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World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences

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1 THE ROLE OF PHARMACIST AS AN ADVISOR ON RESPONSIBLE SELF-MEDICATION: A SURVEY, Antoaneta Tsvetkova, Anna Todorova, Valentina Petkova
The mission of pharmaceutical profession is to supply medicines and other products and services to patients, as well as to provide the public with advice on the most rational use of these products. The purpose of this study is to examine pharmacists? attitude towards the use of nonprescription medicines (OTC), as well as pharmacists? opinion about their role in patient counselling on self-medication. A survey questionnaire is used for the interview of pharmacists in randomly chosen pharmacies of different size and location in the city of Varna. Research results show that an increasing number of patients seeks self-medication, motivated by the convenience and the time-saving effect of the purchase of OTC medicines. Correspondingly, the importance of the pharmacist?s role as an advisor to the public on responsible self-medication and appropriate health care is constantly growing. The effects of advertisements, abundant sources of information, free access to various medicines, and deregulations of pharmaceutical markets pose a serious risk to patients? health. To avert medical complications, pharmacists should render services that ensure the proper use of drug produacts and the prevention of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The outcome of treatment and medication should be a shared responsibility between pharmacists, physicians and patients.
2 FOOD ADDITIVES WITH BENEFICIAL EFFECTS IN THE TREATMENT OF ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION ,CONTAINING L-ARGININE , PYCNOGENOL AND GINSENG EXTRACT, Stanislava Ivanova1, Stefka Pankova2, Valentina Petkova2, Milen Dimitrov2
The market of products for erectile dysfunction treatment or improving sexual performance is growing. Drugs as Viagra and Cialis have revolutionized treatment for erectile dysfunction. These medications work by increasing tissue sensitivity to the blood-vessel-dilating substance nitric oxide (NO) in the penis. These drugs may not be appropriate for patients with heart disease because of the danger of interacting with the nitrates. Men who have any of the following conditions should also avoid taking these drugs: severe heart or liver problems , recent stroke or heart attack ,low blood pressure ,certain rare inherited eye diseases.For this group of patients the only alternative is to take food additives for improving sexual performance .These food supplements very often contain L-arginine , Ginseng ,Pycnogenol. This review is focused on some food additives containing :L-arginine , Pycnogenol and Ginseng used for improvement of potency .We made an observational study based on information in medical sources for the benefits of use of these substances in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.
3 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION INTO FOLK MEDICINAL PRACTICES OF KHULNA AND BAGERHAT DISTRICTS, BANGLADESH, A.S.M. Homaun Kabir Chowdhury, Md. Hasan Shahriar, Md. Sadekur Rahman, Md. Palash Uddin, Md. Al-Amin, Md. Mizanur Rahman, Md. Towhid Ahmed Bhuiyan, Shadia Afrin, Shuly Chowdhury, Md. Masud-ur-Rahman, A.K. Azad, Mohammed Rahmatullah*
Background. Folk medicinal practitioners (Kavirajes) form the primary health-care providers among the rural population of Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to document the folk medicinal practices of two Kavirajes practicing in Khulna and Bagerhat districts of the country. Methods. Interviews of the Kavirajes were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results. The Kaviraj from Khulna district used 15 plants distributed into 13 families in his formulations. The Kaviraj from Bagerhat district used 10 plants distributed into 10 families in his formulations. A comparative analysis of the plants used showed marked differences in the selection of medicinal plants for treatment by the two Kavirajes. Conclusion. The study suggests that because of the quite individualized nature of treatment by Kavirajes as to selection of medicinal plants and diseases treated, it is necessary to conduct as many surveys as possible among individual Kavirajes to obtain a comprehensive view of the medicinal plants used in the country.
4 SCIENTIFIC VALIDATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY A FOLK MEDICINAL PRACTITIONER OF CHUADANGA DISTRICT, BANGLADESH, Md. Hasan Shahriar, A.S.M. Homaun Kabir Chowdhury, Md. Sadekur Rahman, Md. Palash Uddin, Md. Al-Amin, Md. Mizanur Rahman, Md. Towhid Ahmed Bhuiyan, Shadia Afrin, Shuly Chowdhury, Md. Masud-ur-Rahman, A.K. Azad, Mohammed Rahmatullah*
Background. Folk medicinal practitioners (Kavirajes) form the primary health-care providers among the rural population of Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to document the medicinal plants used by a Kaviraj practicing in Chuadanga district, Bangladesh and to scientifically validate the use of the plants based on available scientific reports. Methods. Interviews of the Kaviraj were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Available scientific literature was obtained through searches made in different data bases. Results. The Kaviraj used 14 plants distributed into 11 families in his formulations. Available scientific reports on the pharmacological properties of the plants validate the uses of a number of the plants. Conclusion. The study suggests that the use of medicinal plants for treatment of diseases by the Kaviraj of Chuadanga district have scientific rationale even though the Kaviraj was not aware of such reports. It is concluded that Kavirajes can possess extensive knowledge of the medicinal properties of plants without having access to scientific literature.
5 COMPARATIVE ETHNOMEDICINAL ANALYSIS OF USE OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF A FOLK MEDICINAL PRACTITIONER OF MEHERPUR DISTRICT, BANGLADESH, Md. Sadekur Rahman, Md. Hasan Shahriar, A.S.M. Homaun Kabir Chowdhury, Md. Palash Uddin, Md. Al-Amin, Md. Mizanur Rahman, Md. Towhid Ahmed Bhuiyan, Shadia Afrin, Shuly Chowdhury, Md. Masud-ur-Rahman, A.K. Azad, Mohammed Rahmatullah*
Background. Medicinal plants form a primary means for treatment of various diseases in many parts of the world. Ethnomedicinal consensus on the use of a particular species denotes a high probability of obtaining useful drug(s) from the species, while a variety of uses may point to hitherto scientifically undiscovered medicinal properties of the plant. The objective of this study was to make a comparative analysis of reported ethnomedicinal uses of plants used by a folk medicinal practitioner (Kaviraj) of Meherpur district, Bangladesh. Methods. Interviews of the Kaviraj were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results. The Kaviraj used 10 plants distributed into 9 families in his formulations. Available reports on ethnomedicinal uses points to a consensus of use on some plants. Conclusion. The study suggests that the medicinal plants used by the Kaviraj of Meherpur district have good probability of new drug discoveries.
6 NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY METHOD: EFFECT OF DRYING PARAMETERS ON IBUPROFEN GRANULES PHASE TRANSFORMATION, Idalise Toro Diaz1* and Evone S. Ghaly2
X Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) are used for the identification of different solid-state forms but these technologies represent limitation due to sampling effect. The near infrared analysis can be done directly without sample preparation. Ibuprofen formulations were produced according to the Box Behnken experimental design for 3 factors and 3 levels. The first factor was the temperature. The levels for this factor were 50 C, 70 C, and 90 C. The second factor was the time of granules drying and its levels were 5, 7 and 9 hours. The third factor was the diluent and the levels were Mannitol, Lactose and MCC. The calibration and validation models were optimized in order to obtain better predictions. A paired t-test was performed to determine significant differences between the values obtained using the reference methods and the predicted values by NIR. In all cases, the optimized models were able to predict the enthalpy of the formulations and the peak intensity values. NIR is an alternative method to DSC and XRD to determine formulations phase transformation and solid state.since the models constructed showed no significant differences between NIR methods and conventional methods such as DSC and XRD.
7 FOLK MEDICINAL USES OF SOME PLANTS IN TANGAIL DISTRICT, BANGLADESH, Zahid Kamal, Jacklin Jui Bairage, Moniruzzaman, Protiva Rani Das, Md. Tabibul Islam, Mohammad Omar Faruque, Md. Rashedul Islam, Prashanta Kumer Paul, Sadia Moin Mou, Mohammed Rahmatullah*
Background Folk medicine is an important feature of traditional medicinal practices in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to document the medicinal uses of plants by a folk medicinal practitioner (Kaviraj) of Tangail district, Bangladesh. Methods Interviews of the Kaviraj were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results The Kaviraj used 12 plants distributed into 12 families in his formulations. Available ethnomedicinal and scientific reports show that the plants used by the Kaviraj can be validated in their uses on the basis of either ethnomedicinal consensus or pharmacological activity studies. Conclusion The study suggests that the medicinal plants used by the Kaviraj of Tangail district merit scientific attention towards new drug discoveries.
8 EFFECTS OF RADIATION AND HORMONAL THERAPIES IN FEMALE BREAST CANCER PATIENTS, Fakhsheena Anjum*, Nighat Razvi, Wajiha Iffat
Breast cancer is reported having highest prevalence in Pakistan in Asia. It is treated with adjuvant radiotherapy after surgery with or without chemotherapy and later with endocrine therapy to get better overall survival rate. This study was conducted to perceive the effects of radiation and hormonal therapies in female breast cancer patients in Karachi, Pakistan. The cross sectional study was conducted from April 2011 to January 2012, n=811 patients were registered in KIRAN hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. The data collected through patients interview and their medical profiles were assessed statistically using the version 16.0 of SPSS. Out of n=811 female patients, majority were suffering from stage I or II of breast cancer. Most of the patients (97.16%) received radiation therapy whereas hormonal therapy was given to 62.63% patients, majority belonging to age group of 41-50 years. The patients may have previously received adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. Overall response for radiation therapy was good in 90.86% and partial in 8.88% breast cancer patients. The most common adverse reactions observed after radiation therapies were fatigue (75.88%) and skin hyperpigmentation (72.08%). The overall response observed during the follow ups for hormonal therapy was good in all patients. The most common adverse reactions observed due to hormonal therapy within 3-6 months were heat intolerance (50.98%) and myalgia (40.55%). 55.70% patients were at risk for developing cardiovascular diseases due to their existing comorbidities while having hormonal therapy. The treatment modalities should be selected according to patients forbearance and disease stage. Adverse effects arising from these treatments must be managed timely so as to have patients compliance and improvement in their quality of life.
9 PROTECTIVE ACTION OF THE FLAVONOID FROM XANTHOCERAS SORBIFOLIA BUNGE IN GASTRIC ULCER PREVENTION INDUCED BY ETHANOL IN RATS, QI Shuo, YAN Shi-Kan, LU Hao, YANG Xiao-Yu, REN Ke, DONG Xiao-Dan, CHANG Xuan, LI Fan, Dong Li, YANG Chuan-Hui
Objective Flavonoid from Xanthoceras Sorbifolia bunge (FXS) was assayed for their possible overall effect on intact gastric mucosa and their protective properties towards the onset of gastric ulcer induced by ethanol. Main methods The gastroprotective action of FXS in doses of 1.2, 12 and 120 mg/kg was analyzed in the ethanol-induced gastric lesion models in rats. After the treatment, the stomachs of the animals were analyzed. Ulcer index, oxidative stress damage (GSH/ GSSG, SOD and CAT) and cytokines analyses (IL-6, IL-10 and PEG2) of the stomachs were done. Key findings: FXS exerted a very strong antiulcer activity, by decreasing the NOx, GSH/GSSG ratio, CAT activity and IL-6, and increase SOD, MPO activity and IL-10. Significance: Their possible mechanism of action was discussed and due to their many positive properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities might represent a cost effective alternative sought for in the treatment of gastric ulcers
10 NON-IONIC SURFACTANT BASED VESICLE 'NIOSOME' AS A POTENTIAL OCULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM, Raju. Manda*, Dr. R.Suthakaran, Virajaji Kaya, Bonagiri Sreedevi, B. kusuma Pravallika.
The common principle for the success of pharmacotherapy is that the suitable drug should be present at the site of action in an effective concentration for a desired period of time. In ophthalmic treatment the site of action may be any ocular tissue, depending on where the disorder is located. Hence the drug should be targeted to many different sites within the eye. Poor bioavailability of drugs from ocular dosage form is mainly due to the tear production, non-productive absorption, transient residence time, and impermeability of corneal epithelium. Though the topical and localized application are still an acceptable and preferred way to achieve therapeutic level of drugs used to treat ocular disorders but the primitive ophthalmic solution, suspension, and ointment dosage form are no longer sufficient to combat various ocular diseases. The use of niosomes in combating the ophthalmic disorders is gaining momentum in the present scenario. This article reveals the importance in using niosomes as a potential ocular drug delivery system and highlights the need for the successful formulation, method of preparation and its characterization etc. to meet the future challenges and thereby rendering the dosage form for ocular therapy more effective.
11 NIOSOME: AN UNIQUE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM, Raju. Manda*, Dr. R. Suthakaran, Virajaji Kaya, Bonagiri Sreedevi, T. Hurumathfathima.
The ideal drug delivery system delivers drug at rate dictated by the need of the body over the period of treatment and it channels the active entity solely to the site of action. Niosomes are non-ionic surfactant vesicles obtained on hydration of synthetic nonionic surfactants, with or without incorporation of cholesterol or other lipids. They are vesicular systems similar to liposomes that can be used as carriers of amphiphilic and lipophilic drugs. Niosomes are promising vehicle for drug delivery and being non-ionic, it is less toxic and improves the therapeutic index of drug by restricting its action to target cells. This systemic review article deals with preparation methods, characterizations, factors affecting release kinetic, advantages, and applications of niosomes.
12 A COMPARATIVE REVIEW OF RECENTLY DEVELOPED PARTICULATE DRUG CARRIER SYSTEMS, *Raju. Manda, Dr. R.Suthakaran, Virajaji Kaya, Bonagiri Sreedevi. Fouziya.
Particulate drug carriers include Microparticulate, nanocarriers, lipid based carriers and colloidal carriers. These are some umbrella terms under which recently many drug carrier systems are vastly developed namely niosomes, dendrimers, lipoplexes, pharmacosome, nanocrystals, nanosuspenions, ethosome and many such systems. While working on drug carriers, a pharmaceutical scientist comes through many similar sounding or synonymous terms which he might not be able to discriminate on random supervision. The literature is overwhelming with various works discussing these systems alone or together, giving their pharmaceutical significance and formulation specification and applications. But there is no such work where their basic comparison which could help a pharmaceutician to define and discriminate the wide spectrum of these carrier under one title. This review is sharply focused on elaborating the clear rationale of developing each carrier, their basic definition and intersubject comparison.
13 ANALGESIC, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF PALIPERIDONE IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS, B. Rambabu1, Eswara Rao G2, Sunil Junapudi3, Maheshwari A1, T. Nagasree1*
The Paliperidone was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in animal models. The Paliperidone at 5 mg/kg body weight reduced significantly the formation of oedema induced by carrageenan and histamine. In the acetic acid-induced writhing model, hot plate method and tail flick method the Paliperidone had a good analgesic effect (P
14 A NEWER TECHNOLOGY FOR MICROENCAPSULATION AND ITS RELEVANCES, Om Bagade?1, Amruta Shete1, Vidya Pawar2, Indu Aghav1
Research to find new or to improve microencapsulation techniques to process newly discovered active molecules is in constant progress because of limitations of current pharmacopeia. The first research leading to the development of microencapsulation procedure for pharmacist was published by Bungenburg de Jong & Kass in 1931 and dealt with preparation of gelatin. Microencapsulation is a process or technique by which thin coating can be applied reproducibly to small particle of solids, droplet of liquid or dispersion, thus forming microcapsules. These ranges from several 10 to 5000 ?m in size. Microcapsules are often described by other terms such as coated granules, pellets or seeds, microsperules and spansules. However, commonly used techniques such as emulsificationsolvent removal, polymer phase separation, spray drying, milling methods, Vibration, Extrusion, Jet-cutter technology are not always suitable in their original forms for these new requirements. These micro-capsules have number of benefits such as converting liquids to solids, separating reactive compounds, providing environmental protection, improved material handling properties. Active materials are then encapsulated in micron-sized capsules of barrier polymers (gelatin, plastic, wax). These revolutionary systems allow controlling rate, duration and distribution of active drug. One of main advantages of such systems is to protect sensitive drug from drastic environment (pH) and to reduce number of drug administrations for patient. After preparation, it has to be ensured that particles obtained have desired properties, which is suitable for intended type of administration. The most obvious parameters to be investigated are (colloidal) particle size and (solid) state of particle matrix.
15 REVIEW ON SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH ANTIDIABETIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY. , Dr.Raghuveer Irchhaiya1, Anurag Kumar 1*, Nitika Gupta1 , Anumalik yadav1 , Swadesh Kumar1, Nikhil Gupta2,Santosh Kumar2 and Himanshu Gurjar 3
In the last few years there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine and these drugs are gaining popularity both in developing and developed countries because of their natural origin and less side effects. Many traditional medicines in use are derived from medicinal plants, minerals and organic matter .The World Health Organization (WHO) has listed 21,000 plants, which are used for medicinal purposes around the world. Among these 2500 species are in India, out of which 150 species are used commercially on a fairly large scale. India is the largest producer of medicinal herbs and is called as botanical garden of the world .The current review focuses on herbal drug preparations and plants used in the treatment of different chronic dieses in the world. The use of Ayurvedic medicines is common in both adults and children and is increasing in many areas of the world. This paper will discuss the benefits with use of herbal medicines as , Antidiabetic and Analgesic activity.
16 REVIEW ON SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH ANTIDIABETIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY. , Dr.Raghuveer Irchhaiya1, Anurag Kumar 1*, Nitika Gupta1 , Anumalik yadav1 , Swadesh Kumar1, Nikhil Gupta2,Santosh Kumar2 and Himanshu Gurjar 3
In the last few years there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine and these drugs are gaining popularity both in developing and developed countries because of their natural origin and less side effects. Many traditional medicines in use are derived from medicinal plants, minerals and organic matter .The World Health Organization (WHO) has listed 21,000 plants, which are used for medicinal purposes around the world. Among these 2500 species are in India, out of which 150 species are used commercially on a fairly large scale. India is the largest producer of medicinal herbs and is called as botanical garden of the world .The current review focuses on herbal drug preparations and plants used in the treatment of different chronic dieses in the world. The use of Ayurvedic medicines is common in both adults and children and is increasing in many areas of the world. This paper will discuss the benefits with use of herbal medicines as , Antidiabetic and Analgesic activity.
17 REVIEW ON SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH ANTIDIABETIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY. , Dr.Raghuveer Irchhaiya1, Anurag Kumar 1*, Nitika Gupta1 , Anumalik yadav1 , Swadesh Kumar1, Nikhil Gupta2,Santosh Kumar2 and Himanshu Gurjar 3
In the last few years there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine and these drugs are gaining popularity both in developing and developed countries because of their natural origin and less side effects. Many traditional medicines in use are derived from medicinal plants, minerals and organic matter .The World Health Organization (WHO) has listed 21,000 plants, which are used for medicinal purposes around the world. Among these 2500 species are in India, out of which 150 species are used commercially on a fairly large scale. India is the largest producer of medicinal herbs and is called as botanical garden of the world .The current review focuses on herbal drug preparations and plants used in the treatment of different chronic dieses in the world. The use of Ayurvedic medicines is common in both adults and children and is increasing in many areas of the world. This paper will discuss the benefits with use of herbal medicines as , Antidiabetic and Analgesic activity.
18 REVIEW ON SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH ANTIDIABETIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY. , Dr.Raghuveer Irchhaiya1, Anurag Kumar 1*, Nitika Gupta1 , Anumalik yadav1 , Swadesh Kumar1, Nikhil Gupta2,Santosh Kumar2 and Himanshu Gurjar 3
In the last few years there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine and these drugs are gaining popularity both in developing and developed countries because of their natural origin and less side effects. Many traditional medicines in use are derived from medicinal plants, minerals and organic matter .The World Health Organization (WHO) has listed 21,000 plants, which are used for medicinal purposes around the world. Among these 2500 species are in India, out of which 150 species are used commercially on a fairly large scale. India is the largest producer of medicinal herbs and is called as botanical garden of the world .The current review focuses on herbal drug preparations and plants used in the treatment of different chronic dieses in the world. The use of Ayurvedic medicines is common in both adults and children and is increasing in many areas of the world. This paper will discuss the benefits with use of herbal medicines as , Antidiabetic and Analgesic activity.
19 RASAYANA: A CONCEPT OF LONGEVITY, Dr. Garima Srivastava1, Dr. Rajendra Kumar Soni*
Rasayana, one of the most essential branch of Ayurveda, being practiced effectively and extensively since ages, is a group of medicinal preparations which are immune-stimulants and capable of preventing the causation of many ailments such as untimely ageing. The term Rasayan essentially refers to nourishment or nutrition. Rasayan remedies act essentially on nutrition dynamics and rejuvenate the body and psyche. Ageing is a process of unfavourable progressive changes associated with decline in vigour and ending in death. The process of ageing involves the coexistence of two opposing factors namely evolution (growth) and involution (atrophy). Ageing in individuals is affected to a greater extent by genetic factors, diet, social conditions and the occurrence of age related disorders. The problems of health due to modernization can be solved by increasing resistance against diseases and psychological improvement by implementing Rasayan Therapy. The answer to prevent premature ageing also lies in Rasayan Therapy. As this important branch of acquaintance is not much in practice, comprehensive efforts are needed to revive this useful discipline of Ayurveda for the welfare of humanity. However, it is possible to reduce the virulence of aging and improve the quality of life thereupon. In this regard, Rasayana can be of great help. In total, Rasayana is the science of nutrition and complete health care.
20 ALOE VERA - A MIRACLE PLANT WITH BIOLOGICAL ACTIONS, Dr.Priya Senan.V
Aloe vera is the oldest and most applied medicinal plant worldwide. This miracle plant plant is also known as the harmonious remedy? by the Chinese people, the elixir of youth? by the Russians and the herb of immortality? by the ancient Egyptians. It originated in North Africa and can now be found almost anywhere which has a mild climate. For centuries, Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) has been used to treat a number of medical conditions such as asthma, mild fever, wounds, burns, gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, immune modulation, AIDS, cancer and various skin diseases. So, there is an urgent need to investigate more and more on scientific basis of the therapeutic potential of the miracle plant and to popularize it for great interest.
21 CONGENITAL INTESTINAL LYMPHANGIECTASIA: A CASE STUDY, Shan Sasidharan2*, Akhila Sivadasan1
Congenital intestinal lymphangiectasia is a rare disease which leads to protein losing enteropathy that usually affected children and young adults. Tortuous, dilated lymphatic vessels in the intestinal wall and mesenterium are typical features of the disease. Major symptoms include peripheral edema, mal absorption, diarrhoea, steatorrhea, and effusions. Specific diet and medication are required for disease control. Specific diet and medication are required for disease control. Keywords: Ileal diseases, lymphangiectasis, intestinal, congenital abnormalities, diagnosis, differential, drug therapy.
22 A REVIEW ON MESOPOROUS SILICA NANOPARTICLES LOADED SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE, Upendra Kumar Sharma, Manjoo Kushwaha*, Honey Tiwari and Anuj Prakash
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles as drug delivery system show a good advantages over traditional drug nanocarriers. In this review we overview the recent progress in the synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles for drug delivery applications. Recent developments in the synthesis of monodispersed, narrow-size distribution of nanoparticles by sol-gel method provide a significant boost to the development of silica-polymer nanoparticles. mesoporous silica nanoparticles were prepared and characterized to dovelop a drug delivery system by loading them with salbutamol sulphate and functiolizing them with polyethylene glycol.
23 PRESENT STATUS OF ANTIINFLAMMATORY AND ANTI RHEUMATIC PHYTOCONSTITUENTS: A REVIEW, Bader G.N*, Mir P.A., & Bhat Z.A.
Herbs and herbal medicine have not been studied in the same way that prescription medicine for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have. There is a tremendous disconnect between their widespread usage and peoples belief in their efficacy compared to what has been proven scientifically. Many herbs/their extracts have been used as anti-rheumatic agents by practitioners of alternate system of medicine (mainly Unani and Ayurvedha). Use of these herbal medicines is based on the anti-rheumatic phytoconstituents present in them. This article is a compilation of different phytoconstituents used as anti-rheumatic drugs or are drugs under investigation for the same purpose.
24 A CONCISE REVIEW ON ORAL pH INDEPENDENT CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM, A. Anil Kumar*1, T.E. Gopala Krishna Murthy2, A. Prameela Rani3
Innovations in the area of drug delivery are taking place at a much faster pace. As compared with last two decades, during the last decade many controlled drug delivery systems for oral administration have been developed by using many techniques. Even though these techniques are having lot of limitations and less applicable to weakly acidic or basic drugs which are exhibiting pH dependent solubility, Due to the pH-dependent solubility of ionizable drugs, oral tablets containing ionizable drugs are particularly prone to these release rate fluctuations. For such drugs Intra and Inter subject variability of entire GIT pH, patient related diseased conditions and the fast and fed conditions which may vary the pH at local site leads to Poor In vitro-In vivo correlation. Hence there is need to develop pH Independent drug delivery system to overcome all the limitations. There are few techniques such as Diffucaps technology, Use of pH modifiers, Use of surfactants, Combination of non ionic and Ionic polymers, Supersaturation technique along with nucleation inhibitors and Osmotic drug delivery to fulfil the object of pH Independent systems . These novel approaches may help the future research in gaining control over the significant drawbacks of pH dependent solubility of drugs.
25 ROLE OF ENDOGENOUS MEDIATORS IN PEPTIC ULCER- A REVIEW ON STRATEGIES OF PATHOGENESIS AND ULCER HEALING, Manpreet Kaur1, Satvinder Kaur2*, Amandeep Kaur3, Anu Mahajan4
The pathogenetic mechanisms of different types of peptic ulcer are still unclear. Extensive investigations have been focused on the identification of potential endogenous ulcerogenic mediators involved in gastrointestinal ulceration. These studies areimportant in the development of a better therapeutic agent, either to prevent or tocure peptic ulcer. Several endogenous substances have been identifiedand are reported to be involved in the production of peptic ulcer. These substances were increased during inflammatory responses andtheir actions were reported as vascular dependent and possibly free radicals related. In addition various mediators imparts ulcer healing such as growth factors and NO by a genetically programmed repair process, includes inflammation, cell proliferation, re-epithelialization, formation of granulation tissue, angiogenesis, interactions between various cells, matrix and tissue remodelling, all resulting in scar formation. Thepresent study summarizes the ulcerogenic mechanisms of these substancesinvolved in ulceration and in ulcer healing.
26 AN OVERVIEW ON COMMIPHORA WIGHTII (ARN.)BHANDARI, AN ENDANGERED PLANT SPECIES OF BURSERACEAE FAMILY, *N. Shweta and Illa Patel
Comiphora wightii (Arn.)Bhandari is a medicinally important plant which is now considered an endangered species. This paper is an overview of the details of this plant, i.e its occurrence, botanical description, its medicinal uses, its phytochemistry and its conservation strategies both by invivo and invitro techniques that have been carried out so far in the world.
27 A REVIEW ON HYPOLIPIDAEMIC AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS, Suresh Chandra Joshi1*, Pratibha Kumari Jain2
Atherosclerosis which results from gradual deposition of lipids in medium and large arteries is increasing at an alarming rate world over. More than 25 million persons in the United States have at least one clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis and in many more, atherosclerosis remains an occult but imperative forerunner of significant cardiovascular events. Atherosclerosis (AS) is a systemic cardiovascular disease with important sequelae in many other regional circulations, including those supplying the brain, kidneys, mesentery, and limbs. Hyperlipidaemia is a major cause of atherosclerosis and atherosclerosis associated vascular territories. Furthermore, disorders of lipid metabolism are associated with increased oxidative stress and overproduction of oxygen free radicals. Traditional medicinal plants having antilipidaemic property can prove to be the useful source for the development of new oral hypolipidaemic agents or simple dietary adjuvant to existing therapies. In view of this the present review is written to explore anti-hyperlipidaemic and antioxidant activity as well as phytoconstituents of some commonly used medicinal plants.
28 ORO DISPERSIBLE TABLETS: A REVIEW, Bhandari Neeraj*, Kutlehria Abhilash, Thakur Jagrity, Verma Pooja
Fast dissolving tablets (FDTs) have received ever-increasing demand during the last decade and the field has become a rapidly growing area in the pharmaceutical industry. Fast dissolving tablets (FDTs) are those solid dosage forms when put on tongue, disintegrate or dissolve instantaneously, releasing the drug, within a few seconds without the need of water. Fast dissolving tablets (FDTs) aim for designing dosage forms, convenient to be manufactured and administered, free of side effects, offering immediate release and enhanced bioavailability, to achieve better patient compliance. Fast dissolving tablets have been formulated for pediatric, geriatric, and bedridden patients and for active patients who are busy and traveling and may not have access to water. Such formulations provide an opportunity for product life extension in the many elderly persons which have difficulty in taking conventional oral dosage form (viz., solutions, suspensions, tablets, and capsules) because of hand tremors and dysphagia. The current article is focused on ideal requirements, need for development of FDTs, challenges in formulation, suitability of drug candidates, superdisintegrants employed, various technologies developed for FDTs and evaluation methods.
29 NITRIC OXIDE RADICAL SCAVENGING ASSAY OF BOUGAINVILLEA GLABRA CHOICY, Neha Sahu*, Dr. Jyoti Saxena
Scientific evidence suggests that antioxidants reduce the risk for chronic diseases including cancer, heart disease and many other diseases. Primary sources of antioxidants are whole grains, fruits and vegetables. Bougainvillea glabra an common ornamental plant have been used by the traditional practitioner in variety of disorders like diarrhea, reduces acidity, cough and sore throught, decoction of dried flowers for the blood vessels and leucorrhoea and decoction of the stem in hepatitis. Ethanol extract of Bougainvillea glabra choicy was screened to evaluate free radical scavenging effect. The extract exhibited significant reducing power and free radical scavenging effect on nitric oxide radicals. This antioxidant activity was concentration dependent which were compared with standard antioxidants such as ascorbic acid. The highest free radical scavenging effect of the extract was observed at concentration of 1000 ?g/ml and the IC50 value of extract was 1.61 ?g/ml.
30 ENZYMATIC AND NON ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF TEPHROSIA PURPUREA (LINN), Suriyavathana Muthukrishnan*, Suganya Murugan 1 and Priya krishnamoorthy2
Antioxidants are free radical scavengers and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the body, hence hindering the process of oxidation. Many oxidative stress related diseases are as a result of accumulation of free radicals in the body. Some of the antioxidant enzymes and numerous non-enzymatic small molecules distributed widely in the biological system and capable of scavenging free radicals. The evaluation of antioxidant potential of Tephrosia purpurea by using enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants results exhibited that Tephrosia purpurea possess significant enzymatic antioxidants activity namely especially Glutathione-S-Transferase and Non- enzymatic antioxidant activity namely vitamin E than the results of the antioxidants.
31 INFLUENCE OF NATURAL GUMS ON THE SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF METOPROLOL, *Sai kumar. M, Sumana. K, Someswara Rao.B, Suresh V. Kulkarni
Gums are widely used natural excipients for conventional and novel dosage forms. With the increasing interest in polymers of natural origin, the pharmaceutical world has compliance to use most of them in the formulations. In recent years, there has been a tremendous development in natural products which are need to be used for a variety of purposes. Nature has provided us a wide variety of materials to help improve and sustain the health of all living things either directly or indirectly. These natural materials have advantages over synthetic ones since they are chemically inert, nontoxic, less expensive, biodegradable and widely available. They can also be modified in different ways to obtain tailor made materials for drug delivery systems and thus can compete with the available synthetic excipients. Moreover, the tremendous orientation of pharma world towards these naturally derived polymers has become a subject of increasing interest to discover, extract and purify such compounds from the natural origin. Gums are potent candidate to be used in various pharmaceutical formulations as a potential candidate for novel drug delivery system (NDDS). In this review, we describe the developments in natural gums for use in the pharmaceutical sciences.
32 IDENTIFICATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM MARINE SPONGE SPONGIA TOSTABY GC MS ANALYSIS, Archana.R, Kanchana.G2*, Rubalakshmi.G3
The Ocean is the mother of life and it is believed that the most primitive forms of life originated from this primordial soup. The marine environment is a rich source of bioactive compounds. This study was carried out to analyse the active constitutents from Marine Sponge using Gas Chromatography - Mass spectrometry. The chemical composition of the methanolic extract of Spongia Tosta was investigated using Perkin Elmer gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Mass spectra of the compound found in the extract were matched with the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST) library. This analysis revealed that Spongia Tosta contains ten bioactive compounds which included 1-Iodo, 2-methylnonane, n-Hexadecanoic acid, 4 -Dodecanol, 9 - Oxabicyclo [ 6.1.0 ] nonane, 3- Hexanol, 2, 2-dimethyl, 1, 4 -Hexadiene, 3, 3, 5 - trimethyl, Oleic acid, Octanal, 7-methoxy-3,7-dimethyl, Spiro [androst-5-ene-17, 1-Cyclobutan]-2-one,3-hydroxy [3a,17a],and Diazoprogesterone. Hence the present study reveals that a Marine Sponge - Spongia Tosta can serve as a potential source for current biomedical and pharmaceutical importance.
33 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF THIADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES, 1Dr Himanshu Sharma*,1 Prem Shankar Mishra, 2Rakhi Mishra
Thiadiazole and their derivatives have been studied extensively because of their wide range of biological activity. Diverse biological activities, such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral have been associated with 1,3,4-Thiadiazole derivatives. The synthesis of 1, 3, 4- Thiadiazole derivatives has attracted widespread attention due to their diverse biological activities, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory. Therefore, it was decided to synthesize some Thiadiazole derivatives. which are expected to possess anti-inflammatory activity. From screening results, It has been observed that final compounds Anti-inflammatory activity was performed by carrageenan induced rat paw oedema method, it was observed that, compounds TH-1C, TH-1B and TH-1E exhibited significant activity Diclofenac sodium was used as standard for measuring anti-inflammatory activity.
34 SEASONA INFLUENCE ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF YELAHANKA LAKE WATER OF BANGALORE, Narayanaswamy.S.Y.*, Ramachandra Mohan. M.
Water quality is a term used here to express the suitability of water to sustain various Uses or processes. The physical and Chemical characteristics of water at Yelahanka lake in Bangalore during the year May 2007-May 2008 have been studied on the concentrations of Toxic substances for drinking water use, or restrictions on temperature and pH ranges for Water supporting invertebrate communities. The pH value of Yelahanka Lake recorded 7.0-8.2; the pH was found above 7.0 in all the lakes making them alkaline. The alkalinity value of Yelahanka Lake ranges from 8.2 NTU 10.7 NTU. Conductivity is good and rapid measure of the solids recorded ranges from 838?mhos/cm - 1213 ?mhos/cm, the values observed in Yelahanka lake values are very much higher than the prescribed standards limits (1400 ?mhos/cm) recommended by W.H.O. Conductivity increases with increasing amount and mobility of ions and also can be used an indicator of water pollution.Dissolve oxygen values ranges from 4.0 mg/l 7.8 mg/l. Salinity is the saltiness or salt dissolved salt content of water body. The iron rangesfrom 0.5 mg/l 1.8 mg/l, in water it occurs mainly in the divalent or bivalent state (ferrous and ferric). Iron is the surface water is present in the form of ferric state. The fluoride ranges from 0.23 mg/l- 0.63 mg/l, Fluoride in water derives mainly from dissolution of natural minerals in the rocks and soils with which water interacts. The most common fluorine bearing minerals are lourie, apatite and micas. Fluoride problems therefore tend to occur where the element is most abundant in the host rocks. The changes of the physico-chemical characterstics of lake water due to the runoff water from surrounding agrictural fields and concentration of chemical constituents is partially dried up aquatic environment. The svalues for different parameters evaluated fall for below the acceptable limits in the lake studied necessary to drink water after treatment, boiling and filtrations.
35 PHARMACOGNOSTIC FEATURES OF AN ENDEMIC TRADITIONAL MEDICINE BAUHINIA PHOENICEA WIGHT & ARN LEAVES, Miss. Alby Alphons Baby* and Dr. Regi Raphael K
Bauhinia phoenicea Wight & Arn is a medicinal plant endemic to Western Ghats. It is commonly known as Vallimantharam?.In traditional medicine, it used against diabetes, skin allergies, fungal infections and worm disturbances. To the best of our knowledge, any scientific studies on this plant is not yet reported. So, as a first step towards unravelling its medicinal property pharmacognocy profiling of the leaves were performed. Taxonomic characters, macroscopic-microscopic features, physicochemical and ultra violet analysis of the leaves were performed. Pharmacognostic standardization of the plant is essential to ensure the purity of the drug in its dried and powdered form. The preliminary qualitative analysis of B.phoenicea leaf indicated the presence of alkaloids, saponins, phenols, steroids and flavonoids. Results highlighted in this paper will be helpful for the correct identification of the crude drug. The further procedures of pharmacological activity screening and identification of active principles are in progress.
36 CONTACT LENS USER NON-COMPLIANCE TO LENS CARE: UNDERSTANDING THE REASONS, Mr. Prasant D. Jadav*1, Mrs. Vishakha Hastak1, Ms. Shikha Mehta1
Research Objective: Study was done to identify reasons for the non-compliance of lens users. A questionnaire was administered to understand attitudes of lens user towards lens care and hygiene. The present study was aimed to achieve the following objective- To identify the awareness about lens, lens care and to check compliance of user about hygiene. To analyze reasons for noncompliance. Methods: This is a cross sectional descriptive study.120 contact lens users from Pune, were identified and were administered a questionnaire about the different aspects of contact lens wear that covered all study objectives. Results: Among all the contact lens users 58.33% were using these contact lenses for refractive errors. 41.7% of the occasional users used them for cosmetic purposes. 40% of students were using extended wear lenses. Regular/Daily users were comparatively 60%. A small but alarming percentage (3%) of the lens users for corrective purpose was found to be drop-out due to higher cost. A significant number (10%) of students were not washing their hands before handling contact lenses. Many (60%) of them were facing problems at some stage which included irritation, (16%), redness and pain, blurring (4%), and amongst all (2%) don?t have any side effects. Conclusion: Many respondents are unaware of proper care and handling of contact lenses. Some of them are unaware of the potential complications associated with contact lens use. Even those who are aware, still ignore proper handling and wearing schedule of contact lenses.
37 ENZYMATIC DEGRADATION OF GLIADIN BY NIGELLA SATIVA SEEDS PROTEASE: IMPLICATIONS FOR NEW TREATMENT OF CELIAC DISEASE, Nousseiba Bellira*, Mohamed Nacer Bellirb., Leila Rouabaha
The protease was extracted from Nigella sativa seeds with 0,1 M citrate/phosphate buffer (pH 7,5), the crude enzyme extract showed maximum protease activity at pH 1,5 ,and optimal temperature at 50C. After the partially purification of enzyme and analyses of RP-HPLC and SDS-PAGE results it appeared that Nigella sativa seeds protease degrade Triticum aestivum gliadin more efficiently than Triticum durum gliadin after 24h of incubation. The activity of Nigella sativa seeds protease with gliadin as substrate, in pH 7,5 at 37C after 2h of incubation, before and after partial enzymatic purification prove that the crude enzyme extract have a low activity with Triticum durum gliadin however it was important with Triticum aestivum gliadin, this protease activity was increased in the same conditions using partially purified enzyme and it persist always higer with Triticum durum gliadin comparing with Triticum aestivum gliadin. On the bases of these results, Nigella sativa seeds protease represent the alternative means of treating celiac disease in the future using the detoxification of gliadin to eliminate the immunogenicity of gluten.
38 FORMULATION OF LORNOXICAM ORAL DISINTEGRATING TABLETS, *V.P. Pandey1, R. Murugan1 and Kala Narayana2
The present work relates to the formulation and evaluation of lornoxicam oral disintegrating tablets, six tablet formulations were tried and among them, one was found suitable for oral disintegrating tablet of lornoxicam in evaluation. Various excipients for taste masking, mouth feel and fast disintegrate of tablets were tried alone or in combination with varying proportions in present study. One formulation with Kyron T- 114, microcrystalline cellulose 102, sodium lauryl sulphate, pearlitol 200 SD, sucralose, banana flavor, dry vanilla, aerosol, magnesium stearate, crospovidone XL 10 and D. M water was prepared and found suitable in present study. The present study demonstrated lornoxicam as oral disintegrating tablet for better patient compliance.
39 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF 4-OXO-OXAZOLIDINE DERIVATIVES, Vivek Gupta1*, A. Pandurangan2
A series of N- (2- Pheny l 4 oxo - oxazolidine 3 - y l) 4-acetamidophenoxyacetamide (2a-2l) is synthesized from Schiff bases. Antimicrobial activity of synthesized compounds evaluated by cup-plate method. The chemical structures of synthesized compound were confirmed by means of IR, 1HNMR and MS. All the compounds synthesized showed antimicrobial activity out of which compounds 2c, 2e, 2f and 2l shows good antibacterial activity whereas 2g and 2k shows good antifungal activity. The results obtained here indicated, that ring systems enhances the activity to a considerable extent. Further structural modifications and screening is to be required to confirm the more and still better activity. Paracetamol containing oxazolidine derivatives may be used as anti-inflammatory.
40 ANTI DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF AAVARAIVITHAADHI CHOORANAM IN ANIMAL MODELS , P.Thenmozhi*, M.Pitchiah Kumar, V.Velpandian, D. Sandhiya, V.Banumathi
In this modern era many chronic diseases are due to this lifestyle modification. One among the disease is the Diabetes mellitus which is a great threat worldwide. Siddha medicine plays an effective role in treating Diabetes mellitus. Aavaraivithaadhi Chooranam a siddha drug taken from the classical siddha literature used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to screen the drug for its acute toxicity in animal model and anti-diabetic activity in Streptozotozin induced diabetes in animal model Wistar albino rats. The animals were selected randomly and divided into four groups with six animals in each group. Group 1 taken as normal control, group 2 taken as diabetic control, group 3 taken as standard and group 4 taken as test drug Aavaraivithaadhi Chooranam (200mg/kg). The results were tabulated and it reveals the potency of the drug. The blood glucose level was reduced significantly which was almost equal to that of the standard and the body weight was also maintained. Acute toxicity study showed no toxic effect so it revealed the safety of the drug. Thus I conclude that the Siddha herbal formulation Aavaraivithaadhi chooranam is safe, potent and effective drug against diabetes mellitus and its complications.
41 EVALUATION OF HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF ACHYRANTHES ASPERA LINN. ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS, R.Vidhya1*, G.Jothi 2
The present study, aims to evaluate the hypolipidemic activity of aqueous extract of Achyranthes aspera (L.) against alloxan induced diabetic rats. Wistar strain of albino rats of either sex were divided into five groups comprising of six rats each. Group I served as normal control, group II served as disease control (alloxan induced), group III & IV animals, received aqueous extract of A. aspera Linn at a dosage of 250mg/kg body weight and 500mg/kg body weight for 45 days, group V served as standard drug control (glibenclamide1mg/Kg body weight). After the experimental period the blood and tissue samples were collected and subjected to various biochemical parameters and histopathological studies. There were profound alterations in fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid profile in serum and tissue, urea, creatinine levels in alloxan induced rats. Aqueous extract of A. aspera showed an excellent reduction in serum and marked raised tissue cholesterol, triglyceride, and freefattyacid and phospholipid levels. plant extract help in resuming the lipid profile, urea and creatinine to normal and results were comparable to that of standard drug glibenclamide (1mg/kg bw). The alterations were observed to resume (P
42 SYNTHESIS OF NOVEL 1-(2,4'-DIFLUOROPHENYL)-3-(4"-ARYL)-2-PROPEN-1-ONES AND THEIR PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES, CH.M.M.Prasada Rao*a, Rehaman S.Ab Rajendra Prasad Yejellac
Chalcones are important starting materials for the synthesis of various classes of five, six and seven member heterocyclic compounds. Most of these compounds are highly bioactive and are widely used in pharmaceuticals. They belongs to an important class of flavonoids, Chalcones are synthesized by ClaisenSchmidt condensation, which involves cross aldol condensation of appropriate aldehydes and ketones by base or acid catalysed reactions followed by dehydration. 12 new Chalcones were synthesized. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral evidence. Prepared compounds were tested for anti microbial activity and cytotoxicity studies.
43 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF COCCINIA INDICA FRUIT EXTRACT FOR ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY, R S Sahane*, M A Shrungarpure, P A Wankhade
Objective: This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of hypoglycemic activities of Coccinia indica fruits extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Method: Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were used for the experimental bioassay. Animals were made diabetic by a single intra-peritoneal dose of streptozotocin 60 mg/kg body weight. After 72 h of streptozotocin administration, blood glucose level was examined to confirm diabetes. All animals were randomly divided into seven groups with six animals in each. A single oral administration daily for three weeks of ethanolic extract at doses 200 and 400 mg/kg and triterpenoid fraction at doses 50 and 100 mg/kg was done. Glibenclamide 5 mg/kg was used as reference drug. Results: Phytochemical study revealed the presence of triterpenoids, flavonoids, sterols, carbohydrates. The ethanolic extract and triterpenoid fraction showed significant glucose lowering activity along with good lipid lowering activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. The histo-pathological findings suggest that the architecture of pancreas was retained. Conclusion: The findings suggest that alcoholic extract of Coccinia indicia and triterpenoid fraction serve as good oral hypoglycemic agents and seem to be promising for the development of phytomedicines for hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, renal-protective and hepatoprotective effects in diabetes mellitus.
44 EVALUATION OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF INULA CUSPIDATA WHOLE PLANT, STEM AND FLOWER EXTRACT AGAINST CARAGEENAN INDUCED PAW EDEMA IN RATS, Ajit Kiran Kaur*1, A.K.Wahi1, Anil Bhandari1, Sokindra Kumar2
The genus Inula, one of the smallest and widest distributed genera of the family Asteraceae is comprised of 20 species in India and several of these are reported to possess medicinal properties and used in folk medicines, as tonic, stomachic, diuretic, aphrodiasic, anti-inflammatory, bactericidal. Hepatoprotective, anti-tumour and carminative. In the present study flower extract, stem extract, and whole plant extract (aqueous extract) were studied for their anti-inflammatory potential for 1hr, 2hr and 4hr duration against carageenan induced rat paw edema.. It was observed that the aqueous extract of whole plant at dose level of 400 mg/kg was found to exhibit the maximum reduction of 36.36% in edema about after 4 hours, followed by aqueous extract of stem (400mg/kg) with a reduction of about 34.54 % and least reduction was observed in aqueous extract of flower of Inula cuspidata which caused 29.09% reduction in carrageenan induced edema.
45 EVALUATION AND STABILITY STUDY OF RIFAMPICIN LOADED CHITOSAN NANOPARTICLES, Bency Mathew, M. Rangapriya*, N.N. Rajendran
The present study attempted to evaluate rifampicin loaded chitosan nanoparticles using ascorbic acid as stabilizing agent by ionic gelation method. The prepared nanoparticles were subjected for its physico chemical characterization, in-vitro diffusion and stability studies. FT-IR and DSC show the drug and polymer were compatible with each other and no change was observed in their chemical nature. The morphology showed nano sized particles (202 to 205nm), zeta potential (+420.14 to +420.34) and poly dispersity index (0.202 to 0.225). The encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity were 80.7%, 45.65% and 82.56%, 46.38% in formulation 1 and 2 respectively. The stability study indicates freeze temperature is ideal storage condition for nanoparticles for longer period. Among the formulations, formulation with rifampicin co-administered ascorbic acid (F2) was more stable and showed minimized rifampicin degradation. It could be conclusively stated that the prepared nanoparticles are more stable in freeze conditions compared with other storage conditions.
46 EVALUATION OF PRESCRIBING PATTERN OF FIXED DOSE COMBINATION OF DRUGS IN OUTPATIENTS OF CARDIOLOGY IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, Dr. Azeem Tahir4, Dr Krutika Gulati4, Dr. Lalit Mohan1, Dr. Smita Shenoy2, Dr. Navin Patil3 *.
Objective: To evaluate the prescribing pattern of fixed dose combination of drugs in the department of cardiology in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and methods: The case records of patients with cardiovascular disorders who attended the department of cardiology were studied and following data was collected - patient demographics, diagnosis, the total number of drugs and fixed dose combinations of drugs (FDCs) prescribed, composition of the FDC, whether FDC prescribed is approved by World health organisation (WHO). A descriptive analysis of data was done. Results: Out of 184 patients, 92 received fixed dose combination of drugs. Of these, 91.3% patients were suffering from more than one disease. Prescription of FDCs was most common (69.56%) in patients above 50 years of age. The commonly prescribed FDC was aspirin with clopidogrel followed by spironolactone with frusemide. Of the prescribed FDCs, 90% were WHO approved. Conclusion: Polypharmacy was common due to presence of multiple diseases. Though use of FDCs can ensure patient adherence to therapy, irrational use should be avoided.
47 BUCCAL IN SITU GEL CONTAINING CURCUMIN FOR THE TREATMENT OF ORAL THRUSH , V. Anoop Narayanan*1, B. Prakash Rao2
Curcumin, a naturally occuring polyphenolic compound has been proven for its antifungal activity against Candida albicans and is found to reduce the fungal burden in oropharyngeal candidiasis. Present study aims to develop an insitu gelling solution of curcumin, thus to increase the residence time of curcumin in the oral cavity for better antifungal activity. Solubility studies proved that curcumin is sparingly soluble in water in oral pH conditions, and the minimum inhibitory concentration against C albicans was found to be 80?g/ml. Curcumin in situ gel was prepared by using PEG 400 and poloxamer 407 in various ratios as a gelling agent. Formulations except P10 were turned into a gel form rapidly at 37C and were retained their form for few hours. In vitro drug release studies carried out in sink condition showed a sustained Higuchi pattern release from the P3 formulation which was extended for 5h. Rheological evaluation revealed the psuedoplastic behaviour of the gel. Gel showed adequate bioadhessive strength when evaluated with an extracted goat buccal mucosa. The zone of inhibition of P3 formulation was 19mm which was comparable with a standard fluconazole solution and C. albican were sensitive to curcumin. Thus curcumin in situ gel may be a promising and patient friendly treatment method for the treatment of oral candidiasis, which should be reconfirmed through further clinical evaluation.
48 INVITRO-ANTIOXIDANT, ANTI INFLAMMATORY AND ANTI PROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF BACOPA MONNIERI, Bhoomi B. Joshi1, Jagdish Patel2, Piyush chudasama2and Kinnari N Mistry1*
The study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant and anti inflammatory activity of crude extract of leaves of Bacopa monnieri (L) Penn. (family: Scrophulariaceae). The antioxidant properties were evaluated using different antioxidant tests such as DPPH scavenging activity, ABTS scavenging activity, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, free radical scavenging, metal chelating activity and total antioxidant activity along with different anti inflammatory tests such as albumin inhibition activity, membrane stabilization and protein inhibitory activity.The various Antioxidant activity and anti inflammatory activity were compared to synthetic drugs such as ascorbic acid and aspirin. When compared with ethanolic extract methanolic extract showed higher antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect.
49 QUALITATIVE SECONDARY METABOLITES IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS IN CAPPARIS ZEYLANICA , L. A HERBAL MEDICINE A. Suvarna Latha *1 and N. Yasodamma 2
Capparis zeylanica L. is a climbing thorny shrub commonly known as Indian caper, found throughout India. It is used as a Rasayana? drug in the traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine which belongs to the family Capparidaceae with immense medicinal values. The plant is used in folk medicine to treat, snake bite, tumors, diabetes, rheumatism, abdominal, ulcers, hernia, swelling, itching, hepatitis, liver tonic, insect poisoning and anti-inflammatory. The present study was under taken to identify qualitatively various secondary metabolites like Phenols, Flavonoids and Anthocyanidins by paper chromatography from leaf, stem bark, root bark and fruits. Twenty five (25) Phenolic compounds like Iso Chlorogenic acid, Caffeic acid, Iso- chlorogenic acid, Homo-Protocatechuic acid, Phloroglucinol, Gentisic acid, ?-Resorcyclic acid, Cis-p-Coumaric acid, Trans-p-Coumaric acid, p-hydroxy benzoic acid, Phloretic acid, Ferulic acid, Cis-Ferulic acid, Scopoletin, O- Coumaric acid, Trans-Sinapic acid, Vanillic acid, Melilotic acid, Syringic acid, Coumarin, Salicylic acid and Cinnamic acid. And Eight (8) Flavonoid compounds like Rutin, Myricetin, Quercetin, Kaempferol, Luteolin, Apigenin, Orientin and Vitexin and four (4) Anthocyanidin compounds like Delphidin, Malvidin, Peonidin and Luteolinidin, were identified by comparing with the standards. And it is identified that the bioactive nature of compounds is similar to the therapeutic properties of the plant.
50 FORSED DEGRADATION STUDY ON DRONEDARONE AND APPLICATIONS OF VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD IN STABILITY TESTING OF DRONIDARONE TABLETS , N.Sai Priyanka*, J.N.Suresh Kumar, Razia sulthana, Ajay Babu .Ch, N.Sambasivanaik
A stability indicating reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the estimation of Dronedarone in tablet dosage form. A symmetry C18 column having dimensions of 1504.6mm and 5?m particle size, with mobile phase containing a mixture of acetonitrile and phosphate buffer in the ratio of 60:40 v/v was used. PH of mobile phase was adjusted to 6.8 with sodium hydroxide. The flow rate was 1ml/min and the column effluents were monitored at 289 nm. The retention time for Dronedarone was found to be 6.217min. The proposed method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ and robustness. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.018?g/ml and 0.06?g/ml respectively. The method was found to be linear in the range of 0.512-1.536 mg/ml with regression coefficient (r2= 0.999). The % recovery for the Dronedarone was found to be 99.6 and the forced degradation studies were also carried out as per ICH guidelines. There was complete separation of degradation peak and Dronedarone peak, which demonstrate the specificity of assay method for estimation of Dronedarone in the presence of its degradation products; it can be employed as a stability indicating one. Due to simplicity, rapidity and accuracy of the proposed stability indicating HPLC method is useful for quality control analysis.
51 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF REVERSED-PHASE HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM AND TELMISARTAN IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM , Razia Sulthana*, J.N.Suresh Kumar, N.Sai Priyanka, Ajay Babu .Ch, N.Sambasivanaik
A simple, precise and accurate reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of atorvastatin calcium and telmisartan in tablet formulations. The chromatographic separation was achieved on (C18, 250mm x 4.6mm, 5?) analytical column. A mixture of ammonium acetate (0.02M, pH 4.0 adjusted with glacial acetic acid) and acetonitrile in ratio (40:60 v/v) at flow rate of 1.0ml/min and detector wavelength 254 nm. The retention time of atorvastatin calcium and telmisartan was found to be 4.6 and 6.1 minutes respectively. The validation of the proposed method was carried out for its specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection and quantification for both atorvastatin calcium and telmisartan. The developed method can be used for routine quality analysis of titled drugs in combination in tablet formulation.
52 IN VITRO ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF ARGEMONE MEXICANA L. SEEDS AND ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS (L.) R. BR. BARK ON DIFFERENT HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES , Avinash Patil1*, Khyati Vadera2, Darshana Patil3, Anita Phatak4, Aarti Juvekar5 and Naresh Chandra6
Cancer has been one of the dreadful diseases of 20th century and moving vastly in 21st century becoming one of the major causes of deaths in humans. The use of natural substances to inhibit carcinogenesis is a rapidly evolving aspect of cancer research. Large number of plants and their isolated constituents have been shown to possess potential anticancer activity. In present investigation, various extracts (Aqueous, Hydroalcoholic, Ethanolic, Methanolic and Petroleum ether) of Argemone mexicana L. seeds and Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. bark were standardized for their preliminary phytochemical analysis and in vitro anticancer activity. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of Argemone mexicana L. seeds extract showed presence of tannins, alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, glycosides, mucilage, proteins, flavonoids, fats and fixed oils whereas that of Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. bark showed presence of tannins, alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, proteins, flavonoids, fats and fixed oils. The in vitro anticancer activity of the extracts tested against various human cancer cell lines using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Out of the ten extracts tested, Ethanolic, Methanolic and Petroleum ether extracts of Argemone mexicana L. seeds and Aqueous, Hydro-alcoholic (50% Ethanol) and Ethanolic extracts of Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br. bark showed potent anticancer activity on Human Leukaemia Cell line HL 60. The result of the present work may be useful for the development of anticancer agents of plant origin.
53 FORMULATION, EVALUATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF ORO-DISPERSIBLE TABLET CONTAINING OF METFORMIN HCL, Jitul B Patel*, Akash M Patel, D.R. Tesaj Patel, Prakash B Sathwara
To prepare Formulation, evaluation and optimization oro-dispersible tablet of containing Metformin hydrochloride, achieve rapid onset of action due to drug release within short period of time and achieve rapid onset of action due to drug release within short period of time. Attempting to prepare oro-dispersible tablet of Metformin HCl which provide convenience of tablet formulation and allowing easy swallowing as of liquid formulation. It is the first-line drug of choice for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, in particular, in overweight and obese people and those with normal kidney function and having bioavailability 50-60 %. Provides quick onset of action due to rapid dissolution which may improve bioavailability and Increase Patients Compliance. Easy to administer for geriatric, mentally retarded, psychiatric and neurodegerative patients and persons who have swallowing problem (dysphasia).
54 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM AND GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE , G Babu1, Dr. R. Suthakaran1, *Ch. Srinivas Reddy2
The present article gives a general idea of analgesic, antioxidant and anti- inflammatory and anti diabetic activities of herbal drugs (Cardiospermum halicacabum and Gymnema sylvestre). Despite considerable progress in the treatment by oral agents, search for newer drugs continues because the existing synthetic drugs have several limitations. The herbal drugs with antioxidant, analgesic and anti inflammatory and anti diabetic activities are yet to be commercially formulated as modern medicines, even though they have been acclaimed for their therapeutic properties in the traditional systems of medicine.
55 A SOCIO EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF TUBERCULOSIS IN RURAL AREA, Krishnaveni K *1, Athira Jith1, Sambath Kumar R1, Kannan S 2
A house to house survey covering 2464 subjects were undertaken in one of the slum and villages (Kallankattuvalasu, Padaiveedu, Thattankuttai village) of Namakkal district. During this cross-sectional study, 82 tubercular cases were found in the adult rural population. Out of 2464 persons, 1321(54%) were male and 1143(46%) were female, sex overcrowding were found to be important social factor, significantly related to the higher prevalence of disease. The other social variables like occupation, literacy, socio economic status and family size were found to be significantly related to the prevalence of tuberculosis within this study.
56 STUDIES ON THE CONTROL OF MOSQUITO, AEDES AEGYPTI (CULICIDAE : DIPTERA) USING THE CHLOROFORM LEAF EXTRACT OF MURRAYA KOENIGII AS A BIOCIDE, C.R Hima*, M.Manimegalai
In recent years much interest has been evinced in the use of plant products as insecticides to control vector as pests, in view of the environmental and health hazards by synthetic organic insecticides. In the present study, Murraya koenigii plant extract was prepared using the solvent chloroform. The plant extract was tested against the various developmental stages of mosquito, Aedes aegypti.The level of the toxicity of Murraya koenigii was expressed in terms of LC50/24 hours values. The LC50 values of chloroform leaf extract for I, II, III & IV instar larvae of Aedes aegypti were 1.263%, 1.871%, 2.446% and 3.168% respectively. In the present study the preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavanoids, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins and steroids in the chloroform leaf extract of Murraya koenigii. The morphogenetic abnormalities are commonly caused by botanical extracts and the disturbance from the growth regulating hormones. It is therefore suggested that Murraya koenigii. derivatives are considered for vector control operations besides their use in other fields after exploring field trails.
57 HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF THE LEAVES OF ABUTILON CRISPUM (LINN) MEDICUS , Ram Mohan M*, Srinivas Reddy K 1, Ganapaty S 2
Natural products serve as lead molecules for development for the many popular drugs. Herbal drugs are having fewer side effects than the other class of drugs which are coming from the synthetic source. Abutilon crispum (Linn) Medicust, belonging to family Malvaceae. The present study deals with the hepatoprotective potential of Abutilon crispum in view to give scientific evidence to the folklore claim on the hepatoprotective activity of the leaves. The leaves were collected and extracted using decoction method in water. Sylimarin was used as standard. The serum of each animal of all groups were analyzed the biochemical parameters Serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), Serum glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin content. The above findings indicated that the leaf extract of A. crispum possess significant hepatoprotective activity.
58 APPRAISAL OF CLINICAL PHARMACY SERVICES IN MENTAL HEALTH UNIT OF A SOUTH INDIAN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL , *Jisha M. Lucca1, Jintu.Kurian1, Madhan Ramesh1, Dushad Ram2.
Introduction: The role of psychiatric pharmacists in patient care has been extensively advocated, and this type of practice model has been shown to improve clinical outcomes and reduce psychotropic medication-related morbidity. Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in mental health department of a tertiary care hospital in South India over a period of one year. The study was carried out by a final year Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm D) student, with the assistance of an experienced senior psychiatric clinical pharmacist. On monthly basis, the quality of pharmaceutical services was evaluated by the consulting doctors and their satisfaction was expressed as a feedback. Results: A total of 292 clinical pharmacy services were provided to 360 patients. Identification and management of ADRs [n=173(47.39%)] were the most common pharmaceutical service provided followed by patient counseling [n=77 (27.01%)]. Of the 60 drug information requested, mainstream queries [n= (66.6%)] were for the better patient care. A total of 55 recommendations made in 99 patients, 89.08 % (n=49) of interventions were accepted and changes to drug therapy were observed in 76.36% (n=42). The incidence of ADRs was 47.77%. Majority of the clinical pharmacy services were rated as excellent (42%) to good (43%) by the psychiatric team. Conclusion: Based on the results we conclude that collaborative care of clinical pharmacist along with the psychiatric team is vital for improving the mental health illness.
59 BAUHINIA SEED OIL, A NOVEL SUBSTRATE FOR SOPHOROLIPID PRODUCTION, Priti Darne1, Mihir Mehta1, Parul Dubey2, Asmita Prabhune*
The seeds of Bauhinia racemosa have 80% of C-18 fatty acids present in them, majority of which is linoleic acid followed by oleic acid and a variety of other oils. We have successfully synthesized sophorolipid by using Bauhinia racemosa seed oil as a novel substrate. Upon supplementing the yeast Candida bombicola (ATCC 22214) with 1% extracted seed oil and 10% glucose, 1.1 g/100 mL of sophorolipid was synthesized during fermentation for seven days. Physicochemical and analytical characterization techniques like oil displacement, emulsification index, thin layer chromatography (TLC), matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectroscopy (MALDI-MS) revealed the biotransformation of oil to sophorolipid with its molecular mass being in the range of 600-700 Da. Tensiometric studies showed that the surface tension of water is reduced from about 72 mN/m to 33.35mN/m with a very low critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 60 mg/L. These findings are at par with other sophorolipids synthesized using various lipidic substrates. Moreover these sophorolipids are synthesized from natural, unutilized plant sources using green technique contributing towards development of value added products.
60 SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF 2-(4-SUBSTITUTEDPHENYL)-1,10B DIHYDROSPIRO [BENZO [E] PYRAZOLO [1, 5-C] [1, 3] OXAZINE-5, 3-INDOLIN]-2'-ONE DERIVATIVE FROM ISATIN, Mayuri A. Borada, Manoj N. Bhoia, Dhanji P. Rajanib, Smita D. Rajanib, Hitesh D. Patela*
This research article mainly emphases on recent endeavours in the field of spiro heterocyclic compounds.2-(4-substitutedphenyl)-1,10bdihydrospiro [benzo[E] pyrazolo[1,5-C] [1,3] oxazine-5,3-indolin]-2'-one derivative were synthesized by the sequential reaction of o-hydroxy benzaldehyde and various 4-substituted acetophenones and a mixture of isatin and 2-(3-(4-substitutedphenyl)-4, 5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-5-yl) phenol in the presence of PTSA. All the spiro compounds were prepared via microwave assisted reaction and obtained in good yield as compared to conventional method. All compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, Mass analysis and elemental analysis. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Some of the synthesized compounds showed good antibacterial and antifungal activities with 50 and 250 ?g/mL MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) respectively.
61 CORROSION INHIBITION OF ALUMINIUM IN ALKALINE MEDIUM USING CYANODON DACTYLON LEAVES EXTRACT , * K. Lakshmi Prabha1, Shameela Rajam2
Corrosion inhibition effect of cyanodon dactylon leaves (CDL) extract on aluminium in 1N NaOH medium has been investigated by weight loss, gasometric and electrochemical techniques. Inhibition efficiency of 76% was achieved with 800ppm CDL at 30C. The polarization studies showed that CDL acts as mixed type inhibitor. The Nyquist plot showed that in presence of CDL extract charge transfer resistance increases and double layer capacitance decreases. Adsorption of CDL extract on aluminium surface follows Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The protective film formed on the surface of the aluminium was confirmed by SEM studies.
62 FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF PROCHLORPERAZINE BUCCAL TABLETS , Ch. Srikanth*1, N. Srinivas1,
The present investigation is concerned with formulation and evaluation of buccal tablets containing antiemetic drug, Prochlorperazine to circumvent the first pass effect and to improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency and dose related side effects. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method and wet granulation method using different polymers like Carbopol 934 P, HPMC K4M, Sodium alginate, Xanthan gum and PVP K-30 in different concentrations. Tablets were evaluated by different parameters such as thickness, hardness, weight uniformity, content uniformity, swelling index, surface pH, bioadhesive strength and in-vitro drug dissolution study. FTIR studies showed no evidence on interactions between drug, polymers and excipients. The significant differences in the results were observed, which dependent on characteristics and composition of bioadhesive materials used. The in-vitro release of Prochlorperazine was performed under sink conditions (Phosphate buffer pH 6.8, 370.5C, rpm 70) using USP-XXIV dissolution apparatus type II. The best in-vitro drug release profile was achieved with the formulation F10 which contains the drug, HPMC E15 and HPMC K4M. The formulation F10, containing 3 mg of Prochlorperazine exhibited 8hr sustained drug release i.e., 98.5% with desired therapeutic concentration. The in vitro release kinetics studies reveal that all formulations fit well with zero order kinetics followed by Korsmeyer Peppas, first order and then Higuchis model and the mechanism of drug release is non-Fickian diffusion. Drug diffusion from buccal tablets showed apparently zero order kinetics and release mechanism was diffusion controlled after considerable swelling.
63 ENHANCEMENT OF DISSOLUTION RATE AND FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT OF VORICONAZOLE TABLETS BY SOLID DISPERSION IN COMBINED CARRIERS , K. P. R. Chowdary*, K. Ravi Shankar and Ch. Chandrasekhar
Voriconazole, a widely prescribed antifungal drug belongs to class II under BCS and exhibit low and variable oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility. As such it needs enhancement in the dissolution rate and bioavailability to derive its maximum therapeutic efficacy. The objective of the present study is to prepare and evaluate voriconazole tablets by using solid dispersions in Primojel and Poloxamer 188 prepared as per 22 factorial design. Two methods namely (i) wet granulation and (ii) direct compression methods were used for the preparation of voriconazole tablets employing solid dispersions in combined carriers and a comparative evaluation of the resulting tablets was made. Tablets each containing 50 mg of voriconazole were formulated employing Primojel and Poloxamer 188 as per 22factorial design. For this purpose two levels of Primojel (0 and 1:1 ratio of drug : carrier) and two levels of Poloxamer 188 ( 0 and 5%) were selected and the corresponding four treatments involved in the 22 factorial study were tablets prepared with voriconazole pure drug (F1); tablets prepared with voriconazole- Primojel (1:1) solid dispersion (Fa); tablets prepared with voriconazole Poloxamer 188 (5%) solid dispersion (Fb) and tablets prepared with voriconazole Primojel (1:1) Poloxamer 188 (5%) solid dispersion (Fab). In each case the tablets were prepared by direct compression (DF1, DFa, DFb, and DFab) and by wet granulation methods (WF1, WFa, WFb, WFab) were formulated and evaluated. The disintegration times were in the range 1 min-30 sec to 8min- 20 sec. Tablets prepared by direct compression method disintegrated rapidly when compared to those prepared by wet granulation method. Voriconazole dissolution was very rapid from the tablets formulated employing solid dispersions (Fa, Fb, Fab ) when compared to those formulated using voriconazole pure drug (F1) in both the methods. All the dissolution parameters (PD10, DE30, and K1) indicated rapid dissolution of voriconazole from tablets prepared by direct compression method when compared to those prepared by wet granulation method. In the case of direct compression method the order of increasing dissolution rate (K1) of voriconazole observed with various tablet formulations was DFa > DFb > DFab > DF1. There was no additional increase in the dissolution rate with combined carriers in the case of direct compression method. In the case of wet granulation method the order of increasing dissolution rate (K1) of voriconazole observed with various tablet formulations was WFab > WFa > WFb > WF1. In the case of wet granulation method tablets formulated with combined carriers (WFab) gave significantly higher dissolution rate than is possible with individual carriers alone. Hence solid dispersions in individual carriers, Primojel and Poloxamer 188 in the case of direct compression and solid dispersions in combined carriers of Primojel and Poloxamer188 in the case of wet granulation method are recommended for formulation of voriconazole tablets with fast dissolution characteristics.
64 SUSTAINABILITY OF ASPERGILLUS SPP. IN METAL ENRICHED SUBSTRATE AIMING TOWARDS INCREASING BIOREMEDIATION POTENTIAL, Aroni Mitra*, Deesha Roy, Poushali Roy, Anusree Martina Bor, Binayak Sarkar, Dr. Arup Kumar Mitra
The investigation focuses on the impact of Copper(II) and Zinc(II) ions on the growth, biosorption capacity and resistance mechanisms of Aspergillus spp. isolated from metallic industrial effluent. Heavy metal ions due to their high density are toxic to the living systems and hence when released into the environment cause substantial damage to the ecosystem. Bioremediation of heavy metal ions proves to be an exemplary method in reducing environmental pollution. The fungal isolate was screened for its ability to absorb heavy metal ions from nutrient medium supplemented with various concentrations of Copper(II) and Zinc(II) ions. Aspergillus spp. is adept in absorbing heavy metal ions from potato dextrose media bearing 100mg/L of Cu+2 and 750mg/L of Zn+2 ions. Addition of heavy metal ions in growth medium resulted in the substantial increase in the activities of copper-amine oxidase, Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase. Increased expression of copper-amine oxidase serves as an excellent indicator of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in fungal cultures under heavy metal stress. However the increased activities of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase enable the mould to withstand the oxidative stress induced by heavy metal ions. These enzymes scavenge the ROS produced and allows Aspergillus spp. to grow past the toxic effects of Copper(II) and Zinc(II) ions. These increased enzymatic activities play a pivotal role in understanding the cellular and molecular abilities of Aspergillus spp., which can be effectively utilized in decreasing heavy metal pollution.
65 INVITRO EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CALENDULA OFFICINALIS AGAINST MDR PATHOGENS, 1Amit Pandey*, 2Ekta Chandel
The present study was carried out by evolution of calendula officinalis against MDR pathogens. In process to preparation of plant extract, organic solvent (methanol 80%) and aqueous solvent (hot water extraction) had been used. Calendulas leaves, roots, flower, branches, and stem had been used to study the antimicrobial activity. In calendula the best result had been observed in methanolic extract of roots with zone of inhibition of 39mm in case of E.coli as compare to other organic and aqueous extract of the sample. In case of MDR isolates the best result were seen when mixed extract had been used for AST (10?l of each methanolic extract) by agar well diffusion method with formation of ZOI of 20mm. The least concentration was found in methanolic extract of roots 0.01?g/ml. On Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of calendula -tannin, cardiac glycoside and terpenoids were present in the form of secondary metabolites.
66 EVALUATION OF ANTI-BACTERIAL AND ANTI CANCEROUS ACTIVITY OF ALANGIUM LAMARCKII LEAF BY METHANOL EXTRACT AGAINST C-6 AND MCF-7 CELL LINES , Mamatha. J* and Oinam Rakeshlal Singh*
Alangium lamarckki (Akola) commonly found in tropical forest in South India. Akola is a very important medicinal plant and being used as indigenous drugs by the people of village community. The Plant and plant products are the major source for the discovery of new drugs. Alangium lamarckii utilized in traditional medicine has resourceful medicinal properties. In the present study we carried out Crude solvent extraction of leaves of A. lamarckii was performed using a methanol and to evaluate the anti-bacterial activity and anti-cancerous activity of C6 and MCF-7 cell lines by MTT assay. The result suggested that the methanol leaf extract inhibit cell proliferation of both brain cancerous cell line i.e. C6 and MCF-7 which is breast cancerous cell lines.
67 SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT OF CURCUMIN USING HPMC K 4M AND HPMC K 15M BY SOLVENT CHANGE PRECIPITATION METHOD, Pranali Waghmare1, Dr. Pramod Kadu2*
Objective: Curcumin naturally occurs from rhizomes of Curcuma longa L.; Zingiberaceae (Turmeric) is the most widely used phytoconstituent. It is highly Lipophilic, Insoluble in water at acidic or neutral pH. The major barrier to the clinical usefulness of Curcumin is its poor solubility and hence leads to poor Bioavailability. The aim of the present study is to increase the solubility of Curcumin. Method: Many methods are available to improve the solubility of Curcumin. Solid dispersion (SD) is one of the methods that involved a dispersion of one or more active ingredients in an inner carrier or matrix in solid state. For solid dispersion preparation, HPMC K 4M and HPMC K 15M is used as a hydrophilic carrier. It is prepared by combining the Curcumin and the polymers in a weight ratio of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, and 1:4 by Solvent Change Precipitation Method. Result: It is found that the solid dispersion prepared using HPMC K 4M and HPMC K 15M increases the solubility of Curcumin. The increase in drug content was found only up to ratio 1:4 to the drug and polymer. In both the solid dispersion prepared using HPMC K 4M and HPMC K 15M. With the evidence of saturation solubility study, the solubility of solid dispersion increases in 0.1N HCl, Phosphate buffer pH 7.4 and distilled water, as the concentration of polymer increases. Conclusion: The solid dispersion prepared by solvent change precipitation method increases the solubility of Curcumin. HPMC K 15M and HPMC K 4M can be used as a potential hydrophilic carrier for the improvement of solubility of Curcumin which is the evidence of Drug content, Saturation solubility study, DSC and FTIR. And HPMC K 4M was found to be the superior hydrophilic carrier than HPMC K 15M to increase the solubility.
68 COMPARATIVE ANTI-LICE ACTIVITY OF TWO DIFFERENT GERMPLASM OF VELVET BEAN (MUCUNA PRURIENS), AN UNDERUTILIZED WILD SOUTH INDIAN LEGUME , Muthu K and Marimuthu M*
To investigate the activities of the seed extract in different solvents viz., methanol, ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and water extract of the selected legume Mucuna pruriens. Two different germplasm of Mucuna collected from agro geographical regions was evaluated for its anti-lice activity. The result shows that the efficient anti-lice activity of Mucuna pruriens revealed that the methanol and ethanolic seed extracts of the selected plant have significant anti-lice activity against Pediculus humanus capitis and other solvent extract have minimum anti-lice activity. Between two germplasm, Mucuna black coloured germplasm registered higher level of anti-lice activity against Pediculus humanus capitis. From this result we suggest that Mucuna pruriens can be used for the herbal formulation as pediculicidal agent.
69 FTIR AND HPLC ANALYSIS OF BACTERIAL DEGRADATION OF METHYL PARATHION , Ramachandran T1, Violet Dhayabaran1,2*, Thirupathy2, Jasmine R2
Bioremediation is a promising alternative to physico-chemical methods of remediation, because it is less expensive and can selectively achieve complete destruction of organic pollutants. The use of microorganisms for the degradation and detoxification of numerous toxic xenobiotic, especially pesticides, proved to be an efficient tool to decontaminate the polluted sites in the prevailing environment. A bacterium capable of tolerating and resisting an organophosphorous pesticide, methyl parathion was isolated from agricultural fields from Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, and India. The bacterium was effectively shown to grow in the presence of the pesticide at various concentrations. The results reveal that the isolated bacterium could efficiently grow in the presence of the pesticide and could effectively degrade them, which could be employed to treat soils loaded with such pesticides. Therefore, the present study, analyses microbial degradation of Methyl Parathion (MP) by a soil bacterium, which may provide a basis for the development of bioremediation strategies to remediate the pollutants in the environment. The degradation under various physico- chemical parameters was also analyzed. The growth curve of the isolated bacterium in the presence of the pesticide was also obtained. Further studies should be conducted to investigate the mechanisms by which bacteria and their enzymes can assimilate these compounds.
70 FOLK MEDICINAL USES OF SOME PLANTS IN TANGAIL DISTRICT, BANGLADESH, Zahid Kamal, Jacklin Jui Bairage, Moniruzzaman, Protiva Rani Das, Md. Tabibul Islam, Mohammad Omar Faruque, Md. Rashedul Islam, Prashanta Kumer Paul, Sadia Moin Mou, Mohammed Rahmatullah*
Background Folk medicine is an important feature of traditional medicinal practices in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to document the medicinal uses of plants by a folk medicinal practitioner (Kaviraj) of Tangail district, Bangladesh. Methods Interviews of the Kaviraj were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results The Kaviraj used 12 plants distributed into 12 families in his formulations. Available ethnomedicinal and scientific reports show that the plants used by the Kaviraj can be validated in their uses on the basis of either ethnomedicinal consensus or pharmacological activity studies. Conclusion The study suggests that the medicinal plants used by the Kaviraj of Tangail district merit scientific attention towards new drug discoveries.
71 MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF SOME PYRAZOLE DERIVATIVES VIA VILSMEIER-HAACK FORMYLATION AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY , Deepak Swarnkar*, Rakshit Ameta, Ritu Vyas
3-Phenyl-(1-substituted phenyl/pyridine/thioamide)-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehydes (4a-e) were obtained by condensation of hydrazine hydrate, phenyl hydrazine, isoniazide, nicotinic hydrazide or thiosemicarbezide with acetophenone in ethanol containing a few drops of glacial acetic acid under microwave irradiation giving substituted(1-phenyl-ethylidine)hydrazine undergo Vilsmeier-Haack formylation. The products were condensed with various aromatic amines to give Schiff bases. The structures of the synthesized compounds were assigned on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR and mass data. All the synthesized compounds have been screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities.
72 A VALIDATED REVERSE PHASE HPLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF IRBESARTAN AND AMLODIPINE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM, G.Kumara Swamy1*, J.M.R. Kumar 2, J.V.L.N.Seshagiri Rao3.
A simple, sensitive and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of Irbesartan and Amlodipine in bulk and Pharmaceutical dosage forms. The mobile phase consisted of Potassium dihyrogen ortho phosphate pH 3.4 adjusted with ortho phosphoric acid ) in the ratio of 60:40 /v/v delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 ml / min and wavelength of detection at 250 nm. The retention times of Irbesartan and Amlodipine were 5.8 min and 3.1 min respectively. The developed method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The method with high percent recovery and short retention time of Irbesartan and Amlodipine were found to be simple, rapid and reproducible. The proposed method can be used for determination of these drugs in combined dosage forms.
73 SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF SERTRALINE AND ALPRAZOLAM IN ITS BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC METHOD, M.Divya2, 1 Gandla.KumaraSwamy*, 1R.Suthakaran.
A simple, accurate, rapid and precise isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of Sertaline and Alprazolam in tablets. The chromatographic separation was carried out on an cosmosil packed column 5c-18 ms II (2504.6 i.d ) with a mixture of acetonitrile: methanol: phosphate buffer pH 3 adjusted with orthophosphoric acid (20:50:30, v/v) as mobile phase; at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. UV detection was performed at 239 nm. The retention times were 4.915 and 8.056 min. for Sertaline and Alprazolam respectively. Calibration plots were linear (r2>0.998) over the concentration range 10-60 ?g/ml for setraline and 10-60 ?g/ml Alprazolam. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, and sensitivity. The proposed method was successfully used for quantitative analysis of tablets. No interference from any component of pharmaceutical dosage form was observed. Validation studies revealed that method is specific, rapid, reliable, and reproducible. The high recovery and low relative standard deviation confirm the suitability of the method for routine determination of Sertaline and Alprazolam in bulk drug and tablet dosage form.
74 COMMUNITY BASED PRESCRIPTION AUDIT- A PROSPECTIVE STUDY IN BENGALURU, Mubasheera MG**, Dr. Raju Koneri*, Balakeshwa R*
Objective: To collect, review and audit the community based prescriptions. The study aimed to verify whether the community based prescriptions were in accordance with the prescription guideline. Materials and method: This study involved the collection of prescriptions prescribed by the private practitioners at four different locations in Bangalore. The prescriptions were reviewed and audited for physician information, patient information, and drug information and for the general content of the prescription. Results: Among 100 prescriptions audited, the physician name was not found in 22% of the prescriptions and 24% of the prescription did not have physician registration number and qualification. The physician contact detail was not seen in 25% of the prescriptions and the physician missed to signature in 22% of the prescriptions. The physician missed to note the patients name, age and sex in 22%, 66% and 68% of the prescriptions respectively. In 25% of prescriptions, the dates of consultation were not entered. Surprisingly, 95% of the prescriptions had no status on refilling and 33% of the prescriptions were illegible. Additionally, in 96% of the prescriptions the drug name was not written in capital letters. Other drug details such as brand name, dose, formulation, frequency, strength and instructions to the patients was not mentioned in 22% to 25% of the prescriptions. Conclusion: The majority of the prescriptions in community failed to comply with the guidelines. There is a need to standardize the prescriptions in India so that all essential information is included and will be helpful for the better patient care.
75 GENOTOXICITY STUDY OF LAMBDACYHALOTHRIN IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS, Bhoopendra Kumar1*and Nitesh Kumar2
Genotoxicity study of lambda-cyhalothrin was conducted in wistar albino rats. The micronucleus and chromosomal aberration test were conducted @ dose level of 20 mg/kg b.wt. Whereas for bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test) four dose levels 5, 100, 1000 and 5000 ?g/plate were selected. The Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA97a and E. coli WP2 (uvra) bacterial strains respectively were used. The result indicated that lambda-cyhalothrin significant (p
76 SYNTHESIS AND ANTI BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ARYL THIAZOLIDIN-4-ONE/AZETIDIN-2-ONE DERIVATIVES FROM PYRIMIDO-BENZIMIDAZOLE , P.Bhaskar1, Kumaraswamy Gullapelli1, T.Muralikrishna2, G.Brahmeshwari1*
The present study and investigation of synthesis of pyrimido-benzimidazole derivatives were in appreciable yield. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were characterized by 1HNMR, and Mass spectral data. All of the these derivatives were evaluated for their anti bacterial activity against Klebsielia pneumonia, Micrococcus luteus, E.coli Salmonella typhi were showed good to moderate antifungal activity as compared to standard drug Tetracycline.
77 MATHEMATICAL MODELING ON DRUG RELEASE FROM COLON SITE SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS , Kumbakonam Balachandran Ilango*1,2, Kavimani S3
Drug release studies from solid dosage forms can be considered among the most investigated topics in pharmaceutical research. The model data used in this paper were obtained from recent research publication of the author. Those were used to predict which model provides the best fit for the site specific colon drug delivery system using okra polysaccharide as a carrier. The formulation WO3 showed optimum release and was quantified for its release equivalence in presence and absence of rat cecal matter. It was predicted by subjecting the dissolution profiles for similarity factor and Rescigno index. The dissolution efficiency and mean dissolution time of matrix tablets were studied. The DDSolver software was used to quantify the drug release. The result showed that the drug release did not follow zero order, diffusion alone and erosion alone but the combination of release mechanisms that was confirmed through the Peppas & Shalin model. The logistic model and Weibull distribution emphasized a sigmoidal dissolution profile which was the characteristic for highly degradable polymer. Hopfenberg empirical equation was appropriately applied to predict the surface-eroding characteristic of the formulation. In this study, drug release was dependent on combination of diffusion, erosion and relaxation of polymer chains. The quantified result of similarity, rescigno index, dissolution efficiency and mean dissolution time showed that the drug release was due to the microbially- triggered mechanism. In this study the appropriate mathematical model for colon specific drug delivery system was identified from the already published work of the author.
78 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF BACLOFEN , Singh Surya Pratap*, Sahetya Meenakshi, Soni Shankar Lal,Khinchi Mahaveer Prasad, Gulia Ritu, Namdev Abhisek
The objective of the present study was to develope sustained release matrix tablets of baclofen, for treatment of spastically resulting from multiple sclerosis, flexor spasm and muscular rigidity. The matrix tablets were prepared by wet granulation method using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M, K100M and Xanthan gum in various concentrations. The granules showed satisfactory flow properties and compressibility. All the nine formulations showed acceptable pharmacopoeial standards. The result of formulation B7 (25% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K4M and K100M) extented the release of baclofen up to 12hrs. Model fitting analysis for formulation B7 fitted in the zero order model and korsemeyer- peppas model. The n? values obtained from the peppas-korsemeyer equation suggested that, drug release was non-Fickian difussion mechanism. Successful formulation was found stable after evaluation for physicochemical parameters when kept for 30 days at room temperature,400 C and 2-8 0C.
79 COMPUTATIONAL APPROACHES TO CHARACTERIZE THE NOVEL BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAYS OF ANTIBIOTIC PRODUCING ACTINOMYCETES, K.Aditya1*, B.K.Manjunath1, D. Jagadesh Kumar2, and Kusum Paul1
The present work aims at identification and taxonomical characterization of antibiotic producing microorganisms, by comparing the nucleotide sequences of isolates and referred strains. Present analysis attempts to throw light on functional characters of the unknown isolates using in-silico techniques. The 20 closest species to our unidentified sequence with identity between 97% - 99% were selected via BLAST, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. Sequences belonging to Streptomyces Spp. like S.atratus, S.bacillaris, S.kanamyceticus etc., were selected for detailed molecular characterization and pathway analysis, in order to discover the ability of these isolates towards producing novel therapeutic substances. Our results show that, these isolates have the aptitude to produce antibiotics for typhoid like ailments, and few of them, also exhibit the promise to behave like anti-tumor agents. Supplementary analysis for biosynthesis pathway of antibiotics was conducted to understand the activity of these antibiotics. Predicted functional analyses of the three strains demonstrate the capability to produce antibiotics like Rifamycin, Streptomycin, and Kanamycin.
80 PHARMACOGNOSTICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF DICLIPTERA ROXBURGHIANA GROWN IN DOON VALLEY OF THE FOOTHILLS OF HIMALAYA , Y.C. Tripathi, Sulabh Aggarwal, *Devesh Tewari
Present work is mainly focused to establish the basic pharmacognostical parameters for the traditionally important herb Dicliptera roxburghiana and to identify various phytoconstituents and their presence in different polarity. There was no literature available so far regarding the histological evaluation of the plant. The presence of different phytoconstituents such as glycosides and flavonoids indicates towards various pharmacological activities.
81 EXTRACTION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL MUCO- BIOADHESANT BIOPOLYMER OBTAINED FROM THE SEEDS OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA , Arun Kumar Singh1, Anita Singh*2, N.V. Satheesh Madhav3
The development of pharmaceutical dosages form involves various components in addition to the active pharmaceutical ingredients. Biopolymers are choice of research as an additives because of its low cost, natural origin, less toxicity, bio-acceptable, environmental-friendly processing, easily available, biodegradable, better patient compliance, renewable in nature and easily accepted by regulatory authority. The aim of the present investigation was to isolate and characterize the biopolymer obtained from seeds of Momordica charantia Linn belonging to Cucurbitaceae family. The biopolymer was isolated by non solvent addition method and was subjected to various spectral analysis (like IR, 1H NMR, SEM,XRD), thermal analysis micromeritic, preliminary phytochemical analysis and physico-chemical properties along with the acute toxicity. The mucoadhesivity of biopolymer was screened by shear stress method, falling sphere method and rotating basket method and results are compared with the standard. The study revealed that the biopolymer exhibited inbuilt mucoadhesivity, so it can be used as a novel excipient for transmucosal drug delivery system.
82 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MULTILAYERED TABLETS OF METFORMIN, TELMISARTAN AND GLIPIZIDE FOR THE COMBINATION THERAPY OF DIABETES AND HYPERTENSION, Mogili Vijaya Krishna*, T. Venkateswara Rao1
The main aim of the present investigation is to formulate and evaluate the Multi layered tablet for the combination therapy of Diabetes and Hypertension. In the present investigation the multilayered tablet mainly contain three drug layers. The first layer is an immediate release oro dispersible layer, the second layer is conventional release layer & the 3rd layer is sustained release layer to maintain the steady state concentrations of drug in the blood. In present investigation the tablet contain 3 major drugs i.e. Glipizide, Metformin and Telmisartan which are present in different layers. In this Metformin layer is upper layer which is an oro- dispersible layer & is released in the mouth produce immediate action. Metformin has the anti- diabetic activity. Below this a flavor layer is present which gives the sense of taste to the patient .When the patient get the sense of taste immediately he will swallow the remaining tablet. The remaining part of tablet contains two layers. One layer is telmisartan conventional release layer which has anti -hypertensive activity &the second layer is Glipizide sustained release layer which maintain the steady state concentration. It has anti diabetic activity.
83 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A REVERSED-PHASE HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATIONOF DOMPERIDONE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM, Kandimalla Srinavasa rao and K. Vasantha Kumar Pai*
A simple selective and rapid reversed phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of domperidone in tablet dosage form. The chromatographic system consisted of two LC-20 AT pump, SPD-20A UV detector, SIL-20A auto-sampler and CTO- 10ASVP column oven. Chromatographic separation of rugs was achieved on a Shim-Pack C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) as stationary phase with a mobile phase comprising of phosphate buffer (pH adjusted to 3.00 with sodium hydroxide): methanol in the ratio 30:70 (v/v) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min with UV detection at 280 nm. Retention time was 3.17 minutes for domperidone
84 EVALUATION OF ANTIPSYCHOTIC EFFECT OF ALLIUM CEPA, Renu Kadian1* and Milind Parle2
Objective: To evaluate the antipsychotic effect of Allium cepa. Materials and Methods: The antipsychotic effect of the Allium cepa was evaluated on haloperidol induced catalepsy, cooks pole climbing apparatus, locomotor activity on actophotometer, ketamine induced stereotype behavior. Different groups of rats were fed orally with a specially prepared diet containing various concentrations of Allium cepa paste (ACP) for 30 days consecutively. Further, the biochemical estimations were done by estimating brain dopamine levels. Results: The ACP produced significant dose dependent potentiation of haloperidol (1 mg/kg, i.p.) induced catalepsy in rats, significantly increased the time taken by the rat to climb the pole in dose dependent manner, significantly decreased the locomotor activity. The ACP significantly decreased ketamine (50 mg/kg, i.p.) induced stereotyped behavior in a dose dependent manner. ACP significantly decreased the brain dopamine level. Conclusion: The results suggest that ACP posses antipsychotic activity. Further neurochemical investigation can explore the mechanism of action of the plant drug with respect to anti-dopaminergic and anti serotoninergic functions and help to establish the plant as an antipsychotic agent.
85 SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION OF Pb(II) USING ?-CYCLODEXTRIN POLYMER MODIFIED WITH 1-(2-PYRIDYLAZO)-2-NAPHTHOL (PAN) , Sandeep Jaggi* and Usha Gupta
?-Cyclodextrin, a biomolecule was crosslinked with 1,4-butanedioldiglycidyl ether and the modified ?-Cyclodextrin was modified with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) through inclusion phenomenon. The new sorbent was applied for solid phase extraction of Pb(II) from different environmental samples prior to determination by UV-Vis spectrophotometry(UV-Vis). The modified polymer was characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and SEM studies. The experimental conditions for Functionalization of crosslinked ?-cyclodextrin polymer and separation/pre-concentration of target metal ion were optimized and the interference of commonly coexisting ions was examined. The sorbed Pb(II) was eluted using 5 mL of 2M HCl. According to definition of IUPAC, the detection limit (3?) of this method is 0.003ng/mL and a preconcentration factor of 80. The recovery values were ?95% and relative standard deviation was 0.5%. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of trace Pb(II) in different water and food samples.
86 BIOEQUIVALENCE OF TWO FORMULATIONS OF CEPHALEXIN IN HUMAN HEALTHY VOLUNTEERS ON (HPLC) TECHNIQUE , Alaa Kamal Jabbar Alhamd
Cephalexin is commercially available in the form of capsules and tablets containing 250mg or 500mg for oral administration. Cephalexin is presently used as the most common antibiotics .Twenty healthy Human volunteers were characterized respected to their pharmacokinetic and bioavailability of two formulations of Cephalexin from two sources of industrial companies after a single dose administration was given orally. A developed procedure is described for determination the concentration levels of Cephalexin in human plasma of healthy volunteers using Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (Rp-HPLC) with ODS-C18-DB column at low wave length of UV-visible detection "254nm". An efficient drug extraction procedure was used for the separation of cephalexin after simple extraction with cold methanol. The pharmacokinetic of Cephalexin capsule "500mg" orally administrated treatment through 6 hours has been examined. The Cephalexin was eluted for "12.0 minutes" at flow Rate "1.0 ml/min." and Temperature equal to 298oK .The retention time of Cephalexin was observed at 4.9 minutes. The mean absolute recovery of Cephalexin in blood plasma of all healthy volunteers were 98.9% at 1.0 ppm, 99.0% at 5.0ppm, 93.5% at 10.0ppm, 101.8% at 15.0ppm ,105.5% at 20ppm, 100.1% at 25 ppm, 100.0% at 30 ppm, 98.3% at 35 ppm, 95.5% at 40 ppm, 97.9% at 45 ppm and 103% at 50ppm respectively. The assay showed excellent relationships between the area underthe curve ratios and drug concentration levels (P>0.005) .Oral Cephalexin administration in twenty healthy volunteers gave maximum concentration "Tmax"peak plasma at two hours and decline through six hours. Treatment with Iraqi formulation Cephalexin capsule produced higher area under the curve "AUC" and maximum concentration "C max" of Cephalexin than Indian formulation.
87 SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES (SLN): FORMULATION BY HIGH PRESSURE HOMOGENIZATION, Vinay Yadav*, AlokMahor, Sunil Prajapati, Shashi Alok, AmitaVerma, Anurag Kumar, Nikhil Gupta and Santosh Kumar
Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) are alternative drug delivery system to colloidal drug delivery system such as liposome, lipid emulsions. SLNs are rapidly developing nanotechnology with several applications in drug delivery system, clinical medicine and other science. The ability of SLNs to incorporate drug into nanocarrier that offer new type in drug delivery system. Therefore SLNs is reaching the goal of controlled and site specific drug delivery system. In this article we discussed the preparation method, characterization, route of administration of SLNs, advantages, different preparation method which are suitable for large scale production and application of SLNs. Analytical techniques for characterization of SLNs like photon correlation spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, different scanning colorimetry are highlighted.
88 IMPACT OF RETAIL STRATEGY ON BUYING BEHAVIOR OF CONSUMER. , *Syed Md. Faisal Ali Khan, Dr. Chanchal Chawla
The paper is based on the retail strategy and its implication on the buying decission of the consumer. It also focuses the buying decision of the consumer. The paper examines the sector wise retail market in India. In this paper year wise growth of the retail industry is also depicted. In this research the some hypothesis are proposed and the hypothesis is being tested by applying the stastastical tools.The collected data was tested for relabilityapplying cronbach?s alpha test further factor analyisi is used. t value is being derived and tested for anlysis, based on that some conclusion is drawn.
89 PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF ANNONA RETICULATA RAW FRUIT PEEL EXTRACTS , DSVGK Kaladhar1*, K Apparao Rayavarapu2
The present study describes the phytochemical profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Annona reticulata raw fruit peel extracts collected in Appannapalem, Jami mandal. Vizianagaram, India. The study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous raw fruit peel extracts of Annona reticulata. Phytochemical studies with Annona reticulata raw fruit peel extracts showed that all tested extracts contains alkaloids, cholesterol, coumarins, flavonoids, phenols and saponins. In addition steroids are present in ethyl acetate and terpenoids are present in aqueous extracts. The antioxidant results significantly shown good IC50 value with methanol and ethanol extracts respectively (148 ?g/ml). The standard compound (ascorbic acid) has shown IC50 value as 120 ?g/ml. The antimicrobial test results showed that plant raw fruit peel extract had a great potential antimicrobial activity against all 6 bacteria and 2 fungal strains. The antibacterial activity of all the four extracts of Annona reticulata plant fruit peel was determined by agar well diffusion method. The well size with 6mm at four different concentrations i.e., 10?l, 25?l, 50?l, 100?l were tested. The screening results showed that highest inhibition was observed by the methanol extract followed by ethanol, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts for Annona reticulata raw fruit peel. Maximum activity was observed at highest concentration (100?g/ml). The results presented here may suggest that the raw fruit peel extracts of Annona reticulata possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, and is therefore a potential source of ingredients for the food and pharmaceutical industry.
90 IN VITRO EVALUATION OF ANTI-OXIDANT AND ANTI- PROLIFERATIVE ACTIVITY IN CRUDE EXTRACTS OF ARGYREIA NERVOSA ROOTS., Bhoomi B. Joshi1, Piyush chudasama2 Jagdish Patel2 and Kinnari N Mistry1*
The anti-oxidative and anti-proliferative activities of various extracts of the roots of Argyreia nervosa were studied using in vitro standard assays viz. DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation, iron chelating activity, superoxide scavenging Nitric oxide scavenging, total antioxidant capacity, total phenol and total flavanoids. The aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of A. nervosa (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ?g/ml) exhibited concentration-dependent antioxidant activity. The aqueous methanolic extract successfully inhibited the proliferation of cancerous cells (HeLa and HEK293T cell lines) in 3,(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay (MTT assay). Thus, we show the potential concentration-dependant antioxidant and antiproliferative activities A. nervosa root extract.
91 FORMULATION AND INVITRO EVALUATION OF PINDOLOL FLOATING TABLETS, P. Lakshmana Rao*1, M Prasada Rao1, M.Rama Kotaiah2, Syed. Ruksana Sultana Begum1
Pindolol is a Non-Selective Beta Blocker (Adrenergic Beta -Antagonists) used in treating Hypertension. The purpose of this study was to develop a Sustained release tablet for pindolol because of its short biological half-life. Different formulas of 20mg pindolol were prepared as Oral floating matrix tablets by wet granulation technique, using polymers such as Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC K4M, K100M), Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP), alone or in combination and other standard excipients. Sodium bicarbonate as gas-generating agent. Floating Drug Delivery System (FDDS) with a view to improve the Bioavailability, patient compliance and reduce the side effects. The prepared tablets were evaluated for Hardness, Friability, Floating lag time, and Total floating time, in vitro drug release studies. The data obtained in the in vitro drug release studies were fitted into various kinetic equations like Zero order, Kore- meyer peppas equation. Formulation F5 shows good floating lag time (10hrs), Good in vitro drug release, The kinetic data shows the values were best fit for Kores meyer peppas equation, the n? value was found to be 0.8, So it follows non-fickion transport of the drug from tablets was confirmed.
92 MEDICAL AND BIODEGRADABLE PROTEINS OF SILK MOTH , Dr.G.Tulasi*,
Economic insect that are emerging as an ideal molecular Genetic resource for solving a broad range of biological problems. The silkworm, B. mori produces massive amount of silk proteins during the final stage of larval development. These proteins are stored in the middle silk gland and they are discharged through the anterior duct and spinneret, at the end of the fifth instar. Recently, silkworm is being used as bio factory for the production of useful protein using the silk gland, which has promoted the technological development in sericulture. With the above background silkworm can be classified as a value added biomaterial for medical application, application of silk protein fibroin and sericin as a biomaterial and other Seri-byproducts. Silk fibers have proven to be effective in many clinical applications. Silk fibroin based wound dressing that could accelerate healing and could be peeled off without damaging the newly formed skin. Subsequently the wound dressing was made with a mixture of both fibroin and sericin .The present paper overviews some important studies carried out on sericin and fibroin of silkworm, Bombyx mori Linn.
93 EFFECT OF VARIOUS ADDITIVES (LIME WATER AND SALINE) ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF PLASTER OF PARIS IN ORTHOPAEDIC PRACTICE , Patrick Ugochukwu Agbasi * Osinachi Chidera Amuta Onyinye Ure Ihekandu
Background: Plaster of Paris is used in medicine, arts and construction industry. And the problems associated with plaster of Paris includes increased time to set, water permeability and strength/hardness. Purpose: this research is undertaking therefore to assess the effect of lime water and saline on the physical properties/indices of Plaster of Paris (POP). Methods: The standard mixing ratio for POP and water is two parts of POP to one part of water by weight which was used as control. 25%, 50% and 100% saline were used to mix the POP. The same procedure was repeated with lime water and all the samples (test and control) were allowed to set for 5 days at room temperature. Results: showed that the bulk densities of 25% saline, 25% lime water and 50% lime water were significantly reduced when compared with control. The bulk density of 50 and 100% saline were significantly increased compared with control. There is also dose dependent decrease between 50% and 100% saline. The Apparent porosities of 50% and100% saline, 100% lime water were significantly increased but 25% saline, 25% and 50% lime water were significantly reduced compared to control. The hardness of 25% lime water was significantly increased while that of 100% lime water and 50% saline were significantly reduced compared to control. The values for 50% and 100% lime water and also 25% saline were not significantly affected. There is dose dependent reduction between 25 and 50% lime water when compared with 100% lime water. Conclusion: in the light of the above, addition of lime water in Plaster of Paris preparation will provide additional strength, decrease water permeability and at the same time, reduce its bulk density. All these advantages will improve casting in orthopaedic cases and construction industry.
