , Miriam Bautista Caraza*, Edith Castellanos Contreras, Javier Salazar Mendoza, Dulce Brenda Mendez Rojas, Sonia Cervantes Gómez and Nathan Andrew Schroeder
The beginning of consumption of addictive substances during adolescence is a behavior that requires special attention and presents numerous challenges and implies a series of changes in different areas such as personal, family, and social. In general, adolescents are exposed to multiple risk factors. The studies that were consulted indicate that a low self-esteem is a predictor of the use of drugs, which is why this phenomenon has become a competence for global health. It is here that primary care plays an important role, since health professionals must identify potential clients in a timely manner and provide effective interventions that positively contribute to adolescents‟ self-esteem, with self-concept and personal worth as core elements, as well as capacity of the individual when facing stressful situations in everyday life. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of a psychoeducational intervention on self-esteem as a protective factor against the use of drugs in addicted adolescents. The methodology is of a psychoeducational type, containing both qualitative and quantitative data, and due to its design, it was quasi-experimental, characterized by the manipulation of the causal or risk factor. The sampling was by snowball with a sample size of 30 participants and a confidence level of 95%, maximum error of 5%, and prevalence of 20%.
461 SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC STATUS OF CERVICAL LYMPHADENOPATHY PATIENTS , Dr. Md. Mahabur Rahman Sarker*, Dr. Khorsed Alam, Dr. Moniruzzaman Mollah and Dr. AHM Touhidul Alam
Objective: In this study our main goal is to evaluate sociodemographic statusof cervical lymphadenopathy patients. Method: This cross-sectional analytical study was done Total 260 patients with cervical lymphadenopathy, persisting for >2 weeks either localized or generalized attending inpatient and outpatient department (particularly surgical, medical, pediatrics, ENT, dermatology) of Dhaka Medical College Hospital, from December 2012 to December 2013.Result: during the result, most of the lymph nodes were unilateral, multiple, firm, discrete, mobile and nontender. In case of tuberculosis, these were unilateral, multiple, firm, matted, mobile and nontender, whereas metastatic nodes were unilateral, multiple, hard, discrete, fixed and nontender and most of the lymphomas were bilateral, multiple, firm, discrete, mobile and nontender. Axiliary lymphnode involvement was found in 8.5% cases, abdominal in 6.5% and inguinal in 4.6% cases. Conclusion: From our result, we can conclude that, the most common cause of infective enlargement of supraclavicular lymphnode was pulmonary tuberculosis. Further study is needed for better outcome.
462 EFFECT OF LASIK SURGERY ON INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE (IOP) IN MYOPIC PATIENTS , Zahida Jabbar*, Zafar Khaled, Mohammad Nizamul Hossain Sowdagar, Sonia Ahsan and Mehjabin Haque
Introduction: Intraocular pressure is the lateral pressure exerted by intraocular contents above the atmospheric pressure. IOP decrease can be dramatic in highly myopic corrections. Preoperative IOP is the single strongest predictor of postoperative IOP change, with eyes with higher preoperative IOP having greater IOP decrease. LASIK correction will lower IOP by ∼1 mmHg because of the effect of the lamellar flap. Objective: To assess the intraocular pressure of myopic patients before and after LASIK surgery. Materials and Methods: This prospective, observational, pre and post interventional study was conducted in Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), and LASIK SIGHT CENTRE, Gulshan, Ophthalmological Society of Bangladesh (OSB) Laser Visior Centre, Mirpur-2, Dhaka for a period of one year starting from January 2007 to December 2007. A total 40 patients of 80 eyes were evaluated with a view to assess the effect of Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery on intraocular pressure in myopic patients. Group I: IOP before LASIK surgery. Group II: I0P after LASIK surgery. Observations and Results: A total 40 patients of 80 eyes were evaluated with a view to assess the effect of Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) surgery on intraocular pressure in myopic patients. The mean age of the study patient is 25.16±6.33. The number of patients below 30 years of age is and above 30 years of age. Out of 40 patient 24 were female and 16 were male. The mean distribution of 10P of study eyes. The mean SD pre LASIK IOP left eye 11.5±.1.54 mm Hg. After 28th days of operation it was decreased to 10.25±1.34 mmHg. The mean SD pre-LASIK IOP right eye 11.65±1.45 mm Hg. After 28th days of operation it was decreased to10.27±1.33 mm Hg. Majority of the patients were in state of high myopia. Conclusion: The difference between the mean pre and post-LASIK measurements of IOP by Goldmann Applanation tonometer was 1.32 mm Hg, which was significant (P< 0.001). None of the operated eyes had a postoperative IOP higher than the preoperative measurements, after LASIK. Surgeon should be aware of possible change in measurement of IOP with the change of corneal thickness.
463 ASSESSMENT OF THE KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS INSECTICIDE TREATED NETS (ITN) AMONG CAREGIVERS OF UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN IN A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN JOS, PLATEAU STATE, NIGERIA , Idoko Lucy, Okafor Kingsley C.*, Amlabu Gift M., Idika, Chidindu N., Oguche, Blessing E.
Introduction: Key to malaria control is knowledge of and acceptance of use of insecticide treated net. Despite efforts by health authorities to promote the use of ITNs, studies have shown however, that there is still a wide gap between knowledge and utilization of these nets in the endemic areas of the world. Studies have shown that Insecticide Treated Nets awareness in Nigeria varies from State to State with as high as 93% in the Southern States and as low as 36% in the Northern States. 39% had a negative attitude towards ITNs Poor sensitization and wrong perception is responsible for poor attitude in certain areas. Community participation plays an essential role in the control of malaria and whether this succeeds or fails depends greatly on the behaviour of caregivers of young children. This study seeks assess the knowledge and attitude towards insecticide treated nets (ITN) among caregivers of under five children in a tertiary hospital in North Central, Nigeria. Methodology: The study is a descriptive cross sectional study conducted among 242 caregivers of under five children in Tertiary Hospital in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria in 2018. A simple Random Sampling technique was used to select participants. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Ethical Review Committee of BHUTH, Jos. Findings: Majority (87.2%) of caregivers were within the age group 25 and 39 years, Majority of care givers had tertiary level of education 155 (64.0%), 235 (97.1%) were married, 124 (51.2%) of the caregivers had 2 under-five children in their household, 123 (50.8%) of the under fives were males while females were 119 (49.2%). Majority of the children 99 (40.9%) were aged between 1-3 months. Almost all 238 (98.3%) of the caregivers had heard of malaria before. Most 220 (68.3%) of the caregivers, agreed that mosquitoes cause malaria responded, majority of the respondents 230 (95%) believed that sleeping inside mosquito nets prevent malaria, 153 (43.6%) got their information on malaria from the health centre/hospital. Knowledge of ITN was 192 (79.3%) however 50 (20.2%) do not know about ITN. Knowledge was positively associated with higher level of education, lower ages of children, higher ages of caregivers and trading as an occupation of caregivers. Half of the caregivers were willing to recommend ITN to a friend/family, majority agreed to use ITNs and majority supported sleeping under mosquito net for everyone. Summarily, 60.3% had positive attitude towards ITN. Conclusion: Majority of caregivers knew about ITN. Factors affecting knowledge include higher level of education, lower ages of children, higher ages of caregivers and trading as an occupation of caregivers. Majority supported sleeping under mosquito net for everyone. Summarily, 60.3% had positive attitude towards ITN. There is need for increase in knowledge of Malaria via health education, increase in radio and television campaigns, talks and adverts. Strengthening of teaching about Malaria and other endemic diseases in school curriculum at primary, secondary and tertiary levels will help boost attitude toward ITN.
464 SYNOVIAL LIPOMATOSIS IN LONG STANDING OSTEOARTHRITIS: CASE REPORT , Faten Limaiem* and Saâdia Bouraoui
Synovial lipomatosis is an uncommon lesion of the synovium, that often affects the knee joint, resulting in swelling, joint pain, and effusion. The etiology of this condition remains unknown. A 68-year-old obese female patient, with a past medical history of hypertension, presented with a five-year history of chronic swelling with recent onset of mechanical symptoms while performing daily activities. Knee MRI demonstrated effusion in the suprapatellar bursa and hypertrophic synovium in the left knee with leaf-like projections of tissue, which had the same signal intensity as fat. The patient was planned for knee arthroplasty due to progression of the disease, pain and disability. Intraoperatively a yellowish, fatty, soft tissue measuring 8× 6 × 3 cm was excised from the left knee joint. It had multiple papillomatous projections on the surface. Histological examination showed multiple fingers like projections lined by hyperplastic synovium and the synovium was infiltrated by abundant benign adipose tissue. Synovial tissue also showed moderate degree of infiltration by lymphoplasmacytic cells. The final pathological diagnosis was lipoma arborescens. Post-operative recovery was uneventful.
465 FEMORAL PAROSTEAL OSTEOSARCOMA: CASE REPORT , Faten Limaiem* and Saadia Bouraoui
Introduction: parosteal osteosarcoma is a low-grade, bone-forming neoplasm that arises on the surface of bone. It accounts for about 4% of all osteosarcomas. Case report: an 18-year-old male patient with no particular past medical history, consulted for a painless mass in the right thigh that had appeared at the age of 17 years and progressively increased in volume. The physical examination revealed a 6 cm mass at its largest above the right popliteal fossa with knee flexion slightly limited. The X-ray revealed a well-limited mass in the lower third of the femur that was dense and attached to the metaphyseal cortex by a wide base. Histological examination of the biopsy specimen established the diagnosis of parosteal osteosarcoma. The patient underwent wide resection of the femoral tumor preceded by a course of first-line chemotherapy. Postoperative course was uneventful. During the one-year follow-up period, there was no recurrence or metastasis of the tumor. Conclusion: parosteal osteosarcoma is characterized by its insidious growth and favorable prognosis. It rarely leads to metastasis. Its treatment is mainly surgical.
466 EARLY OUTCOME OF CONCURRENT MITRAL VALVE REPLACEMENT AND CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS GRAFTING , Md. Anwarul Islam*, A. K. Al Miraj, H. N. Ashikur Rahaman, Md. Magfur Rahman and Md. Saif Ullah Khan
Concomitant coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) in patients undergoing mitral valvereplacement (MVR) has been shown to be an important risk factor for hospital mortality. We evaluated preoperative characteristics, postoperative complications, in-hospital mortality rate, and length of stay in hospital for patients undergoing concurrent CABG with MVR. Preoperative and postoperative clinical data from 175 patients undergoing concurrent CABG with MVR operation at Bangabandu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from January to December 2019 were collected and entered into a database. Information was obtained by clinical and case note review as well as detailed questionnaires to physicians and patients. Mean age of patients was 57.95 ± 10.54 years and 51.4% were male. Among studied patients, 18.3% and 2.9% underwent aortic and tricuspid valve replacement, respectively. In-hospital mortality was 6.9% and 96.0% of patients were hospitalized ≥14 days. History of congestive heart failure (P=0.027) and postoperative brain stroke (P=0.004) were independent predictors for in-hospital mortality. Exact considering of congestive heart failure and postoperative brain stroke related to in-hospital mortality in concurrent CABG with MVR operation are necessary.
467 PAINLESS AORTIC DISSECTION IN A HEALTHY 42-YEAR-OLD MAN WITHOUT RISK FACTORS , Sawssane Khalloud*, Hajar El Ouartassi, Iliyass Asfalou, Younes Moutakillah and Aatif Benyass
Aortic dissection is an acute aortic syndrome described as "lightning bolt in a clear sky". It’s a vascular emergency that if not diagnosed and treated in a timely manner can result in death. Classically, aortic dissection presents as sudden, severe chest, back, or abdominal pain that is characterized as ripping or tearing in nature. However, several cases with atypical symptoms have been reported. We present a 42 year old male with no significant past medical history presented to the Emergency Department with a progressive shortness of breath and weakness over three days with no chest pain. The patient was clinically stable with normal electrocardiogram and negative troponin. Consequently, he was discharged from the Emergency Department. Ten days later, he consulted a cardiologist for persistent dyspnea. A transthoracic echocardiogram was performed and revealed an aneurysm of the thoracic aorta measuring 61 mm in diameter, type A aortic dissection extending from the sinus of Valsalva to the subrenal aorta, severe aortic regurgitation and pericardial effusion. The patient underwent immediate Bentall surgery, and ultimately had a successful outcome.
468 PREVALENCE AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS OF PATHOGENS ASSOCIATED WITH PRESSURE INJURY IN IMMOBILIZED PATIENTS AT A TERTIARY HOSPITAL IN PORT HARCOURT, NIGERIA. , *Catherine Nonyelum Stanley and Dauba Margaret Princewill
Aims: This study was done to determine the prevalent microorganisms associated with pressure injuries of immobilized patients and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Methods: This was a cross sectional prospective study done at University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Approval was obtained from the Research and Ethics Committee of the UPTH. Samples were collected from 12 patients with pressure injuries at different wards of the UPTH and analyzed using standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using Bauer-Kirby disk diffusion method. Results: A total of 35 bacterial and 12 fungal isolates were obtained. The bacterial isolates in order of decreasing frequency of occurrence were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 12 (34.3 %), Staphylococcus aureus,8 (22.8 %), Klebsiella pneumoniae, 7 (20 %), Escherichia coli 5 (14.3 %) and Coagulase negative Staphylococci 3 (8.6 %). The fungal isolates were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium notatum and Penicillium chrysogenum. Although Escherichia coli was 100% and 75% susceptible to gentamicin and levofloxacin respectively, a high level of multidrug resistance was seen among the isolates. Klebsiella pneumoniae was 100% resistant to clindamycin and erythromycin, and resistant to levofloxacin, tetracycline and ceftriaxone to varying degrees. A striking finding of this study was the development of 100 % resistance to ceftriaxone and cefoxitin by all Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase negative Staphylococci isolated. Conclusion: Improved nursing care and stricter infection prevention and control mechanisms to combat transmission of multidrug resistant organisms in the hospital is urgently recommended.
469 BREAST CANCER IN WOMEN IN THE CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC FACTORS. , Issa Mapouka Pierre Alfred*, Mboreha Zafy Hai Rou, Dibert - Bekoy -Nouganga Emmanuel, Dotte Guy Roger, Bendot Gueguet Yacka Kongo Holibamon Jesus and Doui Doumgba Antoine
Purpose: To describe the epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of breast cancer in women in the surgery department of the community University Hospital Center of Bangui. Material and method: this was a prospective and descriptive study out of three (03) years, ranging from November 1, 2017 to December 31, 2019. Results: thirty-nine (39) cases of breast cancer in women were collected. The mean age of the patients was 50.4 ± 9.5 years. Women over 45 were in the majority with 79.5%. The average of their body mass index (BMI) was 28.5 ± 3.2. The average consultation time was 9.7 ± 20.5 months. The average age of the first menarche was 11.4 ± 1.1 years. The breast nodule was the most common clinical manifestation (87.2%). The left breast was the most affected (69.2%). Ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type (74.4%). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was used in 43.6% of cases. Mastectomy was the most used surgical procedure (51.3%). Conclusion: in Bangui, breast cancer in women is mainly a ductal carcinoma of low histological grade, of interest to elderly women, who have given birth and are breastfeeding. It is often treated by chemotherapy and surgery.
470 BREAST CANCER IN WOMEN IN THE CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL, DIAGNOSTIC AND THERAPEUTIC FACTORS. , Issa Mapouka Pierre Alfred*, Mboreha Zafy Hai Rou, Dibert - Bekoy -Nouganga Emmanuel, Dotte Guy Roger, Bendot Gueguet Yacka Kongo Holibamon Jesus and Doui Doumgba Antoine
Purpose: To describe the epidemiological, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of breast cancer in women in the surgery department of the community University Hospital Center of Bangui. Material and method: this was a prospective and descriptive study out of three (03) years, ranging from November 1, 2017 to December 31, 2019. Results: thirty-nine (39) cases of breast cancer in women were collected. The mean age of the patients was 50.4 ± 9.5 years. Women over 45 were in the majority with 79.5%. The average of their body mass index (BMI) was 28.5 ± 3.2. The average consultation time was 9.7 ± 20.5 months. The average age of the first menarche was 11.4 ± 1.1 years. The breast nodule was the most common clinical manifestation (87.2%). The left breast was the most affected (69.2%). Ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type (74.4%). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was used in 43.6% of cases. Mastectomy was the most used surgical procedure (51.3%). Conclusion: in Bangui, breast cancer in women is mainly a ductal carcinoma of low histological grade, of interest to elderly women, who have given birth and are breastfeeding. It is often treated by chemotherapy and surgery.
471 THE CORRELATION BETWEEN TENASCIN-C AND SEX HORMONE LEVELS IN DEPRESSIVE PATIENTS: A POTENTIAL DIAGNOSTIC TOOL , Christian Cedric Bongolo*, Linzy Elton, Chelsea Fisher and Terence Olivier Ohoya Etsaka
Objective: The current research was performed to investigate the association between serum testosterone and Tenascin-C levels in people with depressive disease, and assess the potential significance of Tenascin-C as a predictive parameter for the assessment of depressive symptoms. Method: The levels of Tenascin-C were detected in the serum of 117 clinically depressive patients and matched 104 healthy blood donors by enzyme-linked immune-absorbance assay tests. Concentrations of estradiol, testosterone, free thyroxine, free triiodothyronine, thyroid-stimulating hormone and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were also analyzed. Results: We found that patients with depression had lower levels of testosterone, free triiodothyronine, thyroid-stimulating hormone and testosterone/estradiol ratios than healthy controls, while Tenascin-C and hs-CRP levels were higher in patients compared with control subjects. The sensitivity of Tenascin-C in detecting depression was 83% at a specificity of 64%. Multiple linear regression analysis displayed that testosterone, testosterone/estradiol ratios and Tenascin-C levels were negatively correlated in male depressive patients. Increased Tenascin-C serum levels are associated with depression severity (p=0.003) and suicidal ideation (p=0.013). Conclusion: the progression of depressive disorder is potentially influenced by the up-regulation of TNC in the presence of low hormone concentrations in male patients.
472 FUNCTIONAL AND LABORATORY MARKERS IN STRATIFICATION OF THE RISK OF DEVELOPMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS IN TEENAGERS WITH EXOGENOUS CONSTITUTIONAL OBESITY I DEGREE , *Khasanova Guzaliya and Agzamova Shoira
The results of studying the thickness of epicardial fat according to echocardiography, as well as a comparative analysis of plasma levels of adiponectin and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (CRPhs), as stratification factors for the risk of cardiovascular complications in adolescents with exogenous-constitutional obesity of the first degree, are presented. 20 adolescents with exogenously-constitutional obesity of the 1st degree, 10 adolescents with overweight and 10 practically healthy adolescents with normal weight were examined. The results of the study confirmed that an increase in CRPhs, hypoadiponectinemia, and an increase in epicardial fat deposition in adolescents with exogenously-constitutional obesity of degree I are risk factors for the development of cardiovascular complications. A negative correlation of blood adiponectin level with CRPhs concentration and epicardial fat deposition thickness confirms the anti-inflammatory properties of adiponectin and its protective effect on the development of cardiovascular complications associated with obesity.
473 ASSESSMENT OF HEMATOLOGICAL MARKERS USING THYMOQUINONE AS EXPERIMENTAL AND SILYMARIN AS STANDARD DRUG AGAINST HEPATIC INSULT CAUSED BY FIRST LINE ANTI TUBERCULOSIS DRUGS , Muhammad Waqas*, Shoaib Asif, Muhammad Masood, Zaman Hayat, Waqar Siddique, Farhan Asghar, Rabbia Tariq, Azka Musharaf and Imran Waheed
Gram negative rod Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the underlying causative agent for the progress of life threatening disease tuberculosis. First line antituberculosis drugs are main choice for physician to counter this dangerous disease, by producing promising effect to counter Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the selected group of drugs produce hepatotoxicity. In this study Thymoquinone, main constituent of Nigella sativa was used as experimental drug while silymarin as standard drug. The thymoquinone found to produce hepatoprotective effects in rabbits treated anti tuberculosis drugs. Thymoquinone showed remarkable result and persisted successful in achieving level of ALT, which is 17.09 (SD±1.39) close to the usual mean value of 18.96, results were found significant (P value < 0.005). Thymoquinone in both 40mg and 20 mg dose found effective but the result by TQ 40mg were extraordinary by achieving the level to (50.27 SD±5.88) very near to the normal mean level of (48.10) in contrast with standard drug silymarin (56.96 SD± 8.36). One more intense effect was observed on day 7, when TQ cut the value down from (54.18) on same day silymarin (70.00) was unable to change the level which prove the short onset of action of thymoquinone as compare to standard drug. P value < 0.005 were found statically significant.
474 SERUM URIC ACID LEVEL IS AN IMPORTANT PROGNOSTIC MARKER IN NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES , Dr. Md. Raknuzzaman*, Tasnim Jannaty, Dr. Anis Ahmed, Dr. Md. Shahidullah, Dr. Md. Masud Rana, Professor, Shaikh Amir Hossain
Background: Neurodegenerative disease is a feature of many debilitating, incurable diseases that are rapidly rising in prevalence, such Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, prion, Huntington's, as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) spinocerebellar ataxia(SCA), spinal muscular atrophy(SMA) and some other diseases or disorders. In contrast to many other disease states, low serum uric acid (UA) levels are found in many neurodegenerative diseases. Aim of the Study: The aim of this study was to evaluate the Serum Uric Acid Level as a prognostic marker in several neurodegenerative diseases. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out at neuromuscular disorder clinic, inpatient and outpatient Department of Neurology, Bangabandhu Sheik Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) Dhaka, Bangladesh. The duration of the study was from January 2018 to December 2018. This case-control cross-sectional study included 37 patients with several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (n=9), Parkinson's disease (n=8), prion disease (n=8), Huntington's disease (n=7) and finally amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (n=5) were finalized as the case. On the other hand, 37 healthy people without any type of neurodegenerative or cerebrovascular disease met the proper exclusion criteria were recruited as the control group participants from stable outpatients and medical staff of the mentioned hospital. Results: In analyzing the Serum UA level we found the mean (±SD) Serum UA level of case and control groups were 4.66 ± 1.15 and 5.42 ± 1.20 respectively where the p-value was 0.0069 which indicated a significant correlation between both the groups. Besides this, in a specific analysis of the Serum UA level of only Alzheimer's patients, we found it was 4.58 ± 1.02. Although the number of Alzheimer's patients was 9, the p-value was 0.0377. So there was also significant. So Serum Uric Acid Level played an important role as a prognostic marker in several neurodegenerative diseases. Conclusions: Serum Uric Acid levels played an important role as a prognostic marker in several neurodegenerative diseases. The findings may be helpful in the diagnostic system of several neurodegenerative diseases.
475 COMBORIDITY OF CONGENITAL HEART DISEASES IN CHILDREN , *Sh. I. Navruzova, A. T. Akhmedov and Sh. U. Khikmatova
The authors studied the condition of sick children aged 1 month to 18 years with congenital heart defects with comorbidity. In 77.5% of the examined children, concomitant diseases were diagnosed along with the underlying disease (CHD). The authors argue that frequent acute respiratory infections lead to a decrease in immunity and the formation of foci of chronic infections, the exacerbation of which is one of the reasons for late surgical correction, resulting in a high risk of postoperative complications, mortality and a decrease in the quality of life of patients with CHD. The natural comorbid course of CHD reduces the effectiveness of conservative treatment of heart failure.
476 RED BLOOD CELL DISTRIBUTION WIDTH (RDW) AS A PREDICTIVE BIOMARKER FOR PATIENTS WITH MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN SUDAN , Eman Elimam Diab, Elharm Ibrahim Abdallah and Mohamed Mobarak Elbasheir*
Background: Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a simple and inexpensive parameter, which measures the range of variation of erythrocyte volume (anisocytosis) and routinely used in complete blood count for differential diagnosis of anaemias. Emerging reports suggest a usefulness of RDW in multiple clinical applications, including coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, early detection and intervention in time of these vascular diseases is critical for delaying their progression. So, the current study is aimed to assess the predictive value of RDW in the diagnosis of Myocardial infarction. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty individuals (mean age 58.5 years, 70 males, 50 females) in Khartoum state were enrolled into this study. They divided into (60 patients with known myocardial infarction admitted at AL-Shaab Teaching Hospital as a case group and 60 healthy individual as control group. All blood samples were collected in EDTA container and RDW was measured by (Sysmex KX21N) hematology analyzer, then data were analyzed by SPSS. Results: There was a high significant increase in RDW among cases when compared to control with P value (0.00). In addition, A significant positive correlation between RDW and age among patients with myocardial infarction was observed (R value 0.465, P value 0.000) while negative correlation was detected in control group (R value − .067, P value 0.617). Conclusions: RDW is a simple biomarker that could be used for early prediction of myocardial infarction and furthermore for prognosis of patients with heart disease.
477 SATELLITES: LINEAR OSCILLATION OF THE SYSTEM (EQUILIBRIUM FOR SMALL ECCENTRICITY) , *Dr. Sushil Chandra Karna
This paper deals with the linear oscillation of the system about the positions of equilibrium for small eccentricity. We will try to find the condition of equilibrium position.
478 CORRELATION BETWEEN STHAULYA AND CALCANEAL SPUR , Dr. Suryakant D. Rokde* and Dr. Somya O. Singh
Our country was and is one of the world‟s most affluent nations and the affluence of sedentary habits are known to be the leading cause of obesity. This is due to a deadly imbalance of high energy input through rich food and low energy expenditure due to lack of physical exercise. Sthaulya (Obesity) is one of the Medo-Roga occurring due to vitiation of Medo-vaha -Srotasa and Medo Dhatu. Since Medo-vaha-srotasa and Medo-Dhatu both are in vikruta awastha or vitiated state, hence improper nourishment of further dhatus (Asthi, Majja and Shukra is obstructed. This further leads to diseases and complications related to these dhatus as well. Adhyasthi/Exostosis (that growth of new bone on the surface of a bone) is a related complication that has been mentioned by Charakacharya in Asthi pradoshaj Roga. One of the complications of obesity apart from Ischemic heart diseases and Diabetes mellitus is Calcaneal spur (form of exostosis). Daily and seasonal health regimens (Swathavritta and Ritucharya) and other modalities such as detailed instruction on a proper balanced diet and appropriate levels of exercise as per the constitution (Prakriti) of the person have been laid out clearly in Ayurvedic text. It is interesting to note that world is now focusing on healthy lifestyle as key to avoid risk factors like obesity.
479 OXIDATIVE STRESS REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES AND ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE SYSTEM IN PERIODONTITIS - A REVIEW , Dr. Anju Gautam* MDS, Dr. Neelam Mittal MDS and Dr. S. P. Mishra
Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that results in the destruction of supporting periodontal tissues of the teeth, which is primarily initiated by bacterial infection and subsequently modified by anomalous (abnormal, aberrant) host response. As the oxidants and antioxidants are in dynamic equilibrium, any disturbance in one would lead to oxidative Stress. Whenever periodontitis occurs, reactive oxygen species are produced mostly by hyperactive neutrophils that could not be neutralized by antioxidant defense system, cause tissues damage. This tissues damage is mainly characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and protein damage leading to formation of oxidative stress markers. This article focuses on the reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress markers and antioxidant defense system in periodontitis.
480 PUNARNAVA AS NEPHROPROTECTIVE DRUG IN THE TREATMENT OF KIDNEY DISEASE , Singh Pooja*, Pal Satendra, Tiwari R.C., Dikshit Manisha, Singh Anoop Kumar and Sharma Ved Bhushan
Ayurveda is an ancient traditional approach to medicine in India. In Ayurveda, we got innovative research thought from 1st chapter of Charak Samhita. Punarnava mentioned as vishghna dravya [antitoxic drug] in shusrut samhita kalp sthana. Boerhavia diffusa Linn [family –Nyctginaceae] is the botanical name of Punarnava. The meaning of punarnava is the rejuventation or regeneration of the body’s cells. Punarnava can rejuvenate dying cells and help to revive the dying organs of the body. Nowadays, the use of herbaldrugs for the treatment of various diseases is developing all over the world. Punarnava is used in various Kidney disorders like CKD. Chronic kidney disease is a condition that causes a gradual loss of kidney function. Modern management strategy involves dialysis and renal transplantation requiring high costs and difficulty, so very few patients can receive sufficient renal care for financial reasons. Hence it is necessary to explore safe and cost-effective treatment. Punarnava used as Ekala dravya in the treatment of kidney disease on the basis of its antitoxic and rejuvenation properties. Punarnava, having diuretic properties (Mutravirechan), removes contaminants from the blood through the urine and acts as a Vishghna dravya (anti-toxic drug). In many clinical case studies, the use of punarnava shows that kidney damage can be either partially or completely reversed and the frequency of dialysis may be reduced or may not be necessary. Thus, all of these cases studies show that Ayurvedic medicine has the potential lto make an important therapeutic contribution all stages of chronic kidney disease.
481 PHTOCHEMICAL & PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW ON ACACIA SPECIES , *Monika Bakoliya and Yogesh Kumar Sharma
Acacia species: Acacia is the most significant genus of family Leguminosae, first of all described by Linnaeus in 1869. It is estimated that there are roughly 1589 species of Acacia worldwide, about two-third of them native to Africa and rest of spread around tropical and subtropical regions of the world.[1] Acacia species are commonly known as ‘Babool’ in India and ethno medicinally used for the treatment of various types of diseases. The large number of exudates gums obtained from trees of acacia and contain similarly bound sugars (D-galactose, L-arabinose and Deoxy-sugar) and uronic acid salts of Na, K, Ca and Mg.
482 TRANSMISSION AND PREVENTION OF 2019-NCOV IN DENTISTRY , Jyoti Tripathi*, Nivedita Tripathi and G. Ajay Kumar
A highly infectious pandemic respiratory disease is spreading from one to another by different routes of transmission case by novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV. This virus was first explored in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. This virus is causing serious health risk in the population worldwide. The virus causing the disease is not the normal corona virus that normally circulate among human and causes mild common cold and illness. The person-to-person Transmission modes of 2019-nCoV included direct transmission, such as coughing, sneezing, droplet inhalation, and contact spread, such as the contact with oral, nasal, and eye mucosal membrane. The dental clinician are at high risk of 2019-nCoV infection due to the face-to-face communication and the exposure to saliva, blood, and other body fluids, and the handling of sharp instruments. This review explains about various routes of transmission and measures of infection control of 2019-nCoV.
483 COMPARTIVE REVIEW OF OPTHALMIC IN SITU GEL , Aseem Bhateja*, Nishant Thakur and Manish Goswami
The poor bioavailability of typical ophthalmic formulations is because of fast precorneal drug loss (through dilution and voidance from the eye). There square measure some static (different layers of the attention i. e. cornea, sclera, retina) and dynamic barriers (blood liquid and blood retinal barrier) that conjointly have an effect on the bioavailability of drug. the matter are often overcome by victimization in place forming ophthalmic drug delivery system ready from compound that exhibit reversible liquid–gel natural process. in place gels square measure the liquid preparations that upon instillation undergoes natural process in cul-de-sac of the attention to create a viscous gel and this happens because of the environmental changes within the eye (i.e. because of amendment in temperature, amendment in particle concentration} and ion evoked change). This novel drug delivery system promotes the significantly ease and convenience of administration, rescue of correct dose still on prolong duration of drug to bear with membrane. The first demand of a eminent management unleash product focuses on increasing patient compliance, sensible stability and biocompatibility characteristics that create the in place gel indefinite quantity forms terribly reliable. This review is to specify the fundamental anatomy and physiology of human eye, varied approaches used for formulation of unmoved gels and polymers utilized in the formulation of in place gels.
484 COVID -19 DISEASE SYMPTOMS AND CONTROL MEASURES , *Manjeet Kour Arora and Umesh Dhurwe
Human coronaviruses, first characterized in the 1960s, are responsible for a substantial proportion of upper respiratory tract infections in children. Since 2003, at least 5 new human coronaviruses have been identified, including the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, which caused significant morbidity and mortality. NL63, representing a group of newly identified group I coronaviruses that includes NL and the New Haven coronavirus, has been identified worldwide. These viruses are associated with both upper and lower respiratory tract disease and are likely common human pathogens. The global distribution of a newly identified group II coronavirus, HKU1, has not yet been established. Coronavirology has advanced significantly in the past few years. The SARS epidemic put the animal coronaviruses in the spotlight. The background and history relative to this important and expanding research area are reviewed here.
485 ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF VITEX ALTISSIMA LINN. LEAVES BY HHXRF AND SEM-EDX AND ITS ANTIOXIDANT STUDIES , Daisy Joseph*
Elemental analysis of V. altissima (L) leaf was carried out by using X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and SEM-EDX. Nutritional values of V.altissima were evaluated according to the antioxidant properties of different extracts of leaves. Fifteen of the detected elements were found essential, which includes some heavy elements also(Al, Si, P, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Nb, Mo, Cd, Th and U). Certain elements (Mg, S, Ti, V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, Se, Rb, Y, Zr, Ag, Sn, Sb, Ba, W, Hg, Pb and Bi) were found to be below the detection limit with the help of Hand held X-ray Fluorescence (HHXRF) analysis. From SEM-EDX results, certain non-transition elements such as C, O, Si, S, K, Ca and Br were found to be present in the dried leaf powder of V. altissima. The distribution of elements was found to be in the order : crude leaf powder > Hexane > Chloroform > Ethyl acetate > Butanol. Thus it is clear that V. altissima contain many essential elements which are all required minerals for human.
486 CONCEPTUAL STUDY OF CONCOCTED POISON; GARA VISHA , *Dr. Amrit Malik, Dr. Sudhir Malik and Dr. Chinky Goyal
Poison is in everything, only the dose decides its effects. One of the hidden poison is the concocted poison known as Gara visha. Ayurveda explains this visha as the combination of poisonous or non-poisonous substances which produces chronic toxicity by interfering in the process of digestion. We unknowingly consume various combination substances which are harmful to our health. The insect powder, human waste products are some of the agents of Gara visha. Many food items we consume daily contain some of the natural toxins. By knowing these food items we can reduce the chances of toxicity. Ayurveda defines Gara visha in a marvellous way and describes the treatment as well like Vamana karma, Agadpaana. Ayurveda plays an important role in management of Gara visha.
