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World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

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1 N-(3-TRIFLUOROMETHYLBENZOYL)-NPHENYLUREA,A NOVEL COMPOUND OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DEPRESSANT, *Bambang Tri Purwanto
The development of drug molecules which have a spesific activity of pharmacological effect to become the new molecul drug is a challenge in this decade. The new compound which have a spesific action is the need and very necessary. [12] The method for having the new compound is doing by the synthesis from some reactans and the very important step is the proccess. The presence of the compound which have the activity as the central nervous system (CNS) depressant needed to be developed, that is a new challenge and felt more further considering the side effects that drugs have. [4, 7]
2 ACUTE AND SUB-CHRONIC TOXICITY STUDY OF CORIARIA MYRTIFOLIA LEAVES EXTRACT IN RODENTS, M. Boudkhili*, H. Greche,M. Ait el Cadi,B.Meddah, A.Zellou, A.Bounihi and L. Aarab
Coriaria myrtifolia belongs to the Coriariacaes family. It has the largest fruits in the genus Coriaria. It is an Herbal plant commonly used in western Mediterranean area. In the present study, we investigated t he acute and sub-chronic toxicity of the crude methanolic extract of leaves of Coriaria myrtifolia. For acute toxicity, a single oral administration was performed at a dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight in Swice mice. The study of sub-chronic toxicity was evaluated by daily oral administration with the extract at dose 200 mg/kg to Wistar rats for sixty days. No mortality or signs of toxicity were observed in the acute study. Wistar rats were analyzed for body weight, blood chemical. The results showed no toxicity and mortality in either sex comparing to the control group. After sixty days, the extract of Coriaria myrtifolia did produced the increase of neutrophils and decrease of lymphocytes. The extracts of the leaves of Coriaria myrtifolia showed a low toxicity. They are good candidates for further pharmacological investigations.
3 HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD WITH FLUORESCENCE DETECTION FOR SULPIRIDE DETERMINATION IN HUMAN PLASMA, *Mohammed Kaleemullah, Yusrida Darwis, Peh Kok Yang, Jiyauddin Khan, Mallikarjun Chitneni, Fadli Asmani and Eddy Yusuf
The present study was aimed to develop and validate a simple reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of sulpiride in human plasma. The HPLC system was operated at an excitation and emission wavelengths of 300 nm and 365 nm, respectively with the gain was set at 4 and sensitivity at medium. The mobile phase was consisted of 0.01 M phosphoric acid, acetonitrile and methanol (84:12:4, v/v) with addition of Triethylamine (0.15%v/v). The mobile phase pH was adjusted to 6 by using glacial acetic acid. The mobile phase was isocratically pumped at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The analytical column Luna C18 (5 ?m, 250 x 4.6 mm ID, Phenomenex, USA) fitted with a refillable guard column (Upchurch Scientific, Oak Harbour, WA, USA) packed with Perisorb RP-18 (30-40 ?m, pellicular) was used for chromatographic separation. The mobile phase was filtered under vacuum through 0.45 m nylon membrane filter (Whatman International, England) and degassed before used. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 15 to 4000 ng/ml with correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999 ( 0.0001). The intra -day accuracy ranged from -4.59% to 12.91% with a precision from 1.42% to 6.79%. The inter-day accuracy ranged from -1.86% to 6.29% with a precision from 4.21% to 13.91%. The extraction recovery values were found to be 95.99 9.44%, 96.12 11.94% and 93.49 5.13%, with precision of 9.84%, 12.42% and 5.49% respectively. The mean recovery for internal standard (metoclopramide) was 90.28 3.95%. The values of accuracy, precision and recovery obtained were within the acceptable limits as proposed by USFDA Bioanalytical Guidelines. In conclusion, a simple, accurate, precise, sensitive, and specific RP-HPLC method was developed for the determination of sulpiride in human plasma.
4 EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC EFFECTS OF THESPESIA POPULNEA, *Muhammad Asif, Syed Baqir Shyum Naqvi, Muhammad Akram
The objective of the present study was to investigate in vivo analgesic effects of thespesia populnea extract (TPE). The crude drug was screened for to identify the antinociceptive properties by reduction in the number of writhings and time difference in tail flick latency of mice. Methods: In chemical method acetic acid writhing test and in thermal method tail flick test were performed. The extract at all doses 100, 150 and 200 mg/kg/p.o inhibited the abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid and also increased the pain threshold of mice towards the thermal source in a dose dependent manner. The standard drug was aspirin for the comparison of effects in each method. Results: The result of chemical method (acetic acid writhing test) revealed that TPE significantly (p
5 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FLORFENICOL INCLUSION COMPLEXES WITH THREE CYCLODEXTRINS, Suying Ma, Yongli Shi, Jincai Wang and Xiaojun Shang*
Florfenicol inclusion complexes with three cyclodextrins were prepared for the improvement of the solubility and dissolution rate of florfenicol. The inclusion complexes were prepared by the saturated aqueous solution method with hydroxypropyl -?-cyclodextrin, ?-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl -?-cyclodextrin as carriers. The products were characterized by phase solubility diagram, differential thermal analysis and dissolution rate. Stability constants for florfenicol in the three carrier solutions were calculated. The solubility of florfenicol, physical mixture and inclusion complex were measured. The results showed that the florfenicol was included by the three carriers and obeyed a typical AL-type. The stability constant was 719.73 L/mol, 352.7 L/mol and 678.91 L/mol for HP-?-CD, ?-CD and HP-?-CD, respectively. The spectra of differential thermal analysis of the inclusion complexes were different from florfenicol and the physical mixture. Solubility of florfenicol was enhanced for the formation of inclusion complex. The disso lution rate of florfenicol inclusion complex made with HP-?-CD was higher than that of inclusion complexes made with HP-?-CD and?-CD. The florfenicol inclusion complexes made with three cyclodextrins showed superior performance in improving dissolution rate properties, The method was simple and practical on preparation the inclusion complexes.
6 CLONING PROTEASE GENE FROM PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA ISOLATED FROM HUMAN CORNEAL ULCERATION CASE, Rabab Omran*
In previous paper, clinical strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from human corneal ulceration case. The bacterial cells secreted the extracellular alkaline protease that was partially purified and characterized. The aim of this paper is determined some antibiotics resistance and pyocyanin pigment production , as well as introduced protease encoding gene or genes into Escherichia coli HB101 to study and understand the role of protease enzymes in bacterial pathogenicity to develop therapeutics against P. aeruginosa future researches. Results: The isolate appeared pyocyanin pigment production and extracellular protease and has multiple drug resistances to twelve antibiotics including ampicillin, amikacin, amoxicillin, carbencillin, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, erythromycin, lincomycin, penicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim and it is sensitive to ciprofloxacin, gentamycin, neomycin and rifampicin. The plasmid profile of the isolate revealed that the presence of single large plasmid on agarose gel electrophoresis. Plasmid transfer experiment including plasmid transformation and bacterial conjugation into the plasmidless competent cells of E. coli MM 294 (Rif r ), as the recipients strain at a frequency 5x 10 -3 and1.2x10 -4 respectively , appeared that transformed E. coli cells acquired all antibiotic resistances but lincomycin and pyocyanin production. While the transconjugant cells acquired pigment production (pyocyanin) on King's medium and all studied antibiotic resistances including lincomycin that may be indicated multiple resistance genes related to the presence of the conjugative plasmid R68.45 or a derivative of R68 that available in P. aeruginosa. This plasmid is able to mobilize the bacterial chromosome genes from many origins and may be the lin resistance gene and pigment genes included in this transfer into E. coli MM294 strain. Pseudomonad genes were introduced into E. coli HB101 Smr, after purified total DNA and cloning vector pACYC184 were cleft by EcoR I restriction endonuclease at frequency 4.3 x 10-3. Subsequently, these clones screened on skimmed milk agar to select protease producing clones. Only 32 clones showed variable ability to produce protease enzyme out of 86 clones. These clones phenotypically divided into two groups, the first one appeared complete casein digestion (12 clones) on skimmed milk agar plate (clearzone) and the other group (20 clones) has low caseinolytic activity that may be indicated the DNA fragment encoding protease miss certain sequence caused less activity of protease enzyme or most enzyme molecules accumulate intracellular or in periplasmic space of bacterial cells and few enzyme molecules secreted from cells to the medium or may be these clones encoding different protease enzymes.