94 SUPERSATURATED SELF NANOEMULSIFYING TABLETS OF ATORVASTATIN, Sindhu Raavi*, Subramanian S, Surya Kiran Vuddisa
Oral route is the most convenient route of administration but it faces the problem of low oral bioavailability. Self emulsifying therapeutic system (SETS) can be used to overcome the problems faced while using low aqueous soluble drugs. These systems form emulsions in situ and also have good stability. This study aimed at investigating the increase in the bioavailability by administering a BCS class II drug, Atorvastatin, in a supersaturated SNEDDS form and was compared to the conventional Atorvastatin tablets. It yielded a formulation with the droplets in the nano size range with good zeta potential. The liquid S-SNEDDS was further made into tablet form for better stability. The prepared formulations were characterized for the size, zeta potential, self emulsification time and drug content. The best formulation showed a 2.5 fold increase in the bioavailability when compared to the marketed formulation.
95 OPTIMIZATION OF OLMESARTAN TABLET FORMULATION BY 22 FACTORIAL STUDY , K. P. R. Chowdary*, K. Ravi Shankar and P. Suneel Kumar
Olmesartan, a widely prescribed anti-hypertensive drug belongs to class II under BCS classification and exhibits low and variable oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility. Because of poor aqueous solubility and dissolution rate, it poses challenging problems in its tablet formulation development. In the case of poorly soluble drugs the excipients in tablet formulation significantly influence dissolution rate and consequently bioavailability of the drug requiring a rational selection of binder and disintegrant combination. The objective of the study is to optimize olmesartan tablet formulation by 22 factorial design for selecting the best combinations of binder and disintegrant giving fast dissolution of the drug, olmesartan. Much variations were observed in the disintegration and dissolution characteristics of the olmesartan tablets prepared employing various combinations of binder (Factor A) and disintegrant (Factor B) as per 22 factorial design. Olmesartantablet formulations Fb (tablets prepared employing lactose, acacia and Primojel) and F1(tablets prepared employing lactose, acacia and potato starch) disintegrated rapidly within1 min 10 sec. ANOVA of dissolution rate (K1) values indicated that the individual and combined effects of the two factors, binder (Factor A) and disintegrant (Factor B) in influencing the dissolution rate of olmesartan tablets are highly significant (P < 0.01).Among all, formulation Fb (tablets prepared employing lactose, acacia and Primojel) and F1 (tablets prepared employing lactose, acacia and potato starch) gave higher dissolution rates and DE30 values.The increasing order of dissolution rate (K1) observed with various formulations was Fb>F1> Fa>Fab. Thus, the results of the present study indicated that combinations of (i) lactose, acacia and Primojel, (ii) lactose, acacia and potato starch are the best combinations of diluent, binder and disintegrant and hence these combinations are recommended for formulation of olmesartan tablets giving rapid and higher dissolution of olmesartan, a BCS class II drug.
96 GASTRO RETENTIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM :- A NEW ERA IN NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM, Bhandari Neeraj, Thakur jagrity, Kutlehria abhilash, Verma Pooja
Pharmaceutical companies worked with different pharmaceutical product types include products of different administration route (e.g., oral to parenteral), new specific functionality/delivery systems (e.g., immediate release tablet to modified release tablet) and different dosage forms of the same administration route (e.g., capsule to tablet, solution to suspension) [1]. Oral controlled release drug delivery have recently been of increasing interest in pharmaceutical field to achieve improved therapeutic advantages, such as ease of dosing administration, patient compliance and flexibility in formulation [2,3]. Drugs with short half-lives and drugs that easily absorbed from gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are eliminated quickly from the systemic circulation. For these types of drugs the development of oral sustained-controlled release formulations is an attempt to release the drug slowly into the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and maintain an effective drug concentration in the systemic circulation for a long time. After oral administration, such a drug delivery would be retained in the stomach and release the drug in a controlled manner, so that the drug could be supplied continuously to its absorption sites in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) [4,2]. But oral sustained drug delivery formulations show some limitations connected with the gastric emptying time; variable and too rapid gastrointestinal transit could result in incomplete drug release from the device into the absorption window leading to diminished efficacy of the administered dose [5,2]. Floating drug delivery system is an approach to prolong gastric residence time, thereby targeting site-specific drug release in the upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) for local or systemic effects. This drug delivery system not only prolongs GI residence time but does so in an area of the GI tract that could maximize drug reaching its absorption site in solution and hence ready for absorption [6,2]. (Table no. 1) enlists below shows the different dosage forms of FDDS with examples of various drugs [2,5,17].
97 SYNTHESIS, PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION AND MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDY OF TRIAZOLES CHIFF BASE DERIVATIVES CONTAINING1, 4-BENZODIOXAN MOIETYAS NOVEL JAK INHIBITORS , Wei-Ming Zhang, Qing Wen, Jia-Jia Liu, Peng-Cheng Lv* and Hai-Liang Zhu*
A series of Triazole Schiffbase derivatives (5a-5t)containing 1,4- benzodioxan moiety have been designed, synthesized, and structurally determined and had their biologic alactivities evaluated as Janus kinases (JAK) inhibitors. All the synthesized compounds have beenreported first. Among the compounds synthesized, compound 5s showed the most potentinhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.91 ?M for MCF-7 and IC50 = 1.38?M for JAK), which was comparable to the positive control Ruxolitinib(IC50 = 0.56 ?M for MCF-7 and IC50 =0.86?M for JAK). Docking simulation was performed to insert compound 5s into the crystal structure of JAK to determine a probable binding model. Based on the results, compound 5swith potent inhibitory activity against JAK and some cancer cell lines, may be a potentialanticancer agent.
98 VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHODFOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF PHENYLEPHRINE AND LEVOCETIRIZINE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM , Sunitha.P.G1 and Ilango. K 2*
The present work reports a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) methodfor the simultaneous determination of phenylephrine and levocetirizine in pharmaceutical dosage form. HPLC was performed on a Thermo Hypersil C18 column (2504.6 mm i.d., 5 ?m particle size) using a mixture of Methanol: 0.05M Dibasic phosphate in the ratio of 70:30v/v as mobile phase. Ultraviolet detection was carried out at 230nm. The retention time of phenylephrine and levocetirizine were found to be 3.915 min and 7.292 min respectively. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r2 = 0.9986 and 0.9988 for PHE and LEV, respectively, in the concentration range of 4-14 ?g mL-1 for PHE and 2-12 ?g mL-1 for LEV. The method was validated for precision, robustness, specificity and accuracy. The limits of detection and quantitation were 0.34 and 0.98 ?g mL-1, respectively, for PHE and 0.23 and 0.70?g mL-1, respectively, for LEV. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The proposed method can be applied for identification and quantitative determination of PHE and LEV in bulk drug and drug formulation.
99 SYNTHESIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY STUDIS OF 2-ARYL BENZOTHIAZOLES AND ITS DERIVATIVES , A.L.V. Ramana Reddya* S.V. Lakshmi Reddyb1, C Nageswara Reddyb2, G Chandrasekharb2 and T.Bhupal Reddyb3
Various benzothiazoles were synthesized by the intramolecular cyclization of thioformanilides using 2,6-dichloro-3,5dicyano-1,4benzoquinone (DDQ) in dichloromethane at ambient temperature in good yields. The structures of all the newly synthesized molecules were assigned by elemental analysis and spectral data. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activities strains using Cup plate method.
100 INFLUENCE OF EDUCATION ON QUALITY OF LIFE IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL, Siddartha Kaskurthy1*, Hema Latha Nalluri1, Dilli Ram Thanait1, Shashidhar2, Rabbani SI1
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate quality of life (QoL) in Type 2 diabetic patients treated with insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA) and to estimate independent QoL by demographic characteristics, complications and co-morbidities. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted and evaluation of the parameters for QoL was based on SF-36 questionnaire. Patients were divided into two groups based on route of administration of anti diabetic as Insulin and OHA group. Both the groups received diabetes education, instructions on lifestyle modifications, dietary regulations and follow up. The data was recorded, analyzed and compared to find the QoL in two groups of patients before and after diabetic education.
101 PRILIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND DITERMINATION FROM RHIZOME AND FLOWER OF ALPINIA GALANGA, Thokcom Sharatc handra Singh 1, 2 *, Thokcom Brojendro Singh 3
Phytochemical constituents are non-nutritive plant chemical that have preventive and curative properties of disease. The zinziberaceae, the largest family in zinziberales, comprises 300 genera and 1000 species. Alpinia galanga (Manipuri-kanghoo) belongs to the zinziberaceae family is a perennial herbaceous plant with rhizomatous root stocks and tall leafy steams. This plant is widely available in the North-Eastern region of India. Alpinia galanga was known to poses antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, antifungal activity, anticancer activity and gastro protective activity. Traditionally, the rhizome of alpinia galnga was used in rheumatic fever, cough, heart diseases, for treatment of ringworms; also consider as stimulant and skin disease. Fresh rhizome and flower of this plant are also used as food item. Seed are used in colic, diarrhoea and vomiting. The present study deals with the preliminary phytochemical screening and estimation of saponin, flavonoid and alkaloid of the rhizome and flower of alpinia galanga. For preliminary phytochemical analysis, rhizome and flower are extracted separately with methanol and giving 1.5mg/100gm of methanol extract of the rhizome. For flower it yields 2.4 mg/100 gm for methanol extract respectively. Phytochemical analysis reveals the presence of saponin, alkaloid, flavonoid, carbohydrate, tannin, phenolic, gum, glycoside, cardial glycoside, phenol, anthocyanin, terpenoid, triterpenoid, steroid etc. For phytochemical determination, the result reveals that, rhizomes were found to contain 22gm/100gm of saponin, 1.6mg/100gm of alkaloid and 3.9 mg/100gm of flavonoid. For flower the result reveals that, 16.654mg/100gm of saponin, 4.8mg/100gm of alkaloid and 6.9mg/100gm of flavonoid was found to contain.
102 PHENANTHRENE DERIVATIVES FOR SYNTHESIS AND APPLICATIONS IN MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY: A REVIEW , Sirlene Oliveira Francisco de Azeredo and Jos Daniel Figueroa-Villar*
Despite the importance of phenanthrene derivates as potential pharmacological agents their use is relatively limited. This short review is focused on reporting how some phenanthrene derivatives have been synthesized and their relevant biological activity for the treatment of various diseases. The objective of this review is the motivation of research with phenanthrene derivatives as new pharmacological agents with appropriate biological activity.
103 PHYTOPHARMACOLOGY OF ACACIA CATECHU WILLD: A REVIEW , Monu1, Milind Parle1, Renu Kadian2* and Kalish Sharma1
The article deals with the importance of Acacia catechu willd in maintaining human health. Plant is described as medicinal plant in ancient literature commonly known as Katha beloning to Family: Fabaceae and subfamily: Mimosoideae. The generic name, acacia, comes from the Greek word akis, meaning a point. The species name comes from 'cutch', a tanning extract isolated from its heartwood. The main chemical constituents of Black catechu are flavanoids (catechin, (-) epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin gallate, rocatechin, phloroglucinol, procatechuic acid, catecutannic acid, quercetin, quercitrin), alkaloids (kaempferol, dihydrokaempferol, taxifolin, (+)-afzelchin gum), glycosides (poriferasterol, poriferasterol acylglucosides), tannins (gallic acid, phlobatannins), sugars (d-galactose, d-rhamnose and l-arabinose). Acacia catechu willd has been shown to possess multifarious medicinal properties such anti-bacterial, anticancer, anti-diarrhoeal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antipyretic, anti-ulcer, antisecretory, hepatoprotective, hypoglycaemic, sore throat and wound healing etc. The present review article provides up-to-date information on the medicinal properties of the plant. We have also tabulated the phytochemical constituents of Acacia catechu willd. We hope this review article will help the scientists working in the area of traditional medicines and medicinal food in their future endeavor.
104 BIOANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ESOMEPRAZOLE IN HUMAN PLASMA BY LC-MS/MS, SK.Razia Sulthana1,2*, J.N.Suresh Kumar1, V.Raghu Ram2, Ajay Babu .Ch1, N.Sambasivanaik1
The present study aims at developing a simple, sensitive and specific liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of Esomeprazole (EO) in human plasma using Omeprazole-d3 (OMD3) as an internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed on X-Bridge C18, 3.5?m, 4.650mm column with an isocratic mobile phase composed of 5mM Ammonium formate (pH 9.2) : Acetonitrile (65:35 v/v) at a flow-rate of 0.6 ml/min. EO and OMD3 were detected with proton adducts at m/z 346.1/198.3 and 349.20/198.0 in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) positive mode respectively. EO and OMD3 were extracted by Precipitation method. The method was validated over a linear concentration range of 5.0-2000.0 ng/ml with a correlation coefficient of (r2) ? 0.9999. This method demonstrated intra and inter-day Precision within 1.6 to 2.3 and 2.0 to 2.2 % and Accuracy within 97.9 to 100.7 and 98.0 to 99.3 %. EO was found to be stable throughout freeze-thawing cycles, bench top and postoperative stability studies. This method was utilized successfully for the analysis of plasma samples following oral administration of EO (40 mg) in 27 healthy Indian male human volunteers under fasting conditions.
105 GUTKHA AS A CHARM IN IN-VITRO & HARM IN IN-VIVO: A DEVIL IN DISGUISE , Kinsuk Kalyan Sarker, Clive Dadida, Paul Dhliwayo and Prof. Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen*
Gutkha can well be defined as a devil in disguise. Promoted as a mouth freshener, this betel nuts and tobacco preparation is designed to release a chemical reaction that makes it an addictive proposition. However, most consumers believe that the blended spices and seasonings do not make it as a harmful product! But, the truth remains that gutkha; just as any other tobacco product is very addictive and injurious to health. Gutkha has been proved to be carcinogenic. Gutkha leads to oral sub-mucous fibrosis (SMF), a pre-cancerous disease that is a first step to cancer. This has increased 20-30 times across the country. It also leads to throat, esophageal cancers. Oral cancers, predominantly squamous cell carcinomas of the lip, mouth, tongue and pharynx. Loss of appetite. Promote unusual sleep patterns. Loss of concentration. One study found that pregnant women in India who used Gutkha had a threefold increased risk of having a low birth weight infant. The extensive marketing of gutkha has led to a widespread addiction amongst school children. According to a survey conducted in 2008, 5 million children under the age of 15 years are addicted to gutkha. Another survey conducted in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh highlighted that the precursor of mouth cancers was shown in 16%. The number can get more shocking. The only way to stop the consumption is by educating the masses. Also, one must understand that it needs equal persuasion, guidance and support to help someone quit this habit. Its not only the numbers that is disturbing, but also the fact that most gutkha users are unaware of the fact it is an addictive and harmful habit. The list of shocking details doesnt stop here. So far, guthka is largely ignored and there is no regulated body in India that works against the consumption of this deadly mouth freshener. So, till the time we have proper regulations in place, lets as individuals try and help eradicate this habit. Let us use the power we so proudly hold, education!
106 SWOT ANALYSIS OF BULGARIAN LEGISLATION IN WHOLESALE WITH MEDICINAL PRODUCTS, Vasil Madjarov1, Valentina Petkova2, Stanislav Gueurguiev1, Kalina Andreevska1, Milen Dimitrov2
Distribution of medicinal products is an important component of drug supply process and serves as the link between manufacturers and distributors of drugs to patients. It serves as a buffer between the medication needs of the population and their satisfaction regardless of what administrative subordination are the individual elements of complex drug resupply process in a country. The main document developed by WHO and which regulates the requirements for the distribution of drug products is Good distribution practice (GDP) with the primary task to ensure that manufactured and marketed drug products for distribution to patients with adequate quality. This quality level must be maintained through the distribution network such that the permitted to use drugs to circulate the population with no change in their properties. To maintain the quality of the drugs and the quality of services offered, the wholesalers must comply with the principles and guidelines of the GDP.
107 SWOT ANALYSIS OF BULGARIAN LEGISLATION IN WHOLESALE WITH MEDICINAL PRODUCTS, Vasil Madjarov1, Valentina Petkova2, Stanislav Gueurguiev1, Kalina Andreevska1, Milen Dimitrov2
Distribution of medicinal products is an important component of drug supply process and serves as the link between manufacturers and distributors of drugs to patients. It serves as a buffer between the medication needs of the population and their satisfaction regardless of what administrative subordination are the individual elements of complex drug resupply process in a country. The main document developed by WHO and which regulates the requirements for the distribution of drug products is Good distribution practice (GDP) with the primary task to ensure that manufactured and marketed drug products for distribution to patients with adequate quality. This quality level must be maintained through the distribution network such that the permitted to use drugs to circulate the population with no change in their properties. To maintain the quality of the drugs and the quality of services offered, the wholesalers must comply with the principles and guidelines of the GDP.
108 PRELIMINARY ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY STUDIES WITH ANGIOPTERIS EVECTA LEAVES IN SWISS ALBINO MICE, Samira Sultana1, Joyanto Kumar Nandi1, Shahnaz Rahman1, Rownak Jahan1, Mohammed Rahmatullah2*
Background. Angiopteris evecta, also known as the Giant Fern is found in Lawachara Forest Reserve of Bangladesh. Not much is known about this species. Since we are screening the plants of Bangladesh for their various pharmacological properties, it was of interest to determine the antihyperglycemic and analgesic properties of the leaves. Methods. Antihyperglycemic activity was determined through oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). Antinociceptive activity was determined by observed decreases in abdominal constrictions (writhings) in intraperitoneally administered acetic acid-induced pain model in mice. Results. Administration of methanol extract of whole plant led to dose-dependent reductions in blood glucose levels in glucose-loaded mice. At doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight, the extract dose-dependently reduced blood glucose levels by 21.3, 23.7, 32.0, and 53.6%, respectively compared to control animals. By comparison, a standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight, reduced blood glucose level by 61.2%. In antinociceptive activity tests, the extract at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight reduced the number of abdominal constrictions by 25.9, 44.4, 55.6, and 59.3%, respectively. A standard pain relieving (antinociceptive) drug, aspirin, reduced the number of writhings by 48.1 and 63.0%, respectively, when administered at doses of 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight. Conclusion. Antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activities have not previously been reported for Angiopteris evecta leaves. The leaves can be of use in lowering blood sugar and for alleviating pain.
109 EXPRESSION, PURIFICATION AND PRELIMINARY X-RAY DIFFRACTION OF A PATHOGENIC BACTERIAL PROTEASE FROM STENOTROPHOMONAS MALTOPHILIA, Amr Negm1,3*, Sabine Windhorst2, Christian Betzel3, Ahmed Akrem3,4 and Wolfgang Weber5
Many pathogenic bacteria produce extracellular proteases, which are considered to be virulent factors that attack and degrade the host tissues, thus being involved in the pathogenesis of various diseases. One such bacterium is Stenotrophomonas maltophilia which increasingly emerges as a multi-resistant hospital germ. It is already known to be multidrug-resistant, thus causing difficulties in its treatment. Here, we report the expression, purification, crystallization and initial diffraction data collection of the major secretory protease from S. maltophilia (StmPr1). StmPr1 was expressed in E. coli and remarkably it was processed by the host bacteria as a core protein of 36 kDa, which was fully active and could be crystallized. An effective purification protocol was established. StmPr1 was crystallized applying the hanging drop vapor method using 1.8 M ammonium sulphate and 100mM Tris-HCl buffer pH 7. Crystals diffracted to a resolution of 1.4 applying synchrotron radiation. Unit-cell parameters were calculated to be a = 60.43 , b = 86.51 and c = 132.20 corresponding to the orthorhombic space group C2221 with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. This basic knowledge for the expression, purification, crystallization and initial diffraction data collection of StmPr1 will be useful for obtaining high resolution X-ray structure analysis of StmPr1 and the investigation of its functional properties.
110 COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS ANTIOXIDANTS ON THE HEMATOLOGICAL CHANGES DURING RADIOTHERAPY OF IRAQI FEMALES WITH BREAST CANCER, Rouia Abdulrazaq Abulkassim1, Dawsar Khalil Ismael1, Nawfal Abdulmonem Numan2, Nada Naji Alshawi1, Saad Abdulrahman Hussain1*
Background. Radiation therapy involves production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induces oxidative stress condition, which attributed to the impairment of antioxidant defense mechanisms in the body especially in the blood. This study was designed to evaluate the mematoprotective effects of different antioxidants during radiation therapy in women with breast cancer. Methods. Seventy-five women with breast cancer and 20 healthy controls were included in the study. Hematological parameters (hemoglobin levels, white blood cell counts, and platelets counts) were measured pre- and post-radiotherapy for 4 weeks with and without antioxidant drugs. Results. The results indicated that in women with breast cancer, Hb, WBCs counts and platelets levels decreases lower than that of normal controls, and radiation therapy further decreases these parameters. Conclusion. The use of antioxidant drugs may have some protective effects against damaging effects of radiation therapy. Aspirin and allopurinol have some protective effects, but the radioprotective effect of melatonin was superior to the others.
111 RELEASE PATTERN STUDY OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE DIFFERING ON FORMALDEHYDE EXPOSURE TIME FROM GELATIN-SODIUM ALGINATE BIODEGRADABLE IMPLANTS , Mukta Saha*, Sultana Mehbuba Hossain and Swarnali Islam
Implantable drug delivery systems are used to provide controlled and localized release of active substances in different medical applications. In the present work an attempt was made to formulate and evaluate Tramadol Hydrochloride implant for long term drug release, using biodegradable Gelatin and Sodium alginate polymer. Tramadol hydrochloride was chosen for this study is a synthetic, centrally acting analgesic and seen to be used in many conditions like Rheumatoid arthritis, Restless legs syndrome, Motor neuron disease, Fibromyalgia. Gelatin-Sodium Alginate implants were attempted to formulate with the incorporation of different hydrophobic excipients namely, Glyceryl monostearte, Stearyl Alcohol, Cetostearyl Alcohol, Arachis Oil and Stearic Acid. All formulations were exposed to formaldehyde vapour for different periods of time. They were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, DSC, presence of free formaldehyde and in-vitro drug release studies. The implants hardened with formaldehyde for 12hrs were found to release drug in a sustained manner for maximum days. The release kinetics was evaluated by four different kinetic models, namely, Zero order, First order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer?Peppas. The release rate constants, the coefficients of determination and R2 values were used to calculate the accuracy of the fit. Implants were found to follow the Higuchi model in most cases. Good correlations were obtained with Korsmeyer peppas model as well.
112 THERAPEUTIC MONITORING OF CYCLOSPORINE-A IN IRAQI PATIENTS , KIDNEY TRANSPLANTED Hassan Mohamed Al-Temimi 2 Mowafaq Mohammed Ghareeb, Ali Abdulmajid Dyab4, Kawther Faris Al-Temimi*1
Cyclosporine A (CSA) is selective immunosuppressant widely used in kidney transplant, this study was designed to monitor the drug plasma concentration and evaluation its safety and efficacy in Iraqi centre of Therapeutic drug monitoring. The blood samples were analyzed for the concentration of CSA by using AXSYM automated florescence polarization immunoanalyzer. Clinical parameters concerning CSA concentrations with its safety were measured for 60 patients receiving 5mg/Kg/day orally in two divided dose every 12hr after kidney transplant. The measured area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) describes total drug exposure during the entire dosing interval (0-12 hr).There are a significant elevation (P
113 OBSERVATION OF THE RELEASE OF LIDOCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE FROM BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERIC IMPLANTS, Nure Alam Howlader, Swarnali Islam*, Muhammad Al-Mamun, and Setu Barua
Implantation drug delivery technique is an application of biochemical engineering with technologies aimed at the improvement efficacy, better compliance and life extension of products. The objective of this present study was to evaluate the effect of drug loading and excipients on the release pattern of Lidocaine Hydrochloride from Gelatin-Sodium Alginate polymeric implant. In this system, Gelatin is used as a naturally occurring biodegradable polymer and Na-Alginate as a release retarding agent. Implants were prepared in different ratio of Gelatin and Na-Alginate i.e. 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10% w/w by heating and congealing method. They were then exposed to Formaldehyde in desiccators for different time intervals i.e. 3,6,12 and 24 hours for hardening.The active ingredient, Lidocaine Hydrochloride was chosen as the model drug for fabrication of implant because it plays an important role as a local anesthetic and it is also useful for treating ventricular arrhythmias. After formulation the implant was evaluated for thickness, weight variation, presence of free formaldehyde and in-vitro drug release study. The implant formulated with 90:10 formulation hardened for 24 hours were found to show the maximum sustained action of 102 hours. It was found that batch to batch variation. The presence of free formaldehyde test revealed that none of the implants contain formaldehyde. The results of the in-vitro dissolution study were fitted to First order, Zero order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetics to evaluate the kinetic data. The kinetic data was determined by finding the best fit of the release data to those kinetic models. The release rate constants calculated from the slopes of the best-fit lines and the coefficients of determination, R2 values, were also used to calculate the accuracy of the fit. Implants were found to follow the Higuchi model of kinetics the best. Also good correlations were obtained with Korsmeyer-Peppas model. According to these models, the drug release from the implants was diffusion-controlled, where the drug was found to leave the matrix through pores and channels formed by the entry of dissolution medium.
114 DOCKING, ABSORPTION, DISTRIBUTION, METABOLISM AND TOXICITY PREDICTION OF ANTICANCER COMPOUNDS FOUND IN PLANTS , Resmi Mustarichie*, Sohadi Warya, Moelyono Moektiwardoyo, Sandra Megantara, Febrina Amelia Saputri
The aim of this study was to obtain prediction docking properties as well as information regarding pharmacokinetic properties of oral absorption, distribution, metabolism, and toxicity (ADMET) using in silico methods of some potential anti-cancer compounds normally derived from plants. Our previous study proved that quercetin, casticin, ?-sitosterol, geneistein, daedzein, catechin using cisplatin as positive control can function as anti-inflammatory drugs on breast cancer. Testing also demonstrated against the former cell line MCF-7 and T47D. This study reports as to whether the said compound is well absorbed and distributed in the body so as to allow effective usage of these compounds. It was found that 22 test substances including catechins, acetogenin, bruceantin, bryostatin, camphotecin, curcumin, docetaxel, elipticine, etoposide, harringtonine, homoharringtonine, irinotecan, maytansine, Noscapine, paclitaxel, podophyllotoxin, topotecan, vicenin, vinblastine, vindesin, vincristine and vinorelbin indicated affinity ligand binding to the receptor Er? of breast cancer. The affinity prediction of six compounds namely quercetin, ?-sitosterol, casticin, genistein, daedzein and catechin indicated that ADMET properties of these compounds were comparable to cisplatin and tamoxifen standards. Based on the overall results, it is concluded that the methods shown in this paper may be used to other anticancer compounds from plants.
115 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY STUDIES WITH METHANOL EXTRACT OF TREVESIA PALMATA LEAVES , K.M. Hasanur Rahman, Joyanto Kumar Nandi, Samira Sultana, Shahnaz Rahman, Shahadat Hossan, Mohammed Rahmatullah*
Background. Trevesia palmata, also known as the Snowflake Aralia is found in Lawachara Forest Reserve of Bangladesh. It was of interest to phytochemically screen and determine the antihyperglycemic and analgesic properties of the leaves. Methods. Antihyperglycemic activity was determined through oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). Analgesic activity was determined by observed decreases in abdominal constrictions (writhings) in intraperitoneally administered acetic acid-induced pain model in mice. Phytochemical screening was done through standard methods. Results. Administration of methanol extract of leaves led to dose-dependent reductions in blood glucose levels in glucose-loaded mice. At doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight, the extract dose-dependently reduced blood glucose levels by 17.9, 28.1, and 47.4%, respectively compared to control animals. By comparison, a standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight, reduced blood glucose level by 47.4%. In analgesic activity tests, the extract at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight reduced the number of abdominal constrictions by 33.3, 40.7, 48.1, and 55.6%, respectively. A standard pain relieving (analgesic) drug, aspirin, reduced the number of writhings by 48.1 and 63.0%, respectively, when administered at doses of 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight. Conclusion. Antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activities have not previously been reported for Trevesia palmata leaves. The leaves can be beneficial in lowering blood sugar and for alleviating pain.
116 ASSESSMENT OF RED BLOOD CELL DISTRIBUTION WIDTH, SERUM TRANSFERRIN RECEPTOR, AND SERUM TRANSFERRIN RECEPTOR INDEX IN IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA OF PREGNANCY, BaybeenK. AL-Selevany 1 /PhD, Hana Abdul -Qaderkhuder2
Background: Iron deficiency anemiais a medical and public health problem. Pregnant women constitute a high risk group for Iron deficiency. Maternal iron deficiency and particularly Iron deficiency anemia may be associated with detrimental effects on maternal and infant function and particularly with a higher risk of preterm delivery and delivery of low birth weight neonates. Objectives: to evaluate the role of RDW,sTfR and sTfRI in pregnant women suffering from IDA. Materials And Methods: The study group conducted on 180 pregnant women of childbearing age (18-43) yearsattending the obstetrics and gynecology unit of Al-Khansa'a Teaching Hospital and AL-Batool Teaching Hospital in Mosul city. Out of these,90 werepregnant patients withIron deficiency anemiaand 90 were healthy normal pregnancy consideredas controls. In the current study three recent tests such as RDW,sTfR and sTfRI were added to routine measurements to diagnosis IDA clinically in pregnantwomen. Results: the resultsindicate thatpregnant patients with IDA exhibited significant decrease in HbL, PCV, MCV, MCH, MCHC and increase RDW in P-IDAas compared with healthy pregnant control.SFL was significant lower; whilesTfR andsTfRIwere significantly higher inP-IDA compared to control. Furthermore there was a significant negative correlation between and RDW and MCV and P-IDA.A significant positive correlation is found between sTfR and sTfRIin P-IDA Conclusions: In general the results of this study revealed that RDW, sTfR and sTfRImight provide additional and useful laboratory tests for the assessment of anemia caused by IDA.
117 EVALUATION OF ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF LASIA SPINOSA LEAF EXTRACTS IN SWISS ALBINO MICE, Md. Nazmul Hasan1, 2, Mita Munshi2, Mohammad Habibur Rahman2, S.M. Nur Alam3, Akinori Hirashima1*
Lasia spinosa, locally known as Kohila is a stout, marshy plant with a creeping spiny rhizome. The tender leaves and rhizomes are used as vegetables and recommended for a variety of diseases in Ayurveda medicine. The present study was carried out to determine the anti-hyperglycemic effects of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of leaf of L. spinosa plant in oral glucose tolerance tests compared with standard (glibenclamide) in Swiss albino mice. Different extracts (methanolic and ethanolic) and dosses (200 and 400mg/kg bw-weight) for each extracts were orally administered. The serum blood glucose level was measured by glucometer after 2 h of gaveging of extracts and standard. Significant hypoglycemic activity was observed regarding both of the extracts and dosses compared to control. Both extracts revealed a significant (p
118 RAPID DETERMINATION OF METHOTREXATELEVEL IN HUMAN PLASMA BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY , Ahmed Yusuf, Syed N. Alvi, and Muhammad M. Hammami*
A simple, precise, and rapid reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of methotrexate (MTX) level in human plasma using sulfamethoxazole as an internal standard (IS) was developed and validated. Plasma samples containing MTX were spiked with the IS, vortex-mixed with methanol, and centrifuged. After evaporation, supernatant residue was dissolved in 0.01 M HCl and injected into the HPLC system. The compounds of interest were efficiently separated on Symmetry C-8 column at room temperature, and detected with a photodiode array detector wavelength at303 nm. The mobile phase consisted of 0.03 M dibasic potassium phosphate (pH adjusted to 6.5 with phosphoric acid), methanol, and acetonitrile (82:14:4, v:v:v), and was delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. No interference in blank plasma or of commonly used drugs was observed, and the detection limit of MTX was 0.02g/ml. The relationship between MTX concentration in plasma and peak area ratio of MTX /IS was linear (R2 ? 0.9997) in the range of 0.05 20 g/ml. Intra- and inter-day coefficient of variations (CV) were ? 8.2%.Extraction recoveries of MTX and the IS were ? 93%,whereas Intra-day and inter-day bias (relative recovery) ofMTXmeasurement was -8.0% to 0.8% using quality control samples and -4.0% to 1.2% as determined by back calculation from peak area ratios of the calibration curves. The method was used to assess the stability of MTXin human plasma under conditions generally encounteredinclinical laboratory. Further, it was successfully applied to measure MTXlevel in samples obtainedfrom a patienton MTX therapy.
119 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, INVITRO FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA L.(AFTUH): ETHIOPIAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANT FOR "MICH", Yohannes Weldemariam Getahun,* Afework Mulugeta Bezabh,1 Ramachandran Unnithan,2 Desta Tesfay Aregawi3
Traditional medicinal knowledge has been serving a clue to most of plant derived drugs today. With locally available materials especially plants it was possible to defend and minimize lots of diseases caused by pathogens testing the human life. Fruits play major role in dealing with free radical mediated disorders. The aim of this study is to test the antioxidant efficacy of Plumbago Zeylanica root extracts to build up the less common local use of the plant for disorders caused by free radicals. Fresh roots of Plumbago Zeylanica was obtained from field and shade dried. Powdered root material was extracted in ethanol and chloroform by means of maceration and Soxhlet extraction respectively. The crude extract was screened for plant phytochemicals and assessed for free radical scavenging activity employing DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) stable free radical. Fractionation was done on the crude extacts to locate the most active ingredient and all the isolated fractions were subjected to radical scavenging and phytochemical tests. From phytochemical analysis results obtained the presence of tannins, alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids, and flavonoids were strong in ethanolic and water extracts. Regarding biological activity, the chloroform crude extracts as well as fractions were less potent than ethanol extracts in radical scavenging activity particularly at higher concentrations. Findings from fractionation show that, nine pure compounds were isolated from chloroform and ethanolic extracts. There was one fraction (designated as F8P-006) which showed persistent superior performance in the assay and it is predicted to be a quinone known as plumbagin.
120 ANALGESIC POTENTIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF LABLAB PURPUREUS AERIAL PARTS, Jajiratul Jannat Proma1, Mohammad Omar Faruque1, Shahnaz Rahman1, A.B.M. Anwarul Bashar2, Mohammed Rahmatullah2*
Background. Lablab purpureus, also known as the hyacinth bean is cultivated throughout Bangladesh for its edible beans. It was of interest to phytochemically screen and evaluate the analgesic properties of the aerial parts. Methods. Analgesic activity was determined by observed decreases in abdominal constrictions (writhings) in intraperitoneally administered acetic acid-induced pain model in mice. Phytochemical screening was done through standard methods. Results. In analgesic activity tests, the extract at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight reduced the number of abdominal constrictions by 23.1, 34.6, 42.3, and 61.5%, respectively. A standard pain relieving (analgesic) drug, aspirin, reduced the number of writhings by 38.5%, when administered at a dose of 200 mg per kg body weight. Conclusion. Analgesic activity has not previously been reported for Lablab purpureus aerial parts. The aerial parts can be beneficial for alleviating pain.
121 DETERMINATION OF GEMFIBROZIL LEVEL AND ITS STABILITY IN HUMAN PLASMA BY FULLY VALIDATED RAPAID HPLC ANALYSIS, Rajaa Farhan Hussein and Muhammad M. Hammami*
We optimized and validated a rapid, simple, and sensitive HPLC assay for gemfibrozil measurement in human plasma and studied the stability of gemfibrozil under various laboratory conditions. After deproteination with acetonitrile, gemfibrozil and ibuprofen (internal standard) were eluted on Symmetry C18, 5 ?m steel column at room temperature (RT) with a run time of 8 min. The mobile phase consisted of 0.01 M ammonium phosphate (dibasic) buffer (pH = 5.5) and acetonitrile (45:55, v:v). The analytes were detected using Waters 2475 multi ? fluorescence detector with the excitation and emission wavelength set at 242 and 300 nm, respectively. The response was linear over the range of 0.1100 ?g/ml. Extraction recovery of gemfibrozil and inter-run bias and imprecision were ? 89% (mean 95%), ? 13%, and ? 8.9, respectively. In human plasma, gemfibrozil was stable for at least 24 hours at RT (? 97%), 8 weeks at 200C (? 95%), and after 3 cycles of freeze at 200C and thaw at RT (? 90%). In processed samples, it was stable for at least 24 hours at RT (? 93%) and 48 hours at 200C (? 100%). Stock solution of gemfibrozil (1 mg/ml in methanol) was stable for at least 48 hours at RT (100%) and 8 weeks at 200C (100%). The assay was successfully employed to measure gemfibrozil level in samples obtained from a healthy volunteer.
122 ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF IRANIAN BITTER VETCH IN DIFFERENT METHODS, 1Ali Mirzaei*, 2Mohammad Satarifar, 3Farideh Badakhshan Zadeh
Introduction: Bitter vetch is an ancient legume crop of the Mediterranean region. It been used mostly for grain, hay production and feed ruminant for increase of milk production. This study was managed for determination of antioxidant activity and phenol contents. Material and Methods: Vicia ervilia (Bitter vetch) aerial plant and seeds were prepared in Yasuj Iran. Extraction was carried out in distilled water with maceration methods. For determination of antioxidant activities used diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) ,Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC ) radical scavenging assays and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay for reducing power as an antioxidant potentia. Total phenol and flavonoids were estimated as antioxidant component. Analysis of data was carried out by one way analysis of variance ANOVA. Results: Total phenol and flavonoids content ranged from 62.7-105 mg Gallic acid and 22.1-43 mg Rutin /g samples respectively .The aerial parts had the highest antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods. The antioxidant activity of the samples in FRAP and DPPH method can be attributed to their total phenolic and flavonoid content. Conclusion: aerial part was reported with high total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity by different systems. The highest antioxidant activity revealed by TEAC assay .it is could be suppose the aerial part of bitter vetch contain both hydrophilic and lipophilic substances with chain-breaking ability of free radicals.
123 ANALYSIS TOTAL FLAVONOID CALCULATED AS GENISTEIN, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES OF CRANBERRY PLANT ETHANOL EXTRACT, Resmi Mustarichie*, Moelyono Moektiwardoyo, Yoga Windu Wardhana, Danni Ramdhani
Raw cranberries and cranberry fruit are abundant food sources of flavonoids such as proanthocyanidins, flavonols and quersetin. Reviews These compounds have demonstrated activity as a possible anti-cancer agents in vitro. In previous research has been done proving the interaction of test compounds quersetin computing that is nutritious content of the stems and leaves of cranberries with an anti-inflammatory receptor H4R. Cytotoxicity properties of cranberries for this plant..This study reports on the phytochemical screening, total flavonoids calculated as quercetin, antioxidant activity as well as anti-inflammatory of ethanol extract of cranberry. Antioxidant activity was carried out by DPPH method. Testing antiinflammatory activity performed by the method of induction of carrageenan and total flavonoids calculated as quercetin done by spectrophotometry. It was found that the herbs that we checked positive compounds containing alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and polifenolat, triterpenoids and steroids, as well as monoterpenoid and sesquiterpenoid quinones, and negative for saponins. From the results of this experiment, the percentage content of total flavonoids in cranberry herbal at 0.099% w/w. IC50 of antioxidant activity of cranberry ethanol extract was found lower than its vitamin C as control positive. The antioxidant activy might be due to flavonoid content.The test results indicated that the anti-inflammatory activity of extracts of cranberry plants had inflammation inhibition percentage of 36.47%, 40.07% and 51.27%. It was found that extracts of a dose of 1000 mg/kg was the most good in the inhibition of inflammation. The results of this study support previous research that the cranberry extract can be used as an adjuvant therapy in the treatment of inflammation caused by cancer.
124 PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF LIPPIA CITRIODORA ON ACETIC ACID INDUCED ULCERATIVE COLITIS IN RATS, Roya Hassan pour1, *Mirzaei Ali2
Object and aim: ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract disease in which immune response was suppressed due to high levels of free radicals and inflammatory agents. The aim of the present study was to evaluate protective effect of Lippia citriodora on ulcerative colitis by different biochemical tests. Methods: Rats were randomized into four groups each containing eight rats. Rats were administered 500 mg/kg Lippia citriodora once daily for four days before ulcerative colitis induction by 4% acetic acid (AA) and three days after AA rectal administration. animals were scarified and the colonic tissues were dissected. In colon tissues, levels of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) , nitric oxide (No) and interleukin-1? (IL-1? were estimated. Results: Acetic acid administration obviously reduced GSH, while MDA, IL-1?, and NO levels were increased in colon of rats with UC compared controls. Administration of Lippia citriodora extract ameliorated the biochemical alterations due to acetic acid induced UC, by decreasing malondialdehyde, interleukin- 1 ? , nitric oxide and increasing reduced glutathione level, in colon tissue. Conclusion: This study concluded that use of Lippia citriodora extract could be helpful in preventing the relapse of UC disease due to their possible antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
125 BASIC CONCEPTS IN UPLC AN OVERVIEW, S. Palanichamy * P.Pavani, P.Ramasubramaniyan, M.Lakshmi, N.Sharanya, P. Solairaj
Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Systems take advantage of technological strides made in particle chemistry performance, system optimization, detector design, and data processing and control. When taken together, these achievements have created a step-function improvement in chromatographic performance. Defined as UPLC, this new category of analytical separation science retains the practicality and principles of HPLC while increasing the overall interlaced attributes of speed, sensitivity, and resolution. In this system uses fine particles (less than 2.5?m) so decreases the length of column, saves time and reduces solvent consumption.
126 A REVIEW ON: PHYTOCHEMISTRY, PHARMACOLOGY AND TRADITIONAL USES OF TAMARINDUS INDICA L. , Bibekananda Meher1, *Deepak Kumar Dash2, Anupama Roy1
Currently there has been an increased interest globally to identify plants and explore there therapeutic potential. As because drugs which obtained from nature pharmacologically potent and have low or no side effects for use in preventive medicine and the food industry. They represent a potential source of new compounds with different pharmacological activity. Traditional herbal medicines form an important part of the healthcare system of India. Ayurveda, supposed to be the oldest medical system in the world, provides potential leads to find active and therapeutically useful compounds from plants. Considering the growing interest in the field of plant drugs assessing different pharmacological activity. In this review we have discussed about the therapeutic potential and chemical constituents Tamarindus indica. It is available all over the country. Tamarindus indica is having some reported activities like antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective and antimicrobial properties. This plant is consumed by rural people as vegetable.
127 UNDERSTANDING OF COMPLEX SIGNALING PATHWAYS OF IMMUNE SYSTEM: A REVIEW, Anoop Kumar, D. Sasmal and Neelima Sharma*
Cell surface receptors receive the initial signals that activate immune responses. Immune response is very complex process which involves a number of cell types that function as initiators, regulators, and effectors. These cells interact with and cross-regulate each other, and the target cells respond using signal transduction pathways to mediate gene expression. Innate immune responses to pathogens such as bacteria and viruses are triggered by recognition of specific structures of invading pathogens called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by cellular pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that are located at plasma membrane or inside cells. Stimulation of different PAMPs activates Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent and -independent signaling pathways that lead to activation of transcription factors nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), interferon regulatory factor 3/7 (IRF3/7) and/or activator protein-1 (AP-1), which collaborate to induce transcription of a large number of downstream genes. In case of Adaptive immune response the signal will be processed MHC antigenic peptide complexes on APCs.This event catalyzes a series of intracellular events resulting in the transcription of genes that drive the differentiation of the T cell.The innate and the adaptive immunity signaling pathways are different, but they usually work together to eliminate pathogen. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of complex signaling pathways of immune system.
128 A REVIEW ON INDIAN CORK TREE - MILLINGTONIA HORTENSIS LINN.F , M. Surendra Kumar*1,2, N. Astalakshmi1, Jeena chandran. N1, Jesmi Jaison, P1, Sooraj. P1, Raihanath. T1, Kavimani. S3 and G. Babu1.
Millingtonia hortensis Linn.F (Bignoniaceae) is a traditional medicinal plant widely used in south -East Asia. It is commonly known as Cork tree, Akash neem and Neem chameli. The tree is cultivated in various parts of India for its ornamental purposes. It can grow upto 25m, with woody stem and thick cork. Flowers have very rich and pleasant scent, used in the treatment of asthma, sinusitis, and cholagogue and in rituals. Leaves and roots of cork tree are used as antiasthmatic and antimicrobial. The stem bark is used traditionally as lung tonic, antiasthmatic and antimicrobial. The tree has antifungal, antioxidant, antibacterial, larvicidal, antimutagenic, antiproliferative, anthelmintic and hepatoprotective properties. This paper highlights about the tree on its, pharmacognosy & phytochemistry and medicinal aspects.
129 TRADITION, TREND AND PROSPECT OF FERMENTED FOOD PRODUCTS: A BRIEF OVERVIEW. , Rina Rani Ray1*and Sonali Roy2
Fermentation is a process defined as chemical transformation of organic substances into simpler compounds by the action of enzymes. Use of fermented food dates back to prehistoric period and the global scenario of use of fermented food products indicate that it was a popular method of food preservation. The discovery of more and more advantages of utilization of fermented products has generated a new spurt in the application of microorganisms for commercial production of these products. Adoption of various biotechnological approaches, recombinant DNA technology has made these processes more useful and economic. The current trend in context to production and use of fermented food products involves exploration of newer tools and techniques as well as microorganisms to produce newer products of human interest and to increase the shelf life of the products. One of the most important products generated from the microbial fermentation is industrial enzymes. The global market of industrial enzymes indicates that this market is expected to grow to $2.1 billion by 2016. Apart from enzymes, sugars, alcohols, vitamins, amino acids, antibiotics, fermentation product itself can be used as food supplements with beneficial effects on the consumers, known as Probiotics. Utilization of agrowastes or cheap indigenous substrates for the production of fermented products from carefully designed microorganisms can make the entire process cost effective and opens an avenue for safe disposal of discarded biomass and this trend generates great interest among researchers in modern times.
130 PARKINSONS DISEASE, ITS IMPLICATION AND TREATMENT WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO LIVER X RECEPTOR: A REVIEW, Rajnish Srivastava*, Deepa, Amit Kumar Srivastava, Piush Khare, Hemant Nagar
Parkinson's disease is a chronic, degenerative neurological disorder that affects more than five million peoples worldwide. The risk of developing the disease increases with age. Sustained microglia over activation and resulting neuroinflammation is believed to play important role in the mechanism of chronic dopaminergic neuronal loss in Parkinsons disease. The disease is characterized by skeletal muscle hypertonic and hyperkinetic impairment. The main objective for the effective treatment of Parkinsons disease is to increase and replenish the dopaminergic activity of the brain. So, therapy consist use of drugs that either increase synaptic concentration of dopamine and dopamine release or inhibit its degradation. A new therapeutic target for the treatment of Parkinsons disease has been identified. Liver X receptors (LXr-?, LXr-?) are ligand-dependent nuclear receptors which are targeted for ventral midbrain neurogenesis in vivo. Cholic acid and 24 (S), 25- epoxycholestrol (24-25 EC) are the two types where the latter was found to be the mostpotent in the developing mouse midbrain whereas both ligands promoted neural development in an LXr dependent manner in Zebrafish in vivo. Notably, each ligand selectively regulated the development of distinct midbrain neuronal populations. Whereas cholic acid has increases survival and neurogenesis of Brn3a positive red nucleus neurons, while 24-25 EC promoted dopaminergic neurogenesis. Moreover, 24-25 EC promoted dopaminergic differentiation of embryonic stem cells, suggesting that LXr ligands may contribute to the development of cell replacement and regenerative therapies for Parkinson's. Administration of the LXr agonist GW3965 to MPTP-treated wild type, mice protected against dopaminergic loss in neurons along with the fibers projecting to the striatum. Hence a novel strategy can be designedwherein the drug viz. dopamine can be loaded in brain targeted carrier system which is loaded or coupled to LXr ligand which will act in dual way for management of Parkinsonism.
131 MUCOADHESIVE MICROSPHERES-A NOVEL APPROACH OF DRUG TARGETING , Venkatesh Gavini*, B. Ragini and K. Kaumudi
An appropriately designed controlled release drug delivery system can be a major advance towards solving problems concerning to the targeting of drug to a specific organ or tissue and controlling the rate of drug delivery to the target site. The development of oral controlled release systems has been a challenge to formulation scientist due to their inability to restrain and localize the system at targeted areas of gastrointestinal tract. Mucoadhesive microparticulate drug delivery systems are an interesting and promising option when developing an oral controlled release system. In recent years such mucoadhesive microspheres have been developed for oral, buccal, nasal, ocular, rectal and vaginal routes for either systemic or local effects. The objective of this paper is to review the principles underlying the formulation and evaluation of mucoadhesive microspheres and to take a closer look at mucoadhesive microparticles as drug delivery devices for increasing efficiency of drug delivery, improving the residence time and release profile.
132 A NEW GENERATION OF CHEMOTHERAPEUTICS AGENT AS 5-FU LOADED NANOPARTICLES USED FOR EFFECTIVE CANCER TREATMENT., Devender Singh, Nikhil Gupta*, Dr. S K Prajapati and Santosh Kumar
Combination chemotherapy and nanoparticle drug delivery are two areas that have shown significant promise in cancer treatment. Combined therapy of two or more drugs promotes synergism among the different drugs against cancer cells and suppresses drug resistance through distinct mechanisms of action. Nanoparticle drug delivery, on the other hand, enhances therapeutic effectiveness and reduces side effects of the drug payloads by improving their pharmacokinetics . Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced. nanotechnology enhanced materials will enable a weight reduction accompanied by an increase in stability and an improved functionality. Biomedical nanotechnology, bionanotechnology and nanomedicine are used to describe this hybrid field. The pace of new discoveries in biotechnology and health care and even the appearance of whole new fields of endeavour in recent years have made for an exciting and challenging time for pharmacists. The target is always to provide the proper dose of the antitumor agent only at the desired locus of action, thus reducing the unwanted side effects. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is widely used in the treatment of cancer. Over the past 20 years, increased understanding of the mechanism of action of 5-FU has led to the development of strategies that increase its anticancer activity. Nanotechnology is one of the fast-moving technologies and is presently contributing significantly to the progress of medical science. Drugs categorized under the drug delivery system (DDS) are made primarily by utilizing nanotechnology.
133 THE CONCEPTS OF DRUG UTILIZATION STUDY, *Rajesh Kumar Suman1, Ipseeta Ray Mohanty2, Y A Deshmukh3
Drug Utilization study is very important topic to evaluate rational drug prescribing. Aspire of the Drug utilization studies (DUS) is to appraise factors related to the prescribing, dispensing, administering and taking of medication. Drug utilization studies aim to evaluate factors related to the prescribing, dispensing, administering and taking of medication, and its associated events (either beneficial or adverse).Since the early 1960s the interest in Drug Utilization Studies has been increasing, first with market-only purposes, then for evaluating the quality of medical prescription and comparing patterns of use of specific drugs. The ultimate purposes of drug utilization studies areto contribute to the optimal quality of drug therapy by identifying, documenting, analyzing problems in drug utilization and monitoring the consequences of interventions. Different types of drug utilization studies can be conducted and various methods can be used. The increasing importance of drug utilization studies as a valuable investigation resource in pharmacoepidemiology has been bridging it with other health related areas, such as public health, pharmacovigilance, pharmacoeconomics, eco-pharmacovigilance or pharmacogenetics .
134 INCREASING USE OF LONG-ACTING REVERSIBLE CONTRACEPTION: SAFE, RELIABLE, AND COST-EFFECTIVE BIRTH CONTROL , Om Bagade?1, Vidya Pawar2, Riddhi Patel1, Bindiya Patel1, Varsha Awasarkar1, Sonali Diwate1
Long-acting contraceptions are methods of birth control that provide effective contraception for an extended period without requiring user action. It includes injections, intrauterine devices (IUDs) and sub dermal implants. These are the most effective reversible methods of contraception because these do not depend on patient compliance. So their 'typical use' failure rates, at less than 1% per year, are about the same as 'perfect use' failure rates. In addition to being long-lasting, convenient, and well liked by users, they are very cost effective. Long-acting reversible contraception is recommended for adolescents to help decrease the teen pregnancy rate. LARCs are recommended for women of any age no matter how many times they have given birth. The advent of reversible long-acting contraceptives IUDs, injectables and implantshas provided women throughout the world with valuable new fertility regulation options. These highly effective methods, together with male and female sterilization, have proven to be enormously popular and are now used by the majority of women and men who are currently contraception worldwide. Despite their safety and effectiveness they are underutilized: only 15.5% of women worldwide use IUDs and only 3.4% use sub dermal implants. Political, ethical, and safety questions have emerged, stemming from the ways in which these contraceptives have been developed and used over the course of this century. At par with the application of long acting contraceptives is concern one can duly think about the proper implementation and its usage and moreover make the women more understand the poles apart issues of reproductive rights and freedom so far.
135 REVIEW ON ORGANOGEL AS TOPICAL DELIVERY SYSTEM , Shashikant A. Pawar*, Moreswar P.Patil , Priyanka S. Sadgir, Navneet B. Wankhede.
A gel may be defined as a semi-solid formulation having an external solvent phase, a polar (organogel) or polar (hydrogel) immobilized within the spaces available of a three dimensional networked structure. Organogel can be prepared by Fluid-Filled fiber mechanism and Solid fiber mechanism. The chemical enhancer used in dermal formulation for permeation of drug through the skin, it may be produce irritation as in chronic application. Organogel does not require use of chemical enhancer for facilitate drug through the skin. Lecithin, Sorbitan ester base or gelatin use for gellating agent. This article gives information about types of organogelator, types of organogel, properties and Evaluation parameter of organogel with application.
136 SELF NANOEMULSION: ADVANCE FORM OF DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Mr. Girish C. Soni, S.K. Prajapati, Nirvesh Chaudhri*
The main objective this study is to prepare and evaluate the self nanoemulsifying drug delivery (SNEDDS) system in order to achieve a better dissolution rate of a poorly water soluble drug. The aim of the present work was to prepare a novel self nanoemulsion drug delivery system (NE) to enhance the solubility. Lipid based self nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) was explored to improve the oral bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble drug candidate, using spontaneous emulsification method. Nanoemulsions have ability to enhance the oral bioavailability of poorly water soluble or lipophilic drugs through selective lymphatic pathways. Self emulsifying drug delivery system has gained more attention due to enhanced oral bio-availability enabling reduction in dose, more consistent temporal profiles of drug absorption, selective targeting of drug(s) toward specific absorption window in GIT. SEDDS are liquid to semisolid in nature, but it has drawbacks as formulation development, quality control, stability etc. These liquid SEDDS can be converted into solid dosage form without affecting drug release property.
137 VIROSOME DRUG AND VACCINE DELIVERY SYSTEM , Mr. Bhamare Gaurav, Mrs. Karpe Manisha, Dr. Kadam Vilasrao.
Virosomes are reconstituted viral envelopes that can serve as vehicles for cellular delivery of macromolecules. The prospect of drug delivery and targeting using virosomes is an interesting field of research and development. Because virosomes are biocompatible, biodegradable, nontoxic and non-autoimmunogenic.Attempts have been made to use them as vaccines or adjuvants as well as delivery systems for drugs, nucleic acids or genes for therapeutic purposes. Influenza virus is the most common virus of choice. The success of virosomal drug delivery depends on method used to prepare the encapsulated bioactive materials and incorporate them into the virosomes. Virosome technology could potentially be used to deliver peptides, nucleic acids or genes and drugs like antibiotics, anticancer agents, and steroids.This review articlesummarizes themethod of preparation, administration, characterization, evaluation, and future aspects of virosomes.
138 NATURAL DRUG THERAPY FOR CANCER- A REVIEW , Dasgupta Debaprotim *and Dash Suvakanta
Although tremendous improvement has been made in the development of novel cancer treatments, cancer remains a leading cause of death in the world. There are several medicines available in the market to treat the various types of cancer but no drug is found to be fully effective and safe. The major problem in the cancer chemotherapy and radio therapy is the toxicity of the established drugs. However plants and plant derived products have proved effective and safe in the treatment and management of cancers. These days most of the research work on cancer drugs is targeted on plants and plants derived natural products. Many natural products and their analogues have been identified as potent anti-cancer agents and day by day the anti-cancer property of various plants is being identified. Here an attempt is being made through this review to highlights the natural products and their analogues established as anti-cancer agents and the new plant species identified with anti-cancer properties either in vivo or in vitro. Herb has a vital role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Different herbs are provided with their mechanism of action and the chemical constituent which are responsible for anticancer property. Cancer is a leading cause of mortality in the world. Plants are one of the main sources of biologically active ingredients. This is due to serious side effects associated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy, many cancer patients seek alternative complementary methods of treatment. In the present review an attempt has been made to study the plants that have been used in the treatment of cancer as well as the other possible sources of anticancer agent.
139 NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MIMOSA PUDICA IN D-GALACTOSE INDUCED ALZHEIMERS MODEL , Sibi P.Ittiyavirah* and Ibrahim Pullachol
Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible neuroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Mimosa pudica (EEMP) in chronic Alzheimers model using albino wistar rats. Methods: The dried whole part of the plant were subjected to hot continuous extraction method using ethanol as solvent and were subjected for phytochemical analysis.1 The parameters employed for assessing nootropic activity were transfer latency, retention latency and number of memory errors in elevated plus maze, Morris water maze and radial arm maze. These activities were tested at oral dose of extract 500 mg/kg, piracetam 50 mg/kg was used for comparison and D-galactose 100mg/kg was used as control group. Results: Phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic compounds and steroids. EEMP treatment had shown a significant protective effect in memory dysfunction caused by D- Galactose in various model. Conclusion: It is concluded that ethanolic extract of M. pudica possessed significant neuroprotective effect against D-Galactose induced Alzheimers model.
140 PHYTO CHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF PHYSALIS MINIMA , T.Joshi Anand*, S.K.Liakhat Ali, M. Sudhir, R.R.Manjula, Jaya Sravani. P, Saraswathi Devi.L
Physalis minima (solanaceae) is a annual herbaceous plant commonly found in tropical countries like India, Africa, Afghanistan, Srilanka and is an Ayurvedic plant with huge medicinal importance. The ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Physalis minima plant were screened for phytochemical investigation and analgesic activity using hot plate method in albino wistar rats of either sex. The various doses used are 200mg/kg & 400mg/kg body weight of alcohol & ethyl acetate extract of Physalis minima showed comparable analgesic activity in hot plate method . The significant and nearlyequal activity was observed in ethyl acetate and alcoholic extract.
141 APPLICATION OF HPTLC FOR THE ESTIMATION OF LAWSONE, ITS METABOLITES AND INVESTIGATION OF INTERACTION OF LAWSONE WITH CAFFEINE BY INVITRO METHODS , Gandhimathi Muruganathan*, Bharathi Mandala
Lawsone is a bio medicament used in the treatment of psoriasis. A HPTLC method was developed and employed for the investigation of its interaction with caffeine. Lawsone and its two metabolites, viz salicylic acid and catechol were estimated from spiked plasma by HPTLC using invitro methods. HPTLC separation comprised of solvent system toluene: ethyl acetate: ethanol: formic acid in the ratio of 8:2:1:1 drop % v/v/v/v detection was done at 254nm. The Rf value of lawsone, salicylic acid and catechol were found to be 0.37, 0.33 and 0.49 respectively. The interaction study was carried out in two temperature 37C and 45C, and in gastric pH. A significant interaction was observed in higher concentration of caffeine both conditions. The Rf value of lawsone and caffeine were found to be 0.47 and 0.29 respectively. For interaction study the linearity was established between 20-640 ?g/ml for Lawsone and 20-640?g/ml for caffeine. In the spiked plasma linearity was found to be in the concentration range of 80-280 ?g/ml for Lawsone, 40-140?g/ml for salicylic acid, 320-1120 ?g/ml for Catechol. The invitro estimation of lawsone and metabolites involved single step extraction from plasma and cost effective, and can be employed for pharmacokinetic studies and further research on lawsone.
142 INCLUSION COMPLEXATION STUDY OF CURCUMIN AND H?-CYCLODEXTRIN , S. Bakkialakshmi*, G.Jayaranjani,
Curcumin is a lipid soluble polyphenolic antioxidant obtained from curcuma longa.However, the most intriguing aspect of this compound is that it shows a wide array of pharmaceutical activity, including potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-carcinogenic properties.One of the disadvantages of curcumin limiting its physiological activities is its insolubility in aqueous Solution, through it is possible to increase its solubility in water by forming inclusion complexes with water soluble host. There are several studies on host - guest complex formation of curcumin.Formation of such host guest systems can be proved by observing absorption and fluorescence changes in curcumin. The photo - physical properties of curcumin vary(leave space) significantly depending on the medium and therefore act as suitable tools for following the inclusion behaviour to different systems. Cyclodextrin are one of the most widely used synthetic model host cavities, which provide a conical cavity for the water insoluble guests to be encapsulated, thereby making the water soluble.Here, an attempt has been made to estimate the formation constant of 1:1 curcumin and hydroxypropyl ?-cyclodextrin (H?- CD) complex by following the absorption and fluorescence properties. The formation constant of the complex was determined by following absorption, fluorescence spectral changes.
143 SONOCHEMICAL SYTHESIS OF 2-IMINO-IMIDAZOLES USING 1- BUTYL-3-METHYL IMIDAZOLIUM TETRAFLUROBORATE , Meghasham N. Narule* & Vibha M. Nikose1
A rapid sonochemical synthesis of 2-imino imidazoles using solvent and catalyst 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMIM][BF4]. The overall merits of this reaction are faster rates, milder conditions, higher yields, shorter time and facile workup. The simplicity of the reaction facilitates the delineation of a green chemistry methodology: use of designer solvent as catalyst and ultrasound irradiation, to define useful protocol for optimal conversions.
144 FORMULATION AND EVALUTIOIN OF FD TABLETS OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM BY FACTORIAL DESIGN, Bhusnure O. G.*, Kazi. P. A., Jadhav A. B., Thonte S. S., Gholve S.B.
In the treatment of hypertension fast onset of action is the major concern. The problem of slow onset of action of drugs can be overcome by development of appropriate dosage forms. Fast disintegrating tablets in mouth are best suited and have gained popularity in the oral antihypertensive drug therapy. These are advantageous over other conventional systems in terms of patient compliance, rapid onset of action, accurate dosing, good chemical stability, convenience of self-administration and compactness. Losartan potassium is widely used as an antihypertensive drug, which is a potent drug candidate for developing in to Fast Dissolving Tablets (FDT?s). It has low bioavailability due to first pass metabolism. Hence the main objective of the study was to formulate fast dissolving tablets of Losartan potassium to achieve a better dissolution rate and further improving the bioavailability of the drug. Fast dissolving tablet of Losartan potassium were formulated by using microcrystalline cellulose with different concentration of super disintegrants like sodium starch glycolate and Fenugreek Mucilage. All the batches were prepared by direct compression. API characterization studies were conducted to check the purity of API .The tablets were evaluated for Pre compression parameters and post compression parameters. Before the formulation of the tablets IR spectroscopic studies were also performed to check the compatibility with the excipients. A 23 full factorial design was applied to investigate the combine effect of 3 formulation variables. Here the concentration of Fenugreek Seed powder, concentration of Sodium Starch Glycolate and concentration of Microcrystalline Cellulose were taken as independent variable X1, X2 & X3 respectively and their effect of disintegration time is studied as dependent parameter. To represent the data Design Expert software is used.
145 ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROTEINS FROM THE CRAB LIAGORE RUBROMACULATA (DE HAAN, 1835), E. Rethna Priya*, S. Ravichandran and P. Jawaharlal
The emergence of new infectious diseases and resistance to the antibiotics by the existing ones led to the new sources for drug discovery. In the present study antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the hemolymph of brachyuran crabs Liagore rubromaculata was investigated. In the antibacterial activity against 6 pathogenic strains maximum zone of inhibition was recorded against highest zone of inhibition was observed in the hemolymph of female crab L. rubromaculata against P. vulgaris(12 1 mm) and the minimum activity was observed against E.coli(6 1 mm). In the hemolymph of male crab L.rubromaculata the highest zone of inhibition was observed Against E. faecalis(9 1 mm) and the minimum activity observed against K. oxytoca (7mm). In TLC appearance of pink spots indicates the presence of protein in the tested sample. In SDS PAGE, in male four bands were detected in the gel that represents the presence of proteins in the range nearly 26.5-73 kDa. In female five bands were detected in the gel that represents the presence of proteins in the range nearly 25.2-75 k Da. Hence the present study indicated that the hemolymph of L. rubromaculata crabs may potential antibiotics.
146 EFFECT OF ZnSO4 AND CuSO4 ON REGENERATION AND XANTHOTOXIN CONTENT IN AMMI MAJUS AND AGROBACTERIUM- MEDIATED TRANSFORMATION, *Deepshikha Pande Katare1 , Amit Chandra Kharakwal2 and Priyanka Sharma2
The present study investigates the effects of zinc and copper on morphogenic, biochemical and phytochemical responses of Ammi majus L. and determines the highest tolerance levels of zinc and copper to which tolerant cultures can be raised. Incorporation of zinc sulphate (100-400?M) and copper sulphate (25-100 ?M) in Murashige and Skoog medium + (in mg l-1) 0.5 indole-3-acetic acid + 2.0 kinetin + 500 casein hydrolysate + 40 adenine elicited variation in growth and percent regeneration of calli. Zinc sulphate at 200 ?M proved to be the best and promoted high percent (15.50.22) regeneration, growth and enhanced xanthotoxin production (12.80.03) whereas copper tolerance was only up to 25 ?M. Variation in xanthotoxin was observed with highest concentration (12.8+ 0.04 mg/g DW) at 200 ?M zinc sulphate. A simple technical procedure is described here using Agrobacterium tumefaciens for the efficient transformation method for this important medicinal plant. The procedure begins with inoculation of leaf explants in bacterial suspension followed by co-cultivation. Transformed shoots were selected on the regeneration medium containing antibiotic and the presence of the inserted genes was checked by gus assay.
147 A STUDY ON THE OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH STATUS OF IRON INDUSTRY WORKERS IN THANNER PANTHAL AT DINDIGUL DISTRICT, *N. Selvam and 1, Dr.M.M. Senthamil Selvi
Environmental pollution is an alarming issue at the present. It deals with every aspect of our life including birth to death. The problem is not from a pinpoint source; rather it is a wide problem which contains many more aspects beyond our imagination in air, water, land etc. Many types of health hazard are in our surroundings and they gradually exposed to us. Occupational exposure to harmful substance is a very important human health hazard Industrial empowerment worsts the problem. Check on polluting industries in Dindigul District at Thanner Panthal. A person cannot avoid this type of health hazard. Foundry industry is strongly set at Thanner Panthal and as such polluting the area and affect the life of nearby living persons and workers. An assessment has been done for the occupational hazard at iron foundry through haemoglobin concentration and total erythrocyte count. A decrement in total erythrocyte count (TLC) different leccyte count (DLC) and haemoglobin concentration (Hb. Conc.) has been found in foundry workers which is alarming to take rehabilitating steps.
148 FLUORESCENCE AND FT-IR ANALYSIS OF LEAF AND FRUIT OF TRICHOSANTHES DIOICA ROXB., Dr. R. Kavitha*
The medicinal plants are considered to be most important in primary health care system of the developing countries and herbal drugs in the industrialized countries. The therapeutic property of a plant depends upon the physiologically active chemical compounds present in the plant parts employed in preparation of a medicine. In the present study fluorescence and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis of leaf and fruit of Trichosanthes dioica carried out for characterization of the crude drugs and detection of functional groups in these parts of the plant. The fluorescence analysis showed that the crude drugs exhibited clear fluorescence behaviors at different radiation due to the presence of various phytochemical constituents after treated with different chemical reagents. Whereas FT-IT analysis showed different functional groups based on its peak ratio in the ethanolic extract of leaf and fruit of Trichosanthes dioica.
149 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND MOLECULAR DOCKING SIMULATION OF DISUBSTITUTED 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES FOR ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES, Shashidhar Kerur1*, Dr. Kallangouda Alagawadi2, Dr. Hailiang zhu3 and Dr. Fakkirappa Manvi1
In the present study, synthesis and antimicrobial activity of 2,5-disubstituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives 5a-f are described. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass and elemental analysis. All compounds were screened for antitubercular and antimicrobial activity. Molecular modeling studies were performed to dock compounds into the ecKAS III binding site, which suggested probable inhibition mechanism. The results revealed that most of the compounds showed high to moderate biological activity against tested microorganisms
150 NUTRACEUTICAL PROPERTIES AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF OLDENLANDIA CORYMBOSA L. FOUND IN BRAHMAPUTRA VALLEY AGRO- CLIMATIC CONDITIONS., Pranjal Sarmah, Aniruddha Sarma, Archana Kalita, Debaleena Kashyap, Shally Sultana Choudhury*
Herbs have been used as a dietary source of nutrition and play a vital role in improving our health. Various metabolic activities in our body results in the formation of the free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) that leads to the onset of many diseases such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, liver diseases and atherosclerosis as well as in degenerative processes associated with ageing. Antioxidant compounds in diet play an important role as a health protecting factor. The present study was aimed at investigating the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Oldenlandia corymbosa having ethno medicinal property. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The methanolic extract exhibited antioxidant activity significantly in the plant extracts. The IC50 value of the methanolic extract was found to be 129.28 1.59?g/ml. The study has revealed that the extracts of this plant can be used as therapeutic agent as it would exert several beneficial effects by virtue of their antioxidant activity and also can be a rich source of nutrition in our diet system as it was rich in its phytochemical constituents.
151 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF SPERMACOCE HISPITA. L, *A. Zahir Hussain and S. Kumaresan.
The present study deals with the phytochemical investigation and therapeutic use importance of plant spermacoce hispita. L It is an important medicinal plant worldwide trend towards the utilization of natural plant remedies has created an enormous need for the use of medicinal plants. phytochemical screening was evaluated with the methanolic and aqueous extract in presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, steroidal, glycosides, tannins and carbohydrate are found in the plant extracts. The ethanol extract of same plant was subjected to analysis the antimicrobial activity by disc method. The extract of the plant leaves showed antimicrobial activity against both gram(+) and gram(-) bacteria and fungi, Maximal antibacterial activity was observed against streptococcus facials. The maximal antimicrobial activity was against Diameter of zone inhibition exhibited by spermacoce hispita. L ethanol extract in various concentrations.
152 STUDIES ON ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SCOPARIA DULCIS, P.K Valsalakumari1*, Dr. N.Narayanan2, Dr.B. Parimala Devi1, C.K.Mohandas1, Helen William1
The antimicrobial and antifungal effects of of ethanol extracts of Scoparia dulcis and its cream base formulation were investigated. The isolated fractions and formulation were tested against different bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and fungal strains such as Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. The ethanolic extract and cream based formulation exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against gram positive organism and antifungal activity against all the tested organisms compared with respective reference drugs.Thus a stable dosage form of the herbal medicinal plant,Scoparia dulcis can be used against gram positive bacterial infections and fungal Infections.
153 EFFECT OF THIOUREA ON THE THYROID GLAND IN THE TADPOLES OF TOAD, BUFO STOMATICUS, *Rekha Rajput
The present study deals with the effect of Thiourea on the tadpole larvae of Bufo stomaticus. These tadpole larvae identified into three stages-pre-metamorphic (stage 24-25), pro-metamorphic (stage 34-35), and metamorphic climax (stage 38-40).They were exposed to five different doses of Thio-urea i.e. 0.04%, 0.08%, 0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3% of the solution . Experiments were conducted at room temperature (28C-32C) for 15 days. Tadpoles larvae of each group were morphologically examined under stereoscopic binocular microscope to find out the changes in size of thyroid gland. The results were statistically analyzed and significant changes were observed in some groups.
154 EFFECT OF COMBINATION OF URSOLIC ACID AND GLIBENCLAMIDEON MACROPHAGE PHAGOCYTIC INDEX IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS., Mr. Amol Kumbhar1, 2, Mr. Aniket Garud 1, 2 *, Mr. Ameya Deo1, 2,Mr. Jeevan Dhumal1, Dr. Rajesh Oswal1, Dr.Neeraj Vyavahare3, Dr.PravinChaudhari4
Diabetes being a metabolic disorder it modifies immune system not only with type 1 but also in type 2.Immunological aspect in diabetes and related complication needs to be explained for better understanding and better pharmacotherapy of diabetes. The macrophage have their role in various activities viz. response to Vaccines, memory impairment and clearance of plaques in brain, wound healing, role of testicular macrophagesregulating NO production insteroidogenesis and testosterone synthesis,role of melatonin on macrophages and generation of superoxide etc. In present study effect of combination of Ursolic Acid and Glibenclamide on Macrophage Phagocytic Index in Alloxan induced diabetic rats was studied.Considering the results obtained from the present study it can be concluded that the combination of Ursolic Acidhas promising antidiabetic effect along with it will play a beneficial role and can cover wide range of diabetic complications.
155 HAIR GROWTH PROMOTING ACTIVITY OF BENINCASA HISPIDA ON ANDROGEN INDUCED ALOPECIA ANIMAL MODELS, Jegan N*1, Chidambaranathan N1, Kulathuran Pillai K1, Nalini G, Santhanakumar M1
India is a country known for ancient scripts, the number therapeutical system, invention of zero and vedas. Use of plants as a source of medicine has been an ancient practice and is an important component of the health care system in India. Hair loss or baldness (technically known as alopecia) is a loss of hair from the head or body. Evaluating and treating hair loss (alopecia) is an important part of primary care, yet many physicians find it complex and confusing. Hair loss affects men and women of all ages and frequently has significant social and psychologic consequences. The aim of the study was to prepare different extract of the selected plant Benincasa hispida, Chemical test of extract to confirm chemical constituents and to study the pharmacological activity of the plant extract on androgen induced alopecia animal models.
156 DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING SUSTAINED RELEASE TABLETS OF VALSARTAN HCl. , Deepika HC *, S.Srilatha
Valsartan, a widely prescribed anti-hypertensive drug which is an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist belongs to BCS class I? .It shows absorption window in stomach area. The objective of the study is to develop a sustained release floating tablets of Valsartan to increase the Bioavailability of Valsartan. The present study was aimed to develop antihypertensive floating sustained release tablets of valsartan Angiotensin II receptor antagonist, using synthetic polymers like HPMC K 100 m, K4 m, E15cps, carbomer 940 P, and natural gums like guar gum, Xanthan gum for sustained drug release. The matrix tablets were prepared by direct compression method. All the excipients are tested for compatibility with drug, which revealed that there was no physical and chemical interaction occurred. The Pre formulation parameters such as bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index and Hausners ratio were analyzed. The In-Vitro drug release studied were Performed in the USP dissolution apparatus ((Type-2) using pH 1.2 HCL as dissolution media at 100rpm speed and temperature of 37oC 5oC. The sampling was done at periodic time intervals of 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11 and 12 hours and was replaced by equal volume of dissolution media after each withdrawal. The cumulative amount of drug release at different intervals is estimated using UV method. Based on the evaluation result the formulations F6 (guar gum and carbomer 50:50) was selected as best formulation among sustained release and shown maximum release of 100.10% drug in 12th hour. Based on mathematical models the formulation F6 fitted into zero order and korsmeyer-peppas plot with 0.974 and 0.993 regression values respectively.
157 WATER QUALITY INDEX OF GROUND WATER IN AND AROUND TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU, INDIA., J.Sirajudeen*, M.Kadhar Mohidheen** and R.Abdul Vahith*
The present work is aimed to water quality index (WQI) for the groundwater samples collected in and around Sivagiri and Tenkasi taluks, Tirunelveli District during the year 2012. For calculating the WQI, the following 11 parameters have been considered: pH, EC, TDS, TH, DO, COD, BOD, Cl-, NO3, Ca and Mg .The WQI for these samples ranged greater than 75(170.3) .The analysis reveals that the groundwater for all the samples indicating that the water is and unfit for drinking and domestic purpose of the area needs some degree of treatment before consumption and it also needs to be protected from the perils of contamination.
158 IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC ROOT EXTRACT OF GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA AGAINST PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISM ISOLATED FROM BOVINE MASTITIS, Rajni Prabha Mahto*, Reena Mukherjee, Suman Biswas,
The present study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of aqueous and methanolic root extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Streptococcus agalactiae (St. agalactiae) the major pathogens isolated from the cases of clinical and sub clinical bovine mastitis. Phytochemical screening of the herbal extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, tannins, steroids and flavonoides. The antibacterial sensitivity test (ABST) of the aqueous extract and methanolic extract ranged between 10 mm to 22 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and E. coli at different concentrations. The methanolic extract was more effective than aqueous extract against Staphylococcus aureus (20 mm), Streptococcus agalactiae (22 mm) and E. coli (17 mm) at the concentration of 8 mg/disc. Minimum Inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by the tube dilution method. The MIC and MBC (Minimum bactericidal concentration) value of methanolic extract was 3.125 mg/ml for S. aureus, 1.56 mg/ml for St. agalactiae and 12.5 mg/ml. Whereas the aqueous extract having higher MIC and MBC values i.e. 6.25 mg/ml for S. aureus, 3.125 mg/ml for St. agalactiae and the result was negative for E. coli. The results of the present study showed that the methanolic root extract of G glabra at different concentrations depicted better antimicrobial activity compared to aqueous extract
159 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, ANALGESIC, ANTIINFLAMMATORY AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF NEW 7-AZAINDOLE DERIVATIVES, K.Meenakshi1*, N.Gopal1, M.Sarangapani2, T.Anusha1
In the present study, the new 1-Benzyl-7- azaindole-3-carbinol was synthesized from 1-benzyl 7-azaindole-3-aldehyde by reduction with sodium borohydride in ethanol. The formyl derivative was synthesized from 1-benzyl -7-azaindole by treating with phosphorous oxy chloride and dimethyl formamide. Benzylation of 7-azaindole produced 1-benzyl-7azaindole. Chemical structures of all the synthesized new compounds were characterized by Mass, 1HNMR, IR spectral analysis. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities.
160 HPLC ANALYSIS FOR METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS UNDER ELEVATED CO2, *S. Saravanan and S. Karthi
Catharanthus roseus, an annual perennial herb native to Madagascar, that were formerly included in the genus Vinca. It has gained interest from the pharmaceutical industry; the alkaloids vincristine and vinblastine from its sap have been shown to be an effective treatment for leukaemia and lymphoma. HPLC analytical methods for the screening of the major in dole alkaloids of C. roseus hairy roots and their iridoid precursors have been developed. A six month study was carried out in C. roseus to see the changes in different concentrations of CO2 with respect to vincristine and vinblastine. UV detector and L6200 Intel pumps were used for the study. The separation was achieved on C 18 column. The data of first month and the sixth month were compared. When compared to ambient, 600 ppm was less at first month and increased up to five fold at the end of sixth month. The vincristine was found to be decreased in the other chambers with 600 ppm, 900 ppm, and 600ppm+RH. The presence of vinblastine was nil in the ambient. In the first month, the vinblastine at all the concentrations except 600 ppm+ RH was present. Whereas at the end of the sixth month, it was found that vinblastine was present only in control chamber.
161 METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF RITONAVIR AND LOPINAVIR IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS BY RP-HPLC, Gorja Ashok*, Jahnavi Bandla
A simple, rapid, accurate and precise method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Ritonavir and Lopinavir in pharmaceutical dosage form. The method was based on RP-HPLC. Chromatographic separation was performed on Zorbax SB-C18 (150mm x 4.6mm, 3.5?m particle size) column using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of KH2PO4 buffer (pH 2.5 with dilute orthophosphoric acid): Acetonitrile (50:50%v/v) in an isocratic mode. The following system conditions were maintained throughout development and validation i.e., flow rate 1.2mL/min, column was maintained at room temperature and the detected by a UV-wave length at 260nm. The Ritonavir and Lopinavir were well resolved on the stationary phase and the retention times were 6.9 and 8.0minutes respectively. The method was validated; Ritonavir and Lopinavir were shown to be linear over a range of 0.5-1.5mg/mL and 2.0-6.0mg/mL respectively. The limit of quantification was 0.16mg/mL for Ritonavir and 0.53mg/mL for Lopinavir and the limit of detection was 0.05mg/mL for Ritonavir and 0.18mg/mL for Lopinavir. The Precision, Accuracy, Specificity, Ruggedness and Robustness were determined to validate the method.
162 PROCESS OPTIMIZATION FOR LIPASE PRODUCTION BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION, Winee Surabhi Lall a Rekha Sirohi *b and Veeru Prakash c
Microbial sources of lipase are cheaper, reliable and significant due to potential industrial applications. The aim of present study was to explore the production and optimization of lipase under solid state fermentation by psychrophilic bacterial strain Pseudomonas vancouverensis (JF508446.1) using cheaper sources of agro by-products i.e. linseed oil cake, rice bran oil cake, mustard oil cake, neem oil cake and their combinations as substrates. The results revealed that mustard oil cake is the best as lone source of substrate for lipase production but its combination with rice bran (1:1) resulted maximum activity (360 U/ml) at a time interval of 48 hrs. On addition of glucose and peptone to solid substrates, the production of lipase was found to be increased. Among different carbon sources supplemented, glucose (1% w/v) showed augmented lipase production (520 U/ml). Further, supplemented peptone (1% w/v) as the nitrogen source enhanced lipase production (480 U/ml). Partial purification of crude enzyme was done at different saturations of ammonium sulphate ranging from 30% - 60% and the maximum total activity and specific activity was obtained at 60% of saturation. Temperature of 15?C and a pH of 5.5 were observed most suitable for lipase activity under SSF.
163 SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF CRYSTAL VIOLET DYE REMOVAL BY SIDA RHOMBIFOLIA: KINETIC, EQUILIBRIUM, THERMODYNAMIC STUDIES, N.P.Krishnan1, M. Ilayaraja2, R.Karthik2, R. Sayee Kannan2*
The kinetics, adsorption isotherms, thermodynamics and spectroscopic analysis of the removal of the crystal violet dye by adsorption onto Sida Rhombifolia were studied. The surface area of Sida Rhombifolia activated carbon (SRAC) was found to be 18.14 m2/g. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted using dye solution and the effects of initial dye concentration and contact time, adsorbent dose and temperature were investigated. The Sida Rhombifolia adsorbent was charactrerized using FTIR, SEM with EDAX, BET and XRD. The equilibrium adsorption data fitted very well with the Langmuir , Temkin and D-R isotherm model. The kinetic process followed the pseudo second order kinetic model Positive ?Ho and negative ?Go were indicative of the endothermic and spontaneous nature respectively of Crystal violet removal by adsorption onto Sida Rhombifolia.
164 PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF MICROSPHERES BASED LONG-ACTING DEPOT INJECTION USING A NOVEL BIOMATERIAL AS A POLYMER, Apeksha Saraf*
The aim of this study was to develop depot formulation of risperidone by employing cholesterol as a rate-retarding carrier. Microspheres were prepared by emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Different formulation variables for solvent evaporation method, viz, effect of theoretical drug loading, concentration of surfactant, presence of gelatin in internal phase and presence of salt in external aqueous phase were optimized. The microspheres were characterized for their encapsulation effeiciency, particle size, surface morphology, drug release profile and drug release kinetics. The optimized formulation showed consistent drug release for upto 15 days time period.
165 PHARMACOGNOSTIC CHARACTERISTICS OF AN UNEXPLORED TRADITIONAL MEDICINE ARECA CATECHU.ROOT., Alby Alphons Baby * and Dr. Regi Raphael K
Areca catechu L. ( Arecaceae ) is commonly known as Betel palm or Betel nut tree. It is cultivated primarily for its kernel obtained from the fruit, which is chewing in different forms. Uses for areca nut other than chewing are negligible. Extensive studies on the medicinal properties and chemical constituents of Areca fruit especially the nut is there but that of root is scarce. Areca catechu root is using in the traditional medicines of Kerala against worm disturbances, skin irritations and in urinary tract disorders. In order to ensure the purity of the drug in its dried form pharmacognostic standardization of the plant has carried out in the present work. Microscopic, histochemical and physico- chemical characters of A.catechu root were noted down. Phytochemical screening results the presence of alkaloids, phenols, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, phlobatanins, steroids and quinones. All these pharmacognostic characters can use as diagnostic tools for the correct identification of the plant and which will prevent the adulterations.
166 PURIFICATION (CRYSTALLIZATION) OF BIOACTIVE INGREDIENT ANDGROGRAPHOLIDE FROM ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA, Dilip Jadhao* and Bhaskar Thorat
In the study, the purification of Andrographolide from the Andrographis Paniculata was carried out using different physical separation techniques such as extraction and crystallization followed by drying. The extraction of the andrographolide from the A. Paniculta was carried out using different solvents. The effect of andrographolide to solvent ratio on extraction efficiency was studied. It was found that the andrographolide to solvent ratio of 1:3.5 w/v gives higher percentage purity of andrographolide. The solubility study of andrographolide was studied in order to find out the best solvent for crytsallization. Subsequently, the extract which was obtained after extraction was treated with activated charcoal to get rid of the undesired impurity which may hinder the process of crystallization. Subsequent to extract clarification, extract was concentrated by evaporation. The process of cooling crystallization was effectively employed for further purification of andrographolide with the recovery of 95% andrographolide with high purity. The process of crystallization was studied in terms of supersaturation (more refined product). The andrographolide was confirmed by LCMS and Melting point. Scanning electron and inverted microscopy were applied to find out the morphology and the size of purified andrographolide. It was observed that andrographolide gives different size of cube shaped whitish crystals in the range to 30?m- 40 ?m.
167 MICROSPHERES OF GLYCOPYRRONIUM BROMIDE FOR SUSTAINED DRUG DELIVERY, Manju Pal *, Dr. Amrita Bajaj, Dr. Pramod Kadu
Glycopyrronium Bromide an anti-muscarinic drug used in the treatment of asthma and COPD, was formulated as microspheres by using ethylcellulose as carrier polymer. The drug loaded ethyl cellulose microspheres were prepared by optimized spray drying technology. The prepared microspheres were subjected to physico-chemical evaluation and in-vitro release studies. High percentage drug entrapment was obtained with increasing drug polymer ratio. The particle sizes of the prepared microspheres were determined by Motic microscopy and SEM analysis. The prepared microspheres exhibited good spherical geometry with smooth surface as evidenced by SEM. The in-vitro release studies on Glycopyrronium Bromide microspheres of 1:3 ratios showed better sustained effect over a period of 12 hours. They were proved suitable for sustained oral delivery of the anti-muscarinic drug. The microspheres were also incorporated in Dry Powder Inhaler formulations for prolonged pulmonary delivery.
168 PALLADIUM AND PLATINUM COMPLEXES OF 2-AMINO-N'-[(1E,2Z)-2-(HYDROXYIMINO)-1-PHENYLETHYLIDENE]-4,5,6,7-TETRAHYDRO-1-BENZOTHIOPHENE-3-CARBOHYDRAZIDE:SYNTHESIS, STRUCTURE, SPECTRAL PROPERTIES AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY, K. Aruna1, Mobashshera Tariq1, Sakina Bootwala2*, and Ganesh More 2
Complexes of Pd(II) and Pt(II) with an asymmetric hydrazones derivative were synthesized from 2-amino-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1-benzothiophene-3carbohydrazide and (2E)-2-(hydroxyimino)-1-phenylethanone and characterized by analytical analysis and physical-chemical methods.The micro analytical and physico-chemical data suggested the stiochiometry of the Pd(II) 1:2 and Pt(II) 1:1 (metal: ligand) complexes respectively and geometry of these complexes were square planer. These complexes were also screened for their antimicrobial properties against drug resistant extended spectrum ?-lactamase and Metallo-?-lactamase producers and it was found to be effective.
169 ENHANCEMENT OF SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION RATE OF EFAVIRENZ EMPLOYING ?CD , LUTROL, POLOXAMER AND GELUCIRE ALONE AND IN COMBINATION, V. Chaitanya1*, P. Narahari Narayan1, Sunil Kumar2 and K.P.R Chowdary2
Efavirenz, a widely prescribed anti-retroviral drug belongs to class-II under BCS and exhibit low and variable oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility. As such it needs enhancement in the solubility and dissolution rate in its formulation development to derive its maximum therapeutic efficacy. The objective of the present study is enhancement of solubility and dissolution rate of efavirenz employing ?CD and three surfactants namely (i) Lutrol 400, (ii) Poloxamer 188 and (iii) Gelucire 44/12 alone and in combination. The individual and combined effects of ?CD and surfactant in enhancing the solubility and dissolution rate of efavirenz in each case were evaluated in a series of 22-factorial studies. A comparative evaluation of the effects of ?CD and the three surfactants alone and in combination in enhancing the solubility and dissolution rate of efavirenz was made. Among the ?CD and three surfactants alone, Gelucire 44/12 gave highest enhancement in aqueous solubility of efavirenz (3.57 fold). The order of increasing solubility observed with ?CD and various surfactants alone was Gelucire > Poloamer > ?CD > Lutrol. In the case of ?CD- surfactant combinations, ?CD-Gelucire gave 4.14 fold, ?CD- Poloxamer gave 3.29 fold and ?CD- Lutrol gave 0.63 fold increase in the aqueous solubility of efavirenz. Among the ?CD and the three surfactants alone, Lutrol gave highest enhancement in the dissolution rate of efavirenz. The order of increasing dissolution rate observed with ?CD and various surfactants was Lutrol > ?CD > Gelucire > Poloxamer. In the case of ?CD- surfactant complexes, ?CD- Lutrol gave 6.91 fold, ?CD-Gelucire gave 3.05 fold and ?CD- Poloxamer gave 2.68 fold increase in the dissolution rate of efavirenz. The dissolution efficiency (DE20) was also higher in case of ?CD- surfactant complexes when compared to efavirenz pure drug. ANOVA indicated that the individual and combined effects of ?CD and surfactant in enhancing the solubility and dissolution rate of efavirenz were highly significant (P < 0.01) in each case. Overall, surfactants Gelucire and Poloamer alone and ?CD in combination with Lutrol,Gelucire and Poloxamer are recommended to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of efavirenz, a p.oorly soluble BCS class II drug.
170 THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL AND PHYTOPHARMACOLOGY OF TERMINALIA BELLERICA, Renu Kadian1 *, Milind Parle 2, Monu Yadav2
World health organization (WHO) has advocated the evaluation of therapeutic potential of plants for diseases where we lack safe allopathic drugs. Terminalia bellerica also referred to as, Beleric Myrobalan belonging to family Combretaceae is a large deciduous tree with a thick brownish gray bark with shallow longitudinal fissures, attaining a height of between 20and 30 meters. It is found growing wild troughout the Indian subcontinent, srilanka, and South East Asia, upto 1200 meters in elevation, in a wide variety of ecologies. The chemical constituents isolated from various parts of the plant include Alkaloid, coumarin, flavones, steroids, tannins, glycosides, terpenoid, saponin.Terminalia bellerica has been shown to possess multifarious medicinal properties such analgesic activity, antibiofilm activity, anticancer activity, antidepressant activity, antidiabetic activity, antidiarrhoeal activity, anti-ulcer activity, immunomodulatory activity, anti-spasmodic and bronchodialatory activity, antifertility activity, antihypertensive activity, antifungal, antimicrobial activity, anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant activity. The present review article provides up-to-date information on the therapeutic potential of Terminalia bellerica. We have tabulated the chemical constituents of Terminalia bellerica. This review article will help the scientists working in the area of traditional medicines and medicinal food in their research.
171 ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF THALICTRUM FOLIOLOSUM RHIZOME ON YEAST INDUCED PYREXIA IN ALBINO RATS, CL. Ringmichon* and Bindu Gopalkrishnan
In present investigation, the rhizome of Thalictrum foliolosum DC. of family Ranunculaceae is tested for antipyretic activity. The decoction of the said rhizome is been used by the Naga tribe in curing fever since ancient times. To prove its claim scientifically the present study was done. The effect of aqueous extracts of rhizome was tested on yeast induced pyrexia in albino rats. Prior to the study, acute oral toxicity testing of drug was performed as per OECD guidelines. The drug dosage of 300, 400, & 500 mg/Kg body weight was tried on the fever induced rats. It was compared with the standard drug Paracetamol (150 mg/Kg body wt) fed rats. The aqueous extract of rhizome showed significant antipyretic activity after 2 hours in the dosage of 300 & 400mg/Kg body wt while the dosage 500mg/Kg body wt was effective within one hour compared to the standard paracetamol. Thus, preclinically crude drug of Thalictrum foliolosum was proved to be effective antipyretic agent as claimed by the Nagas.
172 PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ROOT, STEM AND LEAF EXTRACTS IN RUBIA CORDIFOLIA L. AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT, Sreenu Pendli, Samatha Talari, Gandhi Nemali and Seetaram Naik Azmeera*
Rubia cordifolia L., (Rubiaceae) commonly known as Indian Madder is an important medicinal plant used in Indian traditional medicine for curing various diseases. The present study was carried out to analyze the biologically active compounds present in Rubia cordifolia root, stem and leaf of various solvent extracts i.e. methanol, acetone, chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous. The Phytochemical screening revealed that they were positive for anthraquinones, glycosides, flavonoids, steroids, phenols and saponins and were negative for alkaloids, tannins and quinones of all solvent extractions. The presence of these biologically active Compounds in R.cordifolia, a valuable medicinal plant support that this plant is being used as medicine for curing various diseases in traditional medicinal systems and can also be employed in the treatment of various ailments in modern medicine too.
173 LIQUISOLID TECHNOLOGY FOR ENHANCING THE DISSOLUTION PROFILE OF IRBESARTAN BY USING DIFFERENT NON VOLATILE SOLVENTS AND CARRIER MATERIALS, Beedha Saraswathi**, Meesa.Rajendar*
Irbesartan is a angiotensin II receptor antagonist, used for the treatment of hypertension. It is insoluble in water and high penetration capacity. Presently, liquisolid compact technique is found to be used extensively as one of the successful tool to enhance the solubility and dissolution of various poorly soluble drugs. The principle focus of this study is to formulate liquisolid compacts of Irbesartan to enhance its dissolution rate. Here, liquisolid compacts are fabricated using different non-volatile solvents (PG and Polysorbate-80) and converting them into acceptably flowing and compressible powders by using different carrier and coating materials (MCC, Starch 1500, Anhydrous lactose, colloidal silicon dioxide) for efficient compact tablet production. The prepared blends are subjected to the pre-formulation studies or micrometric properties such as angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, hausers ratio and carrs index and the compressed liquisolid compacts are evaluated for the physical parameters such as uniformity of weight, hardness, thickness, friability, disintegration, content uniformity and in-vitro dissolution. The SEM, FTIR, X-RD and DSC analysis are performed to confirm the compatibility of the drug with the excipients.
174 IN VITRO: PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF VITEX NEGUNDO. LINN OF SYNTHESIZED SILVER NANOPARTICLES, Amudha Murugan and Krishna kumari Shanmugasundaram *
The environmental friendly synthesis of nanoparticles process is a revolutionary step in the field of nanotechnology. In this study, the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out using Vitex negundo leaf extract as reducing agent. UVvisible spectroscopy was used for quantification of silver nanoparticle synthesis. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM),Transmission electron microscope (TEM), Energy dispersive x - ray analysis (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Phytochemicals are screened in order to predict the secondary metabolites in the extract. The in vitro antioxidant properties of the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles have been evaluated and these nanoparticles were found to have higher antioxidant capacity and thus it can be used as potential radical scavenger against deleterious damages caused by the free radicals.
175 SYNTHESIS AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STUDIES ON (Z)-2-((6-BROMO-2-HYDROXYQUINOLIN-3-YL) METHYLENEAMINO)-5-IODOBENZOIC ACID AND THEIR METAL (II) COMPLEXES, K. Siddappa* and Mallikarjun Kote
The Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Mn(II) and Fe(III) complexes of Schiff base (Z)-2-((6-bromo-2-hydroxyquinolin-3-yl)methyleneamino)-5-iodobenzoic acid has been synthesized and characterized by various spectral techniques. The complexes were prepared by reacting the ligand and metal chloride of Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Mn(II) and Fe(III) in ethanol to get a series of mononuclear complexes. The complexes were characterized by CHN analysis, conductivity measurements, magnetic susceptibility, IR, 1H NMR, ESR, UV-Vis and X-ray powder diffraction studies. By these spectral studies it is found that Cu (II), Co (II), Ni (II), Mn(II) and Fe(III) complexes have exhibited octahedral geometry and Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II) complexes have exhibited tetrahedral geometry. The ligand and its metal complexes have been screened for their antimicrobial activities. The prepared ligand shows low activity and its metal complexes shows moderate to good activity.
176 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF WOOD AND LEAVES OF HIBISCUS TILIACEUS LINN., Vijay Tambe1*, Rajendra Bhambar2
Various helminthes have been common cause of concern and leads many problems to human beings and other animals. From ancient time different plants are known to possess significant anthelmintic activity against these invasive types of worms and can be effectively used in treatment of worm infections. The prime objective of the study was to investigate different types of phytoconstituents present and anthelmintic activity of Hibiscus tiliaceus wood and leaves. Extraction was carried out by continuous hot percolation method in soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol as solvents for wood powder and petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol as solvents for leaves powder respectively. The extractive values were reported. All the extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening using standards methods for detection of type of phytoconstituents present in them. In-vitro anthelmintic activity was carried out at three different concentrations using Pheretima posthuma as test organism, the parameters like the time of paralysis and the time of death were determined. All the extracts showed significant anthelmintic activity in the dose dependent manner compared to standard drug albendazole. Amongst the extracts petroleum ether extract of wood and ethyl acetate extract of leaves showed good activity. This might due to the presence of secondary metabolites like tannins, saponins and alkaloids in the plant parts which may be responsible for the activity.
177 NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF COASTAL, WILD LEAFY VEGETABLES FROM RATNAGIRI DISTRICT OF MAHARASHTRA, Lubdha Kagale* and Anjali Sabale
Green leafy vegetable consumption has been associated with a decreased risk of persistent metabolic diseases. In the present work nutritional potential, secondary metabolites and antioxidant capacity of four leafy vegetables from Ratnagiri district were assessed and compared. The moisture content in the vegetables ranged from 87.02-91.42%. Crude fiber and protein content were high in Clerodendrum serratum (17.2% and 14.54% respectively).Celosia argentea showed the highest percentage of ash (13.7%). Lipid content ranged between 1.6-2.73%, while carbohydrates were highest in Amorphophallus paeoniifolius. Among the various macronutrients estimated in these wild leafy vegetables calcium was present in the highest quantity (3931mg/100g) followed by sodium (660mg/100g) and magnesium (468mg/100g). Micronutrients such as zinc, copper, iron, cobalt were present in optimum concentration in these vegetables. The total antioxidant capacity ranged from 41.14-169.81mg/g being highest in the ethanolic extract of Clerodendrum serratum. These vegetables were found nutritionally adequate and also possessed a significant antioxidant potential.
178 AMELIORATION OF RADIATION MEDIATED BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS IN KIDNEYS OF MICE BY TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA ROOT EXTRACT, Priyanka Sharma*, Jyoti Parmar, Priyanka Sharma, Preeti Verma, P.K.Goyal
The present study was carried out to investigate the radiation induced biochemical alterations in kidney of mice and their possible amelioration by radioprotective effect of Tinospora cordifolia root extract (TCE). For this purpose, adult male Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups. Group I (Sham irradiated), Group II (TCE administratered), Group III (5 Gy Irradiated control) and IV (Irradiated experimental). Animals from all the above groups were autopsied after 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 3rd day, 7th day, 15th day and 30th day of treatment. The kidney was taken out and different biochemical parameters such as total proteins, cholesterol, glycogen, lipid per oxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH) and calatase activity were estimated. Irradiation resulted in a significant decrease in protein, cholesterol, GSH and catalase but an increase in glycogen and lipid per oxidation (LPO) as compared to normal. Conversely, TCE pretreatment reduced the radiation- induced alterations in all such parameters and the recovery was faster as compared to irradiated control. TCE pretreatment resulted in a significant increase in the proteins, cholesterol, GSH and catalase; whereas, glycogen and LPO showed a significant decrease from the respective irradiated control group at the all the autopsy intervals. Hence, the results from the present study suggest that TCE pretreatment provides protection against radiation- induced biochemical dysfunction in kidney.
179 SPAWN PRODUCTION AND CULTIVATION STRATEGIES FOR PLEUROTUS EOUS (PINK OYSTER MUSHROOM), Kathiravan Subramanian, *Krishnakumari Shanmugasundaram and Nagalakshmi Muthu.
The present study was conducted to standardize the spawn production and cultivation technology of pink oyster mushroom, Pleurotus eous. The mushroom culture procured was grown in Potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and the culture was preserved in PDA slants. The slant mushroom culture was used for the production of mushroom spawn. White sorghum seeds were used as a substrate to produce mushroom spawn. The quality spawn produced after complete mycelium spreading was used for the cultivation of mushroom in the mushroom cultivation chamber. The various steps involved in the cultivation process was repeated and standardized for the optimum production of fruiting bodies with paddy straw as the substrate. Three types of spawn dispersal methods viz., alternate layer spawning, top layer spawning and substrate mixed spawning in mushroom beds were followed. The mushroom beds were monitored for their growth and fruiting bodies were harvested. The results of the study showed that alternate layer spawning method gave enhanced bioefficiency for pink oyster mushroom production.
