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Indian Journal of Economics and Development

ISSN(p):2320-9828 | ISSN(e):2320-9836
Journal Papers (476) Details For rapid and quality review submit manuscript to Indian Journal of Economics and Development
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1 Colocasia: A lucrative rotation crop in Karnataka , M K Mohammad Thamseer, H S Sowmya , Kiran Kumar R Patil
Objectives: to study the economics of the crop colocasia. Methods: The present study was conducted in Bylakuppe and Ayarabeedu villages in Periyapatna taluk of Mysore district to ascertain the profitability and marketing chain of colocasia. Around thirty sample farmers cultivating Colocasia were randomly selected and the economics of the crop was estimated using the budgeting technique. Findings: The economics indicated that farmers incurred cost of Rs. 62,145.95 per acre and realized net returns of Rs. 87,854.05.The enterprise was found to be economically viable and lucrative with benefit cost ratio (BCR)of more than unity (2.41). The marketing aspects of crop indicated that crop has got organized marketing with producer enjoying major share (71.43 %) of retail price.The findings support the possibility of growing taro as a major crop on a larger scale and benefit from the export potential of the crop as a processed food.
2 Packaging elements and their impact on consumer buying behavior in Pakistan , Nisar Ahmad, Shaheen Kanwal
Objectives: To study the packaging impact on consumer buying behavior in district Bhakkar, Pakistan. Ideal packaging is important as business success depends on anticipated selling of products and their packaging. Methodology: Consumer buying behavior in case of Packaged Food Products (PFPs) and Non Food Packaged Products (NFPPs) is estimated with primary data collected from 384 respondents of district Bhakkar in Pakistan. Data is collected during September to November 2019 and targeted respondents include male and female buyers of packed products in four tehsils of district. Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Cronbach’s Alpha test and Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method are the significant techniques used in the study for analysis. Findings: Results of study explain that color, design, material, printed information on package and innovation have positive and significant impact on consumer buying behavior for packaged food and non-food products. However, the impact of background image and font style is not significant. The impact of demographic variables including income and age is also insignificant to purchase PFPs and NFPPs. Applications: Quality packaging is suggested to business managers. Further, environmental friendly packaging supported with quality is most desirable keeping in view the modern life style. Information on package is suggested to be in simple words
3 Assessing labour migration patterns in marine fisheries sector across the coastal States of Gujarat and Maharashtra , Shyam S Salim, Vinaya Kumar Vase , J Jamshi , A M Shinu , N R Athira , Bhargav Bhatt
Objectives: Assessing the demographic characteristics of migrant fisher folks of coastal states of Gujarat and Maharashtra, with special focus on causes of migration, challenges and achievements in livelihood. Methods: The primary statistical tool of descriptive analysis, percentage analysis, Garrette ranking etc. have been carried out to assess various parameters of the study. Binary logistic regression was carried out to analyse the determinants for predicting willingness for continuing migration of fishermen. Findings: The expected rise in income and anticipated desire of enjoying a better standard of living and the seasonality are the key factors which necessitate the fishermen to migrate . The study identified unemployment as the main problem faced by the workers in fishing industry which necessitates the need for the labour migration. Moreover, income inequality, climate change, demographic shift and conflicts also contributed towards labour migration, in search of employability and security. Novelty: Marine fisheries sector is one of the most important sectors contributing much for the Indian economy but still facing disguised unemployment. Income inequalities, climate change, demographic shift and conflicts had contributed much for the migration of labour in search of employment and security. This proposed study is an investigative research over the labour migration and alternative avocation in the marine fisheries sector of the districts of Gujarat and Maharashtra as labour migration has become an adaptive or coping strategy of fishermen of the study area which scrutinizes the relevance of this study.
4 Dynamics of crime rate, income inequality and urbanization across regimes in Pakistan , Shalil Zaman, Atta Ullah Khan
Objectives: This study concentrated on the association between crime rate, income-inequality and urbanization for the economy of Pakistan over the period 1973-2017. Interestingly, the study in hand has been discussed two regimes, i.e. democratic and dictatorship, that are almost equally prevalent in the economy. Methods : The study used the ARDL Bound testing approach to examine crime patterns that may be involved in or caused by income inequality and urbanization in Pakistan. Augmented Dickey-Fuller and unit root tests were used to check the stationarity of the data. The series was found to be stationary at mixed levels. This research work makes a number of contributions. First, it discusses how the income inequality and the urbanization are impacting the rate of crime in the economy. Second, the analysis in hand describes the crime rate in various political regimes and analyzes its effect on Pakistan’s economy. Findings: The findings of the descriptive study demonstrate that in democracy, people are more offenders than dictatorships. Whereas, the Bound test result identified a significant relationship both in the short and long run. The result explored that income inequality and urbanization coefficients are strongly positive, which means that the widening income inequalities and rise in urban growth have increased crime rate in the country over the study period. Applications: The government might to make effective initiatives to decrease income inequalities and also to dissuade the factor of urbanization, so that the rate of crime in the country can decline
5 Physical Aspects of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) in Himachal Pradesh , Sanjeev Kumar
Background: MGNREGA is an effective demand driven employment generation programme of rural India, which seeks to provide employment opportunities to those sections of society/economy which have high marginal propensity to consume of their enhanced income. Objective: to analyse the progress of different physical aspects of MGNREGA in twelve districts of Himachal Pradesh. Methodology: the secondary data has been collected on all districts of Himachal Pradesh for the years 2011-12 and 2018-19, results have been interpreted using descriptive statistics and presented in the form of bar diagrams. The success ratio, average and percentage have been calculated. Findings: it was observed that the MGNREGA has shown a significant improvement in different physical aspects in Himachal Pradesh in the financial year 2018-19 vis-à-vis 2011-12. The number of job cards issued and the number of households demanded and provided employment under MGNREGA has been increasing continuously across the districts in Himachal Pradesh. Another important physical aspect is the increasing person days generated by SC, ST and women under the Act. Novelty/Applications: The present study can help the different stakeholders of MGNREGA in understanding the performance of different districts of Himachal Pradesh with respect to various physical aspects of the MGNREGA and academicians to carry on further research for example on the financial aspects of the Act also
6 Trends and challenges of rural-urban migration in Karnataka, India: An overview , K Ganaraja
Background: The problem of economic development in any country lies in the gradual reallocation of the labour force from the traditional agricultural sector to the growing modern-urban industrial sector. This process is considered to be socially beneficial, since labour will be shifted from low productivity, low income occupations and areas to high productivity, high income occupations and areas. Objectives: To analyse the trends in rural-urban migration in general and to explore the major challenges of rural-urban migration in Karnataka, India. Methodology: The present study is based on secondary data gathered from census reports, research journals, and newspapers and from the relevant websites. The study is geographically restricted to Karnataka state. The scope of the study is to analyse the trends in rural-urban migration and factors responsible for rural to urban migration. Findings: The rural-urban migration has a positive trend while urban-rural migration has a negative trend. It is mainly due to multiple infrastructural facilities developed in urban areas. Therefore, increased urbanisation is the major factor responsible for increased rural-urban migration. This results in several problems in urban areas across India such as lack of civic amenities, deteriorating environment, traffic congestion, regional disparities etc. Thus, along with urban areas, rural areas must also be supported by the government by introducing more sustainable and inclusive developmental programs in the rural areas as well. The present study also discusses on the trends in migration at the international, national and also at the state level. Novelty: This study highlights the recent trends in rural-urban migration at the inter district level as well as across administrative blocks of Karnataka state.
7 Profile characteristics and marketing behaviour of Onion growers in Gadag district of Karnataka , Shashidhar K Baraker, K V Manjunath , K C Lalitha , C Madhu Latha
Objective: To study the personal, socio-economical, psychological characteristics and the marketing behaviour of onion growers. Method: The present study was conducted during 2017–18 in Gadag district of Karnataka, India using “expost facto” research design. It is based on preliminary data collected through pre-tested structured interview schedule method from 120 onion growers of four talukas of Gadag district. Findings: Majority of onion growers interviewed belonged to old age (49.17%) category, middle school (35.83%), semi-medium farmers (32.50%), medium area under onion cultivation (81.67%), medium annual income (52.50%), high innovativeness(50.00%), medium level of mass media exposure (45.83%), extension contact (36.00%), extension participation (49.16%), social participation (37.50%), management orientation (40.00%) and risk orientation (62.50%). And 39.16 per cent of respondents belonged to low marketing behaviour category, followed by 34.16 and 26.68 per cent of them belonged to medium and high marketing behavior categories, respectively. It was found that 56.67 per cent of the growers sell their produce immediately after the harvest, 55.00 per cent sell their produce in distant markets like Bangalore/Hubli/Hyderabad. Most (54.16 %) of the respondents sell their produce to the agencies and it was observed that 52.50 per cent of the respondents faced problem in selling their produce at particular period due to unavailability of storage structures. Novelty: There were lacunae in the researches being carried out on the socio-economic characteristics; improved production aspects and marketing behaviour of onion growers in Gadag district. Suggestions of this study include stabilization of the onion cultivation, to establish cold storage facilities, ensure MSP covering cost of cultivation and profit margin and also carry out extension activities on improved cultivation practices of onion.
8 Operational Efficiency of Public Healthcare Provision in India , Manurut Lochav, Bhavna Hooda and Mahua Bhattacharjee
Objective: Healthcare in India is transforming from communicable to non-communicable lifestyle diseases. The derived demand for healthcare in India has increased exponentially in the last few decades making India a pioneer in medical tourism as well. Methods/findings: However, the public healthcare facilities have not fared very well in comparison to private ones. The study is to check the operational efficiency of selected variable of public healthcare in India. The other objective under the study is to analyze the outcome of people efficiency by the use of primary survey. The study uses both primary as well as secondary data sources. This study begins by defining operational efficiency and by listing its pillars- technological, process and people. It was found that public healthcare in India is having a low operational efficiency. Application: Further suggestions have been made regarding increasing of the operational efficiency of public healthcare.
9 Assessment of Financial Performance: A Scrutiny on Beximco Pharmaceutical Ltd. , Nandita Mallik and Santus Kumar Deb
Objectives: The study drives to assess and scrutinize Beximco Pharmaceutical Ltd’s critical aspects of financial performance for the period of 2004-05 and 2013-14. Methods/statistical analysis: This study has followed a triangulation strategy consists of expert interview, literature evaluation, and statistical analysis is utilized to justify the financial performance trends of Beximco. Phamra ltd. Data from secondary sources are obtained, i.e. Beximco Pharmaceuticals Ltd’s annual report. This research used statistical technique such as Spearman’s rank correlation analysis, multiple correlation analysis, and Kendall’s coefficient of concordance analysis, but the Chi-square test and run test were used at appropriate positions. Findings: Run test result shows that the current ratio (CR), return turnover ratio (RTR), inventory turnover ratio (ITR), long-term turnover of assets turnover ratio (LAT), and debt equity ratio are random, but Kendall’s concordance analysis coefficient displays that CR, RTR, ITR, LAT, and WTR are significant in evaluating Beximco Pharmaceuticals Ltd’s financial performance patterns. The study recommended that the company concerned gradually improve its overall financial position by managing its assets efficiently. Application: Findings emanating of the study is applicable for pharmaceutical companies; proper management of long-term asset and working capital management increases overall profitability of a firm and helps to future critical financial decision.
10 A Comparative Analysis of Households in Urban and Rural Sectors in the Light of Some Economic Variables in Bangladesh , Umme Salma
Objectives: Bangladesh is one of the fastest growing countries with an increasing number of rich populations in the world. The aim of this research is to study the economic situation and the improvement of some household level economic variables across rural, urban and national levels. Another aim is to find out the variation of these economic variables regarding household head. Methods: For these purpose the research analyzed a survey report of HIES by BBS under the ministry of planning. It reveals a descriptive study of the variables and compared its status in different sectors. The key indicators are per capita income, expenditure and consumption, education level, educational expenditure, land ownership of households, sex wise distribution of households. Findings: In urban level majority of households are rich and middle income and in rural areas households are poorer. Income inequality in rural sector is higher than urban. The average monthly income and expenditure is highest in urban sector. Consumption on food and beverage is highest and it’s higher in poor households. In national sector, 80.45 % households are male headed and 19.85 % households are female headed. Female headed households are greater in rural sector but, urban female headed households are poorer than that of rural. Average monthly expenditure for educational care also highest in urban sector and it is 161.19% greater than rural. Households spend more for male’s education than female’s education. Remarkably in rural sector female education rate increased higher than other sectors throughout the years 2010 to 2016. Al economic variables are in progressive fashion between the time periods. Applications: The findings may helpful for the reference of further research and policy makers to take proper policies for economic development in Bangladesh.
11 Performance Evaluation of Schedule Commercial Banks Using DEA approach: A Comparative Study (2016-17 to 2018-19) , Amandeep Verma
Objectives: There was revolutionary shift in the performance of all Schedule commercial banks. Present study focus on the performance evaluation of top 5 commercial banks in each category of banks during the period 2016-17 to 2018-19 using DEA approach. Methodology: For this purpose two input variables, interest expenses and operating expenses, three output variables deposits, investments and advances considered. In DEA analysis CCR-I and BCC-I approaches used to calculate overall technical efficiency and pure efficiency of the banks. Malmquist Index calculated to know the technological change in all sample schedule commercial banks. Findings: The study finds that among public sector banks SBI, private sector banks HDFC and ICICI and foreign banks City bank and DBS bank were at frontier i.e. score 1 over the period of time. Improvement: It has been observed that ownership has an impact on the Indian banking industry as far as technical and pure efficiencies of banks are concerned.
12 Determinants of Food Security for the Organic Farm Households in Sikkim: A Logistic Approach , Singyala Chiphang, Ram Singh, S.M. Feroze, N. Uttam Singh, J.K. Chauhan and L. Devarani
Objective: To assess the determinants of food security for the organic farm households in Sikkim, India. Methodology: Multistage sampling technique was used to collect the data from 70 respondents cultivating rice, rice bean, cabbage, ginger and rapeseed and mustard from East Sikkim district. The analysis was carried out using binary logistic regression. Findings: The average age was 48 signifying that the respondents were in their active and productive age with the average land holding was 0.53 ha. The respondent education was found to be satisfactory as the majority attained education between primary to secondary which constitutes 70 %, followed by college/university (2.86%). Respondents with no formal education constituted 27.14 %. Possession of livestock was found to have positively significant with the food security. The probability of being food secured increases by 67.00 % more with a unit increase in number of livestock owned. Other factors determining food security are access to credit which was positively significant at 10 %, household size and the age of the household head had negative significant with food security at 10 %. Applications: As livestock plays a significant role in the food security of the households, it will be of great achievement if the government of the state and NGOs take necessary arrangement in the form of training, awareness programme, seminars etc to make the people aware of the contribution from livestock sectors in the food security.
13 Depreciation Analysis and Filter Model Review , Abidi Monem
Objective: Our goal is to build a new platform that traces a more robust legibility between education and profitability, by dissecting the factors that influence the decision-making process regarding investment in training. Method/findings: This study is to propose a new concept of supply and demand on the labor market, with regard to the signal emitted by the diploma. In doing so, the classical conception of the return on educational investment must be reexamined. Methodology: The methodology mainly refers to signal theory and filter theory. But, in our modeling we will incorporate the average level of training held by the whole population, as a factor on which largely depend collective productivity therefore, individual productivity and profitability. The second factor specified relates to the degree of uniformity of skills within the same level of training or diploma. This factor adjusts the dispersion effect caused by the variety of training and the impairment of skills. Findings: The demonstrations show that the market value of a diploma on the labor market of a cohort tends to zero if, the dispersion of skills is equal to productivity multiplied by the average skill of this level of training. Similarly, the signal of the diploma largely depends on the average of skills as well as the variance of skills within the same cohort. Application: The results of this study are applicable in terms of budget and forecast of funds intended for training, and to trace the policies of labor market regulation and the problem of unemployment of graduates
14 Export Performance of Bamboo Products in India: A Markov Chain Analysis Approach , Jeemoni Gogoi, Naveen Kumar P., Ram Singh, Hehlangki Tyngkan, and Baiarbor Nongbri
Objectives: Bamboo is the fastest growing plant with the adaptability of growing in wide climatic conditions globally. It is important in livelihood for millions of people, and is one of the world’s most valuable non‐timber forest products. Considering the high opportunity for bamboo based products in the global trade, the study is focused on the growth and instability index of export of bamboo products along with assessment of the trade performance of bamboo products in India. Methodology: Secondary data on selected bamboo based products exported were collected for last ten years from 2009 to 2018. Trend analysis, Instability index and Markov chain analysis were used to obtain the results. Findings: The study revealed that the bamboo based products export over the study period has increased at a compound annual growth rate of 31.73 %. The Markov chain analysis revealed the major importing countries for the bamboo products from India are Bhutan, Bangladesh, USA, UAE and Nepal. Stable market for bamboo poles is Bhutan and Bangladesh, bamboo charcoal is Bhutan, bamboo basketwork market is not stable in the major exporting countries but other countries together retention was 78 % , bamboo plywood was Nepal and stable importer of bamboo paper based products was UAE. Other importers were considered as unstable market with low retention capacity as shown in the transitional probability matrix, which may be due to competition from other countries. Therefore, proper policy measures for bamboo export can be incorporated along with the National Bamboo Mission for improving trade standards and meeting all the trade related barriers for the importing nations. Applications: The study will highlight the opportunity to invest in global trade of bamboo based products for the stakeholders involved in bamboo trade of the study area
15 Prospects of Custard Apple Value Chain Development in Rajasthan , Shailza, Latika Sharma, S.S. Burark, R.A. Kaushik and G.L. Meena
Objective/Methods: To analyze prospects of value chain development in custard apple marketing in Rajasthan. The secondary data has been obtained and analyzed from Directorate of Horticulture, Government of Rajasthan, and 2017-18. Findings: The perishable nature of custard apple makes difficult to transport it to distant places thereby tribals are forced to sell the fruit at throwaway prices i.e. approx. ₹ 10/Kg on roadsides. It was observed that interventions involving improved cultivation practices and reduction in post harvest losses would increase the production level by 50 % and 20 %, respectively, whereas value addition activities through processing would give better returns to the processors as well as to the tribal harvesters [1]. Suggestion: The study further highlighted the need of investments in the research & development (R&D) to ensure improved cultural practice to establish custard apple orchards to increase yield per hectare, introduction of improved varieties, processing technology and overhauling of the value chain
16 Modelling producer behaviour in fixed route private transport services , Ishan Kashyap Hazarika, Sourabh Rai
Objectives: While fixed route private transport services have grown in prominence in the recent times, there is a dearth of models that specifically tackle pricing in it. The current study aims to model producer behaviour in this model, keeping in mind its peculiar physical characteristics. Methods: This study develops a rational-actor model of the behaviour of producers operating in this market. There is however, an added assumption of the heuristic of least perceptible difference to add behavioural realism to the model. Results: The predictions derived from the model developed in this study include repeated usage of a single type of round-trip for a non-zero interval of time, the convexity of expected-waiting time with respect to changes in prices and a negative relation between external (exogenous) demand at one-point of a path and the price charged at the other. Conclusion: Pricing in this market, due to physical factors, can exhibit unique features as modelled.
17 How trade openness influenced economic growth in India: An empirical investigation , Swapnanil SenGupta
Objectives: To analyze the dynamic impacts of trade openness on economic growth in India. Methodology: This study extensively examines the dynamic impact of trade openness on economic growth in India using ARDL Bounds Test approach. A complex trade openness index is constructed using PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and a time dummy variable is used in an effort to capture the Economic Reform Policy dynamics of 1991 in India. Per capita GDP growth rate has been used as a standard measure of economic growth. Annual time series data has been used for estimation over the period of 1960- 2018 Findings: It is found that the trade openness has negative impact on economic growth in India in both the short and long run. The result conforms to several findings on the same topic. Applications: This study incorporates measures to control for the shocks by the new economic policy of 1991. It is also discussed why trade openness might have had a negative impact on the economy of India in spite of it being a desirable phenomenon.
18 An empirical analysis on the impact of non-performing loans on investment and economic growth and the role of political governance , Swapnanil SenGupta
Objective: To empirically analyze the link between nonperforming loans and investments along with the role of political governance. Methods: The estimation technique used is the fixed effects model including both the country and time fixed effects. The dataset consists a panel of 103 countries with annual data over the period from 2000 to 2017. A unique composite political governance index has been prepared combining the six existing governance indicators via Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Findings: It is found that NPL has significant negative impact whereas, governance has significant positive impact on investments as per expectations. However, it is found that the negative impact of NPL on investment gets stronger in presence of good governance. This is a paradoxical result and further attempts has been made to rationalize the outcome. Applications: The study empirically proves the theory of negative impacts of NPL on investment in the economy. Furthermore, the role of political governance has been scrutinized. No prior works have been carried out on this topic. The paradoxical result in this study has opened up new areas for research. An extensive literature review has been provided along with a detailed discussion on the possible measures to tackle with the problems. JEL Classification:C3, E6, G0
19 Profitability of Mulberry cocoon production in West Bengal , G R Manjunatha, Kiran Kumar R Patil , Shafi Afroz , Dipesh Pandit , V Sivaprasad
Objectives: To examine the profitability of mulberry cocoon production and to identify the reasons for marginalization of mulberry sericulture in West Bengal, India. Methods/Statistical analysis: The primary data pertaining to socio-economic status of farmers and costs & returns of mulberry cocoon production was collected from 240 respondents (Malda, Murshidabad & Birbhum) using pre-tested structured interview schedule following multi-stage purposive random sampling. The economics of mulberry cocoon production was worked out using budgeting technique. Findings: Mulberry cultivation in West Bengal was pronounced on marginal/small farms with average mulberry holding of 0.66 acre. Cost of production per kg of mulberry cocoon on marginal farms worked out to |283 and the profitability expressed in terms of the returns per rupee of expenditure was |1.47. Inadequate land holding and labour-intensive nature of mulberry cultivation are identified as major causes for marginalization of mulberry sericulture in West Bengal. Application/Improvements: The cost estimates will serve as the basis for policy-makers to intervene for the announcement of minimum support price in the event of price crash. Labour cost formed major chunk in the total cost of production of mulberry cocoon on marginal/small farms reelecting the scope for development of suitable implements & equipments for economizing mulberry sericulture. JEL classification: Q1
20 Comparative economics of mechanical and manual dehusking of Arecanut , Kiran Kumar R Patil , B Chinnappa , G R Manjunatha
Objectives: This research was undertaken to examine the economic benefit of mechanization in dehusking arecanut. Methods/Statistical analysis: A sample consisting 15 each of pre-harvest contractors, arecanut farmers using machines of different capacities for dehusking arecanut were randomly selected from Davanagere district of Karnataka. The economic viability of mechanization was assessed under these situations using partial budgeting technique. Findings: The results of the study indicated that the cost of dehusking one quintal of arecanut using machine was |141 as compared to manual method (|276) in case of pre-harvest contractors. The per quintal cost of dehusking of own arecanut produce came to Rs.78 as against manual method(Rs.277)in case of farmers who used the machine for dehusking of their own arecanut produce and rental purpose. Application/Improvements: The study suggested that marginal farmers should use two gear machine, small farmers four gear machine and large farmers six gear machine to economize dehusking their own farm produce and earning rental income
21 A probabilistic evaluation of the argument of correction in affirmative action , Ishan Kashyap Hazarika , Sourabh Rai, Mahima Yadav
Objective: The issue of affirmative action is a major point of discussion in distributive justice and allocation of scarce resources such as job-offerings or college seats. Philosophical arguments around this focus on diversity, historical justice and correction. The objective of this study is to examine the argument of correction in relation to affirmative action, which states that affirmative action helps correct biases in metrics used to measure merit. Method: We develop of a stochastic formulation of the argument of correction and analyse it using a probability-theory approach. Result: We find with the help of two counterexamples that the argument of correction is not generally valid, when we admit the stochastic nature of the problem. Conclusion: Though the argument of correction may be valid in some special cases, its general lack of validity presents a major challenge to this dominant argument widely used in the literature.
22 Role of financial inclusion in poverty alleviation in Odisha , Narayan Rout, D Bag
Objectives: This study dwells on the role of financial inclusion in poverty alleviation. The alleviation of poverty is implemented by combining direct tools and indirect tools. Traditional solutions have not been as effective and sufficient to tackle poverty. Indirect tools include improving access to credit, promoting savings to the poor. Methods/Statistical analysis: We use district level branch banking and development indicators data for 30 districts of Odisha during the discrete period 1992 to 2011, since official poverty data for district levels are not released. Findings: When controlled for PDDP, number of bank branches plays a significant role to reduce poverty. We find that an increase of Rs. 10,000/- in PDDP can cause a fall in poverty by 4%, an increase of 10% in Rice Yield can cause fall in poverty by 1.5%, whereas, an additional 100 number of bank branches can reduce poverty by 4.7% in the districts. Application/Improvements: The results of this analysis could go further to achieve the millennium development goals in few years. Novelty: We find the relative ranking of the coefficients of real sector and finance sector variables, that when controlled for other variables, e.g., Rice Yield, No. of Branches and PDDP to negatively impact poverty rates.
23 Effect of rural development and targeted expenditure towards poverty alleviation in Odisha, India , Narayan Rout , Dinabandhu Bag
Objectives: To evaluate the direct tools of poverty alleviation in Odisha, and investigate the response of alleviation programs to poverty. Method: The assessment proceeds with three simple steps of identifying: who, what and how by focusing on four important aspects namely; rural employment, rural development, food security and social security. The causes of poverty are matched with the available tools of active and operational schemes in Odisha state reported by the Dept. of Economics & statistics, Govt. of Odisha and World Bank Survey Reports during the period 2009 to 2011, the corresponding target coverage and progress are located to deduce the end period outcomes of impact on poverty rates. The under coverages shown or identified, were related to respective relevant alleviation programs using horizontal comparative analysis, which shows the changes from the reference period in absolute amount and percentages. Findings: The study reveals that the benefits and outcome of social sector and development programs (rural employment, PDS, development, social pension) have not been realized to their fullest extent. For instance, the coverage of employment schemes is low (penetration is only 3.8% in 2017 and 6.5% in 2018 against 138.53 Lakhs BPL persons) and meager to cause a fall in actual poverty. The coverage under Gopabandhu Gramin Yojana is lower at 40 % in 2019 covering 9229 projects (out of 22,538 targeted projects). Novelty: It demonstrates the use of broader and comparative assessment of key schemes to evaluate the end outcome of poverty rates and matches the periodic poverty limits to per capita gross expenditure incurred by the state.
24 National rural health mission and the interstate variations in public healthcare spending in India: A study of the Indian North-Eastern states , Motika S Rymbai, Darishisha W Thangkhiew
Background/Objectives: The North-Eastern region of India comprised of eight states of which seven states come under small states and special category states. The region has a very large rural population which is highly agrarian in nature. The performances of the states in many of the health indicators have been better than most of big Indian states yet the status of health infrastructure and health accessibility in the region are still a grave concern. The study aims to find the interstate variations before and after the implementation of National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) Act of 2005, on the public health expenditure in the North-Eastern states. Methodology: The data on public health expenditure has been obtained from the State Finance Reports of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), on population from the office of the Registrar General & Census Commission of India and the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) from the Directorate of Economics and Statistics of respective state governments, Central Statistics Office. The study is of twenty-six years, 1990-91 to 2015-16. The study uses the coefficient of variation to determine the extent of interstate variations. Findings: The study found that the interstate variation in public healthcare expenditure with all the eight states in the region is on a decline. Further, the study found that post NRHM, the states have equalised their proportion of health spending. Novelty/Improvement: There have been no studies to compare the interstate disparity in public health expenditure in the North-Eastern states before and after the implementation of NRHM in recent years.
25 An economic analysis of different Rice varieties in Cauvery Delta region of Tamil Nadu , D Arun, G P Sunandini, R V Kumari , A Meena
Objective: To study the economics of major rice varieties grown in the Cauvery delta region of Tamil Nadu. Methods: Tiruvarur, Thanjavur, and Nagapattinam districts of Tamil Nadu in India were selected purposively for this study as it covers a major rice grown area in the Cauvery delta region as well as in Tamil Nadu. From each district, one block was selected based on major rice grown area and from each block three villages were selected randomly. The cost of cultivation was worked out for two seasons in this study. Findings: In Kuruvai season, the average cost of cultivation for ADT 43 was |76391.63/ha, which was higher than ASD16 (|75654.71/ ha) and CO (R) 51 (|74817.12/ ha) varieties. The benefit cost ratio was observed 1.37, 1.32, and 1.29 for CO (R) 51, ADT 43, and ASD 16 varieties. The variety wise cost of cultivation varied for BPT 5204, CR 1009 sub 1, and NLR 34449 which were |75075.08, |73755.65, and |72495.60 per ha in samba. The benefit cost ratio was observed to be 1.19, 1.30, and 1.28 for BPT 5204, CR 1009 sub 1, and NLR 34449 varieties. While comparing two seasons, the kuruvai season average cost of cultivation was higher than the samba season due to variable cost viz., manure, machine labour, seed cost. Application: In Kuruvai season, benefit cost ratio of CO (R) 51(1.37) was higher than other two varieties. In samba season, benefit cost ratio of CR 1009 sub 1(1.30) was higher than other two varieties. The study suggested that to cultivate CO (R) 51 variety during Kuruvai season and CR 1009 sub 1 variety during samba season for increasing the net return to farmers.
26 Cost benefit analysis of large cardamom cultivation in Anjaw district of Arunachal Pradesh , Prof. (Dr.) Sanjeeb Kumar Jena , Sodyong Kri
Objectives: India is the largest seller of large cardamom in the international market and the second largest producer after Nepal. The favourable conditions prevailed in the Himalayan foothill has induced a geometric growth in large cardamom cultivation and trading. With the striking success of this cash cropping in Sikkim, the farming communities of Arunachal Pradesh had shifted to large cardamom farming, commercially, from the traditional subsistence farming with some indications of success. This study has aimed to analyze the costbenefit-return of the large cardamom cultivation in the Anjaw District of Arunachal Pradesh. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The study is empirical in nature and based on the primary data collected from 5 circles of Anjaw District. The data were collected from 200 cardamom growers (40 each from each 5 circles), selected at random through a questionnaire schedule. Findings/Result: The earning from commercialized large cardamom cultivation in the study area i.e., Anjaw District of Arunachal Pradesh is very highly remunerative (27.67%) compared to other traditional and cash-crops which is a reason for the popularity of the large cardamom as a substitute for the traditional subsistence farming in these areas. Application/Improvements: The failure in the subsistence farming in Arunachal Pradesh made the masses diverted from the agrarian activities hampering the balance of employment and livelihood. The CB analysis is a device to confirm the popularity among the agrarian communities for the change and is an instrument for the policy makers to plan for a sustainable development.
27 Sustainable livelihood: an issue for Bhuiya of Jharkhand , Dr. Santanu Sahu
Objectives: To study the livelihood status of the Bhuiya community of Palamu district of Jharkhand using primary data. Methods: The study is based on primary data taken from Chhatarpur block of Palamu district. The study explores 62 households taken from two villages selected randomly from Chhatarpur block using quantitative and qualitative methods. Findings: The livelihood options of this community are not sustainable and also not promising in terms of the amount they receive as income. The community suffers greatly during times of drought when agriculture is badly affected. Application: Again, migration as an alternative is not very promising as it depends on the mercy of the contractors who charge a commission and conditions of work may not be very conducive. Being landless and resource less the Bhuiyas do not have any sustainable option of livelihood available. Also they do not have proper education and vocational training to take up any job in the formal or informal sector.
28 A study on factors involving the usage of social media on investment decision making with reference to investors of selected stock broking houses in Coimbatore , Dr. S. Kavitha, R. Bhuvaneswari
Objectives: Nowadays, with the rise of social media, there is possible to get a faster, more talented way of gathering data to persuade investors’ judgements. Hence, this study is trying to analyse the factors, namely Company news, Industry performance, Market updates, Economic factors and Investor sentiment which persuading the social media usage among the equity investors in Coimbatore District, Tami Nadu, India. Research Methods: For this study, 100 investors who invest in the share market are selected by using stratified proportionate random sampling method. Self designed questionnaire is used to collect the primary data. The collected data has been evaluated with Percentage Analysis, Weighted Average Rank Analysis, Multiple Response Analysis, Correlation Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis. Findings/Results: Out of the five independent variables, Company News, Economic Factors and Investor Sentiment have much influenced the dependent variable Investment decision making as it is statistically significant at the 5% level. Finally, the result of the study shows that social media helps to acquire timely information and gain knowledge which helps to formulate better decision by the investors. Conclusion/Suggestions: Stock broking firms should take appropriate steps to improve the security system of social media to make investors use it effectively. This study helps the stock broker to make the valuable communication with investors, implementation of innovative technology and to promote other financial products
29 Status of Kolleru Lake fishers in Chettunnapadu village, Andhra Pradesh , DhandeKranthi Kumar , Rama Sharma, Ravi Shankar Kumar , Hoilenting
Objective: The study would try to find out fishers socio-economic status, fishing as a means of livelihood and its economic viability and income equality among them in order to suggest measures to improve their living conditions. Methods: Primary data were collected from the fishers by using pre-tested interview schedule, B:C ratio to see the economic viability, Lorenz curve and Gini index in order to find out the income inequality among them. Findings: The Kolleru being largest freshwater lake in India is recognised as internationally important wetlands by the RAMSAR convention. It not only renders eco services but also as an important means of livelihood for nearby villages. Nearly for 6-7 months fishers are getting direct benefits by fishing. The living condition is quite satisfactory as majority of them are living in pucca houses. Their monthly average income is about ₹11740 which is significantly different from the income obtained from alternative livelihood sources (₹10572) as p value of Z test is less than 0.05. The B:C ratio of 1.33 reveals that fishing is profitable for them. The income equality among fishers is measured by using Lorenz curve and Gini index and their respective values of 0.086 and 0.173 tell that inequality among them is very less. Application: Encouraging women to take part in post-harvest works and preparation of value added products will increase their monthly income. Provisions for the agriculture development will provide alternative livelihood during off season. Communities must bear the responsibility to keep the Lake healthy in order to act not only as a means of livelihood for fishers but also for the eco services it renders. The extension services for creation of such responsibility among communities and fishers through department of fisheries are highly recommended.
30 Study of the importance of Indian tourism on economic development over the period 2000—2017 , Anay Kumar , Dr. Gurdeep Singh
Objectives: This work assesses the relationship between Gross Domestic Product, Foreign Tourist Arrivals, Gross Domestic Product and Employment in India over the period 2002 to 2017. The other objective is to observe the growth and performance of tourism in Gross Domestic Product of India. To study the different tourism policies and identify the best policies or suggestions for government of India. Methods/Analysis: This study has used the Karl Pearson method for calculating the Coefficient of Correlation. The coefficients R12,R13,R14 & R24 have been calculated and these are between the 1.Gross Domestic Product, 2. Foreign Tourist Arrivals, 3. Foreign Exchange Earning, 4. Employment. The P.E. Maximum Limit, Minimum Limit, S.E., Significant of |r| and ‘t’ Test are also used to calculate the findings of the study. Findings: The study finds that the coefficient of correlation between foreign tourist arrivals and gross domestic product i.e.R12 for the 1st period of study i.e. 2000-05 and in the 3rd period of study i.e. 2012-17 is highly positive and significant. Which clearly means that the gross domestic product of India depends upon foreign tourist arrivals? As it is observed in the 2nd period of i.e. 2006-11, the coefficient of correlation R12 is moderate positive &insignificant. According to the economic review of India, this was recession, yet then the coefficient of correlation which is moderate positive shows that the Indian gross domestic product depends upon foreign tourist arrivals whether which was decreased as compare to 1stperiod & 3rd periods of our observation. The resulted provided by R12 are also explained by the coefficient of determination i.e. r2. The value of r2, in the 1st period of study 2000-05,2nd period of study 2006-11 & 3rd period of study 2012-17 is 65.60%, 50% & 88% respectively. It clearly means that the variation in gross domestic product is highly in the 3rd period & lowest in the 2nd period of the study. As 2nd period of study was economic recession, yet then the variation in gross domestic product is not less than 50%. The employment was also increased in the 1st& 3rd period due to increment in the foreign tourist arrivals shown by the value of R24.
31 Challenges of implementing “cashless” in rural India – Konkan region , Mr. RatnadeepKeer,  Mr.Pradip Sharma,  Mr.Gajanan Khapre
Objectives: To create awareness of cashless payment and give training for villagers. To implement cashless transaction at all shops of Palshet and Velneshwar village. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study is conducted in two villages of Ratnagiri district namely Velneshwar & Palshet. A sample size of 1100 residents was selected for the purpose of analysis. The sample includes both literate and illiterate population (population over age 12 is considered) since they are the ones who gives their views on cashless activity and use of digital payment methods. Survey method is used for data collection with the help of questionnaire. The responses from respondents were collected and analyzed using the simple percentage method. Findings: From our field survey and door to door interaction we came to know that villagers are ready to learn and implement but shopkeepers and some vendors are fears for getting income tax slab. A lot of efforts to be taken to literate villagers in E-commerce. From survey we got the basic data about there (villagers) qualification, number of bank account holder, number of smart phone users, availability of PAN card, availability of Aadhar card, Infrastructure facility such as internet connectivity, point of sale machine etc. Internet connectivity in ruler Konkan region is very weak hence it is very difficult to transact digitally. The shopkeepers and vendors are hesitate to use point of sale (POS) machine because of transaction charges on POS machine are not affordable. Very less number of populations is having knowledge about internet and mobile banking. Application/Improvements: By implementing this project we have created awareness and importance of cashless transaction amongst villagers. Small movement of digital transaction has been started in the form of paying Electricity bills, mobile recharge through BHIM app
32 Exploring factors of low health insurance penetration among Indian Muslims , Shoaib Alam Siddiqui
Objectives: This study explores the demographic and socio-economic factors leading to low penetration of health insurance among Indian Muslims with special reference to Allahabad. Methods/Statistical analysis: Stratified random sampling was used and responses were collected using Likert scale in questionnaire from urban, semi-urban and rural areas. Descriptive analysis, reliability analysis and exploratory factor analysis were done for all the attributes of the questionnaire. To assess whether the analyzed factors are related to the buying intentions of the prospective customers or not, we have calculated chi square. Pearson correlation coefficients have been calculated to analyze the degree of correlation. Findings: Our study finds that young educated Muslims are willing to buy health insurance policy. Employment sector, income and status of employment are all important factors. The service class Muslims especially in government sector is interested to buy the health insurance. Location of residence/ work place is also important factor, as per our study urban people are more aware about health insurance as compare to semi-urban or rural people. As per our study, religious practices are also a deterrent in buying health insurance but increasing education in Muslims is reversing it. Because of low education and awareness, most of the Muslims don’t trust whether that they will get claim benefits or not. Insurers should run special awareness campaign among Muslim areas. Respondents expect claim process and policy conditions to be further simplified. Network of empanelled hospitals does not include Muslim locality hospitals which is again a deterrent. Application/Improvements: To increase penetration, health insurance companies should increase awareness campaign, should further simplify claim process, empanel more local hospitals and appoint agents/ brokers among Muslims localities.
33 Is bit coin gaining cash during cashless times in India? An event study approach , P. Theerthaana, Dr. A.K. Sheik Manzoor
Objective: The unprecedented move of demonetization by the Prime Minister of India- Mr.Modi, to fulfill his vision for cash less and corruption free India, has sparked new interest in Bit coin due to the shortage of supply of cash and lack of liquidity. This study focuses to examine the relevance of abnormal return and volatility of Bit coins and the most significant economic event of demonetization in India in the year 2016. Methodology: An event study framework is adopted to study the tectonic impact of demonetization on Bit coin exchanges. Focusing on daily Bit coin prices from a leading Bit coin exchange in India, Uno coin the subsequent effect on the Demonetization in India is analyzed. Findings: Using the parametric T-Test it is strongly evident that Bit coin prices moves significantly upwards after the announcement of Demonetization. Abnormal return (AR) and cumulative abnormal return (CAR) from the constant mean return model of bit coin prices are statistically significantly revealed. The finding also suggests that demonetization has increased the Bit coin volatility. Conclusion: The increase in volatility and prices of bit coin would be mainly being attributed to the fact that demonetization generates a cashless economy, which attracted large investors in Bit coin, which eventually led to increase in the trading volume in Indian Bit coin exchanges. Novelty: This study is unique from other research contributions as it focuses on analyzing the effects of 2016- demonitization on bit coin prices using an event study methodology. It also provides insights to economist and experts in the field of crypto currencies to assess the impact of economic events like demonetization on crypto currencies. It also gives opportunity for the bitcoin investors to invest in crypto currencies by understanding the impact of economic events on crypto currencies.
34 Effect of periphyton (aquamat installation) in the profitability of semi-intensive shrimp culture systems , Santhana Kumar V., P. K. Pandey, Saurav Kumar , T. Anand , Boriah Suryakumar , Rathi Bhuvaneswari
Objectives: In the present study, economic analysis of with and without periphyton substrate (aquamat installation) as treatment and control, respectively, was evaluated with semi-intensive culture (stocking density 20 numbers m-2) of Penaeus vannamei. Total duration of the culture was 120 days. Methods/Statistical analysis: Economic parameters of both ponds were estimated via fixed cost, variable cost and gross revenues, and performance indicators such as benefit cost-ratio (BCR), net profit, break-even price, rate of return on investment, rate of return on operating cost, production per man day and contribution margin were calculated based on the profitability and the capital investment. The primary data was used for the calculation and the experiment was carried out in duplicates. Findings: The capital investment for periphyton (US$ 23192, INR 62.5= US$) was higher than the control pond (US$ 17544). Higher production in periphyton pond resulted in the increased net income generation by 35.4 % than the control. Periphyton improves the economic return (US$ 18021; BCR – 2.3) of the semi-intensive shrimp farming and reduced the breakeven point (496) and feed cost (US$ 7426) of the culture pond. This indicates that the aquamat installation in semi-intensive shrimp culture system is a profitable venture and paves the way to attain sustainable intensification in the shrimp farming sector. The study was conducted on the field; it depicts the exact scenario of the profitability of aquamat installation when compared to the laboratory trial. Application/Improvements: This technology also reduces and recycles the wastes, so it can also be applied as economically viable effluent treatment system for shrimp farming.
35 The two tales of descent , Richa Gupta , Prachi Malakar
Background/Objectives: To explore the two recent descents of the Indian rupee: (1) the economic slump in August 2013 and (2) the recent slide in rupee in October 2018 by facilitating a comparative analysis between the two. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This is a review article in which we peruse through various research papers and opinionated articles on rupee depreciation by academicians and policy makers of repute and capture the relative intensities of the two events. Further, we analyse whether the fall emerged from the same set of reasons or were there any digressions and question why the same set of factors continue to harangue the economic harmony of the country. Findings: We observe that on the pretext of volatile capital outflows and current account imbalances, the two falls have very similar repercussions. However, in terms of their origins and institutional characteristics like policies, political confidence and global economic environment, the two events are widely disparate. While the former was a consequence of global economic slump and overuse of fiscal stimulus, the latter accounted for the consistent rising international oil prices- ‘India’s historic macroeconomic vulnerability’. Improvements/Applications: Unlike other papers in the literature, we compare the two events to conclude its dissimilarities and reflect the underlying challenges that make the Indian economy vulnerable to such shocks. Therefore, this paper provides a comprehensive view of such volatilities and serves as a reminder that the battle of macro-economic stability is never won and even major victories (reminiscing the economic crisis of post 2011) are always provisional and the process of reforms and vigilance must never stop (Economic Survey, 2018).
36 Banks privatization: coercive for development , Dr. M. Ramakrishna
Objectives: The concepts of NPAs (Non-Performing Assets) have been the single most difficult problem faced by the Indian Public Sector Banks. The study aims to assess the concept in Indian scenario. Methods: The study is of descriptive nature and makes assessment based on the current situation especially on Privatization of Banks in India. It highlights the present scenario and outlines future consequences. Findings: Privatization of PSBs is not a pro poor initiative as the poor get small loans on lower rates of interest compared to the Private Banks which would never be favorable in issuing and waiving bad farm loans. It’s a wellknown fact that the private banks are not inclined to giving farm loans as easily as their counterparts in the public sector. That is one of the reasons why public sector banks have worse loans. In view of several adverse effects of NPAs in banking sector, it needs to be addressed. The provisions of FRDI bill 2017 covers bankruptcy of banks. The most controversial clause in it pertains to bailout process. This involves that assets and liabilities of stressed public sector banks can be transferred to private companies or a bridge service providers, depositors can lose their deposits under the provision of bail in , and merger, amalgamation and acquisition can lead to consolidation (or) privatization of PSBs. Application: As part of economic liberalization, we have seen the gradual closure of our public sector industries. Privatization of banks means the economic development is pledged in front of the business empires. The fugitive defaulters gradually increase in the economy by crony capitalism. Else Indian money stills bleeds, and the financial system, the economy’s lifeblood will washout the country itself.
37 Sustainable development goals, going beyond GDP: India’s case , Sakshi Bhayana , Anita Kakkar
Objective: The study is about the effect of indicators of Sustainable Development goals on India’s GDP. The major objective is to find the partial correlation of various dimensions like Poverty, Education, Gender Equality, Environmental Sustainability and Health with the country’s GDP. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: The correlation analysis is performed by creation of a multi-dimensional SDG Index via statistical technique called as Principle Component Analysis (PCA). PCA is used to obtain a factor component from linear combination of indicator variables for each dimension. Our sample consists of a series for time period 1990-2016. The study uses the secondary data from authentic sources like World Bank, UNDP and HDI Reports. A regression equation involves each factor component as a regress or and logarithm of India’s GDP per capita (based on Purchasing Power Parity constant 2011 $) Index as a dependent variable. Findings: It exhibits that Poverty, Environmental Sustainability, Health, Gender Equality and Education explain about 99% of the variation in India’s GDP. The indicators of all the dimensions are significant in explaining country’s GDP. In order to measure welfare in a developing economy like India there is a dire need to construct a measure which promotes sustained growth and higher level of productivity. According to Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach a merger of wellbeing and income or utility is opposed, whereas broadening of social evaluation with key focus on education and health is a way forward. India has assumed a critical job in forming the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), it is nothing unexpected that the nation's national advancement objectives are reflected in the SDGs. The articulation "Sabka Saath Sabka Vikas," which deciphers as "Aggregate Effort, Inclusive Growth" and has been advanced recently which frames the foundation of India's national improvement plan. Application: To quick track this plan, the Government of India has recently discharged a draft Three-Year Action Agenda covering years 2017-18 to 2019-20. In parallel, work is ahead of time organizes on a 15-Year Vision, which will likewise incorporate a 7-year Strategy. Mirroring the nation's long-standing bureaucratic convention, these records are being set up with dynamic investment of the States under these dimensions.
38 Decision making of small scale industries and micro businesses under risk and uncertainty , Aditya Diwakar, AmanGanguli
Objectives: The study aims to find out whether past experiences of price risk, demand risk and business uncertainty affect the decisions made by Small Scale Industrialist and Micro Businessman. Methods/Statistical analysis: Theprimary data was collected by interviewing Small Scale industrialists and Micro Businessmen using questionnaire (Appendix) in NewDelhi (Kamla Nagar, Malkaganj, Pulbangash and Dilli Haat) during last week of September andthefirst week of October 2018. A dice game was also designed and played with the respondents. The responses recorded on the Likert Scale were analysed using percentage calculation and frequency distribution was used for analysis of open-ended questions. Findings: Analysis of the data revealed that respondents were affected by past experiences of business uncertainty, price risk and demand risk (from least to most). Past experience of uncertainty affected 60 % of the respondents; analysis of responses did not reveal the reason for being affected by business uncertainty. 68% of the respondents were affected by price risk; 82.35% of them cited the inability to cover their cost of production as the main reason that leads them to consider past price risk while making decisions. 80% of the respondents were affected by demand risk; 90% of them considered the past experience of demand risk as a means of identifying changing demand pattern of the consumer as a result considered it while making decisions. Results of the dice game revealed that if respondents made a profit in a risky situation in the past then 90% of them would carry forward the same strategy in future. If it leads to loss; 66.66% of them would look for a different strategy and if it resulted inno profit no loss; 84.4% of them would carry forward the same strategy. Application/Improvements: There is a lack of study that attempts to find out the factors affecting decision making by producers in India. This study can be useful to find out the rational and irrational factors affecting decision making by producers under risk and uncertainty.
39 Fiscal deficit, inflation and debt trap in India: an empirical analysis , Mr. Rohit Bagarty, Mr. Biswajit Bhoi
Objectives: The study is to examine the relationship between fiscal deficit and inflation in India for the period of 1981 to 2017 with the variables such as fiscal deficit, inflation, GDP, imports, money supply, capital inflow, exchange rate & interest rate and also is to find out the debt trap of the government. Methods/Statistical analysis: It is important to check the stationarity of the time series variable; otherwise we will get spurious results with non-stationary data. Thus, this study employs ADF test to check stationarity of the variables. It’s an advanced technique to avoid the heteroscedasticity. This study is used VAR model to find the relationship between the fiscal deficit& inflation in India and also use Granger-causality & Johansen-cointegration test to find out causal & long term relationship between the variables. A part from that, table &figure is used to show the debt trap of the government. Findings: The ADF test result has found that inflation is stationary at level and all other macroeconomics variables are stationary at the first difference. That means all variables are not only depend on lag of others variables, but also depend on their own lags. In VAR model, there are positive significant impacts on inflation from all variables at 1 % level of significance except the exchange rate which is significantly reduces inflation by 0.89 % at 1 % level of significance. In case of import, this study has found significant inverse relation with inflation. Granger causality test show that there is bidirectional causal relationship between the variables and Johansen co-integration test show there is long run association of the variables. After the global financial crisis 2008, the fiscal deficit and interest payment are increased as an upward trend alarming to debt trap of the government, where the government borrow for the sake of repayment. Applications: There need of coordination between the RBI and government to reduction the inflation. This study has also suggested to government to reduce fiscal deficit, so as to stay away from the debt trap.
40 Quality of accounting information systems: a study on banking sector in Sana’a city in Yemen and Nanded city in India , Mueedh Dhaifallah Mueedh, Dr. B. R. Suryawanshi
Objectives: To study the system quality of AIS being applied in banking sector in both Sana’a city in Yemen and Nanded city in India, and to provide refinements needed for system quality of AIS being applied in banking sector in both countries. Methods/Statistical analysis: The present study depended on the descriptive approach. Hence, the survey method is used for the study for being the most suitable technique for collecting data from the representative samples. Accordingly, a group of tools which fit with this type of researches has been applied in data collection and processing such as sampling, questionnaire and using appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics which will be able to accomplish of the objectives and testing hypotheses regarding the present study. So, the study has targeted managers, accountants and technicians in IT department working in banking sector by applying probability sampling, specifically the stratified sampling technique. Moreover, the current study applied non parametric tests for testing of hypotheses, especially One- Sample Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Findings: Eventually, the study revealed that the general average of the selected samples were (4.08, 4.28) in both countries Yemen and India in a row, which refer to that AIS being applied in banking sector in both countries are of high quality , these results go along with previous studies. The specially regarding to censorial procedures. On the other hand, the current study disclosed that there are significance differences between samples of the current study in both countries through the Mann Whitney test, which reached to .003. And by mean rank values (97.22, 122.199) of both countries respectively. The differences are in the favor of India. Improvements: The present study has provided certain refinements which in turn enhance the performance of AIS for keeping on its stability for so long time, and make it keeping up with latest technology in this domain continuously.
41 A cup full of woes: wages & tea industry , Subhashri Sarkar, Dr. Reji B
Objectives: Tea workers in India are plagued with the problem of poor wages which resulted in poor living and working conditions. The tea plantation workers and their families of North East are brewing starvation and related deaths. This study offers an evidence based analysis pertaining to wages in tea plantation in India. Methods/Analysis: Wages of workers mostly dependent on various factors such as cost of living, industrial/geographical competitiveness, profit, etc. In order to study the level and movement of wages in tea plantation industry and wage difference between north India and south India, various statistical techniques such as averages, percentage changes, graphical techniques, correlation, Linear Regression model (wage elasticity) etc. are used to explore the results. Findings: This study found that among the plantation sector, tea workers are paid the lowest especially in northeast region. The unfair wage pattern, lack of interest from management, lack of implementation of laws by the state governments and also lack of effective monitoring by union government have driven workers into absolute penury. Crisis in Indian tea industry due to stiff competition, increase cost of production, decrease in tea price and consequent closing down of several tea plantations by reason of global over supply. Beside these causes, the inefficient wage determination model (collective bargaining) & closing down of tea estates in North East have resulted in large scale starvation deaths of tea workers in North eastern region. Therefore, the Government and tea plantation owners need to address the issues that continue to threaten the tea plantation worker community. This may help to dissolve all the prevailing issues of tea plantation workers which will end the silent epidemic of starvation deaths. Novelty/Improvement: This study attempts to explore the wage pattern and related issues among Indian tea plantation labours. In tea plantation, a female dominant sector, the wage rates are lowest among other plantation sectors. This indicates the gender gap in wage in plantation sector needs to be addressed.
42 Economic growth and employment generation in the industrial sector of India: some reflections , Pushpak Sharma
Objectives: To study the pattern of employment at gender and rural-urban level along with India’s GDP and industrial growth. To analyze the effect of industrial growth on industrial wages. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The study is based on secondary time series data and collected data was calculated by simple percentages, Annual Average Growth Rate (AAGR) and Compound Average Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) method. The data is collected from various sources like Reserve bank of India, National Sample Survey Reports, World Bank database, International Labour Organization database (ILOSTAT), Planning Commission reports and reports published on Employment- Unemployment survey, 2016 by Labour Bureau of India. Findings: The Industrial Sector which is supposed to work as ‘engine of growth’ didn’t able to raise the employment growth, employing only 23.79% of the total labour force in 2016-17. Nevertheless, this sector has the potential to generate more employment in the economy as it contributes 26.2% in total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of India. The study found that there is slow growth in the employment level and fall in industrial share in total GDP. The industrial employment growth is also slow compared to the GDP growth rate in the last decade. After the post reform period this industrial employment growth didn’t go in line with industrial growth rate. All these results contradict and pose question mark on the government administration and policy makers. Application/Improvements: This study tries to enhance the understanding about the changing pattern of industrial employment with respect to economic and industrial growth that will help to frame a more inclusive industrial policy
43 Evaluation of impact of national agriculture insurance scheme (NAIS) in India with special reference to Jabalpur Division of Madhya Pradesh , Dr. Richa Khanna, Dr. Sadhana Srivastava
Agriculture insurance acts like a stimulus package for the farmers to combat the risk of agriculture vagaries. National Agriculture Insurance Scheme (NAIS) is a way out for stimulating the farmer from the inadequate finance available to meet the hardships. Objective: To look into the role of government to implement agriculture insurance scheme and to discuss the problem and prospect of national agriculture insurance scheme in state and in Jabalpur Division. Methods: The analysis has been carried with Multiple regression analysis using SPSS, Farmers insured has been taken as dependent variable on independent parameters like area insured, farmers benefitted, claims received, premium, subsidy received, sum insured, through multiple regression analysis weight age was calculated for each parameter which effects the dependent parameters to maximum. Findings: There are various parameters available on the basis of which the farmers’ adoption to this scheme depends. In the model the dependent variable is considered Farmers insured which is dependent upon area insured, sum insured, Premium subsidy, Claims received and Farmers benefitted. The paper helps in analyzing the extent to which these farmers taking insurance depends upon, for this multiple regression model using ordinary least square method has been adopted. The salient features of NAIS does not analyze that to which extent farmers insured is affected due to other various parameters and to what extent in different seasons. This has not been incorporated in designing the NAIS policy if such a system should be incorporated then agriculture insurance will be more adaptable. Improvements: Farmers are very responsive towards gross premium, Government role should be more elaborated in providing proper subsidy to farmers for agriculture insurance and it should be framed according to seasons, delay in claim payments should be minimized, if all these policies will be properly implemented then agriculture insurance will be have effective impact.
44 Trend and performance of Indian agriculture in post-independence era: an analysis of determinants , Lekharani Gohain
Objective: India was a heavily agriculture-dominant economy during the period of independence and experienced a long path of developmental processes till now. A number of factors of production lend a hand to escalate the situation of the sector since then. Therefore, this study focuses on the growth trend of agricultural production since independence and elaborates the effects of some of the important determinants implicit to the growth of the sector. Methods: The present study is based on secondary data to showcase the trend and pattern of some important determinants of Indian agriculture during the time span 1950-2013. The study takes into account six major tradable crops. To delineate the trend distinctively formula for percentage change is calculated from original data compiled from sources like Agricultural Statistics at a Glance, Department of Agriculture and Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture etc. and rendered by charts and line diagrams. Findings: In our present study, data show that since independence, production and yield per hectare of selected crops have been increasing at a decreasing rate. The agricultural growth rate is not satisfactory as it was at the time of independence. Factors affecting agricultural growth are analysed over the decades and found that till mid-sixties area expansion was the major driver of growth but after then productivity began to be the major driver of growth accompanied by better irrigation systems, fertiliser usage, credit facilities etc. Application: It is found that area expansion and irrigation are highly correlated with yield per hectare.
45 End of Kerala’s Gulf dependency: it is time to rethink , A.P. Noushad
Objectives: To understand the recent trend and magnitude of international migration from Kerala to the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) and major non-GCC destination countries. Methodology: The study is entirely based on secondary sources of data. The data is obtained from various sources, which includes Census of India, Ministry of External Affairs (MEA), Government of India and Kerala Migration Survey (KMS), Centre for Development Studies, Kerala. The simple statistical tools like growth rates and percentages are used to analyse the trends and magnitude of migration and various migrant destinations from Kerala. The migration destination countries divided into GCC and major Non-GCC countries. Findings: The study found that there is a declining trend in emigration from Kerala over the last two decades. The decline in crude oil price and strict localization policies in the Gulf region are found to be the major external (destination) factors. The higher wage rate and decline in the population of migration-prone age-group in Kerala are found to be the internal (origin) factors. Improvements/Applications: The decline in emigration will directly affect the households depend on the emigrants and the economic stability of the state as well. So policymakers should consider this issue with utmost importance and take appropriate actions to mitigate the adverse effects caused by the emigration decline from the state.
46 An overview of tobacco consumption in Mizoram , Shamim Akhtar, Laldinliana
Background/Objectives: This study explores the predominance, characteristics and problems of tobacco consumption in Mizoram based on secondary data and findings from national surveys. Methods/Statistical analysis: A comprehensive and explorative study has been carried out regarding the nature, prevalence and pattern of tobacco consumption in Mizoram based on the available secondary sources of information. Recent findings from the national surveys on tobacco consumption in India like Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS),Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS),Global School Personnel Survey (GSPS) etc. has been used to understand the prevalence and pattern of tobacco consumption in Mizoram. Findings: Tobacco consumption kills 5.4 million people every year an average of one person every six seconds and accounts for one in 10 adult deaths worldwide. The six out of eight foremost reasons of deaths in the world is also related to the consumption of tobacco. Various international agencies and organizations are fighting hard against tobacco use and addiction through various interventions and social marketing efforts. The high level of tobacco use in India’s northeast in general and particularly in Mizoramis a matter of major concern. The state of Mizoram is having a very high percentage of active tobacco users along with exceptionally high cases of deaths related to cancer. This study highlights major findings from the national surveys on tobacco use, discusses the prevalence, problem and nature of tobacco consumption with respect to Mizoram and points out the contributions of MSTCS in controlling tobacco consumption in the state. Improvements/Applications: The consumption psychology, behaviour and attitude of tobacco users need to be studied in a systematic manner to device effective social marketing strategies for preventing and controlling tobacco consumption.
47 Integrated farming system approach for enhancing the livelihood security & productivity of hill farmers , S.C. Negi , Pawan Pathania , S.K. Sharma , Sanjay. K. Sharma , S.S. Rana , Mittu Katoch
Objective: Integrated farming System approach is thought of as a sure way of enhancing farm productivity by judicious use of resources thus providing livelihood security to farmers. Keeping this in consideration one hectare on station integrated farming system model was established in 2010 to assess system productivity, profitability, relative efficiencies, and resource use to optimize individual components of farming systemat the Research Farm of CSKHKV, Palampur for 2016-17. Methods: One hectare model consisted of 0.65 ha for field crops, 0.175 ha for Horticulture cum vegetable, 0.10 ha for fodder crops, 0.075 ha for dairy, poultry, vermin compost and Mushroom unit. Economic analysis was done by calculating cost of cultivation, gross returns, net returns, B:C ratio on the basis of prevailing market prices for inputs and outputs in 2016-17. Maximum yields obtained in Rice-wheat cropping system in farmers’ field were the base for comparison with one ha IFS Model. Findings: The one hectare IFS model resulted in gross returns of ₹3, 06,270/-, net returns of ₹1, 28,698/- and B:C ratio of 0.76. However, rice-wheat cropping system in the entire area would result in only net returns of ₹44,000/-.Thus; the net returns to the tune of 2.92 times higher in IFS model were compared obtained to that obtained in rice-wheat cropping system. However, replacing rice-wheat with maize + soybean-potato cropping system would result in net returns of ₹184200/- per hectare. Maize + soybean - peas cropping system gave the least net returns (₹33930/- per hectare), though the B:C ratio was higher (2.12) followed by B:C ratio of 2.10 in maize + soybean - potato. Vegetable intercropping in Horticulture plantation resulted in net returns of ₹9627/-, dairy unit gave net returns of ₹49,604/-, fodder crops (₹17,031/-), and Mushroom cultivation (₹1847/-). The profit share of different components viz. cropping systems (33.71%), forage (13.23%), Mushroom (8%) and vegetable (7.4%) of the total net returns was obtained. Application: With the raising of complementary and interdependent components in IFS Model variety of products viz. cereals, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables, fruits, milk, eggs, mushroom were obtained which gave balanced nutrition to the family, regular income throughout the year, and more employment generation round the year
48 Sex economy & prostitution in marriage: An economic perspective to the legalisation debate , Lakshana R
Objectives: To generate debate in the realm of economic invasion of sexual relationships. Methods: This study takes a technocratic approach towards the nonstandard economic domains of marriage and prostitution to reveal the inherent economic practices in personal relationships, within the context of sexual intimacy. The study builds upon the original ideas of Gary Becker, whose treatise on the family- written three decades ago- receives critical acclaim in scholastic venues even today. His position is extended to articulate the central focus of this study. Findings: For the purpose of this research, marriage is taken as a given. It is taken for granted that as all marriages and sexual relationships are voluntarily entered into for better pay-offs. When people as rational agents calculate their actions to augment their resultant welfare, a market in marriages can be presumed to exist. Market equilibrium is satisfied and no one can change mates and become better off. Part II provides an economic take on marriage, sex and the anti-money bias that dominates the respective discourses. Part III elaborates upon the relevant economic theories on marriage markets. Part IV provides a discourse on the reasons behind long-term mate preferences in females. The penultimate chapter is a narrative on marriage as prostitution and the conclusion reiterates the central premise. Realisation that marriage is equivalent to prostitution in economic terms could facilitate the rationalisation of the former and the normalisation and legalisation of the latter. Improvements/ Applications: These events would be a great step in horizontal expansion of economic growth and regulation of the large-scale global prostitution industry.
49 Expedition for individuality in Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni's ‘queen of dreams', ‘vine of desire' and ‘sister of my heart' , K. Suresh, R. Abeetha, Dr. A.A. Jayashree Prabhakar
Objectives: In this article, we analyze the Expedition for Individuality in Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni's ‘Queen of Dreams', Vine of Desire' and ‘Sister of My Heart. '.It also highlights how uniquely she has designed the problems of individuality in most of her novels. Methods: We analyze her motifs consist of the Indian experience, modern American ladies, migration , background, misconception and also the delights as well as difficulties of staying in a modern globe. In the field of Indian writing in English, women writers have proved their eminence in projecting problems of women. The Indian women diasporic writers are more dominant than the other South Asian Women writers. Findings: Divakaruni portrays her own experiences and other immigrant Indian ladies in her novels. She is one of the most renowned Diaspora writers in the 20th century. She has recorded the bear roaring of impatience and also often outright cope the diverse immigrant experiences of grown-up ladies. Applications/Improvement: It is a quest for individuality in the works of Divakaruni which highlight the uniqueness and problems related to her individuality in her selected novels. Keywords: Expedition, Individuality, Family, Relationship, Struggle, and Identity.
50 Salman rushdie as a writer of uncommon talent , R. Abeetha, Dr. A.A. Jayashree Prabhakar, K. Suresh
Objectives: In this article, we analyze the uncommon talent of the famous and critical writer Salman Rushdie. Whereas, Twentieth Century has produced a number of personalities in the field of Indian writing in novels such as Salman Rushdie, Vikram Seth, Arundhati Roy, Sobha De, Amitabh Ghosh, G.V. Desai, Chitra Banerjee, Diva Karuni, Rohinton Mistry, V.S. Naipaul and host of others. Among them, Salman Rushdie has earned immense reputation both in India and abroad and rank set the top among the living fiction writers of Indian English Literature. Method: He has dealt with various controversial topics and delicate issues. His style of handling the storyline with the past and the present countries affairs though not appreciated by all indeed got him fame for his artistic style for portraying the characters in the novels. Findings: Despite all controversies, Rushdie deserves respect as a writer of uncommon talent who dealt many provocative issues in various descriptive methods in his books. He has proved his literary talents in his novels. He has used many narrative styles, which is acclaimed by all the contemporary writers. Application/Improvements: Salman Rushdie uses the thematic and artistic work always invited new strategy which is usually reflected in its style of recitation. Most of his books express civic and private based events, past mythos and mythologies, sanity and fictional wit and sarcastic parody – within an artistic and semantic frame work which is generally restricted in his works
51 An approach for enhancing hotel room revenue , Suresh. D  , H.M. Moyeenudin , A. Wilfred Lawrence, Mark Keith Faraday
Objectives: To identify the strategies used in hotel to increase the hotel room revenue and employ technology based assistance in enhancing the room revenue. Methods: The preliminary research is conducted through the data collected from research articles, books, websites, in order to find the best procedure for enhancing room revenue of a star categorized hotel. This study is made by referring to published research articles along with various websites. Findings: The strategies have to be developed by revenue managers while making decisions on enhancing room’s revenue. It is compulsory for revenue mangers that they must be good in analytical skills about the competitors in competitive set. Application of tactical decisions comparing to other hotel in competitive set can enhance the hotel room revenue. Growth of technology in recent scenario contributes huge revenue through hotel room division sales. Application: The software developed for a hotel management should be inclusive of revenue management interface that helps in increasing the revenue per available room through managing the capacity efficiently by giving discounts according to the requirements. Travel agents, tour operators and airlines play a major role in growth of a hotel through providing group check in regularly.
52 The challenges of demand and safety towards sustainable growth on exporting food products , H.M. Moyeenudin , Manivel. K  , John Williams , Anandan. R 
Objectives: To identify growth of exports in cereals, seafood, fresh vegetable and fruits. Also to focus on preventive measures for rejections and denials on exporting food products and its raw material in International market. Methods/Statistical analysis: The basic research procedure used to identify the growth of exports in India is through the data collected from APEDA of India. The Data has also been collected from research articles, websites, in order to comprehend the continuous issues related to exporting food products from India. The comparative study is carried out by collecting the data from 2012to 2018. Findings: The development of exports in sea foods and cereals for the financial year 2018 shows that there are precautionary measures carried out in exports for food safety and hygiene which recorded a gradual growth. Since the fresh vegetables and fruits are highly perishable and require proper temperature during storage, there is decline in exports for about 50%. The major reasons are due to insufficient storage space for storing fruits and vegetables; > 20 % vegetables and fruits stock is spoiled during postharvest due to improper storage facilities. Application: Despite of existing issues in exporting products for some specific countries there exists sustainable growth in food products exports, due to international supply chains management firms that have entered in to the export market. The wastage and loss could be reduced in future
53 To study some economic implications of population projection for states in North East India till 2031 , Dr. Phrangstone Khongji
Introduction: The author had work on population projection for states of North east Region (NER), but yet no study has been done on the various economic implications on the projected population. Hence, the present study can be an extended to emphasize on the implication of the projected population on some of the economic indicators of the region. Methodology: The labor force, new job requirements and GDP per capita, are projected over a period of 20 years from 2011 to 2031 for states of North east India, by utilizing RAPID module of SPECTRUM package developed by of Future Group International for projection Findings: The findings reveals that during the period of projection, labor force of NER would increase for Arunachal Pradesh by 33.17%, Assam is 45.70%, Manipur is 46.69%, Meghalaya is 53.69%, Mizoram is 12.48%, Nagaland is 59.85%, Sikkim is 42.18% and for Tripura is 71.35%. And, as for the new jobs required by the various states, the need of new jobs for Arunachal Pradesh decreases by 93.97%, for Assam by 32%, for Manipur by 31.26%, for Meghalaya by 68.44%, for Mizoram by 95.83%, for Nagaland by 71.73%, for Sikkim by 93% and for Tripura by 53%. Application: As far as GDP Per capita is concerned, the indicator would increase for all states of North East in Arunachal Pradesh by 164.46%; Assam by 86.12% , Manipur by 60.53% , Meghalaya, will experience a hike of 15.42%, ; Mizoram an increase of 256% . As for the states of Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura the GDP per capita, has been projected to increase by 77.02%, 139.73% and 169.42% respectively.
54 Significance of foreign language in multilingual India , Dr. A.A. Jayashree Prabhakar, K. Suresh, R. Abeetha
Objectives: To study the magnitude of the English language in India as well as its function in the global context and its significance in learning all four basic skills of English language in the Indian scenario of teaching English as a second language. Methods/Statistical analysis: English which has the status of official or associate language is taught as second language in schools and colleges. But the language is so rooted that it spread its falling roots to other fields of study making way for the future to reap its fruit. The language learning shuttles between the teaching methods and the factors that barricade the learning edge of the rural and semi-urban students. Composing is one of the yield abilities, and the individuals who learn English as a second dialect, utilize this expertise as their fundamental articulation of a dialect. In this way, here too the wellspring of information would be the works of understudies as it were. Findings: The status or part of English dialect in society and training trades states that when a remote dialect is utilized as a part in a multilingual nation like India and it has exceptionally delicate and complex part to play. Application/Improvements: Teaching the four basic skills of English language as a systematic training from school level to professional level.
55 Cultural variances among Indian insurance organizations: With special reference to the state of Haryana , Dr. Parvez Ahmad Shah, Ms. RizwanaRafiq
Objectives: The presentstudy has been undertaken to investigate the cultural variances from the demographic perspective of the employees working with variousinsurance organizations across the state of Haryana, India. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Wallach's OCI Model (1983), highlighting three types of organizational cultures i.e. Innovative, Supportive and Bureaucratic Culture has been used tomeasure the type of culturethat is prevalent in the select organizations.Thesample of 235 on-roll employees wastakenfrom Top-4 insurance organizations of the state and the sample was calculated by using Morgan’s sample sizecalculation technique. The data was analyzed through various statistical techniques including Levene’s test, T-test, and ANOVA test by using SPSS 20 software. Findings: The study revealed that the employee perspectives vary significantly across the existing cultural type’s withinthe insurance organization of Haryana in terms of Nature, Gender, Designation and Qualification of employees. This signifies the demographic characteristics do impact the employee perspectives in determining the most suitable cultural types for the select organizations which in turn affects their work attitudes. Novelty/Improvement: Variances in terms of cultural types among the employees working with insurance sector of Haryana is quite visible from the findings. Therefore, the authorities need to rectify the cultural variances and their impact on the attitude vis-à-vis the performance of their employees so as to encourage the well qualified youth of Haryana to join and expand this industry by creatingmore democratic, supportive and trust-worthy organizational culture
56 Decomposition of Total Factor Productivity (TFP) of Indian software industry , Nadeem Ahmad Bhat, Dr. Sandeep Kaur
Objectives: To decompose the total factor productivity of Indian Software industry into efficiency change (catch up) and technical change (innovation). Methodology: The study is entirely based on secondary sources of data. The data is obtained from various sources, which includes World Bank, Reserve Bank of India (RBI), National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM), CMIE Prowess, and Indian Brand Equity Foundation (IBEF). The study has used the Malmquist Productivity Index in order to carry out the analyses for decomposition of total factor productivity into innovation and catch up. Findings: The results show that during the study period, the TFP has increased by an average rate of 3 percent. The study found that out of 100 firms, 45 firms have increased total factor productivity. Most firms are trying to catch up their peers rather than surpassing them. It is clearly supported by the analysis that out of 100 firms 82 have shown an increase in efficiency change (Catch up) while as only 8 firms have shown growth in technical change (innovative). Improvements/Applications: Indian IT sector is required to follow new directions. In order to survive in the long run with the same zeal, the industry demands to consolidate its strengths and move up the value chain if it has to maintain its head start on the competition. Most importantly, it will have to invest substantially in research and development and create linkages to encourage career prospects for researchers in engineering. As a matter of necessity, the companies in the industry should focus on the path-breaking technology rather than following the linear process.
57 Impact of paper industrial pollution: a case study from Moolimangalam Village in Karur District, Tamil Nadu , Dr. R. Manikandan
Objectives: This study investigates the economic and environmental impact of paper industrial pollution on rural communities in general and on agricultural production, human health in particular. Methods/Statistical analysis: Both primary and secondary data were collected for this study. A Case study method is followed. Moolimangalam village of Karur District, Tamil Nadu, and India has been chosen for this study. This village is located nearby Tamilnadu Newsprint and Papers Limited (TNPL). 30 samples from small farmers and medium farmers have been chosen randomly. The secondary data collected form TNPL, production, usage of water, effluent discharged, volume of waste water treated and other relevant data collected and analysed. Findings: According to this study, 73.7% of small farmers and 90.9 percent of medium farmers claimed that their human health is affected by Industrial pollution. Majority of farmers said that the change their cropping patter due to industrial pollution. Application/Improvements: The pollution level of TNPL is under check. However, constrained to state that there are damages caused by the environmental pollution in the surrounding of TNPL.
58 Technical efficiency, subsidy and financial performance: A case study of BVFCL, Namrup , Priyanka Bharali, Prof. Deb Kumar Chakraborty
Objective: Brahmaputra Valley Fertilizer Corporation Limited (BVFCL)is situated in Namrup, Assam in India. The objective of the study is to analyse the performance of the unit both in terms of production and financial terms. Thus, efficiency of the unit in using its inputs and financial performance is reported here. Methods: The study is based on secondary data collected from the annual reports of BVFCL from 2003-2013. Output is measured in terms of gross value added and it is deflated by WPI. Capital is calculated using perpetual inventory method and labour is the total number of employees during that period. Time series framework has been used for making the analysis. Cobb Douglas Production Function has been estimated for stochastic production function. In deterministic frontier any shortfall in observed output from maximum output is attributed to technical inefficiency, but in reality it is affected by random factors also; so stochastic production function has been used as it considers all factors. Findings: In the production function only labour variable is significant, indicating overuse of labour. The technical efficiency of the unit is on a declining trend. Subsidy is positively correlated with amount of production and cost of production. BVFCL is the only fertilizer unit in entire North Eastern Region (NER), the declining efficiency of the unit is due to age old technology used. The financial performance of the unit does not show any better picture since over the time the subsidy burden is rising. The increase in production has been accompanied by increased cost of production and subsidy as the unit fails to use modern methods and technology. Application: The study reflects that the use advance methods of production will improve efficiency and productivity of the unit, which in turn will help to meet the increase subsidy burden.