487 TRANSMISSION ROUTES OF 2019-NCOV (COVIT-19) AND CONTROLS , Dr. Dhanapal Venkatachalam*
A novel β-corona virus 2019-nCoV (Covit-19) caused severe and even fetal pneumonia explored in a seafood market of Wuhan city, Hubei province, China, and rapidly spread to other provinces of China, and all over the World. The 2019-nCoV (Covit-19) was different from SARS-CoV, but shared the same host receptor the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The natural host of 2019-nCoV may be the bat Rhinolophus affinis as showed 96.2% of whole-genome identity to BatCoV RaTG13. The person-to-person transmission routes of included 2019-nCoV (Covit-19) direct transmission, such as cough, sneeze, droplet inhalation transmission, and contact transmission, such as the contact with oral, nasal, and eye mucous membranes 2019-nCoV (Covit-19). can also be transmitted through the saliva, and the fetal–oral routes may also be a potential person-to-person transmission route. The participants in Medical practice expose to tremendous risk of 2019-nCoV (Covit-19) infection due to the face-to-face communication and the exposure to saliva, blood, and other body fluids, and the handling of sharp instruments. Medical professionals play great roles in preventing the transmission of 2019-nCoV (Covit-19. Here I recommend the infection control measures during health practice to block the person-to-person transmission routes in hospitals.
488 NANOTUBE: A VERSATILE DRUG DELIVARY SYSTEAM: A REVIEW , Pritishikha S. Rane* and Ranajit S. Kadam*
In nano-science and nanotechnology basically more no of nano material has been synthesized and discovered rapidly. Nanotube are most disparate origin. Nanotube are other forms of carbon nano-materials with new properties and application these nano-tube are found in crude oil at very low concentration like 1000 ppm. Meteorites, interstellar dust and proto planetary nebulae as well as in certain sediment layers on Earth. It can also be produced in the laboratory by using various method chemical vapor deposition or by laser ablation process. Nanotube have excellent mechanical and optical properties, also high surface areas and tunable surface structures. Nanotube are prepared by various methods like plasma based synthesis,thermal synthesis process,plasma enhanced CVD . Here we review the synthesis, structure, properties, and applications of individual Nano tubes and clusters of Nanotubes and their useful applications in medical and biological applications.
489 A GENERAL REVIEW ON CELASTRUS PANICULATUS AND ITS PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY , Ranjana Bohra*
Celastrus paniculatus Willd (Celastraceae) is a rare and endangered species in medicinal plant having a remarkable reputation such as the treatment of cognitive dysfunction, analgesic, anti- inflammatory, epilepsy, insomnia, abortifaciant, appetizer, gout, learning and memory, abdominal disorders and many more. The species is vulnerable in western ghat of south India. Different parts of celastrus paniculatus like seed, bark, stem, flower, capsule, leaf have their own pharmacological activity. The phytochemical screening analysis of leaf extracts of Celastrus paniculatus shows that all the four extracts i.e aqueous, chloroform, petroleum ether, and ethanolic extracts showed the presence of tannins, alkaloids and fixed oils. Carbohydrates, flavonoids, Phenolic compounds, and saponins are present in only aqueous extract while Sterols and triterpenoids are present in ethanolic, aqueous extracts. Phytochemical studied has been shown that Celastrus paniculatus seed extract contains alkaloids, sterols, and bright coloring substance, celapanine, celapanigine, celapagine, celastrine, and paniculatine are some of the important alkaloids are rich in oleic acid, which is the main fatty acid in the oil, together with linoleic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid.
490 SCOPE OF MAXILLOFACIAL PROSTHESIS MATERIALS: FROM PAST TO FUTURE- A LITERATURE REVIEW , *Dr. Dhaniram Talukder and Dr. Shubhda Gandhi
Reason behind the facial defect can be trauma, tumor, surgery and congenital/developmental anomaly. Aim of maxillofacial prosthesis is to restore the lost structure, normal function as well as esthetics. Surgical reconstruction may not be possible owing to size or location of the defect. Materials used for fabrication maxillofacial prosthesis, which include full range of chemical structures, with physical properties ranging from hard, stiff alloys, ceramics and polymers.
491 COVID-19: ANALYSIS DISEASE PATTERN, TREATMENT AND USE OF ADVANCE TECHNOLOGY TO CONTROL SPREADING OF DISEASE , *Vishal Kumar Deshwal
Aim of present study is to analysis disease pattern, treatment and use of advance surveillance technology for controlling and spreading of Covid-19 disease. Europe countries and United States of America are more affected by RNA virus “SAR-Cov-2”. At present number of cases in China is constant and reduced which are nearly 40 cases per day. In United States of America, Covid-19 cases are jumped to 22.8 times within last 18 days which is highest among all Covid-19 cases. The pattern of Covid-19 disease is unique where disease rate is sharply increase or disease within 15-18 days. South Korean’s data showed some stability in number of Civid-19 cases and slightly drop down in numbers which indicated that disease is in control condition but numbers of Covid-19 cases per day are higher than China in present scenario. In case of Russia, confirmed case speed up but death rate is constant. Hydroxychloroquine and Chloroquine phosphate can be used for treatment of Covid-19 disease. Russia, China, Israel, Singapore and South Korea are using high-tech surveillance system for monitoring the movement of citizen including quarantine person under lockdown condition.
492 INFECTION CONTROL IN PROSTHODONTICS , Dr. Nitish Gupta, Dr. Jaya Singla*
Infection control is an important concept in the present day practice of dentistry. Infection control is important in dental practice because the dental health care professionals are at high risk and emergence of new communicable diseases like hepatitis, HIV and prevailing diseases like tuberculosis makes it important to control the transmission.[4]
493 COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PANDEMIC CRISIS - COVID19 AND SRI LANKAN SIDDHA SYSTEM OF MEDICINE – A LITERATURE REVIEW , Dr. T. Soruban* and Dr. S. R. Pholtan Rajeev
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a new virus. The disease causes respiratory illness (like the flu) with symptoms such as a cough, fever, and in more severe cases, difficulty breathing. You can protect yourself by washing your hands frequently, avoiding touching your face, and avoiding close contact (1 meter or 3 feet) with people who are unwell. How it spreads: Coronavirus disease spreads primarily through contact with an infected person when they cough or sneeze. It also spreads when a person touches a surface or object that has the virus on it, then touches their eyes, nose, or mouth. Aim and objective of this research is to find out the mostly relevant curam (fever) scheduled in siddha system of medicine from the Sri Lankan tradition. Research Type: Systematic Review, Research Design: Collection of data from the available authenticated Tamil siddha texts which are printed three books such as; vaittiyavilakam eṉṉum amirtacākara patārtta cūṭāmaṇiyum vaittiyatteḷivum. cekarācacēkara vaittiyam and pararācacēkaram curarōka nitāṉam. Compare the modern medical text then, systematic compare with the sign and symptoms of collected data. Then, analysis with simple descriptive statistical Relative Citation Score of compare data and finalize the results as conclusion of this research.   As result of study were; cilēṟpaṉacuram & vātacilēṭṭumacuram is mostly related to COVID19 and finally concluded by; RCS value was 0.75 (75%) matched 09 out of 12 sign & symptoms with cilēṟpaṉacuram from pararācacēkaram curarōka nitāṉam.  
494 THREE MUSKETEERS OF PAIN PRECURSORS AND THEIR REMEDY , Kushal Nandi and Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen*
Pain is unwanted symptom of body malfunction which is not desired by anyone. It is of two types: superficial & neurogenic. Pain is generated by three biogenic precursors: prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes. All three are C-20 carbon units having free carboxylic acid units which stimulate cyclooxygenase enzymatic pathway to produce sensation of pain. Feeling of pain is at nerve endings as superficial and generation from spinal cord to produce neurogenic pain. Pain produce inflammation which accumululate body fluids at a particular segment produce swelling and redness due to discharge of histamines to feel the sensation of pain. Pain can be controlled by two types of analgesic drugs: opioids and non-opioids. Generally morphine derivatives come in opioid analgesic and salicylates come under NSAIDs as non-opioids. Analgesic agents block arachidonic acid pathway by blocking phospholipase A2 to block the further process in prostaglandin synthase, lipoxygenase and thromboxane synthase pathways to block the biosynthesis of COX1 & COX2 isozymes, LTAs & TXA and TXB.
495 CORONAVIRUSES DISEASE -A PANDEMIC DISASTER: A REVIEW , Navneet Kumar Verma*, Asheesh Kumar Singh, Prem Chand Mall, Vikas Yadav and Rupali Jaiswal
Coronaviruses is a group of highly diverse single stranded RNA virus. Corona included fever fatigue cough cold. Coronaviruses (CoV) are immeasurable family of viruses that cause sickness ranging from the common cold to more severe viruses such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). 2-14 days represents the current official estimated range for the novel coronavirus COVID-19. Coronaviruses are a group of enveloped viruses with nonsegmented, single-stranded, and positive-sense RNA genomes. Apart from infecting a variety of economically important vertebrates (such as pigs and chickens), six coronaviruses have been known to infect human hosts and cause respiratory diseases. At this times, several life-threatening viruses have emerged and coronavirus are one of these. Coronaviruses are characterized by crown-like spike that project from their surface, an unusually large RNA genome, replication strategy.
496 TUMOUR NECROSIS FACTOR ALPHA AND CANCER , Pragya Srivastava, Taniya* and Vaishali Bhagwani
Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, cachectin) is a member of the TNF superfamily. It was the first cytokine (cell signalling protein) to be evaluated for cancer biotherapy and its development. It is a multifunctional cytokine assuming a main job in apoptosis and cell survival just as in irritation and resistance. Still, the medical use of TNF-α is strictly limited by its noxiousness. Now, TNF-α is administered merely by locoregional drug delivery systems like isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP) and isolated limb perfusion (ILP). Meanwhile both of these processes are strictly challenging which require surgical procedure, they are chiefly used for the treatment of locally advanced sarcomas (solid tumours) like in-transit melanoma metastases, primary or metastatic unresectable liver carcinoma and limb- threatening soft tissue sarcomas. To decrease the toxicity in body of TNF-α, a number of schemes have been explored over the previous numerous decades. It has been exhibited in the detached appendage perfusion sitting that TNF-α acts synergistically with cytostatic drugs. The collaboration of TNF-α with TNF receptor 1 (TNFR-1) and TNF receptor 2 (TNFR-2) actuates a few flag transduction pathways, prompting the assorted elements of TNF-α. Tumour necrosis factor alpha produced mainly by activated macrophages, also it can be produced by many other cell types like mast cells (basophils), NK cells (natural killer cell), eosinophils (acidophils), CD4+ lymphocytes, neurons and neutrophils (polymorphs). It is involved in host defense and tissue homeostasis process. The biological effect of tumour necrosis factor alpha may ultimately beneficial or injurious to the host, depending on its period of tissue exposure, concentration and the existence of other mediators in the cellular environment. It shows antitumor activity and causes carcinoma, chronic inflammation, pulmonary, metabolic, cardiovascular, autoimmune and neurologic diseases.
497 CARBON NANOTUBES IN DELIVERY OF ANTICANCER HERBAL DRUGS , Humaira Fatima* and Abdul Javeed
Malignancy is assessed to be a huge medical issue of the 21st century. The circumstance gets much harder with regards to its treatment utilizing chemotherapy utilizing synthetic anticancer atoms with various side effects. Recently, there has been a change in outlook toward the selection of herbal medications for the treatment of cancer. Right now, appropriate conveyance framework is basically justified to convey these herbal biomolecules to treat cancer. To accomplish this objective, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been generally investigated to convey anticancer herbal drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy and safety. This survey interestingly clarifies the biopharmaceutical, clinical and safety aspects of various anticancer home grown medications conveyed through CNTs with a cross-chat on their results. This audit will fill in as a one-stop-look for the perusers on different anticancer herbal medications conveyed through CNTs as a cutting edge futuristic delivery device.
498 CARBON NANOTUBES IN DELIVERY OF ANTICANCER HERBAL DRUGS , Humaira Fatima* and Abdul Javeed
Malignancy is assessed to be a huge medical issue of the 21st century. The circumstance gets much harder with regards to its treatment utilizing chemotherapy utilizing synthetic anticancer atoms with various side effects. Recently, there has been a change in outlook toward the selection of herbal medications for the treatment of cancer. Right now, appropriate conveyance framework is basically justified to convey these herbal biomolecules to treat cancer. To accomplish this objective, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been generally investigated to convey anticancer herbal drugs with improved therapeutic efficacy and safety. This survey interestingly clarifies the biopharmaceutical, clinical and safety aspects of various anticancer home grown medications conveyed through CNTs with a cross-chat on their results. This audit will fill in as a one-stop-look for the perusers on different anticancer herbal medications conveyed through CNTs as a cutting edge futuristic delivery device.
499 CORONAVIRUS: WHAT DO YOU NEED TO KNOW AS AN OPHTHALMOLOGIST? , Dr. Jatinder Singh Bhalla and Dr. Kanika Jain*
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a new strain that was discovered in 2019 and has not been previously identified in humans. On 11th February 2020, the WHO formally named the disease triggered by 2019‐nCoV now better identified as SARS-CoV-2, as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19). On 11th March 2020, WHO declared COVID-19 as a pandemic. As of 10th April, 2020 more than 1.71 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 have been reported in over 210 countries and territories, resulting in approximately 103,000 deaths and 389,000 recoveries. This article gives a brief review about the microbiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, impact in the field of Ophthalmology and its management & prophylaxis.
500 MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS OBTAINED FROM THE HUMAN UMBILICAL CORD HAVING CAPACITY TO TREATS AILMENTS: A REVIEW , Gaurav M. Prajapati*, Ranajit S. Kadam and Dipak B. Khillare
The human umbilical cord, a tissue connecting the embryo to the uterus of the mother. Early researchers showcase that the embedded stromal cells were not the only in charge of the Synthesis of matrix components and expansion of the cord, but also for the intercellular communication and constriction. Adult stem cells (ASCs) which can be easily obtained from various tissues, such as the skin, bone marrow, and adipose can be used further to treat disorders of vital bodily organs with less concern than ESCs. Research and different regenerative medicines, which include medicines treating Parkinson's disease, intracerebral hemorrhage, liver disease, brain disease, etc. Different stem cells have been studied to find an effective treatment for this incurable disease. MSCs have an anti-inflammatory effect which reduces the damages in the hepatocytes. The huc-MSCs migrated to the ischemic bounded area, got divided into glial, neuronal, doublecortin, CXCR4+, and the vascular endothelial cells. Also, huc-MSCs thus implanted supported the formation of new vessels to increase the flow of blood, and increase in expression of neuro-tropic factors.
501 DEVELOPMENT AND ASSESSMENT OF CORE PHARMACOTHERAPY PLAN FOR COMMON LIFESTYLE DISORDERS , Binu K. M.*, Saira Hakkim, H. Doddayya and S. S. Antin
Background: The world today is threatened by a host of new life style related disorders where the advent of pharmaceutical care has led to ever increasing and dynamic roles of pharmacists in patient specific practice. Method: A prospective study was carried out with a total of 161 cases of life style disorders such as HTN (62), DM (52), COPD (25) and Asthma (22), through an active communication. The CORE formats for the collected cases were developed and are assessed with proper guidelines. Results: In study population male patients were more for hypertension (67.74%) and COPD (78%). Whereas, female patients were more for DM (63.46%) and an equal prevalence (50%) of males and females for asthma. A significant association exists in between the factors such as gender, age, educational status, social habits, physical activity and diet with hypertension. The association between the factors such as gender, age, family history, social habits, physical activity and diet with DM was significant. The assessment of developed CORE pharmacotherapy plan showed that majority of the lifestyle disorders were approached by evaluating both subjective and objective evidences, and most of the patients achieved QOL. Most patients were on an existing therapy and the evaluation of efficacy parameters were performed for the patients. Conclusion: The study results emphasize the importance of development of CORE pharmacotherapy plan and its assessment, which is a basic element of pharmaceutical care. If CORE was developed systematically, rational drug therapy can be ensured, which may lead to improved QOL for lifestyle disorders.
502 PROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF RETROGRADE SUPRACONDYLAR NAILING IN THE MANAGEMENT OF SUPRACONDYLAR AND DISTAL FEMORAL FRACTURES , Dr. Ashok Vidyarthi and *Dr. Amarendra B. Singh
Background: Due to the presence of soft tissue injury, intraarticular extension and injury to the extensor system, the distal third femoral fractures pose a great challenge in management. The debates among orthopedic surgeons on the choice of implant for distal third femoral fractures are ongoing. There is still debate as to the optimal device for distal femoral fixation. AIMS & Objectives: Using retrograde nailing techniques, to assess and compare the clinical and radiological results of distal third femoral fracture stabilisation. Method: Total of 11 participants underwent retrograde femoral nailing for the treatment of distal third femur fractures. They were followed up clinically and radiologically. Clinical assessment was made according to Neer knee scores and radiologically by Xrays. Result: 11 cases treated with distal femoral retrograde nailing were analysed. The results analyzed according to Neer knee scoring showed excellent in 5 cases (48.67%), good in 3 cases (34.51%), fair in 2 cases (9.73%) and poor in 1 case (7.07%). The Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) was 0.8 which favours a highly positive correlation between the fracture union and retrograde nailing. Conclusion: Retrograde distal femoral nailing for A O / ASIF type A and type C distal third femoral fractures are an established and effective fixation procedure. The study results prove that retrograde distal femoral nailing could be included as a reliable management plan for distal third femur fractures.
503 HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN CHOLECYSTECTOMY SPECIMENS IN INDUSTRIAL POPULATION OF NORTHERN INDIA , Dr. Seema Chadha, Dr. Rakesh Kumar*, Dr. Shilpa Ruhela, Dr. Awantika Tiwari and Dr. Sanjeev Singhal
Background: Gallstone disease is commonly found requiring cholecystectomy. Different histopathological findings are seen in Gall bladder removed after cholecystectomy. They range from inflammatory- acute or chronic, metaplasia, dysplasia, benign hyperplasia and malignancies. The aim of our study was to see different histopathological findings in cholecystectomy specimens. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in our hospital from 2017 to 2018.413 cholecystectomy specimens received in our department were studied. The clinical data was retrieved from hospital records and histopathological findings were confirmed after examining the slides. Results: Total of 413 cases were examined consisting of 111males (26.87%) and 302 females (73.12%). Age varying between 13 to 84 years and mean age in our study was 48.04 years. The most common pathology was chronic cholecystitis seen in 369 cases (89.3%), acute cholecystitis in 19 cases (4.6%), metaplasia –pyloric and intestinal in 68 cases (16.46%) and also other variants of chronic cholecystitis. Malignancy was seen in 7 cases (1.6%). Conclusion: Our study showed vide spectrum of histopathological findings in gallstone disease ranging from benign to the presence of carcinoma in 7 cases(1.6%).
504 FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MUCOADHESIVE MICROSPHERES OF ANTIBIOTIC , Dr. Talat Farheen*, P. Srikanth, Suddala Anusha, Dwivedi Kanchan and Dr. Nijhawan Monika
The present investigation concerns the development of a new oral drug delivery system utilizing the concepts of controlled release and mucoadhesion, which would remain in stomach and extend the drug release for longer period of time. Levofloxacin is used to treat a variety of bacterial infections. It belongs to a class of drugs known as quinolone antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Levofloxacin mucoadhesive microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation technique using carbopol 934P and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose K4M (HPMC K4M). The prepared microspheres were subjected to evaluation of particle size, entrapment efficiency, drug content, in vitro wash off test and in vitro drug release studies. Absence of drug-polymers interaction was confirmed by fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry. The particle sizes of batches ranged between 304.5 μm to 456.6 μm. The drug entrapment of formulations was about 70 to 88.3%. The prepared microspheres showed a strong mucoadhesive property i.e., 79.3% to 91.1%. The polymer concentration influenced the in vitro drug release significantly in 0.1N HCl which suggested sustained drug release from formulations and was found to be in the range of 78.9 to 87.4%. The prepared factorial batches have shown a nearly spherical shape with rough surface. F7 factorial batch was selected as optimized batch because it has shown maximum mucoadhesion and sustained the release of drug from formulation up to 8 hours. Regression analysis revealed that the drug release from the optimized batch followed zero order kinetics. From the above results, it was concluded that the mucoadhesive microspheres of levofloxacin has feasibility for eradicating Helicobacter pylori from the stomach more effectively because of the prolonged gastrointestinal residence time and controlled release of drug from the formulation.
505 CLINICAL EFFICACY OF A DENTURE ADHESIVE IN COMPLETE MAXILLARY DENTURES- A PILOT STUDY , Dr. Pankaj Datta*, Dr. Sonia Datta, Shailesh G. Vyas and Anupama Singh
Introduction: Complete denture retention is one of the most frequent problems encountered by the patients in cases with compromised denture bearing area. Denture adhesive can be used as a substitute for these patients. However the efficacy of these adhesive varies with different forms being available in the market. Also the duration upto which these adhesives remain effective also varies. The present study was undertaken to determine the clinical efficacy of test adhesive in improving the retentive strength of complete maxillary dentures in the given subjects. Materials and Methodology: Study design: A 7 days clinical trial involving 10 edentulous subjects wearing complete maxillary dentures. Study setting: The study was done in the OPD of Department of Prosthodontics, Inderprastha Dental College & Hospital, Ghaziabad. The study group was duly informed about the study and written consent was taken from them before their participation in the study in order to prevent any inconvenience and to ensure full cooperation. The study period was between 01.08.16 to 15.11.16. Results: Gender wise distribution of Study Population was 6 Males (60.00%), 4 Females (40.00%) and the mean age of study population (in years) was 66.60 + 2.06 (Age range 60 – 80 years). Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, it can be concluded that the retentive strength of maxillary complete denture significantly increases after application of denture adhesives. Freshmint denture adhesive was effective in improving retention of the complete maxillary dentures.
506 A VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF LEVETIRACETAM IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION , *Likhitha T. G., Jose Gnana Babu C. and Sowmya H. G.
A new sensitive, specific, linear, precise and accurate RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for estimation of Levetiracetam in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Tablet Formulations. An isocratic, reversed phase HPLC method was developed to separate the drug from the degradation products, Phenomenex Gemini 5μ C18 (2) 100A (250 x 4.60mm, 5 μ) column. Hamilton syringe (705 NR, 50 μL) was used for injecting sample and standard solution. Data was compiled using Spinchrom software. Mobile phase consists of mixture of Methanol:Acetonitrile in the ratio (90:10 v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL /min. UV detection was performed at 210 nm. The Linearity was established for Levetiracetam in the range of 5- 30μg/ml with correlation coefficient of 0.9997. LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.076μg/ml and 0.23μg/ml respectively. Retention time of Levetiracetam were found to be 2.281min and 2.274min. % Recovery was found to be 99.78-100.45 and %RSD was found with in ± 2. The method has been validated according to ICH guidelines for linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, ruggedness, LOD and LOQ. The developed validated method was successfully applied for reliable quantification of Levetiracetam in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form.
507 NEONATAL SEPSIS DUE TO COAGULASE-NEGATIVE (CONS) STAPHYLOCOCCI: FREQUENCY, ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION BY 16S RNA ANALYSIS , *Budhlani G. N.
Sepsis is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. Hence, the present study was undertaken to identify the frequent organism and to detect antibiotic sensitivity pattern against the isolated organism in respect to better treatment. In present investigation, Out of 1000 neonates who admitted to preterm unit and intensive care unit (ICU) from different hospitals in Akola city, 104(14.1%) neonates were blood culture positive. S.epidermidis (CONS) prevalent isolates amongst the gram positive organisms showed high rate of antibiotic sensitivity to Imipenem, Meropenem. In present investigation, antibiotic resistance of all isolates of S. epidermidis(CONS) was observed against Ampicillin and Penicillin. This study of S. epidermidis (CONS) causing neonatal sepsis and their sensitivity pattern is useful so that guidelines can be prepared for empirical antibiotic therapy.
508 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL CREAM OF NYCTANTHES , Sakshi N. Ghotekar*, Kundan J. Tiwari and Dr. Yogesh V. Ushir
Nyctanthes arbortristis (N. Arbortristis) is one of the most useful traditional medicinal plants in India. It is distributed widely in sub-Himalayan regions and Southwards to Godavari. Each part of the plant has some important medicinal value and is thus commercially exploitable. It is now considered as a valuable source of several unique products for the medicines against various diseases and also for the development of some industrial products. Phytochemicals like flavanol glycoside, oleanic acid, essential oils, tannic acid, carotene, friedeline, lupeol, glucose, benzoic acid have been reported for significant, hepatoprotective, antileishmaniasis, antiviral, antifungal, antipyretic, antihistaminic, antimalerial, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activities. Further investigations exploring possible use of these phytochemicals as pharmacological agents are warranted. The various standardization parameters like macroscopy, microscopy, ash value, physicochemical and phytochemical screening, fluorescence analysis, bitterness value, foaming index, determination of pH, determination of fat and resin content, determination of pesticide residue and heavy metal analysis were performed to establish its quality standards.
509 METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TELMISARTAN AND ATORVASTATIN BY RP-HPLC , Ramakrishna Reddy Voggu*, Ravi Teja. Tumburu, M. Kishore
The present work describes a simple, rapid, and reproducible reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous estimation of Telmisartan and Atorvastatin. C18 column (Inertsil-Extend C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, packed with 5 μm) and a mobile phase containing Buffer: ACN, 40:60 v/v mixtures was used for the separation and quantification. The flow rate was0.8 mL/min and the eluents were detected by UV detector at 250 nm. The retention times were found to be 2.766 and 5.383 mins, respectively. The developed method was validated according to ICH guidelines Q2 (R1) and found to be linear within the range of 10-100 𝜇g/mL for both drugs. The developed method was applied successfully for assay of Telmisartan and Atorvastatin in their combined in-house developed dosage forms and in vitro dissolution studies.
510 SEMECARPUS ANACARDIUM L.F. NUT OIL AS BIODIESEL FEED STOCK (ANACARDIACEAE –FAMILY) , *Dr. Vustelamuri Padmavathi
As petrol is a fast depleting natural resource, it became a tremendous need for the scientists to search because another alternative renewable resource to petrol is a deemed necessity. Now serious efforts are being made on the production and utilization of biodiesel in India and other parts of the world. As an alternative invention of biodiesel from naturally growing herbal plants became the target. In this study, Semecarpus anacardium L.f. which grows naturally without any cost and care by the time, is analyzed and investigated as a proper feedstock in producing biodiesel for the first time. In order to prove its suitability, its seed and oil were experimented first. The tree is widely distributed through the hotter part of India. It is frequent in dry deciduous forests of Central India. Common in dry deciduous forests of Maharashtra spreading over Khandesi, Marathwada and East Maharashtra, in India. In the present study, biodiesel has been synthesised from Semecarpus anacardium L.f. oil. The acid value of this oil was found to be as 0.5 during these investigations, which leads us to convert it to biodiesel by the esterification followed by trans-esterification process. The methyl esters produced by these methods were analyzed and found that, some of them are suitable as biodiesel fuel to ascertain their suitability as diesel fuels.
511 PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND CHROMATOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA WILD , Mohamed Shiek Arabath S. A., Syed Ibrahim S. A.*, Sesha Kumar S. S., Packia Lakshmi M.
Chromatography techniques such as HPTLC and HPLC are commonly used to produce a fingerprint of Phytoconstituents. It allows identification and quantification of the main constituents within the plant. The aim of this study is to investigate the phytochemical constituents and comparing the HPTLC and HPLC quantification analysis of berberine in ethanolic extract of stem part of Tinospora cordifolia (ESTC). The HPTLC is effective for qualitative analysis, whereas HPLC is more accurate for quantitative analysis. A combination of these two methods may be useful in a quality control Testing as it would allow rapid qualitative analysis of herbal material while maintaining accurate quantification of extracts.
512 EFFECT OF MAGNESIUM SULPHATE IN ACUTE ORGANOPHOSPHORUS POISONING – A COMPARATIVE INTERVENTIONAL STUDY , *Dr. Rumaisa Ahmed, Dr. B. N. Raghavendra Prasad and Dr. Tameem Imran
Organophosphorus compounds are used as commercial insecticides, chemical warfare as nerve gas and are also applied as aerosols or dusts.
513 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF OSMOTICALLY CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF AN ANTI-DIABETIC DRUG , Sagar D. Shinde*, Nilesh A. Nalawade, Swati B. Kavade and Apeksha V. Masal
Saxagliptine has a relatively short elimination half-life (2.5 h), thereby requiring twice or thrice daily dosing in patients, which may lead to non-compliance. Extended release formulation of Saxagliptine based on osmotic technology was developed and evaluated. Controlled Porosity osmotic tablets of Saxagliptine were developed using Self Pore forming agent Mannitol. Prepared tablets were evaluated for their Flow property, weight variation, hardness, friability and content uniformity. Tablets were coated with a semi permeable membrane using 6% w/v cellulose acetate Phthalate (CAP) in isopropyl alcohol and Methylene chloride and Polyethylene Glycol-400 as plasticizer. Drug release rate was increased as the increase of Mannitol amount in Core Tablet. Drug release was inversely proportional to weight gain but directly proportional to the Self pore forming agent. The drug release from developed formulations was independent of pH and agitation intensity of release media. The DSC and FTIR studies demonstrated that there was no interaction between polymers and drug. The optimized formulation was stable after one months of accelerated stability studies.
514 THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF HONEY PRODUCED BY APIS CERANA INDICA, REARED IN THE COLLEGE CAMPUS, COIMBATORE, TAMILNADU , Abisha T. J., Sruthy S., *Dr. Pawlin Vasanthi Joseph
Honey is a natural supersaturated sugar solution, made by bees from the nectar of flowers. Honey consumption by humans has been reported to increase total plasma antioxidant and reducing capacity, which can be protective to human health. The aim of the present work was to characterize the honey produced by Apis cerana indica reared in the college campus with the commercially available honey in the market. Physical and Biochemical analysis, vitamin, Phenolic and Flavonoid content, anti microbial property and antioxidant activity of honey was determined. The anti microbial and antioxidant activity of honey produced by Apis cerana indica was higher when compared to the commercial honey. The commercial honey showed high values for the physical, biochemical analysis, vitamin content, phenolic and flavonoid content. No zone of inhibition was observed for the antimicrobial activity of commercial honey. Honey is used by human beings as food and medicine. It possesses anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant properties that may be beneficial for combating multidrug resistant bacteria as well as for preventing chronic inflammatory processes.
515 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF SIDDHA DRUG ATTATHI CHOORANAM (ATC) , Rasenthiran Sasvatha* and Manoharan A.
Attathi chooranam (ATC) is a classical Siddha herbo-mineral drug. The aim of this research was to find out the antibacterial activity of ATC against the five gram-positive, five gram-negative bacteria and anti-fungal activity of five fungi in different extracts. The ethanol extracts of 50 ℓ and 100 ℓ of ATC showed the highest antimicrobial activity against all the positive and negative tested bacteria and fungi when compared to aqueous extracts. 100 ℓ of ethanol extract of ATC has high activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and fungi than 50 ℓ of ethanol extract. The highest anti-bacterial activity recorded 100 ℓ and 50 ℓ of ethanol in gram-negative bacteria Klebsilla pneumonia (25 mm & 22 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26 mm &18 mm) and gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (24 mm & 16 mm), Streptococcus mutans (22 mm & 20 mm) which were compared with positive control of Streptomycin. All extracts of ATC have high activity against gram negative bacteria compared with gram positive bacteria. ATC extracts of 100 ℓ and 50 ℓ of ethanol exhibited potential antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger (18 mm & 14 mm) compared with positive control (fluconazole). According the 100 ℓ and 50 ℓ of aqueous extracts of ATC kept antifungal activity against Penicillium notatum (18mm & 15 mm) and Candida Albicans (15 mm & 11 mm) meanwhile activity has not been reported against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifera.
516 RADIOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF ELBOW JOINTS IN ADULTS IN CENTRAL INDIAN POPULATION , Dr. Sachin Upadhyay and Dr. Tarun Singh*
Background: The carrying angle is defined as the acute angle made by the median axis of the arm with the fully extended and supinated forearm. It is important in walking, swinging and carrying objects. Various studies have been done on the cause of the formation of carrying angle. Variations in carrying angle have been reported with age groups, gender and race but little attention has been given to correlate the carrying angle with various anthropological parameters. Hence this study was done to co-relate the carrying angle with various anthropological parameters. Materials and Methods: The present study was a prospective cross sectional study done between 1stJanuary 2017 to 1st January 2019in the Department of Orthopaedics, NSCB Medical College & Hospital, Jabalpur (M.P.). A total of 354 consenting healthy volunteers were screened for the study who were the relatives and attenders of the patients admitted in the orthopedics ward. A total of 300 healthy volunteers who qualified the inclusion criteria were included in the study all of whom were right hand dominant. Results: The mean carrying angle on the dominant side in our study for males is 10.19 degrees with standard deviation of 1.175degrees and for females is 13.44 degrees with standard deviation of 0.610 degrees and on the non dominant side in our study for males is 9.72 degrees with standard deviation of 1.063degrees and for females is 13.38 degrees with standard deviation of 0.634 degrees. The anterior humeral capitellar line on the dominant side intersects the capitellum in its anterior third in 16.7%, intersects the middle third in 55.3% and the posterior third in 28%. The mean articular surface angle is 82.8 degrees with standard deviation of 4.501 degrees. The mean transepicondylar distance on non dominant side to be 6.21cm ranging from 5.1 to 6.9 cm and on the dominant side to be 6.19cm ranging from 5.2 to 7.3 cm with average of both elbows being 6.2cm ranging from 5.1 cm to 7.3cm. Conclusion: We concluded that the carrying angle showed variations in sex, side as well as with increasing age. So it needs to be normalized according to all this criterias and a single value for everyone is not an acceptable cut off to diagnose injuries around the elbow. We came to the conclusion that 2 parameters -carrying angle and trans-epicondylar distance if measured routinely and regularly both pre-op and post-op can be used to reduce the early post operative complications like stiff elbow and restricted range of motion.
517 STUDIES ON THE RHIZOSPHERE MYCOFLORA OF MUSTARD , *Sakshi Tiwari and Pragati Bailwal
Rhizospheric soil sample of mustard (Brassica sp.) was collected from the cultivated land area near Gurukul Kangri University, Haridwar. It was reported that Trichodema and Aspergillus were dominant in mustard rhizosphere. During the growth rate measurement (colony diameter method and dry mycelial weight method) of the isolates, it was observed that Trichoderma grew at a faster rate whereas Aspergillus grew at much lower rate. During the study of effect of temperature on growth of the isolates, it was observed that all the isolates were able to grow at temperature ranges (15º, 25º and 35ºc). Hence they are mesophiles. While studying the effect of pH on growth of the isolates, it was observed that Trichoderma is acidophile whereas Aspergillus is alkalophile. Trichoderma and Aspergillus has potential to solubilize phosphate. Antifungal sensitivity was determined by Poisoned Food Technique and it was found that nystatin is most effective among all antifungal drugs.