180 DESIGN AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING FILM CONTAINING AMLODIPNE BESYLATE, Ganesh.R.Kulkarni*, Dr.Moreshwar.P.Patil
The main approach for the formulation of Mouth dissolving films (MDF) of Amlodipine besylate is to enhance the convenience and compliance of elderly and paediatric patients for better therapeutic efficacy. Mouth dissolving film of Amlodipine besylate was formulated by solvent casting method using HPMC E15 as film forming polymer. Propylene glycol was used as plasticizer along with Sodium starch glycolate, Mannitol as superdisintegrant and sweetening agent respectively. Purified water and methanol was taken as solvent. The prepared MDFs batches were evaluated for in vitro dissolution characteristics, in vitro disintegration time and their physicomechanical properties. The compatibility between amlodipine besylate and excipients was confirmed by IR study. All the prepared MDFs showed good mechanical properties like visual appearance, tensile strength, folding endurance, disintegration time, thickness of film, weight of film, and pH of film. Formulation F6 containing 150 mg of HPMC E 15 and 0.2 ml of propylene glycol (PG) showed the highest cumulative % drug release of 94.22% at the end of 10 minutes along with other superior film characteristics.
181 DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING BIO- POLYMERIC ALGINATE BEADS OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM - OBTAINED FROM Lens culinaris., Vikas Bhatt*, Rajni Karakoti, Arun Kumar Singh
The objective of this study was to isolate, characterize the biopolymer obtained from lentil (lens -culinaris) belonging to the family fabaceae and their use in development of dosages form. The biomaterial was isolated from lentil by non solvent addition method and characterized their physicochemical and phytochemical properties. Diclofenac sodium is used as model drug for the development of biopolymeric -alginate bead. Five Batches (F1-F5) of biopolymeric-alginate bead of Diclofenac Sodium were prepared from sodium alginate solution using lentil (a novel biopolymer) by using ionic gelation method. The different concentration of sodium alginate, biopolymer and cross linking agent CaCl2 were used. Formulated beads were evaluated for its entrapment efficiency, drug loading efficiency, buoyancy, size & shape and invitro release. Drug entrapment efficiency was found better by using optimized concentration of CaCl2 and biopolymer. Results of the present study indicates that formation of completely aqueous enviouroment avoiding the use of organic solvents to minimize the curing time of beads leaded to enhanced drug entrapment efficiency and the biopolymer serves as a better alternative excipient for the development of dosages and their prospective results was found to be with in the limit of Pharmacopoeial standard.
182 SYNTHESIS, IR, EPR, UV-VISIBLE CHARACTERIZATION AND IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MACROCYCLIC SCHIFFS BASE AND ITS METAL COMPLEXES OF Mn(II) AND Co(II), Jugmendra Singh1, *Pallavi Jain2*, Mukesh Tyagi1,
Novel macrocyclic Schiffs base ligand and its transition metal complexes of Mn(II), and Co(II) have been synthesized and characterized. Mn(II) and Co(II) metal complexes of chelating macrocyclic Schiffs base ligand have been synthesized using acetates and chlorides of the metals. All metal complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance, magnetic moment measurements and spectral (UV-Vis, IR, and ESR) studies. The macrocyclic ligand acted as tetradentate ligand and coordinate with metal ions through nitrogen and oxygen atoms. The low molar conductance values in DMF indicated that the metal complexes were non-electrolyte in nature. The magnetic moments and electronic spectral data suggested octahedral geometry for the Mn(II) and Co(II) complexes. The ligand and metal chelates were screened in-vitro for antibacterial and antifungal activity. Well diffusion method was used for antibacterial and antifungal activity.
183 MEDIA STANDARDIZATION FOR CURCUMIN ENHANCEMENT IN CURCUMA LONGA TISSUE CULTURE AND PROTEIN PROFILE OF TREATED SAMPLES, Pratibha Chaturvedi1*, Sandeepan Mukherjee2, Shraddha Mehta2, Pialy Chatterjee and Abhay Chowdhary3
Plant cell culture system has served as an alternative to enhance the production of high value phyto-pharmaceuticals. In the described study, the immobilized culture and static culture of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae) were used to maximize the production of the bioactive compound Curcumin. It was observed that Curcumin content in vitro studies (static as well as immobilize cultures) were enhanced in one week old cultures fed with 5mg/100ml of media (Static 8.71%; immobilize 2.03%). Statistically significant (seven fold) enhancement in Curcumin content was obtained in one week old static culture, which was maintained on Zenk production media incorporated with cinnamic acid (Control 1.57% and induced 8.717%). Quantitative estimation was done using HPTLC analysis with standard Curcumin. To evaluate the effect of treatment on total protein in Curcumin biosynthesis, we have examined Curcumin content as well as the protein profile of treated samples of Curcuma longa static culture. All the treated samples were analysed using SDS-PAGE for their proteomic profiles. A 23,420 Da protein was prominently expressed in all samples which may be a glycine rich protein (works on defence mechanism). Treated samples exhibited decreased expression of the protein as compared to control. This may be attributed to the formation of Reactive Oxygen species (ROS) in culture condition due to high concentration of sucrose (5%) in the Curcuma longa culture media that is known to induce oxidative stress and subsequent increase in Curcumin production. Further investigation is required to understand the actual protein involvement in
184 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A REVERSED-PHASE HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF METFORMIN AND GLICLAZIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORMS, 1Gandla. Kumara Swamy*, 2N. Ravindra, 2Ch.Anjali.
A simple, accurate, rapid and precise isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of Metformin and Gliclazide in tablets. The chromatographic separation was carried out on an Cosmosil ODS analytical column (2504.6 mm; 5?m) with a mixture of Methanol: Hplc grade water pH 6 adjusted with Orthophosphoric acid(70:30, v/v) as mobile phase; at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. UV detection was performed at 235 nm. The retention times were 2.50 and 6.02 min. for Metformin and Gliclazide, respectively. Calibration plots were linear (r2>0.998) over the concentration range 5-30?g/ml for Metformin and 1-6?g/ml Gliclazide. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, linearity, and sensitivity. The proposed method was successfully used for quantitative analysis of tablets. No interference from any component of pharmaceutical dosage form was observed. Validation studies revealed that method is specific, rapid, reliable, and reproducible. The high recovery and low relative standard deviation confirm the suitability of the method for routine determination of Metformin and Gliclazide in bulk drug and tablets dosage form.
185 A NOVAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF IMIPENEM IN BULK AND INJECTION FORMULATIONS BY SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND RP-HPLC METHODS, Dr. K. Raghu Babu1, N. Aruna Kumari*, Dr.A.Vasundhara2
A simple and cost effective spectrophotometric method was described for the determination of Imipenem in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on the formation of pink colored chromogen when the drug reacts with N-Bromo Succinamide(NBS) reagent and Celestin Blue(CB) in acidic medium. The colored species has an absorption maximum at 525 nm for Imipenem and obeys beers law in the concentration range 0.008 0.048 ?g/mL of Imipenem. The apparent molar absorptivity was 53x10-3 and sandells sensitivity was 7x10-3. The slope was 1.805 0.02774 and intercept of the equation of the regression line are 0.02964 0.02001. The optimum experimental parameters for the reaction have been studied and the validity of the described procedure was assessed. Statistical analysis of the results has been carried out revealing high accuracy and good precision. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Imipenem in pharmaceutical formulations. The RP-HPLC method gave accurate and precise results in the concentration range of 10.08 to 100.80 ?g/mL. The mobile phase composition consists of (60:40 v/v) of Methanol and milli-Q water containing 0,1 % orthophosphoric acid at the flow rate of 0.6 ml/min. The retention times of the drug are 3.18 0.1 minutes. The column is Agilent Polaris 150 X 4.6mm, C18 column with the particle size of 5?m. A rapid sensitive and specific method for the determination of Imipenem in the pharmaceutical formulations has been developed.
186 COD REDUCTION OF WASTE WATER STREAMS OF ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENT - IBUPROFEN BY ADVANCED OXIDATION-FENTON PROCESS BASED ON H2O2/FE+2 SALT, Shaikh Shahid and *Sayyed Hussain
Active Pharmaceutical Intermediates in waste waters is emerging contaminants in the aquatic environment because of their adverse effect on aquatic life and Environment. The API have high COD value Ibuprofen and low BOD3 and hence difficult to treat biologically. In this study, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) utilizing the H2O2/Fe+2, Fenton, reactions were investigated in lab-scale experiments for the degradation of Ibuprofen containing waste water streams. The experimental results showed that the Fenton process using H2O2/Fe+2 was the most effective treatment process. With Fenton processes, COD Reduction of wastewater can be achieved successfully. It is suggested that Fenton processes are viable techniques for the degradation of from the Waste water stream with relatively low toxicity of the by-products in the effluent which can be easily biodegradable in the activated sludge process, and other less degraded streams with high total dissolved solids can be taken to multiple effect evaporator or Reverse osmosis. In addition, study the degradation of Ibuprofen by advanced oxidation Fenton process under optimum conditions. The Fenton process with H2O2/Fe+2 is considered a suitable pretreatment method to degrade the Active pharmaceutical molecules and improve the biodegrability of the waste water.
187 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A SIMULTANEOUS HPLC METHOD FOR QUANTIFICATION OF ATENOLOL AND AMLODIPINE BESYLATE IN TABLETS, Rashid R. Munjewar1, Sayyed Hussain2
A Reverse phase method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of Atenolol and Amlodipine Besylate in Tablets. The Quantification was carried out using RP stainless steel column ODS C18 250 x 4.6 x 5 ? L1 packing in Isocratic mode with mobile phase containing 0.03 M potassium buffer: Acetonitrile in the ratio of 50:50 Adjust pH3.5 with ortho-phosphoric acid. Degas this solution before use. Flow rate 1.0 ml/minute and the detection wavelength was set at 237 nm and the linearity was found to be in the range of 16-22 ?g/ml for Atenolol and 8 to 12 ?g/ml for Amlodipine Besylate. The proposed method was found to be simple, precise, accurate, reproducible for the Estimation of Atenolol and Amlodipine Besylate .
188 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF TRIFLUOPERAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND TRIHEXYPHENIDYL HYDROCHLORIDE IN A SOLID ORAL DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC, *Sree Vidya Parvataneni1, Pathuri Jnana Nagarjuna2
A simple reverse phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous determination of Trifluoperazine hydrochloride and Trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride in combination. The separation was carried out using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile : 0.02 M sodium dihydrogen orthophosphate dihydrate (60:40), pH adjusted to 4.5 with orthophosphoric acid. The column used was Supelco 516 C-18, 25 cm 4.6 mm i.d., with flow rate of 1 ml / min using PDA detection at 210 nm. The described method was linear over a concentration range of 32-96 ?g/ml and 4-12 ?g/ml for the assay of Trifluoperazine hydrochloride and Trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride respectively. The retention times of Trifluoperazine hydrochloride and Trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride were found to be 5.4 and 3.5 mins respectively. Results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) for Trifluoperazine hydrochloride and Trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride were found to be 0.0015 ?g/ml and 0.0010 ?g/ml, 0.0045and 0.0032?g/ml respectively. The results of the study showed that the proposed RP-HPLC method is simple, rapid, precise and accurate, which is useful for the routine determination of Trifluoperazine hydrochloride and Trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride bulk drug and in its pharmaceutical dosage form.
189 A VALIDATED LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF SULFADOXINE AND PYRIMETHAMINE IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS, M. Kusuma Kumari2, Jyothi K Kasthuri1, B. Hari babu*1, P.V.V. Satyanarayana1
An accurate, simple and precise RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of Sulfadoxine and Pyrimethamine in pharmaceutical formulations was developed and validated. Chromatographic separation of two drugs was achieved on a Kromasil C18, (250x4.6nm, 5?m) column by using the mobile phase consisted of methanol, acetonitrile and 0.1% ortho phosphoric acid in the ratio 10:50:40(v/v) at a flow rate of 1mL/min and the wavelength of detection was at 223 nm. The retention time for Sulfadoxine and Pyrimethamine were found to be 4.67 and 6.74 min respectively. The linearity of the developed method was tested over a concentration range of 50-350 ?g/mL for Sulfadoxine and 2-16 ?g/mL for Pyrimethamine and the correlation coefficient (r2) of regression for both the drugs was 0.999 which is almost equal to 1. The limit of quantification was 16?g/mL for Sulfadoxine and 0.8?g/mL for Pyrimethamine and the limit of detection was 5?g/mL for Sulfadoxine and 0.25?g/mL for Pyrimethamine. The mean percentage recoveries were 99.15% for Sulfadoxine and 99.3% for Pyrimethamine respectively.
190 METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TELMISARTAN AND AMLODIPINE BESYLATE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC, *Pathuri Jnana Nagarjuna1, Sree Vidya Parvataneni2
A simple reverse phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed and subsequently validated for simultaneous determination of Telmisartan and Amlodipine besylate in combination. The separation was carried out using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile: water: triethyelamine (68:31.8:0.2 v/v) with pH 4 adjust by using ortho-phosphoric acid. The column used was C-18 column (Inertsil ODS-3 250*4.6 mm ) with flow rate of 1 ml / min using PDA detection at 240 nm. The described method was linear over a concentration range of 4-60 ?g/ml and 10-150 ?g/ml for the assay of Amlodipine and Telmisartan respectively. The retention times of Amlodipine and Telmisartan were found to be 2.3 and 2.7 mins respectively. Results of analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) for Amlodipine and Telmisartan were found to be 0.0046 ?g/ml and 0.0018 ?g/ml, 0.014 and 0.0056 ?g/ml respectively. The results of the study showed that the proposed RP-HPLC method is simple, rapid, precise and accurate, which is useful for the routine determination of Amlodipine and Telmisartan bulk drug and in its pharmaceutical dosage form.
191 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BI LAYER FLOATING TABLETS OF AMLODIPINE BESYLATE AND METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE, Meghana. S *, S.Srilatha
The main aim of present study is to formulate and evaluate bilayer tablets of Metformin Hydrochloride and Amlodipine Besylate as fixed dose combination tablets for effective treatment of type II diabetes mellitus and for hypertension. Preformulation studies including drug excipient compatibility were conducted for both drugs. Different formulations of sustained release, floating Metformin Hcl tablets were prepared by using hydrophilic polymers like HPMC K4m etc., were evaluated. Amlodipine immediate release formulations were prepared using crosspovidone, croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate as superdisintegrants and were evaluated. Based on the in vitro dissolution data F3 and F6 were selected as the best formulations from Metformin and Amlodipine formulations respectively. From the bilayer tablet Amlodipine layer disintegrated in 60 sec, Metformin layer started floating after 5 min and gave total floating time 18-24 hrs with good swelling index, good post compression parameters. In vitro dissolution study of bilayer tablet was done in USP type II along with UV spectrophotometer gave cumulative % drug release of Amlodipine as 98.75% at 60 min and 99.32 % of Metformin at 12 hrs. From the study it was found that, HPMC K4m shows good sustained release for 12 hrs. Among the disintegrants used sodium carboxy methyl cellulose showed good disintegration of Amlodipine layer.
192 FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PROMETHAZINE FILMS USING BUCCAL ROUTE FOR DELIVERY, Udichi Kataria*1, Chandra Prakash Jain
Buccal delivery route has been extensively explored in the last decade for improving the bioavailability of the drugs undergoing significant hepatic first pass metabolism. Promethazine hydrochloride (PHZ) being one of such drug with low bioavailability and extensive hepatic metabolism was used for the present study. Controlled release buccal films containing PHZ were designed using carbopol and sodium alginate as formulation variables (factors) for optimizing bioadhesion and permeability coefficient. Bioadhesive strength tended to vary quite linearly in increasing order of Carbopol. Permeation of PZH was calculated ex vivo using porcine buccal membrane. The patches were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, surface pH, moisture absorption, Invitro residence time, mechanical properties, in-vitro release, ex vivo permeation studies and drug content uniformity. The experimental findings were found to be satisfactory and can be used as base for further studies.
193 EXTRACTION OF ACETYLCHOLINE ESTERASE INHIBITORS FROM JACARANDA ACUTIFOLIA AND SCREENING OF ITS ACTIVITY ON ZEBRAFISH BRAIN., Shreyas Meda1, Praveen A1, Suvratha J1, Anmol Kulkarni1, Guruprasad R2*
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an enzyme involved in the breakdown of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine into acetic acid and choline. Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase is needed for deceleration of neurodegeneration in Alzheimers, Parkinsons and other neurodegenerative diseases. Plants are known to contain Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. The methanolic extracts from leaves of Jacaranda acutifoliawere checked for Acetylcholinesterase inhibition on the acetylcholinesterase from brain homogenate of Danio rerio. We checked the activity of the enzyme in in-vitro and in-vivo conditions. In our investigations the extract from the plant showed a reduction in the AChE activity.Under in-vitro conditions and in-vivo conditions the activity of AChE dropped by 15.07% and 38.93% respectively.
194 DRUG UTILIZATION PATTERN OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN SOUTH INDIA, Juno J. Joel1*, Nittu Daniel1, Raghav Sharma2, Shastry C.S1
The study was carried out with the aim to understand the drug utilization pattern of antihypertensive drugs in the medicine wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Total of 210 patients were included in the study, during the period of six months. The collected data include patients informations on demography, drug therapy and length of hospital stay. Antihypertensive drug utilization was measured in terms of DDD/100 bed days. 118 males and 92 females were identified in the study. Calcium channel blockers were the most commonly prescribed drug class. Over all antihypertensive utilization was found to be 59.86 DDD/100 bed-days. Amlodipine was the most consumed drug in the wards (33 DDD/100 bed-days). Mean SD of patients age and length of hospital stay were 60.7 11.72 and 7.91 5.4 respectively.
195 COMPARISON OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY WITH DIFFERENT SOLVENTS IN TWO MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT SPS. OF CLERODENDRUM, Jasvinder Kaur Chahal1* and Renu Sarin2
Plants are valuable source of natural products such as bioactive compounds and antioxidants which are very beneficial for human health conditions in todays senario. In the present study two traditionally important plants of spp. Clerodendrum (C. inerme and C. phlomidis) were used for the investigation of antioxidant activity. Clerodendrum is widely distributed plant in different regions of Asia. The dry powder was extracted with three different solvents (Ethanol, Ethyl acetate and Water). The extract was screened for its potential of antioxidant activity using DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity. The results indicate that the scavenging activity of C. inerme leaf is higher then C. phlomidis leaf. Both solvents viz. Ethyl acetate and Ethanol showed good activity for radical scavenging potential and might be used as a natural source of potent antioxidant agents.
196 FIVE YEARS TREND ANALYSIS OF PATIENTS ADMITTED TO McGANN HOSPITAL IN SHIMOGA DISTRICT, KARNATAKA: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY, Raghu S. Holalkere and Rajeshwara N. Achur*
Alcoholism is one of the major problems hindering the growth of many developing countries including India. Alcohol consumption has been steadily increasing in India since 1980s and has been identified as the third largest market for alcoholic beverages. This increased rate of alcohol consumption has adverse effects on society, economy, youth, health, safety and absenteeism. In this retrospective study over a period of five years (2008- 2012), the data of patients at a district hospital in Shimoga, Karnataka, India, have been analyzed keeping in view of alcoholic patients. The results of this study indicate that there has been a steady increase in the percentage of alcoholic inpatients as well as outpatients over the years. Further, during the study period about 2.6% of total outpatients and 1.4% of total inpatients recorded at this hospital were due to alcohol related disorders. Among these alcoholics, about 70% patients suffer from liver cirrhosis or liver damage.
197 OPTIMIZATION OF IRBESARTAN TABLET FORMULATION BY 23 FACTORIAL DESIGN, K. P. R. Chowdary*, K. Ravi Shankar and V. V. L. S. P. Sowjanya.
Irbesartan, a widely prescribed anti hypertensive drug belongs to class II under BCS classification and exhibit low and variable oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility. It needs enhancement in the dissolution rate in its formulation development. Complexation with ?-cyclodextrin (?CD) and use of Primojel and PVP K 30 are tried for enhancing the dissolution rate of irbesartan in its formulation development. The objective of the present study is optimization of irbesartan tablet formulation employing Primojel, ?CD and PVP K 30 by 23 Factorial design. Formulation of irbesartan tablets with NLT 85% dissolution in 15 min employing Primojel, ?CD and PVP K 30 was optimized by 23 Factorial design.Eight irbesartan tablet formulations were prepared using selected combinations of the three Factors as per 23 Factorial design. Irbesartan tablets were prepared by direct compression method and were evaluated for drug content, hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution rate characteristics. The dissolution rate (K1) values were analysed as per ANOVA of 23 Factorial design to find the significance of the individual and combined effects of the three Factors (?CD, Primojel and PVP K 30) involved on the dissolution rate of irbesartan tablets formulated. The individual and combined effects of ?CD , Primojel and PVP K 30 except PFbc (combined effect of ?CD and PVP K 30) on the dissolution rate (K1) of irbesartan tablets are highly significant (P PFa>PFab>PFabc> PFbc> PFb> PF1> PFc.. The polynomial equation describing the relationship between the response i.e. percent drug dissolved in 15min (Y) and the levels of Primojel (X1) ,?CD (X2) and PVP K 30 (X3 ) based on the observed results is Y = 66.69+25.99 (X1) + 2.78(X2) - 9.86 (X1 X2 ) -10.89 (X3) +9.27 (X1 X3) -1.65 (X2 X3) -0.216 (X1 X2 X3).Based on the above polynomial equation, the optimized irbesartan tablet formulation with NLT 85% dissolution in 15 min could be formulated employing Primojel at 27.24% of drug content , ?CD at 1:4 ratio of drug:?cd and PVP K 30 at 1% of drug content.The optimized irbesartan tablet formulation gave 88.16 % dissolution in 15 min fulfilling the target dissolution set. The dissolution profile of the optimized Irbesartan tablet formulation was similar to that of commercial brand (IROVEL-150).Hence formulation of irbesartan tablets with NLT 85% dissolution in 15 min could be optimized by 23 Factorial design.
198 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BILAYERED FLOATING TABLETS CONTAINING METFORMIN SR AND PIOGLITAZONE IR, Sailaja.Gunnam*1,Madhuri.tekurala1, K.Jithesh1,S.Sabitha1
The present work focuses on Formulation and Evaluation of bilayered floating tablets containing Metformin for sustained release and Pioglitazone for immediate release. Sustained release layer was prepared by wet granulation method using HPMC K4M, HPMC E50 as release retarding polymers. Immediate release layer was prepared by direct compression method using sodium starch glycolate as super disintegrant. Bilayered floating tablets were evaluated for Hardness, Friability, Weight variation, Drug content,Floating properties, Water absorption ratio, Wetting time, In- vitro release studiesand the values were found to be satisfactory. All the tablets showed goodfloating lag time(68-130sec).In vitro release studies were carried out in 0.1N HCl using USP apparatus ??. The release kinetics of Metformin was evaluated using the regression coefficient analysis. Among all the formulations FF4 was the best formulation showed slow sustained release(98.73%) upto 12hrs. Non-Fickian diffusion was the drug release mechanism and it is fallowing zero orderkinetics. FT-IR studies suggesting that there is compatibility between the drug and excipients.
199 APOPTOTIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA ROOT BARK ON HUMAN MYELOID LEUKEMIA CELLS VIA ACTIVATION OF CASPASE CASCADE, Subhadeep Roy1, Nilanjana Deb1, Santanu Basu2, Shila Elizabeth Besra1*
Identification of cytotoxic compounds that induce apoptosis has been the mainstay of anti-cancer therapeutics. The plant Moringa oleifera Lam. (family: Moringaceae) is widely used in Indian traditional medicine as a broad spectrum medicine. The ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera root bark (EMORB) and its fraction F1 & F2 showed significant anti-leukemic activity in human leukemic cell lines with EMORB- IC50 of 30.22?g/ ml, and 28.29?g/ml, F1-9.73?g/ ml, and 10.23?g/ml and F2-8.56?g/ ml, and 9.12?g/ml in U937 & K562 cell lines respectively. EMORB treated leukemic cells showed chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation and increased Caspase 9 and 3 production indicating apoptosis. Confocal microscopy images showed externalization of phosphatidylserine from inner leaflet to outer leaflet of the cell membrane in EMORB treated both the human myeloid leukemic cell lines. Flow Cytometric analysis showed appreciable number of cells in early apoptotic stage and the cells cycle study revealed that leukemic cells accumulated in the G0/G1 phase as well as in G2/M phase; the cell cycle was halted in this phase and the DNA content decreased in other phases. The results obtained indicate that root bark extract of Moringa oleifera plant and its fractions possess potent anti-leukemic activity against U937 & K562 cell lines.
200 RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF IMIPRAMINE AND ALPRAZOLAM IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS, P.Gayathri*, KN Jayaveera1, Sasikirangoud2, N.Sravan Reddy2.
The aim of the present study is to develop a new, simple, rapid, accurate and precise RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous estimation of Imipramine (Imi) and Alprazolam (Alp) in bulk and in tablet formulations. The chromatographic separation was done by waters with BDS, 250*4.6mm, 5? column and is maintained at 30oC temperature with mobile phase of Buffer: Acetonitrile [50:50 v/v], flow rate 1ml/min, injection volume 10?l and runtime maintained is of 8min. Buffer was prepared by weighing 2.72gm of potassium dihydrogen ortho phosphate in a 1000ml volumetric flask and add 900ml of milli-Q water and sonicated for 10min to degas and finally make up the volume with water then added 1ml of triethyl amine then pH adjusted to 3.3 with dil. ortho phosphoric acid. The retention time and mean recoveries for Imi was obtained at 2.957and 99.90 %, Alp was at 4.446and 99.91%. Linearity response was established over the concentration range of 50-300ppm for Imi and 0.5-3ppm for Alp. The correlation coefficient for Imi and Alp was 0.9999and 0.9975 respectively. The correct information about the recovery studies was found by the accuracy of the proposed method and the results were validated as per ICH guidelines. This method can be used for the routine quality control of both drugs in combination in bulk and tablet dosage forms.
201 PHYTOCHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF GRAINS OF ELEUSINE CORACANA LINN., Yogendr Bahuguna*, Guno Sindhu Chakraborthy1
The aim of the present study was phytochemical investigation of extracts of grains of Eleusine coracana Linn. (Poaceae). The aqueous extract (AqE, 10% w/v) of dried coarse powdered grains was prepared using chloroform water by maceration method for 7 days at room temperature (yield 9.6% w/w). The aqueous extract (700 g) was divided into three equal portions. Each portion was suspended in distilled water (500 ml) and then extracted with petroleum ether (60 80C, 8 X 500 ml), diethyl ether (8 X 500 ml) and ethyl acetate (8 X 500 ml) in succession. All the fractions were then washed with distilled water (30 ml), dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate and freed of solvent by distillation. The aqueous extract was thus fractioned into petroleum ether soluble fraction (68 g), diethyl ether soluble fraction (47 g) and ethyl acetate soluble fraction (40 g). Chemical investigation of the grains led to the isolation of four compounds namely, ?-amyrin acetate, ?- amyrin acetate, stigmasterol and quercetin. The constituents isolated and characterized from the Eleusine coracana grains can be categorized under the triterpenes, sterols & flavonoids. Triterpenes like ?-amyrin acetate and ?-amyrin acetate were isolated from petroleum ether extracts, sterols like stigmasterols from diethylether extract, flavonol, quercetin was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract and characterized by spectral data. In conclusion, Flavonoids like quercetin are believed to act as diuretic hence hastens the process of dissolving the preformed stones in curative regimen and prevention of new stone formation in urinary system on prophylactic treatment and as antioxidant agents, therefore may be useful in the treatment of urolithiasis, where lipid peroxidation is an important constituent. This investigation could conclude the antiurolithiatic property of E. coracana grains due to the presence of flavonoids like quercetin.
202 STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR DETERMINATION OF SIMVASTATIN IN DOSAGE FORMS, Praveen Kumar*1, Guno Sindhu Chakraborthy2
A reliable and sensitive isocratic stability indicating RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for assay of Simvastatin in tablets and for determination of content uniformity. An isocratic separation of Simvastatin was achieved on Zorbax SB C18 (250mm x 4.6mm), 5 ?m particle size columns with a flow rate of 1 ml/min and using a UV detector to monitor the eluate at 238 nm. The mobile phase consisted of Methanol: water (70:30 v/v).The drug was subjected to oxidation, hydrolysis, photolysis and thermal degradation. All degradation products in an overall analytical run time of approximately 8 minute with the parent compound Simvastatin eluting at approximately 4.75 minute. Response was a linear function of drug concentration in the range of 2-20 ?g/ml with correlation coefficient (r 2 = 0.9992). Accuracy (recovery) was 100.79. ? 1.51%. Degradation products resulting from the stress studies did not interfere with the detection of Simvastatin and the assay is thus stability-indicating.
203 DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ATENOLOL AND INDAPAMIDE IN THEIR COMBINED DOSAGE FORM USING DIFFERENT POLYMERS, Ashutosh Badola*, Guno Sindhu Chakraborthy1
Dosage containing drugs Atenolol and Indapamide are used to treat the symptoms of Hypertension, a condition technically known as increase in Blood pressure. Several chromatographic methods have been reported for simultaneous estimation of these drugs and individual drug. In the present study a simple, sensitive, accurate and effective Reverse Phase High-Performance liquid chromatographic (RP- HPLC) method was developed for the determination of Atenolol and Indapamide in combined dosage form. The analysis was resolved by using different chromatographic conditions by altering mobile phase and flow rate mechanism and HPLC system consisting of Inertsil ODS (C18, 150*4.6mm), 5nm column at a wavelength of 242 nm. The retention time for the drugs was found for Atenolol 2.2 min and for Indapamide 4.3 min respectively. As in simultaneous estimation of these drugs it was found that a confined release can be formulated.The effect of different polymers on release of the sustained release tablets of the Atenolol and indapamide was evaluated. The IR spectrum study revealed that there is no disturbance in the principal peaks of pure drugs. This confirms the integrity of pure drugs and no incompatibility of them with excipients and formulationshows zero order release rate, which is sign of sustained release.
204 FORMULATION AND INVITRO EVALUATION OF BUCCAL TABLETS OF TAPENTADOL HYDROCHLORIDE, P. Naresh*, S.Sujatha
The present investigation is concerned with formulation and evaluation of buccal tablets containing a centrallyacting opioid analgesic drug, TapentadolHCl to circumvent the first pass effect and to improve its bioavailability with reduction in dosing frequency and dose related side effects. The tablets were prepared by direct compression method. The formulations were developed with varying concentrations of polymers like Carbopol 934, HPMC-K4M, sodium alginate, xanthangum, and polyvinylpyrrolidone-K30 (PVP). The prepared formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical characteristics, swelling index, surface pH, buccoadhesive strength, drug content uniformity and in-vitro drug release studies. Formulation (F8) showed maximum drug release of 99% in 8 hours. The in-vitrorelease kinetics studies reveal that all formulations fits well with zero order kinetics followed by Korsmeyer-Peppas, first order and then Higuchis model.
205 A VALIDATED HPTLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CLOPIDOGREL IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS, Jose Kurien1*, P. Jayasekhar2 and Jinu John3
A simple, selective and precise high performance thin layer chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of Clopidogrel in bulk drug and in formulation. The method uses aluminium plates pre-coated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase and hexane: methanol: chloroform: ammonia (16:2:1.5:0.5, v/v/v/v) as solvent system. This system gave compact spot for Clopidogrel (Rf: 0.65 0.02). Densitometric analysis of Clopidogrel was performed in the absorbance mode at 254nm.The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plot showed good linear relationship over a concentration range of 1 10 ?g spot-1. The values of correlation coefficient, slope and intercept were 0.998, 661.6 and -4.333 respectively. The method was validated for precision, robustness and recovery. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.0786 and 0.785 ?g spot-1, respectively.
206 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TASTE MASKED CACHETS OF IBUPROFEN, G. Gnanarajan*, Guno Sindhu Chakraborthy1
The Ibuprofen is bitter in taste and is omitted by mostly children. Therefore an attempt has been made to prepare ester prodrug using ethyl alcohol and butyl alcohol and its bitter taste is masked by using ?-cyclodextrin. The prepared prodrug is characterized by melting point, UV and IR spectroscopy. We also prepared Cachets of Ibuprofen using ?- cyclodextrin as taste masking agent. Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose used as suspending agent, citric acid monohydrate used as pH modifiers. The prepared cachets bitter taste intensity was evaluated using volunteers by comparison of test samples with standard solution containing quinine at various concentrations.
207 ISOLATION OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM AZADIRACHTA INDICA AND PRELIMINARY SCREENING FOR LACCASE ENZYME ACTIVITY, Kathiravan Subramanian and *Krishnakumari Shanmugasundaram
Laccase belongs to the blue multicopper oxidases and participates in cross - linking of monomers, degradation of polymers and ring cleavage of aromatic compounds. The objective of this present study was to isolate the endophytic fungal strains from the fruit samples of Azadirachta indica and screen the isolated strains for laccase production. The fruit samples were inoculated in the potato dextrose agar medium and a total of 3 strains were isolated and used for further studies. The strains were inoculated in the potato dextrose broth and analysed for laccase enzyme production. The protein content of the liquid cultures were also analysed. The results showed the ability of the isolated fungal strains capable of producing laccase enzyme which can play a vital role in bioremediations.
208 QUALITY EVALUATION OF IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ALBIZIA LEBBECK L., *Ariharasiva kumar1,2 G, Kavimani S3, Uma S4 and Tamilarasan M1
Albizia lebbeck is very important medicinal plant; it is used in Ayruvedic medicine. In the present study established to find the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant property of various extracts of Albizia lebbeck were performed. The bark was shad dried and powdered. The powdered bark were defatted with methanol in Soxhlet apparatus and then extracted with absolute methanol for 96 hours separately in Soxhlet apparatus. The results of preliminary phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract of AL revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, carbohydrates and reducing sugar. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract was measured 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity and the total antioxidant capacity of the ethanolic extract of Albizia lebbeck were determined. The ethanolic extract yielded the most significant levels of antioxidants and howed high free radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, studies on the isolation of constituents from the bark extract are biological activities under way for its better exploitation.
209 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ELETRIPTAN TRANSDERMAL PATCHES, Shyam P. Bihade*, Prof. R. G. Katedeshmukh1, Dr. Madhur Kulkarni2
The present work is focused on the development and evaluation of ELETRIPTAN transdermal patches. ELETRIPTAN is used as anti-migraine drug. Matrix types Transdermal Patches were prepared and the technique used is solvent evaporation technique. The transdermal patches were prepared using HPMC K100LV/ K15M grades polymers respectively. A total of 9 formulations were prepared with different quantities of HPMC polymers. These 9 formulations were divided into 3 sets. In 1stset HPMC K100LV polymer 2nd set HPMC K15M and 3rd set combination of HPMC K100LV & K15M. The solvent used for the preparation is water. PEG 400 was used as plasticizer. ELETRIPTAN drug is available in tablet form and its dose is twice a day i.e. 80mg/ day. The main work of this development of new technique is to overcome non compliance of tablet dosage form. This formulation is used for the patients who are suffering from acute migraine attack. The tablet form of drug should be administered twice a day i.e. 40mg at a time so to reduce continuous use of tablet this transdermal patch formulation would help to avoid continuous administration of tablet. The % drug release of the best batch i.e. optimized batch F1 was 86.43%. Transdermal patches of Eletriptan may provide sustained transdermal delivery for prolonged periods in the management of migraine, which can be a good way to bypass the extensive hepatic first-pass metabolism.
210 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATIONS OF SUBSTITUTED QUINAZOLIN-4-(3H)-ONE DERIVATIVE AS NOVEL ANTICONVULSANT AGENTS, Meenu Chaudhary*, Praveen Chaudhary1
Purpose: To synthesize and evaluate the anticonvulsant activity of substituted Quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivative. Methods: In the present study, total 19 derivatives of two series of substituted Quinazolin-4(3H)-one have been synthesized and elucidated on the basis of analytical and spectral studies such as IR, 1HNMR, and Mass spectroscopy. The preliminary evaluation of these 19 compounds for anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, diuretic, antihypertensive and antitubercular activities indicated some of them exhibit moderate to significant activity compared to control group. Further, on the basis of their SAR studies, it has been revealed that substitution at 2, 3 position of Quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives may confer various pharmacological activities such as antitumor, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antidepressant etc. Result: out of nineteen synthesized compounds, only four synthesized compounds KA-3, KB-2, KD-1 and IA-1 have shown significant anticonvulsant activity with 90% recovery against MES-induced convulsions acting as GABAA receptor agonist. Conclusion: Among these four compounds, KD-1 and IA-1 has shown most and equieffective activity comparable to standard drug Phenytoin.
211 TITLE: 16S rRNA: A RELIABLE MITOCHONDRIAL GENE FOR DNA AMPLIFICATION FROM OLD AND FRAGMENTED SAMPLES OF FORENSICALLY IMPORTANT BLOW FLIES (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE), Naina Khullar and Devinder Singh*
Thousands of dried pinned insect specimens lying in various museums await their documentation in the molecular data base. The need of the hour is to molecularly analyze the extensive forsaken insect collections stacked in these museums. 16S rRNA holds a crucial role in the mRNA translation and remained highly conserved throughout the evolutionary process. As a matter of fact, it is a more reliable gene to infer phylogeny, as it is thought to be present in early forms of life. Being a mitochondrial gene, it also configures valuable traits like maternal inheritance, rare recombination and greater number of copies of mitochondria makes its extraction more certain. Museum samples belonging to four species of Calliphoridae were used for the present study and good amount of DNA was extracted. Amplification with 16S rRNA primer gave very clean bands, thus souping up the importance of 16S rRNA gene for species identification.
212 PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND GROWTH INHIBITING EFFECTS OF SALIX ALBA LEAVES AGAINST SOME PATHOGENIC FUNGAL ISOLATES, Mohd Sadiq S. Zarger*1, Fehmeeda Khatoon, Nida Akhtar
Since ancient times, use of plants as a source of medicines has been the inherent part of life in world. Plant based medicines are the basis of many modern pharmaceuticals used in day today life to cure different kind of illnesses. Salix alba has been used from a long time as medicine. In the Current study an attempt was made to determine Phytochemical Composition and in vitro effects of Methanolic extract of Salix alba leaves against Candida guilliermondii, Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis. Preliminary Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of steroids, alkaloids, Phenols, glycosides and tannins in different concentration. In GC-Mass analysis, the major chemical compounds were Salicyl Alcohol, Linolenic acid, Galactose, 4, 6-O-nonylidene, 4-Acetoxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid, Stearic acid, Stearyl aldehyde. Biological activity was carried out in terms of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, Filter disc assay and growth curve study. From the data we conclude, Salix alba leaves extract as an option can be used further for safe and efficacious drug for Candidiasis.
213 TALE OF OXYGEN ATOM BY DIATOMIC OXYGEN GAS (O2) ON THE EARTH AND TRIATOMIC OZONE GAS (O3) ABOVE THE EARTH, Hardik H. Chaudhary, Limbesh B. Aal and Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen
The photochemical mechanisms of Ozone in the Earth's stratosphere is created by ultraviolet light striking oxygen molecules containing two oxygen atoms (O2), splitting them into individual oxygen atoms (atomic oxygen); the atomic oxygen then combines with unbroken O2 to create ozone, O3. The ozone molecule is unstable (although, in the stratosphere, long-lived) and when ultraviolet light hits ozone it splits into a molecule of O2 and an atom of atomic oxygen, a continuing process called the ozone-oxygen cycle. Chemically, this can be described as O2 + ?? (UV) ? 2O O + O2 ? O3 Diatomic Oxygen Triatomic Ozone About 90% of the ozone in our atmosphere is contained in the stratosphere. Ozone concentrations are greatest between about 20 and 40 kilometres (66,000 and 131,000 ft), where they range from about 2-8 parts per million. If all of the ozone were compressed to the pressure of the air at sea level, it would be only 3 millimeters thick. Although the concentration of the ozone in the ozone layer is very small, it is vitally important to life because it absorbs biologically harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation coming from the sun. Extremely short or vacuum UV (10100 nm) is screened out by nitrogen. UV radiation capable of penetrating nitrogen is divided into three categories, based on its wavelength; these are referred to as UV-A (400315 nm), UV-B (315280 nm), and UV-C (280100 nm). UV-C, which is very harmful to all living things, is entirely screened out by a combination of dioxygen (< 200 nm) and ozone (> about 200 nm) by around 35 kilometres (115,000 ft) altitude. UV-B radiation can be harmful to the skin and is the main cause of sunburn; excessive exposure can also cause cataracts, immune system depression, and genetic damage, resulting in problems such as skin cancer. The ozone layer (which absorbs from about 200 nm to 310 nm with a maximal absorption at about 250 nm) is very effective at screening out UV-B; for radiation with a wavelength of 290 nm, the intensity at the top of the atmosphere is 350 million times stronger than at the Earth's surface. Nevertheless, some UV-B, particularly at its longest wavelengths, reaches the surface. Ozone is transparent to most UV-A, so most of this longer wavelength UV radiation reaches the surface, and it constitutes most of the UV reaching the Earth. This type of UV radiation is significantly less harmful to DNA, although it may still potentially cause physical damage, premature aging of the skin, indirect genetic damage, and skin cancer.
214 BALA RASAYAN AND OSTEO-ARTHRITIS: A CLINICAL REVIEW, Chaubey PK, Singh AK, Singh OP
Sandhigata Vata (Osteoarthritis) is the commonest form of articular disorder. It is a type of Vatavyadhi which mainly occurs in Vriddhavastha due to Dhatukshaya, which limits everyday activities such as walking, dressing, bathing etc. thus making patient disabled / handicapped. It being a Vatavyadhi, located in Marmasthisandhi and its occurrence in old age makes it Kashtasadhya. Vata Dosha plays main role in the disease. Shula Pradhana Vedana is the cardinal feature of the disease associated with Sandhishotha with Vata Purna Druti Sparsha, lack of movements of the joints or painful movement of the joints.Sandhigata vata is related with ageing (Dhatu Kshaya-destruction of joint protecting mechanism), so Rasayan chikitsa is very effective in its management because it slowdown the process of destruction (ageing) in the body and helps in rejuvenation of Nava Dhatu.Acharya?s also describes the Rasayan chikitsa in the management of Vata vyadhies (Ch.Chi-28) hence we will select the Bala (Sida corfolia) Rasayan to assess the outcome in diseased persons.
215 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF LANTANA CAMARA.L LEAF OF MEKELLE, ETHIOPIA, Shilashi Badasa*1, Tesfahun Bufebo2, Tessema Derbe3, Yohannis W/Mariam2
Physico-chemical properties data are very important to control the quality of essential oil. The aim of this study was to analysis physicochemical properties of essential oil of Lantana camara.l leaf collected from and around Mekelle city, Ethiopia. Lantana Camara.L is used in traditional treatments to cure variety of diseases for many years in different countries. Acknowledging the importance of plants and its medicinal value, extraction of essential oil had been done using hydro-distillation method. The obtained moisture content was 57.500.01%. The yield of essential oil obtained was 0.3690.01. The oil from leaf of lantana Camara.L was optically active with result +11.50.00 @25oc. It was concluded that physico-chemical parameters that were analyzed can be used to determine the quality of essential oils.
216 ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR DETERMINATION OF EUGENOL CONCENTRATIONS IN SELECTED SPECIES OF OCIMUM, *Amit Joshi 1, A.K. Pathak1, Mukul Tailang2
Eugenol is used as a flavor in the food industry, has a variety of biological activity, and can serve as a biomarker. Because eugenol is present in the leaves of Ocimum, which are used as a herbal medicines, a sensitive and reliable quantitative Ultra-violet spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been established for quantification of the compound in the leaves of the plant. A methanol extract of the powder of dried leaves of Ocimum, was spotted on the Merck aluminium plate precoated silica gel F254 with 0.2 mm thickness. Meoh:Chloroform (95:5) and MeOH: H2O: ACN (50:25:75) used as mobile phase to isolate the eugenol and to prepare the sample for UV and HPLC analysis respectively. The UV and HPLC method proposed for the quantitative monitoring of eugenol in Ocimum leaf powder is rapid, simple, and precise. Hence from that UV and HPLC analysis it was conclude that the Ocimum sanctum linn contains higher amount of Eugenol.
217 EDUCATION DETERMINES THE HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE ON THE STROKE PATIENTS OF THE NATIONAL STROKE HOSPITAL, WEST SUMATERA, INDONESIA, Lailaturrahmi1, Armenia*1, Khairil Armal2 and Akmal2
Background: HRQoL is a comprehensive assessment method to understand the disease burden of stroke patients. This study determine the association between social demography characteristics (gender, age, education, and occupation) with HRQoL of the hypertensive stroke patients with or without other comorbidities. Method: The research was conducted between March to May 2014. An amount of 155 patients were participated in this study. The patients were interviewed by using Stroke Specific Quality of Life (SSQoL) questionnaire that has been translated to Indonesian to determine the HRQoL score. Data of patients gender, age, education, and occupation were collected by interviewing the patients whiched were confirmed by their medical records. T-test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the relationship between social demography characteristics of hypertensive stroke patients with their HRQoL. The 95% confidence intervals was taken for the significance. Results: Education level significantly affected the HRQoL score (p0.1). Patients who completed the education in senior high school possessed the highest HRQoL score and the patients with lower level of education had lower HRQoL score. Conclusion: The HRQoL of the stroke patients is determined by their level of education, but not by gender, age, and occupation.
218 EDUCATION DETERMINES THE HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE ON THE STROKE PATIENTS OF THE NATIONAL STROKE HOSPITAL, WEST SUMATERA, INDONESIA, Lailaturrahmi1, Armenia*1, Khairil Armal2 and Akmal2
Background: HRQoL is a comprehensive assessment method to understand the disease burden of stroke patients. This study determine the association between social demography characteristics (gender, age, education, and occupation) with HRQoL of the hypertensive stroke patients with or without other comorbidities. Method: The research was conducted between March to May 2014. An amount of 155 patients were participated in this study. The patients were interviewed by using Stroke Specific Quality of Life (SSQoL) questionnaire that has been translated to Indonesian to determine the HRQoL score. Data of patients gender, age, education, and occupation were collected by interviewing the patients whiched were confirmed by their medical records. T-test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the relationship between social demography characteristics of hypertensive stroke patients with their HRQoL. The 95% confidence intervals was taken for the significance. Results: Education level significantly affected the HRQoL score (p0.1). Patients who completed the education in senior high school possessed the highest HRQoL score and the patients with lower level of education had lower HRQoL score. Conclusion: The HRQoL of the stroke patients is determined by their level of education, but not by gender, age, and occupation.
219 DEVELOPMENT OF NEW ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF FLUPIRTINE MALEATE IN BULK AND IN FORMULATIONS , M.Ramakrishna
A simple, sensitive, accurate and rapid caloremetric method were developed for the estimation of Flupritine in pure and capsule dosage forms. Flupritine react with MBTH to form a wine red coloured compound. Flupritine maleate contain free amino group that oxidised with Fecl3 solution and form a wine red coloured with the MBTH reagent and the coloured complex which can be estimated by colourimetrically. The colour of the solutions were measured the absorbance at 530.5 nm. Sandells sensitivity, molar extinction coefficient, slope, intercept, LOD and LOQ were determined. The percentage recovery was found to be 101.21 0.25. The proposed method was accurate, precise, reproducible and economical for the routine analysis of Flupritine in bulk drug and in formulation.
220 STUDY OF ? LACTAM RESISTANCES IN MRSA FOR DEVELOPMENT OF VACCINE, *Nagesh N. Patil1, Abhishek Salunkhe2, Abhijeet Nimbalkar3, Aditya Patil2, Hirachand Khade2
The Staphylococcus aureus is evolutionary develops resistance to any antibiotics. The widespread use develops resistance to ? lactams in Staphylococcus aureus. It reduces susceptibility towards penicillin, methicillin and vancomycin antibiotics. MRSA is a major cause of soft tissue and skin infection. The high growth rate, rapidly spread with in community are characteristics of community-MRSA. The mecA gene of SSCmec cassette is developing resistance against antibiotics. The mecA gene encodes the penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) with low affinity for ?-lactam. The type IV SCCmec chromosome cassette produces Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL) toxin, which is responsible for more virulence. The control of MRSA is very difficult due to changes in study data from publications to publications, change in screening, populations, protocols, healthcare practices and infection control efforts. Now to reduce the drug resistance this review suggests that use non ? lactam antibiotics to cure MRSA. In 2010, FDA approved linezolid (Zyvox Pfizer) for treatment of MRSA. The several new approaches are under investigation to replace antimicrobial therapy. Antimicrobial peptides, vaccines are most areas of interest to develop new therapy. Researcher use glycolipids, mutated protein A as an antigen for vaccine development but all cases are unsuccessful. Target vaccine should be against the Panton Valentine leukocidin (PVL). Interleukin 17 secreted by the TH 17 cell are the key factor for development of vaccine for MRSA.
221 COPPER(II) AND ZINC(II) COMPLEXES BASED ON ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG SARAFLOXACIN: SYNTHESIS, STRUCTURE AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION, Ji Li, Shao-Song Qian, Long Zhang, Na Lei, Jie Qin, Hai-Liang Zhu*
Two novel sarafloxacin complexes, [CuII(detam)(srx)](ClO4)21.5H2O (1) and [ZnII(pydam)(srx)2](ClO4)2 (2) (Hsrx = sarafloxacin, srx = depronated sarafloxacin, detam = N,N-diethyl ethylenediamine, pydam = 1,2-propylene diamine) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectra and single crystal analysis. In both complexes sarafloxacin acts as deprotonated bidentate ligand coordinated to Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions through the pyridone oxygen and a carboxylate oxygen. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes 1,2 against four bacterial species were tested and the results indicated that they exhibit enhanced or similar activity to the free sarafloxacin. Both complexes 1 and 2 exhibit good binding propensity to human or bovine serum albumin protein (HSA or BSA) with relatively high binding constant values. UV studies and cyclic voltammograms of the interaction of sarafloxacin and its complexes with calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) show that complex 2 exhibits the higher binding constant to CT DNA and the results indicated that sarafloxacin and complexes 1, 2 interact with DNA mainly via intercalation and electrostatic binding. The agarose gel electrophoresis assay reveals complex 1 also shows better cleavage ability.
222 AN ASSESSMENT ON: POLYSACCHARIDE VACCINE AND CONJUGATE VACCINE., Chaitali Dhale*, Suhas Joshi.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that helps protect the body against a particular disease. Vaccines are intended to prime the body so that it will recognize a harmful virus or a bacterium. There are several different types of vaccines. Each type has been developed to combat specific challenges presented by the virus or bacteria it was designed to protect against. There are two types of developed vaccine polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines. Thus this review discusses advantages of conjugate vaccine over polysaccharide vaccine. As vaccine research and development has continued to advance, though, more conjugate vaccines have been developed.
223 INVITRO CYTOTOXICITY, FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF Curcuma amada., Vasundra Devi P.A* and Dr. Suja S
Medicinal plants have been identified and used throughout human history. They have the ability to synthesize a wide variety of chemical compounds that are used to perform important biological functions, and to defend against attack from predators such as insects, fungi and herbivorous mammals. They also mediate their effects on the human body through processes identical to those already well understood for the chemical compounds in conventional drugs. Mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) is a unique spice having morphological resemblance with ginger but imparts a raw mango flavour. The major chemical components include starch, phenolic acids, volatile oils, curcuminoids and terpenoids like difurocumenonol, amadannulen and amadaldehyde. The present study has been done to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity and to estimate the invitro antioxidant activities and cytotoxicity by MTT assay, Cell Viability Assay (Tryphan Blue Method) in the ethanol extract of rhizome of Curcuma amada. The results showed the rhizomes ability to scavenge free radicals like Superoxide radical, Hydroxyl radical, Nitric oxide radical, DPPH radical and Lipid per oxidation inhibiting activity followed by Ferric reducing antioxidant power and Metal chelating activity and its cytotoxic activity at the concentration of 164.77?g/ml. From the results it was concluded that extract had good invitro cytotoxic activity, free radical scavenging ability and can be used as radical inhibitor or scavenger.
224 NOXIOUS WEEDS OF DISTRICT RAJOURI JAMMU & KASHMIR, INDIA, 1Amandeep Singh*, 2 L.R. Dangwal
The present Study deals with noxious weeds of district Rajouri Jammu & Kashmir, India. The study was based on extensive and intensive field surveys conducted during the period May 2011 March 2014 in 07 blocks of district Rajouri i.e Sunderbani, Budhal, Darhal, Nowshera, Manjakote, Rajouri and Kalokote. During the course of present study 5 sampling sites were randomly selected in each block for field observation and sample collection and interviews were conducted from agriculturists and local inhabitants of each site about noxious weeds and their impacts on agricultural crops, livestock and human beings. A total of 26 noxious weeds belonging to 02 monocot and 12 dicot families were reported from the study area. Out of total 14 angiosperm families of noxious weeds reported from all the sampling sites the predominance was shown by family Asteraceae having 07 noxious weeds followed by family Poaceae having 04 noxious weeds.
225 ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, DIAGNOSIS AND MODERN APPROACH OF TREATMENT, Dr. Bolay Bhattacharya *1, T. Mangilal1 and R. Nagakishore1, 2
Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia accounting for around 60% of cases in the elderly. Symptoms of Alzheimers are problems with memory, judgement and thinking, which makes it hard to work or take part in day-to-day life. As the stages progress, memory loss and other signs of Alzheimer's become more apparent. Many people find help with Alzheimer's medications, but there is no cure for this form of dementia. Alzheimer's disease has been identified as a protein misfolding disease (proteopathy), caused by accumulation of abnormally folded amyloid beta and amyloid tau proteins in the brain. Alzheimer's disease is not genetically inherited although some genes may act as risk factors. On the other hand, around 0.1% of the cases are familial forms of autosomal dominant (not sex-linked) inheritance, which usually have an onset before age 65. Alzheimer's disease is usually diagnosed based on the person's history, history from relatives and observations of the person's behaviours. At present, there is no definitive evidence to support that any particular measure is effective in preventing AD. For the treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease symptoms Acetyl cholinesterase (ACE) inhibitors like donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine are helpful. Since Alzheimer's disease is not cured completely and it gradually renders people incapable of tending for their own needs, caregiving essentially is the treatment and must be carefully managed over the course of the disease.
226 SAFETY EVALUATION STUDY OF RASAKARPURA (A MERCURIAL MEDICINE OF AYURVED) AT THERAPEUTIC DOSE LEVEL IN CHARLES FOSTER ALBINO RATS, 1* Mehta N. J., 2Ashok B. K. , 3B.Ravishankar, 4Prajapati P. K.
Rasakarpura is a mercurial Ayurvedic formulation prepared by using Parada (Mercury), Gandhakamla (Sulphuric Acid) and Saindhava Lavana (Rock salt). It is used internally and externally to treat diseases. As the chemical composition of Rasakarpura is being Mercuric Chloride, there can be apprehensions about its safety. As a preliminary study, repeated dose toxicity of Rasakarpura on oral administration was carried out at therapeutically effective dose (TED) in Charles Foster strain albino rats in comparison with standard Mercuric chloride. The effect of drug administration was noted on the ponderal, biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters. The difference between the groups was statistically determined by students t test (unpaired) with the significance at P
227 VARIOUS APPROACHES FOR SYNTHESIS OF 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES AND THEIR PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY, 1Rakesh Singh*, 2Dr. Anuja Chouhan
1,3,4-Oxadiazole, a five membered heterocyclic has been widely studied by researchers because of its many important chemical and biological properties. The present study summarizes the various synthetic methodologies for preparation of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives and their pharmacological activities
228 HISTO-PATHOLOGICAL EFFECT OF SENGA SPECIES (CESTODE: PSEUDOPHYLLIDEA) IN INTESTINE OF PISCIAN HOSTS, *Pinky Kaur
Present study was conducted to investigate the occurrence and pathological changes induced by Senga sp. in the intestine of freshwater fishes, Channa punctatus and C. striatus. In all, 175 and 150 specimens of Channa punctatus, C. striatus, were examined, out of which 60 and 42 were found infected by cestode parasite, respectively. The total percentage of cestodal infection was calculated to be 34.28 % in Channa punctatus, 28.0 % in C. striatus. Parasites were found attached to the submucosal layer of intestine with scolex and diagnostically characterized by excess mucus secretion which resulted in severe degeneration and necrosis in mucosal, submucosal, serosa layer and muscular layers Histo-pathological examination of infected intestine of C. punctatus revealed ruptured serosa layer, vacuolization in tunica muscularis and lamina propria, shortened, fused and irregular shaped villous processes.
229 PLANT PROFILE, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF GARCINIA INDICA: A REVIEW, Fayaz Pasha P, Dr. H D Ramachandran*
More than half of the worlds population relies on the traditional medicine and major role of the traditional medicine including the use of plant extract and their active contituents. Among them, Garcini indica, a small to moderate size plant of family Garcinia indica belongs to the botanical family of Clusiaceae or according to the old classification it belongs to the family of Guttiferae which has approximately 1350 species. Plant parts such as leaves, fruit and seed have been reported for possessing anti-cancer, anti-ulcer, anti-oxidative and antiglycation activity, antitumor activity, screening of fruit and seeds have the presence of Garcinol, anthocyanins, Hydroxycitric acid etc. Present review focuses on details of geographical distribution, physiochemical parameters, phytoconstituents and pharmacological properties of Garcinia indica reported so far.
230 ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS OF THE SHING TRIBE OF MOULVIBAZAR DISTRICT, BANGLADESH, Sahara Akter, Akmal Hosain Nipu, Humayra Naz Chyti, Protiva Rani Das, Md. Tabibul Islam, Mohammed Rahmatullah*
Background. Documentation of indigenous medicinal practices has resulted in the discovery of a number of important allopathic drugs. The objective of this study was to document the ethnomedicinal practices of tribal healers of the Shing tribe residing in Moulvibazar district, Sylhet Division, Bangladesh. Methods. Interviews of the tribal healers were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results. Altogether 15 plants distributed into 11 families were observed to be used by the tribal healers. These plants were used for treatment of pain, gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory tract disorders, skin disorders, and infertility in women. A review of the scientific literature showed that the use of a number of plants can be justified on the basis of available scientific reports on pharmacological activities of the plants. Conclusion. The plants used by the Shing tribal healers merit further scientific studies towards discovery of potentially efficacious bioactive compounds from the plants.
231 SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF 2-SUBSTITUTED BENZIMIDAZOLES, B.chinnappadu1*, S.shirish chandra1, V. Sai Prasanna2 ,P.veeranjaneyulu3, M.sumanth1
The wide range of biodynamic properties shown by Substituted benzimidazoles prompted to synthesise using o-phenylene diamine and derivatives of carboxylic acids, inhope of getting potent dynamic agents .In the present study the title Compound was prepared from o-phenylene diamine and carboxylic acid derivatives were choosen for synthesis and pharmacological evaluation. The scheme of general methodology for preparation of 2-substituted benzimidazoloes derivatives , method of establishing their identity by means structural conformations by IR, NMR, Mass spectral studies are described in experimental section and spectral studies.
232 SYNTHESIS, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVIY AND MOLECULAR PROPERTIES PREDICTION OF HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS, Hemalatha Sattu*, Lakshmi Boppenaa
A novel series of pyrazolines (5a-j) were synthesized by cycloaddition of various chalcones (prepared by claisen-schmidt condensation of 3-acetyl-2, 5-dimethyl thiophene and various aromatic aldehydes) with phenyl hydrazine in presence of pyridine and subjected to molecular properties prediction by molinspiration, molsoft and osiris softwares. The structures of new compounds were established by 1HNMR, IR, mass spectral data and elemental analysis. Most of the synthesized compounds (5a-j) were found to be on conformity with lipinskis rule of five and other parameters, for their onward screening for antimicrobial and antifungal activity as oral active leads/ drugs. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Some of the final synthesized compounds have exhibited promising antibacterial activity and antifungal activity. Keywords: pyrazolines, chalcones, molecular properties prediction, antibacterial activity, antifungal activity.
233 A REVIEW ON PYRIMIDINE SCAFFOLD, Dr. Vasudeva Rao Avupati1,* and Prof. Rajendra Prasad Yejella2
Pyrimidine is a bio-active heterocyclic compounds containing two nitrogen atoms, each at position 1 and 3 of the six-membered ring respectively. Most of the pyrimidine derivatives showed diverse range of biological activity profiles. Several derivatives such as methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil etc. have been approved for clinical use in cancer chemotherapy. The purpose of the review is to provide an overview of synthetic methods, spectral properties and biological activity profiles of some substituted pyrimidines.
234 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF VOLATILE OIL OF NIGELLA SATIVA SEEDS, Rabindra Kumar Singh1*, Kamal Nayan Jhunjhunwalla2
The composition of the essential oil of Nigella sativa obtained through hydro-distillation. The compositional analysis carried out by GC and GCMS, which identify 35 components representing 97.09% of total composition of oil. The major components are para-cymene (53.6%), alpha Thujene (15.18%), beta pinene (3.7%) and alpha pinene (3.3%). This mix of monoterpenes imparts its odour a strong terpene-like top note.
235 MEDICINAL PLANTS OF A SANTAL TRIBAL HEALER IN DINAJPUR DISTRICT, BANGLADESH, A.K. Azad, Md. Rubel Mahmud, Afsana Parvin, Amit Chakrabortty, Farzana Akter, Sumaya Islam Moury, Inin Pervin Anny, Syeda Rehnoma Tarannom, Shahriar Kabir Joy, Sadia Yeasmin Chowdhury, Shahina Akter, Mohammed Rahmatullah*
Background. The Santals are one of the largest tribes residing in the northern districts of Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to document the ethnomedicinal practices of a tribal healer of the Santal tribe residing in Dinajpur district, Bangladesh. Methods. Interviews of the Santal healer were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results. Altogether 16 plants distributed into 14 families were observed to be used by the Santal healer. These plants were used for treatment of diabetes, cuts and wounds, fever, respiratory tract disorders, skin disorders, bone fracture, sprain, physical weakness, gastrointestinal disorders, leucorrhea, spermatorrhea, and pain. Conclusion. The plants used by the Santal healer adds to the ethnomedicinal uses of various plants in Bangladesh and provides an opportunity to scientists to
236 ETHNOMEDICINAL SURVEYS IN TWO MOUZAS OF KURIGRAM DISTRICT, BANGLADESH, A.K. Azad, Md. Rubel Mahmud, Afsana Parvin, Amit Chakrabortty, Farzana Akter, Sumaya Islam Moury, Inin Pervin Anny, Syeda Rehnoma Tarannom, Shahriar Kabir Joy, Sadia Yeasmin Chowdhury, Shahina Akter, Mohammed Rahmatullah*
Background: Folk medicinal practitioners (Kavirajes) form the first tier of health-care providers among the rural population of Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to document the ethnomedicinal practices of two Kavirajes practicing in two Mouzas of Kurigram district of the country. Methods: Interviews of the Kavirajes were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results: Kaviraj 1 from Baneshwar Mouza used 12 plants distributed into 11 families in his formulations. Kaviraj 2 from Paikpara Mouza used 19 plants distributed into 16 families in his formulations. Kaviraj 1 treated fever, pain, loss of hearing and eyesight, gastrointestinal disorders, cuts and wounds, gall bladder stones, oral lesions, skin disorders, respiratory tract disorders, burning sensations in hands or feet or during urination, liver and spleen disorders, and mumps. Kaviraj 2 treated cuts and wounds, leucorrhea, diabetes, skin disorders, pain, gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory tract disorders, bone fracture, memory loss, helminthiasis and ear infections. Conclusion: The study suggests that although there may be common disease treated by Kavirajes, they also specialize in treatment of specific diseases. Moreover, plants used to treat common diseases can be different indicating that the medicinal plant knowledge of an individual Kaviraj is quite personalized.
237 IDENTIFICATION OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS OF RHIZOPHORA MUCRONATA POIR. LEAVES USING SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION AND GC-MS, Saranya Arumugam, Dinesh Palanisamy and Ramanathan Thirugnana Sambandam*
Rhizophora mucronata Poir. is the medicinally important mangrove plant belonging to the family Rhizophoraceae, commonly known as red mangrove. It is documented for its folk remedies to treat elephantiasis, haematoma, hepatitis, ulcer, angina, diarrhea, haemorrhage and febrifuge. The presence of diverse secondary metabolites has been reported from species of the R. mucronata. The aim of this study is to screen the phytocomponents present in the R. mucronata leaves and further analysis of the components present in it by GC-MS. Supercritical fluid (SCFE) was used to extract bioactive components from R. mucronata. The preliminary phytochemical analysis of SCFE-RM revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, tannins, quinones, saponins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides, phenols. The volatile compounds were identified according to their retention times and mass spectra by GC-MS. The GC-MS analysis provided peaks of sixteen different phytochemical compounds. N-Propyl 11-Octadecenoate (15.32%), (4?-trans)-Decahydro-4?-methyl-1-methylene-7-(1-methylethylidene)-naphthalene (14.29%), Beta-Amyrin (12.79%), Gamma-Sitosterol (10.21%) were the predominant constituents in SCFE-RM. However, isolation of individual components would help to find new drugs.
238 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF LANTANA CAMARA.L LEAF OF MEKELLE, ETHIOPIA., Shilashi Badasa*1, Tesfahun Bufebo*2, Tessema Derbe*3, Yohannis W/Mariam*2
Physico-chemical properties data are very important to control the quality of essential oil. The aim of this study was to analysis physicochemical properties of essential oil of Lantana camara.l leaf collected from and around Mekelle city, Ethiopia. Lantana Camara.L is used in traditional treatments to cure variety of diseases for many years in different countries. Acknowledging the importance of plants and its medicinal value, extraction of essential oil had been done using hydro-distillation method. The obtained moisture content was 57.500.01%. The yield of essential oil obtained was 0.3690.01. The oil from leaf of lantana Camara.L was optically active with result +11.50.00 @25oc. It was concluded that physico-chemical parameters that were analyzed can be used to determine the quality of essential oils.
239 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LIPOSPHERES FOR ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY, Smita Sachin Pimple*, hilchandra Ganesh Bhirud, Angira Gaurav Purohit
Lipospheres of lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) were prepared by melt dispersion technique using Compritol 888 ATO as lipid matrix and Poloxamer 407 and Phospholipon 90G as surfactant. Drug entrapped free flowing lipospheres of LPV and RTV were obtained after optimization using 32 factorial design and characterized for entrapment efficiency, particle size distribution, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and in vitro release and stability studies. Entrapment efficiencies of 81.5 0.21% and 96.93 0.81% were obtained for optimized formulations of LPV lipospheres (LPVL) and RTV lipospheres (RTVL) respectively. Particle size of LPVL and RTVL were found to be 9.926 1.03 ?m and 7.756 0.21 ?m respectively. DSC and XRD results confirmed the drug entrapment in lipospheres. SEM studies revealed the spherical shape of lipospheres and in vitro release studies showed sustained drug release. Lipospheres drug delivery system proved to be promising for anti-retroviral therapy.
240 METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LAMIVUDINE, TENOFOVIR DISOPROXIL FUMARATE AND EFAVIRENZ IN COMBINED TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC, N. Srinivasa Rao*, Dr. Venkataramana, P. Srinivas, R. Meghana, P. Anitha
An accurate, precise, reproducible, gradient and stability indicating Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the estimation of Lamivudine, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and Efavirenz in pharmaceutical dosage forms. In this method Waters C18 (75x4.6mm, 5?) column with gradient mobile phase containing methanol and water in different ratios were used. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min. and the detection wavelength was 260nm. The linearity was observed in the range of 60 450 ppm, 60 - 450 ppm and 120 900 ppm for Lamivudine, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and Efavirenz with correlation coefficient of 0.9992, 0.9992, and 0.9994 respectively. Retention times were 2.394, 5.827 and 9.700 min for Lamivudine, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and Efavirenz. The proposed method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness and stress testing of the drugs was performed according to the International Conference Harmonization (ICH) guidelines in order to validate the stability indicating power of the analytical procedures. Thefore the proposed method can be applied for routine quality control analysis of pharmaceutical dosage forms used for multidrug therapy containing Lamivudine, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and Efavirenz.
241 STANDARDIZATION OF ANTI-ARTHRITIC POLYHERBAL AYURVEDIC FORMULATION AS PER OFFICIAL GUIDELINES, Ajage R K*, Kasture V S
Ayurvedic formulations with good action and less side effect are becoming popular but lack of quality control and standardization, the ayurvedic formulations remain far behind of the allopathic medicines. The standardized extracts and herbal products are easily accepted by the western and global community and hence standardization becomes necessary to explore the wealth of Indian knowledge of Ayurveda to the global market. The present study deals with exploration of Ayurvedic tablet formulation for safety and quality as per official guidelines. The formulation subjected for phytochemical and physicochemical analysis, estimation of toxic residues of pesticide and heavy metals content. The accelerated stability study, microbial load evaluation and quality control parameters were evaluated. The formulation passes every official test of quality control.
242 TO CORRELATE THE CLINICAL FEATURES, HISTOPATHOLOGY AND EPIDEMIOLOGY WITH EGFR/ALK MUTATION AND TREATMENT RESPONSE IN NSCLC, *1Ms. Vidhi H. Prajapati, 2Dr. Jayant B. Dave, 3Dr.Chirag J. Desai
Aim &Objective: To correlate the clinical features, histopathology and epidemiology with EGFR/ALK mutation and treatment response in NSCLC. Settings And Design: Single centric, retrospective & prospective study. Material &Method: Prospective and retrospective, single centric 6 months study in which 25 NSCLC patients were screened and subjected to EGFR/ALK mutation testing. The treatment with TKIs was generally decided based on EGFR/ALK mutation results and the standard practice at the clinic.During study, demographic details, clinical features and histopathological data of the patients were collected. Results: Incidence of NSCLC was significantly higher in male (64%) than female (36%). The incidence of EGFR mutation +Veand ALK mutation +Ve was 28% and was 8% respectively. Out of that 24% male & 4% female were EGFR mutation +Ve while 0% male & 8% female were ALK mutation +Ve. The proportion of non-smokers was higher than smokers(68% vs 32%) in the patients studied. The EGFR and ALK mutation did not differ significantly between high and low risk groups viz smokers-nonsmokers, tobacco consumers-non consumers. From 25 patients, 24(96%) had adenocarcinoma & only 1 had squamous cell carcinoma. The clinical benefit rate was 100% with TKI as well as chemotherapy. The progression free survival (PFS) appeared longer with chemotherapy than EGFR TKI (7.5 vs 4 months). The response of ALK TKI was measured by percentageresponse rate (100%) & PFS(5 months) in ALK +ve patients. Conclusion: There was no significant difference between different risk factors and EGFR/ALK occurrence. The response rate was good with TKI as well as chemotherapy as measured by %RR & PFS. The response of ALK TKI was quite good.
243 BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE, ANTIBIOGRAM OF BURN WOUND ISOLATES AND DETECTION OF MRSA AND ESBL PRODUCTION AT TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, HYDERABAD, S. Rajeshwar Rao1, L. Jaya Lakshmi1, S.Pavani2, Vijendra Kawle3, S. Jaya Prakash4
Introduction: Infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in burn patients. Identification of bacterial isolates from specimens of burns patients and study of their drug susceptibility pattern helps in determining empirical antimicrobial therapy to burns patients. Aim: To identify the common aerobic bacterial isolates and study their antimicrobial susceptibility in specimens collected from burn wounds including methicillin resistance in Staphylococci and production of extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBL) in Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Material & Methods: A total of 1600 Specimens from burn wounds received at Microbiology laboratory of the tertiary care hospital, Hyderabad from July 2012 to December 2013 were included in the study. The specimens were processed according to standard laboratory protocols, isolates were identified by conventional biochemical methods and antimicrobial susceptibility was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Among 1600 specimens, 1043 showed single bacterial growth and 75 showed mixed bacterial isolates thus total bacterial isolates were 1193. The commonest isolate was Staphylococcus aureus (42%) followed by Klebsiella species (31%). Other isolates include Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.8%), Coagulase NegativeStaphylococci (6.96%), Escherichia coli (5.11%), Citrobacter species (3.6%), Proteus species (3.2%) and Acinetobacter species (0.33%). Among 501Staphylococcus aureus isolates 32.7% were Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) and among 512 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae 30.9% were ESBL producers. Conclusion: Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella species were the common organisms causing burn wound infection in the present study. The susceptibility patterns in thepresent study indicate fluoroquinolones were effective against Gram negative bacilli after Imipenem and against Gram positive bacteria after Vancomycin and thus can be used for empirical therapy.
244 EFFECT OF VARIOUS SUPERDISINTEGRANTS ON THE DRUG RELEASE OF TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE, Padmasree Vovaldas, *Praveen Kumar Reddy. Thumma, NutanDeepthi.Ponnada Ashok Kumar. Appapurapu, Praveen Kumar Madatha1 and David Banji
Formulation of a convenient dosage form for oral administration, by considering swallowing difficulty especially in case of geriatric and pediatric patient leads to poor patient compliance. To troubleshoot such problems a new dosage form known as orally disintegrating tablet has been developed. The purpose of this research work was to prepare Tramadol hydrochloride Orally Disintegrating Tablets for achievement of quicker onset of action. Tramadol is an analgesic drug which is effective for intense and moderately intense pain. In this present work an attempt has been made to know the effect of various superdisintegrants on the drug release. The various superdisintegrants such as crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate were used to minimize the disintegration time. The tablet blends were prepared by using superdisintegrants in the concentrations of 5%, 6%, 7% were evaluated for various pre compression parameters. Various batches of orally disintegrating tablets were prepared by direct compression method and sublimation method. The formulated batches were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content, disintegration time, wetting time, water absorption ratio, in vitro dispersion time and in vitro dissolution profile and found to be in the prescribed limit.Upon comparison of two methods, sublimation method was found to be best than direct compression method. Among the formulations, tablets containing crospovidone shows least disintegration time. The drug release from orally disintegrating tablets increased with increasing concentration of superdisintegrants and was found to be highest with formulations containing crospovidone.
245 CHALCONES: A MINI REVIEW, Dr. Vasudeva Rao Avupati1,* and Prof. Rajendra Prasad Yejella2
Chalcones are natural products which belong to falvonoid family. Chalcones can be synthesized by using conventional organic synthetic protocols. Substituted chalcones are of particular interest for various studies because of their diverse range of biological activities as well as precursor in the synthesis of varied bioactive heterocyclic compounds. This review describes methods of synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and special emphasis given to the compounds that have shown promising antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties.
246 CONCURRENT PROCESS VALIDATION OF MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE & ALUMINUM HYDROXIDE AS CHEWABLE TABLET, S. P. Salunke*, R. L. Shirole, R. D. Wagh, N. L. Shirole
The main aim of the present research work was to study Concurrent Process validation of Magnesium Hydroxide & Aluminum Hydroxide as Chewable tablet. Validation is best viewed as an impartment and integral part of cGMP. Validation is therefore one element of quality assurance programs associated with a particular process. Quality cannot be assured only by doing finished product testing and in-process monitoring but it should be built into the manufacturing process. So building of quality require a special attention to a few factors like selection of material, process design, control variables, in process control and finished product testing. In this study three initial batch of Magnesium Hydroxide & Aluminum Hydroxide as Chewable tablet with same size, method, equipment & validation criteria were taken. Various critical parameters during dry mixing, wet granulation, drying, lubrication, and compression stages were identified and evaluated as per validation protocol. The outcomes of the entire process indicate that process validation data provides a high degree of assurance that themanufacturing process will produce a product meeting its predetermined specification and quality attributes.
247 METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ASSAY OF GARNOXACIN IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS BY RP-HPLC, Aziz Unnisa*1, 2, Syed Sadath Ali3, Siva Chaithanya K1.
The aim of the present work was to develop and validate a simple, efficient and economical method for the analysis of Garnoxacin in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage forms by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography. An Inertsil (250mm x 4.6, 5?m) reverse phase column with mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile: 10mM Ammonium Acetate (50:50) was used in isocratic mode at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min and eluents were monitored at 210nm. The retention time of Garnoxacin was 4.7 min. The method showed a good linearity in the concentration range of 10-50?g/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.998. The validation characteristics examined included specificity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, robustness, precision and stability. Validation acceptance criteria were compiled in all cases. The percent recoveries ranged between 99.8-101.7 with % RSD
248 SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF SOME METAL (II) COMPLEXES DERIVED FROM 5-BROMO-3-((2-HYDROXYQUINOLIN-3-YL)METHYLENEAMINO)BENZOFURAN-2- CARBOXAMIDE SCHIFF BASE LIGAND, M. B Halli*, Naghma Shaishta, K. Mallikarjun and S. S Suryakant.
The present article deals with the synthesis of new tridentate O, N and O donor Schiff base ligand via condensation of 3-amino-5-bromobenzofuran-2-carboxamide with 2-hydroxyquinoline-3-carbaldehyde under suitable experimental conditions. The complexes were found to have the general composition ML2, where M = Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II) and L = Schiff base. The chelation of the complexes has been elucidated in the light of analytical, IR, mass, ESR spectral and magnetic data. The measured molar conductance values shows that, the complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. The Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes screened for their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus to assess their inhibiting potential by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. In addition, the DNA cleavage activities of all the complexes were studied by agarose gel electrophoresis method.
249 EFFECTS OF HMG-COA REDUCTASE INHIBITORS (SIMVASTATIN AND HERBAL FORMULATION OF ALLIUM SATIVUM) ON LIVER FUNCTION TEST IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS RELATED DYSLIPIDEMIA, 1Naveed Ali Siddiqui, 2Tahira Perveen, 3Ambreen, 4Naheed Akhtar, 5Arshia Sehar
Objective: To evaluate the changes in liver function test in patients with diabetic dysplipidemia using international and herbal product of the lipid lowering drug, simvastatin and garlic (Allium sativum). Material and Methods: The study was designed to evaluate the effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (simvastatin and garlic) on LFT, and to compare the adverse effect of international and herbal product of simvastatin and garlic in patients with diabetic dysplipidemia. The study was conducted at Surgeon Munawar Memorial Hospital, Karachi (2012-2013). Sixty patients with abnormal lipid profile were included in the study (age 30-70 years). Patients were divided into two groups (30 patients each). Group A was orally administered with international product of simvastatin (20 mg)/day for 8 weeks and in group B, patients were orally administered with herbal product of garlic (300 mg)/day for 8 weeks. Results: The total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase was estimated in the serum of diabetic dyslipidemic patients before and after treatment with international product of simvastatin (20mg/day) and herbal product of garlic (300mg/day). After the treatment serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase were increased in group A and group B did not show any significant change in total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase. Garlic was well tolerated by the subjects without any serious side effects as compared to simvastatin. Conclusion: On the basis of this study it is concluded that garlic was well tolerated by the subjects without any serious side effects as compared to simvastatin.
250 MICROEMULSION PROPHESY OF DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM, Sruthi S, Dhivya Priya S, Hema R, Rajasekar K, Lakshmana Prabhu S, Puratchikody A, Shanmugarathinam A*.
Microemulsions, which has considerable potential to act as a drug delivery system is becoming the area of interest for the pharmaceutical scientist. In pharmaceutical fields, the interest in microemulsion is increasing and, thus, they are applied to various administered routes. Being thermodynamically stable, these microemulsions are composed of an aqueous and an oil phase along with the surfactants. An understanding of the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical characteristics of microemulsion will provide guidance for the designing of their formulation. Besides the understanding of the formation and its characterization this article gives provides the knowledge of construction of the phase diagram of the microemulsion. This article also emphasis the recent developments and future discussions.Developments for poorly soluble drugs of microemulsion are also included in this review.
251 WESTERN BLOTTING: AN UNIQUE TECHNOLOGY FOR DETECTION OF PROTEINS BY ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY INTERACTION, Girish M. Kapadiya, Ashish M. Parmar and Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen*
Western blotting is a widely used technique for the detection and analysis of proteins based on their ability to bind to specific antibodies. It was 1st described by Towbin, et.al in 1979 and has since become one of the most commonly used methods in life science research. Western blotting is an accomplished rapidly, using simple equipment and inexpensive reagents; it is commonly used laboratory technique. The specificity of the antibody-antigen interaction enables to a target protein to be identified in the midst of a complex protein mixture. It is an analytical method where in a protein sample is subjected to electrophoresis on an SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Poly Acrylamide Gel Electrophoresis) and electro transferred on to PVDF (Poly Vinylidene Fluoride) membrane or nitrocellulose membrane. The transferred protein is detected using specific primary and secondary enzyme labeled antibody. Antibodies bind to specific sequences of amino acids, known as the epitope. An epitope, also known as antigenic determinant, is the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, ? cells or T cells. For example, the epitope is the specific piece of the antigen that an antibody binds to. The part of an antibody that binds to the epitope is called a paratope. Although epitopes are usually non-self proteins, sequences derived from the host that can be recognized (as in the case of autoimmune diseases) are also epitopes. The epitopes of protein antigens are divided into two categories, conformational epitopes and linear epitopes, based on their structure and interaction with the paratope. The paratope is the part of an antibody which recognizes an antigen, the antigen-binding site of an antibody. It is a small region (of1522 amino acids) of the antibody's Fv region and contains parts of the antibody's heavy and light chains. The part of the antigen to which the paratope binds is called an epitope. This can be mimicked by a mimotope. A mimotope is a macromolecule, often a peptide, which mimics the structure of an epitope. Because of this property it causes an antibody response similar to the one elicited by the epitope. An antibody for a given epitope antigen will recognize a mimotope which mimics that epitope. Mimotopes are commonly obtained from phage display libraries through biopanning. Vaccines utilizing mimotopes are being developed. The engraved inner portion of idiotype is the paratope where the epitope of the antigen binds. A conformational epitope is composed of discontinuous sections of the antigen's amino acid sequence. These epitopes interact with the paratope based on the 3-D surface features and shape or tertiary structure of the antigen. The proportion of epitopes that are conformational is unknown. By contrast, linear epitopes interact with the paratope based on their primary structure. A linear epitope is formed by a continuous sequence of amino acids from the antigen. Because amino acid sequences are different from protein to protein, antibodies can recognize specific proteins among a group of many. Therefore, a single protein can be identified in a cell lysate that contains thousands of different proteins and its abundance quantified through western blot analysis. First, proteins are separated from each other based on their size. Second, antibodies are used to detect the protein of interest. Finally, a substrate that reacts with an enzyme is used to view the antibody/protein complex.
252 PREPARATION & EVALUATION OF EPROSARTAN MESYLATE SOLID DISPERSIONS, Rewar S*1, Bansal BK1, Shakya.V1, Singh CJ2, Sharma AK2
The aim of the present study was to improve the solubility and bioavailability of a poorly water-soluble drug in human body, using a solid dispersion technique. Solubility and dissolution rate is an important physicochemical factor affecting absorption of drug and its therapeutic effectiveness. Consequences of poor aqueous solubility would lead to failure in formulation development. The poor solubility of drug substances in water and their low dissolution rate in aqueous G.I.T fluid often leads to insufficient bioavailability. In the present investigation, an attempt was made to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of a poorly soluble drug, Eprosartan by solid dispersion method using skimmed milk powder as carrier. Four different formulations were prepared with varying drug:carrier ratios viz.1:1, 1:3, 1:5 and 1:9 and the corresponding physical mixtures were also prepared. The formulations were characterized for solubility parameters, drug release studies and drug-polymer interactions by using phase solubility studies, dissolution studies; XRD analysis, FTIR spectrum, TLC analysis and UV overlay spectra. All the formulations showed marked improvement in the solubility behaviour and improved drug release. Formulation containing drug: polymer ratio of 1:9 showed the best release with a cumulative release of 82.67 % as compared to 6.919 % for the pure drug. The interaction studies showed no interaction between the drug and the carrier. It was concluded that skimmed milk powder as a carrier can be very well utilized to improve the solubility of poorly soluble drugs.
253 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES FOR ESTIMATION OF EPROSARTAN MESYLATE: AN OVERVIEW, Rewar S*1, Bansal BK1, Yadav MR1 Singh CJ2, Sharma AK2,
The Aim of the present review to study analytical and detection techniques for Estimation of Eprosartan Mesylate. Eprosartan Mesylate is a potent, long-lasting, non peptide antagonist of the angiotensin II type-1 (AT1) receptor that is indicated for the treatment of essential hypertension. It selectively inhibits stimulation of the AT1 receptor by angiotensin II without affecting other receptor systems involved in cardiovascular regulation. There has been significant research on broad range of analytical and detection techniques that could be useful in its estimation in formulations and biological matrices. Practical requirements for high-sensitivity analysis create challenges for routine analysis. There are a number of methods used, but to our knowledge, high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection is more likely to be popular. In this review discusses methods such as Ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), High Pressure Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC), Liquid Chromatography- Mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS) and Capillary Zone Electrophoresis (CE).
254 A REVIEW RATICAL: LEPTIN GENE AND OBESITY, Prof. Dr. Essam F. Al-Jumaily and Sara H. Zgaer
Leptin is an adipocytes-secreted hormone of mammals. It is a 167 amino acid protein hormone with important effects in regulating body weight and metabolism. Leptin is a cytokine hormone that is derived from the adipose tissue and expressed in the hypothalamus. Leptin or Obesity protein seems to play a role in regulating energy intake and expenditure. Leptin is a 16Kda protein coded by the obesity gene. The structure of Leptin is a proteins found in the helical cytokine family. It consists of four alpha helices that exhibit an up-up-down-down folding pattern arranged in a left-hand twisted bundle. Through activation of its receptor in the hypothalamus, leptin able to modulate energy expenditure and food intake when binding to the long leptin receptor isoform (LEPRb) activates cytokine like signal transduction via the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway. In humans, leptin deficiency due to a mutation in the leptin gene is associated with early onset obesity.
255 ASSESSMENT OF PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF POLYPHENOL-RICH FRACTIONS FROM TRICHILIA EMETICA (MELIACEAE) ON SOME INCATORS OF LIVER AND KIDNEYS FUNCTIONS IN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL., Kiessoun Konat1, 2*, Kassi Yomalan3, Oksana Sytar4, Marian Brestic5
The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepato and nephroprotective effects of polyphenol-rich fractions from Trichilia emetica in rodents. Animals received by gavage 75, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of fraction daily for a period of 28 days. Control groups received alcohol 35% and water. In vivo administration of 35% ethanol for a period of 28 days in rats showed an activity of liver marker enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP and GGT), triglycerides, total cholesterol, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin and nephrotoxicity biomarkers (total proteins, serum albumin, urea, uric acid and creatinine) in serum compared with rats which received water (control water). However, administration of 35% ethanol along with bioactive fraction decreased the activities of liver and kidneys biomarkers enzyme in serum (p
256 ANTI-INFLAMMATORY PROPERTIES OF THE METHANOL AND N- HEXANE EXTRACTS OF SANSEVIERA LIBERICA GRME AND LABROY IN RATS, *1Awemu G.A., 2Agbai E.O, 3Anowi F. and 4Ramos G.F.
The methanol and n-hexane extracts of Sanseviera liberica were evaluated orally at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg against carrageenan induced inflammation in rats. The methanol extract produced a dose dependent inhibition of inflammation with the highest percentage inhibition (55.2 %) occuring at the dose of 200 mg/kg after 4 hours while the 50 mg/kg group produced the least percentage inhibition of inflammation of 10.0 % after 2 hours. The n-hexane extract did not produce any significant inhibition of inflammation at the doses evaluated. Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids and terpenoids in the methanol extract while tannins, steroids and terpenoids were present in the n-hexane extract. Acute toxicity studies gave an LD50 value of 1350 mgkg-1. Results of this investigation vindicate the use of the polar extract by traditional medicine practitioners in the treatment of inflammation.
257 A STABILITY-INDICATING LC METHOD FOR DIFLOXACIN IN THE PRESENCE OF DEGRADATION PRODUCTS, Edith Cristina Laignier Cazedey1*, Vanessa D'Amaro Juodinis2; Hrida Regina Nunes Salgado2
A novel stability-indicating reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (LC) method for the determination of difloxacin (DI) in coated tablets in the presence of degradation products is described. The method was developed using isocratic mode on a reversed-phase C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm id, 5 ?m particle size). The mobile phase containing a mixture of 5% acetic acid-methanol (70: 30, v/v) was pumped at a constant flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The eluted compounds were monitored at 276 nm. DI was subjected to the stress conditions of oxidative, acid, base, hydrolytic, thermal and photolytic degradation. DI was found to degrade significantly in oxidative, acid and base degradation conditions and mildly in hydrolytic degradation conditions and stable in thermal and photolytic degradation conditions. All degradation products were well resolved from the main peak providing the stability-indicating power of the method. The developed method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, precision, linearity, accuracy, robustness and system suitability.
258 ROSMARINIC ACID: A REVIEW OF ITS ANTICANCER ACTION, Md. Shahadat Hossan1, Shahnaz Rahman2, A.B.M. Anwarul Bashar1, Rownak Jahan2, Abdullah Al-Nahain1, Mohammed Rahmatullah1*
Rosmarinic acid is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl lactic acid commonly found in plants belonging to the Boraginaceae and the subfamily Nepetoideae of the Lamiaceae family. The compound has a number of important biological activities, e.g. antiviral, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, anticancer and antioxidant. This review shall focus on the reported anticancer activities of rosmarinic acid and discuss its therapeutic potential against a variety of cancers including colon and skin cancer.
259 ELEPHANTOPUS SPICATUS: A PLANT WITH HITHERTO UNREPORTED ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANTINOCICEPTIVE POTENTIAL, Md. Ezazul Haque, Mohammed Rahmatullah*
Background. Elephantopus spicatus is a plant occasionally observed in the northeastern part of the country. Virtually nothing is known on the medicinal properties of the plant. It was of interest to conduct antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activity studies on the plant, because other species belonging to the Elephantopus genera have been reported to possess such pharmacological activities. Methods. Antihyperglycemic activity was determined through oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). Antinociceptive activity was determined by observed decreases in abdominal constrictions (writhings) in intraperitoneally administered acetic acid-induced pain model in mice. Results. Administration of methanol extract of whole plant led to dose-dependent reductions in blood glucose levels in glucose-loaded mice. At doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight, the extract significantly reduced blood glucose levels by 13.0, 36.6, and 48.1%, respectively compared to control animals. By comparison, a standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight, reduced blood glucose level by 47.3%. In antinociceptive activity tests, the extract at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight reduced the number of abdominal constrictions by 29.6, 33.3, 37.0, and 40.7%, respectively. A standard pain relieving (antinociceptive) drug, aspirin, reduced the number of writhings by 33.3 and 48.1%, respectively, when administered at doses of 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight. Conclusion. Antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activities have not previously been reported for Elephantopus spicatus. The plant can be a potential source for components towards lowering blood sugar and for alleviating pain.
260 PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, TOXICITY, ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY STUDIES WITH CURCUMA LONGA LEAVES, Mohammad Nazmul Hasan1, Aysha Ferdoushi1, Nargis Ara2, Shahnaz Rahman3, Md. Shahadat Hossan2, Mohammed Rahmatullah2*
Background Curcuma longa is a plant whose rhizomes are used commonly as a spice, and the plant cultivated widely in the Indian sub-continent and many other countries of the world. The rhizomes reportedly possess glucose lowering and analgesic properties. The leaves of the plant are discarded; it was of interest to determine the antihyperglycemic and analgesic properties of the leaves. Methods Antihyperglycemic activity was determined through oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). Antinociceptive activity was determined by observed decreases in abdominal constrictions (writhings) in intraperitoneally administered acetic acid-induced pain model in mice. RESULTS Administration of methanol extract of whole plant led to dose-dependent reductions in blood glucose levels in glucose-loaded mice. At doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight, the extract dose-dependently reduced blood glucose levels by 12.9, 21.7, 24.7, and 30.8%, respectively compared to control animals. By comparison, a standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight, reduced blood glucose level by 35.4%. In antinociceptive activity tests, the extract at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight reduced the number of abdominal constrictions by 24.1, 27.6, 31.0, and 34.5%, respectively. A standard pain relieving (antinociceptive) drug, aspirin, reduced the number of writhings by 31.0 and 51.7%, respectively, when administered at doses of 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight. CONCLUSION Antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activities have not previously been reported for Curcuma longa leaves. The leaves can be a readily available mean for lowering blood sugar and for alleviating pain.
261 APPLYING PHARMMAPPER SERVER AS TOOL FOR DRUG TARGET IDENTIFICATION FOR SOME DIPHENYLMETHYLPIPERAZINE AMIDES, Maya Georgieva*, Branimir Zlatkov, Alexander Zlatkov
Using the web-based tool PharmMapper, based on the reverse pharmacophore approach, we aligned 7 newly synthesized pipreazine amide derivatives to 2241 human protein targets, from which the top 300 targets were analyzed. By the flexible alignment of these structures the calculated and recorded pharmacophores were obtained and the candidate targets were prioritized, based on the corresponding fit values and z-scores. Of high interest was the model derived for activity to ?-secretase 1, since it was categorized as the probable target for the compounds of interest. The most significant pharmacophoric parameter was established to be the hydrophobicity of the molecule, whereas for compound 2f, with highest fit score, the significance of this parameter is greatest. It may be concluded that structures with 4-7 hydrophobic positions and aromatic ring or four carbon atoms in the side chain are of interest in further evaluation of piperazine bearing structures with ?- secretase 1 activity.
262 KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE TOWARDS EPILEPSY IN SUFFERERS AND NON-SUFFERERS OF THE DISEASE, Rudaina A. M. Nour 1, Idris B. Eltayeb2, *Mahmoud M. E. Mudawi1,3
Introduction: There's considerable gap in the knowledge of epilepsy among the sufferers of the disease and general population that lead to negative impacts on the lives of people with epilepsy. Both knowledge of all aspects of the disease and positive attitude towards epilepsy help providing better therapeutic outcomes, quality of life and prognosis. Objectives: The aims of this study were to assess the knowledge and attitude of epileptic patients interviewed in two neurologic referral clinics at two neurologic and psychiatric hospitals and to compare knowledge and attitude with a control group of non- sufferers. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional community based study, 100 respondents were included: 50 epileptic patients and 50 control persons. The two groups interviewed almost at the same settings in Taha Baashr and El- Tigani El- Mahi hospitals for neurology and psychiatry. Results: 50 epileptic patients assessed in the study, 84% of them didn't know there are different kinds of epilepsy, compared to 90% of the control group (50 respondents) didn't know this. Regarding the etiology of epilepsy and the precipitants of seizure the epileptic patients were found to know more than the control group: 52% of epileptic patients said they knew some causes of epilepsy compared to 20% of the control group and 42% of the epileptic patients knew that there are seizure precipitants compared to 16% of the control group. Both sufferers and non-sufferers of epilepsy were assessed with regard to attitude to the disease, People with epilepsy were more likely than the controls to regard it as minor illness, for example the controls regarded epilepsy as life-threatening disease (36%) and constraining (26%) compared with 12% for both choices of the epileptic patients. More patients with epilepsy said that the disease can be controlled (42%) than the controls (20%). The only exception is that 6% of the patients said there is no cure for epilepsy compared with 0% of the controls. The epileptic patients (not the control group) were concerned about the possibility of their condition being worsened (82%), 76% were concerned about occurrence of the fit when they are outside and about other reasons. The main concern about AED was the effect of missed dose (68%). Conclusion: The study revealed that there is a knowledge gap and misconceptions regarding many aspects of the disease. It also showed that people with epilepsy knew more about the disease than the public.
263 ETHNOMEDICINAL USES OF CRINUM ASIATICUM: A REVIEW, Mahbuba Haque, Sharmin Jahan, Mohammed Rahmatullah*
Crinum asiaticum can be found in various Asian countries and also the South Pacific islands. The plant has multiple ethnomedicinal uses and in various parts of Asia and the South Pacific islands, the plant or plant part is used for gastrointestinal disorders, skin diseases, fever, earache, boils, tonsillitis, mumps, hernia, rheumatism, urinary troubles, bone fracture, edema, and antidote to poison. This review shall discuss the various ethnomedicinal uses of the plant and explore the scientific validation of such uses based on scientific reports on phytoconstituents present in the plant and pharmacological properties of plant extracts and phytoconstituents.
264 ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS A REVIEW, V.P. Pandey and J.Joysa Ruby*
Tablets constitute a major portion of drug delivery systems that are presently available. The aim of any drug delivery system is to ease patient compliance and orodispersible tablets are suitable for the same. There is a demand for more patient friendly and compliant dosage forms. As a result the demand for developing new technologies has been increasing annually. Mouth dissolving tablets are ideal for many groups of patients including geriatrics, pediatrics, psychiatrics and for those people who have difficulty in swallowing These tablet dosage forms are popularly known as mouth dissolving, fast melting, fast dissolving, orodispersible according to inventors. The main attribute of this drug delivery is administration without water and thus making tablets highly attractive for patients such as children and elderly
265 REVIEW OF STUDY ON PHYSIOCHEMICAL, ANTIOXIDANT, PROPERTIES OF TAMARIXDIOICA, *Dr Aqna Malik
TamarixDioica Leaves collected from marshy areas near river banks. It has been used traditionally as anti-Infective (Said,1969), aphrodisiac (Katewa et al., 2006), Cough and Flu (UK Saad et al.,2009) and Astringent. In my study Phytochemical constituents, antioxidant activity of various extracts of TamarixDioicia was carried out. Phytochemicals were extracted from different extracts of TamarixDioica using various solvents such as, chloroform, ethanol, ethyl acetate, methanol. Screening of phytochemicals showed positive results for the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, steroids, glycosides, carbohydrates, terpenoids and tannins. Phytochemicals were extracted best in methanol. Separation of compounds was also done by TLC method. Free radical scavenging activity was determined using FeCL3 method, is a stable antioxidant. Both Methanolic and Ethanolic extracts was found to have maximum antioxidant activity. These activities may be due to the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, steroids, glycosides and tannins in Tamarixdioicia.
266 A REVIEW ON NON-IONIC SURFACTANT BASED ORGANOGEL FOR TRANSDERMAL DELIVERY, Varsha Gupta*, Meenu Nagpal, Imran Khan, Geeta Aggarwal, Rupinder Kaur, Sukhdev Singh, Tapan Behl, Upendra Kumar Jain
Organogel, a viscoelastic system, can be regarded as a semi-solid preparation. An organogel is a non crystalline, non-glassy thermoreversible (thermoplastic) solid material composed of a liquid organic phase.the three-dimensional networked structure formed due to the physical interactions amongst the self assembled structures of compounds regarded as gelators. In general, organogels are thermodynamically stable in nature and have been explored as matrices for the delivery of bioactive agents. In the current manuscript, attempts have been made to understand the Properties of organogels, various types of organogelator and some applications of the organogels in controlled delivery.
267 BISPHENOL A AND ITS EFFECT ON HUMAN HEALTH: A REVIEW, Abdul Rasheed. Md*
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an industrial chemical produced in large quantities for use primarily in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, thermal paper, BPA-based products include DVDs, computers, home appliances, spectacles and optical lenses, reusable water bottles, food storage containers, sports safety equipment, medical equipment, construction materials, paints and coatings. BPA contamination may occur from many different sources, but the most common way of BPA contamination is through packaged foods or beverages where the packing material contains BPA human exposure to BPA may arise through BPA leaching from these materials into foods. Over the past few years, considerable scientific evidence indicates that there have been many issues raised all over the world on the use of BPA. BPA is known to possess estrogenic activities; hence, it mimics the role of estrogen once it enters in to living systems. Therefore BPA belongs to a group of chemicals termed Hormone disruptors or Endocrine disruptors. It can cause damage to reproductive organs, thyroid gland, urino-genital abnormalities in male babies, a decline in semen quality in men, early onset of puberty in girls, metabolic disorders including insulin resistant (type 2) diabetes and obesity, neurobehavioral problems, and most recently it has also been linked to cancer development in humans. Here, in this review, we aim to summarize various effects of BPA on human health.
268 A REVIEW ON SOLID DISPERSION, Kritika Thakur*, Meenu Nagpal, Geeta Aggarwal, Rupinder Kaur, Sukhdev Singh, Tapan Behl, Upendra Kumar Jain
Improving oral bioavailability of drugs those given as solid dosage forms remains a challenge for the formulation scientists due to solubility problems. The dissolution rate could be the rate-limiting process in the absorption of a drug from a solid dosage form of relatively insoluble drugs. Therefore increase in dissolution of poorly soluble drugs by solid dispersion technique represents a challenge to the formulation scientists. Solid dispersion techniques have attracted considerable interest of improving the dissolution rate of highly lipophilic drugs thereby improving their bioavailability by reducing drug particle size, improving wettability and forming amorphous particles. The term solid dispersion refers to a group of solid products consisting of at least two different components, generally a hydrophilic inert carrier or matrix and a hydrophobic drug.
269 ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS OF VETERINARY IMPORTANCE REVIEW, *Varuna P. Panicker1, Anu Gopalakrishnan2 and Sisilamma George3
A review of selected acute phase proteins (APPs) with veterinary importance is given. It appears that APPs represent as suitable analytes for evaluation of animal health. Acute phace proteins are usually glycoproteins. Exceptions are C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA). Acute phase proteins can be used as diagnostic tool in many diseases like bovine respiratory syncytial virus, prostate cancer, bronchopneumonia, multiple myeloma, mastitis, Streptococcus suis infection, starvation, or lymphatic neoplasia and thus, APPs may provide an alternative means of monitoring animal health. The functions of the APPs are varied but generally relate to the defense of the animal to pathological damage and restoration of homeostasis. Indeed the acute phase response is an integral component of the innate immune response forming the first reaction of the host to pathogens and tissue damage. The innate response and the APP predate the acquired immune response during evolution.