59 Assessing discrepancies in healthcare & health sector in Jammu and Kashmir , Arshad Bhat, M. H. Wani
Background/Objectives: Jammu and Kashmir is one of the northern hill states of India rich in climatic resources and knowledgeable population dividend. The people of the state particularly in rural areas face hardships in terms of healthcare, especially during harsh winter months. The state/central administration has carried out tremendous efforts for creation of better health related services in the region. Thus, the broader objective of the study is to assess and estimate the healthcare infrastructure & healthcare services available in the state. The study also assesses the regional variations in the healthcare facilities in the state. Methods/Statistical Analysis: In order to carry out the present study, the data was obtained from the secondary sources such as Health and family welfare department and department of Economics and Statistics, Government of J&K. The averages, percentages and comparative analysis of data have been made to draw logical inferences. Findings/Results: The results of the study reveal that huge amount of funds are required to establish adequate and requisite healthcare infrastructure in both rural and urban areas. The study further reveals that the state lacks qualified doctors/nurses/para-medical staff and other basic amenities resulting inaccessibility of the healthcare to only 40-50 per cent of the population in the state. Application/Improvements: The study is of great applicability for the betterment of the society in general and the quality of life index of the people of the state in particular. This study can be an eye opener for the policy makers and planners, so that necessary step shall be taken to improve the healthcare and health status of the state especially in the rural areas where hardly any medical amenity is available to them.
60 Agricultural sustainability and interdependence of production systems in Jammu and Kashmir , Shabeer A. Ganaie , Arshad Bhat
Objectives: The study was conducted in four agro-ecosystems of the Kashmir Valley. The main objective of the study was to analyse the interdependence of the different agro-ecosystems of the valley. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The ecosystem comprises of biotic and a biotic components. The study analyses many components of the four agro-ecological zones of the valley like human beings, pests, rodents etc. to quantify interdependence among the various components of agro-ecosystems, the static input-output model was used. Findings/Results: All the components were highly interdependent and interlinked with each other. The four agro-ecosystems viz. field crop based agro-ecosystem were found to be totally interlinked with fruit crop based agro-ecosystem and livestock based ecosystem and intern the cash crop base agro-ecosystem was found interlinked with other three agro-ecosystems in the sampled area. Similarly, the cash crop and fruit crop agroecosystems were found more remunerative than other two agro-ecosystems, meaning there by that the value of these goods and services is very high and can provide livelihood to a huge chunk of people in almost all the four agro-ecosystems. Application/Improvements: The study having great applicability for the betterment of poor farmers. This study can be an eye opener for the policy makers and planners, so that necessary step shall be taken to improve the living standard of the poor farmers.
61 Growth performance of fruits production in the era of globalisation in West Bengal: a comparative study , Saddam Hossain Mondal, Arup Kumar Chattopadhyay
Objectives: Fruits production plays a significant role for improvement of economic wellbeing in the country. We have examined growth and instability of selected fruit crops and crop-groups namely, mango, banana, papaya, guava, litchi, other fruit groups, all fruits combined, total foodgrains, total non-food grains and all crops combined in West Bengal vis-a-vis India and also in Burdwan, a district of West Bengal during 2000-01 to 2014- 15. Methods: Here unconditional and conditional annual compound growth rates have been measured by fitting appropriate trend equations when the underlying series are found to be respectively stationary and nonstationary. Instability of those selected crops has been measured by using Cuddy-Della Valle index. The secondary data on area, production and productivity are collected from different issues of Statistical Abstract of West Bengal, Statistical abstract of India, Horticultural Handbook of India and RBI Handbook. Findings: The production growth rates of crop-groups are found to be significantly positive in West Bengal and India. But in case of all fruits combined, Burdwan experienced significantly positive growth in its production. The production growth rate of papaya is significantly positive in Burdwan, West Bengal and also in India. The production growth rates of mango and litchi are significantly found to be positive in the country as well as in the state. Application: The production instability of crop-groups except non-food grains is low compared to the individual fruit crops in our study areas. No positive relationship between growth and instability is found here in fruits farming.
62 An empirical study on measurement of efficiency of selected banks in India , Dr. Mohua Das Mazumdar
Objective: The study is to examine the efficiency of the selected banks in India. Methods/Statistical analysis: The requisite data for DEA analysis are on deposits, borrowings, payment to employees, other operating expenses, total advances, investments and net interest margin. All these data have been collected for each of the individual sample banks as well as for the Nationalized Banks, State Bank of India and its Associates, Private Banks and Foreign Banks as a whole for a period of 15 years i.e. from 2000-01 to 2014-15. The sources of these data are (i) Statistical Tables Relating to Banks in India, and (ii) Report on Trend and progress of Banking in India. In this study, an attempt has been made to measure the efficiency of the banks group-wise and individually for the years 2000-01 to 2014-15 through Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) by considering the output maximization principle. In the output maximization principle the banks are required to maximize their output bundle with the help of the given input bundle and then mean technical efficiencies have been computed for all the selected banks during the study period. In our study, those banks are categorized as efficient banks whose technical efficiency score is 100%. If efficiency score varies from 80% to less than 100%, the bank concerned is taken as moderately efficient. We have identified a bank as inefficient if its technical score is less than 80%. Findings: The Foreign Banks as a group is the most efficient ones among the different banking groups whereas the group of State Bank of India and its Associates is found to be in the moderately efficient category.Among the sample PSBs, State Bank of India and Punjab National Bank have been moderately efficient maximum number of times during the study period. UCO Bank and Allahabad Bank have turned out to be the most inefficient ones among the sample PSBs.Bank of Rajasthan is found to be a moderately efficient bank, whereas Dhanalakshmi Bank has turned out to be an efficient. Among the sample private banks, therefore, Bank of Rajasthan has relatively turned out to be the most efficient one.All the foreign banks taken in the sample are efficient in comparison to the other sample public sector and private sector banks as established by their computed efficiency results. Again, among the sample foreign banks ABN Amro Bank, Standard Chartered Bank. Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank have been efficient for maximum number of times during the study period. Application/Improvements: It may be said that the fulfillment of social objectives thrust on the PSBs, may be the root cause of inefficiency of the PSBs. They have met the requirements of priority sector lending along with the opening up of rural branches and have been the bank for the Indian masses. All these may be the root cause of inefficiency of the PSBs which needs further intensive study in order to revive them.
63 Impact of globalization, employment opportunities in Indian manufacturing industry , Dr. Pesala Peter
Objectives:To find the generation of employment in Indian manufacturing industries. Methods/Statistical analysis: The data has been collected from Annual Survey of Industry (ASI), Economic and Political Weekly Research Foundation (EPWRF), Mumbai 2002. Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) has been calculated. The study variables are: Number of factories, fixed capital, workers and value of output. The study period is from 1980-81 to 2002-03. Findings:During the post globalization period,manufacture and refining of sugar industry is converted into capital intensive industry.Manufacture of beverages and tobacco and related products groups industry providedmoreemployment during the studyperiod. The manufacture of textile productsprovided more employment to the workers. In case ofmanufacture of wood and wood products, three digit industries output CAGR was positively increased.Manufacture of rubber, plastic, petroleum and coal products, and processing of nuclear fuels, pre and post globalization periods, factories, workers, fixed capital and output CAGR was positively significant. Improvements/Applications: Government has to give some incentive to labour intensive industries.
64 The influence of macroeconomic factors on housing prices in India: an empirical study , Ms. Jaya G. Prabhu Parrikar
Objective: The house prices in India have risen enormously in the recent past. Property buying has become unaffordable to a large section of population. Therefore, the study aims to identify the macroeconomic factors that can influence the House Price Index in India. Methods/ statistical analysis: This study examines the macroeconomic determinants that can influence the House Price Index in India. The period of study is from 2010 Q1 to 2017 Q4. The study attempts to investigate the linkage between GDP, interest rates, housing credit, exchange rate and inflation with House Price Index. Hence, we employed correlation and multiple regression analysis, Johansen co integration test and VECM to identify the dynamic relationship in short run as well long run. Findings: The study concluded that GDP, exchange rates, housing credit and inflation have strong positive correlation with house price index except for weak negative correlation with interest rates. The regression analysis has the adjusted r- squared 98.75% which indicates the model is strong. The Vector Error Correction Model which examines the dynamic relationship amongst variables in short run as well long run observed unstable long run association however there is presence of short run casual association of GDP, housing credit and interest rates with House price index. The study observed the absence of long run association of macroeconomic factors especially the GDP and House Price Index. Therefore, the study indicates the present rise in house prices may be supported irrational consumer expectations and not significantly influenced by incomes. Applications: The study can guide the potential investors in real estate to revisit their investment plans. It is a clear indication for policy makers to that the rise in house prices is not in sync with the income rise.
65 Remittances and its impact on poverty of migrant households: astudy with special reference to relatively less developed districts of West Bengal , Kingsuk Maity
Objective: To analyze the impact of remittances on poverty of sample migrant households in the relatively backward districts of West Bengal. It also examines the status of poverty among the migrant households and the significance of different factors determining the poverty at the household level. Methods/Analysis: The status of poverty is measured by using the methodology of Foster, Greer and Therbecke. A Probit model is called for to analyze the status of poverty, i.e., whether the migrant household is poor or not poor where the household characteristics, socio-economic factors and regional factors are the explanatory variables. The marginal effects are also estimated to analyze extent of change of the status of poverty due to the change of the explanatory variables. Findings: The earnings from remittances play a crucial role in determining the livelihood pattern of the households. Our study shows that the head count ratio for sample household with remittances is about 39% while it increases to 84 % without any such remittance income. The poverty gap and square poverty gap also significantly reduced with remittance income. For a migrant household the flow of remittances received from migrant members and its share in total income of the household seems to be the sine qua non for diminution of the intensity of poverty. Our result also indicates that higher is the share of remittances in total household income, lower will be the incidence of poverty for such migrant family. Applications: The findings of the study help for the policy maker to design the policy to overcome the poverty of the migrant households.
66 Is exchange rate pass-through a case for India? , Justin Joy
Objectives: To study ERPT- a case for India; to examine the vulnerability of various macroeconomic variables with a unit difference in exchange rate considering the liberalization policies adopted in the economy in 1991. Methods: The study proposes various time series econometric tools like Johansen co-integration, Vector error correction mechanism (VECM),”impulse response function” and ”variance decomposition” in order to test the objectives empirically. The proposed empirical analysis will be based on secondary data. Variables considered for this analysis are exchange rate, inflation, money supply, forex reserves, output and international oil price. And the sample period lies between 1993 April - 2015 December. Findings: From the co-integration analysis, a long- run relationship between the variables under consideration is found. Further from the error correction table, it has been noticed that all the variables are “mean reverting” and the “speed of adjustment parameter” reveals that forex reserves and prices are likely to be correcting the error more quickly. Further, by utilizing the “impulse response function” it has been observed that a shock to exchange rate pulls down forex reserves drastically; whereas it pushes prices on to the positive region. However, money supply did not respond to the changes in exchange rate much. In addition from the impulse response analysis, it is noticed that shocks in crude oil prices reduces the foreign exchange reserves substantially. Further, the “variance decomposition” analysis advocates that the forecast error variance of exchange rate has largely been explained by oil and forex reserves and prices in the later quarters. From this it is evident that financial sector variables are not in fact fully insulated from the supply side shocks. The forecast error variance of forex reserves is mostly explained by exchange rate and prices. This finding corroborates the earlier empirical evidence obtained from the ECM analysis. However, the “variance decomposition” of prices reveals that its forecast error variance is by and large explained by oil prices, which shows that prices are indeed more vulnerable to the supply side shocks. Applications: This study enquires into the relevant concern that “is ERPT a case in India?” After conducting a thorough empirical examination, it has been found that the answer to this question is “yes”. The fluctuations in exchange rate do have some impact on some of the important macroeconomic variables such as forex reserves and price levels. Therefore, it requires a serious attention of macroeconomic experts and monetary authority of India to redesign exchange rate management policy such a way that monetary instruments of monetary policy will do its best without getting neutralised by inflation and changes in foreign exchange reserves.
67 Modelling the volatility of banking sectors of national stock exchange , Dr. Shveta Singh, Teena
Objective: To model the conditional volatility of banking sectors of National Stock Exchange, India and to capture its dynamics as volatility clustering, persistence and leverage effect. Methodology: Volatility is analysed by applying EGARCH model on daily returns data of two sectors namely composite Bank sector (Bank) and PSU Bank sector (PSU). Findings: It is found that both sectors are showing volatility clustering, significant persistence and leverage effect but PSU bank sector is more prone to negative news and its returns are more volatile, composite Bank sector is less prone to negative shocks due to inclusion of private banks. Volatility shocks take time to die out in both sectors. Volatility of both sectors is explosive in nature. Applications: Finding is helpful in taking decisions regarding investment and reforms in banking to stabilize the volatility
68 Role of Kudumbashree micro financing in the women empowerment with special reference to the Malappuram District of Kerala , P. Shamshadali, C.K. Anjena, K. Faris Mohammed
Background/Objectives: Women empowerment is the process through women attaining the ultimate independency of their lives and acquires the ability to take decisions on their taste and preferences. State Poverty Eradication Mission of Kerala State Government launched Kudumbashree women empowerment through poverty eradication program in 1998 and setup in Malappuram District. Kudumbashree contributes its valuable positive impacts on both the Social and Economic aspects of the Country. The study is aimed to find out the role and status of Kudumbashree units of Malappuram District of Kerala in the woman empowerment. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study has done on the Primary data which collected from the Ninety Five Community Development Society (CDS) members of Kudumbashree through structured questionnaire. Personal and telephonic interview methods of data collection have been opted. Likert five point scales and its average are considered for the analysis on collected data. Findings: After the analysis the study has found that, Malappuram District where the majorities are living in rural areas the units of Kudumbashree play a vital role to bring the women in the main stream of the society. The status of Kudumbashree operations is satisfactory and the different training programs are getting right results. Application: The District where the Kudumbashree women empowerment program launched initially demands much better plans and liberalizations to enhance the members of units across the district for the better positive impacts on both social and economic aspects of the society.
69 Pattern of cross-border commodity transactions through Kalaichar border Haat , Dr. Abhigyan Bhattacharjee , Mridul Barman
Background/Objectives: Kalaichar border Haat is once-a-week (Wednesday) makeshift bazaar/market and has been set up on the zero line border pillars of 1072 of international border between Indo-Bangladesh in the South-West Garo Hills, Meghalaya, India. The study attempts to project a current trend of commodities in terms of volume and value (export and import) in the Kalaichar border Haat. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Two years’ data on volume and value of commodities traded at Kalaichar border Haat for the years 2016 and 2017 were availed from Land Customs Office, Mahendraganj. Analysis was made applying monthly percentage growth rate method for two years. Border Haat at Kalaichar was inaugurated and started functioning since July 23, 2011. However, limited operations with no systematic record of commodity transactions by the Customs Office up to the year 2015 restricted the data analyses only for two years’ for 2016 and 2017.Analyses of data for two consecutive years’ on monthly transaction volume along with types of commodities being traded in the two years of 2016 and 2017 were done. The information collected for the study comprised both primary and secondary data. The primary component of the data was obtained from vendor and vendees as a participant observant during the Haat days. Secondary information has been collected from the office of the Deputy Commissioner, South West Garo Hills, Meghalaya and Customs Office (LCS), Mahendraganj. Percentage growth rate method was used to analyse the degree of change in volume of commodities. Findings: From the present study we find that the quantity of the commodities being transacted in the border Haat is directly proportional to the quantity of supply of such commodities in the hands of the vendor of either side of India and Bangladesh. The volume of export or import is directly determined by the quantity of supply of commodities. More the quantity of commodities being supplied, the volume of export or import of commodities stands positive and vice-versa. The major items being imported from Bangladesh to India through Kalaichar border Haat are melamine and plastic products and clothes. The major items exported from India are the seasonal agricultural produce. Applications: Most of the studies concentrated on the functioning of LCSs. However, our study focuses upon the nature and types of commodities being traded in an international Haat. Here, the transactions undertaken through import-export of commodities in Kalaichar border Haat were reflected upon. The major items being imported from Bangladesh to India through Kalaichar border Haat are melamine and plastic products and garments. On the other hand, the major items exported from India are the seasonal agricultural produce. It is worth noting that as per the MoU signed between the two countries, only locally produced agriculture commodities are supposed to be traded. But, among the traded commodities, cumin seeds account for the highest volume in the export list from Indian side, which is however not a locally produced item but still being traded in large volume. This phenomenon remains an interesting point for deliberation.
70 An exploratory study on microenterprise lending practices in Odisha , Jeeban Jyoti Mohanty, Sudhakar Patra
Objectives: The study was to acquire updated perspectives on sources of credit for microenterprise in Odisha, India. The study also assesses the demand as well as supply side causes for the persisting inadequacy of credit and dependence of microenterprises on informal channels for their financial needs. Methods/Statistical analysis: The primary survey was conducted in four districts of Odisha in four different contexts. The research design followed a simultaneous use of quantitative and qualitative research methods. A sample of 813 from these four locations was drawn for representing the different types of microenterprises. The choice of districts was purposive and within districts, the selection of rural/semi-urban and urban sample was also purposive so that the adequate number of rural were covered. The survey dwelt on both the demand and the supply side factors affecting credit flow. Findings: The study finds that on the demand side, nearly 78% of surveyed micro-entrepreneurs expressed the need for finance for their microenterprises, with the average amount required being close to ₹90,815. The main purpose of the requirement was to procure raw material (including ‘saleable’ goods for trading enterprises). Surprisingly, only 28% of the surveyed households expressed the need for financing household expenditure for consumption (main purpose), education, health, housing, and social purposes, with the stated average need of ₹65,541. The study reveals that the formal sources accounted for around 60% in terms of both number of loans received and the amount financed. Application/Improvements: The study points to gender gap in accessing formal credit. Future research and action oriented outputs should focus on studying the gender gap further with the aim of informing policy level changes that could address this.
71 Achievements turn out to be curse in disguise: economics and politics of south India reveals , Ashraf Pulikkamath
Background/Objectives: This study discusses the political and economic concerns of the 15th finance commission proposed change in the population base year and also the extreme arguments such as Dravida Nadu. Methods/Statistical analysis: The methodology of this paper is descriptive in nature. Hence there are no such statistical approaches in the paper, whereas the important facts and figures are discussed in their contextual relevance and then compared. A content analysis approach is employed to understand and evaluate the problem through historical, political and economic transitions in the topic. Findings: It is an all-time argument that the North Indian states have been feed by the efforts of south Indian states. This concern actually has a factual base. The concerns of South India are genuine and justifiable. Hence the achievements of South Indian states with regard to population control policy and human development should be rewarded. For that the revised criteria for sharing tax and non-tax revenues by the 15thfinance commission should be re-evaluated or the old criteria must be brought back. Only such decisions can encourage other states to perform in a better way with regard to national policies and overall development. Improvements/Applications: A serious re-thinking on the 15th finance commission proposed change in the population base year is necessary
72 Organic tomato value chains and determinants of market linkage: a smallholder’s perspective for inclusive growth , Nithya V.G , Ravi Nandi
Background/Abstract: India is the world’s second-largest tomato producer, and the crop is produced through millions of smallholdings across the country that lack access to remunerative markets. Karnataka is the second largest tomato producing state which accounts for 11.4% of total production where, about 75 % of the families in rural and 85% of the families in urban area consume tomatoes every day. This study seeks to map the current organic tomato value chains, identifying and analyzing the factors contributing to organic tomato farmer’s market linkage. Methods: The survey was conducted in Karnataka state of India, by involving 100 organic smallholder farmers through purposive random sampling drawn from an official list of organic farmers. The data analysed by using SPSS software adopting a logistic regression model. Findings: Results revealed, organic tomato farmers are unorganized and prevailing tomato value chain models vary from long chains where multiple intermediaries involved to very short where farmers directly sell their products to consumers through online. Considering the growing e-commerce retailing trend in fresh products like tomato, there is enormous potential for linking smallholder producers to market through organized producer’s group in an effective way. Further, allied activities (Dairy), group certification & marketing, frequent extension contacts, accessing market information through mobile phones, were the main determinants for linking smallholder organic tomato farmers to the market. Applications/Improvement: Results have implications for policy makers, Farmer Producer Organizations and other stakeholders in development of inclusive organic farming specifically tomato farming.
73 Fertilizer subsidy and agricultural production: a study of India , Justin Joy
Objectives: To identify effectiveness of Fertilizer Subsidy in the agriculture production considering agricultural credit statistics for India. Methods: Annual time series data is collected for India from 1970-71 to 2016-17 from EPWRF database. Variables such as Agricultural GDP, Agricultural Credit and Fertilizer subsidy are collected for the analysis. Time series properties of the variables are checked using Augmented-Dickey-Fuller unit root test and results were confirmed with Phillips & Perron Unit Root Test. Johansen co-integration test were used to check for any longrun co-integrating vector among the variables. Further vector error correction model and impulse response function was used to explain short-run dynamics among the variable. Findings: Unit root tests confirm presence of unit root among the variables at level and all variables are stationary at first difference. Johansen co-integration test identified at most one co-integrating vector among the variables. After normalizing agricultural GDP, the co-integrating relationship suggests that agricultural credit is positively contributing to agricultural GDP and fertilizer subsidy is negatively contributing to agricultural GDP which means an increase in agricultural credit will increase agricultural GDP where an increase in fertilizer subsidy will decrease the agricultural GDP. The negative relationship between fertilizer subsidy and agricultural GDP is because of the high leakage in the delivery system of fertilizer subsidy. Speed of adjustment parameter suggests that agricultural credit corrects the short-run equilibrium more quickly than fertilizer subsidy. Impulse response function suggests that a standard deviation shock to fertilizer will not reflect in agricultural production for long (less than one year) but a standard deviation shock to agricultural credit may affect the agricultural production severely. Impulses of credit shock will reflect in production for four to five years. Applications: Attempts by government to withdraw agricultural subsidy and establish cash transfers and more focus on agriculture credits will improve agricultural production in the long-run.
74 Role of Uncertainty in Explaining Underpricing of IPOs in Emerging Market , Reshma Sinha Ray, Arup Chattopadhyay
Objectives: The study examines the role of uncertainty in explaining underpricing ( i.e., over performance) of IPOs immediately after listing in the context of the Indian IPO market over the study period 2000-01 to 2015-16. Methods: We have collected data through different sources, like, Prime Database, CMIE Prowess, the official websites of BSE and NSE. For the purpose of evaluating the objectives of the study, ordinary least square (OLS) method is used to estimate parameters. Findings: The study shows that there is a monotonic relationship between uncertainty among investors regarding the firm value and underpricing of IPOs. We see that the small issues being speculative are associated with higher uncertainty. Further, it is also observed that the degree of uncertainty is higher in the period of economic meltdown compared to the normal period. Applications: From the estimated results of the study, it is apparent that underpricing of IPOs is persistent in India immediately after listing. Further, it is also appeared that uncertainty is deep-rooted with information asymmetry. Higher the degree of information asymmetry among the investors higher will be the underpricing of IPOs
75 Economic analysis of climate change impact, adaptation and mitigation on potato farming in India with special reference to Agra district , Prof. Swami Prasad Saxena, Anuj Kumar
Background: Climate change, the most threatening issue is hitting almost all spheres of life. Agriculture, being an open field activity, is directly affected by climate change and also most vulnerable to this problem. Worldwide, potato is the fourth largest source of food and India is the second largest producer of potato in the world. Its production is greatly affected by uncertainty of rainfall and temperature. Objectives: This study analyzes impact of climate change on potato yield and examines the awareness of potato farmers about climate change impact, adaptation and mitigation measures of Agra district, the major potato producing district of Western Uttar Pradesh. Methodology: The impact of climate change variables (rainfall and temperature) on potato yield is analyzed by using OLS estimation on annual data spanning from 1998 to 2017. The awareness of potato farmers about climate change impact, adaptation and mitigation measures is examined through analysis of primary information gathered through structured group interview of 72 potato farmers randomly selected from 3 villages of Khandauli block of Agra district. Findings: The results of survey conducted on potato farmers of selected villages of Agra district indicate that though farmers are aware of the problem and are trying at their level best to mitigate adverse impact of climate change on agriculture productivity by adapting various measures to maintain agriculture yield and quality of produce. But, they are facing problems associated with government support, non-availability of subsidized inputs and unaffordable cost of adaptation measures. Farmers’ income is either uncertain or lowering year over year and they are getting highly indebted. As a result some potato farmers are thinking about crop replacement and a few are planning to quit from agriculture occupation. Implications: The study observed that though government is aware of the severity of the problem and is trying to tackle the issue, but the present measures do not seem sufficient. It suggests that government should think seriously about the problem and rationalize the agriculture support system to ensure self-sufficiency in agriculture production and welfare of all.
76 CSR & sustainable development: an analysis of CSR practices in India , Debodeep Banerjee, Ashraf Pulikkamath
Objectives: Analyze the trend and pattern of CSR in India, to check whether they fit in the line of sustainability goals of the nation. Methods/Statistical analysis: This study explores the role of CSR in attaining sustainable development with the help of basic statistical analysis such as trend lines, figures and diagrams. The CSR data provided by the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, Government of India and Annual Reports of the Companies are employed to draw necessary inferences. The technique of hierarchical clustering has been exploited to study the similarity between the CSR expenditure in different sectors. The study focuses on major contributory companies to the CSR in India. Findings: The effort of CSR in India shows both ups and downs over the study period 2012-16. Though there is a varying trend in CSR in India, they are not increasing or decreasing drastically. It is also evident that the CSR in India has been flourishing, as the number of companies who spend more than ₹100 crores or ₹50 crores and their CSR contribution have increased considerably over one year, marking a positive. Majority of the Indian corporate assign the lion share of their CSR towards health and sanitation sector followed by agriculture and rural development, and education. Noticeably, sustainability is one among the least bothered categories of CSR expenditure of these firms. Application/Improvements: Though the CSR potential in the country has been increasing, the orientation or concerns of CSR is not bothered about the sustainability and environment.
77 A study on the emerging labour relations in the rubber plantations of Tripura , Pradip Chouhan, Vanlalrema Kuki, Indraneel Bhowmik
Background: Tripura is the second largest Natural Rubber (NR) growing state in the country with plantations under both private and public sector. Studies have shown it as a viable economic proposition and NR is often considered as an engine of growth for the state economy. However, the global nature of the product and its associated market linkage are inducing new production relations, hitherto unknown, in the state. Objective: The present study is an attempt to examine the nuances of the labour market in terms of employment relations, contractual arrangements and asset base of the workers in Tripura. Methods: The study is based on cross sectional data, collected through primary survey using structured schedule from labourers of both public sector farms as well as private sector farms. Descriptive statistical tools and graphical representations are used for analysis and in order to understand the economic strength of the workers, an asset ownership index has been constructed using the monthly income as an input weight. Also a one-way ANOVA has been used to measure the differences in mean income of workers group, if any. Findings: The study observes that the workers in the sector subsist at bare minimum level. Interestingly, the share workers have a marginally higher income than their compatriots. The score of asset index is also highest for the share worker among the workers. Application/Improvement: The study found out that the existing labour relations have been undergoing a change with the emergence of a revenue sharing mechanism mainly in the TTAADC areas, which are mostly ST dominated and non-tribal workers are not available
78 A large number of people outside the tax net: a study on the street vendors in Kolkata , Sayan Banerjee, Dr. Partha Pratim Ghosh
Objectives: To understand the modus operandi of the street hawkers and analysing the impact of these operations on the revenue of the Government due to non-payment of taxes. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study is prepared using primary data. The methodology followed is by conducting survey of 200 street hawkers from 8 prominent street hawker markets of Kolkata by way of predefined questionnaires which included quantitative questions. The statistical tool used to analyse the data are pie charts, histograms and arithmetic mean. The primary assumption taken is that the data is uniformly distributed thus arithmetic mean could be applied appropriately. Findings: The study addresses the issue of government revenue loss due to the power conferred by the Income Tax Act to the persons earning income from Business and Profession. The street hawkers are perceived to have very low income but to the contrary of popular believe a significant section of the street hawkers earn more than basic exemption limit of Income Tax. However these street hawkers never pay taxes or file return thus these incomes are never reported consequently leading to huge revenue losses to the government. The revenue loss of the government is on account of 3 heads: Income Tax, Indirect Taxes and Licensing fees, this revenue is distributed among the state and the central government. The other issue resolves around the rampant corruption associated with the street hawkers operations, as per the findings of the survey it was found that around 1-2% of the total revenue of the street hawkers is paid to police or government officials and political leaders to be allowed to operate on the streets. Application/Improvements: To minimise the revenue loss the Government can implement the Presumptive Taxation Scheme for Income Tax and Composition Scheme for Indirect Taxes for the street hawkers on turnover.
79 Sustainability agenda 2030: maintaining a balance between goal no: 9 and goal no 15 in the real estate sector , Apekshit Raj Singh, Anuraag P. Iyer
Background/Objectives: To identify the balance between Goal No. 9 which is the Right to infrastructural development and Goal No. 15 which is the Right to Clean and Healthy Environment in light of the Real Estate Regulation and Development Act. Methods/Statistical analysis: The method that has been adopted as a part of the analysis includes secondary research and legal analysis with the means of various governmental reports, UN reports and official reports of NGO’s. Findings: There are two-fold findings that can be recorded from the abovementioned analysis: Firstly, according to data collected there has been a decline in gross value (as per the report given by the Research and Information Systems of Developing Countries) negating the objective given under a Goal No. 9. With rapid deforestation rates, there is a legitimate cause with reference to the applicability of protection being successful under Goal No. 15. Secondly, according to the research conducted there seems to be also an indication of anomaly in the interpretation of the legal provisions of Real Estate (Regulation and Development Act, 2016 (herein referred to as ‘RERA Act’). Improvements/Applications: The improvements suggested include the interpretation to ambiguities be carried out keeping in mind the interests of the homebuyers. Secondly creation of an efficient policy making mechanism involving relevant stakeholders and judicial impact assessment through the means of pre-legislative consultation.
80 Anti-dumping actions on Indian exports: an exploratory analysis , Pooja Verma, Shahid Ahmed
Objective:The study attempts to explore the usage of anti-dumping duty measures by developed and developing countries against Indian exports for the period 1995 to 2015.The present study identifies the pattern and direction of anti-dumping measures against India. Methods/Analysis: The study uses secondary databases such as Global antidumping database and WTO reports on antidumping for the analysis of the period 1995 to 2015. The compiled information on 167 antidumping cases against Indian exports is disaggregated into countries and industries level. The trend analysis is performed for 20 years through the computation of percentages and averages. Findings: The trend analysis of data points out that a large number of anti-dumping actions are invoked by the few developed countries, while a large number of developing countries invoked few anti-dumping measures against India. At an aggregate level, the frequency of cases against Indian exports comes in the fourth rank. At the sectoral level, antidumping cases target those export sectors in which India has a competitive advantage. Particularly, antidumping cases against Indian exports are localised in a few industries only. Application: Finally, the study concludes with the emphasis on capacity building initiatives on ADMs at the industry level to prepare Indian exporting firms to cope up with such trade barriers.
81 An economic analysis of housing environment and health status of rural households in Sivaganga district of Tamil Nadu , Dr. R. Hariharan
Background/Objectives: The environmental is which people live greatly influences this health. A degraded environment means a lower quality of life, loss of productivity and higher health care costs. The world health organization has recently released profiles of environmental burden of disease for 192 countries and these country problems provide on estimate of the health impact from three major risk factors are unsafe water sanitation hygiene, Indoor air pollution from cooking fuel use and outdoor air pollution. India is totally home to one of the most degraded environmental in the world and is paying a very heavy health and economic price for it. In this context this study examines the impact of housing environment on the health status of the rural households in Sivaganga District is undertaken. Methods: The required data for this study were selected from 120 rural households in Thiruppuvanam Block to get a sample of 40 households from each of these three selected villages giving an area sample of Thiruppuvanam Block in Sivaganga District in Tamil Nadu, India. Findings: Sixty-three percent of the respondents in general stated that the household waste was disposed in roadside because the garbage was not collected properly from the corporation people. Three-fourths of the respondents perceived that the waste water gets disposed through street in general. Sixty-eight per cent of the respondents stated that there was mosquito trouble in the locality, which was spelled out more by the respondents from Good Housing Environment (89 %) followed by Fair Housing Environment (69 %) and Poor Housing Environment (48 %). It shows that the drainage facility in the locality was not sufficient in the study area. Correlation result confirms that, housing environment has favourable effect on the health status of children, adult and aged persons. Application: It becomes necessary to focus the underprivileged areas such as rural and slums, and underprivileged segments of the population such as children and aged. Therefore, the households falling under this category should be brought to the notice of the concerned authorities of various socio-economic and health development programmes.
82 Smart growth and transit-oriented development: overcoming the financing and execution challenges in India , Saloni Bhutani
Background/Objectives: Cities in India suffer from haphazard growth, uneconomic extension of boundaries, spotty development, poor quality of infrastructure, and urban mobility problems. The problems are associated with lack of integration between spatial planning and transportation planning, and benign neglect of investment in public transport. In this light, this study explores the theory and international practice of New Urbanism, Smart Growth and Transit Oriented Development. The main aim of this study is to deliver strategic directions for the adoption of TOD as a key paradigm of regional and urban planning to develop efficient, equitable and sustainable cities. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This study analyzes the existing institutional framework for public transport development and management in Indian cities, and identifies the challenges of financing and execution as the biggest impediments in successful implementation of Transit-Oriented Development. Findings: The main findings of the paper suggest that the problems of spatial and transport planning in India are deeply rooted in the master planning model, borrowed from the town planning laws of the United Kingdom. The master planning model has failed to enable cities to exploit the links between agglomeration externalities, transportation and use of land. The synergy between transport and use of land for sustainable urban development is not exploited to full extent. Improvements/Applications: This study suggests some corrective measures of financing public transit and connectivity infrastructure, and creating an institutional framework to plan, finance, implement and regulate public transport.
83 Purpose of credit and its utilisation by the small borrowers in the district of Darjeeling , Sumon Chatterjee , Prof.Sanchari Roy Mukherjee
Objective: This work assesses purpose and utilisation of credit taken by small borrowers and to observe whether the credit taken by the borrowers have been utilised as per the purpose stated while taking credit from different sources. This study has also made an attempt to find out the degree of such deviations between the purpose and utilisation of loans taken by small borrowers. Methods/Analysis: This study based on primary data, collected from the four blocks and one municipal corporation area of the District of Darjeeling. In total, 244 households of small borrower of various social communities, who had taken loan of less than ₹ 200000 from lender was surveyed and the data, were collected in a structured questionnaire. The method of purposive sampling was used to collect sample and only the borrowers were interviewed. Findings: It was found that near about 89% of the borrowers showed the cause of taking loans was businesses. The per percentage of taking loans for emergency need arising out of treatment, obsequies etc. was only around 9%. The percentage of the borrowers who were found in the vicious cycle of debt trap was around 6% of the total respondents. The deviation from the stated purpose while utilising the loans amount was observed and found that it was maximum in case of business loans. Application: It was further found that the informal loans were utilised as per the stated purpose more than the loans taken from formal sources.
84 On solar power project facilitators and their tribulations in West Bengal: an empirical study , Dr. Bhaskar Bagchi
Objectives: To address the major obstacles and hindrances confronted by the solar power facilitators in the state of West Bengal, India to assure sustainability of energy. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The period of our study spans for six years beginning from January, 2012 to December 2017 and we have utilized Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity. Principal Component Analysis by applying Garrett’s ranking technique has been also used to achieve the objectives of our study. Findings: The expansion of the production of solar power has not achieved the anticipated dimension in India because of a few difficulties in its formative way. Nonetheless, there are a number of problems faced by the solar power facilitators that hinder the advancement of the solar business. Non-availability of financers, not getting levy in due time, higher installation charges, and delay in payment of subsidies and elevated GST on components are considered to be the major obstacles that hinder the path of the growth of solar power business in the state of West Bengal. Rotated Component Matrix has extracted 4 factors out of 11 variables that have been utilized in our study. These 4 factors explained 61.03 % of the variability the obstacles faced by the facilitators. Application/Improvement: This study can act as a policy document on the part of the government, to initiate plans and strategies for the growth of the solar power industries.
85 Buying and selling mechanism- tur & paddy processors, Karnataka , Miss. MuskanSareen , Mr. Bilal , Miss. Shiny Singh
Presently supply chain marketing (SCM) entered a logistic stage where functional areas are getting linked with electronic data interface. In this study the effort is made to identify the challenges to be overcome by the tur and paddy processors in streaming with e-platform. Objectives: This study is to analyse the buying and selling mechanism of tur and paddy processors and to analyse the payment process of tur and paddy processors while trading. Methods: Has been adopted under this study are; (a) Field survey was conducted in four district and two taluks of Karnataka (b) Statistics method- descriptive statistics and regression analysis is used in this study. Result: Tur processors mostly procured from APMC trader and pay through cheque and RTGS. But in case of paddy processors their buying/procurement source is directly from framer and pays through cheque and online. The larger proportion of their selling is via an agency. They received their payment either by online transfer or by cheque. Application: The study is of great applicability for the betterment of the farmers of India in general and the quality of working methods of the farmer and traders of the Karnataka state in particular. This study can be an eye opener for the policy makers, so that necessary step shall be taken to improve the condition of farmer and traders of Karnataka.
86 Employment, wages and social security: a study of Informal Labour in India with special reference to Punjab , Pushpak Sharma
Objective: In this study, we try to study the pattern of employment, earnings, social security benefits of selfemployed, contract workers and casual labour. Methods/Statistical analysis: This study is a comparative analysis of India and Punjab. The study is based on secondary time series data and collected data was calculated by simple percentages, Annual Average Growth Rate (AAGR). The data has been taken from the report published on Employment- Unemployment survey, 2016 by Labour Bureau of India. Findings: The level of informality has been more in the rural areas for both India and Punjab in case of casual labour. The situation of casual female workers seemed to be more vulnerable than another activity status. The condition of informal labour poses a great challenge for the government to formulate a decent policy for them. Self-employed are more in rural India than in urban India whereas the situation is opposite for Punjab. The urban areas of Punjab have more self-employed than rural parts of Punjab. Females and casual labour both again were the worst sufferer as more than half of the total casual labour and females earned less than Rs. 5,000 p.m. only. Informal workers have the least access to social security benefits. Application/Improvements: The study also tries to explain the current situation employment, wages and social security of informal labour at both gender level and rural-urban level.
87 An analysis of the relationship between problems of working women and their socio-economic conditions in Tiruppurcity , Dr. P. Kanakarani
Objectives: To capture problems faced by working womenin their work place and their socio-economic status both in organised and unorganised sectors in the study area. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: This study is based on primary data collected from working women in both organised and unorganised sectors. For the analysis purpose, problems of working women in this study have been categorised into five groups. To find out the causes for problems faced by working women in the work place, their socio-economic factors viz age group, education and incomeof the respondents are related with their nature of problems by using chi square test. Findings: Despite the sector in which women are working, still they are victims of multiple forms of oppression. Poor working conditions, physical problem and lack of monetary benefits are associated with the women working in unorganised sector whereas mental problem is mainly associated with organised sector. The physical problem and sexual harassment are observed in both organised and unorganised sector but the percentage is more in organised sector. In terms of socio –economic conditions the mental problems, physical problems and sexual harassment are associated with age group on the other side lack of monetary benefits and poor working conditions are associated with income of the respondents. It is also observed that sexual harassment is more among the working women who are completed higher education which indicates the institutional failure in implementing women’s safety and their rights. Thus mere increasing the literacy rate alone would not increase the women’s participation in labour force and also it is required improving the working conditions by implementation of standard wage rate and regulation of working hours in unorganised sector. Application/ Improvements: The findings of this studyhelpful to the policy makers to locate the nature of problems faced by working women and designing and implementing the welfare policies accordingly.
88 Women agency in India: what really matters? , NehaVerma, Madhur Ajmani Sethi, Dr. Seema Mehra Parihar
Objective: The study seeks to discuss the factors affecting the agency of Indian married women within the household, using unit level Indian Human Development Survey (IHDS) – II data (2011-12). There are individual and societal level factors that favourably or unfavourably affect women’s autonomy. The effects of age at the time of gauna, gender composition of children, purdah system, caste, religion, type of residence and exogamy on women autonomy are assessed after controlling for education level, wealth status, employment status and literacy status of parents, husband and in-laws. Statistical Analysis: Ordinal logistic regression technique has been used to study the impact on decision making ability in the household and mobility of women. Findings/Application: The results point to the significant differences among religious groups, however, the caste groups do not reveal any significant differences with respect to women autonomy. Education and employment status turn out to be favourable factors for women agency though education level fails to make significant impact on the bargaining power of women in the household.
89 Causesand consequences of environment degradation in Uttarakhand , P.D.Singh , Ajay Kumar Salgotra ,Ajay Singh Manhas
Objectives: To study the causes and consequences of Environmental degradation in Uttarakhand, India. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study is exploratory in nature where secondary data of 2016-17 is used as a data base collected from different sources. The criteria for inclusion and exclusion are according to the standards set by the government where list of red listed companies is given. This study does not involve any statistical analysis however theoretical analysis is presented in the study. Findings: The study highlights the important role of institutions in encouraging sustainable development. Economic activities also produce negative externalities without having to pay for them. Therefore, the solution would be to determine their correct market value so that economic agents can take account the environmental costs. The study found that while there is a growing trend in the economic development of the state, at the same time, there is also an increase in activities resulting environmental degradation. Government agencies play a vital role in minimization of the degradation. Application/Improvements: Study provides a document to analyze and to formulate a policy for the state to control pollution.
90 Social exclusion and poverty in India: the case for a more decentralised approach , Veronica Pala
Objectives: The study is to highlight the disparities in the incidence of poverty across scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other castes in different states of India and further in different regions of large states. Methods/Statistical analysis: The social groups that are considered are the Scheduled Tribes (STs), Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Others. The incidence of poverty is measured in terms of the Head Count Ratio (HCR). We have used the unit record data on consumer expenditure collected by the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) in 1983 (38th round) and 2011-12 (68th round, schedule Type 1). We have carried out the analysis at the state level and the National Sample Survey (NSS) region level. Findings: The HCR at the all India level masks the diversity in the country. The state level estimates also obscure the intra state variations. We find that which population sub group suffers the most deprivation varies from state to state and from region to region. Even among the more developed states there are certain groups in certain regions which suffer from extreme poverty. Application/Improvements: Policy interventions for poverty alleviations have to be targeted at specific groups in specific regions. A more decentralised and targeted approach is required to eliminate poverty since the social structure of population cannot be ignored.
91 Cap and trade permits to regulate overgrazing in India: an exploration , Manab Chakraborty
Objective: This study explores how a system of cap and trade that can be applied to limit open grazing of goat population in India. Methods/Findings: Though cap and trade are common widely applied to control air and water pollution, its exploration in the case of open grazing of goats is relatively novel. The ideas are tested through focus group discussions (FGDs) with 182 goat keepers in six different agro-ecological zones across India. Results showed that the goat owners overwhelmingly favoured a cap and trade system wherein the village council (“Panchayat”) acts as the regulator setting an overall legal limit on grazing load or stocking rates (based on the system’s carrying capacity), and then grant households a certain number of permits to graze. Households that do not meet their cap can buy permits from others that have a surplus. Application: The study indicated that the administrative and social challenges may inhibit adoption of such a radical change from traditional free-for-all open grazing system.
92 Analysis of key determinants affecting financial inclusion , Poonam, Archna Chaudhry
Objective:The present study isto find the scope of financial inclusion in the District Hisar of Haryana (India) and to estimate the effect of socio-economic factors on financial inclusion. Methods: The primary data has been collected through structured questionnaire on the basis of stratified/multi stage random sampling method and Binary Logit Model was used for analysis of data. Findings: This study has described status of financial inclusion of district Hisar thorough three parameters i.e bank, Post-office and self-help group taking four variables such as bank account, savings in banks, account in post offices and member of self- help groups.The survey has shown that 66 per cent people in Hisar block have savings in banks whereas 56% people in Hansi block of district Hisar of state Haryana. The independent variable, Income has positive and significant effect on dependent variable savings in banks. Application: It has been examined in the present study that there was lack of financial literacy among people, especially, among rural people. People were not aware about interest rates on different types of financial services like savings in banks, loans and other benefits from insurance policies. Therefore, Reserve Bank of India and National Agriculture Bank for Rural Development should take necessary steps to literate the people regarding financial services beneficial to them by organizing special campaigns. Also, the study has major application in constructing the new policy framework by government as well as banks.
93 Multidimensional disparity in elementary education: a study of east and south Indian states , Prasant Kumar Behera , Jnyan Ranjan Sahoo
Objectives: To study the multidimensional disparity in elementary schools of the East and South Indian states in terms of gender gap ratio, literacy, enrolment and dropout rates. Besides, the study has also tried to explore the multidimensional disparity in educational attainment caused by scarcity of basic educational infrastructure and low educational expenditure therein. Methods: The study has taken both East Indian States (West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar, and Jharkhand) and South Indian States (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Telangana) for analysing multidimensional disparity. Statistical tools such as annual compound growth rate, average, ratio, percentage etc have been used for the empirical analysis by taking secondary data collected from different sources like various reports of Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), GoI, Elementary Education Statistics; U-DISE, NIEPA, New Delhi, and Census of India 2011. Findings: The study found that high disparity persists in government and private schools in terms of enrolment of both boys and girls among the states. The dropout rate is high in the East Indian states and less in the South Indian states. South Indian states are well ranked in comparison to East Indian states in terms of Educational Development Index (EDI). Excluding Karnataka, in all other states the recruitment of teachers has increased in the assessment period, but the percentage of teacher training during in-service has declined significantly. Due to different time-bound programmes implemented by the state governments in both the regions, literacy and enrolment rates have increased significantly, but the multidimensional disparity is still a major concern today. Thus this is the high time to focus upon the regional disparity in educational development and make necessary policies for balanced regional development. Application: The government should not only increase the percentage of expenditure on education but also have to make comprehensive plans for per capita student expenditure and per capita school expenditure for bringing equity, efficiency and quality in elementary education across all states of East and South India
94 Consumer perception on organic food products: a study on Visakhapatnam city , Miss. U. Sagari, Mr.T. Vinod Kumar, Prof. G. Sudarsana Rao
Background/Objectives: The increased consciousness of health has influenced the quest for the quality food products like organic food products. Majority of the consumers believes that organic food was healthier but more expensive. A study on consumer perception on organic food may add insight into emerging organic food products in Visakhapatnam. This study focused on the opinions and preferences of organic food products in the city. Methods: The study was done mainly through Field Survey through questionnaire by random selection of the respondents. It is an empirical study by gathering of information. The Field Survey data is collected from various parts which are nearer to Raitu bazaars (farmers market) in Visakhapatnam, India from both male and female respondents separately. The data was collected through specified questionnaire which can give right information for analysis and consumer perception regarding organic food products. The secondary data is collected through various literatures, articles, internet sources, journals etc. The collected data is calculated and analyzed through Chi-square formula to understand the significance between the variables. Findings: The analysis of the data depicts that the perceptional factors relating to consumers have their significant impact on the purchase attitude of the consumers towards organic food products. The data indicates that the health benefits of organic food have not been spread among the general public to the desired extent especially against the backdrop of growing incidence of risks of heart attacks and other chronic diseases on account of consumption of pesticides content non-organic food products. The demand and awareness of the organic products increases gradually due to information sharing through friends and relatives as per the study. Recommendations: The information spread regarding the health benefits of organic food is more important and must be promoted by government as well as non-governmental agencies by making special provisions in the agricultural policies.
95 FDI elasticity of employment and poverty in Odisha   , R.K. Kumbhar, Anima Tirkey   
Objectives: Given the large amount of inflow of Foreign Direct Investment to Odisha, this study aims to find out the FDI elasticity of employment and poverty in Odisha (India). Methods/Statistical Analysis: Mostly secondary data are used in this study, which is supplemented with grassroots level evidences. FDI inflows and industrial employment data are collected from RBI and Directorate of Industry. The analysis has been done by tabular and graphics presentations and through regression. Semi-log model is fitted to compute the growth rate of FDI inflow and economic growth of the state. Double log model has been fitted to examine the FDI elasticity of poverty via employment. Findings/Application: The study found that there is huge inflow of FDI into the industrial sector of Odisha during 2002-03 to 2016 especially contributed by POSCO, Arcelor Mittal and Vedanta. However, both the FDI elasticity of employment and FDI elasticity of workers have shown statistically insignificant relationship and hence failed to reduce poverty. FDI by Vedanta in Lanjigarh, Jharsuguda and by POSCO in Jagatsingpur has captured agricultural land and forest, where a large proportion of people were depending for their livelihood, which have laid down multiple burdens among the displaced households. The displaced households got deprived from their’ permanent source of livelihood as the establishment of the factory destroyed the forest on which the households have been depending for ages together. The factory also encroach the agricultural field, which was the source of staple food security for the displaced as well as nearby living households. Further, the company has failed to provide a permanent source of livelihood to these households, which has broken down the health and education conditions of these households. Hence from the policy perspective agricultural land may be refraining from FDI venture    
96 Micro-finance and women pradhans in the panchayats: field notes from Dehradun district , Ms. Sonam
Objectives: Based on original survey data in Dehradun district of the state of Uttarakhand (India), this study aims to ascertain the impact of membership to Self-help groups on political participation of women including the electoral and non-electoral participation. Methods/Statistical analysis: Convenient sampling was used to collect the data. 400 women members of SHG in Sahaspur and 100 in Chakrata in Dehradun were interviewed. Respondents were asked to answer Yes or No to a series of questions regarding the various dimensions of political participation and as to how membership has led to development of skills conducive for political participation. To gauge the effectiveness of women pradhans/ward members, questions pertaining to their work in the villages were asked. Survey results are analyzed using percentages and presented by way of bar graphs for more clarity of the results. Findings: The study is novel as it throws light on the political engagement of women in two regions of Dehradun in a broad range of activities (electoral as well as non-electoral) and not just in terms of voting behaviour and proportion of elected representatives. Memberships of SHGs help in increasing the visibility of women in village and positively impact their political participation by developing skills conducive for political participation. The association with these groups help members in joining politics and performing better as elected representatives. The political participation of women and performance was found to be higher in all respects in Sahaspur as compared to Chakrata. The interviews suggest that the difference in impact is arising due to a variety of factors such as education, employment, society norms and division of labour within a household. The study highlights that membership to SHGs is not sufficient for higher political participation unless it is accompanied by efficient and dedicated self-help promoting institutions, supporting infrastructure, investments in women’s education and employability and most importantly change in social norms regarding women’s involvement in public life. Application/Improvements: The study indicates that SHGs have non-credit benefits in terms of political empowerment of women. Therefore, the government needs to take steps not only to prevent the disintegration of SHGs but also promote their formation in underserved regions. One of the important policy suggestions that come out of this study is the establishment of dedicated self- help promoting institutions.
97 Empirical estimation human development status of Tirunelveli district – a study , Sacratees J, Benitta Thangapackiyam G
Objective: To assess human development index through health, education and standard of living variables parameters as per the UNDP guidelines in Tirunelveli district, Tamil Nadu in India. Methods: This study is based on secondary data sources from Census of India 2011, Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, 2014 and Tamil Nadu Electricity Board survey data 2011. The health data pertaining to Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) and under 5 Mortality Rate (U5MR) collected from Health Department, Tirunelveli during 2013-14. Literacy rate, Gross Enrollment Ratio of Primary Education (GER) and GER of Secondary education have been collected from education department during the year 2013-14. In addition, access to cooking fuel, access to toilet, access to drinking water and access to pucca house have been collected from District Rural Development Agency (DRDA), Tirunelveli District. Findings: The HDI has been constructed for 19 blocks and a corporation in the district employing the present methodology. The index value varies from 0.88 (corporation) to 0.41 (Manur and Kuruvikulam). The high value for standard of living index and health index has determined to a large extent the HDI value of the corporation. On the contrary the low value of standard of living index and education index pushed down the HDI value of Melaneelithanallur to the lowest one in the district, placing it at the 20thrank. Tenkasi has an HDI value of 0.75 and is at the second spot because of its high positions in education index (0.78) and health index (0.76), Manur is at the 19th rank with 0.41 as HDI value because of its low rank in education index (0.36) and health index (0.42). Application: According toUNDP guidelines, human development index have been computed based on 10 major parameters were taken from three core areas of living standard, education and health.
98 Waging a war is not a solution for the roaring Bengal tiger , Dr. Rashi Arora
Background/Objectives: India and Pakistan are at loggerheads even after 72 years of independence. The conflicts and tensions between them have led to an increase in defense expenditure for both. Between them, the two nations have also seen four wars. All this has been at the cost of economic development. This study discusses the political and economic concerns for India in the eventuality of a war with Pakistan. Methods/Statistical analysis: The methodology of this study is descriptive in nature and therefore no statistical approaches have been included. The study has applied a content analysis approach to understand and evaluate the problems/concerns through political and economic transitions with regards to the topic with facts base. Findings: India should not wage a war with Pakistan and use caution in adopting retaliation measures to avoid collateral damage to its economy that is surging ahead with a demographic dividend. Improvements/Applications: Strategic measures are required to deal with enemy nations in the nuclear world where irresponsible use of atomic warfare by irresponsible nations can result in an apocalypse like situation.
99 Effect of employment on women empowerment- a study on Sonepur district of Odisha, India , Abhisek Mishra, Jay Kumar Dewangan
Objective: This study empirically examines various prospects of empowerment of women viz. autonomy, economy and gender bias and the effect of employment on the women empowerment. Methods: A field survey was conducted with a structured questionnaire. Data were collected from 120 respondents (61 employed and 59 housewives) from Sonepur district of Odisha, India. A women empowerment index was constructed to capture the empowerment of the respondents taking autonomy, economic empowerment, and gender empowerment into account. A three-stage probability (and non-probability) sampling was followed to collect data, with district as primary unit (chosen based on convenience), institutions as secondary unit, and the respondents as the ultimate sampling unit. Findings/Application: The study depicts a positive and significant effect of employment on empowerment of women. The result shows that autonomy, economy and gender biasness plays a major role in the empowerment of women.
100 Changing pattern of the livelihood of the displaced households: A case study of Dhamra port project in Odisha , Dr. Kedarsen Sahoo
Objectives: This study analyses the physically as well as economically displaced households due to development of Dhamra port project in Odisha in India and makes a comparative analysis of changes in the socio-economic condition of the displaced households living vicinity area of the port project. Method: This study has made use of both primary and secondary data. The primary data has been collected based on stratified purposive sampling by using questionnaire method. Total sample of 140 households have been collected and categorised as the displaced households (DHs), government encroacher households (GEHs), private encroacher households (PEHs) and land loser households (LLHs). Findings: The development of the port project has diversified the occupation of the project affected households. They have lost their traditional occupation of fishing. Their market dependence has increased and made the women unemployed. The rearing of the livestock has decreased and cost of cultivation of paddy has increased. In this way, they have become poorer by losing their major occupation of fishing. Improvement: The people who are contributing the development process by losing their and livelihoods are becoming the vulnerable and victim of modern development paradigm. Therefore, before beginning of any development projects, the potential consequences have to be assessed properly and victims of the development projects should be compensated properly
101 Employee’s perception on impact of corporate social responsibility by exploratory factor analysis , Priyanka Gujrati, Dr. V.S. Sundaram
Objectives: The study aims to find different areas which have impact of corporate social responsibility also to determine appropriate relationship between latent variables and CSR so that its validity and reliability can be tested. Methods/Statistical analysis: For collection of data, a close-ended structured questionnaire has been sent to the employees working in companies through e-mail and 300 responses were received. The study focuses primarily on the areas which are affected because of corporate social responsibility activities performed by corporate sector. For this purpose, Exploratory Factor Analysis technique has been used to identify the significant factors on which CSR is having more impact. Findings: The factor analysis was conducted on 26 items with orthogonal rotation (varimax). The KMO measure is found to be 0.947. An initial analysis was run to obtain Eigen value for each component in the data. Total four factors have Eigen value over Kaiser Criterion of 1 and in combination explaining 80.423% of the total variance. The study has identified 4 major factors for studying the impact of CSR activities performed by the companies. These factors are: Social impact, Economic Impact, Environmental Impact and Company impact. Out of all the factors explored, Social impact emerged as the most important factor having the highest Eigen value of 10.962 and explaining maximum variance of 54.810%. After new Companies Act, 2013, the scope of spending in CSR activities has increased and companies are now coming up with new and innovative ideas to make an impact of their CSR initiatives. Application/Improvements: The study may help companies to function their CSR activities in more structured way so that it may have a balanced impact of CSR on different areas other than health and education.
102 Role of social intervention in addressing problems of street children: evidences from the regional State of Oromia, Ethiopia , Habtamu Wandimu Alem, Arindam Laha
Objective: Social intervention programme for supporting street children addresses the problems relating to working and living environment of the target group of population. In this context, this paper seeks to examine the role of social intervention in addressing the socio-economic problems of street children in the regional state of Oromia, Ethiopia. Methods: A comprehensive survey plan is administered to collect the required information on street children from the 200 selected sample respondents in the study area. For the institution specific survey, only three local NGOs working for social and environmental issues of street children in our survey area are considered. Results: Our empirical evidence indicate that more than three fourth of the total sample street children are currently supported through social institutions. However, only half of a quarter surveyed children were also supported by these organizations before become street children. Out of the total number of supported children, thirty percent of the children have their parents alive and more than half of supported children have either their mother or father alive. Moreover, sixteen percent children have lost their parents. More than 330 families of vulnerable children have already established their own saving and credit association as a cooperative. Conclusions: The alternative intervention model is found effective in yielding three broad outcomes: job related, service related and health related outcomes.
103 Status of tribal employment generation in Odisha through Mahatma Gandhi national rural employment guarantee scheme , Jashasya Rout
The MGNREGS has been revolutionary in its premise for rural development. One of its major objectives is to provide social security to the vulnerable people of the society by ensuring employment provision and livelihood protection. Objective: To analyse the status of tribal employment through MGNREGS in Odisha. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The present study is based on secondary data collected on all districts of Odisha and has examined the impact of MGNREGA on creation of employment for tribes living there in. Results have been interpreted using descriptive statistics and are presented in tabular form. Findings: The study shows that the efforts of the programme in boosting tribal employment have become ineffective and stagnant. Care needs to be taken ensure that there is increase in number of tribal households getting employed, greater number of tribal person days gets generated and more number of tribal beneficiary households complete 100 days of wage employment in a financial year. Novelty/Application: The scheme has the potential to transform rural economy and social relations at many levels if implemented properly. The present study can help the beneficiaries, the programme implementers and government authorities in addressing underlying issues within the programme and academicians to carry on further research
104 Socioeconomic status and health inequalities in urban area: A case study of Delhi , Saurabh, Dr. K Ramachandra Rao
Objective: This study throws light on the important question, whether there are profound intergroup differences in health status and utilization of healthcare in urban areas. This study mainly focuses on economic burden on different socioeconomic groups due to healthcare expenditure in Delhi. Method/Statistical Analysis: For the study purpose we have used secondary data conducted by NSSO during 71st round in 2014. The number of households, in Delhi, taken for the study is 1158, and the population is 5424.In order to attain the objectives of study, we use both exploratory and descriptive study methods. The exploratory study will be used to investigate the problems and the variables more clearly, which will help us produce ideas and thoughts about the objectives covered in the study. On the other hand, the descriptive method will determine the impact of socioeconomic status on the health status of people. To find the variance in health care expenditure done by different socioeconomic group we have used the ANNOVA model. Findings: From the study, it is found that the people with low socioeconomic status experience catastrophic out of pocket expenditure on healthcare and a large proportion of the population face impoverishment because of the economic burden of out of pocket healthcare expenditure they incurred. The maximum expenditure is done on outpatient care. Correlation between reporting prevalence of diseases and standard of living exists because the poorest persons have reported the prevalence of chronic diseases more than richest persons in rest of the reference cities. Besides the socioeconomic status, the adequate quality of healthcare services is a need of all people whether the service is utilized more or less. Application/Improvement: Findings of the study is can be considered as a witness that the improvement of health status is possible rapidly when we embrace comprehensive insights of socioeconomic inequalities and terminate these inequalities.
105 Understanding external assistance toIndia: its policy and problems , Chandrika
Objectives: This study primarily looks at understanding the influence of aid in framing the health policies of India. In this process, it tries to bring out the challenges and critics of aid as noted by scholars. Methodology: The major aspects discussed in this study such as understanding the aid policies in India, its influence on policy formulation, aid transition, critics of aid received by India are largely derived out of the literature review and interviews conducted with some of the public health experts. Findings/Application: There are three major policy aspects to the aid i.e., policy to streamline the aid receipts to India, India’s policy as a donor and importantly the policies of India influenced by donors. This study primarily has looked into the last aspect of it. The mixed economic policy of India, economic theories emerged at the world level and donors and their philosophies have influenced the health policy of India to a greater extent. The mixed economic model of the country adopted the selective health care system much before the proposal of the World Health Organization. Hence the policies at the national level and the influence of donors through the world economic policies such as globalization led to the issues such as privatization, a further decrease in the Govt expenditure on health etc have largely affected the health system of India.
106 Stock of educated and skilled persons in uttar pradesh: evidence from NSSO , Puneet Kumar Shrivastav
Purpose: Skill development has received much attention in recent years primarily because India is having a unique advantage of young age-population with reducing dependency ratio which is known as ‘population dividend’ while the developed nations have an aging population with increasing dependency ratio. Skill development is one of the major emerging and relatively less explored field of research in India at the subnational and regional level. The study attempts to find the status of stock of educated and skilled persons who have formal and non-formal vocational training and technical education with respect to Uttar Pradesh. Data/Methods: The unit level data of NSS for the available quinquennial surveys on employment and unemployment (61st & 68th round) has been used to calculate the stock of educated and skilled persons in Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of the country. The 68th round is the latest round of NSS on employment and unemployment. The level of education and vocational training along with the level of technical education has been taken as an indicator of skill and analysis is done considering individuals for all age group. Further, the region wise distribution of stock of skilled persons has also been performed for the young age population. The results have been presented with using bivariate analysis the paper has highlighted the status of education and skill for two time period in Uttar Pradesh and India. Findings: There is very low attainment of technical education (0.84%) in the state of Uttar Pradesh in 2012 with a slight improvement over 2004-05. There is a decline in attainment in vocational training in the latter period (7.9%). The share of formally skilled persons in Uttar Pradesh has also declined in 2012 (1.1%) over 2005 (1.6%). In terms of education, 32% of persons are still illiterate, which is a major cause of concern. Application: The study has greater applicability for the acedemicians and the policy makers to initiate the focused policy initiatives at the regional level to improve the skill level among the labor force as it has clearly highlighted the disparities in skill attainment across the regions of Uttar Pradesh
107 Industrial development and CSR activities in pre-divided Koraputregion , Dr. KapilaKhemundu
Objectives: Study the industrial development, its obstacles and CSR practices of the Industries in pre-divided Koraput region. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This study highlights the gradual development of various industries in pre-divided Koraput region based on investigation and qualitative information provided by the District Industrial Centres, and other big industries that are coming under the provision of CSR activities. The techniques of systematic observation and field study method have been used to understand the historical development of industries and identify what type of industries can do CSR in the region. Findings: In the process of industrialization in India there are some large industries established in pre-divided Koraput region. The traditional craft and industries couldn’t sustain before the modern industries and struggling for its existence. After 1990s the region witnessed a substantial growth of small, medium and large scale industries. The establishment of administrative units and coming up of various institutions along with the requirements of the people, many industries have come up in the region. India witnessed an uneven industrial development creating regional imbalance in economic growth. Despite having enough of natural resources the lack of capital, trained manpower, technology, infrastructure, poor communication and transportation, political unwillingness, poverty and local resistance poses as an obstacle for the industrial development. The eligible companies and industries are doing CSR works in the area of health, education, basic infrastructure, drinking water, and environmental protections. Application/Improvement: The commercial utilization of forest and mineral resources can create employment opportunity. Under CSR the company and industries may extensively work on sustainable livelihood and protection of environment.
108 Spatial and temporal analysis of fertilizer consumption in Rajasthan , Deepali Chadha, GirdhariLal Meena, Nikita, Vikalp Sharma
Objectives: To make analysis of the changes in fertilizer consumption over time as well as across the different regions in the state of Rajasthan in India. Methods: The present investigation pertaining to the spatial and temporal variations of fertilizer consumption in Rajasthan was conducted in the year 2017-18. In this study, district wise data were collected on fertilizer consumption for the state of Rajasthan from the period 1967-68 to 2014-15 and was classified under the 10 agro-climatic zones of Rajasthan. For the purpose of analysis, the study was divided into two periods; Post-green revolution period (1967-68 to 1990-91) and Post-reform period (1991-92 to 2014-15). The Post-green revolution period (1967-68 to 1990-91) has been further divided into two sub-phases: Post-green revolution- Phase I (1967- 68 to 1980-81) and Post-green revolution- Phase II (1981-82 to 1990-91). The study has been conducted for four different periods’ viz., period I (1967-68), period II (1980-81), period III (1991-92) and period IV (2014-15). Findings: The results of present study indicated that that the overall increase in fertilizer consumption in 2014- 15 over 1967-68 was 5314.41% in Rajasthan. The highest per cent change in overall fertilizer consumption was found in zone IC and lowest in zoneIIB. Further, on gross cropped area basis, the fertilizer consumption had increased from 1.44 Kg/ha in 1967-68 to 53.60 Kg/ha in 2014-15 in Rajasthan. Moreover, it was observed that Zone V had the maximum fertilizer use and Zone IA had lowest fertilizer use during all different points of the study period. The coefficient of variation for the state as a whole was 48.59% during the period 1967-68 to 1980-81 which decreased to 24.16% during 1991-92 to 2014-15. The value of coefficient of variation for the overall study period was 73.51% for the state. Application: Keeping in view the widely growing concerns regarding the soil health due to over application of fertilizers makes it worthwhile to have a study of spatial and temporal changes in the fertilizer consumption pattern in order to optimize their use for balanced agricultural production.
109 Assessing demand drivers in augmenting fish consumption in Ernakulam , Shyam S Salim , Athira N. R , Athira.P.Ratnakaran , Safeena PK  , Ramees Rahman M , Reeja Fernandez, Remya R , Smitha Rosey Xavier
Objectives: Assessing the fish consumption pattern, with special focus on analysing the trends and pattern of fish consumption and to identify the factors that drives people for fish consumption. Methods/Statistical analysis: The primary statistical tool of percentage analysis, conjoint analysis, Garrette ranking etc. have been carried out to assess various parameters of the study. One of the major analyses such as conjoint analysis and preference assessment index methods are carried out to find out the consumer preferences and pattern of fish consumption among the respondents. Findings/Application: The study points out that the average monthly income of the respondents has a very good role on the fish consumption as about 38% of the income is used for purchasing fish. 54.2% of the total respondents were purchasing fish on a daily basis and about 72% of the respondents depend on the retail centres for purchasing fish. Conjoint analysis results indicates that the optimum fish quality set, which provides the consumers with optimum benefit is the variety of fish from the retail fish markets which are highly fresh and good quality. Mackerel remains the most preferred fish with a high score of 0.577 followed by Sardine 0.561 in the preference index analysis and it has been found that the highest preference index is given for the availability of the fish species. Despite of any income group there exists a high uniformity between the respondents in buying mackerel as well as sardine. From Garrette ranking technique for constraints in fish consumption found that lack of fresh fish, high price and irregular supply as the major constraints for fish consumption
110 Food and nutrition security: A case study in Nagada Village Jajpur District of Odisha , Malayaranjan Sahoo
Objectives: To study the Food and nutrition security in Odisha and Contribution of PDS and ICDS for food and nutrition security within the NAGADA village. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The whole study is based upon descriptive and qualitative in nature. This analysis is based on the source of both primary and secondary data. The main tool for data collections are the interview schedule from the Nagada village (Odisha, India). The interview schedules contained mostly close ended questions, though some open ended and structure questions also administered. Findings/Result: It is found that most of the people in that village depend on PDS. ICDS scheme is not functioning. For impact of socio-economic parameter on health status, we got education of households, female education, MPCE and casual labors show significant relation, whereas household size display negative and caste &land own do not show any relation with health status. Application: Food security is a multidimensional issue that encompasses agriculture, human nutrition, and public health as w ell as economics and governance.
111 On the estimation of QALD (Quality Adjusted Life Days) based on expenditure data for Childbirth and Maternity services in India using utility theory , Gurprit Grover, Rabindra Nath Das, Radhika Magan
Objectives: Quality-Adjusted-Life Years (QALY)helps to measure health outcome for a particular health state. This study redefines QALY by working on the expenditure function incurred in deliveries for private and public hospitals. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: Data has been taken from the NSS 71st round ‘Health in India’ (January – June 2014). Utility functions have been estimated by fitting the polynomial of different degrees and then marginal rate is computed. This utility function is estimated using multiplicative and logarithmic form. Also, utility functions are constructed from the method given by Afriat (1964). Further, QALD’s are computed for different quintiles based on usual monthly per capita expenditure. Findings: Through this data we examine the health outcome which is found to be approximately same when obtained from both the methods. Also, QALD’s are not significantly affected even if individuals spend out of pocket in case of private hospitals for childbirth and maternity cases. Thus maximum utility is derived in case of treatment for a pregnant woman. The different functional forms of utilities are formed based on assumption of patient’s behavior. The duration of stay in both the hospitals gives the value of quality adjusted life days instead of expressing the result in the form of QALY. Under different quintile class lower the economic quintile class higher the proportion of institutional childbirth that took place in public as compared to private hospitals. This study also gives us an overview about how well our facilities for childbirth and maternity services are prevalent in both the type of hospitals and how far is the patient able to access it. Application/ Improvement: This unit of health outcome will help the health economists in the allocation of health care resources. New methods for estimation of functional forms of utilities can also be applied.
112 Industrial relations and difference in wages: a state wise analysis , Neetu Garg, Ritu Goel
Objective: To analyse the factors that have changed the conditions of labour market and labour management relationship in three major states of India namely: Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat. Methods: Also attempts to study differences in wages across these three major states in pre and post reform period. Disparities in employment and industrial conflicts in terms of disputes, strikes and lockouts are also analysed. The study covers the period of 35 years from 1980-81 to 2014-15. Findings/Application: The results reveal that employment of workers and total persons engaged have increased substantially from pre to post reform period. Further, differences in employment across states are also found. The study has found the evidences of increasing wage disparity not only between states but also between skilled and unskilled workers. The study has concluded that man days lost due to industrial conflicts has been falling throughout the time period of the study.
113 Emerging agrarian trends in post economic reform period: villagelevel evidences from Rajasthan , Anish Gupta
Background/ Objective: This study is based on the primary survey conducted for doctoral thesis at CESP, JNU New Delhi. The study aims in studying, inter alia, land relations, production relations, and changes in these variables taken place in post economic reform period. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: The production relations in post economic reform period were studied by means of detailed primary study. A census survey was undertaken in a village of in Rajasthan in 2007. The census survey of the same village was repeated in 2013 to capture the changes. Findings: Data obtained from study village indicate growing agrarian distress due to increasing land and income inequality, increasing landlessness and disparity in access to government credit as well as government land for leasing. Integration of Indian agriculture with world market has posed many new agrarian challenges. Sudden increase in price of guar in the year 2012 in world market, which persisted even in 2013, has not only benefited guar cultivators but has also brought huge instability in the land rental market. On the one hand, it resulted in the area under cultivation of guar and on the other in the absence of legal tenancy contracts, it has resulted in dishonoring of oral contracts, changing forms of tenancy contracts, fall in tenancy practices and increasing economic insecurity of tenant farmers. Improvements/ Applications: Increased instability in agrarian market has resulted in more or less similar kind of situations in other part of the country, which requires government intervention to control instability.
114 Employer’s behaviour leads to job insecurity: a psychological contract perspective , Dr. Farhina Sardar Khan , Kainat Akhtar Usmani , Dr. Syed Shahid Mazhar
Objectives: This study examines employer’s behavior that causes job insecurity in their employees and analyzes employee’s reactionsin case of job insecurity that arouse because of breach of psychological contract. Methods/Statistical analysis: The data for the study is collected through structured questionnaire from two specific private sector companies of Lucknow region in India which are Education and Pharmaceuticals. Pearson’s Chi-square test is applied to know the association between employer’s behaviour and employee’s reaction in case of breach of psychological contract that leads to job insecurity. Findings: The result of chi-square analysis shows that thereexists an association between employer’s behaviour and employee’s started feeling job insecurity after breach of psychological contract. The p-value is less than 0.05 which means that statistically these variables are associated with each other. Result of the study clearly shows that employer’s behaviour lead to breach of psychological and that ultimately defamed their employment relationship. Application/Improvements: Study shows that if employer doesn’t shows concern for their employees it creates job insecurity within them and becomes reason for switchover intentions so in order to maintain long term employment relation psychological contract should be fulfilled.
115 Clustering Mid-Cap Stocks in Indian Market Using Multi-Variate Data Analysis Technique , Dr. Shuvashish Roy, Dr. Rajib Bhattacharya
Objectives: This study attempts to identify homogeneous clusters of constituent companies of the CNX NIFTY Mid Cap 50 Index in the Indian markets based on valuation ratios. Methods: Nine selected valuation ratios of the fifty constituent companies of the CNX NIFTY Mid Cap 50 Index have been considered for the three consecutive years from 2015-16 to 2017-18. The values were standardized to facilitate cluster analysis. Hierarchical and K-Means cluster analysis have been done to identify the clusters of homogeneous stocks in terms of valuation ratios. Findings: It has been observed that the stocks in all the three years under study, showed two clusters. Mostly there were clear groupings of stocks into the two clusters. A few occasional events have been observed where companies from one sector have been distributed in both the clusters. On an overall basis, considering all the three years under study, Banking, Chemicals, Power & Iron & Steel Industries have been found to have homogeneous valuation ratios. On the other hand, Automobiles, Information Technology, Industrial Gas & Fuels, Healthcare, Agriculture Construction Materials constitute the other cluster. The findings of the study leads to the conclusion that valuation ratios can be used as categorizing factors in clustering of companies across sectors in the mid cap segment of the Indian market. Applications: Investors in equity shares may use the information about cluster membership based on valuation ratios in deciding the constitution of their portfolios.
116 Adoption of Improved Potato Variety:the case of DabatWoreda, Ethiopia , Getahun Abreham, Yordanos Sete
Objectives: The study is to identify the key factors that affect farmers’ improved potato variety adaptation and its extent in Dabat Woreda, North Gondar Zone. Methods: The study used both primary and secondary data. The primary data was gathered from 150 potato producing households selected by using simple random sampling technique in the three purposively selected potential kebeles. To analyze the data, both descriptive statistics and econometrics models were employed. Binary logistic and Tobit regression models were applied to analyze factors that affect potato new variety adoption and its extent respectively. Main findings: The results of binary logistic regression model showsthatadoption status of potato new variety was affected by access to rural credit, education level, and cattle size (TLU) positively and significantly.However, distance of the nearest market center and farmers’ perception towards potato production had a negative effect on it. The results of Tobit modelalsoshowed that extent of potato technology adoption status was affected by Development agent visit frequency; member of Farmers’ cooperative and hired labours positively. While level of education has a negative effect on it. In this study, level of education has better role to adopt potato technology. However this variable has not progressive effect on the extent of adoption of the potato technology in the study area because of diminishing of marginal productivity on the potato production, as potato output is rising, and consequently the relatively educated farmers shifts their need to other better income generating alternatives like producing cash crops. Recommendation: The study recommends strong attention should be provided in building infrastructural facilities that enhance potato technology adoption and its extent through improving farmers’ awareness by training and experience.
