Investigaciones ANDINA

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The diabetes Mellitus and the obstructive chronic lung disease, EPOC (OCLD), are part of the pathologies that have been classically defined as degenerative and chronic. The mortality in Risaralda reports the OCLD as being systematically among the first three causes of demise in the series since 1997. The tendency is towards the descent, while the mortality due to Diabetes Mellitus seems to have a trend towards the descent, it has presented an increase in the mortality rate during the past year. Even though there is an information system of sicknesses and mortality in the Departmental Secretary of Health of Risaralda, the orientation of promotional health policies is not enough with the information reported by the death certificates, to the point that currently the risk factors of the characteristic people diagnosed with DIABETES and/or EPOC (OCLD) are not know. People registered in the social enterprises of the state in the public net of the state of Risaralda. Methodology: This is a descriptive study, based on the individual records of services rendered RIPS (IRRS) that uses the following instruments as a source: Record of physical activity through the IPAC, cardiovascular risk, cardio-respiratory evaluation, the global recollection of the food of the previous day. A second quality control was carried out with the previously evaluated field records. The data base was created in Epiinfo. The results of the survey related to the nutritional analysis by means of the 24 hour remembrances and frequency of consumption, show, for individuals with Diabetes Mellitus, an average consumption of calories of 1.268 K/cal/day an extremely low register that places the contribution of consumed calories in a percentage of 43.1 in severe deficiency; of 41.6 moderate and of 12.4 in trivial deficiency. Note that neither normal caloric consumption nor excess consumption is reported. For people with EPOC (OCLD), the average of caloric consumption is positioned in 1274 K/cal/day, an equally low register that places the contribution of consumed calories at 39.0% in severe deficiency; 44.7% moderate and 10.6% slight deficiency. The caloric normality as well as the caloric excess does not present consumption.
This present article identifies the application of the Biologal Safety Mesures in the proceedings performed in the Emergency Service of the E.S.E Santa Mónica’s Hospital in Dosquebradas by nursing auxiliary personnel between June and August 5 of 2005. By observing the nursing personnel the following results were obtained. 30% of the personal do not use the biological safety smock, nor do they handle contaminated clothing in a proper manner. 40% do not wast their hands before, during or after administering medications. 20% do not handle syringes properly. 40% do not follow the proper proceedings in handling the equipment for oxygen therapy. Based on the result obtained a pamphlet has been designed and an educational program was performed with the personnel that had been evaluated. There was also a follow up to the emergency service activities.
The internal demand for fruit has increased during the last decade, this behavior is associated with different factors such as the expansion of the urban processes, the knowledge about the characteristics and benefits of these products, the technological development, the improvements in communications, the agro-industrial development which has provided the possibility of using fruit as one of the principal components of different products (juices, nectar, pulps, marmalades, desserts, pickles, associated with an adequate technological offer, which allows a great diversity regarding the different presentations of the product1 fruit, a fundamental food concerning nourishment, is becoming more important day by day, as a consequence of its beneficial nutritious value, richness in minerals and vitamins, abundant fiber and P.H. of 5-7, very favorable to the growth of numerous microbial species, qualities which are considered very beneficial in a nutritious and healthy diet and also to complete, in many cases, treatments of many pathological processes, currently so important as obesity and hyper lipids, diabetes, cardiovascular upsetting, transit difficulties and intestinal diverticulosis, rectum and colon tumors hyper uric and gout, cataracts and macula degenerations, etc. In general, consumers look for good quality, mainly associated with the consumption of innocuous food that will allow the organism to function well. But this quality is affected by diverse micro-organisms (molds or fungi, yeasts and bacteria) that cause considerable harmful effects in the food, in its development, as well as in its storage. The presence of micro-organisms in the food gives, as a result, changes that reduce it and spoil it, altering the nutritional qualities and taste, and in some cases, due to the presence of microorganisms, the food might become toxic to humans and animals1. An important vegetal pathogen that causes considerable economic losses in the crops of a great variety of fruit, such as, papaya, varieties of citrics, avocado, coffee, mango, grape, guanabana (soursoup), tomato, strawberry, is the colletotrichum gloesporioides a deuteromycota that can attack the root, stem, leaves, flowers, fruit; causing the disease called “quiescent disease” or “latent disease” anthracnose, infections that appear in early stages of the development of the fruit, as well as in the periods near ripening time3. It is of great importance to know about the fungus c. gloesporioides, its morphology, life cycle, the inter – action mechanisms fungus pathogen and the associated molecular events, not only for the after crop management of the fruit affected by this fungus, towards control in the quality of the food, but also for knowledge of human pathologies associated with colletotrichum spp.
4 Condiciones de salud y laborales de la población trabajadora informal en situación de desplazamiento de Bucaramanga, Colombia, Claudia Patricia Ardila Jaimes Reynaldo Mauricio Rodríguez Amaya
Introduction: informal work has become the livelihood of the people living in displacement in the country, the fact that many do not have quality coverage within the health system and not within the system of occupational risks, leads to lack of detection, analysis and control of risk in both physical, mental and labor, making them more vulnerable and reducing their quality of life. Methods: we performed a cross-sectional study, where the target population were persons forcibly displaced, over 18 years of age of Bucaramanga. The sample size was 741 people surveyed, the rate was non-probability sampling. Participants answered a validated instrument intended to measure socio-demographic variables, socioeconomic, health and labor. Results: in the sample female gender predominated with 64% on education, 31% have not completed primary school. The biggest reason to be moved is the violence factor with 94%. In health, 32% are overweight and 12% obese. In health perception, almost 20% rate it as very good or excellent and 38.6% perceive it as fair. In toxic habits, 30% are current or former smokers and 32% reported drinking alcohol. On labor issues, the sector where most works was trade (39%) and services (37%). Occupational safety, 12% had at least one accident in the 12 months preceding the survey, 53% perceive their workplace as unsafe and 80% do not have supplies of personal protective equipment. Conclusions: informal working population displaced from Bucaramanga, is a young adult population mostly women with limited health conditions and poor working conditions, where urgently requires improvement strategies that provide guarantees to reduce their vulnerability
5 Conocimientos sobre VIH y comportamientos en Salud Sexual y Reproductiva en una comunidad indígena de Antioquia, Renato Zambrano Diana Castro Mauricio Lozano Natalia Gómez Carlos Rojas
Background: in Colombia there are 87 different indigenous groups which represent 3.4% of the country’s population and there is limited knowledge in this population about the presence of HIV, other STDs and in general about Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH). Also, because of the poverty, marginalization and acculturation in which indigenous people live in Colombia, it is very important to investigate and intervene this reality. The Objective of this study was to identify and measure knowledge and risk behaviors about HIV and SRH n an indigenous reservation in the Antioquia department during 2012. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 43 residents older than 15 years of age were asked about their HIV knowledge, risk behaviorsand general knowledge about SRH. The project was approved by community leaders and a research ethics committee. Data analysis included simple frequency distributions and a comparison of participant’sknowledge according to their history of previous SRH education. Results: most people had not heard before about HIV or AIDS and have little knowledge about the mechanisms of virus transmission. On the other hand, most people accept and had previous experience with differentbirth control methods, condom use was low. Conclusions: the low levels of knowledge and development of educational programs about SRHin this and other indigenous communities in Colombia, increase the risk of indigenous people for HIV and other STDs. This is a reality that deserves careful attention from the perspective of HIV prevention and health promotion.
6 Factores de riesgo asociados a bajo rendimiento académico en escolares de Bogotá, Carolina Lucero Enríquez Guerrero, Ángela María Segura Cardona, José Rafael Tovar Cuevas
Objective: to determine the risk factors associated with low academic performance among scholars attending two public schools in Bogotá. Methodology: a cross-sectional study, developed in two phases: A descriptive one, characterizing the population; and an analytic one, which included a bivariate analysis and a regression logistic model to identify associations between risk factors and low academic performance. Mathematics was the field of study used as parameter of evaluation. Results: a total of 601 of students aged 5 to 15 years old attending 1st - 5th grades were included in the study. Of these 97.6% belonged to low socioeconomic strata and 80.5% had health care insurance. 26.5% had low academic performance. The variables associated with low performance after controlling, for other factors included in the model were: child abuse, illness in the previous fifteen days, absenteeism and/or disciplinary problems and having two or more siblings.
7 Capacidad de autocuidado en pacientes diabéticos que asisten a consulta externa. Sincelejo, Colombia, Astrid Contreras Orozco; Adriana Contreras Machado; Candelaria Hernández Bohórquez; María Teresa Castro Balmaceda; Linda Lucía Navarro Palmett
Introduction: the main goal of this study was to determinate the self-care capacity of diabetic patients attending the external consultation of a Public Health-care provider Institution of Sincelejo. Methods: this was a descriptive cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 27 patients selected by a simple random sampling. It was applied the Appraisal of Self-care Agency Scale which includes four categories: very low, low, regular and good self-care capacity. Results: the age of the patients ranged from 45 to 75 years, 81.48% of them dedicates to household work and informal jobs. The 88.9% was in the regular category of self-care capacity, with a predominance of the latter in each of the dimensions, with means between 2.70 to 3.33, and was found marked deficiencies in the areas of activity and rest, personal welfare and modification of feeding habits. Conclusions: difficulties were evident in aspects related to social support, personal welfare, exercise, educational support, food consumption and facing of problematic situations; so it is necessary to implement integral care models to improve the health staff interaction with patients and strengthen the self-care capacity.
8 Creación de una matriz orgánica como componente estructural de una biocerámica de fosfato tricálcico colombiano, María Chitiva; Sergio Sánchez; Giovanni Correa; María Tovar, Jesús Daza
Objective: to compare microstructures of tricalcium phosphate matrices in Colombia (FTCC) using albumin, collagen, polyvinyl alcohol and varying pressure and temperature, electron microscopy confirmed scaninng (SEM). Materials and methods: we used to ABASQUIM FTCC1 FTCC2 LTDA and EMU, mixed with different pore forming agents hydrated with 0.9% saline, distilled water subjected to 8 Tons, 1200 ° C, observed at (SEM). Results: collagen and albumin, non-formed matrix, the macro-formed PVA microporosity, the junction FTCC1 molecular clusters formed between particles, defined crystallization systems with chemical interconnections, a porosity of 10 microns, the matrices were found FTCC2 morphology flatter, strong intermolecular bonds, microporous 3?m. Conclusions: the stability of interconnections improves the mechanical properties by chemical association between the particles and the polyol FTCC mediated by elevated temperature and pressure, the regularity of the pore space is released by melting the PVA.
9 Diagnóstico de la deficiencia de hidroxi-acil CoA deshidrogenasa de cadena larga, mediante la incubación de fibroblastos con ácido [9,10)(n)-3h] palmítico y ácido [9,10)(n)-3h] mirístico, José Henry Osorio
Introduction: long-chain hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency, is an autosomal recessive metabolic disease, characterised by acidosis, hypoglycaemia, cardiomyopathy, liver damage, and rhabdomyolysis. Objective: to analyse the oxidation rate of tritiated substrates in fibroblasts of patients suffering the deficiency and controls. Methods: fibroblasts from patients and controls were incubated with [3H]-palmitate and [3H]-miristate and the oxidation of these substrates were measured in nmol/ hour/mg protein. Results: it was found depressed oxidation of tritiated substrates in fibroblasts from patients suffering the deficiency, with a oxidation rate of 43% and 48% for palmitate and miristate respectively. Conclusion: this modified technique enables us the in vitro diagnosis or long-chain hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.
10 Los perjuicios derivados del incumplimiento del deber de solicitar el consentimiento informado al paciente, Luis Felipe Giraldo Gómez
Informed consent as an essential element of the medical act has involved an evolution over time in terms of the conception of the doctor-patient relationship, to the point of generating discussion within bioethics between paternalism and autonomy, regarding recognition or not, of the patient’s right to decide over her own body and his destiny. In addition to this discussion, is now added from the scope of civil liability, the anxiety of knowing what kind of damage they cause to the patient and should be compensated for the professional when it fails to comply with this duty, for which we propose in this article, is to make some a brief reflections on the way in practice Colombian jurisprudence, analyzed and studied the issue of the nature of the harm to the patient that are generated in such events.
11 Hemoglobinuria Paroxística Nocturna: reporte de un caso , Álvaro Mondragón-Cardona, Johana Rojas-Mirquez, Carlos Eduardo Jiménez-Canizales, Héctor Jairo Umaña-Giraldo
The Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria is an infrequent cause of pancytopenia; although it has an approximate incidence of 1/100.000 people, it always should to be taken into account due the possible consequences in a patient’s health. PNH could be fatal in some patients. This case is a 26 years old man that has been having for the last three years on and off symptoms like dyspnea, fever, asthenia, abdominal pain, gingival hemorrhage, epistaxis, hypercolored urine intermittently.In the physical exam we have a pale patient, slightly jaundiced and with petechiae. The patient has been going to the doctor’s office for the last three years with similar concerns, accompanied with infectious episodes. The last episode, the patient presented with an hemoglobin of 4,7 g/dL, a hematocrit of 14%, leucocytes of 200 x mm3, platelets of 1000 x mm3, reticulocytes of 4%, and a negative Coombs test. The principal cause of pancytopenia in PNH is the sensitivity of the blood cells to complement that cause cell lysis. This pathology has different forms of presentation: One of the forms presents with signs of hemolysis and bone marrow failure. This pathology has a variable course with constant exacerbations and remissions, or causing death little time after the diagnosis depending on the number of affected cells. The diagnosis is made with the Ham test, the saccharose test or flow cytometry. Because of the history of frequent infections, hemorrhages, petechiae and the laboratory results, he is taken as a patient with a possible bone marrow failure. Recommendations are made for his possible diagnosis of PNH and a Ham test is ordered.
12 Evaluación de la distribución de los criterios diagnósticos para síndrome metabólico, en Pereira, Colombia, Oscar Alonso Pinzón Duque, Julio César Sánchez Naranjo, Juan Carlos Sepúlveda Arias, María Elena Rivera Salazar
Introduction: the metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of multiple cardiovascular risk factors which has become epidemic around the world. Objective: compare the currently accepted MS diagnosis criteria among patients with MS (SM), first-degree healthy relatives (FS) and healthy controls (S) in the city of Pereira (Colombia). Methods: this was a cross-sectional study in which 116 persons were evaluated for blood chemistry, waist circumference and blood pressure. Results: population was classified as SM (n=53), FS (n=36) and S (n=27) groups. The most prevalent criterion was waist circumference (96.2%) for SM and FS (38.8%) groups, but for S was HDLc (25.9%). The waist circumference difference between FS (38.8%) and S (14.8%) groups was significant (0.24, CI 95% 0.04 to 0.44). Conclusion: this study found that waist circumference criterion could be used for early detection of people at risk for developing MS.
13 Climaterio: oleadas de calor y otros síntomas en indígenas Zenúes colombianas , Liezel Ulloque Caamaño, Sol María Carriazo Julio, Álvaro Monterrosa Castro, Ángel Paternina Caicedo
Introduction: hot flashes (HF) are an important clue with different prevalence by ethnicity, menopausal status. The aim of our research was to evaluate the frequency and severity of HF, and estimate the risk of symptomatic women other menopausal symptoms attendant. Method: cross-sectional study as part of the CAVIMEC (Quality of Life Menopause and Colombian Ethnic groups), performed with the scale ‘Menopause Rating Scale’ in Colombian Zenues indigenous shelter of San Andrés de Sotavento, (Cordoba, Colombia), aged between 40 and 59 years. The analysis of the results was performed using Epi-info. 3.5.1 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA, 2008). Results: 596 (86.0%) of the 693 involved had HF and only 1% had severe manifestation. Symptomatic women were 51.2 ± 5.7 years, education 4.6 ± 4.6 years, 88.4% with 98.2% couples with Children, and 14.9% used hormone therapy. 4.5% premenopausal, 12.6% perimenopausal and postmenopausal 62.9%. HF prevalence moderate + severe increased with changes in the menopausal state. Risk factors were low education and age older than 45 years. Vaginal dryness, bladder and sexual problems were presented concomitantly elevated HFor an adjusted model. Conclusion: the presence of HF was elevated in Zenues but low presence of severe symptoms. Urogenital symptoms had concomitant significant presence.
14 Caracterización del gen de la dopamina ?-hidroxilasa en población mestiza colombiana, Carlos A Isaza Mejía, Julieta Henao Bonilla, Sandra Valencia Castillo, Leonardo Beltrán Angarita, Ana M Sepúlveda Calvo
Introduction: dopamine ?-hidroxylase catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine and it is a promising target for pharmacological inventions. D?H gene polymorphisms are responsible for individual differences in dopaminergic and adrenergic tone of the central and autonomic nervous systems. Since defective enzyme mutations and their frequencies vary among ethnic groups, it is justify the studies leading to the genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the enzyme in Colombian mestizos. Methods: we determined the frequencies of the alleles -2073C>T, -970C>T, 444A>G and 1603C>T D?H gene in 143 healthy adults, mestizo features, both sexes and nonconsanguineous. PCR-real time and minisequencing (SnaPshot) tecnhiques were used for the genotyping. Results: the frequencies of polymorphic genotypes were: -2073C>T (CC 61,5%, CT 32,9%, TT 5,6%), -970C>T (CC 49,6%, CT 43,4, TT 7%) and 444A>G (AA 42%, AG 41,2%, GG 16,8%).The three alleles are in linkage disequilibrium (D´=1) but they do not replace each other (r2
15 Evaluación de la respuesta y seguridad a diferentes esquemas de tratamiento antirretroviral en Colombia , Jorge Enrique Machado Alba, Xavier Vidal Guitart
Introduction: estimate variables associated with treatment failure, treatment adherence, schema change and adverse reactions associated with the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Methods: cross-sectional study conducted in a population of patients with HIV/ AIDS antiretroviral treatment in 19 cities of Colombia affiliates at Social Security System in Health. We assessed socio-demographic variables, treatment regimens, and time from start of therapy and schema change, report non-adherence, treatment failure and adverse reactions. Were used bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results: we found 510 patients, antiretroviral therapy was modified to the first scheme in 56.4% of cases, nonadherence in 38.8%, treatment failure in 26.5% of patients, and the most common adverse reactions were: dyslipidemia (14.9%), gastric intolerance (9.2%) and anaemia (7.1%). The treatment regimen Lamivudine / Zidovudine + Efavirenz was associated with lower risk of schema change (p
16 Concordancia de tres métodos para la determinación de la hemoglobina en donantes de un banco de sangre de Medellín, Colombia – 2012, Carmen Yulieth Mantilla Gutiérrez, Rocío Pérez Escobar, Jaiberth Antonio Cardona Arias
Introduction: hemoglobin quantification is fundamental in the selection of blood donors, but has reported varying results depending on the methodology used for its determination. Methods: cross-sectional study. Hemoglobin was quantitated in 70 donors by the Sysmex XE2100 and Compolab. We also determined reticulocyte hemoglobin, We surveyed about smoking and physical activity. The correlation between parameters was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient. Data were analyzed in SPSS Results: the mature erythrocyte hemoglobin was statistically higher in men and in smokers. There were no differences by age group and physical activity. There was good agreement between the results of Compolab and Sysmex. There was a low intraclass correlation coefficient between reticulocyte hemoglobin and mature erythrocyte hemoglobin. Conclusions: the donor selection may be based on hemoglobin given by hemoglobinometer whose quantifications are interchangeable with the Sysmex XE2100.