270 UPDATED REVIEW ON SOLID PHASE MICRO EXTRACTION, Alagar Raja.M1*, Asma, David Banji1, Rao.KNV1, SelvaKumar.D2.
SPME is found to be a superior sample preparation technique targeting for organic components, including GSR analysis. Gas chromatography combined with varied detection systems performed prior to SPME gives low detection limits in simpler, easier and rapid manner. Solid-phase micro extraction, or SPME, is a sample preparation technique that involves the use of a fiber coated with an extracting phase, that can be a liquid (polymer) or a solid (sorbent), which extracts different kinds of analytes (including both volatile and non-volatile) from different kinds of media, that can be in liquid or gas phase. The quantity of analyte extracted by the fibre is proportional to its concentration in the sample as long as equilibrium is reached or, in case of short time pre-equilibrium, with help of convection or agitation. Pesticides are an important and diverse environmental and agricultural species. Their determination in formulations, in feed and food, and in complex environmental matrices (e.g., water, soil, sludge, sediments, etc.) often requires separation methods capable of high efficiency, unique selectivity, and high sensitivity. Because pesticides (organophosporus, organochlorine, carbamate, dithiocarbamate, etc.) are carcinogenic, they are problematic for humans in the course of the food chain. Residual analyses have been performed to find out the concentration and type of pesticides and their metabolites left in food at the time of consumption. This ultimately helps in production of better and human-friendly pesticides.
271 COLON DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A NOVEL PERSPECTIVE, Rama Krishna Reddy Padamala*1, Ranjith Reddy Kondeti2, Shalem Raju3, Kranti Sri Mulpuri4
In the recent year colonic drug delivery has gained importance for delivery of drug for the treatment of local diseases associated with colon and systemic delivery of therapeutic peptides and proteins. Colonic drug delivery has gained increased importance not just for the delivery of the drugs for the treatment of local diseases associated with the colon like Crohns disease, ulcerative colitis, etc. but also for the systemic delivery of proteins, therapeutic peptides, anti-asthmatic drugs, antihypertensive drugs and anti-diabetic agents. Primary approaches for CTDDS (Colon targeted Drug Delivery System), which includes prodrugs, pH and time dependent systems, Bacterial enzyme dependent colonic DDS and pH and bacterial enzyme dependent colonic DDS. The novel approach of CTDDS, which includes pressure controlled colonic delivery capsules (PCDCS), CODES and osmotic controlled drug delivery are specific technique. This review article discusses introduction of colon, need and approaches of colonic drug delivery, factor effecting colonic transition, colonic diseases and the novel and emerging technologies for colon targeting.
272 A REVIEW FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES: AS A STORE HOUSE OF BIOACTIVE COMPOUND., Akanksha Bhardwaj1, Pavan Agrawal*1
This review describes information that endophytic fungi are the store house of naturally occurring bioactive compound. Plants have been exploited for human benefits for over thousands of years and have been the storage house of compounds for medicine. Endophytic fungi are a kind of fungi that colonize and reside in living and internal tissues of plants without causing any disease to the plant and reproduce by vegetative and sexual methods. Endophytes constitute a large diversity of microbial adaptations that have developed in special and hidden environments. Because of their huge diversity and particular habituation, they can provide a good area for research in the field of making new medicines and novel drug like molecules. Many microorganisms have developed resistance against the current drugs so it is necessary to search for new drugs. In order to provide aid and comfort in all aspects of mankinds life it is very important to make drugs which have safe bioactive compounds which are not dangerous for human health. There are many challenges in front of scientists for instance rise of new diseases, emergence of virus which are life threatening and management of complications occur after operation in patient with organ transplantation. This has led scientists to hunt for different natural sources that are safe and potent to meet the challenges of twenty first century. Endophytes possess different types of bioactivity, such as antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer and antifungul agents.
273 A REVIEW: SOLID DISPERSION, Naveen Dutt Dixit*, Suneel Kumar Niranjan
The solubility issues complicating the delivery of these new drugs also affect the delivery of many existing drugs. The various techniques are available for enhancement of solubility. Solid dispersion is one of the most promising approaches for solubility enhancement . Currently only 8% of new drug candidates have both high solubility and permeability. More than 60% of potential drug products suffer from poor water solubility. In solid dispersion particle size of drug is reduced or a crystalline pure drug is converted into amorphous form and hence the solubility of drug is increased. Polymers incorporated in solid dispersion technologies are usually hydrophilic in nature and also showing compatibility with the drug to enhance the drug solubility. The present article reviews the basic concept about solid dispersion, various types of solid dispersion, criteria of solvent selection, the methods of preparation, characterization, their advantages, limitations, applications, future prospect and various types of marketed preparations.
274 A REVIEW ARTICLE : ON NANOEMULSION, Raj Kumar Mishra*, G.C.Soni, R.P Mishra
Nanoemulsions have the potential in pharmaceutical industries because of the transparency at high droplet volume fraction, higher rate of bioavailability or diffusion and increased shelf life of the pharmaceuticals. Nanoemulsions are clear, thermodynamically stable, isotropic liquid mixtures of oil, water, surfactant and co-surfactant. These are oil-in-water (o/w) type of emulsions with the average droplet size ranging from 5nm to 100 nm. Reduction in droplet size to nanoscale leads to change in physical properties such as optical transparency & unusual elastic behavior. Nanoemulsions/ Sub-micron emulsions (SMEs)/ Mini-emulsions are thermodynamically stable transparent or translucent dispersions of oil and water stabilized by an interfacial film of surfactant and co surfactant molecules having a droplet size of less than 100 nm. This review provides brief information about method of preparation and evaluation of nanoemulsion as drug carriers for improving the delivery of therapeutic agents. several techniques are to be used for preparation of nanoemulsions like microfluidization, high pressure homogenization, low energy emulsification and solvent evaporation method and parameter that are to be used for its characterization like droplet size analysis, viscosity determination, drug content, refractive index, pH, zeta potential, Transmission electron microscopy, thermal stability, release and in vitro skin permeation study.
275 THE PRONIOSOMES DEVELOPMENT AND OPTIMIZATION AS A SURROGATED DRUG CARRIER FOR ORAL DELIVERY OF GLICLAZIDE. AN-OVERVIEW, Rishikesh Gupta1, Santosh Kumar *2, Nikhil Gupta 2, Virendra Kumar2, Dr. S K Prajapati3 and Anurag Kumar 4
The novel drug delivery systems have various routes of administration to achieve controlled drug release and targeted drug delivery. Encapsulation of the drug in vesicular structures, which can be predicted to prolong the existence of the drug in systemic circulation and reduce the toxicity, if selective uptake can be achieved. Consequently, a number of vesicular drug delivery systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transferosomes, ethosomes and proniosomes were developed. Proniosomes are water soluble carrier particles that are coated with surfactants and can be hydrated to form a niosomal dispersion immediately before use on brief agitation in hot aqueous media. Proniosomes are very promising as drug carriers. The formulation study on Gliclazide is an attempt to prepare proniosome based niosomal drug delivery system using maltodextrin as carrier and to evaluate its performance. The proniosomes with various types and contents of nonionic surfactant and cholesterol is evaluated in this study. An ideal or best formulation of proniosomes based niosome is said to be one which gives high entrapment drug efficiency with desirable sustained release. In this study entrapment efficiency is found to be cholesterol: surfactant ratio dependent. The release rate also found to be dependent of cholesterol: surfactant ratio. For effective proniosomes, it is essential that the surfactant coating be smooth and uniform to allow for rapid and consistent hydration. SEM study reveals that the coating of the surfactant on the maltodextrin powder is uniform. Angle of repose measurements indicated that the fluidity of proniosomes dry powder is equal to or better than that of maltodextrin powder, so further processing of proniosomes powder should be straightforward.
276 INVESTIGATION OF ANTI OBESITY ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF ROOTS OF CARICA PAPAYA ON OBESITY INDUCED ANIMAL MODEL, Jatoth Manjula*1, T.Mangilal2,3, R. Naga Kishore3,4,N.Anjaneyulu3, M. Naga Ganesh3, G.Abhinayani3 And N.Sravya3
The present study is to evaluate the anti-obesity activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Carica Papaya. Phytochemical screening of crude extract reveals the presence of carbohydrates, proteins, flavonoids, saponins, fixed oils, glycosides and steroids. Hence the presence of bioactive constituents was aimed to explore the anti obesity activity of roots extracts in Atherogenic Diet (AD) induced obesity model in experimental animals i.e. mice. Standard reference Orlistat (10 mg/kg) produced a significant (P
277 BIOINFORMATICS-A FUTURE TOOL IN RESEARCH, Siju E. N. 1*,Harshitha P T1, Saranya M1, Minil M1, Susmitha Gopalan1, Rahul K1and Rajalakshmi G R2
Bioinformatics plays an essential role in today?s science. As the amount of data grows exponentially, there is a parallel growth in the demand for tools and methods in data management, visualization, integration, analysis, modelling and prediction. At the same time, many researchers in biology are unfamiliar with available bioinformatics methods, tools and databases which could lead to missed opportunities or misinterpretation of the information.
278 INVESTIGATION OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF ROOTS OF CANTHIUM DICOCCUM IN STREPTOMYCIN INDUCED NEPHROTOXICITY IN ANIMAL MODEL, Malothu Nagulu*1, T.Mangilal2,3, R. Naga Kishore3,4, G.Abhinayani3 and N.Sravya3
The present study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extract of canthium dicoccum against Streptomycin-induced nephrotoxocity in rats. Streptomycin -administered rats (control group) had encountered acute kidney dysfunction as evidenced by elevation in serum urea and creatinine. Treatment of aqueous extract of C.dicoccum at the dose level of 100 and 200mg/kg for 14 days significantly lowered the serum level of creatinine, urea and uric acid when compared with the control group. The statistical significance of the nephroprotective activity of C. dicoccum treated group and the Cystone treated group were compared against control were found almost equal as both groups gained significance (P
279 FORMULATION STRATEGY FOR DISSOLUTION ENHANCEMENT OF ATOVAQUNE, *Savita Shimple
The aim of present work was Formulation strategy for Dissolution Enhancement of Atovaquone. Atovaquone is a hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone, used for the prevention and treatment of Pneumocystis jevorici (formerly carinii) pneumonia and prevention and treatment of P. falciparum malaria. The main aim of this study was to enhance the dissolution rate of a poorly water-soluble antimalarial drug, Atovaquone , by Formulation Development and Evaluation of Immediate Release Tablet. Methods: Immediate release tablet was prepared by Direct Compression method. Weight accurately all ingredient like drug and excipient (e.g. Microcrystalline Cellulose, Starch, SLS, talk, Magnesium stearate ). Pass all ingredient in sieve no. 18 individually . Then mix all ingredient properly in mortar and pestle and pass through sieve no. 60. Tablets was prepared by direct compression method. Author:- Savita Shimple, Nitin Tribhuvan, Aniket Deshmukh. Shri. Bhagawan college of Pharmacy, Aurangabad, N-6 Cidco. 431003. Result: On the basis of in vitro dissolution, starch and ,Sodium Lauryl Sulphate was superior to improve dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drug. Conclusion: Immediate release tablet formulation use to improve dissolution rate of poorly water soluble antimalarial drug, Atovaquone .
280 DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MUCOADHESIVE ALGINO-HPMC MICROPARTICULATE SYSTEM OF ACECLOFENAC FOR ORAL SUSTAINED DRUG DELIVERY, Anuratha Patel*, Ritesh Shah, Parixit Prajapati, Anil Jadhav
Micro-particulate drug delivery of aceclofenac was prepared by ion gelatin technique using a blend of sodium alginate and HPMC as release retardant. The gastric residence of conventional dosage form is typically short which transit rapidly through the small intestine in not more than 3h, thus rapid gastrointestinal (GI) transit phenomenon may consequently lead to reduction in the extent of absorption of various drugs. The present study was to develop mucoadhesive microsphere of aceclofenac and evaluate the effect of polymer concentration on drug release kinetics. The formulations were investigated for various evaluation parameters like particle size, flow behavior, swelling properties, surface morphology study by SEM and in vitro drug release etc.It was observed that by increasing the polymer concentration the drug release of all the formulations were gradually decreased and the optimized formulation (F7) was able to sustain the drug release for 12 hours. The drug release mechanism showed that all the formulations revealed higher coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.992 to 0.999) with the Korsmeyer-Peppas model whereas release exponent value (n) ranged from 0.572 to 0.843. So, It can be suggested all the formulations follow anomalous non-Flicking diffusion mechanism.SEM study has revealed that the spheres were almost spherical in shape with rough outer surface. DSC and FTIR study showed that the major peaks of pure drug were almost intact in the formulation. Therefore, it was concluded that aceclofenac loaded alginate-HPMC microspheres can be prepared by gelatin technique and used for sustaining the drug release for prolonged period of time.
281 FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING LOSARTAN POTASSIUM TABLETS, L.Subramanian*, P.Ramsubramaniyan, S.Kanda Kumar, S. Palanichamy, P.Solairaj
New era is an era of Novel Drug Delivery Systems. Formulation research is oriented towards increasing the efficacy of existing drug molecule through novel concepts of drug delivery. Losartan Potassium is an angiotensin receptor antagonist, used in the management of hypertension, which is a potential drug candidate for developing into Fast Dissolving Tablet System. It has low bioavailability due to its first pass metabolism. In the present work an attempt has been made to formulate and evaluate Fast Dissolving Tablet System of Losartan Potassium. The basic approach followed in this study was to incorporate a combination of superdisintegrants in optimum concentrations which can minimize disintegration time. The various superdisintegrants used in the present study were CCS, SSG, and CP. The concentrations of the superdisintegrants are 2.5, 3.5, and 5. Various batches of Fast Dissolving Tablet System were prepared by direct compression method and using conventional tablet machine. The formulated Fast Dissolving Tablet System were evaluated for various pre compression parameters and post compression parameters. All the batches of the formulations possessed required physicochemical parameters. The disintegration time of various formulations ranged from 21 to 26 seconds. In vitro drug release for various formulations ranges from 88.92 to 99.69 % end of 12 minutes.
282 MECHANISTIC STUDY OF PALLADIUM (II) CATALYZED OXIDATION OF ASPIRIN BY SODIUM PER IODATE(NAIO4): IN PERCHLORIC ACID MEDIUM, Sheila Srivastava and *Reena patel
Kinetic investigation of Pd (II) catalyzed oxidation of Aspirin by sodium per iodate (NaIO4) in acidic medium has been studied in the temperature range 30-450C. The reaction is carried out in the presence of mercuric acetate as a scavenger for iodide ion. The rate shows first order kinetics with respect to the catalyst i.e. Pd(II) while less than unit order with respect to substrate i.e. Aspirin is observed. Experimental result shows zero order kinetics with respect to oxidant i.e. [NaIO4] and [H+]. Negligible effect of mercuric acetate and ionic strength of the medium was observed and the reaction showed negative effect with respect to [Cl-]. A suitable mechanism in conformity with the kinetic observations has been proposed and the thermodynamic parameters computed.
283 DEVELOPMENT OF ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR METOCLOPROMIDE USING SPECTROFLUOROMETRY, B. Vedhapriya, A. Anton Smith* and S.Parimalakrishnan
A simple, robust, selective and sensitive spectrofluorometric method has been developed for the determination of metoclopromide in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. The method was based on the scanning of methanolic solution of the drug and methanolic solution of formulation. The fluorescence was measured at the excitation of 307 nm and the emission was determined at 354 nm. The method showed high sensitivity with linearity range from 80 to 480 ?g/ml. The lower limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 6.6 ?g/ml and the limit of quantization (LOQ) was determined as the lowest concentration was found to be 22 ?g/ml. The variables that affected the reaction were carefully studied and optimized. The proposed method was applied successfully for the determination of metoclopromide in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations. The mean percentage recovery is was found to be 100.5661.067.
284 BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF TIN OXIDE NANOPARTICLES SYNTHESIZED USING PLANT EXTRACT, P. Kamaraj*, R. Vennila, M. Arthanareeswari and S.Devikala
SnO2 nanoparticles was prepared by using Cleistanthus Collinus plant methanolic extract. The formation of tin oxide nanoparticles were confirmed by XRD, SEM and EDAX. The average crystallite size of SnO2 nanoparticles was found to be 49.26nm.The antibacterial activities of SnO2 nanoparticles were studied by using Escherichia coli and S.aureus and antifungal activities were studied by using Asperjillus Nigar and T.viridea. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities of SnO2 nanoparticles were studied by DPPH Scavenging method.
285 ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ETHANOLIC LEAVES EXTRACT OF BIXA ORELLANA , Rajendra Singh Bais*
In the present investigation the ethanolic leaves extract of Bixa orellana showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. The activity against B. subtilis and E. coli was more pronounced. The effective antibacterial activity observed against E.coli and B. subtilis. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of all the test Bacteria was determined. The preliminary phytochemical tests for the detection of secondary metabolites was performed.
286 PREPARATION, EVALUATION AND COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF BROAD SPECTRUM ANTIBACTERIAL DRUG, Poonam Abhimanyu Salunke*, Rupali Suresh Wagh, Shital Vikas Patil, Shital Shantaram Patil
The present study was an attempt to develop floating tablets of Ciprofloxacin Hcl which on oral administration prolongs its gastric residence time thereby increasing bioavailability, diminishing side effects and enhanced patient compliance. Ciprofloxacin an antibacterial having narrow absorption window in the upper part of gastrointestinal tract, Thus, Floating tablets were prepared using directly compression technique using polymers like Tamarind cmc, HPMC K4M, Ethyl Cellulose for their gel-forming properties. The HPMC alone polymer unable to controlled on release rate it release drug >90% in 12 hrs while in combination with Tamarind cmc it release >90% in 12 hrs. The results indicate that gas generated gastro retentive floating Tablets of Ciprofloxacin HCL containing Tamarind cmc and HPMCK4 provides a better option for controlled release action and improved bioavailability.
287 PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY, INVITRO ANTI-MICROBIAL AND ANTI-OXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF MUCUNA PRURIENS LEAVES, Ramya Kuber B*, Swapna B , Tejaswi M, Triveni M
The antioxidant activity of alcoholic extract of leaves of Mucuna pruriens (MP) of family Fabaceae was studied using three invitro assays. The antioxidant activity of alcoholic extract of MP was evaluated by scavenging of DPPH, Lipid Peroxidation, Nitric oxide Scavenging activity. The concentration of alcoholic extract were (3-800 ug/ml). The MP showed maximum scavenging activity at concentration of 800 ?g/ml. The percent inhibition of the scavenging of the DPPH was found to be 80%, Lipid Peroxidation was 86% and nitric oxide scavenging activity was found to be 69%. The antibacterial activity of the alcoholic extract of Mucuna pruriens leave was carried out and it was determined by the cup plate and disc plate methods against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis. Streptomycin was used as a positive control. The zone of inhibition of alcoholic extract of MP against various microorganisms was measured and compared with standard control, MP showed maximum activity at the concentration of 200 mg/kg against all the bacterial strains, Maximum antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and exhibited moderate antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. on the basis of the results obtained in the present study, the antioxidant activity of MP and antimicrobial activity may be due to presence of the active principle present in MP leaves. These invitro assays indicate that this plant extract is a significant source of natural antioxidants, which might be helpful in preventing the progress of various oxidative stresses. The finding justify the therapeutic application of the plant in the indigenous system of medicine, augmenting its therapeutic value. Preliminary Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, amino acids, proteins, glycosides, carbohydrates etc. Phytochemical analysis intended to serve as a major resource for information on analytical and instrumental methodology in the plant sciences.
288 EFFECT OF HYDROPHILIC SWELLABLE POLYMER ON DISSOLUTION RATE OF PARACETAMOL USING SIMPLE PHYSICAL MIXING TECHNIQUE, Kamalesh Upreti, Lalit Kumar, Akash Kirsali, Stutie Pathak Anand, Viney Chawla*
In case of poorly aqueous soluble drugs, solubility plays a major role in drug dissolution. The rate of oral absorption of these drugs is controlled by their dissolution in the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, solubility and dissolution rate are the key determinants of oral bioavailability. Poorly soluble drugs are dispersed in an inert hydrophilic polymer or matrix by physical mixing, melting, solution formation, or solvent melting to yield solid dispersion in order to enhance drug dissolution and bioavailability. The present study explores the potential of hydrophilic swellable polymers such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) which have still been unexplored for their potential to form solid dispersion. For this reason, in the present work, water-swellable polymers were used along with other excipients of solid dosage forms. These polymers are expected to hold the drug in intimate contact with water owing to their water retention potential and increase its wettability. The present study recorded the effect of hydrophilic swellable polymers on dissolution rate of Paracetamol (PCM). The percent drug release of HPMC+PCM in one hour was greater than CMC+PCM i.e. 58.76% and 43.08%.
289 ROLE OF C-PEPTIDE AND C-PEPTIDE GLUCOSE RATIO IN ASSESSING DECREASED BETA CELL FUNCTION IN CHRONIC PANCREATIC DISORDERS, *Sujatha Rani Akuri1, Dr. Dawood Suleman2
C-peptide to Glucose ratio is considered as a better marker for beta cell function in newly detected diabetes patients. Present study, we are studying Serum C-peptide to Glucose ratio levels of 30 chronic pancreatic disorder patients and 20 healthy volunteers to rule out the prediabetes in chronic pancreatic disorder patients. From this study by analyzing the result we found that the mean of fasting serum C-peptide to Glucose ratio levels in cases as 1.267 with a standard deviation of 0.506 is lower when compared with controls with mean value observed in the control group is 2.105 with a standard deviation of 0.732. The P value of fasting serum levels of C-peptide to Glucose ratio in cases and controls is 0.0001. The mean of 2nd hour serum C-peptide to Glucose ratio levels in cases as 4.214 with a standard deviation of 1.647, the mean value observed in the control group is 5.136 with a standard deviation of 0.968 is higher in controls. The P value of 2nd hour serum levels of C-peptide to Glucose ratio in cases and controls is 0.0001, hence there is a significant difference showing low levels in cases. Serum C-peptide to Glucose ratio levels are higher in controls compared to cases. This indicates that there is significant beta cell dysfunction in cases compared to controls. This leads to the diabetic condition in chronic pancreatic disorder patients.
290 PHYTOCHEMICAL, GC-MS, FT-IR ANALYSIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PASSIFLORA EDULIS OF KODAIKANAL REGION OF TAMILNADU, 1M. Razia*, 1Beulah and 2S.Sivaramakrishnan
The study was carried out to examined the phytochemical constituents and anti bacterial activity of Passiflora edulis. Aqueous, chloroform and methanolic extracts was performed for phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, flavonoids, alkaloids and phenolic compounds. The antimicrobial activities of the leaf extracts were screened against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae. All the extracts showed antimicrobial activity against the pathogenic bacteria tested. Amongst the extracts examined, Methanolic extract exhibited the high antimicrobial activity against the bacteria. The phytochemical compounds were screened by GC-MS method. The Methanolic leaf extract presented 5 bioactive compounds. The identification of phytochemical compounds is based on the molecular weight and molecular formula. Dodecanoic acid,10-methyl-,methyl ester (C14H28O2), E,E,Z-1,3,12-Nonadecatriene-5,14-diol (C19H3402), 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid,2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester (Z,Z,Z) (C21H36O4 ), S.Hexadecenoic acid,9-octadecenyl ester (Z,Z) (C34H64O2 ) and Docosanoc acid,1,2,3 propanetriyl ester (C69H134O6) respectively.
291 NOVEL ANTIOXIDANT BIOASSAY, QSAR AND DOCKING STUDIES OF 1-PHENYL, 3-(NITRO FURAN) PROP-2-ENE-1-ONE DERIVATIVES, Ramesh Macha, Ganesh Arram, Parthasarathy Tigulla*
A novel in vitro antioxidant spectrophotometric method is visualized and implemented from the charge transfer complex. A simple, rapid and sensitive antioxidant bioassay study of chalcones was monitored at 370nm. The antioxidant property of chalcones is influenced to a great extent by two aryl structures and their substitution pattern. The hydroxyl substituent is the key group to enhance the efficacy of antioxidant activity for easy conversion of phenoxy radicals through the hydrogen transfer mechanism. Quantum chemical methods, AM1 and PM3 were used to estimate different physicochemical parameters and different QSAR models were generated. Docking studies were also performed with the active site of cyclo- oxygenase-2 to identify hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic and ionic interactions. GOLD, Auto dock and Argus lab docking results revealed that the active site residue, TYR-355 plays a key role in the formation of hydrogen bonding with chalcones. Mainly, the compound-2 has shown highest inhibitory activity against cyclo-oxygenase-2 with the formation of strong hydrogen bond interactions with the residues of active site. This chemical environment may serve as a starting point for synthesis of cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors with improved efficacy.
292 ATTENUATION OF HEMODYNAMIC RESPONSE TO LARYNGOSCOPY AND ENDOTRACEAL INTUBATION-A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FENTANYL AND ESMOLOL. , Dr. Amarjeet D. Patil1, Dr. Baliram V. Ghodke2, Dr. Sunita A. Patil3
Background: Laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation are integral part of induction of general anesthesia which cause to presser response leading to hemodynamic responses. Several techniques have been studied to attenuate this stress response but none of them are completely satisfactory hence there is a constant search for an ideal drug to attenuate hemodynamic response. Here we studied the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation and compare the relative efficacy of Esmolol and Fentanyl for attenuation of hemodynamic response during laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. Methods: After obtaining approval from the Institutional Ethics Committee and written informed consent form patients, 60 patients were randomly selected & allocated into two groups,Group I:Esmolol group &Group II: Fentanyl group of 30 each.Vital parameters (pulse rate and blood pressure) were measured at various intervals and compared. Multiple pair wise comparisons with Bonferronis adjustment done and ANOVA (analysis of variable) test was applied. Results: Significant difference was noted in hemodynamic parameters in both the groups. Conclusion: Intravenous Esmolol was found to be more effective than intravenous Fentanyl in attenuating presser response to laryngoscopy and intubation.
293 KINETICS OF OXIDATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL DRUG METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE BY BROMAMINE T IN NaOH MEDIUM. A MECHANISTIC STUDY, P. R. Rangaraju1, T V Venkatesha1* and R Ramachandrappa2
The kinetics of oxidation of Metformin hydrochloride (MET) by bromamine-T (BAT) has been investigated in NaOH medium at 303 K. The reaction followed first-order kinetics with respect to [BAT], [MET] and fractional-order with [OH?]. First-order kinetics with respect to [BAT] was observed for the oxidation of metformin hydrochloride. An increase in medium concentration increased the rate of reaction. The effect of added halide ions, reduction product ptoluene sulfonamide (PTS), ionic strength (NaClO4) and dielectric constant of the medium was studied on the rate of reaction. The main products were identified by spot test, GC?MS spectral analysis. A mechanism was proposed on the basis of experimental results. The activation parameters have been determined from the Arrhenius plots. With respect to the slow step of the mechanism were evaluated, and the thermodynamic parameters was also determined and discussed.
294 NANOPARTICLES IN PHARMACEUTICAL TECHNOLOGY, V.P.Pandey*, J.Joysa Ruby
The fact that most drugs have not only positive pharmacological effects, but that they also exhibit side effects, makes the concepts of drug targeting very attractive. Besides biocompatibility, one of the important requirements for any kind of the production of nanoparticles is that the matrix is biodegradable. The present article reviews in brief importance, application, use methods, formulations and future of nanoparticles in pharmaceutical technology. The aim is to acknowledge the nanoparticles as highly growing application in pharmaceutical technology and drug delivery system.
295 A STUDY ON HUMAN SKULLS AND ITS ANTHROPOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE, Dr.Arun Kumar.S.Bilodi1 Dr.M.R.Gangadhar2
Aim of the study: To record any variations and morphology of bones of human skulls and its anthropological importance. Place of Study: This study on human skulls was done in the department of Anatomy at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College and Research Institute, Puducherry. Period of Study: This study was done during March April 2012. Materials and Methods: 20 dry unknown human skulls constituted the materials for the present study. Each skull was examined in detail for morphology, variations. All the normas and cranial fossas were observed. The circumference of all the skulls was measured, any rare foramina were also observed. Discussion: The present finding in this study is well correlated and compared with available literatures. Conclusion: This study is of paramount importance. It has both neurosurgical and anthropological importance. Hence studied and reported.
296 SYNTHESIS, SPECTROSCOPIC AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES OF BINUCLEAR SCHIFF BASE COMPLEXES WITH N2O2 DONOR GROUPS, S.Vedanayaki1*, P. Jayaseelan2
A binuclear Schiff base, H2L, ligand synthesized by the reaction of 5-bromo-3-fluorosalicylaldehyde with 4, 4' diaminodiphenylmethane in the molar ratio 2:1 forms complexes with transition metal ions such as Cu(II), Ni(II), V(IV) and Co(II). The elemental analysis, conductivity, IR, electronic, 1H NMR, LC-MS and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to characterize the isolated ligand and its metal complexes. The ligand acts as dibasic with N2O2 tetradentate sites and two ligands coordinate with two metal ions to form binuclear complexes. The 1H - NMR data reveal that the Schiff base exists in enol iminic form. The binding sites are the nitrogen atoms of azomethine groups and oxygen atoms of the phenolic groups. Substitution in phenyl ring of the complexes produces shift in the azomethine ?(C=N) stretching vibrational frequency. The non-electrolytic behavior of complexes indicates the absence of counter ions. EPR spectra provided further information to confirm the binuclear structure. On the basis of electronic spectral data and magnetic susceptibility measurements, suitable geometry has been proposed for each complex. The Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes were tested against four pathogenic bacteria (S. aureus and B. subtilis) as Gram positive bacteria (E. coli and K. pneumoniae) as Gram negative bacteria and one pathogenic fungi (A. fumigatus) to assess their antimicrobial properties.
297 VALIDATED BIO-ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CLOPIDOGREL AND ASPIRIN IN HUMAN PLASMA BY RP-ULTRA FAST LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY, Jinesh Bahubali Nagavi1*, Bannimath Gurupadayya2, Preethi G. A3.
This manuscript describes a simple, sensitive, rapid and precise Ultra fast liquid chromatographic (UFLC) method for the simultaneous determination Clopidogrel and Aspirin in human plasma according to USFDA draft guidelines. In the current study, the analysis was performed on phenomenex C8 (250 4.6mm, 5?m) column using phosphate buffer (pH-2.5) and acetonitrile (35: 65 v/v) as mobile phase at flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. In this developed method Clopidogrel and Aspirin eluted at a retention time of 2.697 and 5.337 min respectively. The proposed method is having linearity in the concentration range from 10 to 50?g/mL of Clopidogrel and Aspirin. The current method was validated with respect to linearity; precision, lowest limit of detection (LOD), accuracy and recovery according to the USFDA guidelines. The system consisted of a pump (Shimadzu, prominence, UFLC), with 20?l sample injector, along with a PDA detector at a wavelength of 230 nm and 252 nm for Aspirin and Clopidogrel respectively. Data was compiled using Shimadzu LC Solution software. A good linear relationship over the concentration range of 10-50?g/ml was shown. Validation of the method was carried out as per the USFDA draft guidelines. The method developed was found to be precise, accurate, specific, linear and selective. Statistical analysis shows that the method is reproducible and selective for the estimation of Clopidogrel and Aspirin in dosage form.
298 EXTENDED RELEASE TABLET FORMULATION CONTAINING DICLOFENAC SODIUM, Dipti Phadtare*, Ganesh Phadtare, Nilesh Barhate, Mahendra Asawat
Diclofenac Sodium is a potent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Due to its low solubility in water and high permeability it is classified as BCS II. Diclofenac Sodium as a model drug is widely used to study the different dosage form. However, extended release systems prepared incorporating diclofenac sodium has received considerable attention. The main objective of the present work was to develop a extended release matrix tablet of Diclofenac sodium using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as release controlling factor and to evaluate drug release parameters as per various release kinetic models. In order to achieve required extended release profile, 185mg tablets with different drug: hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) ratio were formulated. Extended-release matrix tablets containing 75mg diclofenac sodium were prepared wet granulation. Formulated extended-release diclofenac sodium tablets were analyzed for in-vitro drug release. The results of the present study point out that Diclofenac sodium release from HPMC matrices are mainly controlled by the Drug:HPMC ratio as well as viscosity of HPMC . Drug release kinetics of this formulation correspond best to Zero order model and drug release mechanism swelling, polymer disentanglement and erosion based on release exponent value of Korsmeyer and Peppas equation.
299 ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES WITH METHANOL EXTRACT OF COUROUPITA GUIANENSIS FLOWERS AGAINST METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, Snehali Majumder1*, E.M. Elango2, Christian J.P.A. Hoebe3, Mohammed Rahmatullah4
The present study was aimed at evaluating the anti-MRSA effect of Couroupita guianensis flower methanol extract. These flowers are used to treat microbial infections in traditional medicinal practices of India. The methanolic extract of Couroupita guianensis flowers were subjected to preliminary antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method and found to be active against both Gram-negative Escherichia coli as well as Gram-positive methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Biochemical property of the extract was established by phytochemical analysis. The preliminary biochemical tests showed the presence of glycosides, tannins, and phenolics, which group of compounds have previously been reported to exhibit anti-microbial effects.
300 HYPROMELLOSE A CHOICE OF POLYMER IN EXTENDED RELEASE TABLET FORMULATION, Dipti Phadtare*, Ganesh Phadtare , Nilesh B*, Mahendra Asawat*
Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) also know as hypromellose, is largely in used cellulose ether in the development of hydrophilic matrices. Hypromellose provides the release of a drug in a controlled manner, effectively increasing the duration of release of a drug to prolong its therapeutic effect. This review provides a current insight into hypromellose and its applicability to hydrophilic matrices in order to highlight the basic parameters that affect its performance. Topics covered include the chemical, thermal and mechanical properties of hypromellose, hydration of the polymer matrices, the mechanism of drug release and the various models used to predict the kinetics and mechanism of drug release from the HPMC matrices. This review also provides the maximum potency of hypromellose used in various dosage form and current patent status review of hypromellose as a release controlling polymer in extended release matrix systems.
301 METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE ESTIMATION OF SAROGLITAZAR IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC, B.Siddartha1*, Dr. I. Sudheer Babu2
A simple, sensitive and rapid reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the estimation of Saroglitazar in pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms. A Kromasil C18 column (150 x 4.6mm x 5?m) was used as a stationary phase with a mobile phase containing a mixture of buffer (1ml of ortho phosphoric acid was diluted to 1000ml with water) and acetonitrile in the ratio of 35:65v/v. The flow rate was 1.0ml/min. The effluent was monitored at 295nm and eluted at 3.099min. Calibration curve was plotted with a range from 10-60?g/ml for Saroglitazar and the correlation was found to be 0.9997.The accuracy range was found between 98.87% and 101.45%. The %RSD values for both intraday and interday precision were less than 2.0. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were found to be 0.716?g/ml and 2.169?g/ml respectively. The assay was validated for the parameters like specificity, system suitability, precision, accuracy, robustness and ruggedness parameters. The proposed method can be useful for the routine determination of Saroglitazar in pharmaceutical dosage form.
302 IN SILICO STUDIES FOR UNDERSTANDING THE ROLE OF LOVASTATIN-ONE DRUG MANY APPLICATIONS, Kudaravalli Sreedevi1*, Dr.J.Venkateswara Rao2, Dr. M.Lakshmi Narasu3.
Lovastatin is a drug with host of biomedical applications. It is usually produced by the filamentous fungi as a secondary metabolite. Aspergillus terrus is widely studied for its production. The objective of the present article is to establish the biomedical role of lovastatin against the protein drug targets for Alzheimer?s disease, cholesterol synthesis, obesity and cancer. In this endeavor, the experiment proceeds in silico. The dock results were promising and confirm the lovastatin?s role for curing the diseases. It was observed that lovastatin proved to be excellent against cholesterol synthesis with the highest dock score of 52.242, followed by its action against obesity with 42.224. Nevertheless, lovastatin also establishes itself as a drug for Alzheimer?s and cancer with the dock scores of 41.919 and 35.5 respectively.
303 A RARE CASE OF ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATION IN THE LOWER LIMB, Dr. Arun Kumar. S. Bilodi
Aim of the study: To report a case of massive enlargement of left lower limb due to diffuse microscopic arteriovenous malformation. Place of Study: A seventeen old girl from, Mysore, Karnataka, India. Period of Study: During the month of June - July 2014. Case Report: A 17 year old female came with history of diffuse swelling of left leg and foot and skin bluish discolouration of the lateral aspect of left thigh, since birth. The lateral 4 toes of left foot are enlarged having circumference of 5 to 6cm. The middle toe was much longer than other toes. The big toe was smaller in size. Patient has pain while walking and subsides on taking rest. She was the only child born to non consanguineous couple. There was no history of filariasis in the family. Observations: On examination there was generalized massive swelling of the left leg, left foot and lateral four toes in left foot. Big toe is not involved. There was bluish discolouration of the skin on the lateral aspect of left thigh. Discussion: The present study was correlated and well compared with available literature. Conclusion: This is a case of arteriovenous malformation which has given rise to all the above signs and symptoms.
304 CHARACTERISATION OF Solanum diphyllum L. - A MEDICINALLY POTENTIAL SPECIES FROM SOUTHERN WESTERN GHATS IN KERALA USING SEM AND FTIR SPECTROSCOPY, V.S.Anilkumar1, P.J. Aswathy2, A V Sunila3 & K.Murugan3*
Solanum diphyllum L., a medicinal herb, native of Mexico and Central America grows wildly as naturalized in many tropical and subtropical countries. Scientific data addressing its micromorphological features are unavailable. The plant showed promising cytotoxicity against colon and breast carcinoma cell lines, and could be considered as a potent source of anticancer molecules. The present research is aimed at investigating ultrastructural features of leaf, pollen and seed sporoderm using scanning electron microscopy and also functional groups by FT-IR spectroscopy. Leaf epidermis shows glandular and non-glandular hairs. Stomata are anisocytic stomata. Presence of a thick waxy layer over the leaf surface protects the leaves from desiccation. Pollen, trichomes and seed texture patterns were analysed and the data compiled for species discrimination. The morphology of the spermoderm as well as pollen were found to be useful as taxonomic tools for species level identification as well as comparison as these features are genetically determined The spermoderm shows a retticulate pattern with broad lumen and compact hilum. Pollen grains were trizonocolporate and prolate spheroidal in shape. FTIR spectral data reveals specific absorption peaks for the species. Peaks at 1041.56, 2360.87, 3118.9, 3736.12, 3790.12, 3803.63, 3824.84 and 3838.34 are characteristic to Solanum diphyllum.. FTIR spectral data was further analysed with a view to distinguish the functional chemical groups in the dried leaf tissue which in turn provides relevant leads for exploring the pharmacobotanical potentials of the species.
305 DEVELOPMENT OF PROTRANSFERSOMAL SYSTEM FOR EFFECTIVE TRANSDERMAL DELIVERY OF NIFEDIPINE, Rajesh Kumar1, *Murugesan Senthil Kumar2
The purpose of the current study was to investigate the feasibility of new vesicular drug carrier system Protransfersome gel (PTG) as transdermal drug delivery system for Nifedipine. PTG formulations of Nifedipine were prepared by coacervation phase separation method and characterized for vesicle shape, size, entrapment efficiency, turbidity, and drug permeation across rat skin and were evaluated for their stability and bioavailability. For optimization of PTG, different formulations (PTG-1 to PTG-12) were prepared using the various quantity of drug, alcohol and varying the ratio of polymer and surfactant. The maximum entrapment efficiency (97.9 0.35%) and optimum vesicles size (597 4.0 nm) have been attained by optimizing the amount of surfactant (4 mg), alcohol (100 ?l), and PC : S ratio (85 :15). The skin permeation studies were performed for 24 hrs on hairless abdominal skin of rat using the Franz diffusion cell. The flux value obtained from PTG (56.15 2.14 ?g/cm2/hr) is about 3-fold higher than that of the drug suspension (19.28 2.14 ?g/cm2/hr). PTG formulation showed good stability at 4 1C and after 3 months of storage, there was no change in liquid crystalline nature, drug content, and other characteristic parameters observed. The PTG formulation is non-irritant. Hence, the prepared formulation can be considered to be safe for topical application. In vivo pharmacokinetic study of PTG showed a significant increase in bioavailability of Nifedipine by 6.452 times with reference to an oral delivery of drug. From the CLSM study, it was confirmed that the penetration of the PTG entrapped dye was enhanced to the dermis from where it can go directly to the blood circulation.
306 VALIDATED LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR QUANTIFICATION OF NASAL SPRAY FOR CONCURRENT ASSESSMENT OF PHENYLEPHRINE HCl AND LIDOCAINE HCl, Sunitha Gurrala*, Himaja Goli, Srilekha Manchala, Ashwin kumar Matta, Panikumar D Anumolu
A simple and cost-effective liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for concurrent assessment of phenylephrine HCl (PNL) and lidocaine HCl (LID) in nasal spray formulation. Good resolution between the analytes was achieved in formulation and combined standards on Lichrosphere RP18 250mm x 4.6mm, 5?m column in isocratic mode, mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile and buffer, pH 3 in the ratio of 25: 75, v/v was pumped at a flow rate of 1mL/min and eluate was monitored at 254 nm using UV detector. The proposed method was statistically validated as per ICH guidelines. The linearity regression data showed a good linear relationship over a range of 4-44?g/mL and 12.5-75 ?g/mL for PNL and LID, respectively. LOD was found to be 0.756?g/mL and 0.692?g/mL for PNL and LID, respectively (S/N ratio 3:1). LOQ was found to be 2.495?g/mL and 2.0998?g/mL for PNL and LID, respectively (S/N ratio 10:1). The % recoveries of PNL and LID were found to be in the range 100.6-103.6 and 98.8-102.5, respectively. The optimized method was fruitfully applied for the quantification of phenylephine HCl/ lidocaine HCl in nasal spray. This method possesses the grace of applicability in academic institutions as well as in industries.
307 UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM, Rohan D. Kuntawar*, Sugandha V. Mulgund
A simple, precise, accurate and economical spectrophotometric method has been developed for estimation of Diltiazem hydrochloride. The standard and sample solutions were prepared by using distilled water as a solvent. Quantitative determination of the drug was performed at 236 nm. The linearity was established over the concentration range of 6-16 ?g/ml for Diltiazem hydrochloride with correlation coefficient value of 0.999. Precision studies showed that % relative standard deviation (%RSD) was within range of acceptable limits (
308 FORMULATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF SALBUTAMOL SULPHATE ENCLOSED IN ALGINATE MICROBEADS PREPARED BY IONOTROPIC GELATION METHOD, Indhumathi D*, Mohan Varma, Nagirey R.C.Reddy, Pydimarry. Nikhil, Pranuthi Anandaraj
Oral route is the most convenient and common mode of administration of controlled release system. Microbeads is at present most common and rapidly expanding technology for controlled drug delivery system. Salbutamol sulphate is a beta2-adrenergic, anti-asthmatic drug used as bronchodilator in the treatment of bronchial asthma. The major drawback is its shorter biological half life of 4.5 hrs and needs frequent dosing of 2-3 times daily, causing patient non-compliance. To overcome this drawback, an attempt has been made to develop an oral sustained release dosage form of salbutamol sulphate microbeads. It is prepared by ionotropic gelation method, enclosed in sodium alginate as the hydrophilic carrier in combination with pectin and guar gum as coated polymers to modify the drug release. The results shows Salbutamol sulphate release from microbeads formulated with sodium alginate and guar gum (0.5 &1%w/v) coating polymers F8 showed a satisfactory sustained release profile compared to all the formulations. F8 containing all the polymers such as sodium alginate, guar gum and pectin shows a very good extended dissolution profile of 89.76% at 9th hour.
309 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TOPICAL FLURBIPROFEN GEL USING DIFFERENT GELLING AGENTS, Kokane Vikrant *1, Naik Sonali 1
Flurbiprofen is chemically 2-(3- fluoro-4-phenylphenyl) propanoic acid. It is non steroidal anti inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis .Oral administration of this drug is associated with severe gastrointestinal side effects like ulceration and gastro intestinal bleeding. The solution of this problem lies in the fact that, topically applied NSAIDs are safer than oral NSAIDs. The objective of the study was to prepare gel of flurbiprofen using different gelling agents : carbopol 940, carbopol 934, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose and lutrol F-127.These preparations were further compared with marketed flurbiprofen gel.The gels were evaluated for physical appearance, pH, spreadability, extrudability, rheological studies , drug content and in vitro release. All gel formulations developed contain ethanol & propylene glycol which in combination enhances permeability of gel. The gel containing lutrol F-127 as gelling agent is translucent and permeation studies of it were comparable with marketed gel.Drug content was found to be uniform in all the formulations. The pH ranges of formulated gels were found to be suitable for topical application. The accelerated stability studies were performed according to ICH guidelines for 3 months and the results were found to be stable in varying temperature.
310 IN SILICO AND IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF STIGMASTEROL ? -D-GLUCOSIDE ISOLATED FROM RHIZOMES OF HEDYCHIUM SPICATUM BUCH. HAM., Sravani T1, Padmaa M Paarakh*1, Shruthi SD2
Hedychium spicatum Buch. Ham. (Zingiberaceae), commonly known as spiked ginger lily, is found in the entire Himalayan region. The rhizomes are reported to be used as tranquilizer, hypotensive, antispasmodic, CNS depressant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antifungal, pediculicidal, cytotoxic and anthelmintic activities. The present study is an attempt to explore the anthelmintic activity of Stigmasterol ? D Glucoside isolated from the rhizomes of H.spicatum by molecular docking with tubulin and in vitro activity against adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma. The time taken for each worm for paralysis and death were determined. Stigmasterol ? D Glucoside binds very efficiently within the active pocket of tubulin which is better when compared to orientation of standard drug, Piperazine citrate. In vitro results correlated with the in silico studies. The time taken for paralysis and death with stigmasterol ? D glucoside at 40 mg/ml was comparable to standard Piperazine citrate.
311 A STUDY TO EXPLORE THE SUITABILITY OF CERTAIN COST-EFFECTIVE SUBSTRATES FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF WHITE ROT FUNGI, *Rajesh Yadav and Madhuri Roy
Due to increasing demand and popularity of handmade paper, now-a-days, these industries have started the use of chemical additives to impart certain qualities to paper and to make it attractive. Handmade paper industries also utilize a huge amount of water in different steps of making paper. After utilization, this water is discharged to the nearby water bodies in its untreated form along with the dissolved chemicals or dyes. Paper and pulp industrial waste water are a major environmental concern. Phanerochaete chrysosporium, a white rotwood decaying basidiomycete, produces a potent lignin degrading system that oxidizes lignin completely to CO2. The present study was thus, aimed for immobilization of white rot fungi on cost effective and easily available solid substrates viz. carpet pieces, net pieces, iron pieces, fiber glass pieces, glass pieces, clay pieces, plastic pieces, sponge 40D and foam pieces. The results obtained showed that the white rot fungal cultures,ie. P. chrysosporium could prove to be of high industrial significance in todays context of environmental friendliness as it can be immobilized on easily available and cost effective solid substrates. And the better immobilization of white rot fungi was obtained on mobile condition. These immobilized cultures can be used further for the color reduction of the industrial effluent and biodegradation of organo-pollutants. Thus, it can help in reducing the problem of pollution in paper and textile industry.
312 ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES WITH METHANOL AND ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF Tagetes patula Flowers AGAINST METHICILLIN-RESISTANT Staphylococcus aureus , Snehali Majumder1*, E.M. Elango2, J.P.A. Hoebe3, Mohammed Rahmatullah4
The methanolic and ethanolic extract of flowers of Tagetes patula were evaluated for their antibacterial potential against methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) ATCC 29213 and methicillin-resistant Stphylococcus aureus (MRSA) wild type and ATCC BAA1026 strains. Both extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against the various strains tested with zone of inhibitions ranging from 18mm to 26mm. The ethanol extract showed better potency against MSSA ATCC 29213, while with both wild-type and ATCC BAA-1026 strains of MRSA, methanolic and ethanolic extracts demonstrated similar potencies with zone of inhibition at 18 mm at the highest concentrations of the extracts tested (50mg/ml). It is concluded that the methanolic and ethanolic extracts of flowers of Tagetes patula may may contain component which are effective against MRSA.
313 EVALUATION OF ANTIDIARRHOEAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF STEM BARK OF GLYCOSMIS PENTAPHYLLA IN RATS, B.Vimochana*1 G.Sumalatha2, Ch.Usha Rani1
The objective of present study is to evaluate Antidiarrhoeal properties of Ethanolic extract of stem bark of Glycosmis pentaphylla in experimental castor oil induced Diarrhoea and castor oil induced enteropooling models in rats. The parameters assessed were decrease in frequency and severity in diarrhoea caused due to castor oil. In this study the phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic extract of Glycosmis pentaphylla revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, flavanoids, sterols, saponins. The methanolic extract of Glycosmis pentaphylla showed significant reduction in frequency, severity and volume of intestinal content and intestinal transit compared to control group at doses 200mg/kg , 400mg/kg body weight orally. The experimental findings revealed that the ethanolic extract of Glycosmis pentaphylla showed significant antidiarrhoeal activity supporting its use in traditional practice.
314 DESIGN AND SYNTHESIS OF SOME NOVEL PYRAZOLE DERIVATIVES OF BENZOXAZOL WITH ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY, B. Srinivas, G. Brahmeshwari*
A series of novel 2-dialkylamino-N-[5-(4-formyl-3-phenyl-pyrazole-1-carbonyl)-benzooxazol-2-yl]-acetamide (6a-i) was synthesized in good yields from four intermediates such as methyl-2-(2-chloroacetamido) benzoxazoole-5-carboxylate (2), 2-(2-dialkyl amino-acetylamino)-benzooxazole-5-carboxylic acid methyl ester (3), 2-dimethylamino-N-(5-(hydrazinocarbonyl-benzooxazole-2-yl)-acetamide (4) and 2-dialkylamino-N-[5-(1-phenyl-ethylidene-hydrazinocarbonyl)-benzooxazole-2-yl]-acetamide (5a-i). The synthetic route leading to the title compounds is commenced from commercially available methyl-2- aminobenzoxazoole-5-carboxylate (1). The chemical structures of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by their IR, 1H NMR, mass spectral data and elemental analysis. Further, all the target compounds were screened for their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity.
315 A REVIEW ON PRONIOSOME, A PROMISING CARRIER FOR DELIVERY OF DRUG ACROSS MEMBRANES, Ramandeep Kaur*, Meenu Nagpal, Rupinder Sidhu, Sukhdev Singh, Upendra Kumar Jain
Proniosomes a novel drug carrier preparation for producing a dry product which may be hydrated immediately before use to yield aqueous niosome dispersions. These proniosomes minimize problems of niosome physical stability such as aggregation, fusion and leaking, and provide additional convenience in transportation, distribution, storage and dosing. This report describes the preparation of dispersions of proniosome-derived niosomes, comparison of these niosomes to conventional niosomes, and optimization of proniosome formulations. Conventional and proniosome-derived niosomes are compared in terms of their morphology, particle size, particle size distribution, drug release performance in synthetic gastric or intestinal fluid. The latest approach in the field of vesicular delivery is to combine the two previously mentioned techniques by extending the pro-vesicular approach to niosomes through the formation of proniosomes.
316 SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF SOME 1, 3, 4-THIADIAZOLES HAVING SUBSTITUTED 1, 2, 4-TRIAZOLE MOIETY FOR ANTICONVULSANT AND CNS DEPRESSANT ACTIVITY, *D.Kumudha1, R.R.Reddy1, T.Kalavathi2
Some novel 4-([5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2yl) methyl)-5-substituted phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3-thiols (8a-d) have been synthesized from 5-substituted phenyl 4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol(4a-d) using substituted benzoic acid hydrazides as starting material. The synthesized compounds have been characterized by spectral analysis and were evaluated for their anticonvulsant, CNS depressant activities and Neurotoxicity.
317 ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHEMICALS AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF Solanum villosum (Mill). - A TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANT IN SOUTHERN INDIA, Venkatesh R*, Kalaivani K and Vidya R
The objective of the present study was aimed to evaluate the qualitative analysis of phytochemical constitutions and free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic extract of Solanum villosum (Mill) leaves, a traditional medicinal species in southern India. Phytochemicals are responsible for medicinal activity of plants. These are non-nutritive chemicals that have protected human from various diseases. In the present study, an attempt has been made to document the presence of phytochemicals and radical scavenging activity of the medicinal plant Solanum villosum (Mill) which is used in the indigenous system of medicine for therapeutic purposes. A plant contains many phytochemicals constituents including alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, carbohydrates, glycosides, amino acids and proteins. The extract showed strong antioxidant capacities and free radical scavenging activity due to the presence of phytochemicals.
318 SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF QUINAPRIL AND HYDROCHLORTHIAZIDE IN TABLETS BY RP-HPLC METHOD , *Rama Prasad Padhy1, K. Srinivas2 , Subas Chandra Dinda3
A simple, reproducible and efficient reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for simultaneous determination of quinapril and hydrochlorthiazide in tablets. A column having 250 x 4.6 mm, 5? i.d. in gradient mode with mobile phase containing Methanol: Water (80:20) was used. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min and effluent was monitored at 232 nm. The retention time (min) and linearity range (ppm) for quinapril and hydrochlorthiazide were (3.6, 2.2) and (20-80, 20-80), respectively. The developed method was found to be accurate, precise and selective for simultaneous determination of quinapril and hydrochlorothiazide in tablets.
319 EVALUATION OF ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF 2, 4, 6-TRIHYDROXY PHENYL PROPIONATE ISOLATED FROM TRIUMFETTA ROTUNDIFOLIA (LAM). IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED ON WISTAR RATS , R. Sanilkumar* and A.Kottai Muthu
The anti-diabetic activity of 2, 4, 6 - Trihydroxy phenyl propionate isolated from Triumfetta rotundifolia (Lam.) in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats was investigated in the present study. Streptozotocin was used to induce diabetes mellitus. The anti-diabetic potential was assessed by determining oral glucose tolerance, fasting blood glucose, urine glucose, liver glycogen content, serum lipid profile, change in body weight and histopathology studies. 2, 4, 6-Trihydroxy phenyl propionate isolated from Triumfetta rotundifolia was administered to normal and experimental diabetic rats for 15 days. Significant (p
320 HEALTH AWARENESS AND POPULARITY OF ALLOPATHIC, AYURVEDIC AND HOMEOPATHIC SYSTEMS OF MEDICINE AMONG NAVI MUMBAI POPULATION , *Manjusha K. Borde1, H. N. Lalan2, Ipseeta Mohanty Ray3, T. Sanjeeva Kumar Goud4
Common reasons for frustration against Modern medicine are due to its serious side effects and lack of curative value in many of the chronic disorders. Traditional systems rely heavily on herbal material compared to modern system of medicine (allopathy). The aim of this study was to find out the awareness, misconceptions and myths of common man regarding traditional systems (Ayurveda, Homeopathy) and the overall preference of all systems and the preference of a system in case of common ailments and medical emergencies. The responses (400) obtained on the questionnaire sheet have been presented as Bar charts and Pie charts depending upon type of response along with general conclusion and suggestions.
321 PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND INSTRUMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE POLYHERBAL SIDDHA CONTRACEPTIVE FORMULATION MAAVILINGATHY MATHIRAI, B.Sathya*, V.Velpandian, M.Pitchiah Kumar.
MLM is a traditional Siddha medicine. The aim of the present study was to standardize the physico-chemical traits of the Siddha polyherbal formulation Maavilingathy Mathirai (MLM). The organoleptic characters, physico-chemical characters like ash values, pH value, specific gravity, solubility were analyzed. The total ash value was found to be 9.2%w/w, acid insoluble ash value is 1.08%w/w, water soluble ash value is 2.9%w/w, and loss of drying at 105 c is 0.048% w/w. The pH value is 7.4 and specific gravity is 0.925. The water soluble extractives and alcohol soluble extractives were found to be 7.93% w/w and 5.16 % w/w. The SEM analysis of the sample showed the presence of nano and micro particles. The quantitative analysis of the sample revealed the content of carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminium, silica, sulphur, chloride, potassium, calcium. The FT-IR spectroscopy applied in the mid infra-red region 4000 cm-1 to 400 cm-1 revealed the presence of functional groups like primary aliphatic amines, aromatics, alkanes, alkynes, esters, ethers, alkyl halides. This study highlights the suitable application of modern standardizing techniques for bringing the herbal formulation into focus.
322 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UPLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF CARVEDILOL IN CARVIDEX TABLETS, P. Ravi Kumar Reddy*1, V. Krishna Reddy1, E.Sasikiran Goud2
A simple, sensitive and accurate isocratic reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatography method was developed for determination of carvedilol in carvidex tablets. The effective separation was achieved on Hypersil BDS-C8, 50x4.6mm with particle size 3?m. The mixture of buffer and methanol in the ratio 65: 35v/v used as a mobile phase. The buffer was prepared as 2.72g of ammonium acetate in 1000 ml of purified water and adjusts the pH 2.0 with orthophosphoric acid. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 1.5mL/min and the total elution time was 2 minutes. The UV detection wavelength was carried at 240 nm and experiments were conducted at 50C. The developed method was validated in terms of system suitability, selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection and quantification following the ICH guidelines.
323 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UPLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF ATENOLOL IN TABLETS FORM, P.Ravi Kumar Reddy*1, V. Krishna Reddy1, E.Sasikiran Goud2
A simple, sensitive and accurate isocratic reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatography method was developed for determination of atenolol in formulations. The effective separation was achieved on Zorbax-C18, 50x4.6mm with particle size 1.8?m. The buffer and methanol in the ratio 70:30v/v used as a mobile phase. The buffer was prepared as 1.1g of sodium-1-heptanesulfonate and 0.71g of anhydrous dibasic sodium phosphate in 700ml of water. Add 2ml of dibutyl amine and adjust the pH to 3.0 with 0.8 M phosphoric acid. Filter through 0.22?m filter and degas. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 1.0mL/min and the total elution time was 2 minutes. The UV detection wavelength was carried at 226nm and experiments were conducted at 25C. The developed method was validated in terms of system suitability, selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limits of detection and quantification for determination of atenolol following the ICH guidelines.
324 EFFECT OF FYTOLAN ON TESTICULAR FUNCTIONS AND SEX HORMONES, B. L. Mehra1, Priyanka Sharma2, Utkarsh Kaushik2 and *S. C. Joshi2,3
Indiscriminate use of fungicides has caused severe environmental and public health hazards. Fytolan was used in present study because it is the most commonly used fungicide but not much is known about its toxicity. The present study was undertaken with an objective to determine the possible adverse effects of fytolan on testicular functions and sex hormones of male rat. The tested dose was administrated orally to the wistar rats at the dose level 5 mg, 7.5 mg and 10 mg/kg. b. wt./day for 30 days. A significant decrease in weight of testis and accessory sex organs was observed. Marked reduction in the sperm motility in cauda epididymis was noticed. A significant decrease in sperm density was also observed in testis and cauda epididymis. A 100% negative fertility was observed in fytolan treated animals. Significant reduction in testicular glycogen and sialic acid content was observed, but cholesterol and protein content was found to be elevated. From a reduced reproduction success, marked reduction in sperm motility and density, with adverse effect on hormone biosynthesis, this could be deduced that fytolan act as toxicant to reproductive system.
325 WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF ROOT OF ZIZIPHUS JUJUBA MILL IN RAT MODEL , Manojkumar Z. Chopda*, Namrata V. Nemade And Raghunath T. Mahajan
The history of surgery in India and Ayurveda dates back. Sushruta, very succinctly described the reconstruction of the nose by cheek flap, skin grafting and classification of burns, wound care and wound healing. The magnitude of wound problem has stimulated research interests in the discovery and development of wound healing. Only few of the plant products are produced commercially by synthesis, for example, Curcumin derived from the Curcuma longa. Hence, efforts are made in the present investigation to isolate and to confirm the wound healing activity of Ziziphus jujuba. Partially purified product (ZjR) is amorphous in nature, light pale yellow in color, sparingly soluble in water and highly soluble in cholrofrom: methanol (80:20) and showed presence of reducing sugar and phenolic group. The yield of fraction of MeOHx of the root of Z.jujuba was found to be, ZjR -1.8% w/w. The ZjR exhibits significant wound healing activity (83.52%) on 8th day post wounding at a dose 0.5% as compared to control group of animals. Cultivation of this plant helps to improve economical health of farmers. This paper describes with use of root of Z. jujuba with possible mechanism of wound healing phenomenon.
326 STUDY OF IMPACT OF CLINICAL PHARMACISTS INTERVENTIONS ON INR MONITORING IN PATIENTS WITH WARFARIN THERAPY, Pragathi Reddy Gunnam1*, Divya Satyanarayana1, Meghana Tummalapalli1, Richa Srivastava1, Dr. Anand Agarwal2.
Background: Patients with mechanical valve replacement require lifelong anticoagulation therapy with warfarin but warfarin has a very narrow therapeutic index, INR below the therapeutic range (< 2) causes clotting while above the range (> 3) results in bleeding. Therefore it requires close monitoring for patients with warfarin therapy. An adequate knowledge and importance of warfarin therapy among patients is essential for effective outcomes of warfarin therapy. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of clinical pharmacist?s intervention on INR monitoring between patients who were and were not provided with the pharmacist?s interventions respectively. Methods: Patients were divided into 2 groups of 35 each. One group was selected before the establishment of anticoagulation management services and hence such patient group were not exposed to patient counselling. The other group consisted of patients after the establishment of anticoagulation management services. Percentage of INR monitoring and deviations in INR ranges of individuals were assessed. SPSS version 20 and INSTAT software were used for data analysis .Unpaired t?test was used for data analysis. Results: Contingency table drawn between patients exposed to and unexposed to pharmacist?s interventions (ie patient counseling) showed that INR monitoring has improved from 34.3% in individuals unexposed to pharmacist?s interventions to 82.9% in individuals exposed to interventions( ie in counselled group ). Unpaired t? test between quartile deviations of INR values showed a significant difference between individuals exposed to and unexposed to clinical pharmacist?s interventions. Conclusion: This study showed the impact of clinical pharmacist?s interventions in patients on warfarin therapy both on improvement of INR monitoring as well as reductions in the deviations of INR ranges in patients intervened. This proves that adequate knowledge about warfarin therapy in patients is essential for effective outcomes of therapy.
327 PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FIBRINOLYTIC ENZYME FROM ASPERGILLUS NIGER. , 1Pallavi K. Aradhye*, 2Meera D. Chavan
Background: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death for men and women. Heart attack and stroke account for more deaths than all cancers and injuries combined. To sort this problem microbial fibrinolytic enzyme may found the efficient therapeutic treatment. Objective: To isolate and study fibrinolytic enzyme from fungal source. Method: Aspergillus niger was cultivated in milk sabourauds broth for the production of proteases. Extraction of enzyme was carried out by filtration. For partial purification acetone precipitation and dialysis preferred. Protease activity was measured with casein and fibrin substrate. Protein concentration was determined by folin Lowry method. Effect of various environmental factors such as temperature, pH and metal ions on enzyme activity was tested. Electrophoresis was performed for molecular weight determination. Fibrinolytic activity studied on fibrin agar plate and blood clot. Result: Maximum enzyme production was achieved in 10 days of incubation at 300C 20C; with an initial pH of 5.6 the protein fraction precipitated with 50% acetone had the fibrinolytic activity 64.64U/mg protein. This partial purification was to 4.48 folds. The optimum activity of the enzyme was reached at 400C and pH, 7.0 with 0.5 % of substrate casein concentration. The enzyme activity was enhanced by Ca2+ and Mg2+ but was inhibited by Co, Cu, Zn, and Fe at 1mM concentration. The enzyme showed band at 31 kDa after SDS-PAGE. The enzyme showed clear zone on 1.5% fibrin plate when incubated at 370C for 18 h. Human blood clot lysis checked after 19 h of incubation at 370C. Conclusion: These results indicate production of fibrinolytic enzyme was found to be potent fibrinolytic agent.
328 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN-VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES OF MIRABILIS JALAPA AGAINST PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS , G. Harish*, Sandhya Rani M, B. Rajkamal, P. Mounika, M. Swetha.
The whole plant of Mirabilis jalapa was collected, pulverized, air dried and subjected to gradient extraction using soxhlation apparatus, dicholoro methane (DCM) was used as a solvent. Phytochemical screening revealed that the presence of alkaloids, reducing compounds (carbohydrates), glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes and steroids in moderate concentration. In vitro Antibacterial assay of the extract was preferred by agar nutrient broth dilution techniques. Plant extracts have shown broad spectrum activity on gram positive, negative organisms and no activity against fungal strain. The highest activity was shown by tubers extract with the MIC values of 12.5 ?g/ml and 25 ?g/ml against S.aureus and E.coli moderate activity was shown by stem extract with the MIC value of 100 and 25 ?g/ml against S.aureus and E.coli and leaves extract shown least activity with the MIC values of 100 and 100?g/ml against S.aureus and E.coli. The tubers extract found to have a potent antimicrobial activity. This study provides some scientific base for use of this plant as a remedy for stomach, urinary tract, skin and microbial infections.
329 PLANT WEALTH AND TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE OF LOCAL VENDORS OF NEYYATINKARA, THIRUVANANTHAPURAM , DISTRICT: A SEARCH Kavitha C H and *Murugan K
The ethno botanical importance of plants is quite useful for health care and hygiene of local people. Remote village people are mostly dependent on indigenous plants for the cure of skin problems and cosmetics. In the present study, 28 plant species belonging to 23 families used by the local vendors of Neyyatinkara, Thiruvananthapuram district for curing various ailments was documented. A few plants of this area are coming under Red Data list also. The highest number of species and applications were reported for digestive system disorders (stomach ailments and liver problems), musculoskeletal body system (rheumatism and the complex of contusions, luxations, sprains, and swellings), kidney and other urological problems, and gynaecological disorders. Some medicinal species had magic connotations, e.g. for cleaning and protection against ailments, to bring good luck, or for Andean offerings to Pachamama, 'Mother Nature'. In some indications, the separation between medicinal and magic plants was very narrow. Most remedies were prepared from a single species, however some applications were always prepared with a mixture of plants, e.g. for abortion, and the complex of luxations and swellings. These plants are good source to interact with nature. It is crucial to have this precious ethno botanical knowledge and it should be transferred to the younger generation also, in that the society did not lose a great treasure that is disappearing rapidly. The data can be used in future for pharmacological studies. Similarly, ethno botany is very helpful in identifying and solving conservations issues, as in cases where the harvesting exceeds the re-growth rates. It is prosperous to conserve the medicinal plants, which were harvested.
330 ASSESSMENT ON DISSOLUTION TESTING AND CONTRASTING MODELS FOR DRUGS , Om Bagade?, Shashikant Dhole, Neha Nemlekar, Rohini Pujari, Amruta Shete, Priyanka Kharat
Over recent years, drug release from solid pharmaceutical dosage forms has been subject of intense and profile scientific developments. When a new solid dosage form is developed or produced, it is necessary to ensure that drug dissolution occurs in an appropriate manner. The pharmaceutical industry and the registration authorities do focus, nowadays on drug dissolution studies. In some cases, these mathematic models are derived from the theoretical analysis of the occurring process. The quantitative analysis of the values obtained in dissolution tests is easier when mathematical formulas that express the dissolution as a function of some of the dosage forms characteristics are used. Dissolution is the process by which a solid solute enters a solution. The dissolution rate was controlled by a layer of saturated solution that forms instantly around a solid particle. Dissolution is considered one of the most important quality control tests performed on pharmaceutical dosage forms and is now developing into a tool for predicting bioavailability, and in some cases, replacing clinical studies to determine bioequivalence. Dissolution behavior of drugs has a significant effect on their pharmacological activity. In-vitro dissolution kinetics provides useful information on the availability of drugs and their subsequent therapeutic effects In-vivo. Dissolution is good in understanding of the release mechanism of the dosage form as well as the physicochemical properties of the drugs. This review describes various methods and general techniques used in all dissolution.
331 STABILITY INDICATING HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF LAFUTIDINE & DOMPERIDONE IN ITS DOSAGE FORMS. , Prashant D. Ghode*1, Dr. Sunil P. Pawar2
A simple, rapid, precise, sensitive and reproducible stability indicating Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for determination of Lafutidine and Domperidone in capsule dosage form was developed. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Zodiac C18 (250mm 4.6 mm, 5?m) column maintained at ambient temperature eluted with mobile phase at flow rate of 1 ml/min. The mobile phase consists of o-Phosphoric Acid and Acetonitrile in the ratio 65:35% v/v was used and the determination was carried out at 215nm. The retention time for Lafutidine and Domperidone were 4.901 min and 8.274 min respectively. The linearity was found to be in the range of 3- 9 ?g/ml for Lafutidine and 9-27 ?g/ml for Domperidone. The analytical method was validated as per ICH guideline for linearity, accuracy, precision, and specificity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, stability etc. and method can be extended to the analysis of Lafutidine and Domperidone in capsule formulations.
332 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF SOME NEW BENZOIMIDAZOLE BASED TRIAZOLES , Upendra Pingili, Lingaiah Nagarapu*
Various novel 5-methyl-1-[2-(1-methyl-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-phenyl]-1H-[1,2,3]triazole-4-carboxylic acid benzylidene-hydrazides (5a-f) have been synthesized through condensation from 5-methyl-1-[2-(1-methyl-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-phenyl]-1H-[1,2,3]triazole-4-carboxylic acid hydrazide (4) by suing 2-(2-bromo-phenyl)-1-methyl-1H-benzoimidazole (1) as raw material and by involving 2-(2-azido-phenyl)-1-methyl-1H-benzoimidazole (2) and 5-methyl-1-[2-(1-methyl-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-phenyl]-1H-[1,2,3]triazole-4- arboxylic acid (3) as intermediates. The chemical structures of the newly synthesized compounds have been established by IR, 1H & 13C- NMR, Mass spectral data and elemental analysis. Further, the title compounds were used to screen for their ability towards various antibacterial and antifungal organisms.
333 A VALIDATED VISIBLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ASSAY OF GATIFLOXACIN IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORMS USING FE(III) IN BUFFER MEDIA , P. Ramanna,1 B. Saritha*1, and Prof .T. Sreenivasulu Reddy1
Gatifloxacin and Fe(III) react in the pH range 1.0-4.0 to form a yellow colored complex solution. Its absorption spectrum shows maximum absorbance at 400 nm. The absorbance is constant and maximum in the pH range 2.0-3.0. pH 2.5 is selected for analytical studies. The absorbance of the complex solution varied linearly with the amount of gatifloxacin. A plot of the amount of gatifloxacin and the absorbance at 400 nm is linear and obeys the equation A400 = 0.0395 C + 0.0017. The linear plot shows that Beers law is obeyed in the range 1.5-32.0 ?g/ml of gatifloxacin. The molar absorptivity is 1.44 x 104 l mol-1 cm-1. The sandells sensitivity is 0.0252 ?g cm-1. The standard deviation of the method for ten determinations of 10 ?g/ml of gatifloxacin is 0.0018. The correlation coefficient (?) is 0.9999. The effect of excipients that are generally associated with gatifloxacin in pharmaceutical dosage forms is investigated. The proposed visible spectrophotomeric method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The validation parameters such as, linearity, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ and ruggedness were investigated. The method is simple, rapid, precise, selective and accurate. The present method was applied for the determination of gatifloxacin in its tablet dosage forms
334 "IN VIVO AND IN VITRO BIOCHEMICAL ESTIMATION OF PRIMARY METABOLITES FROM CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS (LINN.) SCHRAD: AN IMPORTANT MEDICINAL HERB. , *Mahesh Chand Meena, Rishi Kesh Meena, Rambilas Meena and Vijay Prakash Meena
Citrullus colocynthis is an important medicinal herb belonging to family cucurbitaceae. Plants are efficient chemical factories that produce a wide variety of chemical compounds called phytochemicals. Two types of metabolites are produced from plants i.e. primary metabolites viz., carbohydrates, lipids etc. and secondary metabolites viz., alkaloids, flavonoids, essential oils, sterols, lignin and tannins. In the present set of investigations, biochemical changes of various cellular metabolites/enzymes were observed from in vivo (leaf, stem, fruit and root) and in vitro (callus and differentiating callus) of Citrullus colocynthis. Result showed that the total phenolic contents were maximum in leaf sample and minimum in differentiating callus. Ortho-dihydroxy phenolic contents were maximum in differentiating callus and minimum in leaf. High polyphenol oxidase activity was observed in differentiating callus and minimum in leaf sample.
335 ASCERTAINING THE PHYTOCOMPONENTS IN THE CRUDE ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF CARICA PAPAYA SEEDS BY GC-MS , Gowtham Iyappan1, Delphin Daniel1, Thirumalaivasan Poovanalingam1,*
Carica papaya is a herbaceous plant, cultivated as fruit crop, meanwhile it is a good medicinal plant used in traditional medicine worldwide. To explore phytocomponents present in the ethanolic crude extracts of Carica papaya var. CO.7 seeds were subjected to Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Mass spectrums were interpreted with the help of NIST, library and 27 different compounds were identified. Most of the identified compounds were fatty acid esters and phenolic hydrocarbons. A result paves the way to study further, to elucidate its activity on the biological systems.
336 A NEW APPROACH FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF 6-ARYL-5,6-DIHYDRO BENZIMIDAZO[1,2-C]QUINAZOLINE DERIVATIVES AND ITS BIOLOGICAL STUDY , Joshi P.P*1 and Shirodkar S.G2
Aromatic amines (1) were treated with chloral hydrate and hydroxylaminehydrochloride to obtain substituted isatins (2), which were converted into substituted isatoic anhydrides (3) using acetic acid. (3) were treated with o-phenylenediamine to obtain substituted 2-(2-aminophenyl) benzimidazoles (4).A series of 6-aryl 5,6-dihydrobenzimidazo[1,2c]quinazolines 7(a-t) were synthesized by the condensation of (4) with different aryl aldehydes. The structures of the products were confirmed from 1HNMR, 13CMR, IR and LCMS spectra. The antimicrobial activities of all 6-aryl-5,6 -dihydrobenzimidazo [1,2-c]quinazolines against Gram-positive (S.aureus,), and Gram-negative bacteria (E.Coli.) and fungal strains (, C. albicans) were evaluated. Compound s Showed promising activity whereas the moderate activity was observed for b,f,g,n,r against S.aureus . Best activity was observed for c,f,j and medium activity for g,k,o,s against E.Coli. Compounds d,e,h,i,l,p,q,t were found to posses antifungal activity against C. albicans.
337 STUDY OF PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF JATROPHA CURCAS L. (EUPHORBIACEAE) , Vidhya Kumari1*, Siddhi Gupta and Dr. Shikha Roy
Phytochemical and antibacterial property of crude chloroform, methanolic and aqueous extracts of Jatropha curcas L stem were studied as part of searching new bio-active compounds. It is well known plant of family Euphorbiaceae is used as a therapeutic agent. Crude powder of stem was screened for the presence of chemically active compounds by standard methods and for antibacterial activity by zone of inhibition. The results revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoid, cardiac glycosides, saponins, steroids and tannin. Antibacterial activity of Jatropha curcas showed varied degree of zone of inhibition against the tested bacterial pathogens. The methanol stem extract exhibited highest zone of inhibition against Bacillus subtilis (13.30.04mm) among bacteria. The chloroform extract was also found to be effective against pathogenic strains tested. However, aqueous extracts of Jatropha curcus were found to be inactive against Bacillus subtilis, Escheria coli but gives the result against Pseudomonas putida (7.0 0.05mm) this shows that more active ingrediant may not be dissolve in aqueous extract. Activity Index of methanolic crude extracts of Jatropha curcus stem for Bacillus subtilis is maximum (0.85). The medicinal values of this plant could be attributed to the presence of one or more of the detected metabolites. Plant extracts have great potential as antimicrobial compounds against microorganisms. Thus, they can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases.
338 ABHYANG WAY TO HEALTH , Dr. Priyanka Sharma1 Dr. Prashant Sharma2
Abhyang is the daily oil massage as recommend in Ayurveda., Literally, abhyanga means: smearing the body with unctuous or oily substance. The knowledge of Ayurveda is timeless,it exists primarily as an oral tradition. Caraka Samhita, considered the oldest, refers to abhyanga often. Caraka advocates skin organ of touch connects with mind, gives rise to pleasure and pain experiences. sparsanendriyasamsparsah sparso manasa eva ca dvividhah sukhaduhkhanam vedananam pravartakah. Sa.I.133 .So Abhyang is important procedure to control mind and normal physiology of body. Other the benefits of applying oil to the body are firm, smooth-skin, free from disturbances of vata and tolerant of exertions and exercise. The body of one who uses oil massage regularly does not become affected much even if subjected to accidental injuries or strenuous work. By using oil massage daily, a person is endowed with pleasant touch, trimmed body parts and becomes strong, charming and least affected by old age. According to Modern physiology massage soothes the two master systems of the body, the nervous system and the endocrine system .Nervous and endocrine systems are seen as communication systems connecting all cells. The pleasure from touching is mediated through the limbic system which causes the secretion of hormones physically equivalent to health and happiness. Massage or touching, from the perspective of modern physiology, has been found to increase secretion of human growth hormone (HGH). Growth hormone is believed to speed up the movement of digested proteins (amino acids) out of the blood and into the cells, and this accelerates the cell?s anabolism (build up of amino acids to form tissue proteins), hence this action promotes normal growth. It's also responsible for increased protein synthesis and decreased oxidation of proteins. Growth Hormone also affects fat and carbohydrate In fact, scientists now believe that HGH has a role in most healthy functions of the body, including sexual function, proper operation of stomach and bowels, liver, immune system, and all glandular systems. Thus Abyang contribute to the various components of health. The mind-body integration and purification which takes place form the basis of the growth of consciousness as well. These form the basis of immortality. Both cure and prevention depend upon these aspects and are directly addressed by this simple daily task. In modern and ancient paradigms abhyanga does indeed promote strength and immunity also.
339 CALOTROPIS GIGANTEA FLOWERS EXTRACTS WITH HIV-1 REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE (RT) INHIBITORY ACTIVITY, Estari Mamidala1*, Rajendra Prasad Gujjeti1 and Sainath Namthabad1
The AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome) in humans caused by the HIV-1 (Human immunodeficiency virus type 1) remains among the leading causes of death worldwide. In order to establish the study was undertaken to investigate the HIV-RT inhibitory activity of Calotropis gigantea flowers extracts. Sequential maceration method was performed for preparation of extracts using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol solvents. HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) activity was done to assess anti-HIV activity of Calotropis gigantea flowers extracts. All crude extracts of Calotropis gigantea flowers showed significant inhibitory activity. Methanol extract exhibited the most notable activity of 86.5% against HIV-1 RT at 2mg/ml. Remaining chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate and acetone extracts showed 86%, 85.6%, 85.6% and 82% respectively at 2mg/ml concentration. These findings suggested that Calotropis gigantea could be a potential source of phytochemicals having great importance as therapeutic agent.
340 DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF ENTERIC COATED GUAR GUM NANOPARTICLES FOR AMOEBIASIS , Singh Fulendra,* M. Senthil Kumar
The present study was aimed to know the eradication rate of antiprotozoal fixed drugs combination of Tinidazole (TDZ) and Norfloxacin (NOR). Guar gum nanoparticles (GG NPs) were prepared by cross linked with glutaraldehyde for the treatment of amoebiasis. A double step w/o/w cross linked emulsion method was used to prepare blank and drug loaded nanoparticles. Enteric coated was done by solvent evaporation method to protect the drugs in gastric fluids and achieve a targeted drug delivery. The characterization of coated and uncoated Guar gum nanoparticles was characterized by morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), internal diameter in transmission electron microscope (TEM), average particle size in (Zeta seizer), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry (FT-IR). The drug polymer interactions were checked by making physical mixture of polymer and drug in Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). TDZ and NOR loading estimated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and in vitro drug release characterized. Regression coefficient (R2) analysis suggested the controlled released mechanism from the nanoparticles. In vivo eradication studies on female albino mice demonstrated comparative eradication of marketed formulation and nanoparticle formulation. These studies revealed that controlled release behavior of GG NPs could be a potential alternative pharmaceutical formulation in treatment of amoebiasis.
341 LIPOSPHERE REVIEW: METHODS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN BIO-COMPATIBLE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM, Sandeep Vishnu Jadhav1*, Dipika Punjaram Sadgir1, Moreshwar Pandharinath Patil1, Rohit Machindra Jagtap1
Recently, advances in pharmaceutical research is focused on new delivery systems utilizing new devices to achieve modification of delivery time, targeting, as well as improve the in-vivo solubility and hence bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Lipospheres are new type of drug delivery system developed mainly for parenteral system. As most of the recent drugs discovered (nearly 40-45 %) are lipophilic in nature having poor water solubility and less bioavailability. Hence researchers are facing challenges in developing drug delivery system which is safe as well as effective. Lipospheres are made of solid hydrophobic triglycerides containing active moiety either dissolved (Lipophilic) or dispersed (Hydrophobic) & having a monolayer of phospholipids embedded on the surface of the particle. Lipospheres derived their name from lipid microspheres. These are generally used as carrier vehicle for hydrophobic drugs. However hydrophilic moieties such as Proteins & Peptides can be effectively delivered. Lipospheres are mainly composed of materials like triglycerides, waxes, oils etc. which avoids the toxicity than that bearing with the use of synthetic polymers concerns of monomers after intracellular processing of polymers and attractive benefits offered by lipids as carriers. This article reviews lipospheres in particular as delivery system.
342 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF MEBEVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE USING NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC POLYMERS , A TarikaPriya*1, M S Neeharika1, Chandra K Sekhar2
Antispasmodics relax the smooth muscles of the gut, helping to prevent or relieve painful cramping spasms in the intestines. The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate sustained release matrix tablets of Mebeverine Hcl using various natural and synthetic polymers to achieve high drug release control, reduce dosing frequency, increase bioavailability and increase patience compliance. The tablets were prepared by both wet granulation and direct compression methods. Preformulation and micromeritic studies of the drug, polymer and physical mixture were carried out. The matrix tablets were evaluated for pre-compression, post-compression studies and stability studies. The formulation FW1 showed satisfactory physical parameters and it was found to be stable among other formulations. The prepared tablets were found to be uniform with respect to thickness (2.16mm) and hardness (6.1kg/cm2). The friability (0.34%) and weight variation (297mg) of different batch of tablets were found within prescribed limits. Drug content (98.1%) was found uniform within the batches of different tablets. The kinetics of the dissolution process was determined by using various kinetic equations, e.g. Zero-order, First-order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas equations. Based on kinetic models the formulation FW1(wet granulation) fitted into Zero order, First order, Higuchi model and Korsmeyer-Peppas plot and show non fickian diffusion mechanism release.
343 DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF BI LAYER TABLETS OF PARACETAMOL AND CHLORZOXAZONE, P.Manasa* and Mrs. S Srilatha
The main objective of this research work was to design and evaluate the bilayered tablets of paracetamol and chlorzoxazone by using different polymers. Paracetamol is an NSAID and chlorzoxazone is a skeletal muscle relaxant. The tablets containing immediate releasing layer and sustained release layer. The polymers used are microcrystalline cellulose pH 102, sodium starch glycol ate, cross carmellose, povidone for immediate releasing layer, HPMC K 100 cps, K4cps, E15cps, carbomer971P, and natural gums like guar gum, Xanthan gum for sustained drug release layer. The bilayered tablets were prepared by direct compression and wet granulation methods. All the excipients are tested for compatibility with drug, which revealed that there was no physical and chemical interaction occurred. The Preformulation parameters such as bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index and Hausners ratio were analyzed. The In-Vitro drug release studied were Performed in the USP dissolutionapparatus- (paddle) using pH 0.1N HCL buffer and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer as dissolution media at 100rpm speed and temperature of 37oC 5oC. The sampling was done at periodic time intervals of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours and was replaced by equal volume of dissolution media after each withdrawal. The cumulative amount of drug release at different intervals is estimated using UV method. Based on the evaluation result the formulations F4 was selected as best formulation among immediate release and is used to compress with sustained release layer. Among all formulation F4 formulation (HPMC K100m18%) showed maximum release of 98.43% drug in 12th hour.
344 RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS: A REVIEW, Dr. H D Ramachandran. M.Sc. Ph.D*
Rheumatoid arthritis is a form of arthritis, an autoimmune diesease that causes pain, swelling, stiffness and loss of function in the joints and remains the most important form of arthritis seen in rheumatological practice in the developed world. The geographical distribution of the disease is remarkably homogeneous. Clinical progress has come from a better recognition of the natural history of the disease. The causes of rheumatoid arthritis are still unclear and a wide variety of factors namely genes, environment and hormones are suspected to contribute. Recent years have seen considerable advances in our understanding of both the clinical and basic-research aspects of rheumatoid arthritis. Treatments include medicine, lifestyle changes and surgery. These can slow or stop joint damage and reduce pain and swelling. The present review article aims to encompass all these aspects in detail.
345 PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND BIOACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT PLANTS FROM GULMI DISTRICT OF NEPAL, Bimala Subba* and Rishi Ram Paudel
Phytochemical and biological screenings of some medicinal plants like Schima wallichii, Psidium guajava, Bauhinia variegata, Rubia cordifolia and Artocarpus lakoocha of Gulmi district were performed. Potent pharmacological activities were revealed by bark of S. wallichii and leaves of P. guajava. Methanol extracts of bark of S. wallichii and leaves of P. guajava exhibited high toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii at LC50 (?g/ml) values of 31.612 and 25.174 respectively. Similarly, leaves of P. guajava (94.391 mM Fe+2/liter) and bark of S. wallichii (73.669 mM Fe+2/liter) were found to have strong antioxidant power. In addition, S. wallichii leaves, P. guajava and B. variegate exhibited high antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.
346 EFFECT OF FORMULATED FEEDS ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND COLOUR ENHANCEMENT IN THE FRESH WATER GOLD FISH CARRASSIUS AURATUS (LINNAEUS, 1758), K. Umaa Rani2*, C. Latha 1, M. Pratheeba2, K. Dhanasekar1, S. Devi1, N. Munuswamy1 and B. Ramesh2*
The present study evaluates the effect of formulated feeds on growth performance and colour enhancement in the fresh water gold fish carrassius auratus. Fishes were fed with formulated diet incorporated with different doses of leaf extract such as 0, 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg kg- 1 of diet for 45 days. Biochemical composition of skin and muscle diet D3 showed the highest activity than compared to control. Hence, carotenoid analysis showed the maximum in the D3 than compared to control. The result demonstrates that fishes fed with D3 showed highest growth parameter, biochemical and TLC than compared with the control (P
347 OPTIMIZATION AND VALIDATION PROCESS FOR FORMULATION AND COATING OF TABLET X, Nisha Thakur*1, Shweta Aggrawal1, Anita Rani1, Virendra Yadav2
The process validation study of X tablets has been carried out on two consecutive batches (Batch 1and Batch 2) as per process validation protocol. Batches have been manufactured and compiled as per batch manufacturing record. The starting materials used in manufacturing of validation batches has been procured from approved vendors and were analyzed by QC department and approved by QA department. The critical process parameters of manufacturing process have been evaluated with respect to quality attributes of drug product and found to be well within the predefined acceptance criteria. Sampling at various stages of validation batches was carried out as per established sampling plan as mentioned in protocol. All two validation batches comply with the release specifications of drug product and meet the quality attributes of the product. The percentage yields of all three validation batches at various manufacturing stages have been mentioned in relevant section of this report. The observations limits for percentage yield at various stages of manufacturing process of X tablets have been finalized as follows Lubrication 98.0%, Compression 98.0 %, Film coating 98.0%, Inspection 98.0%.
348 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIBACTERIAL EVALUATION OF 2-IMINO-3-(4-METHOXYPHENYL) OXAZOLIDIN-4-ONE, Tesfahun Bufebo*, Aman Dekebo, Shilashi Badasa2 and Hanna Simion
2-chloro-N-(4-methoxyphenyl)acetamide synthesized by the reaction of 4-methoxybenzenamine with chloroacetylchloride in benzene were cyclocondensed with potassium cyanate in methanol to synthesize 2-imino-3-(4-methoxyphenyl) oxazolidin-4-one and Structure of the synthesized compounds was elucidated by using different spectroscopic techniques such as IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and elemental analyses. The purty of the intermediate and the product was checked by TLC plates, the reaction mechanism was given based on known site of functional groups. 2-chloro-N-(4-methoxyphenyl) acetamide was assayed in vitro by paper disc diffusion method for their antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, E.coil bacteria, the compound exhibit promising activity even better than standerd drugs against tested microorganisims.
349 CARDIOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIOXIDANT EFFECTS OF SEEDS OF SPERMACOCE HISPIDA LINN., ON ISOPROTERENOL INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN RATS, *1R.Dhevi, 2V.Elango and 3K.Gayathri
Myocardial infarction (MI) continues to be a major public health problem in the world. Spermacoce hispida exhibit cardio-protective effects by several mechanisms. Spermacoce hispida possesses significant anti-oxidant and cardioprotective activities. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of pretreatment with spermacoce hispida seed extract on isoprenaline-induced MI in rats. Two different doses of the plant extract such as 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was used to prove the cardioprotective effect against 100mg/kg body weight of isoproterenol (ISO). Markers chosen to assess cardiac damage included the activity of creatine phospho kinase, LDH, Aspartate Transaminase(AST) and Alanine Transaminase (ALT). Oxidative stress markers such as lipid peroxides and hydroperoxides were assessed. Pre-treatment of ISO administered animals with 200 mg/kg b.wt, of spermacoce hispida was found to exhibit a better cardioprotective and antioxidant effect.
350 SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT OF VARDENAFIL HYDROCHLORIDE BY PREPARATION OF SOLID DISPERSION, Shruti B. Patel, Vandana B. Patel*
Vardenafil hydrochloride is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor used to treat erectile dysfunction which has comparatively earliest onset of action, tmax, better duration of effect and lower side effects. But, it suffers from the disadvantage of poor water solubility and low bioavailability (?15 %). As solubility is an important factor to enhance bioavailability, solubility of vardenafil hydrochloride is required to be enhanced. In present investigation, an attempt is made to enhance solubility of vardenafil hydrochloride. For this purpose solid dispersion of vardenafil hydrochloride was prepared by solvent evaporation and fusion method. Different polymers like polyvinyl pyrrolidone, mannitol in different drug to polymer ratios were used to prepare solid dispersion. The prepared solid dispersions were evaluated for % drug content, solubility and % cumulative drug release. Results clearly indicated that there was significant increase in solubility (from 0.109 to 0.202 mg/ml in solvent evaporation and from 0.109 to 0.199 mg/ml in fusion method) and dissolution profile (from 62.24 to 95.17% in solvent evaporation and from 62.24 to 91.17 % in fusion method) of vardenafil hydrochloride. Thus it may be concluded that solubility and dissolution of vardenafil hydrochloride can be promisingly enhanced bypreparation of solid dispersion by both the methods. Moreover, better results were found in the drug to polymer ratio of 1:3 in both the methods.
351 MAINTENANCE OF CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS AND PREVENTION OF METABOLIC DISORDERS BY SUPPLEMENTING IONIC ORAL CALCIUM IN CATTLE, Praveen Kumar1, M.J. Saxena2, K. Ravikant2, Shivi Maini2, Adarsh3*
The periparturient cows undergo a transition from non-lactating to lactating at calving. These animals are tremendously challenged to maintain calcium homeostasis. Those who fail can develop milk fever, a clinical disorder that is life threatening to the cow and predisposes the animal to a variety of other metabolic disorders. Then present study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of an oral ionic calcium supplement AV/CGC/18 (supplied by M/S Ayurvet Limited, Baddi, H.P., India) and Caldhan V in high yielder, moderate yielder and dry dairy cattle. The product AV/CGC/18 administered once daily for two subsequent days. The second dose was repeated between 24-48 hrs after first dose administration, followed with administration of Caldhan V @50 ml twice daily from day 2nd - day 30th. Oral administration of AV/CGC/18 and Caldhan V lead to increase in serum calcium, phosphorus and magnesium levels. After treatment with AV/CGC/18 and Caldhan V, a 16.9% and 28.5% increase in milk yield was observed in Group I and Group II. AV/CGC/18 served as a quick source of calcium. Supplementation of AV/CGC/18 and Caldhan V was found to be efficacious in maintaining uniform calcium homeostasis and to prevent calcium deficiency metabolic disorders in high, moderate and dry crossbred cows.
352 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF DILTIAZEM FLOATING TABLETS EMPLOYING A NEW MODIFIED STARCH OPTIMIZATION BY 23 FACTORIAL DESIGN, Sailaja Gunnam*1 and K. P. R. Chowdary2
The objective of the present study is optimization of diltiazem floating tablet formulation by 23 factorial design. Floating tablets of diltiazem (60 mg) were formulated employing Cross linked starch-urea, a new modified starch (50 %) as matrix forming polymer, sodium bicarbonate as gas generating agent and beeswax and ethyl cellulose as floating enhancers. Diltiazem has short biological half-life of about 3.5 h and is rapidly eliminated. It is favourably absorbed from stomach and the oral bioavailability is 40% in humans. Diltiazem floating tablets were formulated as per 23 factorial design. The three factors involved in the 23 factorial design are sodium bicarbonate (Factor A), beeswax (Factor B) and ethyl cellulose (Factor C). The two levels of sodium bicarbonate (Factor A) are 10 and 20 %, the two levels of beeswax (Factor B) are 2 % and 5 % and the two levels of ethyl cellulose (Factor C) are 5% and 10%. Eight diltiazem floating tablet formulations were prepared employing selected combinations of the levels of the three factors as per 23 factorial design. All the floating tablets prepared were evaluated for drug content, hardness, friability, disintegration time, floating lag time, floating time and drug release characteristics.Diltiazem floating tablets prepared as per 23 factorial design were non-disintegrating in water and aqueous acidic (pH 1.2) and alkaline (pH 7.4) fluids and were of good quality with regard to drug content, hardness, friability and suitable for controlled release. The individual effects of sodium bicarbonate (Factor A) and ethyl cellulose (Factor C) and their combined effect (AC) on the floating lag time were significant (P < 0.05).Whereas the individual effect of bees wax (Factor B) and all other combined effects of the three factors involved were notsignificant in influencing floating lag time of the tablets. Formulations Fab, Fac and Fabc exhibited excellent floating over 12-14 h with a floating lag time in the range 15-32 seconds. Higher levels (20 %) of sodium bicarbonate gave shorter floating lag time. Diltiazem release from the floating tablets prepared except formulation Fa was slow and spread over 12 h and dependent on the composition of the tablets. Drug release from formulation Fa was very rapid. Diltiazem release from the floating tablets was by non-fickian diffusion mechanism in all the cases except Fa . In the case of formulation Fa that gave rapid release of drug fickian diffusion was the drug release mechanism.Optimization of diltiazem floating tablet formulation was done taking floating lag time as the parameter for optimization. For optimization, floating lag time was taken as response (Y) and level of sodium bicarbonate as (X1), level of bees wax as (X2) and level of ethyl cellulose as (X3). The polynomial equation describing the relationship between the response, Y and the variables, X1 , X 2 and X3 based on the observed data was found to be Y = 6.126 - 5.619 (X1) + 0.774 (X2) 0.891 (X1 X2) -0.246 (X3) + 0.254(X1 X3) 0.059 (X2 X3) + 0.191(X1 X2 X3) Based on the polynomial equation developed, the optimized diltiazem floating tablet formulation with a floating lag time of 20 seconds or 0.33 min could be formulated employing sodium bicarbonate (100mg/tablet), beeswax (17.5mg/tablet) and ethyl cellulose (37.5mg/tablet).The optimized formulation (Fopt) exhibited a floating time of 14 h with a lag time of 22 seconds fulfilling the target floating lag time set indicating validity of the optimization technique employed. Formulations Fopt and Fac prepared exhibited excellent floating characteristics (floating over 13-14h with a lag time of 22 and 30seconds respectively) and good sustained release of diltiazem over 12 h. Formulations Fopt and Fac are considered as the best floating tablet formulations of diltiazem suitable for b.i.d administration.
353 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERISATION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF FLUORINE-CONTAINING DERIVATIVES OF PIPERAZINE AND MORPHOLINE, Neeru Choudhary*, Om Dutt Gupta and Urmila Gupta
The treatment of 2-fluorobenzylchloride (1), 3-fluorobenzylchloride (2), 4-fluorobenzylchloride (3), 3-trifluoromethylbenzylchloride (4) and 4-trifluoromethylbenzylchloride (5), 2-fluorobenzylbromide (6), 3-fluorobenzylbromide (7), 4-fluorobenzylbromide (8), 3-trifluoromethylbenzylbromide (9) and 4-trifluoromethylbenzylbromide (10) with piperazine (A) in the presence of triethylamine gave the corresponding 1,4-Di-(2-fluorobenzyl)-piperazine (11), 1,4-Di-(3-fluorobenzyl)-piperazine (12), 1,4-Di-(4-fluorobenzyl)-piperazine (13), 1,4-Di-(3-trifluoromethylbenzyl)-piperazine (14) and 1,4-Di-(4-trifluoromethylbenzyl)-piperazine (15) in reasonably good yields. In analogous reactions,morpholine (B) reacted smoothly with 1-10 to form the respective fluorine containing monosubstituted derivatives (16-20) in moderate yields. The compounds were characterized by using IR, and 1H and 19F NMR spectroscopy, MS and elemental analysis. The piperazine derivatives (11-15) and morpholine derivatives (16-20) have been subjected to antibacterial screening.
354 THIADIAZOLE: A BRIEF REVIEW, Samiksha Srivastava*1, Raj K. Prasad2, Rakesh Saini3
Thiadiazole is a heterocyclic compound and exhibits a wide variety of pharmacological activities such as anticancer, antitubercular, antibacterial, antifungal, antimicrobial, anti?inflammatory, analgesic, anticonvulsant, diuretic and anti-secretory activities. It occur in nature in four isomeric forms as 1,2,3-thiadiazole; 1,2,5-thiadiazole; 1,2,4-thiadiazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole. Differently substituted thiadiazole moieties have different activity. In this article we have discussed about different isomers of thiadiazole and their properties, various method of synthesizing different isomers of thiadiazole and several pharmacological activity of 1,3,4-thiadiazole.
355 DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE ENCAPSULATED TRANSETHOSOMES FOR ENHANCED TRANSDERMAL DELIVERY, Jessy Shaji*1, Sharvari Garude1
Objective: The aim of this current research is to study a novel carrier, transethosome, for its enhanced transdermal delivery of ketorolac tromethamine (KT). Methods: Transethosomes (TELs) are elastic vesicles composed of phospholipid, ethanol and edge activator (surfactant). TELs were prepared by cold method and characterized by particle size, entrapment efficiency, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ex-vivo skin corrosive test, in-vitro dissolution, ex-vivo permeation studies and in-vivo study. Results: Microscopic examination of transethosomes showed soft, malleable and spherical vesicles with a smooth surface. Vesicle size and % EE of the optimized transethosomal formulation was found to be 180 70 nm and 80.08 4.5% respectively. Zeta potential of the optimized transethosomal formulation was found to be -46.19 13.3 mv. The ex-vivo study showed transdermal flux of transethosomal gel (47.43 0.2 ?g/cm2/h) 3fold higher than that obtained after application of plain drug gel (15.050.09 ?g/cm2/h), and 2.7fold higher than that of the hydroethanolic solution of drug (17.33 0.15?g/cm2/h). Conclusions: Data obtained from this experimental work concludes that transethosomal formulation is safe, very effective and promising drug carrier for transdermal delivery of drug.
356 STUDIES OF PRECONCENTRATION OF SUDAN IV DYE ON ?- CYCLODEXTRIN EPICHLOROHYDRIN POLYMER, Rupinder Kaur, and Dr. Usha Gupta*
A method has been developed for the preconcentration of Sudan IV dye using a synthesized ?-cyclodextrin polymer. Various parameters such as pH, shaking time, amount of adsorbent, sample volume etc. for the % uptake of Sudan IV dye has been optimized. The method has been applied for the determination of Sudan IV dye in different food samples.
357 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TAMARINDUS INDICA SEED USED AS PHARMA EXCIPIENT, Mrinal Sikdar*1, Abhijit Gothoskar1, Manoj Sarangi2, Sandeep Waghulde3, Babita Kumari1, Ajit Patil1
Generally synthetic polymers were used to formulate any pharmaceutical dosage form. But biodegradability was problematic for any synthetic polymer. For that reason natural polymer were used. Tamarind seed polymer (TSP) was extracted from seed of Tamarindus indica, which have numerous pharmaceutical excipient properties. In the current study, matrix Ofloxacin bioadhesive sustained release tablet were prepared by two technique (Wet granulation and Direct Compression) containing different concentration of TSP and saw its binding as well as bioadhesive property. The tablets were evaluated for different QC test, content uniformity, swelling index, invitro dissolution test, bioadhesive strength test and also comparison study between the two techniques. Finally it was determined that wet granulation show a linear drug release pattern than direct compression and also it was concluded that TSP has good binding as well as bioadhesive properties in both techniques and it will used as Pharmaceutical excipients.