518 EFFECT OF HYDRO ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF Vitis vinifera linn AGAINST DIMETHYL BENZ [A] ANTHRACENE INDUCED MAMMARY GLAND TUMOUR IN FEMALE SPARGUE-DAWLEY RATS , Bhuvaneswari B.*, Kishor J., Arya S.K., Chidambaranathan N.
The present study aimed that investigate the antitumor potential of hydro alcoholic extract of Vitis vinifera linn for 45 days against 7, 12-dimethyl Benz[a]anthracene (DMBA- 7.5mg/Kg) induced breast cancer in female Sprague- dawley rats. A treatment protocol started after DMBA administration. Results obtained displayed that there was a significant elevation in the terms of tumour incident and tumour multiplicity in DMBA injected rats. The potential reduction in tumour volume was observed in treatment groups whereas treated with HAEVV reverse these changes. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase (free radical scavengers) were found to be escalated in treatment groups when compared to toxic control. Histopathological examination revealed the formation of tumour in DMBA induced rats. Whereas treatment with extract significantly decreased the proliferation and replacement of normal ductular and alveolar structure of mammary gland. Therefore it can be concluded that the HAEVV was provided antioxidant defense, with strong anti-tumour activity against DMBA- induced mammary tumours.
519 STUDY OF PATIENTS KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE TOWARDS HYPERTENSION IN NORTH KARNATAKA, RAICHUR , Ashok Mahendraker, Rahul Sabbu*, Amal Thomas P., Richa Lucy, Pavani V., Doddayya H.
Background: Hypertension is a silent killer disease worldwide and proper assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) factors are helpful in its management. Our aim was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice among the hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted among hypertensive patients from October 2018- March 2019 which was approved by Institutional ethics committee at NMCH & RC, Raichur. 90 hypertensive patients were enrolled in the study. Suitably designed validated KAP questionnaire was used to evaluate the baseline KAP score. Data entry and statistical analysis were performed using the Microsoft Excel and SPSS windows version 16.0 software. Independent sample t-test were used. Results: The mean age of the participants was 54.86 ± 9.95. Very few patients 11(12.20%) were aware about the complications of hypertension. Only 28 (31.10 %) respondents knew the benefits of exercise. Only 31(34.40%) patients were aware that obesity is associated with hypertension. The patients had a positive attitude towards reduction of salt intake 71(78.80%), regular medication 69(76.30%) and regular visit to physician 67(75.30%). Less number of patients were going for regular health check up’s and medical test including urine examination 11(12.20%), lipid profile 14 (15.50%) and blood glucose level 26(28.80%). Conclusion: Patients had good score towards attitude and poor score towards knowledge and practice towards hypertension. Therefore, proper education and awareness programs should be developed according to the need of the society which in turn would improve the knowledge of general population and will definitely bring about a positive change in attitude and practices.
520 CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS FROM THE RHIZOMES OF ALPINIA OFFICINARUM AND STEM BARKS OF BALANITES AEGYPTIACA AND BOMBAX CEIBA , Mohammed Ali*, Vijender Singh, Shahnaz Sultana and Showkat Rassol Mir
Alpinia officinarum Hance (Zingiberaceae) is a perennial herb and its rhizomes are used to treat colic, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, fever, flatulence, gastritis, indigestion, malaria, microbial infections, epigastric pain, stomach ache and vomiting. Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile (Balanitaceae) is a deep-rooted, evergreen, multibranched, spiny shrub and its stem bark is prescribed to relieve epilepsy, yellow fever, heartburn, jaundice, mental diseases, roundworm infection, syphilis and wounds. Bombax ceiba L. (Malvaceae) is a tall tree and its bark is effective against cholera, cough, diarrhoea, dysentery, fevers, indigestion, jaundice, menorrhoea, piles, pleurisy, stings, skin diseases, stomach ache, wounds and to regulate menstruation. Our study was planned to isolate the chemical constituents from the rhizomes of A. officinarum and stem barks of B. aegyptiaca and B. ceiba and to characterize their structures. The air-dried plant materials were extracted with methanol separately. The concentrated methanolic extracts were subjected to silica gel (60-120 mesh) column chromatography individually. The columns were eluted with solvents successively in order of increasing polarity to isolate a variety of phytoconstituents. Phytochemical investigation of the rhizomes of A. officinrum gave a new triterpenoid identified as bauere-7, 20(30)-dien-3β-oyl octadecenoate (bauerenyl stearate, 1), tetratriacontanoic acid (geddic acid, 2), hexatriacontanoic acid (3), (Z)-cis- n-octatetracont-11-enoic acid (4), 13β-carboxylic acid n-hexadecanoic acid (5) and 1- hexadeanoyl-3-phosphatyl glycerol (6). The stem bark of Balanites aegyptiaca furnished α-D-glucopyranosyl-(6→1′)-O- α-D-glucopyranoside (6-O-α-D-glucosyl α-D-glucose, 7) and 2-O-β-D-diglucosyl O-β-D-dirhamnoside (8). The stem bark of Bombax ceiba afforded lupeol (9) and 2-hexyl-7,8-dimethyl 1,4-naphthaquinone (10). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions.
521 MANAGEMENT OF PEDIATRIC MASTOID ABSCESS: A SHORT COMMUNICATION , Dr. Anisha Ganguly* and Dr. Kalpana Sharma
Mastoid abscess remains a recognised complication of otitis media despite the advent of antibiotics. Today, no uniformly accepted diagnostic or treatment protocols exist. Imaging studies for all patients and mastoidectomy plus myringotomy, traditionally constitute the gold-standard of treatment methods. However, more conservative approaches viewed as safe and reliable alternative options for the clinician have recently gained popularity. The objective of this review was to study the characteristics of pediatric patients who may have a higher risk of developing mastoid abscess following acute or chronic otitis media (COM).
522 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME NEW PYRIMIDINE ANALOGUES , Prabhudev S. M.*, Yasmeen B., Kishore Singh C., H. J. Kallur, Samina Sultana
In the present study, we focused on the environment-friendly processes used for the preparation of pyrimidine derivatives with pharmacological properties. In this regard, microwave heating is used as the alternative energy sources to synthesize a series of pyrimidine derivatives by the condensation of chalcones with urea under basic conditions. Chalcones were synthesized by Claisen-Schimidt condensation of acetophenone with various substituted benzaldehyde in the presence of ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution. The synthesized pyrimidine derivatives were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, Mass Spectra and CHN analyses confirmed the structure of the prepared compounds. The newly synthesized pyrimidine derivatives were screened for their antimicrobial & anthelmintic activity.
523 BREEDING HABITATS OF PLATYNECTES SP. NOV. (COLEOPTERA: DYTISCIDAE), PREDATORY TO STEGOMYIA ALBOPICTA AND STEGOMYIA AEGYPTI IN THE RUBBER PLANTATIONS OF KERALA, INDIA. , *Adil Bashir, Saima Syed, N. Pradeep Kumar, Sheikh Afaq Gowhar
The breeding habitats of Platynectes sp. nov. was found in the rubber plantations located at foothills in the Western Ghats of Kerala. Platynectes beetle was also found to be prevalent in (Latex Collection Containers) LCCs, the key breeding habitats of Stegomyia mosquitoes in the rubber plantations. Rubber plantations are criss-crossed by streams which are maintained for irrigation purpose of the plantations. The natural habitat of the Platynectes sp. nov. was found to be these irrigation streams/pools. During the monsoon season these streams and pools have abundant of fresh water. Different variety of aquatic plants were abundantly growing in theses streams and Epiphyllum angulier was found to be the commonest aquatic plant in these streams. Mostly the beetles were hiding under the leafs of these plants. Streams and pools have cool and high oxygenated water, during the monsoon season in the rubber plantations of Kerala. Platynectes beetles were found in both the pools and streams during the months, April to October (pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons). However in summer season these beetles were found to be less prevalent in the streams and pools. Platynectes beetles invadesthe rubber latex collection containers fixed to the trunks of the rubber plantations. The beetles flew from its original breeding sites of streams and pools to LCCs for feeding St. albopicta larvae present in these LCC cups. The beetles were found prevalent in LCCs from May to December months.
524 EFFECT OF KEGAL EXCERCISES ON MUSCLE STRENGTH OF PELVIC FLOOR MUSCULATURE AFTER EPISIOTOMY , Muhammad Waqas*, Heena Habib1, Maria Idrees, Annam Sarwar, Shoaib Asif and Rabbia Tariq
Any surgical procedure may cause decrease in muscle strength of effected muscle so as in the case of episiotomy, pelvic floor muscles. Worldwide Kegel exercises are used as most effective conservative treatment for pelvic floor muscle weakness. In this study, it was found that Kegel exercises were not only helpful for pregnant ladies and in old age but also produce results in healthy and quick recovery during postpartum phase. Objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Kegel exercises on muscle strength of pelvic floor musculature after episiotomy. For this Experimental open label comparative study 100 patients were randomly included at the Department of Physiotherapy, Fatima Memorial Hospital Shadman, Lahore. This was a time based study. The patient’s overall assessment of muscle strength of pelvic floor muscles was assessed by using the Oxford Scale of MMT. Muscle strength of every patient was re-evaluated after six weeks. After analysis, it was observed that Kegel Exercises had significant effect on muscle power of pelvic. Floor muscles as measured by oxford Scale [p-value = 0.000(Significant p< 0.05)]. It was observed that there is strong significant positive association between improvement of muscle strength of pelvic floor muscles & doing Kegel exercises for six weeks after episiotomy [p-value = 0.000 (Significant p< 0.05)]. According to the present study it is concluded that the Physical therapy with Kegel Exercises is successful treatment for the weakness of pelvic floor muscles caused by Episiotomy.
525 DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF BIOGENIC SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF MIRABLIS JALAPA L., AND EXPLORING IT’S INVITRO ANTI-CANCER ACTIVITY , M. Sangeetha* and C. Mahendran
In recent science Nanotechnology is a burning field for the researchers. Nanotechnology deals with the Nanoparticles having a size of 1 – 100 nm in one dimension used significantly concerning medicinal chemistry, atomic physics, and all other known fields. Mirablis Jalapa L(Family: Nyctaginaceae) is versatile medicinal plants enriched with novel bioactive molecules and displays board-spectrum pharmacological actions including anticancer potential. The study planned to biosynthesize anticancer potent silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Mirablis Jalapa. The synthesized nanoparticles were confirmed by colour transformation and UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The size and morphology of the silver nanoparticle were characterized by Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The stability of silver nanoparticles were detected by Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FT-IR). EDAX and Zeta potential were also detected for silver nanoparticles. Anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles tested against Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma(EAC) cells. The appearance of reddish brown colour and UV absorption 428 nm (OD=0.0695) confirmed the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles showed spherical structure and their size were ranging from 1- 100 nm under SEM observations. FT-IR spctra of silver nanoparticles showed the peaks for the functional groups, C=O,-C=C,C-H and OH which indicate the stability of synthesized silver nanoparticles. The synthesized of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of leaves of Mirablis Jalapa would be helpful for the preparation of potent cytotoxic agents against DLA and EAC cells to destroy cancer cells.
526 EFFECT OF MARICH CHURNA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA , Dr. Bhushan Suryakantji Akhade*, Dr. Vitthal Kasle and Dr. Dhana Lilke
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a condition in men in which prostate gland is enlarged. It leads to various symptoms causing disturbance of voiding. These include Hesitancy, Urgency, increased frequency of micturition, Nocturnal micturition, Dysuria and urinary track infection sometimes. In Ayurveda it is closely resemble to vatashteela and the drugs having Vata Kapha pacifying action, Shothahara (anti-inflammatory) and Mutrala (diuretic) are recommended for its management. 10 Patients were selected irrespective of their religion, race, occupation etc. Tab. Marich churna 60 mg BD was given for 30 days. The patients were assessed on the basis of IPSS and objective parameters like urine flow, weight of prostate and residual urine flow. The observations and results were analysed. It highlights the fact that Tab. Marich churna is not much effective in the treatment of BPH.
527 “EFFICACY OF VAMANA KARMA IN EKA-KUSHTHA” A CASE STUDY , *Ashwath S. B., Ananta S Desai, Santosh L. Yadahalli and Ahalya S.
Psoriasis is one among the most common clinical conditions encountered in day to day clinical practice. Eka-Kushtha has greater resemblance with Psoriasis. The clinical features of Eka-Kushtha mentioned by Acharya Kashyapa represent remission, relapse and seasonal variation which are present in Psoriasis. Current treatment modalities have their own limitation and side effects, so significant result can’t be expected. There is a need for safe and effective treatment for psoriasis, where Ayurveda plays an important role. The basic principles and unique treatment modalities of Ayurveda i.e Shodhana, Shamana etc have long lasting results and provide better life to patients. A male patient aged 34 years reported to our department OPD, with signs and symptoms of Eka-kushtha since 8 years, as small round erythematous scaly patches over trunk, both the hands and head with itching and dryness over affected lesion. Patient was treated with Shodhana in the form of Vamana Karma followed by oral medication. Patient reported symptomatic improvement.
528 USE OF KSHARSUTRA FOR REMOVAL OF CERVICAL POLYP - A CASE STUDY REPORT , *Dr. Raksha Dubey, Dr. S. S. Chaudhari and Dr. Manjusha Meshram
Cervical polyps are growths on the cervical canal and most commonly seen in the females with abnormal uterine bleeding either Intermenstrual or postcoital can be caused by cervical lesions. Bleeding can be result from endocervical polyp and infectious cervical lesions such as condylomata, herpes simplex ulceration, chlamydial cervicitis or cervicitis caused by other organisms. When patient is not fit for surgery for some major illness we may use ksharsutra ligation to remove the polyp. This is the ultimate motive of this presentation.
529 HYPER-OSMOLAR HYPER GLYCEMIC STATE: A CASE REPORT , Anjitha Roy*, Sanjo Saijan, Basil John and Jobin Kunjumon Vilapurathu
Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State (HSS) is an urgent medical condition associated as a complication of Type 2 Diabetes. It usually occurs by certain triggering factors and needed sudden intensive care. This case study is mainly aimed to represent the actual scenario for treatment of HHS in a 50-year-old female patient who presented with severe breathlessness, cough and wound infection. From past 2 days she had intense thirst and on vital examination everything was found to be normal except respiratory rate which was slightly elevated. On the basis of laboratory examination, she was diagnosed with HHS and proper treatment was given with insulin, oral hypoglycemic agents, antibiotics, fluid correction, and electrolyte correction. She was discharged after complete resolution of symptoms and a review after 3 months, the HBA1C value showed a good decline from initial value. This case report emphasizes that early recognition and proper treatment of HHS improves clinical outcome and prevents serious complications.
530 RADIOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF ELBOW JOINTS IN ADULTS IN CENTRAL INDIAN POPULATION , Dr. Sachin Upadhyay and Dr. Tarun Singh*
Background: The carrying angle is defined as the acute angle made by the median axis of the arm with the fully extended and supinated forearm. It is important in walking, swinging and carrying objects. Various studies have been done on the cause of the formation of carrying angle. Variations in carrying angle have been reported with age groups, gender and race but little attention has been given to correlate the carrying angle with various anthropological parameters. Hence this study was done to co-relate the carrying angle with various anthropological parameters. Materials and Methods: The present study was a prospective cross sectional study done between 1stJanuary 2017 to 1st January 2019in the Department of Orthopaedics, NSCB Medical College & Hospital, Jabalpur (M.P.). A total of 354 consenting healthy volunteers were screened for the study who were the relatives and attenders of the patients admitted in the orthopedics ward. A total of 300 healthy volunteers who qualified the inclusion criteria were included in the study all of whom were right hand dominant. Results: The mean carrying angle on the dominant side in our study for males is 10.19 degrees with standard deviation of 1.175degrees and for females is 13.44 degrees with standard deviation of 0.610 degrees and on the non dominant side in our study for males is 9.72 degrees with standard deviation of 1.063degrees and for females is 13.38 degrees with standard deviation of 0.634 degrees. The anterior humeral capitellar line on the dominant side intersects the capitellum in its anterior third in 16.7%, intersects the middle third in 55.3% and the posterior third in 28%. The mean articular surface angle is 82.8 degrees with standard deviation of 4.501 degrees. The mean transepicondylar distance on non dominant side to be 6.21cm ranging from 5.1 to 6.9 cm and on the dominant side to be 6.19cm ranging from 5.2 to 7.3 cm with average of both elbows being 6.2cm ranging from 5.1 cm to 7.3cm. Conclusion: We concluded that the carrying angle showed variations in sex, side as well as with increasing age. So it needs to be normalized according to all this criterias and a single value for everyone is not an acceptable cut off to diagnose injuries around the elbow. We came to the conclusion that 2 parameters -carrying angle and trans-epicondylar distance if measured routinely and regularly both pre-op and post-op can be used to reduce the early post operative complications like stiff elbow and restricted range of motion.
531 A CASE REPORT ON ROSUVASTATIN INDUCED NEW ONSET DIABETES MELLITUS , Inala Saiteja*
Background: Statins are synthetic analogues of HMG-CoA primarily used to treat hyperlipidaemias with raised low density lipoproteins (LDL) and total cholesterol levels, which may lead to atherosclerotic plaque, Myocardial infarction (MI) and mortality in patients with known ischemic heart disease (IHD). They competitively inhibit the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate by acting on HMG-CoA reductase enzyme. Generalised adverse effects of statins include myositis, myopathy, and elevated aminotransferase levels. But the incidence of statins induced diabetes mellitus is rare and is mainly due to long term use. However, recent meta-analyses of previous studies done with statins have shown that these drugs could induce new onset diabetes mellitus (NODM), especially in subjects prone to diabetes: obese, females, older age, Asian descent, and those with pre-diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. Case presentation: We report a case of young male who presented to us with complaints of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus after prolonged use of Rosuvastatin. Conclusions: He was diagnosed as a case of new onset non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) after blood investigations.
532 ATYPICAL CASE OF PICA RESPONDED TO SSRI , Navneet Kaur Bhatia, Navleen Kaur Bhatia and *Manjeet Singh Bhatia
Pica is a common disorder in childhood, however, in adults it is associated with mental retardation, psychosis and pregnancy. A few case reports have described it being associated with obsessive compulsive disorder in adults. We describe the case of an adult male patient who developed an impulse to ingest 4 to 5 bottles of mouthwash. These thoughts were ego-dystonic and kept on hammering his mind until he ate it. He was diagnosed as having pica. We prescribed him vilazodone 20mg with clonazepam and asked him to ventilate his feelings during stressful situations. He showed remarkable improvement in pica symptoms in 4 weeks. It can be concluded that stress may induce the pica in some adults and that such feelings have impulsive/compulsive characters.
533 ADENOID BASAL CARCINOMA OF CERVIX - REPORT OF A RARE CASE AND LITERATURE REVIEW , Dr. Priyanka Anand*, Dr. Poonam Sahni
Adenoid basal carcinoma is a rare tumor comprising of both basal and glandular elements with an overall incidence of less than 1% of Cervical Adenocarcinomas. Persistent Human papilloma virus infection is suggested as an etiological agent. We present a case in a 48 year old post-menopausal woman. As it is a rare variant, its differentiation from other other aggressive tumors of similar morphology such as cervical adenoid cystic carcinoma needs consideration because they have an adverse prognosis.
534 MALARIA SUSCEPTIBILITY AMONG INDIGENOUS BAKA PYGMIES AND BANTU IN THE UPPER NYONG DIVISION, CAMEROON , Gangueu Djape Clotilde Diane*, Yondo Jeannette, Noumedem Anangmo Christelle Nadia, Nkouayep Vanessa Rosine and Mpoame Mbida
Promiscuity and extreme poverty may have led Baka pygmies to experience higher mortality rate due to malaria parasite than their Bantus neighbors. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the malaria prevalence among Baka pygmies, semi nomadic autochthones of the Congo Basin forest and their Bantus neighbors, sedentary of the Upper Nyong Division, East Cameroon. Blood was collected by venous swab and analyzed through thick blood smear. For each participant, gender, age, level of education, ethnic group, matrimonial status, occupation, house building materials and the used of ITN (insecticide treated net) were recorded. Data were analyzed with SPSS 22.0 and chi-square test at 95% served to compare proportion. P. falciparum was the only malaria parasite found. No significant difference was found between the malaria prevalence in Bantu and in Baka. Bantu females were more infected (49.6%) while in Baka, the prevalence was higher in males (55%). Infants of less than 2 years were more infected in Baka pygmies (60.9%) while Bantu teenagers were the most infected (50.3%). Participants who had never attended school were the most infected (58.9%). Single participants were significantly more infected (55 %) than married one. Baka house workers were more infected while in Bantu, traders were the most prevalent (64.5%). People living inside plank houses were more infected than others (50%). People sleeping under ITN were globally the most infected (47.8%). The malaria prevalence was globally more influenced by gender, age and the level of education and not by ethnic differences.
535 BLOOD ACETYL CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION AMONG WORKERS EXPOSED TO FENTHION DURING AVIAN PEST CONTROLS IN THE SAHEL REGION OF BURKINA FASO, WEST AFRICA , Dissinviel Stéphane Kpoda*, Adam Patrice Soubeiga, Elie Kabré, Daouda Doulougou Pane Bernadette Ouattara – Sourabié and Maxime Koiné Drabo
Fenthion is the main avicide used to control the red-billed quelea by spraying their roots. However, fenthion is highly toxic to non-targeted organisms.The main study objective was to evaluate the activity of acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) and hematological parameters (hemoglobin level: Hb) among the DPVC workers who used fenthion as an organophosphorus (OP) pesticides to control invasion of red-billed quelea in the Sahelian region of Burkina Faso. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and hemoglobin were evaluated as biomarkers exposure to OP by using kinetic method of Ellman. Then, the results of exposed group were compared with the unexposed one. Data showed significant difference in AChE activities between the two groups (P<0.001).Similarly, hematological parameter including Hb levels tested revealed significant statistical difference in the means of the two group (P=0.001). Nineteen applicators had high inhibition for cholinesterase activity in whole blood compared to the control group. The study raised a serious need of regular training of workers in how to efficiently use the equipments provided and also in what to do in case of accident.
536 CEPHALOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF POSTORTHODONTIC PATIENTS WITH ATTRACTIVE AND LEAST ATTRACTIVE FRONTAL POSED SMILE PHOTOGRAPHS , Mayuri Jakkan*, Sunil kumar P., Akash Lavate, Sneha Hoshing, Bhagyashri Bugade and Reshu Parmar
Aim: The aim of this study is to find facial beauty related to specific skeletofacial, dental & soft-tissue morphology between postorthodontic patients with attractive and least attractive frontal posed smiles. Materials and Methods: The attractiveness of close-up photographs of frontal posed smiles in 30 adult patients after conventional orthodontic treatment will be evaluated by 10 experienced orthodontist using a visual analogue scale and grouped into 15 attractive (7-Male & 8-Female; age group- 18-35years) and 15 least attractive patients (7-Male,8-Female; age group- 18-35years). The post treatment cephalograms of the same patients will be taken and compared for skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue morphology. Results: The statistical significant differences seen between the attractive and least attractive groups in Lower lip to E-line (p=0.01). Further, the least attractive group showed significantly larger to all parameters except Anterior facial height, Interincisal angle, convex, Upper lip Length Greater when compared with the attractive group. Conclusion: Cephalometric analysis revealed that postorthodontic male & female patients with least attractive frontal posed smiles are characterized by average divergent skeletal pattern with extruded maxillary incisors, accompanied by a short upper lip than patients achieving attractive posed frontal smiles.
537 OBESITY: A REVIEW ON OVERWEIGHT AND INADEQUATE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND NUTRITIONAL BEHAVIORS ,  *Kuldeep Singh and Priyanka
We studies all the review article related to obesity. The obesity is the disease in which imbalance between the calorie intake and its use. Obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries.it increasingly being observed with changing their life style of family. The mechanism of obesity is the unusual calorie convert into fat in adipose tissue. Adipose tissue consist of adipose cell and unusual calorie accumulate into the adipose cell they swell increase their weight and increase the body weight of the body. Globally in an analysis of 199 countries, 1.46 billion adults worldwide are estimated to being overweight, and 502 million are estimated as being obese. People are generally considered obese their when their body mass index (BMI) a measurements obtained by dividing a person weight by the square of the person height is over 30 Kg/m2, with the reference range 25-30 kg/m2 defined as overweight. Body Mass Index (BMI) is typical uses to explain the overweight and obesity in epidemiology studies. however, BMI has low sensitivity and there is larger inter individual changes in the percent body fat for any given BMI value, partially attribute to age sex and ethnicity. for instance Asian have greater percent body fat than Caucasians for the same BMI Greater cardiometabolic risk has also been associated with the localization of excess fat in the visceral adipose tissue and ectopic depots (such as muscle and liver) as well as in case of increased fat to lean mass ratio (e.g. metabolically obese normal weight). These data suggest the obesity may be fat more common and requires more urgent attention than what large epidemiology studies suggests. simply relying on BMI to assess its prevalence could hinder future interventions at obesity prevention and control. Causes of obesity both genes and envirommental factor participate in obesity However, by the large, genes are now thought to set only the stage and provide the background, against which the decisive effects and provide effects are eventually driven by the environmental and behavioral factors. AT the heart of the envirommental and behavioural factors are those that influence diet and physical activity. Pathophysiology of obesity continues to be among the top health concerns across the globe. Despite our failure the high prevalence of obesity, we now have a better understanding of its Pathophysiology, and how excess adiposity leads to type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. lifestyle modification is recommended of obesity management, but many patient do not achieve long lasting benefits due to difficulty with adderence as well as physiological and neurohormonal adaption of the obesity in response to weight.
538 MODERN VIEWS ON THE PHENOMENON OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE , *Shomansurova N. S. and Alimkhodzhaeva L.T.
The resistance of tumors to anticancer drugs is called the phenomenon of multidrug resistance. This phenomenon is one of the most difficult problems of modern oncology. Multiple drug resistance regulated with a large number of mechanisms. Multiple drug resistance (MDR) - a very common type of tumor cells resistance to medicines.
539 EFFECT OF PLACENTAL CORD BLOOD DRAINAGE ON DURATION OF THIRD STAGE OF LABOUR , *Dr. Rabia Razaq, Dr. Sajida Parveen, Dr. Muhammad Umer Razaq, Dr. Sadaf Mubeen, Dr. Fakhria Ijaz, Dr. Shanza Ghaffar
Introduction: Third stage of labour start after delivery of baby and continues till delivery of placental and membranes. Post-partum hemorrhage is most common complication of this stage. Objectives: To compare the mean duration of third stage of labour in patients undergoing spontaneous vaginal delivery with and without placental cord blood drainage. Methodology: This randomized control trial was carried out in three tertiary care hospitals of Punjab, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Allied Hospital, Faisalabad, Lady Aitchison Hospital Lahore and Lady Willingdon Hospital Lahore. from 1st July 2018 to 30th December 2018, 188 cases (94 in each group) were selected using non probability consecutive sampling. Total 188 patients were enrolled in the study after taking informed consent and allocated into control and case group by lottery method. In control group cord was clamped from both sides while in case group cord was unclamped from other side and duration of third stage was noted for both groups. Ethical approval was taken from hospital ethical committee. Results: The mean age was 29.06 ± 4.9 years with minimum age of 21 years and maximum age of 45 years. More patients belong to younger age group (20 years to 35 years) i.e. 119 while 69 belonged to elder age group i.e. 36 year to 50 years 63.2 % and 36.7% respectively. Mean duration of third stage of labour in case group was 8.5±2.9 minutes and in control group 10.8±5.4 minutes. More distribution of patients in younger age group 20 -35 years and less in 36 to 50 years i.e. 67% and 33% respectively. Conclusion: This study concluded that unclamping placenta from mother side significantly reduces the third stage of labour.
540 COMPARISON BETWEEN CLINICAL ESTIMATED FETAL WEIGHTS (CEFW) VERSUS ULTRASONOGRAPHIC ESTIMATED FETAL WEIGHT (UEFW) FOR CO RELATION WITH ACTUAL BIRTH WEIGHT (ABW) IN 3RD TRIMESTER OF PREGNANCY , *Dr. Rabia Razaq, Dr. Sajida Parveen, Dr. Muhammad Umer Razaq, Dr. Sadaf Mubeen, Dr. Fakhria Ijaz, Dr. Shanza Ghaffar
Background: Accurate prenatal estimation of birth weight is useful in the management of labour and delivery. Objective: To determine the correlation between clinical estimated fetal weight with actual birth weight in 3rd trimester of pregnancy and to determine the correlation between Ultrasonographic fetal weight assessment with actual birth weight in 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Material & Methods: This cross sectional study with non-probability purposive sampling technique was conducted in three tertiary care hospitals of Punjab, Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Allied Hospital, Faisalabad, Lady Aitchison Hospital Lahore and Lady Willingdon Hospital Lahore. Informed consent was obtained from each female to use their data for research purpose. Demographic details were also noted. Then females undergo CEFW was done by using Johnson’s formula. Then ultrasonography was done on every female by experienced radiologists to get UEFW. FW measurement was done by using Shepard formula. Then females were followed-up till delivery of fetus. Actual birth weight (ABW) was noted on birth. Pearson correlation was used to measure the correlation coefficient for CEFW and UEFW with ABW. P-value≤0.05 was taken as significant. Results: In our study the mean age of the patients was 29.60±6.23 years and the mean gestational age of 33.30±2.31 weeks. The mean BMI value of the patients was 23.08±1.26 Kg/m2, the mean CEFW value 2219.60±556.41 grams while the mean UEFW value of the patients was 2227.77±521.94 grams and the mean value of ABW of the patients was 2284.00±515.29 grams. In our study the positive correlation was found between the CEFW, UEFW with ABW of the baby. Conclusion: Our study results concluded that both the clinical estimation ultrasonography estimation showed the feasible and reliable results. Both showed positive correlation with actual birth weight.
541 EFFECT OF MALNUTRITION DURING PREGNANCY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT OUTCOME BASED ON ASSESSMENT OF CLINICAL CASES , Sandireddy Nikhil Reddy*, B. Pharm and Thanneeru Vishnu Priya
This is a prospective interventional and descriptive study for assessment on effect of malnutrition during pregnancy mainly on low body weight (LBW) neonates. The study includes 200 clinical cases of LBW neonates less than 2.5kg immediately after birth. Biochemistry profile was studied and compared with the standard values and data of its effects due to deviation from the standard range are collected. The variables studied includes age, gestational weight gain (GWG), LBW, infertility, prior spontaneous abortion, prior induced abortion, toxic exposure, socio-economic status, dietary intake. A total of 200 clinical case sheets of mother-infant pair immediately after delivery was collected from Department of special newborn care unit, civil hospital, Karimnagar and interviewed Pharmacists play a vital role in counseling women, family members and educating the future generations and improve the nutritional state of both pregnant woman and neonates mainly to decrease morbidity and mortality.
542 SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TYPE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM - AN OVERVIEW , Shankar B. Kalbhare*, Prof. Mandar J. Bhandwalkar, Prof. Rohit K. Pawar and Prof. Abhirup R. Sagare
Oral drug delivery is the most preferred and convenient option as the oral route provides maximum active surface area among all drug delivery system for administration of various drugs. The attractiveness of these dosage forms is due to awareness to toxicity and ineffectiveness of drugs when administered by oral conventional method in the form of tablets & capsules. Usually conventional dosage form produces wide range of fluctuation in drug concentration in the bloodstream and tissues with consequent undesirable toxicity and poor efficiency. The maintenance of concentration of drug in plasma within therapeutic index is very critical for effective treatment. These factors as well as factors such as repetitive dosing and unpredictable absorption lead to the concept of oral Sustained release drug delivery systems. Sustained release drug delivery system works on many different mechanisms to control the release rate of drugs. Developing oral sustained release matrix tablets for drug with constant release rate has always been a challenge to the pharmaceutical technologist. Drug release through matrix system is determined by Water penetration, Polymer swelling, Drug dissolution, Drug diffusion, Matrix erosion have been utilized as formulation approaches. The present article contains brief review on various formulation approaches for Sustained release drug delivery system.
543 ALOEVERA MUCILAGE USE AS A BINDING AGENT FOR POORLY COMPRESSED DRUG , Sonal Gupta*, Jagrati Chaurasia, Fouziya Hussaini, Khushi Malviya and Dr. Kuldeep Ganju
Now a days, an oversized range of pharmaceutical excipients are obtained from natural sources. Mucilages and their derivatives square measure a group of polymers extensively used in pharmaceutical dosagee forms. it acts as pharmaceutical adjuvants. A study was carried out to investigate the possibility of extracting aloe mucilage from the leaves of Aloe barbadensis and using it as a binding agent in metronidazole tablets. The binding properties of the gum extracted were investigated in lactose based metronidazole tablet formulations at completely different binder concentrations of 1%w/w, 2%w/w, 4%w/w. The present review discusses the expansive sources of mucilage, its versatile excipient property as tablet binders, disintegrating, emulsifying, suspending, gelling, stabilizing, thickening and sustained release agent obtained from aloe plants which adds an different pharmaceutical property to its uses.
544 IMPROVEMENT OF MENTAL HEALTH STATUS OF COMMUNITY MEMBERS THROUGH COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION , Dr. Amit Kumar Mishra*
WHO defines Health as “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”.[1] As per the definition there are three dimensions of health, physical, mental and social, which need equal attention while considering health of an individual. But, the physical health is always given priority over the others and mental health is being always neglected.
545 PREVENTION AND TREATMENT APPROACH IN UNANI MEDICINE AGAINST COVID-19- A REVIEW , Shehanshah Wali Moazzam*, Faisel Manzoor
The ongoing pandemic Corona virus disease (Covid-19) is a public health emergency of international concern and has posed a major challenge to global public health. It’s a Novel infection which is caused by SARS CoV-2 with Serious Clinical manifestation i.e. Fever, Cough, Cold, Respiratory distress further may result into Death. Environmental factors Air pollution, Smoking and other Systemic illness (DM, HTN, Asthma) likely increases the severity of Covid-19. Immune response is essential to eliminate virus and to Preclude disease progression to severe stages. Therefore, Strategies to boost immune response are certainly important. Objective- At this time there is no effective pharmaceutical treatment for covid- 19. Therefore, the major aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence regarding the preventive measures, control options such as immunostimulator and prophylactic treatment in Unani medicine against Covid- 19. Methodology- Through Ancient Unani literature, Journals related to epidemics and its comparison with Covid-19. Conclusion- Present review has been studied in the light of Unani medicine. Which conclude that Unani drugs and their Formulation has potency to manage Covid-19.
546 THE CHOICE OF CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER (TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE BIOLOGICAL SUBTYPES IN OLDER WOMEN) , Alimkhodzhaeva L.T.*, Yusupova N.B, Shodmonova D.S., Abdullaeva G.D. and Narzieva D.F.