117 An investigative analysis about the understanding and determinants, if any, of the Self Economic Dependency Ratio (SEDR) in the select Gram Panchayats of West Bengal: A case study in the district of Bankura , Dr. NityanandaPatra
Objectives: (1) Compare and contrast the status of Self Economic Dependency Ratio (SEDR) in between two ideologically different political set up of fifteen select GPs in the district of Bankura in West Bengal. (2) Panel data regression analysis was carried out to unravel and explain, if possible, the variations of Self Economic Dependency Ratio ( SEDR) by the select Politico- Socio-Economic factors of the select village Panchayats, (2) and also to understand the relationship , if any, between the Grants-in-aid and the Self Economic Dependency Ratio (SEDR) of the Village Panchayats under study for verifying the existing literatures about the relationship between Grants-in-aid and Own Source Revenue (OSR) / economic development albeit with an alternative indicator namely, Self-Economic Dependency Ratio(SEDR) and finally (4) prescribing ways and means especially to the Government of West Bengal for bringing about more participatory and inclusive in nature traits into the system of Panchayat financing. Methodology: In addition of conventional Desk research, field survey, Interview and Focus Group Discussions use of Panel data regression analysis with suitably chosen models using both STATA and SPSS software were meticulously used to arrive at important observations at the end. Findings: In majority sample Panchayats (53.33%) growth rates in Total expenditure during the TMC ruled government became negative which was one of the important reasons for higher self-economic dependency ratio during the TMC ruled government in comparison to the Left front led government. On the issue of selfeconomic dependency ratio as an important indicator for strengthening own source revenue generation capacity to meet their own basic needs or as a signal of improvement in gram Panchayat finance has been witnessing marginal improvement over time and the change in political set up could only alter the situation marginally.Our panel data regression analysis found that SEDRs were negatively influenced by the percentage of Below Poverty Line Households and positively by the Political regimes. Thus a sign of improvement in terms of own source revenue generation capacity of the select village Panchayats was at least ushered in during the TMC ruled government. The relation between SEDR and Grants-in-aid was found to be negative and significant. Thus result (significant negative relation between SEDR and Grants-in-aid) did not support the earlier findings in the literature of Panchayat financing. Application/Improvement: Using Panel data regression analysis to explain the variations of Self Economic Dependency Ratio (SEDR) by the select Politico- Socio-Economic Indicators, if any, of the select village Panchayats was undoubtedly a significant departure from the earlier studies. Elaborative study on the nature and pattern of own resource mobilization, Total expenditure and finally via an alternative and more effective indicator namely, Self-Economic Dependency Ratio (SEDR) under ideologically different political dispensations was also another distinctive feature of the study
118 Empirical analysis of the impacts of mining dust on crop productivity in Bellary district in India , Srinivasa Sasdhar Ponnaluru
Objectives: Iron ore mining was important economic activity in the district of Bellary, Karnataka, India. Airborne dusts from mining and ore transportation could affect agricultural productivity. It is hypothesized that dust arising into atmosphere from open pit Iron ore mining can reduce crop productivity. Objective of this study is to identify changes in agricultural productivity from environmental changes resulting due to airborne iron ore dusts in Bellary district. Methods: Change in crop productivity is modeled by regressing crop productivity on fertilizer consumption, amount of rainfall, and on mining activity over the study period. Least Squares estimator with Heteroscedasticity consistent Whites estimates for covariances were calculated. Findings: The results indicate predominantly significant differences in crop productivities during and after mining in case of Bajra, Jowar, Ragi, and Rice and Sunflower crops. In the case of Bajra, the productivity after cessation of mining is 1.61 times higher than during mining. Similarly, In case of rice, productivity after cessation of mining was 1.17 times that during mining. Ragi, and Sunflower also show similar trend in the changes in productivity. Applications: Results from our model could be useful for improved crop protection measures and appropriate policy design. Relationships between yield and other covariates such as fertilizer levels could be utilized to optimize farmer revenues.
119 Accessibility to rural primary schools: a case study ofthe District North 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India , Sweta Mondal, Dr. Sudakshina Gupta
Objectives: Access to primary education determines the extent of mobility. Here, we assess the accessibility of children to rural primary schools through the three parameters such as travel time, travel cost and quality of schools. Methods/Statistical analysis:The new approach to local-level planning is known as Integrated Rural Accessibility Planning (IRAP). The feature of local level planning is the development of a quantification technique by which accessibility to primary schools would be determined. It would be expressed in form of indices.Here household is taken as the unit of analysis. The three parameters taken are travel time, travel cost and quality of service, represented by Accessibility Index. Findings: Results show that with the help of an Accessibility Index, a village with a higher score has more difficulties in accessing primary schools and a village with a lower score has fewer difficulties. These are determined by the importance put on accessibility to primary schools based on travel time, travel cost and quality highlighting no of students, teachers, classroom and number of classes. Weights are assigned accordingly. The village Berunanpukuria would be more concerned over the problems caused due to more travel time factor, lack of quality factor depending on the importance put on them. On the other hand, the village Fateabad Narayanpur would be less concerned with the problems because they have assigned lower importance to the factors of accessibility as quality factors have catered the need for accessibility.We need to identify the alternative projects and then select the best solution within the available budget, in consultation with the villagers. Thus, it is necessary to examine the impact of the facility or infrastructure on the nearby villages. Application/Improvements: Accessibility Index is a useful parameter to decide the provision of infrastructure, services and its impact. The accessibility indices (AI) help to compare the villages with regard to accessibility to primary schools.
120 An empirical study on financial performance of the West Bengal State co-operative bank ltd for 2008-09 to 2017-18 , Shawkat Ali
Objectives: To find out and analyze the trend and progress of financial performance of WBSCB Ltd. and to offer some effective suggestions for improving effectiveness in the operation of the WBSCB Ltd. Methods/Statistical analysis: The data which has been used for this study was totally secondary in nature.The financial performance was verified, examined and analyzed taking the help of table, accounting tools such as ratio analysis, statistical tools like Mean, Standard Deviation, Coefficient of Variance and Trend Analysis.  Findings: On the date of 31st March 2018 WBSCB Ltd. was with a total deposit of ₹703,973.99 lakhs, loans and advances ₹571,327.53 lakhs, Net Profit ₹206.25 lakhs and gross NPA was ₹29623.06 lakhs, whereas net NPA percentage was 1.45%. Went through a vivid study and examination of the audited Financial Statements, it has evident that, there has inflation in capital, reserve, deposits, borrowings and loans & advances, these are indicators of growth but on the other hand increase of investment was not even during the study period and profitability of the bank has not been raised accordingly.WBSCB Ltd. through facilitating different types of banking services to their customers and society members and by attracting more household to be associated with them has been enhancing the financial inclusion process in West Bengal. Application/Improvements: Growth of WBSCB Ltd. indirectly boosting up the financial inclusion process in West Bengal.A healthy training and education is needed by organizing seminar and workshops for increasing and modifying the level of performance of the personnel associated with the banking operation for improving the financial performance of the WBSCB Ltd.  
121 Cost estimation for developed whey candy supplemented with pineapple pulp , Chavan D.S
Objective: This study emphasis on cost estimation of developed whey candy supplemented with pineapple pulp at low cost with abundant nutrients. Methodology: To estimate the cost of whey candy several assumptions are with prime being 300 days of plant run and 1000 kg candy mix per day. The plant for manufacturing of whey candy would be operated in a single shift for 300 days. Various heads namely land and building, plant and machinery, manpower, administration, utilities, raw material, manufacturing, packaging, marketing, logistics etc. were taken into account while estimating the expenditure for the production of the whey candy in a running plant. Findings: In 300 days 191910 kg whey, 42690 kg pineapple pulp, 218 kg sugar and 1500 kg stabilizer were used. ~ 39,99,000 number of candies prepared in 300 days.The final cost of production for whey candy was estimated at ₹3.41 per candy. Application:This study can be utilized to encourage development of co product from byproducts of dairy which are not used so far though it has high nutritional value and has very low cost. This study also expands for the challenges to the new entrepreneurs being a prime sector of dairy
122 Socio-economic impact of Dhamra port project on local economy: an assessment , Kedarsen Sahoo
Objectives: The study attempts to analyse the impact of the Dhamra port project on socio-economic lives of different categories of people and various changes that has been witnessed in the local economy. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The study is based on primary data collected from 140 project affected households. The structured questionnaires have been used to collect the necessary data by conducting a household survey based on the purposive sampling technique. The sampling households have been categorised in accordance with their vulnerabilities. Findings: The development of the infrastructure project for achieving higher growth of international trade has threatened the socio-economic lives of local people. The people those who have contributed and facilitated the location of the port project have been displaced from their habitats (physically) and from livelihoods (economically) in the process of development. They are supposed to be included in the development agendas of the country but excluded in the process. The compensation they receive for contributing the location of the port project is hardly sufficient to maintain their existing standard of living. Application/Improvements: The necessary measures should be promulgated and implemented keeping the project affected people in the forefront especially those who are contributing to the development projects by losing their physical assets such as land and fishing as their source of livelihood.
123 TRIPS agreement: The Indian experience of pharmaceuticals industry and agriculture , Sachin Angural
Background/Objectives: To analyze the Pharmaceuticals and Agricultural sector of India which, before implementation of WTO’S TRIPS agreement, was able to develop cheap outputs by “riding-on” research and technological advancements of other nations. Methods/Statistical analysis: The methodology of this study is descriptive in nature and therefore no statistical approaches have been used in majority of the paper except for digression into the analysis of IP protection on FDI inflows in the BIMSTEC countries. For that analysis linear OLS regression model has been employed and the results have been computed using E-Views. The major part of this study has been the data collection which has been sourced from CMIE, RBI, WIPO and DGCIS databases. Findings: From 1990 to 2008, there has been a gradual rise in imports and exports of pharmaceutical products in India. However the share of Drugs and chemicals in the total exports has decreased after 2005, post TRIPs transition. Moreover the regression analysis of FDI inflows with IP protection shows that the countries tend to invest more in the countries with stronger intellectual property protection. Application/Improvements: The models provided in way forward can very well be employed in any of the emerging and least developed countries. The models discussed are very much relevant for sub-African and African countries where the access to medicines and food is a major concern    
124 Determinants of bank default in rural areas: a case study of Bankura District , Vivekananda Meta
Objectives: This study attempts to investigate the determinants of bank default in repayment of loan in the district of Bankura (West Bengal). It also looks in to the presence of wilful defaulter. Methods/Statistical analysis: We have collected the primary data during 2009-2010 from 400 sample borrowers who have taken loans from Commercial Banks, Regional Rural Banks and Co-operative banks. Here the dependent variable is probability of bank default. We employed the logit models to identify the main determinants that influence the bank default of the borrowers. Findings: In the logit model, we find that the ability to repay loans and the probability of bank default are negatively related for households in below poverty line and middle income group. But it is positively related to the probability of bank default for households in high income group. It may be due to wilful default for customer. We also find that the probability of bank default varies directly with the level of income. This is an also indication of wilful default for rich people. Ultimately this study shows that there are two types of defaulters, namely, wilful defaulters and involuntary defaulters. The reason for the wilful default includes membership of the governing body of the loan sanctioning authority. The reasons for the involuntary default include education level of the borrowers, short fall of desired level of investment, higher dependency ratio of the family, lack of proper irrigated, unproductive use of loans and inability of the borrowers to repay the loans to the banks due little income generation. Applications: This study needs coordination between the financial institutions and borrowers to increase the growth rate of income of the borrowers. It has also suggested the government to reduce the probability of bank default
125 Incidence of water borne disease: a case study of child Diarrhea in Kolkata , Maniklal Adhikary, Chaitali Pal
Objectives: To investigate the Nature and causes of child diarrhoeal disease and its pervasiveness; to make Analysis and estimation of frequency of occurrence of child diarrhea. Methods/Statistical analysis: It includes: Primary data of 232 children from IDBG hospital, Beliaghata, Kolkata by personal interview; Summery statistics through use of selected charts and tables on qualitative and quantitative variables; Use of correlation matrix to observe the correlation among different determinants; Mathematical model and proper framing of testable hypothesis; Regression analysis carried out through OLS method. Uniqueness in such a sense is that this type of work was not done before in Kolkata especially in IDBG hospital. Findings: 50.86% of our surveyed respondents have been found to suffer from Acute Watery Diarrhea (AWD). 72.41% of other members of the family suffer from AWD, where 50% of children are being reporting to be suffering from AWD. Among the suffered Children 71.55% are breast fed.44.4% respondents are aware about waterborne diseases. Average frequency of AWD occurrence is 1. Mean child age of the suffered children is 5 years. Mothers are more educated than fathers. Mean income group are lower middle class. Number of households (respondents) decrease with increase in frequency of occurrence of child diarrhea. Chance of diarrheal occurrence declines with increase in the age of children. Illiterate or less educated mothers are more employed than higher educated mother. Correlation between child’s age and the frequency of occurrence of child diarrhea is -0.287 which is significant at 1% level. Correlation between child’s education and the frequency of occurrence of child diarrhea is significant at 5% level of significance with correlation value -0.1874. Monthly income is negatively correlated with the frequency of occurrence of diarrhea, showing the correlation value - 0.1222 and it is significant at 10% level of significance. Child age, Mothers’ education, Dependency ratio, Monthly income, Awareness of waterborne have significant role in lowering the AWD among the children. It has been observed that there is very little literature on child diarrhoea in slums of Kolkata. A huge number of children suffer from AWD in rainy season comes to IDBG hospital, Kolkata for treatment which is not addressed properly till date. Application/Improvements: In case of socio economic issues, health economics and development economics this study can be used and referred to.
126 Significance of Rural-Urban migration in India post Liberalisation , Pranim Chamling Rai
Objective: Based on the Census reports this work analyses the significance of Rural-Urban migration in India since 2001. It attempts to show how rural-urban movement is the most important livelihood strategy among all the migration patterns. Methods: This study uses the migration series data from Census of India to look into the scenario of internal labour mobility in India post liberalisation. Besides data form Census 1991, 2001 and 2011, few NSSO data have also been included in the study. Migrations categorised by distance, by direction and by sex have been studied together to find interrelationships among them. The study broadly categorises migration reasons as economic and non-economic. Finding: The examined data reveals that since liberalisation, the population of the country has increased by 43.8% and the fraction of migrants has gone up by 10%. Over 37% of the country’s population are migrants but figures could be misleading because around half of all migrants move for marital reasons. Rural to rural movements are predominant and only just over 10% of the total migration are employment/business related movements. Application: It is noticed that people choose to move short distances within the state. Volume of intra and inter district movements is high and most of it is of rural to rural nature. Women mostly migrate short distances largely to and from rural region which primarily are for marital reasons. However whenever people move across state borders most of it are urban bound. Inter-state migrations are also more motivated by economic reasons. Larger fractions of inter-state migrations are of rural-urban nature and directly associated to work/employment/business reasons. In fact rural-urban movements are prominent when migrations for only direct economic reasons are considered
127 Factors determining drip irrigation system (DIS) inTamil Nadu , Dr. R. Sankarakumar, Dr. R. Latha , Dr. P. Nalraj
Objective: To give details about socio-economic conditions of respondents and find out factors determining the establishment of drip irrigation system in Aruppukottai block in Virudhunagar district, Tamil Nadu in India. Methods:Primary data is main supporting source of this research and it is collected in the year 2019. Totally 100 samples are collected from 10 villages and each in village 10 samples are selected on the basis of purposive sampling techniques. Respondents’ information is gathered from various sources and they are as follows: Banking sectors, Panchayati Raj Institutions and District Rural Development Agency, Virudhunagar district. This data is analysed by percentage and factor analysis. Findings:Primary data has been collected from 10 villages in Aruppukottai Block. Most of the farmers are more than 50 years old. Graduates are not interested to do farming activities. Almost three-fourth of respondent’s islivingon nuclear family system. Nearly two-third of farmers’ family income (62%) are between ₹1,00,000 - ₹2,00,000. Ten variables are selected and analysed to identify the influential reasons to launch drip irrigation system. This analysis identified two major factors: Most dominantfactoris systematic water distribution, easy soil infiltrations, increase land size, sustain moisture and minimise water scarcity. Least ranking factor is sustaining soil fertility, operating cost, media, government and NGO’s support. Application: Governments should start various irrigation related programmes and it must be reached gross root level. These programmes are associated with efficient water resource management.
128 Mechanization: an issue for coffee curing workers of India , Molly Chattopadhyay
Objective: To study the impact of mechanization on coffee curing workers using both primary and secondary data. Methods: To measure the impact of mechanization on coffee curing workers in India, unit level data from employment-unemployment survey collected by National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) for two time points 1999-2000 and 2011-12 were considered. Proprietors of six coffee curing factories based in Karnataka were interviewed due to the fact that among all the states in India 73% of coffee curing factories is based in Karnataka. Findings: Adaptation of electronic grader and colour sorter had reduced the size of workforce – both male and female workers. Since, coffee curing factories are covered by Factories Act, 1948, a significant number of workers lost their regular source of income due to adaptation of technology. Application: The study clearly indicates that workers – both male and female workers are being affected by the technologies related to coffee curing. The impact is severe in forcing workers into unorganized sector as contract worker with little or no social security benefits. Therefore, there is a need to protect employment and strengthen them with the help of government agencies and non-government organisations for entitlements to social security benefits.
129 Debt distress and its impact on Farmers’ lives , Dr. Halima Sadia Rizvi, Mansi Vinaik, Azharuddin Ansari
Objective: The present study has tried to develop a thorough understanding of why Indian farmers borrow; the effectiveness of loan waiver announcements; and their impact on farmers’ lives; and more critically on farmers’ suicides. The Study has also highlighted the “other” factors, which act behind the curtain, but, have a great influence. Methods/Analysis: The Study is explorative in nature and takes a descriptive form. It has looked into the reasons that have led to farmer distress, the relationship between debt and farmer distress, which culminates to suicides, and the impact of loan waiver on this process, using secondary data. Findings: The study found that there is no concrete connection between farm loan waivers and farmers’ suicides, and farm loan waivers do not necessarily result in reduction in farmers’ suicides, and largely, are an electoral agenda. There are various “other” factors, contributing to farmers’ debt distress, forcing them to commit suicide, as a last resort, which is not accounted for, at large. These factors include environmental degradation, education expenditures, and health issues and related expenditures. Policy suggestions: Farm loan waivers need to be supported with augmentative and alternative models to make them a success. These augmentative models include Debt-Swap, Encouraging Food Processing Industry, Alternate Sources of Income and Organic Farming and strategies such as KALIA and can be used as an alternative model to farm loan waiver
130 Crop diversification in Himachal Pradesh -A temporal analysis , Sapana Sharma
Objective: To study the crop diversification of Himachal Pradesh in India. Methods/Statistical analysis: Secondary data is used for this study during the period 1990 to 2008 (18 years) by using the time series data of Himachal Pradesh. The period has been separated into three sub-period 1990-96, 1996-2002 and 2002-2008. To measure the crop diversification Herfindahl Index and compound growth rate are used. Findings: Crop diversification is taking place in Himachal Pradesh during the period because the value of Herfindahl diversification index is nearby zero. This verifies that the Himachal Pradesh economy is diversifying gradually. Improvements/application: This study alsotries to explicate the changing share and area of majorand minor crops in Himachal Pradesh.
131 Construction of women empowerment index: an impact study of self-help group interventions in Jhajjar District of Haryana , Ms. Lalita Kumari, Dr. Hemlata Manglani
Objectives: Present study focuses on the creation of women empowerment index in Jhajjar district of Haryana through the intervention of self-help groups. Study is intended to analyses women’s role in socio-economic, and political sections of the society enhanced because of their energetic contribution in SHGs, therefore, the study has made it a goal to examine the social, political, economic and personal empowerment of women. Methods & Analysis: A stratified multi-stage sampling was used to collect the data. Jhajhar district was chosen from Rohtak division and further three Blocks namely Badli, Bahadurgarh,Jhajjar were chosen and from each block one VO Kheri Khumar, Lowa Khard, and Kheri Jat were selected respectively. Total 90 women beneficiaries from SC and OBC with equal distribution were chosen to collect primary data through Likert scale. Composite index and factor analysis were used with 22 indicators to examine the empowerment of women in Jhajhar District. Findings: Study found that PLEI (political empowerment) is most affected through SHGs intervention in Jhajjar district of Haryana. The foremost cause is that after joining the SHG, women are politically awake. Women are sure to make any decision because they are conscious of her civil liberties and laws. Women are well-knownof their property rights. All SHG women have their own Aadhar card or Voter ID card. At the time of elections, women vote independently to their elected candidates. Women are actively participating in government programs. SHGs are government programs and every woman is actively participating to increase the performance of its groups. Rural women SHG members are known about the work of the local Panchayat and they are getting all the benefits from Panchayat. Improvement: While examining the impact of each indicator on composite women empowerment it was found that economic empowerment is the most significant and registered highest value thus it can be stated that women’s socio-economic status rise after joining SHGs in Jhajhar District of Haryana.
132 Evaluating the efficiency of leading Indian life insurance companies , Shoaib Alam Siddiqui, Dr Stephen Das
Objectives: This study is to assess efficiency of leading Indian life insurers using data envelopment analysis (DEA). Methods/Statistical analysis: This study aims to analyze the efficiency performance of top ten Indian life insurers from 2012-2013 to 2016-2017 using data envelopment analysis based on secondary data collected from Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Annual Reports. Findings: Findings indicate that the state life insurer i.e. Life Insurance Corporation (LIC) has been efficient throughout the study period. Private life insurers are comparatively new in life insurance sector and are of different sizes therefore exhibited variations in their performance levels. Some private life insurers operated efficiently during the study period. Application/Improvements: The study brings into light the operating characteristics and efficiencies of the Indian life insurers during the period 2013-2017 and therefore holds important insights for policy makers, practitioners and the decision makers.
133 Internal users’ satisfaction of accounting information systems in banking sector: a scenario analysis of performance Sana’a city in Yemen in comparison to Nanded City in India , Mueedh Dhaifallah Mueedh , Dr. B. R. Suryawanshi
Objectives: This study aims to discover the current position of performance of the AIS used in banking sector in both India and Yemen, specially, Nanded city and Sana’a city successively, by study of internal users’ satisfaction of AISs used in both countries, for the purpose of keeping stability of the AISs used in both countries as long as possible, in addition to sharing of expertise between both countries in this domain. Methods/Statistical analysis: Descriptive approach and inferential statistics (parametric and non-parametric tests) had been used for achieving the above stated objectives, and testing hypotheses of the research work. Findings: Results of the research work uncovered that the general mean value of questionnaire hit (4.19, 3.95) in India and Yemen. This indicates that AIS used in banks in India and Yemenis of good performance. Improvements: This point refers to some recommendations have been formulated in order to strengthen and enhance the current position of performance of AIS used in banking sector in both countries India and Yemen.
134 Interlink between financial development and economic development , Dr Prakash Anant Salvi, Ms Shubhshree V Parab
Objective: The study attempts to show the causality between ‘economic development’ and ‘financial development’ in India considering ‘demand-following’ and ‘supply-leading’ approaches along with ‘structuralist’ and ‘repressions’ views on financial development. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: To examine the interlink between financial development and economic development in India, from 1990-91 (when the financial sector started liberalization process on larger scale) to 2014-15 is chosen. Technique of correlation and regression analysis are used to examine the interlink and the causality between both variables. We have used two regression equations for testing our data viz. GDP = a + b TFC highlights on supply-leading approach and TFC = a + b GDP highlights on demand-following approach. Findings: From our data, we estimate the correlation coefficient between GDP (economic development) and TFC (financial development) is very high, indicating that both economic development and financial development go hand in hand. This show that there is an interlink between both. From our regression analysis, we examined two approaches (Supply-leading Approach and Demand-following Approach) and how change in GDP brings change in TFC. We can see that causality works both the ways i.e. financial development to economic development and vice versa. But the causality from economic development to financial development is more dominant than the other way. It also implies that the influence of supply-leading approach is more dominant than demandfollowing approach in India. This study’s humble attempt is to show that both approaches have equal role to play in economic development, unlike other studies where they have stressed on importance of any one approach. At the same time, this study also shows the direction of causality from economic development to financial development is more dominant. The direction of causality in other studies was generally shown from financial development to economic development. Application/ Improvements: To achieve rapid balanced and sustained rate of economic development, efforts are directed towards the creation of condition for a faster development of productive resources. Equal improvement is required about knowledge (financial literacy) to access finance or financial schemes provided by financial institutions.
135 Determinants of healthcare forgone: a case study of rural areas in the North East Region of India , Joel Basumatary
Introduction: Out-of-Pocket (OOP) spending is a prominent health care payment mechanism in India and other developing countries. However, it is more common amongst the lower income group of people especially in the rural areas. And due to this type of payments mechanisms (OOP) many households incur catastrophic payments and possibility of falling into poverty trap is high. To avoid such an impoverishment situation, some households forgo the needed health care when get health shocks. This study analyses the various issues related to treatment forgone and its major determinants. Data and Methods: The empirical analysis is based on the primary survey conducted in the last quarter of 2015 in rural Chirang districts of Assam (India). It is based on the data collected on OOP payments, income of the households, and treatment forgone due to lack of money or unbearable cost for the last one year preceding the survey date. The analysis is descriptive as well as based on binary logistic regression model. Results/Application: It has been found that the households with lower income groups are more likely to forgo treatment than the higher income groups. The treatment forgone by the households whose annual income is up to ₹75,000 is higher relative to the income group greater than ₹2,00,000 (OR=15.96, p< 0.001), and the households in the income group of between ₹75,001-2,00,000 relative to the income group of greater than ₹2,00,000 (OR=8.86, p<0.01). The results also show that the households which incurred catastrophic OOP expenditure on health care are more likely to forgo health care subsequently. Population size of the households also plays an important role in determining the treatment forgone. Female headed households are less likely to forgo treatment than the male headed households, though the result is not statistically significant.
136 An Inter-linkage between women employers and female domestic workers , Sanghita Bhattacharjee, Bhaskar Goswami
Objectives: To assess the significance of paid domestic work as an important income earning activity for poor households and to explore the linkage between women employers and female domestic workers. Methods/Analysis: The study was conducted on 334 domestic workers and 154 employers between January and June 2016 in the district of South 24 Parganas, West Bengal, India. The employers were classified into working (104) and non-working (50). The selection of the district was spurred by the development of south Kolkata on the one hand and the significant role of manual labour in the process of urbanisation on the other. While studying the labour supply determinants, wage was taken as a dependent variable for the linear regression analysis to capture the factors responsible for the choice of decision. Based on their need for domestic workers, a comprehensive distinction was made between the working and non-working employers. Findings: With growing urbanization and economic growth, life has become more challenging giving much impetus to education and employment of women. This has led many women to join work-force. The breakup of the traditional joint family system and increased involvement of educated women in the formal labour market necessitates organising all work inside the home through domestic workers. Disadvantaged females do domestic work in the middle-class and upper-middle-class households in urban and suburban areas, releasing employers to join work. The study reveals that insecurity of work and unstable income of the household head is an important reason for the choice of domestic work apart from other determinants like illiteracy and lack of skill. On the demand side, we see that distinct strategies are adopted by distinct households. A segment of the employers is guided by reliance while others hire domestic workers because they are used to domestic assistance, or it has something to do with status and peer pressure. Novelty/Improvement: We believe that this study will provide better insights on determining factors that contribute to the linkage between the ‘Mistress’ and the ‘Maid’.
137 A note on air pollutant levels in select Indian cities , Sruthi Bhimanagoudru Shivalinganagouda,Dr. Ponnaluru Srinivasa Sasdhar
Objectives: Air pollution has become a serious problem in India. Seven out of top ten most polluted cities in the World in 2018 are Indian Cities (World Air Quality Ranking report). PM2.5 stands for Particulate Matter measuring 2.5 microns or less in diameter suspended in air. PM2.5 can cause significant negative health impacts such as Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD), and Lung cancer. The objective of this study is to estimate trends and patterns of Particulate Matter 2.5 Concentration levels in Indian cities. Methods: We consider an Auto Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model to explain the variability of particulate matter (PM2.5) levels across six different cities in India, using the daily observation data provided by the Central Pollution Control Board of India. Findings: Results from our model indicate that statistically significant differences exist in pollutant levels between Bangalore, Delhi, Chennai, Hyderabad, Vijayawada, and Vishakhapatnam. Seasonality in pollutant levels is also significant. Mean levels of pollutants are generally higher during winter months and lower around the monsoon season for all the south Indian cities. Applications: Results from our model could be useful for understanding and predicting the air pollutant trends and patterns of south Indian cities.
138 Internationalization of higher education in India: initiatives, trends and perspectives , V. Fathimath Sajna
Objectives: To examine India’s current status in the international higher education sector and to compare it with that in the global level. Methodology: The study is based primarily on secondary data. The secondary data was collected from reports of various international agencies like UNESCO, World Bank etc., Annual reports of Government of India, journals, websites etc. The data analysis was done with the help of popular statistical tools like percentage, averages, growth index, graphical representations etc. Findings: India’s growth rate in international students’ mobility is almost stable and there has been no significant change in the selected years. It is also found that the majority of inbound students’ mobility to India is from Asian and African countries compared to other countries. The main reason for this inbound mobility could be the quality of higher education system in India and the lower cost of living etc. It is also observed that the outbound students’ mobility ratio from India has been slightly increased. Application/Improvement: Now that the international collaboration is generally less in Arts, Humanities and Social Science, researches are very much limited in the field. So, government should give more support to multi and inter-disciplinary research.
139 Forecasting GDP growth rates of Bangladesh: an empirical study , Liton Chandra Voumik, Md. Maznur Rahman ,Md. Shaddam Hossain , Mahbubur Rahman
Background/Objectives: This study aims to apply time series tools ARIMA and Exponential smoothing methods to model and forecast GDP growth rates in the economy of Bangladesh. Forecasting of GDP growth rate is an important topic in macroeconomics. Methods/ Statistical analysis: The data was collected from World Development Indicators (WDI) and it has been collected over a period of 37 years by WDI, World Bank. We applied Phillips–Perron (PP) and Augmented Dickey–Fuller (ADF) tests to investigate the stationary character of the data. Stata and R statistical software was used to construct a class of Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and exponential smoothing methods to model and forecast the GDP growth. Findings: We applied several ARIMA (P, I, Q) models and applied the ARIMA (1,1,1) model as best for forecasting. This ARIMA (1,1,1) model was chosen based on the minimum values of the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). Also, we applied the Exponential Smoothing measurements to forecast the GDP growth rate. In addition, among all the Exponential Smoothing models, the triple exponential model better analyzed the data based on lowest Sum of Square Error (SSE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). Using these models, the numeric figure of future GDP growths are forecasted. Statistical outcomes illustrate that Bangladesh’s GDP growth rate is an increasing trend that will continue rising in the future. Improvements/Applications: This finding will help policymakers and academicians to formulate economic and business strategies more precisely.
140 An ecological economic valuation of forest ecosystem in Dindigul District of Tamil Nadu, India , Kaleeswari Kumaravel  , Amarnath Surendranath Jootu 
Objectives: To evaluate the total economic value of hill ecosystem by studying the direct, indirect, optional, existence values and the ecotourism. Methodology: Direct use values were analysed using hill area, timber production, non-timber hill products, recreational value and employment generation. Indirect use value was measured with replacement cost. Option value was measured as the ratio of the usable income to the present use value. Contingent valuation was used to study the Existence value of the hill ecosystem. Travel cost was estimated by fitting the semi log function for consumer surplus estimation. Findings: Sirumalai hill had higher direct use value of 311.22 lakh rupees as compared to Palani hill with 89.77 lakh rupees and it was higher by 246.68%. Sirumalai hill had higher indirect use value, option value and existence value than the Palani hill by 33.31%, 10.59% and 10.19% respectively. Sirumalai hill thus had higher total economic-ecological value than the Palani hill by 10.09%. Consumer surplus per trip per person was estimated as the inverse of the travel cost coefficient and it was ₹3704 for Sirumalai hill. The number of visits undertaken per person was 4 for Sirumalai hill and hence the consumer surplus per annum per person was ₹14816. Taking into account the number of persons visiting the site, the estimated total consumer surplus for Sirumalai hill was ₹86.90 crores. Application: Such a comprehensive ecological- economic evaluation of hill ecosystem and application of travel cost model was not carried out in Tamil Nadu and the study is a novel one.
141 Trade openness and women participation in the labor market: evidence from South Asia , Liton Chandra Voumik
Objectives: This study seeks to investigate the impact of trade openness on women labor force participation in South Asian countries. Thus, a country that is exporting female labor stuff is actually recruiting more female labor and enlarges employment opportunity of female labors. Methods/ Statistical analysis: To analyze the characteristics of trade and labor market in South Asia, we empirically study the main determinants of female employment and female employment in different sectors like agriculture, industry, and service over the period, 1991 and 2017, using panel data. The model was estimated by Multiple Linear Regression method with countries fixed effects. This study also controls GDP per capita, women literacy rate, urban population, unemployment rate, male labor force participation and other attributes. Findings: We examined the impact of the 90s trade liberalization in most of the South Asian countries on female labor force participation, employment, and empowerment. While on aggregate the female labor force participation rate in South Asian countries increased from 32 to 53%, the findings showed that trade openness made a faster increase in female labor force participation not only in the whole economy also different subsectors. The paper also checks the robustness of a variety of different approaches in dealing with the various models to female labor force participation in various sectors. Our findings expose that, trade openness increases the women participation in the service and industrial sector, but it decreases the number of women working in the agricultural sector. The paper also inspects both push and pull factors induced or not women to join the labor market. Applications: This study will contribute in several ways to the academic work and policy debate on the gender effects of trade liberalization. While these analyses can be useful to inform policymakers for optimal trade reforms. The paper also suggests the government will apply the effective rate of protection (ERP) to change trade policy so that women participation in the labor market will accelerate
142 Levels of women empowerment among the Indian states assessing the impact of unemployment , Rachel Zote, James L.T. Thanga
Objectives: To study the status of women empowerment in different states of India and to examine its relationship with unemployment. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study mainly depends on two data sources,NFHS-4 and EmploymentUnemployment Survey of Labour Bureau. Empowerment indicators are constructed using the 15 parameters given in NFHS-4. Percentile method, which gives the relative position of the individual, is adopted to evaluate the relative status of different states in terms of women empowerment. Further, Chi-square test is used to examine the relationship between women empowerment and unemployment,while scatter diagram is used to study the direction of their relationship. Findings:Different states have shown varying performances in terms of women empowerment. Four states namely Bihar, Daman & Diu, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh are the group of states which have the lowest scores in all the empowerment indicators, while Chandigarh, Kerala, Lakshadweep and Goa are placed in the top categories in all the indicators. Meanwhile, this study observed that women empowerment is significantly related to unemployment and per capita NSDP. It is also observed that the incidence employment among the women has negative impact on their levels of empowerment. Application/Improvements:The concept of women empowerment is multidimensional, and determined by multiple factors. Thus, a holistic view is necessary while studying its nature and problems.
143 What pressure driven membrane processing has to do with butter milk and whey for sustainable income generation in India , Shakeel Asgar , Manorama
Objectives: The present concept explores creation of multidimensional employment opportunities through application of membrane processing in the area of by-products utilization for dairy industry. Membrane filtration assisted utilization of whey and buttermilk not only provides a sustainable source of income but also finds helpful in providing means for food availability and nutritional security. Methods/Statistical analysis: In this study, methodology has been remained dependent on the nature of food material, size of membrane pores and operating pressure. The nanofiltration technique which operates at a lower pressure than reverse osmosis is to separate water and monovalent salt materials from feed up to a considerable extent as per the required composition of end products. The business elements associated with Integrated Membrane Processing Centre for vibrant entrepreneurial activities find favour under the existing socio-economic situation. Findings: The need to utilize whey and buttermilk in economic way for generation of income has been a long standing priority as far as dairy industry is to be concerned. Conventional methods of processing have resulted not only in poor quality of products but the ratio of input to output energy has remained unmanageably very high. Due to this reason these by-products have not been found suitability in their utilization creating severe problems of non-conservation of food solids, economic losses and ecological threats. On the other hand very high water content with less per cent of total solids, these by-products are very difficult to handle and require enough large space. In effluent treatment also these by-products further indicate higher incurred cost, longer period of neutralization time as well as use of more chemicals. The present study reveals that use of membrane filtration system has reduced all problems associated with conventional method of processing. Products prepared from membrane processing system ensure better profitability along with negligible wastage. Application/Improvements: Visualizing existing circumstances of ever worsening employment problem, the application of selected congenial membranes for preparation of value added products is one of the best remedial measures. The establishment of Integrated Membrane Processing Centre (IMPC) is expected to be replicated in various potential regions considering the wider availability of whey and buttermilk.  
144 Minimum Income Support Price (MISP/NYAY) , Akash Yadav
Objective: It is to find out whether such scheme (MISP) will be beneficial to economy as a whole and most importantly, Will a government in developing countries will be able to fund this without increasingtaxes. Method: We will try to create a model of development in which we will find out the effect of Investment, Consumption and Government expenditure on Relative GDP growth. GDP is driven by combined effect of Investment, Consumption, Govt Expenditure and Net exports. By linear regressing of data available of GDP between 1951 to 1992 (42 years) we will try to find out their respective weights on GDP growth. Findings: As to make it successful it has to bear most of its expenditure from Investment and Governmental expenditure. But taking out from this quota has its severe effect. An economy cannot grow at a faster rate without developing its resources. To create resources in a developing economy it demands huge investment. According to Harrod-Domar Model a country needs to save more in order to invest more. As the money distributed under NYAY scheme will be given to poorer section of the society so the saving to consumption ratio will be much lesser in their case. Improvements/Applications: A quantitative study of investment on GDP growth with clear results of its effect in future years will give a better idea to compare between investment and consumption.
145 Fulfillment of fundamental rights among Bangladeshi people: does income and expenditure matter? , K. M. Mustafizur Rahman
Objectives: The study is to improve our understanding about effects of lower income than expenditure in fulfilling the fundamental rights of population in Bangladesh. Methods/Statistical analysis: This study is based on the secondary data mainly collected from the Report on Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) of Bangladesh of different years published by Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Arithmetic growth model is used to calculate required rate of increase or decrease of different variables for the various comparisons. Findings: The study shows that income, expenditure and consumption has increased over the years but the income has increased at a slower rate than that of the expenditure and consumption. Price hike of essential commodities have resulted in such increase in the expenditure and consumption. When the expenditure has increased at faster rate than that of income, it brings miserable conditions to the population of a country especially for poor and marginalized section. They are bound to sacrifice their different services more specifically the basic needs. They cut their food baskets and make a limitation to the various components of basic necessities like health, education, clothing or housing. As a result, they are unable to fulfill their fundamental rights. It is believed that the results will facilitate policy-makers and respected authorities to take timely and viable steps and develop workable strategies to address the issue of fundamental rights of people in Bangladesh. Application/Improvements: This study will help other researchers/policy makers to conduct more researches in this field which is still limited in the country
146 Understanding adoption behaviour of small farmers from cognitive and contextual perspectives , Keerti Prajaapti, Shabyasachi
Background/Objectives: To propose an extended version of agriculture technology adoption model with cognitive and contextual factors such as coopetition, status quo bias, and self-efficacy. Methods/Statistical analysis: The research is proposed among small farmers in Neemrana block Alwar, Rajasthan in India. Data were collected from 143 small farmers from 20 villages located in the Neemrana block through survey questionnaire. Hierarchal Regression analysis has been applied to analyse data. Findings: Previous research has explained adoption behavior from social, psychological, economic, and political perspectives. This research explained adoption behaviour from cognitive and contextual factors. Results suggested that self-efficacy, coopetitive network, and perceived usefulness of technology have positive and significant effect, whereas, status quo bias has negative and significant effect on farmer’s adoption behavior. Application/Improvements: The study is a contribution to the literature of agriculture extension program. It has major implications for policy on agriculture development.
147 The state of India’s foreign trade during the post reform period: an empirical analysis , Ms. Pranati Das, Dr. Manash Roy
Objectives: The present study tries to throw light on the direction, nature, share and variation of India’s foreign trade with rest of the world during the post reform period. Methods/Statistical analysis: An analysis of India’s balance of trade position is made at disaggregate level with different category of countries like OPEC, OECD, Eastern Europe, Developing countries and the other types of countries. A statistical analysis in the form of ANOVA is carried out for examining variation in the level of India’s export and import with rest of the world. Findings: The empirical findings of the study show that though India is facing deficit balance of trade with rest of the world throughout the study period but the volume of trade deficit has widened mainly after 2002-03. India has enjoyed a trade surplus with OPEC, OECD, Eastern Europe, Developing countries and other type of countries during some points of time. The study has also found that India is having surplus balance of trade mostly with the developing and other type of countries. The study has also found that export and imports sharing of India among different countries are found statistically highly significant. The share of India’s export and import is also found to be shifted more towards developing and other type of countries in recent times and thus representing the dominance of these two countries in India’s current foreign trade situation. The findings of the present study are unique in the sense that it tries to analyse India’s balance of trade position by disaggregating the rest of the world into different groups. Application/Improvements: The present study recommends that efforts must be put in raising India’s level of export to those countries where her products have relatively higher demand and she must look for some import substitution measures in case of those countries upon which she is heavily relying upon her import. The scope of improvement of the present study lies in exploring the causes of variation in the level of India’s foreign trade with the rest of the world.
148 Impact of unique identification systems , Udita Dhingra , Prof. Dr. Shalini Singh Sharma 
Objective- To study the role of Aadhaar policy on welfare schemes andto examine the impact of the implementation of Unique Identification (UID) system on Real GDP Per Capita, Shadow Economy and Corruption Perception Index. Methods- The analysis has been done via secondary data from Transparency International and World Bank’s website. The data covers Real GDP Per Capita, size of the Shadow Economy and Corruption Perception Index (CPI) for India, Malaysia, Brazil, Indonesia, and Ghana. Hypothesis testing method of statistics has been used to analyse the impact of UID system on Real GDP Per capita, size of the shadow economy and CPI. The data has been assessed in two parts; that is before the launch of UID system and after the launch of UID system in each of the countries: India, Malaysia, Brazil, Indonesia and Ghana. Findings- The Indian government has released data showing that it saved a huge amount in 2016-17 by weeding out nearly one crore fake beneficiaries of the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) by using Aadhaar and direct benefit transfer (DBT). ₹8,185 crore was saved from Direct Benefit Transfer of LPG subsidy (PAHAL scheme). Till February 2019, the government was successful in opening approximately 34 crore bank accounts under the Jan Dhan Yojana. Three out of five countries show a significant change in their size of shadow economy while there is no impact of the implementation of the UID system on CPI and Real GDP Per Capita of any of the countries.
149 Namibian household’s indebtedness and the impact on overall financial stability , S.M. Nuugulu, T.N.T. Hamutoko , E.T. Julius , K.R. Vijayakumar 
Objectives: Financial soundness of the household sector matters for the overall financial stability of the country. This is true that, financial stability of the household sector does not only affect the financial system but the real economy as well through household consumption and investments. The aim of this paper is to present and analyze the main measures of indebtedness. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: The effect of different factors such as house- holds income, mortgages, and financial prudence fueling the household debts has been discussed. Granger causality test was used to find the relationship between household debts and GDP. Different ratio tests such as debt to income ratio (DIR), debt to service ratio (DSR), debt to asset ratio and household debt to real GDP were employed in the data analysis. Findings: Debt to income ratio shows the percentage of income goes toward re- paying someone’s debt. It was found out that there is a positive relationship between household debts and GDP; if household debts increase the GDP also increases. It was also found out that household with high income tend to have high debts and vice versa. Application: This study is helpful because it will show the importance of evaluating household debts and its impact on economic growth. The result of this study will help the policy makers to formulate strategies that are helpful in attaining sustainable financial stability. It will also help people understand the importance of managing household debts so that housing prices would not be inflated for the next generation.
150 Economics of organic and inorganic farming in Satara District, Maharashtra , Dr. M.S. Deshmukh, Tanaji Namdeo Ghagare
The present study examines the relative economics of the selected crops under organic and inorganic farming in Satara district, Maharashtra in India. Adverse effects of inorganic farming practices not only on the farm sector, but also on the health of all living things and thus on the surroundings have been well recognized in the world. Objectives: The major objective of this study is to find out (i) the area, production and productivity of organic and inorganic farming in study area of Satara district (ii) To examine the relative economics of selected crops under organic and inorganic farming in Satara district (iii) To study the input use pattern of selected crops in sample area. Methods/Statistical analysis: This study is purely based on primary data collected from the Satara district of Western Maharashtra. The researchers have selected total 400 farmers and three crops namely jowar, sugarcane and turmeric for the present study. Per acre productivity of selected organic and inorganic crops in sample area is estimated. Findings: The productivity of organic jowar was 8.95 quintals/acre, organic sugarcane was 55.80 tons/acre and organic turmeric was 25.2 quintal/acre in sample area of Satara district. However productivity of inorganic crops that is jowarwas 9.10 quintal/acre, sugarcane was 63.76 tons/acre and turmeric was 27.90 quintals/acre. The overall productivity of jowar, sugarcane and turmeric was high in inorganic farming than organic farming. Moreover price of organic jowar and turmeric was more than inorganic jowar and turmeric in the market. Organic producers are facing the problems of marketing of organic produce. There is also problem of awareness of organic products among the buyers. Organic producers do not receive reasonable price to their produce in the market. Application/Improvement: The present study is helpful to measure the productivity and profitability of selected organic and inorganic crops. It can be applied to design the specific schemes and policy for organic farmers to improve their farm productivity and livelihoods.
151 Role of interest groups in technology policy: a case study of policies on agricultural biotechnology in India , Sanjib Bhuyan , Carl Pray
Objectives: We identify various interest groups involved in the GM policy debate surrounding Bt brinjal in India,examine their interactions and interconnectedness, and quantify their role in the debate. Methods/Statistical analysis: We use content analysis to review media coverage of the Bt brinjal debate in India and abroad, followed by a modified social network analysis (SNA) to identify the interconnectedness between these interest groups (actors) and quantify their role in the policy debate. Findings: Although past literature provided comprehensive accounts of the events surrounding the biotech policy formation process in India, they lacked any complementary quantitative criteria to test such narratives. For instance, they have not quantitatively measured the importance of various interest groups in these debates. Using the Bt brinjal case in India, we identified several interest groups that were involved in the GM crop debate in India and quantified their interactions with each other and the government in the debate that shaped public policy. This exercise allows us to quantitatively confirm some of the existing findings and bring forward new ones. We find that anti-GM civil society interest groups played a more important role Bt brinjal policy debate compared to pro-GM industry groups. Additionally, unlike the Bt cotton debate where cotton farmers actively supported the technology, vegetable farmers were not active in the Bt brinjal debate and we provide some explanations. The science community's divided opinion on Bt brinjal also likely played a role in government's decision to put a moratorium. Application/Improvements: This study shows the value of using content analysis and SNA in public policy research.
152 Education infrastructure and enrolment in elementary education in Odisha , Himani Majhi , Minati Mallick
Background: Infrastructure is an important tool for facilitating quality education in elementary education system. According to the Right to Education Act (RTE) 2009, every school should have an all indicator: classroom, teacher, toilets for boys and girls, safe and adequate drinking water, and playground, kitchen for the mid-daymeal, boundary wall, electricity and computer. Objectives: The objective of the present study is to construct a physical infrastructure index at school level across 30 districts of Odisha and the role it plays in improving the enrolment. Methodology: The study uses secondary data collected for the years 2001 to 2017 for 30 districts of Odisha. Principal Component Analysis is done to construct a composite infrastructural index at school level considering 13 infrastructural variables. On the basis of variations the districts are grouped into four categories and the changes over time is observed. Using panel data regression model the impact of the education infrastructure on enrolment at school level is studied. Findings: It is found that the infrastructure contributes significantly to the enrolment at elementary education level. The enrolment is increasing over time. The availabilities of basic amenities is encouraging children especially girls to come to the schools. It is also observed that the districts like Balasore, Boudh, Keonjhar and Kalahandi are improving in terms of their infrastructure over time. Policy Implications: As there is a dearth of studies on the role education infrastructure plays in increasing the enrolment at school level across 30 districts of Odisha. It is suggested that the schools should be well equipped with infrastructure so that it can cater to the need of the present generation. Government should take care of this aspect specially emphasizing the case of the districts still undeveloped in terms of educational infrastructure.
153 Consumers’ preference for value-added products of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) , Harshitha, H, Dr, M. S. Jayaram
Objectives: To assess the consumers’ preference for value-added products of finger millet. Methodology: 80 consumers of Finger Millet were randomly selected from Bangalore Metropolitan and Doddaballapura taluk, Karnataka, India. The primary data was collected using a pre-tested, structured schedule prepared for the purpose. Findings: While preferring the value added products of finger millet highest ranking was assigned to nutritional aspects followed by health value in Doddaballapura town and Bengaluru Metropolitan as there is an increasing awareness about nutritional and health value of the food among the consumers in the society today. Consumers preferred different value added products of finger millet among those products, flour and malt consumption per month was higher in both the study areas. The source of information to purchase value added products in both the study areas was melas / food festivals and newspapers/ magazines. Majority of the consumers took impulsive decisions to purchase value added products. Policy suggestions: As finger millet and its value added products are healthy, nutritious, good for immunity, tasty and convenient for storage and consumption, the product promotional activities are to be under taken by the department of marketing, department of publicity and information, GOK, and through print and electronic media to further educate the consumers and to enhance the marketability and consumption of the products.
154 Polish and Indian model of social economy: comparative analysis , Dr. Bronislaw Bombala
Objective: To make a comparative analysis of the Polish and Indian model of social economy and to answer the question about sources of developmental dynamics of Indian social entrepreneurship. The Polish model of the social economy after dynamic development at the beginning of the 20th century was distorted during the communist period. Methods/Findings: After 1989, Poland took over many solutions applied in the European Union, including the model of social economy. The European model of the social economy focuses on counteracting the exclusion of social groups that are neglected on the labor market, such as the disabled, the homeless, the unemployed and former prisoners. In India an original mix of spirituality has been existing, entrepreneurship and social commitment, creating a fertile ground for the development of the social economy sector. Application: Indian social economy has made significant progress in recent years. It includes over 600,000 cooperative enterprises and 250 million users, making it the largest social economy in the world. These enterprises are active in promoting inclusive growth. Poland and India, despite large cultural differences, have also some common features. One of them is a large share of cooperative enterprises in the agricultural sector.
155 Coping Strategies during drought situation: a case of dry land farmers in Rayalaseema Region of Andhra Pradesh, India , Dr. M. Swarna Pragathi, Dr. M. Anitha
Objectives: The present study has been constituted to assess the coping mechanism strategies of the dry land farmers in Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh. Methods/ Statistical analysis: To get a complete understanding of the problems prevailing agriculture in dryland areas and the constraints that the farmers face analyse the same. A proportionate sample of 600 farm households from a dissimilar group of Rayalaseema region is chosen from the list of farm households for primary study. The selection of Mandals and villages are based on coverage of drought and drought proneness and also based on rainfall criterion. The sample villages are highly rain fed areas. Findings: The present study provides the insides from twenty-four villages from the Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh. The inside from the present micro-level analysis indicates that the adverse impact of drought at the household level. Crop loss was observed to be high in most of the villages. Further, the burden of income loss forced the people into the poverty trap during that period, while the lack of resources and non-existence of institutional support during the drought period adversely affected the income of the families. At that place were local-level coping strategies adopted by the villagers to overcome the adverse effects of drought; these included sales of stock and assets, shift in occupational diversification, migration and other mechanisms. Yet, the community in the other study village coped with the drought by migrating. This involved a distress-led migration rather than developer-oriented migration. People with a few assets, such as smaller landholding size, absence of irrigation, and deficiency of other assets, namely livestock, migrated more compared to the others. Applications: The present study attempted to analyze the different coping mechanisms adopted, at the household level. Realizing the impact of drought and the coping strategies might provide better inputs for the policy implication
156 The impact of emotional and demographic factors on impulsive buying behaviour of adolescents in Bangalore, India , Rashmi Nair
Background/ Objectives: Impulsive buying is a phenomenon where consumers buy goods spontaneously and in an unplanned manner. Though this behaviour is observed across all age groups, it can vary upon various factors. This study focuses on the various demographic and emotional factors that could affect the impulsive buying behaviour of adolescents in Bangalore, India. Method: The method of data collection involved an online, structured questionnaire, a form of quantitative research. SPSS Statistics Software was used to analyse the data to find out the impact of emotional intelligence, age, gender, and the average monthly expenditure on the independent variable of impulsive buying behaviour, which was operationalised to impulsive buying tendency measure. Findings: It was found out that while impulsive buying increases with age, money, and has a higher rate in females; it reduces with an increase in the emotional intelligence of adolescents. Application: An area of further exploration could be the impulsive buying rates measured in adolescents for different product such as food, clothes, school supplies, etc.
157 Public sector spending- a way to agriculture development in Telangana , K. Rajendram
Background: Telangana economy has made significant progress in agricultural sector since its formation by recording 7.4% annual average growth rate. Agricultural sector plays a vital role in the development and shaping of a golden Telangana. This sector provides food security and supplies raw material for industries and provides large employment that 74% of rural population is still dependent on agriculture and allied activities. Objectives:This study are to know the need of public spending in agricultural sector in Telangana in India, to examine the public spending towards agricultural sector since 2014 and to make appropriate suggestions to accelerate agricultural growth rate. Method of the study: The method of the study depended on secondary source. The data and figures regarding growth rates and budget allocations obtained from secondary source carefully analyzed and compared. Findings: The study discovered that the overall budget allocations are increased towards agriculture from ₹17371 crores to 37035 crores from 2014-15 to 2018-19.It is also found that due to round the clock power supply and providing adequate irrigation water the paddy production was increased from 24 lakh tones in 2014- 15 to 54 lakh tones in 2017-18. The Government has started Mission Kakatiya in 2014 with the objective to revive 28652 tanks. With this the storage capacity increased to 3.88 TMC. It is decided by investing on major and minor irrigation projects a large amount to utilize the state’s share from Godavari and Krishna rivers. In 2018-19 ₹25000 crores are allocated for irrigation projects. It is found that Telangana state is the first state to spend ₹80000 crores on irrigation projects in India. For the last four years ₹65000 crores are allocated to irrigation sector. This is equal to 10 years of the budget allocation to various projects under Jalayagnamstarted in 2004.Farmers Investment Support Scheme (FISS) named as RytuBandu was started to provide financial assistance ₹10000 per acre per year which can be utilized by the farmers on purchase of seeds, fertilizers and wages of agricultural labourers. Application: It is worth noting suggestion that MGNREGP should be linked up with agriculture sector and 50% of the wages of the labourers should be paid through MGNREGS. Rytu Samanwaya Samithis which are constituted in Telangana should take active role regarding minimum support prices, storages facilities, marketing facilities and crop loans. The Government should not ignore the tenant farmers. The tenant farmers should be given identity cards to get facilities from the government. When the Governments fail to provide remunerative prices to agricultural products, the farmers have to be supported by many ways through public spending.
158 Occupational pattern of Chennai district of Tamil Nadu: An analysis of regional inequality , Ulaganathan S
Objectives: The study is to analyse the relative economy structure of North Chennai in comparison to South Chennai in Tamil Nadu, India with respect to occupational characteristics. Therefore, the main aim of the study is to analyse the regional inequality in the occupational pattern of Chennai district and also to find out the occupational status of social groups in Chennai district. Methods/Analysis: The study is based on secondary data sources by using the Primary Census Abstract for Chennai District of Tamil Nadu for the periods 1991, 2001 and 2011. The present investigation for proper comparison the occupational pattern of Chennai district grouped into three regions such as North, Central and South Chennai. For this purpose, Decomposition of the Gini Index is used to measure the occupational inequality between North region and South Region and also used the Sopher’s Disparity Index to measure the occupational disparity between SCs and Non-SCs. Findings: The study found that the rate of work participation of marginal workers, manufacturing and procession in the household industry was continuously high among the north region of Chennai as compared to other regions of Chennai district. It is revealed that there is a regional inequality between the North Chennai and South Chennai district in getting access to employment in tertiary and service sector occupation. This study also found that the majority of North Chennai people are engaged in the marginal occupation. Obviously, many of them belong to Scheduled caste with socially and educationally deprived. Novelty/Improvement: The study suggests that the Government had initiated many programmes like skill training programs for the semi-skilled or unskilled labourers but it should be percolated among different social groups especially scheduled caste people in North Chennai. The study also suggested that the Government should give special skills training and employment for SCs through the Scheduled Caste Sub Plan (SCSP) to improve their social and economic status.
159 Tribal livelihood and the tribes of pre-divided Koraput in the development discourse , Dr. Kapila Khemundu
Objectives: To understand tribal livelihood in pre-divided Koraput with reference to tribal development. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: This study is an attempt to highlight tribal livelihood opportunity in the predivided Koraput region, the plight of tribes and their exploitation in the various spheres of social life. This study is based on observation and experience accumulated from field visits accompanied with secondary sources of data collected from SC ST Research Institute, Bhubaneswar, Central Library CUO, and District Planning Office Koraput in India. Findings: Entire tribal life was revolving around their natural resource based economic activities. The excessive interventions of human civilization in development activities based on natural resources have created major challenges for the sustainability of the tribal livelihood. After India got independence in 1947, several plans and prgrammes were under taken for the development of tribes in pre-divided Koraput and in the KBK region but no such remarkable achievement has made so far in bridging the gap of inequality among tribes and non-tribes. The illiteracy; alcohol practice and drug addiction; tradition bound culture; lack of awareness among the people; poor infrastructure facility; various forms of exploitation by non-tribes; unfriendly development policies; deforestation; mining activities; and lack of leadership poses a major challenges for tribal livelihood and tribal development. Application/Improvement: The commercial utilization of available forest and mineral resources with the participation of tribal community can generate employment opportunity. Along with educating the tribes, the development practitioners may extensively work on sustainable livelihood among the tribes enhancing their traditional skills.
160 Trade in agricultural technological innovations in the context of intellectual property regime , K.N. Selvaraj , K. Divya , M. Vijayabhama
Objectives: The study is to assess the likely impact of the payment of royalty for trade mark obtained by the Theo Ruys Management & Holding B.V, a Netherland Company for rose varieties on rose cultivation and its profitability in Tamil Nadu State of India. Methods and Statistical Analysis: The study heavily relied on time series data gathered from various published sources. Data were also collected by personal discussion with various stakeholders. Export instability in terms of quantity and value, unit value realization, cost and returns of rose cultivation and sensitivity analysis of costs and returns of rose cultivation incorporating the royalty payment were analyzed by estimating the averages and coefficient of variations. Findings: India’s rose export is phenomenal in the recent years due technological and policy supports nevertheless the fact remains that there is inconsistent supply but India continues to supply roses to major markets. No doubt, rose cultivators are realizing higher benefits and my conservative estimates say that farmers gained ₹12.99 lakh per acre of land per annum with a benefit –cost ratio of 1.36 ultimately famers are attracted to this locative business of production of roses. As a result, India continues to export roses however; payment of ₹1.20 per spike exported may result in losing the export market because the farmers incur loss in rose cultivation. The question remains that whether the small and marginal farmers should be exempted from paying such royalty? Does it feasible under the present IPR regime? Though India was exempted to avail certain benefits under WTO including the enacting its own IPR act under sui generis system to protect plants and conserve traditional germplasm, this type of demand would be possible under WIPO? Only alterative suggestions are gearing up the public R&D with professionalism to develop promising rose varieties suitable for export market with export quality traits and technology dissemination processes. Applications and Improvements: Most of the earlier studies dealt with the economics of production and marketing of rose flowers wherein to some extent efficiency parameters such as technical, allocative and economic efficiencies were estimated. However, the present paper deviates from other studies and brought out the issues of IPR and its impact on domestic production and trade.
161 Bank or Non – Bank: a lesson or two for India from Kenya and Tanzania , Sugandh Kumar Choudhary
Objectives/Methods: This study argues superiority of non – bank led bottom up incremental financial inclusion (FI) over bank led approach and presents a unique model from Kenya having high public receptivity given the social and economic constraints, unlike the bank led model followed in India. Financial exclusion in Kenya is down to 17.4% (2016) and has more than halved since 2006. Kenya shows remarkable achievement of 50% rise in financially included population in the last 10 years. Tanzania on the other hand religiously implemented its First National Financial Inclusion Framework (NFIF 2014 – 16) which increased its financial inclusion to 65% in 2017. Tanzania has launched its Second National Financial Inclusion Framework (NFIF 2018 – 22) with a target of achieving 75% of financial inclusion by 2022. Contrast this with financial inclusion of 62.2% in India in 2016. Findings/Application: Though size and demography between the two countries are incomparable, the sheer scale and tremendous social acceptability of mobile payment revolution in Kenya is heartening, envious and worth emulating. Horizontal approach to economic inclusion through mobile payments/mobile banks in every pocket is somehow more appealing than vertical top down approach to financial inclusion led by concrete bank led structure which looks more intimidating to innocent and illiterate unbanked people in rural areas, the very target of financial inclusion. India has a lesson or two to learn from Kenya’s mobile payment revolution in order to close the FI gap
162 Trends in fund utilisation under national health mission an evidence from India , Vinod Kumar , Harvinder Kaur, Shelly Dahiya
Background/Objectives: In India, a large proportion of people are living below the poverty line. This section of society requires considerable support from the State in the era of growing out-of-pocket expenses on the health. The main objective of the study is to examine the trends in fund utilisation under National Health Mission (NHM) in India. The study also attempts to explore disparities in fund utilisation under NHM across States/UTs. Methods: A major flagship programme in the health sector, National Health Mission was launched by the Government of India in 2005 with a view to strengthen the public health infrastructure and ensuring universal access, affordability and quality health services.The study is based on the secondary data related to fund allocation, release and utilisation under NHM in India, for the period of eleven years i.e. from 2006-07 to 2016- 17. The study also includes trends in fund utilisation under the various components of NHM. The various components of NHM are: (i) Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adoloscent Health (RMNCHA), formerly, RCH Flexi-pool; (ii) National Urban Health Mission NUHM Flexi-pool; (iii) Flexible pool for communicable diseases; (iv) Flexible pool for Non-communicable diseases, including injury and trauma; (v) Infrastructure Maintenance (IM); and (vi) Family welfare central sector component. Findings/Application: It was found that there exists considerable irregularity in fund allocation, release and utilisation due to the presence of systemic inefficiencies. Among all the components of NHM, maximum amount of funds were utilised under the component of RMNCHA and NRHM flexi-pool. Moreover, there existed wide variations in fund utilisation under NHM across States/UTs and a size-able proportion of funds were utilised during 2012-16. This implies that there is an urgent need for removing these systemic inefficiencies for improvement in the fund flow mechanism and utilisation, encompassing better implementation of the programme.
163 Modeling and forecasting population growth rate in Bangladesh:Using ARIMA models , Md. Muhaiminul Islam Selim, Md. Ahasan Ul Haque , Md. Sabbir Hossain , Liton Chandra Voumik
Background/Objectives:The tremendous increase in population is one of the most crucial problems of Bangladesh. Currently,one of the most densely populated countries and thisbulky size of the population is now one of the main concerns in this country. This paper aims to apply the ARIMA method to model and forecast population growth rates in Bangladesh. Methods/ Statistical analysis: The data was collected from World Development Indicators (WDI) and it has been collected over 40 years by WDI, World Bank. We applied Phillips–Perron (PP) and Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) tests to investigate the stationary character of the data. Stata and R statistical software was used to build a structureoftheARIMA method to model and forecast the population growth rates. Findings: In this study, the population of Bangladesh from 1979 to 2018 is modeled using ARIMA (P,I,Q) methodology.The model was validated by the lowest values of AIC and BIC, less than 5% of P-values, graphical presentations of ACF and PACF plots, and corrgrams. Using these models, the numeric figure of future population growths are drawn and forecasted.The population growth rate for the next first and second decades is also forecasted using the ARIMA (1, 1, 1) model. If the decreasing trend persists, the population growth rate of Bangladesh would be approximately 0.56% in 2028 and 0.35% in 2038. Statistical outcomes illustrate that Bangladesh’s population growth rate is a decreasing trend that will continue declining in the future. Improvements/Applications: This finding will help policymakers and academicians to formulate populationrelated strategies and policies more precisely
164 Implementation of local food concept for social-economic revitalization in rural areas: the case of Ukraine , Inna I. Koblianska, Larysa I. Kalachevska
Objectives: The article is aimed at studying the features of implementation of local food concept as a way to ensure social-economic revitalization and sustainable development of both the agrisector and rural areas in Ukraine. Methods/Analysis: The research is based on the analysis of available statistics on agriculture enterprises development, social and demographic, as well as agricultural activity characteristics of households in Ukraine. It also generalizes the scientific views on the essence and implementation approaches for local food concept (LFC) as an alternative mode of agriculture development. Findings: The existing model of agriculture in Ukraine negatively affects social and environmental aspects of rural territories development. It leads rather to the impoverishment of the rural population, further degradation and the extinction of rural areas. There were summarized the scientific approaches concerning LFC as alternative model of agriculture development, that, in turn, determine the peculiarities of its implementation. The local food concept presupposes the development of short and local food supply systems. Its implementation is based on the agricultural production of end-use products and their distribution via direct producer-consumer contacts. In this regard, the features of agriculture organization for different types of producers were studied and the main LFC players were identified. There were examined the features of households’ agricultural activity in Ukraine. Novelty/Improvements: There were defined the main obstacles for LFC implementation in Ukraine, as well as prior areas of agriculture and rural policy regulation aimed at ensuring the social-economic rural revitalization in the sustainable development context.
165 Durga Puja: from Spirituality to Modernity – What Next? , Vyomesh Pant
Objectives: The aim of this study is to provide some suggestions as to how Durga Puja can benefit Indian economy optimally and contribute simultaneously for the welfare of the people. Method/ Statistical Analysis: The findings in this study are based on the data collected during the Durga Puja, 2018 in Kolkata, interactions with the Puja Samitis, people from public and Government agencies, articles and reports published in the contemporary media and the information gathered from official records. Comparison of the size of the Durga Puja economy has been made with the budget estimates of Government of West Bengal and various Centrally Sponsored Schemes. Findings: If Durga Puja is organized in the manner as suggested in this study, it may result in real time development of the people as well as economic growth of the country, which may ultimately lead India to become a developed country. The time has come when the Government may step in to play a proactive role in organizing the Durga Puja festival. Durga Puja is the best time to promote the culture and tradition of West Bengal throughout the world. If organized properly, Durga Puja festival may enhance tourism manifold, which is beneficial for the people & economy of India. The size of the Durga Puja economy is much higher than the budget estimates of various Centrally Sponsored Schemes being run for welfare of the people, including some flagship programmes. Therefore, if Durga puja is managed properly and it is linked with various centrally sponsored schemes, it may not only benefit the economy of India but also accelerate the welfare of the common people of the country. Applications/Improvements: As suggested in the paper, Durga Puja economy, in convergence with the main Centrally Sponsored Schemes, can contribute towards the welfare of people and take our economy to scale new heights
166 Sanitation facilities and hygiene practices in rural India: critical analysis of Swachh Bharat mission , Chittaranjan Subudhi, Shamsudeen KP, Srinivasan P
Background: Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) is theIndia’s largest ever cleanliness drive with the main objective to reduce or eliminate open defecation through construction of individual, cluster and community toilets. Objectives: To critically analyse Swachh Bharat Mission implementation in the rural India. Methodology: Descriptive studyresearch design has been used for this study and it is a fact finding investigation with the interpretation. The present study was conducted in Kovilpathu village in Thiruvidacherry Panchayath of Thiruvarur district, Tamil Nadu, India. The researcher adopted random sampling method to conduct the study. The researcher collected the information from 60 households. Result: All the respondents 100% (60) had agreed that, they have the knowledge on SBM. 83.3% (50) of the respondent has recognized the behavioral changes occurred after implementing SBM while 16.7% (10) reported no changes, after implementing on SBM. Regarding the practice of open defecation, (8) 13.4% of the respondents are always practicing, (27) 45%sometimes, (3) 5%rarely, and (22) 36.6%never practice. Conclusion: The researchers found that, the overall implementation of SBM have the positive impact on sanitation and hygienic practices in the rural India.
167 Work and living conditions of women domestic workers: a case study of Dehradun , Himadri Chand
Background/Objectives: Domestic Work has emerged as a major source of wage employment for women. According to the ILO (International Labour Organisation) there are 67 million domestic workers across the globe with 80% constituting women. Apart from this one in every 25 women workers worldwide is a domestic worker. The objective of the study is to evaluate the minimum wages of workers and comparatively find its position with respect to the minimum wages provided to other unorganized sector workers under scheduled employments by the centre and the state governments. The aims of the work include: To access the composition of workers in terms of their domicile; To analyse the living standards of women domestic workers on the basis of their access to basic minimum needs and To inquire about the environment at workplace. Methods/Findings: Simultaneously in India, according to the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) 68th round of Employment and Unemployment Survey estimates, there are 3.9 million people employed as domestic workers by private households, of which 2.6 million are women. These statistics both at the international and national level reflect the feminization of domestic work. An absence of concrete legal framework and their subsequent fallout from protective Labour Laws renders them more vulnerable to exploitation. There is no record keeping of them at the Centre neither do they find a place within the definition of unorganized workers under the Uttarakhand State Labour records. Application: This creates a natural deficit of comprehensive data on these workers which results in them becoming completely invisible in the labour market. In the same light, the paper aims to analyze the working and living conditions of women domestic workers with special emphasis on their minimum wages in Dehradun, the capital of Uttarakhand
168 Determinants of infant mortality: empirical evidence from Hyderabad Karnataka region , Kumara Naik, Dr. Ponnaluru Srinivasa Sasdhar
Objectives: The Hyderabad Karnataka region comprising of Ballari, Koppal, Bidar, Raichur, Gulbarga, Yadagiri districts in Karnataka is economically backward region in India. This study quantifies the impact of socioeconomic and maternal factors that affect infant mortality in the region. Methods/Findings: This study finds evidence in regional imbalances in terms of Infant Mortality Rate. Family welfare data spanning over nine years from 2008 to 2016 was in IMR analyzed using regression techniques and results from our model indicate that statistically significant differences exist between Hyderabad Karnataka region and rest of Karnataka after controlling for social and economic factors. Application: The results from our model can be used for regional planning and development
169 Conservation of Kole wetlands – willingness to pay approach , Aravindh P,  Devi R Nair, Harikumar S
The Kole wetlands of Kerala are part of India’s largest Ramsar site, spread across the districts of Thrissur and Malappuram, Kerala. India. Agriculture is the primary economic activity undertaken in the wetlands, and in recent times, human activities like land encroachment, hunting, and unsustainable agricultural practices have jeopardised the ecology of the wetlands. Objectives: The present study attempts to (i) understand the perception of local stakeholders towards conservation of the wetlands, and (ii) estimate the economic value that individuals place on the wetland ecosystem. Methodology: The study uses a sample of 100 households selected from five panchayats of Thrissur district in Kerala, India. The stakeholders’ perception towards participatory conservation of the wetlands and opinions on problems plaguing the ecosystem have been analysed in the study. The contingent valuation method (CVM) has been used to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) of the stakeholders and ascertain the economic value of the wetlands. Findings: The study reveals that stakeholders are conscious about the various ecological and economic roles played by the Kole wetlands, with Three-fourths of them highlighting participatory conservation of the ecosystem as crucial. Land reclamation, urbanization, pollution and unsustainable agricultural practices were considered a major problem by close to two-thirds of the sample. Climate change was also identified as a major problem in the wetlands, with 85 % of the sample stakeholders viewing it with concern. The study also finds that households are very willing to pay for the conservation of the ecosystem. An individual’s education attainment, period of residency, income and land holding were identified as the most significant factors which determined theWTP. Using an annual green tax as the payment vehicle, the median WTP value was estimated to be ₹ 300 individually, with the total economic value of the wetlands estimated to be approximately ₹ 25 crores. Application/Improvement: The study concludes that a bottom-up approach involving the public, state and action groups can change the ecosystem positively. The present study is, however, only an initial attempt to estimate the value of the Kole wetlands, and further analysis is necessary to see how the situation differs from one region to another.
170 Performance of machinery and transport equipment in India: an analysis , Arvinder Kaur
Objectives: To examine the internal and external performance of machinery and transport equipment (capital goods) in India. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study has used secondary data for the production, exports and imports of machinery and transport equipment for the period 2000 to 2018. The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of production and the growth rate of the industrial production index were used to examine the internal performance (domestic performance) of the goods. External performance (performance in world) of machinery and transport equipment has been examined by using export share in total exports, export-import ratio, CAGR of exports, export shares in world and revealed comparative advantage (RCA). Findings: Though the production of all the products grew at positive CAGR except three products ‘Food Machinery Non-Domestic, Telecommunication, sound recording and ‘Ships and boats’. But still this sector showed a poor trade performance in 2018. India had trade deficit in 38 product categories out of 45 under SITC code. The production sector is unable to produce according to local requirements. As a consequence, demand for imported goods has increased and thus the trade deficit has also increased. The export share of these goods in the total composition of exports has increased since 1990. However, the share is very low compared to the developed countries in the world. The market share of India's total machinery and transport equipment goods in the world is very low and less than 1%. India has not been able to show a comparative advantage in the export of these goods. Application/Improvements: India's performance in machinery and transport equipment is not as impressive as that of other advanced countries around the world. Government initiatives are needed to strengthen this sector. Research and development activities in the production sector should be carried out in order to improve the quality of these goods. Only skilled workers should be used. Infrastructure facilities should be improved
171 Socio-economic determinants of anemia among the pregnant women in Karnataka , Kumara Naik , Dr. Ponnaluru Srinivasa Sasdhar
Objective: To estimate various determinants of anemia among the pregnant women in the Karnataka state. The study examines differences in anemia incidence related to socio-economic, demographic and nutritional status. It is hypothesized that significant differences exist between Hyderabad Karnataka and the rest of the state in the incidence of anemia. Methods: The National Family Health Survey 2015-16 (NFHS-4) provides district level cross sectional survey data on women’s socioeconomic status, maternity care, nutritional status, haemoglobin status, household and individual status. The study uses regression analysis to identify determinants of anemia among pregnant women. Hyderabad Karnataka Region and rest of the Karnataka state, a south Indian state. Results: Our model indicates that the factors such as literacy of women, antenatal care, receiving postnatal care are significantly negative associations with incidence of anemia, while higher level of poverty, obesity (BMI≥25.0kg) and lower educational levels are positively associated with incidence of anemia. Other socioeconomic factors such as consumption of alcohol, social background (SC/ST), other comorbid factors such as hypertension were not found to be significantly correlated in this study.
172 Economic profile of in-migrant workers in Kashmir Valley , Aijaz Ahmad Turrey
Background/Objectives: The Valley of Kashmir is a conflicted zone. It has a rugged topography and least level of industrialisation. It is also entirely rural in character. Despite of all these drawbacks the Kashmir Valley is abode of many in-migrants from other states of India. These in-migrants are found working in carpet, handloom, manufacturing, construction, mining & quarrying, hotel, banking, mushroom, sericulture, khadi, wood carving, poultry and several other small industrial units. The study will mainly focus on the work opportunities available for in-migrants in Kashmir Valley, as a migration pull. It will also look at the industrial and occupational absorption of in-migrants in the Valley. Methods/Findings: Kashmir Valley attracts many in-migrant labourers from other parts of India mainly from Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and West Bengal. Present study will use census data of the year 2001 to measure the number of in-migrants and to cover their economic activities and will cover in-migrant workers in the Valley whocome each year from other states and union territories of India but excluding localintra-district and interdistrict migrants within the state. The period of the study willbe year 2001, as no other state representative data on in-migration in Kashmir Valleyis available. The study has covered in-migrants which have spread their access in almost all industries and occupations. They have made the state economy dependent. Mostly they work in agriculture and allied industries as they come from rural areas without having much skill. Application: Migrants mostly workin the informal sector of the economy. It is very important to study why migrants arecoming to the Valley and where are they employed? Why these in-migrants prefer to migrateto a rural area having very scant small-scale industries, harsh climatic andgeographical conditions and bad social and political situations. The study will also beimportant for the reason of small amount of available literature. The attempt in thestudy will be to through light on all these aspects of in-migration in the Valley ofKashmir.