358 KRIYAKALPA- A BROAD WAY TO TREAT EYE DISEASES, Rajendra Kumar Soni1*, Garima Srivastava2, K.S. Dhiman3
Among the many contributions of Ayurveda in drug delivery system kriyakalpa, has a very superior position as it is tissue targeted, fast acting, simple but innovative method of drug administration to various parts of eyes including the posterior segment ,the optic centre, visual pathway also. Today current methods of drug delivery exhibit specific problems that scientists are attempting to address. For example, many drugs? potencies and therapeutic effects are limited or otherwise reduced because of the partial degradation that occurs before they reach a desired target in the body. If orally administered time-release medications deliver treatment continuously, rather than providing relief of symptoms and protection from adverse events solely when necessary. Present conventional system of medicine has topical and systemic administration of drugs to the eye which are highly inefficient and there is a need for controlled, sustained release, particularly for conditions that affect the posterior segment. Various non implantable and implantable drug delivery devices have been developed which are far from satisfactory and result in more adverse effects which is driving scientists to research more and more into safe, effective drug delivery methods for all parts of the eyes. Ancient seers have designed many unique routes of drug administration and also varied formulations to suit the anatomy, physiology and pathological status of allparts of the body and more importance is given to design eye medicaments. The eye being a very vital and sensitive part was of main focus while designing kriyakalpas which include seka and aschyotana (continuous pouring or instilling drops) application of super refined nano particle sized paste on eye lid or eye lid margin so on speak volumes about the ingenuity of this system of medicine. Tarpana, putapaka are usually lipid basedmedicaments to enable easy, faster and far penetrating effect into the posterior segment of eyes. These kriyakalpas are not sophisticated drug delivery systems, but are deployed in novel methods to keep medications intact to specifically targeted parts of the eye through a medium that can control the therapy?s administration and achieve marvel us results. Different types of Kriyakalpa, their indications and probable mode of action will be discussed in present review article.
359 STUDIES ON STABILITY AND ANALYSIS OF CEFIXIME TRIHYDRATE AND POTASSIUM CLAVULANATE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM, 1Mittal P. Joshi*, 1Kanan G. Gamit, 1Dr. Vijay K. Parmar and 2Priyank P. Raval
The Reversed Phase HPLC method has been developed and validated for the estimation of Cefixime trihydrate and Potassium clavulanate in tablet and suspension dosage form. This method was developed using Phenomenex C18 Column (250 mm4.6 mm id, 5?m) and 25mM NaH2PO4.2H2O pH 6.5 buffer ( 20:80 v/v) as the mobile phase at 1ml/min flow rate with detection at 220nm. This method was validated as per ICH guideline. The method was linear in the concentration of 50-300 ?g/ml for CEF and 31.25-187.50 ?g/ml for CLAV with a correlation coefficient of 0.999 each. The LOD and LOQ for CEF were 2.611 ?g/ml and 7.915 ?g/ml respectively. The LOD and LOQ for CLAV were 1.245?g/ml and 3.775?g/ml respectively.The method successfully separated both the drugs from potential degradation products in stress samples with adequate peak purity establishing specificity and stability indicating nature of the method. Tablet and suspension dosage forms of CEF and CLAV were subjected to thermal and photolytic forced degradation study. Besides, suspension was subjected to alkali, acid, neutral hydrolysis and oxidative forced degradation study. CEF did not show degradationunder any specified forced degradation condition. All method validation parameters were within the acceptance criteria as per ICH guideline. The method is deemed to be stability indicating as it separates both the drugs from likely degradation products.
360 DELINEATE RELATION OF BIOCHEMICAL MARKER URIC ACID (UA) IN TYPE II DIABETES AND TO FIND THE GENETIC BACKGROUND OF THIS BIOMARKER, S.N. Malviya*, RamdasMalakar, Shikha jain, Manpreet Kaur, Afroze Ahmed, and C.B.S. Dangi
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by uncontrolled blood glucose levels. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in World population is increasing in epidemic. Diabetes (Type I (IDDM) and Type II (NIDDM) are multi factorial disease. Type II is caused by oligo and polygenic genetic factors as well as non-genetic factors (environmental) that result from a lack of balance between the energy intake and output and other life style related factors. Diabetes is one of the major causes of premature mortality, stroke, cardiovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, congenital malformations as well as long- and short-term disability. The correlation is present in serum uric acid level and age of the diabetic subject which shows that elevation in serum uric acid values as age of the patient increases. Serum UA levels were increased in Type II diabetic patients and this phenomenon seemed to be more profound in male diabetic patients as compare to female. An estrogen promotes uric acid excretion thus it may be the reason that hyperuricemia in men and increased levels of serum uric acid in postmenopausal women was observed. The levels of fasting blood glucose and HbA1c was found to be increased in both types of diabetes mellitus which alerts great concern globally that the patient must take antidiabetic medications along with proper balanced diet and must do mild exercise regularly.Together, these facts have galvanized international efforts to research the causes of type 2 diabetes mellitus and to develop effective preventive and therapeutic tools and strategies for managing the diseaseTogether, these facts have galvanized international efforts to research the causes of type 2 diabetes mellitus and to develop effective preventive and therapeutic tools and strategies for managing the disease
361 COLOUR OF ECOFRIENDLY DYES USED IN HOLI RATHER THAN TRIPHENYL METHANE DYES, Amee K. Patel, Hardik H. Chaudhary, Khushbu S. Patel and Prof. Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen*
Environmentally friendly, environment-friendly, eco-friendly, nature-friendly and green are marketing claims referring to goods and services, laws, guidelines and policies that inflict reduced, minimal, or no harm at all, upon ecosystems or the environment. Triphenylmethane dye, any member of a group of extremely brilliant and intensely coloured synthetic organic dyes having molecular structures based upon that of the hydrocarbon triphenylmethane. They have poor resistance to light and to chemical bleaches and are used chiefly in copying papers, in hectograph and printing inks and in textile applications for which light fastness is not an important requirement. The triphenylmethane derivatives are among the oldest man-made dyes, a practical process for the manufacture of fuchsine having been developed in 1859. Several other members of the class were discovered before their chemical constitutions were fully understood. Crystal violet, the most important of the group, was introduced in 1883. The range of colours is not complete but includes reds, violets, blues, and greens. They are applied by various techniques, but mostbelong to the basic class, which are adsorbed from solution by silk or wool, but have little affinity for cotton unless it has been treated with a mordant such as tannin.
362 UNDERSTANDING DIABETES MILLETUS AND ITS COMPLICATIONS- A SURVEY, Shailima RD Vardhini 1,Lambunore Rebecca2, Kona Sahitya2, Basavala Sirisha2, Maligeri Jyothi2, Debora Kapoor2, Hanumanthu Jyotshna2, Bieneni Sudheer Naidu2, Mohammed Irfath2.
Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most widely spread disease in the world today, which leads to many other complications if it is not monitored. The incidences of Diabetes Mellitus are seen in people who are usually obese and exhibit uncontrolled food habits. It is always important to create awareness among people so that the incidences of Diabetes Mellitus could be lowered. In the present article we have conducted a survey to know if the people are aware of Diabetes Mellitus and further its complications.
363 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORAL FAST DISSOLVING FILMS OF LEVOCETIRIZINE, Mohammed Asadullah Jahangir1, Dr.M.A.Saleem*1, Hasham Rizwan Patel1, Imran Kazmi2, Abdul Muheem3, Kamran Ahmad4
Levocetirizine is a selective, long acting peripheral H1receptor antagonist. Allergic rhinitis is a symptomatic disorder of the nose induced by inflammation mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) in the membrane lining the nose after allergen exposure. Thus, formulating Levocetirizine into a fast dissolving dosage form would provide fast relief. Levocetirizine is bitter in taste so -cyclodextrin was used to mask the taste. Inclusion complexes of drug -cyclodextrin were prepared by kneading method in 1:1 molar ratios. The prepared inclusion complexes were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy suggesting no interaction. The oral fast dissolving films were prepared by using different polymers like HPMC, PVA, PVP and carbopol 934P with super disintegrants like sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium. The prepared films evaluated for folding endurance, swelling index, surface pH, in vitro disintegration time, drug content, FTIR Study, Scanning electron microscopy and in vitro drug release. The physical appearance and folding endurance properties were found to be good and electron microscopy shows that films are clear, colourless with smooth surface without any scratches. The average folding endurance time found within the range of 121 to 198 times. The drug content found to be 93.33% to 98.68% shows uniform mixing of drug in all prepared fast dissolving films. The in vitro disintegration time found to be in the range of 15 to 48sec and the surface pH of theall formulations was in the range of 6.06 to 6.83. The in vitro drug release showed 77.77 to 96.80 % drug release within 10 minutes. The formulations F7 to F12 showed highest drug release which contains croscarmellose as superdisintegrant, among these formulations F7, F8 and F11 showed highest drug release.
364 DOES STAT3 KNOCKDOWN AFFECT HCV REPLICATION, *Shaymaa M. M. Yahya, PhD
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered as a major health problem, affecting more than 170 million individuals worldwide. Host genes were found to modulate viral infection. Studies from animal models have shown that STAT3 plays an important role in cell proliferation, survival, and transformation in the liver. STAT proteins play an important role in the regulation of inflammatory responses by Antigen presenting cells (APCs). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of STAT 3 silencing on HCV replication. Con1 cells were transfected with 5nM siSTAT3 using high perfect transfection reagent. STAT3 and HCV gene expression were determined using Quantitative real time RT-PCR. The STAT3 knockdown efficiency was 65.31% as compared to negative control siRNA treated cells. HCV normalized copy numbers did not show significant changes as compared to negative control siRNA treated cells. We concluded from this study that the role played by STAT3 in HCV replication could be accompanied by other roles from other pathways. Consequently, STAT3 knockdown alone is not enough to suppress HCV replication.
365 A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO EVALUATE TOLERABILITY AND EFFICACY OF TWO FIXE DOSE-COMBINATIONS OF AMLODIPINE/TELMISARTAN VERSUS AMLODIPINE/HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE IN STAGE II HYPERTENSION., Manan B. Dave M. Pharm, Indermeet S. Anand* B. Pharm, M.Sc. (Med), PDCR, Ph.D.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of FDC of Amlodipine (5mg) + Telmisartan (40mg) compared with FDC of Amlodipine (5mg) + Hydrochlorothiazide (12.5mg) in Indian patients with stage II hypertension. Patient between the age group 18 to 65 years with stage II hypertension were treated with oral FDC of A + T or FDC of A + HCTZ once a day before breakfast for 8 week. Primary efficacy end point was reduction in systolic BP/ diastolic BP and number of responders (SBP/DBP
366 SOURCES AND LEVELS OF STRESS IN DENTAL STUDENTS, ?Kanyakumari D.H1., Savitri. P. Siddanagoudra2., Timmareddy Kataraki3
Many studies have reported that dental education induces considerable stress on students. These findings are almost universal phenomena in different countries with different education systems and curricula. It is difficult to eliminate all the stressful problems in a dental education programme. The present study was conducted to understand better the factors influencing student perception. We chose 60 dental students for this study, they were asked to self-rate the tailored Medical Student Stress Questionnaire. After statistical analysis it was found that, academic related stress level was high (2.17) among the students. And the intrapersonal and interpersonal related stressors (IRS), teaching and learning-related stressors (TLRS), social related stressors (SRS), drive and desire related stressors (DRS), and group activities related stressors (GARS) scored 1.74,1.84,1.59,1.02, 1.46 respectively.i.e. stress level was mild all these categories.
367 SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF NOVEL SUBSTITUTED BENZOXAZOLE DERIVATIVES, U. AbuMohsen
In this study, we aimed to synthesize some new benzoxazole derivatives bearing amide moiety and evaluate their antimicrobial activity. A set of seven novel compounds of 2-methyl-5-[4-(substituted-piperazin-/piperidin)acetamido]benzoxazole derivatives were synthesized by reacting 2-Chloro-N-(2-methylbenzoxazol-5-yl)acetamide with corresponding piperidine or piperazine derivatives in acetone. The structures of the final compounds were confirmed by spectral data (IR, 1H-NMR and MS). The antimicrobial activity of the compounds were determined by using the microbroth dilution method. Antimicrobial activity results revealed that synthesized compounds not exhibited remarkable activity.
368 AMLA (EMBLICA OFFICINALIS GAERTN) THE WONDERFUL UNANI DRUG: A REVIEW, Masuma Zaki1*, Wajeeha Begum1, Tabasum Ali Bhat1, Heena Kausar S.2
Amla (Emblica officinalis), a phytochemical reservoir of great medicinal value possesses a vast ethnomedical history. It is among the most widely used drugs of Unani (Greeco-Arab) system of medicine with amazing remedial qualities. In Unani system of medicine, it is described as a tonic for heart and brain. Because of its miraculous actions like muqawwie aza rayeesa, mufarreh wa muqawwie qalb, muqawwie bah, muqawwie chashm, musaffie akhlat etc, it is considered as a potential remedy for various ailments. It has its beneficial role in cancer, diabetes, liver diseases, heart trouble, gastric ulcer, anaemia etc. Indian mythology believes it as the first tree to be created in the universe. Amla is native to India, found wild and cultivated in all parts of India. Each and every part of the Amla tree is used medicinally. This article discusses and summarizes the important medicinal values of Amla berry(fruit) in the perspective of Unani literature as well as modern scientific research.
369 AMLA (EMBLICA OFFICINALIS GAERTN) THE WONDERFUL UNANI DRUG: A REVIEW, Masuma Zaki1*, Wajeeha Begum1, Tabasum Ali Bhat1, Heena Kausar S.2
Amla (Emblica officinalis), a phytochemical reservoir of great medicinal value possesses a vast ethnomedical history. It is among the most widely used drugs of Unani (Greeco-Arab) system of medicine with amazing remedial qualities. In Unani system of medicine, it is described as a tonic for heart and brain. Because of its miraculous actions like muqawwie aza rayeesa, mufarreh wa muqawwie qalb, muqawwie bah, muqawwie chashm, musaffie akhlat etc, it is considered as a potential remedy for various ailments. It has its beneficial role in cancer, diabetes, liver diseases, heart trouble, gastric ulcer, anaemia etc. Indian mythology believes it as the first tree to be created in the universe. Amla is native to India, found wild and cultivated in all parts of India. Each and every part of the Amla tree is used medicinally. This article discusses and summarizes the important medicinal values of Amla berry(fruit) in the perspective of Unani literature as well as modern scientific research.
370 COCCINIA GRANDIS: A PLANT WITH MULTIPLE ETHNOMEDICINAL USES, Mirza Nipa Monalisa, Abdullah Al-Nahain, Mohammed Rahmatullah*
Coccinia grandis is a vinous plant, which can be found in various countries of Asia, Africa, and Micronesia, as well as Australia. It is a perennial plant with edible leaves and fruits. The plant is considered a medicinal plant in many countries by traditional medicinal practitioners and has reportedly diverse ethnomedicinal uses. The various traditional uses described for the plant include snake bite, stomach pain in children, digestive, carminative, diarrhea, filarial swellings, diabetes, bronchitis, jaundice, ulcer, piles, to keep body cool, wounds, infertility, rheumatism, body pain, ear pain, mouth ulcer, and respiratory tract disorders. This review shall focus on the various ethnomedicinal uses of the plant and attempt to correlate such uses with reported phytoconstituents and pharmacological properties of the plant.
371 NATURAL POLYMERS IN DRUG DELIVERY, Priyanka Tiwari1, Preeti Panthari2, Deepshikha P Katare3, Harsha Kharkwal4*
Polymers have been in use for many years with the aim of facilitating the effectiveness and efficiency of drugs and their delivery. Biodegradable polymers are widely being studied as a potential carrier material for site specific drug delivery because of their non-toxic, biocompatible nature. Natural polysaccharides have been investigated for application in drug delivery industry as well as in biomedical fields. Modified polymer has found its application as a support material for gene delivery, cell culture, and tissue engineering. Nowadays, polymers are being modified to obtain novel biomaterials for controlled drug delivery applications. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the ongoing research in the field of drug delivery with emphasis on the role of natural polymers.
372 CERIUM (III) CHLORIDE CATALYZED EFFICIENT SYNTHESIS OF 1,8-DIOXO- OCTAHYDRO XANTHENE AND 12-ARYL (OR) 12-ALKYL-8,9,10,12-TETRAHYDROBENZO[A]XANTHENE-11-ONE DERIVATIVES., G. Prabhakar,* D. Raju, M. Rajesh, B. Madhavarao
Cerium (III) chloride was found to be an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of 1, 8-dioxo-octahydroxanthene and 12-aryl- (or) 12-alkyl-8,9,10,12-tetrahydrobenzo[a]xanthene-11-one derivatives in aq ethanol at reflux temperature. The present method offers several advantages like operational simplicity, easy work-up procedure, high yields.
373 PRELIMINARYIN-VITRO POTENTIAL PHYTOCHEMICALS INVESTIGATION OF BARKS OF RAVENALA MADAGASCARIENSIS SONNERAT, Md. Reyad-ul-Ferdous1,2*,Nasir Uddin3, D.M. Shamim Shahjahan2, Mosharaf Hossen4 , Md. Saiful Islam Arman4, Ariful Islam2.
is the roots of medicines. Every plants contents lots of chemicals which have several biological activities. Every day we take lots of medicine with foods. These foods protect us from several diseases and sometimes cause diseases. Diseases are imbalance of chemicals compound. In present investigation, the bark methanolic extracts of R. madagascariensis were subjected to the Preliminary phytochemical screening. This investigation suggested that the presence of various potential phytochemicals such as Anthraquinone, Tannins, Flavonoids, Saponins, Steroids, Terpenoids, Triterpenoids. The presence of these compounds exhibit potential biological activities such as antioxidant, analgesic, cardioprotective, Lipid lowering activity, hepatoprotective, antidiabetics, antidiarrhoeal, anticancer, antiasthmatic activities, antimicrobial and so on. This is only preliminary studies to isolate potential compounds which may be use as a lead compound for several biological activities.
374 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF MEBEVERINE HYDROCHLORIDE USING NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC POLYMERS, A TarikaPriya*1, M S Neeharika1, Chandra K Sekhar2
Antispasmodics relax the smooth muscles of the gut, helping to prevent or relieve painful cramping spasms in the intestines. The aim of the present study was to formulate and evaluate sustained release matrix tablets of Mebeverine Hcl using various natural and synthetic polymers to achieve high drug release control, reduce dosing frequency, increase bioavailability and increase patience compliance. The tablets were prepared by both wet granulation and direct compression methods. Preformulation and micromeritic studies of the drug, polymer and physical mixture were carried out. The matrix tablets were evaluated for pre-compression, post-compression studies and stability studies. The formulation FW1 showed satisfactory physical parameters and it was found to be stable among other formulations. The prepared tablets were found to be uniform with respect to thickness (2.16mm) and hardness (6.1kg/cm2). The friability (0.34%) and weight variation (297mg) of different batch of tablets were found within prescribed limits. Drug content (98.1%) was found uniform within the batches of different tablets. The kinetics of the dissolution process was determined by using various kinetic equations, e.g. Zero-order, First-order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas equations. Based on kinetic models the formulation FW1(wet granulation) fitted into Zero order, First order, Higuchi model and Korsmeyer-Peppas plot and show non fickian diffusion mechanism release.
375 STUDY OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHYL ACETATE FRACTION OF HIBISCUS VITIFOLIUS STEM BARK AND ITS ISOLATE., I.Carolin Nimila1, K.G.Lalitha2*
Objective: Hibiscus vitifolius Linn. (Family- Malvaceae) commonly known as manjaltutthi (in Tamil) is an annual or perennial herbaceous plant, traditionally used in treatment of jaundice. Since the antioxidant property has significant role in many diseases, the present study was Undertaken with an aim to isolate and characterize the phytoconstituent and to evaluate the in-vitro antioxidant activity of H. vitifoliusstem bark. Methods: On column chromatography phytoconstituent was isolated and characterized by spectral studies. Standard in-vitro antioxidant assays such as reducing power, super oxide scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging and lipid peroxidation were performed. Results: From the results of spectral studies, the isolated compound was characterized as kaempferol. The H. vitifolius stem bark extracts exhibit potent antioxidant effect compared to the standards used in the study. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the potentiality of H.vitifolius stem bark extracts and isolated compound kaempferol as an antioxidant. Kaempferol was found to be one of the important component responsible for antioxidant activity of the H. vitifolius stem bark.
376 STUDY OF EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON AMYLASE PRODUCTION BY SOIL MYCOTIC FLORA OF JABALPUR REGION, Sonal Sareen Pathak1, Suneel Kumar3, R. C. Rajak2, Sardul Singh Sandhu*3
The effect of temperature on enzyme activity shows that enzyme from different fungal isolates have their optimum temperature. The nutritional and cultural conditions are required for the optimum growth and production of amylase from the mycotic flora. The present study deals with the isolation of amylolytic fungi from soil samples. The fungal isolates showing amlolytic activity are used to extract the crude amylase to study the effect of temperature for optimum production of extracellular amylase. In the present research work, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus sp. and Fusarium sp. were isolated from the soil sample. A part from these isolates, Absidia species, Alternaria alternata, Curvularia lunata and Pythium species were also reported in the samples. Among them, the maximum amylolytic activity was showed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. The enzyme activity was observed for the isolates at different temperature range of 28C, 42C and 60C and it was inferred that the activity varied for different isolate at different temperature. The production of amylase is influenced by temperature which is related to the growth of organism.
377 ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF SIEBOLDOGENIN FROM OCIMUM SANCTUM: EXPERIMENTAL AND COMPUTATIONAL STUDIES, Priyadarshini Mallick*1
Ocimum sanctum is extensively used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) as well as in Pakistan for several medicinal purposes including their use in inflammatory disorders. The aims of the current study were to validate and assess the folk use of Ocimum sanctum on pharmacological grounds using the isolated compound at molecular, in vivo and computation at levels. Seiboldogenin was isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of the plant crude extract. In vitro lipoxygenase and in vivo carrageenan-induced hind paw edema models were used in experimental studies while molecular docking technique was used to conduct computational study. Sieboldogenin showed significant lipoxygenase inhibition (IC50: 38mM). It also exhibited significant inhibition (p < 0.05) of carrageenan-induced hind paw edema at the doses of 10 and 50 mg/kg. Computational molecular docking showed its molecular interaction with important amino acid residues in the catalytic site of lipoxygenase, revealing its potential binding mode at molecular level. Sieboldogenin seems to be a potential new anti-inflammatory compound responsible for anti-inflammatory activities of Ocimum sanctum It is in vitro and in vivo inflammatory activities are in good agreement with the folk medicinal use of Ocimum sanctum in inflammatory disorders.
378 ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF DEHYDROZINGERONE ON STZ AND L-NAME INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN EXPERIMENTAL RAT MODEL, Thanikodi Dhanalakshmi, Thiyagarajan Rajeshwari and Boobalan Raja*
This study evaluates the antioxidant effects of dehydrozingerone (DZ) against oxidative stress in Streptozotocin (STZ) and N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) induced diabetic hypertension in male Wistar rats. Hypertension was prompted in adult Wistar rats, weighing 180220g, by oral administration of the L-NAME (40 mg/kg bodyweight/day) dissolved in drinking water for 4 weeks and diabetes was invoked by a single intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ). Rats were given intraperitoneal injection of DZ (100 mg/kg bodyweight). The diabetic hypertensive rats revealed a significant increase (P
379 EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF BARKS & LEAVES EXTRACT OF ALBIZIA LEBBECK, Md. Reyad-Ul-Ferdous1,2*, Md. Zahirul Islam Khan2, Nawfel Abdullah3, Afroja Nuri Chandni3, Umme Habiba Keka3, Zasharatul Islam4, Tazmel Haque2.
Albizzia lebbeck belonging to the Leguminosae family has been investigated for antimicrobial activities. The powdered stem bark & leaf was extracted with methanol. The concentrated extract was then partitioned with pet-ether, carbon Tetrachloride and chloroform. The pet-ether, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform soluble fractions of the crude methanolic extract of this plant were subjected to microbiological investigation by the disc diffusion method. The results compared with a standard Antibiotic, kanamycin. The pet-ether and chloroform soluble fractions showed moderate to strong antimicrobial activity having the zone of inhibition range from 8.660.4mm to 10.661.24mm and 8.50.81mm to 10.66 1.2mm respectively, whereas mild to moderate inhibitory activity was found by carbon tetrachloride fractions and methanol soluble fraction having the zone of inhibition range from 8.330.47mm to 100.51mm and 8.660.1.2mm to 9.660.94mm respectively. Aqueous soluble fraction showed no antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganism.
380 PRONIOSOMES FORMULATION AND EVALUATION BY SLURRY METHOD AS AN EMERGING PROVESICULAR DRUG CARRIER IN NDDS., Santosh Kumar*1 , Rishikesh Gupta 1, Dr. S. K. Prajapati 1, Nikhil Gupta1, Snigdha Pattnaik2 and Ashu Agrawal3
The purpose of this research was to formulate and evaluate Gliclazide loaded maltodextrin based proniosomes for oral route administration. For stabilizing niosomal drug delivery system without affecting its properties of merits have resulted in the development of the promising drug carrier Proniosomes. Proniosomes is a dry formulation using suitable carrier coated with non-ionic surfactants and can be converted into niosomes immediately before use by hydration. These proniosome-derived niosomes are as good as or even better than conventional niosomes.Gliclazide loaded Maltodextrin , Mannitol and Sorbitol based proniosomes were prepared by slurry method with different surfactant to cholesterol ratio.The proniosome formulations were evaluated for FT-IR study, angle of repose and scanning electron microscopy and other evaluation parametrs. The niosomal suspensions were further evaluated for entrapment efficiency, In-vitro release study, Kinetic data analysis, Stability study. The result from SEM analyses has confirmed the coating of surfactant on the surface of carrier. The formulation based maltodextrin showed higher entrapment efficiency of 82.64 1.25 and in-vitro releaseof 98% at the end of 24hr was found to be best among the various formulations. The proniosome formulations were evaluated for FT-IR study, angle of repose and scanning electron microscopy and the result showed that the maltodextrin based formulation was bestsuited. Release was best explained by the zero order kinetics. Kinetic analysis shows that the drug release follows super case II transport diffusion.Maltodextrin based Proniosome formulation has showed appropriate stability for 90 days when compared with other carriers reconstituted niosomes by storing the formulation at refrigerator condition.
381 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR QUANTIFICATION OF LAMOTRIGINE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM, Geetharam Yanamadala*, Sravya.J
A simple, precise, stability indicating RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the assay determination of Lamotrigine in bulk drug and dosage form. LC separation was achieved isocratic mode on a Inertsil C8-3 (4.6x250) mm, 5 ?m column using mobile phase containing KH2PO4 buffer (pH 2.5 ) :Methanol in the ratio 50: 50 at flow rate 1.5 ml/min. The detection wavelength was 270 nm and temperature was 25?c. The retention time was 3.5 min and linearity was observed in the concentration range of 40-160 ?g/ml with correlation coefficient of 0.999. The percentage relative standard deviation in accuracy and precision studies was found to be less than 2%. The method was successfully validated as per ICH guidelines. Lamotrigine undergoes degradation under acidic, basic, oxidation, dry heat and photolytic conditions, degradation impurities did not interfere with the retention time of Lamotrigine, and assay method is thus stability indicating.
382 VALERIANA WALLICHII A RICH AROMA ROOT PLANT - A REVIEW, V. Subhadra Devi * and Dr. M. Gopal Rao
Plant extracts from medicinal plants had been used for many centuries, to treat several health disorders. The active constituent present in the plant plays a remarkable role in curing diseases. In this aspect, Valeriana wallichii is widely used in the indigenous system of medicine. It is also known as Valeriana jatamansi. Different parts of the plant root, rhizome, seed and flower have medicinal values. The root of the plant is specifically rich in aroma. The active constituents present in the plant are alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and essential oil. The therapeutic action of the plant is due to presence of major chemical constituent flavonoids. The herb is beneficial in treating insomnia, nervous problem, snake-bite, hysteria and also as analgesics. Many pharmacological activities viz., anti inflammatory, antispasmodic, antipsychotic, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, antioxidant, cytoprotective and had been reported in different plant extracts. Based on many scientific researches this article is reviewed to reveal the therapeutic aspects of the herb for the beneficial for further research.
383 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BI LAYER TABLETS OF IBUPROFEN AND FAMOTIDINE, Ranjit Goud.P*, Neeharika. M.S, Deepika HC, Sikanth CH, Tarika A, Manasa P
The main objective of this research work was to formulate and evaluate the bi layered tablets of ibuprofen and famotidine by using different polymers. Ibuprofen is an NSAID and famotidine is a H2 receptor antagonist. The tablets containing immediate releasing layer and sustained release layer. The ingredients used are microcrystalline cellulose pH 102, sodium starch glycol ate, cross carmellose, povidone for immediate releasing layer, HPMC K15m, K4m, E15cps, Carbomer 934p, and natural gums like guar gum, Xanthan gum for sustained drug release layer. The bilayered tablets were prepared by direct compression and wet granulation methods. All the excipients are tested for compatibility with drug, which revealed that there was no physical and chemical interaction occurred. The Pre and post compression parameters were analyzed. The In-Vitro drug release studied were Performed in the USP dissolution apparatus-II (paddle) using pH 1.2 buffer and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer as dissolution media at 100rpm speed and temperature of 37oC 5oC. The sampling was done at periodic time intervals of 1.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours and was replaced by equal volume of dissolution media after each withdrawal. The cumulative amount of drug release at different intervals is estimated using UV method at 219nm and 285nm. Based on the evaluation result the formulations F8 was selected as best formulation among immediate release and is used to compress with sustained release layer. Among all formulation F11 formulation was achieved 12hrs with HPMC k15m, kinetic model fitted to zero order release profile.
384 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF BI LAYER TABLETS OF IBUPROFEN AND FAMOTIDINE, Ranjit Goud.P*, Neeharika. M.S, Deepika HC, Sikanth CH, Tarika A, Manasa P
The main objective of this research work was to formulate and evaluate the bi layered tablets of ibuprofen and famotidine by using different polymers. Ibuprofen is an NSAID and famotidine is a H2 receptor antagonist. The tablets containing immediate releasing layer and sustained release layer. The ingredients used are microcrystalline cellulose pH 102, sodium starch glycol ate, cross carmellose, povidone for immediate releasing layer, HPMC K15m, K4m, E15cps, Carbomer 934p, and natural gums like guar gum, Xanthan gum for sustained drug release layer. The bilayered tablets were prepared by direct compression and wet granulation methods. All the excipients are tested for compatibility with drug, which revealed that there was no physical and chemical interaction occurred. The Pre and post compression parameters were analyzed. The In-Vitro drug release studied were Performed in the USP dissolution apparatus-II (paddle) using pH 1.2 buffer and pH 6.8 phosphate buffer as dissolution media at 100rpm speed and temperature of 37oC 5oC. The sampling was done at periodic time intervals of 1.5, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours and was replaced by equal volume of dissolution media after each withdrawal. The cumulative amount of drug release at different intervals is estimated using UV method at 219nm and 285nm. Based on the evaluation result the formulations F8 was selected as best formulation among immediate release and is used to compress with sustained release layer. Among all formulation F11 formulation was achieved 12hrs with HPMC k15m, kinetic model fitted to zero order release profile.
385 IN VITRO PROPAGATION AND ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC FIDELITY OF SEABUCKTHORN (HIPPOPHAE SALICIFOLIA D. DON) USING RAPD MARKERS AND EVALUATION OF THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL EFFICACY: PHARMACEUTICALLY IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANT, Mousmi Saikia * and PJ Handique
An efficient and rapid in vitro propagation protocol have been established using cotyledonary node explants excised from aseptically germinated seedlings of Hippophae salicifolia D. Don. Various nutrient media, antioxidants and different combinations of cytokinins and auxins were assessed and optimized for shoot proliferation. Woody Plant Medium (WPM) with Staba vitamin containing sucrose (30 g l-1), PVP (100 mg l-1), agar (8 g l-1) and growth hormones BAP (0.44 ?M), Kn (23.2 ?M), IAA (28.5 ?M) and GA3 (0.28 ?M) was found to be optimum with 21.6 shoots per explants in 6 weeks of culture and an average of 30.5 shoots per explants in 6 weeks of 1st subculture. Efficient rooting (100%) was achieved in a medium containing IBA (4.9 ?M) on half-strength WPM. The rooted shoots showed 100% survival after acclimatization in the greenhouse. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting profiles had been used to evaluate the genetic stability and clonal fidelity of the in vitro regenerated plants. Antibacterial activity was tested against six pathogenic strains by agar diffusion method. The protocol reported in the present study will be useful in the mass multiplication of H. salicifolia for commercial propagation of this valuable medicinal plant.
386 AMLA (EMBLICA OFFICINALIS GAERTN) THE WONDERFUL UNANI DRUG: A REVIEW, Masuma Zaki1*, Wajeeha Begum1, Tabasum Ali Bhat1, Heena Kausar S.2
Amla (Emblica officinalis), a phytochemical reservoir of great medicinal value possesses a vast ethnomedical history. It is among the most widely used drugs of Unani (Greeco-Arab) system of medicine with amazing remedial qualities. In Unani system of medicine, it is described as a tonic for heart and brain. Because of its miraculous actions like muqawwie aza rayeesa, mufarreh wa muqawwie qalb, muqawwie bah, muqawwie chashm, musaffie akhlat etc, it is considered as a potential remedy for various ailments. It has its beneficial role in cancer, diabetes, liver diseases, heart trouble, gastric ulcer, anaemia etc. Indian mythology believes it as the first tree to be created in the universe. Amla is native to India, found wild and cultivated in all parts of India. Each and every part of the Amla tree is used medicinally. This article discusses and summarizes the important medicinal values of Amla berry(fruit) in the perspective of Unani literature as well as modern scientific research.
387 STUDY OF INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ACETONE CRUDE LEAF EXTRACT OF ADHATODA VASICA AGAINST CALLOSOBRUCHUS MACULATUS, Rajni Shrivastava1* and Priyam Singh2
The present study evaluates the insecticidal activity of acetone crude leaf extract of Adhatoda vasica against Callosobruchus maculatus. The extract showed 86.66% mortality of C. maculatus beetles at 3.0% concentration. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of terpenoids in acetone crude extract. It can be concluded that the acetone crude leaf extract of A. vasica Nees can cause mortality in beetles so it can be used for the management of pulse beetles C. maculatus.
388 CLINICAL EVALUTION OF ROLE OF SHIRODHARA & POWDER OF VALERIANAWALLICHII IN THE MANAGEMENT OF INSOMNIA, Dr. Chawardol Seema G., Dr. Jain Sapan B.*
Insomnia (Anidra) is defined as difficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep or both despite adequate opportunity and time to sleep, leading to impaired day time functioning. Due to Insomnia many physiological changes occurs such as variation in respiration, cardiac function, muscle tone, body temperature, hormone secretion and blood pressure. As per Ayurveda Ahar, Nidra & Brahmacharya are Triupstambhas i.e. the supportive pillars of life which are essential for physical as well as mental health of individual. Considering these aspects study was carried out to find out alternate & safe medicine for Anidra. The study was conducted in 30 clinically diagnosed patients of Anidra with an objective of clinical evaluation of the efficiency of shirodhara & Powder of Valerianawallichii (Tagar churna). Patients were randomly divided into two groups, Group A & Group B. Patients of Group A were treated with Shirodhara and the patients of Group B were treated with Shirodhara & Powder of Valerianawallichii (Tagar churna). For the statistical analysis of the data the standard statistical package R build 2.5 in used. Group B showed better result in disturb sleep, late night sleep, feeling of insufficient sleep, klama, manodaurbalya, & irritability.
389 EMERGING ROLE OF FUNGI IN NANOPARTICLE SYNTHESIS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS, Juhi Saxenaa,b*, Madan Mohan Sharmaa, Sarika Guptab and Abhijeet Singha
Nanotechnology research represents a cutting edge technology due to its diverse applications. The synthesis of nanoparticles with high monodispersity, specific composition and size is one of the challenging issues in nanotechnology. In view of this, biosynthesis of nanoparticle is of considerable importance due to its less toxicity. Among different biological systems used for synthesis, fungi are better biogenic agent due to its diversity and better growth control. Fungi can synthesize nanoparticles both extra and intracellularly. Mycosynthesized nanoparticles found its vast application in pathogen detection and control, wound healing, food preservation textile fabrics and many more. The present review describes fungi as potent nanofactories, mechanism for synthesis of nanoparticles, characterization as well as their applications.
390 PRE-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS (PREP), A NEW AIDS PREVENTION TOOL. WHERE ARE WE? IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGIES FROM INDIAN PERSPECTIVES., Shivaprakash G1, Pallavi LC2*, Rathnakar UP3
Pre-exposure prophylaxis is one of the new AIDs preventive tool. Rapid testing, circumcision, condom, abstinence are the other preventive strategies, which are mainly male controlled methods. Each of these strategies have their advantages and disadvantages. No single prevention strategy will be 100% effective against HIV transmission. Hence, transmission reduction will require integration of all available prevention strategies. Implementation of a newer preventive method is the biggest challenge in a country like India which is highly populated and the spread of HIV infection is rampant. It is important that we prepare strategies against the anticipated challenges of implementation while awaiting for the final report of trials and regulatory approval. This will accelerate the process of our campaign against HIV spread. An effort is made to discuss the challenges and the possible answers in implementation of newer pre-exposure prophylaxis as a preventive method in our population. Successful implementation requires the integrated efforts from the prescribers, users, policymakers, voluntary organizations and media.
391 FORMULATION, DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE BUCCO-ADHESIVE PATCH, Gargi K. Joshi*, Rachana S. Kumar.
The main approach of buccal delivery of desired drug is to avoid first pass effect. Propranolol hydrochloride is a nonselective Beta-adrenergic blocking agent. It is widely used in treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and many cardiovascular disorders. Although it is well absorbed from gastrointestinal tract, its bioavailability is low (15-23%) because of extensive first pass effect. The objective behind making of attractive drug delivery system is to bypass the extensive first pass effect. the formulation of Propranolol hydrochloride buccal patch was carried out using hydrophilic mucoadhesivepolymer HPMC E-15 and matrix forming polymer Eudragit L-100 by solvent casting method. The patches were evaluated and 32 factorial design was applied using Design ExpertTrial version 7 and analysed the responses for it. 3D plot and contour plot plotted using this software. Various solutions obtained by software analysis and one of it selected as optimized formulation which showed the drug relese 97.04 0.10 with desirability factor 1.00. the optimized formulation followed Higuchi model. So the systemic delivery of Propranolol hydrochloride through bucaal mucosa can be considered as successful.
392 AROMATHERAPY & BALENOTHERAPY: THE NATURAL DOCTORS FOR KEEPING COGNITION HARMONY BETWEEN SOUND HEALTH AND MIND , Prof. Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen
Recipient of K.K. Acharjee Award, Recipient of Jewel of India Award, Recipient of Rashtriya Vidya Saraswati Puraskar, Recipient of Rashtriya Vidya Jyoti Award and Gold Medal, Recipient of Life Time Achievement Gold Medal Award, Recipient of Eminent Educationist Award, Recipient of International Gold Star Award, Recipient of Vidya Ratan Award, Recipient of Gyan Jyoti Gold Medal Award, Recipient of Bharat Excellence Award & Gold Medal, Recipient of India Inspiration Award & Gold Medal, Recipient of Seva Chakra Puraskar, Recipient of American Order of Merit, Recipient of Golden Educationist of India Award, Recipient of NEHS Global Award of Excellence and Gold Medal of Excellence, Recipient of NEHS Jewel of Telengana Award and NEHS Medal of Excellence.
393 PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF THE IRAQI BETA VULGARIS LEAVES AND ITS CLINICAL APPLICATIONS FOR THE TREATMENT OF DIFFERENT DERMATOLOGICAL DISEASES, Nidhal K. Maraie 1, Thukaa Z. Abdul-Jalil2*, Anas T. Alhamdany 1, and Hassan A. Janabi 3
In view of increasing resistance to existing anti-microbial agents, side effects and sometimes high cost of treatment, interest in medicinal herbs has been progressively increased. Beta vulgaris var.cicla belong to the family Chenopodiaceae locally known in Iraq as salk is ranked among the ten most powerful vegetables with respect to antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anti-tumor properties. It contains a significant amount of phenolics, catechin hydrate, epica-techin, ferulic, protocatechuic, vanillic, p-coumaric, phydroxybenzoic, caffeic and syringic acids. The plant extract suggested that they might be used as an important natural antioxidant source due to its high levels of phenolics, flavonoids and proline. Beta vulgaris species is an herbaceous biennial leafy vegetable cultivated in many parts of the world for its year round availability, low cost and wide use in many traditional dishes. The leaves can be used in salads or cooked like spinach, and the stems are usually chopped and cooked like celery. Beta vulgaris L. species are used as a popular folk remedy for liver and kidney diseases, for stimulation of the immune and hematopoietic systems, and as a special diet in the treatment of cancer. Literature survey revealed that there was very little research on the health benefit of perpetual Spinach in the world while no study concerned in its flavonoids in Iraq. In this study fresh and dried leaves were extracted using aqueous and methanolic extracts, both extracts were investigated for its phytochemical contents, and it was found that the Iraqi species is rich with flavonoids specially querectin and kaempeferol , in addition to phenolic compounds. From both extracts solutions and ointments were prepared with different concentrations and their clinical effects for the treatment of Acne and psoriasis were evaluated using 360 patients. The clinical study showed that the plant extract gave significant healing effect for the treatment of Acne within two weeks using aqueous solutions prepared from extracts of fresh and dried leaves with more predominant effect for the fresh leaves. And the solution dosage form is better than ointment in the treatment of Acne. Same results obtained for psoriasis but ointment dosage form was much more effective, these results related to the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the plant extracts which can be applied clinically for treatment of many topical diseases.
394 ASSESSMENT OF SERUM LEVEL OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS IN SUDANESE PATIENTS WITH HYPERTHYROIDISM , Rooa M.Eltayeb, Nassr Eldin M.A Shrif, Elhashimi E. Hassan*
Background: Thyroid hormones play an important role in homeostasis of Calcium and Phosphorous levels by their direct action on bone turnover. The importance of this study was that the thyroid hormones inter in calcium & phosphorous metabolism and it frequently disturbed in hyperthyroidism. It is very important to monitor changes in the levels of serum calcium & phosphorous in hyperthyroidism. Objective: this study was aimed to assess the association between thyroid hormones and macro metals calcium and phosphorus in Sudanese patients with hyperthyroidism in comparison with apparently healthy controls. Material and method: A clinical-based descriptive, analytical study was conducted during the period from September 2013 to march 2014. Fifty patients with Hyperthyroidism (25 males and 25 females) were selected as a test group compared with a control group which included 50 apparently healthy volunteers (25 males and 25 females), patients and controls were from Khartoum Teaching Hospital in Khartoum state, Sudan. Blood specimens were collected from both groups and serum levels of Ca, PO4, TSH, T3 andT4 were estimated. Age and gender of the test group were matched with the control group. Result: the mean of serum levels of Calcium and phosphorus in hyperthyroidism patients (10.00 0.808), (4.332 0.8029) was significant increased than control groups (9.06 .466), (3.600 0.399) respectively. (p
395 ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AND ANTINOCICEPTIVE ACTIVITY EVALUATION OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF VIGNA UNGUICULATA SSP. UNGUICULATA BEANS, Tasneem Quader Tazin1, Jannatul Ferdous Rumi1, Shahnaz Rahman2, Abdullah Al- Nahain1, Rownak Jahan2, Mohammed Rahmatullah1*
Background. Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata is a popular vegetable in Bangladesh with beans of the plant forming the edible portion. The objective of this study was to scientifically analyze the antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive properties of methanol extract of beans of the plant. Methods. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to determine antihyperglycemic activity. Antinociceptive activity was determined by observed decreases in abdominal constrictions in intraperitoneally administered acetic acid-induced pain model in mice. Results. Administration of methanol extract of beans led to dose-dependent and significant reductions in blood glucose levels in glucose-loaded mice. At doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight, the extract reduced blood glucose levels by 24.8, 32.2, 42.0, and 51.7%, respectively compared to control animals. By comparison, a standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight, reduced blood glucose level by 55.2%. In antinociceptive activity tests, the extract at the above four doses reduced the number of abdominal constrictions by 30.0, 33.3, 36.7, and 43.3%, respectively. A standard pain relieving (antinociceptive) drug, aspirin, reduced the number of writhings by 40.0 and 56.7%, respectively, when administered at doses of 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight. Conclusion. Antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activities have not previously been reported for beans of this species. Since the plant is widely available in Bangladesh, the beans can be a good source for lowering blood sugar in diabetic patients and for alleviating pain.
396 DRUG RELATED PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH THE TREATMENT FOR PULMONARY EDEMA, PNEUMONIA AND TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS WITH GANGRENE DIABETICUM PEDIS DEXTRA IN PGI CIKINI HOSPITAL , *Aprilita Rina Yanti, Nur Chasanah and Diana Laila
Pulmonary edema is a condition cause by excess fluid in the lung. This fluid collect in the numerous air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult to breath. In most cases, heart problem can cause pulmonary edema. Pneumonia is a respiratory disease (lower respiratory tract (LRT) acute, usually caused by infection. Type II Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a group of diseases characterized by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both. Female, 48 year old, 65 kg and height 165 cm, was hospitalized with symptoms of wound in the right heel and pain about 1 month ago. Patient has a history of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and allergy to neuralgin. Patient was diagnosed with pulmonary edema, pneumonia, type II diabetes mellitus with gangrene diabeticumpedisdextra. Patients has treated with Ceftriaxone injection 1 g, Lasix injection (Furosemide) 40 mg, valsartan 160 mg, Glurenorm (Gliquidone), Calcium gluconate injection, Albumin 25%, Pujimin (Supplement), Metronidazole, and Pladogrel (Clopidogrel). Based on the result of the clinic secretariat at the ward of K in PGI Cikini Hospital, it could be concluded that there was DRPs (Drug Related Problems). However, it can be concluded that the therapy and treatment of patients was right, but there are some things that should be evaluated.
397 DEGRADATION OF TRIPHENYLMETHANE DYE: MALACHITE GREEN BY ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS , J. Subramanian, T. Ramesh* and M. Kalaiselvam
Removal of dyes from textile waste waters is of global concern owing to the fact that they affects or alters the physical as well as chemical properties of the water that makes them inconsumable and highly toxic/carcinogenic. The physical and chemical treatment methods fail because of the increased stability and resistance of dyes towards degradation in addition to their increased cost, less efficiency etc. The biological degradation accomplished by the use of fungal biomass seems to be a promising and harmless one. The present study was carried out to study the degradation of triphenylmethane dyemalachite green by litter decomposing fungi. Totally 7 different fungi were isolated and identified from mangrove regions by adopting standard methodology. All the isolates were screened for their ability to degrade the triphenylmethane dye malachite green at a concentration of 0.1g/100ml of media. Among which Aspergillus flavus exhibited the maximum (83%) decolorisation of the dye at the 9th day of incubation. In order to analyze the relation between different physiochemical parameters various pH, carbon and nitrogen sources were tested. The results indicated that A. flavus was able to exhibit a maximum decolorisation of 95% with glucose and yeast extract as carbon and nitrogen sources respectively at a pH of 50.2 within 7 days. Therefore it obviously confirms that the mangrove derived fungi can acts as a bio-degrading agent in an eco friendly manner in the meanwhile as an alternate to physical and chemical treatments that are cost effective.
398 ROLE OF SERUM ZINC LEVEL IN PATIENTS WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA , *Baybeen K .Alselevany,PhD
Background: Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract. The rise in asthma and allergic disease among adults is a matter of worldwide concern. Many authors have argued that the changes in diet may have been an important determinant of increased susceptibility to asthma. Free radicals have been proposed to be responsible for the pathogenesis of many diseases because of their harmful effects on the cells and tissues. The enzymes responsible for antioxidant defense have trace elements like zinc,which is considered as aa major dietary antioxidant and has a protective role for the airway epithelium against oxygen free radicals. Objectives: This study was performed to assess status of zinc in serum of patients with newly diagnosis bronchial asthma in comparison with healthy controls and to test the hypothesis that hypozincemia is a risk factor for asthmatic symptoms in adults. Patients and methods: Sixty one adult patients of newly diagnosed bronchial asthma of both sexes [21 males and 26 females] attending Respiratory Care Unit at ibinsinaTeaching Hospital in Mosul City and 50 healthyvolunteers [24males and 26females] were studies. The concentration of serum zinc level, pulmonary function tests [, and body mass index,weremeasured. Results: the results indicated that serum zinc leveland lung functions in asthmatic patients were significantlylower in compared to healthy controls. On other hand no significant differences was foundin level of serum zinc and some lung functions between males and femalesin asthmatic patients compared to control. Also the results revealed that 31(50.8%) of patients were obese [BMI?30]. Conclusion: Hypozincemia found in selected patients with bronchial asthma. Detection and improvement of trace element zinc abnormality should be beneficial in the outcome of asthma management.
399 IN VITROANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF GARLIC,ONION, GARLIC-ONION COMBINATION (AQUATIC ANDOIL) EXTRACT ON SOME MICROBIAL PATHOGENS IN BABYLON PROVINCE, IRAQ. , Hiba Jassim Hamza
Background: Medicinal plants Garlic and Onion(Allium sativumand Alliumcepa)respectively,can be described as those plants in which one or more of its organs contain substances that can be used for chemotherapeutic purposes or precursors for the synthesis of useful drug.The use of plants in treating ailments has been in practice since a long time ago. Aims: The study aims at determining the antibacterial activity of aquatic garlic,onion and garlic-onion combination extract,then garlic oil,onion oiland garlic-onion oil combination. Methods: The antibacterial effects of aquatic garlic,onion and garliconion combination extractthen garlic oil,onion oiland garlic-onion oil combinationagainst five Gram-positive and eight Gram-negative bacterial & one yeast isolates including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus viridans, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteraerugenes, Klebsiellapneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis, Serratiamarcescans , Acinetobacterbaumanni,and Candida albicans(fungi)all of them were studied. Results: Antibacterial activity of these aqueous & oil extracts by welldiffusion method were characterized by inhibition zones of five Gram-positive,eightGramnegativeand one yeast pathogenic microbes. All organisms tested were highly sensitive to garlic-onion combination (aqueous and oil extract), then garlic (aqueous and oil extract), whereas all organisms tested were slightly sensitive to onion(aqueous and oil extract). Conclusion: Natural spices of Garlic and Onion (aqueous and oil extract) possess antimicrobial activity against our natural enemies like bacterial pathogens and further evaluation is necessary.
400 EFFECT OF PADDY HUSK EXTRACTS ON GLUCOSE TOLERANCE IN GLUCOSE-INDUCED HYPERGLYCEMIC MICE , Shahnaz Rahman, Rownak Jahan, Mohammed Rahmatullah*
Background. Paddy husks are the by-products produced in the paddy milling industry and are usually discarded or burnt. Yet, the husk is rich in compounds like ferulic, vanillic and p-coumaric acids, which have good antioxidant capacities. Diabetes mellitus is becoming almost endemic throughout the world, and oxidative stress has been said to play a major role in diabetes associated hyperglycemia and other complications. It was the objective of this study to evaluate the antihyperglycemic potential of various solvent extracts of paddy husk. Methods. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to determine antihyperglycemic activity. Methanol (MEPH), ethanol (EEPH), and an alkali-soluble (ASPH) extract of paddy husks were evaluated.Results. Administration of MEPH, EEPH, and ASPH led to dose- dependent and significant reductions in blood glucose levels in glucose-loaded mice. At doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight, MEPH reduced blood glucose levels by 36.8, 41.0, 56.4, and 58.6%, respectively compared to control animals. At the same extract doses, EEPH reduced blood glucose levels by 21.9, 35.0, 42.4, and 51.8%. ASPH at the same doses reduced blood glucose levels by 20.9, 37.9, 43.2, and 50.8%. By comparison, a standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight, reduced blood glucose level by 53.5%. Conclusion. Antihyperglycemic activities have not previously been reported for paddy husk. Since husks are widely available in Bangladesh, they can be a good source for isolation of bioactive compounds towards lowering blood sugar in diabetic patients.
401 THE EFFECT OF MORINGAOLEIFERA OIL - BASED DIET ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE, HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND PLASMA LIPID PROFILE IN ALBINO RATS, 1Ajayi Olubunmi Bolanle, 1Akintoroye Olufunmilayo, 2Olaofe Olorunfemi, 1Olajiga Temitayo.
The effect of Moringa oleifera oil based diet on growth performance, haematological parameters such as Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb), White blood cells (WBCs) and differential counts (Eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes), plasma lipid profilecreatinine, urea in albino rat was studied. Twelve, two-weeks old albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) with an initial average weight of 31.6 3.2g were grouped into two groups of six animals each. The first group was fed with soya bean oil based diet (control group), while the second group was fed with Moringa oleifera oil test diet for six weeks ad libitum. Thereafter, plasma was collected and analyzed for Total cholesterol (TC), High density lipoprotein (HDL-C), Low density lipoprotein (LDL-C), Triglyceride (TG), Total cholesterol (TC). There was no significant difference (P< 0.05) in the weight gained, haematological parameters, and urea in the serum of the test rats when compared with the control, but creatinine level decreased. Also the plasma lipid profile was not significantly affected. These results implies that Moringa oleifera oil- based diet supported the growth of rats with no adverse effect on haematological parameters, plasma lipid profile, urea and creatinine , therefore Moringa oleifera oil can be said to have a positive immunostimulatory potential, and its a good nutraceutic food for animals that poses no cardiovascular risk.
402 GENETIC AND HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES ON EFFECT OF MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL THERAPY ON EXPERIMENTAL RENAL INJURY INDUCED BY CISPLATIN IN MALE ALBINO RATS , *Rokaya H.Shalaby1, Laila A.Rashed2, Alaa E.Ismail3, Naglaa K.Madkour1 and Sherien H.Elwakeel1
Acute kidney injury (AKI) represents a major clinical problem with high mortality and limited treatment protocols. This study was planned to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in a rat model of cisplatininduced AKI. The aim of the present investigation is to determine whether mesenchymal stem cells can restore renal tubular structure and ameliorate cisplatin-induced clastogenesis in the bone marrow cells of rat. The scoring of chromosomal aberrations was undertaken in the current study as markers of clastogenicity. The Study was carried on 36 male white albino rats, of average weight 120-150 gm. The animals were divided into six groups, Group one: - Served as control and received normal saline throughout the experiments. Group two (model control) received a single dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg interapritoneally) after 5 days. Group three, four, five and six: - Male albino rats with induced ARF received single interapritoneal injection of PKH26 labeled BM-MSCs immediately after induction of renal failure at different time intervals. Serological measurements included serum urea and creatinine, bone marrow preparation for chromosome aberrations were carried out and kidney specimens were processed for H&E. MSCs-treated group exhibited protection against renal injury serologically and histologically. The main result obtained in the present study revealed that cisplatin when given at a single dose of 5 mg/kg cause high incidences of the percentage of total chromosomal aberrations 62.33% and abnormal metaphases in the bone marrow cells of rat. This percentage was reduced nearly to 17.33% after injection with mesenchymal stem cells for 30 days, the reduction was highly significant (P
403 IN VITRO AND IN VIVO EVALUATION ACTIVITIES OF EACH MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS, DOXORUBICIN AND LPS OR COMBINED ON BREAST CARCINOMA , Mohamed T Abd El Aziz1, Dina Sabry1, Mohamed A S Al-Ghussein2*, Abeer M A Soliman1, Ayman A Hassan3
Aim: We aimed to explore in vitro and in vivo activities by one or combined therapy of hMSCs, doxorubicin or LPS against breast cancer MCF7. Methods: MCF7, hMSCs and coculture were cultivated, harvested and exposed to either or doxorubicin or LPS in groups then examined by Flow Cytometer for in vitro examinations. Cell proliferation was investigated by MTT assay and both PJNK and IL-6 levels by ELISA. In vitro genes expression was examined by qRTPCR for TLR4, VEGF, NF-?B, IL-8 and IL-1. In vivo cancer induction was performed for 70 albino mice that exposed to treatments before and followed by pathological examination and measuring the same genes expression. Results: In vitro results showed significant reduction in MCF7 proliferation, PJNK, IL-6 and genes; TLR4, VEGF, NF-?B, IL-8 and IL-1; expression for groups hMSCs and/or doxorubicin but LPS was an exception in PJNK and IL-6 levels elevation. In vivo results supported the previous by reduction in cancer cells number when mixed with hMSCs. Similar genes expression reductions were noticed for hMSCs and/or doxorubicin but LPS also appeared as exception in genes expression elevation due to its antigenic properties. Conclusions: Each of hMSCs, doxorubicin or LPS was effective alone but appeared more effective when combined together. hMSCs combined with doxorubicin therapy achieves the highest benefits. Even if LPS showed some antigenic properties but it stills reduced MCF7 proliferation.
404 ARE RENALASE RS2576178 AND RS10887800 POLYMORPHISMS ASSOCIATED WITH PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION? , Khaled A. Elsetohy1, Mohamed A. S. Al-Ghussein2*, Dina Sabry3 Adel M. Nada1, Ashraf A. Eldaly1 and Amr H. Wahba1,
Background: Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) etiology was uncertain. Even if several explanations were suggested, the relation between renalase gene polymorphism and hypertension via renalase catecholamines catabolism activities may be an etiology of PIH that we aimed to investigate. Methods: Known etiological hypertension renalase rs2576178 and rs10887800 polymorphisms were selected. Egyptian 52 PIH patients (study group) were enrolled and compared with 50 normotensive pregnant women (control group). RFLP-PCR was used to assess renalase polymorphism. For our knowledge it is the first time that systolic and diastolic BP was measured for each genotype and allele separately. Results: Genotypes distribution of rs2576178 were significantly different in PIH patients that constitute 48% GG as dominate risk factor in comparison to 60% AA as dominate protective factor in normotensive subjects. Combined with SNP polymorphisms, alleles frequency was conversed; A allele 72% dominated in nomotensive and G allele 67.3% dominated in PIH patients. Similarly, rs10887800 genotypes distribution were significantly different in PIH patients that constitute 63.5% AG as dominate risk factor in comparison to 58% AA as dominate protective factor in normotensive subjects. Correspondingly, SNP polymorphisms were associated with alleles frequency conversion A allele 73% dominate in nomotensive and G allele 66.3% dominate frequency in PIH patients. Systolic and diastolic BP significantly increased when compared study and control groups results. Fascinatingly, systolic and diastolic BP values were graduated according the genotypes and alleles dominance. Conclusions: Not only, renalase GG rs2576178 and AG rs10887800 polymorphisms are associated with PIH etiology, but also they can be assessed as PIH predictor.
405 METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF AERIAL PARTS OF RAPHANUS SATIVUS VAR. HORTENSIS SHOWS ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANTINOCICEPTIVE POTENTIAL , Sharmin Jahan, Mohammed Rahmatullah*
Background. Raphanus sativus var. hortensis is a popular vegetable in Bangladesh with roots and aerial parts of the plant forming the edible portions. The objective of this study was to analyze the antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive properties of methanol extract of aerial parts of the plant. Methods. Antihyperglycemic activity was determined through oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). Antinociceptive activity was determined by observed decreases in abdominal constrictions (writhings) in intraperitoneally administered acetic acid-induced pain model in mice. Results. Administration of methanol extract of aerial parts led to dose-dependent reductions in blood glucose levels in glucose-loaded mice. At doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight, the extract significantly reduced blood glucose levels by 21.4, 28.6, and 51.5%, respectively compared to control animals. By comparison, a standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight, reduced blood glucose level by 47.3%. In antinociceptive activity tests, the extract at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight reduced the number of abdominal constrictions by 22.2, 44.4, 51.9, and 55.6%, respectively. A standard pain relieving (antinociceptive) drug, aspirin, reduced the number of writhings by 44.4 and 55.6%, respectively, when administered at doses of 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight. Conclusion. Antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activities have not previously been reported for aerial parts of this variety of R. sativus. Since the plant is widely cultivated in Bangladesh, the aerial parts can be a good source for lowering blood sugar and for alleviating pain.
406 IMPACT OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN DEVELOPMENT OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY AND ANTIOXIDANTS AS TREATMENT OPTION , Bhatt Sonia1, Kumar Sandeep1,2*, Sharma Niti1, Chauhan Neelam1
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common diseases around the world and is responsible for many deaths. Constant hyperglycemia may lead to some of very serious complications like Diabetic Neuropathy and Diabetic Retinopathy along with some other complications. There is a constant quest for newer and better medication which may improve the quality of life for diabetic patients. Recently the role of oxidative stress has been identified in pathogenesis of diabetic complications including Diabetic Retinopathy(DR).The present work is an attempt to explore the biochemical mechanisms through which over production of oxidants may result in Diabetic Retinopathy. The antioxidants which have been used in diabetic animal models and human models are compiled here to get better understanding. Moreover this work will help researchers to decide their future directions in mitigations of diabetic retinopathy.
407 CANCER TREATMENT: AN OVERVIEW OF HERBAL MEDICINES , Radha Sharma1*, Suman Jain2
Cancer can be defined as a class of diseases characterized by out-ofcontrol cell growth. In 2012, cancer claimed the lives of about 10 million people in the world. There are over 100 different types of cancer, and each is classified by the type of cell that is initially affected. Cancer is a major health problem and a leading cause of death worldwide. Herbal medicine including plants, or mixtures of plant extracts are used to treat illness and promote health. Herbal medicines belong to dietary supplement. These are available in different forms like tablets, capsules, powders, teas, extracts, and fresh or dried plants. Herbal medicines are helpful to maintain or improvement of health. The aims of herbal medicines include restore body's ability to protect, regulate and heal itself. As these affects whole body so looks at your physical, mental and emotional well being and also named as phytomedicine, phytotherapy or botanical medicine.
408 A REVIEW ON NASAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , Aishwarya J Jadhav*1, Sheetal B Gondkar2, Ravindra B Saudagar3
There are several routes of drug administration such as oral, transdermal, parenteral, rectal, ocular, intra-vaginal, nasal etc. Amongst them nasal drug delivery shows great impact. Recently, it has been shown that many drugs have better bioavailability by nasal route than by oral route because it has been attributed to rich vasculature and a highly permeable structure of the nasal mucosa. Intranasal route of administration shows potential for delivery of drugs to brain. The noseto- brain drug delivery of drugs is advantageous as it requires low dose of drug, avoids first pass effect. Also it is fast in action and suitable for the drugs that degrade in gastrointestinal tract. However, the major limitation with nasal route administration is the poor contact of the formulations with the nasal mucosa due to mucoceliary clearance. Many attempts have been done in the recent past to increase the residence time of drug formulations in the nasal cavity, resulting in improved nasal drug absorption by using mucoadhesive polymers.
409 ADVANCES IN DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS , Varuna P. Panicker1, Anu Gopalakrishnan2
Drug delivery system plays an important role in deciding the efficacy of a drug. Drugs should be administered in an optimum concentration range for producing maximum therapeutic effect. Dosage above or below the therapeutic dosage may be toxic or produce no therapeutic effect. Now a days most of the drugs are protein or peptide based which will be easily degraded or destroyed by the biological system, if administered by common per oral route. Drug targeting could be possible by two major mechanisms (a) passive (b) active targeting. Controlled drug delivery systems like vesicles, micellar solutions as well as nanoparticle dispersions showed great promises as drug carrier systems. Hydrogels and drug loaded erythrocytes are one of the growing and potential systems for the delivery of drugs and enzymes.
410 REPLACEMENTS FOR ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION, COMPUTER SIMULATION MODELS , Sanghmitra Priyadarshini*, S.S. Agrawal, Ankur Sood, Shreya Singh, Zaid Naqvi, Ankit Gupta
For demonstration of animal experiments of medical and paramedical faculties, a large number of animals are sacrificed every year. Such demonstrations can be humanely presented using computer simulations rather than experimental animals. For example, software 'X-cology: An Interactive CD-ROM for Pharmacology Undergraduates' was developed. It has become increasingly difficult to perform animal experiments, because of issues related to the procurement of animals, and strict regulations and ethical issues related to their use. A number of computer simulation models (CSMs) are available. Interactive demonstrations were conducted to encourage the departmental faculty to use CSMs. CSMs can be used repeatedly and independently by students, and this avoids unnecessary experimentation and also causing pain and trauma to animals. Recently a hybrid model based on the finite element method and on a compartmental biophysical representation of peripheral nerve fibers and intraneural electrodes was developed. Animal experiments were performed using the same stimulation protocol as in the computer simulations in order to rigorously validate the model predictions and understand its limitations. This software displays complete video demonstrations of different procedures like isolation and mounting of animal tissues followed by on screen interactive interface to study the effects of various drugs on the isolated tissues. It simulates / demonstrates experiments causing undue pain to animals. The presentation is made user friendly and self explanatory.
411 TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A NOVEL APPROACH , K.Bala Murugan1, P.Prem Kumar*
Delivery of drugs through the skin has been always a challenging area for research due to barrier properties exhibit by the outermost layer of skin stratum corneum. In the last two decades, the transdermal drug delivery system has become a proven technology that offers significant clinical benefits over other dosage forms. Because transdermal drug delivery offers controlled as well as predetermined rate of release of the drug into the patient, it able to maintain steady state blood concentration. Its a desirable form of drug delivery because of the obvious advantages e.g.convenient and pain-free self-administration for patients, avoidance of hepatic first-pass metabolism and the GI tract for poorly bioavailable drugs over other routes of delivery. The outlook for continued growth of the TDD market is very optimistic. Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. This review emphasizes the three generations of transdermal drug delivery which start a new era of delivery of drug
412 MODERN TASTE CONCEALING TECHNIQUES IN PHARMACEUTICALS: A REVIEW , Vandana Patil*, Vrushali Tambe, Bebee Pathare, Shashikant Dhole
Taste is a critical factor in development of oral dosage form. Taste masking is important for bitter drugs to improve the patient compliance especially in the pediatric and geriatric populations. Two approaches commonly used to overcome the bitter taste of drug are reduction of drug solubility in the saliva and alteration of the ability of the drug to interact with taste receptors. These techniques not only mask the taste of drug, but also may enhance the bioavailability of dosage form. The recent techniques of taste masking are inclusion complexation, use of ion exchange resin, mass extrusion, and solid dispersions, coating granulation, spray drying, microencapsulation, liposomes, emulsions and gel formation effervescence. Evaluation of taste concealed formulation is done by panel testing, measurement of frog taste nerve response, multichannel taste sensor and spectrophotometric method.
413 IN-SITU GELS -A NOVEL APPROACH FOR OCULAR DRUG DELIVERY. , Mane Kirti*, Dhole Shashikant
Eye is the most important organ of body. The conventional ophthalmic dosage forms consist of 90% of currently available ophthalmic formulations. The major drawback associated with conventional ophthalmic formulations is quick precorneal drug loss resulting in poor bioavailability and therapeutic response, because of high tear fluid turnover and dynamics. Various attempts were made to improve ophthalmic drug bioavailability. In-situ-forming gels are solutions, instilled as drops into the eye and undergo a sol to gel transition in the cul-de-sac thus improved ocular bioavailability by increasing the contact time with corneal tissue, thereby reducing the frequency of administration required in case of conventional ophthalmic solutions, thus optimizing ocular therapy. Lot of novel temperature, pH, and ion induced in-situforming systems has been prepared for sustained ophthalmic drug delivery. Now a days in situ gel have been used as vehicles for the delivery of drugs for both local treatment and systemic effects. The present article describes the formulation and evaluation of an In-situ ophthalmic drug delivery system based on the concept of pH triggered in-situ gelation, temperature dependent in-situ gelation and ion activated in-situ gelation.
414 ALOEVERA: A BOON TO DENTISTRY , Nidhin Naroor a, Prashanth Shenaib , LaxmikanthChatrac, Veena KMb , Prasanna Kumar Raod, Rachana V Prabhue, TashikaKushraje, Prathima Shetty f, Shaul Hameedf
Naturopathy is now gaining its significance as the treatment choice in the western countries. Due to its minimal side effects and highly effective treatment results naturopathy treatment is in vogue. Aloe vera is one such plant. The aim of the article is to highlight the uses of aloe vera in medicine and its potential use in dentistry.
415 ISOTHERMAL TITRATION CALORIMETRY, CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY AND ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY IN LATEST SUPRAMOLECULAR LIGAND TECHNOLOGY , Hardik H. Chaudhary and Prof. Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen
Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is now routinely used to directly characterize the thermodynamics of biopolymer binding interactions and the kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. This is the result of improvements in ITC instrumentation and data analysis software. Modern ITC instruments make it possible to measure heat effects as small as 0.1?cal (0.4?J), allowing the determination of binding constants, Ks, as large as 108109M-1. Modern ITC instruments make it possible to measure heat rates as small as 0.1?cal/sec, allowing for the precise determination of reaction rates in the range of 10-12 mol/sec. Values for Km and kcat, in the ranges of 10-2-103?M and 0.05 500sec-1, respectively, can be determined by ITC. Laser scanning confocal microscopy has become an invaluable tool for a wide range of investigations in the biological and medical sciences for imaging thin optical sections in living and fixed specimens ranging in thickness up to 100 micrometers. Modern instruments are equipped with 3-5 laser systems controlled by high-speed acoustooptic tunable filters (AOTFs), which allow very precise regulation of wavelength and excitation intensity. Coupled with photomultipliers that have high quantum efficiency in the near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared spectral regions, these microscopes are capable of examining fluorescence emission ranging from 400 to 750 nanometers. Instruments equipped with spectral imaging detection systems further refine the technique by enabling the examination and resolution of fluorophores with overlapping spectra as well as providing the ability to compensate for autofluorescence. Recent advances in fluorophore design have led to improved synthetic and naturally occurring molecular probes, including fluorescent proteins and quantum dots, which exhibit a high level of photostability and target specificity. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a technique to obtain images and other information from a wide variety of samples, at extremely high (nanometer) resolution. AFM works by scanning a very sharp (end radius ca. 10 nm) probe along the sample surface, carefully maintaining the force between the probe and surface at a set, low level. Usually, the probe is formed by a silicon or silicon nitride cantilever with a sharp integrated tip, and the vertical bending (deflection) of the cantilever due to forces acting on the tip is detected by a laser focussed on the back of the cantilever. The laser is reflected by the cantilever onto a distant photodetector. The movement of the laser spot on the photodetector gives a greatly exaggerated measurement of the movement of the probe. This set-up is known as an optical lever. The probe is moved over the sample by a scanner, typically a piezoelectric element, which can make extremely precise movements. The combination of the sharp tip, the very sensitive optical lever, and the highly precise movements by the scanner, combined with the careful control of probe-sample forces allow the extremely high resolution of AFM.
416 SANDROOS (TRACHYLOBIUM HORNEMANNIANUM HAYNE.): A REVIEW , Heena Kausar S1*, Najeeb Jahan1, Kamal Ahmed1, Tabasum Ali Bhat2, Mohd Aslam3, Naziya Sultana1.
Plant origin drugs have played a fundamental role in prevention and treatment of diseases since ancient time. WHO estimates that about 80% of the worlds population use traditional medicine for most of the diseases by administration of plant or plant products. Sandroos (Trachylobium hornnemannianum) is an important resin which is obtained from Sal tree, botanically known as Shorea robusta, belongs to the family Leguminosae. It is abundantly found in forests of Africa, Australia, Spain and India. Sandroos has been used since millennia in Unani system of medicine in various ailments like obesity, haemoptysis, ulcers and lipid metabolic disorders. This review discusses about the thorough description of Sandroos in both Unani as well as modern literature, its source, medicinal properties and phytochemical constituents.
417 TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , *Ravikant Gupta
Among the various drug delivery system transdermal patches hold significant position because of their many advantages over conventional drug delivery systems like biocompatibility, biodegradability, long circulating half life and versatility of carrying different drugs with better entrapment efficiencies. The release profile can be adjusted according to the pharmacokinetics of chosen drug; more over site target concentration of specific drug is also achievable. In this brief review on transdermal patches their method of preparation, characterization delivery prospects, application in therapeutics and future horizons will be discussed.
418 BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ANTI-OXIDATION EFFECT OF LEECH THERAPY IN THE PATIENTS OF OSTEO-ARTHRITIS , Pawan Kumar Chaubey1, Akhilesh Kumar Singh2*, S. P. Mishra3, O. P. Singh4
An antioxidant is a molecule capable of inhibiting the oxidation of other chemicals. Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals. In turn, these radicals can start chain reactions that damage cells. Antioxidants terminate these chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates, and inhibit other oxidation reactions. They do this by being oxidized themselves, so antioxidants are often reducing agents such as thiols, ascorbic acid or polyphenols.[1]Although oxidation reactions are crucial for life, they can also be damaging; hence, plants and animals maintain complex systems of multiple types of antioxidants, such as glutathione, vitamin C, and vitamin E as well as enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase and various peroxidases. Low levels of antioxidants, or inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes, cause oxidative stress and may damage or kill cells.As oxidative stress might be an important part of many human diseases, the use of antioxidants in pharmacology is intensively studied. Jalaukavacharan (Leech Therapy) is a method of Raktamokshan. This is the mildest of all the methods used for blood-letting. For this reason it is called the best (Paramsukumarupaya; Su. S. 13/3) method of Raktamokshan. Jalaukavacharanaor leech therapy has gained greater attention globally, because of its medicinal values. The saliva of leech contains numerous biologically active substances, which have anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anaesthetic properties as well as probable antioxidant effect. Keeping this view in mind we have started leech therapy in the patients of osteoarthritis and found encouraging results.
419 EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF ANNONASENEGALENSIS LEAVES ON THE SPERMIOGRAM OF MALE ALBINO RATS. , *Oladele Gbenga Michael1, Faramade Ibikunle Abimbade2.,Ogunbodede Mofoluso Ade3.
The aqueous leaf extract of the plant Annonasenegalensis (Pers) commonly known as African custard apple, at different doses of 200, 300, and 500mg/kg b.w was tested for its spermatogenic effect by studing its activities on the spermiogram of male albino rats. The animals were administered with the aqueous extract of the plant for 14 consecutive days through gastric intubation. The result on the 15th day of the study shows the weight of the testes and epididymis increased significantly for the 300 and 500mg/kg doses. The sperm concentration of the 200, 300 and 500mg/kg doses also significantly increased and the sperm motility of 300 and 500mg/kg also increased significantly, however, the decrease in abnormal sperm morphology is not significant for any of the doses. It was therefore concluded that the plant Annonasenegalensis is capable of enhancing the male fertility especially in rats.
420 METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF METHOTREXATE DRUG BY RP-HPLC , A Santosh kumar Sreevatsav*, N. Shiva Prasad, D.Akhilesh Kumar, Sanjay Kumar M, M.Satish Kumar
A simple and reproducible method was developed for Methotrexate by Reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Methotrexate was separated on C-18 column (1000mm x 6mm x 5?), using potassium di hydrogen orthophosphate at the UV detection of 303nm. Isocratic elution of Acetonitrile and buffer as mobile phase with various ratios and flow rates. Eventually 92:8 v/v buffer and acetonitrile was being set with the flow rate of 1.4 ml/min. The statistical validation parameter such as selectivity (or) specificity, linearity, precision,accuracy, robustness were checked. The recovery and assay studies of method were within 97% to 102%. Indicates that the proposed method can be adoptable for Quality control analysis of method. Keywords: Methotrexate, RP-HPLC, Validation, acetonitrile.
421 METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF NIMORAZOLE TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRY , A Santosh Kumar Sreevatsav*, N.Mamatha, MD.Fiaz, W.A.Karthikayan, G.Latha
A new U.V.spectophotometric method was developed and validated as per ICH guidelines for the quantitative determination of nimorazole. The solvent used is mixture containing acetonitrile:water(50:50).The wavelength corresponding to maximum absorbance of the drug was found to be 302nm. Beers law was observed in the concentration range of 5-25?g/ml. The method was validated for several parameters like accuracy, precision, robustness as per ICH guidelines. The values of relative standard deviation and %assay were found to be satisfactory indicating that the proposed method is precise and accurate and hence can be used in the routine analysis of nimorazole in bulk and pharmaceutical formulations.
422 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION OF N- ALKYL-2- THIOUREIDO BENZO[d]OXAZOLE-5- CARBOXAMIDES AS ANTIINFLAMMATORY AGENTS , Parvati. S, *Arunadevi Parlapalli, Manasa. Cidda, Sarangapani Manda
A series of N- alkyl-2-thioureido benzo[d]oxazole-5- carboxamides derivatives were synthesized, characterized by spectral data and were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by carragenean induced rat paw odema method at the concentration of 0.1 M and the results were compared with standard Indomethacin at concentration of 0.1M. Among the synthesized compounds,compound VIa (R=methyl), VIe (R=isopropyl) and VIf (R=diisopropyl) were found to be potent.
423 ANTIDIABETIC AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF AERIAL PARTS OF AERVA LANATA LINN JUSS ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS. , Rajesh. R*1, Chitra. K2, Padmaa M. Paarakh3
Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and to investigate the histopathological changes in methanol and aqueous extracts of Aerva lanata Linn Juss (MEAL and AEAL) in Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rat which are widely used in folklore medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Materials and Methods: The Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were orally treated with vehicle (Normal saline), glibenclamide (10 mg/kg), MEAL (200 and 400 mg/kg) and AEAL (200 and 400 mg/ kg) to the respective treatment groups. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was measured at 0 min (immediately after glucose load), 30, 60 and 120 min of glucose administration. Histopathological changes in diabetic rat organs like kidney, liver and pancreas were observed after 15 days of treatment. Results: Treatment with MEAL and AEAL (200 and 400 mg/ kg b.w) and glibenclamide (10 mg/ kg) significantly reduced serum glucose level in OGTT. Histopathological changes are restored near to normal after treatment with higher dose of MEAL and AEAL. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the aerial parts of Aerva lanata Linn Juss possess significant antidiabetic activity in diabetic rats. MEAL at higher dose possesses favourable effect on vital organ such as liver and pancreas, thereby justifying the folklore use.
424 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-CATION EXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF DIVALENT METALLIC IONS FROM BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL PRODUCTS , Dileep M. Bhosale*, Anna Pratima G. Nikalje
A novel, simple and rapid RP-HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of divalent Zn and Fe in pharmaceutical products. The analysis was carried out on Whatman Partisil 10 SCX (250 x 4.6) mm, 10?m column with 2.0 mL/min isocratic flow rate at 295 nm wavelength and the elution of both the components was established within 15 minutes. The retention times of Zn and Fe were about 8 and 9 minutes respectively. The proposed method was validated as per current ICH guidelines for specificity, linearity, robustness, limit of detection, limit of quantification, precision, recovery and solution stability parameters. The exhaustive method study was performed to indicate the stability indicating nature of method.
425 RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF RAMIPRIL AND METOLAZONE , IN COMBINED TABLET DOSAGE FORM. Manzoor Ahmed*, Manohara Y.N, Rachana R. Yeligar
The objective of the current study was to develop a simple, accurate, precise and rapid RP-HPLC method with subsequently validate as per ICH guidelines for the determination of Ramipril (RAM) and Metolazone (MET) using mobile phase [mixture of water and acetonitrile in the ratio of 70:30 and potassium dihydrogen ortho phosphate buffer of pH-3 (using OPA)] as the solvent. The proposed method involves the measurement of Retention time at selected analytical wavelength. 220.0 nm was selected as the analytical wavelength. The retention time of MET and RAM was found to be 4.245 and 6.567 respectively. The linearity of the proposed method was investigated in the range of 10-50 ?g/ml (r = 0.9999) for MET and 20-100 ?g/ml (r = 0.9998) for RAM respectively. The method was statistically validated for its linearity, accuracy and precision. Both inter-day and intra-day variation was found to be showing less % RSD (Relative Standard Deviation) value indicating high grade of precision of the method.
426 EFFICACY OF CEPHALANDRA INDICA MOTHER TINCTURE ON THE BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETER OF MALE ALBINO RAT , Subasri Muthuviveganandavel1, Muthuviveganandavel Veerappan2 and *Muthuraman Pandurangan3
Biological researchers on plant extracts effects are stepping into the field of haematology to know more about the immunological and physiological role in organisms.This work is therefore the outcome of a hard research from such point. Conscious attempt has been made to investigate the biological consequences in the immunological and physiological activity of the protein, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood serum of male albino rat due to the oral administration of Cephalandra indica mother tincture (MT). Results obtained in this study are basic data collected through experiments. It is very astonishing to note the telling effect of Cephalandra indica (MT) on male albino rat blood serum biochemical markers. The animals response towards Cephalandra indica (MT) on blood serum total protein, glucose and cholesterol of male albino rat for low-dose acute effect was identified.
427 EVALUATION OF ANTIHISTAMINIC ACTIVITY OF SOYMIDA FEBRIFUGA ROXB. ROOT BARK IN GUINEA PIG. , *Ananta Krushna Palei1, Hetal Aghera.2, K. Nistheswar3
Soymida ferifuga commonly known as mamsarhohini of family meliaceae, is an ayurvedic classical medicinal plant with a reputation in folk medicine. Its root bark extensively used in treating leucorrhoea, menorrhagia, dysmenorrhoea. The present study was performed to evaluate anti-histaminic activity of root bark Soymida febrifuga in guinea pig. To assess the antihistaminic activity of the test drug, the experiment was carried out on isolated guinea pig ileum and prepared according to the method described by Ghoshi. Significant results are found in this study.
428 ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN HONEY BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROMETER , Chandrama Singh, Shubharani, R* and Sivaram, V
Heavy metals in honey are of interest mainly for quality control and nutritional aspect along with the determination of environmental contamination.The objective of this work was to determine distribution of the levels of selected heavy metals like Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Arsenic (As), Mercury (Hg) and Lead (Pb) in honey samples by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). A total of 20 samples were collected from different regions in Karnataka of which 15 samples were multifloral and five unifloral. The analysis revealed the presence of Lead (4.2ppm), Chromium (0.14ppm) and Cadmium (0.76ppm) in the collected samples. Contamination by Mercury and Arsenic was found to be below detection level. The presence of these toxic metals in bee honey is an evidence of micropolluting agents in the environment. These findings helped us to conclude that the acceptable level of heavy metals present in the honey of the study area has no negative impact on the living organisms. Honey produced in different regions of Karnataka state do not completely lack heavy metals but they are at satisfactory level and good quality for human consumption.
429 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF HPTLC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF CAFFEINE IN FOOD, BEVERAGE AND MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS , Ankit Raghuwanshi1, Jinu John2*, C.T. Aravindakumar2
A simple, precise and accurate HPTLC method was developed for the determination of caffeine in different coffee products, beverage and pharmaceutical products. Caffeine from different samples such as natural coffee bean, locally marketed coffee powder, instant coffee mix, Cola drink and tablets was extracted with dichloromethane. Analysis was performed on silica gel G 60 F254 HPTLC plates with chloroform and methanol in the proportion of 25:1 (v/v) as mobile phase. Samples were applied with Linomat V under nitrogen gas flow. Caffeine gave a clear band with an Rf value 0.240.02. The densitometric analysis was performed CAMAG TLC scanner 4 at 274 nm. The linear regression analysis of data for the calibration curve showed good linearity over a concentration range of 50 ng to 200 ng/spot with a regression value of 0.99953 and standard deviation of 1.59%. The regression equation of the calibration curve was Y=687.946 + 24.936 * X. The limit of detection and limit of quantification of caffeine was 0.198 ng spot-1 and 0.599 ng spot-1. Using the developed method, the concentration of caffeine in complex matrix containing samples such as marketed coffee powder, soft drink and tablet was determined.
430 PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CORIANDER SATIVUM L. ON CADMIUM INDUCED TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS , N.Agnel Arul John*, G.Shobana* and K.Keerthana*
Background: Cadmium is a environmental and occupational hazard that causes various degree of damage in target cells mainly in the liver and kidney. It is found in drinking water, atmospheric air, and even in food. Objective: The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of Coriandrum sativum L in cadmium chloride induced toxicity in albino rats. Methods: Wistar strains of albino rats were used and the experimental animals were divided into five groups each consisted six animals. In experimental design, group I is served as normal control , group II is served as disease control (intraperitoneally administered with cadmium (6mg/kg of bw) as CdCl2 for 15 days). Group III and IV is induced with CdCl2 and aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum L (100 and 200 mg/kg of bw) . Group V was treated with plant alone. Result: Oral administration of cadmiumas cadmium chloride showed a significant increase in the marker enzymes (Alanine transaminase, Aspartate transaminase, Alkaline Phosphatase, Acid phosphatase) and Cholesterol in serum and Lipid Peroxide in liver tissue. After the treatment with aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum L of 100,200mg/kg of bw produced a well pronounced protective effect in response to these parameters in cadmium intoxicated rats. The treatment with cadmium caused a concomitant reduction in the enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants like Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase, Reduced Glutathione and serum protein respectively, while treatment with aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum L at the dose levels of 100 and 200mg/kg of bw resulted in the marked improvement in the antioxidants and protein compared to control rats. Conclusion: The above results concludes that the treatment with aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum L produced a significant protective effect against cadmium-induced toxicity in albino rats.
431 DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE PATIENTS ON MAINTENANCE HEMODIALYSIS , Savitha R Sanathana*, Vineetha Bharathan Menonb, Phanisree Allab, Smitha Madhurib, Manjunath S Shettyc, Dushad Ramd
Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate the pattern of depressive symptoms in patients on maintenance hemodialysis and to identify the number of patients treated for these symptoms. The patients clinical condition, pharmacotherapy, and various demographic and socioeconomic variables and their possible association with depressive symptoms were also studied. Methods: We studied 126 patients with end stage renal failure, undergoing hemodialysis treatment at the outpatient dialysis unit of two tertiary care hospitals in Southern India over a period of 6 months. For the evaluation of depressive symptoms, Beck Depression Inventory was used. The pharmacotherapy, clinical condition, demographic and socioeconomic variables were also investigated. Results: Using Beck Depression Inventory, depressive symptoms were identified in 65.07% patients. Significant associations were observed between depressive symptoms and variables like female gender, being single, advanced age, lower socioeconomic status, nuclear family status, increased financial reliability, lower body mass index, dialysis duration less than 1 year and increased cost of treatment. Clinical conditions like diabetes, fatigue, limb pain, poor appetite and sleep quality, lower albumin levels and use of medications like Prazosin was also found to be associated with depressive symptoms. Out of 65% of the patients with depressive symptoms, none received anti-depressant medications. Conclusions: We observed high incidence of depressive symptoms among the chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment, however they were not appropriately treated. These symptoms were found to be related with various clinical, therapeutic and socio demographic variables.
432 AWARENESS OF DIABETES RISK FACTOR & COMPLICATIONS AMONG DIABETIC POPULATION AT A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL , Shahnooshi Javad F*1, Dr. Shashidhar. G2, Anita Dadollahi Sarab3, Dr. Syed Imam Rabbani4
Multiple studies from various parts of India have revealed a rising trend in the prevalence of type II diabetes in the urban areas. An increase of 12.1% in the prevalence of diabetes was noted in National Urban Survey of year 2000. In addition, socio-economic transition in rural areas has led to a rise from 2.4% to 6.4% in the incidence of diabetes. This cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in MVJ hospital, Bangalore. The study samples were collected from each ward. A total of 115 diabetic patients were interviewed through a predesigned questionnaire. Subjects age > 15 years, either have been diagnosed as diabetes or using any hypoglycaemic medication were selected for the study. The questions were designed to elicit details of age, gender, educational status, socioeconomically status, family history of diabetes, general knowledge, knowledge of risk factors and awareness of complications for each participant. The mean (SD) diabetes risk factor awareness score of all participants was 3.1376150.125536 out of a total score of 7. The mean (SD) diabetes complication awareness score of all participants was 2.4818180.091991 out of a total score of 6. As we considered that, three and more, correct answer to risk factor and complication was positive answer, 70% and 52.72% of participants had positive answer for diabetes risk factor and complication respectively.
433 ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF HOLARRHENA ANTIDYSENTERICA WALL , Kranti Satpute1*, Kaumudee Bodas2, Varsha Shende2, Wajid Chaus1, Dhumal Atul1, Galphade Amar1
Background: Helminthes have been common cause of concern and pose many problems to human beings and animals. Many medicinal plants claimed to possess anthelmintic activity and can be effectively used against these types of disorders. Holarrhena Antidysenterica, commonly called Kurchi bark is deciduous shrub belonging to Apocynaceae was traditionally used to treat Helminthiasis. Objective: To test Anthelmintic activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Holarrhena Antidysenterica.. Materials and Methods: Indian adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma) were used to study anthelmintic activity. The activity was checked in aqueous and alcoholic bark extracts at three different concentration (10, 20 and 40mg/ml) and results were expressed in terms of paralysis time and death time for worms. The results were compared with standard solution, Albendazole (10, 20 and 40mg/ml). Results: Both the extract showed significant anthelmintic activity. The effect was dose dependant and shortest time taken for paralysis and death was observed in case of alcoholic extract at 40 mg/ml concentration. Conclusion: It was concluded that seeds of Holarrhena Antidysenterica have potential anthelmintic activity.
434 CAUSES FOR MISERABLE QUALITY OF LIFE OF NORTHERN INDIAN FEMALE CERVICAL CANCER PATIENT POPULATION , *Shambhavi Singh
Throughout the most recent decade, quality of life examinations of cervical tumor patients' have turned into a discriminating assessment parameter in the clinical disease exploration and medicine assessment programs. Cervical cancer, malignant neoplasm, shows up in tissues of the cervix, an imaginable preventable sickness that starts as the second most far reaching malignancy in ladies. Disregarding is being considering as a treatable hazard, 95% preventive and conditions that could be effectively analyzed through Pap smear. This disease represents a hopeless condition, plausible 24 percent of India's growth cases among ladies and notwithstanding that 80,000 Indian ladies die every year from the cervical cancer, which comes about because of the unordinary development of cells in the cervix. To comprehend conditions in charge of same circumstance, chose to do this study. This study was done in a 120 bed tertiary consideration clinic, Cancer Hospital , spotted at elite sacred city Varanasi, India. Present study evaluated the overall quality of life, side effects of patients influenced by cervical diseases by utilizing rules and modules of The European organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. The evaluation was completed in two stages, as audit I at ?2 cycles and further as survey II at ?5 cycles of treatment. Informations were investigated for 104 people with the speaking to mean age of 47.112.2 years. The assessment was described as utilitarian scale and manifestation scale. In the practical scale physical, and part capacities were critical (P
435 UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF MOSAPRIDE CITRATE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM USING AREA UNDER CURVE METHOD , Om Yadav, K. N. Gujar, H. K. Jain*
This paper describes development and validation of UV spectrophotometric method for the estimation of Mosapride Citrate in tablet formulation using area under curve method. The standard and sample solutions of Mosapride Citrate were prepared in methanol. The area under curve in between 260 to 280 nm was measured. The method followed linearity in the range of 5-30 ?g/ml with correlation coefficient value of 0.9999. This method was validated for various parameters according to ICH guideline Q2 (R1). Satisfactory values of Percent relative standard deviation for the intra-day and inter-day precision indicated that method was precise. The mean percentage recovery studies were found to be 101.13%. LOD and LOQ were calculated as 0.1032 ?g/ml and 0.3129 ?g/ml, respectively.
436 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A STABILITY INDICATING UV-VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ASSAY METHOD OF OLANZAPINE BY USING DIFFERENT STRESS DEGRADATION CONDITIONS. , Chandrashekhar Ashok Kale*, Gauri Santosh Kulkarni, Vitthal V. Chopade, Somdatt Y.Chaudhari and P.D.Chaudhari
A simple, specific and reliable UV-VIS spectrophotometric method was developed for estimation of Olanzapine in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form. Methanol was chosen as a solvent . The ?max was found to be 258-259 nm and the responses were found to be linear in the range of 2-12?g/ml. The regression equation of the graph and calibration curve were found to be y = 0.079x+0.035 and r2=0.986 respectively. The % RSD values for intraday and interday precision were found to be 1.33 and 1.32 % respectively. The %recovery of the drug ranged from 96.35% and 97.33%. The proposed method was validated for accuracy, precision, ruggedness, robustness, limit of detection, limit of quantitation. Hence this method can be used for routine estimation of Olanzapine in bulk drug and their pharmaceutical dosage forms. The proposed method for stability study showed that there was appreciable degradation found in stress conditions of Olanzapine.
437 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A STABILITY INDICATING UV-VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ASSAY METHOD OF DIDANOSINE BY USING DIFFERENT STRESS DEGRADATION CONDITIONS. , Gauri Santosh Kulkarni*, Chandrashekhar Ashok Kale, Vitthal V.Chopade, and Pravin.D.Chaudhari
The aim of the present work is to study and develop a simple, accurate, precise and economic UV-Vis Spectrophotometric method for estimation of Didanosine in bulk and determination of percent degradation by using different stress condition. The solvent used was Distilled water and absorption maxima (? max) of drug was found to be 248.5 nm. The linear response was observed in the range of 2-18 ?g/ml with regression coefficient 0.998. The method was validated for different parameters as per International Conference for Harmonization (I.C.H.) guidelines. Didanosine was subjected to various stress degradation conditions recommended by I.C.H. Stress degradation studies were carried out to provide indications of stability indicating property of proposed method.
438 HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SWERTIA CHIRAYATA ON PARACETAMOL INDUCED LIVER DAMAGE IN ALBINO RATS , Hari Kumar Cheedella*1, Ramesh Alluri2, G. Krishna Mohan3
Liver disease is one of the common health problems as it is exposed to many kinds of therapeutic agents and xenobiotics. The present investigation was aimed at examining the possible hepatoprotective role of Swertia chirayata against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. The plant extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o.) showed a remarkable hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity as judged from the serum marker enzymes in rats. Paracetamol induced a significant rise in aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin. Treatment of rats with different doses of plant extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly (P
439 NOVEL APPROACH FOR PREPARATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS OF GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE , Ruhi Fatma1*, Dr. P.K. Nandi2, Dr. Ajay Kumar Gupta1
Gymnema sylvestre is one of the most popular anti-diabetic herb and gymnemic acid is the main active constituent responsible for hypoglycaemic activity. The atomic arrangement of gymnemic acid molecule is similar to that of glucose molecule and thus provides better control and management in type-2 diabetes. In the present study, formulation for the fast dissolving tablets of Gymnema sylvestre is developed for its quick release in the oral cavity. The formulation of G. sylvestre was prepared by using sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium as a superdisintigrants and mannitol as a sweetening agent. The Data expert software is applied for the full factorial design, the ANOVA study of the Linear regression model and T-test confirmed that predicted and observed response showed no significant difference. The results indicated that there is significant improvement in disintegration of the tablet and the extent of disintegration was highly dependent on the amount of the disintegrants used. Thus the study indicated that fast dissolving tablets of Gymnema sylvestre could be successfully and quickly delivered orally when formulated with the selected superdisintegrants.
440 QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF PARA HYDROXY BENZOIC ACID AND PARA HYDROXYBENZALDEHYDE IN VANILLA PLANIFOLIA PODS BY HPTLC , *Shruthi Menon1, Naira Nayeem2
This study presents the report of quantatitive estimation of para hydroxy benzoic acid and para hydroxybenzaldehyde in Vanilla planifolia using HPTLC. Silica gel aluminum plate 60 F254 (5 cm 10 cm) with 250 ?m thickness were used for separation. Good separation was achieved by using mobile phase n-hexane: ethyl acetate (7: 3 v/v). Determination and quantitation were performed by densitometric scanning at 266nm. The amount of para hydroxyl benzoic acid present was found to be 27.28?g/ml and amount of para hydroxyl benzaldehyde present was found to be 47.01?g/ml. The HPTLC method can be used for quantification of para hydroxy benzoic acid and para hydroxyl benzaldehyde in crudedrugs, herbal drugs and formulation composed of several components.
441 ISONIAZID INDUCED PSYCHOSIS A CASE REPORT , Apollo James*, Ansu Anna Dan, Anjali George, Josna James, Unnimaya Premkumar T.R.Ashok kumar, T.Sivakumar
Patients infected with Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB) are at increased risk of developing adverse drug reactions during their course of treatment with Anti tubercular agents. We report a patient infected with MTB, after 10 days of Isoniazid therapy, developed acute psychosis.
442 PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON DESMODIUM GYRANS DC. , S. Gopalakrishnan*1, R. Rajameena2
Desmodium gyrans DC (Fam. Fabaceae) is commonly known as Thozhukanni in Tamil Namaskari in Sanskrit. Traditionally Desmodium gyrans DC is used as antidote, cardiac-tonic and wound healing drug. In order to ensure the use of genuine and authentic material in the preparation of herbal formulations, pharmacognostical and phytochemical methods of standardization of the plant has been carried out in the present work. Microscopic, powder microscopic and physico-chemical characters of D. gyrans has been carried out. Preliminary phytochemical analysis and thin layer chromatographic studies have been performed on the various extracts of the leaves of D. gyrans. All these pharmacognostical and phytochemical studies can be used as a diagnostic tool for the correct identification of the plant and also to test adulteration if any.
443 COMPARISION OF EFFECT OF NEBULIZATION WITH DIFFERENT COMBINTIONS OF MEDICATIONS IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS WITH WALRI. , K. Blessy lavanya*1, T.Lakshmi vasundhara1, Syed Zahed pasha1, Mr.G.Veeramai1, Dr. S. Chidambaranathan2
AIM: To investigate which of the combination of nebulisation is better when compared to each other in management of WALRI in pediatric patients. METHODOLOGY: This study is conducted for a period of 6months (November 2012 to April 2013) in RMMCH a 1600 bedded tertiary care multispecialty hospital situated in southern India. A total of 65 patients in age group of new born to 12 years are enrolled of these 16 (GROUP A) received Ipratropiumbromide+ Salbutamol+ Budesonide, 13 (GROUP B) received Levosalbutamol sulphate+ Budesonide, 13 (GROUP C) received Ipratropiumbromide+ Salbutamol + Ambroxlo+ Hypertonic solution, 23 (GROUP D) received Ipratropiumbromide+Salbutamol+Budesonide+Ambroxol . The respiratory rate, heart rate, overall clinical conditions(using YALES observation scale), RDAI score were measured before 30 minutes and after 20 minutes of nebulization. Results: Both Group A and Group C shows significant improvement in overall RDAI score whereas Gropu A (Ipratropiumbromide+Salbutamol+Budesonide) shows better improvement in heart rate, respiratory rate, and other clinical conditions. Conclusion: Ipratropiumbromide+Salbutamol+Budesonide is the most effective combination for the treatment of WALRI in pediatric patients.
444 PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLET OF ZOLPIDEM TARTARATE USING HYDROGEL POLYMERS , Mohammed Asadullah Jahangir*2, Mohammed Shadab Shahab1, M. A. Saleem2, Abdul Muheem3, Kamran Ahmad4 , Dr. Imran Kazmi5
In the present investigation, an attempt was made to develop a sustained release matrix tablet of Zolpidem tartrate by direct compression technique using hydrogel forming natural polysaccharides such as sodium alginate, xanthan gum, guar gum and chitosan alone and in combination with chitosan in varying concentration. The Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopic study revealed no major interaction between drug and polymer. All the pre-compression parameters for drug polymer mixture and post compression parameters of the tablet were in the acceptable range of pharmacopoeial specifications. The prepared matrix tablets showed good swelling from 343 to 758% in 12 hours, maintaining integrity of the formulation in rank order of polymer taken alone xanthan gum > sodium alginate > guar gum > chitosan. The in vitro dissolution studies of Zolpidem tartarate matrix tablet was carried out in USP apparatus I and the release was found to be 80 to 90% for an extended period of 10 to 12 hours. The release data was fitted to various mathematical models such as Higuchi, zero order, first order, Korsmeyer-peppas model and it was found that the in vitro release obeyed first order kinetics with release mechanism being diffusion controlled. The stability studies were carried out according to ICH guidelines which confirmed that the formulations are stable.
445 PHYTOCHEMICALANALYSIS OF THE LEAF, STEM AND SEED EXTRACTS OF CAJANUS CAJAN L(DICOTYLEDONEAE: FABACEAE) , Meena Sahu, Devshree Vermaand, K.K. Harris*
Cajanus cajan L. is an important legume used as nutrient and rich source of vitamin and protein. It is used as traditional medicine since ancient times. Cajanus cajan L. is used for the treatment of hepatitis, dysentery, diabetes and measles. Its leaves used to treat wounds, malaria, bedsores, treat against hypoxic-ischemic brain damage and alcohol-induced liver damage and also used as antioxidant, anticancerous and antibacterial. Their seeds have been found to have antisickling activity. This study aims to investigate the qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of leaf seed and stem extracts of Cajanus cajan L.. Ethanol, methanol, chloroform and petroleumether extract have been prepared using Soxhlet apparatus for the phytochemical analysis of leaves, seeds and stems ofCajanus cajan L. Methods of Trease and Evans (1989) and Sofowora (1993) were followed to revealed phytochemicals. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of saponins, tannins, alkaloids flavonoids, anthraquinones and reducing sugars, however, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides were absent in some of the components of Cajanus cajan L.. Quantitative phytochemical analysis of leaf, seed and stems for total phenolic compounds were found with Folin-Ciocalteus reagent and revealed 16.61%, 3.82% and 14.19% ; saponins 5.97%, 6.35% and 4.98%; tannins 0.49%, 0.23% and 0.22%; alkaloids 2.65%, 2.65% and 2.51%; flavonoids 4.77%, 2.11% and 5.44% . The presence of these bioactive compounds like phenol, alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins in Cajanus cajan L. probably contributes to its medicinal properties making it widely used in traditional medicines. Presence of these compounds is also directly linked by various authorities to the valuable anti-sickling properties possessed by this plant.