17 Actividad antibacteriana de los aceites obtenidos de Ocimum basilicum L. var. cinammom, O. album, O. thyrsiflorum, para uso potencial en fitocosmética, Martha Cecilia Beltrán Cifuentes, María Pía Cantillo Maldonado, Andrea Maritza Vivas Castaño
Introduction: the species Ocimum basilicum L., in the varieties: cinammom, album, thyrsiflorum have been reported by GC-MS by their high content of oxygenated monoterpenes and phenylpropans as: p-eugenol, E-Z methyl cinnamate, eucalyptol and linalool. Pharmacognosis studies indicate that these compounds are characterized by antimicrobial activities. Methods: essential oils (EOs) were obtained by distillation Clevenger-type steam stripping, dried with sodium sulfate anhydrous, and hermetically preserved under refrigeration. The antimicrobial activity of the EO was performed by the broth dilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) from fold serial dilutions in a concentration range from 3,12 to 0,1%, and these concentrations were faced with Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium. Results: essential oils (EOs) of the species Ocimum basilicum L. var. cinammom showed inhibitory activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, but not against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the results showed the same percentage for the concentration of EO as a MBC and MIC. The EOs of the species Ocimum basilicum L. var. album and Ocimum basilicum L. var. thyrsiflorum showed inhibitory activity at the same concentrations of OEs against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, both varieties showed the same MIC and MBC against E. coli. Conclusion: these results obtained demonstrate the ability of OEs to inhibit the growth of certain pathogen microorganisms, which allows considering it as a potential source of phytocosmetics field, which has been reported for use in the manufacture of products for the treatment of acne, manufacture of shampoo, toners and masks.
18 Calidad de vida en pacientes en tratamiento de cáncer de mama, Pereira, Colombia 2010, Claudia Lorena Marín Kelso; Dayron Fernando Martínez Pulgarín; Felipe Vera Polanía; Silvio Echeverri Rendón; Diana Marcela Muñoz Urbano; Karen Quelal Achinchoy; Diana Marcela Sánchez Castaño; Silvia Fernanda Urbano Garzón
Introduction: breast cancer diagnosis and treatment are stressing occurrences that generate psychopathological difficulties in patients and a detriment in their quality of life. Methods: a cross-sectional study was performed in 58 women ages 35 to 65 who were diagnosed with breast cancer.The women received treatment at “Oncologos de Occidente S.A” in Pereira. The information was gathered using a survey that asked about: physical and psychological health, social relations and sexual behavior. Data was tabulated using “Microsoft Excel 2007” and analyzed with “SPSS version 17.0.” Frequency distributions, univariate and bivariate analysis for demographic variables were performed; hypothesis testing was done over the mean score obtained in the tests. The questionnaire was validated through a pilot test and the analysis of its internal reliability when including or not the question about sexual activity (Chrombach’s alpha= 0.703 and 0.77 respectively). Results: most of the women reported their quality of life as “good” (T = 24.9 and statistical significance
19 Resultados de la capacitación a cuidadores de Adultos Mayores en el Departamento de Risaralda 2011 (Colombia), Eliana Agudelo Garcia, Martha Luisa Ríos Idárraga, Martha Elena González Pardo, Erica Yuliana Rivera Ramírez, Héctor Fabio Vélez Bedoya
Introduction: we present the results of the training provided to caregivers of older adults in the department of Risaralda 2011. Methods: a qualitative approach evaluation. In total 121 direct and indirect caregivers of the 15 Elderly Welfare Centers (EWC) of the 14 municipalities of Risaralda, with government support. 22 focus groups were organized. The information was recorded, transcribed, coded and categorized. Results: caregivers showed motivation and interest in learning new ways to meet the needs of the institutionalized elderly. The relevant three categories of analysis was company, physical activity and protection. Conclusion: the educational inte rvention reflects the contribution and interest of directors, employees and volunteers caregivers of the EWC in improving quality of life of older adults.
20 Seguimiento a variables fisiológicas de donantes de sangre que presentaron Reacciones Adversas a la Donación. Fundación Hematológica Colombia , Harold Fabián Cruz Bermúdez, Jorge Enrique Moreno Collazos, Luz Dary Ramírez, Angélica Patiño Pedraza, Magaly Delgado, Mónica Patricia Restrepo Sierra
Introduction: adverse vasovagal reactions are an unexpected process that affects donor’s ´perception; in this the physiological variables become an evaluation tool of their health state. Method: a cross-sectional retrospective and inferential study was made in Fundación Hematológica Colombia. Results: the study population was formed by 627 adverse vasovagal records, in which 65.9% (n=413) were females, the average age was 27,4 years, the average weight of the population was 62,4 kilograms, the moderate reaction was the most predominant with 49,2%. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure suffered significant changes during the monitoring (p=0,000) in the three types of reactions.
21 Consumo y dependencia a nicotina, alcohol y otras drogas, en docentes de una universidad de Medellín, Colombia, Andrés Felipe Tirado Otálvaro, Juan David Velásquez-Tirado, Alberto Rafael Vargas García, Jaime Horacio Toro Ocampo
Introduction: while use and alcohol, nicotine and drug dependence have increased in the world, this issue has not been studied in faculty members. Methods: cross-sectional study that determined the frequency, reasons of use, and nicotine, alcohol and drug dependence, in faculty members at a university of Medellin. CAGE, Fagerstrom and DUSI tests were applied to 338 teachers. Results: median age was 39 years. Lifetime frequency of alcohol use was 92,3%, nicotine 45,9% and other drugs 26,3%. The most commonly used drug was marijuana (21,0%). 0,9% had a risk of alcohol dependence, 0,64% were highly dependent on nicotine and only one teacher had a high risk of drug dependence. Conclusion: although use of alcohol, nicotine and other drugs was higher than Colombian population, the risk of dependence on these substances was low.
22 Consumo y dependencia a nicotina, alcohol y otras drogas, en docentes de una universidad de Medellín, Colombia, Andrés Felipe Tirado Otálvaro, Juan David Velásquez-Tirado, Alberto Rafael Vargas García, Jaime Horacio Toro Ocampo
Introduction: while use and alcohol, nicotine and drug dependence have increased in the world, this issue has not been studied in faculty members. Methods: cross-sectional study that determined the frequency, reasons of use, and nicotine, alcohol and drug dependence, in faculty members at a university of Medellin. CAGE, Fagerstrom and DUSI tests were applied to 338 teachers. Results: median age was 39 years. Lifetime frequency of alcohol use was 92,3%, nicotine 45,9% and other drugs 26,3%. The most commonly used drug was marijuana (21,0%). 0,9% had a risk of alcohol dependence, 0,64% were highly dependent on nicotine and only one teacher had a high risk of drug dependence. Conclusion: although use of alcohol, nicotine and other drugs was higher than Colombian population, the risk of dependence on these substances was low.
23 Consistencia interna y estructura interna del cuestionario AUDIT en amerindios , Alix Lorena Medina, Nadia Milena Arévalo, Sandra Dolores Beltrán, Yuri Lizeth Chavarro, Edwin Herazo, Adalberto Campo-Arias
Objective: to establish the internal consistency and dimensionality of the AUDIT among Colombian native Amerindians dwelling in Bogotá, Colombia. Method: a validation study was carried out. A total of 184 Amerindians, 99 men and 85 women. The mean of age was 32.0 years (SD=14.0), and mean of formal scholarship, 6.1 years (SD=3.7). The correlations between items and total score, internal consistency (Cronbach alpha and McDonald omega), and dimensionality (factor structure) were computed. Results: the correlations between items and total score were between 0.368 and 0.788. The AUDIT showed Cronbach alpha of 0.879, McDonald omega of 0.886, and one-dimensional structure that accounted for 50.6% of the total variance. Conclusions: the AUDIT shows excellent internal consistency and one-dimension structure among Amerindians dwelling in Bogota, Colombia.
24 Validez de los cuestionarios de expectativas hacia el consumo de alcohol, Karina Conde, Aldana Lichtenberger, Raquel I. Peltzer
Introduction: as the alcohol expectancies could predict alcohol consumption, the aim of this study is to summarize available information on the alcohol expectancies questionnaires and their validity. Methods: we performed searches in PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO, LILACS and SciELOdatabases, and we selected studies about validity of the questionnaires. The material quality was assessed using the CASP guide and data synthesis was qualitative. Results: we found 133 references, 56 were repeated, 52 were not on the subject oraim, and we added 7 from other sources. We found 16 instruments with good reliability and validity indicators, some of which were used effectively to predict alcohol consumption. Conclusion: the alcohol expectancies questionnaires could be ausefultool for clinical, evaluation, screening and research.
25 Cumplimiento de la normatividad en la publicidad de medicamentos de venta libre en Colombia, Daniel Pino, Jorge Bedoya, Mauricio Correa, Pedro Amariles
Introduction: in Colombia, information about the compliance in the rules of advertising OTC drugs are limited. Objective: to establish the compliance of television advertising of OTC medicines in Colombia. Methods: in July 2012, the transfer of 2 national channels (Caracol and RCN) and 1 regional (Teleantioquia) was recorded, simultaneously, between 6:00 and 22:00 hours for two days a week and 2 day weekend or holiday, probabilistically selected using the Epi-info program V. 6.0. Results: In the national channels, of 378 ads (54 drugs), 31 (8.2%) of 3 drugs did not comply with regulation. Meanwhile, in regional channel, although there were 7 ads of 5 pharmaceutical products, advertising of OTC medications where not identified. Conclusion: in a little percentage (8%), television Ads OTC medicines on national channels do not meet current normative.
26 Frecuencia de potenciales interacciones medicamentosas entre antirretrovirales y otros grupos farmacológicos en pacientes colombianos, Jorge Enrique Machado Alba, Cristhian David Morales Plaza, Valentina Hoyos Soto
Objectiv: determine the prevalence of potential risk drug interactions between antiretroviral and other drugs in Colombian patients with HIV/AIDS. Materials and methods: cross-sectional study who took the prescription drugs a population database of 6.2 million users from May 1 to July 31, 2012. To identify potential interactions, we sought dispensing antiretrovirals: Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors, Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors of Reverse Transcriptase (NNRTIs), Protease Inhibitors (PIs), integrase inhibitors, CCR5 antagonists and fusion inhibitors with other risk drugs because their ineffectiveness or toxicity. Analysis by SPSS 21.0. Results: 968 patients were obtained, mostly men (n = 844, 87.2%), mean age 41.6±10.5 years (range: 3-75 years) and male:female ratio of 5.8:1, from 25 cities. In total we found 49 associations of risk; the IPs being involved in 40 cases. The most common interaction was between IPs and statins (OR: 29.5, 95%CI:14,837-58, 785, p
27 Niveles de citoquinas en suero de adictos a heroína bajo consumo activo o en terapia de mantenimiento con metadona y controles sanos en Pereira (Colombia), Carlos Alberto Isaza, Juan Carlos Sepúlveda Arias, Juan Pablo Vélez, Sandra Yolanda Valencia, Juan Camilo Restrepo
Introduction: methadone constitutes the standard therapy for the management of heroin addiction. During the rehabilitation, patients improve their health status and seem to become immunocompetent, a fact attributed to the decrease in risk practices, better nutrition and the cessation of heroin consumption, whose immunosuppressive effects are known. However, since methadone is also a glutamate antagonist, it might have an additional immunostimulant activity. Aim: to compare serum levels of the cytokines TNF-?, IFN-? and IL-10 between heroin addicts under active consumption (CA=32), addicts under methadone maintenance therapy (Met=20) and healthy controls without history of addiction (Cont=20). Materials and methods: seventy two individuals from both sexes, under 18 yearsold, without any recent infection or a positive HIV, hepatitis B or hepatitis C test, were included in the study. None of the subjects were taking drugs with effects on the immune system. Results: there were no differences between the groups in terms of gender (91,7 % men), age (25,2 ± 8 years) and time of heroin abuse (5,3 ± 2,9 years). All the addicts reported the use of other illicit drugs such as marijuana (96%), cocaine/bazuco (79%) and other psychoactive drugs (52%). In the Met group, none of the individuals reported the use of cocaine/bazuco but most of them kept on consuming marijuana. Significant differences in the TNF-? (p=0.0004), IFN-? (p=0.014) and IL-10 (p=0.0001) levels between the studied groups were found; these differences persist when we compared addicts and control individuals. Conclusion: a differential pattern of cytokine production in the sera of addicts and healthy individuals was found, however, a clear pattern of immune response induced by the methadone treatment could not be determined.
28 Indicadores y condiciones de salud en un grupo de trabajadores informales ‘venteros’ del centro de Medellín (Colombia) 2008 – 2009, María Osley Garzón Duque, Rubén Darío Gómez Arias, Fabio León Rodríguez Ospina
Introduction: indicators of self-perception and socio-demographic, occupational and family conditions of informal workers “innkeepers”. Methods: cross sectional study on a sample of 170 “innkeepers” in 2009 whith an individual interview. Results: predominated males (65%), those over 35 years (85%), 88% of interviewed were heads of households, belonged to the poorest strata 1 and 2; their educational level was low (5 ± 3,3 years); the weekly number of hours of work was between 60 and 119, seniority in the office of innkeeper was high (M = 18.5); and the men perceived higher incomes than women; 35% of workers had mild or severe family dysfunction. The total scores of the SF-36 were relatively good, (between 58.59 and 82.06). Women had poorer health and word perception than men. Conclusion: the workers was exposed to socio-economic, occupational, and adverse family conditions, and as vulnerable population require the development of policies public.
29 Factores de riesgo cardiovascular en participantes de un programa masivo de actividad física , Andrés Felipe Hidalgo Barragán, José Rafael Tovar Cuevas
Objectives: to characterize the cardiovascular risk factors of people from Bogotá city and consider what percentage of people have a higher risk of a cardiovascular event. Materials and methods: the anthropometric measures as the waist circumference, height and weight were took of 3316 participants in a Physical activity program using an interview with questions about topics as medical history, age type and level of physical activity. To obtain information about the cardiovascular risk presence, three indexes were developed with self reported presence of two or more risk factors. Results: 54% of individuals had a healthy weight, while only 28.4% were classified as physically active, on the other hand, people belonging to early adulthood reported being more sedentary. The main reported risk factor was present in overweight individuals and 1732 people have the presence of two or more risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Discusion: half of the individuals analyzed could develop cardiovascular disease in the future.
30 Vulnerabilidad al VIH: Revisión sistemática, Dedsy Yajaira Berbesi Fernández, Ángela Segura Cardona
Introduction: vulnerability is a concept used in different fields and disciplines. The relevance of this concept for health and epidemiology, is the fact that the inclusion of this category allows a better understanding of individual and contextual determinants for the health-disease process. Objective: the aim´s of this article is to review the implementation of the concept of vulnerability and its operationalization in the HIV field. Methodology: a systematic review was performed. The inclusion criteria were 1) jobs in which the vulnerability to HIV, was analyzed and clearly and specifically operationalized. 2) works which used the vulnerability to HIV as an independent or dependent variable, and 3 ) works which will contibute to original empirical data, discarding theoretical work to appear only in the concept of vulnerability to HIV , the latter were not taken into account systematically for further discussion on the findings of the review. The strategy for search included the following terms : [“social AND HIV Vulnerability ,” “ Health Vulnerability AND HIV ,” “ HIV AND Vulnerable Groups “, “ Vulnerability Analysis and HIV ,” “ HIV and Vulnerability Study “] . [“ Vulnerability AND HIV ,” “ Health Vulnerability AND HIV ,” “ HIV Vulnerability Analysis AND “ “ AND HIV Vulnerability Study “] . Conclusion: the current paradigm attempts to overcome the biological perspective, recognizing that to understand the behavior of the HIV as an epidemy , are fundamental to study the social, political, economic and cultural conditions of the people. We identified gaps in the literature, such as the lack of unification when operationalize the concept of vulnerability to HIV. Although there are theoretical models of vulnerability to HIV, the unification of this concept is identified, and is required to advance in the investigation.
31 Falla cardíaca avanzada en pacientes tratados con dispositivos electrofisiológicos en una unidad de electrofisología, Pereira (Colombia), Ricardo Arango Franco*, José W Martínez**, Juan M Cárdenas Castellanos**, Alex A. Rivera Toquica, Daniel S. Marín Medina, Juan P. Orozco Hernández, Jorge A. Sánchez Duque, Juan D. Sosa-Urrea, Manuel A. Martínez Muñoz, Viviana A. Granada Muñoz
Introduction: advanced heart failure it’s a disease with a high prevalence in the world wide,with an increasing mortality and hospitalization rates, due to his severity and clinical profile. Which costs to the health system is up to 20% of the resources devoted to the management of cardiovascular disease in North Amerca. A cross-sectional study was made with 70 patients on pharmacological treatment and Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy with or without Implantable Cardioverter (CDI) or Implantable Cardioverter (CDI) among 2010 and 2012. Methods: a cross-sectional study. Results: we found 71% with hypertension, 65,75% ischemic cardiopathy , 58.3% with resynchronizator with or without CDI, 90% had two or more drugs for heart failure, 77% had beta blocker, 90% ACE inhibitor or ARB, 85.7% diuretics. Conclusion: patients with advanced heart failure who underwent electrophysiological therapy, were clinically characterized in Pereira, Colombia.
32 Conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas sobre dengue, tras aplicación de estrategias de movilización social. Yopal-Casanare, Colombia, 2012, Ingrid Zoraya Criollo Fonseca, Ana Yorley Bernal Barón, Oneida Castañeda Porras
Introduction: in Colombia, Casanare is one of the departments with the greatest dengue transmission. Its main city, Yopal, implemented as of 2008 strategies of social mobilization (COMBI) to control the disease. The study objective was to identify knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about dengue to strengthen actions on information, education, communication and control/prevention. Materials and methods: cross-sectional descriptive study; KAP-survey application at urban zone; analysis of data/variables with Epi-Info 3.5.1® with descriptive statistics. Results: 120 subjects surveyed; women 73,3%; median age 36-yr (range 12-82); dominant age-group was 14-44 (63,3%); average time of residence 17-yr (1-34); 97,5% knew about dengue; 64,5% knew about Aedes aegypti vector transmission. On control measures, 91,7% were informed about recipients’ destruction; 89,8% about habitats’ elimination; 67,5% answered everyone is responsible of control measures. Conclusions: awareness on dengue as disease by identifying both vector and control mechanisms; people considered everyone’s participation and responsibility for dengue control. To continue and promote communitary participation, to make articulated, continued activities to strengthen habits and to invite children to replicate these practices.
33 Nivel de seguridad alimentaria en algunas familias campesinas de Risaralda (Colombia), Liliana Patricia Muñoz Sánchez*, Daniela Vanegas Gómez**, Katherine Molina Lasprilla, Angela María Londoño Echeverry, José William Martínez, Johnny Muñoz Valencia, Hugo Alexander Flórez, María Isabel Castaño
Introduction: since 1996, Colombia began changes in many institutions for increase nutritional level in all country. The police was calling Plan Nacional de Alimentacion y Nutricion (PNAN 1996-2005). Methods: our work defined the baseline in food security. We were visiting 161 homes in 113 living children. The sample was not randomized. We were applying ELCSA (Escala Latinoamericana y del Caribe de Seguridad Alimentaria) is an scale for security food, social participation in schools and biodiversity for many countries village. Results: we found 70.8% house with adults in unsafe food. The unsafe food in house with children were 67.3%. Conclusion: the unsafe food was independence from schools, countries villages and cities.