7 ANTIBACTERIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ACTIVITIES OF MORINGA OLEIFERA ON BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH WOUND INFECTION AND GASTROENTERITIS, *Eze, V.C., Nwankwo, I.U. and Eluwa, O.V
Antibacterial activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of different parts of Moringa oleifera plant were evaluated against some human bacteria pathogens. The results obtained showed presence of spanonins, tannin, flavonoids, starch, steroids and Cyanogenic glucoside in all the plant parts studied though a component may be present in one or two parts and absent in the other. The activity of the extracts varied with the extracting solvents as well as with the test bacterial species. The mean inhibition zone diameters of the aqueous extracts of the different parts of the plant on the growth of the pathogens ranged as follows: Escherichia coli, 5.67 0.58mm 7.67 0.58mm; Staphylococcus aureus, 6.33 0.58mm 14.33 1.53mm; Pseudomonas aeruginosa , 6.67 0.58mm 11.67 1.15mm and Salmonella, 7.67 0.58mm 16.33 1.53mm. The mean inhibition zone diameters of the ethanolic extracts of the different parts of the plant on the growth of the patho gens ranged as follows: Escherichia coli, 7.67 0.58mm 16.67 1.15mm; Staphylococcus aureus, 7.33 1.15mm 16.50 0.87mm, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 7.00 1.0mm 18.00 2.00mm; Salmonella, 8.00 0.58mm 13.33 0.58mm. However, the leaf extracts had the highest activity on the pathogens in both the aqueous and ethanolic extracts while the leaf stalk extract recorded the least activity except on Escherichia coli where the seed had the least activity. The standard antibiotics were found to be more active on the organisms than the extracts. The potency of the extracts against the pathogens was attributed to the different phytochemical substances present in the plant parts.
8 STUDY ON RADICAL SCAVENGING AND GASTROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF ETHANOLIC STEM-BARK EXTRACT OF CARPOLOBIA LUTEA IN RODENTS., Lucky Legbosi Nwidu,Jonah Sydney Aprioku,Fred Horsfal Guluye,
This is a study of the antioxidant activity and gastroprotective effects of Carpolobia lutea ethanolic stem-bark extract (CL ESE) used as antiulcer in ethnomedicine. Experimentally induced gastric ulceration was achieved using acute models such as indomethacin, ethanol and serotonin. Amino acid analysis was by cation-exchange chromatography using automated amino acid analyser. Antioxidant potential was obtained by spectrophotometric assay using 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The finger print of CL ESE was revealed by Jasco (Tokyo, Japan) HPLC and active compounds by phytochemical screening using standard procedure. The calculated LD50 is 866.025 mg/kg (i.p) using Lock's Method. In the indomethacin model, 43.3, 86.6 and 173.2 mg/kg CL ESE revealed ulcer inhibition rates of 51 %, 65 % and 76 %, respectively (p > 0.05, p < 0.05, p< 0.01) when compared with the control, while the pure drug, cimetidine (100 mg/kg) produced ulcer inhibition rate of 74 % (p < 0.01). In the ethanol model, 43.3, 86.6 and 173.2 mg/kg CL ESE produced ulcer inhibition of 20 %, 28 % and 40 % respectively; while cimetidine produced 36 % ulcer inhibition (p > 0.05). But combination of 86.6 mg/kg CL ESE and cimetidine (100 mg/kg) resulted in 44 % ulcer inhibition (p
9 COMPARISON OF POSTOPERATIVE NAUSEA AND VOMITING AFTER INTRAVASCULAR PATIENT-CONTROL ANALGESIA (PCA) WITH (PARACETAMOL+MORPHINE) AND (PARACETAMOL+ TRAMADOL) IN ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY, Kaveh Behaeen* Naser Sarrafan, Sholeh Nesioonpour, Mansoor Soltanzadeh,Tahmineh Ghalami
Introduction: Postoperative nausea and vomiting is common complications after orthopedic surgery. We compared incidence of nausea and vomiting after hip and femoral surgery. Methods: In a double blind clinical trial study 36 patients in three equal groups randomly, take three methods for controlling post -operative pain. Group C (n=12) control group received intramuscular NSAID (diclofenac 100mg) as routine plan for pain control in orthopedic ward. Group M and T received intravascular analgesic with PCA device in t wo different combination. Group M (paracetamol 2g+morphine 10mg), group T (paracetamol 2g+ tramadol 100mg) Results: Demographics and statistical data showed post -operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in three groups was 2 in group C and 1in group M and 4 in group T (P value< 0.05). Conclusion: Incidence of nausea and vomiting with (paracetamol 2g+morphine 10mg) in group M was significant lower than two other groups.
10 GENETICS OF OBESITY: THE RISE OF NEUTROGENETICS, ASIAN ADIPOCYTES AND STRATEGY TOWARDS PREVENTING OBESITY, Atif AB, Emilia A*, Aliya S, Aamenah M, Zahri MK, Shamim AK , Gotam K, Uday YH Abdullah, Sulaiman I, Farouk RM,Esa AB Rahman, Nordin S
Obesity has recently reported to be a pandemic. Multiple factors such as individuals genetic susceptibility, increased availability of high caloric and energy-dense food and sedentary lifestyle are involved that contribute to the development of obesity. Although much research on obesity has been conducted for the past few decades, yet the clear understanding regarding the causes and treatment of obesity remains unclear since a comprehensive study on the field of obesity still has not been explored extensively. The emergence of nutritional genomics which combines multiple elements such as health, diet, and genomics should be the driving force of future nutritional research to provide clear understanding on how obesity develops from the perspective of molecular nutrition to the prevention of disease. However, challenges are still there to identify the real potential cause of obesity and its associated disease and the adoption of current knowledge for more applicable and personalized dietary intervention strategies to combat diet-related disease still requires a lot of effort to break the molds of traditional nutrition research concentrated on nutrient deficiencies and deterioration of health.
11 PRODUCTION AND NUTRITIONAL STUDIES OF GUINEA CORN SPICED DRINK AND CASSAVA FRIED BALLS, *Nwachoko, Ndidi and Alum, E.U
Guinea corn is a grain in the grass family; it serves as food and drink. Cassava is of the spurge family, native to South America, it is use as food. Production and nutritional studies of cassava fried balls and guinea corn spiced drink were investigated, the result of the proximate analysis of guinea corn spiced drink revealed the moisture content, ash, fat, crude protein and total carbohydrate content to be (89.88%, 0.058%, 0.043%, 0.587%, and 9.332%) respectively. While the percentage composition for cassava fried balls were found to be (37.35%, 1.723%, 12.18%, 5.34% and 43.407%) respectively. Also these products were fed to albino rats at different percentages and blood sample collected for analysis of glucose concentration, total protein, total cholesterol, triglyceride and high density lipoprotein. The result showed that glucose values were (4.2, 5.05, 4.83, 5.2 and 4.5mmol/L); Total protein value were (7.66, 80.5, 75.0, 80.33 and 76.66 g/L); Triglyceride (0.033, 1.1, 1.73, 1.96 and 1.96mmol/L); High density lipoprotein (2.13, 2.05, 2.13, 2.2 and 2.2mmol/L) for group 1,2,3,4 and 5 respectively. Glucose, total protein, cholesterol and high density lipoprotein values of both the control and experimental groups were within the same range.
12 ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANTINOCICEPTIVE ACTIVITY TESTS WITH BETA VULGARIS L. SSP. VULGARIS ROOTS: A PRELIMINARY REPORT, Indrani Mandal, Humayra Jannat, Shahnaz Rahman, Rownak Jahan, Tania Khan, Sadia Moin Mou, Mohammed Rahmatullah*
Background: Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris is cultivated throughout Bangladesh for its edible leaves and roots. Poor rural people consume the leaves, while the more costly roots are consumed by the more affluent urban population. The objective of this study was to scientifically analyze t he antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive properties of methanol extract of roots (beet root) of the plant. Methods: Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to determine antihyperglycemic activity. Antinociceptive activity was determined by observed decreases in abdominal writhings in intraperitoneally administered acetic acid-induced pain model in mice. Results: Administration of methanol extract of roots led to dose-dependent and significant reductions in blood glucose levels in glucose-loaded mice. At doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight, the extract reduced blood glucose levels by 17.5, 33.2, 40.2, and 51.7%, respectively compared to control animals. By comparison, a standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight, reduced blood glucose level by 55.2%. In antinociceptive activity tests, the extract at the above four doses reduced the number of abdominal constrictions by 35.5, 41.9, 45.2, and 48.4%, respectively. A standard pain relieving (antinociceptive) drug, aspirin, reduced the number of writhings by 48.4 and 61.3%, respectively, when administered at doses of 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first report on oral glucose tolerance and antinociceptive activity evaluation of roots of the plant. Since the plant is widely available in Bangladesh, the roots can be a source for lowering blood sugar in diabetic patients and for alleviating pain.