Patients with the hormone-sensitive and Her2neu amplified tumor subtype have a better short-term prognosis than patients with the hormone-negative and Erb-B2 overexpressing subtype. With triple-negative breast cancer, chemotherapy is the only systemic therapy that is beneficial, and should be used in patients who are in good physical shape.
547 THE CURRENT STATUS OF THE PREVALENCE OF BREAST CANCER AND ITS METASTATIC FORMS , Alimkhodzhaeva L.T.*, Yusupova N.B., Shodmonova D.S., Abdullaeva G.D., Narzieva D.F.
One of the main ways to realize hormonal effects is through metabolism. On this basis, it is more correct to talk about endocrine-metabolic, and not purely hormonal disorders as carcinogenesis modifiers. Their role can be manifested both at the stage of the onset of neoplasm and in the process of tumor progression at various clinical stages of the disease.
548 BENIGNANT BREAST HYPERPLASIA: DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT ALGORITHM , Mirza Nigmatovich Tillyashaikhov* and Nadira Saidoripovna Shomansurova
Physiology and pathology of the mammary glands have always been one of the most difficult areas of medical science and practice. This is a complex problem, the scientific, medical, diagnostic, methodological and organizational aspects of which are clearly interdisciplinary. Recent years have been characterized by a sharp increase in the frequency of hyperplastic processes and breast cancer. The largest proportion among benign pathology of the mammary glands is mastopathy or fibrocystic disease. Due to these circumstances, the study of development mechanisms, timely diagnosis and treatment mastopathy is a major medical and social problem.
549 THE ASPECTS OF DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND PROGNOSIS FOR METASTATIC BREAST CANCER , Alimkhodzhaeva L.T.*, Yusupova N.B., Shodmonova D.S., Abdullaeva G.D. and Narzieva D.F.
The main prevention of relapse, the identification of distant metastases and pathological changes in regional lymph nodes is fundamental in the prognosis and choice of treatment methods for breast cancer. In this case, combinations of various methods of radical therapy (surgical, radiation, chemotherapeutic and radiation) can be successfully used. Dissection of the sentinel lymph node is not currently the standard in the treatment of breast cancer patients, but further study of this technique is promising in order to exclude the execution of axillary lymphadenectomy in the absence of its metastatic lesion.
550 PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIONS OF LEKHANIYA DRAVYAS (WEIGHT REDUCING DRUGS) - A LITERARY REVIEW , Dr. Umakant N. Rabb*
The drugs which does the Karshana or Lekahan (Scraping) are called as Lekhana Dravyas. As per Acharya Charaka the drugs which produce lightness in the body known as Lekshana Karma. As per Acharya Sushruta these Lekhaniya drugs are predominant by Vayu and Agni Mahabhutas. The qualities of these drugs are; Laghu (Light), Ushna (Hot in potency), Teekshna (Penetrating and Sharpness action), Vishada (Clearness), Ruksha (Dryness), Sookshma (Minuteness), Khara (Roughness), Sara (Mobility), Kathina (Hardness). The Lekhaniya Dravyas are; Mustha (Cyperus rotundus Linn, Cyperaceae), Kustha (Saussurea lappa C.B clarke, Asteraceae), Haridra (Curcuma longa Linn, Zingiberaceae), Daruharidra (Berberis aristata Roxb.ex DC, Berberidaceae), Vacha (Acorus calamus Linn, Araceae), Ativisha (Aconitum heterophyllum wall. Ex Royle, Ranunculaceae), Katuki (Picrorrhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth, Scrophulariaceae), Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica Linn, Plumbaginaceae), Chirabilva (Holoptelea integrifolia Planch, Ulmaceae), Shweta Vacha (Iris ensata Thumb, Araceae). These drugs help to increase the metabolism which help in utilizing the body fat and increasing the body vitality. These drugs also helps in the eliminating excess cellulite deposition, obstruction, blocks, clots, haematoma, obesity etc metabolic diseases from the body and prevent further disease pathogenesis.
551 NOVEL CORONAVIRUS DISEASE-2019 (COVID-19): A REVIEW , Trishna Mani Nath* and Bikash Gupta
COVID-19 was foreign to us but now it spread all over India. The virus originated in bats and was transmitted to humans through Pangolins and snakes in Wuhan, Hubei province, China in December 2019. On 30 January, India reported its first case of COVID-19 in Kerala, which rose to three cases by 3 February; all were students and now it increase to 13,835 active case, 1,766 cured, 452 deaths and 1 migrated (17/04/2020). The disease is transmitted by inhalation or contact with infected droplets and the incubation period ranges from 2 to 14 days. The symptoms are usually fever, dry cough, shortness of breathing although serious problem like pneumonia. To confirm the diagnosis Real-time polymerase chain reaction test which is the quick test used in many lab and hospital that can detect a very small amount of Viral RNA by using sputum, swab, lavage, serum. Common laboratory findings include normal/ low white cell counts with elevated C-reactive protein. Treatment is focused on supportive care like providing fluids, oxygen, ventilator support, and antiviral agents is also found to be effective in treating COVID-19. This review briefly covers the introduction, symptom, pathophysiology, diagnosis, prevention, the treatment being followed right now in India.
552 AN ATTEMPT TO UNDERSTAND THE CONCEPT OF HOMOEOPATHIC PRINCIPLES THROUGH RESEARCHES, CASE STUDIES, EXPERIMENTS AND THEORIES , Kanupriya*, Manoj Kumar Behera and Ambita Maletha
Every science revolves around approaches, experiments and various theories. Medical science is no exception of that there are other systems which are referred as the contemporary system of medicine or alternative system of medicine such as Homoeopathy, Naturopathy, Ayurveda, Unani. As everything which is based on some principles like that Homoeopathy principles are based on some facts, theories or experiments. Dr. Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843) gave fundamental principles of homoeopathy on which the Homoeopathic system is based. This was established 250 years ago which is far from the modern concept and was not accepted by the medical fraternity. Dr.Hahnemann faced lot of criticism during his life time. Here these principles when correlated with studies done by many researchers and they statically proved its efficacy. Homoeopathy is the only system of medicine which proves its remedies on apparently healthy human beings. It is based on the law Similia Similibus Curentur and follows the Eight fundamentals principles. Homoeopathy is only accepted by the public due to its mildness and cost effectiveness. The more controversial theory of homoeopathy is the drug dynamisation which includes the process of succussion and dilution which could not be proved scientifically till date. Homoeopaths are talking about the high dilution or highly diluted medicines which they explained by the nanoparticles theories and explained the medicines are far beyond the avogadro‟s number i.e 6.022.10-23. In this study we are trying to explain the fundamental principles of Homoeopathy by the researches based on these principles and to explain the scientific basis of homoeopathy
553 CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW METHYLATION MARKERS AND THE EXPRESSION OF GENES INVOLVED IN CARCINOGENESIS IN BREAST CANCER , *Alimkhodzhaeva L.T., Zakirova L.T., Nigmanova N.A. and Shamansurova N.S.
Modern oncology considers the RARβ2 gene as an important link in the pathogenesis of breast cancer and is being investigated as a new potential biomarker for breast cancer, in particular, a prognosis marker, tumor response to therapy, and metastasis. Point mutations of this gene are rare, but hypermethylation is observed in approximately 15% of breast cancer cases.
554 HUMAN CORONAVIRUS: A REVIEW ON VIRUS CELL BIOLOGY AND INTERACTION TO HOST CELL , Gaurav D. Borse*, Balaji S. Somwanshi and Rushikesh B. Shinde
Corona viruses are enveloped positive-stranded RNA and are characterized by club-like spikes that project from their surface, a remarkably large RNA genome, and a unique replications style in the cytoplasm. Deliver their nucleocapsid into the host cell, they depend on the fusion of their envelope with the host cell membrane. The spike glycoprotein mediates virus entry and is a prime determinant of cell tropism and pathogenic. In most, corona viruses, S is slashed by a host cell spring-like protease into two separate polypeptides noted S1 and S2. S1 facilitates virus infection by binding to host receptors. It comprises two domains, the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal RBD domain that directly interacts with host receptors while S2 forms the stalk of the spike molecule which fuses the virus into host cell. After all its fusion, undergo replication/transcription of virion. It causes a variety of diseases in mammals and bird according to their classification. Here we provide a brief introduction of cell biology of corona viruses and host cell interaction process.
555 EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL EFFICACY OF CHITOSAN, CHLORHEXIDINE, APPLE CIDER VINEGAR AND SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE ON ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS BIOFILM IN PRIMARY TEETH: AN IN VITRO STUDY. , Insha Showkat*, Seema Chaudhary, Ashish Sinha, Mohd Ghaus Ali and Neha Priya
Endodontic infections are polymicrobial, so disinfecting the root canal system is one of the major objectives in endodontics. Enterococcus faecalis has unique capacity to survive with limited means and form a biofilm. Aim: This study aims to compare the efficacy of two herbal ingredients with sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine. Materials and Method: 20 freshly extracted deciduous teeth were collected and decoronated. The autoclaved specimens placed in tissue culture wells exposing the root canal surface to E. faecalis to form a biofilm. At the end of 3rd week, all groups were irrigated with 3 ml of test solutions and control for 10 minutes. The samples were then scraped with a scalpel, inoculated on tryptone soy agar plates and incubated for 24 hours at 37ºC. The plates were then subjected to digital colony counter and evaluated for E. faecalis growth. The growth was statistically analysed by ANOVA & paired t test. Result: Chitosan was found to be as efficacious as sodium hypochlorite. The use of natural alternatives as root canal irrigation solutions might prove to be advantageous considering several unfavorable properties of NaOCl.
556 HOMEOPATHIC PROSPECTIVES AND THE ROLE OF ANIMAL IN TRANSMISSION OF NOVEL CORONAVIRUS , Sagar Suresh Ajabe*, Shrikrushna Subhash Unhale and Ayush Sopan Kharche
Recently, a new viral-based infection has emerged as a respiratory disease caused by a novel (new) coronavirus that was first detected in Wuhan City, China. With any or many reasons, this newly emerged novel-Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) has now been recognized in more than 70 locations around the globe. The disease caused by 2019-nCoV has been named as “coronavirus disease 2019–COVID-19”. Viruses, a type of pathogen, can infect all types of living entities, from humans to plants and to even bacteria. The toxic agent replicates inside the living cells of organisms. Viruses can spread or transmit in a variety of ways, most of which we associate with vectors, or “living organisms that can transmit infectious pathogens between humans, or from animals to humans,” as explained by the World Health Organization(WHO). Mosquitoes are probably the most recognizable vector, responsible for spreading diseases like West Nile Virus, Malaria and Dengue Fever. Now scientists are racing to find the origin source of COVID-19, which is known as a zoonotic disease (or zoonoses). zoonotic diseases are caused by the transmission of harmful germs (like viruses, bacterial, parasites and fungi) between humans and animals. Germs are spread between animals and humans. In our review include the information about homeopathic prospectives and the role animals in transmission of novel Coronavirus.
557 A CASE REPORT OF NON-KETOTIC HYPERGLYCEMIC HEMICHOREA SYNDROME , *Dr. Satabdi Kalita, MBBS, Dr. Ishani Shukla, MBBS and Prof. (Dr.) Parul Dutta, MD, DMRD
Non-ketotic hyperglycemic hemichorea(NHH) also known as diabetic striatopathy is a rare condition associated with chorea/ballism. It is the second most common cause of hemichorea-hemiballismus syndrome, other causes being stroke, demyelination and neoplasms. Chorea/ballism is the involuntary irregular non rhythmic movements of limbs which can be unilateral or bilateral. NHH is mostly seen in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. On correction of hyperglycemia, there is reversal of clinical symptoms and imaging findings of basal ganglia.
558 ETIOLOGY OF CANCER: A DEADLY OCEAN , S. Akila* and R. Deepti
Abnormal proliferation of cells that grow beyond its usual boundaries is termed as cancer. Cancer invades adjacent parts of the body and spreads to other organs. World Health Organisation (WHO) has stated that globally near 1 in 6 death is due to cancer. Major cause of this deadly disease are potential risk factors (aging, family history and obesity), environmental agents (chemical, radiation and microorganisms) and mutated genes (tumor suppressor genes, Proto oncogene, DNA repair gene and telomere). Increased secretion of estrogens, leptin and decreased levels of adiponectin can contribute to tumorigenesis. Among all these factors, 22% of cancer death is only due to tobacco. Environmental agents and potential risk factors can cause initiation of cancer by either activating or suppressing the genes.
559 PLANE NORMOLIPEMIC XANTHOMA LOCALISED OVER THE NECK: A CASE REPORT , Dr. Sujaya Manvi and Dr. Rajni Sharma*
Diffuse plane xanthomas manifest as symmetrical, asymptomatic, yellow-to-brown patches or plaques involving the head, eyelids, neck, chest, trunk, extremities, flexural areas and scars. Diffuse normolipaemic plane xanthomatosis represents an uncommon cutaneous disease consisting of xanthelasma, diffuse plane xanthomas and normal plasma lipid levels. Here we present a case of diffuse normolipemic plane xanthoma localized to the neck.
560 INCIDENTAL FINDING OF INTRALOBAR PULMONARY SEQUESTRATION OF THE LUNG IN 41-YEAR-OLD ADULT MALE , *Dr. Hemanth Gowda M. C. (MBBS) and Dr. Parul Dutta (MD, DMRD)
Pulmonary sequestration is defined as a nonfunctioning mass composed of dysplastic lung parenchyma, embryologically detached from the tracheobronchial tree and receiving its own blood supply from a systemic artery, usually the thoracic or abdominal aorta. It may be intralobar or extralobar depending on the presence of an independent pleural envelope. Here, we present a rare case of incidental intralobar pulmonary sequestration in an adult.
561 PERI-IMPLANTITIS A POSSIBLE RISK BY BACTERIAL COLONIZATION AT THE IMPLANT-ABUTMENT INTERFACE: A SYSTEMIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS , Yash Desai*, Amit Benjamin, Saba Supariwala and Samruddhi Kadaki
Purpose: The purpose of this systemic review and meta-analysis was to estimate the colony of microorganisms on bone-level implants at the implant-abutment interface (IAI) and to find its similarity with peri-implant conditions. Study selection: The study was emphasized for implants in function for at least 1 year, whether the two-piece osseointegrated implants, associate to rise in the number of bacterial colonization and the outcome of peri-implantitis, in comparison to healthy peri-implant condition. Using a mixture of MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) and search terms the Search strategy circumscribes the on-line (MedLine, Google Scholar, Cochrane library) literature from 1990 till March 2015 which was published in English. According to the ARRIVE and CONSORT statement guidelines, quality assessment of carefully chosen full-text articles was achieved. The total bacterial count was calculated and equated to IAI with or without peri-implant pathology for Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia. Results: The inclusion principles and quality assessment were fulfilled from a total of 14 articles, and 1029 implants record. According to the studies patients with the two-piece implant system displayed the contamination of IAI. A substantial difference in total bacterial count between implants affected by peri-implantitis versus healthy peri-implant tissues (0.3870.055; 95% CI 0.279–0.496) were indicated by meta-analysis. However, except for T. forsythia, less bacterial colonization was noticed in the healthy IAI for all the examined gram-negative bacteria. Conclusions: An increase in bacterial colonization with peri-implantitis in comparison to those present in healthy peri-implant tissues was substantially reported for periodontal pathogenic bacteria in the IAI patients.
562 EVALUATION AND FORMULATION OF GEL FORM ANITDESMA VELUTINUM LEAVES EXTRACT FOR ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTI-WRINKLE ACTIVIES , Supachai Chumchuen*
Anitdesma velutinum (AV) has been used in Thai traditional medicine. The most antioxidant and anti-wrinkle properties were found on leaves. But the method in ancient has complicated. For ease of used, formulation of gel were the best answer. Objective: the study is to formulate and evaluate a topical herbal gel containing AV leaf extracts for their anti-oxidant and anti-wrinkles activities. Methods: The varies formulates of gels , concentration of extract. Activities for antioxidant tested DPPH method and anti-wrinkle processed by enzyme inhibitor of collagenase and elastase. Physiologicals were tested by oranoleptic, pH, viscosity etc and confirmed irritation on animal. Results: The herbal gel have concentrated 10 (% w/v) of extract was significantly p < 0.05, inhibiter enzyme for wrinkles and better stability than other formulation. Non detected irritation on rabbits. Conclusion: The gel formula with 10 % w/v has antioxidant activity and inhibit the enzymes for wrinkles, without irritation.
563 EVALUATION OF VARIOUS BRANDS OF ALBENDAZOLE IP FOR ITS QUALITY CONTROL TEST , Rajaguru R.* and Hemalatha K.
Albendazole is a Anthelmintic drug used to Broad spectrum Anthelmintic agents, it is the drug of choice for treatment of Hydatid disease and Cysticercosis. It is also used in the treatment of Pin worm, Hook warm, Round warm whip warm and thread warm. Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole derivative that has been widely used in the treatment of worm infestations in both humans and animals.The drug absorption varies in different patients from the gut. Selected brands of Albendazole IP 400mg were procured from the market with the same label claim amount of drug for quality control test. Various quality control tests such as weight variation, friability, disintegration, dissolution were performed as per Indian Pharmacopeia. The quality control tests were done for five different brands of Telmisartan IP marketed Products. The result proved that the Albendazole IP Tablets 400mg, varies with disintegration, dissolution, uniformity content tests but within the limit. Further studies are needed to support the variation in the quality control test with human volunteers.
564 COVID-19 PANDEMIC AND MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES , P. Kumar, Shalini Malhotra, Nirmaljit Kaur, Nandini Duggal and Manjeet Singh Bhatia*
In the past few years, two coronavirus epidemics have occurred, which are SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. COVID-19 (Corona virus disease-2019) is a disease caused by novel Coronavirus i.e. SARS CoV2. It is called novel because this strain of corona virus does not match with the previously identified Coronavirus strains. On January 30, 2020 the outbreak was declared by the WHO as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Coronaviruses spread by coughing, sneezing and close personal contact (Human to human transmission). It can present as a mild illness, Pneumonia or Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). It can cause psychological problems like fear or phobia, acute stress reaction, chronic stress, anxiety, depression and even precipitation of existing illnesses. The problems may also arise due to caregivers or family burden. Health workers may also suffer from chronic stress, depression or burnout. The psychosocial problems which are going to arise after pandemic is over will put a new challenge to mental health workers. The problems will be peculiar due to loss of job or unemployment, financial stresses, malnutrition, appearance of medical illnesses (like obesity, metabolic syndrome etc.), career related issues among students, isolation and quarantine.
565 PATHOGENECITY OF CORONAVIRUS AND EFFECT OF NATURAL PRODUCTS FOR IMMUNOMODULATION , Anushree Bhowmick*, Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen and Dr. Beduin Mahanti
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-COV2 and represents the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. Based on the large number of infected people that were exposed to the wet animal market in Wuhan City, China, it is suggested that this is likely the zoonotic origin ofCOVID-19. Person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 infection led to the isolation of patients that were subsequently administered a variety of treatments. Extensive measures to reduce person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 have been implemented to control the current outbreak. Special attention and efforts to protect or reduce transmission should be applied in susceptible populations including children, health care providers, and elderly people. In this review, we highlight the symptoms, epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, phylogenetic analysis and future directions to control the spread of this fatal disease.
566 COMPARATIVE LOGARITHMIC PARTITION COEFFICIENT COMPARISON STUDY OF SYNTHESIZED HYDRAZINE AND PHENYL HYDRAZINE SERIES OF UREA, THIOUREA AND GUANIDINE TO FORM AMIDE AND LACTAM UNITS , Shouvik Sarkar*, Fatima Khatun, Arpita Biswas, Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen and Dr. Beduin Mahanti
Partition coefficient of any compound shows the solubility profile of the compound in protic or aprotic solvent. In chemistry, a protic solvent is a solvent that has a hydrogen atom bound to oxygen (as in a hydroxyl group) or nitrogen (as in an amine group). In general terms, any solvent that contains a labile H+ is called a protic solvent. The molecules of such solvents readily donate protons (H+) to reagents. Conversely, aprotic solvents cannot donate hydrogen. Polar protic solvents are often used to dissolve salts. In general, these solvents have high dielectric constants and high polarity. Common characteristics of protic solvents: solvents display hydrogen bonding, solvents have acidic hydrogen (although they may be very weak acids such as ethanol), solvents dissolve salts, cations by unshared free electron pairs, anions by hydrogen bonding. Examples include water, most alcohols, formic acid, hydrogen fluoride, and ammonia. Polar protic solvents are favorable for SN1 reactions, while polar aprotic solvents are favorable for SN2 reactions. Polar aprotic solvents are solvents that lack acidic hydrogen. Consequently, they are not hydrogen bond donors. These solvents generally have intermediate dielectric constants and polarity. Although discouraging use of the term "polar aprotic", IUPAC describes such solvents as having both high dielectric constants and high dipole moments, an example being acetonitrile. Other solvents meeting IUPAC's criteria include DMF, HMPA, and DMSO. Common characteristics of aprotic solvents: solvents that can accept hydrogen bonds, solvents do not have acidic hydrogen, solvents dissolve salts. The criteria are relative and very qualitative. A range of acidities are recognized for aprotic solvents. Their ability to dissolve salts depends strongly on the nature of the salt. Polar aprotic solvents are generally incompatible with strong bases, such as Grignard reagents or n-butyllithium. These reagents require ethers, not nitriles, amides, sulfoxides, etc. In this project water (dielectric constant: 78.7F/m) and ethanol (dielectric constant: 24.3F/m) were taken as solvents for investigation of solubility during crystallization. Since water is more polar than ethanol so polar compounds dissolve faster in water than ethanol which gave a good result during purification of all compounds.
567 EFFECTIVENESS OF PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCULAR FACILITATION AND POSITIONAL RELEASE THERAPY WITH MULLIGAN MOBILIZATION AMONG THE PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC FROZEN SHOULDER , *S. Karthikeyan, V. Kamal Raj and P. Senthil Selvam
Background: Shoulder Joint is one of the most mobile joints involving in various functional activities that includes upper extremity. The joint undergoes pathological changes and frozen shoulder is one among the commonest in older adults. The primary structure affected in the frozen shoulder is the inferior joint capsule. The condition can vary from mild to moderate pain, stiffness and causes restriction in the range of motion of the Glenohumeral joint. Method: The study is an experimental design with 50 samples for a duration of 6 weeks. The treatment groups were A & B in which group A treated with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and group B with positional release therapy. Mulligan mobilization was given commonly for both the groups. The pre and post test scores were taken for range of motion, pain using numerical pain rating scale and functional ability by shoulder pain arm disability index (SPADI). Results: The data were collected and analysed using Mann Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. The analysed data shows statistically significant improvement in range of motion of shoulder joint in both the groups. But the mean and standard deviation with analysed data of group B shows statistically significant improvement in pain and functional status comparing to group A. The Mean ± S.D with p < 0.001. Conclusion: Both Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique and Positional release therapy shows statistically significant improvement in range of motion but Positional release therapy shows statistically and clinically significant improvement in pain reduction and improvement in functional status of the patients with chronic frozen shoulder.
568 VATI KALPANA AYURVEDIC FORMULATION – A REVIEW , Dr. Alok Kumar Verma* and Dr. M. V. Sobagin
Vatikalpana plays a significant role in Rasa shastra and bhaishajyakalpana, also known as Ayurved Therapy, which plays an important role in the clinical practice of Ayurveda due to several benefits such as simple management, palatability, quick distribution which transportation. Vati normally prepared with a mixture of kashtoushadhidravyachurna, Bhasma, Shudha rasa and uparasa, Sadharana rasa, Guda, Sharkara, Guggulu, Jala, Swarasa, Mutra, etc., a mix of drugs can also be sagni and niragni. It was first mentioned by Acharya Sharangadhar who identified Vatikalpan as a separate chapter in Sharangadharasamhita in detail.
569 CHEMO-INDUCED ORAL COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS TREATED FOR CANCER AT THE YAOUNDE GENERAL HOSPITAL , Eyimi Abessolo François G.*, Ndoe Guiaro Marcellin, Atenguena Etienne, Ndom Paul and Bengondo Charles
Nowadays, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy are the most used cancer therapies. But the chemotherapy, because of its non-specificity towards neoplastic cells causes many complications among which the oral complications. About 40% of chemotherapy patients develop an oral complication and, this prevalence can go up to 76% in malignant hemopathies. In this study, our objectives were to determine the prevalence, frequency and average extension time for the occurrence of these complications at the Yaounde general hospital. In the other hand, the association of these complications with a few risk factors was evaluated. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a descriptive study over 6 months with prospective data collection in the oncology department of the General Hospital of Yaounde. Our sample was determined consecutively and randomly. The selected patients (1 patient = 1 file), after receiving their chemotherapy cure, were consulted on the 10th day to identify the sprung complications. When a statistical test was required, a value of p˂0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. 95 participants (36 men and 59 women) were included in our study. The prevalence of oral complications was 40%. and, four types of toxicity were observed in this population namely: the mucositis (44.74%), the xerostomia (26.32%), the dysgeusia (23.68%) and the oral candidiasis (5.26% ). These complications occurred after an average extension time of 08 days and seemed to be frequent in the female sex and in the age group of 30 to 40 years. The risk factors associated with these complications were: the young age (p = 0.025), the unpleasant oral health (p = 0.049; OR = 3.27; CI = [1.09-9.80] and HIV infection (p = 0.01; OR = 4.78; CI = [1.39-16.41]. Thus, chemo-induced oral complications are a reality in Cameroon with a prevalence of 40% reported at the end of this study.
570 TRENDS IN COVID-19 THERAPEUTIC MODALITIES: A NARRATIVE LITERATURE REVIEW ARTICLE , Laith G. Shareef* and Sara Mustafa Abdulwahab
As of 25 April 2020, the World Health Organization reports a total of 2,828,772 cases of 2019-nCoV infection and 197,924 deaths. No definite therapeutic agents or vaccines for COVID-19 are existing. Several therapies, such as remdesivir, ribavirin, and favipiravir, are under investigation and clinical trial. The use of convalescent plasma was recommended as an empirical treatment during outbreaks of the Ebola virus. While the production of vaccines and biotherapies that primarily target SARS-CoV-2 is necessary, the origination of drugs and biological medication can last between months to years, meaning it incapable of benefiting currently infected patients. Accelerated response to this pandemic would be significantly helped by the opportunity to repurpose old medications as novel antiviral medications. This review pays particular attention to the potential of repurposing already existing compounds that may offer new chances for managing people infected with SARS-CoV-2.
571 USE OF MODERN CONTRACEPTIVES: WILLINGNESS, ATTITUDE AND PREDICTORS AMONG RURAL CHILDBEARING WOMEN IN RIVERS STATE IN SOUTHERN NIGERIA , Osaro, Benjamin O.*
Background: Willingness to use modern contraceptives is key to the decision-making process for the use of any method of contraception. This study looked at the willingness of rural women in Rivers State, Nigeria to use modern contraceptives. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study involving 236 rural women of childbearing age selected through a multistage sampling method in Rivers State. Participants gave information on socio-demography, reproductive history, attitudes towards, willingness to use and reasons for unwillingness to use modern contraceptives. Data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 22 and presented using summary statistics. Predictors of willingness to use modern contraceptives was determine using Chi-square test of independence and logistic regression at P-value < 0.05. Results: Most respondents (n= 184; 78.0%)) had positive attitude towards use of modern contraceptives. Of these, 104 (56.5%) showed willingness to use modern contraceptives in the future. Number of living children, male (P = 0.0324), female (P = 0.0353), level of education (P = 0.012) and positive attitude towards modern contraceptives (P < 0.0001) were associated with willingness to use modern contraceptives. Attitude towards modern contraceptives (OR = 8.135; 95% CI = 3.281 - 20.169) and tertiary education (OR =27.038; 95% CI = 1.173 - 623.394) were also found to predict willingness to use modern contraceptives. Conclusion: Nearly half of the respondents indicated willingness to use modern contraceptives. Positive attitude and acquisition of tertiary education by respondents were predictor factors. Governments and program managers should implement strategies to improve partners participation and self-efficacy of women to practice family planning.
572 USE OF MODERN CONTRACEPTIVES: WILLINGNESS, ATTITUDE AND PREDICTORS AMONG RURAL CHILDBEARING WOMEN IN RIVERS STATE IN SOUTHERN NIGERIA , Osaro, Benjamin O.*
Background: Willingness to use modern contraceptives is key to the decision-making process for the use of any method of contraception. This study looked at the willingness of rural women in Rivers State, Nigeria to use modern contraceptives. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional study involving 236 rural women of childbearing age selected through a multistage sampling method in Rivers State. Participants gave information on socio-demography, reproductive history, attitudes towards, willingness to use and reasons for unwillingness to use modern contraceptives. Data were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 22 and presented using summary statistics. Predictors of willingness to use modern contraceptives was determine using Chi-square test of independence and logistic regression at P-value < 0.05. Results: Most respondents (n= 184; 78.0%)) had positive attitude towards use of modern contraceptives. Of these, 104 (56.5%) showed willingness to use modern contraceptives in the future. Number of living children, male (P = 0.0324), female (P = 0.0353), level of education (P = 0.012) and positive attitude towards modern contraceptives (P < 0.0001) were associated with willingness to use modern contraceptives. Attitude towards modern contraceptives (OR = 8.135; 95% CI = 3.281 - 20.169) and tertiary education (OR =27.038; 95% CI = 1.173 - 623.394) were also found to predict willingness to use modern contraceptives. Conclusion: Nearly half of the respondents indicated willingness to use modern contraceptives. Positive attitude and acquisition of tertiary education by respondents were predictor factors. Governments and program managers should implement strategies to improve partners participation and self-efficacy of women to practice family planning.
573 PREGNANCY IN PATIENTS ON CHRONIC AMBULATORY PERITONEAL DIALYSIS (CAPD): CASE REPORT , *M. Sebti, M. C. Fourati, F. Zidane, Pr. M. Yousfi and Pr S. Bargach
Peritoneal dialysis consists of an exchange between a liquid, the dialysate, and the patient's blood through the peritoneum. Pregnancy in women with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treated with peritoneal dialysis is very rare and at high maternal-fetal risk. This markedly reduced fertility and fetal loss in dialysis patients is not well understood. This would appear to be due to the consequences of metabolic and endocrine abnormalities resulting in decreased ovulation and a hostile intrauterine environment. Pregnancy in dialysis patients is therefore a valuable pregnancy. It is also a high-risk pregnancy involving renal prognosis and therefore reduced blood pressure control with a risk of placental insufficiency leading to preeclampsia, premature delivery and an extremely low live birth rate.
574 STATE OF THE CYTOKINE PROFILE AND APOPTOSIS FACTORS OF CHILDREN WITH DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY , Kamalov Z. S.*, Aripova Sh. Sh., Achmedova D. I. and Sabirova F. B.
A clinical and immunological examination of 21 school children from 7 to 14 years old with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMP) was carried out. As a control, 20 practically healthy children of comparable age were examined. Significant changes in the studied parameters of the immune system were found in children with DCMP. A significant increase in the concentration of pro-inflammatory (TNF-α and IL-18 increased by 4.2 and 3.0 times) cytokines was revealed. The number of expressing apoptosis antigen - CD95 + cells in peripheral blood rises 2.0 times.
575 TRIAL FOR RESUSCITATION OF VIABLE BUT NON-CULTURABLE (VBNC) L. MONOCYTOGENES DUE TO THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE AND MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE (MGCL2) ON FOOD CONTACT SURFACE , Khalid Tolba*, Basma A. Hendy and Noha M. El-Shinawy
Many bacterial species including L. monocytogens have been found to exist in a viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state as a result of different stresses. VBNC cells are characterized by a loss of culturability on routine isolation by using the reference methods, which weakened their detection by conventional plate count techniques. This leads to an underestimation of total viable cells in environmental or food samples, and thus poses a high-risk level to public health. In this paper, recent findings on the VBNC state of human bacterial pathogens particularly L. monocytogens were approached. The viable cells after 30 min. of chlorine application (50, 100 and 200 ppm) were decreased by 100% [from 7 log10cfu/ml to <1 cfu/ml (0.0%)] while after 48 of resuscitation using modified detection method, the VBNC cells in case of used 50 ppm chlorine were recorded 5 log10cfu/ml (71.43%) and 2 log10cfu/ml dead cells (28.57%), however by using 100 ppm chlorine, VBNC cells were recorded 2.9 log10cfu/ml (41.43%) and 4.1 log10cfu/ml dead cells (58.57%) while by using 200 ppm chlorine, VBNC cells were recorded 2.8 log10cfu/ml (40.00%) while dead cells reached 4.2 log10cfu/ml (60.00%). Furthermore, by using MgCl2 (0.5 and 1.0 Mol), viable cells were recorded 95.71 and 85.71 and VBNC cells (4.29 and 14.29), respectively while dead cells recorded (0.0%) in both MgCl2 concentrations. Treatment with chlorine was more potent in induction of VBNC state and dead cells rather than MgCl2. PCR was able to detect inlA, prfA and hlyA virulence gens and the organism had kept the virulence genes active during VBNC state, which was revealed its existence after resuscitation. The results of the present study indicated that in all cases of treatments, whether by using chlorine or MgCl2 does not have the ability to kill Listeria monocytogens, in addition, PCR is considered a rapid method in detecting the organism and its virulence genes, while negatively samples by using PCR should be subjected to modified traditional methods of analysis. The potential influences of VBNC L. monocytogens on human health were discussed.
576 EVOLUTION OF COVID-19 VIRUS AND DESIGNING B EPITOPE VACCINE FOR SPIKE PROTEIN , Zahra M. Al-Khafaji*, Aaisha B. Mahmood and Marium B. Mahmood
One of coronaviruses back again to attack human, COVID-19 is highly similar to SARS-CoV Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). This study aimed to find the possibility of changing/evolution of one of the most virulent factor 'spike protein' which facilities the attachment of the virus to cell receptor(s), and in silico designing and finding of B epitopes that induce production of antibodies to neutralize and block this attachment. Results show that this protein is continuously changing among the retrieved protein sequences from all over the world. It has been found that there is some B epitopes, 711 - MDLEGKQGNFKNL-189, 555- SNKKFLPF-562, 656 -VNNSYECDIPI -666, 1035- GQSKRVDFC- 1043, derived from Cons sequence constructed form global protein sequences released from 11 Feb to 06 April, these satisfied most of the required criteria, these can be offered for real wet applications.