34 Factores asociados a las prácticas sexuales de riesgo en estudiantes de colegios públicos y privados de la ciudad de Medellín, (Colombia) 2011, Hugo Grisales Romero, Guillermo Castaño, Leydy Johana Colorado, Juan David Rodas
Introduction: adolescence is synonymous of experimentation and this is given in the beginning of sexual practices are sometimes risky. In this article there are described and also the variables associated with the person, to support their coping in the present study. Methods: in a sample of 544 students with aged between 14 to 17 years old from Medellin schools, the prevalence of unsafe sex was calculated and its association with other variables using the chi-square test of independence and finally which of the above together explained these practices was calculated by unconditional logistic regression. Results: the prevalence of unsafe sex was 83%. The risk of these students in public institutions is 1.9 times compared to those of private schools. Having sex when you have consumed alcohol drug with partner and family not meet standards, increase the risk that are dangerous. Conclusion: despite the wide knowledge of the students, the unsafe sex predominate, which warrants in-depth study to understand it.
35 Acciones programáticas relacionadas con el diagnóstico precoz y seguimiento de pacientes con tuberculosis en dos localidades de Bogotá. Colombia, Alba Idaly Muñoz Sánchez, Ana Helena Puerto Guerrero
Introduction: tuberculosis is considered a significant disease in public health because is the second most deadly infectious disease in the world. Objective: identify and evaluate programmatic actions related to early diagnosis and monitoring of patients with tuberculosis in two districts of Bogotá. Methodology: cross-sectional study using a data collection tool applied to health workers (doctors, nurses, nursing assistants), the various institutions provide health services-IPS, two localities of Bogotá, Colombia. Ethical issues were preserved. Results: in developing the study strengths and weaknesses in relation to the actions of Tuberculosis Control Program on personal health were evident. They attended 14 public and private IPS, and 273 workers. Some of the findings were identified: 52% of health workers who participated in this research, conducted fieldwork contacts continuously. Regarding the percentage of monitoring the patient who was told smear microscopy, we found that only 34% of health workers always verified monitoring, and 41% for respiratory symptomatic smear ordered inexorably. Conclusions: programmatic actions related to the diagnosis and monitoring should be strengthened, especially concerning the early detection of epidemiological field research, strategies and monitoring timely care to patients and their contacts.
36 Acciones programáticas relacionadas con el diagnóstico precoz y seguimiento de pacientes con tuberculosis en dos localidades de Bogotá. Colombia, Alba Idaly Muñoz Sánchez, Ana Helena Puerto Guerrero
Introduction: tuberculosis is considered a significant disease in public health because is the second most deadly infectious disease in the world. Objective: identify and evaluate programmatic actions related to early diagnosis and monitoring of patients with tuberculosis in two districts of Bogotá. Methodology: cross-sectional study using a data collection tool applied to health workers (doctors, nurses, nursing assistants), the various institutions provide health services-IPS, two localities of Bogotá, Colombia. Ethical issues were preserved. Results: in developing the study strengths and weaknesses in relation to the actions of Tuberculosis Control Program on personal health were evident. They attended 14 public and private IPS, and 273 workers. Some of the findings were identified: 52% of health workers who participated in this research, conducted fieldwork contacts continuously. Regarding the percentage of monitoring the patient who was told smear microscopy, we found that only 34% of health workers always verified monitoring, and 41% for respiratory symptomatic smear ordered inexorably. Conclusions: programmatic actions related to the diagnosis and monitoring should be strengthened, especially concerning the early detection of epidemiological field research, strategies and monitoring timely care to patients and their contacts.
37 Episodios de ansiedad y depresión en universitarias de Tunja (Colombia): probable asociación con uso de anticoncepción hormonal. 2012, Carlos Alberto Niño-Avendaño, Juan Manuel Ospina D., Fred Gustavo Manrique Abril
Introduction: to asses the possible link between use of hormonal contraceptives (oral, injectable or sub dermal implants) with episodes of anxiety and depression in college students from Tunja, adjusting for other factors identified with depression in scientific literature. Materials: study of prevalence, observational, with analytic cross-sectional design. Population was defined as the female students of two universities located in Tunja. It was extracted a sample of 538 women by random sequential sampling, which prior informed consent, was applied the Hamilton Anxiety Scale, and the Beck depression scale .Statistical analysis was made using Epi-Info program. Results: the overall prevalence of depression was 18,95%, an the manifestations of anxiety one was 52,04%. We found statistically significant association between the use of hormonal methods and depression: OR = 3,31 (95% CI: 1,03-5,40, p = 0.0001). The estimate of probable association between hormonal methods and anxiety, showed a statistically significant association, although less strong: OR=1,46 (CI95% 1,03-2,05; p=0,018. It was also found association between manifestations of depression and age more than twenty years. Conclusions: findings reported show positive association, suggesting the need for healthcare providers to evaluate mental state of the young university at the time of prescribing the use of hormonal preparations as a contraceptive method.
38 Patrón de automedicación en la zona urbana de la ciudad de Pereira (Colombia) en el trimestre marzo- mayo 2013, Federico Villegas Cardona*, Katherinn Melissa Nasner Posso*, Diana Paola Buitrago Gómez, Stefanía Cruz Calderón, Sebastián Ruden Restrepo, Juan Esteban Bedoya Arias, Andrés Felipe Barco Álvarez, Erika Stefanía Bolaños Muñoz, Ricardo Gómez Ossa
Introduction: self-medication continues being a widely accepted practice, unrecognized by the population as an act that contributes to the detriment of health. The data of the commonness and characteristics of the population self-medicated in the city of Pereira, Colombia, for the quarter in March - May, 2013 was obtained. Objective: to characterize the profile of self-medication in the population of Pereira for the quarter on March - May, 2013. Type of study: observational of transverse court. Materials and methods: 381 surveys were applied in each stratum by their percentage representation in the districts of the city of Pereira; the instrument was made after operationalize the relevant variables and its validation was given by the score of 4 experts and pilot testing. Prevalence and behavior (mugs, reasons, core measures and association) of the variables was evaluated. Results: 694 (61.58%) people consumed any drugs in the last month, of which 276 (39.77%) had no prescription, for a total of 184(48%) self- medicated home. 131 (30.8%) people between aged 15 to 40 years old self-medicated and 197 (71.4%) and 197 (71.4%) of self-medicated unknown contraindications. Conclusions: a high prevalence of self-medication was identified in the city of Pereira. There is a sectorization demographic centers of the city: Centro, Boston, Poblado, Villavicencio, Universidad, etc.
39 Riesgo invisible y silencioso: Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana en mayores de 50 años. Colombia, 1998-2009, Doris Cardona Arango, Ángela Segura Cardona, María Osley Garzón Duque
Objective: to analyze the mortality of persons aged 50 years and older human immunodeficiency virus resident in Colombia from 1998 to 2009 in order to demonstrate this invisible and silent risk populations unexplored. Materials and methods: a descriptive study of 4149 deaths in Colombia, from 1998 to 2009, people aged 50 years or older whose underlying cause of death was between codes B20-B24. The secondary source of information was through the death registration and population projections by the National Bureau of Statistics. With this information, frequency measures, average mortality rate per hundred thousand inhabitants, and georeferencing excess male risk of death of men and women. Results: the risk of dying from these causes was 5.0 per hundred thousand over age 50, for men the risk was 9.0 for women and 1.4 per hundred thousand people of the same sex, beating men 5.3 times the risk of women (SMM = 6.3).The trend is increasing and the year of greatest risk was in 2007, but the excess mortality was higher in 2000. The departments of higher mortality from this cause were: Amazonas, Guaviare, Quindio, Atlantic and Valley, the lowest risk: Boyacá, Nariño, Chocó, Cauca and Arauca. Conclusions: in the country, mortality from human immunodeficiency virus in people 50 years and older has been increasing throughout the study period (1998-2009), which could be explained by a greater supply diagnostic, more cases and changes in sexual behavior, although the diagnosis may be confused with other common syndromes in this population, the mortality could be being invisible and therefore be increasing, as it really is happening, becoming a silent risk.
40 Organización y gestión de la red de atención para la baja visión en Colombia^ , Martha Liliana Hernández Padilla, María del Pilar Oviedo Cáceres, Myriam Ruiz Rodríguez
Introduction: the low vision services seek to rehabilitate people with these visual disabilities. This research is the first that addresses the characteristics of the health system in terms of management and organization of care network in Colombia, from the perspective of service providers. Method: a descriptive qualitative, under the theoretical model of Andersen et al, which used to analyze the methodological design of Taylor & Bogdan. Results: the service institutions are forced to seek managerial actions to survive in a health system based on managed care and regulated competition. Conclusions: no clear route due to lack of care professionals as well as the absence of rules ensuring reference and counter is identified.
41 Desarrollo infantil: una revisión, José William Martínez
Childhood interventions should involve families, careers and education groups of children´s 3-6 years old, particularly focused on the poorest, such as indigenous people of Colombia and those in rural areas. Programs that develop strategies for health, physical activity, and nutrition and education services and also undertake families are characterized by having a sufficient intensity and duration is cost-effective. The benefits can be increased when these programs consult the conditions and needs. According to the econometric analysis, all the interventions in childhood must be linked to social development projects involving more income for economically vulnerable population because both increased revenues and order nutritional programs contribute significantly to the reducing malnutrition and reduced the intergenerational transmission of poverty.
42 Costo -efectividad de un programa de actividad física, dirigida en un departamento de Colombia, Diana Carolina Preciado Martínez, Jose Rafael Tovar Cuevas, Jorge Enrique Correa Bautista
Introduction: the involvement of Actividad Fisica Dirigida (Directed Physical Activity), AFD, in the municipalities of Cundinamarca, deserve an effective and cost-effective evaluation which will in turn contribute to the programs of Actividad Fisica (Physical Activity) , AF and to the development of a dynamic process of evaluation of this type in Colombia. Methods: a retrospective evaluation of n= 214 was done, with the participation of the AFD, and measurements were taken with cardio-anthropometric indicators during 18 months. Inquiries were made about the direct costs of AFD and the health service for ECNT. Results: the findings revealed an effect of physical activity over anthropometry and clinical indicators such as blood pressure, achieving a lower risk. Conclussion: AFD’s involvement is effective in the reduction of risk factors for ECNT, and cost effective to lower the costs in health care up to 80%.
43 Hábitos alimentarios de las familias que pertenecen al programa de Complementación Alimentaria, Desayunos Infantiles MANÁ con Amor, Andrés Felipe Tirado Otálvaro, Marta Elena Correa, Diana Ramírez, Liliana Cossio, María Cristina Machado, Mayra Muñoz B, Ana María Zapata, Viviana Alonso, Claudia Marcela Villa Clara Correa, María del Tránsito Giraldo
Introduction: the Department of Antioquia presents a serious problem of eating security with the highest rates of children mortality due to malnutrition. The objective of this investigation is to identify the eating habits of the population of Bajo Cauca which belongs to the program MANA’ InfantilC. Methods: transversal descriptive study, convenience sample of 350 children care takers signed up in the program. Central tendency and dispersion measures, absolute and relative frequencies were analyzed. Results: 96.3% of the families receive some food stuff complement: the responsibility to feed is assumed by the mother in 72% of the cases. In regards to the consumption of food by children, milk is in the first place with a 75.6% followed by cereals and sweets with a 63.7%. Conclussion: in spite of the access to complimentary eating programs, the rate of malnutrition in the zone is still one of the highest in the country.
44 Evaluaci ón del manejo del dolor postquirúrgico en pacientes adultos de una clínica de tercer nivel de Pereira Colombia , Jorge E. Machado Alba, Ana Milena Quintero, Manuel Fernando Mena García, Carlos Andrés Castaño Carmona, Edward Mauricio López Saldarriaga, Danna Carolina Marín Zuluaga, Víctor Alfredo Marulanda Quiceno, Johnny Mejía Acevedo
Introduction: pain is the first clinical demonstration of post-surgery. To evaluate the level of perceived pain by adult patients in post-surgery thru a Visual Analogical Scale in the Clinica Los Rosales in Pereira. Methods: transversal cut study in patients 18 years and older. The intensity of pain in post-surgery after 4 hours and again after 24 hours was evaluated thru the Analogical Visual Scale (EVA). Variables such as sociodemographic (age, sex, health regime), clinical (type of anesthesia and surgery which were qualified as low medium and high risk) and pharmacological (prescribed analgesics at 4 and 24 hours, associations, dosage and intervals) were considered. Results: 51.1% of the patients had no control over pain at 4 hours after surgery and 30.9% at 24 hours. The scheme of analgesic variables with Tramadol/Dipyrone and the forthcoming of nausea were associated in a significant statistical manner with the lack of control of pain within 4 hours of surgery, while the previous use of corticosteroids, sex and socioeconomic level were associated with the lack of control at 24 hours. Conclussions: the inefficiency of the analgesic used in the post-surgery could be associated with flaws in the selection of the medication and the dosage guidelines.
45 Riesgo Familiar Total de familias de preescolares con enfermedades prevalentes de la infancia. Centro de Salud Villasantana. Pereira^, Luz Enith Velásquez Restrepo, Vilma Florisa Velásquez Gutiérrez
Introduction: characterization of the total family risk (RFT) of preschool families with prevailing childhood disease that consulted at the Health Center of Villasantana Pereira, Colombia in 2012. Methods: descriptive study of 50 families with previous informed consent. The Total Family Risk measurement instrument was applied RFT: 5-33, valid for Colombia and the data analysis was performed with the SPSS -12 programs. Results: the families were made up of 204 people, 40% of the population was displaced and 43% of them were children or adolescents. 64% of the nuclear families. 54% of the families had a low RFT and 46% were threatened, especially by psychological conditions (88%). A significant correlation between RFT and its components was found: psychological conditions (0.554) social/economic situation (0.520) and management of minors (0.503). Conclussion: the families do not identify a high risk, even with adverse conditions and it is required for family health to be intensified.
46 Comportamiento de las consultas por Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual Medellín, Colombia 2002-2006, Doris Cardona Arango, Dedsy Yajaira Berbesí Fernández, Ángela María Segura Cardona
Introduction: sexually transmitted infections ITS, constitute an important group among infectious diseases; the objective of this investigation was to analyze the behavior of appointments for ITS in Medellin, Colombia during the time period of 2002 – 2006. Methds: a descriptive study was conducted, with secondary information sources from 24,839 medical appointments, posted on the registry of health medical services. Infections were selected by transmission thru sexual contact primarily and diseases as a result of human immune deficiency; The analysis included a description of the behavior of appointments and a calculation of the proportion of incidence of the yearly average of a population of one hundred thousand people, as an estimate of the real occurrence, and possible association with the test of Chi- square of independence, with a statistical level of significance of 5%. Results: the findings yielded a greater number of appointments due to the acquired human immunodeficiency virus (50.7%) followed by other ITS (29.5%) and other syphilis (10.3%). Men were mainly affected by the immunodeficiency virus and gonorrhea, while women consulted in a higher proportion due to trichomonad, chlamydia and congenital syphilis; the group with the highest amount of appointments was the population between 20 and 29 years of age. Conclussion: ITS continue being a risk in order to acquire diseases such as AIDS, in spite of the preventive campaigns. The appointments made by men due to HIV were 4.5 times greater than those made by women and 3.18 times greater in the case of gonorrhea; while the appointments made by women were higher due to trichomonad.
47 Detección de genes de toxinas pirogénicas y toxinas exfoliativas en aislamientos clínicos de Sta phylococcus aureus en Colombia, Luisa F Corredor, José I Moncayo, Jorge J Santacruz, Adalucy Álvarez
Introduction: staphylococcus aureus is associated with serious systematic diseases caused by super antigens (pyrogenic and exfoliating toxins). Methods: 100 clinical isolations for S. Aureus were identified by automatic methods and PCR, the prevalence of super antigen genes by multiple PCR and the correlations thru the Fischer exact test. Results: 38 isolation cases were observed and the prevalence of the enterotoxin genes, toxins of the syndrome of toxic shock and exfoliating toxins was 44%, 7% and 4% respectively. The only significant correlation found (p=0.045) was between the presence of the super antigen genes and the clinical isolations. Conclussion: there is a high prevalence of enterotoxin genes and a low prevalence of exfoliating genes and the syndrome of toxic shock in isolation of S.Aureus in this population. This is the first investigation that yields data of prevalence of super antigens in Colombia and provides new information for Latin America.
48 Relación del aporte de oxígeno y la supervivencia del paciente con shock en UCI, R.E. Aristizábal; J.W. Martínez; M. Montoya; O. Barbosa;L.F. Calvo; L.A. Valencia; V. Hincapié
Introduction: to establish the repercussion between survival of the critically ill patient—diagnosed with shock (all kinds of etiology)—and the diagnosis of acid/ base balance of the blood gas analysis. Methods: prospective cohort study. Setting: one general Intensive Care Unit. Patients: Ppatients diagnosed with shock to whom blood gas analysis was made. Variables of interest: outcome defined as survival of the patients in function of time. Moreover, some variables were monitored such as acid/base balance, respiratory function, ventilatory function and blood electrolytes. They were all monitored in function of time. Results: the Cox regression model showed that male patients diagnosed with shock had 2.78 times greater risk of dying compared to women. FiO2 and THBc variables work as mortality predictors while PAO2, PCO2, and PO2 variables are protective factors for mortality. Conclusion: early diagnostic in acid/base balance of patients with shock—arriving at the intensive care unit—and immediate therapeutic intervention of those variables part of tissue oxygen delivery (such as PAO2, FiO2, THBc, PCO2, and PO2) will favorably change the prognostic and survival of the patients.
49 Caso Clínico. Abdomen abierto: de la infección a la cicatrización. Reporte de un caso y revisión de la literatura, Rodolfo A. Cabrales Vega – MD
Chronic wounds represent a challenge for the health team as well as for the patient in regards to how to handle them, long term follow up, cosmetic results, effects on the quality of life and self-steem. This article emphasizes initially on a patient with a complex secondary abdominal wound of the colon and secondary massive fecal contamination. Secondly, it reviews the objectives of the local treatment of the wound and describes some types of dressings, their composition, characteristics and indications. Products such as hydrocolloids, ashes, hydrogel, polyurethane foams and silver soaked dressings are included. Last, it emphasizes the fact that the treatment of chronic wounds must restore a balance in the factors that determine a good healing process. Its management must be complex, organized and based on a tight cooperation between the health team and the patient.