13 5-FLUOROURACIL MUCOADHESIVE LIQUID SUPPOSITORY FORMULATION AND EVALUATION, *Hanan J. Kassab, Yehia I. Khalil
5-FU was formulated into a thermo-sensitive liquid suppository in combination with citrus pectin as Galectin-3 inhibitor, using poloxamer P407 as a thermo- gelling agent. Pectin addition retarded 5-FU solubility but the addition of cyclodextrin improved it, due to complex formation and decrease in crystallinity of 5-FU from 100 to 19.01% confirmed by XRD and FTIR. All the formulas showed sustained release due to P407 incorporation and non-Fickian release kinetics. The incorporation of carbopol C940 as a mucoadhesive polymer altered the gelation temperature of P407. The selected liquid suppository formula P4( P407:C940(19:1)) exhibited mucoadhesion strength of 2.476103 dyne/cm2 ,gelation temperature of 31.7C and gel strength of 75 sec and showed pseudo-plastic flow with consistency of 3.7255 and 3.9934 mPa.s-n at 20 and 37 C respectively and permeation through sheep rectal tissue of 0.695cm/hr .
14 IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILES OF THREE ANTITUMOR MEDICINAL PLANTS GROWN IN SUDAN, Amina Ibrahim Dirar, Magdi Awadalla Mohamed*, Hassan Subki Khalid, Bashier Osman, Eltyeb Fadul and Asaad Khalid
Oxidative stress has become widely viewed as an underlying condition of most prevalent human aliments including cancer. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant potential of three medicinal plants, grown in Sudan, namely, Ambrosia maritima L., Aristolochia bracteolata L. and Lawsonia inermis L., widely held in traditional practice and reputed to cure tumor. Extraction of the active morphological plants' parts was commenced with dichloromethane then 80 % methanol. The antioxidant activity and phytochemical profile were conducted via 2, 2-diphenyl-1-icrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and preliminary phytochemical screening, respectively. Lawsonia inermis MeOH extract ranked the top DPPH active extract (% RSA= 86 0.07%). Other methanolic plants' extracts, except A.bracteolata branches, reported a good antioxidant activity (% RSA > 50 %). Preliminary phytochemical screening of the candidate extracts revealed the presence of coumarins, flavonoids, sterols and tannins. Thus, A. maritima, A. bracteolata and L. inermis by virtue of their antioxidant potential may support their ethnomedicinal uses as antitumor agents.
15 POLYHERBAL EXTRACTS FROM GONGRONEMA LATIFOLIUM AND OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM IMPAIRED LIVER FUNCTION IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS, *Agbai Emmanuel Onuka
The effect of four weeks co-administration of gongronema latifolium and ocimum gratissimum was studied in alloxan induced diabetic rats. At the end of the period of extract administration, results showed that extracts caused a slight decrease in blood glucose, alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin and albumin levels, although not significant compared to normal control (P > 0.05), but caused an elevated AST and ALT levels (P < 0.05). Dat a suggest that coadministration of these extracts may be harmful to the liver.
16 INCREACING AGOENE COMPOUND OF Allium sativum L. USING (UV) LIGHT IN VITRO, Dr. Hashim K. Mohammed Al-oubaidi* Zainab Salim Hussain
The present study was conducted in order to increase the production of some Secondary metabolic compounds (essential oils) of Allium sativum L. In Vitro. Secondary metabolic compounds quantitative and qualitative analysis using chromatography device with high performance liquid HPLC and compared with the mother plant. In order to increase the production of secondary metabolites, (UV) light used with exposure (0, 10, 20, 30) min. The results showed that the (10) min exposure to UV light led to high significant in agoene compound.
17 ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF AJUGA IVA (L) AQUEOUS EXTRACT IN MERCURIC CHLORIDE INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN RATS, Youcef Necib*, Ahlem Bahi, Sakina zerizer and Soumia Djemai-Zoughlache
The present study was undertaken, to evaluate the protective effect of Aquaous extract of Ajuga Iva against mercuric chloride induced oxidative stress in experimental rats. Female Albinos Wistar rats randomly divided into four groups, were the first was served as a control, whereas the remaining groups respectively treated with: Ajuga Iva (200mg/ kg b.w; by gavage), mercuric chloride (1 mg/kg body weight i.p) and combination of Ajuga Iva and HgCl 2. Change in liver enzyme activities, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, antioxidants and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were determined after 10 days experimental per iod. Exposure of rats to mercuric chloride caused a significant increase the lipid peroxidation level along with corresponding decrease in the reduced glutathione and various antioxidant enzymes in liver. And increase in serum: glucose and bilirubin le vels, APL and transaminases activities. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of liver weight and decreased body weight. Supplementation of Aquaous extract Ajuga Iva resulted in decreased of lipid peroxidation level and in the serum: glucose and billirubin levels and AST, ALT and APL activities were decreased along with increase in liver GSH level. The activities of antioxidants enzymes: glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione Stransferase (GST) were also concomitantly restored to near normal level by Aquaous extract of Ajuga Iva supplementation to mercuric chloride intoxicated rats. Liver histological studies have confirmed the changes observed in biochemical parameters and proved the beneficial role of Aquaous extract of Ajuga Iva. The results clearly demonstrate that Aquaous extract of Ajuga Iva treatment augments the antioxidants defense mechanism in mercuric chloride induced toxicity and provides evidence that it may have a therapeutic role in free radica l mediated diseases.
18 PREPARATION OF DENTAL PHOSPHATE-BONDED INVESTMENT TO CAST NICKEL:CHROMIUM ALLOYS AND THE EVALUATION OF ITS MECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES, Najdat H. Abdul-Razzak, Saadi M. D. Al-Nuzal*, Mohammed A. Mustafa, Flaih H. Ali, and Bushra A. Lafta
An investment composition is described for use in dental investment casting (also called lost wax casting), from Iraqi locally available raw materials. The major composition is a phosphate bonded material that contains synthesized mono-ammonium phosphate (MAP) as binder, and silica filler (quartz, cristobalite, or a mixture thereof) as refra ctory materials. The procedure included many steps among them chemical syntheses, and thermal treatment s at high temperature (~1100C), followed by chemical analysis for quality control. The high purity investment was successfully, used to cast Nickel: Chromium alloys for dental use. The evaluation of the mechanical and physical properties of the prepared investment were carefully checked according to the required specification of the ISO No. 9694/1996, which was adapted for preparing chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of the prepared dental materials. The chemical analysis of this formulation showed to be in good agreement with many imported investments.
19 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EZETIMIBE FREEZE-DRIED TABLETS USING ZYDIS TECHNOLOGY, Safaa A. Kadhim, Asst. Prof Dr. Shaimaa Nazar*, Prof. Dr. Alaa A. Abdul Rasool
The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize ezetimibe as freeze dried tablets using Zydis technology. Ezetimibe is a poorly watersoluble drug which is one of the lipid lowering drugs that selectively inhibit the intestinal absorption o f cholesterol and related phytosterols prepared as freeze dried tablets in order to improve its solubility and dissolution rate. Different formulas were prepared and different binding agents were used with different concentrations such as gelatin, Xanthan gum, Dextrin, and Microcrystalline cellulose. Gelatin was found to be the best one according to the results. The bulking agent (mannitol) and glycine also used in different concentrations in order to optimize the best formulation. The best formula (EZT-F2) was prepared by dispersing ezitimibe in aqueous solution of gelatin (2.5% w/v), glycine (1% w/v), and mannitol (2% w/v). The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time, and content uniformity, and the best formulations were evaluated for in vitro dissolution rate. Amongst all formulas, formula EZT-F2 (F5+drug) was found to be the best formula with a disintegration time of 4 1.5 sec. and % drug release of 79.7% 1.54 after 7 min which is similarly closed to the results of the marketed tablet; Ezetrol that contains several superdisintegrants and surfactant s in its formulation with percent drug release 82.64 1.82 after 7 min. The stability of the prepared tablet was studied by storing the prepared ezitimibe freeze dried tablets at 40, 50 and 60 o C for four months. The estimated expiration date at 25 oC was approximately 2.187 years. On the other hand, the accelerated stability study at 402 oC/ 755 % RH of this formula for three months showed no significant changes (p
20 DETERMINATION OF BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF Alocasia Macrorrhizos: A MEDICINAL PLANT, Shimul Banik, Md. Ibrahim, Mohammad Nurul Amin, Md. Mizanur Rahman Mogha*, Mohammad Sakim Majumder, Md. Khorshed Alam, Shamima Nasrin Anonna, Md. Saif Uddin Rashed
The present study was designed and conducted to detect possible phytochemicals, and investigate antioxidant, antimicrobial, thrombolytic, cytotoxic and anthelmintic activity of the methanolic extract of Alocasia macrorrhizos and its different fractions. Phytochemical screening was carried out using the standard test methods of different chemical groups. For assessing the antioxidant activity, DPPH free radical scavenging assay was carried out. For the evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity, disc diffusion method was used. The method of Prasad et al., 2007 with minor modifications was used to determine the thrombolytic activity. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity was done using the brine shrimp lethality bio assay. And the other study was undertaken to evaluate anthelmintic activity (using Pheretima posthuma model) where piperazine was used as reference standard. The methanolic extracts were a rich source of phytochemicals. It contains moderate DPPH scavenging activity although methanolic extracts showed highest free radical scavenging activity (IC 50 value is 47.11 ?g/ml) while compared to that of the reference standards ascorbic acid . Morever, the methanolic and carbontetrachloride fraction of extracts revealed good antimicrobial activity at the concentration of 400 ?g/disc and petroleum ether fraction and aquous fraction of crude extract shows good antifungal activity. By comparing with the negative control, the mean clot lysis % was significant (p value
21 A STUDY TO COMPARE THE HEPATOPROTECTIVE ROLE OF NIGELLA SATIVA AQUEOUS SOLUTION AND OIL SUSPENSION FOLLOWING ACETAMINOPHEN INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN LAYER CHICKS, Ruqaiya Hasan*, Taseer A. Khan, Muhammad N. Khan, and Aiman Kanwa
This investigation is performed to compare the reported hepatoprotective activity of Nigella sativa (Black Seed) aqueous solution and oil suspension by measuring the mean serum Aspartate transaminase (AST) and Alanine transaminase (ALT) levels f ollowing the administration of single toxic dose of 300 mg acetaminophen / kg body weight in Layer chicks. Blood samples drawn after 72 hours of drug administration showed a non significant rise of AST and ALT in the chickens treated with Nigella sativa aqueous solution and unaltered levels of serum AST and non significant high levels of ALT in the chickens treated with Nigella sativa oil suspension for 15 days, in comparison to controls. Thus it is concluded that Nigella sativa oil effectively provides hepatoprotection against toxic agents due to its active ingredient thymoquinone with antioxidant property, and there is a need to explore the minimum effective dose of Nigella sativa oil.
