Biological Forum-An International Journal

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1 New Records of Scarabaeid Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Melghat Tiger Reserve, Maharashtra, India , Vaibhao G. Thakare*, Varsha S. Zade* and Kailash Chandra**
ABSTRACT : A study was conducted during 2009-10 in the protected area of the Melghat Tiger Reserve (MTR), Maharashtra. Twelve species under four subfamilies of family Scarabaeidae were reported for the first time from Melghat Tiger Reserve. Further study may increase the number of species of these beetles from Tiger Reserve.
2 Method Validation and Quantitative Determination of Antiviral Drug Acyclovir in Human Plasma by a LCMS/MS, Ganesh Holkar*, Vinayak Daphal*, Ravi Yadav* and M. D. Rokade*
ABSTRACT : A simple, sensitive and selective LCMS/MS method has been developed for the determination of acyclovir in human plasma. Since acyclovir is a polar compound and soluble in aqueous medium and practically insoluble in most of organic solvents its analysis in biological fluids in currently published HPLC methods, involve pre-treatment of acyclovir plasma sample including deproteinization or solid phase extraction, Acyclovir in plasma were concentrated by solid phase extraction and chromatographed on a C18 column using a mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid : methanol (30 : 70% v/v). The method was validated over a linear range of 20 - 1000 ng mL–1 for acyclovir. The LOQs were 60.0 and 900 ng mL–1. The validated method was applied for the quantitation of acyclovir from plasma samples in a pharmacokinetic study.
3 Behavioral Responses of Freshwater Snail, Viviparus bengalensis to Plant Toxin in Fruits of Acacia sinuate , Jini Deshmane
ABSTRACT : The aquatic animals are very sensitive to slight change in their surrounding environment due to which their normal behavior get changed. Visually observed behavioral pattern of snails exposed to plant toxin in fruits of Acacia sinuate were categorized into six types: 1. Protective responses, 2. Tentacle movement, 3. Foot movement and mucus secretion, 4. Responses to external stimuli, 5. Mucus secretion of gills, 6. Courtship behavior.
4 Nine New Records of Moth from Andaman and Nicobar Islands , C. Sivaperuman*, Suresh K. Shah*,C. Raghunathan*, Kailash Chandra** and K. Venkataraman*
ABSTRACT : The Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve is the southernmost Island of Andaman and Nicobar archipelago. The tropical rain forests of this Biosphere Reserve represent high level of biological diversity. This study was conducted during 2008 to 2011 and sampling of moths was carryout in different locations using light trap. In this paper we reported nine new records of moths from Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
5 Prevalence of Asymptomatic Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum Infections in Tribal Population of a Village in Gadchiroli District of Maharashtra State, India , S.R. Karlekar, M.M. Deshpande and R.J. Andrew
ABSTRACT : The present investigation was undertaken to study the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria in the tribal village Khobramendha of Gadchiroli district in Maharashtra state. Out of a total of 210 samples collected, nine tested positive (4.28%) for asymptomatic malaria. Six were positive for P. falciparum (66.6%) and three for P. vivax (33.3%). Not a single case of mixed infection was detected. The male/female ratio was 2/1 for both P. vivax and P. falciparum. The average age of the positive individual was found to be 24.8 years. As far as asymptomatic malaria cases of Khobramendh village is concerned, it is female biased upto the age of 60, but later on it is dominantly male biased (67%).
6 Fixed Oil Composition, Polyphenols and Phospholipids of Finger Millet [Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn] , Kiran Poonia*, Sonal Chavan* and M. Daniel*
ABSTRACT : Not much is known on the fixed oil composition, polyphenols, phospholipids of finger millet [Ragi–Eleusine coracana (L.) Gaertn], a tropical cereal crop of India and Africa. The oil content of this grain is found to be 0.74% consisting of oleic acid (47.17%), linoleic acid (24.78%) and palmitic acid (23.06%). The flavonol present was quercetin and cyanidin was the anthocyanidin present. Vanillic, syringic, ferulic and caffeic acids were the phenolic acids present. The total phenolics amounted to 3.2 mg/gm. The total antioxidant potential was Ic50 10.6 + 0.03 mg/ml. in terms of ascorbic acid and gallotannin. The phospholipids present in Ragi was 0.36% consisting of lecithins, cephalins and galactolipids. The health benefits of all these compounds are highlighted.