50 Adherencia del personal de enfermería a las medidas de prevención y control de infecciones intrahospitalarias en tres Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos. 2008, Cielo Martínez Reyes, Karin Betín Buelvas, Katia Caldera Puente, Jaidith Guerra Mercado, Moraima Hernández Rojas, Mayleth Villalba Martínez
Introduction: hospital-acquired infections are a problem that is becoming increasingly significant for its high frequency, lethal consequences and elevated treatment costs. Objective: to describe the factors that influence the adherence of the nursing staff to the preventive and control measures of infections within a hospital in three areas of Sincelejo’s Intensive Care Unit (Colombia 2008) Methods: descriptive, quantitative cross-section sample which consisted of 33 members of the nursing staff. The information was collected through a semi-structured survey and an evaluation form of practices performed by personnel. Results: the results show insufficient knowledge of infections within the hospital and measures for its prevention and control. The procedure for medical wash of hands was done incorrectly in two of the units and the procedure for surgical wash of hands was incorrectly done in all three units. The barrier elements are used improperly, although the necessary supplies for this were readily available.
51 Eficiencia de la inversión en el régimen subsidiado en salud en Bolívar – Colombia, Francisco Javier Maza Ávila, Juan Carlos Vergara Schmalbach, Jorge Luis Navarro España
Introduction: analyze the efficiency in the southern departments of Bolivar (Colombia) in relation to the affiliation of people to the subsidized health regime during the 2007 to 2008 time period. Methods: application of the Data Envelopment Analysis to the 45 municipalities in the department of Bolivar (Colombia) based on information in relation to the number of members, total cost of allocated resources and actual expenses. Results: the results of this analysis for the period under review showed that less than 25% of the municipalities are in the efficient frontier. Conclusion: the resources devoted to health care have not been used correctly in targeting the most vulnerable population groups, as well as in securing and monitoring the scheme by these municipalities, which brings deficiencies in the membership of a greater number of people.
52 La bitácora como instrumento para seguimiento y evaluación - Formación de residentes en el programa de Oftalmológica, Patricia Barrios Castañeda, Luis Alberto Ruiz, Karolina González Guerrero
Introduction: a qualitative study on the use and application of logbooks is presented, as a process of evaluation in the curricular areas of the ophthalmological specialization program at the Nueva Granada Military University and Central Military Hospital. Methods: tools such as surveys and evaluation forms for the collection of assessments and verification processes for further analysis were applied. Results: the tests show resistance to change and a level of comfort with traditional methods of evaluation. Conclusion: the logbook was perceived as an adequate tool for monitoring and evaluating the learning process.
53 Prevalencia de diabetes mellitus y dislipidemias en indígenas del resguardo Cañamomo-Lomaprieta, Colombia, Jaiberth Antonio Cardona Arias, Yennifer Rivera Palomin, Osman Mauricio Llanes Agudelo
Introduction: diabetes mellitus is a public health problem and is associated with dyslipidemia and improper lifestyles. Objective: to determine the prevalence of diabetes and dyslipidemia and its association with socio-demographic determinants and risk factors in adults from the Cañamomo-Lomaprieta Indian reservation. Methods: cross-sectional study with data collected from primary sources. Measurement of glucose, lipid profile, anthropometric measurements and risk factors. were observed. We estimated summary measures, proportions and confidence intervals; statistical tests bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Data stored and analyzed in SPSS 18.0. Results: the prevalence of dyslipidemia was 68.9% and 8% diabetes; significant associations were found between diabetes and body mass index, metabolic syndrome and total obesity and dyslipidemia with age, central obesity and blood glucose. Conclusion: high prevalence of diabetes, dyslipidemia and other risk factors, evidence that the Indians are a group at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease.
54 Farmacovigilancia de riesgo cardiovascular por antiinflamatorios no esteroideos COX-2 selectivos, Jorge E. Machado Alba, Claudia Giraldo Giraldo, Andrés Felipe Ruiz
Introduction: non steroid anti inflammatory and COX-2 selective (COXIB) have been associated with a higher cardiovascular risk. The risk of possible negative results related to the treatment of patients that take COXIB, through the search in data bases of patients affiliated to the generalized health system is to be determined. Methods: through the use of a medicine data base of 3.7 million affiliates, using a Business Objective tool on an Oracle platform, statistics were obtained from January 1, 2007 through May 31 2011, differentiated by age, gender, city, insurance company, medication, time length of consumption and co-medication applied. Results: a sample of 176 patients was found, mainly women (66.0%) with an age average of 59.8 years in 22 cities throughout the country. The prescribed medications were Celecoxib (79.5%) and Etoricoxib (20.5%). The average time length of use of COXIB was 8.1 months (range: 1 – 48 months). 81 patients with some risk of cardiovascular problems and hypertension were found (n=70; 22;5%), dyslipidemia (n=22; 7.1%), diabetes mellitus (n=12; 3.9%) and 7 patients with the use of COXIB for more than 18 months and cardiovascular risk associated, which were reported to the person in charge of sanitary services, who notified the modification of the therapy. Discussion: dDrug surveillance allows the optimization of resources and the prevention of negative results associated with the prescription of drugs that may cause incidences of diseases or death. The search in data bases to reinforce the vigilant programs of the use of medications in the country, in order to improve the quality of the prescription, is recommended.
55 Carcinogénesis inducida por el virus del papiloma humano (Artículo de Revisión), Adalucy Álvarez Aldana, Juan Carlos Sepúlveda Arias, Fernando Siller López
Introduction: carcinogenesis is the process by which a normal cell transforms into a cancer cell and involves multiple steps which reflect genetic alterations that lead to the progressive transformation of normal tissue to malignant states. Viruses have been associated with cancer development in both animals and humans. Human Papilloma viruses (HPV) are related with the development of cervical cancer, considered the second more prevalent type of cancer in women worldwide. In this review we describe the events responsible for the HPV-induced carcinogenesis. Methods: a systematic literature search was conducted in Medline database. Results: this review discusses the relationship between infection and cancer, with emphasis on the HPV-induced carcinogenesis and the molecules involved in this process. Conclusions: E6 and E7 oncoproteins are essential in the process of malignant transformation induced by HPV and involve many other factors such as the interaction of these proteins with cell cycle regulatory factors.
56 Políticas públicas y discapacidad: participación y ejercicio de derechos (Artículo de Reflexión), Carmen Liliana Ávila Rendón, Lida Maritza Gil Obando, Alexandra López López, Consuelo Vélez Álvarez
Introduction: the review of the public policies related to disability supposes the handling of terminology and meanings that usually is confused at an academic level. To clarify the concepts in disability is the basis for understanding the importance of the legitimacy of the guidelines issued and the recognition of the needs of the participating subjects, as part of exercising their rights. Objectives: theoretical and practical review of the aspects related to public policies on disability. A visualization of the importance of the participation of the disabled person in order to correctly exercise their rights. Methods: review of scientific literature that looks at articles in health specialized databases, (Ovid, Proquest, hinary, springer among others) which are treated as search parameters and disability public policy. Results: 44 original publications with adequate quality for the development of reflection were found. Conclusions: in the process of construing public policies the strategic interaction between the actors is fundamental, which is necessary in virtue of the interdependencies that exist, but at the same time try to go towards their own preferences. This allows for a complex interaction and for negotiation processes that derive from the collective and participative construction.
57 Feocromocitoma bilateral: reporte de un caso, Dora Luisa Orjuela Zuluaga, María Elena Tello Cajiao, Daniel Andrés Torres Ángel
Introduction: pheochromocytoma is not a very common endocrine neoplasia which produces catecholamines, highly associated with cardiometabolic and secondary hypertension risks. In recent years, the prevalence of its increase has been demonstrated due to the diagnostic imagenological and biochemical advances, because most of these tumors are initially discovered as incidentalomas. Methods: the case of a patient is presented, 35 year old homemaker who consults due to symptoms consisting of episodes of cephalea, nausea, palpitations, paleness and sweat over a period of one year. Results: the diagnose was supported by the detection of high levels of catecholamines in the urine and later confirmation with an imagenological study: abdominal ultrasound scanning, contrasting CAT scan and gammagraphy with MIBG-131. Conclusion: the patient underwent surgery for bilateral adrenalactomy; it was confirmed by pathological anatomy: bilateral pheochromocytoma.
58 Imaginarios sociales de donantes voluntarios de sangre en un punto fijo de recolección. Bogotá-Colombia, Harold Fabián Cruz Bermúdez, Jorge Enrique Moreno Collazos, Adriana Angarita Fonseca, Claudia Yaneth Calderón Serrano, Silvia Inés Martínez Fonseca, Mónica Restrepo
Introduction: the voluntary donation of blood is a challenge for blood banks; it is intended for blood donations to be increased, once the preconceptions in the process become known. Objective: establish the main social preconceptions related to the voluntary donation of blood. Methods: a descriptive transversal study of a sample of 100 adults. The data was gathered through the application of surveys conducted during the months of July to December of 2010. The variables were: age, sex, origin, social and financial status, level of education and main preconceptions related to the donation of blood. A descriptive analysis was conducted; the software used was Epilnfo version 3.5.1. Results: the main preconception for women was “gaining weight” with a 70.59%, while for men it was “blood is commercialized” with a 36.36%. Discussion: the age described in the study and the social and cultural aspects behave according to those predetermined; the social preconceptions are established mainly by the feminine gender with the weight increase. Conclusion: the social preconceptions allow for the subjects to have a greater negative predisposition towards donating blood.
59 Dependencia a la nicotina: desempeño psicométrico de dos escalas en adultos, Adalberto Campo Arias, Edwin Herazo, Jaider Alfonso Barros Bermúdez, Germán Eduardo Rueda Jaimes, Luis Alfonso Díaz Martínez, Francisco J. Díaz
Introduction: to compare psychometric performance of the Fagerström Test Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and Cigarette Dependence Scale (CDS) among adults from Bucaramanga, Colombia. Method: one-hundred twenty-six current smokers completed the FTND and CDS. Cronbach alpha, sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood values, Cohen kappa, and ROC area were computed for each scale. The Compose International Diagnostic Interview was taken as the gold-standard. Internal consistencies and ROC curve were compared. Results: the FTND showedCronbach alpha of 0.72; sensitivity, 0.69; specificity, 0.71; positive predictive value, 0.90; negative predictive value, 0.40; positive likelihood value, 2.38; negative likelihood value, 0.43; Cohen kappa, 0.32; and ROC area, 0.74. The CDS presented Cronbach alpha of 0.90; sensitivity, 0.77; specificity, 0.71; positive predictive value, 0.90; negative predictive value, 0.47; positive likelihood value, 2.66; negative likelihood value, 0.33; Cohen kappa, 0.40; and ROC area, 0.80. Conclusions: the CDS exhibits better performance than FTND in smokers from Bucaramanga (Colombia).
60 Concordancia interobservadores en retinoscopía estática entre docentes y estudiantes de opto metría de una institución universitaria de Bogotá, Colombia , Diana García Lozada
Introduction: optometry teachers to assess students, accept a difference of ±0,50D in the retinoscopy but have not statistically evaluated, whether it is suitable for low and high ametropias.The objective of this study was to compare the interobserver agreement between optometry teachers and students in a study of static retinoscopy for high and low refractive errors. Methods: agreement study between 4 observers in 40 eyes, 20 with high and 20 with low refractive errors. Convenience non-probability sampling was performed. Statistical analysis performed with the intra-class correlation coefficient and graphical method of 95% limits of agreement. Results: concordance in spherical equivalent between four examiners was 0.78, 0.86 for low defects and 0.67 for high errors. Margin of error between teachers was ±0.87D and students ±3.15D. In low defects was ±0.61D for teachers and ±0.80D for students and in high defects ±1.10D and ±4.22D, respectively. Conclusions: retinoscopy reliability was higher among teachers. Teaching strategies should be formulated to allow a reduction in the obtained margins of error.
61 Evaluación de diferentes pruebas para el diagnóstico de H.pylori, José Ignacio Moncayo Ortiz, Adalucy Álvarez Aldana, Jorge Javier Santacruz Ibarra, Mario Santacoloma Osorio, Brenda Lucía Arturo Arias, Liliana Giraldo Martínez, Alberto Ángel Pinzón
Introduction: all of the available tests for the diagnosis of H. pylori have differences in their sensibility and specificity. The purpose of this study is to determine the developmental index, sensibility, specificity and predictable values of four invasive methods, using the case definition as a referential technique; positive culture o concordance of at least two processes of positive diagnostics. Methods: five biopsies were taken among seventy two patients, distributed for PCR-ureC, culture, quick ureic test (PRU) and histological examination (EH). Results: the developmental index (ID), sensibility, specificity and predictive measures showed differences. The couple EH-PCF was considerably effective, presenting the greatest values of analyzed indexes. The prevalence of infection was of 86.1%. Conclusion: in order to establish the true status of the infection by H. pylori, it is necessary to use the criteria by case definition.
62 Prevalencia de factores de riesgo para enfermedades cardiovasculares en Tunja, Colombia.2007 , Fred Gustavo Manrique Abril, Juan Manuel Ospina Díaz, Giomar Maritza Herrera Amaya
Introduction: high frequencies of hospitalization and mortality by cardiovascular disease in the IPS’s of second and third level in Tunja, deserve an analysis of the determinant risk factors. Objective: to assess the prevalence of obesity, diabetes and hypertension in a representative sample of the population of Tunja, Colombia, and their possible association with social and demographic factors, depending on the geographic area of residence. Methods: a cross-sectional analytic study was carried out. The sample comprised 499 subjects of both sexes, selected through stratified random sampling. It was applied an adapted version of the STEPS instrument, validated by WHO. Results: we found high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, which are distributed in a polarized space mostly in thegeographical extremes of growth of the city, associated with socio-economical and cultural factors and low income, low educational attainment and poor self-care ability.
63 Métodos estadísticos desarrollados para la estimación en la prevalencia y parámetros de desempeño de tests para diagnóstico clínico: una revisión de literatura , José Rafael Tovar Cuevas
Introduction: to do a review of the bibliography published in statistical methodology specialized journals about the procedures developed to estimate the prevalence and performance of clinical diagnostic tests. Methods: this review includes 52 articles about procedures developed to estimate the prevalence and performance of clinical diagnostic test parameters found in journals specialized in statistical methodology applied to health areas. Results: three important statistical problems were found: the presence of a number of parameters higher than the pieces of information available to do the estimation procedure, known as lack of the ability to identify, the presence of individuals with negative outcome in the screening tests for comparison, whose actual health conditions are unknown (verification bias) and the dependence between test results. Conclusions: a wide range of possibilities to address the three problems that characterized the estimation problem was found. To address the verification bias problem many alternatives consider the use of the latent variables and others use different parameters. Many strategies to address the lack of the ability to identify and the dependence between test outcomes were found too. Most of the proposed alternatives are characterized by their complexity and difficult practical applicability.
64 Campamento universitario multidisciplinario de investigación y servicio (CUMIS) como estrategia de intervención comunitaria, Álvaro Mondragón Cardona, Carlos Felipe Campo Betancourth, Daniel Tobón García, Carlos Eduardo Jiménez Canizalez, Verónica Alzate Carvajal, José William Martínez
Introduction: community intervention and social work in vulnerable populations are initiatives led by the urge to research the health impact of various students’ scientific societies. Methods: the purpose of this project is to describe how the Multidisciplinary College Camp for Services and Research(CUMIS) is a student strategy of community work and scientific research. Universities from Colombia are the main participants and are led by the Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira. Results: the first version of this strategy took place in Caimalito, Pereira, Risaralda from the 27th to the 30th of March 2010. Health brigades, educational talks and scientific research were performed. Conclusion: CUMIS allowed students to apply their theoretical knowledge and develop research projects to help a community in need.
65 Indígenas gestantes en la ribera del Amazonas, Colombia,2009: conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas, Yenica Acosta Infante, Omar Segura
Objective: identify perceptions and possible risk factors in regards to pregnancy as part of the sexual and reproductive health (SSR) of expectant Indigenous mothers who live in the shores of the Amazon River, in order to plan, project and evaluate the impact of future programs for the promotion and prevention of their SSR. Methods: study, through Busqueda –Activa- Comunitaria (BAC) Active Community Search of all the expectant mothers in the nineteen Indigenous communities of the area, application of survey of knowledge, attitude and practices (CAP) with the previous informed consent and risk evaluation of each expectant mother. Systematization and analysis with Epi-Info 3.5.1, using measures of frequency and central tendencies. Results: 73 expectant mothers located in the BAC, of the Ticuna ethnic group (56.2%), Cocama (19.2%), Yagua (8.2%), Huitoto (2.7%), Ocama (1.4%), and mixed ancestry (12.3%); distributed by age groups 16 – 18 (20.5%), 19 – 26 (41.1%), 27 – 34 (26.0%), and 35 – 48 (12.3%). Prenatal control: inadequate (64.4%), without control (21.0%). Births: in the last two years (74%); more than four (28.8%); post partum birth control with shots (38.1%), tubal ligation (23.8%) Conclusion: evidence of a high percentage of expectant mothers under risk, according to their age and incomplete prenatal control was clear. The strengthening and reinforcement of the strategies of information – communication – education and the creation of didactic materials with a plain-simple-graphic language in order to educate the expectant mothers, was recommended.
66 Reproducibilidad y concordancia para la Carta Snellen y LEA en la valoración de la agudeza visual en infantes de primaria, Alejandro León Álvarez, Jorge Mario Estrada Álvarez
Introduction: the evaluation of the vision of an infant is determined using the visual acuity charts, although they are commonly referred to as the “optotypes”, of which the most frequently used is the Snellen. Objetive: to determinate test retest reliability and the agreement of two tests used to assess elementary school children visual acuity. Methods: we evaluated 61 visual healthy children (122 eyes) ages 7 through 10 enrolled in elementary school of Pereira. Visual acuity (VA) was measured with Snellen letters chart and LEA symbols chart by two evaluators. Results: the average of VA was 0.0 of logarithm of minimum angle of resolution (logMAR), the mean difference between the test was -0.05 (CI95% -0.064 to -0.037) logMAR; the coefficient of repeatability (COR) was better for LEA symbols and Snellen chart (±0.08 and 0.12) than those reported in previous papers (±0.15). Conclusion: the coefficient correlation Intraclass (CCI) has indicated a moderate concordance (0.493) and the 95% limits of agreement showed a wider difference between the both charts measurements as while visual acuity was better. LEA symbols and Snellen chart have showed good test retest reliability, although the variability between both measurements indicates that they are not interchangeable test.
67 ¿Fracasaron la consejería preconcepcional y el control prenatal? Una mirada desde las estadísticas vita les en Bogotá (Colombia), 2009-2010, Omar Segura
Introduction: the policy for Sexual and Reproductive Health has been questioned by the communication media and by diverse government organizations in three ways: the preconception counseling, prenatal control and the number of births by cesarean section. An analytical theoretical exercise is proposed through the usage of the module of Born Alive and Deaths from the Exclusive Registry of Health affiliation in order to corroborate these facts. Methods: a quantitative study of the sole cohort type, with the registry of the born alive in Bogota between 2009 and 2010 available in the electronic portal of records compiled in Microsoft Excel® 2007, filtered with inclusion criteria and analyzed by EpiINFO 3.5.2 Results: a total of 123,068 records of born alive children of which 82.5% were included in the analysis. Births: 37% were through cesarean section in 2009 and 38.6% in 2010. 21.3% of the births in 2009 and 17.7% in 2010 were from adolescent mothers. The OR for dystocia birth in adolescents was 1.69 (X2 = 944.96% p = 0, 0); the OR for low Apgar after one minute in neonate babies from adolescents was 1.31 (X2=31.27, p=0.001) Conclusion: from the records we can form an interesting reality of a specific fault and the need to evaluate it and reformulate it, in the framework of a future Decennial Health Plan.