577 POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME (PCOS) – A CLINICAL CASE REVIEW , *Dr. Muhammad Iqbal and Dr. Adeel Saleem
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is a common lifelong metabolic condition with serious associated comorbidities. PCOS is a multisystem disorder that can affect the course of a woman’s life and is associated with considerable distress. This is a common metabolic-endocrine condition which affects woman after puberty. Mental health problems, like depression, anxiety, type 2 diabetes mellitus, subfertility, hirsutism, acne and cardiovascular disease may be associated with PCOS. Polycystic ovarian syndrome at times is mistaken for other diagnoses like Gastroesophageal reflux disease or Irritable bowel syndrome. Sometimes, the patient has a mis-conception that they can never be pregnant. I came across this lady with a diagnosis of PCOS. She was actually pregnant but she did not know as she and her husband were of the opinion that due to her PCOS she is unable to conceive. This was an interesting case. The woman's agenda was to get some medication for a possible IBS and reflux but the issue was something else. I would say that thorough history, examination and lateral thinking is the key to correct diagnosis and appropriate management for the patient.
578 OUTBREAK OF COIVID-19 PANDEMIC IN PAKISTAN: A BIRD EYE REVIEW , *Dr. Zainab Younus, Dr. Asif Islam, Dr. Badr Younas, Arif Ahmad, Dr. Syed Basit Riaz and Dr. Razwan Siddeq
Background: The first case of corona virus was reported on 17 November, 2019, when a 55 year old man from Hubei province of china contracted COVID-19. It takes more than a month when the doctors of china noted further cases in Wuhan China. The corona virus surfaced in a Chinese seafood and poultry market quickly spread to at least 177 countries, killing more than 120,000 and sickening more than one million in a week. Method: Through content analysis, data from 26, February, 2020 to 21 April 2020 was screened in Pakistan for coronavirus pandemic. Our data included the total number of coronavirus cases, total number of new cases, total number of recover cases and total number of deaths due to pandemic. Results: Results show that, COVID-19, effected both the developing and developed countries. Similarly in Pakistan coronavirus active cases and deaths are reported from all the provinces. Conclusion: Coronavirus started from china effect 177 countries including Pakistan. Pakistan is a poor country and not ready for such pandemic. Therefore in future, Pakistan may face hug number of challenges due to this coronavirus Pandemic.
579 OBJECTIVE VISUALIZATION IN ASSESSING THE CONDITION OF THE TYMPANIC CAVITY IN CHRONIC OTITIS MEDIA , *Amonov Sh.E., Ashurov A. M., Omonjonov Kh.S. and Khalikova Sh.T.
As you know, for practical otorhinolaryngology, inflammatory diseases of the middle ear are of particular relevance, as the most common and reflecting the social aspect. Chronic diseases of the middle ear, such as chronic purulent otitis media, exudative otitis media, adhesive otitis media, including retraction pockets, make up a significant part in the structure of ENT diseases.[1] As a rule, chronic otitis media is a consequence of untreated acute otitis media in a timely manner. The duration and chronization of the otitis media process causes complications and is manifested by persistent hearing loss. The incidence of chronic otitis media in children according to the authors is 37 -42% of the entire ear pathology. Hearing loss, in turn, in children leads to impaired speech and psychoemotional development, which subsequently affects the learning outcomes of the child, determining the level of his intellectual development.[7, 9-12]
580 MICROWAVE ASSISTED BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES BY AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF LEAVES , *Vidya V. G. and Salma P. P.
The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have fascinated much consideration in modern time because of cost effective and environment friendly synthesis. The green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Njavara (Plectranthus amboinicus), Neem (Azadirachta indica), Moringa (Moringa oleifera) as capping and reducing agent by microwave irradiation from 3mM AgNO3 solution has been done. On mixing leaf extract to silver salt solution in ratio 1:4 the colour changed from colourless to yellowish brown which partially confirmed the degradation of silver ions to silver nanoparticles. In present study the effect of microwave irradiation, interaction time on the morphology and size of silver nanoparticles is investigated. The synthesised nanoparticles were characterised by using IR, UV-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nanoparticles range from 10-20nm in size with nearly spherical shape were produced. These silver nanoparticles have proven to be stable for more than 3 months.
581 CORRECTION OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS IN THE PREPUBERTAL PERIOD WITH EXPERIMENTAL TOXIC HEPATITIS , *Musaeva D. M.
There are no studies on the effect of antioxidants on physiological development in chronic toxic liver damage with magnesium chlorate in the pre-pubertal period, which was the basis for this study. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to study the effect of a combination of antioxidants sodium Selenite and vitamin E on physical development indicators in chronic intoxication with magnesium chlorate in the pre-pubertal period.
582 THE EFFECTS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE EXPERIENCE OF COLLEGE STUDENTS ON DATING VIOLENCE , Yu-Kyung Park*
This study aimed to investigate the degree of dating violence, a recent problem in the heterosexual dating of college students, and to examine the effects of domestic violence experiences on it. The objectives of this study were to develop abuser programs for preventing dating violence and to prevent domestic violence. The subjects of this study were students of C University located in Ulsan. This study examined 164 subjects who agreed to the survey after listening to the objectives of the study. The survey was conducted from May 4 to May 31, 2019, and data was collected in a self-administered survey based on a structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS 22 program. The results of this study can be summarized as follows: First, in this study, the dating abuse score was 22.38±7.89 points for males students and 21.54±8.49points for female students. Second, the results of this study showed that the common variables affecting dating abuse were living with parents (t=-2.62, p=.032) and the persistence of violence between parents (t=3.12, p=.005). Third, the results of correlation analysis revealed that date abuse experience was significantly and positively correlated with psychological domestic dispute (r=.41, p=<.001), physical domestic dispute (r=.51, p=<.001), psychological child abuse (r=.46, p=<.001), physical child abuse (r=.50, p=<.001), psychological dating violence (r=.94, p=<.001), physical dating violence (r=.88, p=<.001), and sexual dating violence (r=.78, p=<.001). Fourth, the factors affecting dating abuse were living with parents (β=.034, p<.001), experience of witnessing violence between parents (β=.123, p<.002), and domestic violence experience in childhood (β=.034, p<.002). The explanatory power of dating violence was 33.2% (F=28.06, p=.001). The results of this study showed that trust formation and interest from parents were important to prevent date abuse and it was confirmed that interest and affection for children were necessary to achieve this. Moreover, it was found that children who experienced domestic violence were more like to commit dating abuse in adulthood. Therefore, interventions will be needed to minimize the negative effects of domestic violence experiences or to enhance the individual's ability to cope with negative effects by providing therapeutic approaches for children who have experienced violence. It is rare that sexual violence and sex-related curriculums are organized systematically for college students in South Korea. Therefore, it is necessary to implement dating violence programs such as personal counseling and group counseling at the Sexual Violence Counseling Center and Student Life Research Center on the campus to raise awareness about the dating situation for college students. Furthermore, it will be necessary to perform repetitive research targeting male and female college students living in various regions with considering the degree of date violence awareness by the characteristics of regions and to provide dating abuser prevention education as well as the psychological treatment and recovery of dating violence victims.  
583 BREAST CANCER IN MEN , *Dr. Alimkhodzhaeva L. T. and Norbekova M. Kh.
This article provides a literature review on a rather rare disease - breast cancer in men.
584 INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF RICINUS COMMUNIS EXTRACTS ON PHLEBOTOMUS DUBOSCQI ADULTS , Mong’are Samuel*, Ng’ang’a Zipporah, Ngumbi Philip and Ngure Peter
Sand flies are small haematophagous insects that transmit Leishmania parasites through the bite of infected female phlebotomine sand flies. Roots, leaves and seeds of Ricinus communis are extensively used in different ways especially in the treatment of rheumatic arthritis, paralysis, epilepsy and distension of the uterus. This study sought to determine the adulticidal effects of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) leaf extracts on Phlebotomus duboscqi in the laboratory. A comparative experimental design using extracts obtained from the leaf and bark of Ricinus communis plant was used. The study was carried out at the Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Biotechnology Research and Development, Kenya. Aqueous, methanol and ethyl acetate extracts were prepared from Ricinus communis plant. Thirty-five day old adult Phlebotomus duboscqi flies were aspirated into plastic rearing jars partially filled with plaster of Paris and fitted with screen tops. They were fed on R. communis extract laced with 10% sucrose. Sand flies that fed on 10% sucrose solution soaked in cotton wool pads and placed onto the screen tops were used as controls. There was no significant difference when bark and leaf extracts were compared (P=0.061). R. communis extracts from Narok showed insecticidal effects against adults. At 48 hours post treatment, the LC50 was 121.15 μg/ml and 126.21 μg/ml for bark and leaf extracts respectively. P. duboscqi adults were found to be highly susceptible to methanol extracts. Therefore, R. communis extracts have insecticidal effects on adult P. duboscqi; hence R. communis should be used against sand flies and Leishmania in situ.
585 AYURVEDIC PERSPECTIVE OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES LIKE COVID-19 , Dr. Md. Nazmul Huda* and Dr. Girijesh Kumar Gautam
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease that causes the highest morbidity and mortality in the world. More than 17 million people affected and died 1 lakh more globally until dated 11 April 2020. More research is going on but till no drug or vaccine justified to cure or prevent this disease. So prevention is the way to reduce the frequency of affecting and mortality until the innovation of a new drug or vaccine. Some Aurvedic therapeutic procedures may help to prevent various communicable diseases like COVID-19. Ayurveda is the oldest medical system in the world and its practice in Indian subcontinent for many years. The Ayurvedic systems of medicine describes the cause, mode of transmission and prevention of various infectious and epidemic diseases in the name of the aupasargic roga (communicable disease) and janapadodhvansa roga (epidemic disease). Ayurvedic chikitsa (treatment) like nidana parivarjan (avoid the diseases causing and aggravating factors), apakarshana (elimination therapy), prakriti vighata (breaking the pathogenesis of diseases), rasayan chikitsa (rejuvenation therapy), dincharya (daily regimen), ritucharya (seasonal regimen), achar rasayan (behavioral therapy) and sattvavajaya chikitsa (mind control therapy) may help to prevent various infectious and communicable diseases like COVID-19.
586 NEUROENDOCRIN CARCINOMA OF ENDOMETRIUM: REPORT CASE , Chrif Boukhriss, Saad Benali*, Moulay El Mehdi El Hassani, Abdellah Babahabib, Jaouad Kouach and Driss Moussaoui Rahali
Endometrium cancer is the fourth gynecological cancer. Endometrioïd adenocarcinoma is the most frequent histological type but neuroendocrin carcinoma is very rare. We report the case of menopaused woman with neuroendocrin carcinoma revealed by acute abdominal pain in relation with hydrometria. The aim of our work is to focus on specificities of this exceptional pathological entity in diagnosis, prognosis and care.
587 MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBAPENEMASE-PRODUCING ENTEROBACTERICEAE DOMINANCE OF BLAOXA-48 AND BLAKPC PRODUCERS IN KHARTOUM, SUDAN , Ahmed M. Elsadig*, Mohammed A. Hammad, Salahaldeen H. Dahawi, Dr Mohammed Ahmed Abd Allah, Hisham N. Altayb
Introduction: Carbapenemase producing bacteria represent a challenging problem for health care providers, particularly in acute-care and long-term-care facilities and more in community- acquired infections. In contrast to other Enterobacteriaceae (e.g., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter, which are major nosocomial pathogens affecting debilitated and immunocompromised patients, carbapenem resistance is still very rare in non-typhoidal salmonella serovars. Methods: 101 enterobacteriaceae clinical isolate were collected at different hospitals and 8 food handlers’ clinical samples were received from central laboratory management in Khartoum State. Identification of the isolates was done by using conventional biochemical methods, and antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done according to CLSI guidelines. Isolates were then tested for the presence of carbapenemase encoding genes using multiplex PCR with specific primers for the detection of OXA-48 and KPC genes. Result: Out of the 109 isolates Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp. demonstrated the majority with 43 % and 35.7 % respectively. Carbapenem resistance was demonstrated in 31 (28%) of the isolates. The presences of OXA-48 and KPC genes was confirmed in 40/109 (29%) of the isolates. Conclusion: The study concluded the evidence of the presence of the KPC and OXA-48 genes, further studies and a regular monitoring system for early detection of Carbapenemase-producing organisms are recommended with continuous surveillance of resistance to these ―last resort‖ antibiotics.
588 DESIGNING OF CELL-MEDIATED EPITOPE VACCINE FOR COVID-19 VIRUS SPIKE PROTEIN , Zahra M. Al-Khafaji*, Aaisha B. Mahmood and Marium B. Mahmood
Another attack of coronaviruses comes again, it causes a sever and fatal disease by COVID-19.Immunity is considered as the main way to face viral disease, it becomes more effective if it develops long-lasting activity through cellular immunity. Different short epitopes were derived from COVID-19 spike protein. For cytotoxic cell (CD8+), 7 epitopes were derived 240- TLLALHRSY-248, 628- QLTPTWRVY-636, 714-IPTNFTISV-722, 894- LQIPFAMQM-902, 896- IPFAMQMAY-904, 898- FAMQMAYRF-906, 1065-VTYVPAQEK-1073. For helper cells (CD4+) the following epitopes were derived 199-GYFKIYSKHTPINLV-213,405 GYQPYRVVVLSFELL-518, 505-YQPYRVVVLSFELLH-519, 506-QPYRVVVLSFELLHA-520, 715-PTNFTISVTTEILPV-729, 892-AALQIPFAMQMAYRF-906, 893-ALQIPFAMQMAYRFN-907, 898-FAMQMAYRFNGIGVT-912,895-QIPFAMQMAYRFNGI-909. These epitopes were checked for antigenicity, toxicity, allergenicity, similarity to human proteome, they were highly conserved with the reference protein, and with resemble population coverage. Docking studies revealed desired engagement with selected HLA alleles as indicated by binding affinity energy and RMSD values. Theses epitopes are worth to go for real applications.
589 EFFICACY OF METHOTREXATE FOR MANAGEMENT OF UNRUPTURED ECTOPIC PREGNANCY IN BANGLADESH , Dr. Farhana Kabir*, Dr. Shamima Ferdous Chowdhury, Dr. Nayer Islam
Objectives: In this study our main aim is to evaluate efficacy of Methotrexate formanagement of Unruptured Ectopic pregnancy in Bangladesh. Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out tertiary medical college and hospital from May 2011 to May 2012.During the study all the patients had initial investigations before the administration of Methotrexate. Results: in the study 70% presented with abdominal pain and only 30% had per vaginal bleeding. 91% patients had only single dose of methotrexate and only 7%patients needed more thanone dose which were two and three doses respectively, and 2% patient needed laparatomy for suspected ruptured ectopic.70% patients were completely recovered after treatment. Conclusion: Methotrexate is safe and effective for unruptured ectopic pregnancies that satisfythe strict criteria with little side effects and the advantage of avoiding invasive surgery. Further study is needed for better outcome.
590 SEVERE ASSOCIATED TRAUMA TO THE ABDOMEN DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT , Mustafakulov I. B.*, Elmurodov G. K., Djuraeva Z. A. and Normamatov B. P.
The results of diagnostics and treatment of 855 persons with combined trauma of the abdomen and retroperitoneal space admitted to Samarkand branch of RSCEMA during the period from 2009-2019 have been presented in the article. Of them 790 (92,3%) were operated on with closed combined trauma of the abdominal cavity. In 65 observations conservative treatment was used. The age of examined patients ranged from 17 to 89 years (33,8±13,4), with this the persons of working ability age (to 55 years), mainly men, made the majority of victims (n=426-49,82%). The cause of the trauma in most cases was a road event (n=270-31,57%) and catatrauma - (n=50-5,84%). In 320 (37,42%) victims closed combined abdominal trauma was accompanied by CCT. Alcohol intoxication was observed in 174 (20,3%) victims. Of 790 operated patients 31 (3,9%) died.
591 THE VALUE OF THE IMMUNE STATUS IN MISCARRIAGE , *Tuksanova Dilbar Ismatovna and Solieva Nozima Karimovna
This article analyzes the value of the immune status in miscarriage. Special attention is paid to the study of the spectrum of autoantibodies associated with AFS in the peripheral blood of women during pregnancy.
592 INCREASING PRESCRIPTON OF NEW NON VITAMIN K DEPENDENTS ANTICOAGULANTS FOLLOWING THEIR INTRODUCTION , Amjad Al Yazjeen*, Tariq Al Sabra, Mohammad Al Farajat, Alaa Al Abbadi and Samer Efaishat
Objectives: To study and analyse the increase in prescripng the new Non vitamin K dependents anticoagulants in two main hospitals of the Royal Medical Services of Jordan from the date of their first introduction in May 2016. Method: A retrospective study to measure the dispensed quantities of both old oral anticoagulants and new non vitamin K dependents anticoagulants and calculating number of patients started using anticoagulants depending on the records of out patient pharmacies in King Hussein hospital and Queen Alia center for cardiology within the period between May 2016 to January 2019. Results: the results showed a significant increase in number of patients using newly introduced non vitamin K dependent oral anticoagulants associated with decrease in the use of old oral anticoagulants. Conclusion: The increased proportions of the number of patients converted from old oral anticoagulants to newly introduced oral non vitamin K dependents anticoagulants reflects an increase in tendency toward using these types of oral anticoagulants in Royal medical services of Jordan although this may increase the direct cost of anticoagulation therapy.
593 A STUDY ON OUTCOMES AND COMPLICATIONS OF INSTRUMENTATION IN SPINAL TUBERCULOSIS , Dr. Robert Ahmed Khan*, Dr. Md. Moshiur Rahman and Dr. Abu Saleh Md. Abu Obaida
Introduction: Spinal tuberculosis (TB) is one of the earliest diseases known to have infected the human race. It may cause neurological deficit and spinal deformity. Spinal instrumentation stabilizes the spine and restores mechanical balance. Objective: The main objective of this is to assess the outcomes and complications of instrumentation in spinal tuberculosis. Method: In this retrospective study, a total of 40 patients were observed, of which 28 were male and 12 were female. This study investigated data on all cases of spinal tuberculosis in a private hospital (Comfort Hospital), Dhaka, Bangladesh from 2016 to 2019 which provided combined posterior instrumentation and anterior spinal fusion. This study included in all cases of instability, kyphotic deformity or loss of lordosis. Clinical outcomes were assessed on a follow-up to one year using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), updated MacNab Parameters and radiographic outcomes (segmental kyphotic angle). Patients were evaluated for kyphotic correction, fusion formation and neurological status before and after the surgery. Results: 12 cervical and cervicothoracic lesions, 10 thoracic and thoracolumbar lesions and 18 lumbar and lumbosacral lesions, were found. 13 patients had mainly anterior surgery, 16 had posterior surgery and 11 patients had combined instrumentation surgery. The mean VAS scores showed a decrease and radiographies showed improved kyphotic angles. Using the updated MacNab criteria, 14 cases had an outstanding performance, 19 good, 5 average and 2 bad. Conclusion: Instrumentation helps to achieve not only stabilization of the spine but also deformity correction. Stabilization followed by early mobilization enable continuous healing. Depending on the situation the option of implant should be individualized. If clinical procedures are followed, the operating complications and residual deficits can be reduced in spinal tuberculosis surgery.
594 MANAGEMENT STRATEGY TO PREVENT MOTHER-TO-CHILD TRANSMISSION OF HIV/AIDS: RHC OF DALOA , Abba P. Obouayeba*, Yapi G. Yayé, Bognan A. A. J. Ackah, Tanoh H. Kouakou, Allico J. Djaman and Jean D. N. Guessan
Aims: Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is the number one cause of infection in children under the age of 15. This study focused on the follow-up of HIV-positive pregnant women with a view to reducing the rate of this transmission. This study took place from December 02, 2019 to February 27, 2020 in the Gyneco-obstetrical service of the Regional Hospital Center of Daloa. Methodology: Thus, a medical survey was carried out among 200 pregnant women whose ages varied from 18 to 37 years. The procedure adopted in this study was a semi-structured interview based on a pre-developed questionnaire sheet. The survey sheet was made up of two main parts. The first was related to socio-demographic information (nationality, age, profession, marital status) on the respondent. The second part concerns the personal approach to HIV (the contamination mode, the prevention mode, advantage of screening pregnant women). Results: At the end of this study, 200 pregnant women received in prenatal consultation were screened, including 21 pregnant women who were HIV positive and 179 who were negative, representing a prevalence rate of 10.5 % among the study population. It also allowed us to note that pregnant women with HIV had an average age of 27 years. These women mainly belong to the 20-35 age group (61.9 %), that they were mostly married (57.14 %), multigest (76.19 %) and unemployed (38.1 %). The 2017 mother-to-child HIV transmission rate was identical to that of 2018 (0 %). However, for the year 2019 this rate was 2.83 %. Finally, the overall situation for the period from 2017 to 2019 shows us a rate of 0.6 %. Conclusion: This study has shown that knowledge of HIV status and good monitoring of pregnant women with HIV can significantly reduce the rate of mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
595 EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF SCABIES IN SKIN AND VD OUT PATIENT DEPARTMENT (OPD) OF BIRDEM GENERAL HOSPITAL, DHAKA, BANGLADESH , Khan M. M.*, Ahsan M. K., Islam M. N. and Atiqulla M.
Introduction: Scabies is a highly contagious disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis. The disease is seen in all socioeconomic groups & communities throughout the world. However, the prevalence of scabies varies widely from one country to other. The burden of scabies is highest in tropical countries, but recent data from Bangladesh is scanty. Objective: To find out Epidemiology and Control of Scabies in Skin and VD out Patient Department (OPD) Of BIRDEM General Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted on patients attending skin and VD outpatient department of BIRDEM General Hospital, Bangladesh during the period of July 2017 to June 2018. Cases of scabies were diagnosed according to conventional criteria. A presumptive diagnosis of scabies is based on symptomatic complaints of pruritus and physical examination of the involved site. Entire body of each patient was examined. Scabies was diagnosed clinically by the presence of erythematous papular, vesicular, pustular or bullous lesions associated with itching, a positive family history (i.e. at least one other family member with similar symptoms) and other pruritic skin diseases were excluded. Results: A total 19,455 patients attended to the skin and VD OPD, were included in this study. This study was total 12,680 were adult (male 9,114, female 5,433) and 4,908 were children. Children were defined as any subject 12 years old and younger. We identified 12,680 patients with scabies. The total prevalence was 65.1%. Prevalence in male, female and children were 54.9%, 76.4% and 71.6% respectively. Control in January was highest & was 78%. Most cases were uncomplicated but 17.28% of complicated scabies patients were found. Scabies was more in poor socio-economic group than others. Conclusion: The present study showed a high prevalence of scabies in patients presenting to skin & VD OPD, BIRDEM General Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Prevalence was higher overall in children. Our data show that scabies is common in patients presenting to skin & VD OPD & this finding may be used as an indicator of the general population.
596 INCIDENCE OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN THE POPULATION OF THE BUKHARA REGION , Sh. A. Ikramova* and Z. N. Khamidova
Annotation. This article analyzes the incidence of bronchial asthma in the population of the Bukhara region. Particular attention is paid to the prevalence and risk factors for the incidence of bronchial asthma in children and adults.
597 MORPHOMETRIC CHANGES OF KIDNEYS IN JUVENILE WHITE RATS , J. J. Bakhronov* and G. Sh. Rakhimova
This article discusses the morphometric changes in the kidneys in juvenile white rats, and also analyzes the dynamics of organometric indicators.
598 DENTAL IMPLANT IMPRESSION TECHNIQUES: REVISITED , Dr. Mansi Pandey*, Dr. Rachna Maheshwari, Dr. Samarth Kumar Agarwal, Dr. Romil Singhal, Dr. Reena Mittal, Dr. Sharanya Gupta
A key factor to success and longevity of implant prosthesis is an accurate fit which can be achieved through a proper impression technique. Several impression techniques have been proposed to provide a cast that will ensure accurate fit of prostheses on Osseo-integrated implants. These include abutment level impressions, indirect (closed tray) and the direct (open tray) techniques for implant level impressions and splinted and non-splinted technique for open tray impressions. Out of the available materials, polyether and vinyl polysiloxane are commonly used for impression techniques. Whereas, for splinting copings for open tray technique materials like resin, plaster, wax and others have been suggested. However, each clinical situation demands a proper technique requiring minimal time, easy to perform, inexpensive, comfortable for the patient and with best results which calls for a thorough understanding of various impression materials and techniques for their best utilization.
599 SHIRISH – A VISHAGHNA AUSHADH , Pal Satendra*, Tiwari R. C., Dikshit Manisha, Singh Anoop Kumar and Sharma Ved Bhushan
Shirish is a medicinal plant described in various Ayurved samhitas. Botanical name of shirish is Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth & commonly known as Siris, Shiris in Hindi. In English shirish known as Lebbeck Tree. Shirish is widely suggested for removing toxins from the body. hirish (Albizia Lebbeck) is one of the major herbs with a wide spectrum of therapeutic effects besides this, it is stated in the classical textbook as a vishaghna. Agadtantra (Toxicology) is an Ayurveda branch specialized in highlighting the various mode of toxicity and its management. Agada (Antidote) is one of the methods prepared by combining various anti-poisonous herbs. Many agadas contain shirish, which is mostly used in cases of poisonous bite. Recent research has also reported anti-inflammatory, anti-histamine, anti-anaphylactic, anti-asthmatic, anti-microbial properties of the plant. Some of the uses given in API vol III are: Pama, Kushtha, kandu, visarapa, kasa, vrana, shotha, svaas, mushak vishak, shit pitta, raktadushti, vishamjwara, sarpdansh, vishadushti, suryavart, ardhaavbhedak, netrabhishyanda.
600 HARIDRA: EXTRACTION AND PROPERTIES , Raturi Deepshikha* and Dikshit Manisha
Haridra, Curcuma longa, is a part of livelihood since ancient time. Its description as a highly potential medicine is available in vedas as well as oldest ayurvedic samhitas. Acharyas has described different properties of haridra like kaphvatshamak, vishaghna, kusthaghna, vran ropak, vranya etc. In present era many experiments are performed to evaluate its efficacy (anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant-etc) and different methods are employed for extraction of active components. This article overviews properties possessed by haridra as per Ayurveda, its different extraction techniques and in vivo studies performed to evaluate different properties of haridra.
601 STUDY OF CONCEPT OF SROTASA SHARIR IN AYURVEDIC LITERATURE: A REVIEW , Dr. Sharad Ingle* and Dr. S. K. Mulay
Ayurveda is an ancient science which deals with study of various disease treatment also Healthy state of body. Rachna Sharir is the Study of structure of body and relationship of its constituent part of each other. Ayurveda mention that health is mental, spiritual and social wellbeing. For this purpose Ayurveda describe the Dosha, Dhatu and Mala to maintain Healthy State and continuity of life cycle. All this element have to be continuously Regenerate, circulate in all over body, nourish the body and replace inside the body. The different places where all this process takes place are known as Srotasa. According to the Ayurveda srotasa is of two types Antarmukh and Bahirmukh srotasa. It is a channals which is present throughout the body for circulation and nourishment. the Srotas must be patent for maintain Healthy state of body and as obstruction in Srotasa it leads to illness.
602 A REVIEW: ROLE AND FUTURE OPPORTUNITIES OF NANOTECNOLOGY BASED COSMECEUTICAL , Prof. Mahesh M. Thakare*, Prof. Vijay R. Chakote, Dr. Sampat D. Navale, Prof Avinash V. Dhobale, Vaibhav L. Narwade, Prof. Meenal S. Mahajan
This review has overviewed the nanotechnology approaches and safety concerns in cosmetics. Nanotechnology based cosmeceuticals have been widely use in cosmetics for recent few years such as in sunscreens, hair products, skincare products, etc. However debate on their definition and insufficient quantification methods are major problems still occur in the cosmeceutical field. Moreover the frequent use of cosmetics, safety of nanoscale ingredients of them has gain importance mainly by means of their dermal exposure. Although the proposed benefits that may occur by incorporating nanoparticles in cosmetics are increased efficiency, transparency, unique texture, protection of active ingredient, and overall higher consumer compliance, there still have not enough studies proved whether they are completely safe or not. As a conclusion major issues related cosmeceutical such as developing, using and researching is going to increase in the near future due to their economically importance.
603 PREVENTIVE MEASURES IN ANORECTAL DISORDERS W.S.R TO “PARIKARTIKA” (FISSURE) LITERARY REVIEW , Vd. Sunil Manikprabhu Pimple* and Vd. Ganesh Sakharam Deshmukh
Ano-rectal disorders are lifestyle disorders which includes lot of disorders include benign conditions such as fissure to more serious conditions such as malignancy; thus, it is important to be familiar with the common causes of these disorders from day to day life as well as to know how to avoid these disorders. This article reviews the most common causes of anorectal disorders, including hemorrhoids, fissures & Fistula and provides guidelines on preventive measures on anorectal disorders.
604 BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF NITROGEN CONTAINING BENZIMIDAZOLE DERIVETIVES , Nidhi Dhama* and Dr. Nitin Kumar
Derivatives of Benzimidazole have been found to reveal assorted biological activities for example, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, anti-viral, antitumor and anti-hypertensive. Benzimidazole and its imitative have been showing promising activity in the treatment of many diseases. For these reasons, they have much interest as important pharmacophores and fortunate structure. Many benzimidazole based drugs have been broadly used in the treatment center to treat different types of diseases with high therapeutic potential. So this review article shows that the derivatives of benzimidazole are excellently effective compounds and a great number of reviews available for biochemical and biological studies conformed that their molecules are useful against a wide range of micro-organisms.
605 AUTOIMMUNE ENCEPHALITIS: LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS, PROGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES IN CHILDREN , *Dr. Chirag Sundesha
Autoimmune(antibody mediated)encephalitis (AE) is emerging as a more common cause of pediatric encephalopathy than previously thought. The autoimmune process may be triggered by an infection, vaccine or occult neoplasm. Affected children may initially present to psychiatrists, as neurological features are most commonly occurring symptoms,viz., movement disorders, seizures, altered consciousness level, and cognitive regression.Hypoventilation and autoimmune features may be an additional aspect. Inflammatory findings in the cerebrospinal fluid may be present but are relatively non specific. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) may also demonstrate abnormalities that provide clues for diagnosis, particularly on fluid- attenuated inversion recovery or T2- weighted images. AE is well responsive to immunotherapy, with prompt diagnosis and treatment strongly beneficial.
606 A REVIEW ON ''PROBIOTICS: THEIR POTENTIAL IMPACT ON HUMAN HEALTH'' , Amreen Fatima*
Probiotics are “the live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host”. Probiotics are often called "good" or "helpful" bacteria because they help keep our gut healthy. Probiotics are naturally found in our body. We can also find them in some foods and supplements. When we lose "good" bacteria in our body (like after you take antibiotics, for example), probiotics can help replace them. They can help balance our "good" and "bad" bacteria to keep our body working like it should. Most probiotics fall into the group of organisms' known as lactic acid-producing bacteria and are normally consumed in the form of yogurt, fermented milks or other fermented foods. Some of the beneficial effect of lactic acid bacteria consumption include: (i) improving intestinal tract health; (ii) enhancing the immune system, synthesizing and enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients; (iii) reducing symptoms of lactose intolerance, decreasing the prevalence of allergy in susceptible individuals; and (iv) reducing risk of certain cancers. The mechanisms by which probiotics exert their effects are largely unknown, but may involve modifying gut pH, antagonizing pathogens through production of antimicrobial compounds, competing for pathogen binding and receptor sites as well as for available nutrients and growth factors, stimulating immunomodulatory cells, and producing lactase. Recent scientific investigation has supported the important role of probiotics as a part of a healthy diet for human as well as for animals and may be an avenue to provide a safe, cost effective, and 'natural' approach that adds a barrier against microbial infection. There are more evidence for the use of Probiotic as therapeutic substance for the treatment of different disorders like gastrointestinal infections, allergy, inflammatory bowel syndrome, pouchitis, Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn’s disease, diarrhea, Colon cancer, etc., with dairy and non- dairy products. Probiotic not only beneficiary for humans, it is also used for animal health.
607 A REVIEW ON NEW ARCHETYPE IN DENTISTRY: STEM CELLS , Dr. Valaja Kamble, Dr. Vidya Randive, Dr. Yogesh Jadhav, Dr. Aditee Karkade, *Dr. Pratik Parkarwar, Dr. Rajendra Birangane
The various tissues of the creature body go through normal physiological renewal. The renewing tissues have relatively few ability to restore harm due to disease or trauma. Stem cells (SCs) are undifferentiated cells competent of self-renewal and differentiation into several functional cell types. Stem cell (SC) therapy has a hopeful future for tissue regenerative medicine. However Stem Cell technology is still in its early years, interdisciplinary cooperation is required to attain successful clinical applications. Dental Stem Cells have good accessibility, plasticity, and high proliferative ability. Some types of dental Stem Cells have been identified from adult human dental pulp, human primary exfoliated deciduous teeth, periodontal ligament and dental follicle. Dental stem cells have also establish their use in Forensic dental investigation and anthropology which is an stimulating new area of research. This article throws light on various sources of stem cells, processing techniques in the orofacial region and its clinical applications.
608 MORPHINE SULFATE EXTENDED RELEASE TABLETS A SEMINAR REPORT , *Hafsa Fatima, Syed Aietesam, M. PHARM, and Prof. Dr. Syedabdulazeez M. Pharm Ph.D
Tablets are intended for oral administration. Some tablets are swallowed whole or after being chewed, some are dissolved or dispersion in water before administration and some are retained in mouth where the active ingredient is liberated. Preparation intended for administration by other routes, for example, in the form of implants and passerines may also be presented in the form of tablets but because they may required special formulations, methods of manufacture or from of presentation appropriate to the particular use they may not comply with all the requirement of this monograph. Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate family which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals. It acts directly on the central nervous system (CNS) to decrease the feeling of pain.It can be taken for both acute pain and chronic pain It is frequently used for pain from myocardial infraction and during labor. Morphine was first isolated between 1803 and 1805 by friedrichserturner. This is generally believed to be the first isolation of an active ingredientsfrom a plant. merck began marketing it commercially in 1827. Morphine was more widely used after the invention of the hypodermic syringe in 1853–1855. Serturner originally named the substance morphiumafter the Greek god of dreams, morpheus, as it has a tendency to cause sleep. The primary source of morphine is isolation from poppy strawof the opium poppy. In 2013, approximately 523 tons of morphine were produced. Approximately 45 tons were used directly for pain, a four-fold increase over the last twenty years. Most use for this purpose was in the developed world. About 70 percent of morphine is used to make other opioids such as hydromorphone, oxomorphone and heroine It is a Schedule II drug in the united states, Class A in the united kingdom and Schedule I in canada. It is on the medicinal health of organisation list of essential medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Morphine is sold under many trade name. In 2016, it was the 158th most prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 3 million prescriptions.