7 Studies on Scarabaeid Beetles (Coleoptera) of Govind Wildlife Sanctuary, Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India Kailash Chandra*, , Devanshu Gupta**, V.P. Uniyal***, Manish Bharadwaj*** and Abesh K. Sanyal***
ABSTRACT : The paper presents faunal account of a small collection of scarab beetles from Govind Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttarakhand, comprising 11 species belonging to 11 genera, 5 subfamilies and 2 families of superfamily Scarabaeoidea. All the species are recorded for the first time from the sanctuary while three species viz. Anomala cantori (Hope), Mimela passerinii Hope, and Oryctes nasicornis (Linnaeus) are new records to the fauna of Uttarakhand. An updated checklist of the scarab beetles under superfamily Scarabaeoidea of Uttarakhand comprising about 167 species belonging to 52 genera, 21 tribes, 9 subfamilies and 3 families is also provided.
8 Method Validation and Quantitative Determination of Anastrozole in Human Plasma by an CMS/MS , Vinayak Daphal*, Ganesh Holkar*, Ravi Yadav* and M.D. Rokade*
ABSTRACT : A simple, economic, accurate LCMS/MS method was developed for the determination of anastrozole in human plasma was developed and fully validated using dexchlorpheniramine as the internal standard (I.S.) is described herein. The analyte and the I.S. were extracted from 200 ?l of human plasma by liquid-liquid extraction using a mixture of diethyl ether: dichloromethane (70:30, v/v) solution. The extracts were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with Electrospray Ionization source - tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS). Chromatography was performed isocratically on a Genesis C18, 4 ?m analytical column (100 mm × 2.1 mm i.d.). The method had a chromatographic run time of 3.0 min and a linear calibration curve ranging from 0.5-100 ng/ml. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.5 ng/ml.
9 New Report of Pseudocercospora Speg on Some Medicinal Plants form Sonebhadra Forest U.P. , Archana Singh
ABSTRACT : Description and illustrations are provided for six new report of Pseudocercopora viz Ps. adinicola on living leaves of Adina cordifolia (Roxb.) Hook (Rubiaceae), Ps. anogeissi on living leaves of Anogeissus pendula Edgew. (Combretaceae), Ps. formosana on living leaves of Lantana camara Linn. (Verbenaceae), Ps. malloti on living leaves of Mallotus philippinensis Muel (Euphorbiaceae), Ps. withaniae on living leaves of Withania somnifera Dunnal (Solanaceae), Ps. sydowiana on living leaves of Woodfordia fruticosa (Linn) Jourz. (Lythraceae) from Sonebhadra forest U.P.
10 Distribution and Diversity of Hemiptera Fauna of Veerangana Durgavati Wildlife Sanctuary, Damoh, Madhya Pradesh (India) , Kailash Chandra*, Sandeep Kushwaha**, S. Sambath** and B. Biswas*
ABSTRACT : The present paper is based on a collection of Hemiptera from Veerangana Durgavati Wildlife Sanctuary by different tour party of Zoological Survey of India, Jabalpur. It comprises 24 species distributed among 23 genera over 9 families.
11 Comparative Study on the Characteristics of Midgut Protease in Different Multivoltine Races of Silkworm, Bombyx mori L. , Y. S. Muniv* and G. P. Bhawane**
ABSTRACT : Proteolytic activity from the midgut of the lepidopteran larvae Bombyx mori was studied in relation to compare the characterization in three different multivoltine races, Pure Mysore, Nistari and Kolar gold. The optimum pH for the midgut protease was 11.2 in Pure Mysore and Nistari, while it was 11.0 in Kolar gold. The temperature optimum for Pure Mysore was 50°C, while it was 45°C for Nistari and Kolar gold. Incubation of the gut protease for 15 minutes was found as a linear time period in Nistari while that of 20 minutes in Pure Mysore and Kolar gold. The 50% reduction in activity at 55°C, for 7.3 minutes was found in Nistari, 9.6 minutes for Pure Mysore and 10.7 minutes for Kolar gold. Km values recorded were 0.278%, 0.167% and 0.222% in Pure Mysore, Nistari and Kolar gold respectively. The specific activity of Pure Mysore was 0.611 ?g tyrosine/?g protein/h; Nistari was 0.916?g tyrosine/?g protein/h, while that of Kolar gold was 0.546?g tyrosine/?g protein/h.
12 Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) of Ctenopharengedon idella Fed on Soyabean Formualted Feed , M.P. Bhilave*, S.V. Bhosale* and S.B. Nadaf*
ABSTRACT : Aquaculture is a dynamic industry that continues to provide consumers with a reasonably priced, high quality protein. The impact that any aquaculture system has on the environment, is today, and will continue to be, in the forefront when environmental issues are discussed. A better understanding of the dietary nutrient requirements of cultured fish species and a continual search for accessible, highly digestible proteins to replace expensive fishmeal is essential. This approach coupled with applying the ideal protein concept in the formulation of fish feeds can greatly ameliorate nitrogen pollution arising from fish production systems and increase profitability. Taking into account this consideration, the present investigation is carried out to evaluate protein efficiency ratio in freshwater fish Ctenopharengedon idella fed on different combinations of feeds formulated from readily available protein sources like soyabean and deoiled groundnut cake. The fishes fed on 100% formulated feed had highest PER values than other feeds.