446 STUDIES ON ANTIMICROBIAL COMPOUNDS ISOLATED FROM MANGROVE ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI , Alaganandham Elavarasi, Samuel Peninal, Gananaparkasam Sathiya Rathna and Murugaiyan Kalaiselvam*
Endophytic fungi were isolated from mangrove leaves of Rhizophora annamalayana in Vellar estuary along southeast coast of India. Isolated colonies were identified and screened for antimicrobial activity. The crude extracts exhibited strong and moderate activity against human pathogens. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed in Fusarium sp. followed by Penicillium sp., Alternaria sp., Nigrospora sp., Rhizopus sp. Potential strain of Fusarium sp was analyzed by GC-MS and two major compounds such as 5-Eicosene, (E) - and 1Dodecanol, 2-methyl (S) were identified. F.moniliforme. was sequenced and it was submitted in NCBI with the Accession number JN681281.These results indicate that endophytic fungi from mangrove leaves acts as potential source of antimicrobial compounds.
447 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION RP-HPLC-PDA METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF METFORMIN IN BULK AND DOSAGE FORM , Devendra Kumar1*, Saurabh Srivastava2, Rachumallu Ramakrishna 3, Rakesh Kumar Dixit1
A simple, sensitive, precise and accurate reversed phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the estimation of metformin from bulk dosage form. The method was developed and validated using a Thermo Accuacore Hillic (150 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) column with a mobile phase consisting 20 mM sodium acetate buffer and acetonitrile (45:55, v/v with pH-4 ); at a flow rate of 0.7 mL min-1. The PDA detection was achieved at 236 nm, over a wide dynamic range of 0.039 to 1.25 ?g mL-1. The retention time of metformin was 3.9 minutes. The method was successfully validated in accordance to ICH guidelines acceptance criteria for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness, ruggedness and system suitability. Intra-day and inter-day assay accuracy and precision of the metformin were less than 2%, and the average recovery were in the range of 98102%. Metformin was subjected to the stress conditions of oxidation, acid and base hydrolysis and thermolysis. The method was successfully applied for analysis of metformin in the presence of excipients in commercially available tablet and bulk dosage form.
448 TOXICITY STUDY OF BUTYLATED HYDROXYL TOLUENE (BHT) IN RATS , *Varuna P. Panicker, Sisilamma George, Dhanush Krishna B
Butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT) is also termed as 2,6-di-tert-butylp- cresol or 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol. BHT does not occur in nature and is prepared synthetically from p-cresol and isobutylene. BHT is one of the most widely used synthetic phenolic anti-oxidant in foods, mainly in foods containing fats and oils, food containers, packaging materials and in cosmetics[1,2]. Fats, oils, and fat- containing foods are naturally susceptible to rancidity and other oxidation reactions. Lipid oxidation is autocatalytic reaction which proceeding as a complex chain of reactions involving free radicals. Here BHT act as a free radical scavenger, prevents rancidification by terminating this chain reaction. BHT has a molecular weight of 220.34 with the chemical formula C15H24O and it is a white odourless crystalline solid, insoluble in water, but freely soluble in ethanol and fatty oils[3]. BHT is metabolized primarily in the liver microsome. Some metabolism of BHT also occurs in lung. In rat liver BHT is metabolized to a variety of sulfate and glucuronic acid conjugates which eventually excreted in the urine and faeces and to some extend through bile[4,5,6]. Cytochrome P450 mediated metabolism in liver causes the formation of a reactive and electrophilic metabolite BHT quinone methide (BHT-QM) 2,6-di-tert- butyl-4methylenecyclohexa- 2,5-dienone) an intermediate metabolite of BHT which can covalently bind to various cellular nucleophiles, especially those containing sulfhydryl groups such as cysteine and glutathione which consequently leads to acute hepatotoxicity and pneumotoxicity[7]. BHT compounds has been subjected to extensive toxicological studies in various animals. LD50 value of BHT in rats when administered orally is > 2930 mg/kg bw. At high doses it is known to cause hemorrhagic death because of the inhibition of hepatic prothrombin synthesis. BHT is generally recognized as a safe food additive (E 321). The Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of the FAO/WHO approved an acceptable daily intake for man is 0.5mg BHT/kg bw. It is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed to liver and body fat. Genotoxicity studies revealed that BHT is not capable of inducing point mutations, chromosomal aberrations, or to interact with or damage DNA[8,9,10]. BHT is used to treat herpes in human beings at a dose ranging from 2500 3000 mg and is found to be effective against a wide variety of lipid coated viruses like Newcastle Disease virus[11,12] . BHT can act both as promoter and antipromotor of carcinogenesis. Despite the antioxidant and antiviral effects many questions about the use of BHT in human medicine remain unanswered.
449 BUOYANT OIL ENTRAPPED GASTRO RETENTIVE MULTIPARTICULATE CALCIUM PECTINATE GEL BEADS OF CEFIXIME , Naveen Kumar.Bommagani* 1, 3 , Mounika.Basani 1 , Dr.S Vasudeva Murthy 2
The gastroretentive sustained release system of cefixime was formulated to increase the gastric residence time and modulate its release behaviour. Olive oil entrapped beads containing cefixime capable of floating in the gastric condition were formulated and evaluated. Cefixime is a third generation cephalosporin antibacterial agent which results from inhibition of mucopeptide synthesis in the bacterial cell wall. Cefixime is considered as a suitable drug candidate for floating controlled drug delivery system. Hence, cefixime beads were prepared by emulsion gelation method by employing pectin and sodium alginate as sustained release polymers in three different ratios and olive oil was used to enable floating property to the beads. The effect of validation in polymer and their concentration was investigated. The beads were evaluated for production yield, particle size, swelling index, density measurement, in-vitro buoyancy, drug content, drug entrapment efficiency, in-vitro release characteristics, and in-vitro release kinetic study. Based on drug entrapment efficiency, buoyancy, swelling and in-vitro release, F9 was selected as the optimized formulation. F9 was further subjected to surface morphology by SEM. In-vivo floating study in rabbits was performed and revealed that the beads were floating in the rabbit stomach upto 10h. In-vitro release follows first order and fitted in Higuchi model with a Fickian diffusion mechanism according to Korsemeyer- Peppas(n=0.389).
450 ANTIANGIOGENIC PROPERTIES STEM, LEAF AND FLOWER EXTRACTS OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA IN CHICK CHORIOALLANTOIC MEMBRANE (CAM) , *K. Kalimuthu R.Prabakaran and V. Chinnadurai
Calotropis procera is a well-known plant and has been traditionally used for diarrhea, stomatic, sinus fistula, and skin disease, and the leaf part is used to treat jaundice. The present study deals with analysis of the antiangiogenic properties of C.procera extracts by chick Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) assay in vivo. Among the different parts used, methanolic leaf extract showed the higher angiogenic activity followed by methanolic flower extract. The CAM treated with methanolic leaf extract and methanolic flower extracts showed distorted vascularization. The percentage of inhibition in methanolic leaf extract treated CAM was 63.831.94 while that in methanolic flower extract was 54.27 3.67 followed by methanolic stem extract (28.161.16). In methanolic extracts of C. procera leaf, stem and flower when compared to ethanolic extracts.
451 DIRECT AND INDIRECT MICROPROPAGATION OF TURNERA ULMIFOLIA (L.) A MEDICINAL PLANT , *K. Kalimuthu R.Prabakaran and V. Preetha
The successful protocol for direct and indirect micropropagation of Turnera ulmifolia was developed. In vitro direct regeneration, multiplication and rooting of plantlets were observed from the nodal culture on MS medium supplemented with BAP (2.22?M) and TDZ (0.90 ?M). The best callus proliferation and shoot formation from stem explants were observed in MS medium containing BAP (8.88?M). The higher percentage (87.34%) of root formation was observed in MS medium contain IBA (2.46 ?M). The well rooted plants were acclimatized in shade house with mist chamber with 93.83 survival percentage.
452 DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SELFNANOEMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (SNEDDS) OF NATEGLINIDE , KishorSagar*,PrakashKendre, Vishal Pande, VaibhavChaudhari
Poor water solubility and dissolution rate are issues for the majority of upcoming and existing biologically active compounds. In the present investigation an attempt was made to enhance the solubility and dissolution of poorly soluble drug, Nateglinide, by formulating selfnanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS).Phase solubility of Nateglinide was evaluated in various non-aqueous carriers that included oils, surfactants, and co-surfactants. Pseudo ternary phase diagrams were constructed to identify the optimized selfnanoemulsification region. Preliminary screening was carried out to select proper components combination i.e. oil, surfactant and cosurfactant respectively. Nateglinide SNEDDS was prepared by using Capmul MCM C-8 (oil), Cremophor EL (surfactant), and Transcutol HP (co-surfactant).Two different adsorbents with high specific surface areas were used i.e.NeusilinUS2, NeusilinUFL2 (magnesium aluminometasilicate).The formulations were characterized for self-emulsification assessment, globule size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, % transmittance, drug content, thermodynamic stability and in-vitro dissolution study. The optimized Nateglinide SNEDDS composed of 20.23% Capmul MCM C-8, 55.77% Cremophor EL and 23 % Transcutol HP. The rate of dissolution of optimized SNDDES showed better result(91.12%) in 35 min when compared with marketed tablet 72.3% and pure drug (32.54%).The results from this study demonstrate the potential use of SNEDDS in enhancing solubility and dissolution rate of Nateglinide.
453 SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF DRUGS BASED ON OXIDATION BY ACIDIC KMnO4 , K. Damodar Reddy, B. Vijay Kumar, K. Sayanna & G.Venkateshwalu*
Simple and sensitive validated spectrophotometric methods has been developed for the assay of five drugs viz., Alfuzosin(ALF), Esomeprazole(ESO), Ketoralactromethamine(KET), Lomefloxacine (LOM) and Quetiapine(QUE) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. The proposed methods were based on the oxidation of the drugs by a known excess of potassium permanganate in acidic medium and estimating the unreacted permanganate with amaranth dye at a suitable ?max 520nm. Beers law is obeyed in the concentration range of 3 -12, 1.5 4.5, 2.5 9.5, 1.5 -7.5 and 2.0-14 ?g mL-1 for ALF, ESO, KET, LOM and QUE respectively. Different variables affecting the reaction were studied and optimized. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the determination of the examined drugs in pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms with good accuracy and precision.
454 DESIGN, SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF NOVEL INDOLE DERIVATIVES AS ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS , Ganesh Mhaske*1, Shweta Dighe2, Bindurani Ram3, Amruta Patil4, Ashish Chimbalkar5
A new class of indole and pyrimidine containing series of NSubstituted- 4-(1H-indol-3-yl)-6-methyl-2-oxo-1,2,3,4- tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carbohydrazide U (1-10) were synthesized as per the scheme reported. N-Substituted-furfuryl, 2, 4- dichlorophenyl,and 2-hydroxyphenyl synthesized by formylation of indole. Elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H-NMR and Mass spectral data supports the structures of synthesized compounds. The synthesized compounds were evaluated to determine antimicrobial activity against E. coli, P. aeroginosa, S .aureus, C. albicans, A. clavatus using cup-plate dilution method and MIC. The correlation of activity with the structure of synthesized derivatives, it has been observed that electron donating groups like hydroxyl (compound no.U-4), hydroxyl and methoxy (compound no.U-6) attached to the phenyl ring increases antimicrobial activity. The compound such as U-5 (R=furfuryl), have shown excellent activity against E. coli and comparable activity against P.aeruginosa.U-2, U-4 has shown promising activity against the S .aureus and less activity against S. Pyrogenus when compared with the results obtained from standard. The synthesized compounds such as U-4 (2-hydroxyphenyl), U-5(R = furfuryl), have shown excellent activity against the standard drug griseofulvin.
455 HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON HYPOPHYSIS AND OVARY OF FRESH WATER FISH GLOSSOGOBIUS GIURIS (HAMILTON) , *S.Y. Narayanaswamy, M. Ramachandra Mohan
Histopathology of the Hypophysis and Ovary of fish G. giuris was observed during preparatory phase, on the treatment with sublethal concentrations of Malathion ( 0.05 , 0.25 and 0.5 ppm) for 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs intervals, histology represents a useful tool to assess the degree of pollution, particularly for sub-lethal and chronic effects. In this paper, propose a standardized tool for the assessment of histological findings which can be applied to different organs. The results of the present study showed morphological changes in the cell structure. Investigation on Hypophysis and Ovary cells showed degranulation and hypertrophy of cells and nuclei, after the fishes were exposed to Malathion treatment, these changes further intensified with 0.25 ppm treatment through the appearance of extensive intercellular spaces. In higher concentration of Malathion treatment with 0.5 ppm for 24 hrs, the cells showed various stages of degranulation which were distributed sparsely. A reduction in the number and diameter of the Hypophysis and Ovary cells, which indicates possible reduction in the synthesis of hormones.
456 FORCE DEGRADATION STUDY TO STABILITY INDICATING METHOD , Shubhangi Shete*, Chaitali Dhale, Suhas Joshi, Ratnakar Hole.
The stability of drug product or a drug substance is a critical parameter which may affect purity, potency and safety. The stability indicating method is that employed for the analysis of stability samples in pharmaceutical industry. Forced degradation studies show the chemical behavior of the molecule which in turn helps in the development of formulation and package. Forced degradation is a degradation of new drug substance and drug product at conditions more severe than accelerated condition. Thus, this review discuss the current trends in performance of stability indicating method to force degradation by providing strategy for conducting studies on degradation mechanism.
457 IMPORTANT METHODS OF SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF 1, 2, 4-TRIAZOLE DERIVATIVES , 1Rakesh Singh*, 2 Dr. Anuja Chouhan
In the last few decades, several five membered heterocyclic compounds such as triazoles have been studied extensively owing to their interesting biological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, anticonvulsant, antifungal etc. The five membered triazole ring exists in two isomeric forms i.e. 1, 2, 3-triazole and 1, 2, 4- triazole.The five membered 1, 2, 4-triazole ring exists in two tautomeric forms i.e. 1H-1, 2, 4-triazole, 4H-1, 2, 4-triazole collectively known as s-triazoles. The s-triazole derivatives possess extensive spectrum of biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, antitubercular, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticancer, antioxidant activities. This diversity in the biological activity of 1,2,4-triazoles has attracted the attention of many researchers to explore this skeleton for its wide potential against several activities. This review contains various methods of synthesis of 1, 2, 4-triazole derivatives and their pharmacological activities .
458 PRODUCTION OF STREPTOMYCIN FROM STREPTOMYCES GRISEUS UNDER SOLID STATE FERMENTATION, & ITS PRODUCTION ENHANCEMENT BY MUTATION AND ANALYSIS BY HPLC , Mamatha J*1, Sudipa Bhadra1, and Mahesh M2
The actinomycete strain Streptomyces griseus isolated from soil is used for the production of streptomycin, a potent antibiotic drug which is of great commercial importance. The strain was identified by morphological features and several biochemical tests. Further they were grown as a pure culture in starch casein agar media. Mutation was done both by physical and chemical methods and it was found that the antimicrobial activity was increased by 10% for the mutated strain kept under UV light for 5mins. Production was achieved by solid state fermentation using oranges, pineapple and sugarcane bagasse, as the substrate which are cheaply available. Purification was done by filtration with charcoal and acidified methanol followed by evaporation to produce antibiotic in powder form. High purity was obtained during analysis by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and it was shown that the production increased by 61.97% with oranges and 4.88% increase with pineapple while there was an 11.64% increase in production with sugarcane bagasse using the physically mutated sample. Hence it was concluded that mutation with UV light for 5mins and solid state fermentation using oranges as substrate yielded the best results. This paper also reviews the possible methods of increasing the production, efficiency and cost effectiveness of streptomycin at the industrial scale.
459 UREASE (EC3.5.1.5):A PERSPECTIVE , kambadur Muralidhar 1* Jitender Khurana2 and Vineet Sharma 1,2
Urease (Urea amidohydrolase, EC 3.5.1.5) is one of the most efficient of all enzymes. It has provided the first evidence that enzymes are proteins. The enzyme from leguminous and cucurbit seeds has been extensively characterized. The physiological role of Urease in plants is still not completely understood. The survival of many pathogens like Helicobacter pylori appears to be dependent on Urease. The biological significance of microbial Ureases in gut physiology has been described. The available structural information on many Ureases including on active site has been summarized. Similarly available information on the mechanism of Urease action has been summarized and lacunae pointed out. The kinetics of Urease action has been related to its structural features. The various methods of assay of Urease activity have been described and compared. Inhibitors of this enzyme as well as immobilized Urease have been assessed for their applications in clinical medicine.
460 SYNTHESIS AND IN VITRO ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF NOVEL 5- [(1-BENZYL-1H-1,2,3-TRIAZOL-4-YL)METHYL]-3-METHYL-5HISOXAZOLO[ 5,4:5,6]PYRIDO[2,3-b]INDOLES , E. Rajanarendar a*, P. Venkateshwarlua, S. Ramakrishnaa, K. Goverdhan Reddya, M. Nagi Reddya, Y.N. Reddyb
Cancer is a deadly disease in the world today and causes more deaths than any other disease. Inspite of the extensive efforts, the management of human malignancies still contains a major challenge for contemporary medicinal chemistry. There has been an urgent need for development of more efficient anticancer agents with minimal side effects. Neocryptolepine an alkaloid isolated from cryptolepis sanguinoleta is found to display strong in vitro and in vivo cytotoxic activities. In view of this, the present study was designed to synthesize some novel derivatives of 1,2,3-triazolyl isoxazolo[5,4:5,6] pyrido [2,3-b] indoles which are bioisosteric with neocryptolepine derivatives. The synthesis of title compounds was accomplished by condensation of 3,5-dimehtyl-4-nitroisoxazole with different N-propargyl isatins, in ethanol in the presence of piperidine, followed by reductive cyclization with iron powder in acetic acid, finally [2+3] cycloaddition of benzyl azide to C=C in presence of saturated CuSO4 solution-Cu turnings in ethanol. The newly synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro anticancer activity by using MTT assay method. The results indicate that these compounds have considerable in vitro anticancer activity. Out of the eight derivatives, compound 5b and 5c have shown potential anticancer activity as compared with the reference compound Cisplatin.
461 CO-SOLVENT EVAPORATION METHOD FOR ANTI-HIV DRUG NEVIRAPINE TO ENHANCE SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION RATE , Sirisha Gubbala1, A Geethalakshmi*1, Reshma Lamsa1, L.Sambath2
The objective of the present study was to enhance the solubility and dissolution rates of Anti-HIVdrug Nevirapine by Co-solvent evaporation technique. Nevirapine is an anti-HIV drug having poor water solubility after oral administration. The co-solvent evaporation method was developed for efficient encapsulation of hydrophobic drug in polymer micelles. Different hydrophilic polymers used are HPMC E5 LV and MCC. Solid dispersions of the Nevirapine were developed by rota evaporation and by physical mixture method. Co-solvent evaporated mixture and the physical mixtures are in solid state, was determined by solubility studies, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Formulations were developed by using these solid dispersions and various excipients like PVP30, Crosscarmellose sodium, Lactose monohydrate. All the prepared batches show good in-vitro release. Among all F5 showed maximum release up to 98.3.The optimized formulation F5 was compared with marketed product showed bioequivalent.
462 COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF TASTE MASKING METHODS OF ONDANSETRON HCl , Mangesh.R. Bhalekar*, Ashwini R. Madgulkar, Rahul R. Padalkar, Dipul. B.Manwar
The present work was aimed to mask the bitter taste of ondansetron HCl using different methods including ion exchange complexation and liquid matrix of xyloglucan polymer. Ondansetron HCl is 5HT3 receptor antagonist used for treatment of emesis. The drug has bitter taste therefore faces problem in oral administration. Indion 234 was used for ion exchange complex formation. The process was optimized for maximum drug loading. It was observed that drug and resin when used in 1:1 ratio gave optimum outcomes. Complexes were evaluated for drug loading, taste evaluation and drug release. Characterization of complex was carried out with the help of IR spectroscopy. Taste masked suspension of this drug resin complex was formulated and evaluated for taste, drug content, viscosity, sedimentation volume, drug release. Evaluation of suspension shows satisfactory result with 73.3 % drug release within 20 min. In another method a liquid matrix of xyloglucan in syrup base was formulated and evaluated for taste, drug content, pH viscosity and drug release. Polymer concentration 5 % and sugar concentration 10 % showed satisfactory result. Comparative In vitro taste evaluation of drug resin complex suspension and syrup with xyloglucan polymer shows that suspension with drug resin complex was more beneficial in taste masking.
463 COMPARATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL QUANTIFICATION IN GREEN AND PURPLE VARIETIES OF BASELLA ALBA FOR PREVENTIVE MANAGEMENT OF NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY AND STRESS RELATED DISEASES , B.Thirupathi, S. Gangadhar Rao*
Antioxidant secondary metabolites, antioxidant enzyme activities and antioxidant radical scavenging assays were done in green and purple varieties of nutritionally important Basella alba Content of phenols ,flavonoids, flavonols, proanthocynidins did not differ much between green and purple varieties, however anthocyanins was recorded maximum in purple variety 1.655 as compared to green variety(0.285mg/g dr.wt). Total carotenoid and ?carotene showed high concentration 2.48 and 0.229 mg/g. Fr. wt in green compared to 1.55 and 0.44 mg/g fr.wt in purple variety Enzymes peroxidase and glutathione reductase showed maximum activity in green variety with 1.25 and 0.194 units as compared to 1.066 and 0.1327 units in purple variety respectively. Catalase and polyphenol oxidase showed maximum activity in purple variety 0.73 and 0.532 units as compared to 0.56 and 0.357 units green variety respectively. Radical scavenging activity assays i.e. FRAP, ABTS and DPPH inhibition % has showed maximum24.56, 37.5, 66.46 % activity in purple variety respectively when compared to 18.07, 14.58 and 59.75 % activity in green variety respectively.
464 RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CEFOPERAZONE AND TAZOBACTAM IN THEIR COMBINED DOSAGE FORM , Narender Kumar*, Prasanna Kumar Pradhan, Pratik Rajput , Brijesh Joshi and Umesh Upadhyay.
A simple, rapid and precise reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) method has been developed for simultaneous determination of Cefoperazone (CEF) and Tazobactam (TAZ) in bulk and combined dosage form. Chromatographic separation was carried out on ODS C-18(250 4.6mm, 5- ?m particle size) column using a mobile phase consisting of Phosphate Buffer (ph-4): Methanol (75:25) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml and with UV detection at 230 nm at column temperature (30 C) . The runtime under these chromatographic condition was 10 minutes. The method was linear over the range of 25-50 ?g/ml for CEF and 3.125- 9.37 ?g/ml for TAZ. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.62 for CEF and 0.12 for TAZ respectively. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 1.87 for CEF and 0.38 for TAZ respectively. The purposed method was further applied to the determination of CEF and TAZ in marketed formulation with good percent recovery. The accuracy and precision of the method were validated on intraday and interday basis in accordance with ICH guidelines.
465 QSAR STUDY OF 7-CHLOROQUINOLINE DERIVATIVES AS ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS , Ravichandran Veerasamy*1, Shalini Sivadasan1, Sokkalingam Arumugam Dhanaraj1, Harish Rajak2 and Suresh Kumar3
The major issue for many antimycobacterial agents is the resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Quinoline compounds serve as anti-mycobacterial agents with encouraging anti-tubercular activity. A linear quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) model is presented for modeling and predicting anti-tubercular activity of 7- chloroquinolines. The database consisting of eight 7-chloroquinolines was used to develop the model using step-wise multiple linear regression technique. The developed QSAR model was validated and evaluated for statistical significance. Physiochemical descriptors serve as the first line guidance for the design of potent and novel antitubercular agents. The key conclusion of this study is that the number of hydrogen bond acceptors and LR1 significantly influence the anti-tubercular activity of novel 7- chloroquinoline derivatives.
466 SYNTHESIS, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT EVALUATION OF 3-(2-(4-FLUOROBENZYLTHIO) PYRIMIDIN-4-YL-AMINO)-2-(3- SUBSTITUTED PHENYL) THIAZOLIDIN-4-ONES , Naganna M Goudgaon* and Rohini Y Reddy
A series of novel 3-(2-(4-fluorobenzylthio)pyrimidin-4-ylamino)-2-(3- substituted phenyl)thiazolidin-4-one analogues (6a-i) were synthesized starting from 2-thiouracil (1). Reaction of compound 1 with 4- fluorobenzylchloride gave 2-(4-fluorobenzylthio) pyrimidin-4(3H)-one (2) which on chlorination with POCl3 yielded 2-(4-fluorobenzylthio)- 4-chloropyrimidine (3). Further reaction of compound 3 with hydrazine hydrate generated the key intermediate 1-(2-(4- fluorobenzylthio)pyrimidin-4-yl)hydrazine (4). Reaction of compound 4 with appropriate substituted aromatic aldehydes furnished 2- (substituted benzylidene)-1-(2-(4-fluorobenzylthio)pyrimidin-4-yl) hydrazine (5a-i), which on further cyclisation with thioglycolic acid in dry benzene furnished 3-(2-(4-fluorobenzylthio)pyrimidin-4-ylamino)-2-(3-substituted phenyl)thiazolidin-4-one analogues (6a-i). Structural assignments of the synthesized compounds were based on their IR, 1H NMR, Mass and analytical data. All the synthesized compounds 5a-i and 6a-i were screened for their preliminary antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Some of the compounds exhibited promising antimicrobial and antioxidant activities.
467 AN INVITRO CYTOTOXICITY STUDY OF CNIDOSCOLUS CHAYAMANSA MCVAUGH ON SELECTED CELL LINES , Kulathuran Pillai Kumarasamy*1, Narayanan Nallaperumal2, Chidambaranathan Natarajan 3 and Jegan Nallamadan 3
The present study was performed experimentally by invitro method to examine the anti cancer activity at various concentration (62.5?g/ml - 1000 ?g/ml) of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Cnidoscolus chayamansa against HT-29 (Colon carcinoma) cell lines using MTT assay method. From the study, it was observed that extracts showed moderate Cytotoxic activity against both cancer and normal cell lines. The cytotoxicity of extracts was found to be in dose dependent and non selective as reflected by uniform CTC50 values independent of cell line origin.
468 IN VITRO ANTI PROLIFERATIVE, ANTI OXIDANT AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF A SIDDHA DRUG CHITTIRAMOOLA KULIGAI (CMK) , Ravichandran.M1*, Mubarak.H2
Siddha medicines are time tested formulations and having abundant anticancerous drugs cited in many classical references. Chittiramoola Kuligai (CMK) is a known drug and it is indicated for Chronic ulcers, Cancerous conditions of urogenital regions, chest regions and eight types of Gunmams (acute and chronic abdomen). The CMK is tested against HeLa cell lines which represents cervical cancer. The cell viability is applied through MTT assay technique. The different concentrations of the CMK (10 ?g/ml, 50 ?g/ml, 100 ?g/ml) were tested. The IC 50 value was 83 ?g/ml. The anti oxidant activity via different methodologies Nitric oxide and DPPH assay method were applied. The CMK is showed good anti oxidant activity by lesser concentrations. The phyto chemical analysis revealed the presence of Alkaloid, Flavanoids and Triterpinoids. These phytochemicals components may be helpful in anticancerous mechanisms. Finally the drug can be taken as choice of drug to treat cervical cancer patients and the clinical evidences must be documented.
469 INFLUENCE OF STEM BARK AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BAUHINIA VARIEGATA LINN. ON WOUND HEALING IN ALBINO RATS , Rajeev Kumar*1,2, Bhupendra Nath Dwivedy1, Anil Bhandari2, Rajesh Kumar Nema3
The basic objective of the present work was to assess the wound healing activity of Bauhinia variegata stem bark by providing better tissue formation and protection against microbial invasion. Various ointments of extracts in various proportions were prepared and subjected for assessment of wound healing activity in diabetic albino rats (Wister strain). Based on the comparison of wound healing activity of various formulations, the formulation comprising of 4% (w/w) aqueous extract of stem bark of Bauhinia variegata found to be superior to that of control and standard formulation. In addition to greater hydroxyproline content found in healed wounds, the formulation also showed formation of epidermis, keratinization, connective tissue, vascular tissue and collagen at greater level as compared to control and standard formulation.
470 DEVELOPING AND IMPLEMENTING PHARMACEUTICAL CARE PLAN IN BRONCHIAL ASTHMA PATIENTS IN A RURAL TEACHING HOSPITAL , *Deepthi.B1, Y.Bhagya Sree1, Venkatesh.C1, G.P.Mohanta1, M.Senthil Velan2
Background: Bronchial asthma though preventable and treatable continues to affect the quality of life of the patients and mostly due to in appropriate management of conditions. In this study, an attempt has been made to provide pharmaceutical care based on therapeutic regimen prescribed, counseling patient on disease condition, medication use, and medication adherence. Objective: The main objective of our study was to develop and implement pharmaceutical care plan in bronchial asthma patients. Materials and Methods: The study was a Non-invasive Prospective Observational Study carried out on asthma patients visiting out-patient & in-patient Department of Medicine at R.M.M.C&H, Chidambaram a 1200 bedded multi-specialty tertiary care teaching hospital located in rural South India from November 2012 April 2013. In our study totally 52 patients were observed and an attempt has been made to provide pharmaceutical care based on therapeutic regimen prescribed, counseling patient on disease condition, medication use, medication adherence and also assessed the quality of life (QoL) using a WHOQoLBREF. The results were analyzed by using studentst test. Results: In our study the main cause of asthma was observed as climatic conditions (50%), males (18 in test and 17 in control) were most affected than females (9 in test and 8 in control). We observed the most affected test subjects were under the age group of 40-60 (40.7%) and smokers (70%) had more chance of infecting with asthma than non smokers (30%). Most of the subjects were having moderate type of asthma (58.33%). We observed 72% of the subjects were having the similar family history and about 80% of subjects had shown effect on working life. In our study the QoL before and after counseling and the mean scores shows that there is a gradual increase in QoL after counseling in both test and control groups, it was significantly increased in male subjects and increased more in the age group of 80-100 years followed by 60-80 years. We observed a significant values in educating the subjects about inhaler assessment. Conclusion: From our study we conclude that patient counseling aided and had a positive impact on patients understanding of their illness and the role of medications in its treatment, improved medication adherence, and improved Quality of life for the patients. Moreover, a good professional rapport has been built between the Pharmacist and the Patient.
471 TASTE MASKED BEADS OF ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE USING NATURAL POLYMER XYLOGLUCAN , Mangesh .R. Bhalekar*, Ashwini R. Madgulkar, Rahul R. Padalkar, Dipul B. Manwar
This work was aimed at masking the bitter taste of ondansetron HCl using Ionotropic gelation technique. Ondansetron HCl is 5HT3 receptor antagonist commonly used in treatment of emesis. Oral adminstration of ondansetron HCl faces major problem due to its bitter taste. In this work taste masking was done by formulating tasteless beads of ondansetron HCl using varied concentration of xyloglucan polymer by ionic orifice gelation technique. beads were evaluated for various parameter like drug content, particle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro taste evaluation and drug release. Use of 3% polymer concentration shows 98 % practical yield of beads having 90.60 % entrapment efficiency, particle size 630 ?m. SEM study reveals spherical shape with rough surface of beads, in vitro taste evaluation of beads shows that satisfactory taste masking was achieved. Drug release from beads was found to be 84.34 % within 20 min. These beads were compressed into fast disintegrating tablet which rapidly disintegrated in oral cavity. Crospovidone was used as a superdisintegrant. 4 batches of tablets were prepared by varying concentration of crospovidone from 2-5 %.tablets were subsequently evaluated for various pharmacopoeial tests, drug release and disintegration time. The results were found to be satisfactory.
472 PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS COLLECTED FROM MAHAL FOREST OF DANG DISTRICT, GUJARAT, INDIA , H.A.Modi*, Sanjay Parihar, E .A. Pithawala and N.K. Jain
Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus bisporus, Coprinus comatus and Volvareilla volvacea, wild edible macrofungi were screened for preliminary phytochemical analysis and evaluate in vitro antimicrobial potential of various solvent extracts. The phytochemical screening was performed by modified Harborne, and Adebayo & Ishola method and antimicrobial activity against human pathogens was evaluated by agar well diffusion method. The phytochemical analysis reveals that the extracts were rich source of phytoconstituents containing carbohydrate, saponins, phenols, steroids, glycosides, terpenoids, flavanoids and Anthraquinones. Methanol extracts exhibit higher solubility for more active antimicrobial and phytochemical constituents, consequently displaying the highest antimicrobial activity. The extract could be potential source of new antimicrobial agents and scientifically validates the use of the macrofungi in traditional medicine.
473 THE EFFECTIVE STUDY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF CROCUS SATIVUS LINN. IN CHEMICAL INDUCED CONVULSANTS IN RATS. , Sunanda B,P.V1*, Rammohan.B1, Amitabh kumar2, Kudagi BL2
To evaluate the anti-convulsion activity of Crocus sativus linn. aqueous extract in chemical induced epilepsy models. To compare the anti convulsant activity of crocus sativus linn. With sodium valporate .After obtaining Institutional Ethical Committee approval, Wistar albino rats (150-200g) of either sex were randomly divided into 5 groups of 6 animals each. Dried powder ofcrocus sativus linn. was boiled with distilled water, cooled, filtered, placed on hotplate for complete evaporation, finally weighed and stored. All the groups are injected with Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) of dose 700mg/kg i.v .The control group, test group and standard drugs group received saline, crocus sativus linn. extract (200,400 & 800 mg/kg), sodium valporate (300 mg/kg) respectively by oral feeding. The anti-convulsent effect was assessed by induced PTZ in rats. In PTZ induced epilepsy models It implies that saffron 400mg/kg (groupIV) and 800mg/kg (groupV) significantly (p
474 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV, FIRST-ORDER DERIVATIVE, SECOND ORDER DERIVATIVE AND AREA UNDER CURVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF NAPROXEN IN BULK MATERIAL AND IN TABLETS , Dr. Ravindra Y. Patil1, Dr. Vijaya Uday Barge*2, Sharmila Deepak Kuskar3, Sushama Vishwanath Patil4
In the present work, sensitive spectrophotometric method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of naproxen. Methanol was selected as a common solvent for estimation of naproxen. Ultraviolet (UV), first derivative, second derivative, and AUCspectrophotometric methods for the determination of naproxen in pharmaceutical formulations have been developed. ?max for naproxen was found to be 231nm. The linearity range was found to be 0.5-3 ?gml1 in methanol and the regression equation was y = 0.369x + 0.062 (r2=0.999). The methods were validated by following the analytical performance parameters suggested by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH). All validation parameters were within the acceptable range. The developed methods were successfully applied to estimate the amount of naproxen in pharmaceutical formulations.
475 EFFICACY OF PHENYTOIN SODIUM POWDER IN THE WOUND HEALING EFFECT ON DIABETIC FOOT ULCER BY LOCAL APPLICATION , Raja Soundara Pandian.P 1*, Madhavan Mallayasamy2,
To evaluate the efficacy of phenytoin sodium powder in the wound healing effect on diabetic foot ulcer by local application. The effect of phenytoin sodium powder by local application in 20 diabetic foot ulcer patients with various grade, depending on wager classification. A prospective study was done on 20 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria and had diabetic foot. The study was done in the surgery Department of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital (RMMCH) a 1210 bedded multi specialty teaching hospital attached to the Annamalai University. Wound healing capacity of phenytoin was evaluated for a period of six months. Emphasizing on the safety and cost Benefit. Males had more predominant incidence of diabetic foot ulcer than females [Male (75%) Female (25%)]. Topical Phenytoin was known to trigger granulation tissue and there by accelerating the wound healing on an average of 24 days, out of the 20 patients subjected 13 patients showed good wound healing effect (65%), 5 patients showed moderate wound healing effect (25%) 2 patients showed poor wound healing effect (10%) The study conducted its clearly evident that topical phenytoin sodium powder showed good wound healing effect and nor did it cause any adverse effects. Treatment of Diabetic Foot ulcer with topical phenytoin is very cost effective and safe. The topical phenytoin shows accelerated wound healing thereby decreasing the hospital stay of the patient and reduces the expenditure in health care.
476 MOLECULAR HYDROGEN THERAPY: A MAJOR MILESTONE IN MEDICINE , Devi Gopinath1*, Gurupriya V. S2, Aswathi P. B3, Anu G4
First paper regarding the therapeutic use of molecular hydrogen was published by Ohsawa et al., Nature medicine. It described the potent antioxidant property of molecular hydrogen for medical applications. Since the publication of first paper, effects of hydrogen have been reported in more than 38 diseases, physiological states and clinical tests in leading biological/medical journals. Based on these cumulative knowledge, beneficial effects of molecular hydrogen have been confirmed. Characters of molecular hydrogen favourable for its medical uses are mildness, non-combustibility, abilily to dissolve in water and favourable distribution characteristics with its own physical ability to penetrate biomembranes and diffuse in to cytosol unlike most known anti oxidants. These properties made it one among the most promising antioxidants in use today.
477 DISSOLUTION IMPROVEMENT OF ETODOLAC USING MANNITOL BY SOLID DISPERSION METHOD , T. Raja Sekharan*, M. Muthumari, Lanka Gopal and A. Esakiyammal
Etodolac is a poorly water-soluble drug, belongs to class II drug; that is, characterized by low solubility and high permeability. It is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and anti-arthritic properties. The aim of the present work was to prepare and investigate the effect of mannitol as a carrier. Etodolac solid dispersions were prepared by co-precipitation method. All the prepared solid dispersions exhibited appropriate percentage yield, drug content, loss on drying and invitro release studies. The carrier did not show any incompatibility when tested using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A faster release was observed in F-4 formulation compared to other formulations. The in vitro release from all the formulations was fitted to the entire kinetics model and it was best described by zero order kinetics.
478 UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM USING AREA UNDER CURVE METHOD , Ashwini Nikhade*1, Sugandha Mulgund1
This paper describes development and validation of UV spectrophotometric method for the estimation of Diltiazem hydrochloride in tablet formulation using area under curve method. The standard and sample solutions of Diltiazem hydrochloride were prepared in distilled water. The area under curve in between 226 to 246 nm was measured. The method followed linearity in the range of 6-16 ?g/ml with correlation coefficient value of 0.999. This method was validated for various parameters according to ICH guideline Q2 (R1). Satisfactory values of Percent relative standard deviation for the intraday and inter-day precision indicated that method was precise. The mean percentage recovery studies was found to be 105.69 %. LOD and LOQ were calculated as 0.3197 ?g/ml and 0.9689 ?g/ml, respectively.
479 STUDY OF MEDICATION COMPLIANCE, ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS AND QUALITY OF LIFE OF DIABETIC PATIENTS , K. Haritha1, *CH. Vasavi1, B. Devi Prasad1, K. Saravanan2, S. Selvamuthu Kumaran2.
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia and abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism. It results from defects in insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, or both. Aim is to study the Medication compliance, Adverse Drug Reactions and Quality of life of Diabetic patients.Method involves a non-invasive, prospective, observational study was conducted at Rajah Muthiah Medical College Hospital.In this study 52% patients rated themselves as complaint. 36% patients rated themselves non- compliant. At the end of study more number of patients 68% found to be complaint when compared to baseline. Out of 75 patients, 35 were observed with ADR. Based on age, more number of ADRs was observed in the age group of 51-60 years. In 35 patients, 14 were maleand 21 were female,29 had ADR before admission to hospital and 6 patients experienced ADR during hospital stay.When prescribing pattern was analyzed, the patients were prescribed with Sulphonylureas, Biguanides, Insulin and combination of Sulphonyl urea and Biguanide.The common ADR is Hypoglycemia and it is followed by Gastric irritation, Gidiness, Allergic skin reactions, Headache, Vomiting Abdominal distension and Asthymia. During the treatment of DM, drugs given to 16 were stopped due to ADR. For 8 patients drug causing ADR were identified and substituted with suitable drugs. For 11 patients the medication profile has been totally changed. The MeanSEM scores for physical, physiological, social and environmental components before counseling was found to be lesser than the post counseling.This study helps to understand the effects of drugs and adverse drug reaction of anti-diabetic drugs and helps to initiate drug
480 DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF CARBIDOPA , *Gupta. Ravikant 1, Kar Mousumi 2, Jain D.K.3
Transdermal drug delivery is an alternative route for systemic drug delivery which minimizes the absorption and increases the bioavailability. Orally Carbidopa has a short elimination half-life, low oral bioavailability undergoes extensive first pass metabolism and frequent high doses are required to maintain the therapeutic level as a result, dose development toxic effect. The purpose of this research work was to formulation and evaluation of transdermal drug delivery system of Carbidopa using various polymers such as HPMC, PVP and Ethyl cellulose by solvent evaporation technique for improvement of bioavailability of drug and reducing the toxic effects. The prepared formulations were evaluated for different physicochemical characteristics like thickness, folding endurance, drug content, percentage moisture absorption, percentage moisture loss and weight uniformity.
481 CORRELATION BETWEEN SMOKING, SMOKELESS TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL DRINKING AND EMESIS IN PATIENTS RECEIVING HIGHLY EMETOGENIC CHEMOTHERAPY , 1Dr. I. S. Anand*, 2Dr. Chirag J. Desai, 1Maulik R. Jani, 1Neeti P. Vaghela, 1Vidhi H. Prajapati
Background: Nausea and vomiting associated with cancer treatment have historically been among the most difficult side effects that patients face while being treated for cancer.Aim: To correlate the habit like smoking, smokeless tobacco and alcohol drinking with emesis in cancer patient receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC).Materials and Methods: A prospective single institutional correlation study was performed between November 2013 and March 2014. 42 freshly diagnosed adult cancer patients (except brain metastasis and gastrointestinal cancers) were included in this study. The frequency of acute emesis (occurring within 24 hours after standard HEC) was recorded for each patient along with the details of rescue medication and each patient was provided a diary to record CINV (occurring after 24hrs of HEC). Patients outcome in terms of nausea and vomiting was evaluated by using MASCC (Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer) Antiemesis Tool (MAT).Results: 11.11% of smokers and smokeless tobacco consuming patients had incidence of acute and delayed vomiting while 11.11% of non habitual patients had only incidence of delayed vomiting. 22.22% of smokeless tobacco consuming patients had incidence of acute and delayed nausea while 22.22% of non habitual patients had incidence of acute vomiting. 33.33% of smokers and smokeless tobacco consuming patients
482 PHARMACY EDUCATION SYMPOSIUM-A NEED OF TIME, *Mohamad Haniki Nik Mohamad1, SitiHadijah Shamsudin1 and ShaziaJamshed
Pharmacists are important among healthcare professionals because of their role in the identification and treatment of minor illnesses and counsel for major diseases irrespective of age, race, gender, and socioeconomic status and health convictions. Within the last five decades there is colossalentry of medications into the pharmaceutical market, thus accelerating the requirement of the pharmacists. The existingposition of the pharmacist in a widerstandpoint is that of a seven star pharmacist and thus pharmacy institutions are struggling to exercise principal influence in training students into full-fledged seven star pharmacists. Pharmacists being the health information custodian and the third largest group of health care providers seep into the changing dynamics of healthcare environment where now patient is both demanding and receptive for information even on minor illnesses [1]. To be precise the profession of pharmacy embraces the concept of Patient centered Care thus changing the image of a pharmacist from a dispenser to a decision maker and caregiver. However, more work is needed to be done to establish the true value of this underrated healthcare professional group in the eyes of other stakeholders; be it a doctor, nurse, or a patient. In the backdrop of this, there is an urgent need to continuously revisit the principles of pharmacy education for better competency skills. Therefore, the Council of Deans for the Malaysian Public Pharmacy Schools and Kulliyyah of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)planned to organizea symposium, which was held in September 2013 at Conference Room, Cultural Activity Center (CAC), IIUM, Gombak Campus, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This was attended by 34 delegates from different public universities in Malaysia, including Deans, Deans representatives, and pharmacy academics. The key speakers were Deans of the Malaysian Public universities. The five a priori themes on which the speakers embarked upon were Academic, Research, Community Services and Industrial Linkages, Student Activities and Internationalization.
483 INVESTIGATION OF IN-VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ANETHUM GRAVEOLENS AGAINST PHERETIMA POSTHUMA , 1Shewale R. S*., 1Doijad R.C.,1 Sankpal P.S., 1Pisal S. R., 1Patil Y. A.
Development of anthelmintic drugs leads to evaluation of medicinal plants as a source of anthelmintics. In view of this, an attempt has been made to study the anthelmintic activity of leaves of plant of Anethum graveolens. In the current study, experiments were conducted to evaluate the possible anthelmintic activity of alcoholic extracts of the leaves of plant Anethum graveolens. Various concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80, 100mg/ml) of alcoholic extracts were tested and results were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms. Also Albendazole used as a reference standard and saline as a control group.
484 A REVIEW ON ANTI-MALARIAL DRUG DISCOVERY AND ITS SCREENING METHOD , Prem Shankar Mishra*, Dr. Himanshu Sharma1, Rakhi Mishra2, Dr. S.K.Gupta3
Malaria has been one of the most prominent and ancient diseases which has been profiled and studied. A lot of effort has been done for the design and discovery of anti-malarial drugs. The anti-malarial drug discovery and its screening are urgently needed. Our aim must be to Design safe and affordable noble drugs to control the spread of malarial parasites that are resistant to existing agents. Therapeutic efficacy and toxicity are important for the design and synthesis of compounds, while a minor effort has been done to review and asses the screening of anti-malarial drug-efficacy. In this review, we suggest different in-vitro and invivo screening for anti-malarial drugs, and evaluate different process for new compounds from drug discovery to development.
485 HERBAL CONTRACEPTIVE: AN OVERVIEW , Kumud Bala1*, Mahima Arya,2 Deepshikha Pandey Katare3
Human fertility control is one of the major approaches which seem effective in controlling population. Many potential methods have been adopted to induce infertility including hormonal and chemical methods. Traditional use of medicinal plants and their extracts have become widely known among society for various diseases including fertility related problems. Considering women healthcare, it has become important to use herbal antifertility agents which can interfere with the natural procedure of reproduction in women. Modern research includes the use of various plant extracts having antifertility action in various ways. Numerous herbs have been tested for their contraceptive activity on different animal models. These herbal contraceptives are found to be ecofriendly, can be easily available and affordable even in rural areas. They are more effective but less potential than synthetic drugs. The effect of these drugs on the endocrine and reproductive system was studied. This review mainly deals with the profiles of plants having antifertility and antiovulatory action reported from year 1993-2013. As it is directed towards antiovulatory effect, so the regulation of female reproductive system, mechanism of action of medicinal plants, their effect, active ingredients and extraction procedures are also discussed here which will surely help in further research and practices.
486 SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF NICOTINE IN CIGARETTE TOBACCO AND BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES OF SMOKERS , Hany A. Omara* and Salma M. M. Attaf
A new simple, accurate, sensitive and economical procedure for the estimation of nicotine (indirect) methods (A and B) for the determination of nicotine in bulk sample and in biological samples are described. The first method is based on the oxidation of nicotine by Nbromosuccinimide (NBS) and determination of the unreacted NBS by measurement of the decrease in absorbance of methyl orange dye (MO) at a suitable ?max = 507 nm. The absorbance concentration plot is linear over the range (0.1-4.8 ?g/ml). The second method is based on oxidation of nicotine by cerric sulphate in acidic medium, and determination of the unreacted oxidant by measuring the decrease in absorbance using amaranth dye; (AM) at a suitable ?max (530 nm), respectively. Regression analysis of Beer's law plots showed good correlation in the concentration ranges (0.3-5.9 ?g/ml), respectively. The limits of detection as well as quantification are reported. Sex replicate analyses (n=6) of solutions containing three different concentrations of nicotine was carried out. The percent error and the RSD values have been reported. The proposed methods were applied to the determination of nicotine in cigarette tobacco present in Libya and in biological samples (spiked human plasma and urine) and the results demonstrate that the method is equally accurate and precise as found from the t- and F-values. The reliability of the method was established by recovery studies using standard-addition technique.
487 CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE POTENTIAL OF HERBAL RADIOPROTECTANTS , *Kumud Bala1, Piyush Saini2 Deepshikha Pande Katare3
Radiation is one of the prevalent exogenous factors that have deteriorating effects on human life. There are various types of radiations and only some of them can be detected easily and are generated in controlled environment having all the necessary safety measures, but most of the radiations are undetected to the humans and there are no safety measures present as such to protect the living organisms from them. Radiation exposure to the biological system can lead to damaging effects such as DNA damage, protein damage and lipids peroxidation, if severe enough, it may result in the damage of hematopoietic, gastrointestinal , reproductive and central nervous system subject to the radiation dose. There have been incidents of even genetic defects in the offsprings, whose parents were exposed severely to the radiation. In some cases radiation therapy is also used as a form of treatment as in case of cancer treatments, which can damage the normal living cells and have other associated side effects. Hence, it is an utmost need to overcome the side effects of the radiation or to reduce it to a certain level that it does not provide any serious harm to the exposed person. Considering this as the goal, present study is focused on developing natural radioprotectant which will be efficient in protecting biological systems from radiation induced damage.
488 SYNERGISTIC IMMUNOSTIMULATORY ACTIVITY OF Terminalia bellerica GUM POLYSACCHARIDE WITH LEVAMISOLE , Das Biswajit 1*, Dash Suvakanta1, Choudhury Ramesh Chandra2, Chakraborty Jashobir1
The present investigation deals with the immunosynergistic activity of Terminalia bellerica gum polysaccharide (TBGP) in combination with drug levamisole on experimental model. Cellular immunity was carried out by neutrophil adhesion test and carbon clearance assay, whereas, humoral immunity was analyzed by Haemagglutination antibody (HA) titer and SRBC-Induced Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. Individual dose of TBGP was selected by Stair case method (up and down) and administered at 100, 500 & 1000 mg/kg orally and in combination with levamisole- 50 respectively. The established EXTRAIMMUNE tablet was used as positive control and immunosuppressant Cyclophosphamide (100mg/kg/day, p.o) used as negative control. TBGP at 500 and 1000 mg/kg produced significant increases in adhesion of neutrophils and an increase in phagocytic index in carbon clearance assay whereas combination of both shows more significant result. In case of the Effect of TBGP and TBGP in combination of Levamisole on humoral response influence on sheep erythrocyte specific HA titer in mice, cyclophosphamide showed significant inhibition in antibody titer response, while TBGP and specially TBGP with levamisole shows enhanced humoral responses.
489 BIOSYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF VITEX NEGUNDO. LINN, Amudha Murugan and Krishna kumari Shanmugasundaram*
In recent science Nanotechnology is a burning field for the researchers. Nanotechnology deals with the Nanoparticles having a size of 1-100 nm in one dimension used significantly concerning medical chemistry, atomic physics, and all other known fields. Silvernanoparticles are used immensely due to its small size, orientation, physical properties, which are reportedly shown to change the performance of any other material which is in contact with these tiny particles. The Green synthesis was done by using the aqueous solution of Vitex negundo extract and AgNO3. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis Spectrophotometer, SEM, TEM, EDX, XRD and FTIR. In the present study, the formation of silver nanoparticles by V. negundo extract was investigated.
490 FABRICATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL MEDICAL TEXTILES USING V.NEGUNDO LOADED NANOPARTICLE , Rajendran R1, Rajalakshmi V1, Radhai R1*
In the present study, the Vitex negundo extract loaded nanoparticles were synthesized and their antimicrobial activity was evaluated after coating on cotton fabrics. Different organic solvents were used to extract the bioactive components from the leaves (Methanol, Ethanol, Ethyl acetate, Petroleum ether, Butyl alcohol and Chloroform) and their antimicrobial activity was determined using agar diffusion method and broth dilution method. The plant extracts showed various levels of antimicrobial activity on different test organisms and among these extracts, the ethanolic extract showed higher antimicrobial activity and was used for further nanoparticles synthesis. The nanoparticles were synthesized using cation induced controlled gellification method. The physical and chemical characterization of Vitex negundo loaded nanoparticles was done using High Resolution- Transmission Electron Microscopy and Fourier transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). The characterized nanoparticle loaded with V.negundo leaf extract were further coated on to the cotton fabrics using pad dry cure method. The finished cotton fabrics were assessed for their antimicrobial activity using (American Association of textile chemists and colorist) AATCC 100 and AATCC 30 which showed that the activity of the nanoparticles was enhanced. Nanoparticle loaded with herbal extract possessed the antimicrobial activity until 30 washes. Finally the air permeability of the treated and untreated fabrics was analyzed. The result obtained for nanoparticle loaded with V.negundo leaf extract treated fabrics proposes that these types of antimicrobial finishes for medical textiles will protect the patients from microbial infection thereby reducing the burden through fomites.
491 REVIEW ON NANOPARTICLES USED IN COSMETICS AND DERMAL PRODUCTS , Shailesh Patwekar*, Surendra Gattani, Ritesh Giri, Anil Bade, Balaji Sangewar, Vilas Raut
Nanotechnology is widely used in various cosmetic and dermatological products like lipstick, soap, anti-wrinkle cream, perfumes, toothpaste etc. In this century, Nanotechnology is one of the most capable techniques which are safe and effective for targeted drug delivery system. The present review focus on the recent applications of nanoparticles in cosmetics and dermal product. Nanoparticulate delivery systems have been developed for good therapeutic effect with low toxicity. As compared to conventional drug delivery system Nanoparticulate delivery system is more prominent and exhaustive. Nanotechnology has completely novel characteristic and application over others. It also summarizes methods of preparation of nanoparticles, characterization of nanoparticles and application of nanoparticles in current drug delivery. The review according to industrial point of view shows that nanoparticles have wide application as alternative carrier for cosmetic and dermal products.
492 STUDY ON ESLICARBAZEPINE ACETATE IN ADULT GENERALIZED SEIZURES , BhargavDilipSeeram1*, SundarShanmugam2, Kishore Kinnera1, JayasuthaJayram1, Muthuraj Krishnan2
The treatments for seizures are usually aimed at improving the clinical condition of the patient by reducing the seizure frequency and adverse drug reactions.Eslicarbazepine acetate is a newly approved antiepileptic drug used as adjunctive therapy for partial onset seizures. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Eslicarbazepine acetate and also to assess adverse drug reactions of Eslicarbazepine acetate. Method: This study was a prospective interventional study. A total of 35 patients were included in the study. Results: After administration of Eslicarbazepine acetate, all patients (100%) were seizure free with very low incidence of adverse effects. Majority of patients experienced sleepiness, headache, confusion, fatigue, agitation and memory problems. Conclusion:Eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy was found to be effective and safe in partial and generalized seizure patients.
493 SYNTHESIS, ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTITUBERCULAR AND CYTOTOXIC STUDIES OF SOME PYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVES DERIVED FROM CHALCONES , *K. Ishwar Bhat, Abhishek Kumar, Pankaj Kumar & Riyaz E.K
A series of novel 6-(substituted phenyl)-4-(nitrophenyl) pyrimidin-2-ol (RPY1-RPY6) have been synthesized upon refluxing with 3-(4- nitrophenyl)-1-phenyl substituted prop-2-en-1-one in presence of urea and glacial acetic acid. 3-(4-nitrophenyl)-1-phenyl substituted prop-2- en-1-one (RC1-RC6) were prepared by reaction with 4- nitrobenzaldehyde and substituted acetophenones in presence of NaOH. The structures of the final synthesized compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR and mass spectra. All the new compounds were screened for their in-vitro antimicrobial, antitubercular and cytotoxic activities. Most of the compounds have exhibited promising antibacterial, antifungal, antitubercular and cytotoxic activities.
494 POTENTIAL ROLE OF PI3KINASES IN CANCER TREATMENT , *Gandhi Parikshit, Dhande Swati, Kadam Vilasrao
The phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3-kinases) are a family of lipid kinases that play a important role in the regulation of many cellular processes such as proliferation, survival, carbohydrate metabolism, and motility.Although some PI3-kinase activity is likely to be essential for cellular health, the PI3-kinases are a rather diverse group of enzymes for which there is increasing evidence of functional specialisation. This opens up the possibility of developing isoform-selective inhibitors that could be used to treat cancer with limited toxicity. The phosphoinositide 3-kinase(s) (PI3K) are a group of protein that catalyse the phosphorylation of the 3-OH position of phosphoinositides and generate lipids that control a wide variety ofintracellular signalling pathways. They are classified into three families according to their structure and substrate specificity and arethought to have distinct biological roles. The numerous components of the PI3K pathway play acrucial role in the activation of inflammatory mediators, inflammatory cell recruitment, immune cell function, airway re-modelling, and corticosteroid insensitivity in chronic inflammatory respiratory disease. Thus the current information of the review article is tried to compile the data in order to get the good anticancer drugs.
495 PHARMACO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF THYROID DISORDERS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF SURGERY AT RMMCH , K. Ashwini1, N. Charan1, *P.Padmini1, P.Mahendravarman2, N. Junior Sundresh2.
Pharmaco-epidemiology (PCE) can be defined as the study of use and effects of drugs in large groups of general population. Adverse drug reaction is a worldwide public health problem and an important cause of death and hospitalizations in developing and developed countries. It is a common but major cause of morbidity and mortality and affect patients in the hospital and community setting causing increase in hospital stay and unnecessary economic burden. To study the pharmacoepidemiology of thyroid disorders, a non-invasive, cross-sectional, prospective, observational study was conducted in Surgery department at Rajah Muthiah Medical College Hospital. A total 22 ADRs were reported out of 84 cases which were reported to have thyroid disorders from 1388 patients, having a prevalence of 6.05% during study period. Out of 84 patients, around 11% of the patients had family history of Thyroid disorder. Major triggering diseases like Cardiac effects, Diabetes Mellitus and co-morbidities of Thyroid disorders like Systemic Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus were reported. Patients were affected with Hypothyroidism, Solitary Nodular Goitre, Multi Nodular Goitre, Hyperthyroidism, Thyrotoxicosis, Graves Disease with Thyrotoxicosis & Colloid Goitre. Those patients were managed with Thyroxine, Thionamides, and ?-blockers simultaneously. Some of the patients were managed by either Hemithyroidectomy or Total thyroidectomy surgically. Most common side effects observed in this study were Heat Intolerance, Weight loss, Vomiting, Headache, Menstrual irregularities, Hypoglycaemia, Cold intolerance, Anemia. Categories of drugs causing ADRs are Thionamides, Anti-Diabetics, Thyroxine, Beta-blockers, Antibiotics, Anti-asthmatics, and Corticosteroids. ADRs were monitored by using the standards, developed and designed by CDSCO. Data thus obtained were analysed by using casualty assessment. The WHO scale, Naranjos Algorithm score and Hartwigs Severity Assessment Scale were used to evaluate ADRs. When causality of ADRs was assessed by Naranjo algorithm scale and it was found to be 36% probable,41% possible, 0% definite and 25% doubtful and WHO scale certain 0%, probable 35%, possible 45%, unlikely 10%, conditional 10% and unaccessable 5% and by Hartwigs Severity Assessment Scale mild 40.9%, moderate 27.2%, severe 31.8%. All ADRs were not toxic reactions and they were unpredictable.
496 FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF OCULAR MINITABLETS FOR CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY OF FLUOROQUINOLONES , Dhumane Poonam Shivaji*, Phadtare Dipti Ganesh1, Saudagar Ravindra Bhanudas2
The human eye is a unique and intricate structure which has made drug delivery to the eye a formidable undertaking. Anterior segment eye diseases are ubiquitous, especially among elderly patients, and conventional eye drops, although a first choice dosage form, are not always an efficient treatment option. Several polymeric systems have been used to prolong ocular drug delivery and, of these solid systems have the advantages of convenient administration, increased contact time and controlled drug delivery. In an attempt to circumvent the obstacles presented by the structure of the eye, advanced systems such as ocular minitablets have been developed. The ocular minitablets were prepared by direct compression using Norfloxacin, carbopol 974P, HPMC k4 M, lactose and magnesium stearate. The bioadhesive strength of the minitablets was evaluated in vitro using a conjunctival membrane. The in vitro drug release was determined by rotating glass vial method. The in vivo irritation study was carried out using a rabbit. The finally selected formulation (C) showed more than 85% drug release over a period of 6 h, and complied well in physicochemical tests conducted. Based on kinetic studies, formulation C was found to be best fit the zero order equation. The animal study results showed that minitablets were found to be non irritant and safe.
497 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF GRAPE SEED EXTRACT , Ranjitha C.Y, Priyanka S, Deepika R, Smitha Rani G.P, Sahana J, Prashith Kekuda T.R*
Grape pomace (skin and seed) is produced during winemaking and is considered to be a waste product of wine industries. Grape seed is known to exhibit various bioactivities. In the present study, we determined antimicrobial activity of grape seed extract (GSE). Agar well diffusion assay was conducted to determine inhibitory effect of GSE against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from urinary tract infection. S. aureus and E. coli was inhibited to high and least extent respectively by GSE. Poisoned food technique was performed to screen antifungal effect of GSE against Colletotrichum capsici. GSE was effective against mycelia growth of C. capsici (>65% inhibition). GSE can be used in the treatment of urinary tract infections and in the management of anthracnose of chilli.
498 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA FRUIT EXTRACTS , Dr.Venkanna Lunavath* and Dr. Estari Mamidala
The medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medical practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. Medicinal plants are considerably useful and economically essential. Phyllanthus emblica (L) has been used for the anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic treatments by the rural population. P. emblica has been used for the treatment of several disorders such as the Scurvy, Cancer and Heart diseases. Based on the traditional knowledge about the plant,The present study aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activity of aqueous, methanol and other solvents extract of medicinal plant Phyllanthus emblica. The plant materials were shade dried, powered and was extracted using solvents. The antimicrobial activity test was performed by disc diffusion method. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts fractions of Carbon tetrachloride fraction (CTF), Chloroform fraction (CFF) and Aqueous fraction (AQF) showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrade, glycosides, saponins, proteins, amino acids, phenolic compounds and flavanoides. AQF fraction of P. emblica showed high activity across P. aeuruginosa and S. aureus bacteria. The present study was initiated to investigate the antimicrobial activity and preliminary phytochemicals from the fruits of Phyllanthus emblica.
499 DERIVATIZED DETECTION BY TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY AND PHARMACOKINETICS OF RISEDRONIC ACID IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS , Ch. Venkata Kumar*1 and Naga Malleswara Rao K2
Pharmacokinetic studies are essential towards determining bioequivalence and establishing pharmacokinetic profiles for drug moieties requires accurate quantification. We have developed and validated a rapid, sensitive and robust liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric method for the determination of risedronic acid in human plasma as per regulatory guidelines. Deuterated compound of risedronic acid was used as an internal standard. The chromatographic separation was achieved by X Bridge, Bisphosphonate C18 column using isocratic mobile phase consists a mixture of 5 milli molar ammonium acetate and acetonitrile (5:95 v/v) over a run time of 4.0 minutes. An aliquot of 200 ?L of human plasma was used for the extraction of the drug by using solid-phase extraction technique. The transition (m/z) of molecular ion Q1 to product ion Q3 for risedronic acid was found to be 340.2?214.0. The proposed method was validated in the concentration range of 0.100 - 50.070ng/mL with positive polarity ionization mode in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The pharmacokinetic parameters for Risedronic acid were found to be Tmax 1.13 Hours, Cmax 21.1 ng/mL, T1/2 20.4 Hours, AUC (0-72) 77.6 ng.Hrs/mL and AUC (0-inf) 80.3 ng.Hrs/mL. The proposed assay method was found to be acceptable to a pharmacokinetic study in human volunteers.
500 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF VORICONAZOLE SOAP STRIPS FOR DERMAL INFECTIONS , Surabhi Yadav1, Devendra Kumar2, Neerja Trivedi3, Vikas Kumar4 and Shailendra Raghav5
In present study, voriconazole were prepared as antifungal soap strip & evaluated for dermal infections because the presence of thick foam on the infected part causes hydration of stratum corneum for better penetration of drug. The formulation and evaluation of medicated soap strips were carried in deferent phase. In phase-I study optimization, which was carried out to study water absorption capacity using different types of papers (Whatman filter papers bond paper and butter paper) by determining the parameters weight gain, size, shape and foam test. From these parameters best soap, concentration of liquid soap solution and papers were selected. Phase-II studies involve incorporation of drug in best soap solution and papers chosen from phase-I studies. The medicated soap strips were prepared by dipping the selected paper id control drug voriconacole and containing soap solution. The prepared medicated paper soap strips were characterized for weight gain, foam test, drug content uniformity, FTIR, in vitro drug release studies using diffusion cell with hydrated cellophane membrane and primary skin irritation test. The microbial studies indicate drug activity by zone of inhibition against microorganisms of different species. The obtained results for prepared medicated soap strip of voriconazole indicate that these strips are economic, convenient, gives good foam on application, uniform in drug content and not showing any skin irritation.
501 DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF PARENTERAL DOSAGE FORM FOR ANTICANCER ACTIVITY , Sakshi Dhall1, Komal Goswami1, Gaurav Khurana1, Rakesh Kumar Marwaha2, Priti Mehndiratta1, Minakshi Gupta*1
The present work described the development of stabilized parenteral formulation of an anthracycline antineoplastic agent which is used in treatment of bladder cancer. A different type of treatment is available for bladder cancer. One of them is intravesical therapy which is most safe and effective therapy. The parenteral formulation containing 40 mg/ml drug was prepared by using 50% dehydrated alcohol and 50% Polyoxyl castor oil as excipients. The formulation was evaluated for chemical analysis and result was found to be very good and it matches with innovator profile as well. Characterisation of formulation was done by HPLC method.
502 A NOVEL BIODEGRADABLE MICROPARTICULATED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: ON REVIEW , Mr. Manish Kumar Gupta*,1, Dr. Deepak Prakash1, Dr. Brahmeshwar Mishra2
A well designed controlled drug delivery system can overcome some of the problems of convention therapy and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of a given drug. There are various approach in delivering a therapeutic substance to target site in a sustained controlled release manner. Targeting of drug to the particular site is an important aspect of drug delivery system. One such approach is using biodegradable microparticles as delivery for various drugs. This review presents the outstanding contributions in the field of biodegradable microparticulate system used as drug delivery systems including process technology for preparation of microparticles, drug release systems with drug release mechanism and the most important past, current and future strategies using drug loaded microparticles to improve the efficiency of various medical treatments. There are a number of techniques available for microencapsulation of drugs for Microparticle formulations such as the emulsion solvent evaporation/extraction method, spray drying, milling of films, and solvent extraction/evaporation methods, phase separation-coacervation, interfacial deposition, and in situ polymerization. There are several methods are available for drug release but current methods fall into three broad categories, viz., dialysis bag diffusion, sample & separate, and flow through cell technique. The review embraces various aspects of microparticle application in delivery of drug molecules and therapeutic genes.
503 PREPARATION & EVALUATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING FILM OF PANTOPRAZOLE SODIUM , Bhupendra Nath Dwivedy1*, Prashant Dabral 1 , Rajeev Kumar1
New drug delivery system for the oral delivery of drug, was developed based on the technology of the transdermal patch. It consists of a very thin oral strip which releases the active ingredient immediately after uptake into the oral cavity. The technique involved in the preparation of mouth dissolving film was solvent casting method in which aqueous solution I (polymer & glycerine) and aqueous solution II (drug, Mannitol, Vanilla flavor, and saccharine) was prepared in specific proportion in distilled water. Both solution I & II were mixed & stir for 1 hour & kept for 1 hour to remove all air bubbles. Then the mixture solution was poured into petridish & it was dried in oven at 40-50 0C for 7- 8 hours then film was removed from petridish and cut according to Size (square film: 2cm length, 2cm width). Ingredients Used In Mouth Dissolving Film Preparations: Variable Ingredients: - PVA, HPMC, HPC and Glycerin. Pantoprazole is a highly potent proton pump inhibitor, chemically a weak base, it concentrates under the acidic conditions of parietal cell secretory canaliculi where it is converted to a cationic cyclic sulfonamide by rearrangement. This activated molecule binds to two site of hydrogen/potassium ATPase (proton pump) in the gastric parietal cells, inactivating the system, which in turn blocks the final step of secretion of hydrochloric acid by these cells, producing a long lasting effect.
504 LIPOPLEXES: A NON-VIRAL GENE DELIVERY VEHICLE , *Gupta Ravikant
A lipoplex (also known as Genosome) is a lipid and DNA complex that is used to deliver genes. It can be a form of non-viral gene therapy as the complex does not require any components of a virus in order to transport genetic material. As a promising strategy for the treatment of many inherited and acquired diseases, gene therapy which is defined as the genetic modification of cells for therapeutic benefit. The aim for gene therapy is to deliver healthy exogenous drugs such as plasmid DNA and single-strand oligonucleotides to replace a missing gene that otherwise have a normal makeup so as to cure genetic diseases, for instance, cystic fibrosis, malignant melanoma, and gaucher's disease. The formation of lipoplexes was a result of the electrostatic interaction between cationic charge from lipids and anionic charges from DNA. It include both large scale production and small scale production. Mechanism of action of lipoplexes include Endocytosis of lipoplexes and then release of lipoplex from endosomes. Various characterization techniques are used for evaluation of lipoplexes like light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, microscopy, diffraction calorimetry, FT-IR, NMR, ESR, FRET and separate characterization parameters for lipoplexes and physicochemical properties and toxicity studies also done. Results shows that good bioavailability, biocompatibility, inhence permeability and targeting achieved. Future of this type of drug deliver system will explore the utilization of nanogenobiotics.
505 DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL ENZYMES , Amol S.Rakte1 ?, Basavaraj K.Nanjwade1
Aim of the present research was to formulate and evaluate a multienzyme (Bromelain, Papain, Bacterial Protease, Rutin, and Vitamin C) effervescent tablet with sufficient mechanical integrity, good palatability, robust formulation, good stability, inexpensive and shop floor friendly product produced in normal thermo-hygrometric conditions. In the preformulation study, compatibility evaluation was performed which implies that drug and excipients were compatible with each other. The formulations of tablets were done by using wet granulation, dry granulation and direct compression method. Total ten trials for each method was prepared and evaluated for hardness, friability, effervescent time, weight variation, and pH. Finally one trial from each method was kept for stability TF-6 (direct compression) TF-7(dry granulation) and TF-8(wet granulation). From that techniques stability of tablets with wet granulation method was found to be satisfactory as compared to dry granulation and direct compression. Formulation (TF-8) with wet granulation containing citric acid (12.46%), tartaric acid (24.92%), sodium bicarbonate (37.40%), sodium carbonate (5.95%), povidone (2.99%) consider the final formulation.
506 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 2-(4,6-DIMETHYLPYRIMIDIN-2-YL)-1-[1-(4- HYDROXY-6-METHYL- PYRAN-2-ONE-3- YL)ETHYLIDENE]HYDRAZINE SCHIFFS BASE TRANSITION METAL COMPLEXES: ANTIBACTERIAL AND DNA PHOTOCLEAVAGE STUDY , A. K. Gupta1*, S. Saini1, R. Pal1, R. Kumar1, V. Beniwal2
The synthesis of a series of some new tridentate Schiffs base complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Mn(II), Zn(II) (M:L=1:2) with a tridentate Schiffs base has been achieved by the reaction of 2- hydrazino-4,6-dimethyl pyrimidine with dehydroacetic acid (DHA) in ethanol under reflux. All the compounds were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, UV-Visible, 1H and 13C-NMR, FTIR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The FTIR spectral data suggest that azomethine N and enolic O atoms are involved in coordination with metal ion, and the ligand behaves as a N,N,O-tridentate donor atoms. The mass spectrum of the complexes reveals the formation of metal ligand bonding in 1:2 (metal: ligand) stoichiometric ratios. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against gram (+) and gram (-) bacteria using Oxacillin as a standard drug. Synthesized compound were also screened for their DNA photocleavage potential using plasmid DNA. It has been found that metal complexes show enhanced activity as compared to ligand and some modification in ligand structure may lead to better antibacterial and DNA photocleaving agents in future.
507 ABUNDANCE OF FISH FAUNA OF SHAHPURA LAKE WITH REFERENCE TO PHYSICO- CHEMICAL PARAMETERS , Smriti Bhargava, Tariq Zaffar, *Rekha Chauhan
The Shahpura lake, which is also known as the third lake of Bhopal, is a man mad. The study area (Shahpura lake) is situated in the center of Bhopal city, the state capital of Madhya Pradesh,at latitude 230 12 00E .and longitude 77 0 25 30 N.. In the present study, physicochemical parameters viz, water temperature, ph. dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity of water of Shahpura lake (Bhopal) were analyzed. The present paper deals with study of water quality monitoring and fish fauna is reservoir for its conservation.
508 UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF ACYCLOVIR IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM USING AREA UNDER CURVE METHOD , Bhagyashri P.Pawaskar*, SugandhaV. Mulgund
This paper describes development and validation of UV spectrophotometric method for the estimation of Acyclovir in tablet formulation using area under curve method. The standard and sample solutions of Acyclovir were prepared in distilled water. The area under curve in between 241to 251 nm was measured. The method followed linearity in the range of 2-12?g/ml with correlation coefficient value of 0.999. This method was validated for various parameters according to ICH guideline Q2 (R1). Satisfactory values of Percent relative standard deviation for the intra-day and inter-day precision indicated that method was precise. The mean percentage recovery of analyte was found to be 99.41%. LOD and LOQ were calculated as 0.3134?g/ml and 0.9515?g/ml, respectively.
509 A REVIEW ON MICROCAPSULES BASED COLON TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM , 1Archana Chaudhary*, 2Ankaj Kaundal
Targeted drug delivery systems deliver the drug to the site of action. Colon Targeted drug delivery is considered as one of the most convenient pathway for the delivery of the drugs or therapeutic agents and used in the treatment of the local diseases. Microencapsulation is the process in which small droplets or particles of liquid or solid material are surrounded or coated by a continuous film of polymeric materials. Microencapsulation is widely used in the pharmaceutical and other sciences to mask taste/ odors, prolong release, impart stability to drug molecules, improve bioavailability, and as multi-particulate dosage forms to produce controlled or targeted drug delivery. Various methods for the preparation of microcapsules are also reviewed. Microencapsulation system offers potential advantages over the conventional drug delivery systems.
510 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, PROXIMATE ANALYSIS, ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIALS OF STYLOSANTHES FRUTICOSA AND INDIGOFERA LINNAE , R.Kumanan*, C.Sridhar1, K.N.Jayaveera2, S.Sudha3
The present study was aimed to detect the phytochemicals, proximate analysis, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of Stylosanthes fruticosa and Indigofera linnae known for their therapeutic value in folklore medicines. The dried whole plant extracts were used for the present study. The result shows the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrates and saponins. Proximate analysis indicated that the dried whole plant of Stylosanthes fruticosa and Indigofera linnae contains total ash (80% and 82%), acid insoluble ash (30% & 3%), and water soluble ash (8% & 12%) respectively. Antimicrobial potential of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Indigofera linnae shows higher than Stylosanthes fruticosa. Both the plant extracts shows moderate antioxidant effects on its extracts for scavenging activity, determination of reducing power and total antioxidant capacity compared with the standard ascorbic acid.
511 COMPARATIVE IN VITRO EVALUATION OF COMMERCIAL ACECLOFENAC TABLETS , Mrs. Manali. M. Bhide*, Mr. Sachin. A. Nitave
Aceclofenac (ACL), is a synthetic new NSAID, which has been widely used in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis with minimum side effects. Since Aceclofenac tablet is not an official product of I. P. and practically insoluble in water, it was thought necessary to carryout in vitro testing of the commercial products with special attention to dissolution rate studies. Three different brands (A, B & c) of Aceclofenac tablets 100 mg manufactured in India were evaluated for nine in vitro parameters, both official and non-official, viz., uniformity of weight, dimensions, hardness test, friability test, disintegration test, dissolution test and assay. The dissolution test was carried out in phosphate buffer pH 7.5. The study on dissolution profile revealed that product A had faster dissolution rate while product C has slowest dissolution rate. All the products met the requirements as per general specifications of Indian pharmacopoeia for tablet formulation. Assay value lies within the limit of 90% to 110%.
512 DIRECT AND DERIVATIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF COPPER (II) USING A SENSITIVE AND SELECTIVE CHROMOGENIC ORGANIC REAGENT 2-HYDROXY 3,5-DIMETHOXY BENZALDEHYDE THIOSEMICARBAZONE (HDMBTSC) , M.Hymavathi1, N.Devanna2 and C.Viswanatha1
2-hydroxy 3,5-dimethoxy benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (HDMBTSC) is used as a novel chromogenic organic reagent for the determination of Copper (II) with specterophotometry.The chromogenic reagent 2-hydroxy 3,5-dimethoxy benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (HDMBTSC) form light yellowish green coloured complexe with Copper(II). The colour complexe shows maximum absorption at ?max 397nm.The beer's law validity range is 0.1588 to 1.5886 (?g/ml) and optimum concentration range is 0.3177 to 1.4297 (?g/ml). The molar absorptivity and sandells sensitivity 3.06x104 L.mol-1.cm-1 and 0.00207 ?g/cm2 respectively. The Copper(II) forms M:L(I:I) colour complexe with HDMBTSC and stability constant of the complex was found to be. 1.72x 106. The first and second derivative amplitude was measured at 465 nm and 483 nm. This method was applied for the determination of Copper(II) in bear and wine samples with good results.
513 MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDIES OF TRIAMCINOLONE DERIVATIVES AGAINST MPB64 GENE RESPONSIBLE FOR EALES DISEASE , Shivani Dixit1,2, Pallavi Gangwar1*, Ankur Mohan1
Eales disease is an idiopathic inflammatory ocular disease that primarily affects the peripheral retina of adults. Eales disease is characterised by inflammation(vasculitis), abnormal growth of new blood vessels (neovascularization), blockage of retinal blood vessels, capillary non-perfusion, recurrent vitreous hemorrhages, which is the hallmark of Eales disease. Eales disease mainly involves the peripheral fundus and occurring predominantly in young and healthy adult males. The etiology of the disease is unknown but the clinical appearance and progression are to other diseases of retina such as diabetic and sickle cell retinopathies. The sequence, structure & functional analysis of the concerned protein were studied through BLAST and other biological databases. Since, the precise structure of Immunogenic protein Mpt64 is not yet available, therefore, a theoretical model of the protein was generated using Easy Modeller 4.0. The best model with DOPE score -15648.14746 was obtained. Docking studies of various compounds downloaded from drugbank database have been carried out in the active site of Immunogeneic protein MPB64 by using AutodockVina 4.2. The derivatives designed through chemsketch shows better binding energy [9,18- difluoro-11,16,17,21-tetrahydroxypregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione:-14.7 kcal/mol] in comparison to the drug available in various public databases(Triamcinolone: -14.3 kcal/mol).
514 ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF GREWIA TENAX , *Syeda Jeelani Basri T1, Dr. G.V.Subba Reddy2, Dr. K.N.Jayaveera
The present study aimed at the in-vitro evaluation of anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extracts of whole plant of Grewia Tenax using Pheretima posthuma at four different concentrations(25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/ml) respectively. The study involved the determination of time of paralysis (P) and time of death (D) of the worms. At the concentration of 100 mg/ml both the ethanolic and the aqueous extracts exhibited very significant activities as compared to the standard drug. Albendazole (10 mg/ml). The time of paralysis and death was Recorded in case of n-haxane extract, Ethanolic extract and Hydro-alcoholic extract. In conclusion, the use of whole plant of Grewia Tenax an anthelmintic have been confirmed and further studies are suggested to isolate the active principles responsible for the activity.
515 SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUTION OF OXAZOLIDINONES DERIVATIVES , Pankaj Kumar*, Jennifer Fernandes and Abhishek Kumar
In order to develop relatively small molecules as pharmacologically active molecules, a series of novel oxazolidinones having benzothiazinen and their derivatives were synthesized, and characterized by IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral studies. Oxazolidinones were prepared from R-glycidylbutarate and Para bromo aniline. Various substituted oxazolidinones benzothiazinen were prepared by simple reflux in the presence of acetonitrile. Treatment of these oxazolidinones benzo thiazinen deravatives with methanesulfonyl gives its sulphonates derivatives on further treatment wih sodium azide and tri phenyl phosphine in acetic anhydride to give its acetamide derivatives. Further the synthesized compounds were evaluated for antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli,Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger.
516 EVALUATION OF RADICAL SCAVENGING EFFECT OF MORINDA CITRFOLIA FRUIT , Vennila Srinivasahan1 and Brindha Durairaj2*
Objectives: The present investigation was designed to evaluate the radical scavenging effect of hydroethanolic extract and aqueous extract of Morinda citrifolia fruit. Methods: The study was performed to investigate for the activity of scavenging free radicals such as 1,1 diphenyl 2-picryl hydrazyl radical (DPPH), Superoxide anion, hydroxyl and nitric oxide radical scavenging effect an aqueous and hydroethanolic extract of the fruit Morinda citrifolia. The scavenging activity of the fruit extract was tested at different concentrations (100, 200. 300, 400, and 500 ?g/ml). Results: Both hydroethanolic and aqueous extract showed concentration dependant free radical scavenging activity. Hydroethanolic extract exhibited maximum scavenging activity against DPPH (69.73%), hydroxyl radical (64.45%), superoxide radical (58.79%) and nitric oxide radical (58.72%) when compared with aqueous extract. Conclusion: These results clearly indicate that hydroethanolic extract of Morinda citrfolia fruit is effective in preventing the progress against various free radical mediated diseases.
517 UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF PHENAZONE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY AUC METHOD , Saurabh S. Arale*1, Manisha S. Phoujdar1, Shwetal P. Vassa1
A simple, precise, accurate, and economical UV visible spectrophotometric method has been developed for estimation of Phenazone drug by AUC method. The standard and sample solutions were prepared by using double distilled water as a solvent. Quantitative determination of the drug was performed at wavelength range 232-252 nm. The linearity was established over the concentration range of 10-30 ?g/ml for Phenazone with correlation coefficient value of 0.9998. Precision studies showed that % relative standard deviation was within range of acceptable limits. The mean percentage recovery was found to be 99.905%. The proposed method has been validated as per ICH guidelines.
518 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV-SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF DIDANOSINE IN TABLET , Mohammad Zameeruddin, Kalyankar Swapnil S*., Solanke S. B., Jadhav S. B., Kadam V.S. and Bharkad V. B.
A simple, sensitive, rapid and accurate UV-Spectroscopic method has been developed for the estimation of Didanosine in bulk drug and tablet dosage form. In order to increase value of absorbtivity and subsequently LOD the drug was dissolved in water and acetonitrile (90:10) and absorbance was measured at 249.60 nm. The linearity of method was found to be between 1-14 ?g/ml. The method was validated based on ICH guidelines. Hence useful for the routine analysis of Didanosine.
519 SOLID DISPERSION INCORPORATED GEL SYSTEM: A NOVEL APPROACH IN TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY. , 1S. A. Ghuge*, 1A. B. Darekar, 2R.B. Saudagar
Solid dispersion incorporated gel is the unique approach in topical drug delivery system to enhance the in vitro transdermal penetration of poorly soluble drugs. This article reviews preparation technique for solid dispersion incorporated gel as a recent and newer technology for transdermal drug delivery system. Drug Penetration through the skin in gel form is depends upon the aqueous solubility of drug. Drug insolubility is one of the formulation barrier and Solid dispersion is favorable approach to improve solubility and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. It refers as dispersion of active ingredient in different carriers like?-cyclodextrin, PEG, PVP, Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) and Urea at determined concentration. Gels are semisolid polymeric matrix system in which drug is dispersed in different polymers like carbomer, HPMC, polaxomer and natural gums. Solid dispersion of drug is incorporated in gel, of suitable polymer with trituration to get homogenous dispersion of drug in gel. The resulting solid dispersion incorporated gel is characterized for various physicochemical parameters like, pH, drug content, spreadability, viscosity, extrudability, and in vitro drug release. Solid dispersion incorporated gel is the safe and effective way of treatment for poorly soluble drugs used in management of different diseases.
520 RAPID DETERMINATION OF IBUPROFEN CONCENTRATION IN HUMAN PLASMA BY HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY , Syed N. Alvi, Ahmed Yusuf, Eman Al Gaai and Muhammad M. Hammami*
A simple, precise, and rapid reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of ibuprofen (IBU) in human plasma using gemfibrozil as an internal standard (IS) was developed and validated. Plasma samples containing ibuprofen were spiked with the IS, precipitated with methanol, and centrifuged. The compounds of interest were efficiently separated on Symmetry Shield RP18 column maintained at a temperature of 40 C, and detected with multi-wave length fluorescence detector (excitation/emission wavelength 230/ 275 nm). The mobile phase consisted of 0.01M dibasic ammonium phosphate (pH adjusted to 5.5 with phosphoric acid) and acetonitrile (45:55, v:v), and was delivered at a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. The relationship between ibuprofen concentration in plasma and peak area ratio of ibuprofen / IS was linear (R2 ? 9997) in the range of 0.25 60 ?g/ml, the intra- and inter- day coefficient of variations (CV) were ? 3.8% and ? 2.9%, respectively. Extraction recoveries of ibuprofen and the IS were > 90%, whereas the accuracy (relative recovery) of ibuprofen measurement was 98% to 107% using quality control samples and 92% to 105% as determined by back calculation from peak area ratios of the calibration curves. The method was used to assess the stability of ibuprofen in human plasma under various conditions in the clinical laboratory. Further, it was successfully employed to measure ibuprofen levels in samples obtained normal volunteer.
521 A REVIEW ON FORMULATION AND EVALUATION FOR MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLET , Uma Shankar Mishra*, Dr.S.K.Prajapati, Dr.P.Bhardwaj
Mouth dissolving tablets are gaining more prominence as a novel drug delivery system & emerges as one of the popular & widely accepted dosage forms, especially for pediatric patients because of incomplete development of muscular & nervous system & in case of geriatric patients suffering from Parkinsons disorder or hand tremors, forms like tablets and capsules are now days facing the problems like dysphagia, resulting in the highincidence of non compliance and making the therapy ineffective. from both pharmaceutical industries as well as patients because they are convenient to be manufactured & administered, free of side effects, offering immediate release & enhance bioavailability , so as to achieve better patient compliance. One such problem can be solved in the novel drug delivery system by formulating mouth dissolving tablets (MDTs) which disintegrates or dissolves rapidly without water with in few seconds in the mouth due to the action of superdisintegrant or maximizing pore structure in the formulation. To obviate the problems associated with conventionaldosage forms, mouth dissolving tablets have been developed having good hardness, dose uniformity, easy administration andserves as the first choice of dosage form for paediatrics, geriatrics and travelling patients. The MDTs were developed with an aim of having sufficient hardness, integrity and faster disintegration without water. Fast dissolving Tablets are disintegratingand/or dissolve rapidly in the saliva without the need for water. Some tablets are designed to dissolve in saliva remarkablyfast, within a few seconds, and are true fast-dissolving tablets. Others contain agents to enhance the rate of tablet disintegration in the oral cavity, and are more appropriately termed fast-disintegrating tablets, as they may take up to a minuteto completely disintegrate.
522 CONVENTIONAL QSAR STUDIES OF THIAZOLIDINONE DERIVATIVES AS POTENTIAL EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR INHIBITORS , Sanmati Kumar Jain*, Ravi Tripathi and Piyush Ghode
Conventional quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) analysis was performed on thiazolidinone analogues for their Epidermal Growth Factor inhibitory activity (EGFR inhibitors) using Molecular Design Suite (VLife MDS) software. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis coupled with stepwise variable selection (forward-backward) method was applied to derive QSAR models and validated for statistical significance by internal and external validation. Statistically significant QSAR models were generated. Among them most significant model was found to have squared correlation coefficient (r2), cross validated correlation coefficient (q2) and predictive correlation coefficient (pred_r2) 0.8758, 0.8002 and 0.9141 respectively. The QSAR model indicates that the descriptors T_N_O_4 and RadiusOfGyration contribute (positively) 43.43% and 34.11% respectively to biological activity. Descriptor T_T_C_4 contributes (inversely) 22.46% to the biological activity.The QSAR study of these derivatives provides guidance for further lead optimization and designing of potent anticancer agents.
523 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND BINDING PROPERTIES OF MODELED HUMAN SURFACTANT PROTEIN-A , Sivaprasad Mudili1, Lubna Nousheen2, Akkiraju.PavanChand3, Surekharani Maddukuri2 , M.Srilakshmi4, *Sreenivas.Enaganti2
Surfactant protein A (SP-A) constitutes an important part of the innate immune defense in the lung. The three-dimensional (3D) model of the human surfactant protein-A (hSP-A) has been constructed based on the crystal structure of Rat norvegicus 1R13 protein (Protein Data Bank ID: 1R13) using MODELLER 9.9 software. Under the process of homology modeling 2 models were generated, and the model having the lowest modeler objective function value was chosen for further assessment. The generated model assessed and validated using PROCHECK, ProSA and RMSD that showed the final refined model is reliable, with 0.59 as RMSD and has -6.11 as Z-scores. Furthermore, with the generated model, we carried out binding studies with simple carbohydrate and lipid ligands using the Molegro Virtual Docker. Docking studies with these ligands into the active site of hSP-A indicate that maltose and Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine are more preferred ligands than others, with the binding scores of -93.8850 & -103.774 respectively. Docking studies revealed that Arg58, Arg63, Glu144, Lys34, Ser 98, Asp99, Glu33 and Ile59 of receptor are important determinant residues as they have strong hydrogen bonding contacts with both carbohydrate and lipid compounds. This is in good agreement with the experimental results. Results of the current study will provide a deep insight about the structure and function of Surfactant Protein-A and how these interactions influence the binding and neutralization of pulmonary pathogens.
524 PROGNOSTIC VALUE OF PERIPHERAL BLOOD BLAST PERCENTAGE ON DAY 8 IN LONG TERM CURE IN PATIENTS WITH ALL , 1Neeti Vaghela, *Dr. I. S. Anand, 2Dr. Deepa H. Trivedi, 3Maulik Jani,
Background and Objective: To correlate the peripheral blood blast percentage of day1 and day 8 in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) post chemotherapy in long term cure outcome. Settings and Design: Single centric, retrospective study. Method and material: To determine the prognostic value of peripheral blood blast percentage, the database of 311 ALL patients who received BFM 90 and MCP 841 treatment protocol was screened from Vedanta Institute of medical sciences. Patients were classified into Prednisone good Responder (blast cells1000) on the basis of their blast cell count on day 8 as well as Blast positive (appearance of blast cell any count on day 8) and Blast Negative (absence of blast cells on day 8) group. Patients with minimal 18 months of follow up were included in the study. (N=47) Results: Out of 47 patients, 31 were blast negative and 16 were blast positive. The blast negative patients had 76.1% chances while blast positive patients had 53.3% chances of 2 year event free survival. 42 patients were PGR and 5 patients were PPR. PGR had 71.42% chance of 2 year event free survival. As the sample size of PPR is small, no statistically significant conclusion can be derived. Conclusion: The result of our study shows that PGR have a good 2 yr EFS. Blast Negative patients fared much better than Blast Positive patients. Thus the present study though small in sample size, indicates that peripheral Blood Blast Percentage on day 8 have reliable prognostic value in long term cure in children and adults with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
525 ISOLATION AND PARTIAL PURIFICATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY PROTEIN FROM INDIAN HONEY Apis cerana indica , Vennilla S1., Kathireswari P1*., Karthikeyan P 2., and Manimegalai M1
The present work has been carried out to identify the antimicrobial compound in Indian honey and the range of organisms susceptible to the antimicrobial action. Antibacterial potential of the precipitated protein, from honey was used to elucidate the antimicrobial activity. In order to purify the sample the protein was subjected to 10kDa molecular weight cut off centrifugation and the positive phase was taken for further purification by thin layer chromatography. The maximum inhibition as produced was observed against E.coli (16 to 23 mm), Klebsiella pneumonia (14 to 19 mm), Pseudomonas sp. (15 to 21 mm) and Proteus sp. (15 to 16 mm). The present findings revealed that local Indian honey of Apis cerana indica had higher antibacterial activity against the bacterial strains. Active fraction of the gel filtration elutes showing higher concentration of proteins with Rf value 1.6 and autobiography assay conforming the zone of inhibition of TLC separated protein.
526 BERBERINE: A POTENTIAL THERAPEUTIC CANDIDATE FOR BREAST CANCER , A.B.M. Anwarul Bashar1, Md. Shahadat Hossan1, Rownak Jahan2, Abdullah Al- Nahain1, A.K.M. Mahmudul Haque2, Mohammed Rahmatullah1*
Berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt from the protoberberine group of isoquinoline alkaloids, and which can be found mostly in plant species belonging to the Berberis genus. Recent studies have demonstrated numerous pharmacological properties of the compound, among which the most pronounced being anticancer effects against a wide variety of cancer cell lines. In this review, we discuss the anticancer effects of berberine against breast cancer and its potential for therapeutic applications
527 A REVIEW OF RECENT TRENDS IN NON-INVASIVE INSULIN THERAPY FOR DIABETES MELLITUS , S. Bala Murali Mohan*1, Deepthi.B 1, Gourineny Bhanusree2
Diabetes mellitus is generally a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Insulin is used for treating diabetes particularly of type I DM and selectively of type II DM patients. Presently available methods of administration of insulin are insulin syringes, insulin infusion pumps, jet injectors, insulin pens and the traditionally used method of administration i.e.; subcutaneous route are of invasive in nature. In order to reduce the pain of the patients, several approaches of non-invasive delivery of insulin are being developed. The newer non-invasive methods available are inhaled insulin, oral insulin, buccal insulin and transdermal delivery of insulin. This paper reviews the recent developments in noninvasive delivery of insulin with their formulation aspects and their advantages over invasive delivery of insulin. (DM- DIABETES MELLITUS).
528 PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILE OF BIOPHYTUM SENSITIVUM DC (OXALIDACEAE) , Shibila T, Johnson M*, Revathy I, Narayani M, Utchimahali M
The present study was undertaken to explore the phytoprofile of the medicinally important plant Biophytum sensitivum DC (Oxalidaceae). The powder of Biophytum sensitivum (10g) was sequentially extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone and ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus for 8 h. For aqueous extracts the dried powder were boiled with water for 24 h continuously. To identify the secondary metabolites preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening of B. sensitivum leaves extracts was carried out. To reveal the lignin, tannin, phenols and poly phenols occurrence in B. sensitivum various parts, the histochmeical studies were carried out. To explore the phytoprofile of various extracts of B. sensitivum fluorescence, UV-Vis and FT-IR were analysed. The weight percentage of major and minor elements present in the samples was carried out using the OXFORD INCA Energy Dispensive X-ray Spectrometer. Histochemical studies revealed the high degree of tannin, lignin and polyphenol occurence in root and stem epidermis and vascular bundles of B. sensitivum. The result of UV-Vis and FT-IR analysis confirmed the active constituents presence in B. sensitivum. A total of ten elements viz., carbon, oxygen, magnesium, aluminium, silicon, phosphorus, sulphur, chlorine, potassium and ferrous were observed in the powdered sample of B. sensitivum. These spectroscopic profiles will act as pharmacognostic marker to distinguish the medicinally important B. sensitivum from its adulterants using relatively simple, cost-effective spectroscopic profile in the pharmaceutical industries.
529 DESIGN, AN EFFICIENT ECOFRIENDLY SYNTHESIS OF SPIROOXINDOLE DERIVATIVES AND THEIR ANTICANCER ACTIVITY SUPPORTED BY MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDIES , Yakaiah Erugu1, Bhavanarushi Sangepu1, Kanakaiah Varre1, Rajesh Pamanji2, Yashwanth Bomma2, Venkateswara Rao Janapala2, Vankadari Srinivasarao3, Parthasarathy Tigulla3, Vatsala Rani Jetti1*
An efficient, operationally easy and ecofriendly one-pot three component synthesis of novel 6-amino-5-cyno-3- trifluoromethylpyranopyrazole-4-spiro-oxindole derivatives was developed by the domino reaction of 3-trifluoromethyl-5-hydroxy pyrazole, isatin and malononitrile in water reflux at 80-85oC for 45 min. The major returns of this protocol are excellent yield, operational cleanness and formation of three new bonds in one operation. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity against cell lines U937 (human histiocytic lymphoma) and B16F10 (mouse mealanocarcinoma) by using MTT assay. IC50 values (?g/mL), which is the concentration required to inhibit 50% of cell viability by the test compounds after exposure to cells, have been determined. An exploration of the docking studies of tested Spirooxindole derivatives was made to explain the observed variance in their anticancer activity.
530 EVALUATION OF ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF PRUNUS PERSICA , Usharani Chatragadda1*, Sumalatha Gindi2, Vimochana Bowjanku1
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Antihyperlipedemic activity of methanolic extracts of leaves of Prunus persica using high fat diet-induced hyperlipidemia and TritonX-100 induced hyperlipidemia models in Wistar albino rats. Hyperlipidemia is a disorder of lipid metabolism manifested by elevation of plasma concentrations of the various lipid and lipoprotein fractions, which is the key risk factor for cardiovascular disorders (CVD). Prunus persica extract was administered at different dose of 100mg/kg, 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg to hyperlipidemic rats. Atorvastatin is used as reference standard. The statistical analysis were carried out using one way ANOVA followed by Dunnets multiple comparison test. The serumTotal cholesterol, Triglyceride, HDL, VLDL , LDL levels and atherogenic index were analyzed. There is also significant improvement in atherogenic index in 400mg/kg extract treated animals. Methanolic leaf extract of prunu persica exhibited significant (p
531 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF IMMEDIATE RELEASE TABLET CONTAINING ATORVASTATIN SOLID DISPERSION , Mohammad Zameeruddin, Kishor R. Rajmalle*, Jadhav S.B., Bharkad V.B., Kadam V.S.
Atorvastatin calcium is a poorly water soluble oral Cardivascular agent. The Atorastatin belongs to BCS class II drug having low solubility and high permeability. In the present study attempt was made to improve solubility and dissolution rate of poorly soluble drug by solid dispersion technique using hydrophilic carriers such as Soluplus and Ghatti gum. according to carrier in which one of the synthetic/artificial polymer (soluplus) and other is natural polymer (Ghatti gum). The FTIR study indicates that there is no interaction between drug and polymers. The solid dispersions were prepared by solvent Evaporation method in three different ratios viz.1:1, 1:2, and 1:4. The prepared solid dispersions were evaluated for physical appearance, solubility study, drug content, and in-vitro dissolution study. The optimized batches is AS2 and AG1 which shows 98.64%, 94.67% drug release within 60 min and solubility was 23.09?g/ml,21.64?g/ml respectively hence observed that synthetic polymer shows higher solubility and dissolution rate than natural polymer hence optimized batches of solid dispersion formulation of Immediate release tablet.
532 PSORIASIS INFLUENCE ON THE PATIENTS QUALITY OF LIFE , Valentina B. Petkova1, Milen V. Dimitrov1, Irina N. Nikolova1, Christina Ch. Voycheva, Velisslava G. Valchanova MA1, Kalina G. Andreevska2
Background Psoriasis influences patient's lives, affecting them physically, psychologically and socially. Their quality of life is similar to that of other major medical diseases such as cancer, arthritis, hypertension, heart disease, diabetes and depression. The objective of this study was to evaluate QOL in psoriasis patients before and after treatment with extemporaneous formulation. Methods: The patients self-assessment Koo-Menter Psoriasis Instrument (A part) is applied to 22 patients suffering from different stage of psoriasis. With 0 is indicated the absolute absence of a problem while with 10 very much availability. All data were processed through SPSS 20.0 software. Chi-square test and t test were used as data analysis. Results: 22 patients were enrolled in the study. The correlation analysis of PQOL1 and PQOL2 and sex, age and duration shows that there is no significant correlation between the patients quality of life and their sex and age. But there is significant correlation between PQOL1 and the duration of the disease., Conclusions: The study showed there is improvement in QOL in psoriasis patients before and after treatment with the extemporaneous formulation. Duration of disease can be considered as a possible mediator of impact on QOL.
533 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SIMPLE UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF CYCLOBENZAPRINE BOTH IN BULK & IN MARKETED DOSAGE FORMULATION , Chetna Ramchandra Madke*, Hitesh Motilal Jain,Minal T. Harde, Pravin D. Chaudhari
A rapid, simple & economic UV spectrophotometric method was developed & validated for estimation of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride in bulk & pharmaceutical dosage formulation. At the predetermined absorbance maxima of 290nm, the calibration curve linear in the range of 4-24 ?g/ml & has correlation coefficient R2=0.999 & good mean recovery (99.04-100.89 %). The method is developed using methanol &water as a solvent & results were validated as per ICH guidelines for Accuracy, precision, linearity, LOD, LOQ & found to be satisfactory.