22 NEED OF CONSERVATION & MANAGEMENT OF ENDANGERED PLANT SPECIES OF NORTH WESTERN HIMALAYAS- A REVIEW, P. K. Chauhan, Sunayna Singh, Janmeet Kour and Manjeet Singh
North Western Himalayan forests are the most important source of medicinal plants and with useful species for the local people of Himachal Pradesh (HP), India. Maximum medicinal plants were reported in the altitudinal zone, 2000-2800 m and decreased with increasing altitude. The present analysis was carried out on the upper hilly regions of HP for the ecological status of endangered medicinal plants, causes of their extinction and their management. Out of the total 457 medicinal plant species of HP, 60 plant species fall in the category of endangered plants, out of which 3 were critically endangered, 44 endangered and 13 vulnerable. This study can serve as baseline information on medicinal plants and could be helpful to further strengthen the conservation of this important resource. Regular monitoring of populations and habitats of threatened medicinal plants, restricted harvesting and habitat protection are suggested. Further, the native communities need to be made aware regarding the sustainable use and conservation value of the species of different genus.
23 ETHNOMEDICINE IN DIABETES MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW, Kishalay Jana, Debidas Ghosh*
The term diabetes mellitus describes a metabolic disorder of multiple etiologies characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. The effects of diabetes mellitus include long-term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs. Diabetes mellitus may present with characteristic symptoms such as thirst, polyuria, blurring of vision, and weight loss. Experimentally , many herbs have been recommended for treating diabetes. In majority of cases, the recommendations are based on animal studies and limited pieces of evidence exist about their clinical usefulness. This review focused on the herbs, the hypoglycemic actions of which have been supported by three or more clinical studies. The search was done in NCBI Pub Med, Google Scholar, Medline and Science Direct databases using the key terms Glucose, diabetes, plants, herbs, animals, patients. According to the different clinical studies, Eugenia jambolana, Aegle marmelos, Allium cepa, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Nigella sativa, Salacia reticulate, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have shown Antihyperglycemic activity and in some cases, hypolipidemic activities in diabetic patients. Among them, Eugenia jambo lana, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum-graecum have acquired enough reputation for managing diabetes. Thus, it seems that physicians can rely on these herbs and advise for the patients to improve management of diabetes.
24 GENTIANA OLIVIERI GRISEB (FLOWER OF GHAAFIS): A VALUABLE MEDICINAL HERB OF UNANI MEDICINE- A REVIEW, *Mohammad Asim Khan,Abdu Wadud, Najeeb Jhan,Rizwan Mansoor Khan, Md.Nazamuddin
Herbs origin drugs have played a vital role in the prevention and treatment of diseases and it becomes popular day by day due to its low cost and less side effect. Unani medicine is an oldest system of traditional medicines, in which 80% plant origin drugs are used. Gule Ghaafis (Gentiana Olivieri Griseb)) is very important drug which has been used in Unani medicine since centuries for its great medicinal values. In the last few decades, many works have been done on the phytochemistry and biological activities of the drug. This review describes about the Unani literature of the drug, like temperament, action, uses, formulations and dose of the drug followed by modern description like taxonomic classification, macroscopic and microscopic features, phytochemical studies, chemical constituent and pharmacological action of the drug and its medicinal uses.
25 HARLEQUIN ICHTHYOSIS: AN AUTOSOMAL DERMATOLOGICAL DISORDER, Ashmeet Kaur, Harsharan Pal Singh*
Harlequin ichthyosis is a severe and extremely rare genetically inherited disorder of skin. It is a disord er with severe erythrodermtic ichthyosis which causes a distinct and life threatening appearance at birth. It is most severe form of congential ichthyosis. The baby born with a dense armor-like scales that covers the entire body. The armor cracks and splits apart which affects the shape of the eye-lids, nose, mouth and ears. The newborn is encased within a membrane which restricts the movement of the limbs and chest cavity. The restricted movement of the chest results in respiratory and circulatory failure.These babies are at serious risk of yperthermia and hypothermia, dehydration, seizures, skin infection, poor feeding and hypernatremia. Thus, neonates die at an early stage of life. Pathogenetic mechanism involved behind this disorder is the mutat ion in the ABCA12 gene. Loss of function of ABCA12 leads to defective lipid transport via lamellar granules and malformation of the intercelluar lipid layer. This results in hyperkeratotis of the skin. This genetic disorder can be diagnosed by prenatal DNA analys is by chorionic villus or amniotic fluid sampling at early stages of pregnancy. The otherwise fatal disorder can be managed with utmost nursing care with combined efforts of paediatrician, dermatologist, genet icist, ophthalmologist, reconstructive surgeon along with full involvement of parents. This has led to increased survival incidences. These babies are subjected to contempt which adversely affects their psyche and self-esteem. Thus, social and professional support should be included as an essential part of the holistic management of such babies.
26 A PRACTICAL APPROACH TO RP HPLC ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT, *Sunita Sule, Sushma Ambadekar , Deepak Nikam, Ameet Sule, Sudesh Bhure
High performance liquid chromatography is one of the most widely used tools to identify and quantify potency in drug substance s and drug products. Analytical method development and validation are two very critical processes performed before release of a method for use in Quality Control department. This article focuses on stepwise practical approach towards developing a RP HPLC assay met hod. The various contributing parameters and its effect on the performance of the RP HPLC analytical method being developed are described simply, such that a new chro matographer is able to develop a method with the understanding of the RP HPLC method development process and its parameters.
27 A REVIEW ON REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES, Bhawana Sharma, Priyanka Sharma, S.C. Joshi*
A significant increase in the incidence of male infertility has been described in the recent literature, raising questions about its causes. Pesticides such as organophosphates, organochlorine, phthalates, pyrethroids, carbamates and other substances from various industrial uses and residues are among the main endocrine disruptors that cause reproductive toxicity and male infertility. Organochlorines are a group of various synthetic chemicals that include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxiins and organochlorine pesticides. Human exposure to organochlorine substances may occur through inhalation of air, ingestion of food, water and skin absorption. Human exposure to organochlorines may occur not only during adulthood but also during prenatal and neonatal period. Many organochlorine pesticides are endocrine disrupting chemicals, meaning they have toxic effects on the hormonal systems. This review provides some specialized literature on work-related to organochlorine pesticides capable of causing male infertility.
28 AN OVERVIEW ON FAST DISSOLVING TABLET, Ashwini Savane*, Harsha Katre, Ranbahadur Singh, Sangeeta Ghel
Fast dissolving drug delivery systems were developed as an alternative to tablets, capsules and syrups for people experiencing difficulty in swallowing traditional solid dosage forms. These dosage forms disintegrate or dissolve quickly in few seconds after placement in the mouth without water can alleviate the problem of swallowing tablets. They offer substantial advantages over ordinary tablets. Fast dissolving drug delivery systems are defined as oral drug delivery systems that dissolve or disintegrate within seconds to few minutes after placement in the mouth and do not require water to aid swallowing. This fast dissolving system includes tablets, caplets, granules, films, wafers and powders. The development of these dosage forms also provides an opportunity for a line extension in the marketplace. A wide range of drugs (e.g. neuroleptics, cardiovascular drugs, analgesics, antihistamines) can be considered candidates for this dosage form. The aim of this article is to review the development of FDTs, challenges in formulation, suitability of drug candidates, new FDT technologies and evaluation methodologies and future prospects.