173 Government intercession and its impact on rice availability in Meghalaya: An introspective study , B. Nongbri , R. Singh , S.M.Feroze , L. Devarani , L. Hemochandra 
Objectives: The study aims to understand the rice availability in Meghalaya through its own production and the Government intervention for sustaining rice availability in the state. The growth in area and production of rice over the years in Meghalaya during 2011- 12 to 2016-17 and 2008-09 to 2016-17, respectively, envisage the gap and drawn out the positive intervention by the Government towards building that gap. Methods/Findings: The compound annual growth rate (CAGR) was computed and the deficit in rice over the years has been calculated based on the the average requirement intake of rice (585 g/day/person) as per the recommendations of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). Then, to understand the gap in availability, the overall state’s production has been subtracted from the overall demand during the respective years. The annual growth rate in area and production of rice was found to be significantly increased over the years during 2011-12 to 2016-17 and 2008-09 to 2016-17 by 0.39 % and 7.22 %, respectively. It was found that, the state has a deficit in rice by 431.17 thousand tonnes which was 62.79 % from its own production. The PDS system through National food security act (NFSA), 2013 has bridge for about 44.71 % in terms of availability of rice after which also, a margin or more of 17.80 % rice is still deficit in the state. Application: Consequently, the central government incentives and initiatives through NFSA, 2013 has been the greatest attainment for rice availability which is the staple food for the maximum population of people in the state. Hence, it will be of great augmentation if the needy benefitted through these types of Government schemes.
174 Tribal livelihood in Wayanad, Kerala; changing patterns , Merlin Mathew, K.B. Umesh
Background/Objectives: Tribal livelihood is always been a concern for policy makers in our country. Forest was inevitable in the very survival of the tribal population since ancient period. But due to the rapid socio-economic changes that is happening in the outer world and the changing lifestyles had influenced the life of tribal majorities as well. To assess the changing livelihood strategies among the Tribal in India and the factors influencing it. Methods/Findings: Therefore a study has taken up in Wayanad district of Kerala to assess the changing livelihood strategies among the Paniya and Kattunaickka communities and the factors influencing it. It was evident that, non-forest activities became the major source of income for majority of the households and the existing socio-economic parameters had a significant influence on the livelihood strategy engaged by the tribal households. Application: Therefore viewing the livelihood reality of the tribals is essential to bring in new approaches that could better address the livelihood hurdles of tribal communities in the state in particular and country in general.
175 Can public health spending and maternal education predict future under-5 mortality rate in Nigeria? , Aderopo Raphael Adediyan, Emmanuel Ekomoezor
Objective: This research explores the direction of impact transmissions among public health spending, maternal education, and under-5 mortality, of which the previous researches ignored, in Nigeria. Method/Findings: The study utilizes yearly time series data covering the period between 1980 and 2018 and employs the Toda-Yamamoto non-Granger causality test approach as the principal tool of analysis. The study controls for instability emanating from the structural break in the model. Surprisingly, the study finds both public health spending and maternal education not to Granger cause under-5 mortality. However, the study established a unidirectional relationship running from under-5 mortality to public health spending and maternal education. This finding appears to align with Wagner's law of increasing state activities, such that an increase or decrease in the rate of under-5 mortality leads to an increase or decrease in the level of public health spending and not vice-versa. The study thus concluded that change in the rate of under-5 mortality could be used to model or predict the future growth in public health spending and maternal educational level, reverse not the case. Application: Findings emanating from this study is applicable in terms of health funds budget and forecast, and national development policy design
176 Measuring the industrial concentration and dispersal of major Indian industrial states , Samidh Pal
Objectives: This study illustrates how major industrial states in India suffer with industrial disparity and centralization. Methods/Findings: We use two mathematical models: (1) Localization Coefficients to identify which major industries are suffering by industrial concentration and (2) Location Quotient which is a simple method for measuring regional industrial specialization. It shows us the propensity of industries for dispersal between the major Indian industrial states. The recommendations for policy makers through this research are that they can easily determine the lack of industrialization in a particular region and industry. Application: This research helps to understand that those regions are either less specialized regions or concentrated with few industries. JEL Classification: L52, L6, L5
177 Critical analysis of the newly proposed consolidation of banks and its expected impact on the falling GDP of Indian economy , Geetika Jha
Objectives: To study the performance of SBI and BoB after consolidation and draw necessary conclusion; To study the cause of slowdown of the Indian economy in the recent past(last quarter of FY2018 and first quarter of FY 2019); To conclude if there is any impact that the recent bank consolidation might have on Indian economic growth Methods: The study includes merger and consolidation of Indian banks (nationalized) and with more focus on the post-merger performance of BoB, Vijaya and Dena Bank and SBI with that of its associated banks. Test sample taken on the banks under study and the results is drawn from its annual data reports and is analyzed in tabular form and graphs. Findings: From the study of financial statements of the banks pre and post-merger, it is found that due to consolidation, on one hand where total deposits and advances has recorded an increase, on the other hand there was a sharp dip in the bank’s profitability post consolidation, but it later recovered and witnessed a substantial amount of profit in the subsequent financial year. This indicates that consolidation of banks is a very handy tool for the restructuring of banking sector in order to do away from losses and increase bank’s efficiency as indicated by the improve in retail performance in the subsequent year. In the study , it is found that consolidations in past have yielded encouraging results at the same time Economic health is also dependent on other factors such consumer demand, which has decreased in recent past due to Government policies such as GST and demonetization. Improvement: With the notion “too big to fail”, bigger banks are expected to have wider reach among the masses, reduced number of NPAs and increased efficiency. With increased lending capacity bigger banks can attract investors at reduced lending rates but this will only be successful when consumption rate increases. So not one measure is solely capable to revive the economy, it can be done only after proposing myriads of policies to attract investors and consumers.
178 Income generating activities of women in Aligarh District, Uttar Pradesh , Mehvish Mehmood
Objectives/Methods: To analyze the income generating activities of women living in rural areas of Aligarh district, Uttar Pradesh in India. Findings: Women play significant role in uplifting socio-economic condition of their family by engaging themselves in Income Generating Activities in rural areas of Aligarh District, Uttar Pradesh. Dairy farming, weaving, embroidery work, cultivation and shop-keeping are the main activities of women workers through which they earn their livelihood. Most of them raised their family welfare by reducing the level of poverty. But the methods and techniques used to carry out these activities is obsolete. Suggestion: Majority of women workers are illiterate. So steps should be taken by government organizations, ministries and official agencies to impart technical education and vocational training to them.
179 Movement of Indian sovereign yield vis-à-visthe US and its impact on Indian currency , Dipanwita Dutta
Objectives: To make the interrelationship between yield movement and exchange rate movement which is quite a fascinating subject among policymakers, investment bankers, dealers, speculators, traders etc. Methods/Findings: The relationship between US yield vis-à-vis different countries and its impact on the financial market and the economy has been a widely researched subject. This study analyses the relation of US and Indian sovereign bond yield differential and checks whether relationship between them contingent upon overall risk perception in the market. It has been found that a rise in theinterest rate or yield leads to a depreciation of the domestic currency contrary to the dictum of the carry trade. Application: Further, in a situation characterised by risk-averse sentiment in the market, the relationship gets diluted. It is the overall view on the economic growth, stability that impacts the movement of the Indian currency
180 Groundnut: an analysis of yield gaps in Tamil Nadu, India , R. Sunandhini, C. Sekar
Objectives: The aim of this study is to find the output gap of groundnut cultivated in the Thiruvannamalai district, Tamil Nadu, India. The paper estimates the growth rate of groundnut in the district of Thiruvannamalai and Tamil Nadu measures groundnut input and yield gap. Design/Methodology: The article draws upon theories and difficulties of the surveyed area’s crop groundnut technology and extension gaps. Nearly 40 sample stakeholders were interviewed with the pre tested schedule of interviews. Outcome/Findings: The area and production showed negative growth rate for Tamil Nadu and Thiruvannamalai district, India and productivity exhibited significantly positive annual growth of rate. The input gap analysis revealed that more of potash and nitrogen based fertilizers was used. The yield gap I was 928 kg/ha and gap II was approximately 255 kg/ha. A linear regression model was used to examine the factors contributing to output gap and the outcomes indicated that machine labour was positive and statistically significant on yield gap. Social Implications: The study describes the difference between the recommended level of input usages and the actual level of input use, along with the difficulties they face, and the gap between the potential and actual yield. Originality/Value: The outcome implies that yield gap I was more than the yield gap II which indicates that use of the recommended level of inputs and practices for the desired yield. The paper suggests that more efforts should be made to make farmers conscious of the toxic effects of misuse of inputs.
181 Economic liberalization and demand for imports in India: 1970 to 2016 , Riddhi Chatterjee
Objective: To estimate an import demand function for India’s non-oil imports between 1970 and 2016. Methods/Findings: This period had two distinct phases: one before the initiation of the liberalization policies in 1991 and one after it. One of the significant changes during this period was the steady rise in India’s foreign exchange reserves. Since this is an important component of import demand we have focused on the impact of this change on import. As a conventional micro-theoretic import demand function cannot capture the issue of foreign exchange constraint, we first derive a macro-theoretic version of the equilibrium import demand function. This function is then estimated by using standard time series techniques. We find that Gross Domestic Product and the relative price of imported goods are significant determinants of import demand in India both before and after liberalization. Application: However, the importance of the foreign exchange reserve has reduced: it was a significant factor before liberalization but it has lost its significance thereafter.
182 Is economic growth a better measurement of standard of living than human development index in Bangladesh? , Md. Azharul Islam, Farian Tahrim
Objectives: GDP per capita and HDI are the two important variables to calculate economic growth and development. So, investigating the better indicator of development in Bangladesh and also finding out the impact of various determinants are the main objectives of this work. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Our time-series study of last 22 years data (1995-2016) of Bangladesh competes the Human Development Index (HDI) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in regressions with five descriptive variables that are chosen as complete measures of our clarification of standard of living: unemployment rate, gross domestic savings rate, fertility rate, household final consumption expenditure, and infant mortality rate. Here we use the Ordinary Least Square method (OLS) to establish the relationships and Robustness test for model accuracy. Findings: After running the regression, we have observed only three variables - saving rate, fertility rate, and infant mortality rate are significant, and they affect the dependent variable. Again, we run the regression model only with the critical variable, and then we have discovered that GDP and HDI both are mostly affected by the fertility rate. Multiple regression analysis shows that the impacts of the explanatory variables are more substantial in GDP per capita compare to HDI. Application/Improvements: We anticipated that HDI would be a superior measure because we believed its modules (GNI per capita, life expectancy at birth, and education) would make it more accessible to changes in indicators that are used to represent the standard of living.
183 Economic recession and Indian seafood exports: reflections and paradigms , Shyam.S.Salim , R. Geetha , N.R. Athira
Objectives: Focus of the current article is to identify the trade performance of Indian marine products with reference to two time periods: pre-recession (1995-2007) and post-recession (2008-2018) in terms of geographic and commodity diversification with special focus on analysing the impact of recession via growth, constancy and retention terms. Methods/Statistical analysis: The econometric and statistical tools such as compound growth rates, indices of diversity and instability have been carried out to assess the various parameters of the study. Analysis such as Growth Retention Matrix and Decomposition models were performed to quantify the variability and the sources influencing the growth in marine products of the country and its export. Findings/Application: The study revealed that, amidst the global recession and economic meltdown, the sector performed well. Frozen shrimp registered the highest growth rate during both the recession periods from 3 to 18% in quantity. India continues to be the world largest exports of shrimp and economic recession across the world since 2008. But the trend does hinder neither the growth of Indian export nor the trade, and the growth rate was noted to be around 10 to 15% in the last decade. The study advocated for government interventions in regulating fish exports and the development of a real time fish market grid for the integration of domestic and international markets to ensure more sustainability of fisheries trade and export
184 Regional disparity analysis for dietary diversity and food and nutrient adequacy of school-going children from Punjab, India , Sukhdeep Kaur , Kiran Bains , Harpreet Kaur
Objectives: To assess food and nutrient intake and dietary diversity among school children (11-17y) from three regions of Punjab, India. Methods: A survey was conducted to assess food and nutrient intake and dietary diversity among one thousand and fifty school children (11-17y) selected from urban and rural government schools of three regions of Punjab, namely, Majha (n=210), Doaba (n=210) and Malwa (n=630) using thirty-cluster multistage sampling technique. For multiple comparisons between regions, analysis of variance followed by Tukey's post-hoc test was applied. Findings: The diets of the selected school-going children were predominantly composed of roots and tubers followed by Pulses, Cereal and Millets and Sugar; moderate amount of Fats and Oils and Vegetables and highly inadequate quantity of Green leafy Vegetables, Milk and Milk products, Fruits, Meat and Poultry. Further, the diets of children were inadequate in energy, Protein, Fat, Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B12, Folic acid, Vitamin C, Calcium, Iron and Zinc. The overall mean household dietary diversity and food variety scores of the children from Punjab were 5.8 out of 12 and 19.3 out of 44, respectively, which indicated that their diets had poor diversity. Mean food variety scores of the children from Malwa region were significantly (p ≤ 0.01) higher in comparison to that of Majha and Doaba region; whereas, no regional disparity was seen in the mean household dietary diversity scores. Irrespective of region, it was inferred that all the subjects had poor nutrient adequacy with moderate dietary diversity. Applications: The study highlights the points to ponder for policy makers in framing and strengthening health programs for better nutritional status of school going children from different regions of the state.
185 New imperatives of growth and development: India at the cross roads , Prof. (Dr.) S.N. Misra , Prof. Manvinder Singh , Mr. Sanjaya Ku. Ghadai
Background/Objectives: After 1990 India adopted the path of liberalization, privatization and globalization, making it a “Breakout Nation” achieving an average growth of 7% in Gross Domestic Product (GDP). However, during the last two years, growth is showing a declining trend. The policy makers are in a quandary whether to persist with inflation targeting and Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) act or be flexible with public debt, depreciate Indian rupee and provide greater fiscal incentives to spur private investment and exports. The objective of the paper is to bring out a credible policy mix, to improve growth, employment and Human Development Indicators (HDI). Methods/Statistical Analysis: It has used data from credible official sources and analyzed them through suitable tables and graphs. A correlation between growth and development has also been established. The swan model has been used to demonstrate the demand and CAD short fall in India. Findings: The major findings are that to mitigate demand and current account deficits there is a need to depreciate Indian rupee, bolster investment in the private and public sector and provide tax incentives to propel the “Animal Spirits” of the entrepreneurs. Further since India’s high growth is not accompanied by improvement in nutrition level of children, Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) and extreme poverty reduction, investment in the social sector must be doubled. Quality of primary education, skilling and research initiatives have to give greater attention. Privatization of public sector banks (PSBs) will improve financial intermediation and curtails Non Performing Assets (NPAs) substantially. Application/Improvements: The recommendations would mark a definitive departure from the current obsession with fiscal stability at the cost of growth and development.
186 Women at work: exploring the issues and challenges of women employees in travel and tourism , Priyakrushna Mohanty , Sampada Kumar Swain , Sala Besra
Objectives: To explore the various facets of issues and challenges associated with the women workforce in tourism industry and provide structural suggestions. Methodology: This work is descriptive in nature; the outcome which is derived from desk review process of various academic works are mostly scattered and provide some pragmatic dimensions. Thematic content analysis has been applied to bring out major findings. Findings: Travel & Tourism (T&T) sector has been advocated for its labor intensiveness and gender parity. It is estimated that women constitute the major portion of the work force generated by tourism. However, there have been rising concerns of gender pay gap, poor representation at professional level and burden of unpaid work in the tourism industry. Structural measures must be taken at all levels of organization to make sure equitable distribution of social and economic benefits. Application: The findings of this study can act as a checklist for policy makers while designing development measures for women employees in tourism industry.
187 Index of Household Financial Inclusion (IHFI): an analysis of Kadmat Island of Lakshadweep , R. Pazhanisamy
Background/Objectives: The purpose of this present study is to introduce the financial inclusion index at the household level and compare the inclusiveness of the Kadmat Island of Lakshadweep. Methods/statistical analysis: Based on the primary data collected from 100 households a separate financial inclusion index was composed in two dimensions and incorporated into a single index using the scoring and weighted average method. This unique index can be used to compare the inclusiveness of the financial sector across the households of any Island economy. Findings: The entire households attained maximum financial inclusions in terms of provision of the financial services while there is greatest variation of demand of it. The extent of the financial inclusion also differed among the various households with regards to socio-economic and cultural factors. The monopolistic financial service provider of the Island limits the quality of services offered to the Island households. The financial inclusion index is relatively higher in the households of government employees when compared with fisherman. But in terms of access to financial services like net banking, share trading, access to unified payment services reveals no variations. Applications and improvement: The methodology adopted in this study can be applied to any measure the financial inclusion across any households of any regions by altering the regional specific independent variables.
188 Extent of population migration from riverbank eroded areas and its rationales: a case study of Dhubri and Dhemaji districts of Assam , Mr. Dimpal Dekaraja, Dr. Ratul Mahanta
Objectives: The paper examines the extent of migration due to riverbank erosion and its rationale. The paper based on field survey data collected from two districts of Assam, India namely Dhubri and Dhemaji during June – August 2016. Altogether 437 households were interviewed, out of which 194 were from Dhemaji district and 242 from Dhubri district. Methods: Using multi-stage random sampling method the survey was conducted in high, medium and low eroded villages of both the districts. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools such as percentages, mean, standard deviations. Findings: Migration is found in eroded and non-eroded villages. Large number of short-term migration in comparison to long-term migration found and people migrated more from highly eroded areas than from less eroded areas. It has also been found that migration among non-farmers is higher than farmers. The paper concludes with the findings that the main reasons behind migration are the problems that arise due to riverbank erosion. Application/Improvement: The study is a contribution to the migration studies. It will be helpful to suggest policy measures to control migration in the riverbank eroded areas.
189 The economic determinants of foreign direct investment in Indian economy: An analytical study , Dr. Sushil Kumar Rai , Dr. Rajesh Sharma
Objectives: The present research work is an attempt to assess the factors determining the inflow of foreign direct investment in India by evolving an empirical framework using time series data. Methods/Statistical analysis: Owing to time series data, stationary of economic variables was checked by using unit root test. Thereafter, for assessing the unidirectional and bidirectional relationship among variables a pair wise granger causality test was performed. Further, Ramsey’s reset test and white’s heteroscedasticity test have been used. After investigating the tolerance and variance inflating factor, a multiple ordinary least squares regression model was developed which enabled to partially explain the inflows of FDI in Indian Economy. Findings: The estimated model encompasses five explanatory economic variables. These variables are the market size (population), the size of the tourism industry (tourist arrivals), infrastructure development (rail and road density), economic growth (percentage change in GDP) and openness (export plus import as a percentage of gross domestic products) of markets. Hence, the paper tries to examine the impact of above said factors on Indian economy in general and their impact on foreign direct investment in particular. Apparently, some of the variables such as tourism, infrastructure, and openness of markets have exhibited a favorable impact on foreign direct investment. On the other hand, market sizes impact on FDI has been found insignificant. Therefore, in order to attract the foreign direct investment in India, a sound infrastructure, liberal economic policy, favorable tourism policy and GDP growth seem to be desirable determinants whereas population size may not be obliging in this regard. Application/Improvements: The results of the study suggest that to increase the inflows of FDI in Indian Economy, the policy should be focused on infrastructure development and increasing economic growth. Further, the policy of trade liberalization is also beneficial for Indian Economy.
190 Technical efficiency of cooperative member vis-à-vis non-member dairy farms in Gujarat – application of data envelopment analysis , Darshnaben Mahida , R. Sendhil , Smita Sirohi , B.S Chandel , K. Ponnusamy , Gopal Sankhala
Objectives: To compare the technical efficiency scores of dairy cooperative member and non-member farms across the districts in Gujarat selected from regions having different level of dairy development. Methods/Statistical analysis: The present study has analyzed and compared the technical efficiency of 180 dairy farmers using a non-parametric approach i.e., Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The study is based on the primary data collected during 2016-17 using a well-structured, comprehensive and pre-tested interview schedule. Apart from conventional analysis, box-plot and scatter-plot were used to compare the efficiency scores. Findings: The investigation identified regional disparities in efficiency scores based on dairy development. The DEA results showed that member farmers of the district selected from low (Tapi), moderate (Bharuch) and highly (Anand) dairy developed regions were more efficient than their respective non-member counterpart. Similarly, the overall comparison between dairy cooperative members and non-members showed that the efficiency of member farmers was 83.27% while for non-members it was 75.31%. Further, the results revealed that small herd size farmers were most efficient in both member (87.21%) and non-member (81.59%) categories. The paper established that membership in dairy cooperatives; herd size as well as status of dairy development in a region greatly influences the technical efficiency of farmers. Application/Improvements: Overall, the study concludes that 24.69% and 16.73% inefficiency exist respectively in dairy cooperatives non-member and member farms indicating the scope for increasing the realized output with same level of resources and production technology.
191 Reasons for extensive in-migration in Kerala; a study from the employers’ perspective , V. S. Deepika , Pushpa M. Savadatti
Objectives: To find out the reasons behind the extensive employment of inter-state migrant workers in the selected regions and sectors of Kerala, from the employers’ perspective. Methods: A survey of 432 employers or owners of the enterprises who employed inter-state migrant workers was conducted with the help of pre-tested interview schedule. The data was collected from employers/owners belonging to three sectors in the three districts of Kerala. Stratified random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Descriptive statistics like tabulation analysis, percentages and non-parametric tests were used for data analysis. Findings: The employers in selected sectors faced some labour related issues, mainly labour shortage, higher wages and union problems by native workers. To overcome these problems employer started sourcing and employing migrant workers. Native workers were not interested to take up unskilled and menial jobs in Kerala due to social stigma. Therefore severe labour shortage accompanied with more benefits and less cost/demerits from the employment of migrant workers and consequent preference for migrants in order to meet the demand in some segments of the labour market led to the extensive employment of migrant workers in Kerala. Application: The study conveys the problems of employers/owners of enterprises and reasons for employing migrant workers in the present labour situation in Kerala. Due to the strong interference of labour unions along with several other reasons, Kerala doesn’t have a supportive environment for industrial growth. Hence, this study may help policy makers to take appropriate measures to encourage entrepreneurs and their business.
192 Seasonal availability and utilization pattern of fluid milk in Nainital district of Uttarakhand , Arpita Kotnala, Anil Kumar
Objective: An attempt was made to study seasonal availability and utilization pattern of fluid milk in Nainital district of Uttarakhand. Statistical analysis: The study was based on the primary data collected for liquid/processed milk varieties and milk products from the selected co-operative dairy plant of Nainital district. The pattern of utilization of milk in the manufacturing of product mix percentage was computed for various products after making an adjustment of loss of milk in transit, handling etc. Findings: Three distinct seasons in a year were observed. It has been found that there were three sources of milk to plant viz., primary co-operative societies, the State Milk Grid and the milk reconstituted at the plant from powder milk. Standardized milk and dahi was the major product for the plant. The study has observed that out of the total availability of milk more than 80 percent of milk was used for processed milk varieties and rest will be used for making different milk products. The study concluded that production was affected by calving season and weather condition. Further, there was no definite pattern observed in the production of milk and milk products. Its production mainly depends upon the local demand for dairy products. Improvements: The study has suggested that development of co-operative dairy industry in a sustainable manner, the co-operative dairy plants should formulate long-term vision and strategy.
193 Governance and provision of public goods in Gombe state: evidence from citizens’ perceptions , Abdullahi Buba , Gafar T. Ijaiya, Farida Bello
Background/Objectives: This study was underpinned to empirically examine the effect of governance indicators (public participation in decision-making, enforcement of rules and regulations, transparency and accountability, equitable and fair resource control, and pro poor policies) on the likelihood of provision of public goods in Gombe state, Nigeria. Methods/Statistical analysis: Qualitative research design was adopted in the study. Also, multi-stage sampling technique was used in the study in which the study area was divided in to three (3) senatorial districts. One local government area was latter chosen from each senatorial district. The chosen local government area was then divided in to two State House of Assembly (SHA) constituencies, and the questionnaire was randomly distributed to members of the public in one ward each from SHA. Finally, the data generated was analyzed using ordered discrete choice model. Findings: The results obtained indicated that corruption perception, public participation in decision-making and inclusiveness were relatively less influential than political stability in the likelihood of providing public goods. The study concluded by recommending among other measures the engagement of members of the public in the articulation, formulation and implementation of public policies that have to do with the provision of public goods in the state. Improvements/Applications: This study is one of the first of its own kinds that attempt to empirically investigate public perception on issues of governance in the study area.
194 Metropolis and Wang-Landau Algorithms , T. Pramananda Perumal , K. P. N. Murthy
Objectives: We review two algorithms developed for simulating macroscopic systems. The first is the Metropolis and the second is the Wang-Landau algorithm. Methods: Metropolis algorithm has been extensively employed for simulating a canonical ensemble and estimating macroscopic properties of a closed system at any desired temperature. A mechanical property, like energy can be calculated by averaging over a large number of micro states of the stationary Markov chain generated by the Metropolis algorithm. However thermal properties like entropy, and free energies are not easily accessible. A method called umbrella sampling was proposed some forty years ago for this purpose. Ever since, umbrella sampling has undergone several metamorphoses and we have now multi canonical Monte Carlo, entropic sampling, flat histogram methods, Wang-Landau algorithm etc. Findings: In this paper we review Metropolis algorithm for estimating mechanical properties and Wang-Landau algorithm for estimating both mechanical and thermal properties of an equilibrium system. Applications: We shall make the review as pedagogical and as self-contained as possible. These algorithms can be applied to a variety of problems in physics, astrophysics, chemistry, biology, soft matter, computer science, etc.
195 Impact of natural disaster on agriculture and economy: a study of Rayalaseema region of Andhra Pradesh , Swarna Pragathi Muthana, Dr. Anitha Manne
Background/Objectives: To study year wise drought affected Mandals of the study area, to study year wise Rainfall particulars of the region as a whole and to study the impact of drought on agricultural production of Rayalaseema region. Methods/Statistical analysis: The districts of Rayalaseema region is selected for the present study. The study is based on secondary data, such as Chief Planning Office (CPO), (Anantapur, Chittoor, Kadapa& Kurnool), District Agricultural office of the region, Memorandum on drought in Andhra Pradesh- 2014, District Handbooks of Rayalaseema region (2014-15 & 2015-16). Findings: The present study is focusing on Rayalaseema districts of Andhra Pradesh that is a completely droughtaffected area. The recurrent failure of monsoons affects the crop production in the Rayalaseema region. This underdeveloped region has the dubious distinction of distress from the twin problems of drought and poverty. It has been noticed in that the total irrigated the area continuously decline in Rayalaseema varies from year to year. The cropping pattern is also varied with the effect of climate, rainfall, and lack of other irrigation sources. The basic change that occurred in the cropping pattern is that there was a significant decline of the area under food crops especially jowar, Bajra and maize in the whole region. The percentage of area under non-food crops has more than doubled. Commercial crops (Sugarcane, Sunflower, and Cotton) have replaced the area under food crops in the region.
196 Information and communication technology tools used by agricultural extension functionaries , Dishant Jojit James,  M.T. Lakshminarayan,  D.K. Suresh
Objective: To analyse the extent of utilization of Information and Communication Technology tools (ICTs) by agricultural extension functionaries. Methods and statistical analysis: Eighty agricultural officers and assistant agricultural officers from 43 Raitha Samparka Kendras (RSKs) in four Southern districts of Karnataka were interviewed during 2016-2017. A pretested interview schedule was used to collect the information on the extent of utilization of ICT tools by the respondents for seeking and dissemination of agricultural information. The collected data was analysed using frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation and multiple regression analysis. Ex-post-facto research method was employed in the study. Findings: Majority of the agricultural extension functionaries (70.00%) were belonging to medium to high category of extent of utilization of ICT tools. All the agricultural extension functionaries were ‘Very frequently ‘using smart phone, while a majority of the agricultural extension functionaries were using ‘Very frequently’ landline phone (88.75%), desktop computer (68.75%) and laptops (57.50%). The software/apps used ‘Very frequently’ by majority of the extension functionaries were SMS (98.75%), WhatsApp (65.00%) and Ms Word (65.00%). A larger number of agricultural extension functionaries were ‘Very frequently’ using Google Chrome (43.75%) and Yahoo (40.00%) search engines for seeking and disseminating agricultural information to the farming community. All the 14 personal, socio-economic, psychological and communication characteristic of agricultural extension functionaries selected for the study have contributed to the tune of 74.50 per cent of variation in the extent of utilization of ICT tools. Applications/Improvements: Periodic training needs to be conducted by the Karnataka State Department of Agriculture (KSDA) to the agricultural extension functionaries working in RSKs for increasing their knowledge and upgrading skill for effective utilization and maintenance of ICT tools and sufficient budget should also be provided by the KSDA for the purchase and maintenance of ICT tools at RSKs.
197 Migration impact on left-behind Elderly’s labour participation in Kerala , V.P. Sanitha, A.P. Noushad
Objectives: An attempt was made to study the migration impact on left-behind Elderly’s labour force participation in Kerala. Methodology: This paper was entirely based on secondary data sources collected from various reports such as census of India, Kerala migration survey reports, economic review of Kerala etc. Correlation matrix has been used to find out the relationship between remittances and WPR of elderly among the districts in Kerala. Findings: Migration not only reduces the number of potential care givers within the family, but it also result in a deterioration of the quality of family support and consequently to an annoyance of the elderlies' wellbeing and health conditions and also reduces the labour market participation of left-behind elderly. There is a negative correlation between international migration and the work participation of the left behind elderly members. Districts that account for higher rates of emigration show low levels of elderly participation in the labour market and vice versa. Application/Improvement: The study suggested for taking the actions toalleviate the financial over dependence, ensure social security measures for the aged and the increased role of government in taking care of the aged. If the government is not taken any steps towards the aged now, it will become very difficult to provide proper care and security to the elderly people in the coming decades.
198 The diamond-water paradox - long and short run analysis of the market for adult and children’s books in India , Mihir Parekh
Objective: The objective of the study lies in proving that although children’s literature in India has a wider consumer base than adult literature, publishers still sell children’s literature at lower rates despite the surmounting cost of publishing as opposed to adult literature which is less in demand but still is sold at a higher price, even with a relatively lower cost of publishing-the fundamental principle behind this phenomenon emulates the Diamond-Water Paradox in the short run, but due to the additional component of cost of publishing, in the long run the paradox breaks and ceases to exist. Methods: The paper uses first hand data compiled from a variety of sources including Marketing Heads and Directors of publishing houses, editors and accomplished authors in an attempt to provide proof to the thesis. Findings: With the help of the data, the paper successfully concludes that this phenomenon strongly emulates the Diamond-Water paradox, also known as the Paradox of Value, in the short run. By emulating such a phenomenon, it is also shown how such a phenomenon takes place with regard to price-cost/demand-supply analysis and how certain components of this analysis alter the market and dilute the paradox in the long run. Applications: The paper’s findings can be applied in creating a new found understanding of the market for Indian literature as well as the mindsets of Indian publishing houses and customer behavior towards different kinds of literature. Moreover, as this paper brings to the forefront only the paradox and not a solution to it, further research may enable the finding of a possible result as to why the paradox takes place to begin with
199 A contemporary view of the economic-growth in China , Shaleen Nath Tripathi , Anubhav Nath Tripathi
Background/Objective: The export led Chinese economic growth in the past decade which has used higher money supply and depreciation for trade surplus, might catalyze currency and trade wars. Methods: The study has used the Regression Statistical Analysis or Method to test the significance of independent variable, the real effective exchange rate, on the dependent variable or its effect or relationship with the dependent variable, the economic growth rate in the past decade in China, and, to test that the depreciation or higher real effective exchange rate, increase demand, especially exports, and growth, and its effect on the domestic demand and growth. The World Bank data has been used in the study to test the relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable. Findings: The study has pointed out that, though, depreciation increases export demand and growth, but it also reduces domestic demand by cutting real wages with inflation and may lower growth. Unless exports increase more than loss in the domestic demand it is not fruitful. Depreciation may also be attributed to too much public spending. Depreciation in the economy is helpful below full employment, because of the capacity to use unused labour, but the study has found a negative relationship between the depreciation in the real effective exchange rate (REER) and the economic growth rate in China, although it mayhave increased export demand with the economy close to the full employment in the last decade. Depreciation has been a popular tool to increase export demand during slowdown and more importantly to earn foreign exchange reserves, but it reduces domestic demand and growth rate after full employment and the ensuing overheating. Nonetheless, inflation and depreciation reduces the value of the currency or money. Application: The Inflation and depreciation lower real wages and wage expectations that result in reduced domestic demand and spending through lower currency value and are thought to give exports demand investment and employment and growth a push. China can learn from the mistakes Japan and other European and the US have been experiencing, the lower domestic demand, spending and growth.
200 Carrier Supporting Carrier – requirements and deployment , Merline Johndoss, T. Pramananda Perumal
Objectives: Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Virtual Private Network (VPN) Carrier Supporting Carrier (CSC) enables one MPLS VPN-based service provider to allow other service providers to use a segment of its backbone network. Carrier Supporting Carrier (CSC) is implemented in circumstances in which one service provider needs to use the transport services provided by another service provider. The service provider providing the transport is called the backbone carrier and the service provider using the services provided by the backbone carrier is called a customer carrier. The customer carrier can either be an ISP provider or an MPLS VPN service provider. In my study, I have taken the case of the carrier customer is a service provider running MPLS VPN. Methods/Analysis: In this project, we are giving interconnection between customer branches of ISP1. The POP locations of ISP1 are running with MPLS and ISP1 POP locations are interconnected via other ISP Backbone carrier ISP2 using MPLS network. Customers connected in POP sites 1 and POP sites 2 to ISP1, are using BGP protocol to send the network information to ISP1 in their respective location. ISP1 is also running BGP, collecting the information of Customers from both the POP sites using BGP protocol and sharing this information from POP1 site to POP2 site via backbone carrier ISP2. Application: Backbone carrier ISP2 creates an MPLS link with both POP sites of ISP1 and carries customer network information via ISP2 network such that both the customer branches can share data across POP locations. Results: The above network was simulated using GNS3 network simulation tools and the reach ability between the two customer sites of ISP2 the customer carrier was tested, with success.
201 Impact of firewood consumption on forest degradation-a study based on tribal households of India’s northeast , Rabinjyoti Khataniar , Shahnaaz Benazir
Objectives: To assess the impact of firewood consumption in the tribal households of Northeast India on forest degradation through development of a Forest Degradation Index (FDI). Methods/Statistical analysis: A focused group discussion method was undertaken with some village level leaders, student union leaders, members of village development council and some older people in order to collect required information. Linear regression analysis was run to estimate the determinants of Forest Degradation Index (FDI). Findings: The study reveals that forest degradation is positively associated with firewood extraction. The study also observed the phenomena like sales of firewood particularly by the poor and land lords. There is an urban centric demand for firewood in the industries, factories, and hotels and some peoples involved in firewood sales as source of their livelihood. Thus excessive pressure on the local forest has been emerged which has led to deforestation. Application/Improvements: The study advocates adoption of a decentralized management of common forest emphasizing active participation of the local stakeholders. Policy initiative should attempt at improving livelihood, subsidized LPG distribution policy and the education level of the household members of the tribal households.
202 Economic analysis of growth, instability and resource use efficiency of sugarcane cultivation in India: an econometric approach ,  Nasim Ahmad, D.K. Sinha,  K.M. Singh
Objectives: To find out the growth, as well as instability in area, production and productivity of sugarcane farming and to assess the resource use efficiency in major sugarcane growing states of India and trade performance of sugar. Methods/Statistical analysis: Investigation is based on secondary data of area, production and productivity of sugarcane in major sugarcane growing states of India for the period from 2000-01 to 2015-16. Efficiency of sugarcane production was estimated using plot level data obtained from website of Cost of Cultivation Scheme, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare, Government of India for the year, 2014-15. Compound growth rates, instability indices using formula suggested by Cuddy- Della Valle, and resource use efficiency using Data Envelopment approach (DEA) were computed. Findings: At national level area, production and productivity of sugarcane went up during the period of investigation. Similar result was also observed in case of growth rates of sugarcane crop which were found positive and encouraging. The area under sugarcane was found stable in the states like Uttar Pradesh, Uttrakhand and Gujarat on the other hand the yield of sugarcane recorded almost stable in Uttar Pradesh, Uttrakhand and Tamil Nadu. Technical efficiency at national level in sugarcane production was found to be 66% which indicated that the production of crop may further be raised by 34% with the available technology. Allocative mean efficiencies indicated that costs may be reduced by 40% through using optimum combination of inputs keeping in mind their prices while selecting their quantities. The cost efficiency (CE) asserted that farmers may potentially reduce their overall cost of sugarcane production, upto 60% to harvest the existing level of output at least cost. Undoubtedly, the export of sugar from India has increased during the period of investigation. Applications/Improvements: State government initiatives were found appreciable making sugarcane cultivation more remunerative. Proper use of scarce resources may make it more productive and profitable and realizing the objective of doubling income and uplifting standard of cultivators.
203 An overview of adoption of hygienic practices by fish marketing personnel in selected fish markets of Port Blair city, Andaman and Nicobar Islands , Swapnil S. Shirke , Monalisha Devi Sukham, M. Nashad , H.D. Pradeep , M. Ramees Rahman
Objectives: To analyze the extent of adoption of hygienic fish handling practices by marketing personnels in selected fish markets of Port Blair city of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Methods/Statistical analysis: Around 20 fish marketing personnel’s each randomly selected from the major fish markets. A pre-tested semi-structured interview schedule and observation method is used for the collection of information. The adequacy index of infrastructure facility, extent of adoption of hygienic measures, adoption measure for improved marketing practices by marketing personnel were analysed through the statistical tools like percentage, mean SD, F test, Correlation and regression were used by using statistical package Minitab 17. Findings: The ‘F’ value analyzed for the socio-economic variables shows significant difference among the marketing personnels of the three selected markets. Overall availability index in all three markets shows high infrastructure availability in proper shed (90.55±13.41), transportation facility (86.10±15.38), cemented floor (82.77±14.68), clean ground condition (76.66±20.73) whereas, a very less availability index in clean water (55.11±20.30), drainage system (50.55±18.18), waste disposable facility (40.55±9.09), hygienic toilet (33.88±7.45) and electricity (57.22±14.88). Among all the seven hygienic practices measured, personal hygiene (77.77±19.93), clean container for storage of fish (74.99±19.96), clean polyethene for consumer (58.33±19.83), hygienic sorting of fish (57.22±22.19) and use of ice to prevent spoilage (52.77±16.88) were found adopted by majority of fish marketing personnel’s while practices such as washing of fish with clean water (41.66±14.23) and waste disposal (36.11±9.04) are found less adopted. The value R2 shows if all variable taken together will cause 0.89 % of the variation in the adoption level. The major constraint responded is the cost of ice (76.66%) followed by the insufficient space in the marketplace (73.33%). Application/Improvements: A training and awareness programmes needs to be conducted by extension agencies, research organizations and Andaman and Nicobar Islands Fisheries department for increasing the knowledge about a hygienic condition and hygienic handling of fish in a fish market. Assistance by providing sufficient infrastructure by Fisheries department and maintenance of cold chain will help to improve extent of adoption of fish handling by marketing personnels.
204 Fisheries development programmes and profile of beneficiaries in Chhattisgarh , Arpita Sharma, Gaind Singh
Objectives: To study fisheries profile of Chattisgarh, analyze fisheries development programmes implemented by Department of Fisheries (DoF) and to study profile of beneficiaries. Methods/Statistical analysis: Information was collected from secondary sources namely annual reports of DoF, its website and focus group discussions. Interview schedule was used to document profile of 120 beneficiary fish farmers from Raipur district. Reliability of interview schedule was tested and was found acceptable. Cronbach alpha was computed with a value of 0.83, thus establishing the tau-equivalent reliability as acceptable for a lower bound estimate of the reliability of interview schedule. Findings: Chattisgarhhas 1.665 lakh ha water area available for development of fisheries. During 2015-16, number of fisheries development schemes have been undertaken by DoF and 3/4th of farmers reported that they benefitted from assistance for retail sale/net and boat/fish seed production scheme, 50 to 70% of farmers from departmental training programmes, assistance for fish seed rearing in seasonal ponds, grants to fishermen co-operatives societies, assistance for fingerling stocking and 20 to 30% benefitted from reservoir and river development scheme, out of state study tour programmes and polyculture/prawn culture/ornamental fish culture programmes. Majority (65%) of fish farmers had only fisheries as their occupation, 27% also had agriculture and others were engaged in business/service. Fisheries interventions were perceived to have high potential to promote fisheries activities and well-being of fish farmers. Not many studies have been done with reference to fisheries development programmes so this study adds to the body of knowledge. Application/Improvements: Interventions done for fish farmers have shown positive results. More efforts are needed for the schemes which have less number of beneficiaries
205 The impact of country attractiveness on delocalization opportunities within Republic of Mali , Fané Tiedian, Keita Salimou , Traoré Abdoulaye Sekou
Background/Objectives: This study highlights the benefit of delocalization as generator of economic development, the impact of country attractiveness on delocalization opportunities. The recommendations should be used as guideline for Malian authorities. Methods/Statistical analysis: The quantitative and qualitative methods, primary data collected by questionnaires and interviews are used. Secondary data are gotten from articles, journals and online resources. The research framework was analyzed using simple regression model. Hypothesis test is adopted to accept or reject the hypothesis formulated in this research. Excel software have been used to perform the test, the measures of p-value, correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination, standard error and slope. Findings: The research findings confirmed that: delocalization is a development opportunities for developing countries. The results suggest that country attractiveness have significant impact on delocalization opportunities. Delocalization is a source of job creation, dissemination of technological knowledge, productivity improvement for local firms. Country attractiveness has a positive impact on delocalization opportunities is valid hypothesis. This study makes several contributions to research and theory of country attractiveness and delocalization opportunities. A greater understanding of the country attractiveness and delocalization opportunities provided further investigation of the relationship between country attractiveness and delocalization opportunities. This model can be used by other developing country to attract foreign investments. Through the use of this model, country can quickly identify areas requiring urgent improvement. Improvements/Applications: Mali needs improvement in public administration, education, legislation, infrastructure, security and energy. The theoretical model developed in this study is applicable in practice
206 Impact of Brexit on the Global Economy , Subhashini
Objective: To analyze the impact of the United Kingdom’s decision of leaving the European Union on the financial markets, and on the global economy as a whole. Methods: In this paper, the impact is inspected in a comprehensive manner, by dividing the aftermath into four categories-United Kingdom, European Union, Non-EU European nations, and the world. Parameters such as inflation, real per capita GDP growth, stock and foreign exchange market, current and capital account balance, and strength of the currency have been discussed in this paper, to pinpoint the variable that has been affected the most. Findings: We see that Sterling has become volatile and has weakened investor confidence, reduced real per capita GDP, immigration has slowed down, and trade deficit has increased. In all, the rate of growth of the economy has decelerated. The prevailing macroeconomic uncertainty has shown ambiguous results for a few variables as of now, but the real picture will become clear-cut and perspicuous once UK actually leaves the EU. Conclusion: The effects of Brexit will prove to be far reaching, enough to unsettle UK’s markets and the economy for the next few decades. UK will need to adopt certain measures to get out of this economic slump, because as of now, the cons definitely overweigh the pros.
207 Growth vs. development: comparative analysis of Gujarat and West Bengal , Debolina Biswas, Soumallya Das
Objectives: To study the basic idea of whether growth is an end itself or one should look beyond growth. Methods/Statistical analysis: This study uses simple statistical technique such as calculating compound annual growth rates and various ratios to compare the growth and other development indicators of Gujarat and West Bengal. Findings: It has been found that Gujarat is always ahead of West Bengal in terms of growth and output. However, in terms of other developmental parameters i.e. education, health, and Human Development Index (HDI), West Bengal fared well. This study has also considered women development indicator and found that West Bengal is ahead of Gujarat except in women’s work force participation. These findings strengthens that the argument of growth is not an end in itself; growth in output doesn’t always necessarily ensure improvement of other development indicators. Application/Improvements: This study advocates adopting redistributive policies to ensure that fruits of growth are being distributed so that other development indicators also improve .
208 Microscopical investigation of three Datura species , V. Krishnan , M. Gopi
Background/Objectives: Most of the species of Datura imposes a wide lacuna in our knowledge especially for proper identification and pharmacognostical studies. Anatomical structure is most likely to provide evidence concerning the interrelationships of families or in establishing the real affinities of species of uncertain taxonomic status. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The wood anatomical characters and certain ‘anomalous’ or uncommon structures of the axis have been extensively employed by the systematic anatomists for drawing conclusion with reference to systematic position and phylogeny of plant taxa. Apart from anatomical and trichome studies, palynological investigation is also to be attempted. This will give additional information both for diagnosis of the plants and for conformation their taxonomic position. Findings: In Datura species epidermal trichomes have been cited as one of the criteria for distinguishing the species. The cross sectional outline of young stem differs significantly in the species studied. The cross section shape is circular and densely pubescent in Datura innoxia, angular in Datura fastuosa. The secondary xylems of roots are uniformly dense with wide cylinder of libriform fibres and vessels. The vessels of the root are wider than those of the stem. The roots of Datura species deviate in their secondary xylem features from the rest of the taxa. These cross sectional configurations are easy access for identification of fragmentary stem materials. Application/Improvements: An attempt will be made to prepare an artificial dichotomous taxonomic key involving anatomical and palynological data obtained during the present investigations.
209 Electricity consumption among households: an economic analysis , T. Amose, Dr. K.R. Jeyakumar
Objectives: This study emphasised its trend to escalate on electricity consumption and satisfaction among households in different seasons of selected regions. Methods/Statistical analysis: Study covered 150 sample respondents as primary data from three town panchayats under Thiruppatur taluk of Sivagangai district in Tamil Nadu. To enunciate the selected objectives, respondents are identified as elementary, comfortable and luxury based on the economic status of town panchayats. Data has been analysed by Pearson's Chi-square test and Analysis of Variance (One way Anova) at five percent level of significant to expose association and variations between given factors. Moreover, micro economic theoretical diagrams also applied for overall analysis. Findings: Study resulted that there is existing association and variations between consumers and unit of electricity consumption and also between climate change and unit of electricity consumption. Because, modern lifestyle looks for alternative life that enhances energy consumption even among backward regions. So there is a trend for increasing electricity consumption without consideration of seasonal variations. This study proved that even among modern life, climate change is still an effective factor bringing flexibility in electricity consumption among households. Overall, the study concluded that majority of sample respondents consumes 101-200 units of electricity among existing seasons; it may support the policy makers to impose appropriate tariff for the welfare of societies and government. Application/Improvements: This study lightened the electricity consumption among different status of respondents. Hence, government can try to mitigate over consumption and provide possible alternate energy sources available for all seasonal demand.
210 Profile and marketing practices of grape growers , N.A. Sumana, M.T. Lakshminarayan,  M.S. Nataraju, Dishant Jojit James
Objectives: To know the profile and identify the marketing practices of grape growers. Methods and statistical analysis: The study is based on preliminary data collected from 90 grape growers. The collected data was analyzed using frequency, percentage and mean. Findings: The study findings reveals that majority of grape growers interviewed were small farmers (56.67%) and more than one-third of grape growers were having medium level of education (35.56%), annual income (35.56%), cosmopolite (34.44%), social participation (36.66%) and mass media participation (36.67%). The reasons for all the grape growers (100.00%) for selling the produce at farm gate to the pre-harvest contractors are due to perishable nature of the produce, convenient to sell the produce in the village, no/less marketing and transport costs and no labour cost is required for loading and unloading of produce. Applications/Improvements: There is a need to establish grape growers association by the farmers which would help in organizing/facilitating joint activities like value addition, processing and collective grape marketing. Information about market price should be passed on to the grape growers through mass media and other means of communication.
211 Growth and sect oral analysis of Panchayat finance in West Bengal during 1990-91 to 2013-14 , Nityananda Patra, Prof. Arup Kumar Chattapadhyay
Objectives: The main objectives of the study are as follows: To critically analyze the performance of the PRIs in West Bengal during the period 1990-1991 to 1997-1998 and 1998-99 to 2013-2014 in terms of receipts and expenditures and utilization rates. To analyze the allocation of released funds to different sectors and utilization of funds for the state. Methods: In this paper Kinked exponential trend analysis and Dicky-Fuller Unit root test were used for estimation of conditional/unconditional growth rates for the whole period, for the two sub-periods and the estimated trend breaks as well as for testing stationary for the time series data. Findings: As per the findings of our study, Panchyat Finance in West Bengal was heavily dominated by the Central Government. Only about 3 to 4% of all revenue of gram Panchyats in West Bengal was derived from own source category and 94% obtained from grants and transfer. Except in year 1993-94, the utilization rates were greater than 100%. It was very difficult to explain more than 100% utilization rate experienced over such a long period at a stretch. This was largely due to the poor quality and non- availability of accurate data, without which any evaluation of decentralization became very difficult. Application/Improvements: This study was based on all tiers in the PRIs in West Bengal foras an aggregative long run analysis where the underlying estimated annual trends in total revenue and total expenditure and other details in regards to allocation of funds to the main sectors of the rural economy were elaborately discussed and policy issues were prescribed to make, village Panchayats closer to self-reliant.
212 Path identification between locations within a campus using ACO , A. Amali Asha , T. Pramananda Perumal
Objectives: To identify the paths between locations within the college campus. The paths were stored to create a voice guidance system for the visually challenged students studying in our institution. Methods: We have allotted number for locations, and each location has its neighbor’s detail. A graph was generated by this information which gives a complete outline of connection among the locations. We have generated an algorithm based on Ant Colony. The algorithm was tested first with 9 locations and it was able to exactly list out all possible paths between sources and the destination. Findings: Once the edge between vertices has been identified by an ant, then the pheromone level is maintained in that edge should be high. The pheromone level is kept above a value called threshold value. If pheromone level on a particular edge is below the threshold value then that path was omitted by other ants. The high pheromone level makes the other ants to proceed through that path. The current vertex is checked with the destination vertex to check whether the algorithm process has identified a path. Tests were conducted by considering all the locations within our campus, where our visually challenged students will go for their classes. Application: All paths between the source and destinations are identified correctly and recorded. The voice guidance system is its incubation stage and surely this would help the visually challenged students to reach their destinations without others help.
213 Influence of gory pictures on select newspaper readers in Owerri, Nigeria , Victor Kogah , Adeline O. Nkwam-Uwaoma , Ifeyinwa Nude , Uchiyamere C Nkwam-Uwaoma
Objective: This paper investigated the Influence of Gory picture on select newspaper readers in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria. Methods: The participants for the study comprised of 192 (94 Males and 98 Females) select newspaper readers from Owerri, Imo State. Their ages ranged from 26 to 48 years and they were selected through systematic sampling techniques. A self-developed and validated questionnaire was adopted for data collection while chisquare statistics were employed for data analysis. Findings: Results showed that gory pictures have a positive effect on newspaper readers while gender, age, and marital status did not determine the effect of gory picture on newspaper readers at a probability level of 0.5. The inclusion of gory pictures on newspapers is therefore encouraged but with caution as they could elicit some level of emotional disturbances on the readers. Application: Indeed, gory pictures should be selectively and sparingly used with special caution on the quantity or number, color, size, intervals, and regularity
214 Mapping out the historical role of food in conflict resolution: an African perspective 1994 – 2000 , Isidore U. Nwanaju , Amiara Solomon Amiara, Nwokike Kenneth Igbo , Onu Amarachi Favour
Objective: This paper takes a historical examination of the role of food in conflict resolution, using the Nsobo/Ikwo communal dispute from 1994-2004. Methods: Mankind has used various methods both mechanized and un-mechanized methods in getting food for survival. Various methods of getting food and adverse effects of conflict on food abundance for man are discussed here. Findings: In African localities, food induced conflicts have increased astronomically than conflicts caused by other factors. Ironically, some of these conflicts were resolved using food as the only means of negotiation. Conflict caused by the scarcity of food has the likelihood of degenerating into violent conflict with high proportion of internally displaced persons, refugeeism, and instability on political system, government programs and policies. Application: This work suggest that food or food related factors have caused several wars fought within the African horns due to tribal politics, ethnic cleansing, bad leadership, weak political system drought, famine and poor agricultural harvests. Basically, these threats can lead to war, malnutrition and refugeeism that spurred the international community to quickly give a helping hand and therefore introduced World Emergence Food Programme in order to ameliorate these food related crises.
215 Gender issues in agriculture: An overview , S. Sakamma , K.B. Umesh
Objectives: To analyze the gender aspects in agriculture and allied fields. Methods/Statistical analysis: The simple statistical tools like averages and percentages were used to analyze the status of women, gender wise share of agriculture workers, land holding, operation-wise daily wage rate. The data was collected from Census Report, GOI, 1991 & 2001, Agriculture Census, 2010 and India stat. Findings: Women play a significant role in agriculture as well as in allied sectors. Female land holdings account for only 10.5% of total land holdings as against male land holdings (89.5%). Out of the total female land holdings, 75% accounts for marginal, small and medium land holdings. Women agricultural workers, although they represent a big proportion of all women workers, continue to receive lower wages than men. In India, about 76.6% of the entire female workforce is engaged in agricultural operations and only 54.6% of the entire male workforce is engaged in agricultural operations. Women play a significant and diverse role in agriculture and contribute to agriculture more than men. Though women agricultural workers account for 39.2% in India their overall empowerment status is low. Application/Improvements: Helps to know the key role played by women to agriculture and allied sectors. There by the study makes an attempt to know the contributions made by women.
216 Tea economy: special reference from Kerala , S. Vidya
Objectives: To analyse the trends and pattern of area, production and yield of tea plantation in Kerala and to study the problems and prospects of small and marginal farmers engaged in tea cultivation and sustainability of tea plantations in Wayanad District. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Investigation is based on both primary and secondary data. The trends and pattern of area, production and yield of tea plantation Kerala and in India as a whole and studied using secondary sources like the publications of Tea board, United Planters Association of Southern India, Agricultural Statistics, Economic Review, Indian Economic Journal, Economic and Political Weekly and also web sites. The primary survey conducted in Vythiri Panchayat in Wayanad district one of the hilly districts in Kerala. A sample of 100 marginal farmers was taken for this study. Findings: Till 2005, India was the largest tea producer in the world, but after 2005 China takes the position. Production of tea in India declined because of many reasons like price fluctuations, changes of climatic conditions, Economic crisis etc. Production of tea in Kerala and in Wayanad also declined, but now lots of small and marginal farmers came in to tea cultivation because, compared to other plantation crops like pepper, coffee, cardamom etc., the number of yield is high. That is in between three months the growers collect the tea leaves. Therefore, the major attracting factor for the new growers was the profit maximisation. Applications/Improvements: State and local government initiatives were necessary for the better production tea in small and marginal farmers. Like other plantation crops, subsidies are necessary for more productive and profitable and it helps to change the standard living of the farmers.
217 Assessment of the factors affecting wheat yield: the case Tiyo Woreda Arsi zone of Oromia region in Ethiopia , Deksiso Guye , Anupama Uppal
Objectives: To assess the factors affecting the production of wheat in Tiyo Woreda of Oromia regions, Ethiopia. Methods: This study is based on primary and secondary data collected from the farm households, different publications, from Woreda office, etc. Mixed method research approach was used to mix qualitative and quantitative data. The total of 101 sample size was selected using systematic random sampling method.Linear regression econometric models were employed as a medium of data analysis. Findings: The study revealed that the educational level, farmlands allocated for wheat production,use of modern inputs such as utilization of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides,use of improved variety of wheat seeds, traditional way of farming methods, broadcasting way of sowing methods and shortage of access to training for farmers at farmers training centers are the important determinants significantly affecting wheat yield. Improvements: Identifying these key factors was helpful for Rural Development Association (RDA) and Zonal Administration of the Woreda for policy formulation and on planning so as to assist them to build a holistic strategy that help the farmers in the improvement of wheat productivity and also for future researchers. Recommendations: Therefore, government and non-government bodies shoulddevelop modern farming system, arrange forum, exhibition for experience sharing, give training for farmers and finally, further research should continue.
218 An econometric analysis of foreign investment flows into India , Ashish Chhetri, Dr. G. Raghavender Raju
Objectives: To look at the determinants of foreign investment inflows into India and further to see its interdynamic relationships with macroeconomics fundamentals in India. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study was done for the period of 1996 Q1 to 2017 Q2, using the secondary data from RBI handbook of statistics. Augmented Dickey-Fuller test was employed to check the stationary of the data. Regression analysis was employed to look at the determinants of foreign investment flows into India and Vector Auto-regression model was used to look at the inter-dynamics between foreign investment and macroeconomic fundamentals in India. Findings: Looking at the causal relationship between GDP and FINV, we found it is unidirectional from GDP to FINV. Thus we can infer that robust economic growth in India attracts FINV. The study found that GDP, BSE Sensex, EXC, INF, ROI, and CAD are the major determinants of foreign investment in India. GDP, BSE Sensex, and ROI have a positive impact and among them, GDP is the most significant factor in attracting foreign investment. Whereas, variables like EXC, INF, and CAD have a negative relationship with foreign investment. Using the same dataset, we have estimated an unrestricted VAR model to look at the inter-dynamics between FINV and some macroeconomic fundamentals like GDP, INF, ROI, RES, and EXC. From the result, we see variables are dynamically interrelated. Further looking at the impulse function we see that response of one variable for a given shock in another variable is in tandem with economic theory. Application/Improvements: The policy implication arising from the study is that strong macroeconomic fundamental and sound internal and external policies are required to attract foreign investment.
219 Botanical standardization of some Solanaceae members , V. Krishnan, M. Gopi 
Background/Objectives: Some of the anatomical characters are liable to become modification in response to environmental change; however, many characters are more fixed genetically and such characters are to be employed for taxonomic studies. For distinguishing two species, differences in the anatomical structures usually provide much reliable grounds for identification. Methods/Statistical Analysis: For anatomical studies the customary techniques of sectioning and staining will be followed. It is aimed to collect data of anatomical characters of easily available plant parts such as leaf, petiole, stem and root. It is hoped that these studies will enable anybody to identify the plants concerned in the sterile or fragmentary conditions. Findings: Anatomical structure is most likely to provide evidence concerning the interrelationships to families or in establishing the real affinities of genera of uncertain taxonomic status. Application/Improvements: Microscopical studies are also very essential tool to establish the botanical identity of commercial samples of medicinal value and may also aid in checking adulteration or substitution. Apart from anatomical studies, palynological investigation is also to be attempted. This will give additional information both for diagnosis of the plants and for confirmation of their taxonomic position
220 An economic analysis of acid lime production in Vijayapura district of Karnataka , K. Abhilash , M. G. Kerutagi , D. Satish
Objectives: Acid lime is one of the remunerative crops, which is grown on commercial scale in Vijayapura district of Karnataka. Even though there is a gradual increase in both area and production of Acid lime in this district over the years, but still the growers are facing several problems leading to non-economic viability of crop hence, there is good scope for making comprehensive study help the farmers and policy makers to have firsthand prior knowledge on scientific cultivation. Methods: The nature and sources of data were collected by adopting representative random sampling procedure through personnel interview. For the purpose of evaluating the objectives of the study, based on the nature and extent of data, the analytical techniques like tabular analysis, financial feasibility of investment standard tests viz. a) Net present worth, b) Benefit: cost ratio, c) Payback period and d) Internal rate of return were estimated by using the discounted cash flow techniques and the data were processing to draw meaningful results and conclusions. Findings: The results shown that per ha establishment cost of lime was estimated at ₹366463.82 and ₹418158.40 in Indi and Sindagi taluks, respectively. The maintenance cost during gestation and bearing periods were worked out to be ₹181617.46 and ₹65068.73 in Indi taluk; ₹211798.87 and ₹102024.33 in Sindagi taluk, respectively. Financial analysis revealed that at 12 per cent discount rate, the NPV were ₹14,27,910 and ₹10,49,247; B:C Ratios were 2.83 and 2.09; PBP were 5.17 and 5.21 years and IRR were 28 per cent and 23 per cent in Indi and Sindagi taluks, respectively. Application: As indicated by the financial measurements, the investment in Kagzi lime orchard was found to be financially feasible and as there is higher initial investment in Kagzi lime orchards, the farmers who wish to establish the orchards may be provided with the financial assistance by the institutional agencies.
221 Reciprocity between education and economic development in Indian perceptive-modified perception and approach required , Vyomesh Pant
Objectives: The paper is intended to discuss the relationship between education policy and economic development in India, to analyse the present scenario and to provide some suggestions for their reciprocal development. Method/Statistical Analysis: Data from credible official sources have been used and analysed through suitable tables and graphs using descriptive statistical tools like percentage, ratio-proportion and mean to examine whether our education system fulfils the present requirement and addresses the demand of day or whether some modification is required in it. A correlation between the education and economic development has been established to show that there is a reciprocal relationship between them. Findings: The Education policy needs to be revived in accordance with the present requirement. The education must be diversified and be linked with the economic development of the country. Apart from fulfilling its basic requirement, the education must be able to develop the human capital as potential source of GDP for the country. Linking education with employment, micro management of real time problems, sustainable increment in public spending on education, learning from other countries are some of the ways which may bring out the desired change in the education system and simultaneously push the country towards economic development. Applications/Improvements: Modified education policy, as discussed here, may result in exponential economic growth, which, in turn, may provide more financial resources for education and may lead India to become a developed country.
222 Macro-economic factors causing variation in the exchange rate of BRICS countries- a study , Sanjeeta Shirodkar, Karen Fernandes
Objectives: This study aims to identify and analyze which macro-economic factors have an influence on the exchange rate of the currency of each country belonging to BRICS by analysing the long term and short term relationship between the exchange rate and factors such as interest rates, inflation index, and money supply, exports and imports variables. Methods/Statistical Analysis: In order to achieve the objectives of this study OLS model and Johansens cointegration is applied, data is also tested for stationarity using ADF test. Johansens co-integration is employed to analyze the long term relationship between the variables and the short term relationship between the variables is analyzed using Vector error correction model. Findings: OLS model indicated that the exchange rate of the Brazilian Real and Chinese Yuan is affected by interest rates. However in case of the Russian Ruble, inflation and money supply have an impact in addition to interest rates. The exchange rate of the Indian Rupee is affected by imports and the South African Rand is affected by imports as well as interest rates. Johansens co-integration test indicated that all the variables are cointegrated in the long run. The results of VECM indicated that Russian Ruble is the only currency that is affected by the select macro-economic variables in the long run. However in the short run the Russian Ruble is found to be affected by inflation rates, export rates and interest rates. Similarly interest rates have an impact on the Chinese Yuan and inflation rates have an impact on the Brazilian real in the short run. Applications/Improvements: This study can help various stakeholders of BRICS economies to understand which factors have a significant impact on their exchange rate so as to control such factors thereby positively enhancing the economic growth and development of the country.
223 Dual burden of nutrition among adult women in state of Uttar Pradesh: findings from NFHS-4 , Shweta Zala
Objective: This study specifically examines the emerging nutrition transition among adult women living in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Method: The population for the study comprises of 96548 adult women in their reproductive age groups (age 15-59 years) in state of Uttar Pradesh. The representative data for the state was obtained from the 4th round of National Family Health Survey conducted during 2015-’16. Women’s nutritional status was defined on the basis of anthropometric measure of Body Mass Index. Multinomial Logistic Regression analyses have been applied to the representative data provided by the NFHS-4 to identify socioeconomic, regional and demographic determinants of women’s nutritional status. Findings: Problems of over and under nutrition coexist in the state. Findings from the Logistic Regression model identify the standard of living as more important factor influencing the nutritional status of the women than their location of residence. Application: Nutrition research in the context of Uttar Pradesh has been guided by the concern about high prevailing rates of under nutrition, especially among women and children. But recent data reflect upon significant increase in overweight and obesity among adult women population along with coexistence of high rates of under nutrition. The state need to adopt conscious policy framework to ensure the food and nutritional security of the population
224 Women’s entrepreneurship development through self-help groups: journey from under participation to saviour , Sibanarayan Mishra, Chinmayee Sahoo 
Objectives: To investigate progress of SHGs through banking linkages in India and Odisha and to examine the impact of SHGs on women entrepreneurship development and their saving habit. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Multi stage random sampling technique has been incorporated in the study to arrive at Nuasantha Gram Panchayat (GP) of Puri district of Odisha. Out of ten SHGs prevailed in the Panchayat, two SHGs have been chosen outthrough simple random technique. Data has been collected from the members of SHGs and used multiple regression analysis and descriptive statistic such as percentage, average, and pi-chart for interpretation. Findings: The study reveals that in macro scenario growth of SHGs is quite uneven and growth in India is comparatively higher than growth in Odisha. It also concludes that amount of loan disbursed to SHGs from regional rural banks is increasing over the years while public sector banks also have remarkable contribution in this field. It makes a sense that SHG acts as an instrument for financial inclusion by which 40% of members have opened their own bank account after joining to it. The study reveals that major portion of loan (80%) received by the SHG members is used for repaying old debt & business purposes. There have a significant impact of own income on its own savings by 46% which depicts that government should put hand in hand with the bank and the society to mitigate under participation of women in the remote section. Application: The study has its social and economic implication by addressing importance of SHGs in development of women in productive participation and financial contribution in the family
225 Public Distribution System (PDS) and food security: A brief survey of literature , C. Mohammed Kasim, S. Hari Kumar
Objectives: To present a review of existing literature on the role of public distribution system in achieving food security in India. Methods/Statistical analysis: This is mainly a review paper, in which we critically evaluate the previous studies on public distribution system. The paper begins with a discussion on the conceptual evolution of food security. An attempt has been made to assess role of PDS in strengthening the first two components of food security, they are food availability and food access in India. Findings: It is found that there has been a shift in the focus of studies from issues related to production at the national level to factors influencing food security at the household level. Though the public distribution system has been major food security programme in India, it was often criticized for its urban bias and pro-rich nature. Thus with an aim to reach poor, Targeted Public Distribution System (TPDS) was implemented in 1997. TPDS also came under attack for its targeting error, leakages of food grains, poor geographical coverage, and not benefiting poor much. Further, recently implemented national food security act is also targeting in nature and therefore would not be free from problems embodied in the distribution system. Application/Improvements: The National Food Security Act (NFSA) is only partially implemented. Many promising provisions in the act such as entitlement for special groups and protection from starvation have to be implemented immediately to eliminate starvation.
226 Panchayat finance in West Bengal and four other states (1990-91 to 1997-98 and 2005-06 to 2012-2013): a critical analysis , Nityananda Patra
Objectives: To analyse the performance of the Panchayat Raj Institutions (PRIs) in West Bengal and other four states during the periods from 1990-1991 to 1997-1998 and from 2005-06 to 2012-2013 in terms of receipts and expenditures and utilization rates, to analyze the sectoral allocation out of total expenditure and utilization of funds for West Bengal and other four select states and finally to make a comparative study of the trend of total revenue and total expenditure of the PRIs in these states in between two different sub-periods. Methods: Use of trend equitation’s (both conditional and unconditional depending upon the nature of the time series data), estimation of parameters and testing were used for data analysis and interpretation. In addition, some descriptive statistical techniques of data analysis were also applied in our study to analyse data and draw conclusions. Findings: The study revealed that the Panchayat Raj Institutions shed very little fiscal autonomy and post 73rd amendment period could not alter the situation significantly at all albeit an improvement was noticed in the state of West Bengal in both the sub-periods and for Rajasthan and Gujarat each in the first and second sub periods respectively among five select states under study. The locally raised revenues were very negligible, with a high level of financial dependence and low level of fiscal autonomy still continue and these local bodies were bereft of any trait of self-governance. The transfers were made at the convenience and mercy of both state and central governments. Application/Improvements: The policy implications arising from the study advocate that the critical question for long term sustainability of PRIs is closely linked to the success of its own resource generation capacity as well as infusing an omission and commission free democratic set up at the grassroots level.
227 Myriad challenges of ICDS programme: the way forward , Mr. Sanjaya Kumar Ghadai , Prof. S.N. Misra
Background/Objectives: The Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) was unveiled in 1975, as a landmark infant and mother nutritional program with the objective of decreasing Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), providing supplementary nutrition to children who are below the age of six and to expecting nourishing mothers for promoting non formal education through Pre School Education (PSE). Methods/Statistical Analysis: The paper delves into the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), report of UNICEF through the Rapid Survey on Children (RSOC) 2013-14 and the World Bank report on the impact of malnutrition on Gross Domestic Product (GDP). It tries to establish a correlation between Infrastructure/Facility Index (FI) and Performance Index (PI) of different states and the PI based on Child Mortality Rate (CMR), Female Literacy Rate (FLR) and Poverty Ratio (PVR). Findings: The findings clearly show that in terms of coverage, it has a wide reach and has improved percentage under institutional delivery significantly. However in terms of its impact on nutrition for children and of adolescent girls are disappointing. In terms of provision of micro nutrient supplementation, there are wide variation between different states, religion, general category, SC & ST and between male & female, apart from being abysmally low in-terms of intake. The performance index based on three parameters viz. CMR, FLR, PVR clearly show distressing trends in the most populous states of Uttar Pradesh & Bihar. There is a high degree of correlation (0.7%) between facility index and performance index of the better performing states. While coverage has been the main thrust of the programme, the quality dimension remains a serious concern. India has also not achieved Goal 5 of Millennium Development Goals (MDG) in terms of reducing Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) and Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR). Application/Improvements: The paper suggests that though the ICDS programme is well conceived it requires greater allocation priority, better governance autonomy and association of sensitive NGOs. It strongly recommends improvement in the wages of Anganwadi workers and imparting suitable training to them to improve their skill level significantly. The existing infrastructure needs to be significantly bolstered. The early childhood and maternal care should be made a Fundamental Right, on the lines of Right to Education (RTE) Act 2005, so that inclusive justice is a reality
228 Book review: The white man’s burden “Why the west efforts to help the rest have done so much ill and so little good” , Jaber Kohistani
The white man’s burden investigates that despite over a trillion dollars aid to the underdeveloped world, yet poverty counted a major challenge and big tragedy that threaten the third world. Out of trillion dollars of aid, the rest have not benefited well and the major part of aid wasted by planners. It, therefore, argues that the only way to development is to rely less on western assistance and more on their own untapped economic potentials. To make the foreign aid more effective and productive, the international aid agencies should rely on searchers (the free market enterprises). This study is based on secondary data, extracted from various sources like World Bank, world development indicators, and related articles. Objective: To investigate the role of foreign aid on the economic development of underdeveloped world and poverty alleviation. Methodology: This review is from the book (The white man’s burden by easterly), which is based on secondary data. Findings: In this study, we found that to achieve the development goals and to alleviate poverty, the underdeveloped countries must rely more on indigenous searchers (free market enterprises) and less on big plans followed by planners. After WW2, the west started to aid underdeveloped countries in the process of democratization of countries, fixing failed states and poverty alleviation through funding and advice. West spent billions of dollars through different agencies; yet over a billion people live in a condition of extreme poverty. According to World Bank report, one in five subsists on less than $1 per day in developing countries. Easterly does not follow completely the abolition of aid notion as argued by Bauer. Easterly focused on the positive role of foreign aid based on past experiences of successful countries. As a free market advocate, he criticized the policies followed by the west to aid the rest through big plans followed by planners, who could not manage to get 12% medicine to children to protect them from malaria. Here we outlined 4 elements in what is wrong with big plans. There is: Lack of 'customer' feedback from recipients of aid; Lack of incentives in the collective action model; Lack of accountability in donors; Lack of omniscience-planners cannot have complete information. To make the foreign aid more effective and productive, the international aid agencies should rely on searchers (the free market enterprises), who could manage to deliver nine million copies of Harry Potter children book on July 16, 2005, in a single day to their eager fans. Application: Truly independent scientific evaluation of specific aid efforts, continuous evaluation of particular interventions from which agencies can learn, availability of feedback facilities and improvement of accountability positively affect the process of aid allotment and aid utilization.
229 A critical evaluation on forest dependence and forest out comes in West Bengal in the context of joint forest management programme- a case study of Bankura District , Ananya Mazumder
Objectives: The present study based on a field survey in Bankura district, West Bengal tries to find out that to what extent, the member households under the JFM program depend on the concerned forests for their subsistence and to what extent the program has benefited them in terms of forest outcomes. Methods: The study mainly involves descriptive analysis based on a field survey in the district of Bankura, West Bengal across four Forest Protection Committees (FPCs) using multi-stage stratified sampling technique. The survey covers a total of 155 households. The data collected throughout the survey have been put into tabular form after doing some basic calculations. Findings: The study finds that after the implementation of the program, the households, especially those from Female FPC village and those of the landless have been benefited a lot in accessing free bio-mass fuel from the concerned forest areas. Apart from head loading, the households earn a certain sum of money from usufructs share and forestry works. However, on average, a major portion of forest income for all the households (irrespective of village category or land holding status) comes from biomass fuel (along with few NTFPs). It seems that, JFM’s role in terms of tangible economic outcomes is not sufficient, as a major portion of the outcomes is limited in bio-mass fuel. It could hamper the very motive behind sustainable forest management in the coming years, since it is clearly evident that, forest protection is highly linked to people’s willingness and participation, which in turn depends on forest outcomes. In this regard the study suggests yielding of some quick growing NTFPs, like bamboos, cashew nuts along with honey and some medicinal plants that can give the people an additional option for generating extra income to some extent. Besides, increasing forestry working days can also give the people some extra money. Applications/Improvements: JFM has provided the member households with little legitimate access to forest outcomes. However, since forest protection is highly linked to forest outcomes, the concerned forest departments should adopt some initiatives to make them financially availed.
230 Impact of constant price rise of essential consumer goods on living standard of roadside hawkers , Sanjeev Kumar
Objectives: Today, Indian economy faces many difficulties like corruption, unemployment, illiteracy etc. The problem of rising prices is one of the most complex matters that are facing now. From the previous years, prices of essential consumer goods like vegetables, fruits, food grains, petrol and LPG prices are increasing very rapidly. This Inflation of food items disturbs the purchasing power of low-income groups like the roadside hawker. This study tries to evaluate the influences of inflation on food consumption items. Methods: This research paper is based on primary data which is collected nearer religious place roadside hawker. The around 52 roadside hawkers were interviewed and their age group ranged from 18 to 50; with the help of semi-structured, the interview schedule was based on convinces sampling technique with four indicators. The data coding and the tabulation is done with the help of SPSS and MS Excel. Findings: The results show that inflation of essential food items decreased consumption of essential goods at the household level and many roadside hawkers shifted their choice towards the sub standardized food items which directly affects their health. The 67.3% roadside hawkers decreased their household vegetable consumption. LPG, Kerosene, electricity is the main energy resources but more than 70% hawker decreased their consumption and all hawkers decreased their daily milk consumption Application: This study lightened the impact of inflation on the essential consumer items that consumption is decreased by roadside hawker. This affects their health and creates the vicious cycle of poverty. So the centre and state government should control the essential food items and take strong action those promoting the high inflation
231 A study on the impact of promotional campaigns on utilization of government healthcare schemes among rural women in Coimbatore , Dr. P. Sadhasivam , Dr. S. Kavitha , R. Saranya
Objectives: Healthcare plays a vital role in every woman for their healthy long life. Government healthcare schemes are very essential to the people who are not availing the facilities offered by private hospitals. Therefore the purpose of the present study is to investigate the impact of promotional campaigns on utilization of government healthcare schemes among rural women in Coimbatore. Research Methods: 125 women respondents are selected for this study using proportionate stratified random sampling method. Data were collected through questionnaires. The collected data were analyzed with simple percentage, multiple regression and chi-square tests. Findings/Results: Results revealed that 41.6% of the variance of utilization was explained by the factors of promotional campaigns and demographic variables like type of family, education, occupation and income were significant relationship with utilization of government healthcare schemes. Conclusion/Recommendations: The government should promote the healthcare schemes through Television for better reach and government should encourage the volunteers like NGO’s, lines club and many welfare associations to promote the government healthcare schemes for better reach and utilization. This study recommends that the government should concentrate more on the promotional campaigns for better utilization of government healthcare schemes by educated low-income women in rural Coimbatore.