68 Farmacovigilancia de interacciones medicamentosas en pacientes afiliados al sistema de salud de Colombia, Jorge E. Machado Alba, Claudia Giraldo Giraldo
Objectives: to determine the possible medication interactions that generate problems related to safety medications, needs or effectiveness, throughout the active search in data bases of patients affiliated to the General Health System of Social Security. Methods: based on the data base from Audifarma S.A. in regards to the distribution of medications to 3.7 million of users in the country, a systematic review of the statistics of a series of drugs identified for presenting interactions. Results: out of the total of patients that were taking omeprazol, it was found that 12.3% at the same time received magnesium hydroxide plus aluminum; 1.7% received ranitidine; 1.0% sucralfate, and also 0.3% were at the same time taking omeprazol + sucralfate+magnesium hydroxide and aluminum and 0.4% omeprazol + ranitidine +magnesium hydroxide and aluminum, which do not maximize the anti ulcerous effect or may antagonize its actions. It was also found that 0.2% of the patients was taking verapamil and at the same time received digoxin or methyl digoxin with the risk of increasing the toxicity and antagonizing its inotropic effect. All these cases were notified to those responsible for their sanitary attention. Discussion: medication interactions represent a potential risk, which has to be considered by the prescribing doctors. Drug surveillance allows the optimization of resources and the prevention of adverse events which may potentially cause mortality or be lethal. It is recommended that data bases be searched in order to reinforce the surveillance programs in relation to the use of medicines in the country.
69 Prevalencia de cáncer de cuello uterino y cáncer de seno en Yopal, Casanare, Colombia, Néstor Gerónimo, Oneida Castañeda, Yolima Reyes, Lina Sofía Morón, Omar Segura, Paola Hernández Robayo
Background: cervical cancer and breast cancer are the main causes for mortality due to cancer in the world. In Colombia, during the year 2004, breast cancer had the third place in deaths due to cancer among women, following cervical cancer and stomach cancer. The health authorities in Yopal, took interest in calculating the prevalence of cervical cancer/breast cancer through pap smears/mammary tissue taken via mammograms, in order to improve health measures and surgeries. Methods: transversal retrospective study; 13,461 records of pap smears performed on women between the ages of 10 – 93, from the program for prevention of cervical cancer among eleven health institutions and 2,182 records of mammograms taken for any reason, on women between the ages of 25 -97 in two certified IPS during 2008. Data analysis in Epi Info@ 3.5.1 through descriptive statistics. Results: for cervical cancer, the results came from the public sector of IPS 52.6%; private sector 43.1% and special regime 4.37%. The average age was 35.2 years old, rural area 11%. The Bethesda system of pathological classification reported an ASC-US 1, 77 prevalence. Of the 2,182 records of breast cancer, the average age was 50, 7 years old. According to the BIRADS diagnose the prevalence was BO=32.72. Conclusion: it is suggested that the reading of pap smear results be monitored; create actions directed toward the preservation of data and improving a guaranteed quality system in the IPS, when collecting samples through pap smears and mammogram images.
70 Caracter ísticas demográficas y sociales del cuidador en adultos mayores, Doris Cardona Arango, Ángela María Segura Cardona, Dedsy Yajaira Berbesí Fernández, Jaime Ordoñez Molina, Alejandra Agudelo Martínez
Objetive: describe the demographic and social characteristics of the primary caregiver in older people. Methods: cross-sectional descriptive study, source of primary information from 312 caregivers of older adults registered in the Quality of Life Survey 2008, using the telephone survey to determine health status, conditions of care, dependence on the scale and Katz overload. Univariate and bivariate analysis by sex and municipality, was accompanied by statistical tests. Results: the average age was 54 years, the predominant marital status was married and secondary level, women were mostly housewives and men are employed and spouses or children of the greatest care. The care is on its own initiative, eight hours a day throughout the week and 12% had primary caregiver burden. Conclusions: the primary caregiver of the elderly is mainly women, aged over 50 years and many are themselves older adults, resulting in a double burden: his own condition and that the greatest care, a situation that must be taken into account implement programs to “help the helper” and “care of the caregiver”.
71 Paracoccidioidomicosis crónica. Reporte de un caso, William Arciniegas Quiroga, Dora Luisa Orjuela Zuluaga
The lung is the organ but frequently affected by Paracoccidioidomycosis, with similar clinical and radiological manifestations to other pathologies. We present the case, 58 year-old farmer, with symptoms of cough, blood-tinged sputum, fever, lost of weight and fatigue. The diagnoses it was confirmed with direct of having washed broncoalveolar, serología. The patient was treated with itraconazol during 6 months with clinical, radiological pursuit and inmunodiffusion.
72 Consumo de sustancias psicoactivas en la Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, Colombia, Julio César Mosquera M, Irina Artamónova, Víctor Samuel Mosquera A.
Introduction: this article presents the results of a study of the prevalence of the consumption of psychoactive substances in the Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira UTP. Methods: a survey of the life styles of the students was designed and applied to 1,014 students in a population of 10,145 of the 24 different schools of the Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, and it was analyzed with the aid of specialized software. Results: it was calculated that the total prevalence of the consumption of one or more illegal substances was 16.5%. Also, it was proven that the substances with greater prevalence of usage were: marihuana 10.0%, inhalable substances 7.8% and ecstasy 2.2. Conclusion: percentagewise, the consumption of psychoactive substances in the UTP is greater than in the entire Colombian population. This tendency is also validated if only young people of ages 18 – 24 are to be considered on a national level. The list of traditional drugs used by young people has extended to a very large variety of psychoactive substances, which are readily accessible at the University. A large percentage of the consumption of substances was associated with the free time that the students have: 30.3% in discos, bars, parties, amusement and in a very low percentage was associated with psychological problems 2.9%.
73 Caracterización de familias en las localidades de la Florida, Samaria, Galán y San Nicolás en Pereira, Colombia, Eliana Agudelo G., María Lucila Ayala H., Martha Luisa Ríos I., Diana Marcela Gómez P., Leidy Jhoana López V., Diana Carolina Taborda
Introduction: the health condition in the life stages of individuals within the family system requires tools to guide the studies around the families, their characteristics, qualities, typologies, functionality and crisis among others. As a system, it is important for the individual development and allows the creation of interventions of the infirmary in health encouragement. Methods: study of the descriptive type. The instruments of family assessment were applied to 78 families. The families came from social status 1 and 2 in the urban and rural area of Pereira. Results: the intra family relationships studied are very strong, which means that in spite of the social conflicts that affect the family groups, the cultural value given to the family and its members remains. Conclusion: the families studied are not recognized as a susceptible system to be evaluated; all its members are self evaluated in an individual and isolated manner, away from the community, surroundings and family group.
Introduction: to determine the quality and the psychometrys tests of the written and audio-visual material directed aged with hypertension arterial. Methods: descriptive, transverse study, a panel of 49 experts analyzed the educational material, by means of formats of evaluation elaborated by the Pan-American Organization of the Health; the index of Fernandez- Huerta’s legibility was in use for determining the reading comprehension. The analysis factorial and the internal consistency they were tried in SPSS11.5® and Epidat®. Results: the formats to evaluate the quality of the educational written material reported a total average of 43.11 and acceptable reliability, with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.65 and one total average of 52.65 and reliability of 0.68 for the videos, without statistical significant differences. The analysis factorial of the format for evaluation of printed material reported 3 principal components extracted without rotation, which explained 68.95% of the total variance and for the audio-visual material, suggested the analysis with 4 principal components extracted without rotation, which explained 67.30 % of the total variance. In the whole of the leaflets, the index of legibility located in Very easily (90-100 points), with an accumulated significant profit p
75 Características demográficas y de consumo en pacientes adictos a heroína o derivados de la coca, Carlos Isaza, Pedro Suárez, Julieta Henao, Martha González
Introduction: the problem of psychoactive substances in Colombia is especially critical, because we suffer the triple condition of producer, exporter, and consumer country of illicit drugs. Methods: in this study we explored the characteristics of heroin and coca derivatives (crack, cocaine) intake in 120 men older than 16 years under treatment for drug abuse withdrawal in 13 therapeutic communities in the municipality of Pereira. Results: the average age of volunters was 31±10 years (range: 16-59 years), 89% had levels between primary and secondary school education, only 20% were married or cohabiting and 30% had no social security. The age of first heroin or coca derivatives use was 16.5±6 years, 81% of them reported the existence of at least one family drug addict, coca derivatives consumption predominates over heroin (115/120 and 31/120, respectively), and 119 of 120 patients were multiple consumers. Conclusion: the demographic profile and consumption habits matches with reports of numerous epidemiological studies. Heroin use tends to focus on younger people, while rates of crack and cocaine use are spread across all ages.
76 FACTORES ASOCIADOS AL SÍNDROME DE BURNOUT EN DOCENTES DE ENFERMERÍA, MEDELLÍN-COLOMBIA 2008, José Bareño Silva, Dedsy Yajaira Berbesi Fernández, Claudia Patricia Montoya Zapata
Introduction: the syndrome “Burnout” whose meaning would be “job stress” Burnout. “Has been defined as an occupational hazard that leads to deterioration of the quality of life of workers. The present study strives to determine the prevalence of Burnout syndrome in nurses, teachers of educational institutions in Medellín and possible risk factors. Methods: an observational cross-sectional type with professional nurses, teachers in the educational institutions using a questionnaire addressed Medellin, with a convenience sampling. Results: in total 95 surveys were collected. The statistically significant variables were working relationship, satisfaction of employees working at another institution. Conclusions: the prevalence of the tendency of the syndrome of Burnout in nurse educators was 94.7%. It recommends actions to control the emotional tiredness and strengthen personal fulfillment in teaching nurses.
Objective: to do a revision on the subject of the social and economic system; System in which youth and beauty are privileged and considered above all experience and knowledge. Materials and methods: a bibliographic revision of some authors that have addressed the subject of the work situation of an older adult was conducted. Results: today’s societies discriminate against older adults, failing to recognize their experience, knowledge and wisdom that have been gathered throughout the years. The growth of the older adult population and that of the economically active makes it possible for the work force to grow older, which could affect the economic growth and the correct functioning of the work force; for this reason, older people are expected to leave their work for the younger populations. Conclusions: age has a high cost in the productive work force in Colombia, assumed by the older adults and ignored by the State.
78 Factores que inciden en la no realización de la citología vaginal en las mujeres Bogotanas. 2008, Álvaro L. Fajardo-Zapata, Francy J. Méndez-Casallas, Luis H. Molina
Introduction: to identify the main factors that determine the women´s decision to no practice the vaginal cytology in Bogotá. Methods: according to a transversal descriptive study applied in 2008, among 418 Bogota women in Colombia, it was taken into account the following factors: socioeconomic, education, age and cultural. Results: this research found that 46 % expressed scared at the time of the cytology exam, this feeling is due to the possibility to diagnose cancer. Besides, there were other reasons such as: women felt assault, they were bored about previous instructions, they were ashamed, lazy and besides that they didn´t feel sick or didn´t know the reasons why they practice this exam. Conclusion: this study evidence the main factors that determine the Bogota women´s decision to no practice the vaginal cytology.
79 Soporte Nutricional en Enfermedad Pulmonar: Una revisión sistemática, Rodolfo A. Cabrales Vega
Introduction: the potential for altered nutritional status in critically ill patients with either acute (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome-ARDS/Acute Lung Injury- ALI) or chronic pulmonary disease (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) is significant. Weight loss in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has a negative effect on the clinical course of the patient. Causes of weight loss in this population are known to include effects of an energy imbalance, increased cytokines, hypoxia, and glucocorticoid use. Nutritional support is often indicated as a treatment modality. Methods: we searched 1026 articles and was selected 87 articles. Results: several enteral and parenteral formulas (EN-PN) have been suggested to help counteract the possible adverse respiratory effects associated with a standard formula with higher carbohydrates content to reduce ventilator demand of the patients. However, the use of these specialized enteral formulas in individuals with pulmonary disease remains controversial. Conclusion: the purposes of this systematic review was to synthesize the factors associated with malnutrition in pulmonary diseases and to evaluate the rationale for use of modified parenteral and enteral formulas in both chronic and acute pulmonary disease. This paper includes the available studies evaluating the efficacy of these formulas, and provides overall recommendations for the use of specialized formulas in individuals with pulmonary disease.
80 Meningocele to rácico y lumbar asociada con neurofibromatosis tipo 1. A propósito de un caso, William Arciniegas, Juan José Ospina Ramírez, Víctor Hugo Ruiz
Introduction: this is the service of internal medicine at San Jorge University Hospital, the case of a patient of 48 years with a diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1. Who had symptoms of 3 months of dyspnea, chest pain, and left little cough. Methods and results: we find in the chest CT scan left intrathoracic cyst corresponding to a lateral thoracic meningocele associated with multiple malformations of spine and plexiform neurofibromas, simultaneously, presenting a posterior sacral meningocele, both with progressive growth for six years. Discussion: the meningocele is a rare disease usually associated with neurofibromatosis type 1. Few cases described in the literature and sacred synchronous intrathoracic meningocele.
81 Estudio farmacognósico para el cuidado de la salud a partir de aceites esenciales obtenidos por destilación de arrastre de vapor, Martha Cecilia Beltrán Cifuentes, Enelia Cristina Peláez Gutiérrez, Jorge Mario Estrada Álvarez, Juan Antonio Escobar Ríos, Leticia Serna Ángel, Duvier Ríos Morales
Introduction: natural medicine has substantially addressed the ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants from the study of active principles, using techniques of phytochemistry, for application in different fields of health, including cosmetology. The production of medicinal and aromatic plants is cost-effective when given added value to primary production, those are not as drugs marketed fresh or dried vegetables, but processed and transformed. In that sense can be obtained extracts, oils or develop phytomedicines, phytocosmetic, etc. Method: a study with an experimental approach which was taken as reference of the genus Ocimum species belonging to the family Labiatae (Lamiaceae) that are cultivated in the Department of Risaralda. The species studied were of the varieties: O. basilicum L. var cinammom, O. anisatum, O. purpurescens, O. album, O. thyrsiflorum, O. cf. gratissimum. Essential oils were obtained from the aerial parts of each plant species by extraction of the steam distillation and solvent extraction with ethyl acetate. This procedure was performed in triplicate for each species and its chemical composition was determined by GC-MS. To identify the components of the oils used the database Wiley library (Seventh Edition Version 2003). The recording of data was performed using Microsoft Excel program. Results: the chemical composition of essential oils obtained by GC-MS, reported high in phenylpropane (eugenol, (E)-methyl cinnamate (Z)-methyl cinnamate) and oxygenated monoterpenes (eucalyptol, ?-terpineol, ? - terpineol and linalool). Conclusions: the results are confirmed by reviewing reports from other studies on the chemical composition of some varieties of basil grown in the department of Tolima. This study found a chemotype for them “methyl cinnamate”, and volatiles of these plants were rich in phenylpropanoids.
Objectives: to identify possible pharmacological interactions that could be related with probable negative results associated with medications, by means of searching active data bases of patients affiliated to a health system. Methods: by reviewing statistics of medicines known to present risk interactions throughout systematic data bases of medication providers, in about 4.5 million users in Colombia. Results: the findings reveal cases of simultaneous use of three phosphodiesterase-5 enzyme inhibitors, antagonism between levomepromazine and cabergoline; use of 2 proton pump inhibitors and sucralfate at the same time; irregular dispensation of antiretroviral agents, non-indicated use of somatropine and simultaneous use in the central nervous system of stimulating and depressive drugs. Conclusions: the active search allows optimizing resources, to prevent adverse events that can potentially cause morbidity, or to determine problems that could be responsible for the therapeutic failure, anticipating the appearance of probable risks to the patient.
83 Resistencia y sensibilidad a Warfarina, Carlos Isaza, Julieta Henao, Leonardo Beltrán
Warfarin is the most prescribed oral anticoagulant in the world. The handling of this drug is difficult due to it´s narrow therapeutic range, wide variety of interactions, and great inter-individual variability in the response. In a cohort of 145 patients prescribed with warfarin, a series of cases of susceptibility (dose?15 mg/week) and resistance (doses?70 mg/week) are reported here. After a brief review of relevant pharmacological aspects, we discuss the possible factors causing these exaggerated responses to the drug.
84 Factores asociados con el Síndrome de Visión por el uso de Computador, Patricia Elena García Álvarez, Diana García Lozada
Introduction: the objective of the study was to establish factors associated with the computer vision syndrome. Method: analysis of prevalence of 148 employees of a pharmaceutical company in Bogota, who were subject to an optometric examination and were surveyed on the general characteristics of their jobs and their work habits related to computer use. Statistical analysis was done using multivariate logistic regression. Results: the prevalence of visual symptoms was 51.4% (CI95% 43.4% -59.4%), ie, 76 of the 148 subjects had symptoms. Age (p=0.28) and sex (p=0.55) were not associated with the presence of symptoms. The logistic regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between the frequency of rest periods and the presence of the computer vision syndrome due to the use of computers, (OR 3.87, 95%CI 1.22-12.31, p=0.02) and inadequate lighting in the job and the presence of the syndrome (OR 2.46, 95%CI 1.01-.0, p=0.046). Conclusions: the findings of the population studied revealed that not performing visual breaks at a frequency of every 20 minutes during the time working on the computer and inadequate lighting of the workplace are conditions associated to the occurrence of the computer vision syndrome.
85 Nivel de Actividad Física en personal de empleados de la Universidad Tecnológica de Pereira, UTP 2008, Carlos Danilo Zapata Valencia, José William Martínez, Carlos Eduardo Nieto García
Introduction: during the investigation process for the prevention of non-transmissible chronic diseases conducted at the Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, the teaching and administrative population was characterized in terms of their practice of regular physical activity. Methods: the study of a descriptive character, evaluated a sample of men and women, by means of their level of physical activity (short IPAQ) to which the Craig algorithm was applied (modified) in order to determine the appropriate and not appropriate degree of these levels. The information was entered into a data base SPSS version 17.0, in order to establish the frequency tables. Results: the majority of the population takes walks, followed by other physical activities of moderate or vigorous intensity, but they do not fulfill the international fitting criteria established for the level of physical activity for good health. Conclusions: these findings confirm the need to strengthen the programs for a Healthy University, based on the implementation of social teaching and mobilization strategies for the promotion of physical activity.
86 PRÓTESIS OCULARES: “UNA MIRADA A LAS PRÓTESIS OCULARES” (Artículo de Revisión), Paola Milena Gómez
The manufacturing process of ocular prosthesis has evolved throughout history. Initially, they were manufactured with an artistic objective, made out of different materials like wood and gold. Today, they are artificial medical devices which are made out of polymethil metracrilate, known for its physical and chemical characteristics and good bio compatibility, and with the purpose of aesthetic and anatomic and partially functional restoration of the patient that presents a loss of malformation of the ocular globe, due to a congenital or acquired origin (trauma or pathology). Its manufacturing involves several processes, which strive to reach a good communication with the patient, in order to learn of his expectations. The main processes in manufacturing are: 1. Perform a copy of the orbital cavity or an impression; 2. Make a mold out of plaster from this copy or impression; 3. Manufacture a plastic version of this copy or impression – polymethil metracrilate – through the process of polymerization; 4. Paint the sample, in order to copy the eye characteristics (such as iris and blood vessels); 5. Finally, polish the surface with abrasive materials, in order to obtain the shinny and soft appearance of a normal eye.