29 MICROSPONGES: A NOVEL APPROACH FOR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM, Vikas Bhatt, Rajni Karakoti, Arun Kumar Singh, Dinesh Kumar Sharma
Microsponges are polymeric delivery systems composed of porous microspheres. They are tiny sponge- particles with a large porous surface which are spherical in shape having reduce side effects,enhance stability, modify drug release. In topical drug delivery system for retenti on of dosage form on skin, microsponges can be effectively incorporated. Allowing a sustained flow of substances out of the sphere, the outer surface is typically porous, This system can suspend or entrap a wide variety of substances, and incorporated into a formulated product such as a liquid, gel, cream, or powder. These formulations are stable over range of pH 1 to 11 and temperature up to 1300C; compatible with most vehicles and ingredients. Microsponges are designed to deliver a pharmaceutical active ingredient efficiently at the minimum dose and also to, reduce side effects, modify drug release andenhance stability.
30 GERIATRICS: A RAY OF HOPE THROUGH AYURVEDA, Dr. Amit Kumar Rai*, Dr. Deepshikha
As the incidence of elderly people is rising in the population world over including India, it is now felt necessary to develop newer strategies for Geriatric health care. Accordingly Geriatrics is emerging as a major medical specialty globally. Conventio nal system of medicine has nothing much to offer in the core area of geriatric care except the medical management of the diseases of old age. Ayurveda, the Indian traditional holistic health science has broad spectrum of preventive measures for combating the ageing process. It has a focused branch called Rasayana which deals primarily with geriatric problems. Prevention and management of health problems could help the elderly to improve quality of life and remain self-dependent for their daily activities to maximum possible extent. Hence what all is needed is to retard the rate of aging to a limited extent and to promote healthy aging. There is considerable scope to develop a safe and cost-effective protocol for geriatric care on the basis of Ayurvedic life-style management, Rasayana therapy and practice of yoga.
31 A COMPREHENSIVE AND ILLUSTRIOUS REVIEW ON CLINICAL AND DIAGNOSTIC ASPECTS OF MASTITIS INFECTION IN HIGH YIELDING LACTATING CATTLE, Subha Ganguly*
Mastitis the chronic inflammation of the mammary gland of cattle and can have infectious and non-infectious etiology. It is characterized by physical, chemical and usually bacteriological changes in the milk and pathological changes in the glandular tissue of the udder and affects quality and quantity of milk. Mastitis is usually caused by bacteria that invade the udder, multiply and produce toxins which are harmful to the mammary gland. Bovine mastitis is a multi-etiopathogenic condition of mammary gland affecting dairy cows and remains the most economically important disease of dairy industries around t he world. It is characterized by physical, chemical and microbiological changes in the milk and pathological changes in the glandular tissues of the udder. The changes in the milk include changes of colour, consistency and presence of abnormally large number of leukocytes. Production per cow due to the clinical and subclinical prevalence of mastitis is usually recognized as the main pathway in causing the economic losses due to the disease. The present exclusive review encompasses the clinical and diagnostic overview on mastitis recognized as an immensely important economically significant disease in cattle resulting to production loss.
32 PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF PLANTAGO OVATA: A NATURAL SOURCE OF LAXATIVE MEDICINE, *Devesh Tewari, Nishat Anjum and Y.C. Tripathi
Plantago ovata Forsk. belonging to the family Plantaginaceae is an annual herb indigenous to the Mediterranean region specially Southern Europe, North Africa and West Asia. In India, it is cultivated as a cash crop in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana states. Various medicinal properties have been attributed to this plant in traditional system of medicine. On account of its mucilaginous husk the plant also finds variety of industrial applications. It can be grown on different types of soils, has moderate water and nutrient requirements and fits well in the cropping system. The distribution, traditional uses, industrial applications and agronomic, Chemical and pharmacological aspects of the plant crop are reviewed in this paper.
33 COENZYME Q10 AND ITS ROLE IN HUMAN HEALTH, Bishal Misra, Partha Pratim Mahata*, Shreya Sen Choudhury, Amit Sardar and Samprita Chakraborty
Coenzyme Q10(CoQ10), known as ubiquinone or ubidecarenone, is a fat-soluble, vitamin-like substance found throughout the body which is involved in various types of essential cellular process. Coenzyme Q is well defined as a crucial component of the oxidative phosphorylation process in mitochondria which converts the energy in carbohydrates and fatty acids into ATP to drive cellular machinery and synthesis. New roles for coenzyme Q in other cellular functions are only becoming recognized. The new aspects have developed from the recognition that coenzyme Q can undergo oxidation/reduction reactions in other cell membranes such as lysosomes, Golgi or plasma membranes. In mitochondria and lysosomes, coenzyme Q undergoes reduction/oxidation cycles during which it transfers protons across the membrane to form a proton gradient. The presence of high concentrations of quinol in all membranes provides a basis for antioxidant action either by direct reaction with radicals or by regeneration of tocopherol and ascorbate. Evidence for a function in redox control of cell signaling and gene expression is developing from studies on coenzyme Q stimulation of cell growth, inhibition of apoptosis, control of thiol groups, formation of hydrogen peroxide and control of membrane channels. Deficiency of coenzyme Q has been described based on failure of biosynthesis caused by gene mutation, inhibition of biosynthesis by HMG coA reductase inhibitors (statins) or for unknown reasons in ageing and cancer. Correction of deficiency requires supplementation with higher levels of coenzyme Q than are available in the diet.
34 EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER: A REVIEW ON GLOBAL FACTS, CONCEPTS AND PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUES, Dr. Subha Ganguly*
Ebola hemorrhagic fever, also known as Ebola virus disease is a disease of humans and other mammals caused by Ebolavirus. Fruit bats are believed to be the normal carrier in nature, able to spread the virus without being affected. Humans become infected by contact with the bats or a living or dead animal that has been infected by bats. Once human infection occurs, the disease may spread between people as well. Male survivors may be able to transmit the disease via semen for nearly two months.
35 GC-MS ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCONSTITUENTS AND CONCURRENT DETERMINATION OF FLAVONOIDS BY HPLC IN ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF BLEPHARIS MADERASPATENSIS (L) B. HEYNE EX ROTH, M. Suriyavathana* and S. Indupriya
Objectives: To elucidate the phytochemical constituents using GC-MS and a sensitive HPLC method has been developed for the concurrent determination of five major flavonoids in ethanolic leaves extract of Blepharis maderaspatensis. Methods: The shade-dried leaves of B. maderaspatensis were extracted with ethanol, the concentrated ethanolic extracts were further subjected to GC-MS and HPLC. Results: The GC-MS analyses determined the presence of 17 different phytochemical compounds in the ethanolic leaves extract of B. maderaspatensis. The phytoconsituents compounds were found in the mass spectra was matched with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) library. The major phytoconstituents are 9-Eicosyne (23.64%), Sqalene (11.51%), Phytol (8.40%), 3,4-Dihhdro-3,5,8-trimethyl-3-(4,8,12trimethyltridecyl)-(2H)-benzopyran-6-acetate (8.07%), 3,7,11,15 Trimethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol (7.41%) and Cholestan-3-ol, 2 methylene,(3,5) (7.24%). Mass spectra of the compounds found in the extract were matched with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) library. The Phytochemical profile of five flavonoids contents in the ethanolic leaf extract of B. maderaspatensis are Gallic acid (16.0 g/g), Caffeic acid (0.1 g/g), Rutin (0.1 g/g), Quercetin (0.2 g/g) and Ferulic acid (0.01 g/g). Conclusions: This is the first report of documentation of active constituents from leaves of B. maderaspatensis. The results of the present study reveal that the leaves of B. maderaspatensis indulge effective potential bioactive compounds, which may be leads to the formulation of new drugs to treat various diseases.
36 CHARACTERIZATION OF GREVILLEA ROBUSTA GUM TO ESTABLISH IT AS A PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENT, *Darekar AB, Kahane JU, Saudagar RB, Gondkar SB, Chavan MJ, Ashawat M
The gums are common constituents of plants, being used in pharmaceutical and in other various industries due to their abundance in nature, safety and low cost. The present study was undertaken to isolate gum from the plant of Grevillea robusta, to explore its use as a pharmaceutical excipient. The isolated gum was evaluated for various physico-chemical characterizations. The parameters applied from the present study included solubility, hygroscopicity study, moisture content, ash values, swelling index, hydration capacity, angle of repose, bulk and tapped density, Hausners ratio, compressibility index, pH value, rheological study, microbial co unt and acute toxicity study. The results obtained in the acute toxicity study indicated that Grevillea robusta gum did not produced any visible toxicities or mortality with oral doses up to 2000 mg/kg within 24h of single treatment. Scanning electron micr oscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transmittance infra-red (FTIR), were used to characterize the gum sample which could be used further for the formulation development.