13 Comparision of Midgut Trehalase Characteristics in Bivoltine and Multivoltine Bombyx mori L. , N.T. Pawar, Y.S. Muniv, G.P. Bhawane and A.A. Kanase
ABSTRACT : The optimal pH of midgut trehalase from CSR2 and Kolar gold (PM X CSR2) were 5.5 the 50% inactivation time for trehalase at 60°C were 3 min. in CSR2 and 10 min. in Kolar gold. The optimal temperature for both races was 50°C. The Km value for CSR2 was 10.57 × 10-3 M and for Kolar gold was 3.0 × 10-3 M.
14 Prevalence and Characterization of Water Contamination Indicator Bacteria with Special Reference to Coliforms from Drinking Water Supply in Solan City of Himachal Pradesh , Monika Thakur*, Sushila Negi** Amit Kumar**, Sandip Patil**, Ajay Kumar* and Neha Sharma*
ABSTRACT : Water becomes contaminated with enteric pathogens such as coliform group of bacteria viz Salmonellae, Vibrio and dysentery causing bacilli. The human faecal material carried along with domestic sewage is often dumped in rivers and lakes leading to water contamination. The present study was undertaken to detect the enteric pathogens and to measure the extent of drinking water contamination with the pathogenic microorganisms. Water samples were collected from different areas of Solan city in Himachal Pradesh. Most probable number (MPN) test was performed to detect the coliforms in water samples collected from surface water sources, hand pumps, taps, roof top storage tanks and aqua-guards. Chlorination of some water samples was done to see the effect of chlorine on bacteria. The indicator organisms isolated were E. coli and Enterobacter aerogenes. E. coli and Enterobacter aerogenes are the characteristic of intestinal tract of man and animals. The study reveals that surface water and roof top storage tank water was more liable to contamination whereas, ground water and aqua-guard water was safer for human consumption. Chlorine was effective in removing these bacteria from water.
15 Differences in Haematological Parameters in Normal, Infected and Immune-Primed Fingerlings of Red Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis niloticus) , Ali Muhammad Mastoi*, Mithun Sukumaran*, Anila Mastoi**, Anuar Hussan*, Faizah Shaharom* and Anil Chatterji*
ABSTRACT : Infectious diseases are always a major problem causing heavy loss to the fish farmers. The fingerlings of red tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus x Oreochromis niloticus) were fed with extracts prepared either by acid hydrolysing process or ethanolic extracts from oyster (Saccostrea cuccullata; Born, 1778) and seaweed (Sargassum baccularia; Mertens). These extracts were mixed at different concentrations in commercial diet and fed to the fingerlings till 15 days. All groups of fishes fed with experimental and normal diets were challenged by a gram-negative bacterium (Aeromonas hydrophila) to see the effects of pathogen. Fishes fed with experimental feed consisting of ethanolic extract of oyster showed better survival as compared to other experimental feeds. Maximum total leucocytes (22 + 43 × 103 cell/mm3) and erythrocytes (32 + 33 × 106 cells/ mm3) were recorded in fishes fed with ethanolic extract of oyster (P < 0.05) which were similar to fishes of control group. Significant (P < 0.05) changes were also observed in the haematological parameters such as; lymphocyte, neutrophil, monocyte and basophil cells in feed incorporated with ethanolic extract of oyster. Similarly, higher values of albumin; amylase; total cholesterol; GGT; glucose; phospholipids; triglycerides; total serum protein; lactase, LDH and lipase in the infected fish were observed as compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Fishes fed with ethanolic extract showed relatively much closer values as observed in control group. Our results strongly suggest that ethanolic extract of oyster (S. cuccullata) could combat the microbial infection by stimulating the non-specific immune response effectively at fingerlings stage of red tilapia.
16 Traditional Phytotherapy for Snake Bites by the Local Rural People of Hamirpur District in Himachal Pradesh (India) , Nitesh Kumar* and Rajaram Choyal*
ABSTRACT: Hamirpur district is the most literate and smallest district of Himachal Pradesh. Due to favourable climatic conditions and suitable environment, this region serve as a good habitat for the growth of various varieties of medicinal herbs which are used for the treatment of various diseases and ailments. Snake are poisonous animals and they are found in every parts of study area. So snake bite is the common problem of this district. This paper provides the informatons about the ethnobotanical and traditional uses of local people of this district for snake treatment. This work is an effort to present the traditional phytotherapeutical and ethnobotanical observations recorded with respect to snake bite.