232 Attitude of vegetable growers towards Chikkaballapura agriculture produce market committee , N. Rupa, M.T. Lakshminarayan,  R. Narayana Reddy,  Dishant Jojit James
Objectives: To analyze the attitude of vegetable growers towards Chikkaballapura Agriculture Produce Market Committee (APMC) Methods and statistical analysis: Ninety vegetable growers who had supplied their produce to the Chikkaballapura APMC were personally interviewed using a pre-tested schedule. The collected data were scored, tabulated and analyzed using chi-square test and multiple regression analysis. Ex-post facto research design was followed for the research study. Findings: Majority of vegetable growers (65.55%) had favourable to more favourable attitude towards Chikkaballapura APMC. All the farmers had agreed with the attitude statement ‘APMC ensures fair and competitive prices’, whereas cent per cent of the vegetable growers disapproved with the attitude statement, ‘APMC collects market fee from traders’. Education, achievement motivation, decision making ability, management orientation, innovativeness, economic motivation, mass media participation, extension agency contact and extension participation of vegetable growers had significant to highly significant association with the attitude towards APMC. Applications/Improvements: Frequent contact of vegetable growers with the extension agency and active participation in extension activities of APMC/Horticulture Department will help the farmers in knowing and utilizing the various facilities provided by Chikkaballapura APMC. The mass media may also publish/broadcast/telecast about the benefits provided by Chikkaballapura APMC for developing favourable attitude among vegetables growers towards Chikkaballapura APMC.
233 Study on procurement pattern and factors affecting milk procurement in Nainital District of Uttarakhand , Arpita Kotnala, Anil Kumar
Objective: This study investigated procurement pattern and main factors affecting fluid milk in Nainital district of Uttarakhand. Statistical/analysis: Secondary data were collected from selected co-operative dairy plant for procurement pattern and factors affecting milk procurement for the period 2003 to 2013 and 2008-2013, respectively. The main determinants of factors affecting fluid milk have been identified. The average procurement indices in lean season, mean season and flush season were constructed. Findings: The results indicated that procurement pattern has an increasing trend in the monthly procurement of milk. The milk procurement was at peak in March and lowest in June (summer). It has been found that procurement of milk was usually low in lean season thereafter rising progressively in mean season followed by flush season. On the basis of regression analysis, the study has been found that all the explanatory variables were statistically significant except average value of incentives provided on technical inputs and average kilometers distance travelled per litre of milk procured. Improvements: The study has observed that seasonality affects the level of milk procurement.
234 Factors affecting trade competitiveness of BRICS countries , Arvinder Kaur
Objectives: To examine the trade competitiveness of BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) and position of India among BRICS countries. Methods/Statistical analysis: The paper has used secondary data for 12 indicators (i.e. trade balance-GDP, exports-imports and trade balance-total trade ratio, RCA, share of manufactured export, other manufactured goods, machinery & transport equipment and chemicals in total exports, share in world merchandise exports, intra industry trade and exports-GDP and trade-GDP ratio). Trade competitiveness of BRICS countries was examined by applying technique of factor-analysis and composite index for the three points of time 1995, 2005 and 2015. Findings: 12 indicators of trade competitiveness found the relative position of India among BRICS countries. India has experienced increase in share in world exports in 2015 and India has competitiveness in the exports of manufactured goods, chemicals and other manufactured goods among the BRICS countries. But India is not globally open economy as compared to China and its trade was found to be in deficit in all the study points. Based on 12 indicator of trade competitiveness, composite index found China as the most competitive country followed by Russia, South Africa and Brazil. India was found to be the least competitive country among BRICS countries. Application/Improvements: As India could not improve its position among BRICS countries, there is a need to adopt import liberalization strategy for promotion of exports to reduce trade deficit. Further, Export-led growth strategy should be followed to increase exports.
235 Parity in socio-economic status of fishers and primary producers of coastal India , Dhande Kranthi Kumar , Ramasubramanian V , Ubair Nisar, Ravi Shankar Kumar , Vinay A
Objective: The comparison of the socio-economic status of fishers and primary producers of the coastal India would tried to find out the potential gaps and suggested the measures to be taken for improving their living standards. Methods: The NSSO-68th round unit level data of fishers and primary producers for all the coastal states and UTs except Goa and Lakshadweep Islands was retrieved and used in the study. The results are represented with frequency tables and bar diagrams. The Z test to compare means and population proportions were used to test for its significant difference. Findings: The results revealed that the parity is existed between the fishers and primary producers with respect to their family size, religion, social group, training, subsidiary activity, employment status, land ownership, savings account and membership with associations. However, there is no parity in the literacy, MGNREG beneficiaries, land utilising for cultivation and average monthly expenditure. The literates among fishers and agricultural households are found to be more than the rural average literacy rate. There is scope to increase the MGNREG beneficiaries among fishers through proper implementation of the scheme to reduce the unemployment during lean season as their percentage was found to be less than the agricultural households. The fishers engaged in subsidiary activity were found to be less. Since the average income of fishers was less than the agricultural households, motivation of fishers to take up subsidiary activities may provide them to earn additional income to overcome the debt trap and during lean seasons. The average monthly consumption expenditure of fishers was comparatively lesser than the agricultural households because of their poor accessibility to various goods and services. Application: The living standards of agricultural dependent population are comparatively lower than the people of any other sectors. The fisheries sector, being the fastest growing sector among the allied sectors of agriculture, the benefits thus obtained can be distributed in favour of poor fishers to improve their living conditions by adopting proper policies.
236 Relationship between trade openness and unemployment: empirical evidence for Bangladesh , Mohammad Iqbal Hossain, FarianTahrim, Md. Sabbir Hossain, Md. Maznur Rahman
Objectives: Whether unemployment is affected by trade openness in Bangladesh is the main objective of this study. We further determine the relationship between the public expenditure on education and unemployment. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Applying VECM we find the relationship between unemployment and trade openness taking time series data from 1990 to 2016 for Bangladesh. Here, public expenditure on education used as control variable. ADF test use for unit root and Johansen co-integration test to find the co-integration among the variables. Finally, we consolidate our results using Jarque Bera test for normality assumption and BreushGodfrey Serial Correlation LM test for measuring autocorrelation. Findings: The findings reveal that there is significant co-integration between trade openness and unemployment. In the long run, public frequent expenditure on education lead to a decline in unemployment, but trade openness policy is associated with an increase in unemployment. However, the initial impact of openness captured by short-term dynamics is observed also to increase unemployment while public expenditure on education cannot impact the country’s unemployment in short run. Again further analysis finds that the short term shock is restoring to the equilibrium and the most effective response to restore the system to equilibrium is trade openness. But public expenditure on education has been founded no influence on restoring equilibrium. Application/Improvements: So, following the result, the policy maker should divert from trade liberalization to reduce unemployment from the country and public education expenditure should have more consideration.
237 Rationality behind Short-run Mispricing of IPOs in India , Reshma Sinha Ray, Arup Kumar Chattopadhyay
Objectives: The study examines the nature of pricing of IPOs in the Indian primary market over the last one and half decades (2000-01 to 2015-16). Further, we have tried to explain the rationality behind mispricing of IPOs in terms of general stock market movements. To be specific, the focus is on how does the prior general stock market behavior affects pricing of IPOs. Methods: We have collected data through different sources, like, prime database, the official websites of BSE and NSE. For the purpose of evaluating the objectives of the study, ordinary least square (OLS) method is used to estimate parameters. In this context, two opposite situations of market (i.e., positive reactions and negative reactions) are used to predict the average return of IPOs. In addition, some descriptive statistical techniques of data analysis were also applied in our study to analyze data and draw conclusions. Findings: It is seen that like the evidences of the developed market and other emerging markets IPOs are also underpriced in India. Like developed market in India also the book building method is gaining importance over the years. Interestingly, it is found that if market return reacts positively prior to issuance of IPOs average underpricing would be higher compared to the alternative situation. However, from the results of the estimated analysis, it is documented that general stock market movements do not have any significant role in explaining underpricing of IPOs in India. Applications: From the estimated results of the study, it is apparent that underpricing of IPOs is persistent in India immediately after listing. Further, it is also appeared that unlike developed markets, in India prior stock market movements does not have any significant role in explaining underpricing phenomenon
238 Meta-analysis on flagship schemes at village Panchayat level: a study in Bankura District of West Bengal , Nityananda Patra , Dr. Arup Kumar Chattopadhyay
Objective: (1) To critically evaluate the effectiveness of these two flagship schemes in fulfilling and implementing the objectives as enshrined in the policy guidelines. (2) To make a comparative analysis of the performances of the schemes in two different political set up namely, the Left front ruled government and the Trinamool congress ruled government and lastly. (3) To make future policy recommendations. Methodology: Meta-analysis using SPSS software package was meticulously done to decipher the financial lapses obtained from the voluminous unpublished audit reports on fifteen sample Panchayats. Meta-analysis actually helps summarizing the unclassified various observations. The model encompasses problem formulation, data collection, data evaluation, data analysis and interpretation and public presentation. Findings: The reality check through this unique meta-analysis approach using data from the unpublished local audit reports of the respective village Panchayats with regards to the functioning of the two important flagship schemes namely, MGNREGS and IAY at disaggregated level during 2005-06 to 2015-16 in Bankura district, West Bengal revealed that their overall performances for both security of livelihood especially for providing enough man-days of employment and women empowerment were subversive in nature and not at all in commensurate with the stated objectives as enshrined in the guidelines. It became clear that during the left front rule not a single village Panchayat could fulfil this minimum criterion of providing 100 man-days of guaranteed employment and the situation during the TMC Rule did not improve rather deteriorates. The change in political establishments did not alter the situation significantly. Application/Improvement: Meta-analysis approach for analysing the effectiveness of the two important flagship schemes is very rare and we have not come across this type of study so far
239 A critical analysis of direct benefit transfer in India , Justin Joy
Objectives: To critically evaluate direct benefit transfer mission in India, in terms of Aadhaar Card linkages, seeded bank accounts and in light of global experience. The paper also takes an account of the inflationary pressures that unconditional cash transfers may bring in to the system. Methods: This is more of a descriptive study. Literature related to the study is critically approached and a few facts and figure that are officially released by direct benefit transfer mission of India has been used for the better understanding for the period 2013-2017. Findings: From the analysis it is evident that by the time the Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) system has been introduced in 2013, 5.68 crore beneficiaries were not holding an Aadhaar and the number became 8.36 crore in 2017. In 2017 only 29.01 % of fund transfer has been done through Aadhaar seeded bank accounts. Therefore even though Direct Benefit Transfer system is an innovative and efficient system, India was not prepared to take it up. So serious efforts of government is required in the grass root level by providing Aadhaar and Aadhaar bridge payment assistance to the common people. Application: Continuous evaluation is required to ensure that no beneficiaries have denied their services in name of Aadhaar bridge payments. They must be given enough time and support considering India’s depth and breadth in size and its poor literacy level among poor people. A study in the future when more data is available about the implementation of direct benefit transfer, can tell more systematically about the success and failures of the programme in India
240 Financial security concerns for healthcare among the elderly people in rural areas: a case study of tribal community in North East India , Sino Olive Shohe, Nirankar Srivastav
Background: A community based case study on the situation of elderly people who are above 60 years of age living in rural areas, mainly with respect to their financial capability to withstand healthcare needs has been undertaken in this work. Method: Primary cross sectional data from the elderly people belonging to Sumi tribe living in rural areas of Nagaland, located at the North Eastern region of India generated during 2017 has been used in this present study. A statistical descriptive financial status and security for healthcare financing from household use perspective has been emphasized in our study. Findings: This present case study on the tribal elderly people living in rural areas of Nagaland in India observed a serious concern for healthcare financing arising from inadequate regular income and savings accentuated by the absence of efficient provision of geriatric healthcare services. Majority of the elderly people in rural Nagaland who are dependent on agriculture and old age pensions for income are faced with a situation of declining income and in general among those negatively affected are the very old ones above 80 years, elderly women and widowed elderly. Application/Improvements: Declining of income and savings among the rural elderly has an adverse negative impact on healthcare in particular and wellbeing in general. Steps to improve the economic status of the rural elderly through improvement in providing sufficient and efficient income distribution is advisable and at the same time healthcare can be greatly improved if easily accessible, affordable and geriatric friendly healthcare services can be made possible at the primary and community healthcare centers.
241 An Endeavour to empirically verify the ‘Feminisation ‘U’ Hypothesis’ of female labour force participation rate in India (1991-2016) , Suravikar Roy
Objectives: This paper aims at empirical investigation of the ‘U’ pattern of association between female labour force participation rate in India and its determinants using secondary data for the period (1991-2016). Methods/Statistical analysis: To test the validity of this ‘feminisation ‘U’ hypothesis’ a scatter diagram has been presented to display the association between FLFP and GDPPCPPPCONST for the period (1991-2016). Contrary to the earlier studies two distinct ‘U’ pattern of movement for two different periods period 1: (1991-2005) and period 2: (2005-2016) have been noticed and separate OLS regression using linear and quadratic models for period 1 and period 2 respectively have been carried out. Findings: Regression results suggest that for both the periods quadratic models explain the influence of GDP per capita better on female labour force participation rate and this verifies the ‘feminisation ‘hypothesis’. This is consistent with the existing literature and adds value to them as it is based on updated data. Some other factors like school enrolment, secondary, female (% gross) (FSC), school enrolment, secondary, male (% gross) (MSC), Employment to Total Population Ratio (ETPR), fertility rate (FERT) are also incorporated for analysing their possible influence causing this pattern of association. The ‘U’ pattern of association between FLFP and FSC and FLFP and FERT, FLFP and MSC are also noticed which proves the nonlinearity between i. FLFP and FSC and ii. FLFP and FERT, iii. FLFP and MSC. Application/Improvements: We find twice the evidence of ‘U’ shaped pattern of association between FLFP and GDPPC PPP cost which might indicate that the association might be oscillatory in nature which can be empirically tested.
242 Household bargaining and marital practices among young Indian women , Neha Verma
Objective: The paper attempts to unravel the household bargaining power and autonomy in marital practices among young Indian women vis-à-vis their husband and older women in the household. Statistical Analysis: The unit level Indian Human Development Survey-II (2011-12) data is used for the study. Individual and household level autonomy is assessed through attributes like decision making in the household, mobility, financial autonomy and social and political consciousness among women. However, marital practices are studied in relation to marital history and nature of marital relationship. The differences in the percentages of young and old women with respect of these attributes are tested through two group mean comparison using ttesting and significance of the difference is noted and conclusions are drawn. Findings: The major finding of the study is the presence of gendered division of work in the household in Indian society. Women after marriage remain under the influence of older women in the household and take up more prominent role as they get older. The education level of younger women fails to increase her decision making autonomy and mobility. However, education and work independence are important in enhancing women autonomy on various other fronts. A pragmatic change in the attitude of both men and women is required for gender equality in household and in society as a whole.
243 Evaluation of alternate animal identification techniques and livestock insurance products in Bengaluru rural district of Karnataka , G.L. Pallavi, Ajmer Singh , B.S. Chandel , R. Sendhil , S.S. Lathwal
Objectives: The present study evaluates different techniques used for identification of insured animals, assesses the farmers’ need and their willingness to buy insurance for different livestock insurance products. Methodology/Statistical Analysis: The data required for the study was collected by direct personal interview method based on a well-structured schedule from 120 sample households through multistage sampling technique in Bengaluru rural district of Karnataka. Scale ranging from very poor to excellent was used to assess the identification techniques based on considered parameters for the study. Conjoint analysis was used to calculate the estimated utilities for different livestock insurance products. Findings: It was found that plastic tag was having advantages in case of cost, labour requirement, application ease and animal health compared to plastic tag plus branding while plastic tag plus branding was advantageous in case of readability and durability compared to plastic tag alone. The estimated utility for mastitis was found highest (0.765) at one teat blindness and for metritis, estimated utility was highest (1.927) up to four number of services. The most important factors determining the farmers’ willingness to buy insurance were governed by the depreciation charge followed by level of teat blindness in case of mastitis and number of services in case of metritis disease. Application/Improvements: Insurance companies should maintain regular, reliable and complete database related with animal identification techniques in order to assess the efficiency of different animal identification techniques promptly. Insurance companies and Karnataka state Department of Animal Husbandry can include alternate insurance products viz., mastitis, metritis, transit insurance and theft with affordable premium charges which do not exist in the present livestock insurance
244 Monetary policy in India during crisis: impact on inflation , Dr. Kajleen Kaur, Dr. Yogieta S. Mehra
Objectives: The study aims to compare the effectiveness of monetary policy in controlling inflation in India during pre and post global financial crisis by analysing the long term and short-term relationship between inflation gap, output gap, fiscal deficit, nominal exchange rate, money supply and interest rate. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study employs Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) to co-integration. It is an advanced technique since it allows the flexibility to use variables of different order of integration (I(0) and I(1)) as compared to other methods such as VAR or VECM, which work on differenced variables and therefore led to loss of data. It also takes sufficient number of lags to avoid the problem of endogeneity in the models. Findings: The ARDL co-integration results suggest that interest rate isan effective tool of monetary policy in controlling inflation in India. The effectiveness however does reduce in the post-crisis period. It implies fiscal dominance of the monetary policy, where fiscal deficit per se does not cause inflation; still it can impact the latter through its transmission to the monetary policy, as was the case in the post global financial crisis period. The co-integration results also suggest that output gap, foreign exchange rate and money supply all have a significant impact on inflation gap, with no change in the behaviour of former two on inflation gap in the preand post-crisis period. While the money supply variable becomes less effective in the latter period. Crude oil price is found to be insignificant during the pre-crisis period but becomes significant during post crisis, while fiscal deficit remains insignificant in both the periods. Application/Improvements: This study supports the use of interest rate as a monetary policy tool, which is extremely relevant in wake of the shift of Indian monetary policy to inflation targeting. It highlights the need to control fiscal deficit for controlling inflation
245 A review on impact of demonetization on Indian Economy , Sibani Deka
Objectives:To identify the possible impact of recent Demonetisation technique in India by reviewing the existing literature and examining the tax GDP ratio and GDP growth rate and sector wise growth rate before and after demonetisation. Methods: Since present study is basically a review of existing literature so it is fully based on secondary data. Secondary information is collected from various journals and economic survey of India various issue. Findings: By reviewing the earlier literature it is observed that from theoretical point of view Demonetisation is not encouraging. The study also found that though the tax GDP ratio has been increased after Demonetisation but GDP growth rate along with growth rate of different sector have fall immediately after Demonetisation. Future improvements: However due to lack of data, long run impact like impact on recovering black money has not estimated in the present study. So future study can be made in this regards.
246 A multidimensional analysis of preventative healthcare measures in India, with special reference to Madurai District, Tamil Nadu , Dr. P. Devi Priya
Objectives: To assess the level of privileged preventive measures among the States and districts of Tamil Nadu and comprehend the pattern of preventive measures at the household level in Madurai district. Methods and Statistical Analysis: Census 2011 data was used to study the preventive measures at the State level. Household data were collected from 720 households in Madurai district, with 360 from rural and urban each by adopting a three stage stratified sampling method. At household level Multidimensional Preventive Headcount Index was computed. Chi-square was used to find the relationship between the preventive measures and place of residence, education and economic status Findings:At the national level, the indices reflect that most of the southern states especially Tamil Nadu was moderately privileged. A wide regional disparity was observed that 42% of urban are in privileged status while in rural it is only eight percent. A similar trend was observed in Tamil Nadu that tends to increase the morbidity rates. The same pattern was observed in the district and household level. The findings were similar to the results of Census 2011 and NFHS-4 Phase I (2015-16). Chi-square results reiterate the impact of place of residence, education of the head and economic status on the adoption of preventive measures. Zero dimension privilege was found among four percent of rural households which emphasises the urgent need to improve the rural part of the district. Conclusion/Suggestions: Preventive healthcare should be perceived as an investment and concentration on them would mitigate the communicable disease incidence and create positive externality. To reduce the regional inequalities, rigorous implementation of the preventive measures has to be made in rural areas particularly
247 Progress in delivery of services: the case of rural west Bengal , Dr. Ankita Roy
Objective: The objective of the study is to examine the infrastructural development of rural West Bengal which has direct impact on quality of life of rural people. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The study has used an array of three service facilities as the parameter of infrastructural development of rural West Bengal. They are: availability of safe drinking water, primary health facility and primary school facility. The selected facility services are having direct consequence on the quality of life of rural people. Progress in delivery of services has been measured through inter-temporal changes in the concerned service facilities. Time points considered are 2001 and 2014. Areas still identified as poor in supply of selected services has been demonstrated accordingly. Findings: The distribution of selected service facilities in the year of 2001 in rural West Bengal has been meager. However, among these three services, in primary health sub centre facility remarkably poor condition has been found. The same situation persists in the concerned facility till date. Altogether six districts have been found to be poor performing in two or more selected facilities in 2001. They have been termed as major backward districts. These districts are Bankura, Birbhum, South Dinajpur, Murshidabad, South 24 Parganas and East Medinipur. As far as the decadal improvement across districts of rural West Bengal is concerned, it shows a mixed scenario. South Dinajpur district has been identified as consistently major backward (i.e. backward in both selected time points). Few districts such as Bankura, Birbhum, South 24 Parganas and Murshidabad have shown decadal improvements in delivery status of selected facilities while districts such as Maldah and West Medinipur have shown degraded performance. These two districts have been found to be major backward currently although not previously. Improvements: It is an established fact that performance of any macro unit of observation (e.g. a district) is dependent on the performance of the micro units of observation (i.e. blocks of the concerned district). Hence, the task ahead is to identify the poor delivered blocks responsible for poor performance of the districts hence identified.
248 Health awareness among young human capital on fast food consumption , N. Jeny
Objectives: This research was carried to find the factors influencing student’s preference for fast food and to analyze the awareness of health problems due to excess fast food consumption and the hypothesis test on there is no relationship between educational qualification and health awareness. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The period of study was 2017-2018. The study is based on primary data. The data has been collected through questionnaire. Convenience sampling method was adopted.100 samples were selected. The tools used in this study were percentage tables, Chi square test, Likert summated scaling technique with five-point scale was used. Findings: We can see that 67% of respondents pick the shops because of the taste gave by the shop and 1% of the respondents favor the shops for its markdown offers. In this manner, the vast majority of the youths were not following rebates now-a-days they favor taste most importantly. 86 percent of respondents think about therapeutic issues caused by eating up more fast food. In spite of the way that they have not decreased their usage of fast food, which is a threat to their prosperity. Most of the respondents realize that restorative issues caused by eating fast food. The computed esteem 17.18 is more noteworthy than table esteem 7.81. Along these lines there is connection between instructive capability and wellbeing mindfulness. From the Likert Scale clearly medium state of mind on medical issues like circulatory strain, glucose, heart related issues and heftiness examined is more prominent than higher demeanor. The vast majority of the respondents know about medical issues caused by eating fast food. Conclusion: It isn't difficult to win a war with garbage/quick nourishments against solid nutrition. Notwithstanding, one must be careful; it is in our grasp to pick fast food or wellbeing.
249 Segmentation of Inland fish consumer in Anand District, Gujarat , Shakti Ranjan Panigrahy, Dilip Vahoniya
Objective: Segmentation of the market is the need of the hour as producer is always searching best consumer for its product. That incorporates here as objectives of study. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Three hundred consumers have been selected from different major market destination of Anand district. Income of the consumer, household size, distance from the market, prefer day of consumption and per quantity purchase were the variables that considered for market segmentation determination. Cluster analysis technique has been used here, where both hierarchical cluster and k mean cluster were applied. Significance of different variables was considered through Analysis of Variance procedure. Findings: There are three clusters formed in this study. Consumers of higher cluster are one and half times more than the small cluster. Each cluster compiles variables like household Size (demographic variable), Purchase quantity in kg and Prefer day of purchase (Behavioural variable) and Distance from market (Geographic variable). Here income of consumer has no significance in cluster formation. Distance from the market is a major variable that makes the market in to different segment in a significant way. From the different higher household consumer travels more distance for purchasing of Inland fish. Second and third cluster consumers purchase Inland fish in early part of week; preferably Sunday and Monday, whereas first cluster consumers purchase the same in last part of the week; preferably Friday and Saturday. It shows Inland fish market concentrates only for four days majorly in study area. These findings are different as it is segmented the market through different clusters. Findings though 5% Level of significance erase any biasness and sample findings resemblance with population parameters and result generalize the findings. Cluster analysis is a data reduction, exploratory based multivariate techniques. It improves the validity of results. Application/Improvements: Designing market segmentation with effective tools and technique will find the best consumer for the best product of the poor producers that shape the market a new shape.
250 Value Chain up-gradation through collective action: a step towards inclusive growth , Ravi Nandi, Nithya V.G, Wolfgang Bokelmanna
Objectives: Small and marginal farmers are being excluded from emerging innovative models owing to the high transaction cost in aggregation, poor quality and information asymmetry among the farmers. There are several opportunities to upgrade the traditional value chains leading to high price realization among the farmers. In the present study, Organic Fruits and Vegetable value chains were analyzed to suggest the strategies for value chain upgrading (Product, Process and Functional upgrade) through collectivization for inclusive growth. Method: The survey was conducted in Karnataka state in South India, by involving 200 farmers through purposive random sampling drawn from an official list of certified organic farmers followed by interview with 14 other value chain actors, focus group & key informant interviews, direct observation and documents to obtain necessary information. Findings: Results revealed that, there are five distinct market linkages prevailing involving informal contracts along the chain. Great potential for process and product upgrading through collective action leading to higher price realization and social capital formation among small and marginal farmers. Application: Results have a potential policy and practical implications for directing Institutions to help smallholder producer organizations for the improvement of organic fruit and vegetable production and processing activities for inclusive agricultural growth.
251 Examining environmental sensitivity in India , Debashree Das
Objectives: Evaluate the degree of “Environmental Sensitivity” and determine factors that influence individual’s pro-environmental behaviour. The objective is to explore important causal processes operating in contemporary Indian society which best predicts the environmental sensitive behavior. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Using data gathered from World Value Survey (WVS)-Wave 6 database from 2010- 2014 to investigate the relationship between attitude and self-driven consumer behavior towards the environment. The factors included are: (1) Collective Action and Political Participation, (2) Perception of Democracy, (3) Negative externalities, (4) Social Cohesion and Trust, (5) Political Unrest and Fear, (6) Morality, (7) Personal and Social Value (Schwartz), (8) Religiosity and Spiritual Well Being. The data analysis primarily uses structural equation modeling (SEM) and partial least squares (PLS) statistical methods. Findings: This paper as a novelty shows the relevance of certain behavioural parameters that are often neglected in analyzing the cause of environmental damage at the grass root level, such as political interest, social capital, fear of political unrest, democracy and increasing political participation. These variables have a strong impact on the environmental sensitivity. Application: The effect of Morality, Social Value and Political participation was statistically significant with overall goodness of fit of 48%. The strongest effect was observable for Social Value Orientation, which validates the fact that cross-cultural differences are one of the major reasons for the environmental sensitivity among individuals. All three proxies of environmental sensitivity that were statistically significant in the study have a positive impact on individuals’ attitude towards environmental morale. Thus, there is a need to frame an egalitarian, affectionate and intellectually enlightened economy, the policy aim of government should be create awareness among individuals and also highlight the cross-country comparisons of other nations faring well in environmental monitoring and control.
252 MGNREGA and Labour employability –a comparative analysis of KBK and Non-KBK regions of Odisha, India , Dr. Minati Sahoo, Ms. Liza Pradhan, Mr. Simachal Mishra
Objectives: Within India, KBK regions in Odisha are considered to be the most backward regions. MGNREGA, by providing guarantee employment to the rural households, empowers the marginalized through decentralized planning and ensures the livelihood security. Hence the present study attempts to analyze the employability performance of MGNREGA in KBK and Non-KBK regions of Odisha. Method: To analyze the performance of the scheme in KBK region and Non-KBK of Odisha, a comparative analysis has been done over a period of five years from 2013-14 to 2017-18. The study is mostly based on secondary sources. Most of the data were collected from Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India. For analysis, data collected has been summarized and portrayed in tables and figures. Beside this, mathematical and statistical techniques such as averages, percentages have also been used in the present study. Findings: The study found that the performance of MGNREGA in terms of 100 days of wage employment, person-days generated, and Schedule Tribe (ST) and women person-days is better in KBK regions than in NonKBK regions of Odisha. Further total expenditure, total wages, average cost and average wage rate per day person in KBK district is better than Non-KBK district of Odisha. But these regions are lagging behind their NonKBK counterparts in case of average days of employment provided per household and job cards issued. Thus, though the difference of MGNREGA performance in terms of rural employment generation in KBK and non-KBK is not substantial, but still MGNREGA can serve an important means for eradicating poverty and enhancing the socio-economic condition of the tribal in these regions. Application: Effective measures should be taken by the Government machinery for more opportunities for work and better implementation of the scheme so that the poor and marginalized especially in the tribal backward regions can join the main stream of the society
253 A study on the trends of land-use change in India (1950-2009) , Simran Bhatia, Dr. Mahua Bhatacharjee
Objective: An attempt is made to study the change in land use for the period of five decades (1950-2009) so as to access the direction as well as scale of these changes. Method: This research paper takes the help of secondary data to analyze the trends of land use change at the whole national level. A regression analysis is done on the time series land-use statistics to demonstrate an existential linkage among different categories of land-use. The regression analysis has taken land under nonagricultural uses as dependent variable and barren as well as arable land area as independent variables. Findings: The null hypothesis is rejected at 5% level of significance, giving the regression equation Y= 194.83 - 0.144X1 -0.0588X2, which implies that the transformations which occurred in land area that is taken under nonagricultural purposes will revise the use of land that is barren and non-arable & arable land. If in the present time there is increase in area of land that is under uses other than agricultural then there will be 14.4% decrease in non-arable and barren land and 5.8% fall in arable (land area) tomorrow. The point to be noted is that with rapid rise in area that is under non-agricultural use, there is an immediate decrease in arable land. There is an increase from 2.2% in 1950-60 to 9.4% in 2000-2009 of land area under non-agricultural use. The barren and non-arable land declined from 11% to 6.3% during the same period. The existing studies also shows that there is a rapid decline in arable land area in the past few decades but the variables taken into account in this study are not studied very frequently in other studies. Application: The study will be helpful in making future policies which are concerned with using current arable land area for non-agricultural activities.
254 Barriers to trade and their impact on production and export of red Chilli in India , P. Muthupandi, C. Sekhar, K.R. Karunakaran
Objectives: Red Chilli is the principal spice exported to different nations from India. Even though the production and export of Red Chilli is on the increasing side, there are certain barriers which actually hinder the trade and hence the study has focused on identifying the Non-Tariff Barriers and its impact on Production and Export of Red Chilli in Tamil Nadu. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The researcher has chosen Ramanathapuram, Sivagangai and Thoothukkudi Districts as study area among the 32 districts in Tamil Nadu owing to higher area under Chilli cultivation. For the study, 120 sample farms have been chosen following a Three-Stage Random Sampling Technique. Using the time series data, the production and export performance were assessed following a Compound Growth Rate Analysis and Cop-pock’s Instability Index was also used to test the instability if any in the export trade. Findings: Remarkable achievement in productivity of Chilli is visible only during the period of 2016-17. It might be due to the practice of adoption of precision technologies at field. The steady growth in productivity is visible from 2005-06 because of the intervention of National Horticulture Mission focusing area expansion and productivity enhancement. One of the foremost restrictions in the Consignment of Red Chilli is prevention of Pesticide Residues and the Aflatoxin toxicity. The standards set by the various importing countries for different forms of the Chilli produce varies from country to country. In this context, different export norms have to be followed by the exporters. Another issue is, the export of Red Chilli has faced some instability. The export of Chilli found to be on the higher value in terms of both Indian Rupees and US dollars during pre-globalization period and however it could be found decreasing during the post globalization era. Post Globalization period has faced decreasing trend in the export of Chilli Spice when compared to the Pre-implementation of globalization. Applications: Findings of the study will be a guiding force to the exporters of Red Chilli in learning the regulations in vogue, product standards prescribed by different nations for follow up. Strict adherence of regulations, and the export trade has grown. Considering the performance of trade, National Horticulture Mission is taking effort to establish Spice Parks on need basis to boost the production and export to facilitate supply.
255 How is the level of awareness of women investors towards investment avenues in West Bengal affected by the demographics and the source of information? , Amalendu Bhunia, Humaira Siddika
Objectives: This study investigates the influence of the sources of information and the demographics on the level of awareness of women investors in West Bengal. Methdology: The study is based on primary data through the structured questionnaire using descriptive statistics, exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. Results: Descriptive statistics shows that primary educated married (home maker) women investors in the age of 31-45 years have a thorough understanding and expert knowledge about investment in financial assets and physical assets than others. Multiple regression test results show that marital status and education level of women investors influences to invest in physical assets and financial assets. It has also been observed that family members, friends and agents are the main source of information and they are influencing mainly to invest in physical assets and financial assets in West Bengal. Conclusions/Recommendations: Segment-wise training and education, a healthy and regular savings and investment habits, the habit of financial planning by organising seminar and workshops are needed for increasing the level of awareness and the sources of information towards investment avenues of women investors.
256 Issues and challenges of urban growth in Nagaland , Hulin , B. Kilangla Jamir
Objectives: This paper aim to bring out the prevailing issues the urban dwellers are confronting at present in the state of Nagaland and the challenges faced by both the urban planners and the government with reference to its two most urbanised town viz. Kohima Town and Dimapur Town. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The study has been done in purposively selected districts and simple random sampling technique was used to select 400 respondents; 200 respondents each from Kohima and Dimapur town. For data analysis, we used simple statistical tools such as averages, percentiles and bar graph to make the work simple and for better understanding of the topic. Findings: From the study, it is found that inadequate basic urban amenities like housing, water supply, public roads and prevailing issues like drainage system, air and water pollution and solid waste management problem has been seen as a detrimental factors for harmonious urban community life. These urban issues are getting more serious in the State due to lack of adequate capital resources to address and handle the problems on one hand and poor public service delivery system on the other hand. Due to limited works and documentation of these urban issues in the past has been a setback for the urban planners to bring out viable solution for urban problems. Thus, the need of the hour is that the municipalities and management agencies are required to come up with a comprehensive city plans and contain the burning issues before it becomes too late. Application/ Improvement: The findings of this study will be of immense beneficial for urban related studies in small town as well as for the urban planners in the state, as no individual or agency has carried out any exclusive and intensive research so far for the state of Nagaland.
257 Farmer’s asset- holding pattern in drought prone region in Western Maharashtra ,  Dr. M.S. Deshmukh, Dr. S.S. Vyavahare
Present paper focuses on the asset pattern of sample farmers in drought prone region in western Maharashtra. To analyze the Gini Co-efficient Index and Lorenz curve for the distribution of asset pattern among the sample households in western Maharashtra. Objectives: The major objective of this paper is to study and find out (i) the asset pattern of sample farmers in drought prone region in western Maharashtra (ii) analyze the Gini Co-efficient Index and Lorenz curve for the distribution of asset pattern among the sample households in western Maharashtra. Methods/Statistical analysis: This paper is purely based on primary data collected from the drought prone region of western Maharashtra. Researcher has selected randomly five percent villages from each sample taluka of the respective district of Solapur and Sangli district and 20 farmers from each sample village. Total 360 households have been interviewed. Column title figures in parentheses are number of farmers interviewed as per their group/categories. The tabulated data is analyzed by using the suitable statistical tools. The formula for estimating Gini co-efficient under trapezoidal rule is given below: ƩN K=1 (PK - PK-1) (qK + qK-1) Gini Co-efficient = 1 - --------------------------------- N The distribution of asset among the households of farmers is analysed through frequency distribution and docile group analysis. Lorenz curves and Gini Co-efficient are used to find out the level of inequality in the distribution of asset among the sample households. Findings: Present paper reveals that, on the basis of size of holding, of the total asset in sample area of western Maharashtra, 63.95% asset were owned by large farmers, 25.52% by medium farmers and 10.53% by small farmers during 2015-16. Average asset value of land of small farmers was 56.3%, medium farmers 70% and large farmers 77% in the sample households of western Maharashtra. The proportion of asset pattern on the basis of social categories states that 54.58% asset were owned by general category, 29.24% by OBC and 16.18% owned by scheduled caste in sample area of western Maharashtra during 2015-16. Occupation wise proportion of asset pattern of sample households in western Maharashtra revels that 36.76 % of total asset is owned by cultivators only. The average asset values of large farmers were (₹38.62 lakh) i.e. 6.07 times of the small farmers (₹6.36). There is high difference in distribution of asset pattern of sample households during 2015-16. There was substantial difference in land value has resulted in the asset values of small, medium and large farmers. Improvement in social sector investments under the public spending may reduce inequality to the greatest extent. Governments should initiate the schemes for protecting the right to a living wage. The universal basic income measure will assist to bridge the gap between rich and poor. There is a need to strengthen the financial support to agriculture sector. Application/Improvement: The present paper is useful to measure the inequality in assets holding pattern and can be applied to measure the consumption distribution pattern also. It can be applied to design the specific schemes or programmes for the different groups of farmers to improve their livelihoods.
258 Afghan refugees in India: chasing the mirage of stability and security? , Prof. Archana Dassi , Rabab Imam
Objectives: Afghan refugees are the oldest and the largest refugee group present in India, wherein they face many challenges, as there is no refugee policy to support them. The present study attempts to look at the Post Migration Living Difficulties faced by the Afghan refugee families in India and the coping mechanisms used by them. Research Methods: 20 Ethnic Afghan refugee families were interviewed for the purpose of this study, using snowball-sampling method. An interview schedule was used to and the collected data was both quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. Findings: The findings show a significant change in the socio-economic conditions status of Afghan Refugees post migration. There is a rise in the number of young people working in the interviewed Afghan families, however, due to lack of work permit most of them end up working in the informal sector leading to a significant decline in the family income. All these factors make unemployment and lack of money to buy items of necessity, the biggest Post Migration Living Difficulties faced by them. Conclusions/Recommendations: The study concludes that Afghan refugees flee from their country to start a better life in India but besides basic protection to life, India does not ascertain anything for them. They face many challenges and have an uncertain future here. Awareness regarding their situation and significant steps for their inclusion are required to enable these families lead a better life in India
259 The impact of world trade organization’s TRIPS agreement on access to essential medicine in Nigeria: apolitical economy analysis , Muhammad Yusuf , Musa Abdu
Background/Objectives: In view of the trade-off, this paper sought to delve into the implications of TRIPs agreement on access to essential medicines in Nigeria. Methods/Statistical analysis: Data from World Bank and World Health Organization were used in the paper. The study adopted some techniques of descriptive analysis like charts and tables in accomplishing its objectives. Findings: The study came up with the following findings. First, a great number of people living with diseases lack access to essential medicines and the figures are rather increasing on daily basis, thereby resulting in the death of millions of people, due to TRIPs. Second, TRIPs agreement might be seen as a strategic tool used in maintaining and perpetuating developing countries’ dependency on developed world. Third, other factors like distribution challenges, information gap (lack of awareness), and social factors (like stigmatization) are playing subservient roles in restricting people from accessing essential medicines even though some of the medicines are provided free of charge. Applications: The study recommended that TRIPs agreement should be reviewed; there should be a publicprivate partnership in the provisioning of the essential medicines; and bridge information gap through awareness creation.
260 Developmental perspectives in the remote villages characterized with rugged topography in Garhbeta – I block of Paschim Medinipur Distruct of West Bengal , Dr. Pragna Bhattacharya, Sudipta Das, Y.S. Palpara Mahavidyalaya
Objectives: This work deals with some remote villages characterized with rugged topography in the Paschim Medinipur district of West Bengal, India. The main objectives are firstly to analyze the physical background of the study area in relation to agricultural practice; Next to make crop suitability analysis and fertilizer recommendation for the agricultural development of the rural villages and also major thrust is given on the agro marketing. Methods: In the selected villages a study is made on the physical background in relation to agricultural practice. Then crop suitability analysis is also done. Based on this analysis, fertilizer recommendation is done by increasing and reducing the amount of P2O5 and K2O and soil pH. Important and rational transport routes are identified through which agricultural surplus production are transported. Finally some suggestions are given for the overall development of the area. Findings: The economy of the study area completely depends on the agriculture and specially the surplus production of potato and vegetables. Infrastructural development to the rural markets is also necessary especially for the agro marketing. The study area is characterized by rugged topography and prone to excessive erosion. So attention should be given on the soil and water conservation by construction of bunch, field channel, and barren land may be developed by fodder cultivation. For enhancing the agricultural production it is very much essential to adjust the amount of K20, P2O5, pH for the various crops. Cashew nut cultivation and sabai grass cultivations are also suggested as because these cultivations are needful for infertile and laterite track and also bring economic benefits. Construction, repairing and maintenance of the road both rural road and main also need more attention as these roads are the mode of connectivity for agro marketing. Application: Research work related to surplus production of crops and agro marketing can be applied for the management and development of the rural villages where agriculture is the back bone of the economy. Besides crop suitability analysis and fertilizer recommendation can also be applied for increasing agricultural production.
261 Role of Panchayati Raj institutions for inclusive growth under Mahatma Gandhi NREGS – areview in Kerala context , C. Vinod Kumar , Dr. R. Muthulakshmi
Objective: The paper attempts to illustrate the role of Panchayati Raj Institutions for inclusive growth in rural Kerala with the implementation of Mahatma Gandhi National Employment Guarantee Scheme. Methodology/Statistical Analysis: The paper was based on the data obtained from the Management Information System of the Scheme (MIS) of Mahatma Gandhi NREGS.This MIS is the first transaction based real time system for any public work programme in the country that is available in the public domain. We can easily access the real time data for the analysis purpose. Simple Average and Percentage of some determinants related with the scheme in four financial yearsare used to explain the subject matter of Inclusive Growth. Findings: The Mahatma Gandhi NREGS, is one of the successful schemes of Rural Development in India, has worked quite effectively in the state of Kerala. As per the Mahatma Gandhi NREGAct,Panchayati Raj Institutions have pivotal role in the planning and implementation of the scheme resulted to Local Economic Development and Inclusive Growth. It was also noticed that it has benefitted in better cooperation among people and reduced the socio-economic gaps among them. Kerala State is renowned as the champion of decentralised planning; this experience effectively established the decentralised framework of planning of Mahatma Gandhi NREGS. Application: It is found that the implementation of the scheme has improved the overall standard of living of the rural households, especially marginalised sections of the society
262 National rural livelihoods mission in Bihar: results from a survey of self-help groups formed under Jeevika , Abhishek
Objectives: The study tries to look at how the SHG movement unfolding in Bihar is not only being a stable and reliable source of finance for the familial needs but also empowering the for women coming from marginalized sections. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This study is based on the survey conducted among selected SHGs in Muzaffarpur, Saran and Vaishali districts. Along with the direct interview done with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire about the use of the loans taken the details of financial transactions of the SHGs were taken from Len-Den Pustika. For understanding the socio-economic background of the areas covered, the census, government documents, research papers and news materials were used. Findings: JEEViKA has been quiet successful in bringing financial inclusion, developing a habit of saving and providing poor the reach to financial institutions. SHGs are doing well in providing timely and swift help in the case of emergency especially health-related emergencies (33% of the laons are realated to medial issues). Here the corpus funds are being of much importance as the percentage of health-related loans are more in the relatively younger SHGs than in the older ones. Although, the main purpose of the NRLM ius to help women in developing livelihoods, the loans taken for the purpose of establishing an enterprise are few only. Much of the laons taken for the commercial activities are those who has been taken for the expansion of already established business rather than the establishmentof a new enterprise. A large number of laons has been taken for the asset creation (17.77%), especially, building the toilets (62.50%), which shows how JEEViKA is being helpful to another government scheme i.e. Swachh Baharat Abhiyan. Application/Improvements: Paper argues that the effectiveness of the interventions increases when the sociopolitico situation of the area and economic intervention works in a tandem, a case which needs further study.
263 Factors affecting external debt of India , Mrs. Pratibha Gunjikar, Dr. Vinayak S. Deshpande
The external debt has become a world-wide phenomenon and is crucial factor in any economy whether poor and developing or developed. It is the intention of this article to analyze the external debt and its effects on other important parameters of economy on domestic and international level. All these economic parameters are so intertwined with each other that any change in one parameter affects three or four other parameters. Effort is made to examine and observe India’s economic scenario in the light of this analysis in context of persistent global volatility. Objective: To analyze the factors affecting India’s external debt and their causal relationship with each other and external debt. Method and Statistical Analysis: The analysis is mainly based on widely accepted granger casualty test and multiple regressions co-efficient. The correlation coefficient matrix is used to find out the relationship of all the variables amongst themselves and with external debts. The period of data is covered for a span of more than 20 years from 1991 to 2015. The source of data is RBI, department of economic affair of government of India, economic survey’s government of India, and balance of payment manual 5th addition international monitory fund. Findings: The best route to achieve total overall growth and making any country’s economy healthy and resonating goes through its own natural resources, demographic strengths, its plus and minuses. No country can progress bypassing its strengths and by ignoring its own individuals. Economic progress can only be achieved by formulating growth and development policies “by the people, of the people, and for the people”. Considering the global volatility, the policy guidelines for Indian economy should be to strengthen its strong hold like agriculture and abundant natural resources. Developing agricultural sector would enhance the GDP and the same time will strengthen the Indian economy there by providing a healthy market environment for investors abroad. The basic focus of Indian economy should be towards developing every individual and should not be totally market oriented. The make in India, Skill India, startup India and Stand up India are some of the steps that would help Indian economy to go all out for overall sectorial development and march towards self-reliance. Application: The findings can be used by government, RBI and government agencies involved in economic policy formulation to achieve overall economic growth and to realize the goal of India’s self-reliance.
264 An empirical study on the role of MUDRA Yojana in financing micro enterprises , P.A. Ibrahim
Background/Objectives: To analyse the performance of Micro Unit Development and Refinance Agency (MUDRA) Yojana, an initiative of Government of India to escalate the micro enterprises. Methods/Statistical analysis: The data related to MUDRA Yojana mainly sourced from annual reports of MUDRA Yojan and its website, data also have taken from various journal, magazine and periodical, etc. The study has analyzed various credit schemes, and their performances. To achieve objective of the study relevant comparisons have done among schemes, regions, financial institutions, total credit and numbers of accounts by employing statistical tools such descriptive, percentage and ANOVA. Findings: The specific or more specialised financial institution for serving the credit need of the micro enterprises including SMEs is the need of the hour. The government initiative to escalate micro enterprises by providing financial support through MUDRA Yojana is a successful venture. The growth rate of accounts opening and credit disbursement in various MUDRA Schemes shows positive trend. The scheme has reached widely among marginalised segments, 73.41% of account holders are women and 25.16% are new entrepreneurs. However the northern states of the country show comparatively lesser participation in both creations of accounts as well as sourcing of credit. Majority of accounts are opened under ‘shishu’ scheme and participation Tarun Scheme (Major Projects) is less. The participation of RRBs and PSBs in the scheme is insignificant than private banks, which is not a favourable trend in long run. Improvements/Applications: Government initiative for financing micro enterprises is moving in a balanced direction, the government should improve the bracket of beneficiaries as well as focus on quality of the credit rather than quantity of the credit
265 Impact of demonetization on adoption of digital banking services in India: a case study in rural and suburban area of West Bengal , Mahasweta Roy (Dutta), Arindam Das
Objectives: To examine the awareness and adoption level of people of rural and urban India about Digital Banking Services (DBS) at pre and post demonetization era. Methods/Statistical Analysis: In this work, we have studied the effects and shifting trends in availing DBS and change in perception on Banking Services of customer, which is supported by a survey based on 500 respondents. One way ANOVA test has been employed to examine the possibility of existence of any statistically significant difference between adoption rate of DBS and different factors such as demonetization knowledge, reliability, transaction efficiency, customer support, service security, ease of use, performance and service content. Findings: It has been observed that though rural and urban people have a noticeable awareness about the demonetization process but the percentage of users for all categories of DBS (card, internet and mobile) are very high for the urban sector than the rural sector. The rural people are found to be more convenient to use card banking (percentage of only card banking facility users is 63.00%) than the other two categories of DBS (internet and mobile banking). Similarly, demographic profile such as gender, education, occupation, age, income creates an impact for availing DBS. It has also been observed that adoption level of digital banking service is dependent on demonetization knowledge, reliability, customer support, service security, ease of use and performance (p <0.05). But the Statistically insignificant effect has been observed on transaction efficiency (p= 0.398>0.05) and service content (p =0.059 > 0.05) on adoption of digital banking services. Application/Improvements: This study indicates that bankers and service designers should organise different campaign and hand-on training that may inspire people for adopting DBS and moving India towards ‘Digital India’
266 Extent of use of the government sponsored health insurance schemes: evidence from rural Odisha , Babita Panda, Himanshu Sekhar Rout
Objectives: The National Health Insurance Scheme of India, i.e., Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana, and the Odisha State health insurance scheme, i.e., Biju Krushak Kalayan Yojanaaim to provide financial protection to target population against catastrophic health expenditure by reducing out-of-pocket spending and improve access to quality healthcare. The study estimates healthcare expenditure of beneficiaries, the extent of use of the scheme and to point out obstacles that the beneficiaries face. Methodology: The study was based on both secondary and primary data. Multi-stage random sampling method is used to select 200 beneficiaries of both the scheme. Data were collected through direct personal interviews by using structured schedules. Descriptive statistics are used to substantiate the objectives. Qualitative data were also analysed briefly to supplement quantitative analysis. Results: The average amount of expenditure on Medicine, Diagnostic and Food and accommodation incurred by beneficiaries for their treatment were quiet high. The overall spending on medicine in proportion of total healthcare payment was 60.01%.47.5% beneficiaries spend from own pocket for their treatment. Only 5.7% beneficiaries fully access the facilities of the scheme. The average claimed amount and received amount was only `6246 and `3632.70 respectively. Only 58.15% of the claimed amount was only realized. The obstacles faced by the beneficiaries in the reimbursement of the claimed amount are bureaucratic official procedures, mismatch of the fingerprint of beneficiaries, failure of networking of installed software, more amounts of money deducted than released amount and exploitation involved in the delivery of facilities. Conclusions: This paper contributes to the current debate on financial protection provided by the health insurance scheme which is burning issue in the healthcare sector. The finding of the study may help the policymaker to create awareness among insured, the behaviour of healthcare providers may be turned friendly, immediate attention may be provided by help desk counters to the beneficiaries, the sum assured amount may be increased and the detailed receipt of hospital expenditure may be supplied to the insured at the time of discharge
267 India-China ties: Is there an urgent need to find a new Modus Vivendi , Rupanshi Pruthi
Objective: To analyze whether the old agreement between India and China is sufficed to provide permanent solution to the sources of tension between the two nations or is there a need to find new Modus Vivendi. Methodology/Statistical Analysis: The methodology used in this paper is purely a qualitative one. Secondary data has been collected from various official/Governmental sites and documents. The major idea behind this research is taken from the interview of India’s Former National Security Advisor, Shiv Shankar Menon. Findings: These major research findings are as follows: various sources of conflicts between the two nations are taken and are critically examined from the point of view of both the nations. It proves that there are much more opportunities to gain than to lose for both the countries and therefore there is an urgent need to have a new Modus Vivendi. It examines that the old Panchsheel Agreement has served its best which it could in the last 30 years to maintain peace and tranquility between both the nations. But now it is under stress and this is the perfect time to frame a new Modus Vivendi with its new challenges and untapped opportunities. It also provides the key elements for the new Modus Vivendi which incorporates permanent solution to the various sources of conflicts between the two neighbors. Application/Improvements: This work opens the gateway for further research in finding strong and constructive key elements for the new Modus Vivendi between the two nations. Researchers can explore the basis of agreements and clauses to be incorporated in new Modus Vivendi which can provide permanent solution to the major boundary issue and water diplomacy problem between the two neighbors
268 Migration of labour and urban-rural linkages: a case study of rural India , Dr. Mahendra P. Agasty
Objectives: The present study seeks to analyze and explain the urban-rural socio-economic linkage on the basis of a sample survey of 200 rural households in a coastal district in Odisha, India. Methods/Statistical analysis: Data for this study were collected by the authors by canvassing a structured questionnaire in person among the migrant workers at their worksites and place of living at the destination and other respondents at their native village during June-October, 2017. A five stage simple random sampling procedure was adopted for the purpose. Simple statistical tools were used to summarize the information in quantitative forms and discuss the findings of the survey. Findings: The finding of our study concerning this dimension is quite interesting. Migration creates strong urbanrural linkages which influence the economy of the source households and the areas at the origin. Visits and communications facilitate the linkages while remittances strengthen them. The linkage is somewhat weaker in the case of the family migrants. The fact is that the strong urban-rural linkages are remittances are enough proof of the bond between the migrants and their households of origin. Contacts with urban based migrants lower the psychic costs of relocating, diminish the financial costs of resettling, accelerate the job search process and enhance the ease of obtaining a job. Strong social networks, by acting as information channels and links between villages and cities, help in migration. Migration also creates strong urban-rural linkages which influence the economy of the source households and the areas at the origin. Application/Improvements: Rural-uban linkages play very crucial role in improving the livilehoods in rural areas.Urban areas also get the benefit from the linakges. The rural-urban linkages bring in skills and resources that help the development of rural areas.
269 An econometric analysis of farmer’s credit issues in Andhra Pradesh, India (with reference to south coastal Andhra – a multinomial logit regression model) , Dr. Srinivasa Rao Pasala
Background/ Objectives: In India, the private organizations play exploitive role in farmer’s credit. Farmers approach credit not only for cultivation but also for their family maintenance. In this context, this study makes objectives as to analyse the credit availability from different sources to the farm households and examine which factors influence more the farmers to borrow from moneylenders or commission agents or Input dealers (Noninstitutional) alone. Method/ Statistical Analysis: For collecting the primary data, we employed the stratified multi-stage random sampling. Fifty samples are collected from each village and totally 100 sample respondents for intensive study. Multinomial logistic regression model is employed for analysing the factors influence farmer’s approach to money lenders for their credit in the study area. Findings: Overall, the study reveals that most of the farmers depend on non-institutional sources rather than the institutional sources. Gross Agriculture Income, Type of ownership, income from other than agriculture and farm size influence the farmers to borrow from non-institutional sources i.e. Money lender. Application: We recommend for the setup of farmer’s friendly financial institutions like, SHGs, Agri co-operative societies etc. Also to create the awareness on insurance of crop and insurance of farmer as a unit through advertisement campaign at village level and encourage low cost farming viz., Subhash Palekar’s zero budget farming, organic farming etc
270 Utility of plant galls , M. Gopi
Background/Objectives: The forest signifies the most intrinsic ecosystem complex. The ecological relationship of various components of the forest ecosystem is subtle and far to seek. Plant galls are outburst of repulsive reactions of the plant tissues to the stimulus incited by certain guild of phytophagous insects. In many cases, the galls induced by the parasites attain phenomenal structural complexity and architectural design which have allured the naturalists. Methods/Statistical Analysis: To understand the mechanism involved in the morphogenesis and histogenesis in the normal growth of plant, cecidogenetic studies, similar to tissue culture and experimental methods, may also provide useful information and throw light on our perception of growth and development of plants. Findings: The many plant galls are found to have medicinal properties. They have been used in traditional Indian Systems of medicine, especially Siddha and Ayurvedha. The gall nut of a Cynipid insect on the leaves of Quercusinfectoria, horn-shaped foliar gall on Pistasiaintegrima by Psyllid insect are popular gall drugs. Many fungal galls are also edible and eaten by tribals in many places. Application/Improvements: Many practical applications may be attributed to ratiocinate the study of plant galls. Certain galls are said to be edible and some galls also claimed to be traditionally used as drugs.
271 Monetary policy transmission through banking channel: is India ready for external benchmarking? , Dr. Surendra Singh Rajpurohit
Objectives: This work assesses the effectiveness of various internal as well as external benchmarking systems with respect to transmission of RBI’s monetary policy rates to bank lending rates in India. Methods/Analysis: This study has used the database on Indian Economy published by Reserve Bank of India (RBI). A number of independent variables, including the lagged variants of some of them, have been used to perform the multivariate regression. Proper segregation of data has also been done to account for the impact of the major economic event of November 2016 namely ‘demonetisation of higher denomination currency notes’ in India. Findings: Though this study finds that, barring the highly ineffective Benchmark Prime Lending Rate (BPLR) system, a significant progress has been made by Reserve Bank of India (RBI) in monetary policy transmission first through Base Rate System and then through Marginal Cost of funds based Lending Rate (MCLR) System. However, this paper finds that India is not yet ready to adopt the external benchmarking of lending rates, as proposed by an internal study group of RBI in 2017, primarily due to following reasons (a) Volatility issue of the proposed benchmark rates; (b) Lack of volumes, depth and maturity making them susceptible to manipulation; (c) Infeasibility of linking liability side and unilateral linking of asset side may hit banks’ profitability badly; (d) Manipulation through spreads would still be possible; (e) Possibility of draconian centralization of powers in the hands of RBI may be dangerous for the economy; (f) Possibility of lobbying by banking industry to influence RBI cannot be ruled out; and (g) It would be against the spirit of liberalization. Application: This paper not only attempts to give a perspective with respect to prevailing and proposed systems of monetary policy transmission, but also encourages further research, so as to facilitate better policy formulation by RBI, which is evaluating all possible options, including external benchmarking of lending rates, in quest of perfecting the monetary policy transmission in India.
272 Work participation among the elderly people living in rural areas in India: a case study on determinants , Sino Olive Shohe, Nirankar Srivastav
Background: A case study on the nature and determinants of work participation among rural elderly people has been undertaken in this work. The paper analyses the economic life with respect to work participation among elderly people belonging to Sumi community living in rural areas of the state Nagaland in India. Methods: Cross sectional primary data on rural elderly above 60 years of age has been used in the study. And in order to study the nature and determinants of work participation of the elderly we have applied both descriptive statistical analysis and multinomial logistic regression analysis to present our findings. Findings: Majority of elderly in the study area were still found to be engaged in economic activities both as full time and part time workers respectively. Among those elderly people working, majority of the respondents were found to be in informal economic activity such as agriculture and allied activities. Factors such as age of the elderly, sex, income and health were found to be statistically significant determinants of elderly work participation. Application/Improvement: Based on our findings, it has been observed that one of the main concerns for the prolonged work participation among elderly is due to the effect of economic necessity. As lack of economic security among rural elderly pushes them to remain working and that factor such as health enables elderly to earn livelihood which possibly can secure them against poverty, policies should be directed towards positively improving the wellbeing of the elderly people not only on economic stability but also towards healthy ageing.
273 Demonetization: a paradigm transformation in cashless payment system , Dr. Sanjay Nandal, Diksha
Objective: To see the impact of demonetization on cashless payment system through comparing the significant differences between cashless payment transactions of three time buckets before demonetization, demonetization and after demonetization. Method/Statistical Analysis: The study was done for the three time buckets before demonetization (March 2016-October 2016), demonetization (November 2016-June 2017) and after demonetization (July 2017-February 2018), using the secondary data of cashless payment system from the RBI bulletin. The Welch’s mean equality test was used to look at the significant differences of cashless payment transactions of three time buckets. Findings: Looking at the significant differences of different cashless modes of payment system during the specified three time buckets, we found that during demonetization almost every cashless mode picked a sudden increase in value and volume of the transactions due to the currency deficiency and after the demonetization period due to the currency back in June 2017 the increment in use of almost every cashless mode had been stopped or decreased. From the results, we found that the demonetization move had significantly transformed the use of the cashless payment system, during the period of November 2016-June 2017. Application/Improvements: Policy implications arising from the study is to achieve the objectives of demonetization move and to promote the Indian economy as a cashless economy, a well-equipped digital network, sound digital knowledge in people, digital security for the transactions and less availability of cash currency in economy are required.
274 Access to banking services: an analysis from two Districts of Odisha in India , Dipti Ray,  Himanshu Sekhar Rout
Objectives: This study intends to find out the status of access to formal financial services (here it is banking services) in Kendrapara and Sunderagarh districts of Odisha in India. Methods/Statistical Analysis: We applied the purposive random sampling and multistage random sampling methods for selecting the districts and villages respectively. A total of 400 households are chosen proportionately from the four selected villages. Both primary and secondary data are used in the study. Primary data are collected through direct personal interviews of heads of the households using structured interview schedules. Descriptive statistical tools such as averages, percentages and graphs are used for analyzing the data. Findings: The provision of banking infrastructure in the sample districts is not adequate particularly in the sample panchayats of Sunderagarh district. A poor geographical penetration of bank branches and ATMs are found in this district in comparison to Kendrapara district. 94.8% of respondents in both the districts have access to banking services with 97% in Kendrapara and 89.5% in Sunderagarh district. The primary reasons for opening bank account are receiving govt. benefit transfers and receiving payments for work under National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS). A majority of respondents are found to have opened their account during the financial inclusion drive i.e. in the year 2005 and onwards. Income level and literacy of the respondents are found to be the major determinants of access to bank account. The financial awareness in both the district is very poor which obstructs the households from accessing the associated facilities of a bank account such as debit card, credit card, loan account, cheque facility and overdraft facility. The primary reasons for not having a bank account are lack of regular and sufficient income and lack of financial awareness. Application/Improvement: The study explores the accessibility and its determinants at grass roots level by studying the village households it will be helpful for policy makers for designing appropriate schemes and programmes for improving accessibility and utilization of banking services particularly in the rural and tribal areas
275 Presence and strength of seasonality in CPI (IW) , Dr. Reji B
Background/Objectives: In official statistics, seasonal adjustment technique is usually employed to explore the seasonality characteristic of a time series. This paper attempts to analyse the seasonality characteristics of Consumer Price Index Numbers for Industrial Workers (CPI-IW base 2001=100). This is commonly used for calculation of inflation and dearness allowance fixation of government employees as well as industrial workers all around the country. Method/Statistical Analysis: United States’ Bureau of the Census developed a model called X-12 ARIMA intended to explore seasonality of a time series. This econometric model helps the economist to determine the presence and strength of seasonality of a time series. Findings: The results of X-12 ARIMA indicate that the Consumer Price Index Numbers for Industrial Workers (CPI-IW base 2001=100) contains identifiable seasonality, whereas the series have no indication of substantial moving seasonality. Improvement/ Applications: To study the underlying trends of the time series, one can make use of the model’s output such as seasonally adjusted series, trend cycle, etc. to explore the underlying developments in the economy in a different perspective. Another scope of this study is to explore the monthly growth rate of original series as well as component series. Hence, enable one to study and understand short span of series, detect change in trend, etc.
276 Impact of mechanization on cost reduction, yield, profitability and drudgery in paddy cultivation , B. Chinnappa, Kiran Kumar R. Patil, Sowmya H.S
Objectives: To assess the impact of different degrees of mechanization on yield and profitability of paddy. Methods/Statistical analysis: A total of 71 paddy farms were selected from Shimoga district of Karnataka in India and post stratified into less mechanized, moderately mechanized and highly mechanized based on number of operations mechanized. Primary data pertaining to labour, material inputs, output and their prices were elicited using interview schedule for 2016-17. Tabular presentation and budgeting techniques were used to estimate economics and energy use efficiency was computed using relevant ratios. Findings: The mechanization has resulted in cost reduction to the tune of 24.22% on HMF and 11.04% on MMF compared to LMF. The reduced dependence on human labour was around 47.93 percent on HMF and 28.50% on MMF compared to LMF. HMF and MMF realized additional yield of 4.96q and 2.33q, respectively over LMF. The percent rise in net returns was to the tune of 130.45% on HMF and 47.26% on MMF compared to LMF. HMF was found to be efficient and productive in terms of energy use in paddy cultivation compared to MMF and LMF. Application/Improvements: Government should promote mechanization through establishment of custom hiring centres in large numbers to enable marginal and small farmers to avail its benefit at affordable rates.
277 Exploring the links between preference and fish consumption: acase of post-graduate students of fisheries science , Chinmaya Nanda , Suman Dey, Gomathy V , Neha W. Qureshi, S.K. Pandey
Objectives: This paper aims to bring out the causal relationship between fish preferences and its consumption pattern among the fisheries science postgraduate students who migrated from a different part of India for higher educations in the Institute of ICAR-CIFE at Mumbai. It also studied the primary factors which are responsible for the fish consumption and also addressed the number of ways that may bring awareness among the consumers to increase the fish consumption in their locality. Methods/Statistical analysis: The samples for the study were collected randomly with the help of random tables; a total of 30 postgraduate respondents was collected at ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Education placed in Mumbai. Descriptive statistics viz., frequency and percentage analysis were used for the analysis. The responses are represented graphically as well as in tables for the better understanding. The rank-basedquotient (RBQ) was used to rank consumer preferences regarding different forms and the primary factors which are responsible for the selection of most preferred fish species. Findings: The findings of the study depicted that maximum respondents were from Tamil Nadu (16.7%) followed by Kerala (13.3%) and Chhattisgarh (13.3%). It was also found that majority (55.41%) of the respondent’s preferred freshwater fishes while 44.59% were in favor of marine fishes. The results of the study also indicated that the factors which are responsible for selecting a different form of fish for consumption were primarily by taste (91.33%) followed by availability (81.33%) and affordable price (57.33%) and the knowledge of fish cooking skills (37.33%). The study added further that there is a less preference among the respondents about the consumption of marine fishes as compared to the freshwater fisheries due to the several criteria viz., taste, availability, affordability and the cooking skills. Application/ Improvement: The finding of the study will provide an idea about the fish preferences and consumption pattern among the consumers since it covers the respondent from different parts of India at a single sampling site. It supports the marketing companies to spot the target consumers by focusing their demands, which also strengthen the supply/value chain of the fish marketing by reducing the number of intermediaries. Increasing the availability of fish and fishery products through online marketing, direct marketing, availability of various recipes of preparing marine fishes in the form of books or leaflets, creating awareness about the nutritive value of fish, availability of processed fish product (value addition and hygienic condition), year-round availability of fish, advertisement through mass media are the suggestions for fostering better fish marketing and efficient fish consumption.
278 Fiscal federalism and decline of the third tier in India: A case for sharing of the new GST , Saloni Bhutani , Alok Kumar Mishra
Background/Objectives: Increasing number of development agencies and economists are emphasizing on the merits of decentralization. In this context, this study examines the state of fiscal decentralization to sub-national governments in India. It highlights the incomplete process of fiscal decentralization to the urban local bodies in India and suggests reforms for the same. Methods/Statistical Analysis: This study measures the extent of fiscal decentralization in India using various quantitative indicators as suggested by the International Monetary Fund, such as: share of sub national government in the revenues and expenditures of higher levels of government, sub national expenditures as a % of Gross Domestic Product, sub national revenues as a % of Gross Domestic Product, and share of own revenue and devolved resources in sub national government’s total revenue. Findings: The main findings here suggest that India is a highly decentralized nation in terms of fiscal decentralization to State Governments, however, that is not the case when it comes to the urban local governments. Urban local bodies are neither able to raise adequate revenues from their ‘own’ sources, nor are they devolved much resources by the Centre and State Governments. A review of the Indian municipal finance system reveals that Indian municipalities lie in doldrums. There is an urgent need to relook into their finance system and carry out reforms. Given the limitations faced by the third level of government in raising revenue from ‘own’ sources, this paper presents a strong case to share the new Goods and Services Tax with them. Improvements/Applications: It is expected that the GST Council and the concerned policy makers take the reform suggested into serious consideration so that cities can also get a share in the buoyancy created by them
279 Performance of Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) and social exclusion of rural poors: evidence from Maharashtra Districts , K.D. Landge
Objectives: The study intends to find out the social exclusion of rural poor’s under the performance of flagship program Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) in the selected Districts of Maharashtra. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study was based on the data obtained from the Rural Development and Water Conservation Department Government of Maharashtra, IRDP/IAY. (2005-06 to 2014-15). The study has been done in purposively selected districts and simple random sampling technique was used to select one particular Amravati Division; 5 District from Amravati division were selected, for data analysis, we used simple statistical tools such as averages, percentiles, correlation, and bar graph to make the work simple and for better understanding of the topic. Findings: IAY is one of the successful schemes of rural development in India, has worked quite effectively in the state of Maharashtra. For the planning and implementation Panchayat Raj Institutions have played pivotal role in Local Socio-Economic development and inclusion. But it has been found that, there is inadequate housing supply which is not meeting to the demand of rural poor’s in the Districts of Maharashtra. It has also been found that, for the housing target achievement Yavatmal District is the best performer whereas, Akola District is the worst. Therefore, Akola District has highest amount of unspent balance in selected 5 District. Further it is noted that from the correlation coefficient there is inverse relationship between the unspent balance and housing growth rate under IAY. Thus, the need of the hour is that the Panchayat Raj Institutions as management agencies are required to come up with a comprehensive rural development plans and contain the burning issues like housing before it becomes too late. Improvement/ Applications: The study will be of immense beneficial for the village development in Maharashtra. Which will improve the overall standard of living of the rural households especially, BPL section of the society?
280 Export performance of small scale industries in India , Dr. Pesala Peter
Objectives: To explore the Indian small scale industrial contribution to exports, especially of mentioned industries. Methods/Statistical analysis: This study attempts to present and analyze industrial manufacturing sector’s contribution to the export growth. It particularly concentrates on the contribution of SSIs sector. Exports data collected from Hand Book of Statistics on the Indian Economy, RBI, from 1987-88 to 2002-03. The study calculated Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR). Findings: The success of the Globalization of the Indian economy should be measured by its export performance. Innovation in the operation and organization of this sector is key for the success of the economic reforms. SSIs contributed enormous exports in post globalization period. Those industries are: Chemical and allied products, Marine products processed foods, Woolen garments and knitwear’s, Rayon synthetic products, Processed tobacco, Snuff & Beedi spices, spice oils and Lac industry. Improvements/Applications: Government has to give some special incentives SSI, provide market facilities and purchase SSI products in Government institutions
281 Testing Rybczynski theorem: case for India , Meet Mehta , Priyanshu Raj , Sagar Dasani , Nivedhitha Balachandran , Vaibhav Jain , Vanshika Madaan , Akshay Ghaisas
Objectives: To check whether the Rybczynski theorem holds for the case of India. The theorem explores the impacts of dynamics in factor endowments on final output produced by a nation. Statistical Analysis: We use the KLEMS [Capital (K), Labor (L), Energy (E), and Materials (M)] database which was prepared as a project under RBI to determine the factor endowments of the country and factor intensities of commodities in India. The theorem is tested by running multiple regressions under Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) Method to test the theorem. Furthermore, we use the K/L ratio and exports/import data from WITS (World Integrated Trade Systems Database, WTO) to check the underlying support of the theorem. Findings: We observe a pattern of movement in output very similar to the predictions of the Rybczynski theorem but we don’t find enough evidence for the theoretical underpinnings of the same. Mainly, the data on K/L ratio and Terms of trade do not seem to be in agreement with the assumptions of the theorem. We also observe some possible explanation for regional divergence in India. Improvements: Questions like why the pattern similar to Rybczynski Theorem is observed despite proven support of the other assumptions of the same can be addressed in further research using more rigorous and sound econometric techniques
282 Cost reduction, yield and profit enhancement in maize cultivation through mechanization , B. Chinnappa, Kiran Kumar R. Patil, H.S. Sowmya
Objectives: To assess the impact of different degrees of mechanization on cost reduction, productivity and profitability of maize cultivation. Methods/Statistical analysis: A sample of 47 maize growers was selected from Shimoga district of Karnataka. Farms were post classified into highly, moderately and less mechanized based on the degrees of mechanization. Enterprise budgeting, energy indicators, dummy variable technique, data envelopment analysis are the tools employed in the study. The data on inputs used, labour use pattern, output, prices of inputs and output were elicited using structured schedule for the agricultural year 2016-17. Findings: Mechanization in maize has led to cost saving and increased profit of 20.21% and 32.14% on HMF compared to LMF. Mechanization reduced dependence on human labour to an extent of 64.28% and 18.50% on HMF and MMF compared to LMF. Mechanical energy was found to be the cheapest energy source at ₹2.93% MJ. HMF was found to be economically efficient in resource use compared to MMF and LMF. The dummy variable analysis indicated that additional rupee spent on machine labour increases net returns by ₹4.45 while it was meager ₹0.38 from human labour. Application/Improvements: Mechanization should be made affordable to marginal and small farmers through establishment of more number of custom hiring centres sponsored by Government in collaboration with NGO’s/ private agencies
283 Contemporary issues pertaining to the status of health in Bihar in India , Dr. Shruti Priya
Objective: The study captures the health status of population in Bihar in India and the changes therein using some health indicators. Methods: There has been persistent drive to improve health outcomes by improving health infrastructure and other facilities in Bihar. However, a lot needs to be done in this direction. The status of health outcomes is closely related with socio-economic factors. Findings: A low level of income promotes more number of children and compromises with the quality of nutrition and health. Similarly literacy level determines the extent of health facilities being availed by the masses and also the fertility level and effective age of marriage. Application: The study focuses on the different factors affecting the health outcomes in Bihar.
284 An analysis of income from crop diversification in Haryana , Vishal Dagar , Dr. Param Jit , Dr. Mahua Bhattacharjee , Manurut Lochav
Objectives: The study aims to assess the status and magnitude of income generated from crop diversification and how it is impacted by various factors in different climatic conditions. It also examines the viability of crop diversification related to several household necessities and food security. Methods: The analysis is done via secondary data from Ministry of Agriculture. The data covers crops and allied sectors to evaluate the income generated from crop diversification and its magnitude. The gross cropped area (GCA) is also examined for major crops in order to assess the change in area and how production and yield are affected. Both qualitative and quantitative techniques are comprised for an extensive analysis of the crop diversification issue to reach concluding remarks. The term crop diversification can be interpreted in several ways such as shift from agricultural to non-agricultural, shift from food grains to High Yielding Variety (HYV). Findings: It was found that the share of forestry and logging has declined in agricultural income while fisheries and livestock have gained. Several crop groups have also gained. However there was a loss in fodder crops, pulses and cereals. Results of change in area, production and yield indicate gains for cotton, gram, sugarcane, wheat and maize. The percentage of GCA has only increased for certain major crops while the others are becoming negative. Crop diversification is intended to give a wider choice in the production of variety of crops in a given area so as to expand production related activities and lessen risk. Application: The future strategy towards crop diversification should favor sustainable crop instead of water incentive crops. Dual objective of food and nutritional security along with higher income for farmers will not be a distant dream with proper implementation and execution of crop diversification.