37 PREDICTION OF PLASMA PROTEIN BINDING AFFINITY BY SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE AND ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK, Abhishek Singh Chauhan*, Utkarsh Raj, Pritish K.Varadwaj
Plasma Protein Binding plays a major role in pharmacokinetics. In this work, we selected drug distribution prediction by support vector statistical learning. Drugs which attach with high attraction to Plasma protein means low drug distribution. If drug binds with low affinity to plasma protein means high drug distribution. Our interest is in high drug distribution. 715 drugs are drug distribution related drug. We have divided 715 drugs in high ppb drug and low ppb drug with help of statistical learning methods. We used two statistical learning methods these are SVM along with ANN. The major idea of machine learning is classifying data into two classes that is high plasma protein binding compound and LPPB compound. In machine learning, feature selection or molecular descriptor is very important footstep. We used TSAR, DRAGON and SCHRODINGER software, which are applicable on molecular file format like SDF to extract 295 descriptors from them. Next we selected 95 descriptors through different feature selection method. Ou r approach shows that if any one gives new data related to ppb, our predictive model give the class. If anyone gives the test data, our model tells about the high ppb or low ppb class. We got more accuracy in ANN in comparison to SVM.
38 IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF BOERHAVIA DIFFUSA L. ROOT EXTRACT ON PATHOGENIC ORGANISMS, Sandeep Kamlekar*, Karunakar Kota, Jameela Tahashildar, VN Raju Erumalla*, Swetha Chenna
The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant pathogens has gained the attention of pharmaceutical and scientific communities towards potential antimicrobial agents from plant der ived sources. The present research work has been undertaken to study the antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extract of Boerhavia diffusa L. roots against some human pathogens like Escherichia coli MTCC 43, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 424, Salmonella typhimurium MTCC 98, Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 96, Shigella flexneri MTCC 1457, Streptococcus pneumoniae MTCC 655, Klebsiella pneumoniae MTCC 432 and fungi Aspergillus niger MTCC No.282 by using agar well diffusion method. Inhibition zones ranged between 4.26 0.12 -16.61 0.24mm. Root s extract inhibited the growth of all tested microorganisms with large zones of inhibition. The standard antibiotics chloramphenicol and miconazole nitrate were fo und to have zone of inhibitions 10.40 0.26 - 24.80 0.37mm at the concentration of 30 g/ml. In contrast, the inhibition zone of methanol (negative control) was almost zero for all the tested microorganisms. The spectrum activity of methanolic extract of this plant could be a possible source to obtain new and effective herbal medicines to treat various infectious diseases.
39 EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF Lantana camera FLOWERS AGAINST METHICILLINRESISTANT Staphylococcus aureus, Snehali Majumder*, Mohammed Rahmatullah
Present study was aimed to determine the anti-MRSA effect of Lantana camara flower ethanol extract. These flowers are used to treat microbial infections in traditional medicinal practices of India. The ethanolic extract of Lantana camara flowers were subjected to preliminary antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method and found to be active against both Gram-negative Escherichia coli as well as Gram-positive methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Biochemical property of the extract was established by phytochemical analysis. The preliminary biochemical tests showed the presence of reducing sugars, flavonoids, glycosides, tannins, and phenolic, these groups of compounds have previously been reported to exhibit anti-microbial effects.
40 TREATMENT OF CURCUMA LONGA (TURMERIC) CONTAMINATED WITH HEAVY METALS, Damera. Vineeth*, Chinna. Venkateshwar and Syeda. Azeem Unnisa
Curcuma longa is a perennial herb belongs to family Zingiberaceae and is cultivated extensively in Asian countries. The rhizome is used medicinally as a yellow powder which is used as a flavor in many cuisines and as a medicine to treat many diseases like flatulence, jaundice, menstrual difficulties, hematuria, hemorrhage, and applied as an ointment to treat many skin diseases. The present research study was conducted to know the toxicity nature of heavy metals in plant patrts of Curcuma longa and its remediation. Pot culture experiments were conducted with three treatments till productivity levels at Greenhouse of Botanical Garden, Department of Botany, Osmania University, Hyderabad.The three treatments consists of Treatment I control without any addition of heavy metals to the soil, Treatment II - heavy metals spiked into the soil and Treatment. III, 1 % of Calcium Hydroxide added along with heavy metals to the soil . The results showed in when compared to control that Ca (OH) 2. In treatment II the high concentrations of heavy metals (Ni, Cd and Cr) are found in leaf and rhizome of Curcuma longa when compared with 1% Calcium hydroxide treated soil in (Treatment III). In addition, the plants grown in 1% Calcium hydroxide treated soil , reversed the growth suppression and inhibited the heavy metal toxicity in plants as evidenced by reduced heavy metal concentration plant parts. The study concludes that medicinal plant Curcuma longa affected with heavy metals can be treated by using 1% calcium hydroxide.
41 EFFECT OF BREYNIA RHAMNOIDES LEAVES EXTRACTION HIGH FRUCTOSE DIET INDUCED C57BL/6J OB/OB DIABETIC MICE, Amaranth V. Banagar, B. Shivakumar* and K.N. Jayaveera
The objective of the present study was to investigate anti-diabetic and nephroprotective and cardioprotective activity of Breynia rhamnoides leaves extract, using High Fructose induced diabetic C57BL/6Job/ob mice as model for clinical type-2 diabetic. At a regular interval of experimental protocol blood glucose, urinary creatinine, total proteins, insulin resistance, total ?-cell count, LDL, HDL, VLDL, and organs to body weight ratio were studied. The histo -pathological study was carried out by High Fructose induced diabetic and anti-diabetic rats pancreas. Statistical analysis of the results shown that in High Fructose induced diabetic rats chlorofo rm and alcohol extracts of Breynia rhamnoides leaves at 40, 80, 160 and 200 mg/kg doses. Breynia rhamnoides leaves extract improved renal creatinine clearance, decreased the LDL, VLDL, increased the HDL and reduce renal total protein loss demonstrating nephroprotective and cardioprotective properties. The organ to body weight ratio studies carried out on last day, shown pancreas and liver specific effects of Breynia rhamnoides leaves, these results were also supported by histo-pathological studies. We conclude from the present study that Breynia rhamnoides alcoholic extract and Breynia rhamnoides chloroform extract long-term treatment may be beneficial in the management of diabetes.
42 PILOT SCALE CULTIVATION OF PLEUROTUS FLORIDA BY UTILIZING REEDS AS THE SUBSTRATE AND NUTRITIONAL ANALYSIS OF ITS HARVESTED FRUIT BODIES, Velusamy Karuppuraj, Subramanian Chandra Sekarenthiran, Karuppan Perumal*
The present study focused on pilot scale cultivation of Pleurotus florida throughout the year (12 months) by utilizing reeds as the substrate. The efficacy of reeds as the alternate substrate and recorded the maximum bioefficiency 121.05% at the month of October. Totally 91.35kg of fresh fruit bodies were harvested from 95 kg of dry substrate with bioefficiency of 95.81%. The nutritional parameters of harvested fruit bodies were analysed viz., carbohydrate (46.28g/100g), protein (26.94g/100g), fat (0.37g/100g), crude fiber (28.46g/100g), ash (9.11g/100g) and folic acid (35.0?g/100g). The mineral contents parameters of harvested fruit bodies were analysed viz., calcium (129.24mg/100g), iodine (227?g/100g), iron (31.64mg/100g), magnesium (198.03mg/100g), manganese (1.64mg/100g), phosphorus (1.41g/100g), potassium (2.36g/100g) and zinc (16.18mg/100g). Among seven vitamins tested, vitamin B3 recorded maximum (16.28mg/100g). Heavy metal such as arsenic, cadmium, mercury were recorded at non detectable level wherea s chromium (0.54mg/kg), copper (1.28mg/kg), lead (0.16mg/kg), selenium (4.63mg/kg). Hence the present shows a positive path that P. florida can be cultivated using alternative substrate and its efficacy was tested at pilot scale. As this mushroom known to several medicinal properties this study will be further focused towards pharmaceutical applications.