534 MICROWAVE ASSISTED SYNTHESIS AND IN VITRO ANTIMALARIAL SCREENING OF NOVEL PYRIMIDINE DERIVATIVES , Dayena J. Christian1, Manoj N. Bhoi1, Mayuri A. Borad2, Dhanji P.Rajani1, SmitaD.Rajani2, Hitesh D. Patel1*
This research article mainly emphases on recent endeavors in the field of heterocyclic compounds. Pyrimidines have extensively explored in medicinal chemistry because of their wide range of biological activities. Keeping this in view, we have synthesized some novel pyrimidine derivatives from novel chalcones by the condensation reaction with guanidine hydrochloride/thiourea. All these synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, Mass spectral dataandelemental analysis. These compounds were also screened for In Vitroanti-malarial activity. Among all evaluated compounds, the molecule 5cand 7c exhibit the most pronounced excellent anti-malarial activity IC50Value (?g/mL) 0.028, 0.078 respectively
535 SOYBEAN SEEDS- AN APPROACH TO TREATMENT OF BREAST CANCER , Shikha Saxena*, Jyoti, Archana Sharma
Breast cancer is the common cause of death in females worldwide, estrogen plays important role in breast carcinogenesis by promoting irregular cell growth. Aromatase is an enzyme which converts androgen in estrogen also plays important role in breast carcinogenesis. There are various approaches for the treatment of this disease. Numerous epidemiological studies suggest that phytoestrogen rich diet, particularly soy and their products are associated with low risk of some cancers especially breast cancer. Soybeans contains several anticarcinogens such as phenolic acids, flavonoids and isoflavonoids that helps in exhibiting their cancer preventive function. Soy isoflavones (genistein, daidzein and glycitein) have anticancer activity by different mechanism including anti-estrogenic and anti-aromatase activity. Antiestrogenic activity is mainly due to its structural similarity with our own estrogen. In vitro studies have shown that genistein exerts biphasic effects on cancer cell growth, at low concentration these stimulate the cell growth and at high concentration these significantly inhibit the cell growth. The anticancer activity of isoflavones may result via a number of mechanisms including inhibition of protein tyrosine kinases, DNA topoisomerases involved in signal transduction, inhibition of aromatase that generates estrogen, blocking of the cell cycle at G2 phase in normal mammary cells and by affecting communication pathways between cells, prevent the formation of blood vessels to tumors or alter processes involved in the processing of DNA for cell multiplication In this review we summarize current studies related to the preventive effect of isoflavones on breast cancer.
536 DEVELOPMENT OF LEISHMANIA DONOVANIANTIGEN LOADED MANNOSYLATED BILOSOMES TO TARGET M-CELLS: IN VITRO CHARACTERIZATION , Berwal Deepika1, *Senthil Kumar M2
The aim of the study was to develop mannosylated bilosomes as oral vaccine delivery carrier for producing mucosal immunization against visceral leishmaniasis. Visceral leishmaniasis is the one of the most dangerous disease which may cause death if left untreated. The best solution of this problem is to develop immunization against the disease.Immunization can be produced via parenteral or oral routes but immunization produced by oral route is best suited and convenient for patient. Since bilosomes are prepared from naturally occurringlipids and produce no toxicity on their use, they can be used to replace the conventional lipid vesicular systems for the oral delivery of antigenic proteins. The ability of mannosylatedbilosomes to produce immune response is higher than uncoated bilosomes and hencebetter oral immunization can be produced by using mannosylatedbilosomes as carrier which are more stable in gastrointestinal tract.The bilosomes were prepared and coated with o-palmitoylmannan to enhance their affinity towards antigen presenting cells of peyerspateches. The bilosomes were characterized for their size, shape, encapsulation efficiency, ligand binding specificity, antigen release, stability and targeting to M-cells of peyers patches. Mannosylated bilosomes were found to target the M-cells.
537 REVIVAL OF AN INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETIC TEENAGE GIRL BY HERBAL THERAPY. , Aruna Devaraj R*, Devaraj P.
IDDM the most severe form of Diabetes takes a sudden onset almost abruptly in youth and adolescents below 30 years. The survey carried out to analyse the causes brought to limelight its emergence in girls without a previous history in the family. C-peptide level lower than 0.13 confirming type-1 Diabetes, with Urine sugar (+++), high level of PPS(482mg/dl.) , thyroid stimulating hormone(5.09 mg/dl), creatinine (1.4) high sodium, chloride and 85% of neutrophilic leukocytosis had put a 16 year old girl at the stage of puberty who suffered Leucorrhoea and Polydipsia though not associated with fever, seizure or oliguria to coma .The patient with 11.65 % glycosylated haemoglobin was administered insulin. The case study of the patient is presented with a success story of reviving from Insulin with gradual herbal diet therapy. Moving average analysis of the 10 days of fluctuating glucose levels is worked out to assure supplementary Herbal therapy. The patient is back to normalcy with dietopathy and herbalism.
538 FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF IMMEDIATE RELEASE TABLETS CONTAINING ANTIPLATELET DRUG: CLOPIDOGREL , Srikant Pimple*, Pravin Maurya, Akash Joshi, Amit Jain, Dr. Mukund Gurjar, Mahesh Shah
The present investigation was undertaken with an aim to develop pharmaceutically equivalent, stable, cost effective, and quality improved formulation of Clopidogrel bisulfate immediate release tablets. The current study involves formulation and evaluation of Clopidogrel bisulfate immediate release tablets, comparison of dissolution rate of optimized formula with innovator and estimation of similarity factors. Preformulation study such as solubility analysis, intrinsic dissolution, drug-excipients compatibility and hygroscopicity was conducted. Initial batches were formulated by direct compression technique, using roller compaction approach but it resulted in surface irregularities of tablets like sticking and capping. Next trials were taken by using wet granulation techniques. It resulted in slight sticking during compression, disintegration time was on higher side and dissolution was slow. In further batches quantity of solvent used for the preparation of binder solution was decreased. It resulted in decreased disintegration time, sticking was not observed and dissolution matched with innovator. Modification was done in preparing the coating solution. Colloidal mill was used to homogenize the coating solution which further improves the appearance of formulations. Scale up batches were also taken with less binder solvent in Planetary Mixer as well in Rapid Mixer Granulator so as to check the feasibility on long run of compression on production scale. No sticking was observed and all physical and chemical parameters of tablets were found within limits. Scale up batch was also taken with alternate vendor of API and results were reproducible. In order to investigate the mode of release from the tablets different release models were applied
539 ALOE VERA AS A POTENTIAL HERBAL FOR DIABETES TYPE 2 DRUG DEVELOPMENT , *Ly Le
Diabetes is a symptom which is too much glucose, a type of sugar, in the blood. Scientists use another name: hyperglycemia. There are two main types of diabetes type 1 and type 2. Type 2 is the most common form of diabetes, its when your bodies do make insulin but either pancreas does not make enough insulin or the bodies cannot use the insulin well enough, or we call insulin resistance. In aloe vera, there exists a quite huge number of biocompounds which have the ability to treat the disease. Applying the GaussView, AutoDock Vina and LigandScout softwares to perform and discover the most potential ones, finally they are Saponin B, Aloe Emodin, Aloin A and B, Gibberellins, IAA, IBA, NAA, Beta-sitosterol, Salicylic acid. Based on the 5 rules of Lipinski, Saponin B, Aloe Emodin, Aloin A and B, Gibberellinsare the suitable compounds for drug design and development.
540 ANEPIDEMOLOGICAL STUDY AND MANAGEMENT OF EARLY BREAST CANCER , Dr.N.Junior Sundresh*1, Dr.S.Narendran2, V.Gokul3, T.Ashwini3
Breast cancer is one of the commonest malignant diseases of women next to cancer cervix. It accounts for 30- 40% of all female cancers and is responsible for 20% of cancer related deaths in women. The study period is from august 2011 to September 2013 and study was did in Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital in tertiary teaching hospital. A complete clinical evaluation of the case including history, general physical examination and clinical breast examination was done. Necessary investigations were done to confirm the diagnosis, stage the disease and for definitive treatment. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done for all cases to confirm the diagnosis. Routine blood investigations, chest x-ray and ECG were done for all cases. Bilateral mammogram, liver function tests and ultrasound abdomen was done to stage the disease. The discussion part is about strategic incidence of breast cacer,age incidence, age at menarche, ageat first child birth,parity,menopausal stages, clinicalpresentations, side wise incidence, treatment modalities and follow up. The highest incidence of early breast cancer was between 41- 50 years. This indicates the necessity for screening the population with mammography for detection of breast cancer in early stages after the age of 40 years.93.9% of cases were diagnosed by FNAC. The commonest HPE type in early breast cancer was invasive ductal carcinoma.ER and PR positivity rates were more in post menopausal women 53.3%.when compared to pre menopausal women 27.7% indicating better prognosis in post menopausal women.
541 STEVENS-JOHNSON SYNDROME & TOXIC EPIDERMAL NECROLYSIS-A CASE REPORT , *Deepalakshmi M, Arun K.P, Gloria Sam
Stevens - Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a potentially rare,deadly skin disease that usually results from a drug reaction. Another form of the disease is called Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN), and again this usually results from a drug-related reaction. Both forms of the disease can be deadly as well as very painful and distressing. There are many drugs that have been linked to SJS, and these include NSAIDs, Allopurinol, Phenytoin, Carbamazepine, Barbiturates, and Sulfa Antibiotics. Often, Stevens-Johnson syndrome begins with flu-like symptoms, followed by a painful red or purplish rash that spreads and blisters, eventually causing the top layer of your skin to die and shed. The condition can sometimes although not very often be attributed to a bacterial infection, and in some cases there are unknown causes for the onset of SJS or TEN. However, the most common cause is through drug related reaction.
542 THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT OF MIDDLE EAR INFECTION AND IMPACT OF PATIENT COUNSELING BY THE CLINICAL PHARMACIST , *Dinesh Kumar Meena1, Chintha Venkatarao2
Objective The main objective of our study is to counsel the patient about the disease and medication use, to counsel the patient about importance of medical adherence and life style modification, to assess the impact of patient counseling by the clinical pharmacist.Study design This was a non-invasive prospective observational study consisting of 50 patients with middle ear infection, and they were evaluated about knowledge of disease among them and adherence to drug therapy. An intervention bases, randomized study was designed to evaluate the effect of patient counseling on a subsample of 25 in the study group and 25 in the control group. Result - In our study we found that mean knowledge score increased from 10.81 to 18.36 in study group after intervention i.e. counseling by the clinical pharmacist. In our study we found that patient who received counseling by the clinical pharmacist, showed significant improvement in the knowledge of the middle ear infection as compared to patient who lacked counseling.Conclusion We found that patient awareness source is basically doctor who ensure the patient treatment but may not have time to educating the patient about the disease and risk factors. Hence clinical pharmacist can improve patient knowledge by educating programs and thereby adherence and hence control of the disease.
543 SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF 2-(1H-PYRAZOL-4-YL)-1H-BENZO[D]IMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES , Bhavanarushi S1, Bharath gandu2, Gangagnirao A2, *Vatsala Rani J1
A series of novel 2-(1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole derivatives 6a-q were prepared and tested in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against three gram positive bacteria like Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus three gram negative bacteria like Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and four fungal strains like Aspergilus niger, Candida albicance, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the synthesized compounds 6b, 6c, 6d, 6f, 6g, 6l and 6p show high antibacterial and antifungal activities at low concentrations (6.25-200 ?g/mL), with respect to reference drug.
544 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS OF ANTIEMETIC DRUG METOCLOPRAMIDE , A. Geetha lakshmi*, Ravi Patel and Divya S Kumar
Metoclopramide hydrochloride(MH) is chemically 4-amino-5-chloro-N[2-(dimethylamino)-ethyl]-2-methoxybenzamide monohydrochloride monohydrate. It is a potent dopamine receptor antagonist. It is a potent antiemetic and is effective in the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy, pregnancy, migraine etc. It is also used for the treatment of diabetic gastric stasis and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. The fast dissolving tablet was prepared by using different superdisintegrant with different ratio. FT-IR study revealed no interaction between the drug and excipients. Tablets were characterized for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time, drug content, dissolution and dispersion time. Among the nine formulations, F6 was selected as the best formulation as its wetting time was 39 seconds, disintegration time was 12 seconds, dispersion time was 49 seconds and %CDR after 6 minutes was 99.46%. F6 was found to be stable at 40 C 2 C and 75 5 % RH which was confirmed by FT-IR study.
545 ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIOXIDANT AND HAEMOLYTIC POTENTIAL OF BROWN MACROALGA SARGASSUM , *Megha N. Mole1 and Anjali B. Sabale2
Antimicrobial, antioxidant and haemolytic activity of three species of Sargassum viz. S. cinereum, S. ilicifolium and S. tenerrimum was investigated using extracts prepared in different organic solvents. Ethanol and methanol extracts of all the three Sargassum species were effective in arresting bacterial growth while methanol extract of S. ilicifolium had the maximum ability to arrest the growth of fungal organisms. Inhibition of mycelial growth was more than 60% in ethanol and methanol extracted samples of all the Sargassum species. Haemolytic activity was negligible (5-10%) for a few negative blood groups and slightly more (10-20%) for positive groups when hexane, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of S. cinereum were used. Total antioxidant capacity was remarkable in the methanolic extract of S. cinereum and S. tenerrimum. Results suggested an appreciable level of antimicrobial and antioxidant potential in the three Sargassum species. The range of haemolytic activity indicated a safe use of these species for pharmaceutical purpose. Ethanolic and methanolic extraction favoured the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities in Sargassum sp.
546 SPRAY DRYING: A PIONEER FOR TASTE MASKING OF BITTER DRUGS Pathade Shriram Shankar1*, Phadtare , Dipti Ganesh1, Saudagar Ravindra Bhanudas2
Taste is most essential organoleptic aspects about the acceptance of oral drugs. Bitter and unpalatable taste is a major problem of certain drugs in formulations. Due to the bitter taste of the drug there is a constant problem in the treatment of the patients due to their inability or unwillingness to swallow such formulation specifically, in children and elderly.This lead to the improvement of taste masking technologies which improved the characteristics of the dosage form and good patient compliance is achieved and is done by either decreasing its oral solubility on ingestion or decreasing the amount of drug particles exposed to taste buds thereby reducing the perception of bitter taste. Methods frequently used for taste masking involves various physical and chemical method that avoid the interaction of taste bud with drugs and are based on coatings by using Spray drying techniques.
547 HERBAL NANOPARTICLE FOR ANTICANCER POTENTIAL- A REVIEW , A.Abirami1*, Dr. S.Mohamed Halith2, K.K. Pillai3, Chithirra anbalagan4
Herbs are staging a comeback and herbal renaissance is happening all over the globe. Now a day the use of herbal medicines has increased because of their ability to treat different diseases with fewer side effects. However, the effective drug delivery of herbal medicines has not still been achieved. Different scientific approaches are being developed these days to deliver herbal medicines. Novel formulations including nanoparticles have been developed for the effective delivery of herbal drugs. Nanoparticulate formulations such as polymeric nanoparticles, liposomes, proliposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles and microemulsions present potential to deliver herbal medicines effectively. This article summarizes various nanoparticulate technologies that have been studied for the delivery of herbal medicines and which are gaining more attention for improved therapeutic response and bioavailability.
548 UNANI PERSPECTIVE AND RECENT STUDIES OF SANDAL SAFED (SANTALUM ALBUM LINN.): A REVIEW , Heena Kausar S1, Najeeb Jahan1, Kamal Ahmed1*, Mohd Aslam2, Parwej Ahmed1, Shamim Ahmed1
Sandal safed (Santalum album Linn.) is also known as Royal tree belongs to the family Santalaceae. Among the genera of Santalaceae, Santalum contains 25 species which are distributed throughout the world. In India, the genus is represented by Santalum album Linn. and is a native of the highlands of southern India mainly Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala where it is found wildly and cultivated. In Unani system of medicine, therapeutically, this drug is widely used both internally and externally in various cardiac, brain, liver, stomach and skin disorders for its Mufarrreh wa Muqawwie qalb (exhelirent and cardiotonic), Muqawwie dimag (brain tonic), Muqawwie hararate gareezi (nuetropic), Qabiz (astringent), Muhallile warm (resolvent), Musaffie dam (blood purifier) and Mujaffif (desiccant) properties. In this review, an attempt has been made to offer a detailed description of Sandal safed in Unani prospective and to collect the pharmacological research studies done on Sandal safed by using modern parameters and techniques.
549 ARTIFICIAL BLOOD: A LIFE SAVING TOOL , *N M Phadke1, D G Phadtare2, R B Saudagar2
Blood is a specialized body fluid that delivers necessary substances to the body cells such as nutrients and oxygen and transports waste products away from those cells .Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughoutthe body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using syntheticproduction, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology.Artificial blood is supposed to fulfill some functions of biological blood, especially in humans. The initial goal of oxygen carrying blood substitutes mimics bloods oxygen transport capacity. There is additional longer range research on true artificial RBCs and WBCs which could theoretically compose a blood substitute with higher fidelity to human blood. The basic approach to make an oxygen therapeutic is using Perfluorocarbons (a chemical compound which can carry and release oxygen).The artificial blood serves to be a good tool for the survival of patients at the time of surgery owing to high blood losses. Therefore the use of PFC solution as a blood substitute can be used to maintain the circulating blood volume as well as the need of the patients.
550 ROLE OF C-PEPTIDE AND C-PEPTIDE GLUCOSE RATIO IN ASSESSING DECREASED BETA CELL FUNCTION IN CHRONIC PANCREATIC DISORDERS , *Sujatha Rani Akuri1, Dr. Dawood Suleman2
C-peptide to Glucose ratio is considered as a better marker for beta cell function in newly detected diabetes patients. Present study, we are studying Serum C-peptide to Glucose ratio levels of 30 chronic pancreatic disorder patients and 20 healthy volunteers to rule out the prediabetes in chronic pancreatic disorder patients. From this study by analyzing the result we found that the mean of fasting serum C-peptide to Glucose ratio levels in cases as 1.267 with a standard deviation of 0.506 is lower when compared with controls with mean value observed in the control group is 2.105 with a standard deviation of 0.732. The P value of fasting serum levels of C-peptide to Glucose ratio in cases and controls is 0.0001. The mean of 2nd hour serum C-peptide to Glucose ratio levels in cases as 4.214 with a standard deviation of 1.647, the mean value observed in the control group is 5.136 with a standard deviation of 0.968 is higher in controls. The P value of 2nd hour serum levels of C-peptide to Glucose ratio in cases and controls is 0.0001, hence there is a significant difference showing low levels in cases. Serum C-peptide to Glucose ratio levels are higher in controls compared to cases. This indicates that there is significant beta cell dysfunction in cases compared to controls. This leads to the diabetic condition in chronic pancreatic disorder patients.
551 SPECTRAL AND BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF SOME NEW SN (II) COMPLEXES WITH SCHIFF BASES OF AMINO ACIDS , Sangeeta Sihag, Sumit Pareek, Monika Gupta, Sarita Varshney and Anil K.Varshney?
Some Schiff base ligands haveprepared by the reaction of 2-acetylfluorene and 4-acetylbiphenyl with amino acids (glycine, alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine and tryptophan). These ligands were used to synthesize a series of new metal complexes of Sn (II) in 2:1 molar ratio using benzene as a reaction medium. The structure determination and characterization of these ligands and complexes were made on the basis of UV, IR, (1H, 13C and 119Sn) NMR spectroscopy as well as elemental analysis. The Schiff base ligand and their complexes have also been screened for biological activity against various pathogenic bacteria, fungi and insects. The result shows that the complexes are superior to the free ligands and their toxicity has increased by increasing concentration.
552 ASSESSMENT OF THYROID FUNCTION IN MULTI-TRANSFUSED CHILDREN OF ? THALASSEMIA MAJOR WITH IRON OVERLOAD , 1Dr. Ummed Singh Solanki, 2 Dr. Ajay Kumar Bhargava, 3Dr. Prashant S. Adole
Transfusion related iron overload is the primary therapeutic complication in thalassemia major. Iron deposition in various endocrinal glands (including thyroid gland) is responsible for the hormonal derangements. Other factors like hypoxia due to persistent anaemia and perfusion defect, also contribute to the derangement. In India, cost of chelation precludes ideal therapy for majority of the patients and the compliance with transfusion is often not optimal. Therefore there is a possibility that there may be high prevalence of hypothyroidism in thalassemic children in India. In view of very few pediatric Indian studies, we therefore planned the present study. In the present study, we aimed to assess thyroid function in children suffering from ?-thalassemia major with iron overload and to evaluate its relation, if any, with serum ferritin levels. 50 confirmed ?-thalassaemia major cases, with ferritin level more than 1000, and who were on regular transfusion for more than 2 years, in the age group 3-14 years, were recruited in the study. 50 age and gender matched healthy controls were also recruited in the study. Thyroid profile and serum ferritin levels were measured using Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CLIA) method. Compared to the control group, the mean level of thyroid hormones (both T3 and T4) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels were significantly reduced while that of TSH was increased significantly. Out of 50 cases, 32(64%) were euthyroid, 17(34%) and 1(2%) had subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism respectively. There was no significant correlation between serum T3, T4 and Ferritin levels. Also there was no significant correlation between serum TSH and Ferritin levels. Though thyroid dysfunction in thalassemia may start early in life, hypothyroidism is not clinically observed in most thalassemia major patients. Therefore, thyroid function should be followed periodically, particularly when other iron over load-associated complications occur.
553 REVIEW: A RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS , P.Natarajan1*, R.Arunpandian1, G.Subramanian1, S.Ramarajan1, K.Sakthiraj, G.Ragunath1.
In present day,life of whole mankind has become mechanical, where people are supposed toaffordmany efforts both physically and psychologically. Our limbs and joints afford us much inour physical workouts and in return they are prime targets of our physical and mental stress. Irrespective of the age group, people are affected with various musculo-skeletal diseases. Oneamong such diseases is Rheumatoid Arthritis(RA). According to survey of American College of Rheumatology, more than 1 million americans suffer from rheumatoid arthritis. Uncontrolled rheumatoid arthritis causes joint damage, disability, decreased quality of life and cardiovascular and other comorbidities. Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) arethe key of therapeutic agentsto reduce synovitis and systemic inflammation and improve its function. The leading DMARD is methotrexate, which can be combined with other drugs of this type. The present study is on reviewing complicated rheumatic disorders and chronic degenerative diseases of musculo-skeletal system. Hence, an attempt has been made to discuss few old remedies for rheumatoid arthritis in modern science point of view.
554 RP-HPLC ASSAY METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF BECLOMETHASONE DIPROPIONATE IN METERED DOSE INHALER- A RESEARCH , Sangita B. Gavitre*, Dr. Ashok P. Pingle, Nanasaheb R. Kale, Javed A. Mirza.
RP-HPLC assay method developed and validated for Beclomethasone Dipropionate in metered dose inhaler (MDI) using Testosterone propionate as an internal standard. This drug was submitted to accelerated degradation studies under acidic, alkaline and oxidation conditions, exposure to light. The separation of Beclomethasone Dipropionate was achieved on Waters Spherisorb ODS-1 column (100 x 4.6 mm, i. d. 5 ?m particle size) with an isocratic mobile phase containing methanol and water (70:30, v/v). The flow rate was 2.0 mL min-1, injection volume 20?l and detection wavelength was set at 239 nm, at 50 C. The validation of the proposed method was carried out for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, and system suitability test as per ICH guideline. The retention time of Beclomethasone Dipropionate found to be 1.8 min. calibration graph was found to be linear at range 0.15- 2.25 ?g/ml. The regression coefficient (r2) was found to be 0.999., the proposed method was found to be rapid and stability-indicating with adequate specificity, precision, accuracy, Ruggedness and robustness and hence be suitable for the routine analysis of Beclomethasone dipropionate in Meter dose inhalation and in bulk.
555 ANTIBIOGRAM TYPING AND ERIC-PCR GENOTYPING OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM DIFFERENT CLINICAL SAMPLES , Mun,im R. Ali .; Shaymaa Khudhr AlAlak .;Ashraf Sami Hassan.; Istabraq Mohammed Atia
Escherichia coli is a common cause of infection affecting both male andfemale individuals. Maximum E. coli isolates were recovered from urine (59) followed by ear discharge (5), stool and vaginal swap (3 for each). The mean age of infected patients was range (less1 to 10 year) and male: female ratio was 5:15. While the less infected age was range (80-90 year). Dendrogram analysis of antibiotic used has been able to show a very higher resolving strain differentiation. The antibiogram patterns of the 70 isolates of E.coli of differnt origin were determined and among them 2 multiple resistance patterns A &B were observed, among A group the isolates clusters in to two sub group ,while ERICPCR dendrogram showing the genetic diversity/relatedness of the 44 Escherichia coli strains. All 90 isolates were tested by ERIC-PCR, from which 26 isolates 37.14% were untypeble, while only 44 isolates were successfully amplified by ERIC-PCR. ERIC-PCR of E. coli isolates generated multiband fingerprint patterns. ERIC-PCR yielded bands between 200bp to 1200 bp ranging from 1 to 5 bands in an individual sample. the results indicated that both methods were able to discriminate epidemiological clusters, with only a few discrepancies. The results of this study underscore the antibiogram typing is a simple, time consuming, with the cost of a few method, which researchers were able to investigate of E. coli epidemic when advanced molecular typing methods are not available.
556 IN VITRO AND IN VIVO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SAPONIN EXTRACTED FROM THE ROOT OF GARCINIA KOLA (BITTER KOLA) ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS , Alli Smith, Y. R*; Adanlawo, I.G
At the present time, much attention is being paid to antioxidant substances because many pathological conditions are associated with oxidative stress. The antioxidant activities of saponin extracted from the root of Garcinia kola was investigated by in vitro and in vivo assays. The in vitro investigations includes the ability of the extract to scavenge free radicals such as 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion (O2.-), hydroxyl radical (OH) and its ferric reducing power was also investigated. The effect of saponin from the root of bitter kola in reducing oxidative stress was evaluated in diabetic Wistar albino rats tissues. Diabetes was induced in rats by single intraperitonial injection of alloxan (150mg/kg body weight). Three days after alloxan induction, the hyperglycemic rats were treated with 200mg/kg of metformin, a standard antidiabetic drug and saponin from the root of Garcinia kola orally at the dose of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 7 days. The result of the in vitro assay showed that the extract scavenge these free radicals in a concentration dependent manner. The in vivo antioxidant assay results showed that saponin at different concentrations significantly decrease the MDA level compared to metformin and the control group (p < 0.05), the activities of antioxidant enzymes; Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Catalase of albino rats given saponin increases compared with the control group. These in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that the saponin extract from the root of Garcinia kola have significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. In other words, it could be potentially used as a rich source of natural antioxidant.
557 EFFECT OF SYNERGY OF COLISTIN / VANCOMYCIN AGAINST STRAINS OF ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII BY E-TEST METHOD IN RABAT , *Es-Said Imane1, Ousti Fadwa2, Zouhdi Mimoun3
Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) presents a major health problem. Although colistin has-been used as a treatment of last resort, but it was still considered as a nephrotoxic antibiotic. The mechanism of Action of colistin, however, raises the possibility of synergy with other molecules that are normally inactive against Gramnegative organisms by virtue of the impermeability of the bacterial outer membrane. This study evaluated the effect of colistin combined with vancomycin on fifty strains of A. baumannii multiresistant, except for colistin, by using Etest methods. For all the isolates, significant synergy was demonstrated with reductions in the MIC of vancomycin from> 256 mcg / ml to ? 12 mg / ml for all strains after exposure to 0.5 mg / ml colistin. This raises the possibility of the clinical use of this combination for infections due to MDRAB, with the potential for doses lower than those currently used.
558 THE ASSOCIATION OF OXIDIZED HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN AND OXIDIZED NON-HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN WITH THE DEVELOPMENT OF MICROALBUMINURIA IN DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY , 1 Mohammed A. Al-Bayati, 2 Dina A. Jamil, 3 Hayder A. Al-Aubaidy*
This study was undertaken to investigate the association of total lipid peroxides and oxidized HDL in the progression of microalbuminuria in diabetic nephropathy. Fifty-five patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited in this study and were divided into 2 main groups based on the presence of microalbuminuria, the first group (microalbuminuric group n=31) had a microalbuminuria between 30- 299 ug/mg. The second group (normoalbuminuric group, n=29) had an albumin level less than 30 ug/mg. The two diabetic groups were compared to the control group (n=37). The results of our study showed significant elevation in the levels of serum lipid profiles and lipid peroxidation markers in the microalbuminuric group compared to the normoalbuminuric group at P
559 SYNTHESIS, STRUCTURAL AND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF SOME 8- SUBSTITUTED DERIVATIVES OF 1,3,7-TRIMETHYLXANTHINE WITH ANTIPROLIPHERATIVE ACTIVITY , Maya Georgieva1*, Javor Mitkov 1, Georgi Momekov2, Branimir Zlatkov1, Plamen Peikov1, Alexander Zlatkov1
The synthesis of methylxanthine derivatives could be a good approach to develop new analogues with similar or novel pharmacological profiles including antiproliferative activity. The synthesis of four derivatives of 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine with substituents containing allantoin and saccharine in the side chain on 8th position in the xanthine ring was studied. The theoretical structure of the investigated compounds was compared to the crystallographic data for caffeine, allantoin and saccharin and a good agreement between theoretical and experimental data was established. The results from FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral analysis confirmed the proposed structures of the tested compounds. The theoretical UV spectra correspond to the experimentally observed. It was proven that in compounds 6a,b, the 2,5-dioxo-4-ureidoimidazolidine is bound to the alkyl side chain at position 1, and not at position 3. The estimated redox potential for all compounds is about 8.318.73 eV. According to the corresponding calculated HOMO and LUMO values the analyzed structures may be considered as reductors. The presented Nsubstituted 8-aminocaffeine derivatives exhibit antiproliferative effects on human tumor cell lines of different origin and cellular type and could be subset to further modification aimed at identifying prospective antineoplastic lead compounds.
560 THE TGF ?1 509 C/T GENE POLYMORPHISM IN EGYPTIAN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HCV ANTIBODY POSITIVE PATIENTS AND ITS RELATION TO HCV VIRAL LOAD , Mervat Al Ansary1, Aya Nasef 1 , Hanan Abdel Haleem2, *Hanan Abdel Hafez2, Walaa Abd El Fattah1
Background and aim: Hepatitis C virus is a significant health problem in Egypt as its prevalence is about of 14.9%. Many genetic factors influence the natural course of chronic hepatitis C. Transforming growth factor-? is a potent well-known suppressor of NK cells that inhibits IFN-? and IL-12 production and blocks the proliferation and cytotoxicity of NK cells. The 509C/T mutation in the TGF-?1 gene is associated with promoter activity and with the natural clearance of HCV. Moreover, TGF?1 is the strongest known inducer of fibrogenesis in the effectors cells of hepatic fibrosis. We aimed in this study to determine the TGF ?1 509 C/T gene polymorphism by PCR- RFLP technique in chronic HCV patients and its relation to HCV viral load and the stage of hepatic fibrosis. Patients and methods: This study was conducted on 30 patients with +ve HCV, confirmed by the HCVAb presence by ELISA and by PCR and they were designed as group I. Group II: Included 20 healthy volunteers served as controls. Thorough clinical and laboratory assessments were done for all the participants in the study. PCR-RFLP for polymorphism of TGF ?1509 was carried out for all subjects. Assessment of the stage of hepatic fibrosis was done for diseased group by analyzing results of Fibroscan for some patients and Actitest-Fibrotest for others. Informed consents were obtained. Results: There were a statistically significant relation between the TGF ?1 509 T/C gene polymorphism in chronic HCV +ve patients and HCV viral load. The wild genotype CC and The C allele of TGF ?1 509 was significantly higher in subjects with low HCV viral load compared with moderate to high viral load. There is no relation between the polymorphism of TGF ?1 509 and the stage of hepatic fibrosis. Conclusion: The wild genotype CC and The C allele of TGF ?1 509 was significantly higher in subjects with low HCV viral load compared with moderate to high viral load. There is no relation between the polymorphism of TGF ?1 509 and the stage of hepatic fibrosis.
561 THE TGF ?1 509 C/T GENE POLYMORPHISM IN EGYPTIAN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC HCV ANTIBODY POSITIVE PATIENTS AND ITS RELATION TO HCV VIRAL LOAD , Mervat Al Ansary1, Aya Nasef 1 , Hanan Abdel Haleem2, *Hanan Abdel Hafez2, Walaa Abd El Fattah1
Background and aim: Hepatitis C virus is a significant health problem in Egypt as its prevalence is about of 14.9%. Many genetic factors influence the natural course of chronic hepatitis C. Transforming growth factor-? is a potent well-known suppressor of NK cells that inhibits IFN-? and IL-12 production and blocks the proliferation and cytotoxicity of NK cells. The 509C/T mutation in the TGF-?1 gene is associated with promoter activity and with the natural clearance of HCV. Moreover, TGF?1 is the strongest known inducer of fibrogenesis in the effectors cells of hepatic fibrosis. We aimed in this study to determine the TGF ?1 509 C/T gene polymorphism by PCR- RFLP technique in chronic HCV patients and its relation to HCV viral load and the stage of hepatic fibrosis. Patients and methods: This study was conducted on 30 patients with +ve HCV, confirmed by the HCVAb presence by ELISA and by PCR and they were designed as group I. Group II: Included 20 healthy volunteers served as controls. Thorough clinical and laboratory assessments were done for all the participants in the study. PCR-RFLP for polymorphism of TGF ?1509 was carried out for all subjects. Assessment of the stage of hepatic fibrosis was done for diseased group by analyzing results of Fibroscan for some patients and Actitest-Fibrotest for others. Informed consents were obtained. Results: There were a statistically significant relation between the TGF ?1 509 T/C gene polymorphism in chronic HCV +ve patients and HCV viral load. The wild genotype CC and The C allele of TGF ?1 509 was significantly higher in subjects with low HCV viral load compared with moderate to high viral load. There is no relation between the polymorphism of TGF ?1 509 and the stage of hepatic fibrosis. Conclusion: The wild genotype CC and The C allele of TGF ?1 509 was significantly higher in subjects with low HCV viral load compared with moderate to high viral load. There is no relation between the polymorphism of TGF ?1 509 and the stage of hepatic fibrosis.
562 BIOPHARMACEUTICAL IMPACT OF VAGINAL SILDENAFIL CITRATE THERAPY ON SOME INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES AND T/NK CELLS SUBSETS IN UNEXPLAINED RECURRENT SPONTANEOUS MISCARRIAGE: FIRST LONGITUDINAL CLINICAL STUDY OF 50 CASES FROM EGYPT , Mohamed El-Far 1*, Abd El-Gawad El-Motwally 2, Ikbal Abou Hashem3, Dalia Salem4, Nadia Bakry5
Various immunological abnormalities have been reported in women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (URSM). The definition of pregnancy as a "TH2" or anti-inflammatory state was proved by numerous studies and a shift in TH2 cytokines (e.g. IL-4, IL- 6, IL-10) towards TH1 cytokines (TNF-?, IFN-?) may be a potential relevant factor in RSM. In a previous study, we were the first to show the novel biopharmaceutical use of vaginal sildenafil citrate (SC) in treatment of URSM. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of vaginal SC tablet administration at different doses on the NK and Tcell subsets (as evaluated by CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, and CD56 expression) and on some pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-10) in patients with first trimester URSM in a longitudinal clinical study and to correlate this with successful pregnancy outcome. We investigated the effects of vaginal SC on some immunological abnormalities found in F-URSM, the study was conducted on two groups of patients in addition to a control group a control group. The first patient group (F-URSM1) received SC at a dose of 25 mg intravaginally, 4 times/day for 24 days ( n= 20), while the second patient group (F-URSM2) received SC at a dose of 25 mg intravaginally, 3 times/day for 13 days, (n= 20). The control group comprised of 10 matched first trimester normal pregnant (FTP). Patients also received their usual treatment used in their previous pregnancies ended with miscarriages. ). The percentage of T-cells subsets, CD16+/CD56+ NK cells, TNF-? producing cells, as well as serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels were determined in patient and control groups. Intravaginal SC treatment increased the pregnancy success rate that was more observed in F-URSM1 (65%) than in the F-URSM2 (55%) patients groups. Moreover, different doses significantly increased IL-10 level in the patients under investigation, while the percentage of TNF- ? producing cells and CD56+/CD16+ NK cells in peripheral blood were significantly decreased after SC treatment. In conclusion, the use of intra-vaginal SC as anti-abortive agent in URSM patients is partly due to its ability to correct the percentage of TNF-? producing cells, NK cells), and IL-10. Accordingly, SC may offer a potential pharmaceutical therapeutic strategy through ameliorating various immunological abnormalities that might contribute to URSM.
563 BIOPHARMACEUTICAL IMPACT OF VAGINAL SILDENAFIL CITRATE THERAPY ON SOME INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES AND T/NK CELLS SUBSETS IN UNEXPLAINED RECURRENT SPONTANEOUS MISCARRIAGE: FIRST LONGITUDINAL CLINICAL STUDY OF 50 CASES FROM EGYPT , Mohamed El-Far 1*, Abd El-Gawad El-Motwally 2, Ikbal Abou Hashem3, Dalia Salem4, Nadia Bakry5
Various immunological abnormalities have been reported in women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous miscarriage (URSM). The definition of pregnancy as a "TH2" or anti-inflammatory state was proved by numerous studies and a shift in TH2 cytokines (e.g. IL-4, IL- 6, IL-10) towards TH1 cytokines (TNF-?, IFN-?) may be a potential relevant factor in RSM. In a previous study, we were the first to show the novel biopharmaceutical use of vaginal sildenafil citrate (SC) in treatment of URSM. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of vaginal SC tablet administration at different doses on the NK and Tcell subsets (as evaluated by CD3, CD4, CD8, CD16, and CD56 expression) and on some pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6 and IL-10) in patients with first trimester URSM in a longitudinal clinical study and to correlate this with successful pregnancy outcome. We investigated the effects of vaginal SC on some immunological abnormalities found in F-URSM, the study was conducted on two groups of patients in addition to a control group a control group. The first patient group (F-URSM1) received SC at a dose of 25 mg intravaginally, 4 times/day for 24 days ( n= 20), while the second patient group (F-URSM2) received SC at a dose of 25 mg intravaginally, 3 times/day for 13 days, (n= 20). The control group comprised of 10 matched first trimester normal pregnant (FTP). Patients also received their usual treatment used in their previous pregnancies ended with miscarriages. ). The percentage of T-cells subsets, CD16+/CD56+ NK cells, TNF-? producing cells, as well as serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels were determined in patient and control groups. Intravaginal SC treatment increased the pregnancy success rate that was more observed in F-URSM1 (65%) than in the F-URSM2 (55%) patients groups. Moreover, different doses significantly increased IL-10 level in the patients under investigation, while the percentage of TNF- ? producing cells and CD56+/CD16+ NK cells in peripheral blood were significantly decreased after SC treatment. In conclusion, the use of intra-vaginal SC as anti-abortive agent in URSM patients is partly due to its ability to correct the percentage of TNF-? producing cells, NK cells), and IL-10. Accordingly, SC may offer a potential pharmaceutical therapeutic strategy through ameliorating various immunological abnormalities that might contribute to URSM.
564 COMBINED EFFECTS OF ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE, ALCOHOL AND CIGARETTE SMOKE ON HEPATIC FUNCTION AND SELECT MICRONUTRIENTS IN WOMEN , *Iyanda A.A., Anetor J.I., Oparinde D.P
This study was carried out to determine the effect of combined oral contraceptive (COC) on serum select micronutrients levels in women using COC, consuming alcohol and exposed to cigarette smoke, and to identify if differences in degree of exposure to these agents are capable of modulating effects of COC on antioxidant elements and vitamins thereby increasing their risks of developing oxidative stress-induced diseases as well as hepatic diseases commonly associated with alcohol consumption. Venous blood samples were taken from the studied population for estimating serum vitamins, zinc, copper and selenium and indices of hepatic function. The studied population was divided into smokers\binge drinkers and passive smokers\social drinkers groups. ALT, AST, ALP & copper were not significantly different in exposed group compared with control (p>0.05). Both GGT and total bilirubin were significantly increased while zinc and selenium were decreased (p
565 HEPATO-RENAL TOXICITY OF KEROSENE FROM DERMAL AND ORAL EXPOSURE. , *Ayobola Abolape Iyanda
Objective: Due to lack of access to adequate medical care in Nigeria, kerosene or some other petroleum products are being used for the treatment of a number of clinical conditions. This therefore necessitates the need to study the impact of continuous exposure to trace amount of kerosene in female Wistar rats over a period of 3 weeks. Animals: Twelve rats were assigned to Groups 1 & 2 and administered with 0.3 ml/kg body weight of kerosene through either the oral and dermal route with the study being terminated after 1 week. Twelve other rats were assigned to Groups 3 (oral) and four (dermal) and given similar treatment as groups 1 and 2 with the study being terminated after 3 weeks. Six rats served as the control. Procedures: Blood was collected from each animal through retro-orbital bleeding and serum obtained after centrifugation. Serum activities or levels of hepatic and renal indices were determined. Results: By the end of three weeks, all indices were significantly altered (p
566 POMEGRANATE JUICE AFFECTS ON PHARMACOKINETIC PARAMETERS OF METRONIDAZOLE BY USING HPLC-MS , Haifa T. Abu Tbeekh1, Wael A. Abu Dayyih1*, Eyad M. Mallah1, Nidal A. Qinna2, Riad M. Awad1, Tawfiq A. Arafat1,3
Objective: To quantify Metronidazole in rat serum by using HPLC/MS and to study the effect of pomegranate fresh juice on the Metronidazole pharmacokinetics Methods: The serum samples were prepared by using protein precipitation method with Clindamycin in methanol solution. A gradient mobile phase system and ACE 5 C18 column were used for the analysis. Rats (n=4) were treated with a single ordinary dose (5ml/kg) of freshly squeezed pomegranate juice 30 min before orally administered-Metronidazole while other groups of rats (n=4) were treated with a multiple dose of the juice twice daily for two days versus DW pretreated rats (n=2). The study protocol was approved by the ethical committee of Graduate Studies at Faculty of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences of University of Petra/Amman-Jordan (March, 2012). Key findings: The analytical method was linear with acceptable recovery, precision and accuracy. The results show that there was a significant increase in the Metronidazole pharmacokinetic parameters (Cmax and AUC, P
567 PREVALENCE OF OXALOBACTER FORMIGENES AMONG THE IRAQI POPULATION , Tariq T. Khalaf, Zahra M. Al-Khafaji*
Oxalotrophic bacteria depend on oxalic acid for getting energy and as a carbon source .Oxalic acid is toxic substance can not be avoided in human body which can not be metabolized . Humans depend on microflora to manipulate oxalic acid homeostasis . The main member of the microbes is Oxalobacter formigenes , which lower and let getting rid of this substance . The present study aimed to investigate the presence of this bacteria in Iraqi population . Different genders and wide range of age groups (8-40 years) were used . The molecular diagnosis depended on amplification of partial region of 16S rRNA gene as the cultivation of this fastidious bacterium is quite difficult and is very sensitive to antibiotics . Results of 16S rRNA amplification (product 370 bp) , showed that this bacterium found in 46/50 (92%) of the population . The resulted product sequences were aligned with 16S rRNA sequence collection deposited mainly in SILVA database , and GenBank database . The percentage of identity exceed 70% which represents the threshold for depositing the sequences in SILVA database and were about 83%. Phylogenetic analysis using Comamonas terrigena as out group resulted in grouping of Iraqi strains in one cluster , with over all distance of 0.2 using Neighborhood Joining method .
568 PREVALENCE OF MDR STAPHYLOCOCCUS HAEMOLYTICUS IN BLOODSTREAM OF IRAQI INFANTS , Zahra M. Al-Khafaji 1*, Khairiyiah J. Al-Khataua2
Antibiotic resistance represent a very big problem especially those microorganisms exhibit multidrug resistance (MDR) . The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MDR Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolates among infants which is a striking phenomenon on these days . Among 1560 blood cultures , 67 isolates (4.3%) during 2013 were obtained . Only one isolate was sensitive to all antibiotics (19-21) in use in hospital specialized for infants , the rest (95.7%) were MDR . The highest resistance recorded to Erythromycin as 56 isolates out of 67 (83.6 %) , which appeared to be due to mechanisms other than methylation . Resistance to other antibiotics recorded for Gentamicin and Tetracycline . However , all the isolates were sensitive to Tigecycline , Nitrofurantion , Vancomycin , large number of isolates were sensitive to many of antibiotics in use , which reduces the effect of the problem and gave a chance for antibiotics use on these days .
569 USING RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION TO EVALUATE GENOTOXICITY OF KBRO3 AND TREATMENT WITH CAPE GOOSEBERRY , Rokaya H. Shalaby1, Ibrahim A. Ibrahim2, Thanaa M. Badr1*
Cape gooseberry (Cg) has been an abundant source of highly effective phytochemicals which offer great potential in the fight against cancer. The goal of the present study to investigate genotoxicity of potassium bromate (KBrO3) in mice and treatment with Cg and interferon-?. Ninety male Swiss albino mice were divided into six groups, 15 animals for each group. Mice were received KBrO3, Cg orally and interferon-? subcutaneously. Molecular changes were detected using random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). The most important changes after using primer 5`AGGGGTCTTG3` that was quantitative mutation 3 times between control mice and mice treated with KBrO3 at RF 0.68. Also, one common band appeared in control group and all treated groups at RF 0.68 with M.wt. 300 bps. In addition, similarity index (S.I.) between control mice and mice treated with 1g/kg Cg and interferon together is one as compared to mice treated with KBrO3 (S.I.= 0.50). Using primer 5`GAAACGGGTG3` the similarity index between control mice and mice treated with 500mg/kg Cg was 0.80 as compared to mice treated with KBrO3 (S.I.= 0.00). Using six different primers showed that potassium bromate produced complete and partial disturbance in the DNA sequence (S.I.= 0.0 or 0.67). In addition, treatment with Cg decreased alterations occurred in the DNA sequence which was complementary to primers as compared to mice treated with potassium bromate alone. Treatment with interferon-? and 1g/kg Cg together reduced damage to DNA more than treatment with interferon-? alone. From these findings it is to be suggested that Cape gooseberry as new source of bioactive phytochemicals and functional foods.
570 SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND LASER IRRADIATION ON SURVIVAL OF Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATED FROM IRRADIATED INFECTED WOUNDS OF ANIMAL PATHOGENECITY MODEL , 1Mohemid M Al-Jebouri* and 2Balsam Y Al-Shakarji
Background: multidrug resistant P .aeruginosa nosocomial infections are increasingly recognized worldwid due primarily to a combination of low outer membrane permeability coupled to secondary resistance mechanisms such as an inducible ?- lactamases. Many studies have demonstrated a bactericidal effect of laser irradiation toward bacteria . This tool as a new photochemotherapeutic has been utilized for different applications in various fields of biology and medicine.Methods:Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated and identified from wounds and burns of patients in Tikrit Teaching Hospital..Wound incisions were made in skins of Swiss albino mice were taken from Institute of the Biological and Pharmaceutical Research Laboratory (Baghdad).These wounds were infected with 105 bacteria/ml inoculums and exposed to a series of exposures to laser,photosensitizer and antibiotic according to a protocol designed for this experiment.The exposed pathogen was isolated from wounds and incubated at room temperature and at 37 0C for estimation of temperature effect on laser-injured pathogen. Results .It was found that most of the isolates were killed at 37 0C of incubation after laser irradiation but most of the irradiated isolates survived at room temperature. Conclusion: The present study revealed that a combination of laser irradiation exposure of Ps.aeruginosa was highly effective in killing of this pathogen at higher temperature like 37 0C which might be applicable for infected patients with this organism if they hospitalized in a room with elevated temperature.
571 THE INTERACTIONS BETWEEN POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR) AND OTHER DIAGNOSTIC TESTS AMONG TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS OF VARIOUS BLOOD GROUPS , *Mohemid M Al-Jebouri1 and Nuha M Wahid2
Backgroud:Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by mycobacteria particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It typically affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can affect other sites i.e. extrapulmonary TB. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), such as nucleic acid amplification (NAA) tests are used to amplify DNA for rapid identification of acid-fast bacilli.Methods: In the current study there were 150 patients (13 pulmonary TB, 5extra-pulmonary TB and 132 suspected TB patients) and 150 healthy control. The patient were examined for the presence of TB utilizing QuantiFERON-TB Gold In- Tube assay, polymerase chain reaction(PCR), AFB smear, OnSite TB rapid test, erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR) and chest X-ray. Results:PCR and QFT-GIT were found positive in almost 45% of the patients tested.The simultaneous Positivity of PCR test and AFB smear, OnSite TB rapid test, erythrocyte sedimentation rate(ESR) and chest Xray was variable. Conclusions:It was concluded that blood group (ABO) and rhesus typing were found to be the most prevalent in pulmonary TB patients with blood group O Rh +ve and the tests carried out were blood group related at some times. Real- time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a specific tool for early diagnosis of TB in a variety of clinical samples particularly with sputum.
572 PHENOLIC CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF IN VITRO INDUCED CALLUS OF FARSETIA AEGYPTIA , Walaa M. Ismail1, Amira Abdel Motaal1,2*, Nadia Sokkar1,3 and Ahlam M. El-Fishawy1
A comparative study was carried out on the total phenolic contents and the antioxidant activities of the 70% methanolic extracts of the in vitro induced callus of Farsetia aegyptia, and the aerial parts and roots of the conventional plant. The effect of using different explant types and phytohormone combinations on the induction of callus, its content and activity was studied. MS medium supplemented with 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid : benzyl aminopurine : naphthalene acetic acid, 1 : 2 : 0.1 mg/L gave the peak callusing capacity (80 %) using cotyledon explants. Extracts of the calli induced on this medium using leaf and root explants showed comparable phenolic contents (7.32 0.01 and 6.33 0.10 mg GAE/g, respectively) to those of the aerial part and root extracts of the conventional plant (9.21 0.06 and 6.2 0.17 mg GAE/g, respectively). Consequently, the callus extract of the leaf explant showed the highest antioxidant activity (55.03 0.09 % inhibition of DPPH free radical) at a concentration of 50 mg/ml. However, extracts of the aerial parts and roots of the conventional plant displayed higher activities (70.47 0.96 and 79.04 0.05 %, respectively) at a much lower concentration (10 mg/ml).
573 THE EFFECTS OF COOKING METHODS ON ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PHENOL CONTENT IN VEGETABLES , Ali Mirzaei1, Hamdollah Delaviz2*, Hamidreza Mohammadi3
Introduction: Total phenol and antioxidant activity of vegetables may be changed by different ways of cooking such as, baking, steaming, pressure cooking, microwaving and frying. This study is conducted to determine the antioxidant activity and phenol content of three Iranian vegetables by different cooking methods. Materials and Method: Fresh Broccoli (Brassica oleracea, L. pepper (Capsium annuum, L and spinach (Spinacia oleracea,L.) were obtained from a market in Yasuj, Iran. One portion was kept raw as control and stored at 4 ?C in the refrigerator, others were subjected for four different cooking methods. After cooking, the cooked vegetables were cooled and then all vegetables were homogenized in a 2 min , and stored at ?20 ?C until analyses. Raw and cooked vegetables were analyzed by different antioxidant activity methods and total phenol contents based on dry matter. Results: The fresh vegetables total phenol content ranged 8821306 mg GAE/100 g dm. After cooking procedures, the total phenolics content of spinach and broccoli was insignificantly reduced. Conversely, total phenolic content of pepper was significantly increased in boiling (8%) and frying (4%) methods. Total antioxidant activity of DPPH against of TEAC method in all samples increased during all cooking procedures compared to the fresh procedure. Conclusion: depends on cooking methods and kind of vegetables nutritional and physicochemical qualities changed by domestic cooking. Moreover, these results suggest further studies are needed to identify a preferential cooking method for each vegetable to improve the nutritional quality and their reliability.
574 MY STERIES OF MRSA , *Ms. Latha J1, Dr. S. Umamaheswari2, Dr. P. Rajendran3
Staphylococcus aureus are gram-positive cocci causing infections in humans. The pathogenesis is mediated by extracellular enzymes and toxins. In recent times there is evolution of antibiotic resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, among which methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is of primary concern. These strains are resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics and other groups of antimicrobial agents which were the mainstream line treatment for Staphylococcus aureus earlier. MRSA infections were generally perceived to cause post-operative infections in health-care centres. But in recent times these strains are seen in community as well causing skin and soft tissue infections. There is a migration of hospital strains into the community and community strains into the hospital causing a two-way flow of MRSA. MRSA has reached epidemic proportions in last few decades. The Center for disease prevention and control estimates an annual death to be more than 17, 000 in the United States. A survelliance study conducted in India showed results consistent with data published elsewhere in the world. Rapid identification and characterization of MRSA strains is essential to reduce mortality, morbidity and cost of treatment. Active survelliance programs and other infection control measures help in preventing cross-transmission and spread of the infection in the hospital and community at large.
575 A REVIEW ON MESANGIAL PROLIFERATIVE GLOMERULO NEPHRITIS , Dr. D. Naga SatishBabu*, B.Kumaraswamy, Dr.J.N.Suresh Kumar
Mesangial proliferative glomerulo nephritis-a relatively uncommon disorder is a type of glomerulo nephritis associated primarily with the mesangium. It is a very rare kidney disorder characterized by swelling and blood in urine due to the inflammation of glomerulus-an internal kidney structure and an increase mesangial cell number accompanied by antibody depots in the mesangial layer of the glomerulus. The factors that triggers the disorder is unknown till date but is considered to be a type of immune response as it is associated with antibody deposits. Symptoms such as edema, anorexia, Hematuria, Proteinuria and high blood pressure can be seen. It is categorized into three types- MPGN Type 1, MPGN Type 2, MPGN Type 3 based on the inflammation pattern seen in the filters. Several health complications include renal failure, congestive heart failure, atherosclerosis, fluid overload etc. different diagnostical methods include blood and urine analysis to reveal blood/protein levels in urine, analysis BUN and serum creatinine and analysis of lipid levels. Renal biopsy can be done for the confirmation of the disorder. The treatment therapy should be aimed to relieve symptoms and to prevent complications and also improving the kidney function. Therapy includes treatment with Immunosuppressive, corticosteroids, renal dialysis, antibiotics, and diuretics, erythropoietin agonists, anti-platelet therapy, plasma exchange and micro Chinese herbal medicine. However diagnosis should be done carefully and drugs have to be chosen based upon their efficacy and condition of the patients as misdiagnosis can lead to arousal of new infections which lead to further complications.
576 CELLULITIS: A BACTERIAL SKIN INFECTION, THEIR CAUSES, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT , Jeeva Joseph*, Sujith Abraham, Arya Soman, Limson K Mathew, Saneesh V Ganga, Vineetha Vijayan
Family physicians frequently treat bacterial skin infections in the office and in the hospital. Common skin infections include cellulitis, erysipelas, impetigo, folliculitis, and furuncles and carbuncles. Cellulitis is an infection of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue that has poorly demarcated borders and is usually caused by Streptococcus or Staphylococcus species. And that is characterized by warmth, edema, and advancing borders. Cellulitis commonly occurs near breaks in the skin, such as surgical wounds, trauma, tinea infections, or ulcerations. Patients may have a fever and an elevated white blood cell count. The most common sites of cellulitis were the legs and digits, followed by the face, feet, hands, torso, neck, and buttocks. For infection in patients without diabetes, empiric treatment with a penicillinase-resistant penicillin, first-genera- tion cephalosporin, amoxicillin-clavulanate (Augmentin), macrolide, or fluoroquinolone (adults only) is appropriate. Limited disease can be treated orally, but more extensive disease requires parenteral therapy. Antibiotics should be maintained for at least three days after the resolution of acute inflammation. Adjunctive therapy includes the following: cool com- presses; appropriate analgesics for pain; tetanus immunization; and immobilization and elevation of the affected extremity. The patient may also require a plain radiograph of the area or surgical debridement to evaluate for gas gangrene, osteomyelitis, or necrotizing fasciitis. Recurrent episodes of cellulitis or undergoing surgery, such as mastectomy with lymph node dissection.Herbal medicines are also used for cellulitis.
577 ETHOSOMES: A NOVAL APPROACH FOR IMPROVED TRANSDERMAL DELIVERY AND AS A CARRIER SYSTEM FOR THE DELIVERY OF HIV DRUGS , Abhinav Shahi*
The skin is one of the most extensive and readily accessible organs of the human body and the skin as a route of drug delivery can offer many advantages over traditional drug delivery systems. In transdermal drug delivery system the drug goes to the systemic circulation through the protective barrier i.e. Skin. Skin acts as a major target as well as a principal barrier for topical/transdermal drug delivery. One of the greatest disadvantages to transdermal drug delivery is the skin's low permeability that limits the number of drugs that can be delivered in this manner. Ethosomes as novel vesicles in transdermal drug delivery show significant effects on drug penetration through the biological membrane. This review article will focus on the various aspects of ethosomes including their mechanism of penetration, preparation, advantages, characterization, composition, application and marketed product of ethosomes.
578 DEVELOPING FOR TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS ADVANCE TECHNOLOGIES ON A REVIEW , Chalakanti. Suryakumari*, A. Anusha, P. Anitha.
Over the past decades, developing controlled drug delivery has become increasingly important in the pharmaceutical industry. Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improve such characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Transdermal drug delivery represents one of the most rapidly advancing areas of novel drug delivery. Trans dermal drug delivery system was introduced to overcome the difficulties of drug delivery through oral route. A transdermal patch is medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the blood stream. With the advent of new era of pharmaceutical dosage forms, transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) established itself as an integral part of novel drug delivery systems. The present article reviews the polymers suitable to be formulated as transdermal system, advantages, and disadvantages of formulation design.
579 FORMULATION & EVALUATION OF TOPICAL ANTIBACTERIAL HERBAL GEL OF CORIANDER AND EUCALYPTUS OIL Jaiswal , Neha R.*, Jaiswal Puja H., Patil Javesh K.
Most of the antibacterial agents were originally derived from plants. Herbal medicine refers to the use of any oil of seeds, leaves for medicinal purposes. Along with other dosage forms, herbal drugs are also formulated in the form of gel. A gel is a gelly like semisolid preparation used topically on a variety of body surfaces. The objective of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antibacterial herbal gel from the local medicinal plants. The oil of the selected plants was taken in different ratio randomly to formulate gel. The topical formulation were developed and tested for physical parameter, drug content, uniformity, Spreadibility. The result showed that coriander and eucalyptus herbal gel showed the MIC values of 50%v/v and 50 %v/v against Bacillus subtillis and staphylococcus Aureus respectively. The formulation second (ECG50) showed the maximum drug content 65% and maximum stability and zone of among the formulation.
580 THE ROLE OF DIINDOLYLMETHANE IN THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF CANCER , Dr. Sunita Bhargava*
Cancer is a major public health burden in both developed and developing countries. It was estimated that there were 10.9 million new cases, 6.7 million deaths. Although there are several treatment approaches for cancer, major drawback of these systems is the toxicity which may even lead to death. . Development of Non-toxic drugs which can be useful in cancer treatment is the most important need of the hour Of the 92 anticancer drugs commercially available prior to 1983 in the US and among worldwide approved anticancer drugs between 1983 and 1994, 60% are of natural origin. Improved cytotoxic agents continue to be an important line in the discovery of modern anticancer drugs. Herbal drugs have been used in the treatment and prevention of various diseases including cancer. Diindolylmethane (DIM), a phytochemical. Phytochemicals is generally referred to the compounds exclusive of essential nutrients that have specific biological activity to human. It has been known that over 10,000 different phytochemicals possess the potential preventive or supplementary effect on various diseases. From several decades ago to now, cancer continues to be the leading-lethal cause worldwide. Studies have shown that natural phytochemicals derived from certain plants have the capability to prevent carcinogenesis. Diindolylmethane (DIM), a phytochemical found in cruciferous vegetables such as cabbage, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, and kale, appears to cause infected cells to die. Cervical cancer is a common cancer of the female reproductive system, specifically the cervix of the uterus. Cervical cancer can be fatal if left untreated. The good news is that cervical is highly preventable and treatable if caught in its early stage. DIM could cause cell death of both human cervical cancer cells and the HPV-16-infected cervical cells of mice. Another promising study was done on a form of the phytochemical called indole-3-carbinol (I3C), which is released when you chew or crush a cruciferous vegetable and is immediately converted to DIM. Most research has focused on this phytochemical's ability to normalize estrogen metabolism, since estrogen plays a role in cervical cancer .
581 DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY AND DIABETIC RETINOPATHY AS MAJOR HEALTH BURDENS IN MODERN ERA , *Tapan Behl1, Ishneet Kaur2, Dr. Heena Goel3, Dr. Rajesh K. Pandey4
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine disorder characterized by abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood a condition called hyperglycemia, which exposes the body to a wide number of other medical complications which adversely affect the body. Among these complications, the ones which are the most detrimental and unwholesome include Diabetic Nephropathy and Diabetic Retinopathy.Both of these are referred to as the microvascular impediments bestowed by the repercussions of diabetes mellitus. These two disorders have become a paramount ground of fret owing to the large population of the world suffering from diabetes today. Such complications of diabetes are even more menacing than the disease itself. Large masses being inevitably getting affected by these is a major reason of concern for the health associates worldwide. Therefore, there is an utmost need to comprehend and perceive the causes, risk factors, pathophysiology and outcomes of both these medical conditions so that everyone could be made aware of the devastating effects that such conditions exert on their lives. This would help every individual, who is at risk of developing these, realize the obligation of taking the adequate measures and preventive steps in order to eradicate and grub out these dire disorders which could prove to be extremely catastrophic.
582 HERBAL SOURCES OF ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL: A REVIEW , Dr. Mamta Tiwari1*, Dr.Anurag Pandey2, Dr.Aruna Agrawal3, Dr.G.P.Dubey4
A major part of the total population in world still uses traditional folk medicine obtained from plant resources With an estimation of WHO that as many as 80% of world population living in rural areas rely on herbal traditional medicines as their primary health care. In recent years this interest to evaluate the properties and uses of medicinal plants are getting growing interests now. Plants possessing antibacterial activity for various diseases are being studied by various methods to evaluate their antibacterial property. Different solvent extracts (aqueous, alcohol and ethanol) of leaves, flower and seeds of various plants were subjected to in vitro antibacterial activity assay against gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria employing different diffusion method. Based on common use and ethno botanical knowledge, an attempt has been made to assess the the antibacterial properties of selected medicinal plants viz. Azadirachta indica, Allium sativum, Holarrhena antidysenterica and more for potential antibacterial activity against some important bacterial strains, namely Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhi, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. The plant extract were more active against against Gram-positive bacteria than against Gram- negative.
583 SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES: A REVIEW , Parve B1?, Shinde P1, Rawat S1, Rathod S1, Waghmode G2.
Solubility is the property of a solute to dissolve in solvent to form a homogeneous solution. Solubility is the amount of solute that goes in to the solvent to form solution at given conditions of temperature, pressure and pH. Solubility is one of the important parameter to achieve the desired concentration of drug to the systemic circulation for its pharmacological response (Bioavailability). Low aqueous solubility is the major problem associated with poorly water soluble drugs. Any drug to be absorbed must be present in the form of solution at the site of absorption. Water is the solvent of choice for liquid pharmaceuticals formulations. Most of the drugs are weakly acidic or weakly basic with poor aqueous solubility. This review put the light on various techniques used for improving solubility of poorly water soluble drugs. These techniques includes physical and chemical modifications like particle size reduction, micronization, solid dispersions, complexation, self-emulsification, inclusion complexes, prodrug and salt formation.
584 IN SITU GELLING SYSTEM: NOVEL APPROACH FOR OPHTHALMIC DRUG DELIVERY , Rajeshwari N. Patil*, Rachana S.Kumar
Eye is the most vital organ of body. In ocular drug delivery the physiological constraints imposed by the protective mechanisms of the eye lead to low absorption of drugs, resulting in a shorter duration of the therapeutic effect. Conventional dosage forms (such as Eye drop, ointments, gels etc.) suffer from disadvantages like low residence time, blurred vision, frequent dosing. To overcome the limitations associated with conventional system, newer drug delivery system were developed. Newer research in ophthalmic drug delivery systems is directed towards a amalgamation of several drug delivery systems, that include to build up systems which not only prolong the contact time of the vehicle at the ocular surface, but also slow down the removal of the drug. In situ gels are in liquid phase while instillation but changed to gel in response to stimuli (which may be temperature, pH, ion, UV radiation). These stimuli also serve as basis for type of In situ gelling system. These systems not only help to increase in precorneal residence time of drug to a sufficient extent, so that drug can exhibit its maximum biological action but also decreases the systemic side effects to create a more pronounced effect with lower doses of the drug. Continuous delivery of drugs in a controlled manner to the anterior chamber of the eye will also eliminate the requirement for frequent drug administration, causing better patient compliance and thus serves as best alternative to conventional ophthalmic drops. In this article, an attempt has been made to highlight the important technical and pharmaceutically relevant concepts related with drug delivery systems developed for administration through the Ocular route.
585 GLASS ARMOUR ON THREAD ROCKS THE KITE FESTIVAL , Jignesh N. Parmar*, Limbesh B. Aal, Vishvesh R. Patel and Prof. Dr. Dhrubo Jyoti Sen
Kite festival is an awesome event in India during (Makar Sankranti) Uttarayan. Makar Sankranti is a Hindu festival celebrated in almost all parts of India and Nepal in a myriad of cultural forms. It is a harvest festival. It is the Hindi/Indo-Aryan languages name for Makara Sankranthi (still used in southern areas as the official name). Makar Sankranti marks the transition of the Sun into the zodiac sign of Makara rashi (Capricorn) on its celestial path. The day is also believed to mark the arrival of spring in India and is a traditional. Makara Sankranti is a solar event making one of the few Indian festivals which fall on the same date in the Gregorian calendar every year: 14 January, with some exceptions when the festival is celebrated on 13 or 15 January. Kite fighting is a very popular game in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Japan, Korea, Nepal but if you want to cut the threads of other people, you need to put a special material called Manja. Manja (or manjha) is the abrasive string used for fighter kites in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Chile, India, Nepal and Pakistan. It is gummed, coloured and coated with powdered glass. In Brazil, the mix of glue and powered glass is called "cerol". The glass coated coloured threads tied with kites fly in open air and cuts another kites by this manja.
586 A PHARMACOLOGICAL APPRAISAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH ANTILITHIATIC ACTIVITY, Tushar T Shelke 1 *, V H Bhaskar 2 , S M Gunjegaokar 1 , R V Antre 1 , U Jha 1
Lithiasis is the condition where urinary calculus is formed in the kidney and urinary tract. It is a complicated urinary disorder that has gravely troubled the health and quality of human life. Conventional agents are being used to control kidney stone along with lifestyle management. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of renal stone in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against renal disorders. There are medicinal plants with antilithiatic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in renal stone which is also known as lithiasis. A record of medicinal plants with their established antilithiatic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Abelmoschus moschatus, Asparagus racemosus, Carum copticum, Coccinia indica, Cucumis trigonus Roxb., Cucumis sativus, Dolichos biflorus, Clitoria ternatea, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Mimusops elengi, Neolamarckia cadamba, Pinus eldarica, Phyla nodiflora, Phyllanthus niruri, Solanum anguivi Lam, Bombax ceiba, Costus igneus, Triticum aestivum , Avocado, All of them have shown a certain degree of antilithiatic activity by different mechanisms of action.
587 ANTIDIABETIC MEDICINAL PLANTS OF INDIA- A REVIEW , Varuna P. Panicker* and Anu Gopalakrishnan
In India diabetes is a major health problem affecting people of both rural and urban areas. Herbal formulations are preferred over various treatment methods, which are following today to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, due to its lesser side effects and low cost. In this review Indian medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects used in treatment is compiled. These include, Acacia Arabica, Aegle marmelose, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Artemisia pallens, Azadirachta indica, Beta vulgaris, Biophytum sensitivum, Bombax ceiba, Brassica juncea, Caesalpinia bonducella, Cajanus cajan, Citrullus colocynthis, Coccinia indica, Eucalyptus globules, Ficus bengalensis, Gymnema sylvestre, Hibiscus rosa-sinesis, Momordica cymbalaria, Musa sapientum, Ocimum sanctum. One of the major contributing factors in diabetes and its related complication is mainly due to the damage induced by free radicals. Hence treatment of diabetes with herbal drugs having both antidiabetic and antioxidant properties are more beneficial.
588 SCIENTIFIC EVALUATION OF TRADITIONAL PLANTS HAVING ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL -A REVIEW , *Dr. Abhishek Gupta and Prof. Vk Joshi
Diabetes mellitus is a universal problem affecting human societies at all stages of development. It is a condition where sufficient amount of insulin is either not produced or the body is unable to use the insulin that is produced, leading to excess glucose in the blood. Insulin is the hormone that enables glucose uptake and utilization by the body cells for energy supply. Now a days, it is the most complicated syndrome and everyone wants something differerent, effective without hazards for this problems. From the beginning plants were the only source for curing any disease. India has a rich tradition of plant-based knowledge on healthcare. A large number of plants/plant extracts/decoctions or pastes are equally used by tribals and folklore traditions in India for treatment of diabetes. The present review thus attempts to analyze the ethnobotanical knowledge base for treatment of diabetes which includes a usage of plants, methods employed by tribals and folklore practices prevailing in India. A large number of plants used in tribal and folklore with enormous potential have not been validated for their antidiabetic potential. This review therefore attempts to bridge the lacunae in the existing literature and offers immense scope for researchers engaged in validation of the traditional claims and development of safe and effective and globally accepted herbal drugs for diabetes.
589 A REVIEW ON FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM, Karthik Kumar Reddy D*1 , Kavitha K 1 , Rupesh kumar M2 , Jagadeesh singh SD1 , Srinivasan S1, Jyothi M1
The purpose of this review on floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) is to compile the recent literature with special focus on the principal mechanism of floatation to achieve gastric retention. One of the most feasible approaches for achieving a prolonged and predictable drug delivery profiles in the gastro intestinal tract is to control the gastric residence time, using gastroretentive dosage forms that will provide us with new and important therapeutic options. From the formulation technological point of view, the floating drug delivery system is considerably easy and better approach. The development of FDDS are including physiological and formulation variables affecting gastric retention, approaches to design single unit and multiple unit floating systems, advantages, formulation variables and their classifications are covered in detail. This review also summarizes the in vitro techniques, the in vivo studies to evaluate the performance and application of floating systems. These systems are useful to several problems encountered during the development of pharmaceutical dosage form. An attempt has been made in this review article to introduce the readers to the current technological developments in floating drug delivery.
590 A REVIEW ON FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM, Karthik Kumar Reddy D*1 , Kavitha K 1 , Rupesh kumar M2 , Jagadeesh singh SD1 , Srinivasan S1, Jyothi M1
The purpose of this review on floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) is to compile the recent literature with special focus on the principal mechanism of floatation to achieve gastric retention. One of the most feasible approaches for achieving a prolonged and predictable drug delivery profiles in the gastro intestinal tract is to control the gastric residence time, using gastroretentive dosage forms that will provide us with new and important therapeutic options. From the formulation technological point of view, the floating drug delivery system is considerably easy and better approach. The development of FDDS are including physiological and formulation variables affecting gastric retention, approaches to design single unit and multiple unit floating systems, advantages, formulation variables and their classifications are covered in detail. This review also summarizes the in vitro techniques, the in vivo studies to evaluate the performance and application of floating systems. These systems are useful to several problems encountered during the development of pharmaceutical dosage form. An attempt has been made in this review article to introduce the readers to the current technological developments in floating drug delivery.
591 MORINGA OLEIFERA, A POULTRY PERFORMANCE ENHANCER HERB: A REVIEW , Swechha Akhouri1, Arun Prasad1, Subha Ganguly2*
The aqueous extract and dried powder of Moringa oleifera leaf enhances feed conversion ratio (FCR), feed conversion efficiency and body weight gain in broiler chicks. M. oleifera fed groups show better FCR and body weight gain in vaccinated broiler chicks.
592 ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS; A DOSAGE FORM THAT EXTENDS THE MARKET EXCLUSIVITY AND PATENT PROTECTION , Shiv Kumar Srivastava1* Ravendra Verma2, Vikash Chandra1, Shobhit Prakash Srivastava1
Orally Disintegrating Tablet (ODT) is a solid unit dosage form containing drugs that disintegrates rapidly and dissolves in the mouth without taking water within 60seconds or less. It ishighly acceptable due to good patient compliance along with improved bioavailability from the manufacturers view. There are many challenges during formulation of ODTs like palatability, mouth feel, grittiness of particles, size and strength of tablet. ODT can be prepared by many technologies like lyophilization, molding, spray drying,cotton candy and compression etc., but among these technologies direct compression is most convenient and cheap way to produce tablets with sufficient structural integrity. This dosage form may be used for protein and peptide based drug delivery system in the future and Controlled release ODTs can also prepared by using different drug carriers.
593 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF JASMINUM SAMBAC ON ALBINO RATS , *B.Rambabu1, K.S.K Rao Patnaik2
The methanol extract of its flowers was investigated for its antiinflammatory and analgesic activities in animal models. The alcoholic extract at 400 mg/kg body weight reduced significantly the formation of oedema induced by carrageenan. In the acetic acid-induced writhing model, the extract and the fractions had a good analgesic effect (P
594 SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF NEW BIS ISATIN DERIVATIVES FOR ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES , *G. Sammaiah, K. Pragat
It is evident that isatins show diversified pharmacological activities, along with antioxidant activity. In this study, we have synthesized a new series of Schiffs bases of carbohydrazide coupled with isatins. Yields of all synthesized compounds were good. The synthesized derivatives were screened for their anti-oxidant and cytotoxic activities.
595 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTHELMINTHIC ACTIVITY OF CANTHIUM PARVIFLORUM ROOTS , Krishna B1*, Sanjeeva Kumar A2, Praneetha R1, Rathnakar E1, Venkata Ramana Murthy B3, Pavan Kumar G1
The main aim of the study was to investigate phytoconstituents present and anthelminthic activity in the Canthium parviflorum root. Extraction was carried out by continuous hot percolation method using ethyl acetate and methanol a solvents. Both the extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening using standards methods, where as in-vitro anthelminthic method was evaluated at three different concentrations using Pheretima posthuma as test organism, the parameters like the time of paralysis and the time of death were determined .The extract showed significant activity in the dose dependent manner and especially in methanolic root extract showed significant activity than that of standard drug piperazine citrate. This might due to the presence of secondary metabolites like tannins and alkaloids which may be responsible for the activity.
596 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING IN LEAF EXTRACTS OF CASSIA ANGUSTIFOLIA (Vahl) GROWN IN DIFFERENT SOIL TREATMENTS , Kistamma Singanaboina*, Venkateshwar Chinna, Suman Kumar Ratnampally, Vineeth Damera
Medicinal plants possess unlimited and untapped wealth of chemical compounds with high drug potential which make these plants useful as sources of biomedicines. The plant Cassia angustifolia have been of keen interest in phytochemical study due to its excellent medicinal values. The present study was carried out to investigate the phytochemical profile of leaves of above plant grown in three different treatments. Plants were grown in three exposures i.e., black soil, heavy metals containing cadmium 10ppm, chromium 20ppm, nickel 16ppm and in another set calcium hydroxide is added to the soil. The plants were grown up to the productivity levels. The leaf powder dissolved in different solvents of Petroleum ether, Chloroform, Acetone, Methanol and Water. The phytochemical screening has shown the presence of Flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, quinones, steroids, saponins, tannins, resins, Xanthoproteins in their maximum and minimum presence. The result of the study could be useful for description and foundation of monograph of the plant.
597 VALIDATED UV SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF LAMOTRIGINE IN BULK AND FORMULATION , M. Lohita*1, P. Jaya Preethi1, D. Naresh2, K. Swetha1, K. Saravana kumar1, V. Amrutha1
A simple, selective, accurate and precise UV method for analysis of Lamotrigine in tablet pharmaceutical dosage was developed and validated. The stock solution of 50?g/ml was prepared and concentrations ranging from 2.5-25?g/ml of Lamotrigine using methanol were prepared for linearity. Absorbances of these solutions were measured at 307.5nm. The linear regression analysis data for the linearity plot showed good linear relationship with correlation coefficient value, R2 = 0.998 in the concentration range 2.5-25?g/ml with slope 0.03747 and intercept 0.01846. The method was validated according to the ICH guidelines for linearity, range, accuracy, precision, LOD, LOQ, robustness, specificity and selectivity for both bulk powder and pharmaceutical formulation. Lamotrigine was determined for its assay in tablet dosage form with 98.72%. The accuracy of the method was validated by recovery studies for 75,100,125 % levels and was found to be significant and under specification limits, with % recovery 98.5- 101.2 (within acceptable range 98- 102%). The LOD for 250ng/ml value is 0.002 and LOQ for 750?g/ml value is 0.025. The method was found to be robust.
598 THERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF ALOE VERA AGAINST RADIATION AND CADMIUM INDUCED CHANGES IN THE BRAIN, KIDNEY AND LIVER OF SWISS ALBINO MICE , R.K.Purohit*, Sharvan Lal Bhati, Om Kanwar, Manisha Agarwal, Aruna Chakrawarti and Dinesh Meena
Aloe barbadensis Mill, commonly known as Guar patha or Ghee patha, is perhaps the most important medicinal plant in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda. Several parts of the plant are used to treat a variety of diseases, but the most important is the leaf. It is rich in vitamins A, E and C (as antioxidant), minerals, enzymes, amino acids. Herbal plants are potential source of phytochemicals of pharmaceutical interest, act as antioxidants, anticarcinogenic and antimicrobial, preclinical studies. Furthermore, experimental studies have reported that Aloe and some of its phytochemicals also exhibit radiomodulatory, chemoprotective, free radical scavenging and immunomodulatory activities. The exposure of living system to ionizing radiations causes a variety of damages to various systems due to generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species. Cadmium is reported to be one of the most toxic elements in geological cycles. Various studies showed the prevention of radiation induced suppressions of immunity by Aloe vera. Having this unique properties Aloe vera could be used as protector against radiation and cadmium. Therefore, present study was planned to evaluate the protective efficacy of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced changes in Swiss albino mice. For this purpose six to eight weeks old mice were selected and divided into seven groups on the basis of radiation, cadmium, combined treatment and drug treated. All biochemical parameters of the control groups were compared with the respective experimental groups. An increase in value of total proteins, glycogen, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and RNA was observed up to day 14 in non drug treated group and day 7 in the Aloe vera treated groups thereafter value declined up to day 28 without reaching the normal, whereas the value of cholesterol and DNA showed a decreasing trend. The biochemical finding indicated the drug treated section of living tissue (kidney, liver and brain) showed slightly / no degenerative changes. The drug treated groups demonstrating the ability of Aloe vera to inhibit oxidative stress thus preventing tissue injury.
599 MECHANISM OF ACTION OF THE COMPOUNDS FROM TERMINALIA CHEBULA AND ADATHODA VASICA TARGETED AGAINST URINARY TRACT INFECTION , *Jasmine R 1, Aishwarya1, Selvakumar BN2
Among the several infections that target women, urinary tract infections are more prevalent. Antibiotics administered cause a lot of side effects. The current study was designed to evaluate the traditional claims of the two Indian medicinal plants for treating urinary tract infection. The traditional claims were investigated by using ethanol and acetone extracts of the plants against the isolated uropathogens and to study their role as inhibitors to bacterial adhesion of urinary tract. Antibacterial activity was determined by the disc diffusion assay and the Minimal Inhibitory Concentration was evaluated by micro broth dilution method. The active compounds isolated (already reported) were investigated for their action against bacterial adhesion in urinary tract by docking. The ethanol and acetone extracts of the two chosen plants were used for the study possessed significant antibacterial activity, whose zones ranged from 10 to 22mm diameter. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the plants fell between 62.5 and 250 ?g/ml. The active compounds isolated were investigated for their action against bacterial adhesion in urinary tract. The docking results indicate that both the plants inhibit the growth of the chosen bacteria to an appreciable degree. When the activity of the compounds were analyzed, they were found to obey all the 5 rules of ADME, hence, can be used as efficient drugs and could be used as possible alternatives to antibiotics for treating UTI.
600 DOCKING STUDIES OF SOME 1-SUBSTITUTED (PHENYL) SULFONYL - 1H-INDOLE DERIVATIVES , 1Vibha C Patil*, 1Soma Pramanik & 2Kinjal C Patel
Docking studies were done on a series of 1-substituted (phenyl) sulfonyl-1H-indole derivatives on drug discovery studio by Accelerys into the active sites of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1). The docking model was demonstrated for inhibitors conformation, protein interaction and Hydrogen bonding. It was found that 1-substituted (phenylsulphonyl) indole derivatives shows strong COX-2 selectivity compared to COX-1.
601 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TEPHROSIA CALOPHYLLABEDD. ROOTS , D.Ramadevi*
The genus Tephrosia, is a rich contribution to promising biological activities. The chloroform root extract of Tephrosiacalophylla were tested for antibacterial and antifungal activity,the root extract of Tephrosiacalophylla showed moderate activity. The activity of the extracts increased with increasing concentrations.The antimicrobial activity of the chloroform extract were tested at two dose levels. 200mg/ml dose level extracts showed a good amount of antibacterial activity. Probably the activity is due to the presence of isoflavones like caloisoflavones. At 200 mg/ml dose level, the antifungal activity showed positive results. Aspergillusniger has strong activity against Pencilliumchrysogenum and Rhizopusstolonifer.
602 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS OF CARBAMAZEPINE BY USING NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC POLYMERS , Ananthula Swapna*1, Chandan kumar brahma1, Noel Mann Harshitha2, K. Rama
A direct compression method was used to prepare fast dissolving tablets containing Carbamazepine as a model drug using natural as well as synthetic superdisintegrants such as chitosanand croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate respectively. Prepared formulations were evaluated for precompression parameters such as micromeritic properties like angle of repose, %compressibility and Hausners ratio etc. Tablets were also subjected to postcompression analysis for the parameters such as weight variation, hardness, friability, in vitro disintegration time, wetting time, drug content, in vitro dissolution study, and stability studies. The prepared tablets were characterized by FTIR for drug-excipient compatibility study. No chemical interaction between drug and excipients was confirmed by FTIR studies. The stability study conducted as per the ICH guidelines and the formulations were found to be stable. The results concluded that amongest all formulations prepared with chitosanshowed better superdisintegrating property than the most widely used synthetic superdisintegrant like croscarmellose sodium and sodium starch glycolate.
603 HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA L. VAR. AMV1 : MUTAGENIC EFFECTIVENESS AND MUTAGENIC EFFICIENCIES BY CHEMICAL MUTAGEN ETHYL METHANE SULPHONATE AND N-METHYL-NNITRO N- NITROSOGUANIDINE, Padma Shrivastava* and Chhota Raja
Different types of mutations may even be produced experimentally by mutation inducing agents or mutagens and the type of mutation is called experimental or artificial or induced mutations. Efficient mutagenesis is the induction of desirable changes free from the usually associated undesirable effects. Mutagenic efficiency of a treatment induced undesirable effects, in this work the EMS and NMG were used in Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Var. AMV1 for Mutagenic Effectiveness and Mutagenic Efficiencies. The different concentration of EMS and NMG was used to treat the dry and pre-soaked seeds (6,12,18 hrs). The M2 population was screened for morphological mutations till the maturity of plants. The frequency of induced mutations was calculated per 100 M2 seedling bases.
604 DESIGN, SYNTHESIS, ANTIMICROBIAL, AND ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF NOVEL ISOXAZOLYL PYRROLO[2,3-d]PYRIMIDINES , Nagi Reddy Modugu*1, Chandrasekhar Srivari1, Rajanarendar Eligeti2, Reddy Y N3
Novel series of isoxazolyl pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines 11 have been synthesized from 4-amino-3-methyl-5-styrylisoxazole 7. Compound 7 on treatment with phenacyl bromide 8 afforded the corresponding phenacyl isoxazolylamines 9, which were condensed with malononitrile to afford compounds 10. Compounds 10, were reacted with thiourea in refluxing ethanol to give the title compounds 11. Compounds 9-11 were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and Mass spectral data. The title compounds 11a-g were evaluated for their antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activity. Compounds 11f and 11g exhibited significant antimicrobial activity and potent antiinflammatory activities as that of standard drugs.
605 ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF MELATONIN AND PYRIDOXINE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY HPLC , Sangeeta Rathod*, Ankita Bhavsar, Bhagirath Patel
A simple, rapid and accurate High performance Liquid Chromatography method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Melatonin and Pyridoxine in tablet dosage form. The High performance Liquid Chromatography method has shown adequate separation of Melatonin and Pyridoxine in its tablet Dosage form. The separation was achieved BDS hypersil C18, with an isocratic system of 0.2M KH2PO4 buffer (pH - 4): methanol: TEA in the ratio of 70:30:0.1 v/v. The mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min, Injection volume 20?l and wavelength of detection used was 244 nm. The retention time for Melatonin and Pyridoxine were obtained as 3.760 min and 6.107 min, respectively. The linearity of the proposed method was investigated in the range of 3-9 ?g/ml and 10-30?g/ml for Melatonin and Pyridoxine respectively. Correlation coefficient was 0.9939 and 0.9995 for Melatonin and Pyridoxine respectively. The developed method was validated as per International conference Harmonization (ICH) guideline for its accuracy, precision, Limit of detection and Limit of quantitation.
606 A CASE OF PYREXIA OF UNKNOWN ORIGIN (PUO) DUE TO TUBERCULOUS ABSCESS OF THE PROSTATE , Dr. M.Rani Solai1, Dr. A.Sangeetha1, Dr. M.Muthaiah1, Dr. P. Yuri Gagarin1, Dr. Adhithya Muthu1, Dr. G.S.Vijay Kumar2 , Dr P.Thilakavathy2, Dr. M. Mariappan3, Dr. R.M.Sathishkumar4, Dr. Arun Kumar. S. Bilodi*5
Aim: The objective of the present study is to report a case of pyrexia of unknown origin due to tuberculous abscess of prostate. Place: This case was admitted in the in-patient department of medicine at Velammal Medical College Hospital at Anuppanadi, Madurai, India. Period: This case was examined in April 2014. Case Report: This is a case of pyrexia of unknown origin in a male aged 57 years, native of Virudhunagar, India. He was investigated and diagnosed to have tuberculosis of lung as well as prostate. Discussion: This is a case of tuberculous abscess of prostate which was diagnosed by smear study of prostatic aspiration. Tuberculosis of prostate is rare and was compared and correlated with available literatures. Conclusion: This case gives awareness to the clinicians regarding any abscess in prostate and other genital organ could be due to Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. In some cases, it may be associated with HIV infection. Take home Message: Any patient with tuberculous abscess of prostate should be given proper advice and counselling to the family. Such patients should also be advised to undergo investigation for HIV infection.
607 TO EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF COFFEE AND OVALTINE (MILO) CONSUMPTION ON HEART RATE IN HEALTHY INDIVIDUALS , *Dr. Syed Asif Jahanzeb Kazmi1, Izharullah,1 Dr.Mohammad Imran Zahoor2, Dr. Naheed Akhter3, Zahid Hussain,1
Background: The correlation between consumption of Ovaltine and Coffee with change in heart rate in healthy population has limited and controversial figures. Increase in heart rate tend to increase work load of heart and it could worsen condition in people with diseased heart. Methods: This was nonrandomized prospective open labeled parallel groups study carried out at MIMC. The sample size of the study was based on 128 subjects (62 Ovaltine and 66 Coffee) and same number of controls for Ovaltine and Coffee respectively in a cross over as negative control. The study was based on 4 groups A, B, C and D were Coffee control, Coffee, Ovaltine control and Ovaltine respectively. Subjects with history of heart diseases, medication effecting heart rate and anxiety disorders were excluded from the study. The unwanted effects were noted during the study. Results: The increase in mean heart rate of Coffee and Ovaltine groups were 5.48 (6.76%) p value 0.003 and 5.29 (6.75%) p value 0.02 respectively. The increase in mean heart rate of Coffee control and Ovaltine control groups were 0.09 (0.11%) p value 0.998 and 0.41 (0.49%) p value 0.06 respectively. Conclusion: Coffee and Ovaltine consumption leads to modest increases in heart rate. Safe usage of these beverages need to be evaluated especially in patient with conditions precipitating with increase in heart rate. More clinical research is required to formulate guide lines for safe consumption in patients with heart diseases.
608 COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF EZENUS AND OTHER HERBAL PRODUCTS: AN IN-VITRO STUDY , Manu Chaudhary and Vijay Naithani*
The aim of this investigation was to evaluate and compare the antioxidant potential of a patented poly herbal sugar free candy Ezenus with twelve other commercial products. Ezenus candy has Andrographolides, Polyphenols, Flavonoids, Vitamin C etc in its ingredients. Ezenus and different commercial products (MCF-1 to MCF-12) were checked for various parameters like metal chelating activity, Catalase activity, reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione peroxidase and Xanthine oxidase activity. Amongst the compared groups Ezenus showed the highest metal chelation with minimum IC50 at 730 35 ?g/ml which is 2.6 times more potent than MCF-1 where lowest chelating activity was recorded (IC50 1923 115 ?g/ml). Catalytic activity is comparable for Ezenus MCF-3 and MCF-11 (1.50.05 ?MH2O2/min/mg protein). followed by other products. Reduced glutathione content is comparable in Ezenus , MCF-4 and MCF-5 (1.90.06 GSH nmol/mg/protein) followed by other products. Ezenus showed the highest oxidized glutathione content (2.90.13 GSSH nmol/mg/protein) followed by MCF-12 which is 13% lower and MCF-11 which is 34% lower. The maximum activity of glutathione peroxidase is found to be present in Ezenus (1.10.07 nmol/min/mg protein) followed by MCF-6(9% lower) MCF-3 and MCF-12 which are 18% lower than Ezenus. Maximum Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was seen in Ezenus and MCF-4 with minimum IC50 of 110 ?g/mL, followed by MCF-11, MCF-5 and MCF-12. From these observations it is concluded that out of 13 products compared for antioxidant potential, Ezenus scores in all of these parameters. MCF-12 is observed to be the second best product.
609 EFFECT OF INTERMITTENT DOSING ON PRODUCTION OF INULINASE FROM DAHLIA TUBERS USING KLUYVEROMYCES MARXIANUS , *1Gurjeet Singh Bedi, 2Manjinder Kaur Bedi, 1S. Maheshwari and 3P. S. Bedi
Inulinase production and cell growth of Kluyveromyces marxianus MTCC 3995 were studied under different conditions during our research work. Cichorium roots and Dahlia tubers were used as inulin source. The substrates prepared by different extraction methods showed that Dahlia extract prepared at 15 Kg/cm2 pressure was the most favorable inducers of inulinase with maximum activity of 9.8 IU/ml. Inulinase activity was strongly influenced by intermittent feeding of solution containing carbon and nitrogen source. The best condition to cellular growth and inulinase activity was observed with solution containing 0.25% (w/v) Peptone and 1.0% (w/v) Sucrose. There was 22% increase in enzyme activity with intermittent feeding as compare to inulinase activity without intermittent feeding. Inulinase activity was also influenced by media with peptone as nitrogen source. However nitrogen source ammonium sulfate and ammonium chloride were found inhibitory for inulinase production. Incubation temperature as 27C was observed in our study as most favorable for cell growth and maximum inulinase activity (IU/ml).
610 UMBILICAL STUMP INFECTIONS IN NEONATES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MRSA , R.Vanisree*1, Kavita Lata M,2 Neelima A3
Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the pathogenic organisms in umbilical stump infections and to detect MRSA among the Staphyloccus aureus isolates. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was done at Institute of Preventive Medicine (IPM) Hyderabad over a period of 6 months, a total of 82 newborn infants were included in the study, of the 82 newborn infants, 66 were born in the hospital (both Government and private) and 16 delivered at home. 41 cases were associated with Neonatal Jaundice & sepsis and 12 were associated with meningitis. 69 were associated with low birth weight, premature deliveries were 48. Pus was collected with a premoistened sterile swab and sent to the Microbiology lab for further processing. Bacterial pathogens were isolated and identified according to standard protocol. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on all bacterial isolates. Results: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli & Klebsiella spps, were the most frequent organisms. The most sensitive antimicrobial agent against Gram positive organisms was ciprofloxacin & vancomycin, for Gram negative organisms cefaperazone & Imipenem.12 MRSA were isolated.
611 A RARE CASE OF DROPPED HEAD SYNDROME (ISOLATED NECK EXTENSOR MYOPATHY) , Dr. Kranti Gouripur1, Dr. Arun Kumar S Bilodi*2, Dr. P. Rajasekaran3, Dr. A. Senthil Ganesh4
Aim of the study: The objective of present study is to report a rare case of Dropped Head Syndrome that was seen in 29 years old male from Ramanathapuram near Rameshwaram, Tamilnadu, South India. Place of study: This case was studied in the outpatient department of Otorhinolaryngology (ENT) at Velammal Medical College Hospital and Research Institute, Madurai. Period of Study: This case was studied and investigated in detail in the month of May 2014 in the above hospital. Case Report: A young male aged 29years came with history of head drop over the chin and difficulty in having food for one year. He needed support to have food. On examination he had atrophy of muscles of posterior aspect of the neck, associated with wasting of extensor muscles of the neck. He was thoroughly investigated and found to have left vocal cord palsy and wasting of extensor muscles of the neck by undergoing videolaryngoscopy. This study was compared and well correlated with available literature. Conclusion: Since this is a rare case of Dropped Head Syndrome associated with atrophy of the extensor muscles in the cervical region and left vocal cord palsy hence this syndrome made us interesting to study.
612 DOCUMENTATION OF TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE ON MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN TREATING CANDIDIASIS IN HYDERABAD KARNATAKA REGION, INDIA , Rekha Sharanappa and Vidyasagar G.M.*
An etnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect the information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in treating candidiasis in Hyderabad Karnataka region. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for treating candidiasis were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews with the herbalist and local people in the local dialect or local language about local names of the plant species, plant parts used, ailments treated, formulations and dosage, method of preparation, mode of administration for 12 months. In the region, 55 plant species belonging to 53 genera and 35 families have been documented and scientifically validated for their therapeutic properties. Since the traditional healer usually resides in the same village or in an adjoining area, the patient is more comfortable in seeking them for treatment.The most frequent ailments reported were,White discharge and oral candidiasis. The medicines prepared were mainly taken orally, but some applications were prepared with a mixture of plants or ingredients. The present study reveals that the ethnopharmacological information reported forms a basis for further research to identify and isolate bioactive constituents that can be developed todrugs for the treatment of candidiasis.
613 DEVELOPMENT OF A RAPID SEPARATION PROCESS FOR CURCUMIN FROM CURCUMA LONGA L. RHIZOMES AND ITS QUANTIFICATION BY HPLC-PDA , *Subash Chandra Verma
In the present work, a shortest and rapid separation process for curcumin from Curcuma longa rhizomes, using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique, has been developed. The obtained extracts were analyzed by using HPLC coupled to photo diode array detector (PDA) to prove the MAE extraction efficiency. The optimal MAE conditions were dichloromethane as extracting solvent, at a temperature equal to 40C for 3 min. Further, Curcumin was isolated from dichloromethane-MAE extract of C. longa rhizomes and characterized by using FTIR, NMR and EIMS techniques. MAE can be used as an alternative method for isolation of curcumin from C. longa rhizomes due to its efficiency and rapidity as compared to the conventional method with column chromatography. The developed procedure may be useful for researchers, academicians, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.
614 SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF 3, 5- DISUBSTITUTED-1,2,4-OXADIAZOLES AS ANTIHISTAMINIC AGENTS , Sanmati K. Jain* and Jyotsana Nandan
Ten 3,5-Disubstituted-1,2,4-oxadiazoles were prepared in four steps by using 4-hydroxybenzonitrile as starting material. These compounds were tested for their antihistaminic activity. The compound JN 7 exhibited maximum activity while other compounds were found moderately active in ex vivo studies on field stimulated guinea pig ileum segments induced by (R)-?-methylhistamine.
615 FORMULATION & EVALUATION OF TOPICAL ANTIBACTERIAL HERBAL GEL OF CORIANDER AND EUCALYPTUS OIL Jaiswal , Neha R.*, Jaiswal Puja H., Patil Javesh K.
Most of the antibacterial agents were originally derived from plants. Herbal medicine refers to the use of any oil of seeds, leaves for medicinal purposes. Along with other dosage forms, herbal drugs are also formulated in the form of gel. A gel is a gelly like semisolid preparation used topically on a variety of body surfaces. The objective of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antibacterial herbal gel from the local medicinal plants. The oil of the selected plants was taken in different ratio randomly to formulate gel. The topical formulation were developed and tested for physical parameter, drug content, uniformity, Spreadibility. The result showed that coriander and eucalyptus herbal gel showed the MIC values of 50%v/v and 50 %v/v against Bacillus subtillis and staphylococcus Aureus respectively. The formulation second (ECG50) showed the maximum drug content 65% and maximum stability and zone of among the formulation.
616 PLANTS USED IN ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINE BY NATIVE PEOPLE OF NAWARANGPUR DISTRICT, ODISHA, INDIA , Swati S Panda* and Nabin K Dhal
An ethnobotanical study of veterinary medicinal plants of Nawarangpur District of Odisha was conducted during 2000 to 2004 in order to generate ethno veterinary data. Ethno botanical uses of 48 plants belonging to 31 families have been documented in the present study for their interesting therapeutic properties for various veterinary ailments such as Constipation, Cough and Cold, Diarrhoea, Lactation, Foot and Mouth Disease, Flatulence, Appetizer, Neck Swelling. Leaves (33%) followed by whole plant, bark and latex were most frequently used plant parts for ethno veterinary medicine. Usually fresh materials were used for medicinal preparation. The most frequently used routes of drug administration have been oral followed by dermal. Our study suggest that, documenting the medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge can be used for conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in the area and for validation of these plant preparations for veterinary treatment.
617 IDENTIFICATION OF POTENTIAL ONCOGENE AND TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR INHIBITORS USING IN-SILICO METHODS , *Sumera Banu C.J1, Kusum Paul1, Preenon Bagchi2
Identification of oncogenes and transcription factors causing Head and Neck Cancer is an important strategy for anticancer therapy. Evolutionary relationship between the members of the two families was established. Inhibitors regulate the digestive and respiratory systems, and hence, the inhibition of oncogenes and transcription factors (protein molecules) has emerged as one of the most promising strategies for the treatment of the disease. Virtual screening was performed to identify new inhibitors. A dataset of 44 potential inhibitors from 32 natural compounds having anti-cancer properties was prepared. Docking studies was carried out on the protein molecules against the inhibitors. A good number of interactions with important residues at the binding sites were found in 21 docking cases, of which, 5 inhibitors were from organic products. Drug-like properties were found for the set of inhibitors from Phytocompounds and a reduced set of ligands were obtained that adhered to the Lipinskis Rule of Five. It was concluded that the ligands: Quinic acid, Ellagic acid, Bilobalide, Lentinan and Glycoprotein, showed activity with the protein molecules and hence, can be used as inhibitors, post successful clinical trials. Further, tunnels and pores were computed in the protein molecules. Their physicochemical properties, i.e., hydropathy, hydrophobicity, polarity, charge, and mutability, which provide useful information about potential biological functions, were predicted.
618 NOVEL SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE ASSAY OF AN ANTIEPILEPTIC- OXCARBAZEPINE , H. Mallikarjuna1, K.S. Lokesh2, K.H. Shivaprasad2, K.R. Venugopala Reddy1,2*
New spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the assay of oxcarbazepine (OXP) in pure and pharmaceutical formulations. These methods were based on the formation of chloroform soluble ionassociation complex of OXP with bromocrecol purple in KCl-HCl buffers of pH-2 [Method A] and the diazocoupling of OXP with diazotized p-nitro aniline in basic medium [Method B]. The coloured species exhibited absorption maxima at 412 nm and 510 nm for method A and method B, respectively. The complexes obeyed Beers law over the concentration range of 0.4-6 ?gml-1 and 0.5-4 ?gml-1 with molar absorptivity values of 2.85104 and 4.24104 l/ mol/ cm for method A and method B, respectively. Common excipients and additives did not interfere in the assay of OXP by proposed methods. The applicability of the proposed methods was checked by analyzing various dosage forms. The results of analysis were subjected to t-test and F-test.
619 STUDIES ON ANTIBIOTICS PRESCRIBING PATTERN IN SURGICAL WARDS OF DEPARTMENT OF SURGERY AT RAJAH MUTHIAH MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSIPITAL. , Bangari Anil Kumar*1,T.Adiveni1, Dr.P.K.Manna1, Mr.V.P.Mahesh Kumar1, Dr.N.Junior Sundresh2.
To determine the proportion of receiving antibiotics for common diseases like Appendicitis, Breast cancer, Diabetic foot ulcer, Inguinal hernia, Carcinoma stomach, Phimosis, Parotid abscess and to understand the antibiotic prescription pattern. A non-invasive Prospective Observational Study was done in RajahMuthiah Medical College & Hospital during the study period; November2012- April2013. Chidambaram, India. A total of 94 patients were enrolled in the study. Out of 94 patients included for the study, 56 (59.57%) were males and 38 (40.42%) were females. Among the 94 patients most of the patients treated 80 (85.10%) were cured and 12 (12.76%) patients were controlled. Synergistic type of drug-drug interactions was found more to have increased the spectrum of activity of antibiotics. Dose error and duplication error was found and reported to physician and corrected. Nausea, vomiting and irritation at the site of injection were the adverse drug events reported during our study. And also the sensitivity patterns of the antibiotics are studied during the study period. In conclusion, Educational interventions emphasizing rational prescribing and a strict antibiotic prescribing policy can help significantly to overcome these problems and to reduce the extent of resistance to antibiotics.