285 BSNL: A journey from top performer to worst performer , Anish Gupta
Objective: A case study on the institutional factors responsible for deteriorating performance of BSNL has been undertaken in this work. Methodology: Time series data on subscribers’ base, profit, loss and market share have been used in the study. Since the data on the qualification of employees and infrastructure sharing are not publish by any agency, they were collected under Right to Information Act (RTI) from BSNL office at District Alwar in the state of Rajasthan (India). Mostly descriptive statistical analysis has been used to analyze the data and to present findings. Findings: Apart from the common problems faced by any public sector unit due to the co-existence of private players, BSNL had to face other institutional problems also. One of them is qualification of technical staff. BSNL is the unique example of a technical driven industry, where a lot of non-technical staff is working at the positions of technical requirements. For instance, there wasn’t any phone mechanic (PE) with any technical degree or diploma. Similarly 33.3% of junior engineers (JE) did not have any formal technical education. On a basic level the problem with such non-technically qualified engineers, that too at higher positions, is that the other technical staff finds it difficult to comprehend or communicate them the problems at hand. Application/Improvement: Since a technical driven company cannot compete without qualified engineers, the policies should be directed towards the placement of surplus employees based on their qualification.
286 Evaluation of cashless economy concept in Indian scenario , P. Shamshadali , C.P. Fidha , C. Syamjith
Background/Objectives: India as a developing nation, in the journey towards the economic prosperity the concept of Cashless Economy will have an eminent role. The present study aims to evaluate the status of Cashless Economy concept in Indian scenario. Methods/Statistical analysis: Analyzing different electronic settlement indicators/ utilities for the period of six years from 2012 to 2018 which are compiled from the different annual reports of Reserve Bank of India (RBI). The data set covers both the pre and post three years periods of cashless economy concept of India and availed up to 2018. Total Electronic Settlement, Total Paper Clearing, Total Retail Payments, National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT), Immediate Payment Service (IMPS), Unified Payment Interface (UPI), Total Card Payments and Total Debit Cards are considered as the indicators of electronic settlements and Cashless economy tools. Findings: The study found that the Cashless Economy concept of India is a success by positive improved results in the usage and performance of various electronic settlement utilities in pre and post periods of Cashless Economy. By results of decreased value operation of total paper clearing and the positive progress of all other epayment indicators like Total Retail Payments, National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT), Immediate Payment Service (IMPS), Unified Payment Interface (UPI), Total Card Payments and Total Debit Cards can conclude the Economic Development program is a success. It also found that different electronic settlements utilities were withdrawn from the market with an effect of launching kind varieties of different up-to-dated customer friendly utilities. The study also enlarge its view to Indian economy will have a positive impact of cashless policy in its growth. Improvements/Applications: There is no such a comparison study happened the analysis of status of electronic settlements system of India after launching of Digital India program. This pre and post period comparison analysis of E-settlements make its own existence from rest and it is the latest study on the field.
287 Price determinants of dry Chilies in Karnataka , Srinivasa Sasdhar Ponnaluru
Objectives: Chilli is an important spice crop grown throughout India and accounts for 36% of world’s production. Karnataka is the second largest producer of Chillies with 12% share in Indian production after Andhra Pradesh (57% share in Indian Production). Price of chilies depends on various factors such as quality of chillies, grades, and seasonality. Impact of each of these factors, are yet to be estimated. Objective of this study is to quantify the factors that affect the price of dry chilies. Methods: We estimate a hedonic price function, which explains the price of chillies in terms of their characteristics. We use a least squares regression model after corrections for the heteroscedasticty and multicollinearity to explain variability in price. Findings: The model indicates that statistically significant differences exist in the prices of varieties, and across markets even after controlling for quality characteristics. Also, with every 1% increase in arrivals, the price of chillies increased by 0.05%. Applications: Results from our model could be useful for improved marketing and appropriate policy design. Relationships between price and quality characteristics could be utilized to optimize farmer revenues.
288 Profitability and productivity analysis of Indian SCBs , Sudipto Jana
Objectives: This study analyses the profitability and productivity of Indian SCBs in India. Banking industry forms a mechanism for industrial and agricultural growth as well as entails in the subsistence and welfare of the nation. Methods/Statistical analysis: Simple random sampling without replacement method has been used to represent the universe. Yamane’s basic formula for determination of sample size has been considered and the profitability and productivity performance of 32 commercial banks are evaluated out of fifty commercial banks. This study is based on secondary data obtained from RBI database for the period from 2007-08 to 2016-17 and performances are analyzed adopting descriptive statistics and one sample t- test. Findings: Descriptive statistics on the basis of five profitability indicators and four productivity indicators show that some Indian public and private banks are attaining high efficiency of productivity and profitability and t-test results supporting the findings, whereas some public and private Indian banks are having a very high inefficiency level during the sample period and t-test results supporting the findings. Application/Improvements: In order to raise profitability and productivity, low-profit making banks should spell turnover strategies, income-oriented and cost-oriented strategies at regular periodical interval. Better management information system, credit monitoring and cash management can result increasing profitability and productivity.
289 Exports performance of primary products in India , Dr. Pesala Peter
Objectives: To assess highest export performance of commodity within agricultural products. Also to analyze the export performance of agriculture products in India. Methods/Statistical analysis: We collected the secondary data from Hand Book of Statistics on the Indian Economy, published by Reserve Bank of India (RBI). And data analyzed through calculated Compound Annual Growth Rates (CAGR) during 1990-91 to 2013-14 in agricultural commodities. In addition, we used simple percentage shares of various products in the agriculture sector in mentioned years. Findings: Among the products, primary products exports share is occupied the third place. Among the agriculture products, rice exports growth rate was higher in the first reform period. Overall, the rice growth rate is higher. From 1991-92 to 2004-05, marine products’ share is higher within products and rice products export’s share also higher in few years in study period. Among the three products, other ores and minerals export’s CAGR has increased tremendously. Improvements/Applications: The Government of India has to give needful subsidies to the agriculture sector; this leads to increase the exports performance.
290 Economics of migration and its aftermath in Jammu & Kashmir , M. H. Wani , Arshad Bhat , Shabeer A. Ganaie
Objectives: To bring out the factor, issues and challenges responsible for migration of people to the state of Jammu & Kashmir and the consequences and aftermath of the migration of people from all over the country to both urban and rural centers. Methodology/Statistical Analysis: The study has taken National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) data for deriving the logical results/findings. For data analysis simple statistical tools like compound growth rates, averages, percentages and prediction analysis has been carried out for deriving meaningful results. Findings: From the analysis of the data, it has been found that people migrate for searching improved livelihood and decent standard of living. Many regions in the country are underdeveloped/poor and that is the reason they couldn't fulfill the requirements of people and support the population demand, these people therefore, to have access to new things and opportunities migrate to different places. The study further points out that the process of migration is important to understand movement of public to different regions due to change in various socioeconomic, socio-cultural and other dimensions of social domain. The study is of the opinion that agriculture the dominant activity and source of earning for both migrant and non-migrant families, expenditure of migrant households on consumption in all respects was more than their production expenditure furthermore, migration of people, their income, expenditure and net savings are positively correlated. Application/Improvement: The study will be of enormous help for the policy planners to curb the process of migration up to a great extent. The study has laid down policy suggestions which will be of great applicability in the current situation for prohibiting the migration of people to urban centers or even to rural areas.
291 Bio-social foundations of work-performance of urban non-manual employees: study of faculty members in Utkal University , Siba Sankar Mohanty, Annie Rath
Objectives: To explore whether the biological and social contexts have a bearing on the work-performance of the workers in an urban non-manual setting (and which among the two has a predominant impact). Methods/Statistical analysis: The study uses primary data collected from the faculty members of Utkal University, Bhubaneswar, India. Descriptive statistics and Karl Pearson correlation coefficient have been adopted for profiling and study of the linkages between indicators of work performance and those of biological and social aspects; Independent sample t-tests have been conducted to study the significance of the differences in work performance between the groups as per social and biological stratification. Findings: Conventional economics associates work performance with factors such as technology, physical and human capital, and quality of materials used in the production process. However, some recent studies highlight the influence of socio-psychological aspects and biological differences among workers as a defining feature of performance diversity. The present study establishes that in case of non-manual work environment like academics, socio-psychological factors such as gender, caste, etc. have a greater bearing (than biological factors like body mass index, some other health anomalies, biologically determined sex, etc.) on work performance. Application/Improvements: The understanding of these linkages could pave way towards organizations taking care to create good social ambience at work place and the people in their public and private lives in general, which could lead to optimum utilization of individual capacity and collective efforts at the workplace.
292 Institutionalizing environmental protection: an Indian perspective , Anuraag P Iyer, Shubham Bajpai
Background/Objectives: To expose the issues that subsist as a part of the implementation of environmental protection norms embedded in instruments like the Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement. To add, this study seeks to make suggestions on steps that may be taken to ensure that the process of environmental protection becomes more structured so as to protect the interest of all stakeholders involved. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study involves the collection of the secondary data available from the Websites of Government of India and the reports obtained from the websites of United Nations (UN) and World Health Organization (WHO). This data has further been analyzed and is being verified with respect to the adaptability of India with the Sustainable Development Agenda and how pollution stands as a major barrier in its achievement. Findings: There are 2 fold findings that can be recorded from the abovementioned analysis: 1. India has a very high level of air pollution and the statistics indicate that the air pollution has adversely and negatively affected the mortality rate of India. 2. Indian policies, as well as global policies have no mechanisms to institutionalize the process of climate protection at the level of each stakeholder. Improvements/Applications: The creation of a pre-legislative consultation mechanism is the need of the hour today. To curb pollution within the country, there is a vast requirement of developing innovative ideas to ensure that air pollution is controlled at the level of an institution, community and individual. Such ideas can only be put forward with the help of an innovative pre-legislative consultation mechanism in place. There is also a need to address the problems faced by the global stakeholders. The same can be done through the means of creating a global consultation process that is institutionalized as well when it comes to drafting global policy drafting.
293 Agricultural diversification in Himachal Pradesh: An economic analysis , Nisha Devi, R.S. Prasher
Objective: The study about diversification in agriculture has been carried out to explain extent and trend of agriculture diversification and to know about the factors affecting the agriculture diversification in the State of Himachal Pradesh. Methods: The present study explain the extent and trend of diversification using Simpson Index and percentage of area under non-food grain crops applied on the data collected from reliable sources throughout the State that widens the scope for improvement and development in agriculture. Step wise linear regression method was carried out for data collected from 1972-73 to 2011-12 to find out the drivers of crop diversification. Findings: Kinnaur, Lahaul & Spiti, Shimla and Sirmour districts of Himachal Pradesh witnessed tendency towards diversified agriculture at varying extents. Diversification towards high value cash crops in most of the districts did take place but its intensity was quite pronounced in Lahaul & Spiti, Kinnaur, Shimla and Kullu where the increase in area under the non-food grains was varied from 17.18% in Kullu to 57.47% in Kinnaur over 1972-73. Application: Average size of land holding, regulated market infrastructure and irrigated area were the important determinants, which were positively related with the crop diversification. Agriculture diversification is an option to stabilize and raise farm incomes of the farmers in the study area.
294 Higher education in Odisha: some reflections with special reference to technical and professional education , Atal Bihari Das
Objectives: To examine the development of higher education in Odisha with special reference to the technical/professional education. It also examines the disparity in enrolment in higher education with respect to gender and caste. Methods: This study mainly based on the secondary data collected from various sources. It analyses the results using (i) Annual Compound Growth Rate, (ii) Gender Parity Index (iii) Gross Enrolment Ratio (iv) Index of Gender Equality, (v) Index of Social Equality, and (vi) Co-efficient of Equality. Findings: During the post reform period there is rapid expansion of universities and technical/professional institutes in the state. As far as growth of teachers is concerned the ACGR of teachers is highest in universities followed by technical/professional institutes and general colleges. The growth rate of girls’ enrolment was higher than that of boys in both general and technical/professional education. ACGR of enrolment in technical education was higher than that of general education. Over the years though enrolment in technical/professional education is increasing but the proportion is more in general education. GER in higher education by gender and caste in the state is less than the national average. The GPI in technical education is lower than general education. The index of gender equity, index of social equity and coefficient of equality in enrolment are less than 100. So, there exist inequalities by gender and caste in higher education in Odisha. Improvements: It is suggested that the government has to take special measures like provision of special incentive scheme for girls, scheduled castes and scheduled tribes in order to increase their participation in higher education in the state.
295 Service quality analysis on digital banking services in India: A SERVQUAL approach , Mahasweta Roy (Dutta), Arindam Das 
Objectives: Indian banking industry has witnessed tremendous development due to extensive changes towards Digital Banking Services. Moving towards this Digital Era, need to reduce the gap between what service customers expect and what they perceive. Methods/Statistical analysis: This study focuses on the analysis of the two Service Quality Gaps (Gap -3 and Gap -5), developed by Parsuraman and Berry. Gap -3 arises from the provider side which identifies a gap between the customer-driven service design and standards and service delivered whereas Gap 5 develops from the customer side which recognizes a gap between customer expectation and their perception of digital banking services (DBS). In this work seven, slightly modified dimensions (reliability, transaction efficiency, customer support, and service security, ease of use, performance and service content) which are relevant to the Indian context have been considered. The database has been collected from 1000 respondents. Confirmatory factor analysis has been conducted to the seven dimension measurement model to test the dimensionality, convergent and discriminate validity and the model fit has been discussed. Findings: It has been observed that Cronbach’s alpha (α) values of seven dimensions are higher than the minimum threshold of 0.7. All the dimensions also satisfy the conditions of convergent validity. In our study it has been observed that goodness of fit indicators such as Normed Fit Index (NFI) = 0.920; Relative Fit index (RFI) = 0.908; non-normed fit index (TLI) = 0.929; comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.938 suggest acceptability of the model and the badness of fit indicator Root Mean-Mean-Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) is 0.056 and is below the recommended limit of 0.08. Though a positive weighted score has been found out in both Gap 3 and Gap 5, but in Customer side Gap (GAP 5), negative gaps have been observed in the dimensions of customer support, transaction efficiency and ease of use. In Gap 5 only a negative gap has been identified in Customer service or responsiveness. From the different bank side, the provider also agreed with the fact that, sometimes customer support or responsiveness may create a real problem for availing DBS because of huge pressure and sudden changes in government policies. Application/Improvements: At the end, this research suggests to reduce the gap of customer support, transaction efficiency and ease of use by organizing different campaigns, hands-on training, improving the customer care department and developing the more user-friendly technology and moving the banking service towards successful digitalization.
296 Universal basic income: is it the social assistance programme? , Dr. M. Rama Krishna
Background/Objectives: Universal Basic Income (UBI) is a form of social security paid to individuals, not households, and it is paid to every citizen of the country. As per analysis 98% of the world people concentrate only 2 % of the Global wealth, it is to eliminate poverty and bridge the gulf between the haves and have not’s. A Universal Basic Income is, like many rights, unconditional and universal: it entails that every citizen should have a right to a basic income to meet their needs by virtue of being citizens. Methods: The study is centered on the concept of descriptive type. The concept of Universal Basic Income is not new. Of late, it is gaining currency among the Governmentsthroughout the world in the light of growing disparities between the rich and the poor and it’s an endeavor on the part of the Governmentsto provide the poor safety nets. It is paid at regular intervals to the needy,may be monthly, to take out a decent living. Finland and Scotland pioneered UBI. But, Finland abandoned the programme because of lack of funds. Findings: Universal Basic Income gained prominence in India with “Garibo Hatao” slogan given by former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Like in other countries, itis aimed at providing every Indian living Below Poverty Line (BPL) with a minimum income. A fixed amount would be transferred to the account of the beneficiary in the country. There are some conceptual arguments against providing Universal Basic Income. Primary being, itinduces laziness and reduces the incentive to work among the people. Should income be detached from employment? Itis a concern out of reciprocity. The Economic survey 2016-17 had estimated UBI’s cost at 4.9% of GDP. This is against 5.2 % GDP spent on all 950 central sector and centrally sub-sponsored schemes. Application: All the political parties support this type of schemes to reduce the income inequalities between the rich and the poor. Infact, it is a mesmerizing scheme to lure common people to garner votes.For effective implementation of UBI, the objectives and beneficiaries need to be defined and identified lest it may become another scheme for squandering public money.
297 Millennium to sustainable development goals: A review of India’s progress and challenges , Hitesh Bhatia , Itee Pattani
Objectives: This paper attempts to review the progress made by India under the Millennium Development Goals, (MDGs) and challenges in achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in context to its similarity and divergence from MDG. Methods/Statistical analysis:This paper reviews the performance of India using secondary data as available from the government and other sources. For MDG, Goal wise target and achievement have been studied for India. The post MDG discussion showed maturity and wisdom to have expanded the scope of goals and targets. The new set of goals called Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) is socially inclusive and globally exhaustive at the same time. SDG has 17 universally accepted goals which address the current and future concerns of economies. Findings:The available data shows that India has quite successfully achieved few targets and made positive progress in others. But overall most of the countries failed to exhibit considerable progress by 2015 (when MDG were to expire) and thus Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) were launched. The paper also concludes that MDG were skewed and highly focused towards human development. But they were realistic, had universal language and were measurable. SDGs are absolutely global and holistic in nature, covering aspects like poverty reduction, inequality, sustainability & economic growth along with job creation. Application/Improvements:The success of SDG will depend upon a less bureaucratic and transparent system of monitoring, evaluation and accountability.
298 Indian manufacturing industry in the era of globalization: A Cobb-Douglas production function analysis , Pesala Peter
Background/Objective: Indian economy has been witnessing an uptrend in growth rate since 1990’s. The main objective of the paper is to investigate the factors influenced on output. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study used output as a depended variable and number of workers, fixed capital and factories are independent variables are considered for regression analysis. We have used Cobb-Douglas production function. The study used Annual Survey of Industry data, and 69 industries data used for analysis. Also, for the aggregate industry-wise analysis the selected 69 three-digit industries are grouped into 12 industries as mentioned in the ASI two-digit classification. Findings: Manufacture of Beverages, tobacco and related products, Textile products, Metal products and manufacture of Other Manufacture Industries employment per unit has been growing at a constant rate during study period. The study found workers influenced output in machinery equipment other than transport equipment industry in post globalisation period. As far as fixed capital is concerned, it influenced output growth in pre globalization period. Results shows that, in pre globalization period factories were influenced output growth in Beverages and tobacco and related products, Wood and wood products, Paper and paper products, basic chemical industry and transport industry. As far as factory is concerned, total study period (pre and post globalisation period together) shows that only a few industries viz, manufacture of food products, beverages tobacco and related products, wood and wood products, Basic chemical industry, non-metal products and metal products have reported influence of factory on output. However, in post globalization period, food products, rubber, plastic petroleum, Non-metal products and metal products have reported more influence on output. Improvement/Application: Government has to give some incentives in regard to fixed capital to those industries not having sufficient level of fixed capital.
299 Consumer well-being – Contemporary conceptualization , Rimple Manchanda
Background/Objectives: The satisfaction one gets from different domains in life decides the overall quality of life of people. All the domains of life are important but consumer wellbeing has been considered as aprominent component that affects the Quality of Life. The objective of this paper is to present a new contemporary conceptualization of consumer well-being. Methods/Statistical analysis: The exploratory research design is used to perform a qualitative research. This is a theoretical paper based on review of various conceptualizations of consumer well-being in existing literature. Findings: Thorough analysis of literature on various perception and thoughts on consumer well-being has endorsed a more contemporary and general conceptualization. Improvements/Applications: The new and contemporary conceptualization of consumer well-being offers a crucial footing for research on consumer behavior and satisfaction theories. It provides a vital foundation for empirical research on the topic.
300 A framework of sustainable business models , Olive Nerurkar
Objectives: To develop a framework of Sustainable Business models by using the existing research contributions of academicians and practitioners. The framework can serve as a tool to identify opportunities in sustainability. Methods/Analysis: The sustainable business model types identified from past research have been analyzed and classified and a pruned list provided. Similar models were grouped together, some reclassified on the basis of outcomes and a few were given specific descriptions. The framework of sustainable business models which consists of 21 models is presented with its potential impact on sustainable outcomes. Findings: A list of 30 business models found originally in the research publications were categorized under four types of impact produced on sustainability. An examination of the models led the present researcher to believe that some archetypes /models found were too broad in their coverage and some models were similar. Hence the broad ones were made specific, and models that were similar were grouped into a single cell with the researcher’s contribution identified. The framework can be used by managers and practitioners to make choices about the models that are appropriate to them. The framework of sustainable business models lists21models. Application/Improvements: Considerable amount of overlaps in the models have been eliminated and simplified and thus offers a compressed list of choices which may be consulted by managers and practitioners.
301 A study on millennial perception on work life in public sector , CarolinGolda.P , Beulah.P
Objective: To study of millennials perception on factors like recruitment process, attitude towards their job, relationship management, work environment, work life balance, job satisfaction with respect to compensation, benefits and welfare facilities in public sector. To identify the factor which influenced them to work in public sector and attrition level? To assess their need for pension plan, career advancement opportunities, and to suggest on the changes to be incorporated to pool in the best talents among the millennials into public sector. Method: A descriptive research methodology which drew samples from various public sector. A convenient sampling technique helped in obtaining responses through a questionnaire from 100 respondents working in various public sectors. Employees who are managers, assistant managers and who belong to the non- executive grade were the respondents of the research. The questioner reflected their perception on the various factors associated with work life. Findings: The major findings of the research are, work experience has a significant relationship with the attitude towards the job, marital status has a significant impact on work life balance, relationship management has an impact on the attrition level, irrespective of the work experience there is a significant association for need of pension plan, impact on potential determination on difficulty in passing the exam and the cause that influenced millennials and reason for passion to work in public sector. Majority of the respondents said they do not have career advancement opportunity. Improvements/Applications: Recruitment process has to be restructured and the syllabus to be made relevant to the job field, pension plan has to be reintroduced, promotions to be provided based on performance and not by seniority.
302 Agriculture, Demonetization, Economic Agents, e-Payment Methods, Fruits & Vegetables and Grains. , Jaiprakash Bisen , Shiv Kumar , P. Venkatesh and K.S. Aditya
Objectives: This preliminary study has been undertaken to access the impact of demonetization on agriculture and related activities of different economic agents. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study is based on primary data collected from farmers (40), traders (30) and consumers (40) and also reviews the impact of demonetization on agriculture from different sources. Percentage and tabular analysis have been used to analyze the data. Findings: The results show that, in the sample small and marginal farmers were most affected in contrast to large farmers in case of sowing, purchase of inputs and sale of agricultural commodities. Among commodities, farmers dealing with perishables were more affected than who dealt with grains. However, wholesalers were most affected in grain markets & retailers in fruits and vegetable markets. Consumers have used more than one mode of payment to deal with cash crunch situation but, the lower income class people and those who did not use alternative payment methods (e-payment) were affected most. Moreover, all the economic agents have responded in favor of normalization of situation at the end of February, 2017. Improvements: However, there are scopes in future to replicate this type of study at larger scale and computation of cost and benefits of such policy shocks to know the exact economic impact.
303 Micro-economic factors affecting stock returns: an empirical study of S&P BSE Bankex companies , Anshika
Background/Objectives: The equity market has become an essential market playing an important role in economic prosperity, capital formation and sustained economic growth. There can be different micro-economic/fundamental factors. The present study analyses the various fundamental factors that affects the market price of shares which will provide a yardstick and a parameter for long term investors to decide about their investment. Methods/Statistical analysis: For the purpose of empirical analysis related to the study, index values have been taken to be dependent variable, and other factors (Book Value Per Share, Earning Per Share, Price Earning Ratio, Dividend Yield, Debt to Equity Ratio, Market Capitalisation to Sales, Price/Book Value Ratio, Cash Earning Per Share, Return on Equity and Beta) have been taken as independent variables. Factor Analysis is carried out to identify the critical factors and a detailed analysis of the effect of various factors on stock market. Subsequently regression analysis is undertaken to identify the nature of relationship between index value (dependent variable) and the factors (independent variable). Findings: Following micro-economic variables were found significantly explain the variance in the S&P BSE Bankex during the period from April 2000 to Mar 2014 : a) Return on Equity b) Debt to Equity. The factors. These micro-economic variables impact the stock prices of S&P BSE Bankex. Improvements/Applications: The present study can be further carried out for the returns of the other companies listed on the various indexes. Further, other dependent variables can be studied to analyse their impact on the returns of the stock.
304 On CO2 emissions and major macroeconomic variables: A Var Model; Case of China, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka , Sudeshna Ghosh
Objectives: This paper investigates the association between carbon dioxide emanations, energy utilization, real gross domestic product, trade, financial development and urbanisation in an econometric time series model. Methods:The statistical specification is -Test of stationarity of data. Testing the existence of cointegrating relation. Finding an error correction model. Finally for robust results the study employs impulse response function and variance decomposition method .The impulse response function traces the responsiveness of the endogenous variables to shocks to each of the other exogenous variables over a certain period of timeThe software used is STATA (12). Findings:Gross Domestic product and energy consumption continues to be the explanatory variables for carbon emissions in the Asian region. The coefficient of gross domestic product is a positve and statistically signficant for all countries ; so growth of income leads to environmental degradation proxied by carbon emissions. For India the bulk of the shock of the dependent variable is due to improvement in gross domestic product and trade openness. For Pakistan the bulk of the shock in the dependent variable is on account of gross domestic product, energy utilization. In the long run, the countries need to embrace more energy conservation policies no matter what the directional approach in the short run may be. The contribution of the current paper is to assess the short and long run equilibrium association of carbon emanations, economic expansion, energy use, urban development and trade for India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and China under a Vector Error Correction Model. Improvements:The study contributes in examining the dynamics of short run association among the variables; to explore the presence of long term equilibrium relation, to capture the linear dependencies among the variables under study and to test the responsiveness to shocks in the system.
305 E-Panchayat as a tool for empowering Panchayati Raj: An exploratory study of Pattan block of Baramulla District , Afsana Rashid Kiron Bansal
Objectives: The concept of e-Panchayat holds great promise for rural masses across the country as it aims to transform Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) into symbols of modernity, transparency, and efficiency. The study was designed to examine the role of e-Panchayat as a tool to facilitate the functioning of Panchayati Raj (PR) system. Methods/Statistical analysis: Both primary and secondary sources of data were used for the purpose of the study. Quantitative as well as qualitative methods of data collection were used to provide a holistic view of the issues under study. While survey method was used and an Interview Schedule designed for the purpose of data collection, few indepth interviews with representatives of state and block level officials and journalists were conducted to obtain detailed insights into the topic. A Pilot study was undertaken in one of the Halqa Panchayats to pre-test the Interview Schedule. Appropriate statistical techniques were used for data analysis and drawing inferences. Findings: The findings revealed that PRFs were not aware of the facility as e-Panchayat enabling agents like computers and the internet were not available at the Panchayat Ghars. Besides, PRFs and villagers were not computer literate as such even a simple computer application would be difficult for them to handle. In this context trained human resource or support staff in the form of Village Level Worker (VLW) or Gram Rozgar Sevak (GRS) or any other could facilitate them in their respective works. The data connectivity needs to be extended to Panchayat Ghars and trained staff be provided at the Halqa Panchayat level. The absence of other infrastructural facilities needs to be addressed at the earliest for effective implementation of e-Panchayat. Application/Improvements: In view of mobile penetration, accessibility of mobile phones and internet usage in the study area, e-Panchayat holds great promise in the study area. It can serve as an empowering tool for masses at grass root level provided timely and specific measures are adopted. e-Panchayat can go a long way in strengthening participatory democracy at the grass root level
306 Norman mailer: a quest for the archetypes: a study of his major fiction , M.Rajendran, T.Rajeshkannan , V. Sathish
Objectives: This analysis traces the development of select American fiction highlighting the post-war writers particularly related to Norman Mailer. Emphasis is laid on a quest for the archetypal emotions connected with war, power, power through politics and power through sex. Methods: The analysis of a quest for the archetypes of Norman Mailer’s major fiction was examined especially related to the contemporary American society. This study takes into account Norman Mailer’s background as a writer, his special contribution to the genre of the novels and his place in the history of ideas of his own time in assessing the permanent value of his creative fiction. Findings: The quest for power through war and sex is examined in The Naked and the Dead. The power through politics in Barbary Shore is also analyzed. The quest for power through sex is studied in TheDeer Parkand inAn American Dream in detail. It also explores Mailer’s techniques of narration, style, characterization and the influences in fixing Mailer’s pre-occupation with the archetypal of emotions of society especially Twentieth Century American society.
307 An artifact on materialism in India , RimpleManchanda
Background/Objectives: Indian culture has been influenced by materialistic way of life from developedeconomies, which are on mass consumption stage. It is surviving through materialism without any judgment for right and wrong. Methods/Statistical analysis: It is a qualitative study stimulated through the exploration on materialism and its impact; it traces on Indian culture. Findings: Literature has suggested that materialism is not a new concept and is as old as Indian culture. Modern materialism is a new field of study, which needs to be explored. Improvements/Applications: The recent trends in market suggest that study of materialism in context of marketing is need of an hour and essentially to be premeditated in Indian context.
308 Bridging the disparity with state balanced growth fund in Tamil Nadu, India , J. Ana Raj  ,P. Sumathi
Background/Objectives:India is a fastest growing country in the world with its economic growth projection of 7.7% for the 2017 financial year. While being satisfied and proud of this enormous growth, one must remind themselves as whether this growth is qualitative. This paper aims at understanding the nature of growth of Indian economy and the impact of State Balanced Growth Fund (SBGF) programme of Tamil Nadu. Inorder to study the impact of SBGF, out of 105 SBGF blocks, the Kadamalaikundu – Myladumparai block of Theni district was selected purposively for the study. Methods/Statistical analysis:This block is backward in three parameters viz, Poverty, Industrially Backward and Health. Out of these three parameters, Poverty and Industrially Backwardness are studied by following proportionate random sampling; whereas Health parameter is studied by analysing the available secondary data. Results/Findings:As a result of the study, all the three development parameters experienced positive growth due to the development projects implemented for each. The Poverty parameter is analysed by studying the annual income of the respondents, which showed that it was doubled in the past one year. Industrially Backwardness is studied by knowing the increase in employment in the block and the additional employment generated is around 70. The third parameter health also indicated growth after SBGF in sub – parameters like Infant Mortality Rate, Disease Incidence Rate and number of out – patients. Improvements/Application:Though the projects are localized and flexible, there remain the constraints of hectic procedures and side-lining need-of-the-hour projects. This can be overcome by employing participatory project development and decentralizing the fund under Panchayat level.
309 Impact of Karnataka state finance corporation on micro, small and medium enterprise development in Karnataka, India , Hiregouda Nagaraj , B.S. Reddy , D.G.Satihal
Objectives: To assess the institutional support to micro, small and medium enterprise development in Karnataka and socio economic characteristics of entrepreneur. Methods/Statistical analysis: The Hyderabad-Karnataka region was purposively selected which is an industrially backward region of Karnataka. Five respondents from each district constituting total sample size of 30 ABI owners who have borrowed loan from KSFC's were selected. The secondary data was collected from KSFC for the period of 14 years from 2001 to 2015. To analyse the objectives tabular analysis, compound growth rate and simple averages and percentages are worked out. Results: Hederabad-Karnataka is industrial backward region in the state wherein Karnataka State Financial Corporation (KSFC) played important role and it accounted 33.78 and 12.31 per cents of total Agro Based Industries (ABI) and Non-ABI sanctioned in the state respectively. Majority of the scheme introduced by KSFC have shown positive and significant growth except National Equity Fund, Mahila Udyam Nidhi, Technology Upgradation Fund and Credit Linked Capital Subsidy. The maximum benefit availed by ABI owners was from Mahila Udyam Nidhi ( 3.86 lakhs) followed by interest subsidy scheme for SC/ST entrepreneurs ( 3.17 lakhs), energy saving scheme ( 1.40 lakhs) with total subsidize interest rate benefit of 11.89 lakhs. Applications: Majority of scheme operated by KSFC have shown positive growth in terms of distribution of credit to agro based industries. Government should establish more number of Agro Industry in the region to improve livelihood of rural poorer.
310 Impact of demonetization on Indian economy , Siddharth Choudhary, Ashish Jacob,  Ayush Trivedi, D.K. Singh
Objectives: The impact for demonetization has been mentioned, illustrating how similar events have had an historical analogy. The experts estimate has been used to support reasonable arguments made in context of requirement of monetary policy change. Methods/Statistical analysis: Demonetization is a monetary policy which functions to remove currency of higher denomination which is currently in circulation. Reasons for its execution are restricted to each government and the need of the people. Although in best interest of the country and stabilizing the economy, demonetization reaches to sectors both organized and unorganized. Findings/Results:Its effects are socio-economic which results in the desired outcome planned before, while bringing the policy in effect. Measures by the Government of India to demonetize with effect from 8th November 2016 will redefine business and investment in India and will lead this country to where it really belongs, in a league of developing nations contributing to the development of the entire world. The outcomes post demonetization has been discussed and its future implications have been mentioned in this manuscript. The assumptions made while applying policy change regarding the creation of urge to learn and implement smart IT solutions have also been mentioned illuminating desire for technological growth in the country. The article also follows through both advantages and disadvantages of demonetization. Applications: Monetary Policy change, establishing business in a new economic environment.
311 Sustainable development through environmental taxation in Nigeria: challenges and prospects , Iliya Garba
Background/Objectives: The paper examines sustainable development through environmental taxation in Nigeria. There is a need to find ways of reducing environmental impairment through pollution while minimising harmful effect on the economic growth. Methods/ Statistical Analysis: The combination of both qualitative and quantitative methods was used to fulfil research aims. The research employed the Yaro Yamani formula in determining the population size. A population of 15,000,000 for the study with an error limit of 5 percent, a sample size of 400 used in this study is therefore considered adequate. A well organized constructed close-ended questionnaire is designed and administered to provide answer emerging from the analysis of the problem. Findings: Considering the seriousness of this environmental hazards posed by these industries, Federal Government of Nigeria should formulate plans to design a tax process that might encompass environmental tax policies, so that the levy of tax be designed placing its burden on those who are responsible for causing a particular environmental problem, or problems and also make provision for statutory incentives to minimize administrative cost to the government and compliance cost imposed on the tax payers.
312 Lifting the poor in Nigeria: a comparative analyses of the role of microfinance banks and cooperatives , Adeniyi Jimmy Adedokun
Objectives: This study investigates the role of microfinance banks (MFBs) and cooperatives in lifting the poor in Nigeria. Methods/Statistical analysis: Analyses are carried out in relation to how accessible and effective the two institutions’ loans. The study employs survey methodology where interview is used to generate data. The interview is conducted in Ibadan, the capital of Oyo state, and Abeokuta, the capital of Ogun State in South-western part of Nigeria. In all, 166 respondents provided the information used for this study. Simple averages and percentages are used for analysis. Findings: Findings reveal that it is difficult for the poor to access MFBs’ loans, and loan effectiveness analyses show that only middle income and rich people can benefit from MFBs’ loans.However,cooperatives’ loans are found to be more accessible and effective to the poor. Improvements/Applications: The results of this study have important implication for poverty reduction, thereby recommends that cooperatives movement should be encouraged inNigeria
313 IPv6 transition techniques – dual stack and tunneling , T. Pramananda Perumal, Merline Johndoss
Objectives: IPv6 is to be used largely in the growing internetworks. At present IPv4 is used extensively. Migrating from IPv4 to IPv6 is a challenge, considering many factors like hardware, applications and networks reach ability. This paper explains the drawbacks of IPv4, advantages of IPv6 and migration techniques to IPv6. Methods/Analysis: GNS3 is a networking simulator. Using this simulation tools, network topologies can be built, and the routers can be configured. Using this GNS3 simulation tool, two topologies are built with IPv4 and IPv6 to coexist, and only IPv4 networks between two IPv6 networks. Results/Findings: The appropriate migration techniques, dual stack and tunneling were configured in the routers and end results of reach ability were tested. Applications: IPv6 can be used in many applications like IoT, vehicle tracking, automatic maintenance of building, in health care, remote monitoring, etc.
314 Digital India programme and impact of digitalisation on Indian economy , Karamvir Sheokand , Neha Gupta
Objectives: To introduce the Digital India Campaign and Indian Economy. To know about the pillars for the implementation of the programme. To study the impact of digitalisation on various sectors of Indian economy. To find out about the challenges faced in the implementation of the Programme. Methodology: The methodology used in this research work is secondary data analysis. This paper covers Digital India Programme and the Impact of digitalisation on Indian Economy, which has PAN India coverage. Only secondary data from some authentic government sources and research papers of eminent researchers are used. Findings: A digitally knowledgeable and empowered population can transform the whole economy. The automation of the economic sectors will lead to better performance and growth of the sectors, which in turn impact the growth rate of the economy.Digitalisation will will lead to cost savings, increased output, better employment, enhanced productivity & literacy, etc. In the agricultural sector and in Industrial sector, digitalisation will help in betterment of all the processes, be it, purchasing, selling, inventory control, trade relations, employment, product innovation & development, etc. Automation of Service Sector will help in growth of the sector by increasing the ease in access to and rendering of the services. Wider customer reach and customization of services according to customer’s requirements also boost the demand for services. A digitally empowered economy develops much faster, effectively and efficiently due to better utilisation of its capital as well as human resources. And India being a country with such huge manpower resources, if utilised properly, can achieve unprecedented growth rate and put the country in top position along with the developed economies. Improvements: The Digital India Programme has just started off fresh, and therefore not much data is available regarding the impact of the programme itself. Further improvements can be affected by keeping in view the impact of the programme on the economy.
315 Female laborforce participation in India-A gloomy picture , SuraviKar Roy
Objectives:To analyse the trend of female laborforce participation rate (FLFP) in India. Methods/Statistical analysis: The trend of FLFP has been analysed and presented through graphs using secondary dataobtained from World Bank for a very recent period 2007-2016.Use of literature and basic statistics has been made to explore various demand side and supply side factors determining FLFP.Feminisation ‘U’ hypothesis has been tested using statistical techniques. Findings:The trend of FLFP in India has been found to be declining in the recent period and FLFP rate has been among the lowest in the sample of the countries considered. A major finding of this paper is that feminisation ‘U’ hypothesis of female laborforce participation rate in India has been verified for the period[2007-2015].This is in consistent with the existing literature andadds value to them as it isbased on updated data.Various measures have been suggested to stimulate FLFP in India like childcare subsidy to working mothers, better paternal leave,and improvement in physical and social infrastructure,changes in the legislation and social norms,skill development and job creation,financial and political inclusion of women, improvement in rural employment programmes etc. Application/Improvements: Boosting FLFP has important implications for economic development of India.If measurement of household works of women can be done, the delineation of real picture of FLFP will be possible.
316 Food − Consciousness − Food Security: Connecting the Dots , Jyoti Gogia and Neha Sikarwar
Background: Food security is a dynamic concept; it has been changing to integrate new ideas over the years since it was established. Mankind’s future ability to feed itself is reducing due to growing population, uncertain economic conditions, rising prices of agricultural products, increasing inequalities and adverse climatic conditions. The earth is capable of producing enough food in a sustainable way but unlocking that potential and ensuring all of humanity benefits will require major transformations. Therefore, more coherent and conscious system of governance of food security is required. Methods: The paper is qualitative in nature. It seeks to highlight the linkages among food, consciousness and food security through secondary data sources. Findings: The paper reveals that food, consciousness and food security are interconnected. Food choices and preferences have power to affect the level of consciousness. Conscious mind leads to right path; therefore, it assists to transform human behavior to take wise decisions. The paper further expresses the conscious behavioral approach to comprehend the way to accomplish a food secure world. Applications: The government and policy makers can develop conscious food system through conscious behavioral approach to attain food and nutrition security.
317 Client protection in microfinance companies in India , ManabChakraborty
Objectives: This paper examines what microfinance companies are doing to protect their clients –mostly women belonging to weaker sections -from mis-selling, over indebtedness and unfair practices. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study is based on annual reports produced by 49 microfinance institutions belong to Microfinance Institution Network (MFIN) an interview of 355 microfinance in Alwar, Rajasthan was conducted in 2015 and 2017. Focus group discussions were the main tool used to solicit views of microfinance clients. Findings: The client grievance redressal mechanism available to microfinance clients is skewed in favor of the microfinance providers, who are members of MFIN. The Reserve Bank of India has recognized MFIN as the Special Regulatory Organization (SRO) to resolve all client complaints at its own level. Till now not a single adverse decision has been made by the Enforcement Committee of MFIN against any of its members for violating Code of Conduct or Fair Practices Code, which protects clients against lenders abuse. Unless RBI independently monitors the client grievance redressal work of MFIN, there is little hope that clients will receive justice which is without any reproach. Application/Improvements: Microfinance clients should have recourse to third party dispute resolution, including Banking Ombudsman appointed by the RBI. Keywords: 5-6 words, Drawn from title, Word representing the work.
318 Community perception on implementation of environmental taxation for sustainable development in Nigeria , Iliya Garba
Background/Objectives: The paper examines what will motivate the public to accept a policy that will acknowledge environmental taxation in Nigeria. Methodology/Statistical Analysis: Survey technique was used and a close ended questionnaire was administered to an individual to elicit their responses. The researcher applied Yaro Yamane sample - size calculation formulae based on the number of Samples under discussion. Findings: The finding of the study reveals that political confidence, interpersonal trust, ethical beliefs and norms of people are the major key players in determining policy acceptance of environmental taxes in Nigeria. Improvements/Application: the study recommended that, If Public were poorly informed about the motive of the tax will cause stiff resistance from the public. To be supportive of environmental taxes, people must trust the politician that they will use the tax revenue in a transparent and well judicious manner
319 Demonetization whether the stated objectives have been met with or not: an analysis of success of the move in the present and the future prospective , Saurav Mishra, AadityaMishra, Anuraag P Iyer
Background/Objectives: Demonetization has had a great impact on the nation’s economy. One of the major parts of this was multiple economic concepts that were looked at prospective growth. There is a fundamental need to evaluate if the aimed objectives were met with. Methods/Statistical analysis: A major part of the study was carried out by the method of secondary research and data collection from secondary sources Findings: Section 39(2) the point so highlighted that the supply so created when the currency notes were removed was not filled. In agriculture the reason behind the existence of the growth rate in spite of the adverse effects of demonetization has been from 0.8%in FY16 to the current year, in Public Administration too there has been an observation of growth and this can mainly be attributed to the 6.9% to 11.22%." "However every other sector has been adversely affected due to the move have been the sectors as below: Mining: Decline in growth rate-12.3 % to 1.3 % Financial and Real Estate Sector: 10.8 % to 6.5% Manufacturing Sector: 10.6% to 7.7% The Gross Domestic Capital Formation (GDCF) has had a steady decline from 29.2%to 26.9% and that is the lowest it has hit in 15 years.” Improvements/Applications: In the case of demonetization there is a major need for the objectives being met with. To achieve these objectives one of the fundamental principles shall be as per the guidelines proposed by proposer of the scheme Anil Bokil.
320 Internal funds and investment financing by Indian manufacturing firms , Ansari Abdul Rahim
Objectives: The study investigates the sources of investment financing and easiness of raising external funds through capital market by Indian manufacturing firms after economic reforms. Methods: A balanced panel of 180 Indian private sector manufacturing firms operating in different areas and producing a wide range of products is chosen from listed BSE-500 firms and divided into four categories by developing a composite index. “Augmented Sales Accelerator” equation has been employed and estimated by Panel data regression technique. Second Stage Least Squires (2SLS) method is used to avoid measurement error and endogeneity problems. Findings: The result indicates a wide difference between various categories of firms with respect to asset size and financing pattern. As compared to all firms the average cash flow sensitivity is very high for smaller firms (0.49) particularly during 1990s which reflects reliance on internal funds and difficulty in raising external funds for investment projects. Sales income seems to be highly significant for larger firms and borrowings from external sources are important for all categories of firms in investment financing. The overall finding demonstrates that old, experienced and large firms have easy access of external funds from the capital market and thus, less reliant on internal funds while smaller firms are not. There is indication that due to various reform measures in financial market over the period of time, the capital market constraint is declining which is evident from reduced investment cash flow sensitivity for smaller firms since year 2001 onwards. Application: This study used advanced methodology for analysis and takes into account the balance sheet of only private manufacturing firms which are not subject to financing through government budgetary provisions
321 Economic analysis of sago effluents and its impact on agriculture production , Dr. P. Periyasamy and Dr. K. Govindarajalu
Objectives: This paper is to examine the effect of sago industrial effluents and its impact on agriculture production to has negative effects on crop health and the environment. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Production function method was used to measure the agriculture production damage costs due to sago industrial pollution by adopting stratified sampling technique. Both qualitative and quantitative types of data have analyzed to achieve the objectives. Multiple regression analysis has used to find out the relationship between effect of sago effluents and agriculture production in Salem district of Tamil Nadu. Findings: Higher concentrations of water pollutants and increase in environmental unwell near the sago industry prevails. It also leads to losses in agricultural production. Thus pollution by sago industries can affect living conditions in polluted areas. Application/Improvements: So it can be suggested as either the installed CETPs are not treating the effluents or the area needs more effluent treatment plants for the treatment. There is need for cooperation between the different sago industries and other stakeholder so that they can be able to learn from each other’s experience for improved environment, agriculture production, management of the ground water and water bodies.
322 Ecosystem services- an overview , Dipak Uchampalli , E. Girish Kumar  , S. Vikrant 
Objectives: To elaborate the essence of Ecosystem services to scientists and stake holders and throw some light on to its interred disciplinary nature. People of all strata need a thorough understanding of the surrounding ecosystem and the services provided by it to human in various means. A scientific attitude and temper is the need of hour to protect our mother Earth from ailments of pollution and imbalances. Method: Various aspects of ecosystem services have been reviewed and the basic facts were elaborated thoroughly to grass root level so as to transfer the concept to even novices. Important concepts by scientists of respective fields have been analyzed and portrayed in a systematic manner. Efforts were taken to relate the dependence of common man to ecosystem for his successful survival on this planet. Findings: The ecosystem services had been classified to mainly 4 types. This paper has described various facets of services in detail. The Provisioning services elaborated here are food, fodder, fuel, fiber, water, biochemical, alginates, ornamental resources and generic resources. Regulating services explained are air, climate, water, nitrogen fixation, disease outbreak, biological control, pollination, storm etc. Cultural services are explained as cultural value, religious value, educational value and aesthetic value. Supporting services of different types are also mentioned in this context. Applications: The new findings can be applied to assess the ecosystem service values which can support the economy of a country. People should be made aware of the importance of ecosystem services so that they can utilize the products and processes of nature in a sustainable manner.
323 Prime determinants that influence “Life Expectancy”: an analysis across Indian states using multiple regressions , Senthil Kumar Anantharaman
Background/Objectives: To explore life expectancy in Indian states and also to determine how life expectancy is influenced by determinants such as gender, per-capita income, gender, age and area. Method/ Statistical Analysis: An extensive literature review from various developing and developed countries was initially done to understand the validity of indicators. Suitable indicators that can be focused for Indian states were selected. Secondary data from reliable sources and databases (For Ex. Like India Stat) were collected to perform this study. Regression analysis applying linear multiple regression and stepwise regression using Minitab software has been extensively used to arrive at the key determinants that affect life expectancy in various Indian states. Findings: Overall, the analyses of the Indian states indicate that literacy rate, access of doctors in rural areas, income, preferences of states (inclusive of geography) by Indian people to reside play as key factors in determining and improving Life Expectancy. Findings include that females have a higher life expectancy than males living in the urban area in most of the Indian states. Also, findings indicate that literacy rate and net income plays a significant role in affecting life expectancy at birth positively in both urban and rural areas in all the states. Geography of the states also plays a key factor that affects life expectancy. Findings indicate that people who live in mid and south India have a higher life expectancy than those residing in the northern states. Improvement/ Applications: Findings and analysis indicates the suitable steps, that the policy makers of state as well as centre need to take, that can enhance life expectancy and quality of life across the Indian states. Also certain other factors like type of diseases that inhibit life expectancy can be studied in future in detail as they may influence life expectancy in a higher way.
324 Small ruminant value chain in India: opportunities and constraints , Manab Chakraborty, Deepa Gupta
Background/Objectives: To assess the importance of livestock (small ruminant) sector in employment generation and the role of markets in improving livestock value chain. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study is based on secondary data analysis. A need for a strong institutional mechanism to support small ruminant keepers and to improvise various activities in livestock value chain such as in Input, Production, Processing, and Distribution have been analysed. Findings: The small ruminant sector makes an important contribution to Indian economy, provides sustenance to rural population, and leads to poverty alleviation. Apart from having healthy breed of livestock and marketing, processing is also an important step in enhancing value chain in livestock sector. The state with highest production of meat is Uttar Pradesh (19.1 per cent) followed by Andhra Pradesh (15.2 per cent) and West Bengal (10.9 per cent).Revenue of minimum ₹. 11,350 crores will be lost in the state of UP, due to ban on meat exports. For clean meat production and environment protection it is imperative that all slaughter houses of the country are registered. Assistance is required to make the sector organised and increase accessibility to necessary inputs, services and finance. Improvements/Applications: Sensitisation of farmers on market demand of livestock is imperative to help realise better price in domestic market and will produce healthy pure breed goats for export. Linkages need to be created between goat farmers, processors, and exporters.
325 Trend and seasonality in prices and arrivals of Bengal gram , Smruti Prangya Sahoo , Rakesh Singh
Background: To find out the fluctuation in the prices and arrivals of the Bengal gram crop. Method: The study was conducted for the period of 2003-2016 by collecting secondary data from APMC market. The major APMC Markets are selected purposively on the basis of high prices and arrivals in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh which are the major Bengal gram growing states of India. Findings: There is a positive and significant growth rate has been observed in the prices of selected APMC markets Bareilly and SHUJALPUR which is 0.78 and 0.49 respectively but there observed a positive and insignificant growth rate in the arrivals which is 0.07 and 0.02 at 5% level of significance. Both Bareilly and SHUJALPUR market have high seasonal indices in the month of May and June indicated the high post-harvest arrivals in the months. The low arrivals in the month of August, January, and July indicated the shortage and speculation in the pulse market. There was an inverse relationship between arrival and prices of Bengal gram in the selected markets from the above findings. Improvements: This study suggested for improvement in the infrastructure, transportation, storage facilities and there is need to strengthen the market information network.
326 Socio-economic condition of women construction workers in Kannur district, Kerala , P. Maneesh, P.T. Jasna
Background/Objectives: Today, economic independence is the prime basis for improving the status of women in India. It is highly emphasized that women work participation is crucial in enhancing social and economic status as well as improving their assertive roles in the household decision making. In construction activities, health is the important determinant of employment, and it is the deteriorating factors consider to workers especially the women, they are simultaneously engaging in economic and non-economic activities. This study is an attempt to understand the socio-economic condition of women construction workers and a special emphasis has given to identify the work related problems of women in Kannur district. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study largely relays on field data which were collected from 50 respondents in Kannur district. A sample size of 50 women respondents were selected from the district by employing simple random sampling method. The respondents were interviewed with a well-structured schedule. Simple percentage and regression analysis was used to interpret the data. Findings: As far as the problems faced by the workers are concerned, 100 percent of the workers are dealing with health problems and 82 percent of the workers faces financial problem. About 30 percent of the workers are facing other problems such as sanitary facility, drinking water facility, wage problems etc. The main health problems faced by the workers are muscle pain, allergy, cough, asthma problem, etc. About 8 percent of the workers are suffering from all of these problems. The nature of hospital preferred by the construction workers is mainly government hospitals. About 86 percent of the women workers opined that their status in the society has been improved by doing construction work. Improvements/Applications: Encourage the construction workers saving habit through initiating banking awareness and ensure adequate insurance facilities for the construction workers. Ensure equal wage for the work in the unorganised sector and renew the wages yearly. Give proper guidelines and awareness about medical insurance, various schemes and financial support, programme offered through welfare board and initiative workers to take membership in the welfare board.
327 Development of equity capital market for MSMES in India: an econometrics perspective , Nihar Ranjan Jena, Lina R Thatte
Objectives: To assess the state of SME equity capital market in India and to assess the impact of international SME equity markets on Indian SME market Method/Statistical Analysis: In order to assess the state of SME equity market in India, its performance has been compared with the performance of international SME equity markets. For this purpose information on stock indices of different SME equity stock indices have been sourced for the period October 1, 2012 to March 31, 2017. Moreover, the ratio of number of companies listed on the SME platform and the number of companies listed on the main exchangehas been used as a tool for measuring the depth of an SME trading platform. For studying the interaction between the Indian SME stock market and the international SME stock markets, the Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity Mean (ARCH-M) model has been employed. Findings: The study reveals that since its inception in the year 2012, the BSE SME market has been able to make a mark for itself. During the reference period, the performance of the market is impressive and much better compared to other international SME equity capital markets. However, international SME equity capital markets are more entrenched than the Indian SME equity capital market as measured by the ratio of number of companies listed on the SME platform and the number of companies listed on the main exchange. Regarding the interaction between the Indian and International SME equity markets, we ascertained that while volatility in Kosdaq and Chinext have negative impacts, volatility in Mothers and TSXV markets have positive impacts on volatility in BSE SME market. Moreover the impact of other two SME equity markets like, AlterNext and FirstNorth on BSE SME are statistically insignificant. We also ascertained that the BSE SME market is a risky market and the findings are statistically significant. Application/Improvements: Considering the fact that the BSE SME is in its initial years of growth and far from being mature and well entrenched, the policy makers in active coordination with the capital market regulator may take necessary steps in further deepening of the BSE SME trading platform. Further, it would be beneficial for the SMEs in India if the SME trading platform is developed as a multilateral trade facility (MTF) rather than as a regulated market. Sectoral analysis of companies listed on BSE SME can be an area of further research.
328 MGNREGA a well come change: a study of block BEHIBAGH District KULGAM, J&K , A.A. Naikoo, S.S. Thakur
Background/Objectives: The present study conducted in Block BEHIBAGH of District KULGAM in J&K, has defined positive changes and its impact on block under Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA). Methods/Statistical analysis: To achieve the objective of this study both primary and secondary data was collected. Primary data was collected through a well-designed interview schedule and secondary data was collected from block officials, internet and MGNREGA cell. During the study all the 18 PANCHAYATS were selected and the households of these PANCHAYATS were further simplified on the basis of random sampling to get the purpose of this study. Findings: MGNREGA has a great impact on the study block. Before this act the current block was suffering from so many miseries but MGNREGA have fulfilled all the demanded tasks like lanes, land irrigation bodies, crossings, flood protection bunds, village interconnected streets, roads and water bodies. MGNREGA provided lot of employment to the households in which 2327 households demanded employment but only 2135 households got employment in the financial year 2015. The executed works in the block is 340 which costs 339.35 lakhs has been spent on the block. Women participation in the block is 12663(out of 20123) participated, in which only 134 women’s completed 100 days of work. The act provided substitute income to the labours 540 labours of this block have been taken for the study purpose and they all responded about increment in their income after working under MGNREGA. In the long run we can say that the act benefited each and every one in direct or indirect way and made a positive effect on the life of people. Improvements/Applications: Study suggested that corruption, improper planning, sub-standard material, low wages and unawareness like issues should be checked at the ground level to provide maximum benefit to the society.
329 Socio-economic development of Uttar Pradesh: an empirical analysis , H. Kaur, P. K. Mishra
Background/Objectives: Since the concepts of social and economic development of a nation/region/state is crucial for the development of human resources, the objective of this paper is to examine the socio-economic development of Uttar Pradesh in the post-reform period. Methods/Statistical analysis: The socio-economic profile of Uttar Pradesh has been examined by calculating decadal growth rates, compound annual growth rates, and by constructing appropriate time series plots. Specifically, the economic profile of the state has been presented with the help of real gross state domestic product at factor cost. And, the social aspect of development has been examined with the help of government expenditure on education and health as percentage of gross state domestic product. Findings: The findings of the study reveal a low level of human development, and consequential low level of growth of the economy of Uttar Pradesh. It is uniquely observed that the average performance of all economic as well as social sectors in the state has declined during 2012 and 2015. This observation is sufficient to justify the persistency of unemployment, poverty and inequality in the state. Improvements/Applications: Appropriate policy initiatives are warranted to address the problems of socioeconomic backwardness of Uttar Pradesh. Specifically, it is essential to focus on the development of the masses at the bottom of the pyramid.
330 Reviewing role of market-based Instruments in addressing climate change , A. Bhatnagar
Objectives: In this paper we will critically review the reliability of Market-Based Instruments (Tradable permits and Pollution tax, and Hybrid Policies) to counter the problem of global climate change. Methods/Statistical analysis: By doing a survey of literature, graphical analysis of the carbon footprint of countries and studying past experiences at global and regional level, we will try to find the basic prerequisites needed for a market-based policy to work. We will then see whether or not these prerequisites conform at the global level. Findings: We find that though MBIs have shown positive results at the regional level, the governments of those regions played an indispensable role behind the success of these policy instruments. At the same time, MBIs at the global level implemented after Kyoto Protocol failed in their aim to curb the emissions. In fact the data suggests that the carbon emission of the world actually increased after the Kyoto Protocol was implemented. The World Bank data on CO2 emissions also points towards carbon leakage from developed to developing countries. Hence, we agree with the general economic consensus that tradable permits and pollution tax can be powerful tools to curb emission at regional level. But, as the evidence suggest, we cannot rely on them to counter global climate change. Application/Improvements: We propose that instead of relying on a single global policy, governments of regional trading blocs should establish their own MBI across the globe. Also, instead of carbon emissions, we must monitor the carbon footprint of nations so that leakages can be accounted for.
331 Using song therapy to demystify the mystery that surrounds the comprehension of poetry: our experience , Chinyere Maduabuchi, Patricia Eziamak Ezenandu and  Ugochi Ijeoma Chidi-Ehiem
Background/Objectives: The study, ‘Demystifying the mystery that surrounds the comprehension of poetry through song therapy: Our experience’, adopted a pretest, post-test quasi experimental research design to measure students’ comprehension in English poetry using song therapy. Methods/Statistical analysis: 284 students from selected intact classes in Junior Secondary School II and Senior Secondary School II were used in both experimental and control groups. The experimental groups were taught poetry with songs, while the control groups used the conventional method. The study used 104 male students for the experimental groups, 31 male students for the control group, 107 and 42 females for the experimental and control groups respectively. Means and standard deviation were used for the research questions, while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used for the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Findings: The findings of the study indicate a significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught poetry with song therapy and those taught with the conventional approach. Improvements/Applications: good quality teaching makes an impact in the lives of students. Our experiences in the classrooms ignited the enthusiasm to have this study carried out in two different locations and the results still established our previous claims that songs ,when integrated into a poetry tutorial has the potentials to set the stage for erudition by increasing students’ interest, and activating their thinking and ingenuity.
332 Psycho-active substance use and age as factors in reckless driving among Tri-Motorcycle riders in a Nigerian sample   , Ronald C.N. Oginyi,  Ofoke S.Mbam,  Joseph N. Edeh and1 Chibugo M. Oketa
Background/Objectives: This research investigatedpsycho-active substance use and age as factors in reckless driving among tri-motorcycle riders in a Nigerian sample. Methods/Statistical analysis: The non-experimental research was conducted on a sample of 2526 Trimotorcycle riders, aged between 18 and 50 years, with a mean age of 34.64years, using psycho-active substance use questionnaire and reckless driving scale. The stated hypotheses were tested using multiple regression analysis. The multiple regression statistical analysis revealed positive prediction of psycho-active substance use and reckless driving with respect to age oftri-motorcycle riders, R = 0.564, R2 = 0.319, Adjusted R2 = 0.295; F (1, 2524) =12.40, P < 0.001. Findings: Indicated that psycho-active substance use and age predicted reckless driving among tri-motorcycle riders in a Nigerian sample. It was concluded that psycho-active substance use and age might be involved in some of the reckless driving behavior associated to tri-motorcycle riders.The paper offers practical suggestions to the ministry of works and transportation, road users and management in general on how to minimize the negative psycho-active substance use and age effects arising from reckless driving/behavior. Improvements/Applications: Increase public awareness of the potential effect of psycho-active substance use and establishing education program against psychoactive substance specially among the, youths, adults and adolescents.
333 Secondary school dropouts in OHAOZARA local government area: causes, implications for male students and intervention strategies for educational administrators , Uzoma Aja-Okorie and Adali A. Onele
Background/Objectives: This research paid attention to the causes of secondary school dropouts of male students in OHAOZARA local government area (L.G. A.) of Ebonyi State, Nigeria; its implications for students and existing actions by erudition administrators. The work was guided by three study questions. Methods/Statistical analysis: The descriptive analysis design was adopted for the research. The population constituted of students and principals in all the community secondary schools in the area of this research. The sample comprised of students and all the principals in the research district. There were two sets of prearranged questionnaires self developed and adopted for the research; one for the students and the other for the principals. The statistical tool used to evaluate the data was mean± standard deviation. Findings: After the study, the results showed that the key factors influencing school withdraw among male secondary school students in OHAOZARA L.G.A. are due to students’ disenchantment about education; society’s acknowledgment for wealthy people no matter how they made their money and the complicated nature of some school subjects cum the uninteresting environment of poor teaching strategies and results. Improvements/Applications: The principals ought to enhance the environmental conditions in their schools to give students the inducement to continue in school, increase understanding and skills through work hard.
334 Test for asymmetry price relationship in Nigerian Cocoa market , J.O. Ajetomobi and D.V Dlamini
Objective: To investigate the degree of asymmetry in the relationship between world price of cocoa and the local exporting firms’ prices. Methods: A Generalized Least Square Momentum Threshold Autoregressive (GLS MTAR) model was employed in the analysis of the data. The properties of the model are more significant in power when compared with the Engle and Granger symmetric test or the co-integration model developed by Ender and Siklos. Findings: The main result show that a rise in the world price might lead to slower rise in cocoa exporting firm prices in Nigeria, while a decline in the world prices might cause a rapid fall in the exporting firms prices. Application: The results suggest that there exists inherent competition among cocoa exporting firms in Nigeria who now interface between cocoa farmers and importers. At present therefore, the liberalization of the market could be said to be a right step in the right direction.
335 Impact of personal/organizational conflict on staff personnel administration in secondary schools in OHAOZARA local government area of EBONYI state, NIGERIA , Uzoma Aja-Okorie
Background/Objectives: The study focused on the impact of personal/organisational conflict on staff personnel in secondary school administration in OHAOZARA local government area of EBONYI State. Three research questions were posed for the study. Methods/Statistical analysis: A descriptive survey research design was used for the study. The population consisted of 672 secondary school teachers. A simple random sampling technique was used to draw 220 teachers used for the study. Instrument for data collection was a researcher self structured questionnaire entitled, “Impact of Organizational Conflicts on Staff Personnel in Secondary School Administration (IOCSPSSA)”. Data collected were analysed using statistical mean. Findings: The results of the study showed that conflict has impact on teachers’ commitment, coordination, and mental stress of teachers, which negatively impact on the effective secondary school administration in OHAOZARA local government area of EBONYI State. Improvements/Applications: Based on the findings the study recommended among others that teachers should be encouraged to participate in regular retraining of teachers. There should be regular clinical supervision, leave grants and staff promotion. It also recommended in-service training, workshops and seminars for teachers. It is also recommended that teachers be exposed to courses on conflict resolution and management to help them manage conflicts better.
336 Boltzmann and Non-Boltzmann sampling for image processing , T. Pramananda Perumal, K.R. Srivaishnavi, D.L. Asha Rani*, K.P.N. Murthy
Objectives: We present two algorithms for image processing; the first is based on Boltzmann sampling and the second on entropic sampling. Methods: These algorithms come within the Bayesian framework which has three components: 1. Likelihood: a conditional density - the probability of a noisy image given a clean image, 2. A Prior and, 3. A Posterior: a conditional density - the probability of a clean image given a noisy image. The Likelihood provides a model for the degradation process; the Prior models what we consider as a clean image; it also provides a means of incorporating whatever data we have of the image; the Posterior combines the Prior and Likelihood and provides an estimate of the clean counterpart of the given noisy image. The algorithm sets a competition between: 1. The Likelihood that tries to anchor the image to the given noisy image so that the features present can be retained including perhaps the noisy ones and, 2. The Prior which tries to make the image smooth, even at the risk of eliminating some genuine features of the image other than the noise. Findings: A proper choice of the prior and the likelihood functions would lead to good image processing. We need also good estimators of the clean image. Application: The choice of estimators is somewhat straight forward for image processing employing Boltzmann algorithm. For non-Boltzmann algorithm we need efficient estimators that make full use of the entropic ensemble generated
337 Fiscal response to oil price volatility in Nigeria , S.O. Ibrahim
Objective: This study aims to conduct investigation on fiscal response to oil price volatility in Nigeria, and simultaneously comparing two hybrid methods of econometric analysis. Methods: The theoretical model was derived from the consumption theory, and two hybrid methods (OLSARMA and 2SLS-GMM) of estimation were adopted to form the methodologies of the study. OLS and ARMA were combined in order to control for autocorrelation and heteroskedasticity in the model. While 2SLS and GMM were combined in order to accurately account for endogenous regressors. Findings: The findings from model estimation shows that government responds insignificantly to oil price shocks. Consequently, the study recommends that Nigeria should increase her productive capacity, especially on crude oil in order to generate more revenue, in turn influencing government expenditure. It was observed from the computation conducted on data series of government expenditure, which was obtained from organization of petroleum exporting countries (OPEC) statistical bulletin, such that Government expenditure has been on a decline over the years. This raises some questions on the capacity of its determinants which are responsible for influencing the trending pattern. In other words, productivities for exportation and other sources of government revenue are insufficient to ignite government expenditure desirably. Evaluation on methodologies adopted shows that 2SLS-GMM is superior and more efficient than OLS-ARMA based on the econometric criteria used in the diagnostic tests Application: Evidences from literature reviewed show that government revenue is the major determinant of government expenditure. Therefore, it adds to knowledge to investigate the effect of oil price volatility on government expenditure.
338 Pro-poor growth in India: an analysis in the post reform period , Priyabrata Sahoo , Balaji
Objective: To examines the pro-poorness of growth in India in the post reform period. Data & Methodology: The study based on National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) unit level data of Consumer Expenditure Survey (CES) for1993-94 (55th), 2004-05 (61st) and 2011-12 (68th) round. The poverty decomposition, pro-poor growth index, poverty equivalent growth and growth incidence curve has been estimated. Findings: The 1stperiod (1993-94 to 2004-05) has recorded a slower rise in Monthly per capita consumer expenditure (MPCE) and faster rise in gini causing a slow reduction in poverty. The 2ndperiod (2004-05 to 2011- 12) witness a faster rise in real MPCE with a slow growth in inequality causing faster reduction in poverty both in rural and Urban India. The 2nd period is approaching towards the pro-poorness, while the 1st period doesn’t. Application/Improvements: With poverty reduction the government should focus on the reduction in inequality to achieve pro-poor and inclusive growth. The process of pro-poorness i.e. the factors causing pro-poor growth and the Inclusiveness of the growth can be taken as the further research work
339 A comparative study of technical efficiency between canal and tank irrigated paddy farms using corrected OLS models in Tamil Nadu , Vasanthi R, Sivasankari B , Gitanjali J
Background/Objectives: To make a comparative study between canal and tank irrigation environments of paddy farms. Methods: Corrected ordinary least square method was used to determine technical efficiency in paddy production in their respective irrigation pattern. Further the study has assessed the effect of farm specific socio economic factors affecting the technical efficiency. This study was conducted in Cauvery delta zone of seven TALUKS about canal irrigation and Southern zone of four TALUKS about tank irrigation. Ultimately, there were 218 sample points under canal irrigation and 106 sample points under tank irrigation for two years (2009-10 and 2010-11). The data were obtained from the cost of cultivation scheme of Tamil Nadu centre. Findings: The results of Cobb Douglas production function indicated that seed, labour hours and pesticide cost are the inputs that significantly influence the yield of paddy in canal irrigated paddy farms; while, seed, fertilizer, labour hours are the are the inputs that significantly influence the yield of paddy in tank irrigated paddy farms. Besides, the qualitative variable namely education and seasons are significant in canal irrigated paddy farms while age and area were significant in tank irrigated paddy farms. The output oriented mean technical efficiency was found to be 86% in canal irrigated farms whereas 91% in tank irrigated farms. The study results also implied that in controlled irrigation condition namely tank irrigation, particularly in canal fed tanks when water availability becomes relatively more consistent, the yield levels were higher, and the mean technical efficiency was also relatively higher
340 Demonetisation: a boon for the real estate sector , Sanah Badhwar
Objectives: To provide a bird eye’s view of the entire real estate market, as the public at large is aware about the significant challenges that the Indian real estate has been facing in the past few years in terms of sales and growth. These include the policies of demonetization, GST, BENAMI Transaction Act and Real Estate Regulation Act. Methods/Statistical analysis: Secondary Sources that include references to various databases and reports obtained from various governmental websites. Findings: There has been a significant amount of findings associated with the research conducted. The context of this research has been in lieu of demonetization with the supplements of the supporting legislations- Goods and Service Tax, Prohibition of BENAMI property transactions Act, Real estate regulatory authority act. Each of these acts when analysed have indicated as being of significant improvement in the state of economic affairs. As has been also highlighted there has been some difficulty in adjustment to the move of demonetization in the beginning for the people yet it appears that in the long run it is a feasible option and of much relevance and one of the biggest steps for the growth of the Indian economy (i.e. approximately USD 14 billion to a USD 102 billion). Application/Improvements: In light of the cleansing the real estate sector, demonetisation has been aimed at removing black money in the sector. However, the highlight of its success can mainly be identified through the help of the various legislations that already exist and in furtherance be a stepping stone to providing a holistic approach to the sector of real estate. The improvement has been to consider all the major legislations and henceforth reach a fair consensus through the help of economic analysis keeping in mind the effects of all major legislations (Goods and service tax, Prohibition of BENAMI property transactions act, Real estate regulatory authority act) on real estate in order to identify the real impact on the sector of real estate from a policy as demonetization to specific acts that govern the real estate sector.
341 Constraints experienced by agricultural scientists and extension personnel in rice knowledge management and delivery: a case of Rice Knowledge Management Portal (RKMP) , Sunil Kumar , V. Sangeetha, Premlata Singh , R. Roy Burman , Arpan Bhowmik
Objectives: To study the constraints experienced by agricultural scientists and extension personnel in utilising and accessing information related to rice from Rice Knowledge Management Portal (RKMP). Methods/Statistical analysis: The research was conducted in purposively selected districts and simple random sampling technique was used to select the respondents. Ex-post facto research design was used; Different categories of constraints were collected through literature review, expert opinion. Data was collected using semi structured interview schedule. A three point continuum of severity using LIKERT type scale was used for getting responses. Friedman’s test was used to finding most important constraint within each group. Findings: Agricultural scientists and extension personnel faced technological, social, economical and psychologic al constraints more severely. In case of technological constraints, lack of updated information, technical and infrastructure problems while using ICTs and poor maintenance of ICT tools were major constraints that agricultural scientists and extension personnel have faced. In case of social constraints, restriction to promote organisational information and less networking among extension personnel were found most limiting factors for using portal’s information. In case of psychological factors benefits given to particular group of people was found most severe and techno-phobia was found least affecting to respondents for utilising information. In case of economical constraints, high cost of internet and cost of computer/smart phones were limiting the use of information provided by RKMP. Application/Improvements: The finding will help in restructuring and incorporating necessary modification for reaching the unreached for effective dissemination of information and making portal more effective for users to ensure timely and relevant information.
342 Migration and public policy in INDIA: revisiting the HARRIS-TODARO model , Namrata Singh Panwar and Alok Mishra
Objective: The paper is to draw lessons from theoretical and empirical research and also critically examine the mainstream theoretical model of migration to propose an alternative framework that presents migrants into the city not as nuisance, but as important contributors to productivity and growth for the economy as a whole. Methodology: It is a review article which focuses on the existing literature on migration in classical economics, urban economics, new growth theory and new economic geography. Findings: The paper argues that when migration is associated with positive externalities in cities, a strong case exists for accommodating migrants in urban areas subject to appropriate policies for urban planning and development incentivized by the national government duly involving the city government. The findings state that when positive externalities of cities are considered, the conclusions from the theories of over-urbanization and over-migration as presented by models such as Harris-Todaro model will need to be drastically modified. Thus, there will be a need to have a positive view of migration calling for effort optimize the contribution of migrants to cities by taking measures to provide them affordable housing, workplaces, basic services, security of tenure, etc. This should be possible by harnessing the benefits of agglomeration and knowledge externalities in cities and using them as resource. Application: The paper can open new research avenues on how an increasing number of migrants can be adapted into the cities by bringing the paradigm shifts in the planning process of the urban centers. The paper also provides the in depth analysis of the varying positions of learners and policy maker over the decades about rural urban migration which can help in systematic study of migrants and their conditions in the cities.
343 Multidimensional poverty in Uttar Pradesh: trends and patterns , Irfana Unjum, P. K. Mishra
Objectives: it is a review of the previous studies concerning the multidimensional poverty in Uttar Pradesh, and analyses the incidence and intensity of poverty in the state. Methods/Statistical analysis: This paper relies upon the secondary data collected from various published sources so as to examine the trend and patterns of the multidimensional poverty in the state. It basically focuses on two specific measures of multidimensional poverty – incidence and intensity. Incidence of poverty is the percentage of people in the state who are MPI poor whereas intensity of poverty is the proportion of indicators in which they are deprived. Findings: It has been found from the review of extant literature that Uttar Pradesh ranks almost the lowest among the major States of India in terms of human development. The per capita income of the state continues to be lower in comparison to less developing states like Odisha, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Such a slow growth performance of the economy of Uttar Pradesh has been reflected in high rate of illiteracy, high rate of infant mortality, gender disparity and growing burdens of unemployment among others. All these infer the presence of multidimensional poverty in the State which is dragging backward the real growth and development of the state. The problem of multidimensional poverty in the state is similar to that of India. The significant factors contributing to it are income, problematic occupational pattern, unhealthy fuel used for cooking purposes, unhealthy sanitation facilities, lack of proper nutritional intakes, and low level of education. Application/Improvements: This finding is significant for the policy makers focusing on the socio-economic indicators which must be accorded priority for improving human well-being in the long-run.
344 Game theory and its application on vote trading in the United States of America , Mihir Parekh
Objective: To showcase that vote trading for both dominant party voters such as the republicans and individual candidate voters is a tool that can alter the outcomes of the presidential elections in the USA. Methods: The concept of game theory has been implemented to show voter behaviour between dominant party voters and individual candidate voters. Game theory in this case outlines the various combinations of actions and outcomes that will take place on election day between these two sets of voters and eliminates the unfavourable combinations and brings out the most viable and lucrative option for both groups of voters. Findings: This paper successfully concludes that vote trading is an essential tool and process that will aid in the winning of Presidential elections for the dominant political parties such as the republicans or the democrats. More exclusively, the paper finds that vote trading is also one of the finer methods for political parties to capture swing states on Election Day, allowing them a better chance - according to statistical analysis of US presidential election winners - to win the entirety of the election. The conclusiveness of this finding via elimination of alternative actions further strengthens the need to bring vote trading as a practice behind which strong legislation should be put forth to facilitate the flowing of votes in the interests of supply and demand. Applications: The findings of this paper can be applied in furthering the need of making vote trading a legally recognized political process.