43 VALUE OF ASSESSING POST PRANDIAL AND FASTING PLASMA GLUCOSE AS A SURROGATE FOR GLYCATED HEMOGLOBIN IN DIABETIC GLYCEMIC CONTROL, Dr. Subinay Datta, Dr. Mrinal Pal?, Dr. Ritabrata Mitra, Dr. Amrita Ganguly, Dr. Subhadeep Basu, Dr. Subhasish Manna
Background: Control of plasma glucose could prevent the progression of most of the complications of diabetes mellitus and glycated hemoglobin is the most important criterion in controlling these complications. But its non-availability in grass root level of health sector and high cost, post-prandial and fasting blood glucose estimation have came into the field particularly in developing countries to assess glycemic control. Aim: To assess the better surrogate parameter fasing or post-prandial blood glucose for glycated haemoglobin that help in detecting the glycemic control status of diabetic patients. Methods: In the study One 120 diabetic patients attending an out-patient medical clinic were selected after simple random method. The study population was divided into three groups based on the HbA1c values i.e. Group 1 (HbA1c9%-Poorly controlled). Glycated haemoglobin and blood glucose estimations in all patients were carried out in the fasting state (at least after 8 hours of fasting) as well as postprandial state (two hours after lunch) on the same day. Result: The mean glycated haemoglobin in three groups were 121.29 28.91mg/dl and 165.61 34.51mg/dl for group I, 154.78 12.83 mg/dl and 206.92 46.95 mg/dl for group II and for group III 179.38 26.02 mg/dl and 179.38 26.02 mg/dl respectively and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Regression analysis has pointed that PPBS is more significantly correlated with HbA 1C than FBS. PPBS showed better sensitivity (92.5% vs. 85%), specificity (90% vs. 81%), positive predictive value (95% vs. 89%), negative predictive value (86% vs. 74%) and accuracy (92% vs. 83%) than Fasting glucose. Conclusion: HbA1c remains the gold standard in assessment of glycemic control with availability of standardized methods. However in resource poor settings & in conditions with limitations for using HbA1c, PPBS can be used to monitor the glycemic control of diabetes.
44 DRUG UTILIZATION PATTERN OF ANTIEPILEPTICS AND THEIR ADVERSE EFFECTS IN PEDIATRICS, Kousalya K*, Swathi Cherukuri DP, Padmasani LN, Arun Prasath TS
Objectives: The main objectives of the study are to describe the drug utilization pattern of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs), to get an insight into drug use and/or prescribing patterns, to study the effects (beneficial and adverse) of anti-epileptic drugs, to promote appropriate drug use through patient counseling and pharmacist intervention and provision of results for the clinicians, to aid in selecting appropriate anti-epileptics. Design: Prospective study Setting: Department of Pediatrics, Sri Ramachandra Medical Centre, Chennai Participants: Children aged ?18 years, of both sexes with seizure disorder who were on antiepileptic drugs for more than 6 months in both outpatient and inpatient departments. Main outcome measures: Drug utilization pattern was studied by going through the medication chart. Adverse drug reactions were monitored by interviewing the patients and their parents and they were assessed using Naranjo ADR probabil ity scale. Potential drug interactions were identified by using data bases like uptodate.com, drugs.com and micromedex. Accuracy of doses is assessed by the guidelines of Indian Academy of Pediatrics. Results: Among 170 patients, 235 AEDs was prescribed. Sodium valproate (n=87, 37.02) was the most commonly prescribed AED. The overall incidence of adverse drug reactions was low. We encountered use of phenytoin and carbamezapine in 33 patients with Idiopathic generalized seizures, phenyotin in 2 patients with focal seizures, which was not in accordance with the guidelines for diagnosis and management of childhood epilepsy by Indian Academy of Pediatrics. Conclusion: Pharmacist plays an important role in monitoring adherence of drug usage to the guidelines, drug interactions, adverse drug reactions and this study helps to promote appropriate antiepileptics and to serve to the health care professionals.
45 PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF BUCHNANIA LANZAN (CHIRONJI) FROM CHHATTISGARH, Chaitali Niratker*, D. Sailaja
The present study primarily aims to carry out a preliminary phytochemical screening of Buchnania lanzan so as to detect the major class of compounds present. Antimicrobial activity was carried out using sequential extracts of solvents with varying polarity; Petroleum ether, Chloroform, Methanol Ethanol and Water respectively. The phytochemical analysis had showed the presence of saponins, flavanoids, steroids, cardiac glycosides, carbohydrate, tannins and phenolics. All solvent extracts were screened for antimicrobial potential against three bacterial species (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) two fungal species (Aspergillus Niger and Penicillium sp.) by disc diffusion method. Extract Showed maximum antibacterial activity against all organisms tested.
46 STUDY OF CHITOSAN CROSSLINKED WITH GLUTARALDEYDE AS BIOCOMPOSITE MATERIAL, Dr.A.R.Raut* and S.R.Khairkar
Chitosan crosslinked with glutaraldehyde material were prepared by cross linking chitosan with lutaraldehyde. This study also deals characterization cross-linked chitosan-glutaraldehyde which conform stability of composite. The swelling behavior was observed to be dependent on pH, temperature and the degree of crosslinking. The Physico-chemical and structural characterization revealed that the cross-linking of chitosan with glutaraldehyde resulted in a rougher surface morphology, a characteristic Fourier transf orm infrared (FTIR) band at 1555 cm ?1, a specific X-ray diffraction peak centered at 2? = 14, a lower contents of carbon, hydrogen ,nitrogen and a higher stability of glucose units compared to chitosan based biocomposite on scanning electron microscopic observation, FTIR spectra, X-ray diffraction pattern, DSC as well as Elemental Analysis . Overall, this study indicated that cross-linked chitosan-glutaraldehyde is promising to be developed as a new material as biocomposit e.
47 EFFECT OF HEAVY METALS IN ARACHIS HYPOGEA L (GROUNDNUT) AND ITS TREATMENT, Damera Vineeth*, Chinna. Venkateshwar and Syeda Azeem Unnisa
The present study deals with heavy metals toxicity in Arachis hypogea plant parts and its treatment by calcium hydroxide which is an annual herb plant belongs to family Fabaceace. Pot culture experiments with Arachis hypogea were conducted till productivity levels at Greenhouse of Botanical Garden, Department of Botany, Osmania University, and Hyderabad. The three treatments consist of Treatment I control without any addition of heavy metals to the soil, Treatment II - heavy metals spiked into the soil and Treatment III -1% of Calcium Hydroxide added along with heavy metals to the soil. The results revealed that when compared to treatment I-control and treatment III with Ca (OH) 2, in treatment II high concentrations of heavy metals Ni, C d and Cr are found in root, stem, leaf and seed of Arachis hypogea. In addition, the plants grown in 1% Calcium hydroxide treated soil, reversed the growth suppression and inhibited the heavy metal toxicity in plants as evidenced by reduced heavy metals concentrations in plant parts. The study concludes that medicinal plant Arachis hypogea affected with heavy metals can be treated or remediate by using calcium hydroxide.
48 ETHNOMEDICINAL USES OF SOME PLANT SPECIES BY TRIBAL HEALERS IN ADILABAD DISTRICT OF TELANGANA STATE, INDIA, *Dr. N.Rama Krishna, Ch. Saidulu , Dr. A. Hindumathi
An ethnobotanical survey was under taken to collect information from tribal healers on the use of medicinal plants in Adilabad district of Telangana State during 2007 2013.The indigenous knowledge of local tribal communities such as Kolams, Naikpods, Pardhans, Gonds, Thotis, Chenchus and Mathura healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through survey and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 78 plant species belonging to 40 different families, to treat various iseases.This study showed that many people in the studied parts of Adilabad district still continue to depend on medicinal plants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare. Most medicinal plant species reported in this study were found to be under threat and this calls for urgent conservation measures so as to maximize the sustainable use of these vital resources in the study area. The traditional healers are dwindling in number and there is a grave danger of traditional knowledge disappearing soon since the younger generation is not interested to carry on this tradition.
49 STEROIDS FROM STEM (BARK) OF BUTEA MONOSPERMA, Mustazi Jafri and B.K. Mehta
The chemical examination of benzene extract of the stem bark of B. monosperma revealed the presence of steroids for isolat ion of steroids the stem bark of B. monosperma. dried powder of stem bark of B. monosperma was subjected to hot extraction with benzene. The benzene extract was subjected to column chromatography. Isolated compounds were purified and crystallized by chloroform: methnol. After isolation and purification afforded white crystalline substance which was subjected to physical , chemical and spectral analysis and identified by IR, 1H-NMR, 13 C-NMR and higher resoluation mass spectra. The compound identified as ?- itosterol(1) and stigma sterol(2).