620 CLEANING VALIDATION OF IBUPROFEN ORAL SUSPENSION , Bhusnure O.G.*, Ansari M.M.AW, Gholve S.B., Kazi P.A.
The cleaning validation is to verify the effectiveness of the cleaning procedure for removal of product residues, degradation products, preservatives, excipients and cleaning agents so that the analytical monitoring may be reduced to a minimum in the routine phase. In addition one need to ensure there is no risk associated with cross contamination of active ingredients. Cleaning validation is intended to address special consideration and issues pertaining to validation cleaning procedures for equipment used in the manufactured of pharmaceutical products, radiopharmaceuticals, and biological drugs. Cross contamination is one of the major problems focused in manufacturing of drugs utilizing common facility which leads to inferior quality of final product and cause considerable loss to the company. Contamination of one batch product with significant levels of residual active ingredients from a previous batch and contamination by microorganisms are the real concern. The cleaning validation is a documented process that proves the effectiveness and consistency cleaning of pharmaceutical equipments to meet the regulatory requirements. Manufacturing of Ibuprofen oral suspension and utilizing common facility, where Ibuprofen could be a possible cross contaminant. Hence the present study was carried out to validate the cleaning activity from both regulatory and quality prospective. Visual inspection, Swab sampling for chemical residue and for microbiological analysis for two Mfg. batches were carried out to validate cleaning activity and results from all methods both batches were complying with acceptance criteria.
621 WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER RESOURCES BETWEEN TAMILNADU AND PONDICHERRY STATES, INDIA , J.Sirajudeen and *R.Abdul Vahith
The groundwater samples were collected from different stations around these areas and analyzed for various physicochemical parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids(TDS), dissolved oxygen(DO), biochemical oxygen demand(BOD), chemical oxygen Demand (COD), total hardness(TH), sodium(Na), potassium(K), calcium(Ca), magnesium(Mg), chloride(Cl), sulphate(SO4) and nitrate(NO3). A study was carried out between Tamilnadu and Pondicherry state area on physicochemical contaminants and their sources in groundwater. The above physicochemical parameters have been analyzed in our laboratory. The results of this analysis were compared with the WHO water quality standards. The study indicates that the water quality parameters slightly excess the permissible limits and not suitable for drinking purposes.
622 MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF MARINE SYMBIOTIC BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH SPONGES FROM THE WATER OFF THE COAST SOUTH EAST OF INDIA , Leelavathi M S *1, Senthil Kumar2 and Vani L1
The worlds oceans are covered by enormous number of phytochemical compounds. The diversity of marine organisms and habitats, marine natural products encompass a wide variety of chemical classes such as terpenes, polyketides, acetogenins, peptides and alkaloids of varying structures. In the present study four species of sponges (Echinodictyum sp, Spongia sp, Sigmadocia fibulatus and Mycale mannarensis) from a depth of 510m were collected by SCUBA diving at Hare Island, Tuticorin, South East coast of India. The sponge surface was sterilized one gram of sponge tissue was removed with a sterile scalpel and the tissue was immediately transferred to 99 ml sponge dissociation medium and the samples were plated on Zobell marine agar. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of isolated colonies of the selected bacterial cultures were done using PCR studies and analyis was done using NCBI server.In the phylogenetic identification based on comparative sequence analysis of 16S rRNA, majority of the strains fell under the genera Vibrio and Bacillus with 9598% sequence similarity.
623 STUDY ON DRUG UTILISATION& PRESCRIBING PATTERN AND USE OF ANTIBIOTICS IN THE MANAGEMENT OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCER INSURGERY WARDS OF RMMCH, ANNAMALAI UNIVERSITY. , Shalem Lakkepogu1*, T.Ashwini1, B.Pragna Malavika1, Dr.Madhusudhan.S.1 , Dr.Anvar Ali.A2
The present study represents the current prescribing trend in surgery ward and it highlights certain short comings in the existing prescribing practice. A non-invasive prospective observational study was carried out surgery ward of RMMCH. Patients included were of age 20 years and above whereas pregnant women, pediatric patients, patients who are not willing to cooperate were excluded from the study. Majority of the patients in the surgery ward were diagnosed with diabetic foot ulcer (48.9%), followed by acute appendicitis. Antibiotic therapy is required for treating majority of diseases in surgery ward. 76.4% of the patients admitted in the surgery ward were cured effectively. Out of 96 patients included for the study, 60 (62.5%) were males and 36 (37.5%) were females patients, majority are of age group 35-40 [34.04%]. Among prescriptions included for the study 44 (45.83%) prescriptions had two antibiotic drugs combinations, followed by (33.33%) prescriptions had antibiotic monotheraphy. 21 (21.87%) prescriptions were found to have drug to drug interactions, out of which 17 (17.70%) had synergistic effect and 4(4.16%) had antagonist effect. 10(10.64%) prescriptions were found to have medication errors out of which 7 (7.45%) contribute dose error followed by 3 (3.19%) duplication error. Primary antibiotic therapy for management of diabetic foot includes insulin , oral anti-diabetic or combination of both. Ceftriaxone (76.8%) even though has low activity against reported higher incidence of gram positive organisms such as staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus species it is used as the first choice of drug. The antibiotics prescribed in our hospital were both from Tamilnadu Essential Drugs List (TN-EDL) and as well as out of Essential Drug List.
624 IMPACT OF CLINICAL PHARMACIST ON PHARMACEUTICAL CARE AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN PSORIASIS VULGARIS , Bala Murali Mohan. S1, Naresh. T*1, Krishna Kanth. T1, Parimalakrishnan. S1, Kaviarasan.PK2
Background:Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory and proliferative condition of the skin which has a significant negative impact on QoL.Objectives:The aim of the study is to assess the impact of psoriasis on QoL, clinical outcome and cost of illness.Materials and Methods:It was a non-invasive observational prospective study conducted in a 1400 bedded multi-speciality tertiary care teaching hospital at Chidambaram, South India for 6 months. Totally 48 patients were observed by using WHOQoL questionnaire for assessing the QoL, Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) for severity of disease, Becks anxiety and depression scales for estimating the psychiatric condition of the patient.Results:In our study, majority belongs to the age group of 51-60 years (26.78%). The mean age of patients was 47.6813.83 in males and 40.6212.67 in females. From PASI, the most exposed area was lower limbs (92.85%). 57.14% of the patients were farmers. The patients were more with very low anxiety (73%) and only 2 out of 48 patients were suffering from severe depression.Two follow-ups were performed in our study, the mean scores were calculated which gradually increased from base line to follow up, this states that QoL was increased after counselling and particularly in females.The QoL was increased more in the age group of 41-50. The QoL was decreased as the no.of drugs prescribed were increased and as the duration of the disease increased. In our study, the direct cost (53.90%) was more than indirect cost (46.10%). Conclusion:Counselling plays an important role in the patients QoL, as the results clearly shown an increment in the QoL of patients after counselling. The involvement of healthcare workers had significantly improved the QoL of patients. Therefore from this study a significant impact of clinical pharmacist on QoL was observed.
625 IN VITRO STUDY OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CONVENTIONAL AND NON -CONVENTIONAL SPECIES OF CURCUMA , Rajeshwari Sahu* and Jyoti Saxena
The present study was undertaken to compare the antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of rhizomes of conventional and nonconventional species of curcuma using DPPH free radical scavenging . The IC50 (The concentration of sample required to scavenge 50% of DPPH free radical) was calculated by plotting graph between % inhibition vs concentration. In our studying the conventional species Curcuma longa exhibited the highest antioxidant activity 69.8 0.7 than non conventional species curcuma caesia 63.1 0.2 and curcuma amada 44.1 0.2 at 200?g/ml of the crude extracts respectively.
626 NEUROPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF STACHYTRAPHETA INDICA ON ROTENONE INDUCED PARKINSONS DISEASE IN ZEBRA FISH , Jayanth A1, Muralidhar S.Talkad2*
Parkinsons disease (PD) is quiet peculiar owing to its sudden and rapid occurrence. Off late, several environmental toxins have been known to trigger PD. Therefore, such Neurotoxin-based models (particularly MPTP / Rotenone) have become preferred and important models in studying the degeneration of cholinergic and dopaminergic neurons. In this study we establish Neuroprotective activity of Stachytarpheta indica methanolic extract on Rotenoneinduced Parkinsonion condition in Zebra fish.The effect of this plant extract has been studied in comparison with L-DOPA (drug used in treatment of PD). The prime focus of the study revolves around two key enzymes namely Acetylcholine esterase[E.C 3.1.1.7] and Mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase [EC 1.3.5.1] which are necessary to monitor neuro degeneration. In additionGSH, SGOT and SGPT were performed to assess the safety and efficacy of the plant extract on Zebra fish. The S.indica plant extract was found to control and reduce the increased activity of Acetyl choline esterase and re-establish the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity there by reducing neuro degeneration. The reduced neurodegeneration in the extract treated group was confirmed from histopathological studies of the Zebra fish.
627 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF SOME CYANOPYRIDINE DERIVATIVES , T.Rajkumar *, S.Paramesh, B.Ramesh, G.Pushapalatha, K.Bharathi & C.Ramesh
A new series of Cyanopyridine derivatives were synthesized by condensing chalcones with malononitrile. First Chalcones were prepared by treating various acetophenone derivatives with different aromatic aldehydes by Claisen-Schimidt Condensation and then refluxed with malononitrile to obtain cyanopyridines .All the compounds were screened for their antitubercular and anthelmintic activities. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of IR, 1H NMR and Mass spectral data.
628 SURGICAL ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL IN INDIA , *V. Gokul Raghu Ram1,VidyaSagar R.A1, G.Gopala Krishnan2, M.Senthivelan3
The original surgical antibiotic prophylaxis experiments were performed 40 years ago in pigs. The results concluded that 'the most effective period for prophylaxis begins the moment bacteria gain access to the tissues and is over in three hours. Since then there have been many studies in animal models and in humans undergoing surgery. This has resulted in the principles of antibiotic prophylaxis becoming an accepted part of surgical practice. Approximately 30 50% of antibiotic use in hospital practice is now for surgical prophylaxis. However, between 30% and 90% of this prophylaxis is inappropriate. Most commonly, the antibiotic is either given at the wrong time or continued for too long. Controversy remains as to duration of prophylaxis and also as to which specific surgical procedures should receive prophylaxis Prophylactic administration of antibiotics decreases the risk of infection after many surgical procedures and represents an important component of care for this population. Antibiotics administered prior to the contamination of previously sterile tissues or fluids are called prophylactic antibiotics. The goal of therapy is to prevent an infection from developing. When evaluating the outcome of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis, it is important to differentiate any potential SSI from other postoperative infection or complication. Prophylaxis should be as short as possible because prolonged prophylactic regimens may contribute to the selection of resistant organisms and may make any infection more difficult to treat.
629 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FATTY ACID METHYL ESTER FROM LINUM USITATISSIMUM (LINSEED) SEED OIL , Shobha Borhade*
Linum usitatissimum (Linseed) seed is popularly used in various food products, because of its nutritional values and potential health benefits. Natural seed of of Linum usitatissimum (Linseed) contains 35 % of oil. Linum usitatissimum (Linseed) seed oil contains 53.21 % alphalinolenic ( omega-3 fatty acid ) & 17.25 % linoleic ( omega-6 fatty acid ). Seed oil was extracted by n-hexane & fatty acids present in the seed oil is necessary to apply for transesterification to convert fatty acid methyl ester. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) is created through an alkali catalyzed reaction between fats or fatty acids and methanol. In the transesterification of fatty acids, the carboxyl group of an acid and the hydroxyl group of an alcohol are condensed. This makes the fatty acids methyl ester Now FAME excellent for stability as samples for analysis. Transesterification is a general term used to indicate the direct conversion of triacylglycerols lipids by alcohols to alkyl esters without first isolating the free fatty acids (FFA). The alkaline catalyst, sodium hydroxide (NaOH),was used in the methanolysis of Linum usitatissimum (Linseed) seed oil Physico-chemical properties of FAME of of Linum usitatissimum (Linseed) seed oil was studied .Fatty acid methyl ester was characterized by UV, IR & LCMS.
630 EFFECT OF FK 506 ON RAT TISSUES OF ENZYMATIC LEVELS INVOLVED IN ENERGY METABOLISM , Chittibabu. B*1 and Ayya Raju. M2
Immunosuppressive agent like FK 506 no doubt, impairs not only the cellular / tissue normal metabolic functions but certainly will alter the usual functions of cytochrome-P-450-mediated events and identical reasons may be responsible for FK 506 impaired ATP ases in the current study. From the current study, it is evident that FK 506 at a dose of 1 mg / kg over 7 or 28 days period impairs the rat tissue energy metabolism as evidenced by depleted levels of rat tissue ATPase and cytochrome-c-oxidase activities, since these enzymes are well known key enzymes necessary for maintenance of tissue energy metabolism.
631 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SOME NOVEL GRAMINE BEARING 1,2,4-TRIAZOLES , *Raghu Vardhan Reddy Mekala1, Venu Chakravarthula2, Ravinder Reddy Kunduru3, Srinivas Boche1
A series of novel 5-(3-dimethylaminomethyl-indol-1-ylmethyl)-4- phenyl-4H-[1,2,4]triazole-3-thiols (5a-f) were synthesized from Nphenyl-[( 3-dimethylaminomethyl-indol-1-yl)acetyl]- hydrazinecarbothioamides (4a-f) through cyclization reaction. The synthesis of the title compounds commenced form commercially available (1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-dimethyl-amine (gramine) (1) and by involving (3-dimethylaminomethyl-indol-1-yl)-acetic acid ethyl ester (2) and (3-dimethylaminomethyl-indol-1-yl)-acetic acid hydrazide (3) as intermediates. The chemical structures of the all newly synthesized compounds were elucidated by their IR, 1H and 13 C NMR, mass spectral data and elemental analysis. Further, the target compounds were used to find their antifungal activity against various microorganisms.
632 ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY TRIBALS IN PRATAPGARH, RAJASTHAN , Mahesh Chand Meena*, Vinay Kumar, Rishi Kesh Meena and Sitaram Khandelwal
The present paper deals with the ethno medicinal plants used by the tribal people from pratapgarh district,Rajasthan. The predominant tribe living in this region are Bhil, Mina, Damor, Ninama, and Garasiyia. Ethno medicinal uses of 24 angiosperms belonging to 16 families have been documented. Documented medicinal plants are tabulated alphabetically with their local name, family, part used, modes of use and the ailments for which they are used.
633 EFFECT OF ELYTRARIA ACAULIS ACETONE EXTRACT ON FERTILITY IN MALE ALBINO RATS , Venkat Raji Reddy.G*, Vijay Kumar.R, Sathyanarayana.J and Krishna Reddy.M
Surgeries like vasectomy, tubectomy and medication (contraception) for the population control are not fully restraining the population growth. Medicine available to control birth rate carrying side effects. The attempt of exploring the importance of Ayurveda the present work was carried out. The acetone extract of the plant Elytraria acualis was prepared by maceration technique. Extract effects the fertility by reducing the sperm count and motility in the albino rats. The male albino rats were divided into three groups of eight animals in each. The first group was considered as control and Group II, III were treated with dose 200mg/kg and 300mg/kg extracts respectively. The treatment of the extract was carried out by gastric gavage for 21 days through oral. The rats were sacrificed to study sperm count and motility. The blood samples were centrifuged to separate serum. The serum samples used for the serological parameters. The reduced levels of vital reproductive organs weights and sperm count, motility were observed in the treated rats compare to control. The cholesterol, triglycerides increased and glucose levels were decreased in the serum of treated rats. The glycogen and protein levels of testes and liver were decreased in the treated groups than to the control group. The histological sections of testes in treated groups were observed that loss of interstitium and degenerated germinal cells were also observed in the treated groups. The effect of the extract was more in group III compare to group- II.
634 SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF ATENOLOL AND LOSARTAN POTASSIUM IN BULK DRUGS AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM, Sandeep Singh*, Marina Koland
A simple, accurate, precise, economical and reproducible UV Spectrophotometric method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of Atenolol and Losartan Potassium in bulk and in marketed combined tablet dosage form. The stock solutions were prepared in pH 1.2 buffer followed by further required dilutions with pH 1.2 buffer. Vierordts simultaneous equation method was developed and is validated statistically as per ICH guidelines. The absorbance maxima of Atenolol and Losartan Potassium were found to be 223.6nm & 205nm respectively. Linearity was observed by linear regression equation method for both drugs in different concentration range. The Correlation coefficient of these drugs was found to be close to 1.00, indicating good linearity. The % R.S.D. were found to be less than 2 % as required by ICH guidelines, which indicates the validity of methods. Statistical analysis proves that the proposed method can be effectively applied for the simultaneous estimation of these two drugs in bulk & combined dosage forms.
635 ZEATIN INDUCED DIRECT PLANT REGENERATION FROM COTYLEDON EXPLANTS OF CULTIVATED TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL.) , Byale Gundamma Kalyani and Srinath Rao*
An efficient protocol for multiple shoots induction and plant regeneration from cotyledon explants of cultivated tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) cv Samrat-18 is reported. The cotyledon explants excised from of 10-12 days old in vitro grown seedlings were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.50- 1.2 mg/L Zeatin as a sole growth regulator and also in combination with 0.1/0.5 mg/L IAA. Maximum number of multiple shoots formation was found at 1.0 mg/L Zeatin with 0.1 mg/L IAA. Shoots were transferred to MS medium supplemented with 0.2-1.0 mg/L GA3 for elongation. The medium supplemented with 0.6 mg/L GA3 in showed the maximum percentage of enhancement of shoot elongation. For In vitro rooting, elongated shoots were excised and transferred onto MS medium supplemented with 0.5mg / L IBA, IAA and NAA. Profuse rhizogenesis was observed at 0.5 mg/L IBA compared to IAA / NAA. The regenerated plants were acclimatized in the culture room and maintained in the green house. These plants were found to be normal and similar to the donor plant. Thus, an efficient and reproducible direct regeneration protocol has been developed in cultivated tomato cv Samrat-18 using cotyledon explants which is genotype dependent.
636 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF VARIOUS ETHANOLIC SEED EXTRACTS , Delphin.D.V, Haripriya.R, Subi.S, Jothi.D and P.Thirumalai Vasan*
The screening and study of four different seeds belonging to different families for phytochemical constituents was performed using generally accepted laboratory technique for qualitative determinations. The constituents screened were tannins, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides, carotenoids, steroids, protein, carbohydrate and alkaloids. The distribution of these constituents in the seeds were assessed and compared. The plant seeds studied were Phoenix dactylifera, Manilkara zapota, Artocarpus heterophyllus and Carica papaya. Results revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds and carotenoids in the ethanolic extract of Carica papaya seeds. In case of other seeds, ethanolic extract of Phoenix dactylifera contains saponin, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and glycosides. Ethanolic extracts of Manilkara zapota contains tannins, terpenoids and phenolic compounds whereas Artocarpus heterophyllus extract showed the positive results for saponins, tannins, terpenoids and flavonoids.
637 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF DESVENLAFAXINE AND CLONAZEPAM IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM , Krupa M. Patel*1,Jayant B Dave1, Nadim M. R. Chhipa2
A simple, rapid, precise and accurate RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Desvenlafaxine and Clonazepam in their combined tablet dosage form. This method was developed using Phenomenex (150mm4.6mm,5?mparticlesize) and Methanol:Acetonitrile:20mM Ammonium acetate buffer pH (30:20:50 v/v/v) as the mobile phase at 0.8 mL/minflow rate with detection at 222 nm. The average retention times for Desvenlafaxine and Clonazepam were found to be 3.080 and 8.842 min respectively. Validation of the method was carried out as per ICH guidelines. Linearity was established for Desvenlafaxine and Clonazepam in the range of 100-600?g/mL and 1-6?g/mL respectively. Correlation coefficient was found to be 0.9985 and 0.9994 for Desvenlafaxine and Clonazepam respectively. The percentage recovery of Desvenlafaxine and Clonazepam was found to be in the range of 99.85-101.13% and 99.72-101.67% respectively.Desvenlafaxine and Clonazepam and their combination drug product were subjected to acid hydrolysis, base hydrolysis, oxidation, thermal and photolytic stress conditions. The method successfully separated both the drugs from potential degradation products in stress samples with adequate peak purity establishing specificity and stability indicating nature of the method. The method was found to be specific and stability indicating as no interfering peaks of degradants and excipients were observed.
638 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIFUNGAL, ANTIOXIDANT AND DNA INTERACTION STUDIES OF THIOSEMICARBAZONE TRANSITION METAL COMPLEXES , Richa Kothari*1, Brajraj Sharma2
Mononuclear Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes of the formula [M(L)2X2] where L = N, N, - bis p- Methoxy acetophenone were synthesized as microcrystalline powders and characterized by elemental analysis viz. conductivity, FTIR, 1HNMR, LC-MS data and electronic spectra. The synthesized compounds were screened for their invitro growth inhibiting activity against different strains of bacteria viz. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and S. aureus and fungal strains A. Niger and Candida albicans were compared with the standard antibiotic tetracycline and flucozole. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of the ligand and its complexes were determined invitro by the nitric oxide scavenging method.
639 BIOSYNTHESIS OF GOLD NANOPARTICLES USING PIPER NIGURM AND THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY , R. Devika1, S. Elumalai*1
In this work, environmentally benign process of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) have developed using Piper nigrum leaf extract has been attempted. The bio reduction of Au+ ions in solution was monitored using UV-visible spectroscopy from zero reading and double distilled water was used as blank. The samples were withdrawn at various time intervals and the absorbance was measured. The gold nanoparticles synthesized using extracts of samples was confirmed by color changes and was characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometer; the UVvisible spectra showed a broad peak located at 535 nm for gold nanoparticles. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis shows the surface morphology of Au-NPs. Thus gold nanoparticles has great potential as antimicrobial compound against pathogenic microorganisms.
640 IN SILICO EVALUATION OF TRYPSIN INHIBITOR WITH ANTIPROLIFERATIVE AND ANTIFUNGAL PROPERTIES FROM TESTA OF C. LANATUS , Sreenu Barla1 and Dowluru Svgk Kaladhar2,*
In silico evaluation with antifungal and antiproliferative activities are important to understand the medical properties in testa of C lanatus. The peptide that was isolated and purified from testa of C. lanatus was shown a relationship with trypsin inhibitor of S. griseus based on UPGMA method. There are two serine, two threonine and one tyrosine predicted phosphorylation sites for activation of inhibition based on NetPhos server. The QSAR properties were shown good Hydration and LogP properties. The Mass predicted by the software was shown as 3298 amu. The purified CLTI peptide with Chymotrypsin shows the total interaction energy, Etot as -463.86 kCal/mole. The purified CLTI peptide with Protease K shows the total interaction energy as -292.24 kcal/mole. The purified CLTI peptide with Trypsin shows the total interaction energy as -633.56 kcal/mole. The STI peptide with Chymotrypsin, Protease K and Trypsin shows the total interaction energy, Etot as -604.68 kCal/mole, -594.17 kCal/mole and -635.85 kCal/mole respectively. Both the peptides was shown good trypsin inhibitory activities. The docking studies were shown good binding interactions of CLTI when compared with Standard antibiotic (Flucanozole). in silico studies was shown anticancer activity with breast cancer associated proteins like AGR2, BRCA1, BRCA2, GMPR2 and PPAR as well as Liver cancer associated proteins like DKK2, WIF and CHOP.
641 ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF A TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANT AGAINST PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS CAUSING URINARY TRACT INFECTION , A.K. U mera Begam1* and R. Senthilkumar2
Bacterial pathogens have evolved numerous defense mechanisms against antimicrobial agents; hence resistance to old and newly produced drugs is on the rise. The phenomenon of antibiotic resistance exhibited by the pathogenic microorganisms has led to the need for screening of several medicinal plants for their potential antimicrobial activity. Thus the present study was undertaken to investigate the antibacterial activity of the aqueous extract of a traditional medicinal plant which is used in our daily cuisine, against few urinary tract infection causing pathogens like Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Entereococcus and Enterobacter by well diffusion method. Our studies concluded that crude extracts of the selected plant especially exhibited significant activity against Streptococcus and the activity was found to be more pronounced than the control standand drug commonly employed as antibiotic for treating the infection. It can be concluded that these plants can be used to discover natural products that may serve as lead for the development of new pharmaceuticals addressing the major therapeutic needs.
642 PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIPYRETIC, PURGATIVE STUDIES OF JATROPHA GOSSYPIFOLIA , Murugalakshmi. M*1, Mari Selvi. J1, Vallimail. M1, Anitha Pushpa Rani. J1 and Thangapandian.V2
Jatropha gossypifolia (Euphorbiaceae) a common garden plant in tropical countries has been used as a traditional medicine. Plants are well known as a major source of modern medicines. From ancient times, humans have utilized plants for the treatment or prevention of diseases, leading to the dawn of traditional medicine. Jatropha gossypifolia is one of the plants that are used in Chinese, Ayurvedic and Thai traditional medicine for the treatment of fever, pain and dysentery. Preliminary phytochemical studies and Antipyretic, Purgative activities of ethyl alcohol and acetone extracts were investigated using albino rats of both the sexes. The phytochemical screening of ethanolic extracts of Jatropha gossypifolia leaves shows the presence secondary metabolites such as Saponin, Tannins, Phenols, Steroids, Glycosides, Flavonoids etc., The ethanolic and acetone extract of Jatropha gossypifolia have significant antipyretic activity and purgative activity. So the present study confirms the presence of valuable chemicals in Jatropha gossypifolia leaves and highlights the real potential of Jatropha gossypifolia leaves extracts in the preparation of versatile antipyretic and purgative drugs in future.
643 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES OF ORYZA SATIVA , S.Janathul Firdous1 and V.Bharathi2
The present study deals with phytochemical and antimicrobial evaluation of Oryza sativa .This evaluation revealed the presence of many phytochemical constituents. The antibacterial activities of aqueous extract of leaf of Oryza sativa was determined by in vitro by agar diffusion-method against some human pathogenic bacteria. It has been showed that aqueous extracts had wider range of activity on these Organisms.
644 EFFICIENT METHOD FOR IN VITRO PLANT REGENERATION FROM COTYLEDONARY NODE EXPLANTS OF CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS (LINN.) SCHRAD , Mahesh Chand Meena*, Rishi Kesh Meena, Vijay Prakash Meena and Vidya Patni
Citrullus colycynthis (Linn.) Schrad. is an important medicinal herb of belonging to family Cucurbitaceae. The present study is focused on induction of multiple shoots from cotyledonary node explants of C. colocynthis. Cotyledonary node explants were excised from 7 day old seedlings and were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of BAP and Kn (0.5- 5.0mg/l) and BAP in combination with (0.5-3.0 mg/l) auxins for shoot bud initiation. The maximum number of shoot bud regeneration (35.4 0.220 shoots /explant) was observed on MS-medium supplemented with BAP (1.5 mg/l) and NAA (1.5 mg/l).
645 EFFECT OF PROBIOTICS ADDITION AND SHELLAC COATING ON IN-VITRO RELEASE OF FLUOROURACIL FROM GUAR GUM MATRIX TABLETS FOR COLON SPECIFIC DELIVERY , Ghosh PK1, Thakur Namarta2, Rathore MS3*
Aim of present research work was to evaluate the effect of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) release from guar gum matrix tablet upon addition of probiotics and shellac coating for development of efficient colon specific drug delivery system. Guar gum matrix tablets (40% guar gum) were prepared and evaluated for drug release. The matrix tablets were formulated with three different probiotics (Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus sporogenes) and drug release was studied. Further, the tablets were also coated with varying concentration of shellac solution (5% or 10% or 15 % w/v). The results showed that tablets coated with 10 % shellac solution were able to retard the drug release for first five hours while these released major portion (above 80%) in phosphate buffer saline (pH 6.8) at the end of 24 hours in the in-vitro drug release studies. From above work it may be concluded that matrix tablets coated with 10 % shellac solution that contain probiotics may be employed successfully for colon specific delivery to ensure maximum drug release at colon even in patients with disturbed gastrointestinal microflora.
646 EVALUATION OF POLYHERBAL FORMULATION FOR WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY USING EXCISION MODEL , Ashwini Singh1*, N.P.S. Sengar2
Wound can be described as a breach in the normal tissue continuum, which leads to mechanical separation of functional structures such as blood vessels, inflammation and at a later stage, infection. Wound healing is a complex multifactorial process that results in the contraction and closure of the wound and restoration of a functional barrier. Proper healing of wound is essential for the restoration of disrupted functional status of skin. It is a product of the integrated response of several cell types to injury. In the present study, polyherbal formulation of Hydroalcholic extracts of the leaves of Azadirchta indica ,Cassia fistula, Eucalyptus globulus and bulbs of Allium sativum was investigated for their wound healing activity. The wound healing property appears to be due to the presence of active principles, which accelerates the healing process and confers breaking strength to the healed wound. Further, wound healing activity by polyherbal formulation may be attributed to the synergistic action of the active phyto-constituents like like Flavonoid, Tannis and Steroids.
647 STANDARDIZATION & ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF PHOENIX DACTYLIFERA LINN. LEAVES , Atul Kumar Gangwar1*, Ashoke Kumar Ghosh2, Vikas Saxena1
Phoenix dactylifera linn. belonging to family Arecaceae, leaves contain number of chemical constituents, mainly flavonoids. Chloroform extract of Phoenix dactylifera leaves at two doses, viz., 200 and 400 mg /kg were evaluated by ethanol induced method using Ranitidine (50mg/kg) as standards. The standard drugs and the test drugs were administered orally for 14 days in ethanol induced method. The results of the present study showed that the chloroform extract of Phoenix dactylifera leaves possessed gastro protective activity as evidenced by its significant inhibition of mean ulcer score and ulcer index. The present experimental findings suggest that leaves of Phoenix dactylifera may be useful for treating peptic ulcers. Preliminary phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of the bioactive compounds, such as alkaloids, anthroquinones, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, saponins, steroids and tannins. Pharmacognostical studies such as extractive values, physiochemical parameters and fluorescence analysis brought out the standardized data in the quality control of this drug. Powdered drug analysis after treatment with 10 different reagents emitted various colour radiations under UV and visible light which may provide a lead in identification of the drug in powder form. The study revealed specific identities for Phoenix dactylifera linn. This may play a key role in identification of plant and can be useful in standardization of the herbal drugs.
648 PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND INVITRO ANTI - INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF AN IVY GOURD, COCCINIA GRANDIS , V.Selvam, *R.Sumathy and R.Kumuthakalavalli
Nature has provided lead molecules for the betterment of humans. In recent years pharmaceutical sector is focusing on development of new drugs and plant based drugs through investigation of leads from folklore medicine which is being practiced for thousands of years. In India, Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) are used widely as vegetable. The objective of the present study is to investigate the phytochemical constituents and in vitro anti?inflammatory activity of the fruit extract to justify their use in folkloric medicine. Phytochemical screening of Coccinia grandis fruit powder in organic solvent (methanol) revealed the presence of alkaloids (0.220.07mg), flavonoids (1.090.00mg), saponin (0.050.01mg) and phenol (17.010.02mg). Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by Human red blood cell membrane stabilization assay (HRBS) by varying concentration of the fruit extract ranging from 100mg/ml to 500mg/ml. The results obtained in the study showed that the fruit extract of Coccinia grandis showed 44.460.09% and 84.630.04% anti-inflammatory activity for 100mg/ml and 500mg/ml concentration respectively, and the activity was found to be concentration dependent and proved folklore practice of the fruit extracts in curing various inflammatory responses.
649 DEVELOPMENT OF POLYHERBAL ANTIMALARIAL FORMULATION , *Dhanalakshmi R1, Roopa Karki1, Mamatha GC1, Divakar Goli1
The objective of present study was to formulate and evaluate the polyherbal tablet formulation (PHF) for the treatment of malaria disease. Plants like Aegle marmelos L., sida acuta B., and Ocimum basilicum L. gives various pharmacological properties like anti malarial, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic and antiinflammatory activities. Literature survey revealed that many phytoconstituents like flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, tannins, glycosides were extracted from leaves of Aegle marmelos L.(Bael), Sida acuta B.(Common wireweed)., and Ocimum basilicum L.(Sweet basil). Preliminary phytochemical screening of the Methanolic extract of leaves of Bael, Ethanolic extract of leaves of common wireweed and sweet basil revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids. Saponins were absent in methanolic/ethanolic extracts except common wireweed. Glycosides were absent in methanolic/ethanolic extracts except sweet basil. TLC studies were carried out for extracts. In this study, the PHF contained three different drugs viz., Aegle marmelos L., Sida acuta B., and Ocimum basilicum L. in variable amount along with Starch/PVP as binder, MCC as disintegrant, dibasic calcium phosphate as diluent, PEG 4000 as a polymer and magnesium stearate (1%) as lubricant, methyl paraben (0.1%) as preservative by wet granulation method. Tablet properties of the formulation (F5) were found to be satisfactory and stable when tested for stability studies at 30 2C / 65 5% RH.
650 CHEMICAL CHARECTERIZATION OF VOLATILE OIL COMPONENTS OF CITRUS RETICULATA BY GC-MS ANALYSIS , Doli R. Das*1, Anupam Kr. Sachan1, Mohd. Shuaib2, Mohd. Imtiyaz3
Mandarin is a group name for a class of oranges with thin, loose peel, which have been dubbed "kid-glove" oranges. The loose-skinned mandarin orange (C. reticulate Blanco) is one of the most economically important and popular fruits in the world, constituting about 41% of the total citrus fruits produced in India. The main constituents of volatile oil is mixture of ?-pinene, limonene and linalool ?-terpineol, citropten, and an aldehyde tanageratin, citromitin, hesperidin and neohesperidin. The volatile constituents of volatile oil identified, % Area and RT of each constituent, are listed in table. Analysis of the isolate by GC and GC-MS resulted in the identification of fourteen components comprising 100 % of the total volatile constituents. With regard to flower parts volatiles, fourteen components (comprising 100%) were identified. The volatile oil was characterized by a high amount of monoterpene constituents (68.1%), monoterpenic hydrocarbons i.e. ?-thujene(3.1%), ?-pinene(4.2%), ?-camphene(1.8%), ?-pinene(10.8%) and Sabinene(0.9%),monoterpenic alcohol i.e. ?-terpineol(0.8%), monoterpenic ketones.
651 PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES AND EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDATIVE PROPERTIES OF DRYNARIA QUERCIFOLIA (L.) , J.SMITH Nishika Jaishee, Usha Chakraborty*
Free radicals are responsible for many oxidative stress related diseases. Antioxidants are those substances capable of scavenging free radicals and in recent years, antioxidants of plant origin are gaining interest globally. Ferns are an interesting group of plants, many of which still remain unexplored in the area of phytochemical properties. Thus, the present study was carried out to quantify the phytochemicals and evaluate the in vitro antioxidant activity of fertile fronds of Drynaria quercifolia, a common fern growing in this region. Methanolic (MeOH), ethanolic (EtOH) and hot water (HW) extracts were used for determination of antioxidative activity. Results revealed the presence of phenol, flavonoid, vitamin C and E in the sample. MeOH extract showed higher antioxidative activity in comparison to the EtOH and HW extract in dose-dependent manner. However, DPPH was seen to be scavenged slightly better by HW extract. From the overall data it can be concluded that methanolic extract (MeOH) of Drynaria quercifolia could be one of the potential source of natural antioxidant for the treatment of free-radical and age - related diseases.
652 EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CU(II), NI(II), CO(II) AND MN(II) METAL CHELATES OF SCHIFF BASES , *S.Anbuselvi and V.Jayamani
The complexes of schiff base possess remarkable antibacterial property. Review of literature also indicate that the metal complexes are better antimicrobial agents as compared to free schiff bases. In the present work we discuss about the antibacterial activity of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Mn(II) metal chelates of 4-methyl[(5?-naphthylazo- 2?-hydroxybenzylidene) amino] benzene and Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Mn(II) metal chelates of N,N?-bis(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-1,2- diaminobenzene. The complexeshave been screened for their in vitro antibacterial activity against three bacteria, Lactobacillus, S.aureus and K.aerogenes. The Copper complexes were shown to possess more antibacterial activity than the other Schiff-base complexes.
653 ANTIPARKINSONS STUDIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEUCAS ASPERA IN MICE , Ramalingam Ramani1*, Bindu Madhavi Boddupalli1, Sujeevana Kandati1, Ravinder Nath Anisetti2, Nalgulu Malothu1, Raja Rao Proddoku2
Parkinsons disorder is given prominent focus in the neurological disorder research as the estimated deaths are increasing in the near future. The present investigation was aimed at the effect of ethanolic extract of Leucas aspera on rotenone induced parkinsons disorder in mice. Rotenone induced parkinsons disorder in mice was selected as the experimental model. The behavior parameters like, general behavior, catalepsy, neuromuscular coordination along with the biochemical parameters like, malondialdehyde, glutothione and dopamine contents were estimated. The results indicate the protective effect of the extract against rotenone induced parkinsons disorder in both the behavioral parameters and the biochemical parameters. The results were found to be significant. Oxidative stress in the brain can be one of the leading causes for Parkinsons disorder. Flavonoids from natural source with their antioxidant capacity can be the suitable curing option for the disease.
654 EVALUATION OF IN VITRO FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF TEPHROSIA PURPUREA , Gayathri Devi S1*, Sabna K A2, Mary Shoba Das C3
Free radicals are created when cells use oxygen to generate energy. Radical scavenging activities are very important due to the deleterious role of free radicals in biological systems. The present study was aimed to investigate the in vitro free radical scavenging activity ofaerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea extracts such as petroleum ether, methanol, ethanol, chloroform, acetone and aqueous. The in vitro free radical scavenging activities of the extracts were assessed against DPPH radicals, inhibition of in vitro lipid peroxidation, superoxide, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals. Methanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea contribute a higher DPPH scavenging activity (66 per cent), ethanol 77 per cent and methanol 73 per cent. The inhibition of in vitro lipid peroxidation activity of the extracts was found to be good. Acetone, ethanol and methanol extract of Tephrosia purpurea was found to have significant antiradical effect towards superoxide, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals. A strong nitric oxide inhibiting activity was found to be exhibited by ethanol and acetone extracts. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea have great potential of free radical scavenging activity.
655 SYNTHESIS AND COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ZINC OXIDE NANOPARTICLES WITH AND WITHOUT CAPPING OF PECTIN AND ITS APPLICATION , Shubhangi Moharekar*, Priyanka Raskar, Ashish Wani and Sanjay Moharekar
Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized from chemical and pectin capping (green) method from zinc nitrate and zinc acetate. In this study, pectin was extracted fresh ripened guava. Scanning electron images demonstrated that chemically and pectin synthesized ZnO NPs are irregular in shape and size. The antimicrobial activity of E. coli and S. aureus showed higher zone of inhibition in pectin capping ZnO NPs than chemically synthesized NPs. The antibacterial activity of cotton fabric coated with pectin capping ZnO NPs against E. coli showed zone of inhibition 3 to 4 times higher than chemically synthesized ZnO NPs.
656 STUDIES ON STOMATA OF SOME SELECTED GRASS SPECIES OF POACEAE AND CYPERACEAE, *R. Hari Babu and N. Savithramma
Stomata are pores on leaf surfaces through which plant exchange CO2, water vapour and other constituents. The present study focus on the intrinsic variation in stomatal index and frequency was assumed in thirty poaceae and cyperaceae grass species. Quantitative microscopy of leaves, stomatal number, stomatal index, stomatal frequency and epidermal cell number were examined. Results of quantitative microscopy had show that stomata number, epidermal cell number, stomatal index and stomatal frequency 42, 184, 23 and 507 respectively in Poaceae grass species. While in Cyperaceae grass species showed highest in 28, 108, 20 and 308 respectively. Stomatal characters are among the epidermal characteristic, which have been very useful in taxonomic delimitation apart from the functional relevance of epidermal structures.
657 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF IMPATIENS BALSAMINA PLANT EXTRACT, R. Rajendran, A. Manikandan*, K. Hemalatha, M. Mary Sweety and P. Prabhavathi
The in vitro antimicrobial activity of Impatiens balsamina leaf and root extracts were studied against selected microbial pathogens. The Leaves and root extracts were prepared using polar to non polar solvents. Among these solvents, ethanol was found to be more effective against all the test microorganisms. Ethanol extracts showed MIC of 1.0-4.0 mg/ml for bacterial and 2.0-4.0 mg/ml, for fungal isolates. The chloroform extract also showed a moderate antimicrobial activity against the bacterial and fungal pathogens. The result of this study indicates that the leaf and root extract have more potential of antimicrobial activity. Keywords: Impatiens balsamina, antimicrobial activity.
658 INVITRO ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF Phasealous lunatus L. SEEDS, Marimuthu Krishnaveni,* Nagaraj Nandhini., Ravi Dhanalakshmi
The key attribute of an antioxidant is its ability to trap free radicals. Various methods have been used to observe and evaluate the antioxidant activity of foods. The assessment of secondary metabolites such as phenolics, flavonoids and antioxidant activity by various methods was carried out with aqueous extract of dry Christmas lima bean seeds. The concentrations used for the study are 75, 100mg. Among the secondary metabolites tested, the total flavonoid content was found to be high when compared to total phenolics. The total phenolics content present in 100, 75mg of dry christmas lima bean seeds was found to be 28.661.52, 19.536.11mg/g whereas, the flavonoid content observed was 54.02.0, 33.730.75. Among the antioxidant activities studied using different methods, the nitric oxide scavenging activity (30.332.51mg/g), reducing power activity (35.02.0mg/g) as well as total antioxidant activity (28.661.52mg/g) was found to be good with dry Christmas lima bean seed powder whereas, the activity was reduced with metal chelating activity (21.01.32 mg/g). Likewise, among the concentrations used 100mg showed very good antioxidant potential. The results obtained showed increasing antioxidant activity with increasing concentration.
659 ECO-FRIENDLY PREPARATION AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESMENT OF Cr(III), Mn(II) AND Fe(III) COMPLEXES WITH PHENYLACETYLUREA AND BUTANOATE ION LIGANDS, Arunachalam, A.*1, Ramachandramoorthy,T.1, Padmavathy, S.1, Narendran, R.2 and Amala Fathima Rani,S.3
Phenylacetylurea (PAU) is a biologically active, bidendate neutral ligand. The present study deals with the microwave assisted preparation, physico-chemical, spectral and biological characterization of Cr(III), Mn(II) and Fe(III) complexes containing PAU and butanoate ion (but) ligands. The molecular formulae of the complexes were arrived at from the estimation of metals, electrical conductivities, and effective magnetic moment (?eff) values. The electronic spectral data indicate the probable geometry of the complexes. The antibacterial and anti fungal screening of the above three complexes against the bacteria, viz., Raoultella planticola, Vibrio cholerae, Lactobacillus brevis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Micrococus luteus and fungi, viz., Candida albicans, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus sojae were carried out. The results indicate that the Fe(III) complex exhibits higher antibacterial activity than Cr(III) and Mn(II) complexes and pure ligands. All the three complexes show low anti fungal activity than the reference compound, ketokonazole. The diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of the above three complexes are lower than the standard compound, vitamin-C.
660 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF ATORVASTATIN CALCIUM BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS, J.N.Suresh Kumar, Ch.Narendra Babu*, T.Dhanalakshmi, K.Florence, M.Sita Ramanjaneyulu,N.Sambasivanaik
Atorvastatin Calcium is hypolipidemic agent. In the present study, a simple, sensitive, rapid and economic and specific UVSpectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for the Atorvastatin Calcium in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The Atorvastatin Calcium stock solutions are prepared in methanol. The method of analysis is derivative spectroscopy to eliminate spectral interference by measuring absorbance at 247nm for Atorvastatin Calcium respectively. The Atorvastatin are linear in concentration range of 0-25?g/ml respectively. The absorption maxima was determined with 10?g/ml by scanning in the range of 200-400nm. The method was validation in terms of linearity, accuracy, range, precision, robustness, LOD and LOQ, system suitability, stability of analytical solution. Results of analysis were validated statistically. Percentage recovery studies are in the range of 99.92% to 99.58%. The LOD and LOQ of Atorvastatin were 0.998?g/ml and 3.025?g/ml respectively. From that it was observed that is no interference of blank, excipients during the estimation of drug in formulation. This shows the adaptability in pharmaceutical dosage forms.
661 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF NEW ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ROXITHROMYCIN IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS BY UV-VISIBLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRY, Swapna.G*, Manoj Kumar.T
In developing these methods, a systematic study of the effects of various relevant parameters in the methods concerned were undertaken by varying one parameter at a time and controlling all other parameters to get maximum color development, minimum blank color, reproducibility and the reasonable period of stability of final colored species formed. Method 1:A standard solution of roxithromycin of concentration of 1mg/ml was prepared in the 0.1N Hcl and then the absorbance studies were conducted for the solutions by using the uvvisible spectrophotometry. Solvent: Distilledwater, Reagents:0.1N Hcl Wavelength:205nm, Concentration range:2-10?g/ml, In this method, the spectra recorded was very nice and absorbance values gave good linearity. Here the range is extended upto 10?g/ml. Method 2: A standard solution of roxithromycin of concentration of 0.1mg/ml was prepared in F C reagent of 1.2ml was taken in the 0.1N Hcl and then the absorbance studies were conducted for the solutions by using the UV-Visible spectrophotomnetry . water and then the absorbance studies were conducted for the solution by using uv-visible spectrophotometry. Solvent: Distilledwater, Reagents:FcReagent,0.1NHcl Wavelength:410nm ,Concentration range:1-5?g/ml.In this method the spectra recorded was very nice and absorbance values gave good linearity.Here
662 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF VARIOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTS PHELLINUS LINTEUS, R. Meghalatha1*, S. Nataraj2and M. Krishnappa3
Different solvents(Petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts offruiting body of Phellinuslinteus had been evaluated separately for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earth worms, namely Pheretimaposthuma. Three concentrations (20, 40 and 60 mg/ml) of various extracts were tested andresults were expressed in terms of time for paralysis and time for death of worms.The results revealed that the methanolic extract showed excellent anthelmintic activity at a concentration level of 60mg/ml on time taken for paralysis (30.12 min) and death (65.82 min) of the worms. Activities on further comparison with the standard drug Piperazinecitrate (10 mg/ml), the methanolic extract showed a significant effect as compared to others.
663 ANTHELMINTIC SCREENING OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OFPISOLITHUS ARRHIZUS, R. Meghalatha1*, Ashok Chittaragi2, S. Nataraja3 and M. Krishnappa4
The World Health Organization estimates that a staggering two billion people harbor parasitic worm infections. Parasitic worms also infect livestock and crops, affecting food production with a resultant economic impact. Despite this prevalence of parasitic infections, the research on antihelmentic drug is poor. As per WHO, only few drugs are frequently used in the treatment of helminthes in human beings. Antihelmentic from the natural sources may play a key role in the treatment of these parasitic infections.In the present investigation, anthelmintic screening of crude extracts of Pisolithusarrhizus. The phytochemical analysis revealed that the major bioactive components of the mushrooms are terpenoides, polyphenols, saponins, tannins and glycosides.In view of this chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of fruiting bodies of P. arrhizuswere evaluated separately for the activity on adult Indian earthworms, Pheretimaposthuma, using Piperazine citrate as reference standards.Three concentrations (20, 40 and 60mg/ml) of each extracts were studied in activity, which involved the determination of time of paralysis and time of death of the worm. The results indicated that the methanolic extract was more potentthan the chloroform and ethyl acetate solvent extract. All extracts showed effective anthelmintic activity at 60 mg/mlconcentration.
664 ECOFRIENDLY BIOSYNTHESIS OF XANTHAN GUM BY XANTHOMONAS CAMPESTRIS., *Jyoti Ashok Kedar1 and Dr .A.D Bholay2
This work attempts to synthesize Xanthan-industrial gum using sugar molasses, Wheat bran, Rice Bran, Whey. By batch fermentation method Xanthan gum production has taken from each mentioned agro industry waste as substrate, and finally Xanthan yield calculated along with its cell mass (%) of each substrate. The characterization of Xanthan gum also been carried out using sophisticated analytical technique i.e. FT-IR ,which gives comparative analysis of Xanthan gum derived from waste with standard Xanthan gum.
665 DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTROCHEMICAL METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF 6-MERCAPTOPURINE DRUG AND ITS ANALYTICAL APPLICATIONS, Keerti M. Naik and Sharanappa T. Nandibewoor*
The electrochemical behavior of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) drug at glassy carbon and gold electrodes has been investigated using cyclic, differential pulse and square wave voltammetric techniques. The anodic peaks were characterized and the processes were diffusioncontrolled in both the electrodes. In the range of 6.0 10-8 to 1.0 10-6 M, the current measured by differential pulse and square wave voltammetries presents a good linear property as a function of the concentration of 6-MP with a low detection limit 0.0055 & 0.0028 ?g/mL. The proposed method was successfully applied to 6-MP determination in pharmaceutical samples and in human biological fluids.
666 GREEN SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL, THE RMAL AND BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF Cr (III), Ni(II) AND Cu(II) COMPLEXESOF 4-AMINOPYRIDINE AND NITRITOLIGANDS, K. Dhaveethu1, S.Padmavathy1, T. Ramachandramoorthy1, K. Thirunavukkarasu2*
Microwave assisted synthesis is called green synthesis because of the following reasons: 1) pollution free synthesis 2) reduction of reaction time from many hours to few minutes 3) its instantaneous in-coreheating of materials in a homogeneous and selective manner 4) its ability to increase the probability of molecular impacts 5) decrease in the activation energy and 6) no need of solvents. Microwave-assisted synthesis of Cr(III), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with 4aminopyridine and nitrite ligands is reported with spectral characterizations and thermal studies. IR results reveal the O-coordinated nature of coordination of nitrite ligand (O-nitrito) and the 4aminopyridine ligand coordinates to the metal ions through its ring nitrogen atom. Electronic spectra suggest distorted octahedral geometry for Cr(III), Ni(II) complexes and tetragonally distorted octahedral Cu(II) complex. EPR studies identify the distortion in the geometry of the complexes. XPS studies confirm the O-coordination of nitrite ligand and the oxidation state of the metal ions. The complexes were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities on pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The complexes show better activity against these bacteria and fungi than the free ligands. A correlation is observed with the microbial activities of the complexes and their structure.
667 GREEN SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL, THE RMAL AND BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF Cr (III), Ni(II) AND Cu(II) COMPLEXESOF 4-AMINOPYRIDINE AND NITRITOLIGANDS, K. Dhaveethu1, S.Padmavathy1, T. Ramachandramoorthy1, K. Thirunavukkarasu2*
Microwave assisted synthesis is called green synthesis because of the following reasons: 1) pollution free synthesis 2) reduction of reaction time from many hours to few minutes 3) its instantaneous in-coreheating of materials in a homogeneous and selective manner 4) its ability to increase the probability of molecular impacts 5) decrease in the activation energy and 6) no need of solvents. Microwave-assisted synthesis of Cr(III), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with 4aminopyridine and nitrite ligands is reported with spectral characterizations and thermal studies. IR results reveal the O-coordinated nature of coordination of nitrite ligand (O-nitrito) and the 4aminopyridine ligand coordinates to the metal ions through its ring nitrogen atom. Electronic spectra suggest distorted octahedral geometry for Cr(III), Ni(II) complexes and tetragonally distorted octahedral Cu(II) complex. EPR studies identify the distortion in the geometry of the complexes. XPS studies confirm the O-coordination of nitrite ligand and the oxidation state of the metal ions. The complexes were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities on pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The complexes show better activity against these bacteria and fungi than the free ligands. A correlation is observed with the microbial activities of the complexes and their structure.
668 GREEN SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL, THE RMAL AND BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF Cr (III), Ni(II) AND Cu(II) COMPLEXESOF 4-AMINOPYRIDINE AND NITRITOLIGANDS, K. Dhaveethu1, S.Padmavathy1, T. Ramachandramoorthy1, K. Thirunavukkarasu2*
Microwave assisted synthesis is called green synthesis because of the following reasons: 1) pollution free synthesis 2) reduction of reaction time from many hours to few minutes 3) its instantaneous in-coreheating of materials in a homogeneous and selective manner 4) its ability to increase the probability of molecular impacts 5) decrease in the activation energy and 6) no need of solvents. Microwave-assisted synthesis of Cr(III), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with 4aminopyridine and nitrite ligands is reported with spectral characterizations and thermal studies. IR results reveal the O-coordinated nature of coordination of nitrite ligand (O-nitrito) and the 4aminopyridine ligand coordinates to the metal ions through its ring nitrogen atom. Electronic spectra suggest distorted octahedral geometry for Cr(III), Ni(II) complexes and tetragonally distorted octahedral Cu(II) complex. EPR studies identify the distortion in the geometry of the complexes. XPS studies confirm the O-coordination of nitrite ligand and the oxidation state of the metal ions. The complexes were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities on pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The complexes show better activity against these bacteria and fungi than the free ligands. A correlation is observed with the microbial activities of the complexes and their structure.
669 GREEN SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL, THE RMAL AND BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS OF Cr (III), Ni(II) AND Cu(II) COMPLEXESOF 4-AMINOPYRIDINE AND NITRITOLIGANDS, K. Dhaveethu1, S.Padmavathy1, T. Ramachandramoorthy1, K. Thirunavukkarasu2*
Microwave assisted synthesis is called green synthesis because of the following reasons: 1) pollution free synthesis 2) reduction of reaction time from many hours to few minutes 3) its instantaneous in-coreheating of materials in a homogeneous and selective manner 4) its ability to increase the probability of molecular impacts 5) decrease in the activation energy and 6) no need of solvents. Microwave-assisted synthesis of Cr(III), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with 4aminopyridine and nitrite ligands is reported with spectral characterizations and thermal studies. IR results reveal the O-coordinated nature of coordination of nitrite ligand (O-nitrito) and the 4aminopyridine ligand coordinates to the metal ions through its ring nitrogen atom. Electronic spectra suggest distorted octahedral geometry for Cr(III), Ni(II) complexes and tetragonally distorted octahedral Cu(II) complex. EPR studies identify the distortion in the geometry of the complexes. XPS studies confirm the O-coordination of nitrite ligand and the oxidation state of the metal ions. The complexes were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities on pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The complexes show better activity against these bacteria and fungi than the free ligands. A correlation is observed with the microbial activities of the complexes and their structure.
670 GREEN SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL, THE RMAL AND BIOLOGICALINVESTIGATIONS OF Cr (III), Ni(II) AND Cu(II) COMPLEXESOF 4-AMINOPYRIDINE AND NITRITOLIGANDS, K. Dhaveethu1, S.Padmavathy1, T. Ramachandramoorthy1, K. Thirunavukkarasu2*
Microwave assisted synthesis is called green synthesis because of the following reasons: 1) pollution free synthesis 2) reduction of reaction time from many hours to few minutes 3) its instantaneous in-core heating of materials in a homogeneous and selective manner 4) its ability to increase the probability of molecular impacts 5) decrease in the activation energy and 6) no need of solvents. Microwave-assisted synthesis of Cr(III), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes with 4aminopyridine and nitrite ligands is reported with spectral characterizations and thermal studies. IR results reveal the O-coordinated nature of coordination of nitrite ligand (O-nitrito) and the 4aminopyridine ligand coordinates to the metal ions through its ring nitrogen atom. Electronic spectra suggest distorted octahedral geometry for Cr(III), Ni(II) complexes and tetragonally distorted octahedral Cu(II) complex. EPR studies identify the distortion in the geometry of the complexes. XPS studies confirm the O-coordination of nitrite ligand and the oxidation state of the metal ions. The complexes were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities on pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The complexes show better activity against these bacteria and fungi than the free ligands. A correlation is observed with the microbial activities of the complexes and their structure.
671 STUDY OF STRUCTURE MODIFYING PROPERTIES OF SUCROSE AND MALTOSE SOLUTIONS IN WATER AND IN AQUEOUS NABR AND KBR SOLUTIONS AT VARIOUS TEMPERATURES, *Dr. Kailas H. Kapadnis
Study of structure modifying properties of Sucrose and Maltose solutions in water and in aqueous NaBr and KBr solutions at various temperatures have been studied by measuring viscosities and densities of Sucrose and Maltose solutions in water and in 0.05, and 0.5M NaBr and KBr at 298.15, 303.15, 308.15 and 313.15 K, from densities (?) data, the limiting partial molar volumes (?v 0) have been calculated and the viscosity data have been analyzed with the help of the Jons-Doleequation and modified Jons- Dole equation and further corresponding viscosity B- coefficients have been calculated to interpret solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions.
672 COMPARATIVE ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF EUGENIA CARYOPHYLLUS & UNCARIA GAMBIER, *Manisha Yogesh Sonalkar, Sachin Annasaheb Nitave
The present study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of alcoholic extract of Eugenia caryophyllus & Uncaria gambier by using pheritima posthuma as a test worms. Both test sample taken at different concentration clove bud extract having (5,10,15mg/ml conc.) & pale catechu having (50.100,150mg/ml conc.) were tested on indian earth worms (pheritima posthuma),paralysis time & death of time were consider as assessment of anthelmintic activity. The albendazole 20mg/ml & normal saline solution were used as a standard & control respectively. The phytochemical testing of clove bud & pale catechu done & it showed that clove bud contain Flavonoid, Saponin, Alkaloid, Tannin & pale catechu contain Tannin & Flavonoid. It was noticed in this investigation that the time of paralysis & death of worms was the dose dependent & it was much earlier in case of eugenia caryophylus than in gambier catechu.
673 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE GREEN BIOSYNTHESIS SILVER NANO PARTICLES USING DRIED LEAVES OF BOERHAAVIA DIFFUSA L. AND CICHORIUM INTYBUS L. WITH REFERENCE TO THEIR ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL, K. Bharathi 1, V. Thirumurugan1*, M. Kavitha1, G. Muruganadam1, K. Ravichandran2, M. Seturaman3
Objectives:The green biosynthesis of nanoparticles play a vital role in present day research because of their wider application in many fields of biological science and medicine. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles are done using dried leaves of Boerhaavia diffusa (S1) and Cichorium intybus (S2) by reacting these samples with 1mM concentration of silver nitrate. Methods: Characterization are done using UV Spectroscopy, XRD, SEM, EDAX and FTIR, Antibacterial and antifungal studies are carried out for synthesized nanoparticles using two plant sources. Results: UV , XRD, SEM, EDAX and FTIR confirms the formation, crystal structure, size, elemental silver formation and functional group responsible for the capping and stabilization of nanoparticles. Both plants sources are possessed antibacterial and antifungal activities. Conclusion: Boerhaavia diffusa L. and Cichorium intybus L. plant sources have good capabilities for synthesize silver nano particles by biological route. Synthesized nanoparticles by both sources have antibacterial and antifungal properties.
674 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF VOLATILE OIL OF THE SEEDS OF CUMINUM CYMINUM L., Nisha Chaudhary, Shahnaz Sultana Husain, Mohammed Ali*
Cuminum cyminum L. (Family: Apiaceae) is a small annual herb with slender, angular branched stem. Its fruits are used to treat dyspepsia, insomnia, cold, fever, gastro- intestinal, gynecological and respiratory disorders, toothache, diabetes, hypertension and epilepsy. Analysis of the fruit volatile oil (1.90%) showed the presence mainly of trans-dihydrocarvone (31.11%), ?-terpinene (23.22%), p-cymene (15.8%), ?-phellandrene (12.01%) and p-menth-2-en-7-ol (3.48%) and cuminlaldehyde constituted only 0.58% of the volatile oil. The volatile oil was active against the microorganisms Staphylococcus epidermidis strain, S. aureus, S. haemolyticus, Propionibacterium acnes, Corynebacterium diphtheriae strain, Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae strain, Bacillus cereus strain, Clostridium tetani strain, C. difficile, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio cholerae, Aeromonas hpydrophila, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the fungus Asperigillus niger, Saccharomyces cerevisae and Colletrotrichum gloeosporioides. The microbial activity decreased with methanolic and further with hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts of the fruits. These results suggest the potential use of the cumin essential oil for the control of bacterial diseases.
675 CONVENTIONAL SYNTHESIS AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF SOME NEW CHALCONES AND 2-PYRAZOLINES AS POTENTIAL ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS, Mopidevi Venkateswara Rao1,*, Dr. Anjali Jha1, Dr. A. Vasudeva Rao2 and Dr. Ch. Prasad3
This paper describes the synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of some new chalcones and 2-pyrazolines. Since these classes of compounds were reported to possess various biological activities, all of these compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activities against selected gram positive, gram negative and fungi strains.
676 DANIO RERIO EMBRYO AS A MODEL FOR STUDY ABORTIFACIENT EFFECTS USING ANANAS COMOSUS, Abhinava J V1, Srinivas Raju2, Guruprasad R*
Danio rerio is one of the best model organisms to study various kinds of disorders. This study was conducted by treating Danio rerio embryos with a well-known plant having abortifacient activity like Ananas comosus. The ethanol and chloroform extract were subjected to the embryos at different post fertilization periods and this includes 1cell stage, blastula, gastrula and organogenesis. The effects of the different concentrations were studied at different time intervals. From the statistical analysis for time with concentration, the blastula stage embryos show the most significant effect P (F?0.8753) = 0.05. As embryos develop, they get resistance against both extracts and the survival rate increases. Prolonged exposure to the embryos shows death in all stages. This experiment demonstrates that Danio rerio is a suitable model organism for the study of abortifacient activity.
677 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND SCREENING OF 2-THIOXOIMIDAZOLIDIN-4-ONE AS POTENTIAL ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS, Hemali Padalia1, Paras Ramavat2, Shipra Baluja2and Sumitra Chanda1*
2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one constitutes are an important group of heterocyclic compounds and have been shown to exhibit wide range of pharmacological activities such as anti-bacterial and anti-fungal. A series of 2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one derivatives were synthesized and characterized by Mass, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. All these synthesized compounds were tested for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and fungal strains in N,N-dimethylformamide(DMF). Among the screened compounds, RPI-3 showed most potent antimicrobial activity. Keywords: 2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-one, antibacterial activity, Gram positive bacteria and Gram negative bacteria and fungi, N,N-dimethylformamide.
678 FORMULATION, EVALUATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF TASTE MASKED ZOLMITRIPTAN ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS PREPARED BY DIRECT COMPRESSION METHOD USING DIFFERENT SUPER DISINTEGRATING AGENTS., S.Janakidevi*, K.V.Ramanamurthy
The present investigation deals with the formulation of Taste masked orally disintegrating tablets of zolmitriptan that disintegrate in the oral cavity upon contact with saliva and there by improve therapeutic efficacy. It is a bitter drug, used in the treatment of migraine, in order to mask the taste of drug, and to get rapid action, with improved bioavailability, Taste masked orally disintegrating tablets were prepared. Amberlite IPR88 is a cation-exchange resin used to mask the taste by continuous sonication (about 6 hrs) method. Tablets were prepared by direct compression method using super disintegrants like crospovidone (F1 to F3), croscarmellose sodium (F4 to F6) and sodium starch glycolate (F7 to F9), designated as nine different types of formulations at different concentrations of 2%, 3% and 4% respectively. Tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, disintegration time, drug content, in vitro dissolution, wetting time. Tablets containing crospovidone 4% (F3) exhibit quick disintegration time than others. The in vitro disintegration time of the optimized tablet was within 30 seconds and shows 100% release within 15 min. It follows first order release kinetics with diffusion mechanism.
679 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL STUDIESOF SOME METAL COMPLEXES DERIVED FROM BENZOFURAN SCHIFFS BASE., M. B. Halli*1, K. Mallikarjun 1, S. S. Suryakanth1 and P. Vithal Reddy2
Novel Schiff base and its metal complexes have been synthesized via the condensation of Benzofuran-2-carbohydrazide and 2-hydroxy-3-formylquinoline. The synthesized Schiffs base and complexes were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, UV-Vis, IR, 1HNMR,ESR and Mass spectral studies. All the complexes are soluble in DMF and DMSO. The measured molar conductance values suggest that the complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. We propose the octahedral geometry for Co(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes, based on spectral data, magnetic data and analytical data. The Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II)complexes show the tetrahedral geometry. The Schiff base and their metal complexes were screened for their anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and DNA cleavage activity studies. The result show that the biological activity of the ligand gets increased on complexation. DNA cleavage studies shows the complexes have displayed complete cleavage of CT-DNA. In addition the ligand and its complexes has been studied for their antioxidant activity.
680 INHIBITORY EFFECT OF SOME PLANTS OF WESTERN GHATS AGAINST CLINICAL ISOLATES OF DENTAL CARIES AND URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS, Vivek M.N1, Manasa M1, Yashoda Kambar1, Vinayaka K.S2, Mallikarjun N1, Prashith Kekuda T.R1*
The present study aimed at determining antibacterial activity against 2 oral isolates of Streptococcus mutans and 5 drug resistant urinary tract pathogens of 23 plants (belonging to 16 families) from Western Ghats of Shivamogga district, Karnataka, India. The plant materials were shade dried and extracted using methanol. The extracts were screened for antibacterial activity by Agar well diffusion assay against two oral isolates of Streptococcus mutans and five drug resistant bacteria from urinary tract infection. The extracts were effective against oral and urinary tract isolates but to a varied extent. Gram positive uropathogens viz., Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis were more susceptible to extracts of selected plants. Among uropathogens, Klebsiella pneumoniae was least inhibited by extracts. Among selected plants, Psychotria nigra, Aglaia roxburghiana, Chromolaena odorata and Persea macrantha displayed marked inhibitory activity against test bacteria. The plants can be used for treating urinary tract infections and dental caries. The plants can be exploited for the development of pharmacologically active agents having activity against clinical isolates.
681 A GREEN TECHNIQUE FOR WATER SOFTENING AN ECONOMICAL METHOD USING NATURAL SAND MATERIAL IN IRUMENI AREA, RAMANATHAPURAM, TAMIL NADU, INDIA, B. Jayalakshmi*1, T. Ramachandramoorthy2, A. Paulraj3, G.Veerapandian1, S. Musthafa Kani1, G.G. Naganathan1
Use of Regenerated Natural Sand Material as an adsorbent/ion exchanger for the removal of Total Hardness by Batch Mode Adsorption was investigated. Batch Mode Adsorption technique was carried out by varying particle size, initial concentration, contact time, pH, sorbent dosage and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were used to study the adsorption/ion exchange process. The treatment of water for the removal of total hardness was effectively done by using the Regenerated Natural Sand Material and the XRD patterns were used to confirm the study.
682 ANTI HEPATOTOXICITY STUDIES OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF FERONIA LIMONIA IN CCL4 INDUCED TOXICITY, Jayashree V Hanchinalmath and Ramesh Londonkar*
The antioxidant activities of Feronia limonia fruit pulp methanolic extract (MEFL) was investigated by and in vivo assay. The effect of the extract in reducing carbon tetrachloride induced (CCl4) oxidative stress in rats was evaluated. Hepatoprotective activity of MEFL was studied by estimating serum enzyme activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Serum Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), total protein (TP) and total bilirubin (TB). The treatment with MEFL showed a dose-dependent reduction in CCl4 induced elevated serum levels of enzyme activities with parallel increase in total protein and bilirubin content indicating the extract could preserve the normal functional status of the liver. MEFL at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the glutathione (GSH), super oxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in a dose dependant manner. Therefore, the results of this study illustrate that the Feronia limonia methanol extract can shield the liver against CCl4-induced oxidative damage in rats.
683 FORMULATION AND INVITRO CHARACTERIZATION OF AMITRIPTYLINE BUCCAL FILMS, Krishnaveni Manubolu*1, Abbineni Venkata Chandana2, Pasupuleti Prakash3, Byna Sujatha4, Somavarapu Usha Rani5, Karnati Venkata Radhika6
Oral drug delivery is the most preferable route of drug administration due to ease of administration, patient compliance, flexibility in formulation. Buccal drug delivery system which is painless, without discomfort, precise dosage form, facilitates ease of removal without significant associated pain. Administration of lidocaine and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) as a routine procedure for the relief of dental pain and restricted to some side effects. Amitriptyline is a tricyclic antidepressant that provides local anesthetic effects by blocking the sodium channels. It inhibits reuptake of nor epinephrine and serotonin almost equally. The aim of this work is to design Amitryptyline muco-adhesive buccal films, using muco-adhesive polymers, widely employed for the successful treatment of depression, psychotic conditions, facial pain and dental pain management. Amitriptyline buccal films were prepared using HPMC in different proportions in combination with glycerin as plasticizer, acetone as solvent. The thickness values of the films ranged between 0.1753 0.0055mg and 0.2125 0.0053mg. The weight of films ranged between 19.4 1.3115mg and 20.51.36mg.The invitro release of Amitriptyline from the F2 to F4 was in the range of 70 to 96 % in 80 min in phosphate buffer solution pH 6.6. Films did not show any cracks even after folding for more than 300 times. The surface pH of all Amitriptyline patches was within 0.3 units of the neutral pH and hence no mucosal irritation is expected. The films exhibited satisfactory characteristics regarding integrity, flexibility, dispersion of drug and other quality control parameters. Ultimately patient compliance is achieved.
684 ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR IMPURITIES PRESENT IN HYDROXY CHLOROQUINE SULPHATE FROM ANTIMALARIAL TABLET FORMULATION, SP. Karuppiah*, K. Anver Basha
The study reveals that stability indicating analytical method development for the estimation of Impurities present in Hydroxy chloroquine Sulphate (HCS) from anti malarial tablet formulation.The developed method is pecific,linear,accurate,robust and can be used for regular analysis. The known impurities are identified and estimated quantitatively as i) Hydroxy Chloroquine O-Sulphate (HCOS) ii)4,7-Dichloroquinoline (4,7 DCQ) iii)Desethyl Hydroxy Chloroquine (DEHC) iv) Desethyl Chloroquine (DEC) by RP-HPLC method.The Relative Response Factor(RRF) and Relative Retention Time (RRT) has established for the quantification of impurities without using known impurities every time. Gradient elution has set up in proper proportion with buffer: methanol (90:10) and acetonitrile (100%) in two different channels using Inertsil C8-3 (150 X 4.6), 5?m column in a detection wavelength of 380 nm. The range is covered from 50% to 150% of working concentration of 2ppm which is the range of Hydroxy chloroquine sulphate tablets 200 mg. The recovery study of each impurity is carried out and the result obtained is well within acceptance criterion of 90% to 110%.
685 PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACTS OF AEGLE MARMELOS AND CAMELLIA SINENSIS IN OIL INDUCED DYSLIPIDEMIC RATS, Priyanga Suriyamoorthy1, Margret Rosaland Fathima Mary2, Hemmalakshmi Subrhamanian1, Devaki Kanagasapabathy*1
The present study appraised the protective activity of aqueous leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos and Camellia sinensis and its possible mechanism of action. Male Witar albino rats were randomly assigned to five groups: Groups I normal control; Group II hyperlipidemic with coconut oil and ground nut oil (8 ml/ rat/ day); Group III Hyperlipidemic treated with Aegle marmelos extract (250 mg / kg b. wt./ day) and Group IV Hyperlipidemic treated with Camellia sinensis extract (250 mg / kg b. wt./ day) orally. The whole study lasted for 28 days. The results clearly demonstrate the positive effects of Aegle marmelos and Camellia sinensis in oil administration. The amount of free and ester cholesterol were significantly reduced in the treatment group. Amount of TBARS was elevated in the induction group as an effect of high radical generation. This is a classical marker for the cell damage, as an increase of TBARS, the cell damage in the induction group is possible which was further evidenced by the elevated SGOT and ALP levels in induction group. Amount of SOD and CAT were decreased in the induction group. Upon treatment with the plant extracts there is significant raise in SOD and CAT levels and simultaneous decrease in the levels of TBARS, SGOT and ALP. The probable mechanism of action of the plants is assumed to be by their anti-oxidant property.
686 A STUDY OF OBESITY AND INSULIN RESISTANCE AMONG CIGARETTE SMOKERS FOR ASSESSING THE RISK OF TYPE 2 DM., *Suganthy K1, Asothai R 1, Mohanty PK1, Shivasubrahmanian R1, Rajagopal V2,Vijayabanu N1
Background: The WHO has estimated that the death due to smoking will be around 10 million death/year by 2020 and smoking is confirmed as second leading risk factor for death. Smoking has been associated with 20-40% of increased risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) of which 99% is Type 2 DM. Obesity and Insulin Resistance (IR) are an important risk factor of DM. Heavy smokers and Ex- smokers observed to have increased risk for Type 2 DM in men. Objectives: To study the association of cigarette smoking with risk of DM using Body mass Index (BMI) and IR. Subjects and methods: This is a case-control study on 57 Non-diabetic male cigarette smokers compared with 42 age and sex matched non-smokers as controls. Detailed history, clinical examination, anthropometric measurements were taken and fasting blood sample collected for estimation of plasma Insulin and glucose using standard biochemical methods. IR was calculated using HOMA-IR formulae. Result: The mean fasting Insulin (32.4 8.44 ?IU/ml) and IR (6.96 2.72) were significantly increased in the cigarette smokers although the mean fasting glucose (86.3 20.2 mg/dl) were within the normal limits. A positive association existed between smoking index and fasting plasma insulin, IR and fasting glucose. The BMI showed negative correlation (r= -0.234, p< 0.02) with a mean of 22.6 4.16 Kg/m2 in cigarette smokers. Conclusions: Cigarette smokers have increased IR than non-smokers suggesting a biochemical prediabetes state. Therefore cigarette smoking is an important modifiable risk factor of Type 2 DM.
687 INTERPRETATION OF POTABLE WATER QUALITY IN METTUR TALUK, SALEM DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU, INDIA USING MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS, Lilly Florence, P*1., Paulraj, A2., Ramachandramoorthy, T3 and Jayalakshmi, B4.
A few water samples were collected from various sources, viz., open wells (OW), bore wells (BW), hand pumps (HP) and falls during pre-monsoon (June- July 2010) and post-monsoon (Dec 2010 Jan 2011) seasons from Mettur Taluk, Salem District. The physico-chemical parameters viz., Temperature, pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Salinity (SAL), Total Solids (TS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS),Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Hardness (TH), Calcium Hardness (CH), Magnesium Hardness (MH), Total Alkalinity (TA) and Fluoride (F) were determined for the water samples. Each parameter was compared with the standard permissible limit prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). The Water Quality Index (WQI) reflected that most of the samples are fit for drinking. The Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) shows that a majority of samples have the border line corrosive nature in the post-monsoon season. The multivariate statistical tools, viz., Correlation Analysis (CA), Factor Analysis (FA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) were used to interpret the water quality data.
688 CLINICAL EVALUATION OF THOTTALVADI CHOORANAM (MIMOSA PUDICA) IN THE MANAGEMENT OF TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS, Viswanathan R *1, Gnanavel IS2, Sivasaravanan KS 2, Karthikeyan A3, Velpandian V 2
Diabetes is a long-term illness that occurs due to the high levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia). Because our modern lifestyle goes a long way, that more and more people develop type 2 diabetes. So control the blood sugar levels is essential part of healthy life and prevent long-term complications. Thottalvadi Chooranam (Mimosa pudica) is one among the unique Siddha anti-diabetic herbal preparation. So the present open clinical study was conducted and analysed the therapeutic potential of Thottalvadi Chooranam among 50 diabetic patients for the period of six months. Diabetes mellitus can be diagnosed only if the presence of any classical symptoms of diabetes and with FBGL ? 140 mg/dl, PPBGL ? 250 mg/dl and HbA1C ? 6.5. The trial drug was given to all the patients at the dose level of 4gm twice a day with milk for the period of 3 months. At the end of the study period all the above clinical and laboratory parameters along with HbA1C were performed and statistically analyzed. From the result it was observed that the classical clinical signs were improved well. FBGL, PPBGL were significantly reduced from initial readings. It was also observed that 44 patients (88%) had significant reduction in HbA1C when compared with initial reading. The result confirms the therapeutic potential of Siddha herbal drug Thottalvadi Chooranam on type II diabetes mellitus.
689 IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ROOT OF COLEUS VETTIVEROIDES (JACOB), G.Gopalakrishnan*, C.K.Dhanapal
The aim of this study was to assess the invitro potential of methanolic extract of Root of coleus vettiveroides (Jacob). The IC50 values of methanolic extract in Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, FRAP method were obtained to be 260 mg/ml, 140mg/ml respectively. However the IC50 values for the standard ascorbate were noted to be 440 mg/ml, 60mg/ml respectively. Measurement of total phenolic content of the methanolic extract of coleus vettiveroides (Jacob) was achieved using Folin-Phenol reagent containing 9.17 mg/g of phenolic content.The above result possess significant antioxidant activity when compare to the above all standard .The result obtained in this study clearly indicate that coleus vettiveroides (Jacob) has a significant potential to use as a natural anti-oxidant agent.
690 APPLICATION OF SOPHOROLIPIDS SYNTHESIZED USING LAURYL ALCOHOL AS A GERMICIDE AND FRUIT-VEGETABLE WASH, Vrushali Dengle-Pulate1,2 , Jnanada Joshi 2,3, Sunil Bhagwat1, Asmita Prabhune2*
Sophorolipids are glycolipids that can be produced by bioconversion of native and renewable feed stocks. They have the combined advantage of green chemistry and a lower carbon footprint without the undesirable side products or environmental downsides associated with many market reference surfactants. Sophorolipids are reported to have a low acute toxicity and are fully biodegradable. Sophorolipid production was carried out using glucose as the hydrophilic source and lauryl alcohol C1214, as the hydrophobic source using Candida bombicola ATCC 22214 (SLLA). A germicidal composition suitable for cleaning fruits and vegetables was formulated using SLLA. Various fruits and vegetables were sprayed with the formulation to check its effect on the shelf life of the sprayed vegetables. Log reduction assay was used to determine the effectiveness of the formulation at reducing microorganism population. Treatment with germicidal resulted in > 90 % reduction of cells i.e. 1 log reduction in Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 23564 and > 99 % reduction of cells i.e. 2 log reduction in Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 after 10 minutes. Erwinia chrysanthemi ATCC 11663 and Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 resulted in 100% reduction of cells after 10 minutes. These results are remarkably encouraging compared to reported studies.
691 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHEMICALLY ACTIVATED CARBON DERIVED FROM THE NATURAL PLANT, T. Chandrasekaran, A. Arunkumar, K. Riaz Ahamed*
The present works show a preparation of novel adsorbent. The novel adsorbent was prepared from carbon based on a native lignocellulosic precursor. The precursor chosen for preparation of novel adsorbent was natural and easily available plant (Glycosmis Mauritania) from agricultural land. The activation process was carried out by two different process physical activation and chemical activation. Chemical activation was carried out by dipping the plant materials in different activating chemicals like phosphoric acid, sulphuric acid, potassium hydroxide and zinc chloride at certain concentration for 24 hours. The carbonization process of the precursor was carried out at 4000C and the activation taken at 6000C using muffle furnace for both physical and chemical activation. The prepared novel adsorbent was further made to characterize its physico-chemical parameters to determine the nature of the adsorbent. The surface group and surface morphology of the adsorbent can be identified using HRSEM and FTIR spectroscopy. Surface area of the activated carbon can be calculated by using nitrogen adsorption.
692 SCREENING OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS IN JABALPUR REGION FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY, Diva Gupta, Rama Mandal, Jyoti Singh Puttey and Sardul S. Sandhu*
Drug resistance in bacteria, globally, has become an important issue and search for new antibacterial agent is inevitable. Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants provide a reservoir of bioactive metabolites. The present study made an attempt to isolate and screen endophytic fungi from some medicinal plants of Jabalpur region. The bioactive compounds from these fungi have tremendous antibacterial activity against five pathogenic bacteria viz. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae. The isolated endophytic fungi may lead to novel natural product for use in pharmaceutical industries.
693 SCREENING OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS IN JABALPUR REGION FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY, Diva Gupta, Rama Mandal, Jyoti Singh Puttey and Sardul S. Sandhu*
Drug resistance in bacteria, globally, has become an important issue and search for new antibacterial agent is inevitable. Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants provide a reservoir of bioactive metabolites. The present study made an attempt to isolate and screen endophytic fungi from some medicinal plants of Jabalpur region. The bioactive compounds from these fungi have tremendous antibacterial activity against five pathogenic bacteria viz. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae. The isolated endophytic fungi may lead to novel natural product for use in pharmaceutical industries.
694 SCREENING OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS IN JABALPUR REGION FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY, Diva Gupta, Rama Mandal, Jyoti Singh Puttey and Sardul S. Sandhu*
Drug resistance in bacteria, globally, has become an important issue and search for new antibacterial agent is inevitable. Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants provide a reservoir of bioactive metabolites. The present study made an attempt to isolate and screen endophytic fungi from some medicinal plants of Jabalpur region. The bioactive compounds from these fungi have tremendous antibacterial activity against five pathogenic bacteria viz. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae. The isolated endophytic fungi may lead to novel natural product for use in pharmaceutical industries.
695 SCREENING OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS IN JABALPUR REGION FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY, Diva Gupta, Rama Mandal, Jyoti Singh Puttey and Sardul S. Sandhu*
Drug resistance in bacteria, globally, has become an important issue and search for new antibacterial agent is inevitable. Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants provide a reservoir of bioactive metabolites. The present study made an attempt to isolate and screen endophytic fungi from some medicinal plants of Jabalpur region. The bioactive compounds from these fungi have tremendous antibacterial activity against five pathogenic bacteria viz. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae. The isolated endophytic fungi may lead to novel natural product for use in pharmaceutical industries.
696 SCREENING OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS IN JABALPUR REGION FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY, Diva Gupta, Rama Mandal, Jyoti Singh Puttey and Sardul S. Sandhu*
Drug resistance in bacteria, globally, has become an important issue and search for new antibacterial agent is inevitable. Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants provide a reservoir of bioactive metabolites. The present study made an attempt to isolate and screen endophytic fungi from some medicinal plants of Jabalpur region. The bioactive compounds from these fungi have tremendous antibacterial activity against five pathogenic bacteria viz. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae. The isolated endophytic fungi may lead to novel natural product for use in pharmaceutical industries.
697 SCREENING OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS IN JABALPUR REGION FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY, Diva Gupta, Rama Mandal, Jyoti Singh Puttey and Sardul S. Sandhu*
Drug resistance in bacteria, globally, has become an important issue and search for new antibacterial agent is inevitable. Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants provide a reservoir of bioactive metabolites. The present study made an attempt to isolate and screen endophytic fungi from some medicinal plants of Jabalpur region. The bioactive compounds from these fungi have tremendous antibacterial activity against five pathogenic bacteria viz. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae. The isolated endophytic fungi may lead to novel natural product for use in pharmaceutical industries.
698 SCREENING OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS IN JABALPUR REGION FOR ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY, Diva Gupta, Rama Mandal, Jyoti Singh Puttey and Sardul S. Sandhu*
Drug resistance in bacteria, globally, has become an important issue and search for new antibacterial agent is inevitable. Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants provide a reservoir of bioactive metabolites. The present study made an attempt to isolate and screen endophytic fungi from some medicinal plants of Jabalpur region. The bioactive compounds from these fungi have tremendous antibacterial activity against five pathogenic bacteria viz. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae. The isolated endophytic fungi may lead to novel natural product for use in pharmaceutical industries.
699 A STUDY ON PHYTOCHEMICAL AND CHROMOTOGRAPHIC ASSAY ON TRAGIA INVOLUCRATA, Syeda Jeelani Basri T1, Dr.G.V.Subba Reddy2, Dr.K.N.Jayaveera3
The present study was under taken to evaluate phytochemical and spectral analysis of crude macerated extracts of fresh plant of Tragia Involucrata Linn Fam Eupherbiaceae Crude macerated extract of methanolic (MME),hexane were used for the phytochemical and spectral activity. The phytochemical investigation reveals the presence of tannins, flavnoids, saponins, terpenoids and reducing sugars. Column Seperation was carried by various concentrations (100,200,300,400?g/ml) of crude extract which determines the number of compounds present. Spectral studies was carried by using Mass, NMR, IR spectras .Further studies are in progress to isolate the active principle responsible for the activity.
700 AMELIORATION OF CARRAGEENAN-INDUCED INFLAMMATION AND HYPOTHYROIDISM BY ETORICOXIB, A COX-2 INHIBITOR, IN RAT MODEL, Anand-Krishna Singh, Rayees-Ahmad Padder, Rameshwar Jatwa* and Anand Kar
The present study was premeditated to reveal the amelioration of carrageenan-induced inflammation and hypothyroidism by Etoricoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, in Wistar rat model. Carrageenan was administered to induce paw edema and alteration in thyroid functions, glucose metabolism; lipid peroxidation (LPO) in hepatic; renal and cardiac tissues along with serum total cholesterol (TC) and highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels in female Wistar rats were studied. Besides tissue glutathione content, alteration in body weight along with daily rate of food and water intake was also analyzed. Carrageenan administration on the hind footpad of rats significantly increased paw volume, tissue LPO, serum insulin, glucose and TG levels; it lowered circulating HDL-C level with a marked decline in the serum levels of T3 and T4 and daily rate of food and water consumption. While etoricoxib administration along with carrageenan treatment; status of all the thyroid dependent parameters was reversed with a consistent increase in circulating thyroid hormone levels. The findings of present study are suggestive that the drug might be acting through the restoration of thyroid homeostasis which in turn ameliorates inflammation and oxidative stress.
701 DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ZIDOVUDINE SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS, K.Sumana**. Someswara Rao, Suresh V. Kulkarni
Sustained release formulation of zidovudine based on monolithic - matrix technology was developed and evaluated. Zidovudine is water-soluble drug so it is suitable to develop sustained release matrix tablet. Zidovudine is a short acting drug, so developed formulation provides the advantages of sustained release formulations. Zidovudine is a first potent antiviral agent used in the treatment of AIDS. Zidovudine is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, with peak serum levels achieved with in about one hour. Oral sustained release matrix tablets of zidovudine were prepared by dry granulation technique using hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose polymer (HPMC) different grades. Hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose polymer (HPMC) is water soluble and rate controlling polymer. The effect of the concentration of the polymer was studied. The studies indicated that the drug release can be modulated by varying the concentration of the polymer. Granules were prepared and evaluated for loose bulk density, tapped bulk density, compressibility index and angle of repose, shows satisfactory results. Formulation was optimized on the basis of acceptable tablet properties (hardness, friability, drug content and weight variations) and in-vitro drug release. The resulting formulation produced robust tablets with optimum hardness, consistent weight uniformity and low friability. Release kinetics was evaluated by using United States Pharmacopeia (USP)-22 type II dissolution apparatus. The in vitro release study of matrix tablets were carried out in purified water for 12 hours. Among all the formulations, F-3 shows 96.52% release at the end of 12 hours. The results indicated that a decrease in release kinetics of the drug was observed by increasing the polymer concentration. The release data was fitted to various mathematical models such as, Higuchi, Korsmeyer-Peppas, First-order, and Zero-order to evaluate the kinetics and mechanism of the drug release. Kinetic modeling of in-vitro dissolution profiles revealed the release mechanism ranges from diffusion controlled or quasi-Fickian transport to anomalous type or non-Fickian transport, which was only dependent on the type and amount of polymer used. The drug release follows first order kinetics and the mechanism was found to be diffusion coupled with erosion. The stability studies were carried out according to ICH guideline which indicates that the selected formulations were stable.
702 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF AVANAFIL AND DAPOXENTINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND DOSAGE FORM, *Raval Kashyap1, U.Srinivasa2, Kalindi Badodaria3
To develop and validate a simple, economical, sensitive and accurate Chromatographic (RP-HPLC) Method for simultaneous estimation of Avanafil and Dapoxetine hydrochloride in their combined pharmaceutical dosage form.The HPLC separationwas achieved on a shiseido C18, (250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d. and 5?m particle size) analytical column. A Mixture of acetonitrile:water (90:10, v/v) was used as the mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1 ml/min and detector wavelength at 238 nm. In HPLC method the retention time of Avanafil and Dapoxetine hydrochloride was found to be 2.90 and 4.17min, respectively and the linear dynamic ranges were from 2-12?g/ml and 1.2-7.2?g/ml for Avanafil and Dapoxetine hydrochloride, respectively. Correlation coefficient for method was greater than 0.999. A simple, economic, specific, accurate and sensitive chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method have been developed and validated for the estimation of Avanafil and Dapoxetine hydrochloride in their combined pharmaceutical dosage form. RP-HPLC method validation parameters lie within its acceptance criteria as per ICH Q2 (R1) guideline. Hence, it can be successfully used for the routine analysis of Avanafil and Dapoxetine hydrochloride in their combined pharmaceutical dosage forms.
703 SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR AMLODIPINE BESYLATE AND NEVIRAPINE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM USING ABSORPTION RATIO METHOD, Sathis Kumar Dinakaran, Narayudu Yandamuri*, L P S Nainesha Allada
A simple, economic, and accurate absorption ratio method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Amlodipine besylate (AML) and Nevirapine (NEV) in bulk and tablet dosage form. 0.1M HCl was used as a diluent to dissolve AML and NEV. The absorptions were observed at 252 nm (isobestic point) and 295 nm (?max of NEV), which were selected based on overlapping spectra of AML and NEV. The linearity range was found to be 3-7 ?g/ml at 252 nm for AML (r2=0.99950.0005) and 295 nm for NEV (r2=0.99850.0012). The method was found to be simple, precise, accurate and rapid for the simultaneous determination of AML and NEV in bulk and tablet dosage form using absorption ratio method. Recovery study was performed to confirm the accuracy of the methods. The methods were validated as per ICH guidelines.
704 SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR AMLODIPINE BESYLATE AND NEVIRAPINE IN BULK AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM USING ABSORPTION RATIO METHOD, Sathis Kumar Dinakaran, Narayudu Yandamuri*, L P S Nainesha Allada
A simple, economic, and accurate absorption ratio method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Amlodipine besylate (AML) and Nevirapine (NEV) in bulk and tablet dosage form. 0.1M HCl was used as a diluent to dissolve AML and NEV. The absorptions were observed at 252 nm (isobestic point) and 295 nm (?max of NEV), which were selected based on overlapping spectra of AML and NEV. The linearity range was found to be 3-7 ?g/ml at 252 nm for AML (r2=0.99950.0005) and 295 nm for NEV (r2=0.99850.0012). The method was found to be simple, precise, accurate and rapid for the simultaneous determination of AML and NEV in bulk and tablet dosage form using absorption ratio method. Recovery study was performed to confirm the accuracy of the methods. The methods were validated as per ICH guidelines.
705 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ETODOLAC TRANS-EMULGEL, Suchita A.Patil*, Dr. Surajj Sarode1, Prof. B. S. Sathe1, Dr. P. V. Jain1 B. V. Jain1, Dr. G.P. Vadnere1
The aim of present research work was to investigate the possi- bility of dermal application of etodolac with emulgel formulations. Furthermore, the effect of different concentration of gelling agent, emulsifying agent and concentration of oil phase on the drug release, viscosity and spreadability was investigated and emulgel was optimized using 23 factorial design.The independent variables selected were carbopol 934,mixture of span 80 and tween 80,and liquid paraffin and dependent variables (responces)were cumulative amount of drug release across egg membrane in 8 hrs, viscosity and spreadability. Mathetical equations and response surface plots were used to relate dependent and independent variables and optimized formulation factors were selected. Emulgel formulations of Etodolac were prepared by using carbopol 934 as gelling agent, span 80 and tween 80 as emulsifiers and liquid paraffin as oil phase. Prepared emulgel were evaluated for their physical appearance, rheological studies, spreadability, pH values, drug content, in vitro drug release study, fitting of results into different kinetic equations, stability studies. The drug release was found to be higher for optimized formulation as compared to other formulations. Stability study showed that the physical appearance, rheological study, drug content, in vitro drug release study of optimized formulation remained unchanged upon storage condition for 3 months.
706 MEMORY BOOSTING EFFECTS OF CLEOME BRACHYCARPA:ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO TREAT DEMENTIA?, Sana Sarfaraz1*, Rahila Najam2,Iqbal Azhar3
Objective: Herbal preparations have been used since ancient times due to presence of active ingredients which have pharmacological significance and provide therapeutic efficicacy for treatment of various diseases. The aim of study is to evaluate memory boosting and improved muscle coordination activity of Cleome brachycarpa. Materials and Method: Stationary rod test was conducted on mice for 49 days. Ethanolic extract of Cleome brachycarpa was suspended in DMSO and administered orally at dose of 300mg/kg after being adjusted according to weight of mice in grams. Results: The results showed decrease in time taken to cross the rod after sub-chronic dosing and improved grip strength and muscle coordination. Conclusion: From above it is concluded that ethanolic extract of Cleome brachycarpa possesses memory boosting effects and improves muscle coordination, hence this extract can be beneficial for dementia associated with neurodegenerative diseases especially Alzheimers and Parkinsons.
707 NOVEL APPROACH FOR PATIENTS COMPLIANCE: FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS, Ruhi Fatma1*, Dr. P.K. Nandi2, Dr. Ajay Kumar Gupta1
There is lot of research and development taking place in the field of drug discovery and or improvement of existing drug therapy to combat with new challenges in health care system for the betterment of human health. But at the same time there are many other practical problems which are frequently faced by the patients and human beings, for example - increasing number of diseases in old age, increasing life span, swallowing problems in various age group due to many physiological, pathological and pharmacological reasons as well as decreasing availability of drinking water etc.; because of such problems the chances of incompliance is also getting increased and thus expected results of medicament administration is either not obtained or situation of medical error, adverse drug reaction etc. may arises. Thus, to improve patients compliance and convenience, fast dissolving or mouth dissolving tablets is one of the novel approaches and therefore preparation of FDTs become growing rapidly in the area of pharmaceutical research and industry. Till the date various formulation technologies of fast dissolving tablets are developed and now it is the time to provide clinical benefits by developing such formulation of drugs to full fill the need of patients and health care system.
708 STUDIES ON NOOTROPIC ACTIVITY OF RUTIN AND NARINGIN ON SCOPOLAMINE INDUCED AMNESIA IN RATS USING MORRIS WATER MAZE TASK., Konathala Rajesh*, K.Phani Kumar, S.Kotaiah, Prof. A. Annapurna
Nootropics are the new type of compounds affecting learning and memory but are pharmacologically neither CNS stimulant nor depressant. Several nootropics from allopathic system are under clinical trials. In the present study, we have used the Morris water maze to know the effect of Rutin and Naringin on spatial memory. The major advantage of the water maze task over the radial arm maze task is that the rats do not need to be water or food deprived, they are quite motivated to escape from the water. Standard test of learning in which the animal repeatedly searches for a platform hidden beneath the surface of opaque water in round pool. This test is especially sensitive to hippocampal damage and reflects attention, memory and learning strategy. Thus in the present study we have evaluated the nootropic activity of bioflavonoids mainly Naringin and Rutin as they had been reported potential antioxidant activity. Rutin had offered better degree of nootropic activity than Naringin. Both the doses 10mg/kg and 5mg/kg have shown slight different degree of nootropic activity.
709 GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES BY COCCINIA GRANDIS FLOWER EXTRACT, Sridevi Visvanathan*1 S.Janathul Firdous2and V.Bharathi3
The word nano is used to indicate one billionth of a meter or 10-9.Nanoparticles are clusters of atoms and their size from 1100 nm. In this work deals with the synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Coccinia grandis flower. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by using UVVis absorption spectroscopy, FTIR, and SEM analysis. The reaction mixture turned to brownish gray color after 5 hrs of incubation and exhibits an absorbance peak around 450 nm characteristic of Ag nanoparticle. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed silver nanoparticles was pure and polydispersed and the size were ranging from 10-50 nm. The approach of green synthesis seems to be cost efficient, eco-friendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of silver nanoparticles synthesis.
710 ROLE OF OVERSEAS COMMUNITY PHARMACIST IN HOME MEDICINE REVIEW- A REVIEW, B.R.Jaidev Kumar*, Ramesh Adepu, R.S. Savitha, Srikanth M.S
HMR services were specifically designed to assist consumers (especially elderly) living in their homes to have more benefits of medication regimen through medication review by community pharmacist and to prevent medication related problems. The operation of HMR involves a patient, General practitioner (GP), Accredited Pharmacist and Community Pharmacy. In some circumstances other health care team members such as nurses in community practice or careers are included in HMR process. The common activities observed during Medication use review services were checking rationality of drug, OTC products, patient medication adherence, drug therapy monitoring whether signs and symptoms are minimized or subsided, If drug related problems were identified they were reported to the concerned Physician or GP. Residential Medication Management Review Guidelines (RMMR) is the one which support the quality use of medicines and medication review services for aged patients with the assistance of accredited pharmacists. Benefits observed during collaborative practice between Pharmacist and General practitioners in overseas studies for providing medication reviews are identification of drug related problemsand appropriate solution to it. People residing in UK care homes are weak and irresistible population who are at more risk of experiencing medication errors. Strategies that should be adopted to overcome medication errors in UK patients care homes are constant review of medication administration record, adequate training to the health care professionals in medication errors and designing research protocols on medication errors that help in evaluating the medication errors.
711 PRODUCTION OF XYLANASE BY ASPERGILLUS NIDULANS ISOLATED FROM LITTER SOIL USING RICE BRAN AS SUBSTRATE BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION, Thenmozhi V. Arulanandham, Muthusamy Palaniswamy*
Industrially important xylanase enzyme production was explored by using fungal strain isolated from litter degrading soil. Aspergillus nidulans isolated from litter soil was grown on rice bran as solid substrate to produce xylanase. Various growth factors were optimized to optimize enzyme production. In the present study, Aspergillus nidulans showed a higher enzyme production of 561.75 U/g when grown on rice bran under optimized conditions of temperature, moisture content, incubation period, size and age of inoculum.
712 SYNTHESIS AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF NEW ?-AMINO PHOSPHONATE DERIVATIVES CONTAINING THIAZOLE MOIETY, Dr. Ranjana Shastri
A series of novel ?-amino phosphonate derivatives containing thiazole moiety (4a-j) were synthesized by condensing imines (3a-j) with triethylphosphite under solvent free conditions.Their structures were confirmed by spectroscopic data(IR,HNMR & mass).The compounds were investigated for antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus,Penicillium chrysogenum, Fusarium moneliforme and Trichoderma virudi in comparison with griseofulvin. Compounds showed moderate or no antifungal activity against fungi.
713 FORMULATION OF ORAL CAPSULES FROM ASENA HERBAL DECOCTION USED TRADITIONALLY IN GHANA FOR THE TREATMENT OF ARTHRITIS, Doris Kumadoh1*, Joseph Adotey2, Kwabena Ofori-Kwakye3, Samuel Lugrie Kipo3,Thomford Prah1, Sowah Patterson1
The study sought to transform Asena herbal decoction produced by the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM),Mampong-Akwapim, Ghana, into oral capsules. Asena decoction is a popular herbal remedy used in Ghana for the treatment of arthritis and generalized body pains. The amount of dry extract per dose (30ml) of Asena decoction was 402.3 2.5 mg. The wavelength of maximum absorption (? max) of aqueous solutions of Asena extract was determined to be 278 nm. Light magnesium carbonate, maize starch and bentonite were used as absorbents at five different weights (40, 80,160, 180 and 200 mg /dose) of Asena decoction to prepare granules of the extract. The granules prepared generally had good flow properties. The dissolution profiles of the formulated granules were determined by UV-Visible spectrophotometry. Maize starch (87.45 1.82 % -97.19 1.46 %) and bentonite (83.94 1.69 % -98.15 1.96 %) showed very good release of the extract in aqueous medium while light magnesium carbonate (16.75 3.40 % - 37.89 1.54 %) exhibited poor release of the extract at all concentrations of absorbent used. Oral capsules of Asena were successfully formulated using maize starch as absorbent at a concentration of 200 mg /dose. The capsules passed the British Pharmacopoeia uniformity of weight test (range of deviation: - 4.19 to 1.18 %), disintegration test (8.03 0.13 min) and dissolution test (79.82 2.36 % dissolved at 45 min). The study has shown the potential of Asena oral capsules as a suitable substitute for Asena decoction for the treatment of arthritis and pain.
714 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF IMMATURE FRUITS OF SYZYGIUM CUMINI, Indu S*1, Annika D1, Meeta B2, Jossy V2 and Naresh C3
Aim of the research work is to study the antimicrobial activity of immature fruits of Syzygium cumini, and to identify the phytochemical group of the compounds showing antimicrobial activity. Syzygium cumini crude methanol fruit extract was screened for its antimicrobial activity against Gram negative and Gram positive bacterial cultures agar well diffusion method. Phytochemical group of the compounds showing antimicrobial activity was identified by TLC bioautography method. Crude methanol fruit extract showed significant antimicrobial activity only against Gram positive organisms but not against Gram negative organisms. TLC bioautography method identifies the antimicrobial compounds as phenolic compounds. The results revealed that the phenolic compounds present in immature fruits of Syzygium cumini, possess significant antimicrobial activity against Gram positive organisms and can be used as a source of herbal antimicrobial agent.
715 STUDIES ON ASPERGILLOMYCOSIS IN LABEO CALBASU FOUND INFECTED WITH ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS AND A.TERREUS.