609 TOXICOVIGILANCE IN AYURVED: AN ANTICIPATED STIPULATION FOR DRUG SAFETY INVESTIGATION TOOL , *Sud Sushant, Sud Khyati and Mehta Mehul
India possesses a pair of poison centers to catch au fait about 1.39 billion population of India. Therefore, lot many poisoning cases are not reported as a result of limited resources. The concept of toxicovigilance encompasses the active detection, validation, and follow-up of clinical adverse events related to toxic exposures in citizenry. Toxicovigilance is genuinely a medical and not only a statistical approach to human toxicity issues. In contrast to epidemiology, toxicovigilance relies on the in-depth health measurement of acute or chronic intoxications on a classified basis, which needs comprehensive successively. Toxicovigilance is that the active process of identifying and assessing the toxic risks accessible during a community and evaluating the actions taken to cut back or eradicate them. Through toxicovigilance; not merely there's scope for Ayurved to hunt out a solution for toxicity issues, besides there's extensive scope for screening and regulating Ayurvedic formulations containing poisonous drugs of herbal/metal/mineral origin. Although the technical term “toxicovigilance” doesn't feature in Ayurvedic texts, its essence is highlighted in Agada Tantra.[1,2]
610 CONCEPTUAL STUDY & UTILITY OF TAILA BINDU PARIKSHA , *Dr. Chitra, Dr. Ruby Rani Agarwal and Dr. Shashikant Tiwari
The Taila Bindu Pariksha, an ancient method of Mutra pariksha, was very popular in the medieval period. It is a diagnostic tool of urine examination and also helpful in assessing the prognosis of a disease. This study aims as using this ancient wisdom to diagnose the medical conditions and to study about their prognosis. It can be applied to modern medical practice. In this pariksha, urine is taken in a glass vessel, over which an oil drop is dropped and the behaviour of oil on the surface of urine is noted down. The urine collection, oil drop instillation, and evaluation were all done according to the guidelines laid down in Ayurvedic practices. Taila Bindu Pariksha for urine examination, will not only prove economical but also is a time-tested and scientifically proven method. The technique of this test is very crude and there are chances of variations in the observations and results. Preliminary standardization of this test has been done in Dept. of Vikriti- vijyan, IMS, BHU. To standardize the technique, various parameters were selected for doing this test, i.e., shape and size of Patra (testing containers), volume of the urine, size of the oil drop, height of the oil drop from the surface of urine, variety of sesame oil, etc., Based on the literature, the parameters were changed one by one and observations were noted down. The whole method was recorded in the form of video clips for proper evaluation.
611 A REVIEW ON THE MEDICINAL VALUES OF THE PLANT Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. , Dr. Debaprotim Dasgupta*, Prerona Choudhury, Dhritilata Pegu
Roselle plant (Hibiscus sabdariffa) of Malvaceae family is an annual herbaceous shrub belonging to the family Malvaceae. Sudan is considered as the country in which Roselle originated, particularly in the Kordofan and Darfur areas. Roselle is known as karkade in the Sudan and other Arab countries. It is mainly grown for its fleshy calyx (sepals), which is the commercially valuable part of the plant. The color of the calyx plays an important role in determining the quality of karkade. This plant finds its mention in folk medicine of North East India for its use in various ailments. In the present day studies, the proximate value and nutritional quality, antioxidant activity, antimicrobial properties, anti-proliferative activity and apoptosis-inducing capacity of roselle found in North East India. Nutritional evaluation of the calyx establishes it as a good source of dietary antioxidants and ascorbic acid.
612 A COMPHREHENSIVE STUDY ON DOCKING ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCONSTITUENTS , *Anita A., Dr. Kalpana Diwekar and Dr. Geetha K. M.
The process of drug discovery involves technical and prolonged procedures to find a perfect lead molecule and compels us to source newer methods discovering biological targets by the knowledge of computational tools, molecular docking which is a part of molecular biology and CADD offers the solution, The review aims a brief write up on usage of molecular docking for various screening of compounds and hypothesis of ligand binding with receptor complex to form a stable complex and finally through 3d conformation get a perfect lead optimization which is targeted mainly on phytoconstituents. The computational technique to find out a special arrangement with the help of a software to pedict a ligand –receptor complexes having minimum energy, maximum specificity and efficacy is also called in silico approach. As the study of phytoconstituents is still under explored therefore it’s an effort to co-relate and encourage research based on it.
613 THE INTRODUCTION, SIGNS, SYMPTOMS AND PREVENTION, TREATMENT OF nCov (COVID-19) ALONG WITH STUDY OF HIV AND COVID-19 TRANSMISSION , S. S. Sakpal*, S. B. Gondkar and Dr. R. S. Bachaav
A new (COVID -19) corona virus disease is an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus. In this case most people who fall sick with COVID -19 will experience mild to moderate symptoms and recover without special treatment. How it spreads, The virus that cause COVID -19 is mainly transmitted through droplets generated when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or exhales. These droplets are too heavy to hold within the air, and quickly fall on floors or surfaces. A person can be infected be breathing in the virus if person has close proximity of someone who has COVID -19, or by touching a contaminated surface and then touching own eyes, nose or mouth.
614 BRIEF REVIEW ON BAHYA LEPA CHIKITSTYA W.S.R. MUKHADUSHIKA , *Dr. Nalini Ramesh Hedaoo, Dr. Mamta Ramgopal Biyani and Dr. Mukund Baburao Bandale
 Introduction Vitilated vata, kapha and rakta accumulated at mukha pradesha give released to shalmalikantak like pidika called Mukhadushika. It is an inflammatory disorder due to local application of gram-positive bacteria P. acne. It is an eight most common disease worldwide commonly occurs in teenagers. Aims and Objective: -To study detailed about Mukhadushika, To collect bahya chikitsya lepa from different Ayurvedic classical grantha. To review on pharmacological action of single drug containing kalpa. Material & Method: -Local treatment called as Lepa kalpa collected from Yogratnakara, Chakradatta, Sharangdhar Samhita and Bhaishajya Ratnavali, Collection of pharmaceutical action of lepa containing single drug according to Ayurveda and modern science. Discussion- Mukhadushika caused by kapha, vata and rakta dushti, mostly drugs used for local treatment of mukhadushika are tikta katu rasatmaka, katu vipaki shothahar, vedanasthapan, vranaropak, varnya and rarely raktastambhak and having anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, analgesic and antibacterial activity against P. acne and S. Epidermidis..Lodhradi lepa prescribe in all classics for mukhadushika and highly effective in the management of mukhdushika. Conclusion- There is requirement of different studies have to be design, to evaluate antimicrobial effect of all mukhadushikahar lepa for P. acne and S. Epidermidis.
615 REVIEW ON CURRENT SCENARIO OF ANTI-HYPERTENSIVE AYURVEDIC REMEDIES , Seema Mehra*, Sasmita Tripathy, O. P. Rout
Ayurveda is not only an ancient medical science but it is a complete life science. The main aim of Ayurveda is to maintain the health of a healthy person & to cure the disease of diseased person. From last few decades due to globalisation there is drastic change in working pattern, dietary habits & lifestyle. According to a new research, lifestyle diseases replaced traditional health risk factors resulting in an increase in incidents of diseases & deaths in India in the last two decades. Now most of the diseases & deaths are caused by High Blood Pressure, high cholesterol, obesity, alcohol use and poor diet. Unhealthy lifestyle is the root cause of many diseases broadly termed as lifestyle disorder. Hypertension is the most common lifestyle disease affecting population all over the world. Now a days various researches carried out at different institutions found that variety of Ayurvedic drugs & therapies are successful in controlling Hypertension improving lifestyle of patient & there by preventing further complications. The present review article is aimed at compiling data on important Ayurvedic remedies & Yoga modalities that have been evaluated for their efficacy as an anti-hypertensive remedy at various institutions. This review article gives an idea about the efficiency of various Anti-Hypertensive Ayurvedic treatment & Yoga modalities in present scenario.
616 ROLE OF INFLAMMATION IN ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION , Vadivelan Ramachandran*, Sudeep Sugumar, Vikash Sundharam
The important therapeutic goals of current cardiology are to project approaches to reduce myocardial necrosis and improving cardiac restoration following myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction (MI) refers to partial (regional) myocardial necrosis, typically endocardium-based, inferior to occlusion of an epicardial artery. In dissimilarity, concentric subendocardial necrosis may affect from global ischemia and reperfusion in cases of long cardiac arrest with resuscitation. Zones of myocardial infarction may be subepicardial if there is occlusion of slighter vessels by thromboemboli creating from coronary thrombi. Myocardial necrosis encourages match initiation and free radical group, generating a cytokine cascade initiated by Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α release. Despite this potential damage, substantial evidence proposes that reperfusion improves cardiac repair cultivating patient survival; this outcome may be in part associated to the inflammatory response.
617 PYRAZOLES AS THERAPEUTICS AGENTS: A REVIEW , Pratik Ugale*, Nirmala Shinde and Sachin Bhosale
Pyrazole are potent medicinal scaffolds and possesses a broad spectrum of biological activities. This review focusses on the various pharmacological activities shown by different synthesized pyrazoles and their derivatives. This supplement may assist the medicinal chemists to generate new leads containing pyrazole nucleus with high efficacy.
618 REVIEW REPORT OF CERVICAL PATHOLOGIES THROUGH PAP SMEAR AT GACH NANDED IN 2018-19 , *Dr. Sharada Pimpare and Dr. S. S. Chaudhari
World widely the incidences of cervical malignancy are increasing day by day. Cervical cancer is fourth most frequent cancer in women. Prevalence rate of cervical malignancy by WHO in 2018 is 6.6%. That’s why there is regular screening of cases beyond 30 year age is in practice in our OBGY department of GACH Nanded. In this presentation review is taken of cervical pathologies through Pap smear reports in the year of 2018 – 19 at GACH Nanded in OBGY department. According to smear report review taken as how many patients were for ayurvedic management as well as review was taken how many cases had undergone hysterectomy and how many patients were sent to cancer centre for further management.
619 BIOPROSPECTING MARINE MICROORGANISMS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ANTIBIOTICS AND ITS FUTURE PERSPECTIVES , Gayathiri G. S.*, Precilla Jennifer R. D. and Arun P.
Marine microorganisms are fascinating resources due to their novel natural products with antimicrobial activities. With the emergence of new diseases, it is necessary to develop antibiotics from natural resources. Marine microorganisms are unique and have the ability to produce antibiotics. Marine antibiotics are the antibiotics that are obtained from marine sources most probably marine microorganism. Scientists have reported the discovery of antibiotics; Asplasmomycin, himalomycin, pelagiomycin, cycloedusemol, prepacifernol, marinomycins – C and D. This indicates that marine biodiversity is rich in species that can produce antibiotics for various pathogens or diseases.
620 COVID -19: A REVIEW , Pratap N. Lande* and Ritesh D. Chimle
A corona virus is the respiratory syndrome virus. The virus originated from the bats and transmitted to human through yet intermediatory animals in wuhan, china December 2019. The symptoms are usually fever, cough, sore throat, breatlessness, fatigue etc. The disease mild in most in mast people. It may progress to pneumonia, acute Respiratory syndrome. Treatment is usually supportive. The role of antiviral agent is yet to be established, avoid this virus close contact with other people. Corona virus transmitted through member ACE-2 exopeptide receptor prevention is avoid to grouping and the contact with the diseased people.
621 A CLINICAL REVIEW ON REVOLT OF TISSUE ENGINEERING IN THE MAXILLOFACIAL PRACTICE , Dr. Naveen Nandagopal*, Dr. Sreejith S., Dr. Ajith Kumar and Dr. Chitra Raj
Tissue engineering is an enchanting way of producing living tissues for patients who have lost an important tissue or part of it. It forms an excellent and engrossing alternative for maxillofacial reconstruction in near future. The aim of tissue engineering is to regenerate new tissues within a specific environment with help of cells, scaffold, and the signaling molecules(growth factors). Even though MSCs along with bone grafts and BMPs like growth factors forms the ideal triad of TE, various sources were available for these triads. Recombinant protein therapy, cell based therapy and gene therapy are the different approaches used in tissue engineering. A lot of options like vascularized and non vascularized flaps are available for maxillofacial reconstruction. But its shortcomings enables the tissue engineered constructs to be used as a good alternative for reconstruction with improved functional and therapeutic outcome. Today, the field of tissue engineering has expanded tremendously. New technologies like recombinant gene transfer, bioreactors, rapid prototyping etc were on the way of development in the field of tissue engineering, which may help to find out a final solution for the challenges faced during the process of tissue regeneration.
622 APPLICABILITY OF ROBOTIC SURGERY FOR BETTER SURGICAL OUTCOME , Juno Joy*, Deepthi C. Denny, Dr. K. Krishnakumar, Rosemary Jenson and Shilga Francis
In traditional open surgeries the post-operative infections are common complications with reduced clinical outcome. The major limitations associated with traditional surgeries are large incisions, increased operating time, surgical marks, blood loss and higher recovery time. After the introduction of laparoscopic surgery, the minimally invasive approach has become important in many surgical fields due to its advantages over open surgery. The laparoscopic surgery has drawback that it is stressful for surgeons because of its ergonomic discomfort. The robotic surgical system provides improved technologies including superior 3D views, improved dexterity with an internal connected EndoWrist that truly mimics the movement of surgeons hand, minimize tremor and ergonomic which make them superior to conventional laparoscopy. Thus it can facilitate technically demanding operations and maximize the comfort of surgeons. Robotic surgery has been rapidly adopted in many fields of surgery. The robotic assisted surgery is improving patient outcomes through improved precision, stability and dexterity.
623 BADIYAN (FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL.): AN IMPORTANT DRUG OF UNANI SYSTEM OF MEDICINE , Md. Naquibuddin, *Hamiduddin and Zeba Reyaz
Feoniculum vulgare is a species of flowering plant in the Apiaceae ⁄ Umbelliferae family, widespread in the Mediterranean region. In Unani system of medicine it is either used as a single drug or as an ingredient in many Unani formulations which are use in the treatment of various ailments of the body. In the present manuscript the information available about this drug in Unani literature, phytochemical and pharmacological investigations. Badiyan is a Carminative, Concoctive of phlegm and black bile, Analgesic, Emmenogogue, Anti flatus, Spermatogenic, Galactopoietics etc. It is used in the treatment of Amenorrhoea, galactopoietics, Halitosis, Cataract, Diuretic, Flatus colic, Stomatitis and Jaundice diseases. Pharmacological and clinical investigation of Feoniculum vulgare revealed Hepatoprotective activity, Antifungal activity, antibacterial activity, Anti inflammatory activity, Anti-diabetic activity, Anxiolytic activity, Thrombolytic activity, Anti carcinogenic activity, Diuretic activity, Antihirsutism activity, Repellent activities.
624 EMPLOYING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN FIGHT AGAINST CORONAVIRUS , Dr. Jatinder Singh Bhalla, *Dr. Kanika Jain, Dr. Pooja Lal, Dr. Rakesh Verma, Dr. Ashwini Kulkarni
Artificial intelligence (AI), also known as machine intelligence, is the study of any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. In a global pandemic such as COVID-19, technology, artificial intelligence, and data science can become critical in helping societies and governments to effectively deal with the outbreak. AI can be useful to recognize (diagnose), predict, and explain (treat) COVID-19 infections, and help manage socio-economic impacts. However, human rights, civil liberties and the fundamental principles of law may be exposed or damaged if great caution is not taken. We should commit to the safe, ethical and responsible use of AI. AI is a potentially powerful and widely applicable tool in the fight against coronavirus, but its advantages need to be hedged in a realistic understanding of its limitations. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, PubMed for studies/news reports/ articles published using the keywords- artificial intelligence, coronavirus but only a limited studies pertaining to the topic could be found out. This review article gives an insight into how AI can be beneficial in this COVID-19 pandemic, its potential pitfalls and the ways in which it can be employed judiciously.
625 COVID-19 AND OPHTHALMIC HEALTH: MAINFESTATIONS, IMPACT ON ROUTINE PRACTICE AND PREVENTIVE MEASURES , Dr. Payal P. Gonde* and Dr. Vineeta Singh
The pandemic of COVID 19 is having a profound effect on lives of millions of people around world. Worldwide medical community is facing biggest challenge in modern history. The World is collectively in situation in which there’s no experience as well as limited preparation. With cancellation or delay of all elective surgical procedures and limiting of out- patients visits, backlog will be enormous when restrictions are lifted. The ophthalmological clinic are more crowded areas in hospital with patients of all age group. Ophthalmologist pose direct risk due to proximity of eye health professional to patients and eye examinations. COVID-19 has implications for ophthalmologist and ophthalmic practice. A protocol for ophthalmic practice in the era of COVID-19 pandemic was established. The protocol covered patient screening, clinic flow, required personal protective equipment and modifications of ophthalmic equipment for improved safety, preventive measures and impact on ophthalmic practice.
626 STUDY OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL EXPRESSION OF E-CADHERIN AND VIMENTIN IN PREMALIGNANT AND MALIGNANT SQUAMOUS LESIONS OF ORAL CAVITY AND OROPHARYNX AT A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN NORTH INDIA , Dr. Indira Sahu*, Dr. Kusum Mathur and Dr. Mukta Meel
Background: Oral squamous cell carcinoma accounts for high morbidity and mortality despite the improvement in surgical treatment and adjunctive therapy. This necessitates the use of molecular markers to identify the high risk cases for invasion and metastasis. Loss of epithelial morphology and acquisition of mesenchymal characteristics, termed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are typical for dysplastic epithelium to become tumorigenic and correlate with local invasiveness and metastatic potential. Objectives: To study EMT by observing the expression of E-cadherin and vimentin in precancerous and cancerous lesions of the oral cavity and oropharynx and to know the specific pattern of expression and hence predict invasiveness. Methods: This cross-sectional study looked at 96 cases of oral and oropharyngeal lesions obtained between 2018 - 2019 & Immunohistochemical expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin and mesenchymal marker vimentin was evaluated. Results: There were 36 premalignant and 60 malignant cases in this study. Majority of malignant cases were seen in the fifth and sixth decades of life while most of the premalignant lesions were seen in a decade earlier. The majority of premalignant lesions showed strong E-cadherin expression and low expression of vimentin while dysplasias showed reduced E cadherin and gain in expression of vimentin intensifying with increase in grade. E-cadherin expression was significantly reduced in carcinomas compared to dysplasias and the difference in immunoreactivity was statistically significant (p < 0.003). Vimentin expression increased as the tumor progressed from dysplasias to carcinomas (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study highlighted the role of expression of E-cadherin and vimentin where decreased or loss of E-cadherin and increased vimentin expression proved the predictor of high risk cases for invasion and distant metastasis in oral dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma patients who can be picked by clinician for further follow up and targeted therapy.
627 QUALITY BY DESIGN (QBD): A MODERN APPROACH FOR DEVELOPMENT OF QUALITY PHARMACEUTICALS , *Kiran Bhaskar Kudande, Sachin Jalindar Fartade and Ravindra Babasaheb Gawand
Recently the concept of ―Quality by Design‖ (QbD) gaining much attention among pharmaceutical industries for maintaining Quality. It serves as a bridge between industry and drug regulatory authorities to move towards a scientific, risk based, holistic and proactive approach for development of pharmaceutical product. It mainly covers QbD elements include defining target product quality profile, designing product, Quality Risk Management, Design of Experiment, PAT, identifying critical quality attributes, process parameters & controlling manufacturing processes to produce consistent quality over time. Also Benefits, Steps involved in Quality by Design, pillars of QbD, Analytical QbD. It also gives application of Quality by Design in pharmaceutical development and manufacturing of pharmaceuticals. The purpose of this review is to discuss the concept of pharmaceutical Quality by Design and describe how it can be help to ensure pharmaceutical quality & drug development.
628 RAMADAN FASTING: IMPACT ON METABOLIC PROFILE, GLYCEMIC CONTROL, MEAL AND SLEEP PATTERN , Dr. Abdulazim A. Junaidi* and Dr. Mehraj Junedi
Background: Ramadan is the 9th month of the lunar calendar. Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan is a religious obligation for all Muslims who represent 1.8 billion of the world population (24%). Ramadan fasting can be considered as a strategy for managing and improving the health of diabetic patients. Also, Ramadan fasting is not associated with any change in incidence of acute cardiac illness and the majority of cardiac patients can fast without any difficulty. Improvement in lipid profile, especially 30% to 40% increment in high-density lipoprotein.
629 A REVIEW ON CANDIDAEMIA , Dr. Rajashree Panigrahy* and Dr. Nandita Sharma
Infection plays the important role for human morbidity & mortality. Blood stream infections (BSI) refers to the presence of microorganisms in blood, which are a threat to every organ in the body. All four categories of microbes (bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites) can cause BSI. Bacteria accounts for the majority of BSI followed by fungi. Among fungi Candida is the most common cause.[1]
630 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF PSIDIUM GUAJAVA LINN – AN OVERVIEW , Dr. Deena Mendez* and Dr. Mamatha Kunder
In recent years, plant extracts have gained popularity in treatment of several diseases and a lot of attention is paid on the production of medicine from natural sources. Psidium guajava (Guava) has a history of being used for medicinal purposes. The potential of the leaf extract of Psidium guajava in treatment of bacterial infections has been attributed to the bioactive compositions of the leaves which are rich in tannins, flavonoids and essential oils. This review article compiles the results of the antimicrobial activity of the guava leaves so that further research can be focused on identification and purification of bioactive compounds from the leaves which can be an efficacious treatment against bacterial infections as guava leaf extract appears to be a suitable candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent.
631 ESTIMATION OF TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANT AND MOST WIDELY USE BEVERAGES IN THE WORLD , Harshali N. Anap*, Megha G. Bhise, Mansi P. Akolkar, Rutuja A. Ware and Rutuja S. Chavan
Green tea is derived from the plant cameliya sinensis belongs to theacae family. In ancient time tea is drink in the world wide beverage in the form of drought.it helps to detoxicant the body the many scientist has work on green tea and observed the many therapeutic properties from the many therapeutic uses of green tea. It has been focused on antimicrobial effect of green tea, also include the history of green tea, pharmacognosy of green tea, chemical active ingredient’s active constituent of green tea is catechin which treat the antimicrobial infection. Green tea has the property to fight against chronic diseases such as cancer, heart diseases & liver diseases & many more. Many people in countries in the world are accustomed to tea consumptions in worldwide is less than tea & Coffee generally green tea has been found to be Superior to black tea in terms of health benefits due to their greater health benefits and demand & popularities are enhanced green tea is accounted for to contain a large number of bioactive fixing which contributed by polyphenols which assumes it shows action & treatment of numerous infectious diseases. The mechanism of green tea catechins & also the biological action evidences form in vitro & animal studies and human studies by using green tea catechins to diversion cardiovascular risk factor metabolic syndrome such as obesity, type 2 diabetes. The green tea also shows the anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antihypertensive and shows other many more activities.
632 A REVIEW ON AVEDHYA SIRA WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SHUSHRUTA SAMHITA , *Pooja Thakur and Dr. Seema Joshi
Sushruta Samhita one of the great treatise of Ayurveda have described the structural concept of human body according to its clinical relevance. Sira is also one of the important structural concept described by Acharya Sushruta. In seventh Adhyaya of Sharir Sthana, Acharya Sushruta has given the detailed information on the subject matter of the Siras of the human body. In the same Adhyaya the Acharya has named some Siras which should not be punctured during the treatment stage. These Siras are called Avedhya Sira. These are 98 in number and are strictly prohibited for puncturing. Because puncturing of these Avedhya Sira may cause disability or death of a person. These Avedhya Siras are divided in three regions i.e.; Shakhagat- 16, Koshthagat-32, and Urdhavjatrugata-50. There are several examples of diseases those are cured by that venupuncture or Siravedhan process like Gridhrasi, Unmada, Apasamara etc. To know which “Siras” are suitable for venesection we should first of all know which “Siras” we should exclude while performing venesection to avoid misshappenings like deformity or death of a person.
633 CRITICAL REVIEW OF PITTADHARA KALA AS A MAJJADHARA KALA W.S.R. TO DALHAN TIKAA , *Dr. Saber Farid Shaikh and Dr. C. D. Vaikos
Kala sharir is an important part of ayurvedic anatomy. Kala means layers or membranes of our body. There are many layers or membranes in the body which form an envelope over the organs. They provide support and protections to the organs. Kala is Dhatwashayanter maryada which is not explained in literature. Kala are seven in number which lies in between dhatu and ashaya. Pittadhara kala is sixth in number, present in between aamashya and pakwashaya that is grahani correlated as small intestine. Pittadhara kala is correlated with the lining membranes of small intestine which plays vital role in digestion and absorption of all nutritive substances like Vit B12, Folic acid and iron which is the main source of development and maturation of of RBC’s. Majja dhatu is present in the cavity of long bones which is correlated with bone marrow, and major site of RBC’s production and blood formation. Impaired pittadhara kala causes malabsorption of vitB12 and iron. Hence this can be one of the reason that Acharya Dalhan had stated pittadhara kala as majjadhara kala.
634 AN OVERVIEW OF THE POST MARKETING SURVEILLANCE OF MEDICAL DEVICES , Anish Desai* and Sunaina Anand
Medical Devices are evolving at a rapid rate to meet growing healthcare demands. The success, safety and efficacy of these health tools are critical and uncompromising. In today`s regulatory set-up, approval of medical devices stands on equivalence. Proof of clinical efficacy and long term safety is not a regulatory requirement. This article highlights the regulatory challenges faced by medical device manufacturers. Furthermore, particular emphasis is given to safety monitoring through post-marketing surveillance.
635 ROSE HIP SEED OIL ACTS AS AN ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENT , *Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen, Subhanjana Guha, Anirbita Ghosh, Barnamoni Saha, Souradip Mandal and Dr. Beduin Mahanti
Rose hip seed oil is extracted from the seeds of the wild rose bush (Rosa moschata or Rosa rubiginosa) or from Rosa canina, Rosa moschata or Rosa rubiginosa are found to grow in the regions of Southern Andes while the Rosa canina species mainly grown in regions of Europe and South Africa. Unlike rose oil, which is extracted from rose petals, rosehip oil is pressed from the seeds of the rose plant. The fruits and seeds of the rosehip have been used in folk medicine for a long time. The rose hip seed oil is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid (54.05%), linolenic acid (19.37%), and phytosterols, mainly β-sitosterol (82.1%). It also contains phytochemicals such as phenolic compounds (2554 μg/g), carotenoids (2.92 μg/g), and ascorbic acid (1798 μg/g). It also contains anthocyanin and vitamin E, an antioxidant known for its anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, it has been tested that the rose hip seed oil can be quite beneficial as an anti-inflammatory agent. Besides, they can combat against the common cold, infectious diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, urinary tract diseases as well. Benefits from of this kind of therapy are not unexpected, since natural products have always been an ample source of new medical compounds.
636 REVIEW ON PATHYA APATHYA IN TAMAK SHWAS , *Dr. Aishwary Prabha Patel, Dr. Anita Sharma and Dr. Rajesh Kumar Singh
Good health is perceived to be root of the aim of human life like dharma, artha and kama. According to WHO health is the state of physical, mental, spiritual and social well being and not merely absence of any disease. The object of Ayurveda is to promote and conserve the health strengths and longevity of healthy person and to cure the disease in diseased person. Certain disease affect the health and irritating to the individual’s routine activity. Over and above when neglected they may lead to the series of complication later. Tamak shwas is common disease condition. Now a days a number of individuals suffering from tamak shwas are seen due to modern life style, faulty dietary habitat, intake of excssive cold food items, air pollution, over stress, poor hygiene, more exersion and aviodence of astavidha ahar vidhi visheshayatan according to Ayurveda. In this disease condition patient suffering from breathing difficulty. Prevention is better than cure, food (ahar) play major role for maintainence of health and cure of disease. Ayurveda is the holistic science of life which deals about pathya (wholesome) and apthya (unwholesome) for the management of this disease.
637 NAMBOORI SPOT BIPHASIC TEST - A BRIEF REVIEW , Dr. Ujwala Ashokrao Jadhao*, Dr. Mamta Biyani and Dr. Nalini R. Hedaoo
In the flow of time most of important and simple analytical techniques are being neglected unknowingly due to lack of its documentation and literature available. So this review article is small effort to put light on the most important and simple technique for qualitative analysis of Rasa dravyas. The technique is invented by Dr Hanumantrao Namboori in 1970 known as NPST or Namburi spot biphasic test. In this technique, the very identical spot of the test drug is formed on chemical reacting paper with different colour and shape with the three successive phases at specific time interval. The detail methodology is decribed in the review article. This article may provide the basic knowledge regarding NPST technique for qualitative analysis of drugs.
638 A REVIEW: NATURAL MEDICINE PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE , Sagar Pol*, Sachin S. Mali, Upasana Ghodke, Vilasrao Kadam, Umesh Mane and Nisha Rathod
Home grown medication (additionally herbalism) is the investigation of the plant science and utilization of therapeutic plants. Home grown prescriptions are the amalgamation of restorative encounters of ages of rehearsing doctors of indigenous frameworks of medication for more than several years. They are presently in incredible interest in the creating scene for essential social insurance not on the grounds that they are economical yet additionally for better social agreeableness, better similarity with the human body and negligible symptoms, wellbeing experts just as the overall population. There are a few concerns related with natural medication in regards to its pharmacognosy and normalization contrasted and regular medications. Throughout the previous two decades explore endeavors have been escalated in both created and creating nations to experimentally assess utilizing clinical and approve the home grown medications. Consequently, thinking about the more noteworthy future viewpoints in home grown prescriptions, we endeavored to portray methodicallly the customary use, flow status and eventual fate of its utilization in treating different maladies and related pharmacological issues. Besides, requirement for future examinations in creating natural medication as current restorative specialists is tended to.
639 CARRAGEENAN: EXTRACTION AND ITS APPLICATION , S. D. Dhone*, P. S. Mahire and Dr. R. O. Sonawane
Carrageenan is a naturally originated carbohydrate (polysaccharide) derived from edible red seaweeds. The name Carrageenan derives from the seaweed species Chondrus crispus known as Carrageen Moss or Irish Moss. In addition to these functions, carrageenans are used in pharmaceutical formulations, experimental medicines, cosmetics, food and dairy industries.
640 FLATTENING THE EPIDEMIC CURVE OF CORONA OUTBREAK: BEYOND THE REALM OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL MATHEMATICS , Nandita Sharma, Sourya Acharya* and Samarth Shukla
COVID-19 is an ongoing pandemic of a corona virus disease having affected over a million people across 200 countries and territories of the globe in the year 2019-20. It is a highly contagious viral infection apparently similar to previous outbreaks of group of corona virus diseases i.e. severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in few years back. It is a highly infectious viral disease which mainly spreads through contact or by droplet infection or through contact with contaminated surfaces; and its common symptoms are fever, cough and shortness of breath. The present and most accepted technique for the diagnosis of Covid-19 disease is based on the principle of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique and yet everyday newer techniques are being developed to enhance and improve the rate of COVID-19 case detection. Presently, there is no vaccine/antiviral treatment for it; but yet many medical agencies of various countries have started working on it and as of now many are suggesting and testing out various previous developed treatment methods and antiviral drugs (for other diseases) as clinical trial experiments. Otherwise precautions that are being taken is to prevent its transmission by methods like social distancing, hand washing, use of personal protective equipments (PPE) and practicing good hygiene, etc. Controlling the pandemic is the only solution to solve this problem and various methodologies are being proposed, one such methodology is „Flattening the epidemic curve of corona outbreak.”An epidemic curve for disease is a statistical approach i.e. done through plotting and studying the progression of positive infected cases of the particular disease in a particular region or territory. It is plotted between two criterions i.e. total number of infection cases and time period (considering the available health care facilities of the area.). From an analytical aspect it means the idea or proposal of slowing down the spread of virus so that a lesser number of people may need to seek medical treatment at any given period of time.COVID-19 is a global emergency and different countries and regions of the world are adopting their own unique strategies to control it. This review focuses on the various aspects of “flattening the curve” and how the word is coping with this struggle.
641 USTUKHUDDOOS (LAVANDULA STOECHAS LINN)-AN IMPORTMENT DRUG IN UNANI MEDICINE , Dr. Abdul Nasir*, Gazala Fatma, Naziya Neshat and Mohd Aftab Ahmad
Ustukhuddoos is named on „Stoechades‟ a group of Islands on the south coast of Gaul, where this shrub is basically grown. Scientific name of Ustukhuddoos is Lavandula stoechas Linn and belong to family „Lamiaceae‟. It is very popular drug and also called “Jaroob-e-Dimagh” (broom of brain) in unani medicine, because it remove the black bile from the brain, give strengthens and improves the brain condition. Many of the unani physicians like Jalinus, Dioscorides and Ibn Sina have also described in their books about the morphological characters, temperament and medicinal uses of Ustukhuddoos. There are a number of pharmacological actions of this drug such as Munaqqi-e-Dimagh (Brain purifier), Dafa-e-Tashannuj (anti-convulsant), Mufarrah-e-Qalb- wa- Dimagh (exhilarant of heart and brain), Muqawwi-e-Aasab (nervine tonic) Dafa-e-Sauda (evacuation of black bile), Jaroob-e-Dimagh (brain scavenger) etc, and it is used in several ailments such as nisyan (dementia), malankholia (malancholia), waja-ul-qalb (angina pectoris), suda-e-muzmin (a chronic headache), falij (paralysis), laqwa (facial paralysis), zo’af-e-dimagh, sahar (insomnia), anxiety, depression, sidr (Giddiness) etc. This review paper covers the pharmacognostic character, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities and therapeutic approaches of Ustukhuddoos (Lavandula stoechas) in the perspective of unani literature.
642 CONVALESCENT PLASMA THERAPY- A PROMISING APPROACH TO TREAT COVID 19 , Gautam D. Mehetre*, Shriya R. Pande, Samiksha D. Nayse, Swaranjali U. Gubare and Tushar N. Patil
In a rapidly evolving pandemic, therapeutic options must be available quickly as is applicable to the current pandemic threat to the human life named COVID 19.[1] Besides, many other options being tried to treat the disease, apart from use of medicinal agents which at the moment are being used as a blind trial and nothing more than that, use of convalescent plasma transfusions could be of great value in the current pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), given the lack of specific preventative and therapeutic options. This convalescent plasma therapy is of particular interest when a vaccine or specific therapy is not yet available for emerging viruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19. Response to emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases throughout history has included rapid scientific collaborations to develop specific vaccines or therapies. To that end, currently, there is a large global trial supported by the World Health Organization (WHO), SOLIDARITY, to investigate existing therapies for COVID-19, including remdesivir, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir and ritonavir, and lopinavir + ritonavir + interferon-beta. In addition, there is broad interest to leverage convalescent plasma from recovered COVID-19 patients as treatment or for prophylaxis of health care workers and other caregivers. The United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) has released guidance for investigation of convalescent plasma in the United States for COVID- 19.[2] Additionally, historic data has reported safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma for use in other infectious diseases, and there is also new data on convalescent plasma use in the current global public health emergency specifically to treat COVID-19. Optimization of known potential benefits of convalescent plasma may improve efficacy to support the medical needs of the widespread impact of COVID-19.