345 Hallucinogens in a monopoly market , Mihir Parekh
Objective: This paper analyzes the nature of hallucinogenic drugs as goods in a monopoly market. That is, how they behave before the point of addiction, post the point of addiction as well as primarily how a monopolist will benefit in every situation. Method: Medical analysis has been used to show how individuals develop addictions towards hallucinogens. Moreover, the paper displays how individuals behave in a market of hallucinogenic drugs and what their implications are on the nature of these drugs as goods. Figures have been provided to elaborate on the demand and pricing for the drugs in the monopoly market. Findings: This paper successfully concludes that prior to the point of addiction, hallucinogenic drugs act as Veblen goods and post the point of addiction behave like GIFFEN goods. This conclusiveness allows one to understand how a monopoly over hallucinogens will greatly benefit the supplier not due to the characteristics of a monopoly market, but due to the behavioural tendencies of consumers of hallucinogens both prior to the point of addiction as well as one addiction to the drug has been developed. Applications: The findings of this paper can be used in behavioural analysis of individuals towards hallucinogens as well as in a pressurized market where the consumers are dependent on the drug and how price level does not determine rationality of the consumer.
346 Political and electoral violence in Nigeria: a case of 2015 general election in Kogi and Bayelsa state of Nigeria , O. Abah emma, S. Ibeogu aloysius
Objective: This paper is focused towards establishing the causes of electoral violence in Nigeria’s democracy, with BAYELSA and KOGI State 2015 general elections as study areas. Methods: The study adopted content analytical method and survey research design and is anchored on Frustration Aggression Theory. Findings: The study pin pointed frustration, aggression, greed, poverty (hunger) and selfishness among the people (electorates) and contestants as some of the factors that gave rise to electoral violence in Nigeria’s political activities. Recommendations were made that; elected representatives should live up to their campaign promises to avert the frustration and aggressions noticed among the electorates, that the electoral institutions (INEC) should devise a means of enthroning or conducting elections that would be devoid of fraudulent practices (rigging, intimidation of electorates and false declaration of results). Applications: Polity threatened with political and electoral violence is usually accompanied with tension and anxiety, hence political apathy among the electorates. Therefore, the elimination of these threats (tension, anxiety and party apathy) should be one of the focuses of the electoral body (INEC) if true democracy where the electorate’s votes should count is to be sustained.
347 Philosophy of quantum mechanics and its relevance to scientific and technological development in Africa , Macaulay A. Kanu
Objective: This paper discussed the philosophy of quantum mechanics and its relevance to scientific and technological development in Africa. Methods: Quantum mechanics portrays the principles of uncertainty or indeterminacy which challenged the traditional understanding of classical physics. Findings: Heisenberg, its theorist, explains that physical laws refer not to nature, but to our relation to it. Before the development of relativity theory and quantum mechanics, the nature and character of classical physics (Newtonian physics) presupposed that laws and theories were discovered, not invented and the truth physicists expressed was totally independent of the scientists who discovered them. But quantum mechanics (Atomic physics) contrary to this implies that at some fundamental levels there is no and can be no objective “Real” and deterministic universe for human to know. Quantum theory places emphasis on the inseparability of observer and observed, and reinforces the notions of relativity. By this, there is nothing absolute and “Sacrosanct” about scientific knowledge. This implies that scientific laws and theories are simply “Convention”. Scientific theories have no more claims to truth than other fields (like metaphysics or theology). They are complimentary in the field of knowledge. As this is apparently the case there is nothing that makes Western scientific knowledge superior to other fields of knowledge. Given the implications of quantum physics to knowledge generally, it is my position that the so-called “Hegemonic” exponents of scientific knowledge should allow other fields of knowledge or traditions to mutually flourish. This calls for complimentarily of fields of knowledge, be it of African origin Oriental or Western. Applying the indeterminacy principle to the macro-social setting especially Africa, it could be said that the table has turned against the imperialists universal principles by demonstrating that energy radiates in discrete units or bundles. Application: On this pedestal, every nation like units of energy should be allowed to choose and determine her destiny. In this light, the leadership of our nation should create an atmosphere for the development of creative ingenuity of her citizens which is targeted to meeting the needs and aspirations of the people instead of taking non-contextualized and exploitation-oriented prescriptions (especially sometime from the World Bank and IMF)
348 Maintenance allowance is feasible and logical as compared to basic income , A.K. Bhatia
Background/Objectives: To demonstrate feasibility and logicality of the ideas of universal maintenance allowance and basic income for ameliorating the global problems of poverty and income-inequality. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study is based on secondary data analysis. Expenditure as percent of gross domestic product on implementation of the ideas of universal basic income and maintenance allowance has been analysed. Possible expenditure on the two arrangements has been compared with optimal tax incidence in an economy to show their financial feasibility. Logical comparison has been performed in terms of their effects on work incentive and social welfare measures. Findings: The idea of universal basic income paid in cash regularly is receiving acceptance all over the world as an instrument for poverty reduction and social justice. Alternatively, maintenance allowance, based on the notion of right to food, provides for cash equivalent to staple food requirement of each person. Basic income should be high enough to ensure comfortable life for an individual, but it might cost more than 18 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of a country, which is not feasible along with public expenditure on administration, defence and social welfare. Maintenance allowance should cost 3 to 4 percent of GDP. It can be managed within optimum tax incidence of around 20 percent of GDP. Unlike basic income; maintenance allowance should not prove as work disincentive instrument. Also, social welfare expenditure can continue along with the allowance. Application/Improvements: The arrangement of universal maintenance allowance looks feasible and logical alternative to universal basic income to ameliorate the problem of poverty.
349 Trend and forecasting analysis of area, production and productivity of total pulses in India , Pushpa M. Savadatti
Objectives: To study the trends in growth of area, production and productivity of pulses over a period of time and to forecast the values for these variables. Methodology: Adopted to study the first objective is to calculate the compound growth rates with the help of exponential growth model. For the second objective univariate time series analysis based on Box-Jenkins (BJ) approach which is popularly known as ARIMA process has been adopted to forecast the values for area, production and productivity of pulses. The present analysis is based on the annual time series data collected from Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) for the period 1966-67 to 2015-16. Findings: The growth rate analysis indicated that during the study period there is positive and significant growth in area, production and productivity of pulses but relative growth in area is lower compared to that of production and yield. The empirical analysis based on ARIMA indicated that the specifications (i) AR (1), AR (2), MA (1) and MA (2) (ii) AR (1), AR (10), MA (1) and MA (12) (iii) AR (12) and MA (1) were best fitted models for forecasting area, production and productivity of total pulses in India respectively. The model adequacy criteria like correlogram of residuals, root mean square errors, mean absolute percentage error, Theil’s inequality coefficient, normality and heteroskedasticity assumptions of residuals validated the results. Based on the selected ARIMA specifications projections for next five years starting from 2016-17 onwards have been made. The forecast results show the increasing trend in production and productivity of pulses but the area under pulse crops shows the growth of near stagnancy during forecast period. Application: Inferences drawn from the results are firstly these projections help the policy makers and farmers in their decision making. Secondly, concerted efforts are required for effective implementation of government programmes to enhance the area under pulse crops which are influenced by multiplicity of factors and risks, to reduce the widening gap between supply of and demand for pulses in the future
350 Entrepreneurial behavioural index of dairy farmers in the Northern districts of Tamil Nadu , S. Porchezhiyan, A. Sudharshan , M. Umamageswari
Background/Objectives: The role played by entrepreneurs has vital importance in the developing countries like India, where there are ample opportunities for using innovations in the field of dairying. The study was conducted in four northern districts of Tamil Nadu to assess the characteristics of entrepreneurial behaviour. Methods/Statistical analysis: A sample of 120 dairy farmers was selected randomly from selected blocks of the four Northern districts of Tamil Nadu. The data were collected with the help of a well-structured and pre-tested interview schedule. The data collected were scored, tabulated and analysed with the help of appropriated statistical tools. Findings: Majority of farmers possessed high level of achievement motivation (60.80%), cosmopoliteness (80.00%) and self-confidence (77.50%). Most of the responded possessed medium level of innovativeness (71.60%), decision making ability (64.20%), risk orientation (65.86%), co-ordination ability (75.00%) and information seeking behaviour (69.20%) and low level of planning ability (44.20). The overall entrepreneurial behavioural index (EBI) was medium level (65.84) among dairy farmers. Improvements/Applications: It is necessary to educate the farmers to plan younger generation aware about the scientific commercial dairy farming and the profitability of having larger herd size with high productive dairy animals.
351 Utilization of primary health care services: a case study in Kannur district, Kerala , P.V. Dhanya , P. Maneesh
Background/Objectives: Health is an important determinant of human life. Health status of the people determines the average life expectancy, productivity, the earning capacity, employment and all other socio- economic indicators. The present study brings out a brief picture of utilization of primary health care services in Kannur districts of Kerala. Methods/Statistical analysis: The present study is based on both primary and secondary data. The secondary data were collected from various published and unpublished sources from Economic and Statistical Department, records of PHC and Hospitals, Directorate Health Service Trivandrum. The primary data were collected from 50 households in Kannur district through structured interview schedule. Findings: Approximately 80 percent households in the study area are not satisfied with the performance of PHC unit. Laboratory facilities are inadequate in the district. Inadequacy of supportive staff is yet another problem of PHC. This creates unnecessary delays to the patients for getting medicine and other services. Improvements/Applications: patient section should be strengthening by supplying more number of beds and infrastructure facilities. Strengthening of sub-centers and equipping the government health care institutions would be more effective for effective utilization of health care institutions. It is necessary to conduct frequent health surveys in the district and to conduct free health camps at least 3 times in a year.
352 Impact of chamravattam regulator cum bridge on Bharathapuzha river and adjacent areas , M.P. Ajith, Melvin K James
Objective: The present study deals with the impact of Chamaravattam RCB, Malappuram District, Kerala over Bharathapuzha River with the specific objectives of determining the impact on water quality and quantity. Methods: Water samples are collected from the eight upstream areas of the Bharathapuzha River which are under the influence of Chamaravattam RCB for analyzing the elemental concentration, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, total coliform and E.coli. Field survey and personal interactions are conducted in both upstream and downstream areas of Chamaravattam RCB and collected information regarding water quality, crop yield, ground water table, salinity intrusion and socio-economic status. Findings: The main objectives of the RCB are increase in ground water table, increase in agricultural production, improved transportation, prevention of saline water intrusion and communication facilities.The result of the study reveals that even though Chamaravattam RCB has numerous positive impacts, it at the same time negatively affected the quality of water due to the restriction of natural flushing action of the river. A layer of water at upstream of RCB becomes stagnant and pollutants accumulate. Due to this, total coliforms and E.coli counts of water are much higher than the desired values and amount of dissolved oxygen in water gets reduced. The elemental concentration of the water samples are also out of range. In downstream area salinity balance is negatively affected and even well water became saline. All this made Bharathapuzha River water out of consumable quality. Bharathapuzha River, a fast becoming source of health hazards for the people of several panchayats and municipalities on its bank and thereby it adversely affect the economy of the people. Improvements: The result of the present study insists the necessity of a thorough study to uptake remedial measures and overcome these negative impacts.
353 Economic perspective of women empowerment: A study on working class & gender disparity in Western Himalayan States of India , Sunil Kumar
Background: The Western Himalayas in India constitutes hilly terrains where agriculture is the main occupation of society. In this part of country, women empowerment can play a vital role in the overall growth and development of society. In this paper, the researcher examined the working class of Western Himalayan states of North India on the basis of gender, background and caste. Method: Data was collected from the Census of India (2011) and Odds ratio was calculated for males in all work categories. Findings: The Findings of present study revealed a huge gender disparity in all work categories. Irrespective of the caste and background, the women are far behind men in economic aspect. The urban women have less workable ratio than the rural women in all western Himalayan states. The problem of seasonal unemployment occurs in rural areas and women are the center of this problem. The Numbers of female non-workers are more than male nonworkers. These outcomes are questioning the credibility of women empowerment schemes running at different levels. The state of Jammu & Kashmir is far behind in women empowerment status than the other two states. Applications: This paper will provide evidence to the future researchers for exploring the root causes of problem deeply embedded in the social web.
354 Utilization of primary health care services: a case study in Kannur district, Kerala , P.V. Dhanya , P. Maneesh
Background/Objectives: Health is an important determinant of human life. Health status of the people determines the average life expectancy, productivity, the earning capacity, employment and all other socio- economic indicators. The present study brings out a brief picture of utilization of primary health care services in Kannur districts of Kerala. Methods/Statistical analysis: The present study is based on both primary and secondary data. The secondary data were collected from various published and unpublished sources from Economic and Statistical Department, records of PHC and Hospitals, Directorate Health Service Trivandrum. The primary data were collected from 50 households in Kannur district through structured interview schedule. Findings: Approximately 80 percent households in the study area are not satisfied with the performance of PHC unit. Laboratory facilities are inadequate in the district. Inadequacy of supportive staff is yet another problem of PHC. This creates unnecessary delays to the patients for getting medicine and other services. Improvements/Applications: patient section should be strengthening by supplying more number of beds and infrastructure facilities. Strengthening of sub-centers and equipping the government health care institutions would be more effective for effective utilization of health care institutions. It is necessary to conduct frequent health surveys in the district and to conduct free health camps at least 3 times in a year.
355 Impact of university on the physical development of host community , Olurotimi Kemiki , Adeyosoye Ayoola , Olusegun Idowu
Background/Objectives: Federal university of Technology, Minna developed its main campus in Gidan-Kwano and started operation in 2005. This work examines the impact of university on the host community. Methods/Statistical analysis: Landsat imageries were used to monitor spatial growth in Gidan-Kwano between year 2005 and 2015. Ground survey data were collected from Federal university of Technology, Minna, Estate Agents, Property developers, Power Holding Company of Nigeria and Ministry of Lands and Housing. ILWIS was used to analyse the satellite imageries while Analyze-it was used for the analysis of the ground survey data. Findings: Findings revealed that residential land use which stood at 8.87% of the total land use in 2005 has now grown to 25.19% in 2015. There are other infrastructure attracted to the area during period under review. However, the growth has been marked with problems of uncoordinated development and inadequate infrastructure. The ever increasing population of the university will continue to attract physical development and if the growing development is not coordinated by enacting master plan, there will be chaotic and haphazard development. Improvements/Applications: The study has revealed the spillover effects of locating university. It has also unfolded the pending danger of uncontrolled development. A comprehensive master plan should be developed for the community.
356 The emerging issues of inmigrant labourers in the construction sector of kerala , T. C. Shamna, K C Baiju
Background/Objectives: The present study is focused on the economic and non- economic issues and the challenges confronted by the inmigrant workers in the construction sector of Kerala. It also discusses the extent of protection measures available to the inmigrant construction workers in the study area. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study used both the qualitative and quantitative data from 150 samples of the inmigrant workers in the rural and urban areas of Kannur district and also analyzed twenty of local workers for comparing the employment, work, and availing social security provisions to the inmigrant workers in the construction sector of Kerala. The qualitative method, Likert scale used for measuring the level of satisfaction of the inmigrant workers in term of their working and living conditions. Findings: The qualitative method, Likert scale mentions that majority of the workers are dissatisfied with their existing living and working conditions. Study collected data from inmigrant construction workers, contractors and supervisors for the problems in discussion. The problems faced by the inmigrant workers in the domain of income, employment, wage and living conditions, the working conditions, health related issues and the prevailing social security benefits to the inmigrant workers. Improvements/Applications: An understanding of the problems and issues confronted by the inmigrant workers in the construction sector of Kerala will provide further scope for the area under study.
357 Belated VAT gains in Indian states: Right time to Switchover to Goods and Services Tax , B.Viswanathan
Background/Objectives: 1. To study the impact of State VATs in Indian States. In the past, many attempts have been made. In all the studies, Sales Tax revenues collected from states have been used to assess the impact and found that impact is almost zero. In reality, the State Sales-tax revenues consist of revenues from VAT commodities, non VAT commodities, Surcharges, Turnover taxes and Central Sales Tax. Hence, an attempt is made in this paper to study the impact of State VATs after isolating revenues due to VAT commodities from the sales-tax revenues of the states after deducting the revenues from non VAT commodities for the period from 1995-96 to 2014-15 for 22 major states of India as many of these States have been collecting substantial and huge revenues from Non-VAT commodities. 2. Also, it is proposed to estimate the expected revenues and the Revenue Neutral Rate (RNR) under Goods and Services Tax (GST). Statistical Analysis: Basic statistical tools Viz. Annual Average Growth Rate (AAGR), Buoyancy Co-efficient and Coefficient of Variation (C.V.) have been calculated for both the pre and post VAT periods separately for 22 major states of India. Findings: The performance of VAT in most of the States is highly impressive and during the last five years from 2011- 12 to 2014-15, these States have posted an excellent growth of 21%. This successful gain in performance of State VATs may be taken as a green signal for the transition to the Introduction of Goods and Services Tax (GST) and an attempt is made in this paper to estimate the expected revenues and the Revenue Neutral Rate (RNR) under GST. A RNR of 8% is found to be sufficient for revenue generation for States
358 Integrated framework for governance of cooperative: An Interpretive Structural Modeling approach , Abhishek Behl , Abhinav Pal, Krishna Kant Roy
Background: The concerns for cooperatives are related to both economic and governance and regulatory concerns and governance issues holds high importance. The study aims at identifying the key governance enablers for enhancing the efficiency of cooperatives. Methods Used: The study uses critical review of existing literature to identify the factors that cooperatives take into consideration while choosing a particular human resource for governance. The research also explores the decision of selecting local governance bodies in a cooperative and examines the decisions taken by the personnel. The study uses Interpretive Structural modeling to build a theoretical framework for the variables found out from the literature. Findings: The framework gives a basic guideline for strategizing the decisions taken by the statutory decision making body. The framework includes both internal and external variables to measure the performance of the cooperatives with special reference to the decisions taken by the decision making authority. The results also classify the variables using MICMAC analysis which would help in understanding their ramifications. The prime challenge identified is trust which drives regulatory concerns, qualities of the leader, commitment of stakeholders and work culture. The performance of the cooperatives is the desired output which is placed at topmost of the hierarchy. Applications: The study helps to analyze the linkages between the factors and would help them to fight against the challenges in a sequential manner rather than in a haphazard manner thereby enhancing their efficiency and reduce their turnaround time to resolves issues.
359 Adoloscence girls development and ICDS: A case study of anganwadi centres in Kannur District, Kerala , C. Athira , P.Maneesh
Background/Objectives: Kerala has made significant achievement not only demographic transition but also epidemiological and healthcare transition. Adolescent girls are facing many health problems such as anemia, under weight and malnutrition. A nutritionally balanced diet is important in adulthood. ICDS provide nutritional food, nutritional class, health camp, personality development class, career guidance to the adolescent girls. ICDS is the major network which formed to conduct different programs for development of adolescent girls. The major objectives of the study are- (1) To examine the accessibilities of ICDS schemes and services by adolescent girls in kannur district. (2) To analyze the utilization of ICDS services by adolescent girls in kannur district. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study is based on both primary and secondary data. The secondary data were collected from published and unpublished source. The primary data were collected from 50 BPL adolescent girls of the ten anganwadies on a random basis. Information will be collected through structured schedules. Findings: ICDS scheme helps to improve the health and nutritional status of adolescent girls. Most of the adolescent girls are actively participated the nutritional classes. Anganwadi centers are the backbone of ICDS project. Nutritional foods are provided for the ICDS through anganwadi centers. Improvements/Applications: Facilities should be provided for the improvement of ICDS activities and more modules can be developed with specific focus in mind, example, leadership training, teaching, goal setting etc. Capacity building training can be given to different levels of functionaries to see the relative impact of it on the adolescent girls club functioning.
360 Economic impact of Tourism in Jammu and Kashmir , Aasif Hussain Nengroo , Ghulam Mohammad Bhat , Audil Rashid Khaki
Background/Objectives: Jammu and Kashmir State has a greater potential to become a major tourist destination in the world. The role of tourism in the economic development of J&K state has been an area of immense interest from policy perspective. To understand the economic impact of tourism in the J&K state, present paper tries to examine various parameters of economic development such as tourist inflow, employment generation, State Gross Domestic Product, development of infrastructure and regional development. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study is based on secondary data. Data has been collected from various sources like Ministry of Tourism Government of India, Jammu and Kashmir Tourism Development Corporation and Directorate of Tourism, Annual Economic survey of J&K, United Nations World Tourism Organisation, World Travel and Tourism Council and other published research papers and official reports. Findings: We found apart from agriculture sector, tourism sector is the most popular source of income and employment generation for the J&K state economy. The Year 2011 has made history in terms of surpassing all previous records of tourists and pilgrim arrivals in the state. Our analysis shows that except in 2008-09 when there was greater political instability in the state, the revenue earned from Director Tourism Kashmir/Jammu has shown a continuous increasing trend and has increased around three fold from 2006-07 (Rs 32.25 Lakh) to 2011-12 (Rs 93.3 lakh). Further the analysis of our data shows that there is a positive impact of tourist inflow on employment i.e. with the increase in tourist inflow, total employment also rises.
361 Manufacturing and Education: The missing links , S.N. Misra , Sanjaya Ku. Ghadai
Background/Objectives: The Make-In-India policy is a takeoff on the National Manufacturing Policy (NMP) (2011) which seeks to bolster India’s manufacturing and employment substantially. There is also a distinct shift from public sector dominance to Public Private Partnership (PPP) architecture and creating the right environment for private sector to flourish. However, a new education policy in sync with such manufacturing strategy is long awaited. Methods/Statistical analysis: This paper seeks to highlight the different dimension of the missing links between the two policies. It has extensively depended on official sources to bring out appropriate tabular statements to bring out the trend analysis of various sectors in terms of employment, value addition and share in GDP. It has also analyzed major reports and findings in the education sector and cross verified the data through field study by adapting statistical sample study method. Findings: The major findings are: inadequacy in budget allocation to different segments of education, serious short falls in terms of outcomes in primary education, research and patents registered by the universities and laboratories and significant gaps in skill availability to meet the opportunity in the pipeline. The stagnancy in the contribution of manufacturing sector in GDP share and employment generation has been brought out. The institutional constraints for realizing Ease-of-Doing Business and lack of financial empowerment of Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRIs) have also been highlighted. Application/Improvements: The paper calls for empowering and emboldening our PRIs so that quality grass root learning has a cascading impact at higher levels of learning and facilitate our yen to be a major Asian power through the Skill India initiative.
362 A Research analysis on influencing factors of Juvenile delinquencies in Tamil Nadu , G.Gokul vigneswari, Dr.A.Thanappan
Objective of the study: The most important objectives of the study are to determine that research analysis on influencing factors of Juvenile Delinquencies and Impact of lofty exposure on performance, psychological fitness, Teen Social Networking and to study the Use/ Consumption of Media. Methodology: The data collections for the study consisted of the inmates of the Government Observation Home of (Chennai, Cuddalore, Trichi, Salem and Thirunelveli) Tamilnadu. A total of 132 inmates were interviewed out of 154 inmates of the Homes. The study is in ‘ QUANTITATIVE ‘method. Findings: Let us presume that social media plays both a constructive and a destructive role in the building of the country and in the same way has both an optimistic as well as a unenthusiastic impact on the young people In this particular study, the impact of media is being judged as in what manner does the media affects the adolescents. It is being assumed that the media has both negative and a positive role to play in the nation or more precisely society building process
363 An Economic analysis of return to scale of manufacturing industries in Tamil Nadu , C. Muniyandi , L.Vadivel
Background/Objectives: There are many changes in the industrial sector by the new industrial policy in India. Industrial productivity needs to be increased to achieve higher efficiency in the use of resources in the coming year.We attempt to study the return to scale of manufacturing industries in Tamil Nadu. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study is fully based on secondary sources which obtained from Annual Survey of Industry (ASI) during the period from 1980-81 to 2007-8. Findings:the manufacturing industries are operating under increasing returns to scale in Tamil Nadu. The manufacturing industries contributed a sizeable percentage to total income of the state in Tamil Nadu. Improvements/Applications:To induce manufacturing industrial growth of the state, proper execution, efficient administration and optimum use of scarce resources are essential and thereby we could attain sustainable growth of a country.
364 Macro Economic overview of growth and inequality in Assam using time series analysis , Farah Hussain, Priyanka Bharali
Background/Objective: Concentrating on Assam, this study makes an attempt to investigate the growth-inequality dynamics of the state taking account of factors like government expenditure on health and education. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The study adopts time series analysis to test the relationship among income inequality, economic growth and social sector variables like education and health in Assam. The data over the period 1981-82 to 2011-12 is used in an ARDL framework to look into co integration and error correction mechanism. Findings: The results derived are suggestive of the presence of a long term relationship between income inequality and economic growth, given the government expenditure on education and health. The findings show that government expenditure on education in Assam have the desired redistributive effect in narrowing the inequalities with time, but the results for government expenditure on health are alarming. Further, the results support the validity of Kuznet’s ‘Inverted U hypothesis’ in case of Assam. Application/Improvement: Government commitment towards provision of social services like government expenditure on education and health should be further streamlined to ensure that the expenditure is redistributive in dealing with income inequalities in the state.
365 Leveraging big data and IOT for retail , A.Vintha Rao, Dr.P.Shalini
Objectives: To give a good shopping experience to consumers in retail outlets. This is done by using the big data that is available with us and IOT to develop a mobile application that suggests products through his mobile. Methods/Statistical analysis: The retail outlets can use the Big Data and IOT to give a better shopping experience to customers. This on another side can improve the business of retailers by converting the footfalls into business. The data is used to suggest products in the mobile based on shopping behavior. This method is already available in E tailing. Findings: This approach is a novel initiative here.This can help people to buy more products in a short span of time as they now have will get suggestions from the retailer about the products. This will create a competitive edge for the retailer over others. This increases the loyalty of the consumers and retention of consumers will improve. Application/Improvements: This technique which is followed in inventory management systems can now become a mobile application and improves shoppers experience and customers loyalty of brick and motor retailers.
366 No Train no Grain: The impact of increased demand for rail services by the energy sector on wheat prices , Laura Villegas
Background/Objectives:The goal of this project is to investigate the transportation link between wheat and energy markets in the Upper Midwest Region of the United States. Methods/Statistical analysis: Rail transportation is the most cost-effective alternative for shipping agricultural commodities in the Upper Midwest.The recent energy boom has created new competition for the use of shipping services in the region. Using oil prices as aproxy, I study the effects of increased competition for rail services on wheat prices. Prices for ethanol, coal, and natural gas are included to account for additional linkages between agricultural and energy markets. Findings:The results from the analysis are consistent with the hypotheses that large crops, limited storage capacity and transportation disruptions (likely caused by increased competition of rail service) are determinants of the wheat basis. Furthermore, the general findingscan be used as evidence to support the theories that have received most attention from the media covering the struggle between traditional agricultural sectors and a newer and increasingly powerful energy sector in the Midwest. The relations found in this study suggest that as oil has taken up freight space on railways, it has become more costly for farmers in Upper Midwest states like North Dakota to reach grain markets, resulting in millionaire losses. Furthermore, the recent drop in oil prices may have magnified farmers’ difficulties in shipping their products as some participants in the energy industry have turned to using railcars for storing surplus inventories of crude oil. Nevertheless, the use of prices as proxy variables is questionable based on validity tests and gives reason to take the accuracy of the magnitudes estimated with care. Application/Improvements:This study is relevant for policymakers concerned with support programs to farmers, regulations over the provision of rail services, and the development of alternative methods for transporting and storing oil.
367 Socio-Economic Problems of Women Domestic Labourers in Karnataka, India , Bhagyashree.S.Vadageri, Dr. M. Hilaria Soundari
Background: Poverty and unemployment are the factors which have created a way for the women to enter into the informal sector. Due to the lack of alternatives the women from lower socio-economic background having low level of education and illiteracy, are forced to work as domestic labourers. It is noticed that the women’s participation in the unorganized sector is increasing day by day especially in the domestic work. According to census report 2011, 41.3 lakhs were domestic labourers in India in which women were 27.9 lakhs. These women domestic labourers are from the marginalised section of the society and are migrants from rural area. These women are exploited by their employers, as the placement agencies are yet to find out strategies for the protection of these women. Lack of proper legislations and legal support has put these women domestic labourers into still more vulnerable condition. Even though the women domestic labourers work for more hours, they are paid very less. It affects their personal and social life. Objectives: The main objectives of the study are to understand the socio-economic problems of the migrant women domestic labourers in Karnataka; to study the reasons for migration and selecting domestic work as their occupation and to offer suggestions and recommendations for the wellbeing of these domestic workers. Methods/Statistical analysis: This study was based on the both primary and secondary data from different sources and field. It has attempted to search and to bring out new prospects in the life of the migrant women domestic labourers in Karnataka. The basic statistical techniques were used to analyse the research data. Findings: women domestic labourers were vulnerable in the unorganized sector. The study showed that the women domestic workers are from low socio-economic background and their formal education level was low. More than half of women domestic labourers were married, they sated that they were less respected in the society this affects their self-confidence and their overall development. Application/Improvements: In Karnataka very few studies were conducted that is the reason the problems of women domestic labourer were not addressed. The legislations and programmes for this group also very less so through this study the researcher has tried to bring some realities related to women domestic labourers this will helps to bring some new alternatives for the betterment of them
368 Solar PV pumping system for irrigation purpose and its economic comparison with grid- connected electricity and diesel operated pumps , PriyabrataSantra, P.C. Pande, A.K. Singh and Pradeep Kumar
Objectives: Use of solar PV (SPV) pumping system for irrigation has recently been increased significantly specially under the national solar mission and these pumps may replace conventional electric or diesel pumps. Methods/Statistical analysis: In this paper, economics of SPV pumping system has been evaluated through life cycle cost (LCC). In LCC analysis, capital cost, future maintenance cost and replacement cost are converted to present worth value considering inflation rate and discount rate during its total life cycle. Annualized life cycle cost (ALCC) of solar PV pumping system has been further compared with conventionally used grid connected electric pumps and diesel pumps. Findings:The analysis revealed that the annualized life cycle cost (ALCC) of PV pumping system is lower than grid connected electric pumps and diesel pumps. For example, the ALCC for a 5 HP capacity SPV pumping system was found ` 56,620, whereas it were ` 60,475 and ` 1,19,664 for grid connected electricity operated pumps and diesel pumps, respectively. It has also been observed that the initial capital cost for solar PV pumping system is higher than grid connected electric pumps and diesel pumps. However, the maintenance cost and replacement cost are lower for PV pumping system. Application/Improvements: Apart from economic advantage, PV pumps have additional benefits of using it for domestic and farm needs. Therefore PV pumping system may be considered as the first choice by farmers.
369 Need of A Common Asian Currency In Context of The New Economic Circumstances Arised After Brexit , Subhashini
Objective: This paper discusses about the international currency and gives an idea about having a new single currency for the entire Asia. It then goes on to explain the structure and the functioning of this new currency. Methods: Step by step working on how this new currency would function. All exceptions are kept in mind while finding a proper methodology for this to work smoothly. Findings: From this analysis, we are certain that Asia would be the most suitable continent for initially experimenting this system as it is an evenly structured socio-economic territory. Conclusion: We conclude that this new system would benefit Asia in a number of ways, would boost its economy and may present a role model for other continents.
370 Impact of Trade Liberalization on Indian Agri-Export , Kakali Majumdar
Background/objectives: The agricultural sector has been playing a key role in the composition of Indian exports. Unfortunately the share of Indian agricultural exports has been slowly declining in recent years. The changing scenario of Global agricultural trade in the post liberalization era is as much challenging for India as for any other developing nation trying to put its feet firmly in the fast emerging economic scenario, post liberalization. India, thus could not gain much from trade liberalization even though the increasing economic integration of the Indian economy with global processes, has brought larger scope at the door of its agricultural sector. With this background, the present paper tries to study the scenario of Agricultural-Export in India under the post liberalization era focusing mainly on its growth and terms of trade. Methods/Statistical analysis: Kinked Exponential models that impose linear restrictions, so as to eliminate discontinuity between sub-periods, provide a superior basis for comparisons of sub-periods growth rates, are used in the present study. Terms of trade is calculated considering the value of a country's exports relative to that of its imports. Findings: The main findings of the study is that the exponential export growth rate, calculated from the kinked exponential model, was 13.8% per annum during the pre liberalized period and slightly decreased to 12.3% during post liberalized era. The terms of trade were quite favourable during the period of study. Improvements/Applications: With the favourable terms of trade and increased agricultural production to enhance the agri export India needs to emphasis on more supply of agricultural products, diversification of agricultural produce and exports, quality improvement, improvement of the infrastructure for the highly perishable agricultural products, timely delivery of goods etc. and above all govt initiation to a greater extent.
371 Socio-Economic Conditions of Fishermen Population: With Special Reference to Chombala Harbour, Kerala , Jasna P. T., SanghamitraPalai
Background/Objectives: the specific objectives of the study are (1) to examine the socio-economic conditions of the fishermen community in the study area. (2) To investigate the problems faced by fishermen. (3) To suggest suitable policy measures to improve the conditions of fishermen society Methods/Statistical analysis: The study is based on primary data and secondary data. The primary data were collected through a structured schedule and samples are drawn by employing simple random sampling method. Findings: The Chombala fisheries area is a developed fishing sector. Both mechanized and motorized fishing sectors have people of good socio-economic condition. By analyzing the both the categories, it shows that the mechanized category has better improvement than motorized category. Improvements/Applications: During the ban period, an alternative employment opportunity may be provided to the fishermen. To create more infrastructural facilities for storing and freezing of fish catch. Exporting of fish directly from Chombala, and uninterrupted fuel distribution at cheaper rate are the need of the hour for Chombalafishing community.
372 Comparative evaluation of different statistical models for explaining productivity trend of rice and wheat crops in North Gujarat zone , R. L.Yadav , A. D. Kalola
Objective: To identify the appropriate trend equations, compound growth rates and instability indices of productivity of rice and wheat crops in North Gujarat zone in India. Methods: The present study was made through fitting of different linear, non-linear and time series models. The time-series data from 1960-61 to 2012-13 on productivity of rice and wheat crops for North Gujarat zone were collected from Directorate of Agriculture, Gujarat state, Gandhinagar. Findings: It was found that among different polynomial models, linear model for rice and cubic model for wheat were best fitted for productivity trend and in case of ARIMA models, ARIMA (0,1,1) was evolved as the best fitted trend functions for productivity of both rice and wheat crop. The compound growth rates for productivity were 6.65% and 3.99 % annually in rice and wheat crop, respectively. The instability indices were observed 24.72 with 44.49% CV in rice and 14.18 with 25.47% CV in wheat crop. Improvements: The trend of productivity for different crops is important factor for successful planning and decision making for the policy makers. Forecasting also plays a crucial role in agricultural, business, industrial, government and institutional planning because many important decisions depend on the anticipated future values of certain variables.
373 Weeds: Wealth of the World, not a Waste , M. Gopi
Objectives: The main object of this paper is to develop a constructive approach towards weeds and study their geographical distribution. Methods / Statistical Analysis: The weed plants for the present study were random surveyed from in and around Chennai, Tamil Nadu. The weed plants were authentically identified with the help of Floras. The identification was based on floral and leaf characters. Some of the plants are selected for the preparation of extracts to control the larvicidal activity based on the standard basic principles. Findings: A survey on weeds reveals that most of the weeds are of native flora and appear to be uniform distribution throughout state. Application / Improvements :The knowledge of the geographical position and physiography of the state is essential in order to understand the distribution of weeds and their invasion.
374 The Employers’ Perspective towards Women Domestic Workers , Jyoti Gogia , Neha Sikarwar
Home management is being considered as the prime responsibility of a woman. To raise the standard of living and to attain a sound economic base, participation of women in formal sector has increased. To create a balance between household and work, they have started looking for some helping hands. In this direction, domestic workers have become their hope to sustain life. It has been supposed that the household tasks can be efficiently performed by women only; therefore women domestic workers get priority over men to execute these responsibilities. A sample consisting 150 employers, who have hired the services of women domestic workers, have been taken for the study. The data was collected using a self-structured questionnaire. A Five point Likert Scale(1= perfectly disagree to 5= perfectly agree) has been used. Averages and percentages were calculated to comprehend results. The study reveals the factors responsible for the increasing demand for domestic workers in general, and demand for women domestic workers in particular. Further, it addresses the employers’ perspective towards women domestic workers. It also highlights the problems which the employers have faced and the probable risks undertaken by them while hiring the women domestic workers
375 Factors Determining Supply of Pulses in India , P.D.Shivagangavva , B. S. Reddy
Objective: Pulses are the primary source of protein for the vegetarians. However, there is wide gap between demand and supply of pulses in the country. Hence, it is important to determine the factors responsible for mismatch in demand and supply of pulses in the country. Methods: Four important pulses grown in the country were considered for the study. Total sample size constitutes 120 comprising of 30 farmers each from redgram, bengalgram, greengram and blackgram cultivars. The principal component and multiple linear regression analysis were employed to assess the response of pulses production to a given change in selected inputs. Findings: The study revealed that out of the 20 variables considered for the study, 8 variables were found influencing on pulses production, particularly area under crop, selection of variety, usage of fertilizers, seeds, incidence of pest and disease, prevailing market price and rainfall during flowering. The co-efficient of area, fertilizers, seeds and use of improved varieties were influenced significantly on production of pulses. Whereas, incidence of pests and diseases have negatively influenced on pulses production and were fail to exert any significant influence on decline in pulses production. Application: In order to optimize the usage of critical inputs, agricultural scientist and line department should educate the farmers on scientific cultivation of pulses including the use of weedicides, improved tools for planting and harvesting, IPM, etc. Further, production constraints need to be addressed on priority basis in pulses growing area to increase pulse production and to minimise the import of pulses to meet out future demand and also attaining food security.
376 A comparative study of the structure and performance of two major fruits and vegetables markets under Uttarakhand APMC , Usha Rani Gori , Sheela Kharkwal
Background/ Objectives: The study was conducted to compare the structure of two principal markets of fruits and vegetables in Uttarakhand and to assess the marketing efficiency, price spread and farmer’s share in consumer’s rupee for sample commodities arriving in these markets. Methods/Statistical analysis: Out of total 16 functional fruits and vegetables markets of Uttarakhand, two principal markets i.e. Haldwani from Kumaon and Dehradun from Garhwal were selected for the study. Major fruits and vegetables were selected on the basis of quantity of arrival and continuity of arrival throughout the year. Performances of markets were compared on the basis of marketing cost, marketing margins, marketing efficiency index, Price spread and Producer’s share in consumer’s rupee. Findings: The proportion of marketing costs incurred by producers ranged between 38 to 58 per cent of the total marketing costs of different commodities. Considering marketing efficiency index, Dehradun was found more efficient in marketing potato, tomato and cabbage while Haldwani market was more efficient in apple marketing. The price spread in case of apple was very high (105 to 116%), while it was lowest in case of potato. The producer’s share in consumer’s rupee varied between 32 to 59 per cent for selected commodities and was highest for potato (about 58.81%) in Dehradun market. On the other hand the producer’s share in consumer’s rupee in case of apple was lowest in Dehradun market. Application/Improvements: There existed wide variations in the share of producer in consumer’s rupee (38 to 59%) as well as high Price spread. Therefore, there is need to regularize the activities of marketing middlemen so that these can be minimised
377 A socio-economic status of maize farmers of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh, India , Mohan Paramkusam , Sivaramane
Objectives: The present study is to examine the cropping pattern and socio-economic status of the maize farmers of three districtsGuntur, Karimnagar and Mahabubnagarin Andhra Pradeshand Telangana. Methods/Statistical analysis: Three districts were selected with a sample size of 30 per district and a total of 90 farmers were randomly selected. For assessing the existing situation, data was collected through primary as well as secondary source of information. The agricultural marketing and market related infrastructure and investment made was collected from secondary data. The details on households, cropping pattern, share of existing seed and pesticide companies and other sources were collected through a field survey conducted in 2011-12.Data were analyzed using SPSS software and Garrett scoring technique. Findings: The cropping pattern of paddy-maize with 100% alone dominated in Guntur where as in Karimnagar and Mahabubnagar cropping pattern dominated by Paddy-Maize (57%) and Maize-Maize (37%).The average illiterates are 41.1 % in all three districts. Major proportion of the farmers found in the studied area are illiterates. Most of the farmers are not following recommendations after the soil testing, this may result in sub-optimal utilization of plant nutrients. All the seed companies are working vigorously in all the surveyed districts. Among the companies, Pioneer Hybrid India (PHI) is the major contributor and has large share in all the three district markets, followed by Kaveri seeds. As all the practices are almost common in maize crop in all the locations surveyed, there is a less difference in the expense on different activities. Major cost is incurred on labour (Rs. 5,588) ; due to availability of alternate works labour wages has been increased. Next to labour, major expenditure is for fertilizers. The strategy of the agricultural development should particularly focus on small and marginal farmers. Application/Improvements: Agriculture in the above study area is very well responsive to the changes in numerous social, economic, scientific and market dynamics. There is a need to follow situational marketing approach and subsidies from public sectors which are encouraging for cost optimization.
378 Jan-Dhan Se Jan Suraksha – A Comprehensive Study of Pradhan Mantri Jan DhanYojana   , Dr. Rajesh K. Yadav , Dr. SarveshMohania
Objectives: The study focuses on different schemes under the Pradhan Mantri Jan DhanYojana. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study is based on secondary data collected and tabulated from different websites and IRDA Journals. Findings: The study finds that various schemes under Pradhan Mantri Jan DhanYojana such as Pradhan MantriJeevanJyotiBimaYojana (PMJJBY), Atal Pension Yojana (APY), and Pradhan MantriSurakhaBimaYojana (PMSBY) are attractive due to their flexibility, throughout easy and clear process, easy claim process, highly reliable and economical insurance services. Application/Improvements: Pradhan Mantri Jan DhanYojana is comprehensive financial scheme focused on unorganized sector workers, which includes financial services like banking to insurance etc. with motto of Jan-Dan se Jan Surakhsa.
379 Power sector development in India: performance of state electricity boards in the pre-reform period , Omprasad, Gadde
Objectives: The objective of this paper is to examine the financial allocations in the plan periods for the power sector and performance of State Electricity Boards before the implementation of reform process in 2003. Methods/Statistical analysis: In this paper the financial outlays during the plan period particularly from first plan to ninth plan for the power sector development of India has be evaluated. In the process how the State Electricity Boards filled with institutional, administrative, infrastructural problems coupled with using the board to get political mileages were misused and organised, resulting in great financial losses. Ultimately under performances of the boards resulted in introduction of reform process in the sector. Historical and descriptive method was used to study the reasons behind various developments in the power sector in India. Findings: Subsidies to the agricultural sector negatively affected the SEBs. The state governments over-stretched themselves to provide electricity at a sixth of the actual cost of generation, which means 16 paise per unit versus a production cost of 92 paise. Because of this high debt service and operation and maintenance expenses, the revenue flows could not cover not even a small share of investment costs adversely affecting investments in new capacity additions. Deficiencies arise because of the project delays, resulting in time loss and lost over runs, inadequate budgetary support, constraints regarding acquiring land environmental clearances and rehabilitation plans, constitute infinite drains on the SEBs. At the same time there was no comprehensive plan to address the vital matters. Besides these other problems were over employment, poor plant maintenance, lack of financial control and accountability resulted in low plant load factor and low productivity. Application/Improvements: This study is relevant for policymakers concerned with the power sector in India and in States on how the sector can enter into problems unless using it as a professional body to address the power supply efficiently without political interference.
380 On the socioeconomic determinants of households’ access to safe drinking water: some evidence from Nigeria , Musa Abdu; Abdullahi Buba ; Adamu Jibir ; Idi Adamu ; Aisha Adamu Hassan
Background/Objectives: This study investigated the socioeconomic determinants of households’ access to safe drinking water alongside the factors responsible for urban-rural inequality in access to safe drinking water in Nigeria. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Data from 2013 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) was used. The study adopted both ordinary least squared (OLS) and probit regression models to estimate the determinants of access to safe drinking water (SDW). The technique of Blinder-Oaxaca Decomposition has also been adopted to assess the urbanrural inequality in having access to SDW. Findings:The results show that age linear, marital status, household size, awareness, Northern region, female and access to electricity have positive effects on the likelihood to access safe drinking water (SDW). However, age nonlinear, poor, rural locality and time taken to fetch water have negative impacts on the probability to adopt a particular source of SDW. Also, the same factors except female are responsible for the urban-rural inequality in access to SDW. Improvements/Applications: The study recommended that there should be old age social security for old people, private water selling business, massive electrification, awareness campaign, incentive system, and rural development, to access SDW.
381 A study of Socio-Economic status of fisher communities in District Srinagar of Jammu & Kashmir , ImtiyazQayoom, Nasir Hussain , Tariq A. Bhat , Masood H. Balkhi , Bilal A. Bhat
Objectives: Present study investigates the socio-economic status of three fisher communities in district Srinagar of Jammu and Kashmir around Dal Lake, Anchar Lake and River Jhelum. Methods/Statistical analysis: A total number of 230 fishers is selected randomly from Anchar Lake, Dal Lake and River Jhelum within the limits of Srinagar city and subjected to in-depth guided interviews and well structured questionnaires. The data collected was subjected to descriptive statistics and chi square in SPSS (version 20.0) software. Findings: The study revealed that most of the people involved in fishing belongs to age group of 41-50 years with a significant difference in literacy rate (p<0.05) in all the communities. In terms of monthly monetary gains, the overall poor economic conditions in all the three fisher communities was noticed with highest frequency distribution falling under 10,000 rupees a month. A meager return from the capture fisheries has enforced them to switch over to other professions of laboring, fruit vending and auto driving. The problems faced by fisher folks in capitalizing maximum from the capture fisheries include high cost of net (91.25%), poor extension services to educate the fishers (80%), poor processing facilities (77.5%), high cost of fishing inputs (71.25%) and poor weather condition (46.25%). Applications: If the fishery facilities of these areas are improved upon, it could support the strides towards employment generation, and supply of animal protein in the region and beyond.
382 A Supple Way to Induce Loyalty Among The Employees , Kiruthiga.V , Magesh.R
Background/Objectives: Employees play a pivotal role in the hotel industry’s success. In order to retain the employees, a loyal workforce must be created within the hotel industry. Methods/Statistical analysis: The structural relationship among job based determinants, employee retention, job satisfaction and employee loyalty among star category hotel employees was analyzed by employing path analysis. Findings: The structural relationship among job based determinants, employee retention strategies, job satisfaction and employee loyalty was analyzed by employing path analysis. The goodness-of-fit statistics indicate that the hypothesised model fits the data gathered adequately well. Improvements/Applications: In order to increase the employee belongingness, the hotels should make the employees know all the happenings in the hotel by the way of being transparent.
383 An analysis of Cost and Returns of Sugarcane Production in Erode District of Tamilnadu , A. Saravanan
Objective: The main purpose of the present study is to estimate the cost and returns of sugarcane production per acre on different size of farms in Sathyamangalam block of Erode district in Tamilnadu, India. Methods: The study was confined to a sample of 120 sugarcane farmer households selected from four villages of Sathyamangalam block of Erode District. A simple percentage analysis was employed to identify the cost and returns of sugarcane cultivation for the selected sample farmers. Findings: The study found that an average sugarcane cultivating farmer in the area spent 14.40 percent of the total cost on seed, 5.32 percent (appropriated cost) on family labour, 64.96 percent on hired labour, 5.67 percent on machinery used for different operations, 6.04 percent on chemical fertilizer and 3.61 percent on pesticide, realised a net return of Rs.26424 per acre. This might be due to the fact that the benefit of economies of scale has reached its maximum only at the farm size of 5-7.5 acres. Therefore, our generalisation on optimum farm for the area falls in the category of 5-7.5 acres. Application/Recommendation: The study recommends that can improve cropping system and stabilizes farm income to the farmers; the Government intervention is sought in a manner that there is unbiased credit support for farms of all categories without discrimination. The general observation from the farmer’s perception in the area is that inspite of the fact that the Central and State Governments price incentives have provided them a relief to some extent, the mechanism evolved for fixing minimum price does not cover the entire cost components and the risk factors involved in the sugarcane cultivation.
384 Participation of SHG and employment capabilities of Dalits households in Karnataka , I.Maruthi, Pesala Peter
Objectives: To investigate the employment opportunities and participation of SHG (Self-help Group) in selected households in Karnataka, India. Methods/Statistical analysis: We selected Karnataka state intensively. For study purpose, we divided Karnataka into three regions: North, Central and South Karnataka. Among regions, two districts selected where the SC population is high and this is second stage. And third stage, two villages were selected where the SC population was high. In all selected villages, 150 sample households were selected randomly. The total sample size was 1800. Findings: The major findings of the study are: half of the households did not get regular employment in their villages. Agriculture labour was the main occupation of the selected households. Among the households, forty eight per cent of the household were involved in Self-Help Group (SHG) activities during study period. Labour work is the main source to deposit the money in SHG. Thirdly, half of the households were having bank accounts in their respective villages. Some of the households not opened account in banks (50%), due to poverty and illiteracy were the main reasons. Five per cent of the households were availed loans from the banks some of the households were not getting loans from the banks due tolack of collateral security. Application/Improvements: The government of Karnataka must provide needful financial assistance to the people without collateral in general and particularly in selected Dalit households. In addition to that government shall provide employment opportunities to the Dalit people in Karnataka.
385 Dynamics of Shree Chhatrapati Shahu Co-op. Sugar Factory and its impact on sugar production: A case Study at Kolhapur district of Maharashtr , Sangita Borah
Background/Objectives: Cooperative sugar industry is the second largest industry next to Textile in India. The present study mainly focused on the performance of Shree Chhatrapati Shahu Coopeartive Sugar Factory in sugar production and turnover in the Kolhapur area of Maharashtra. Methods/Statistical analysis: The primary data for the study was collected with the help of interview method adopted for concerned people including farmers, managers, members related to the organization. Secondary data collected from different published and unpublished sources of the organization. Findings: The production of sugar and members’ registration exhibits an increasing trend over the years for the Factory. The reason behind the increase registration of farmer members to the factory was the huge price difference between the statutory minimum price announced by the Government and the price paid to the farmers by the Factory. Application/Improvements: Essential steps for the improvement of sugar production and turnover of the factory includes introduction of new variety of sugarcane, adoption of crop rotation practices, farmers’ encouragement and various strategies for penetration in the markets.
386 An Analysis of Banana Cultivation in Theni District, Tamil Nadu , C. Mahalakshmi , S. Vinoth Kumar , P. Maneesh , J. Syed Ali Fathima
Objectives: To examine the production, cost performance, and the factors influencing banana cultivation in Theni District of Tamil Nadu, India. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study relies exclusively on primary information obtained from the banana cultivators of Theni District. Purposive sampling procedure was followed for the selection of the study area. It is found that there are 90 farmers cultivating banana in the selected village and therefore, all of them are considered as respondents for the study. Findings: The natural factors affecting the banana crop production include water storage, soil fertility, problems of soil, insects, weeds and crop variety. Water storage and weeds were reported by majority of cultivators as a major problem affecting crop productivity. Among the economic factor affecting banana cultivation, 88 percent of the respondents reported that fluctuations in price as the major reason. Inadequacy in credit and capital are the second major causes affecting crop productivity. Application/Improvements: Crop insurance scheme can be introduced by the government of Tamil Nadu in order to protect the farmers in critical situation, like crop loss due to natural disorders. The government provides subsidies to the small farmers for adopting the new technology (i.e.) drip irrigation, soil testing etc.
387 Basic Amenities, Health and Nutrition in the BIMARU Economies of Bihar and Madhya Pradesh , Shailendra Singh Rana
Objective-This study is an endeavor to get a relative insight into the basic amenities, health and nutrition status between the two BIMARU economies of Madhya Pradesh and Bihar. Methods-This research study is based on the analysis of data taken from the fourth National Family Health Survey (2015-16). Findings-Most alarming features of Bihar and Madhya Pradesh are high infant and child mortality rates and malnutrition among children. Sex ratio for both the states is above national average which is a good sign for women empowerment. Except for access to improved drinking water source, other basic amenities electricity and improved sanitation facilities present a grim picture for both the states. Fertility rates in both the states are moving closer to the population stabilizing to total fertility rate of 2.1.At the time when medical inflation in India is as high as 15% ,minuscule percentage of household with any health insurance or health scheme clearly indicates a tremendous financial burden on the population on account of out of pocket expenditure on health. Gender disparity has been found in the HIV/AIDS awareness among adults which puts women at higher risk of infection. Applications- Findings of this research study may be utilized to identify the solutions to the basic amenities, health and nutrition problems in Bihar and Madhya Pradesh
388 Resource-use Efficiency of Sugarcane Production in Gobichettipalayam Taluk of Erode District of Tamil Nadu: An Economic Analysis , A.Saravanan
Objective: To identify the socio-economic characteristics of sugarcane farmers, to analysis the cost and returns of sugarcane production, to examine the resource use pattern of sugarcane cultivating of varying farm size and to evaluate the farm level technical efficiencies in the production of sugarcane in Gobichettipalayam taluk of Erode District in Tamil Nadu. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study was confined to a sample of 150 sugarcane farmer households selected from six villages of Gobichettipalayam taluk of Erode District in Tamil Nadu, India. A simple percentage analysis was employed to identify the socio-economic characteristics and cost and returns of sugarcane cultivation for the selected sample farmers. The Stochastic Production Frontier Function model of the Cobb-Douglas type used incorporates a model for the technical inefficiency effects. Findings: The study found that the majority of farmers belonged to nuclear family; their family size had 2-4 members; their age had 40–60 years and had a small family monthly income of Rs.15,000 to Rs.30,000. The educational status of the farmers was secondary level. The output elasticities of sugarcane with respect to area under crop, seed, family labour and machine hours were worked out to 0.2689, 0.2341, 0.1923 and 0.0698 respectively. The estimated value of σu 2 and σv 2 were 0.0824 and 0.0217 respectively. A high value registered for γ (0.7916) indicated the presence of significant inefficiencies in the production of sugarcane among the farmers. The study concluded that the majority of the sugarcane farmer’s still employ low level of modern technology in sugarcane cultivation. Also, most of the sugarcane farmers are middle-aged, non-literate males; this had greatly contributed to inefficiency in sugarcane production among the sugarcane farmers. Application/Recommendation: The central and state governments should invest more in functional agricultural extension services to enhance efficient use of available productivity increasing inputs. Farmer should be provided with minimum support price for their produce to make them survival assured. The agricultural department officials may give training and suggestion to the farmers regarding the use of recommended dose of fertilizer and pesticide and to reduce the harvesting cost of sugarcane, machinery with high technology may be used with increased numbers.
389 Operation, Issues and Challenges of Microfinance in India , R.C.Nagaraju , V.RameshReddy
Objective: The main objective this paper is to understand the concept of microfinance, the operation and to identify the latest issues, problems and challenges in effective implementation of various Microfinance programmes. Method: Secondary data forms the basis for this paper as the study is descriptive in nature. Books, various websites, magazines, newspapers, and publications of recent research papers available in different websites are the sources of data. Findings: The study reveals that While Micro Finance Sector seems to be growing fast with no road blockages, it has also brought to fore several challenges and issues. Some of such issues are: providing varietal savings avenues to the micro finance beneficiaries, and mobilization of such savings by MFIs, creating regulatory frame work for MFIs, provision of finance to MFIs as a regular channel of finance/refinance, reduction in cost of resources/management resulting in lending rates for micro finance beneficiaries, safety and precautions for MFIs entering into new financial services like micro leasing, insurance, housing, medical services etc. Applications: This paper provides a platform for researchers to understand the problems and challenges in effective implementation of various Microfinance programmes.
390 An empirical analysis of relation between income, consumption and investment of rural Haryana , Dr. Shveta Singh , Urmila
Objectives: The present study aims to analyse the Relation between Income, Consumption and Investment of Rural Haryana. Methods/Statistical analysis: This study is based on the primary data A questionnaire is prepared and the personal interviews method is used to collect the primary data from rural household. The sample selected involved 100 households. Stratified random sampling technique is used for sample selection. Haryana is divided into four divisions for administrative purpose that is Ambala, Rohtak, Gurgaon and Hisar. Data collected is analyzed by using regression analysis and MANOVA. Findings: The regression outcome shows that there is a significant relationship between household income and household consumption expenditure and there is also a significant relationship between household income and household investment in rural Haryana. As the income of the household increases, simultaneously there is high increase in consumption expenditure as compared to investment. MANOVA results revealed that there is no significant relationship between income and consumption expenditure, but it is significant in case of total investment Application/Improvements: In Haryana none of the study has been conducted to measure or analyse relationship between income, consumption and investment of rural household especially at micro level. Most of the studies on income, consumption and investment pattern of rural people are based on secondary data which sometimes does not prove to be adequate for the study. Most of the data available does not serve the needs of Haryana in a ground level prospective. So the current research paper seeks to analyse the relationship between Income, Consumption and Investment of rural Haryana.
391 Trumplization and its impact on world economy , R. Rajendra Kumar
Objective: This view point deals with new economic proposals like Enhancement of employment of local people, Prevention of outsourcing and Prevention of migration by the President of United States of America-Mr.Donald Trump, named as Trumplization and its impact on the Global economy. Apart from that, this contribution deliberates the impact of Trumplization in the economies of India and China and also underlines the concept of Trumplization and its Impact on the Global Economy. Methods: This view point is the outcome of observation of this author about the announcement made by the Mr. Donald Trump on Migration, Outsourcing of Business, other trade policies and its impact on world economy. The author named the policies of Trump as Trumplization. The author referred articles and News Paper reports with regards to various announcements made by the Trump at various occasions and the opinion of eminent academicians in the field of economics were also obtained to prepare his View Point. Findings: 1) The policies of Trump will create uncertainties in the world economy. 2) The china will be worst affected country as its exports may be curtailed to the significant level because of the Trumplization. 3) India will also get affected by the Trumplization as it mention about the prevention of outsourcing of business. 4) The US also will get affected by the Trumplization as it will increase the cost of production thus leads to enhancement of inflation and the outsourcing and migration policies will have on impact on migration of skilled people from other countries which may create labour shortage in the US. This view point suggest that the effective implementation of Trumplization will create economic imbalance among the world countries in short term and in longer term, perhaps leads to economic slowdown or Economic Meltdown. Application: 1) The outcome of this view point can be used as reference for the policy makers of Trump’s Administration.
392 Green House Gases Emission Reduction: Targets and Achievements by Annex I Parties (1990-2012) , Prabha Panth
Objectives: To analyse target achievements of Annex 1 parties’ reduction of greenhouse gases emissions (GHG) by 2012as per 1st phase of Kyoto Protocol. To analyse the methods used to achieve these targets. Methods/Statistical analysis: Secondary data from World Development Indicators and UNFCCC websites have been used. Tabular method – totals and percentages have been computed to analyse differences in achievements of various countries. Pie graph is drawn to show the shares of compliant countries. Findings: Overall GHG emission reduction from the 40 Annex 1 countries exceeded the target in 2012. However, 88% of this GHG decrease was due to the collapse of thirteen economies in transition (EIT). Of the remaining Annex 1 countries, only 13 had reduced, while the others had increased their emissions by 2012. Thus, the net decrease amounted to just 1.04% of 1990 levels in 2012, far below the Kyoto target of 5%. But for the historical chance of collapse of the socialist countries during this time period, the actual emissions reduction by these countries would have been negligible, thus defeating the purpose of the Kyoto Protocol. The Flexible mechanisms available to Annex 1 parties were also examined for their efficacy or otherwise towards cutting GHG emissions. We find many inadequacies in their implementation and functioning and their effectiveness in tackling climate change to ensure sustainable development. We did not find any earlier study of such an analysis. Application: This analysis throws light on the manner in which Annex 1 countries are undertaking reduction of their GHG emissions. It shows that the actual achievement by 2012 in reducing GHGs has been negligible compared to the target. It shows the negligent attitude taken by most of the Annex 1 Parties, and the need to speed up the process of capping GHG emissions to negate climate change effects and to attain sustainable development. We feel that this paper will help to highlight the actual GHG reductions by Annex 1 parties, and the loopholes through which parties are escaping their emissions reducing responsibilities to combat climate change
393 Participation of Tribal in Gram Sabha at Gajpati District, Odisha , Sanghamitra Palai, Dr.M.Hilaria Soundari
Background/Objectives: The specific objectives of the study are (1) Implementation of Panchayats Extension to Scheduled Areas (PESA) Act in Odisha, (2) To study the role of Gram Sabha, (3) To analyse the reviews related to PESA Act in Odisha, (4) To suggest some alternatives for the better implementation. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study is based on primary data and secondary data. The primary data were collected through a structured schedule and samples are drawn by employing simple random sampling method. Findings: Even though the Gram Sabha is organised well, the participants do not have any knowledge about the functioning of it, due to many reasons like long distance, lack of transport facility, etc. The participants do not regularly attend the meeting. PESA Act is not effectively working in the state. All plans and programmes are implemented by the government but it is not properly reaching tribes, because they are not adequately aware of the Act. Improvements/Applications: Creating awareness among people regarding Gram Sabha is important for their better participation. Tribal need to be educated regarding their Rights and Acts so as to achieve better co-ordination between the people and the Government. Government need to introduce very strong monitoring system in accessing the effectiveness of PESA Act
394 Application of conjoint analysis for consumer preference evaluation in ragi in Karnataka , Veerabhadrappa Bellundagi , K.B. Umesh , H.S. Roopa , S.C. Ravi
Objectives: Conjoint Analysis is a statistical technique where respondents ranked preferences for different offers decomposed to determine the person’s inferred utility function for each attribute and the relative importance of each attribute. The present study was attempted to evaluate the consumer preference for ragi in Karnataka, India. Methods/Statistical analysis: The required data was collected from 120 sample respondents from Bengaluru and Vijayapura districts, respectively using structured interview schedule for the selection of attributes, later based on the consumer preferences the cards were generated in SPSS and same was used to evaluate the consumer preference for new release of ragi variety. For the Study, the conjoint analysis was employed. Findings: The results reveal that, among all the attributes of ragi studied in Bengaluru urban, taste was found to be most important and first consideration of consumers’ accounting for 39.33 per cent of relative importance with good taste having the utility of 1.21. In case of Bengaluru rural, price was found to be most important and first deliberation, accounting for 35.60 per cent of relative importance. Among all the attributes studied in ragi in Vijayapura urban, colour was found to be most significant and first consideration, accounting for 41.39 per cent. In case of Vijayapura rural also colour was found to be most significant and first consideration, accounting for 36.23 per cent. Application: Based on the consumer preference for ragi, colour was found to be one of the most important attributes, so research has to be taken up to develop colouredragi varieties with bioavalibility of nutrients.
395 Socio-economic problems of Irula tribes in Attappadi area , Preemy P. Thachil
Background/Objectives: In India, the first tribal block established in Attappady one of the most backward blocks in Kerala. Even after the fifty years of formation, Attappady is still suffering from extreme starvation and malnourishment. Hence it is important to study the demographic profile and socio - economic problems of Irula tribes in Attapadi Block, Palakkad District of Kerala. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Both primary and secondary data are used in the study. The sampling technique that was adopted for the study was convenience sampling a type of non-probability sampling. A structured questionnaire was prepared and one hundred households were interviewed who belonging to Irula group. Findings: The study reveals that socio economic background of Irula community is in a very pathetic situation. Poverty, malnutrition, Family liability, lack of interest in studies, lack of hostel facilities, ignorance of the parents, early marriage, inadequate transport facilities, insufficient educational facilities, poor medical facilities, social exclusion and discrimination etc. are the major livelihood issues of Irula community. Application/Improvements: In order to uplift their situation initiative from the government is the needed step for improving their socio-economic condition.
396 Impact of Udyogini scheme on employment generation of women beneficiaries , V. Sushma,  K. C. Lalitha,  M. S. Nataraju, M. T. Lakshminarayan,  K. Asha
Objectives: The study analyses the impact of Udyogini scheme on employment generation of rural women beneficiaries. Methods and statistical analysis: The study is based on primary data collected from 120 rural women beneficiaries of Udyogini scheme. The collected data was analyzed using mean, percentage, Zero order correlation test and paired ‘t’ test. Findings: The study findings revealed that there is an increase of man days of employment among rural women beneficiaries by 46.72 per cent after joining Udyogini scheme. The data subjected for statistical test reveals the enhancement of man days of employment among beneficiaries before (546 man days) and after (745 man days) joining Udyogini scheme was found to be highly significant at one per cent level of probability. Application/Improvements: Udyogini scheme is an innovative scheme which has created adequate employment opportunities to the rural women through establishing micro enterprises
397 Demonitization and its effect on life of common people in India , R. Rajendra Kumar
Objectives: To understand the concept of Demonetization, Short term, Long term impact and future implementation strategy Methods/Statistical analysis: This short communication is the outcome of observation of this author about the Demonetization in the Indian Economy with special emphasis with regards to its impact on the life of common people. The author referred articles and News Paper reports about demonetization, the opinion of eminent academicians in the field of economics and financial accounting and common people were also obtained to prepare this short communication. Findings: 1) The common people in the ground level are suffering and they like to digest this suffering with the hope that this drive would eliminate the corruption at all levels. 2) The issues of excessive money deposited in the Banks due to sucking of outlawed currency and the ways to use it effectively were deliberated in this short note. 3) It also identified that the cashless transactions would become as the norm of payments in future. 4) The demonetization would eradicate corruption in the longer run. These findings are helpful for the stakeholders of Indian Monetary Policy makers and Government as it reflect the prevailing outcome of demonetization. The archives of various publication shows that the demonetization is the reason for undue hardship faced by the people and the same finding was observed in this analysis but this short note found that the people understood that their sufferings are temporary in nature and believe that their suffering would be over in the immediate future. Since this is new to both the Government of India and its people, both are confused thus resulted slight unrest among them. Application/Improvements:1) The outcome of this short note can be used by GoI, Reserve Bank of India for further refinement of demonetization.
398 Horizontal and vertical inequalities across the region and time in Punjab , Muhammad WaqasKhalid, Abdul Saboor, Aadil Hameed Shah, Ashar Sultan Kayani
Objectives: Horizontal Inequalities and Vertical Inequalities are causing violent and conflict in the countries, which are harmful for the development of any country by increasing poverty. Punjab has faced high level of inequality, as it is most educated province of Pakistan. It is important to check the severity of horizontal and vertical inequalities in province of Punjab, Pakistan. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The secondary data is used in this study. The datasets named as HIES, Household Integrated Economic Survey, published by the Pakistan Bureau of Statistics for the year of 2013-14. Gini Coefficient, Theil’T, Theil’L, and Atkinson Indexes are being estimated to check the severity of Inequalities. Findings: The comparative analysis of HIs and VIs reveals that VIs is more severe in all divisions of Punjab except the case of Multan. The results shows that the HIs are more severe in rural regions and VIs are more severe in urban regions. The severity of VIs is as follows Lahore, Multan, Bahawalpur, D.G. Khan, Rawalpindi, Faisalabad, Sargodha, Sahiwal, and Gujranwala. Conversely, the severity of HIs is as follows Lahore, Multan, Bahawalpur, D.G. Khan, Sargodha, Sahiwal, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, and Gujranwala. At last, regression analysis shows that all socio economic variables have significant impact on per capita expenditure with the exception of access to health care. These findings especially HIs add new trend in to the literature specifically for the Punjab, Pakistan. Application/Improvements: These findings help the government to initiate the regional based programs to eradicate HIs and VIs.
399 Utilization pattern of agriculture crop loan by farmers in India with special reference to Karnataka , Ravindra Chavan , Amrutha T. Joshi , Suresh S. Patil, G.M. Hiremath
Background/Objectives: The agricultural crop loan has to help farmers for purchase of high yielding inputs. Thus, the present study was undertaken to analyse the utilization and diversion pattern of agriculture crop loan by different categories of farmers. Methods/Statistical analysis: Multistage sampling technique was adopted for the selection of sample farmersviz. 40 large farmers and 20 small farmers who had availed agriculture crop loan from each commercial (SBI) and cooperatives banks (PACS). Thus, the total sample size consisted of 120 farmers. The technique of tabular presentation includes percentages and averages were used to estimate the extent of utilisation and diversion of agriculture crop loan. Findings: The average amount utilized for the said purpose by large farmers was noticed around 96.97 per cent which was found to be higher as compared to small farmers (76.78 %) borrowed from commercial banks for red gram production. Similar trend was noticed in case of cooperative banks borrowers but the average size of amount borrowed was almost one half of the amount of commercial banks borrowers. The small farmers for cotton production from commercial banks the amount utilized for said purpose accounting for 85.72 per cent lower than large farmers (95.51 %). Similar trend was noticed in case of cooperative banks borrowers. It is of interesting to note that across institutions the diversion of agriculture crop loan was more in case of small farmers as compared to large farmers in both commercial and co-operative banks for both redgram and cotton production. The size of crop loan amount disbursed by cooperative banks borrowers was almost one half of the amount of commercial banks borrowers. Application/Improvements: Hence, financial institutions should also educate the farmers in utilizing of crop loan amount while disbursing the loan to the farmers.
400 Resettlement & rehabilitation policy: a mechanism of sustainability for displaced women of Odisha , Aliva Mohanty
Background/Objectives: The present paper intends to give coverage to the displaced women of three villages like Trijanga, Gobarghati and Kalinga Nagar of Odisha. To analyse the promises and performances done by TATA Steel for the betterment of displaced women of Kalinga Nagar. Methods Adopted/Statistical Analysis: In the present study the data has been collected from respondents through interview method. Both primary and secondary sources of data collection method have been applied for the study. All total 100 sample displaced women have been selected through stratified simple random procedure. The stratification of the sample will be made on the basis of selection of data from pre and post displacement period. Findings: Displacement of the women from their native place has affected the women a lot. Development induced displacement has a negative impact on the respondents. About 93% of respondents have stayed in the locality of TATA Steel for more than 5 years which states that they have also faced the struggle for their sustainability. 74% of respondents have reported that they have been displaced for the construction of TATA steel plant. 18% of respondents have said that they have been forcibly displaced by the local leaders. About 37 percent of respondents are not satisfied with the compensation provided to them by TATA steel. 75 percent of respondents have reported that they have been displaced to new locality in order to enhance their economic condition. About 12 percent of respondents have the idea that they will get new jobs in the new locality. 70% of respondents are accompanied by their friends while they are displaced. 20 percent of respondents have been accompanied by the local leaders. Improvements: In the eligibility for R & R benefits, the women should be treated at par with their male counterparts. and importance should be given to the households headed by the women.
401 Is the Twin Deficits Hypothesis a Myth In India? Evidence from an Updated Study: 1980-2012 , Keshmeer Makun
Background: The recent global financial crisis has led to greater imbalance in both the external and the internal account deficits of several countries including India. In this paper, the relationship between India’s government budget deficit and current account deficit during the period 1980-2012 is examined. Method: In order to examine the relationship between budget deficit and current account deficit this study resort to bound testing procedure and standard Granger causality test. Results: The results show that a cointregrating relationship exists between current account and fiscal balances, exchange rate and real GDP. Existence of cointegration confirms beyond any doubt that the twin deficit hypothesis is very much relevant in the case of India. Conclusion: Policy makers should continue to focus on fiscal consolidation measures for keeping deficits under control for achieving sustainable current account deficits.
402 The Evolution of Kenya's Trade Policy , Nyaga Nathan Gitonga
Background: This paper discusses the development of Kenya's trade policies have evolved through four major phases, namely, Import substitution period, The Period of SAPs and Export Promotion Schemes, The Period of Export Oriented Policies and Vision 2030 & National Trade Policy. Method: This study, being qualitative and analytical in nature, shall employ various descriptive, theoretical and where feasible, simple statistical analytical tools to explain the facts as borne out by available data. The study sought to make valid discussions by going through various literature related to Kenya's trade policies. The data used was secondary data mostly from various issues of Kenya's Economic Surveys. Based on the data, calculations were made and tabulated to show relevance of various indicators. Results: Trade policies in Kenya have evolved through four distinct stages namely: 1) Import substitution period (1960s – 1980s), 2) The Period of SAPs and Export Promotion Schemes (1980s), 3) A Period of Export Oriented Policies (1990s) and 4) Vision 2030 and National Trade Policy (from 2004 to-date). Policies adopted in the 90s till now can be described as the way to go but not the only way if Kenya has to reach its potential as a global competitive and a prosperous nation by 2030. The new National Trade Policies which are drawn to help Kenya reach a higher potential internationally by 2030 are good. What is needed now is for the government to implement them and keep thinking of how to make them better in order to fit in the ever changing future. Conclusion: This is a simplified study of trade policies in Kenya and will help those seeking information on this topic as well as various stake holders to make vital policy changes.
403 India’s Import Export Scenario During 2004 – 2013 , S. Srinivasan
Background: India adopted trade liberalization in 1991 by outcome of WTO, and is becoming progressively towards an open economy. It is important virtuous growth between trade and output growth. Hence this paper tries to address the impact of Gross Domestic growth (GDP) on import and export of the nation. Methods: Multi-linear Regression (MLRM) has been used to analyze import and export scenario of India since 2004. Results: Import and export are influenced by the GDP at the market price of the economy. A possible reason for the results is the auspicious trade circumstances of India. Application: GDP at market price determines the import, export and openness of India.
404 Economics of Storage of Paddy in Rural Godowns in TBP Area in Karnataka , C .Nagaraj  , Amrutha T. Joshi Suresh S. Patil 
Background: The present study was undertaken to know the economics of storage of paddy in rural godowns and the benefits accrued and problems faced by the farmers in Tungabhadra Project area. Tungabhadra project area was purposively chosen for the study since 72 per cent of the total numbers of rural godowns sanctioned by NABARD (2406) in Karnataka are lying in this region. Methods: Purposive sampling technique was adopted for selection of sample farmers based on the nature of ownership, age of the godown and utilization of the godowns. Tabular analysis with simple averages and percentages were worked out. Results: The rural godown Scheme seems to have encouraged the farmers. It was noticed that the majority of farmers used godowns to store their produce in the harvest season and sell in lean period in order to realise higher returns. The godown users were able to reap about 9 to 13 per cent increase in prices for their produce by holding the same for 4 to 4   months. About 60 per cent of the owner users constructed godowns to avail subsidy. Further, about 96 per cent of owner users and 93 per cent of non-owner users utilized the rural godowns to avail pledge loan from banks. Application: Hence, small and marginal farmers of TBP area should be encouraged for the construction of smaller capacity godowns (50MT), by extending the facilities as in hilly areas under the Gramin Bhandaran Yojana Scheme.
405 An assessment of developmental potential of remittances inflow in India , M. Aijaz
Background: Recently India has been receiving the highest amount of workers’ remittances which accounts nearly three-fourth of her trade deficit. The international movements of labour and the resultant remittances have assumed significance in economic literature. Yet their full potential in the developmental task of the source country has not been studied and reaped. This paper discusses the rationale as to how migrants’ remittances can play a crucial part in boosting the tempo of investment and growth in the economy. Method: The present study is analytical and review in nature going to explain the phenomenon with the help of available data. Mostly secondary sources of data published in government reports especially RBI Occasional Papers have been used. Besides, weight of scientific arguments of the experts in their documented works was the basis to substantiate the evidences. Results: From the analysis, it was found that India has been witnessing a steady flow of migrants’ remittances. The magnitude of the unprecedented inflows constitutes the potential to spur investment and growth. It was shown that inward remittances had positive impact on wealth creation and accumulation through higher consumption and investment. Conclusion: The study concludes that Indian diaspora and their massive remittances posses substantial growth potential. The conclusion drawn underlines the need for policy initiatives in order to maximize developmental benefits, and also hints for future research on the subject.