Introduction: the wound healing process is a sequence of events depends on the cellular dynamics of the injured and surrounding tissue, allowing the release of growth factors and cytokines to carry out the repair in three phases: acute or inflammatory, cell proliferation and tissue remodeling. Methods: we searched for articles in major scientific databases as PubMed of NCBI, Science Direct, HINARI and JSTOR. Results: related studies in this review, trying to improve and optimize the phenomenon of scarring in adult, in order to seep up the repair time and avoid the occurrence of secondary infectious processes and restoring normal process in the repair of chronic wounds. Conclusions: it is clear that the crude extracts from leaves, shells, flowers and root bark have the potential to accelerate healing events. However, it is unknown in most cases, the active metabolites and their mechanisms of action on cells and growth factors involved in the process, so further studies are required to investigate this aspect.
Introduction: depression is the most frequent disabling mental disorder: the present study strives to analyze the social/demographic factors and vital events associated to depression in patients in 14 hospitals in the State of Antioquia. Methods: a study of cases and controls in a population of 204 patients in hospitals of first level of attention was designed. The sample was selected by convenience. The patients diagnosed with depression were evaluated within three months of having started treatment and were classified: no improvement (case) and with clinical improvement (control). Results: there was an association found between no improvement of the depressive symptoms after three months of starting anti-depressive treatment and the social/ demographic background, financial problems and vital events. Conclusion: the main factors associated with depression that were found are: not having an affiliation regime to the social security and health system; financial problems, death of a son/daughter and psychological and physical domestic violence, which point to the need to explore these variables.
Introduction: to detect the occurrence of Horizontal Meridional Aniseikonia in patients operated of refractive surgery with LASIK. Methods and materials: a sample of 19 patients made emmetropic by LASIK intervention is compared t a sample of 20 naturally emmetropic patients in order to asses the effect that changes in corneal curvature have over the horizontal meridian of the retinal image taking into account that variations of the optical power of the eye alters the position of the Nodal Point which in turn alters the size of the retinal image. Pre-existing ametropia was not specified or taken into account. Merchan Monocular Test for Aniseikonia was used for this study (Merchán G. 2004). A computer generated vertically elongated ellipsoid increases, upon command, the horizontal axis gradually approaching a perfect circle. The patient activates the test and is asked to stop the moment he or she considers that the ellipsoid has turned into a perfect circle. At this point the software compares the horizontal to the vertical axis of the resulting figure. Any difference between the axes is shown in percentage. Ideally, the horizontal axis should be 100% equal to the vertical axis which means that the figure is really a circle and is perceived as such by the patient, furthermore proving that no Horizontal Meridional Magnification is present in the eye under testing. The fellow eye is similarly tested and the results of the two eyes are compared. Differences above 3% (Borish, 1975) is considered indicative of the presence of Horizontal Meridional Aniseikonia. Results: statistical analyses for both one-tail and two-tails for the Z value for difference in proportions of the two groups show that 36.8% in the first group (emétropes by surgery) is statiscally significant from 5% in the second group (natural emmetropes), thus rejecting the null hypotheses. Conclusions: refractive surgery changes the corneal curvature and consequently the position of the Nodal Point all of which may cause a secondary asymptomatic low degree Horizontal Meridional Aniseikonia in approximately one third of the cases examined.
90 CONOCIMIENTOS, ACTITUDES Y PRÁCTICAS EN SALUD SEXUAL Y REPRODUCTIVA, en YOPAL, CASANARE, COLOMBIA, 2009, Oneida Castañeda Porras, Néstor Gerónimo Ortega, Yolima Reyes, Omar Segura, Lina Morón Duarte
Introduction: the sexual and reproductive health (SSR) is a general state of physical-mental and social well being. Understanding the sexual risk factors that lead to sexually transmitted diseases (ETS), allows the intervention of such factors, in order to improve this state. Methods: study of Knowledge, attitude and practices (CAP) with a probabilistic sampling by stratified and multiphase conglomerates in 2812 people between the ages of 10 – 69, located in urban and rural areas; an informed consent and approval was requested, according to the norm. Results: 2241 of the urban population (84%) and 426 of the rural population (16%) filled out the survey. The first sexual relation among men was at the age of 15 (range 10 – 25) and in women at the age of 17 (range 10 – 38). 92% of the survey is informed in regards to ETS; Only 47 (1.7%) received treatment. Conclusion: weaknesses were found in the sexual CAP that fall into a risky sexual experience and increase the risk factor for ETS. It was recommended to expand the action to strengthen the forces and promote the SSR, as well as complete sexual education according the Colombian norms.
91 CARACTERÍSTICAS DE LA HOSPITALIZACIÓN EN EL SERVICIO DE MEDICINA INTERNA DEL HOSPITAL SAN RAFAEL DE TUNJA, Juan Manuel Ospina D*, Fred Gustavo Manrique A**, Nelly Esperanza Ariza R***, María Teresa Pinzón****, Flor Alba Arcos
Objective: determine the volume, structure, main causes of admission, hospital length of stay and mortality in patients admitted to the Internal Medicine service of the Hospital San Rafael in Tunja, during the months of August 2006 and July 2007. Methods: descriptive study of a transversal style. An exhaustive revision of the admission registration records was conducted. The sample is made up of the admissions to internal medicine. The variables were evaluated: gender, age, base illness, admission diagnosis, days stayed at the hospital and condition upon release. Results: average length of stay is 6.29 days (SD= 5.38); 35.1% of the patients remain hospitalized for more than 6 days; average age is 61.57 years old (SD= 20.28); 62.8% of the patients are more than 60 years old; 36.2% of the patients are cared for by subspecialties of pneumology and cardiology, followed by the service of neurology (18.3%); 7.1% of the patients admitted died while the service was provided. The main causes of death were neurologic (27.5%) followed by cardiovascular and respiratory disease (24.6%) Conclusions: in the short term, it is recommended to organize and update guiding protocols for a complete service for patients with cardiac failure and respiratory failure. It is useful to become familiar with the occurrence of morbidity when administering the service, because it will allow the development of prevention programs and reduce the number of hospitalization as well as hospital length of stay. A constant update of the total health team in attention to the geronte, is an indication of management that contributes to guarantee the quality of service, an aspect which is evaluated for the accreditation of the institution.
Introduction: subjective refraction is used as a test of gold. It incorporates the patient’s neurosensory participation in order to define the best corrected vision. Methods: the objective of this work is to analyze the differences of the data obtained from comparing subjective refraction versus objective refraction measured through aberration maps by wavefront (wave length) by means of vectors and statistical analysis. Results: 156 eyes with subjective and objective refraction were evaluated ORK (wavefront Schwind: instrument that analyzes all the optical aberrations that reach the eye), and the differences that were found in near-sighted, long-sighted, astigmatism, hypermetropy and near-sighted astigmatisms were less than 0.50 diopters (70%) with a variance in the axis of up to 25 degrees. Conclusion: significant average differences were found between the subjective refraction taken as a test of gold and the COAS (objective measuring unit guided by wave lengths) defined as objective refraction. In spite of finding differences of less than 0.50 diopters, it is of great clinical importance at the time of adapting a pair of glasses, contact lenses and/or program refractive surgery.
93 Caracterización de imaginarios de los empleados de la UTP con relación a la práctica de la actividad física: 2008, José Carlos Giraldo Trujillo, Carlos Danilo Zapata Valencia, Patricia Granada Echeverry
Introduction: characterize the employee population of the Universidad Tecnologica de Pereira, according to their knowledge, barriers and attitude towards physical activity. Methods: sample of 140 people (docents and administrative) evaluated by means of a survey designed and guaranteed internationally by the Programa Agita Sao Paulo. The data was included in an excel database and exported to the SPSS program, in order to establish the frequency tables and univaried analysis. Results: the evaluated employees have good knowledge of physical activity, but the stage of change of behavior in most of them is contemplative, meaning that they recognize the importance of a regular practice of physical activity, but they don’t make the decision to incorporate it into their everyday lives. Among the recommendations for a healthy life, physical activity came in third place among the administrative staff and second for docents; while the main cultural barriers for not performing physical activity were: lack of self discipline, lack of time, inadequate weather and the need to rest during their free time. Conclusion: these findings confirm those found in previous work in the state of Risaralda and reinforce the idea of the need to strengthen the programs to promote physical activity.
Objective: evaluate a virtual learning environment to support the teaching of the anatomy in Medical School of the University Pedagogical and Technological of Colombia. Measure the effect on academic performance and the perception students. Materials and methods: cross-sectional study and ex pos facto. Results and conclusions: the perception of the virtual learning environment was good and in line with expectations of students. In courses in which the VLE improved teacher-student interaction and student-student, produced a favorable impact on learning. The Virtual learning environment was an alternative and complement to the amphitheater practice. Recommendations: to assess more accurately the impact on academic achievement of the VLE further research are needed. It is recommended to seek the support of the office of virtual education for the creation of virtual objects and even develop systems simulation.
Introduction: the serological prevalence of the bovine leptospirosis disease was analyzed in the rural area of the municipality of Pereira, State of Risaralda, Colombia, in order to find out its actual situation. Methods: during this period, 1789 heads of cattle in 158 cattle estates, coming from 88 different farms, were evaluated through a technique of microscopic agglutination of live antigens, Results: the results show a global prevalence of leptospirosis of 16.4% in animals and 32.5% in estates. The predominant serovar was hardjo with 45.7% and the antibody titles found were at very low levels between 1:50 (51.5%) – 1:100 (45.3%). Discussion: the risk factors that were found are the presence of rodents, the proximity to garbage disposal areas, areas with humid climates and presence of wetlands in pastures, poor management of disinfection in the property and the presence of other animal species close to cattle in the farm.
96 Accesibilidad a acciones de promoción de la salud y prevención de población hipertensa de Pereira, Colombia, 2008. La mirada del paciente, Liliana Patricia Muñoz, María del Pilar Cerezo Correa, María Cecilia González Robledo, Alba Lucía Paz Delgado, Cecilia Realpe Delgado, Consuelo Vélez Álvarez, Silvia Clemencia Vélez Baena, Liliana Quintero Álvarez
Introduction: the accessibility to promotional and preventive services for the hypertensive population, is one of the strategies of public health, in order to reduce the risks of getting sick and dying in this population. Evaluating the obstacles to access these services, allows the reorientation of healthy policies, in order to be able to guarantee a good quality of life and decrease the inequality. Methods: descriptive study of 422 hypertensive people, which evaluated their perceptions of promotional and preventive actions. Results: patients from different health institutions participated. 70.5% with equal or lesser monthly incomes to the minimum salary wage, low schooling; only 8% has access to programs of physical activity. Conclusions: the accessibility is determined by 5 components and the promotional and preventive services are guaranteed among the lower income population that belongs to the subsidiary regime: participating in health clubs and executing physical activity. These findings were not found in the population with a regime by contribution.
97 Accesibilidad de la población habitante de calle a los programas de Promoción y Prevención establecidos por la Resolución 412 de 2000, Andrés Felipe Tirado Otálvaro, Marta Elena Correa Arango
Introduction: indigency in Colombia has increased significantly because of problems such as displacement, unemployment, drug dependency and the inability of the State to formulate social policies that respond to this reality. This research describes as the homeless of Medellin, go to the promotion and disease prevention programs established by resolution 412 of 2000, in order to generate information for improving their health care. Methods: cross sectional descriptive study type. n = 372 individuals attending the care program for street people. It was marked demographically the population and the variables of interest were analyzed through X2, OR (95%) and p
98 Frecuencia de alteraciones respiratorias en escolares de La Florida en Pereira, Alejandra Fernández Cardona, Melissa Andrea Fontalvo Acosta, Taís Alejandra Gallego Valencia, Maira Lizeth Hinestroza Palomino, Lina Marcela Pineda Gutiérrez, Diana Marcela Reyes Arce, José William Martínez, Claudia Janeth Hernández
Introduction: the respiratory diseases are one of the main pathologies that affect children under five years old worldwide, and one of the main causes of mortality and morbidity among children in Latin America. The objective of this descriptive study is to identify the risk for these respiratory disorders in schoolchildren. Methods: clinical evaluation, measurement of the peak expiratory flow and the allergy and asthma ISAAC questionnaire. Results: 94 children between 4 and 14 years old were evaluated, 44 of which were girls and 50 were boys. In the evaluation of the upper respiratory tract there were found just a few alterations and most of them were observed in the nasal tract, the evaluation of the lower respiratory tract showed alterations in the inspection and auscultation but were also just a few. In relation with the typical symptoms of allergic rhinitis it was found that approximately half of the study population claims to have one or more of these symptoms. It was also found only 32,5% of these symptomatic children had been diagnosed. Conclusions: it is important to emphasize that there is a serious lack of knowledge nationwide regarding this problematic issue, which is why it is considered important to expand this study to different places of the region and the country in order to improve the respiratory heath of the Colombian population.
99 Evolución de la Red Nacional de Laboratorios 2006-2008: los cambios en la normativa impulsaron cambios en el desempeño del laboratorio de salud pública., Omar Segura, Danik Valera
Introduction: Colombia developed its law and health services on international counseling; public health laboratory (PHL) is an example. Evolution of national public health, specially during 2003 to 2007 paved the way for a PHL diagnostic and evaluation from the law and quality management. Methods: descriptive longitudinal study with independent surveys to the PHL based upon a proposal for an “Authorization System” and a modification and application of epidemiologic surveillance cycle to make information feedback and follow-up onto the PHL. Results: PHL coordinators participation was important during 2006 to 2008, up to 67%. PHL reached in 2008 64% in management and 77% in technical requirements; items with the most progress were Organization & Client service, Quality assurance and Biosafety. Conclusions: law was positively influential in the PHL performance; there are evidences of advances in quality with technical competence; their personnel, methods, processes and facilities do require technical assistance from central level. It is needed a prospective exercise for the future.
Introduction: a large majority of elders presents a certain degree of limitation in their physical mobility and due to this, they struggle with the difficulties to adapt and move around7; this deterioration generates vulnerability, which results in fragile human beings with reserved medical prognosis in some cases, which include handicaps, dependence, falls, becoming interns and mortality in older adults. Methods: a characterization of the degree of mobility in older adults was performed, according to the Katz scale, at the Centro de Bienestar para el Anciano de San Jose de Pereira, during the first semester of 2007. Results: the study included all the residents of the center, older than 59 years of age (100%). 47.8% of the people evaluated are autonomous; however, only 8% of the autonomous elderly are healthy. Conclusions: the levels of autonomy of the elder are not synonymous with their quality of life. On the contrary, these require multidisciplinary teams, lead by nurses. Throughout the development of aides and supports, nurses are able to offer a guarantee of quality and well being, avoiding accidents in their daily activities and providing a benefit to the elders with nutritional, therapeutic and preventive supports.
101 Efectividad de Intervenciones Educativas en Primeros Auxilios, Daniela Tenorio, John Marino Escobar, Erwin Stid Garzón, Carlos Castaño, Andrés Acevedo, José William Martínez
Introduction: the scientific evidence has demonstrated that the education of a suitable practice of The First Aids in the community contributes with the structure of mortality´s changes. These studies have been evaluated in institutions of media education in the Americas and in the community in general. This project has as aim: to evaluate the efficiency of an educative intervention in the level of knowledge about The First Aids in high schools´ students. Methods: there were selected two high schools institutions by 72 students who realized a pre and a post test. They received training, designed by the authors and defined in a manual. Results: the intervention showed differences according to the sex. In girls, the strategy achieved an increase skills and know ledges in First aids in the community. Conclusions: the educational intervention with the support of the administrative teachers was successful in girls, because of the evidences and reports that increased students´ knowledges, actions and skills.
The diabetes Mellitus and the obstructive chronic lung disease, EPOC (OCLD), are part of the pathologies that have been classically defined as degenerative and chronic. The mortality in Risaralda reports the OCLD as being systematically among the first three causes of demise in the series since 1997. The tendency is towards the descent, while the mortality due to Diabetes Mellitus seems to have a trend towards the descent, it has presented an increase in the mortality rate during the past year. Even though there is an information system of sicknesses and mortality in the Departmental Secretary of Health of Risaralda, the orientation of promotional health policies is not enough with the information reported by the death certificates, to the point that currently the risk factors of the characteristic people diagnosed with DIABETES and/or EPOC (OCLD) are not know. People registered in the social enterprises of the state in the public net of the state of Risaralda. Methodology: This is a descriptive study, based on the individual records of services rendered RIPS (IRRS) that uses the following instruments as a source: Record of physical activity through the IPAC, cardiovascular risk, cardio- respiratory evaluation, the global recollection of the food of the previous day. A second quality control was carried out with the previously evaluated field records. The data base was created in Epiinfo. The results of the survey related to the nutritional analysis by means of the 24 hour remembrances and frequency of consumption, show, for individuals with Diabetes Mellitus, an average consumption of calories of 1.268 K/cal/day an extremely low register that places the contribution of consumed calories in a percentage of 43.1 in severe deficiency; of 41.6 moderate and of 12.4 in trivial deficiency. Note that neither normal caloric consumption nor excess consumption is reported. For people with EPOC (OCLD), the average of caloric consumption is positioned in 1274 K/cal/day, an equally low register that places the contribution of consumed calories at 39.0% in severe deficiency; 44.7% moderate and 10.6% slight deficiency. The caloric normality as well as the caloric excess does not present consumption.
103 ESTADO DE PORTADORES DE BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS EN ADOLESCENTES DE 12 A 19 AÑOS EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DEL TOLIMA, COLOMBIA, 2007 , Lina Sofía Morón Duarte, Jaime Moreno** Martha Gracia*** María Elena Realpe** Gilma Lucia Peña Daza****
Antecedents: studies have revealed that Bordetella Pertussis is present in a significant number of adolescents and adults, thus confirming its agency in the development of the syndrome in up to 30% of the cases examined. This may in turn play an important role in the transmission of the disease to breast fed children. To determine the nature of the bacteria B. Pertussis in adolescents carriers, residents of Tolima and to evaluate the efficacy of the polymerase (PCR) chain reaction strategy as a diagnostic medium on the carrier. Methods: a field study conducted on a cross section of the population in which 400 youths between the ages of 12 and 19 were selected by means of random testing. Nasopharyngeal samples were collected and treated with live cultive techniques: direct immunofluorescence (IFD) with polyclonal antibodies on the one hand, and polymerase (PCR) IS4801-IS4802 chain reaction methods on the other. Treatment was undertaken in the National Institute for Health. Results: 400 samples were treated with negative cultures: 34 (8.5%) tested positive with IFD and 132(33%) with PCR. Both techniques were positive 29(17%) and 263(66%) negative with IFD and PCR. Of the total samples taken 34.25% (137/400) were positive. The sensitivity of PCR in relation to IFD was 85.3% (IC:95%, 15,4- 30.2) and in relation to VPN was 98.1% (IC:95%, 95.5-99.3). Conclusions: carriers of the strain tested with IFD and PCR are shown to be healthy, nevertheless the live bacteria remains the prototype of the illness and for this reason the study is inconclusive in its findings. A process of continual assessment into the condition of the B.Pertussis carriers is necessary in order to ascertain whether, amongst those diagnosed by live cultures, there are not those who are asymptomatic carriers.