643 A REVIEW OF DINACHARYA W.S.R TO DHUMAPANA , Dr. Shalini S.*, Dr. Madhusudan B.G. and Dr. Manasa. S. D.
Modern lifestyle is posing a threat to health of human beings. It’s the duty of everyone to protect their health with utmost importance and Ayurveda is the best way to educate anyone about this. Though various ways have been explained across texts and by desiccating separate chapters, Dinacharya stands out among all. Among various regimens to be followed, Dhumapana is one of the few procedures which are highlighted towards the head and its related organs/structures.
644 ROLE OF YOGA IN PROMOTION OF HEALTH – A REVIEW , *Dr. Sowmya M. N., Dr. Komala and Dr. Sankana Gowda Patil
Man is in a constant pursuit for health, happiness and peace, since ages. Even then attainment of ultimate bliss is very difficult task, which is the key to health, success and salvation. Yoga is the secret behind the long healthy life of our ancient seers. Health is a complete state of physical, mental and social wellbeing and not merely absence of disease or infirmity. To achieve complete state of health yoga means a lot. Yoga is a systematic conscious process for accelerating the growth of a human being from animal level and ultimately to divinity. As our body is covered by Pancha Koshas (five layers/ sheath) each layers helps to maintain health. Annamaya kosha is the first layer purified by following moderate balanced diet, Shadkriyas and Asanas promotes physical health. Whereas Pranamaya and Manomaya kosha helps keep the mind in a balanced condition through Pranayama, Mudras, Bandhas Dharana, Dhyana. Vignanamaya Kosha balance state is achieved through the practice of Dharana, Dhyana. Anandamaya is last layer state of bliss can obtain through Yoga. Hence overall state of health is attained through the practice of Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, mudras, Bandhas, Pratyahaara, Dharana, Dhyana.
645 SIGNS, SYMPTOMS CHANGES AND SUCH-P/V DISCHARGE, P/V BLEEDING, PELVIC PAIN, FEVER WITH CHEMO-RADIOTHERAPY AND RADIOTHERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF CERVICAL CANCER , H. N. Ashikur Rahaman* and Shravana Kumar Chinnikatti
Introduction: Cervical cancer is the fourth most frequent cancer in women with an estimated 570,000 new cases in 2018 representing 6.6% of all female cancers. Approximately 90% of deaths from cervical cancer occurred in low- and middle-income countries. The high mortality rate from cervical cancer globally could be reduced through a comprehensive approach that includes prevention, early diagnosis, effective screening and treatment programmes. Objective: To find out Signs, Symptoms changes and such -P/V discharge, P/V bleeding, pelvic pain, Fever with Chemo-Radiotherapy and Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Cervical Cancer. Methods and Materials: The study had conducted in the Department of Radiation Oncology, Enam Medical College Hospital, Savar, Dhaka & in the department of Radiation Oncology, National Institute of Cancer Research & Hospital (NICRH), Dhaka from July 2018 to June 2019. Experimental study- Randomized Control Clinical Trail. Patients with carcinoma cervix attained at the Radiation Oncology Department of EMCH & NICRH during the study period had included in the study according to inclusion an exclusion criterion. Patients- Clinically diagnosed and histologically proved squamous cell cervical carcinoma. Results: A total of 80 patients (40 patients in side A & 40 patients in side B) who have biopsy proven cervical carcinoma with no history of previous treatment were selected from the Department of radiotherapy Enam Medical College Hospital, Savar, Dhaka and in the department of Radiation Oncology, National Institute of Cancer Research & Hospital. All patients in both side received external beam radiation with 50Gy in 25 daily fractions over five weeks. Distribution of study population according to presence of symptoms. Bar chart showed distribution of study population according to presence of symptoms. Almost all the study population had presented with P/V watery discharge with pelvic pain. Majority of the patient presented with P/V bleeding, fever and anorexia. A significant symptomatic improvement was found in side-A, after treatment than side-B. Mildly increases in 2nd week of treatment then decline gradually. Overall treatment related toxicity was more in side-A than side-B. In Grade-I nausea/vomiting and skin reaction in Grade-II were more in side-A. Leukopenia and anaemia II also more in side-A Grade-I and II respectively. Data was analyzed by using chi-square test and result was not significant in nausea/vomiting and skin reaction and significant in leukopenia at p<0.05. Conclusion: In this study it was observed that patients of carcinoma cervix treated with concurrent chemo radiotherapy was effective for symptomatic improvement and suitable with acceptable toxicity for advanced cancer of the uterine cervix than those with radiation only.
646 PREVALENCE OF RISK FACTORS ASSOSCIATED WITH LIVER DISORDERS IN A TERITIARY CARE HOSPITAL: A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY , *Yelle. Prashanth Kumar, Thirumani Neethu and Dr. Rudra Dinesh
Aim: To compare the Prevalence of liver disorders and risk factors in a representative sample of people living in Karimnagar region. Methods: The current study is Prospective Observational Study conducted over a period of six months at Chalmeda Anandarao Institute Of Medical Sciences, Abhinav Gastro and Liver Centre, SRR Gastro and Liver Centre. The focus of this study is on the risk factors associated with Liver Disorders. Data was collected from 236 subjects with Liver Disorders through structured questionnaire. Results were analysed using Microsoft Excel 2010. Results: Results revealed that in our study of Liver Disorders highest impact was seen in Males of age group 41-60 with (35.16%) of frequency and infrequent in young age group 12-20 with (0.84%). Out of 236 cases 152 were attributed to Fatty Liver, 25 to Hepatitis, 23 to Jaundice, 16 to Hepatomegaly, 14 to ALD and 6 to Liver Abscess. The major risk factor observed was consumption of Alcohol (65.25%), Exposure to Toxins (11.01%), Consumption of Contaminated Food (10.16%), Viral Infections (6.77%) Blood transfusions (3.38%), Drug Abuse (3.38%). Conclusion: Alcohol is the major risk factor of Liver Disorder that was observed in our study period in Karimnagar region.
647 THERMOPLASTIC RESIN REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE PREFERRED OVER CONVENTIONAL METAL CLASP RETAINED REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURE – A RANDOMIZED STUDY TRIAL. , Yash Desai*, Parmeet Banga, Saba Supariwala, Samruddhi Kadakia
Aim: Conventional RPD‘s, implant-supported FPD‘s and FPD‘s are better treatment modalities for aesthetic and functional recuperation of partially edentulous patients. When removable cast partial dentures are used as a definitive treatment as indicated, but where the patient‘s major concern is aesthetics, as the location of clasp may be placed in the anterior section of the dental arch in such cases flexible thermoplastic resin removable partial denture‘s (TR-RPD‘s) is aesthetically preferred superior to metal clasp removable partial dentures (MC-RPD‘s). This randomized study trial aims at comparing patient comfort with thermoplastic resin RPD‘s and metal clasp retained RPD‘s. Method: Thirty (30) partially edentulous subjects were randomly selected and enrolled with MC-RPD‘s followed by the same 30 subjects with TR-RPD‘s (n=15, each group). The subjects were asked to grade based on patient comfort and the removable partial denture-related parameters after the delivery of the denture. The subjects were also asked to choose the preferred treatment modality at the end of the study trail. Results: Out of 30 subjects 26 (86%, mean age, 65.3years) completed the trial. It was seen that overall scores and ratings with TR-RPD‘s were significantly higher than those with MC-RPD‘s (P < 0.05) regarding patient comfort and aesthetic appearance. Moreover 75% (20/26) and 83% (22/26) of the subjects claimed better overall comfort and oral appearance with TR-RPD‘s than with MC-RPD‘s (P < 0.001, both). Score grading for properties like the pain associated with mucosa and food impaction were reported better with TR-RPD‘s as compared to that of MC-RPD‘s (P < 0.05). Pronunciation of words, speech and overall patient satisfaction was also relatively better with TR-RPD‘s as compared to MC-RPD‘s. Although the differences were not evident (P > 0.05). Grades regarding mastication, stability for the denture and the ease in the cleansing activity of the denture were almost similar in both types of dentures. Conclusion: As soon as the completion of the randomized study trial, the results suggested that TR-RPD‘s ushered an advantage over MC-RPD‘s concerning patient comfort and oral appearance in partially edentulous arches.
648 PRACTICE AND KNOWLEDGE OF PERIODONTAL HEALTH AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN HASSAN, KARNATAKA: A CROSS SECTIONAL SURVEY , *Dr. Sana Ambereen, Dr. Harsha Mysore Babu, Dr. Vivekananda M. R., Dr. Shivaprasad D. and Dr. S. Ravindra
Background: Pregnancy, puberty, menstrual cycle, menopause are physiological conditions which have high impact on oral health of women. The study aimed to assess oral health knowledge and practices among pregnant women in Hassan district, Karnataka. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was followed and structured interview questionnaire was used which comprised of questions on personal data and questions on assessment of knowledge of pregnant females about their oral health and various practices of oral health. Results: The study revealed that 35% study participant were educated up to Intermediate level, 27% of study participant were educated up to High School level. 14% were Gradautes.12% study participants were educated up to Diploma level and 12% were educated up to Primary level of education. Majority of study participants that is 90% were Homemakers, 3% of study participants were Teacher by profession. The overall interpretation was the surveyed population had low level of oral health knowledge and low oral health practice level. Conclusion: The study concluded that knowledge level of periodontal health and oral hygiene practice among pregnant women of Hassan district was low. Being educated certainly has positive effect on oral hygiene knowledge and practices among the interviewed pregnant women. Therefore, there is a need for educating and motivating pregnant females regarding oral health by several health promotion interventions.
649 NANOEMULSION-BASED GEL FORMULATION OF LAMIVUDINE FOR TRANSDERMAL DELIVERY , Sushmitha A.* and Parthiban S.
Lamivudine is a anti-viral drug. The main purpose of the study is to develop nanoemulgel formulalation for transdermal delivery of Lamivudine using aloeveragel. The nanoemulsion can be prepared by using olive oil as oil phase and Tween-80 as surfactant and PEG 400 as co-surfactant were used in different ratio to determined by pseudoternary phase diagram. Four nanoemulsion were developed and coded as ON1, ON2, ON3, ON4 and the optimized formulation ON4 was converted into correponding gel by using Aloevera gel. The Lamivudine loded nanoemulsion were characterized by drug entrapment efficiency, pH, viscocity, transmittance and drug release, stability studies. Further, nanoemulgel formulation were evaluated by drug entrapment efficiency, pH, viscosity, drug release, stability studies. The nanoemulgel showed better release control and used for transdermal delivery of Lamivudine.
650 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TOPICAL PREPARATIONS OF REFAXIMIN , Korem Raju*, Md. Rehana Begum, Ch. Pavani, N. Anusha, A. Sricharan, Tasneem Aliya and M. Sravanthi
The present investigation was aimed to develop and compare the different topical preparations such as Emulgels, ointments and creams of various formulations of Refaximin using suitable excipients. The prepared topical preparations were subjected to various evaluation parameters. Each 3formulations of Emulgels E2, ointments O3, and creams C1 showed better results compared with remaining 2 formulations. From that prepared various different topical preparations due to high antimicrobial activity creams as the best formulation among the all preparations of Refaximin.
651 A PROSPECTIVE STUDY ON THE EVALUATION OF HEPARIN AND ITS ANALOGUES UTILIZATION IN A TERITIARY CARE HOSPITAL , Fayiza A.*, Sreeja P. A., Ann Suvi David and Fabiya Ibrahim
The objective of the study was to evaluate the utilization of heparin and its analogues in a teritiary care hospital. The prospective study was carried out in a total of 81 patients treated with heparin and its analogues. Details of inpatients who were treated with heparin and analogues were collected from patient files. Evaluation of demographic data revealed that 58% (n=47) were males while 42% (n=34) were females. A high percentage of patients aged between 59-68 years were found in the study population. Laboratory monitoring analysis shows that APTT test and INR test was done for 58%(n=47) of the total populations. The most prominent indication for which it was prescribed as Stroke 34.5%(n=28). The most commonly prescribed heparin analogue was Unfractionated Heparin(UFH). The commonly preferred route for administration was subcutaneous route 62.9%(n=51). In prescription analysis, it was found that maximum number of patients was receiving 5000 U (61.7%, n=50) of unfractionated heparin via subcutaneous route. During study period, the adverse drug reactions associated with heparin use were identified and monitored using Naranjo Causality Assessment Scale, 42 patients(51.8%) shown Adverse Drug reactions in the total population. The most common Adverse Drug Reactions were pain at injection site(19%) and Thrombophlebitis(19%).
652 COMPARISON OF AUTONOMIC DYSFUNCTION BETWEEN TYPE 1 AND TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS , Dr. Archana Saxena and *Dr. Vijay Singh Baghel
Introduction: India has the highest incidence of diabetes mellitus, which is among the most commonly occuring Non Communicable Diseases in the world. One of the major complications of Diabetes Mellitus is Autonomic Nervous Dysfunction. In this study we compared nervous dysfunction in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus along with their correlation with the duration of illness. Methodology: This study was conducted in 50 Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients respectively. The participants were examined for symptoms of autonomic nervous system function and tested for the same using conventional tests and were reported positive or negative for presence of autonomic nervous dysfunction. Results: The duration of illness in type 1 Diabetes Mellitus was 6 to 15 years and in type 2 diabetes mellitus was 8 to 18 years with a mean duration of 8.5 years and 14 years. The mean HbA1c in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus patient was 6.22 ± 2.09 and 7.50 ± 2.45 respectively. Comparison of autonomic nervous system dysfunction was carried out and no significant difference was found between the heart rate and blood pressure variations in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Conclusion: Based upon the findings of the study nerve damage was concluded to be the cause of autonomic nervous dysfunction in type 1 and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients and was found to be positively related to duration of illness.
653 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ANTISEPTIC OINTMENT OF CURCUMA LONGA FOR THE TREATMENT OF LUMPY SKIN DISEASE , Aman Mittal*, Sunita, Swarnika Sharma and Shivani Gaur
Unfortunatly there are no specific drugs available for the treatment of lumpy skin disease.The only treatment available is supportive care of cattle. This can include Treatment of skin leisons using wounds care sprays and the use of antibiotics to prevent secondary skin infections. Anti-inflammatory pain killers can be used to keep up the apetite of affected animals. Intravenous fluid administration may be of benefit; however this may not be practical in the field. The lack of Treatment options for Lumpy skin disease virus emphasize the need of using effective vaccination for preventive disease. The aim of present study was to formulate an in-vitro study of antiseptic ointment of curcuma longa. It is an oily semisolid preparation, usually medicated that can be applied externally to the skin in order to heal, soothe or protect it. Antiseptic ointment system composed of Borax, Copper Sulphate, Catechu, Resin, Camphor, Turpentine Oil, Sesame Oil and Paraffin. Antiseptic ointment of Curcuma longa was prepared by using Fusion Method. Formulation of Curcuma Longa was evaluated such as pH, apparentviscosity, particlesize, rate of absorption, rate of penetration and content uniformity of antiseptic ointment. Formulation of Curcuma Longa Anti-Septic ointment by using fusion method was done successfully. All the formulations are dark brown in colour and characteristic odour. The whole study of antiseptic ointment of curcuma longa was revealed that the formulation F3 was best formulation.
654 DETERMINANTS AND PATTERN OF BIRTH CONTROL METHODS IN AMBALA. , Saima Nazir MD, Arshad Rashid* MS, FNB (MAS), FIAGES and Anshu Mittal MD
Background: Understanding the pattern and determinants of contraceptive usage can help planners strengthen the population control programs. The present study was carried out to assess the pattern of birth control methods and their determinant factors among married women of reproductive age group. Methods: The present study was carried out in the urban and rural areas of district Ambala, Haryana. A total of 2000 participants were included in this study, divided equally into rural and urban areas. Data was collected using a pre-tested questionnaire, which was administered as a face-to-face interview during house-to-house visits by the first author. Results: Tubectomy was the most common method of contraception being employed by the respondents in both rural (34.8%) and urban areas (26.2%) whereas the least common modality employed was vasectomy (1.8% in rural and 2% in urban areas), which was statistically significant [P - value < 0.0001]. The most commonly cited reason for not using birth control methods in rural areas was family inhibition (19%) where as the same was unhappiness with health services (18.4) in urban respondents [P – value < 0.0001]. Less perceived risk of pregnancy, cost-factor, infertility scare and lack of knowledge about the availability of contraceptives were some other factors associated with not using birth control methods. Conclusion: In the present study, the level of usage of birth control methods was comparable to the National Statistics. The present study identifies the gap between knowledge, attitude and practice of women folk regarding family planning.
655 IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA BY ISOLATED FRACTION FROM HETEROPHRAGMA ADENOPHYLLUM LEAVES , Vilas Surana*, Dinesh R. Shah and Sri Hari Mishra
The present study aimed to screen the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate fraction isolated from crude chloroform extract of the leaves of Heterophragma adenophyllum against Multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis and Klebsiella pneumonia broad spectrum microorganism. The study was carried out by using standard nutrient broth for microbes and streptomycin was taken as a positive control. Ethyl acetate fraction used as a test sample and DMSO as a negative control. From the results of the zone of inhibition, it was concluded that the ethyl acetate fraction from crude chloroform extract was pusses in vitro antimicrobial activity while results of minimum inhibitory concentration, Plant-derived, and other safe natural antimicrobial compounds have the potential to control the prevalence of both susceptible and resistant pathogens in various environments it was revealed that all bacterial strains were sensitive towards selected fraction from the plant for the study.
656 DRUG RESEARCH ON POLY HERBAL SIDDHA DRUG - THIPILLI RASAYANAM , Dr. K. Naga Palani Saraswathi* and Prof. Dr. M. Thiruthani
Nowadays, World health’s status also open eyes towards the siddha system of medicine. Because siddha medicine deals with all diseases such as life style disorders and Autoimmune diseases etc. In this view respiratory diseases were common all over in the world. Siddha system of medicine had so many time-tested medicines for respiratory diseases, among these respiratory care medicine this Thippili Rasayanam to find out the literature review of research. Research Design: collection of data from siddha authenticated texts and selected texts from botanical, pharmacological and phytochemical aspect and online websites. Finally concluded; Pharmacological Actions were: Carminative- 68.4%, Antipyretic- 42.1%, Stomachic- 42.1%, Digestive- 42.1%, Stimulant- 42.1%, Expectorant- 31.6%, Diuretic- 31.6% and less than 20% of Anti inflammatory, Antibacterial, Alterative, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Immunomodulator, Analgesic, Antispasmodic, Tonic, Appetizer Anodyne and Thermogenic found in Thipili Rasayanam by the 16 ingredients. Iyam aggravated signs and symptoms were: Indigestion, excessive salivation, drowsiness, feel as heaviness of body with pallor and cooling, tiredness of all over the body, difficult to breathing, abdominal distension, cough, etc. therefore carminative, Antipyretic, Stomachic, Digestive, Stimulant, Expectorant and Diuretic helps to cure the complaints. Pungent and bitter tastes also help to cure the kapha (iyam).
657 FEG-SEM, XRD & HPTLC OF SHODHIT ASHODHIT HINGUL, SHODHIT ASHODHIT VATSANABH & HINGULESHWAR RASA FOR STANDARDIZATION , *Ajay Bapusaheb Sonawane and Archana P. Gharote
Standardization of Ayurvedic formulation was a need of present era. Rasa Acharya was well known about the toxic effect produce due to use of Mineral & Herbal drugs in their impure form. Hinguleshwar rasa is one of the important formulation in Ayurveda. In this study we carried out purification of Hingul according to kshalan method & Vatsanabh in gomutra and after using it in Hinguleshwar rasa we try to find out what happened during the purification & trituration process. For this we did FEG-SEM, XRD & HPTLC of drugs and formulation. In XRD test we not found any structural changes before and after Purification of Hingul as well as purified Hingul use in Hinguleshwar rasa. In FEG-SEM we found different images of samples. (HPTLC) Finger print analysis helps to check quality of formulation as well as it was used for batch to batch consistency. Because of its reliability and simplicity it is used as a tool for quality control of formulation. Hence this study concluded that FEG-SEM, XRD & HPTLC helps in Standardization of Hinguleshwar rasa.
658 DRUG UTILIZATION STUDY IN POST-OPERATIVE PATIENTS IN SURGICAL WARD OF A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL, JODHPUR (WESTERN RAJASTHAN) , Kamal Kumar Batar, Archana Vyas, Rajkumar Rathore and Anusuya Gehlot*
Multidrug therapy before, during, and after surgery is mostly used in indoor post-operative patients. Medicines such as parenteral analgesics, IV fluids, and antibiotics are commonly used. There are inadequate data on monitoring of possible use or misuse of such medicines. There is lack of drug utilization studies in surgical indoor post-operative patients. Hence, the current study was conducted to assess the drug utilization patterns specially in post-operative patients in the inpatient ward of the Department of General Surgery - tertiary care hospital Jodhpur (Rajasthan). We collected data from 300 patients admitted in post-operative general surgical ward in a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of one year. We analyzed the data by using WHO Prescribing indicators. Antimicrobials, IV Fluids and analgesics were most commonly prescribed, they were used in all study patients (100%). The average number of drugs per encounter was 7.40. The parenteral route of administration (89.08 %) was the most common route, followed by oral route (10.52%), inhalational route (0.39%) was the least commonly used route. Use of generic drugs was high (98.78%) and most of the drugs were prescribed from Essential medicines list 2019-20 of Rajasthan (97.64%). Which shows that the therapy was cost effective and there was successful implementation of EML in our Government hospital.
659 RECOVERY RACE AGAINST ROCURONIUM: A CASE REPORT , *Dr. Shibu Sasidharan, Dr. Shishir Kumar and Dr. Sarvesh Srivastava
We describe a case of delayed recovery from neuromuscular blockade by Inj. Rocuronium in a patient undergoing laparoscopic surgery. INTRODUCTION: Laparoscopic procedures have replaced a variety of open intra-abdominal surgeries, because it is a relatively non-invasive procedure with fast recovery and less pain.[1] Neuromuscular block is necessary for optimizing surgical field during pneumoperitoneum[6] and preventing abdominal compartment syndrome.[7] However, laparoscopy requires a formation of the working area within the peritoneal cavity, and this is commonly achieved by carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum (PP), which raises concerns regarding the physiologic adverse effects.[2,3] An increased intra-abdominal pressure by CO2 inflation may cause significant changes in the hepatic function and blood flow.[4,5] Rocuronium bromide is a widely used non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent, because of its rapid onset and intermediate duration of action. Although its elimination pathway remains unclear, some hepatic elimination of compound in humans might be expected. In patients with decreased hepatic function, rocuronium pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic alterations have been reporterd.[10-12] In addition, Wang et al.[13] reported that the effect of rocurnium was prolonged in patients with obstructive jaundice and cautioned that monitoring the post-opera tive residual neuromuscular blockade should be needed in these patients.
660 A COMPARITIVE STUDY ON INCIDENCE AND FREQUENCY OF HYPOGLYCEMIC MANIFESTATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH UNCONTROLLED TYPE 2 DM WITH AND WITHOUT COMPLICATIONS AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL , Sreelekshmi S.*, Prabhad Sankar, Ginsha Fahim and Sreeja P. A.
Objective: To compare the incidence of hypoglycemic manifestations in uncontrolled type 2 DM with and without complication. To identify the frequency of hypoglycemia in uncontrolled type 2 DM patients with and without complication. To assess the hypoglycemic manifestations using Naranjo causality assessment scale. Subjects with uncontrolled type 2 DM (n=101) were included in the analysis. If the patient showed any clinical manifestations in that instant gross random blood sugar was taken and confirmed hypoglycemia. P value of FBS and GRBS to be calculated by Graph pad prism version 8.4.0 (671). Distribution of uncontrolled type 2 DM with complication is (34.65%) and uncontrolled type 2 DM without complication is (65.34%). Male (55.45) gender is more susceptible to uncontrolled type 2 DM than female gender (44.55). The age group between 50-59 of uncontrolled type 2 DM with complication (31%) and uncontrolled type 2 DM without complication (30.6%). FBS of ≤70mg/dL to be noted and p value is 0.034. GRBS of ≤70mg/dL to be noted and p value is 0.047. Nephropathy (37.14%) is major complication in uncontrolled type 2 DM with complication. Incidence of hypoglycemia in uncontrolled type 2 DM with complication (51.42%) and in uncontrolled type 2 DM without complication (34.84%).only one episode of hypoglycemia occurred in both uncontrolled type 2 DM with complication (50%) and uncontrolled type 2 DM without complication (60.86%).clinical manifestations of hypoglycemia varies with patient to patient. Hypoglycemia in uncontrolled type 2 DM with complication caused by insulin (50%) and in uncontrolled type 2 DM without complication caused by OHA (52.17%).On assessing the ADR (hypoglycemia)in uncontrolled type 2 DM with complication is definite(77.77%) and in uncontrolled type 2 DM without complication also definite (65.21%).
661 ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY AND ANTI TUSSIVE EFFECT OF MUKOSAN SYRUP (POLY HERBAL FORMULATION) ON SO2 INDUCED COUGH MODEL. , Nilesh Patel, Dr. Janmejay Patel, Achal Patel and Dr. Ankitkumar M. Paneliya*
Introduction: The various serious conditions of respiratory system like pneumonia, asthma, pulmonary HT and TB have one common cardinal symptom i.e. Coughing. The currently available various allopathic drugs like anti-tussive, expectorants, mucolytics etc., are being used for the treatment of cough which gives symptomatic relief in the most extents. But the involvement of debilitating side effects is major drawback of these drugs. Therefore, it is a unmet need to develop safe and effective antitussive therapeutic option for treatment of persistent cough as alternative to existing medicine. Aim: To evaluate Mukosan Syrup (poly herbal formulation) for acute oral toxicity in mice and antitussive effect in So2 induced cough model. Method: The present study was certified by IAEC (SKPCPER/IAEC/2016-02/02) as per the CPCSEA. The OECD guideline AOT-425 was followed during assessment of acute oral toxicity of test drug to know single dose toxicity. The selected animals were subjected to randomization with irrespective of their gender. A limit single dose (2000 mg/kg) of test drug was given to each mouse at 48 h intervals and observed periodically for 14 days for any clinical sign of toxicity or mortality. The modified and simplified method describe by Miyagoshi et al., 1986 was adopted for evaluation of antitussive effect in SO2 induced cough model in mice. Results: There were neither any physical - behavioral changes nor mortality observed in any animal during study period. The test drug showed significant decrease in cough bouts in compression to standard drug treated (codeine sulphate) group. Conclusion: The No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) of Mukosan Syrup is 2000 mg/kg as it did not produce any toxicity at this dose. The significant decrease in cough bouts favors potential antitussive effect of Mukosan Syrup.
662 INCREASED UTILIZATION OF CBNAAT FOR SAMPLES AND IMPROVED PRIVATE TB NOTIFICATION AFTER ENGAGING SAMPLE COLLECTION AGENT FOR PRIVATE SECTOR IN DISTRICT OF KHAMMAM, TELANGANA, INDIA , Dr. V. Subba Rao, *Dr. C. Sumalata and Dr. Vijay Chouhan
Background: Involving a huge unorganized private sector in TB program in India remained a challenge despite the release of Gazette for Notification of Tuberculosis. Involving professional bodies and mapping the private care providers helped a little to start with, but establishing a sustained linkage remained a challenge. A study was conducted where an identified sample collection and Transport (SCT) agent improved our services to patients seeking care in private sector and enabled a paradigm shift from clinically diagnosed to evidence based TB diagnosis. Aims & objectives: To compare the services before and after introduction of Sample collection (SCT) agent enabling TB services to patients seeking care in private sector. Methodology: The study was conducted in Khammam District over a period of 16months (from January 2018 to April 2019).The performance was assessed in two parts i.e January 2018 to August 2018 (initial 8 months and September 2018-April 2019 (later 8 months). A person was designated as Sample collection agent in August 2018 and he was introduced to all private providers for linking sample collection and Transport and testing at CBNAAT(catridge based nucleic acid amplification test). Results: The total samples tested from January 2018 to August 2018 were 2400 where as tested during September 2018 to April 2019 were 4436 (an increase of 2036). The private samples tested were 105 during first eight months of 2018 and dramatically increased to 1091 during September 2018 to April 2019.The number of samples which showed rifampicin sensitive and resistant were 30 and 4 during first 8 months of 2018 and 249 and 26 respectively during latter period of study. Conclusion: Involving a trained personnel in linking private and public samples helps to improve samples tested in CBNAAT as well as private notification.
663 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PATIENT CONTROLLED EPIDURAL ANALGESIA VS CONTINUOUS EPIDURAL INFUSION IN LABOUR ANALGESIA USING ROPIVACAINE WITH FENTANYL , Dr. Sarvesh Srivastava, *Dr. Shibu Sasidharan, Brig Purnendu, Dr. Shishir Kumar, Dr. Babitha Shibu, Dr. Shalendra Singh, Dr. Suneeta Singh
Background: Epidural analgesia is considered to be most effective tool for labour analgesia. Epidural drugs are administered either by bolus, continuous infusion or by patient controlled pumps. Historically, intermittent bolus dosing of local anaesthetic by the clinician (anaesthetist, nurse or midwife) was used. However this technique had a number of drawbacks including inconsistent analgesia, potential toxicity and concerns about sterility each time the clinician opened the system to administer a bolus. PCEA has not been broadly used for labour analgesia in India and there are no reports of the comparison between PCEA and CEI for Indian parturient using Ropivacaine with Fentanyl. So this study was selected and initiated to evaluate the difference between these two commonly employed labour analgesia techniques in Indian parturients undergoing labour at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: Epidural catheter of 16/18 G was inserted at L2-3 or L3-4 space, a 10 ml loading dose of study drugs solution (0.1% Ropivacaine + 2 mcg/ml of Fentanyl) was injected. After achieving initial pain relief, parturients were randomized in to PCEA or CEI group using closed envelop technique. Parturients in PCEA group received background continuous infusion of study drug solution at 6 ml/hr and patient controlled demand bolus of 6 ml with a lockout period of 20 minutes. Parturients in CEI group received continuous infusion of 10 ml/hr with a clinician initiated bolus of 7 ml on parturients request. Clinician initiated bolus were given after an interval of 30 minutes. Results: After the initial pain relief was achieved parturients were assessed for pain relief using VAS score. In both groups, VAS score was comparable during both stages of labour. Mean VAS score in PCEA group was 2.21 (S.D-0.602) and in CEI group was 2.27 (S.D-0.711) with P value of 0.664. The incidence of motor blockade as assessed using Bromage scale was comparable in both groups. One parturient in PCEA group experienced mild motor blockade (Grade II- assigned a score of 1 out of total 3), which regressed within two hours during labour only. The mean Bromage score in PCEA group was 0.008 (S.D-0.05) and in CEI group it was 0.000 (S.D-0.000) with P value of 0.322, signifying an insignificant difference. Conclusions: Findings of our study was consistent with those of previous studies that PCEA provides superior labour analgesia as compared to CEI in terms of decreased requirement of local anaesthetics and lesser intervention by Anaesthesiologist.
664 AUDITING AND DRUG UTILISATION PATTERN IN NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS , Saniya Fatima*, Umama Shoukath and Ayesha Begum
Monitor the Irrational prescribing procedure and the creation of drug trend tracking activities as a method for assessing the production, delivery and delivery activities of medicines toward neurological disorders. The next retrospective research is to be conducted over a six-month span on treatment and medication usage in the tertiary hospital's indoor neurology clinic with data obtained from 180 patients. Requirements are evaluated for the reason score and reason status using the criterion of Beers and Phadke as a method for assessing the effectiveness of the drug for all patients' ages.
665 ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF HYPERTENSION , Umama Shoukath*, Ayesha Begum and Saniya Fatima
The observatory research is carried out on substance usage, with data gathering 180 people, over a duration of 6 months in the indoor hypertension divisions of the tertiary hospital over prescribing and alcohol usage tests. During the research, all antihypertensive pharmaceutical drugs were administered in all divisions.
666 INTERVENTION THROUGH MONITORING PRESCRIPTION PATTERN OF HIGH END USER OF ANTIBIOTICS , Ayesha Begum*, Umama Shoukath and Saniya Fatima
This study has highlighted the prescription practice of antibiotics of inpatient department and outpatient department, uses of generic drugs and injection and usage of the drug prescribed from essential drug list. Methodology: Irrational prescribing practice of antibiotics results in serious emergence of resistance of drugs as well as leads to malfunctioning of the quality indicators of the treatment; ultimately causing misuse of drug resources, increasing costs and adverse drug reactions. The study may be defined as Prescription pattern monitoring practice which serves as a tool for assessing the prescribing, dispensing and distribution practices of antibiotics which facilitates rational use of antibiotics and assess the effectiveness in promoting rational use of antibiotics. Result: Both department follow good prescribing practices and 100% diagnostic practices within prescription. In OPD 91% prescription contain more than three antibiotic drugs which is 262 drugs and 68 of a total case 75. In IPD it is 97% which is 290 drugs and 72 of a total case 75. In OPD 93% prescription contain double/multi combination of antibiotics drugs on the other hand in IPD it is 100%. A prescription in OPD with antibiotics cost for 250 INR per prescription. But the expenditure in IPD is 700 INR which is much higher than OPD.
667 EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIVITY OF PLANT LAVANDULA STOECHAS IN SCOPOLAMINE INDUCED ANIMAL MODELS , Umama Shoukath*
Context: Anxiety and depression are common disease. Despite some evidence, it is difficult to confirm Lavandula officinalis antidepressant drug. Objective: The effects of L. Stoechas extract were studied in scopolamine-induced memory impairment, anxiety and depression-like behaviour. Materials and Methods: Male rats were divided into control, scopolamine alone-treated group received scopolamine (0.1mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.), daily and 30 min prior to performing behavioural testing on test day, for 12 continuous days and extract pretreated groups received aerial parts hydro alcoholic extract (i.p.) (200, 400 and 800 mg/kg), 30 min before each scopolamine injection. Memory impairment was assessed by Y-maze task, while, elevated plus maze and forced swimming test were used to measure anxiolytic and antidepressive-like activity. Results: Spontaneous alternation percentage in Y maze is increased by scopolamine (15±0.42), whereas lavender (800 mg/kg) enhanced it more (14.5±0.78). Also, lavender pretreatment in LS(800) showed most climbing activity, LS(400) showed highest swimming, LS(200) showed most immobility among all extracts in Forced swimming test (FST). Discussion and Conclusion: Lavender extracts improved scopolamine-induced memory impairment giving a clue about therapeutic dose of LS extract should be high i.e. LS(800 mg/kg) for efficacious antidepressant activity.