406 Climate change in Kashmir valley: Is it initiating transformation of mountain agriculture? , M. H. Wani , S. H. Baba , Naseer Hussain Bazaz, Huma Sehar
Background/Objectives: Climate change has profound impacts on Himalayas, non availability of both data and models to estimate its impacts was a major problem. Therefore, apart from key climate variables, farmer’s perceptions in mitigating the climate change formed the major source of information and objective of the current study. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study is based on both primary and secondary data collected from 270 respondents during 2013-14 and 2014-15 spread over north, central and south Kashmir which was further classified into low to mid (L-M) and mid to high (M-H) altitudes. Group discussions/interactions in each selected village between the farmers, scientists and experts from concerned departments formed an important part of the survey. Averages and percentages were worked out to analyse the data. Results: The rise in temperature was prominent in first and last quarters of the year. This trend seemed to help the temperate mountain farming scenario owing to extended summers favouring increased cropping intensity and adopting advanced technological mix in the study area. This was supported by the introduction of paddy cultivation in southern elevations of Kulgam district, being only a dream a few years before. The annual averages revealed a considerable decrease in the day-1 rainfall (-19.44%) and average number of rainy days month-1 (-24.10%) during period-I over period-II. The variation in the magnitude in different quarters, revealed steeper decrease in winter season (Oct-Dec and Jan-Mar) compared to summer season (Apr-Sep). Important and unambiguous perceptions about climate change perceived by the farmers were increased temperature, long summers, short winters, less snowfall and highly uncertain weather conditions, which triggered since late 1990s. These perceptions are in conformity with the inferences drawn from dynamics of temperature and rainfall during last three decades. (170 words) Conclusion: The study concludes that climate change has initiated in this region which is supported by macroevidences, demanding a serious effort for its mitigation through awareness programmes designed as per farmer’s perceptions for better pay-off in long run.
407 A study on use of electronics and communication technologies (ECTs) in agricultural marketing in NEK region , Amrutha.T.Joshi , Siddayya, S. Vijayachandra Reddy 
Background: Agricultural marketing plays an important role in Indian agriculture in general and farmer’s economy in particular. The use of information technologies provides transparency in agri-business and making appropriate decisions in marketing of agricultural produce. Objectives: The study was conducted in north eastern Karnataka regions with an objective to identify and assess the extent of use of electronics and communication technologies (ECTs) in marketing of agricultural commodities and also to investigate the nature and extent of economic benefits by use of ECTs to farmers and other stakeholders in marketing of agricultural commodities. Methodology: Random sampling procedure was used during the study period and sample size consists of 120 farmers (sample respondents). Both primary and secondary data was used in the study during the period from 2011- 2014. The Primary data collected from the farmers with respect to the electronic facilities available in the market for the sale of their produce and its utilization. Results: The findings of the study reveal that, the farmers were not directly benefitted as in the case of either the traders or other market functionaries. The illiteracy of farmers and limited access or no access makes the web portals redundant for them. Application/ Conclusion: The tangible, electronics devices used in the markets would ease the marketing process and help the farmers in realizing the quality and quantity of their produce and a remunerative price for their produce. The presence of e-balance and e-tendering process involved in selling and buying process has reduced market operation time. Thus these electronic equipments had no direct impact on the price mechanism but alleviated the buying and selling processes. Further, the use of electronic devices and communication technologies in agricultural marketing are effective tool to improve the marketing efficiency in business and transparency in transaction of agricultural produce.
408 Leadership styles in higher education - BIG leader-bonds, inspires, guides , Dr. Malini Pande
Objectives: Different leadership styles are adopted to motivate employees and to promote innovations. This research aims at identifying the leadership styles followed in higher institutions of learning in Chennai. We have also tried to explore which leadership style in higher level educational institutions motivates a team to a greater extent. Method: This research is an exploratory research that aims at identifying the leadership styles followed in higher institutions of learning in Chennai. We have also tried to explore which leadership style in higher level educational institutions motivates a team more by conducting in-depth interviews with team members working under different leadership styles. The data has been collected, analyzed through percentage analysis, and tabulated. Results: We identified three leadership styles: Authoritarian, Participative, and Innovative leadership style. It was found that majority of the educational institutions follow an authoritarian style of leadership. Participative leadership style was next and very few leaders were innovators. It was found that authoritarian style is the least desirable and participative leadership style is highly successful in educational institutions. We have tried to identify the crucial traits of a leader based on desk research, responses received through questionnaire, and discussions with teams. Some of the traits of a good leader are: a. The Three Aces: Acknowledging Uniqueness, Assessing Potential, and Assigning Appropriate Role. b. Providing direction through clearly articulating the mission and vision, c. Building trust through honesty & integrity. d. Consistency. e. Effective communication and praise. f. Setting high standards and never ceding control. Conclusion: The higher level leadership in educational institutions are so obsessed with the bottom line that they forget that bottom line can be achieved only through delegation, empowerment and involvement of team members in the decision making process. To support the agenda of accountability and good performance educational leaders need to be proficient in leadership and a participative, democratic and innovative leadership style plays a pivotal role in improving the bottom line.
409 An analytical study on determinants of income generation in rural sericulture sector of West Bengal , Chandan Roy, Sanchari Roy Mukherjee
Objectives: Sericulture, being low capital intensive, suits landless farmers and low-skilled artisans. This paper will focus on land productivity and technical efficiency of marginal artisanal classes and will measure their impact on income generation in the sericulture sector of West Bengal. Methods/Statistical analysis: Statistical analysis begins with analysis of income trends from raw silk at national and state level with the help of secondary level data. For primary survey four sericulture rich villages in Malda district has been chosen, where 60 silk-artisan households were selected using stratified random sampling for enquiring about their livelihood and income generation. Simple linear regression technique has been used using OLS method to estimate the statistical models based on apriori hypothesis. Results: The paper tests the statistical significance all income generating factors of the sericulture industry including land productivity, labour productivity, technological efficiency. Analysing the nation wide data set, the paper finds the area of mulberry cultivation and price of reeling cocoons are significant determinants in generating income in sericulture. However, primary data analysis collected from Malda district of West Bengal exposes that man days creation for this avocation and technical efficiency are significantly influencing income generation in rural sericulture sector while cost of implants has a serious detrimental impact on revenue generation by the silk artisans in West Bengal. Conclusion/Application: Intensive approach for balanced regional development can help to survive this dying industry in West Bengal. Farmers, whose generation based expertise is helping the industry to sustain, should be enthusiastically supported with institutional help.
410 A study of educational status of villagers of Kamalpur village of Patiala district , Shalu Goyal
Background: The study examines the current status of education of residents of Kamalpur village of Patiala district of Punjab, India. The method employed was mixed i.e. quantitative and qualitative. Methods: The research was conducted on a target population of 1489 residents of Kamalpur village. The villagers were requested to give information about their current educational status and their experiences and views regarding girls’ education. Results: The findings suggested that child labour or sending their wards to work to earn money is the major reason of low educational qualification. Furthermore, it was found that atrocities against girls are still prevailing in the society. Girls are not allowed to go out of the home for the study. Based on a thorough assessment of the findings in the present research the investigators are of opinion that Education to be instrumental in rising the status of education of people and removing the gender stereotyping to create an impression that girls are not inferior which is the major factor in the process of educating the girl child. Application: This study will create awareness about mitigating the practice of marriage at early age for increasing the literacy rate.
411 Co-integration analysis of wholesale price of wheat in selected market of Sriganganagar district of Rajasthan , Meera , D.P. Singh, Hemant Sharma
Background: Agricultural price movements have been a matter of serious concern for policy makers in our country as the behaviour of agricultural prices is affecting adversely to the steady economic development. This paper test market co- integration of wheat in Sriganganagar District of Rajasthan. Methods: This paper tests the extent of co-integration of wholesale prices of wheat among major markets of Sriganganagar district of Rajasthan by using Johansen test, examined the causality by granger causality tests and also captures the speed of adjustment to deviations in long run equilibrium in wheat markets by using Vector Error Correction Model(VECM). The data used in the co-integration analysis consists of monthly wholesale prices of nine gram dominated markets of Rajasthan for the period from 2005 to 2014.Monthly wholesale price data were for the study. Findings: The results of the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) unit root test for wheat showed that the existing data were non-stationary but their first differences were stationary. After taking first difference, all the series becomes stationary which is obvious from the fact that calculated values (-9.296309 to -14.18193) for all the markets were less than the critical value (- 4.038365)and were free from the consequence of unit root. Johansen’s co-integration test for wheat indicated the presence of at least eight co-integrating equation at 5 per cent level of significance. Hence markets were having long run equilibrium relationship. The pairwise granger’s causality test for selected markets was significant at 1% level which was indicative of mutual influence exerted by the markets on each other. Application/Improvements: Public policies in Sriganganagar district could play critical roles in facilitating market integration and thereby, market efficiency through the development of agricultural market information systems and road infrastructure.
412 Price volatility in major chilli markets of India , I. Bhavani Devi , M. Srikala , T. Ananda
Background/Objectives: Chilli arrivals from all over the country reach the market from mid October to end of May. The arrival pattern influences the price behaviour. The study aims at examining the price volatility of chill in major markets of India. Methods/Statistical analysis: Based on the quantum of arrivals in various markets in the country, from markets viz., Guntur, khammam, virudnagar and Nagpur were purposively chosen. The secondary data on monthly modal prices (Rs/Qtl) were emanated from the records maintained by the respective market committees. Findings: chilli prices in Guntur market for the period from 1997 to 2011 has indicated wide variations with prices ranging from Rs 1000 in 1997 to Rs 8800 February, 2011. The coefficient of variation of the prices was 32.4 per cent in virudnagar market. The price behaviour of selected crop in Nagpur compared to Guntur and virudnagar presented on altogether new dimension till 2000 commencing from 1997. Chilli prices in all the markets indicated persistent fluctuations over a period of time and these were maximum in Nagpur market. Application/Improvements: Chilli prices in all the markets had persistent fluctuations over a period of time and it was maximum in Nagpur market.
413 Total factor productivity and returns to investment in Ragi (finger millet) crop research in Karnataka state, India , K. Suresh , M.G.Chandrakanth
Background: Total factor productivity indicates the contribution of non inputs to the growth of agricultural productivity. In this study, estimation of total factor productivity in ragi crop and returns to investment in ragi research in Karnataka is attempted. Method: For the study, the time series data on cost of cultivation of ragi was collected from farm management reports, published by Directorate of agriculture, Government of Karnataka. The Tornqvist Theil index of TFP is used for measuring TFP growth and regression analysis is employed to identify sources of TFP growth. Findings: The result indicates that The Total Factor Productivity index of ragi grew at 4.75 per cent per annum. Public research significantly contributed to TFP growth in ragi. The additional investment of one rupee in ragi research generated additional income of Rs. 26.84, indicating substantial rate of returns to investment on research in ragi in Karnataka. Conclusion/Application: The total factor productivity in ragi crop registered a substantial growth in Karnataka. Hence the Government should allocate substantial funds to public research in ragi for productivity improvement of ragi crop providing food security to masses.
414 Technical stock valuation of a company: Bangladesh perspective , Imam Abu Sayed, M.D. Waheduzzaman Sarder, M.D. Shamim Mondal, Alok Roy
Background: The paper describes the relationship between risk and expected return and determination of risk free rate in valuation of a stock. In a stock pricing we find that expected return of a stock is the sum of risk-free government bill rate and risk premium. If this expected return does not fulfill the required return, then the investment should be taken carefully considering the growth potentiality of the stock. Findings: We can compute the expected return using the ACI stock price and DSE all share price index. If the average risk-free rate of 91-day government Treasury bill is 7 percent, the beta (risk measure derived from regression) of the stock is 1.14 and the average expected market return over the period is calculated as 10 percent, the stock expected return is 10.42 percent (7 percent +1.14(10 percent -7 percent)). Here the risk premium is 3.42 percent. Methods: In evaluating the ACI stock we have used the OLS method considering the unit root and other tests of signification. The time path of risk free rate is impacted by trend, seasonality, cycle and irregularities. BB prudently maintains the inflation rate among others through risk free rate using its instruments. Application/Improvements: Risk free rate has role to calculate the value of a stock and maintaining inflation and GDP growth. This paper analyzes the risk free rate, risk premium and related variables to evaluate the stock in order to maintain financial stability
415 Green index: Grading companies on sustainability initiatives , Sapan Thapar
Background: Commercial entities are adopting sustainable business practices to show-case their ‘Green Quotient’ in form of ‘Business Sustainability Reports’. However, these reports are difficult to comprehend and do not provide the overall socio-environmental impact of the business operations of a company. Methods: In this regard, a comprehensive ‘GREEN-INDEX’ has been developed to grade the sustainability initiatives of a company. The index captures 30 performance parameters, categorized into six vertical heads, namely Green Leadership, Resource Intensity, Externalities, Green Measures, Business Value Chain and Compliance & Reporting. Three types of scoring options are employed to accommodate heterogeneous mix of variables and data-types. Rationalization has been carried out by benchmarking a particular industry against the average sectorial values. Findings: As per the scoring methodology developed, a company would be rated into four grades: ‘A’- Environmentally Compliant, ‘B’- Environmentally Conscious, ‘C’- Environmentally Sensitive and ‘D’- Environmentally Inert. Application/Improvements: The ‘Green Index’ is meant to facilitate stakeholders make an informed opinion about a company in terms of its ‘Green Quotient’ and encourage sharing of best ‘green’ practices across the industries.
416 Foraminifera: Indicators of past environment; Key to future: A review , R. Gadgil , A. Viegas, D. Thulasimala
Background: In the very long history of the Earth, it has undergone through cyclic stage of warming and cooling which are geologically well documented. Foraminifera have emerged as in important tool to not only provide details of past climate and environment but also give an insight to what the future climate and environment holds forth. Methods: The morphology of the foraminifer tests along with their oxygen isotope ratio, the proportion of the planktic specimens, species diversity and different shell type ratios are closely related to physico-chemical characteristics of ambient seawater. These characteristics of foraminifera, especially the capacity of equilibrium fractionation of oxygen, are extensively used in paleo-oceanographic studies, specifically paleosea surface temperature and pale salinity estimations based on whole test ICP-MS oxygen isotope analysis of planktic foraminifera. Findings: A few species of foraminifera are unique in that their tests’ coiling are a function of ocean temperature. Left handed coiled tests live in colder water while right handed coiled tests in warmer water. Paleo-environmental interpretations are made possible by recognizing several kinds of patterns in foraminiferal assemblages. Rise in sealevel and changes in monsoonal rainfall pattern are the significant consequences of warming due to greenhouse effect. Present-day responses of planktic foraminifera to anthropogenic change should provide a “living laboratory” for interpreting past responses that have been recorded in the sediments over geological times-scales. Understanding the drivers of the changes in foraminifer species assemblages, abundances, distributions and shell chemistry should lead to improved reconstructions of past climates. It has been observed that assemblages characterized by high proportions of agglutinated taxa dominate in intertidal marshes whereas those largely made up of porcelaneous species characterize shallow tropical environments. It can be thus concluded that a decrease in temperature in most cases results in size increase. Applications/Improvements: Historical changes in foraminifer abundance have been shown to reflect anthropogenic climate change. Foraminifera are established proxies of past climatic change and, by corollary, should “record” future climate change.
417 The International business environments of franchising in Morocco , Zineb SAYL
Background/Objectives: This paper aims to analyze the environment of franchising in Morocco, by studying the determinants of attractiveness for foreign brands and factors of success in this market. Methods/Statistical analysis : We propose a SWOT analysis (strengths / weaknesses and threats / opportunities) to examine the franchising environment in relation to five environmental factors: economic, demographic, political, legal and cultural. Findings: The results of the SWOT analysis illustrate that the business environment in Morocco has strengths and significant opportunities for the development of the franchise. So Morocco is characterized by attractive geographical position, liberal and stable economic system, favorable regulatory environment and important political freedom. Also, Moroccan market present a several opportunities: large market size, strong demand for international quality products, strong demand for western product, low local competition, large urban population, large and dynamic workforce and high protection of industrial property. Improvements/Applications :Morocco must adopt strategies to promote the franchising sector and benefit from there advantages, especially, contributing to the modernization of commercial sector, improving the quality of distribution channels, creating jobs, contribute to creating the national GDP, encouraging domestic investment and entrepreneurship
418 Assessment of Techno-economic and Allocative efficiencies of maize in Western Maharashtra through data envelopment analysis , V.A. Shinde,  D.B. Yadav,  S.D. Patole
Background: Maize (Zea mays L.) is considered as queen of cereals and an important cereal crops, next only to rice and wheat. Methodology: The present investigation was conformed to the database of the cpmcc scheme. Findings: The increase in the use of hired human labour was observed with increase in the size group of holdings, while decrease in use of resources like family labour, machine labour, seed and nitrogenous fertilizers was noticed with increase in size group of holdings. Per hectare cost of cultivation of maize was `26150.39 while gross returns were `31335.95. The net profit at Cost ‘C’ was ` 5185.57 and B:C ratio was 1.20. In case of resource use gap excess use was observed in case of seed and nitrogen fertilizers while less use of manures, phosphorous and potash was observed. Technical efficiencies on small, medium and large maize farms were 0.992, 0.953 and 0.970, respectively and 27 small, 23 medium and 25 large farms were technically efficient. Allocative and economic efficiencies of maize farms revealed that not a single small farm, only one medium farm and not a single large farm were economically and allocatively efficient. While, 7 small farms, 6 medium farms and 7 large farms have economic efficiency more than 50 per cent. Cost minimizing input quantities revealed that small, medium and large maize farms could reduce its cost by 66.90, 61.40 and 42.02 per cent, respectively by choosing a more cost efficient input mix for allocatively efficient farms. The cost minimization on small maize farms was `3880.42 while on medium farms it was `3281.50 and on large farms `4045.69 by using a new cost efficient input mix. Application/Improvements: Optimum utilization of all other resources by the farmers will have to be ensured for higher production by passing on the crop production technologies to them by using the effective extension measures
419 Why commodity futures exchanges are less popular? , Asmita H. Dedania
Background: In India, the history of commodity futures exchanges is as old as the history of stock exchanges. However, many financial consultants as well as investors are less familiar or interested in trading on the former one compare to the later one. This paper examines the problems related to commodity futures trading. Method: The paper differentiates myths and problems using secondary data collected from various websites. Results: Many investors trading on stock exchanges are still reluctant to trade on commodity futures exchanges due to a variety of myths and some genuine problems to the general public and even the investment community. These myths were probably created by frustrated investors, by losing commodity traders or by those who feel that commodity futures trading are difficult. On the other hand, there are also some genuine problems while trading on commodity futures exchanges. Conclusion: The study has identified six myths and five problems. Unlike the stock futures, different commodity futures contracts have different tick size, price quotation, expiry dates, trading times, delivery margins, delivery places, etc. So one should be careful and must understand the mechanism of commodity futures exchanges before taking part into commodity futures trading.
420 Forecasting of wheat production and productivity of Ahmedabad region of Gujarat state by using ARIMA models , L. Netajit Singh , V. B. Darji, D. J. Parmar
Background: ARIMA models were carried out to explain the fluctuations in production and productivity for wheat crop in Ahmedabad. Data from the year 1960-61 to 2010-11 were used for model fitting and forecasting ten years ahead from the year 2010-11. Method: The ARIMA models with different p,d and q were judged based on autocorrelation function and partial auto correlation function at various lags and different ARIMA models were fitted. Result: Among different fitted ARIMA models, ARIMA (0,1,1) family model was found suitable to forecast the pattern of wheat production and productivity trend of Ahmedabad region of Gujarat State. Application: Forecasted values showed an increasing pattern in production and productivity of wheat in Ahmedabad region and predicted values for production and productivity of wheat in the year 2020-21 are3113.14 thousand tons and 1757.41 kg/ha respectively.
421 Comparative economics of cucumber cultivation under polyhouses and open field conditions in Haryana , Parveen kumar , R.S. Chauhan , R.K. Grover
Background/Objectives: In the present paper an attempt has been made to study the comparative economics of cucumber cultivation under polyhouses and open field conditions in Haryana. Methods/Statistical analysis: Karnal district was selected purposively on the basis of predominance of cucumber cultivation both under polyhouses & open field conditions. The primary data for the agriculture year 2013-14 were collected by personal interviews of the selected farmers with the help of a specially designed schedule. Simple statistical tool like Averages and percentages were used to compare, contrast and interpret the results properly. Findings: The overall findings of the study reveal that the cost of cultivation of cucumber under polyhouses was higher by ₹185681/acre as compared to open field conditions. At the same time, the net returns under polyhouses were higher by ₹97138.68/acre. The results of the study also revealed that the cucumber cultivation under polyhouses has significantly contributed to the yield. Application/Improvements: Cultivating cucumber in polyhouse conditions results in higher crop production as well as productivity; fetches better market price and can be cultivated in off-season as compared to open field conditions. Since, three cropping seasons of cucumber can be successfully taken; requirement of fertilizers ultimately goes high which can't be considered as a big constraint.
422 Scenario of mulberry and cocoon production in major silk producing States of India- Application of exponential growth function , M. Manjunath , K.C. Narayanaswamy , Savithramma , S. Harish babu , H. V. Harishkumar
Background/Objectives: Sericulture is an important livelihood option for the farmers of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Jammu Kashmir, formally traditional sericulture states. Methods/Statistical analysis: Data on mulberry area, production, productivity and cocoon production, productivity was collected for the period 1971-72 to 2008-09 and analyzed by break down of data into 4 equal periods of 10 years for knowing significant causes behind increase or decrease in the parameters studied using exponential growth rate. Findings: All the traditional sericulture states, exhibited significant positive growth in the area under mulberry, production and productivity during the Period II. Karnataka (-0.14 %) and Tamil Nadu (-1.41 %) have exhibited negative growth rate with respect to area under mulberry cultivation during period 1971-72 to 2008-09 due to factors like acute water shortage, non-availability of labors, reduction of fertile land to real estate and volatile cocoon price and for the same period India has exhibited a significant and positive growth in area (1.65 %), production (4.05 %) and productivity (2.32 %). Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and West Bengal have exhibited positive and significant growth in Cocoon production and productivity during study period. At national level Cocoon production (4.08 %) and productivity (2.41 %) have seen significantly positive trend during study period. Improvements/Applications: The study highlights the need of sericulture friendly policy interventions in the traditional states especially Karnataka by assuring minimum price for Cocoon thereby reducing the volatility in the prices.
423 Unified theory of Unemployment , Ratan Kirti
Background: The relationship between labour unemployment in developing economy, Keynesian unemployment and Phillips curve is yet to be completely understood the traditional view completely separates labour unemployment in developing economy from Keynesian unemployment, this paper parts away from this view and seeks to establish a relation between them. Findings: The presence of a trade off between inflation and unemployment in both developed and developing economy is also inquired into in this paper. Most of the economists believe that labour intensive industry is a characteristic of a developing country while capital intensive of a developed, we also inquire into this view.
424 Economic evaluation of Foy’s lake, Chittagong using travel cost method , Kamrul Islam , Sahadeb Chandra Majumder
Background: Economic evaluation of non-market goods is challenging and can’t be calculated using traditional method. In this study, Travel Cost Method (TCM) was used to evaluate the economic value of Foy’s Lake of Chittagong. Methods: A total of 200 respondents from the visitor of this lake were interviewed on the basis of day of visit (week day: 100, weekend: 100) using structured questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS v 20 and R v 3.2.1 Findings: A multiple regression model was developed using the analysis which had a R2 value of 0.084. Family size and Total cost of visitors were found significant with a p-value of 0.05. The estimated value for Foy’s Lake for 2014 was worth 294165270 BDT (Bangladeshi Taka) (or 3792034.49 US $). Applications: By applying the model, derived from this study can be used to assess the economic value by revealed preference method of artificial lakes in this region.
425 Mid day meals and food security among children: Assuring nutritional security of Tamil Nadu , P. Maneesh
Background/Objectives: MDM Programme has opened a new initiative to safeguard children from hunger and to curtail drop-out rate and malnutrition. The study analyse the proposal and progress of MDM scheme in Tamil Nadu. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study is based on secondary data. The data has been collected from the website of Ministry of Human Resource Development. Findings: Tamil Nadu is the pioneering state to implementing a feeding programme to children outside the home. In 2001-02, the nutritious meal scheme for school children aged 5 to 15 years covered 6.46 million beneficiaries in Tamilnadu. But in 2010-11, there were 42, 824 meal centres covering 5.77 million children. The benefits of MDM are not limited to enrolments only. It has significant impact on class room activities, intellectual capacity and social development. Tamil Nadu has also covered high school students under the mid-day meal scheme. The proposal of the scheme is capable of curving malnutrion and ensuring food security of children. The contribution of the state is outstanding and coverage of the scheme across the state is expanding year by year. Application/Improvements: A comprehensive and elaborate mechanism for monitoring and supervision of the MDM Scheme is essential for complete eradication of malnutrition and an emphasis must given for facilitating safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene facilities within the school premises.
426 D-S Gaps, Utilization Pattern and Impact of Institutional Credit to Agriculture in Jammu & Kashmir , S. H. Baba , M. H. Wani , Bilal A. Zargar , Arshad Bhat
Background/Objectives: Resource poor conditions, marginalization of holdings and gradual commercialization of farming needs assessment of D-S scenario, utilization and impact of institutional credit on farm returns under agroclimatic diversities of Jammu and Kashmir. Methods/Statistical analysis: A multi-stage stratified random sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 400 (200 borrowers+200 non-borrowers) respondents, representing each agro-climatic zone to collect primary data to estimate the short term credit requirements and capture the impact of agricultural credit on overall gross farm returns by employing regression analysis technique. Secondary data was also used to supplement the findings. Results: Various institutional agencies involved in advancing agricultural credit have differential role across agroclimatic zones. Financial institutions advanced only 7.61 per cent of total credit requirement in the state which varied across zones. The productive credit utilization ranged between 65 per cent in IMZ and 98 per cent in SBTZ. The unproductive credit use was higher in IMZ (34.7%) followed by TMZ (24.2%) and CAZ (5.9%). The regression estimates for credit were positive and highly significant in all the agro-climatic zones except in IMZ where it was non-significant due to its higher miss-utilization. However, credit indirectly increased returns through capital formation and adoption of technology in all the zones. Educated farmers understood the possible benefits of scientific application in farming business, however, lacked wisdom for its productive utilization. Irrigation influenced returns positively, however, nonadoption of scientific recommendations was demonstrated by the negative coefficient of expenditure on variable costs across the zones. Conclusion: Study highlighted huge D-S gaps in institutional credit to agriculture across different zone. Regression estimates revealed that extension of credit encouraged capital formation, adoption of technologies and increased farm returns.
427 Access to water and drinking water supply coverage: Understanding water security in Kerala , P. Maneesh
Background/Objectives: Water scarcity is the main problems that the world faces today. This study made an enquiry about the accessibility and coverage of drinking water and explores the water security aspect of kerala. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study is based on secondary data. The data were collected from the website of kerala state planning board, department of water supply and sanitation, and Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India. Data are also been collected from other sources such as: journals, newspapers, magazines, thesis and electronic resources. Findings: The state with a lot of rivers and lakes is converted to the drought prone area due to the wreck less sand mining and quarrying mushrooming over the years. As a result, Kerala has witnessed a decline in percapita water availability over the years. The availability of rain, surface and ground water exhibit a declining trend. All the habitations in kerala have achieved water availability of above 40 Litre Per Capita per Day. Access to improved water supply exists, that is at least 40 Litres/capita/day of safe drinking water are provided within a distance of 500 m or 1km of elevation difference. Therefore water scarcity is not a severe problem in kerala, but the declining the quantity of water indicating the forthcoming water crisis. Improvements/Applications: An integrated institutional system for groundwater conservation and recharging measures needs to be promoted to conserve the major source of drinking water.
428 Morphometric and meristic characters of seahorse, Hippocampus kelloggi (Jordan and Snyder, 1902) in Cuddulore, southeast coast of India , R.Balasubramanian
Background/Objectives: Different species of seahorses are harvested and exported on a large-scale in worldwide. Nearly 50 countries are involved in seahorse’s exploitation and trade.The decline of seahorse populations worldwide has therefore been brought to the attention of the international community and leading to their classification as threatened species. The extreme confusion of seahorse taxonomy is an important concern for identification seahorse species. Methods/Statistical analysis: The present study on morphometric and meristic characters of seahorse species was investigated in Cuddalore coast (2000 - 2001) and examined in the laboratory. A total of 123 specimens were collected and they were in the size range from 55 to 299 mm (in standard length). Morphometric measurements were taken using dial calipers with 1 mm accuracy on the right side of the seahorses. Meristic characters of H. kelloggi were counted under a binocular microscope (fin rays and tail rings). Findings: Morphometric characters were compared and analyzed with statistically like head length, trunk length, tail length etc. expressed in terms of their regression on the standard length and its organ itself e.g. the mean percentage of the trunk length 27.8 ± 5.4., the head length the lowest percentage of 19.4 ± 4.2 and the mean percentage of the tail length 52.7 ± 5.4 were recorded in standard length of seahorse, Hippocampus kelloggi. Meristic characters were observed as Tr. R. 11; Ta. L. R. 40-41; D. 18; P. 18-19; A.4: CS, 5, GR.4 (Tr. R – trunk ring, Ta. L. R – tail ring; D – dorsal fin; P – pectoral fin; A- anal fin; CS – crown spine; GR – gill rackers) and sexual dimorphism were revealed. Application/Improvements: Seahorse species are being used as ingredients in traditional medicine, particularly in Southeast Asia where Traditional Chinese Medicine and its derivatives are practiced and have been used Seahorse populations in aquarium keeping. The decline of these species is great concern in the light of global exploitation of seahorses. The taxonomic definition must be established before effective conservation measures can be applied to target organisms. Morphometric and meristic evidences offer the most robust approach to determine taxonomy of seahorse.
429 Horticulture and plantation crops: A unique opportunity for entrepreneurs in Tamil Nadu , P. Maneesh
Background/Objectives: Tamil Nadu has a large potential to invest on agro-based industry, because the state is the largest producer of bananas, flowers, tapioca, the second largest producer of mangoes, natural rubber, coconut, groundnut and the third largest producer of coffee, sapota, tea and sugarcane. This study analyses the potentiality in the production of horticulture crops and also discuss new opportunity for entrepreneurs in agro processing. Methods/Statistical analysis: The present study is entirely relay on secondary data. Data are collected from concerned research articles, Books, Journals, magazines, web sites, various reports and publications relating to horticulture in Tamil Nadu. Findings: The total area covered under horticulture crops in the State moved up from 10.01 lakh hectares in 2011-12 to 10.81 lakh hectares in 2012-13 (8.0%) and would further rise to 11.46 lakh hectares in 2013-14 (6.0%). Fruits, vegetables, spices and condiments and plantation crops together claimed a share of 96.0 percent of the total area covered under horticultural crops. Considering the wide-ranging and large raw material base, the state offers tremendous opportunities for large investments in food processing. Improvements/Applications: The government should continue to support the industry with an enabling and growth oriented policy, through which the state will become largest supplier of processed food in the country.
430 An Investigation into the social sector development and human development linkage in Assam: A District level analysis , Pranjal Protim Buragohain
Background/ Objectives: The most striking feature of development that Assam witnessed in recent years is the disproportionate growth. Some districts are advanced comparatively to the others leading to many problems such as ethnic conflicts, insurgency and identity politics with unbearable negative impacts. This inequality in the level of development is now considered as one of the biggest threat to the level of development of the state. Under this background, in this paper an attempt has been made to study the level of social sector and human development among the districts of Assam. Moreover, it is tried to study the linkage between social sector and human development in the state. Methods/ Statistical analysis: The paper is based on the secondary data. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is used to construct social sector development index and Human Development Index is used to show the level of human development at district level for the state of Assam and consequently districts are ranked. Finally, to test the relationship between social sector development and human development, Spearman’s rank correlation test is conducted. Findings: The present study reveals that both social sector development and human development go hand in hand; and for all-round development priority should be given both on education and health sector in the state. The Social Sector Development Index and Human Development Index both shows that social sector development leads to human development. The districts having high social sector development have high level of human development. However, minor change in the place of ranking among the districts is also observed. Improvements/Application: The government of Assam should give importance on social sector development to create human capital and also to employment generation for raising income so that ultimately goal of Human Development is achieved maximising people’s welfare.
431 Morbidity prevalence: An inter community analysis with special reference to Kannur districts in Kerala , P. T. Jasna  , P. Maneesh
Background/Objectives: The specific objectives of the study are (1) to examine the morbidity pattern; its determinants and how socio-economic factors are affecting morbidity in the urban area, (2) to identify the extent of inter community differences in morbidity prevalence. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study is based on primary data and secondary data. The primary data were collected through a structured schedule and samples are drawn by employing simple random sampling method. Findings: Religion has a significant influence on health condition of the people and morbidity among various religions is different. Chronic and acute illness was high among Christian communities. The joint family system is widely followed by christans. This is one of the reasons for higher morbidity among christans. While analyzing gender wise morbidity prevalence, the prevalence rate of acute illness is high among Males (323.35) and the prevalence rate of chronic illness is high among Females (395.2). The influence of sanitation and water supply to morbidity prevalence is less in the study area. Improvements/Applications: Municipality and panchayath level institutions in every district should provide medical insurance to the people especially for the Christian community. Also provide better medical facilities to the people and improve the working condition of the public health care centers.
432 NRHM Programmes and maternal and child health care service utilization: a study on Kannur District of Kerala , M. Lijina
Background/Objectives: The specific objective of the study is to examine the various services provided through NRHM to maternal and child healthcare and also to check the effectiveness in the provision of these services. Methods/Statistical analysis: The present study is based upon the collection of primary and secondary data. The primary data will be collected through the structural questionnaire by applying random sampling method. The sample size of 25 households will be collected randomly from Kannur district of Kerala. The secondary data will be collected from various data sources related to NRHM. The statistical tools like correlation, regression, simple average, etc. will be used for analyzing the identified variables. Findings: This study concentrates on service delivery and utilization in the maternal and child healthcare level. By approaching the selected samples, it is clear that only some of the NRHM services are familiar to the people and some are not yet reached them. The available services are utilized by them most efficiently. NRHM bridges the gap between demand and supply of healthcare services to women and children and there by enable to attain the target related to maternal and child health in Kerala. Improvements/Applications: Include all people under NRHM, provide proper awareness to people about NRHM, and also provide awareness about ANC and PNC, provide proper incentives to ASHA.
433 Technological interventions for optimum use of resources under pulses production in Karnataka , S. S. Vinayak , B.S.Reddy
Background: India is the largest producer and consumer of pulses in the world. However, demand for pulses exceeded its supply. To meet this situation farmers need to adopt new technology for optimum use of resources. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Kalaburagi district of Karnataka in India is purposively selected for the study wherein NFSM sponsored A3P was implemented during the period of 2010-2014. Finally, 40 farmers of A3P and 20 farmers of Non-A3P farmers of redgram and bengalgram were selected. Total sample size of 180 farmers consisting 120 A3P and 60 Non-A3P farmers. Similarly, 90 farmers of redgram and another 90 of bengalgram cultivars were chosen for the study. The Cobb-Douglas production function was employed for the study. Findings: The production function estimates indicated that output elasticities of land and fertilizers have significant influence on redgram yield in both A3P and Non-A3P farmers, with excessive use of human labour under both farmers. While, output elasticities of land and seeds have significant influence on the bengalgram yield in both A3P and Non-A3P farmers. Majority of the farmers were operating above 80 per cent efficiency levels in both the pulses across the farmers of A3P and Non-A3P mainly due to practice of modern cultivation practices. Further, more than 53 per cent of farmers under redgram and 56 per cent under bengalgram have achieved 100 per cent efficiency level in A3P farmers mainly because of better management practices with intensive use of resources by A3P farmers. Application: Indiscriminate use of inputs like labour, fertilizers, etc. resulted in sizable deviations from the optimum allocation of resources. Therefore, for increasing pulse production farmers should concentrate on reallocation of resources and thereafter consider use of new technologies.
434 Impact of Food Inflation on BPL and APL Household Consumption - A Study in Kannur District, Kerala , P. Maneesh  , Shaharban. V 
Background/Objectives: Growth with stability is essential condition for attaining sustainable economic development. Fluctuations in prices create an atmosphere of uncertainty which is not conducive to developmental activity. The present study investigates the impact of food inflation on household consumption of APL and BPL categories in Kannur district of kerala. Methods/Statistical analysis: The present study is based on primary and secondary data. The secondary data comprises various references which already existed in the published form such as research papers, articles, books and websites relating to food inflations. The primary data were collected from urban households of Kannur district in Kerala, India. A sample size of 50 households has been drawn randomly from the population of Kannur districts i.e. 25 each from APL and BPL category. Henry Garrett ranking techniques was used to evaluate the problem faced by households in food consumption. Findings: The poor, who spend large shares of their income on food, are most adversely affected. Since rising food prices command a larger share of a limited budget, the poor are forced to shift their expenditures to cheaper diets with less proteins and micronutrients. About 72 percent of households have spend more than 50 percent of income on food consumption. 60.4 percentage of households has reduced the consumption of food items from their past consumption level. 58.4 percent of BPL households has reduced the consumption of food items including pulses, egg, meat& fish, cereals, fruits and vegetables. It was only48.67 percent of APL households has reduced the consumption of pulses, egg, meat& fish, cereals, fruits and vegetables. Improvements/Applications: The government must enact a law where by the government get the power to control the price of essential commodities and make it mandatory to publish those prices in the main news papers and other mass medias. To implement policies for promoting agriculture at household level and supply seeds and fertilizers to households at a subsidized rate.
435 An analysis of performance of agro based industries in Kerala with special reference to cashew nut , Prabeena Ambidattu
Background/Objectives: The cashew processing industry plays a significant role in Kerala’s economy in terms of foreign exchange earnings and as an employment. The present study mainly focused on the performance of cashew nut industries in Kerala and also made attempt to understand the reasons behind in the reduction of production and exports in the state. Methods/Statistical analysis: The present study relies entirely on secondary data. Data has been collected from various sources like economic review, sites of KSCDC and journals. Findings: The production and export of cashew nut industries in Kerala exhibits a decreasing trend after 2004. The shifting of cropping pattern to more profitable crops like rubber is the main reason for reduction in cashew production. Improvements/Applications: Essential steps on the part of Government and other private organization has to be needed to the improvement of cashew nut industry in Kerala.
436 Socio-Economic impact of MGNREGA: Evidences from district of Udham Singh Nagar in Uttarakhand, India , Sheela kharkwal, Anil Kumar
Background/Objectives: The present study conducted in the District of Udham Singh Nagar in Uttarakhand, has examined the impact of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) on the socio economic status of participants. Methods/Statistical analysis: The study was based on the information gathered from 80 households of four Gram Panchayats of an average performing block in the district. Twelve socio-economic indicators were evaluated using three point scale to assess the socio-economic impact of the scheme. The average days of employment in MGNREGA scheme observed to decrease slightly from 59.8 days in 2007-08 to 51.9 days in year 2013-14 and significant increase in 2013-14 over 2007-08 was noticed in socio-economic indicators namely, annual per capita food, non food, health and, per child education expenditures. Debts were found to increase along with asset possession though per capita saving declined. The value of socio-economic index indicated that in the initial years of implementation of the programme, about 36 per cent of the beneficiary households were in poor socio-economic strata which decreased to 12 per cent in 2013-14, while beneficiary households in good socio-economic strata increased from 30 per cent to55 per cent. Application/Improvements: Study suggested that implementing agencies should make conscious efforts to increase the person days employment in the area to meet the minimum specified target of employment under MGNREGA and also the scheme should be continued in future and expanded to other regions of the country involving more families under its ambit
437 Food consumption and nutritional intake in rural India: Emerging trends and patterns , K. Antony Akhil, Syam Prasad
Background/Objectives: This paper is concerned with the analysis of food consumption and nutritional intake in major states of India during 1993-94 to 2011-12. As the rural poor are more vulnerable than any stratum of population, their issues of food and nutrition security have been placed one in the policy agenda. Methods/Statistical Analysis: The present study is based upon the collection of secondary data. The secondary data will be gleaned from the reports on consumer expenditure by NSSO. The statistical tools like compound annual growth rate, linear extrapolation method and simple average, etc. will be used for analytical purposes. Findings: The state-wise analysis corroborates that Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and West Bengal lag behind in terms of income growth which can be substantiated by their higher expenditure on food. Though the share of high value commodities has increased, its rate of increase was not sufficient to surrogate for the decline in cereal consumption. Our results do not support the debasement of calorie requirements particularly in rural areas. Application: An understanding of how many numbers or percentages of population are nutritionally deprived will ignite further studies in the area.
438 A Case Study with Overview of Health Insurance Portability in Insurance Sector , Rajesh K. Yadav and Sarvesh Mohania
Health Insurance Portability is a regulation set by IRDA where an individual is allowed to switch between insurers at their own choice without having to worry about their no claim bonus and pre-existing diseases cover. The study aims to highlight the purpose of portability, a system that allows the policyholder to move the policy from one insurance company to another, in case of dissatisfaction with respect to the existing policy or the services or to switch over to an innovative/ another product, which could be available elsewhere in health insurance services. The Indian health insurance market share is a mix of mandatory Social Health Insurance (SHI), voluntary private health insurance, and Community- Based Health Insurance (CBHI). Health insurance is really a small player in the Indian health ecosystem. The study is based on the secondary data collected from IRDA and research papers from various journals. The study concluded that it has been more than 2 years since health insurance portability came into force but due to its complex nature, lack of interest of insurance agents, improper communication and lack of customer’s awareness, it is not that much popular in health insurance services.
439 Sea Trade between Iran and China in the Persian Gulf based on the Excavations of Sīrāf City , H. R. Pashazanous, M. Montazer Zohouri and T. Ahmadi
Sīrāf was an important port in the Late Sassanid era; yet its highest glory and economic prowess occurred in the first Islamic centuries, especially in the tenth century A.D. Among the significant evidences of glory and prosperity of Sīrāf are the discovered coins ranging from Spanish to Indian and even so far as Chinese. These coins were found in archaeological excavations in Sīrāf. Scientific analyses of these archaeological and numismatic find sand the writings of historians on maritime transportation between Iran and China shed light on the widespread relationship between the two nations in the period that covers the late Sassanid era to the end of the tenth century A.D. Due to significance of the a forementioned coins in clarifying Sīrāf’s history and Iran-China relations, therefore, the present article aims to investigate maritime trade between Iran and China via Sīrāf based on the archaeological and numismatic evidence
440 Role of Forestry Extension in Enhancing the Livelihood of a Rural Artisan , V. Irulandi and T. T. Ranganathan
Increasing the forest and vegetation covers could mitigate the global warming and its allied problems. In this study, Bambusa vulgaris raised in 3/4 of an acre of a farm land in Aaarupatti village of Dharmangalam Taluk of Salem District in Tamil Nadu, India mustered profit for a farmer. The trained farmer planted 111 seedlings during 2004 and obtained 1050 culms with the net income of Rs. 52, 500 per annum. This was made possible as the Forestry Extension Centre, Salem District trained the farmer for bamboo cultivation and also educated about its utility value. The case study reported here may serve as a sample where perennial crop like Bamboo, cultivated even in a smaller scale, could fetch profit to a farmer while meeting the requirement of carbon sink. Like Bamboo cultivation and training, many niche areas do exist that should be fully tapped for enhancing green cover but at the same time should bring good economic returns to the farmers
441 Selecting Best Projects based on Fuzzy TOPSIS, Fuzzy ANP and Balanced Scorecard Approaches , Amir Najafi and Eisa Naji 
Excellence model can help the organization move forward in the right direction by providing solutions in the form of improvement projects. Lack of resources prevents organizations from implementing all improvement’s projects simultaneously. Consequently, it seems necessary to make the optimal selection of the improvement projects proposed. According to the studies, unfortunately, there is no appropriate framework for the excellence model to prioritize improvement projects and make the optimal selection according to the organization’s policies and strategies. In this research, a hybrid fuzzy multiple criteria decision making is combined with the balanced scorecard for the optimal selection. Research method is of descriptive and applied type, and field method is used to collect data. The total study population is 30 people. The sample size is equal to the population size. The spatial scope of the research, with a period of 2011 to 2013, is limited to Calcimin Co. whose business is in the field of production of mineral products. The data collection instrument is a researcher-made questionnaire or interview. Data analysis is based on an integrated model of research, and Matlab, and SPSS software were used for the calculations. Based on calculations on the stages of the proposed model, the priority improvement projects and the improvement project of “Create a comprehensive marketing information system in the field of commerce” were selected as the optimal improvement project that had the highest priority for implementation. Results show that the proposed model has a systematic fit with the defined procedures and known inputs.
442 VAR Model and Forecasting of Exchange Rate of Bangladesh , Imam Abu Sayed
Background: Volatility clustering exchange rate of Bangladesh is market driven based on managed float. Besides vector auto regression (VAR) approach is used to determine the exchange rate in order to form rational expectation regarding exchange rate of Bangladesh. Methods: Technical analyses ranging from unit root to VAR have been used to forecast the monthly average exchange rate following new convention. Results: It will help to determine the exchange rate stochastically. Application: SWAP and forward exchange rate will be determined taking into account absolute and comparative advantage and rational expectation.
443 ARIMA Model and Forecasting of Exchange Rate of Bangladesh and Economic Dynamics , Imam Abu Sayed
Background: This paper concentrates technical analysis to address stochastic and deterministic approach to forecast exchange rate of Bangladesh. Methods: Using auto regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. Results: ARIMA model is useful to determine the exchange rate stochastically. Economic dynamics is discussed to achieve technology based higher sustainable GDP growth, which is the base for classical economy and forecasting. ARIMA (1,0,0) is followed for getting forecasted exchange rate with the help of Minitab software. Non seasonality in ARIMA predicted stable exchange rate for next six months (July-December, 2012), which is mostly close to actual rate. Application: This exercise will help to forming rational expectation from quantitative point of view
444 Effects of Structural changes on the intertemporal relationship between Government revenue & Government expenditure: A Case study of Malaysia. , Subrata Saha and Chandan Kumar Mukhopadhyay
Objectives: The relationship between government expenditure & government revenue has been an important topic in public finance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate causal relationship between these two important macroeconomic variables over the period of study 1963-2007 and to examine whether the dataset exhibit any structural breaks during the whole time span and such breaks have an impact on the direction of relationship between government expenditure & government revenue. Methods: The present study involves use of battery of test for stationarity like ADF, PP and KPSS. The Engel-Granger cointegration method is used to test the long-run relationship between the variables concerned. The Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) is applied to examine whether the long-run relationship is stable along with causality test in the short run. Unresticted Vector Autoregressive Model (UVAR) is used for Granger Causality between the variables concerned in the long run. In order to test for a structural break in the data set we use the Chow test. Results: The empirical results suggest that for Malaysia, fiscal neutrality hypothesis exists over the period of study 1963-2007 and government revenue & government expenditure have no long run equilibrium relationship. The dataset exhibits that possible structural changes have been occurred in the year 1983 and 1997 during the whole time span and consequently the relationship between revenue and expenditure has been undergoing a significant changes under different sub-periods i.e 1963-1980 and 1981-1997 & 1998-2007. The statistical results reveal an important fact that unidirectional causality is observed in the short-run during the sub-period 1963-1980. In the longrun during this sub-period, fiscal neutrality principle is observed. During the second sub-period 1981-1997, a long-run relationship exists in Malaysia but no-way causal relationship exists in the short-run during this sub-period. This subperiod 1981-1997 is marked by the presence of unidirectional causality running from expenditure to revenue in the long-run. The sub-period 1998-2007 is witnessed by the presence of unidirectional causality running from expenditure to revenue in the long-run. Conclusion: The estimated causal relationship with historical dataset may not provide reliable guideline for making policy decisions. On the other hand, the estimated causal relationships under different sub-periods may provide reliable guidelines for decision making process.
445 A critical review of planning commission for setting-up a new institution to pack hope of people for developed economy , Ram Prakash , Arti Sharma
Background: This paper discusses about the planning commission and its scrap. It attempts some facts, aspects of planning commission of India for that firstly, it discusses about the role, and its achievements; secondly, it identifies the challenges, and finally it identifies the relationships of planned and actual growth of economy. Method: The study conducted through the secondary data of publications and reports of planning commission. Researcher compare planned growth rate with actual growth rate for reveals gaps. Chi-square test and Pearson correlation (2-tailed) has used for the data analysis. Results: From the analysis, planning commission mustered failure in each plan to estimate growth rate of economy. Policymakers have failed to figure growth rate and control actual growth with their planned rate. Many factors and aspects influenced its functioning. The study also relates expected growth rate with the actual rate of GDP in five years plans. Conclusion: Present planning commission and its functioning are not helpful in economic and structural development of nation. In this view, this paper spins hope of people with new commission, challenges ahead and suggests some remedies & ideas for setting-up a new institution for planning.
446 Determinants of Direct Foreign Investment as a Means of International Market Entry: A Review , Preeti Flora, Gaurav Agrawal
Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is currently used as an important tool in the International Market environment by global investors for entering into an economy. It is also one of the key factors that supports and accelerates economic growth of the host economy. With the growing interest on FDI worldwide in the recent years, the literature on FDI is also expanding in many folds. This review is an attempt to provide an insight into the empirical studies done in the past to analyse and explore the determinants playing a major role in attracting investors. The study infers that there are similarities, dissimilarities, significance, insignificance and ambiguity in explanatory variables that determine FDI inflows.
447 Visual study of type 36 square meters (T.36) by sunlight because of physical changes in the surrounding environment , Hartanto Budiyuwono
Background/Objectives: A study of the residential complex type an area of 36 square meters, become different when growing a multi-storey building, which creates a large barrier wall for buildings beside it. Methods/Statistical analysis: Therefore conducted research with qualitative methods in combination with quantitative methods. That is by measuring the light on the terrace (A), living room (B), family room (C), and a terrace at the back of the house (D). Research on the four types of house 36 square meters. Result: Bright light of 10,000 Lux theoretical from the sky, in front of the building, just reached 13,73% up to 37,15%; On the position of measure D, C, do not meet the requirements of the health of the eyes; Measure B which consists of B1, B2, shows that people build stories building on the west side, room in the building is considered dark; Measurement on the outside terrace (B3) on a clear day, the light inside the building is sufficient for the first, second, and fourth case study; Measurement on the outside terrace (B3) on a cloudy day, the light inside the building doesn’t reach the minimum standard of 200 Lux on the third case study. Conclusion/Application:The conclusion is a reduced intensity of sunlight that affects vision, comfort in the house due to obstructed by terraced houses next to it.
448 Yield Curve of Bangladesh and Burning Economic Issues , Imam Abu Sayed
Background: Yield curve is the combination of interest rates against different maturity of bills and bonds. Weighted average interest rate of accepted bids is used to derive the yield curve. 91-day government treasury bill rate is the reference rate of the economy. Yield curve may be concave, convex or relatively flat depending on the short term and long term interest rates and amount. Interpolation and extrapolation method is used to derive the yield of a particular maturity due to lack of secondary market in Bangladesh. Methods: Summation of all individual auction rates provides shape of the yield curve. Mathematical convention is demonstrated to formulate the price and interest rate of bill and bond. Macroeconomic development is considered to derive the yield curve rates. Amount of liquidity and need of the government and central bank specifically establish the yield rate. Results: It will help to determine the interest rate of the economy impacting the exchange rate, CPI inflation rate and GDP growth. Application: Yield curve rate is used for calculating deposit and lending rates of banks bearing in mind the liquidity position of the economy. It will also help to evaluate the held to maturity (HTM) and held for trade (HFT) securities of the banking and trading book of the banks.
449 Financial inclusion of marginalised key populations in southern India , Parimi Prabhakar , Sangram Kishor Patel, Niranjan Saggurti
Background: Financial inclusions of marginalized key populations (e.g. female sex workers & men who have sex with men) have not been given appropriate attention in the government’s programs in India. This study explores the financial inclusions status and main hindrances for accessing the financial services among key populations in undivided Andhra Pradesh. Data and Methods: Data from a cross-sectional survey- the Behavioural Tracking Survey (BTS) –2014 conducted with key populations (e.g. FSWs (N=2400) and MSM (N=1200)), in undivided Andhra Pradesh state in India was used here. Frequency and bivariate statistical techniques were used here for the analysis. Results: In Andhra Pradesh, just over one-thirds of FSWs and more than half the MSM do not have a bank account.The main reason for not having a bank account is lack of money or having too little money among key populations. A very few had managed to invest in microfinance institutions, global benefits groups/groups saving schemes and health/life insurance policies. Informal institutions are the preferred source for loans among key populations. Conclusion: This study advocates for more support from government, NGOs, international agencies and financial institutions to enhance key populations’ financial sustainability and a comprehensive financial inclusion among key populations.
450 Comparative economic efficiency of modern and traditional redgram processing mills in Karnataka , C. S . Avinash and B. S. Reddy
Background: The study is conducted with keeping the objective of economics efficiency of modernized and traditional redgram processing mills. . Methods: To analyse the objective the business ratios, Break-Even ratio, and financial feasibility ratio like NPV, BCR and IRR techniques are worked out. Result: The benefit cost ratio worked to be 1.13 for modern dal mills and 1.06 for traditional dal mills. The internal rate of returns is very high at 33.22 per cent in modern dal mills compared to traditional dal mills (16.48%). The quantity of output required to achieve break–even point were 10,863 and 9,136 quintals of output (dal) in modern and traditional dal mills respectively and have produced more than the break-even volume of output, indicating both were running under profitable lines. Estimated values of NPV, BCR, IRR and PBP indicated that, irrespective size of the dal mills, investment in redgram milling units was economically feasible and financial sound. The magnitude of financial feasibility analysis indicated the priority to be assigned for investment in modern redgram processing units. Application: The present losses can be minimized by adopting improved machineries and equipments including Buller and Sortex grading machines to increase recovery percentage and produce better quality dal for enjoying larger profit through economics of large scale production
451 Impact of Goods and Service Tax (GST) on economy of India , Dr. Sanjay Kumar Yadav
Objectives: To analyze the impact of GST on the existing indirect tax regime and on the economy of India. Methods: Doctrinal method was adopted to study the objectives of the research. Researcher has made comparative study of various countries who has adopted GST to replace the existing tax regime and its impact on their economy. Researcher has also critically analyzed the first discussion paper on goods and services tax in India released by empowered committee of state finance ministers in the year 2009. Findings: GST will play a major role in the growth of the economy of India. After the enforcement of GST in India, GDP will also grow ranging from 0.9% to 1.7%. GST will not only bring reform in indirect tax regime in India but also play a very important role in the growth of trade, commerce and other sectors in India. With the growth of trade, commerce and manufacture sectors in India will be very helpful in generating the new employments. GST will be very helpful in bringing down the inflation and beneficial to the consumer also. In place of dual GST single national tax is require to introduce in order to bring the nation in single tax regime. In case of high rate of GST, there will be changes occur in the existing indirect tax regime. High rate of GST will be equivalent to the cumulative of existing indirect taxes on the products. Application/Improvements: GST will bring reforms in the indirect tax system and helpful in the growth and development of economy in India.
452 An Analysis of European Commission Administered Country Aid Allocations , Stephen Dearden
Beginning with a review of the general aid allocation literature this paper then focuses upon the European Commission administered aid programmes. Having considered their general trends it turns to a statistical analysis of their possible determinants. It contrasts the outcomes of the EDF, with its close correlation with the UN Human Development Index and ‘development orientation’, with the non-ACP aid allocations.
453 Carbon dioxide land Footprint - A study of Ulli Panchayat village, Gudiyattam block, TamilNadu, India , K.Ananthanarayana,  Dr.S.P.Sekar,  M.Venkatesan
This research uses Ecological Footprint as a tool to assess Carbon dioxide land Footprint of Ulli panchayat village situated in Gudiyattam block, Vellore district of Tamilnadu, India. An attempt was made to use “Bottom-up approach” to generate Carbon dioxide Land Footprint through direct measurement of direct energy and Embodied energy of consumption of Ulli Panchayat village. An assessment of national CO2 land footprint was done to understand variations amongst energy sources and its contribution to emissions. Sub regional studies by using Bottom-up approach of this nature are crucial for spatial planners for future resource planning
454 Regional Industrial Disparities in Haryana, India: A Composite Indices Analysis , Ranjan Aneja
The present paper is an attempt to measure the industrial regional disparities in Haryana over the period of 1990-91 to 2010-11. The extent of inter-districts industrial disparities has been measured by using deprivation method as well as Principal component analysis (PCA) method. The analysis provided interesting insight into the issue. The study found that the regional disparities in the industrial development in the state of Haryana are increasing over time. It is evidenced by increasing value of coefficient of variation of the constructed indices by DIM as well as PCA Method. Further, developed and moderately developed category values of indices indicate that major industrial development in the state is concentrating on or near NH1 or in NCR regions. This proves the unbalanced industrial development in the state and is a serious issue of concern and requires immediate attention of policy makers.
455 Impact of Private Health Insurance on Lengths of Hospitalization and Healthcare Expenditure in India: Evidences from a Quasi-Experiment Study , Sukumar Vellakkal
The health insurers administer retrospectively package rates for various inpatient procedures as a provider payment mechanism to empanelled hospitals in Indian healthcare market. This study analyzed the impact of private health insurance on healthcare utilization in terms of both lengths of hospitalization and per-day hospitalization expenditure in Indian healthcare market where package rates are retrospectively defined as healthcare provider payment mechanism. The claim records of 94443 insured individuals and the hospitalisation data of 32665 uninsured individuals were used. By applying stepwise and propensity score matching method, the sample of uninsured individual was matched with insured and ‘average treatment effect on treated’ (ATT) was estimated. Overall, the strategies of hospitals, insured and insurers for maximizing their utility were competing with each other. However, two aligning co-operative strategies between insurer and hospitals were significant with dominant role of hospitals. The hospitals maximize their utility by providing high cost healthcare in par with pre-defined package rates but align with the interest of insurers by reducing the number (length) of hospitalisation days. The empirical results show that private health insurance coverage leads to i) reduction in length of hospitalization, and ii) increase in per day hospital (health) expenditure. It is necessary to regulate and develop a competent healthcare market in the country with proper monitoring mechanism on healthcare utilization and benchmarks for pricing and provision of healthcare services
456 Claim Settlement of Life Insurance Policies in Insurance Services with Special reference to Life Insurance Corporation of India , Rajesh K. Yadav,  Sarvesh Mohania
LIC of India is still leading life insurance provider. Due to strong management framework of claim settlement and uses of intranet technology, claims settlements are done in proper manner and within said durations. Now days most people are covered under the life insurance and they are also aware of various types of life insurance services. They consider claim settlement process and it ratio while buying any life insurance product. If not aware then employees of LIC of India provides information along with their support at the time of sell and claim settlement, which helps in increasing the sales. Chi-square test is applied in the paper to check the authenticity of data given by respondents. This study is focused on the claim settlement process, quality of services provided by LIC and its impact on the sales of life insurance policies.
457 Participation of Women in MGNREGA: How far is it Successful in Morigaon, Assam? , Utpal Kumar De, Polakshi Bhattacharyya
Progress of a nation is greatly shaped by the status of involvement of women along with their counterpart. Examples of highly developed countries show a gender-wise balanced use of human capital has a significant relation with the level of development. This paper tries to examine the level of participation of women in the much popular Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) activities vis a vis their male counterpart where special provisions are kept for the increased participation of women. It is done with the help of primary survey carried out in Morigaon District of Assam. By using tabular method to compare level of participation of women across communities vis a vis men, we also examined various socio-economic attributes that reflects the primary factors responsible for such gender-wise variation. Also, Probit analysis is followed to find out the role of gender along with other factors in the participation level. The result suggests that participation of women in physical activities and decision making is far from satisfactory except from backward communities who are more involved in physical work. Though education, primary occupation and age have inverse impact on participation in physical activities, education, distance from the panchayat centre has inverse impact on participation in decision making.
458 Effects of Mobile Number Portability in Telecom Sector - A Case Study of Idea Cellular Ltd , Rajesh K. Yadav and Nishant Dabhade
The Indian telecom industry is one of the fastest growing in the world and is projected that India will have ‘billion plus’ mobile users by 2015. This research study pull the attention on mobile number portability with the special consideration given on porting, porting time, porting costs/fee, Customer demographics, customer awareness, Easy entry of new operator, launch of services by new operators, attractive/aggressive tariff plans, innovative services, quality of service, Voice quality, low call drops and state-of-the-art customer service setup etc. Chi square test is applied in the paper to check the authenticity of data given by the respondents. This research aims to figure out the impact of mobile number portability on service providers and service users with the effect on sale of IDEA and strategies adopted to retain and attract customers by IDEA cellular limited.
459 The Role of Environmental graphics in Urban spaces , Hamid Reza Zamani B,  Mohsen Zeinali A, Shahryar Shaghaghi G
This paper is an attempt to present the role of environmental graphics in the outdoor life and it provides general information about the environment and the graphics of that area and it also expresses the existing problems in the society. The main purpose of this paper is to lead city authorities to beautify the city with the easiest method and using fundamental forms, designs and coordinating them all together and the surrounding areas. Besides, the paper aims at analyzing certain problems associated with urban spaces. The beautification effort can elevate social culture in the form of commercial, cultural, and advertising purposes. It also identifies items in urban space like: benches, recycle bins, squares, transportation stations, and monuments and statues as part of improving urban environment and it tries to find a coordination among all possible designs. Environmental graphics is a nascent offshoot of graphics which could offer some solutions for peaceful life in an urban area besides attracting tourism.
460 Impact of Acquisition on Operating Performance in Indian Pharmaceutical Industry , K.Jayakumar
The present study demonstrates the effectiveness of strategies in pharmaceuticals for realizing the desired objectives. The impact of acquisitions on the operating performance, of these firms, with respect to the pre-acquisition and post-acquisition financial ratios is presented
461 A STUDY ON MAPPING OF EMPLOYEES’ COMPETENCY , Krishnaveni.J
This study aims to assess the competency of the employees of Meenakshi Mission Hospital and Research Centre, Madurai, India. It evaluates various aspects of employees’ competency such as ability to mutual relationship, communication, adaptability, leadership and overall task proficiency. This study may help the organization to identify the men of incompetence among the employees, and to take remedial measures to improve their performance.
462 Impact of Quality of Work Life on the Performance of the Employees in IT Organisations , V. Kubendran, Muthukumar.S,  Priyadharshini.M
The Quality of Work Life of an organization can be assessed by opinions of employees on statements regarding quality of work life[QWL] aspects. The aim of this study was to analyze the QWL among employees of different IT companies in Coimbatore region. The sample consists of 132 IT companies employees in Coimbatore. The data collected from the QWL were analyzed through descriptive statistics & correlation and ANOVA. The instrument used for analyzing the QWL is a predetermined structured questionnaire
463 A Study in a Steel Organisation on Employees Absenteeism , M.Prabhu
This study aims to identify factors that result in employees’ absenteeism in an organization, which may help the company manager to develope and identify attitudes of employees for minimising absenteeism. Data was collected from 100 steel manufacturing firm organizations adopting random or chance sampling method. The data was subjected to simple percentage analysis, for demographic variables and chi square test for employee absenteeism. The results indicated the necessity feedback on employees performance. A good interpersonal relationship for the smooth functioning of the organizational activities should be maintained. The gap between absenteeisms should be increased.
464 Workplace Spirituality and Positive Work Attitudes: The Moderating role of Individual Spirituality , Saleheh Piryaei,  Razie Zare
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between workplace spirituality aspects and two positive work attitudes (job satisfaction and organizational commitment) considering the moderating role of individual spirituality. Workplace Spirituality scale (Milliman et. al, 1993), daily spiritual experiences scale, DSES (underwood, 2006), Job in General Scale (JIGS, Ironson, Smith, Brannick, Gibson, & Paul, 1989) and affective commitment scale (Meyer and Allen,1990) were administered to 300 full-time employees working in an industrial company in Iran that were selected by stratified random sampling method. Of this sample 81.81% were men with an average age of 41 years. The data were analyzed applying hierarchical regression analysis. Results indicated that workplace spirituality aspects (meaning in work, community at work and positive organizational purpose) were positively related to job satisfaction and organizational commitment and employee’s individual spirituality can moderate the number of these associations.
465 Humanistic Economics needed to Sustain Society , Shahbaz Ahmad
The current Economics has failed to effectively solve the problems of the human society. An increasing gap between rich and the poor and the usurping of the fruits of development by a few people and countries, bears adequate testimony. The natural ecosystems are being exploited unsustainably and the current consumption of natural resources is exceeding the carrying capacity of the earth. It is time that a human centred and value based economic system is in place so that people are assured of the basic material needs and a dignified life. For this there have to be humanistic interventions by the State. With humanistic regulations of the market, sustainable ecosystems and sustainable societies may exist side by side.
466 Gamma Dose Rate, Annual Effective dose and Collective Effective dose of Food Crops Producing region of Ondo State, Nigeria , T. Ojo, K.A.J Gbadegesin
The activity concentrations have been measured by using a well calibrated high resolution gamma ray spectrometer of natural gamma-emitting radionuclides 238U, 232Th and 40K in soils, taken from 7 sampling sites in Ondo State, southwestern Nigeria. The mean activity concentration values of 39.24±1.12, 52.86±1.40 and 445.02±12.24 Bq kg-1 for 238U, 232Th and 40K respectively were obtained from the atmosphere of the State. Absorbed dose rates in the range of 12.35±0.65 and 179.59±4.1 nGy h-1 with an overall mean value of 67.50±1.86 nGy h-1. The corresponding atmosphere annual effective dose rates were estimated to be between 22.7 and 330.6 μSv y-1 for the area, assuming 30% occupancy factors. The average outdoor annual effective dose rate for most of the towns is 64882.95 μSv y-1 representing 92.65% of the world average value (70000 μSv y-1) given by UNSCEAR. The value of the collective effective dose as calculated from the atmospheric annual effective dose rates was found to be 540858 person-Sv
467 A Comparative Study on Bio Reactors , Kathir.Viswalingam , F. Emerson Solomon and Sharmila
Bioreactors are the heart of fermentation processes and effluent treatment plants. This paper deals with different types of Industrial bioreactors, Applications and merits and demerits of each Bioreactor. This is a first effort on Engineering point of view on Bioreactors
468 Empirical Evidence of Relationship of Features of Firms and Internet-based Financial Reporting , Mohsen Moradi, Morteza Shafiee Sardasht and Nahid big Moradi
Objective – The evolution in communication and the development of global market lead to creation of new financial opportunities in the world. In this study, investigation on the level of information disclosure through Internet, as in the website of listed firms in Tehran stock exchange (TSE) and correlation with the firm’s features such as the industry type, firm size, profit, products’ importance, processes, competition (environmental stress) and electronic communication with clients and beneficiaries has been attempted. Methods/Statistical Analysis – Initially, a check list based on 84 previous researches, was prepared. The required information was collected through the website of listed firms in industries during 15 May to 20 June 2012 and the data recorded and analyzed in Excel spreadsheet, as the dataset. This information along with financial statements of firms, from automotive industries, chemical industries, banks, investment and medicine products, were processed and analyzed using regression model, concomitant with investigating hypotheses. This input data for statistical model was utilized for the research hypotheses. Finally the data was processed using SPSS software. Conclusion/Application – The results show that the studied companies tend to disclose non-financial information rather than financial information. Also there is a significant and positive relationship between firm size and nature of industry with Internet-based financial reporting. In other side there is a significant inverse relationship between profit and competition with Internet-based reporting and there is no significant relationship between the importance of products, services and electronic communication with clients and Internet-based reporting.
469 Empirical Evidence of Relationship of Features of Firms and Internet-based Financial Reporting , Mohsen Moradi, Morteza Shafiee Sardasht and Nahid big Moradi
Objective – The evolution in communication and the development of global market lead to creation of new financial opportunities in the world. In this study, investigation on the level of information disclosure through Internet, as in the website of listed firms in Tehran stock exchange (TSE) and correlation with the firm’s features such as the industry type, firm size, profit, products’ importance, processes, competition (environmental stress) and electronic communication with clients and beneficiaries has been attempted. Methods/Statistical Analysis – Initially, a check list based on 84 previous researches, was prepared. The required information was collected through the website of listed firms in industries during 15 May to 20 June 2012 and the data recorded and analyzed in Excel spreadsheet, as the dataset. This information along with financial statements of firms, from automotive industries, chemical industries, banks, investment and medicine products, were processed and analyzed using regression model, concomitant with investigating hypotheses. This input data for statistical model was utilized for the research hypotheses. Finally the data was processed using SPSS software. Conclusion/Application – The results show that the studied companies tend to disclose non-financial information rather than financial information. Also there is a significant and positive relationship between firm size and nature of industry with Internet-based financial reporting. In other side there is a significant inverse relationship between profit and competition with Internet-based reporting and there is no significant relationship between the importance of products, services and electronic communication with clients and Internet-based reporting
470 Quality Improvement of Public Sector Services by Process Documentation , Masoud Porkiani , Maryam Maleki and Morteza Jamali Paghaleh
Public or governmental organizations are beset by the basic issue of providing an ideal efficient quality and more costeffective services. However, since the public organisation’s activities in are effected within the administrative regulations, the staff of the sector do not seek people’s satisfaction. Nonetheless, most significant techniques organizational processes can be improved via different techniques including continuous improvement, benchmarking, and process reengineering. The basic step to improve such processes is to create a uniform methodology of activities to solve situations. This step is termed Process Documentation. This research attempts to assess the significance and impact of process documentation on promoting the quality of public sector services, with respect to the executive organizations in Zahedan district. The applied\descriptive research approach has been used for all the public sector executive organizations in Zahedan district. The approach taken is of the correlative and population type. 402 cases have been selected simply by means of random sampling while the Spearman Test has been used to evaluate assumptions of the research. The research findings confirm that process documentation has a significant relationship with all dimensions of service quality in public sector
471 Implementation of CAFM for Effective Economic Evaluation , Peter Poór and Nikol Kuchtová
In general, all organizations, whether public or private, use buildings, properties and services (support services) in order to support its core activities. By coordination of these assets and services; use of management skills and incorporation of various changes in environment; Facility Management (FM) affects its ability to act proactively and ensure all its requirements. The aim of FM is to strengthen (in terms of main production flow) boundary processes and systems, to allow workers (with their help) give better performance and contribute to overall success of business organization. Present article deals with economic evaluation of effective CAFM software implementation in manufacturing company
472 Enhancing Financial Statement Audit , Ahmad Feizizadeh and Hamid Azhdari
Financial earnings manipulation reporting has currently attracted attention. This study starts with an introduction and overview on the concept of auditing. Securities and Exchange Board, India [SEBI] functions as the regulatory board of the capital market in India will be detailed. In describing, two main types of discrepancies will be introduced, namely those resulting from defective financial reporting and from abuse or misappropriation of assets. The study also detects some of the main reasons behind the auditors’ failures in detecting defective financial statements. Technically, the main reasons for failures include analytical review application procedures as sufficient audit evidence; deficiencies in audit risk model and risk evaluation as to internal control; audit failure in revenue recognition and the involved party transactions disclosure. The auditors’ main ethical issues, independency and the quantum of non-audit services will be defined. Finally, based on the identified reasons, some solutions are suggested to enhance auditing, in identifying financial discrepancies.
473 Traditional Theatres Genres: Veedhinatakam (Street Theatre) , D. Krushna
India is among the world’s most populous nations inhabiting a vast and contrasting land, with nearly 850 million people bordered on the northeast by the Himalayan mountain range, on the west by the Great Thar Desert and with the southern half of the country a peninsula the Arabian Sea on one side and the Bay of Bengal on the other. Indian civilization has been shaped over time by a multitude of social, political and religious forces because of its strategic location. This in turn, has had a direct bearing on the shape of its theatre. Understanding Indian theatre, it becomes necessary to investigate each stage of its growth separately, beginning from Sanskrit theatre continuing through the forms rural theatre and presently with modern theatre. In Andhra Pradesh, South India, ‘VeedhiNatakam’ was the most popular form of traditional theatre. Artists moved freely among the local populace, wherein they found patronage. Stories performed in ‘Veedhinatakam’ were from the epics and the pureness. Troupes of players performed throughout the state in the open air, usually in village squares or before temples, from November to May. The challenge of Radio, film and television for audiences was overwhelming. Foreign, mainly western, films were extremely popular. Major efforts to protect the Indian Theatre, include provision of local theatre subsidies, constructing national theatre complexes, and establishing training institutions for the next generation performers, should be part of the government development plans. The government, Social and artistic organizations should create awareness, by educating people for preserving and invigorating traditional indigenous theatre, reflecting their cultural legacy.
474 Traditional Theatres Genres: Veedhinatakam (Street Theatre) , D. Krushna
India is among the world’s most populous nations inhabiting a vast and contrasting land, with nearly 850 million people bordered on the northeast by the Himalayan mountain range, on the west by the Great Thar Desert and with the southern half of the country a peninsula the Arabian Sea on one side and the Bay of Bengal on the other. Indian civilization has been shaped over time by a multitude of social, political and religious forces because of its strategic location. This in turn, has had a direct bearing on the shape of its theatre. Understanding Indian theatre, it becomes necessary to investigate each stage of its growth separately, beginning from Sanskrit theatre continuing through the forms rural theatre and presently with modern theatre. In Andhra Pradesh, South India, ‘VeedhiNatakam’ was the most popular form of traditional theatre. Artists moved freely among the local populace, wherein they found patronage. Stories performed in ‘Veedhinatakam’ were from the epics and the pureness. Troupes of players performed throughout the state in the open air, usually in village squares or before temples, from November to May. The challenge of Radio, film and television for audiences was overwhelming. Foreign, mainly western, films were extremely popular. Major efforts to protect the Indian Theatre, include provision of local theatre subsidies, constructing national theatre complexes, and establishing training institutions for the next generation performers, should be part of the government development plans. The government, Social and artistic organizations should create awareness, by educating people for preserving and invigorating traditional indigenous theatre, reflecting their cultural legacy.
475 Socio-economic Implications on Rural Female Work Participation Rate , E. Lokanadha Reddy
The inter-mandal and inter-divisional variations existing in Rural Female Workers Participation Rate [RFWPR] among the different revenue divisions, gave scope for specific factors analysis of determining RFWPR in each revenue division of Chittoor district. There are number of studies on the determinants of rural labour force, each study considering its own explanatory variables to determine the rural labour participation rate. The present study, proposes to establish the relationship between rural female work participation rate and some important variables, influencing the female work participation rate. This study aims to identify and analyze the determinants of Rural Female Work Participation Rate (RFWPR) and its socio-economic implications in three revenue divisions of Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh. For study of the interrelationship between the RFWPR and the selected explanatory variables, five alternative equations have been formulated and studied. For study of the inter-mandal variations in RFWPR, multiple regression analysis is carried out. The step-wise regression analysis is also used to study the impact of economic variables and demographic variables. The estimated regression co-efficients and their standard errors, the multiple correlation co-efficients are also studied. The required data for explanatory and explained variables have been collected from the Census of India 1991: Population Census and also from Handbook of Statistics and other unpublished official records of the Chief Planning Officer, Chittoor. The study revealed that, the influence of Socio-economic variables is more than the influence of demographic variables. The effect of the demographic variables in determining the RFWPR is much less. Among the Socio-economic variables, RMWPR shows significant effect in determining the RFWPR followed by cropping intensity (both positive and negative). The new agricultural technology is not adopted by the cultivators in Chittoor division whereas moderate agricultural technology is adopted in Tirupati division.
476 A Case Study - with Overview of Job Satisfaction , Rajesh K. Yadav and Nishant Dabhade
Job satisfaction plays a vital part in employee’s performance, increasing, morale and productivity. This research study aims to figure out the working environment of BHEL, Bhopal toward employees job satisfaction, initiatives taken by the management and their effect on the performance of employees. Chi square test is applied to check the authenticity of data given by the respondents (300 employees). Findings suggest that factors responsible for job satisfaction have been identified viz.-: supportive colleagues, conducive working conditions, mentally challenging work and equitable rewards.