Introduction: the assessment of intelligence is one of the most controversial aspects in the education and psychological fields. It is measured through psychometric testing which only takes into consideration some of the dimensions and cognitive processes, such as verbal understanding, level of knowledge, verbal training of concepts, skills of abstract and concrete reasoning, logical thinking, memory, language development, ability to classify and generalize numerical reasoning, mental calculation, speed in the mental processes, use of the practical knowledge, the use of judgement in social situations, common sense, moral and ethical judgement, attention and concentration and do not take others into consideration, such as location of space, tone, rhythm and musical intonation, capabilities to precisely perceive the visual world, realize transformations and modifications to the initial perceptions, even in the absence of proper physical stimuli, control of proper body movements and the capability to handle objects with skill, access to their own private life, ability to notice and establish differences between other individuals and, in particular, between mood swings, temperament, motivations and intentions. In addition, they underestimate the influence of the environment on the subject’s performance; this situation becomes more complex when assessing people with cognitive disabilities. Thus, it is necessary to assess the intellectual capabilities through qualitative, less diminishing processes, as Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligences suggests. Method: related study with emphasis in establishing the degree of relation between the variables (contextual test PCI and WISC-R). Results: the study showed that there is no direct relation between the subtests of the intelligence test WISCR and PCI, which indicates that both of them consider different aspects of similar processes. With the contextual test it was possible to observe abilities and competences that would hardly be demonstrated through a formal test. However, it is necessary to admit that there was a low population performance. Conclusion: although the performance of the population that was subject to this study was relatively low in both tests, the evaluation through a contextual test contributes significant elements to the processes of incorporating the disabled population into schools, facilitating the development of other competitions and their adjustment to the school environment.
Teaching and research are fundamental aspects of life in higher education nevertheless the nature of their relationship has created a divide amongst university lecturers. There are those who view teaching and research as two sides of the same coin, providing in this way a rounded education for the students as well as contributing to the general ethos of the institution, its Vision and its Mission. On the other hand there are those who consider the relationship between the two as idealistic, preferring to perceive of research and teaching as incompatible activities. The aim of this document is twofold. Firstly to contribute to current discussions on the subject; secondly to highlight ways in which the roles of teacher and researcher may be unified in the person of the university lecturer. Such is the desire of all universities that consider the pillars of teaching, research and outreach to be an integral part of their mission statement, not to mention a fundamental component of their common institutional policy. By way of conclusion a possible Teaching and Research Integration Strategy (PIDI) is proposed, a strategy that could have significant benefits for the University of Antioquia’s 2016 projections insofar as it deals with the question of teacher-cum-researcher. The strategy is presented in four stages: awareness raising, training, integration and motivation.
Background: around the world, there are several models in field epidemiology training programs whose trainees and graduates each year have the opportunity to present their abstracts in the scientific meeting of regional or global character TEPHINET. The aim is to describe the experience of the process of registry, evaluation and selection for the oral presentation or poster abstracts at the 5th Scientific Regional Meeting TEPHINET for the Americas, in addition to evaluating the QUADLOGIC ® software as a tool for registry, classification and evaluation of scientific abstracts. Method: we applied the descriptive observational model study, based on 20 field epidemiologist evaluators from the 13 participating countries and 154 abstracts to evaluate. The process was divided into registry, evaluation and selection of abstracts in oral presentation or poster, classified by subject of presentation: Outbreaks (OB), Hospital acquired infections (HI), Surveillance and methods (S/M), Vaccine preventable diseases (VPD), Emerging infections (EI), STI/HIV, Other topics (OT). Results: initial Registry of 169 abstracts, out of 12 of the 14 FETP belonging to the Region of the Americas and the EPIET of Spain, 15(8.9%) eliminated as duplicates. Assigned by evaluator =24.3 (range=3:34). Score =3.0 (range=0:4). Registration evaluator’s comments: at least one, 69(40.9%); two, 42(27.3%), three, 10(6.5%) and without comments 39(25.3%). 125(81.2%) abstracts were selected, 44(18.6%) oral presentation, 81(52.6%) poster and 29(18.8%) rejected. As subject in Oral presentation: OB 15(34.1%), S/M 12(27.3%), OT 8(18.2%), EI 5 (11.4%), VPD 2(4.2%) and HI 2(4.2%). As Poster: S/M 31(38.3%), OB 24(29.6%), OT 18(22.2%), VPD 5(6.2%), HI 2(2.5%) and STI/HIV 1(1.2%). Conclusions: the emphasis of training in the study of outbreaks and surveillance and methods was reflected, as well as the implementation of field epidemiology in other topics of public health interest. Using the system QL allowed randomly assigning three evaluators for abstracts, to filter identifiable data of the author and country and manage the process monitoring in time. We recommend the registry of the evaluator’s comments on the work that will feedback its author, and, to include the categories of Graduate and Trainee in the QL system.
Antecedents: during 2005 and 2006 Colombia implemented a nationwide day of vaccinations against Measles and Rubella, in the event it was to be expected that some pregnant women would be inadvertently administered with the vaccine. In order to prevent any detrimental effects on the pregnancy, these women were subsequently monitored by means of an epidemiological study. Methods: a field study was conducted into women aged between 14 and 39 who had received the Rubella and Measles vaccine without knowing that they were pregnant. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) tests for the detection of the rubella virus were applied in each case. If, within a period of no greater than 30 days from the moment of vaccination, the IgM results proved negative and the IgG results positive then the women were declared immune. However if the IgM results taken immediately after the vaccination registered as positive then the women were categorised as susceptible to the virus. The woman were classified as indeterminate if they showed negative IgM results and positive IgG results in a period exceeding the 30 days lapse between the vaccination and the application of the serological tests. Results: among 3,489 pregnant women that were administered with the vaccine, 2,732 displayed IgM results of (-) (78.3%); 510 displayed positive indices in the IgG – immunity tests, and 87 were negative-susceptible in this case-; out of all the cases treated in the IgM (+) band 277 (7.9%) were classed as susceptible. This is to say that 364 (10.4%) cases were identified as susceptible whilst 510 (14.6%) were deemed immune and only 66 (1.8%) appeared as doubtful or without result on second trial. 414 (11.8%) did not obtain their results in a laboratory. Those who proved HIV positive in reaction to the IgM - results are specific to the time lapse between the date of vaccination and the application of the serological tests – were as follows: 5.4% 0-30 days); 10.1% (31-60 days); 8.4% (61-90 days), and 8.5% ((? 90 days). With regards to the age of the patients, of the total number or women considered susceptible, it was discovered that the group aged between 16 and 25 years which represents 46.9% (130/277) were more susceptible (6.6%) to rubella. Conclusions: the serological and epidemiological data collected warranted the cross – sector application of the vaccine to women between the ages of 14 – 39 years. None of the pregnant women subsequently monitored displayed signs of congenital rubella syndrome that could have been the result of the preventative rubella vaccine.
108 BROTE DE TOSFERINA, MUNICIPIO DE SINCELEJO, DEPARTAMENTO DE SUCRE, COLOMBIA, 2008, Carlos Villareal, David Buelvas, Lina Morón, Esperanza Gómez, Orlando Castillo
Antecedents: whooping cough is an acute respiratory disease that is highly contagious, particularly within confined areas such as family units or shared domestic spaces. In February 2008 an outbreak of whooping cough was reported and cases of the respiratory illness corroborated by epidemiological analysis. Of these cases a certain number had not received a certified vaccine, in addition to which they lacked the sufficient clinical and epidemiological detail to determine the nature of the illness. Methods: a field study of a cross section of the population was undertaken. The nature of the case was confirmed in the laboratory and by epidemiological analysis. At the same time an eradication plan was implemented at an institutional and national level, a policy of mass vaccination was instigated and a process for monitoring the coverage of the vaccinations across the population was rapidly introduced. Chemical prophylactic antidotes were also introduced. Results: one case was confirmed by the laboratory and 4 by epidemiological analysis. The incubation period was established at =16.2 days; the total households affected was 33% (5/15). Of the 52 houses visited 42 were declared safe, there was no sign of child absenteeism in the institutions visited and 100% coverage was recorded across the state. Of the 24170 cases that were registered and attended to, 3227 had compatible diagnoses, 17 were marked as likely cases of whooping cough and 7 were followed up in investigation. Conclusions: there are difficulties in detecting cases of whooping cough and not enough incidents are reported to SIVIGILA, laboratory diagnosis, which could isolate the bacteria is problematic. It is indispensable that all health institutions raise awareness of the condition and that the resources of the public health laboratories be improved.
Introduction: The conditions of life are the set of material circumstances of the existence and survival of an individual or human group. Sandal multiple dimensions: house, work, education, security, health, among others and as such are the reflection of the economic policies and the programs of government. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study in a random sample and representative of 1066 young people was conducted. The general profile of the living conditions of young adolescents, of 15 is described to 19 years, using the technique of the analysis of multiple correspondences. Results: Familiar, educative, labor, psycho-social the profiles and of health of the young adolescents of the socioeconomic level under reflected problems of familiar cohesion, economic and of de-schooling besides negative valuation of aspects that talk about to their future and its affective relations. In all the socioeconomic levels, a positive valuation of the utility of the study is had and as far as the sexuality, the age of beginning of the sexual activity is similar standing out that generally the predominance of this beginning is with a well-known in the socioeconomic levels low and high, by sexual desire and a LF of use of the contraceptive methods although between uses those who them predominate the barrier methods. Discussion and conclusions: The results especially sustain a monitoring of the living conditions of the young adolescents in the socioeconomic levels of the city in those depressed zones more.
Introduction: This study looks forward showing the average values and the correlation of the reason A/CA throughout the evaluation with the gradient and the heterophorias. The rough A/CA found with the gradient and heterophorias method were 1:3.15 and 1:4.89 respectively. Methods: The A/CA was calculated with the gradient method, using lenses of +100, - 100, -200 and -3.00 dioptre. To measure the habitual and the induced heterophorias we used the Von Graefe method with Risley prisms in the foropter and a row of letters was laid and subtending one AV to VL of 20/40 and near (0.4m) of 20/30 in the rotochart. The interpupilar distance was evaluated for averted vision, using a UV light source located 40 cm and centering the measurer with the first Purkinge image for every eye. Results: The A/CA correlation evaluated with both was 0.162 (Spearman), and with the first technique among the different stimulating lenses was better between – 2.00 and 3.00 D (r = 0.771) and less efficient with 1.00 and – 1.00 D (r =0.149). The average interpupilar distance was 60 mm and the correlation with the A/CA Heterophorias was very deficient (r= 0.292). Conclusions: We found lower average values than the ones stated in the literature with both techniques; low correlation between the two methods and variability among the results with the gradient, when using different stimulating lenses; the less value found with the Heterophorias method is due to the less interpupilar distance.
Objective: To determine prevalence and factors associated with the substance related Disorders at Guatapé’s school. Methods: A cross-sectional, which surveyed the 546 students of high school in this town in 2005. We found prevalences consumption and risk factors were explored by calculating OR. Results: The alcoholism prevalence was 12.5% for men and 6.2% for women. It did not have consumption basuco, heroin, popper, the marijuana was the most illicit substance consumed (1.6%). The risk factors found were domestic violence, sexual abuse, physical abuse, support of partners, other ps or friends, living with mother and her partner or alone with mother, consumers friends and sadness or rejected at school. Conclusions: The licit substances more consumed were alcohol and cigarette, and illicit substances was marijuana, all substances were the most consumed for men.
112 Autoestima y sexualidad en adolescentes: validación de una escala, David Cataño Toro, Samuel Alberto Restrepo, Nicolás David Portilla, Héctor David Ramírez
Self-estem is the way in which each person is valued and therefore confident in itself why its significance is crucial in making decisions of each individual, like the decision to become pregnant at a specific age. This study seeks to validate a test to assess adolescent self-esteem. Metodology: We performed a literature review and decided to make a cultural validation of the test area-Specific Self Steem Scale, edited by the Centre for Disease Control in Atlanta, Georgia1, which was divided into two parts, identified a high level and a low level of self-esteem respectively. The test was introduced adapted to a college education mean Alcalá town of 16000 people in the coffee region of Colombia, from the northern Valle del Cauca. The results were analyzed by STATA 10. The outcome: The test identification of high self-esteem has a high reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0,737) and the test has a low self-esteem reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.82). The test has a high self-esteem predictive capability of 0,709 and low self-esteem had a predictive ability approaching 100%. The outcomes to test high esteem sensitivity of 96.61% and a specificity approaching 100%. The definition of a good self-esteem, they would be properly classified the 98.45%. Conclusion: Them we could say that this study validates the test of high and low self-esteem as a useful tool for measuring the level of self-esteem of a population whose results serve as a baseline for measurement and subsequent interventions that seek to improve work in high-risk behavior among adolescents.
Introduction: In a qualitative study, of hermeneutic assessment, the authors structured a proposal to develop argumentative writing skills in University students. In Colombia, the more relevant difficulties in the construction of argumentative essays were determined and the subjective aspects for the construction of those written assignments were taken into account. Methods: Based on the didactic functional and procedural approaches defined by Héctor Perez Grajales to work on the written expression. Results: We found that 67% of the essays from the Catholic University of Manizales and 50% of the essays from the Universidad del Rosario students were considered of good quality. The participants understood the importance of planning essay construction and identified the essential aspects and procedures of that planning. Conclusion: They also understood the value of the self-correcting and recognized their improvement on their writing skills from this process. Students affirmed that those learning processes will be useful to give coherence and cohesion to their writings and to identify clear parameters when correcting documents. They also emphasized the applicability of these concepts in their professional formation. The initial proposal was enriched through this experience and it could be applied with other groups of students at the University level.
Introduction: In Colombia there are research groups in Leishmaniasis that have joined forces to achieve the identification of the genome of Leishmania spp. As health professionals know this is a priority to understand the mechanisms of drug resistance. Methods: The databases used for this search were among others: NCBI PubMed MEDLINE, Science Direct, Nucleic Acids Research and Biochemical and Molecular Parasitology, as a publication of the journal Biomedical and several universities. Results: There are many species and vectors distributed throughout the country. The multiresistents created by Leishmania spp. rely especially in membrane proteins and mutations in the DNA of the parasite and their delivery systems. Conclusions: The PCR techniques should be implemented at the clinic to study resistance to drugs. The current protocols against Leishmaniasis not include additional alternatives. The treatments with immunomodulators are the new hope for treating this re-emerging disease.
Introduction: The highest aggressive level in human being shows up at the age of two or three years old. This behavior decreases with the family and school socialization. In some cases when they go to school for the first time it can improve, though. Children still continuously aggressive at the age of ten, are related with difficult life conditions, school drop out, early sexual life beginning, alcohol consuming and difficulties to graduate. There are evidences which show how aggressive children lives can change through out modifying their aggressiveness level. Methods: This assignment is a systematic revision of literature compiled through data bases, proquest, hinari, science direct, ovid. Conclusions: Aggressive behavior is a characteristic that can be identified and changed to guarantee a better life condition of school children.
116 TIFUS MURINO EN EL CAIRO-VALLE ¿BROTE O CONDICIÓN ENDÉMICA EMERGENTE?, Ramírez Nhora Estella, Galvis Murillo Olga, Agudelo Andrés Felipe, Velásquez Rodrigo, Restrepo Rendón Luisa Fernanda, Castrillón Valencia Natalia Katerine, Sánchez Gil Andrés, Carmona Alzate Luis Fernán* Vivas Grisales Fernando* Arias Jesús**** Granada Retrepo Carlos* Girón Andrés Fernando*
Introduction: El Cairo is a town in Valle, Murine Typhus is not commonly diagnosed, a shot was reported in this region by information systems. Methods: Some cases have been taken from the Municipal Epidemiological Vigilance System in El Cairo, Valley which is administered by the Local Hospital. Results: Thirty- four new cases of Murine Typhus were reported having all of them a predominant characteristic; they were found in female and adult population. Conclusion: The outbreak was controlled as a result of the appropiate intervention from the Municipal Epidemiological Vigilance Committee and the coordinated work from some institutions.
Introduction: The relationship between a country’s economic development and its fatality rate from motor vehicle accidents (MVA) has not been studied according to the different types of users of public thoroughfares. Methodology: This article presents a cross analysis of recent mortality data from 44 countries through the use of information found in the death certifications supplied by the World Health Organization. Results: For five types of users of public roadways the mortality rate by MVA is presented as deaths per 100,000 inhabitants and deaths per 1000 motor vehicles. Economic development is measured by the per capita GDP (Gross Domestic Product) in US dollars and the number of motor vehicles per 1000 inhabitants. The results showed that the total mortality rate by MVA in low income countries reached a peak at a GDP of around US $2000 per capita and around 100 motor vehicles per 1000 inhabitants. Conclusions: The overall mortality rate diminished with the increase of national income at around US $24,000. The majority of the changes in fatality by MVA in association with economic development were explained by changes in the number of nonmotorized users of public ways, especially pedestrians. The total number of MVA was reduced when the exposure of pedestrians to motorized traffic was lower either because there were fewer motor vehicles or because there were fewer pedestrians. The rate was higher during critical periods of transition towards more motorized transportation when many pedestrians and other non-motorized users of public thoroughfares were competing for space with increased numbers of motorized vehicles.
118 SITUACIÓN SOCIODEMOGRÁFICA DEL MENOR EN SITUACIÓN IRREGULAR (ABANDONO O PELIGRO). ENVIGADO, COLOMBIA 2000-2004., Adriana Milena Espinosa López, Carolina Monsalve Calderón, Sandra Janeth Rodríguez Taborda, Doris Cardona Arango
This article looks for to call the attention on the abandonment of the minors on the part of it´s parents and it´s intention is that conscience is taken from those social behaviors that affect and place in an irregular situation to the childhood and Envigadeña youth. Objective: To explore the sociodemografic characteristics of the minors in irregular situation (abandonment or danger), the plaintiff and the defendant, of the cases reported in the Comisaría Segunda de Familia del Municipio de Envigado (Antioquia), 2000-2004, that allow to make an opportune diagnosis that allows to the implementation of new strategies for the promotion and prevention of this situation. Materials and methods: Secondary source provided by the Comisaría Segunda de Familia, corresponding to years 2000 to 2004, equivalent to 82 cases of minors in irregular situation. Results: 37% of the minors in irregular situation had ages between 5 and 9 years (average 7 years); the percentage of cases reported without education was minimum. The defendants are women in 85%, with ages between 25 and 29 years of age, pertaining to socioeconomic level 2 and 3 of zones 6 and 9 of Envigado and in 97% of the cases, left a son. 77% of the plaintiffs, went personally of who 70% had secondary formation and a 20% of the denunciations were called telephone anonymous, which does not allow one complete sociodemografic characterization of them. Conclusions: The smaller infants are the main victims of the abandonment and the mothers the main causes of situations of minors in irregular situation (abandonment or danger), according to the cases reported before the Comisaría Segunda de Familia del Municipio de Envigado (Antioquia), 2000-2004.