668 TO STUDY THE SLEEP ARCHITECTURE IN TREATMENT NAÏVE DEPRESSED PATIENTS WITH THE HELP OF POLYSOMNOGRAPHY BEFORE AND AFTER TREATMENT , *Dr. Harpreet Singh Dhillon, MD (Psychiatry), Dr. Ganesh Ingole, MD (Psychiatry), Dr. Bhupendra Yadav, MD (Psychiatry), Dr. Gurpreet Kaur Dhillon, MD (Paediatrics) and Lt. Col. Shibu Sasidharan
Background: A prospective cohort study to analyze the sleep architecture in treatment naïve depressed patients with the help of polysomnography before and after treatment. Methods: Patients were diagnosed for Depressive episode based on ICD-10 DCR. Psychometry, Beck Depressive inventory (BDI) was applied on Day 1 of admission. Polysomnography was conducted on Day 03 of admission after allowing patient to get accustomed to ward environment. Antidepressant treatment was started post Polysomnography. Post remission as indicated by adequate trial of antidepressants for 08 weeks and BDI score ≤09, Polysomnography was repeated. Statistical analysis was performed using Shapiro Wilk test, Kruskal Wallis test, Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: This study has shown positive findings (improvement) in terms of Total Sleep Time, Sleep Efficiency, Wake After Sleep Onset, Percentage Wake Time and these findings are statistically significant. Conclusion: Antidepressant treatment effectively improves sleep architecture in Depressive disorder and Polysomnography can become a useful tool to understand the course of illness and assess response.
669 EVALUATION OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS OF SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM , Obaid M.*, Ashraf M. and Majid S.
Background and objectives: The association between thyroid disorders and cardiovascular disease is an active subject of research. While a no. of studies have been done on hypothyroid patients, subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) is less researched. Mixed results have been reported in studies linking ScH with dyslipidemias, hypertension and anthropometric parameters. Data on Indian populations is relatively scanty. The current study was planned to evaluate the relationship of cardiovascular risk factors with ScH in Kashmiri population. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the departments of Biochemistry and General Medicine, Govt. Medical College Hospital, Srinagar on fifty known patients of ScH and fifty age and gender matched euthyroid controls. Clinical and anthropometric details were collected. Thyroid hormones, lipid profile and blood glucose levels were estimated. Results and conclusions: Serum levels of fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, High density lipoprotein, and Low Density Lipoprotein in ScH patients were 99.02 ± 28.90 mg/dl, 166.32 ± 70.50 mg/dl, 43.82 ± 11.44 mg/dl, 111.58 ± 95.14 mg/dl respectively). The same were not statistically significant (P>.05). ScH patients had a systolic blood pressure of 118 ± 12.94 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure of 73.4 ± 7.45 mmHg as compared to 118.2 ± 13.04 mmHg and 74.2 ± 8.10 mmHg respectively in euthyroid controls. The same again were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Waist circumference and Body mass index were comparable. Thus in our study we did not find any association of cardiovascular risk factors with ScH.
670 COMPARATIVE CLINICAL STUDY ON EFFECT OF PAPAYA KSHEERASUTRA WITH APAMARGA KSHARASUTRA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF BHAGANDARA (FISTULA IN ANO) , Shyam Purushottam Warma*, Shivani Anilkumar Chouksey and Prasanna Narasimha Rao
Background: Bhagandara (Fistula-in-ano) is a common disease occurring in Ano-rectal region it is considered as one among the Mahagada (very difficult to cure). Aim and Objective: To compare the efficacy of Papaya Ksheera Sutra & Apamarga Kshara Sutra in the management of Bhangandara (Fistula in Ano). It consist of Papaya latex extract (Papain) Haridra (Curcuma longa). Materials and Methods: In this study, 40 patients of Bhagandara (Fistula in Ano) were selected and randomly allocated into two groups. In Control group (n = 20), Apamarga Kshara Sutra (Thread of Achyranthes aspera linn.) application was done and in treated group (n = 20), Papaya Ksheera Sutra (thread of Carica Papaya extracts) application was done. The study was open prospective interventional clinical trial. Patients were assessed for 1.Unit Cutting Time of fistulous track,2. Pain, 3.Discharge, 4.Healing of the wound after cut through. Results: Patient in treated group, with Papaya Ksheera Sutra (PKS) took more time for unit cutting time of fistulous track than control group of Apamarga Kshara Sutra (AKS), In patients with group PKS have better relief in pain and irritation at the wound site than group AKS, In group PKS have better reduction in size of wound & discharge than group AKS. Conclusion: The study concluded that Papaya Ksheera Sutra is a effective of choice for the management of Bhagandara (Fistula in ano)
671 AN EXTENSIVE STUDY ON ISODES – THE NEW SOURCE OF DRUG IN HOMEOPATHY , Vineeta, Manoj Kumar Behera and Atul Kumar Singh*
Homoeopathy is a system of medicine that heals illness using substances capable of causing the same illness. From the proving’s of Dr Samuel Hahnemann in 1790, there are over 2000 homoeopathic drugs that have been proved and are in used world over. homoeopathic medicines are prepared from a wide range of natural sources like plants, chemicals, minerals, animals, nosodes, sarcodes, imponderabilia, synthetic sources, allersodes, and isodes.
672 ASSESSMENT OF NADI PARIKSHA AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL IN MODERN PERSPECTIVE , *Dr. Preeti, Dr. Sanjay Kumar Singh and Dr. Seema Joshi
Nadi Pariksha is the ancient Ayurvedic technique of diagnosis through the Pulse. Nadi pariksha is one of the important Parameter mentioned under Ashtvidha Rog Pariksha by Yogratnakar. For the first time in India, followers of siddha system like Kanada and Ravana described in detailed about Nadi Pariksha, and later on it was adopted by disciples of Ayurveda like Sharangdhar, Bhavprakash, Yogaratnakar, etc. Due to the commercialization of the conventional diagnostic tools everyone can’t afford them while Nadi Pariksha is non- invasive and cost free diagnostic technique which can be boon for poor patients to rule out the underlying disease condition. So there is a need of research on the Nadi Pariksha to utilize this classical Pariksha on standardized parameters and to make it applicable for Patients services and diagnosis of the diseases. In this research work, it has been try to justify the feature of Nadi Pariksha in healthy individual as well as in diseased subjects. This paper has been designed to study the scientific validity of Nadi Pariksha, using computerized sensing apparatus.
673 BIOSYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ZNO NANOPARTICALS BY ANNONA RETICULATA SEEDS , *Pundlik S. Ware and Kalpana N. Patankar-Jain
Development of green nano technology is producing attention of researchers near eco- friendly biosynthesis of nano particle. Many foundations were discovered for the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles. In this study, biosynthesis of ZnO nanoparticle was done using Annona Reticulata seed extract. Seed extract was mixed with Zn nitrate and we observe the change in colour from deep yellowish to white ZnO NPs. These biosynthesized ZnO NPs were characterized with the help of X-ray diffraction, Infrared spectroscopy, UV visible spectra, Dynamic light scattering and SEM. SEM micrographs reveal the globular shaped agglomerated particles. UV visible and FTIR spectroscopy confirms the bonding in extract and NPs. DLS and zeta potential indicates size and charge on nanoparticles explore new area for reactions. Thus this method can be used for rapid and eco-friendly biosynthesis of ZnO NPs.
674 DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ORAL DISINTEGRATING MINI -TABLET CONTAINING SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE BY SUBLIMATION METHOD , Sanjana S.* and Somashekhar C. N.
In pharmaceutical industry oral drug delivery is presently regarded as the most accepted route. But the main drawback of the oral dosage forms like delayed on set of action, difficulty in swallowing and poor patient compliance. The aim of the present investigation was to develop and evaluate the oral disintegrating mini-tablet (ODMT) of Salbutamol sulphate by sublimation method for the treatment of Asthma and Chronic pulmonary diseases (COPD). Immediate release tablets are highly accepted because rapid release drug delivery systems and thus, an attempt was made to improve the lag time, bioavailability and patience compliance. To reach this goal three different superdisintegrants were used namely Crospovidone, Sodium starch glycolate, and Croscarmellose Sodium used in different concentration (3 and 9%). Along with camphor used as a sublimating agent. Miromeritic properties of the powder blend were well within the limit confirmed by having good flow property and FTIR and DSC studies confirm the compatibility between drug and excipients and post formulation parameters were evaluated. Among the formulations F2 resulted a least disintegration and dissolution studies hence concluded that ODMTs give better effect to the asthma and COPD patients to improve the lag time, better patient compliance.
675 TO COMPARE THE EFFECTS OF FUNCTIONAL TASK EXERCISE AND FINGER MOVEMENT EXERCISE WITH FINGER WEIGHT LIFTING TRAINING ON HANDGRIP FOR COMMUNITY DWELLING ELDERLY POPULATION. , *Dr. Jyothi Seshan, Dr. Senthil Selvam, Dr. Sundaram and Venkat Raman
Background: Aging is an irreversible process; Due to inactivity, a sedentary lifestyle are very evident in most people. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of functional task exercise and finger movements exercise with finger weight lifting training on handgrip for community dwelling elderly population. When physical capacity falls below the ability to the performance of daily tasks, functional limitations and a loss of independence may occur. Aim and Objectives of The Study: The aim of the study is to analyze the effectiveness of functional task exercise program and finger movement exercise with finger weight lifting training in improving handgrip strength. Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 40 male and female patients (aged 60-75 years) without any severe illness. 40 subjects were divided into 2 groups, group A was taught functional tasks exercise and group B was taught finger movement exercise and finger weight lifting exercise. For the outcome measures, Handgrip strength was recorded using handheld dynamometer. Result: The result shows that group B (Finger movements exercise with finger weight lifting training) P Value is (right hand <0.0001, left hand p<0.0001) improved compared to group A (Functional task exercise) P Value is (right hand p<0.0001, left hand p<0.005). Conclusion: There is a significant for both these exercise. But statistically significant for finger movements exercise with finger weight lifting exercise comparing to functional task exercise.
676 PREPARATION AND STANDARDIZATION OF NUTRACEUTICAL LOZENGES , Kolavali Yalla Reddy*, D. Amulya, Dr. P.V. Murali Krishna and D.Venkata Narayana
Nutraceuticals are food or part of food that provides health benefits including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease. This treats heart failure, cancer, hypertension and diabetis. The nutraceutical lozenges contain Antioxidants, Polyunsaturated fatty acids, Prebiotics, Probiotics, Omega-3-fatty acids and Dietary fibres. Nutraceutical lozenges are solid dosage forms provided the drug as well as absorbed through the buccal linings or when it is swallowed these medicated dosage form intended to be sucked and held in mouth or pharynx. Standardization of formulations is essential in order to assess the quality based on the concentration of their active principles. The present research work on standardization of Nutraceutical lozenges is used to sore throat. In this herbal formulation consists of Zingiber officinalis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Coriandrum sativum, Apis mellifera, Citrus limonsis, Ocimum sanctum, Curcuma Longa, Piper Nigrum, The lozenges is one of the best remedy for sore throat etc. The quality of herbal formulations is assessing their acceptability in modern system of medicine against various throat diseases. In this study organoleptic, ash, extractive values, phytochemical screening, and physical characteristics like determination of Weight variation test, Friability test, Hardness test, In vitro mouth Dissolving Time, Drug Content.
677 A STUDY TO COMPARE THE EFFECT OF YOGASANA VS DYNAMIC STRETCHING ON HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY AMONG PHYSIOTHERAPISTS , *Manjula S., MPT and Dr. P. Senthil Selvam
Physiotherapy plays a crucial role in the health care system. Physiotherapists are looked upon as role models for practicing a healthy lifestyle. They require a good amount of flexibility and endurance to meet the professional demands.
678 EFFICACY OF WET CUPPING IN THE MANAGEMENT OF DEPRESSION: A PILOT STUDY , Ziaur Rahman*, Sana Akhtar, Md. Naquibuddin M.Y. Siddiqui4 and Ghufran Ahmad
Depression is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and affects people in all communities across the world. Today, depression is estimated to affect 350 million people. The economical and social burden of depression and other mental health is on rise globally so the avoidance of depression by some alternative regimens is need of the hour. According to USM, there are various methods in Ilaj- bit-tadbeer (regimental therapy) that are used in management of depression such as Massage, Exercise, Cupping and Nutool. However, wet cupping on head demonstrated a depression attenuating effect as it evacuates the morbid material and abnormal humour from body hence improves the condition.
679 PHARMACOGNOSTIC, PHYSICO CHEMICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF PHYLLANTHUS ACIDUS (L.) SKEELS. LEAVES , R. Karthiyayini*, M. Harsha Vardini and S. Amutha
Medicinal Plants play a vital role in minimizing human illness and enhancing the quality of human life form ancient days itself. Plant are basically contain a large amount of secondary metabolites, which promotes human health. The present study aims to investigate the phamacognostic analysis viz. organoleptic, fluorescence analysis, physico chemical and phytochemical screening of Phyllanthus acidus leaves, the present observations shows some marked difference in the organoleptic and fluorescence analysis and physico chemical analysis. In phytochemical screening conformed that the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, steroid, saponin, phenol, terpenoid, carbohydrate, quinine, starch, etc. The study contributes to the development of standardization parameters of herbal drugs used in our system of medicine.
680 EXTERNAL APICAL ROOT RESORPTION IN ORTHODONTIC PATIENTS: AN OVERVIEW , Dr. Tulika Tripathi*, Dr. Pavan Kumar Shukla, Dr. Shilpa Kalra
External apical root resorption (EARR) is an inevitable complication of fixed orthodontic treatment. EARR is multifactorial, influenced by a combination of environmental and host factors. Orthodontist should know the risk factors of EARR and do everything to reduce this. This review describes the literature regarding the association between orthodontic treatment and EARR.
681 ONDANSETRON V/S METACHLOPRAMIDE FOR ALLEIVATION OF PROPOFOL PAIN. A RANDOMISED CONTROL STUDY , Dr. Amrutha S.*, Dr. Saraswathi Devi
Background and Aims: Propofol is widely used for induction of anaesthesia, pain during its injection remains a concern. A number of techniques have been adopted to minimise propofol induced pain. Various 5HT3 antagonists have shown to reduce propofol induced pain, metachlopramide is shown to have analgesic effect and reduce the use of opioids. Both drugs are used commonly for prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. A randomised controlled study was conducted to compare the efficacy of ondansetron and metachlopramide in terms of attenuation of propofolinduced pain during induction of anaesthesia. Methods: 100 adult patients aged 20–70 years posted for various elective surgical procedures under general anaesthesia were randomly assigned to two groups of 50 each. Group O received 4 mg of ondansetron, Group M received 10mg of metachlopramide. After intravenous pre‑treatment of study drug, manual occlusion of venous drainage was done at mid‑arm for 1 min. This was followed by administration of propofol (1%) after release of venous occlusion. Pain was assessed with a four‑point scale. Unpaired Student’s t‑test and Chi‑square test/Fisher’s exact test were used to analyse results. Results: Demographic data in both the groups were comparable and there was no statistical significance.VRS and VASwere lower in group M compared to group O. Priming with either ondansetron or metachlopramide mostly alleviated pain of initiation of propofol injection where 17 patients in group O and 36 in group M had no pain. 16 patients in group O whereas only 8 patients in group M had mild pain. VRS of 2 was noted in 11 patients with group O and 3 patients in group M. Priming with 10 mg metachlopramide provided significantly better analgesia compared to ondansetron 4mg with p value of 0.002.
682 TO DESIGN EVALUATION OF SELF-EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF GLICLAZIDE , Apeksha V. Masal*, Nilesh A. Nalawade, Sagar D. Shinde, Swati B. Kavade and LoKesh K. Patil
Self emulsifying drug delivery system was developed to assess the oral absorption and to improve the oral bioavailability of Gliclazide. The SEDD is converted in to its S-SEDDS. For screening purpose the solubility of drug in to oil, surfactant, co-surfactanat was determined on the basis of that select suitable ingredients. The self micro-emulsion region was decided by constructing ternary phase diagram. The drug excipient interaction was study by using FTIR. From all screening four formulation variables were selected. Four formulation are prepared and evaluated parameter included visual assessment, self emulsification ,particle size , zeta potential and in vitro-dissolution was carried in USP apparatus II using 0.1N HCL buffer at 37±0.5˚ with 50 rpm rotating speed and drug release measured by UV Spectrophtometeric method. Result F1 oleic acid 10% (oil), 90% Tween20:n-butanol 2:1 ration. Optimized formulation F1 of SEDDS was observed with smaller size and zeta potential. Formulation was clear after the dilution with water. SEDDS formulation converted in to S-SEDDS by adsorption method using Aerosil 200 showed good flow properties. the S- SEDDS of Gliclazide showed drug release 96 % in 90 min as compared with pure drug Gliclazide. From the result of obtained screening SEDDS of Gliclazide could be promising to improve oral admistration of Gliclazide.
683 ETIOLOGY AND PATHOGENESIS OF ODONTOGENIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF THE MAXILLOFACIAL REGION , Makhmudov Jahongirmirzo*
This article analyzes the etiology and pathogenesis of odontogenic inflammatory diseases of the maxillofacial region. Special attention is paid to the review of the literature on this issue.
684 EVALUATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS BY XANTHINE OXIDASE IN INDIAN MAJOR CARPS FROM LAKES OF AJMER , Dr. Sudha Summarwar* and Dr. Harendra Kumar (IPS)
In order to assess the impact of pesticide in Indian major carps of lakes of Rajasthan, a study was conducted at the tissue level of antioxidant enzymes xanthine oxidase. Two type’s fishes i.e. Labeo rohita & Catla catla were collected from Ana Sagar & Foy Sagar Lake of Ajmer, Rajasthan. Fishes were collected from different areas of lakes namely Ana Sagar site 1, Ana Sagar site 2, Ana Sagar site 3, Ana Sagar site 4, Ana Sagar site 5, and Foy Sagar. The activity of Xanthine Oxidase was observed and analyzed in both the fishes from all six sites. The study revealed that Xanthine Oxidase activity was higher in Catla catla.
685 TO STUDY THE PREVALENCE OF VITAMIN D LEVELS IN NEWBORNS AS ASSESSED FROM CORD BLOOD , *Dr. Gurpreet Kaur Dhillon, Dr. Sunil Kumar Rai, Dr. Harpreet Singh Dhillon and Dr. Shibu Sasidharan
Background: An observational epidemiological study was undertaken to study the prevalence of vit D levels in newborns as assessed from cord blood. Methods: This was an observational study done on 569 patients to study the prevalence of vit D levels in newborns. The data for this observational study included cord blood samples from the placental end during peripartum period. The primary objective of this project was to assess the vitamin D levels in cord blood. Results: Results showed median 25(OH)D level was 12.22 ng/mL, mean 13.529, SD = 3.794, max=27ng/mL, min=7.9 ng/mL. Vitamin D deficiency was found in 94.00% of newborn participants and 5.99 % had Vitamin D insufficiency as per classification by US Endocrine Society. Conclusion: None of the newborns, irrespective of gender, had sufficient levels of Vitamin D as per classification by US Endocrine Society.
686 EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL RESEARCH CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS FROM THE LEAVES OF CALLISTEMON LANCEOLATUS (SM.) SWEET , Shahnaz Sultana, Mohammed Ali* and Showkat Rassol Mir
Callistemon lanceolatus (Sm.) Sweet (Myrtaceae) grows all over the world and is used as a tea substitute with a delightfully refreshing flavor and to treat bronchitis and cough. This research work was undertaken to characterize structures of chemical constituents isolated from the plant leaves. A methanol extract of the leaves was adsorbed on silica gel (60-120 mesh) and subjected to silica gel column packed in petroleum ether. The column was eluted with petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol, successively, in order of increasing polarity to isolate the compounds. The isolated chemical constituents were characterized as 4-methoxyphenyl 4′-octanyl ether (1), 5,7-dihydroxy-4′-methoxy-8-ethyl flavone (8-ethyl 4′-methoxyapigenin, 2), 5,7,4′-trimethoxy-6-methyl-8-isopropanolyl apigenin (3), lanostan-3β,19-, 18,21-diolide (callistelanostanediolide, 6), 4′-methoxy-8-(2′′-propanolyl) apigenin (7), 4-hydroxyphenyl propanoloxycerotate (8), 4-hydroxyphenethyl tetratriacontanoate (tyrosolylgheddate, 9), 4-hydroxyphenyl 1-propanyl tetratriacontanoate (4-hydroxyphenyl propanyloxygheddate, 10) along with the known constituents 1-heptacosanol (4), 1-octacosanol (5) and α-amyrin (11). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral data analysis and chemical reactions.
687 EVALUATION OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA PODS EXTRACT , *Sukanya Pramod Paricharak and Dr. Shivakumar Hugar
The aim of current study is to evaluate antiulcer activity of the 70% hydroalcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera pods (HAEMOP) using different animal models of ulcer in rats. Pylorus ligation method was studied using Ranitidine (150mg/Kg) in rats as reference standard. The ulcer index, pH of gastric juice, volume of gastric juice was determined. Ethanol and aspirin induced ulcer was studied and the ulcer index was measured. In antiulcer studies, Moringa oleifera pods extract showed reduction in ulcer score each experimental model sucessessfully. In pylorus ligation ulcer model it also reduced gastric volume and increased pH of gastric juice. The results have shown that the Moringa oleifera pods extract contain some active ingredients with the potential of being antiulcer agents.
688 STANDARDIZATION OF KAMELA POWDER (MALLOTUS PHILIPPINENSIS): AN IMPORTANT HERBAL UNANI DRUG , Sawood Ahmad*, Ghufran Ahmad and Mokarram Ali
Kamela (Mallotus philippinensis) belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. It is also known as Monkey Face tree. It is a prime drug of Unani Medicine commonly used in the treatment as an anthelmintic, purgative, Tapeworm, Ringworm, Various skin problems and colicky pain, urinary and menstrual disorders etc. Due to natural variations a number of natural products have significantly different biological activity and varied clinical efficacy. Therefore, it becomes essential to standardize the herbal drugs to ensure their identity, quality and purity so as to ascertain their therapeutic efficacy. In the present study an attempt has been made to determine the physicochemical characters helpful in identification, standardization and quality control of Kamela. It includes the parameters used in National Unani Pharmacopeia i.e. Total Ash values, Acid insoluble ash, Water soluble ash, successive extractive values and moisture content. Qualitative analysis and Chromatographic study (TLC) were also performed.
689 A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF ADDITION OF LIGNOCAINE VERSUS DEXMEDITOMIDINE ON BLOCK CHARACTERISTICS WITH BUPIVACAINE IN ULTRASOUND GUIDED INFRACLAVICULAR BLOCK , Dr. Ruhi Sharma, Dr. Saru Singh, *Dr. Shibu Sasidharan, Dr. Meenu Agrawal and Dr. Meena Singh
Background: A randomised, double blinded trial was designed to study the effect of addition of dexmedetomidine versus lignocaine to bupivacaine for infraclavicular block with the primary objective of comparing onset time of block and duration of post operative analgesia as secondary objective. Materials & Methods: Under ultrasonic guidance, the point of needle puncture was identified and 2 ml of Inj. Lidocaine 2% was infiltrated in the proposed needle tract. The nerve bundle was identified and drug infiltrated in aliquots around each nerve bundle9 according to the groups as proposed in the study. Group B: 35 ml bupivacaine 0.375% + 1 ml Normal Saline Group BL: 25 ml bupivacaine 0.375%+ 10 ml lignocaine 2% + 1 ml Normal Saline Group BD: 35 ml bupivacaine 0.375% + 1 mcg/ kg dexmedetomidine in 1 ml Normal Saline. Onset of sensory and motor blockade, haemodynamic parameters and side effects were monitored. Time of completion of block was taken as time 0 and all durations were measured thereon. Patients were assessed for loss of sensation to blunt pin prick over C5-T1 dermatomes at every 1 minute for 15 minutes and motor block every 1 minute for 15 minutes. Sensory block was measured by Modified Hollmen score and motor block was assessed using the modified Bromage Scale. Time of onset of sensory block (grade 1) and motor block (Bromage 2) were noted. Results: The demographic parameters and preoperative haemodynamics were statistically comparable. The systolic and diastolic blood pressures were statistically lower in group containing dexmedetomidine (BD).The mean heart rate in these groups was also statistically lower. The addition of dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine (BD) provides a statistically significant increase in the duration of analgesia as compared to the addition of lidocaine (BL) (p<0.001). The bupivacaine and lidocaine group (BL) had similar duration of analgesia as plain bupivacaine (9.24±3.6 hrs vs 10.22±3.29 hrs.) (p-0.831). Conclusion: With a longer duration of analgesia in post operative period. There should be minimum risk of toxicity and haemodynamic alterations. A prolonged motor blockade is undesirable. Addition of dexmedetomidine to bupivacaine provides similar reduction in onset time as addition of lidocaine with a superior duration of post operative analgesia.
690 ANALYSIS OF ABIOTIC STRESSOR VIS-À-VIS STRESS IN FEMALE NON- DESCRIPT INDIGENOUS CATTLE FROM ARID TRACTS OF RAJASTHAN , Bhagat Singh Saini* and Nalini Kataria
An exploration was carried out to analyze effect of abiotic stressor on the development of stress in female non-descript indigenous calves, heifers and cows from arid tracts of Rajasthan during extreme environmental temperature periods. Abiotic stressor was appraised on the basis of temperature humidity index and heat load index values. Stress was assessed on the basis of serum cortisol and plasma catalase. Ostensibly healthy animals were monitored during comfortable, extreme hot-dry, extreme hot-humid and extreme cold environmental temperature periods. The overall mean values of serum cortisol and plasma catalase were significantly (p≤0.05) higher during extreme hot-humid, extreme hot-dry and extreme cold environmental temperature periods as compared to respective comfortable mean overall value. During extreme hot-humid, the per cent variation was found to be maximum for serum cortisol and plasma catalase. Based on the findings of serum cortisol, it can be construed that calves were found to be impinged on maximally by the effect of stress followed by heifers and cows. Among calves, calf-yearling transition exhibited higher influence of all the extreme environmental temperature periods. Between heifers, pre-pubertals expressed elevated effect of extreme environmental temperature periods. Amongst cows, non-pregnant milch and primipara divulged higher shove of extreme environmental temperature periods. Changes in plasma catalase exhibited the presence of oxidative stress in all the animals and the impact was maximum during extreme hot-humid. The epitome of the present exploration was that extreme hot-humid period caused the development of higher degree of stress in the cattle with fine-tuning in the physiological gambits to an extent which can establish distress to health of animals. Abiotic stressor produced stress to all the animals from calves to cows in all the three extreme environmental temperature periods with peak outcome in hot-humid. Hot-humid period exhibited maximum values of heat load index and temperature humidity index revealing maximum impact of abiotic stressor. Results of present exploration tended to suggest that animals must be supplemented with ample antioxidants. Additionally, marginal farmers must be encouraged to screen the health of non-descript indigenous cattle on a regular basis.
691 MICROBIAL ANALYSIS IN TERMITE MOUND SOIL AND NORMAL SOIL , Sajani Jose and Maya P. M.*
Soil macrofauna such as termites, ants and earthworms are considered to be species with a major influence on soil structure and biota. Soil contains different types of microbes such as bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes etc. The mound represents a specific habitat for soil microorganisms since the physical properties (water holding capacity, bulk density, structural stability) and the chemical properties (cation exchange capacity, organic matter content and quality) are very different from those of the surrounding soil. Termite mound soil and normal soil are different in their properties. Termites affect the ability of soil to support microbes. The influence of termites on soil microbes were determined by microbial analysis. The number of colonies of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes were analysed in termite mound soil and normal soil. Termite soil were rich in bacterial and fungal populations. Actinomycetes colonies were rich in normal soil. Among total microbes, bacterial count were higher than fungi and actinomycetes in termite soil.
692 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING ASSAY METHOD AND STRESS DEGRADATION STUDY OF ADAPALENE BY HPTLC METHOD , *Dr. P. N. Sable and P. A. Newale
To develop a new, sensitive, and precise stability indicating high performance thin layer chromatographic method was developed and validated for quantitative determination of Adapalene. The current study deals with development of validated and stability indicating HPTLC method for estimation of Adapalene.Stability study on Adapalene was carried out on hydrolytic conditions such as Acidic, alkaline, oxidative, thermal, photolytic conditions in accordance with International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines Q1 (R2). The chromatographic separation was performed on aluminium plate pre-coated with silica Gel 60F254 by the use of Tetrahydrofuran: Ethyl acetate: Methanol (7:2:1 v/v/v) as a mobile phase. The wavelength selected for densitometric scanning was 267 nm. Linearity range for Adapalene was revealed that 100-600 ng spot-1. The Rf value of Adapalene was found to be 0.51 (+0.02). The LOD & LOQ were found to be 14.05 and 42.59 ng spot-1 respectively. The developed method was precise and robust, % RSD was found less than 2%. The proposed method can be used for routine quality control analysis of pharmaceutical formulation containing Adapalene.
693 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF THE FLOWERS OF CLERODENDRUM PHLOMIDIS L.f. AND PLUMERIA ALBA L. , Mohammed Ali*, Mohammad Jameel, Showkat Rassol Mir, Zahid Zaheer Ahmad and Khuman A. Patel
Clerodendrum phlomidis L.f. (family Lamiaceae/Verbenaceae), a small tree or shrub of arid plains, is used to treat asthma, colds, coryza, cough, diabetes, gonorrhea, indigestion, inflammation, jaundice, measles, nervous disorders, piles, pox and rheumatism. Plumeria alba L. (family Apocynaceae), a deciduous, evergreen shrub, is utilized to cure blennorrhagia, herpes, syphilis, skin diseases, toothache and ulcers. The present study was carried out to analyse essential oils from the flowers of C. phlomidis and P. alba. The fresh flowers of each species were hydrodistilled individually to get the essential oils which were analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques. The essential oil of C. phlomidis was characterized by high percentage of aliphatic (78.30%) and sesquiterpene (16.2%) constituents. In the essential oil fifty one compounds were characterized among which n-1-heptene (28.42%) was the prominent constituent followed by cis-1,2-dimethyl cyclopentane (8.01%), cis-1,3-dimethyl cyclopentane (7.55%), 3-ethyl n-pentane (6.01%) and 2,2-dimethyl n-hexane (4.90%). The essential oil of P. alba was characterized by high percentage of sesquiterpenes (89.14%) and monoterpenes (9.03%). In the essential oil twenty four compounds were identified among which ledol (38.66%) was the major component followed by globulol (20.69%), (-)-caryophyllene oxide (7.83%), trans-nerolidol (7.21%), spathulenol (6.39%), trans- caryophyllene (5.01%), lavandulol (3.41%) and trans-sabinene (2.62%).
694 ANATOMICAL VARIATION OF PROFUNDA FEMORIS ARTERY IN TWO CADAVERS , Dr. Surekha D. Jadhav* and Dr. Sudhir E Pawar
Profunda femoris artery is the branch of femoral artery which arises from postero-lateral aspect of femoral artery about 3.5-4 cm distal to inguinal ligament. This artery is useful in various procedures such as angiography, arteriography and vascular reconstructive procedures. The aim of this paper is to provide the awareness of anatomical variation in origin of Profunda femoris artery. We observed a variation of profunda femoris artery in two cases during routine dissection of first year MBBS students in our college. Variation was noticed as the bifurcation of left femoral artery (in both cases) i.e. Profunda femoris artery was arising from lateral side of femoral artery just behind the inguinal ligament. When the origin of Profunda femoris artery lies high, it can cause problems during femoral arterial or venous puncture, embalming, various interventional procedures and femoral nerve block. The precise knowledge of normal and variant anatomy of profunda femoris artery is important for surgeons, clinicians, radiologist and anatomist.
695 SIDDHA INTERVENTION IN THE MANAGEMENT OF MADHUMEGA VIRANAM (DIABETIC FOOT ULCER) – CASE REPORT , Guptaj S.*, Sabari Girija N., Sinekha M.A., Sakthimanipriya L. and Parameswari A.
Diabetic foot is one of the major complications of Diabetes mellitus. Diabetic foot is considered as a major source of morbidity and a leading cause of hospitalization in patients with diabetes. once DFU has developed, there is an increased risk of ulcer progression that may ultimately lead to amputation. In Siddha system of medicine, Diabetic ulcer is correlated to ‘Madumega pun’. Navakkiraga vellai and purai oil have an indication for viranam. Hence this study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of this medicine. A 63-year-old man has been treated with the above-mentioned medicines. He had the complaints of chronic diabetic foot ulcer in his left lateral foot with the complaints of foul odour, pus discharge from the ulcer, swelling in the peri-wound area, Pain, altered gait along with gangrene. He got a better improvement in his ulcer after a month of treatment. Summing up, Siddha medicine can potentially heal or reduce the size of the diabetic foot ulcer at a low cost.
696 A CASE REPORT ON ACUTE PSYCHOSIS , Midhun J. V. and Nimmy N. John*
Acute psychosis is a mental condition, where appreciation of reality is impaired, and symptoms such as hallucination, delusion, mood disturbance, and bizarre behaviour may appear in patient. It may also cause due to other psychiatric condition, medications and over use of CNS stimulants. This case report is mainly aimed to represent acute psychosis episode due to patient family problems and over thinking. Here a 40 year old female patient who was presented with behavioural changes, forgetfulness and disturbed sleep since last 10 days. She has no family history for the same symptoms and hadn’t taken any medication for the symptoms. All vitals and blood investigations were found to be normal. By doing MMSE and mental state examination diagnosed as acute psychosis. Treated with antipsychotic drugs and discharged on 5th day with proper counselling. This case report emphasizes that early recognition and proper treatment of acute psychosis.
697 HORSE-SHOE LUNG IN A RARE CASE OF SCIMITAR SYNDROME , *Dr. Ishani Shukla, Dr. Satabdi Kalita and Prof. (Dr.) Parul Dutta
Scimitar syndrome or congenital veno-lobar syndrome is characterised by a hypoplastic lung that is drained by an anomalous pulmonary vein into the systemic circulation. It is a type of partial anomalous pulmonary venous return. Horseshoe lung is a rare congenital anomaly and mostly accompanied by scimitar syndrome. Here we present a case of a female child who had scimitar vein with right lung and right pulmonary artery hypoplasia associated with horseshoe lung.
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