119 DESARROLLO DE UN POLO APÍCOLA EN EL DEPARTAMENTO DE RISARALDA, Margarita Gómez Ángel, Jorge Euclides Tello Durán, Liliana Patricia Muñoz Sánchez
Introduction: Food security in the department of Risaralda is a policy handled through the creation of networks that strengthen the food industry and other sectors. Based on a proposal from academic sources, the project “Development of a Beekeeping Center in the Department of Risaralda” was undertaken between 2004 and 2006 with contributions from the state and private organizations. Its primary goal was to strengthen the Association of Risaralda of Apiculture (ARA), which was characterized by small-scale production mainly by small landowners. Methodology: The proposed objectives included the following: improvement of production, beginning with the strengthening of the ARA; a diagnostic of the genetic and technical state of the apiaries; the development of a program of genetic improvement through the insertion of new queen bees in less productive apiaries; knowledge of the physic-chemical, microbiological, and nutritional properties of honey; and the evaluation of sanitation conditions. Results: The beekeepers managed to improve the quality and diversity of the derivatives of the beehives through their experience generated through research which increased their qualifications and motivation to improve their labor as producers. From this process there has developed an on-going systemization of experiences which gathers the knowledge derived from the implemented methodology so that the ARA has been strengthened as an organization. Conclusions: One of the great motivators for the organization was the economic vision and the technical scientific backing from institutions of higher education for the development of confidence in beekeeping production as well as the recognition of achievements, the meetings to conduct evaluation, and the definition of involvement of different associations, the motivation provided by teamwork, and the institutional participation in research.
Introduction: Some emerging and reemerging infirmities have been increasing in an almost unpredictable manner as far as site of origin. Such is the case with such diseases as Chagas, malaria, dengue, yellow fever, rabies, and leishmaniasis. Various demographic, social, and economic factors, as well as population mobility have allowed microorganisms to generate adaptations to changing environments and thus make diagnosis and treatment by conventional methods more difficult. Methodology: An exhaustive search was undertaken in the data bases related to genome and protein sequence information found at the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information), part of the United States National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, all with direct access to PubMed. Results: Today techniques using molecular markers, PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction), are being used to complement the biochemical and microbiological tests commonly used in diagnoses. Understanding the genome of parasites allows researchers to design new more effective methods against strains resistant to current drugs and to enable early prevention. Conclusions: This article presents a bibliographical revision where the clinical information of the patient is a major determinant in a diagnosis which can be confirmed through molecular techniques developed in real time to contribute to molecular knowledge of Leishmania spp. as a diagnostic strategy and treatment of this pathology.
The aggressive chronic behavior of the children is a factor of risk for depression, abuse of alcohol in the adolescence and adult life; violence against the partners, lower performance at school, breach of norms. All of this can turn later into a predictor (in adolescents and adults) of physical ill-treatment to the children, physical assaults to wives, minor possibility of professionalization and an increasing of the probability of antisocial behavior, Publications at national and international level affirm that there is tendency in reproducing outside of the household the violence that was undergone in the family, due to the existence of a process of “inter-generational transmission of this type of violence.” This behavior of the children can be controlled in the school through the development and strengthening of competences in teachers. These competences must allow the recognition of the different behaviors of the persons and make the teachers effective in the diffusion of models that are followed by the children and girls to strive for the decrease of the aggressive behavior in the students. These observed behaviors can be turned into competences that to put in practice, in an integrated way, aptitudes, features of personality and knowledge. “The Municipal Secretary of Education of Pereira organized a course titled: STRATEGIES FOR THE REDUCTION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIORS OF THE CHILDREN (EXPERT), which was designed by the team of investigators and endorsed by the Technological University of Pereira. In the course, it was seen that some competences, after having been practiced by the teachers, might be strengthened by them themselves and applied to the children, propitiating spaces for the interiorización and appropriation of them. Once identified, the team of every institution and in general with the educational community, are headed towards a work of personal improvement and valuation of the human capital with which they are provided. In order to begin that intervention, they started from a call that was carried out through the Secretary of Education of Pereira, with the support of the Unit of Integral Attention UAI in the random selection within the schools of the urban area. 120 teachers from 12 public schools of Pereira were met between March and June, 2006. A survey was carried out to evaluate the knowledge about the strategies tending to the reduction of aggressive behaviors, by means of the application of instruments designed to that end. It was found that in general the teachers have the theoretical knowledge of the proposed strategies: importance of the communication, pacific resolution of conflicts, respect for the difference; nevertheless in the practice to encourage the achievement of these competences in the children, the teachers need support. The teachers are aware of the magnitude of the emotional, familiar and social problems that their students have. And because of the fact that they feel that they are not receiving help to solve the precarious situations of the children, (mostly socioeconomic, emotional) it generates feelings of powerlessness, distresses, worry, fright, sadness, pain and a high grade of frustration. All of this results in the questioning by some of them of their performance as teachers and feel skepticism about the initiatives proposed to contribute from the classroom with the social and familiar well-being to the children.
122 CONSUMO DE ALIMENTOS EN NIÑOS Y NIÑAS DE 6 A 10 AÑOS DE EDAD. INSTITUCIONES EDUCATIVAS PÚBLICAS Y PRIVADAS. PEREIRA URBANO. 2006 , Mariantonia López Castro, Héctor Fabián Yepes Giraldo, Martha Cecilia Beltrán Cifuentes, Jorge Eduardo Cardona Lancheros
With the purpose of determining the food habits and cultural rules of consumption in the households of 530 children and girls from 6 to 10 years old belonging to public and private educational institutions the urban zone of the municipality of Pereira. The family composition was analyzed in 126 households, as also was the frequency of food consumption and the distribution, preparation and acquisition of the same ones. All of this linked to the nutritional state and of ingestion of mnacro and micro-nutrients registered by the students. The study shows that the majority of the surveyed households are composed on average by 4 persons; 32 % of which have at least a member with an age higher than 57 years, a pregnant mother, a nursing mother and/or a boy or girl younger than 5 years old. Vegetables are the lowest group of food consumed, only 35 % of the households report the consumption of this type of food; the highest consumed group of food are milk and its derivatives. The distribution of protein food is evenly done for father, mother and children, except in the distribution of milk, in which the children have priority. In 77 % of households, the one who prepares the food is the mom and in 70 % of them, the main meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) are prepared at home. About 50 % of households have a monthly income lower than $2.000.000 Colombian pesos; the majority of households purchase their food every fifteen days, with an average investment of $9.384 Colombian pesos daily, to satisfy three main meals of their members.
The aggressive chronic behavior of the children is a factor of risk for depression, abuse of alcohol in the adolescence and adult life; violence against the partners, lower performance at school, breach of norms. All of this can turn later into a predictor (in adolescents and adults) of physical ill-treatment to the children, physical assaults to wives, minor possibility of professionalization and an increasing of the probability of antisocial behavior, Publications at national and international level affirm that there is tendency in reproducing outside of the household the violence that was undergone in the family, due to the existence of a process of “inter-generational transmission of this type of violence.” This behavior of the children an be controlled in the school through the development and strengthening of competences in teachers. These competences must allow the recognition of the different behaviors of the persons and make the teachers effective in the diffusion of models that are followed by the children and girls to strive for the decrease of the aggressive behavior in the students. These observed behaviors can be turned into competences that to put in practice, in an integrated way, aptitudes, features of personality and knowledge. “The Municipal Secretary of Education of Pereira organized a course titled: STRATEGIES FOR THE REDUCTION OF AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIORS OF THE CHILDREN (EXPERT), which was designed by the team of investigators and endorsed by the Technological University of Pereira. In the course, it was seen that some competences, after having been racticed by the teachers, might be strengthened by them themselves and applied to the children, propitiating spaces for the interiorización and appropriation of them. Once identified, the team of every institution and in general with the educational community, are headed towards a work of personal improvement and valuation of the human capital with which they are provided.In order to begin that intervention, they started from a call that was carried out through the Secretary of Education of Pereira, with the support of the Unit of Integral Attention UAI in the random selection within the schools of the urban area. 120 teachers from 12 public schools of Pereira were met between March and June, 2006. ; A survey was carried out to evaluate the knowledge about the strategies tending to the reduction of aggressive behaviors, by means of the application of instruments designed to that end. It was found that in general the teachers have the theoretical knowledge of the proposed strategies: importance of the communication, pacific resolution of conflicts, respect for the difference; nevertheless in the practice to encourage the achievement of these competences in the children, the teachers need support. The teachers are aware of the magnitude of the emotional, familiar and social problems that their students have. And because of the fact that they feel that they are not receiving help to solve the precarious situations of the children, (mostly socioeconomic, emotional) it generates feelings of powerlessness, distresses, worry, fright, sadness, pain and a high grade of frustration. All of this results in the questioning by some of them of their performance as teachers and feel skepticism about the initiatives proposed to contribute from the classroom with the social and familiar well-being to the children.
During 2005 and 2006, as part of the social responsibility of an institution of higher education to guide the processes of taking of decisions within the trade associations and the general system of social safety in health, a descriptive study on cardiovascular risks and level of physical activity in merchants of an urban sector of the municipality of Pereira was carried out. This study was started by doing an epidemiologic profile of the city, which reported for 2004, 101.6 dead men and 82.8 dead women per 100.000 inhabitants, secondary to cardiocerebrocirculatory problems, and according to a study that on physical activity was done in the city in 2002, which defined the population as sedentary. The research was carried out with the program of Respiratory Therapy, through visits to 174 tradesmen from 193 business locations inscribed in the Chamber of Commerce of the city, to whom 2 instruments were applied that were previously tested in the city: the CARDIOVASCULAR RISK IN WORKER POPULATION and the INTERNATIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IPAC 2000, prepared by ‘Agita Sao Paulo ‘. It was seen in the tradesmen that they are a population with low academic formation; mostly younger than 40 years old, with little physical activity, 1 out of 3 of them were exposed to cigarette. This population has a low average of consults to the system of health, in spite of having high indexes of corporal mass and familiar precedents of death and illness by cardiovascular pathologies. There is a proposal to implement a program of cardiovascular health with the participation of the system of social safety in health, other institutions of higher education and the programs of health, marketing, publicity and graphic design of the institution. This proposal would be submitted to the governmental entities and to the associations of tradesmen, such as FENALCO, CHAMBER OF COMMERCE, ANDI of Pereira, to guarantee the execution and participation of the associates.
125 MORTALIDAD DE LOS HOMBRES Y LAS MUJERES DE 20 A 64 AÑOS. MEDELLÍN, 1994-2003, Juliana Salazar R., Lizedt Ruiz O., Ángela María Segura C., Doris Cardona A.
Target: to characterize the mortality of the adult population from 20 to 64 years old, resident in the city of Medellín, between the year 1994 to 2003, according to the cause of death and sex, Materials and methods; descriptive longitudinal retrospective study of the main causes of death of the adults of Medellín; with source of secondary information from the certificates of death registered by the Administrative National Department of Statistics in the decade 1994-2003. Results: During ten years of study, among the first causes of death it was shown that the aggressions resulted in the biggest number of victims, especially the ones caused by attacks with firearms and explosives and with cutting and pointed instruments, in men and women between 20 and 44 years. The acute infarct of the myocardium for men and women between 45 and 64 years of age caused a large number of deaths in this population group. In spite of the fact that deaths resulting from the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome was not among the first causes of death, the Syndrome appeared during the last years of study in men and women with ages from 20 to 44 years. For the women it occupied the fifth cause uring 1998 and 1999 and for the men the third cause during the last three years 1997, 1998 and 1999. Conclusions: The causes of death of adult men from 20 to 64 years old, resident of Medellín, that took place in the decade 1994-2003, were the result of an external cause and of illnesses of the circulatory system. The deaths of women in the same group of age were caused by tumors or neoplasias and by illnesses of the circulatory system. This shows the biggest risk to which the men are exposed of dying as result of violent cause, both received o self-inflicted in comparison with women (OR=7,73), and women have a higher risk than men of dying from tumor or neoplasia (OR=4,66).
126 DIAGNÓSTICO SOBRE BIOSEGURIDAD Y MANEJO DE RESIDUOS TANATOPRÁXICOS EN MORGUES, crematorios, depósitos de cadáveres de cementerios y hospitales. Risaralda 2006., Carmen Luisa Betancur Pulgarín, John Jairo Ocampo Rincón, Alberto Medina Córdova
The development of thanatopraxic activities requires from the institutions and the officials that carry out them, the fulfillment of universal norms that provide safety in front of the risk. In Colombia, Decree 2676 from 2000, offers the juridical support for the application and monitoring of the mentioned norms. In this study, that was done during the last trimester of 2006, through the application of a guide of monitoring of the fulfillment of biosafety norms and handling of thanatopraxic and chemical residues in morgues, crematoriums, mortuaries of cemeteries and hospitals of the public network of Risaralda, the weaknesses on the training and fulfillment of these parameters were detected. In the department of Risaralda, it becomes necessary to qualify this stripe of population in the observed components and in the topics related to the thanatopractic procedures. The Police or the District attorney’s office trains some technicians in thanatopraxy of Legal Medicine; but the majority of the technicians of other institutions obtain knowledge and training through partners, relatives or friends.
Nanotechnology is becoming as an applied science for industry and medicine. Scanning and handling of materials and processes at nanometric scale will be instrumental in precise detection and timely intervention of various ophthalmologic diseases and in the diagnosis of visual anomalies. Robotguided vitrectomies, bioelectric implants and nanolenses are some of the promising advances in visual health field.
128 SUPERVIVENCIA EN NI?OS DE MUY BAJO PESO AL NACIMIENTO, 1996-2004, Ord??ez Jaime E, Ochoa Francisco L, Manrique Rub?n D, Osorio Jorge J, Orozco C.
The aim of this trial was to measure the neonatal survival rate and the morbidity of the very low birth weight infants in a third level hospital in Colombia. In the Hospital General of Medellín were evaluated all the neonates born between 1996 and 2004 with a birth weight less than 1500g. Results: 1443 neonates were enrolled to this cohorte-study 54% of the mothers got antenatal steroids and 17.1% of the neonates got pulmonary surfactant. The neonates with a birth weight less than 1000g had a survival time median less than one day. No one neonate with 23 weeks or less of gestational age went away live. The likelihood of enter to the neonatal intensive care unit was significant lower in neonates with a birth weight less than 1000g that in the neonates with a birth weight between 1000 to 1490 g, RR = 0.54 (CI95%: 0.44-0.65), the mortality in the first group was greater than in the second group, RR = 3.8 (CI95%: 3.3-4.3). The percentage of attributable risk in the population (%PAR) was 47.8% caused to have a birth weigh lower than 1000 g. Conclusions: There is a lower risk to enter at the neonatal intensive care unit in those neonates with a birth weight less than 1000g, and the survival rate of this population is diminished because of this. The high likelihood of dying due to the extreme low birth weight must call the attention of the sanitary authorities, because this evaluates of indirect way the quality of attention that receive the obstetrical patients. Cohort studies should to carry out in this population for evaluating the long time prognosis and would allow design policies of maternal and neonatal health.
There is a frequent lack of information about the nature of the alimentary security and the nourishment problems that a country, a region or a community face; it is necessary to find the insecure alimentary areas and the causal relations among the possible interventions and the condition in which the population has physical, social and economic access to innocuous and nutritious food, in order to satisfy necessities and preferences of diets for a healthy and active life. Children of school age show a quick growth and an intensive physical and intellectual activity, so the requirements of nutrients play a very important role in their growth and development. During the school period, the individuals establish many of their alimentary habits, tastes and aversions; family, friends and media communications influence their alimentary culture. This study of a descriptive and sectional type, permitted the identification of the alimentary habits and indivual and family cultural guidelines, the evaluation of the dietetic ingestion of specific nutrients, the identification of the nutritional dimensions of the alimentary security in school environments, the evaluation of the nutritional conditions of boys and girls between the ages of 6 and 10, belonging to public and private educational institutions of the urban zone of the municipality of Pereira. 21 educational institutions were visited, distributed in seven communities, in which surveys were carried out among 530 boys and girls who had their anthropometric measurements and alimentary anamnesis taken. The analysis of the anthropometric information expressed according to the nutritional indicators: Size for age, weight for age, and weight for size, showed that 49.6% of school children suffer chronic malnutrition, 46.6% acute malnutrition, and 55.7% global malnutrition. Regarding the caloric consumption and that of macronutrients, 39% of the surveyed show a deficiency in the average consumption of carbohydrates and proteins, and excess in the ingestion of fat. The highest deficit in the average consumption of calories was shown in men of 10 years of age, who also report a deficit in the ingestion of carbohydrates and an excess of 18.3% in the consumption of fat. In the ingestion of micronutrients, all the groups of all ages reveal consumption of vitamin A under what is expected, the same happens with the ingestion of calcium and iron. The children under 10 years of age reported a major deficit. 70 surveys were designed and applied among the parents of the school children which allowed the register of the characteristics of the family, the presentation of the results of the consumption of food, the identification of the zone of residence, the size of the family, the acquisition and the distribution of food in each of its members, among others. The study revealed disturbing figures that evidence the necessity of orienting the pertinent alimentary security programs to improve the nutritional conditions of the infants.
The nutritional conditions of the individual should be considered as a situation that is part of a context, where multiple factors interact, such as, employment, education, income, propaganda, the health and quality of life of the people; elements that rebound considerably on the integral functioning of the child and later on his adult stage. The purchasing capacity is the possibility that a family has to accede to goods and basic services. The income and availability of food in the market condition the quantity of aliments that the family can buy. The poverty is expressed in terms of low purchasing capacity and the impossibility of satisfying basic necessities; it is also intimately tied to the educational level and to the occupation of the people that contribute to the family budget. The present is a descriptive study, whose population target are all the people under 14 and the pregnant women that live in the “Comuna del Rio” in Pereira. Information of weight, size, and global remembrance of food during the last 24 hours and some biological marks were recollected. The nutritional condition of children under 9 years of age evidences that the major risks of malnutrition are acute and global, but the risk is slight the report of the level of overweight and obesity is important: 10.6% in children, the nutritional history of height/age, expresses that nearly 13% of the children are classified as undernourished, chronically, severely or moderately. A high percentage of adolescents with low weight were found. Differences in the behavior of the nutritional state were found in relation to the gender. The girls presented a major frequency of normal nutritional conditions and the boys present more frequency of overweight. The boys that weighed lees would be those between the ages of 10 and 11, though this diagnosis was present in all ages. The hemograms were normal in most of the children. The hemoglobin were low in only 3 children. The cholesterol was evaluated in only 33 boys and 29 girls between 10 and 14 years of age and was reported high in 72% of the boys, while, in the girls, a high cholesterol was reported in 17% of them in general, 40% of the children had a total cholesterol over 160, and 30% of all the children had triglycerides over 130 mgr dl. High triglycerides were found in the great majority of the girls: the level of HDL under 50 corresponded to 12% of all the boys and girls under 14. 17 pregnant women were found during the investigation of which 10 are couples. An approximate increase is suggested of 1000 K/cal and 40 grams of protein for the pregnant woman who begins her gestation with inferior reports to those recommended. Obesity and overweight outline an important problem in all the evaluated groups of population and demand the design and implementation of interventions that, consulting their different cultural and motivational aspects, will permit educative interventions for the modification of their diets.