50 ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOPHYTIC FUNGI FROM SPIKES OF PINUS ROUXBURGHII GROWING IN HIMALAYAN REGION, Akanksha Bhardwaj, Deeksha Sharma, *Pavan Kumar Agrawal
Endophytes constitute a remarkably multifarious group of microorganisms ubiquitous in plants and maintain an imperceptible association with their hosts for at least a part of their life cycle. Their enormous biological diversity coupled with their capability to biosynthesize bioactive secondary metabolites has provided the impetus for a number of investigations on endophytes. Intention of present report is to provide studies on endophytic fungi, particularly on diversity of fungal endophytes from Pinus rouxburghii of Pauri, Garhwal forest. Different fungal taxawas isolated from spikes of Pinus rouxburghii. These are majorly Penicillium frequenta, Alternaria alternate, Geotrichium albida, Thielaviopsis basicola and two unidentified groups identified by using morphotypic methods of characterization. The colonization rate of fungal endophyte produced from different species is 0.121%. Endophytic fungi showed as Penicillium frequentaus showed maximum colonoization frequency (41.1%) followed by Thielaviopsis basicola (29.40%), Geotrichium albida (11.76%), Alternaria alternate (5.88%),) and two unknown fungi show colonization frequency as unidentified-1&2(5.88%).
51 NON SUICIDAL SELF INJURY BY CUTTING IN A CHRONIC ALCOHOLIC: A CASE REPORT, Suvendu Narayan Mishra, Monalisa Jena*, Swati Mishra, Ashirbad Sathpathy
Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is very uncommon and poorly documented in case of children, adult and elderly persons as compared to adolescent population. Not all self-destructive behaviour are recommended as tendency to suicide. So there is need of better understanding regarding the NSSI for prevention of this type of abnormal behaviour. Understanding non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) across the lifespan requires comprehension of the interaction between developmental periods and self-injury behaviors. We report a case of 26 year male patient with history of chronic alcoholism with violent behavior and attempted cutting down his wrist, with a knife without the intention of causing harm to himself or suicide. This phenomenon was repeated many a times. On repeated follow up to the psychiatry department of our hospital with complete stoppage of alcohol, management of withdrawal and proper counseling, the recurrence of the NSSI has been stopped.
52 A CASE OF ACCESSORY PECTORAL MUSCLE: ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS, CLINICAL SYMPTOMS AND RADIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS, Dr. Arun Kumar.S. Bilodi, Dr Hemant Kumar, Dr Mariappan, David A Ebenezer Sabita singh. Dr.Paraneeta Suman
In the present case, accessory pectoral muscle was reported in elderly male with history of fever & cough. The cough was productive & mucoid. He was examined & thoroughly investigated. He was found to have diffused patchy pneumonic consolidation of taphylococcal etiology on both side of lung and was treated according to pneumonia guidelines. A variant of pectoral muscle was an incidental radiological finding by Computed Tomography (CT scan) of thorax and ultrasonography of chest. CT scan and ultrasonography further revealed the presence of abscess formation between accessory pectoral muscles which was drained surgically. The presence of accessory pectoral muscles & its detection in living made us interesting to study. Hence reported.
53 EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTATION OF HERBAL LIVER TONICXLIVPRO ON GROWTH AND PERFORMANCE IN BROILERS, Bikas ch. Debnath, Ankan De, Bijoy Kr. Sarkar, Tapan Kumar Das, K. Ravikanth, Adarsh* , S Maini
Efficient liver functioning ensures effective metabolism, circulation, detoxification, excretion, defense and haemopoiesis. Objective of the experimental trial was to study the effect of polyherbal liver tonic Xlivpro premix (M/S Ayurvet Limited, India) on growth and performance in broilers. Day old chicks (n=60) were divided into 2 identical groups (T0 and T 1) randomly. Basal diets (starter and finisher) were given to broiler chicks as per standard NRC requirements as well as artificial lighting was provided for 12 hrs daily. Group T0 , control group provided with standard basal diet without any liver tonic premix and in group T1 basal diet supplemented with herbal liver tonic Xlivpro premix (250 g/tonne of feed from 0-35 days). Statistical analysis of results showed a significant (P>0.05) increase in live weight (g) and live weight gain (g) in herbal liver tonic Xlivpro premix supplemented T1 group (1885.66 and 1842.17) in comparison to control T0 group (1814.01 and 1771.39). At the end of experiment herbal liver tonic Xlivpro premix supplemented T1 group showed improved FCR in comparison of control untreated group T0. Dressing percentage was significantly improved in herbal liver tonic Xlivpro premix supplemented group T1 in comparison to untreated group T0. Plasma concentration of total protein (g/dl) and enzymes (AST/ALT) (U/L) was found to be non-significantly (P>0.05) different between the both groups, though numerically high in Xlivpro premix supplemented group. The trial investigation revealed better results in herbal liver tonic Xlivpro premix supplemented group in comparison to the untreated group. The product was found to be safe for usage.
54 ECO-FRIENDLY MANAGEMENT OF PROMINENT WEEDS OF LEGUMINOUS CROP (GLYCIN MAX) EMPLOYING INDIGENOUS MICROBES OF GADARWARA AREA, Manjula Pathak, Anuradha Dave, Jaya Singh and Saurabh Gupta*
Soybean a "miracle crop" is outstanding in its nutritive value. It has 43 percent biological protein and 20 percent fat. It is also rich in vitamins, mineral salts and essential amino acids. The intensity and distribution of weed species in the soybean crop are functions of a complex interaction among soil properties, rainfall patterns, temperature and cultural practices. Soybean yield losses resulting from weed interference and the cost of weed control constitute some of the highest costs involved in the production of the crop Looking to the potential of microbial herbicides, the present paper was based on develop and exploit some indigenous strains of fungal pathogens as bioherbicides to manage some of the problematic weeds of soybean. On the basis of primary screening 40 fungal strains isolated from various parts in which five of the most potential ones were selected for secondary screening. These were against screened and Aspergillus sulphureus was found to be the most potential agent effective against a wide range of host and induced maximum phytotoxic damage and thus, selected for further investigation.
55 OPTIMIZATION OF VALSARTAN TABLET FORMULATION BY 2 3 FACTORIAL DESIGN, K. P. R. Chowdary*, K. Ravi Shankar and P. Suneel Kumar
Valsartan, a widely prescribed anti hypertensive drug belongs to class II under BCS classification and exhibit low and variable oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility. It needs enhancement in the dissolution rate in its formulation development. Complexation with ?-cyclodextrin (?CD), use of Primojel and PVP K 30 are tried for enhancing the dissolution rate of valsartan in its formulation development. The objective of the present study is optimization of valsartan tablet formulat ion employing Primojel, ?CD and PVP K 30 by 2 3 factorial design. Formulation of valsartan tablets with NLT 85% dissolution in 10 min employing Primojel, ?CD and PVP K 30 was optimized by 2 3 factorial design. Eight valsartan tablet formulations were prepared using selected combinations of the three factors as per 2 3 factorial design. Valsartan tablets were prepared by direct compression method and were evaluated for drug content, hardness, friability, and isintegration time and dissolution rate characteristics. The dissolution rate (K 1) values were analysed as per ANOVA of 2 3 factorial design to find the significance of the individual and combined e ffects of the three factors (?CD, Primojel and PVP K 30) involved on the dissolution rate of valsartan tablets formulated. ANOVA of K1 values indicated that the individual and combined effects of the three factors, ?CD, Primojel and PVP K 30 in influencing the dissolution rate of valsartan tablets are highly significant (P < 0.01). Valsartan tablet formulations PFa and PFac disintegrated rapidly with in 1min and gave very rapid dissolution of valsartan, 100% in 10 min. Higher levels of ?CD and lower levels of Primojel gave low dissolution rates of valsartan tablets. The increasing order of dissolution rate (K 1) observed with various formulations was PF a = PFac > PFab > PFabc >PFbc> PFb > PFc > PF1. The polynomial equation describing the relationship between the response i.e. percent drug dissolved in 10min (Y) and the levels of Primojel (X 1) , ?CD (X 2) and PVP K 30 (X 3) based on the observed results is Y = 56.146 + 37.478(X1) + 1.676(X 2) 5.288(X 1 X2) + 1.563(X 3) - 2.942(X 1 X3) 1.123(X 2 X3) - 0258(X1 X2 X3). Based on the above polynomial equation, the optimized valsartan tablet formulat ion with NLT 85% dissolution in 10 min could be formulated employing Primojel at 26.77% of drug content, ?CD at 1:3 ratio of drug: ?CD and PVP K 30 at 1% of drug content. The optimized valsartan tablet formulation gave 87.23% dissolution in 10min fulfilling the target dissolution set. The dissolution profile of the optimized valsartan tablet formulation was similar to that of a commercial brand (Valent 40). Hence formulation of valsartan tablets with NLT 85% dissolution in 10 min could be optimized by 2 3 factorial design.
56 COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF IN-VITRO ANTI-OXIDATIVE AND ANTI-DIABETIC PROPERTIES OF HYDROETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF PITHECELLOBIUM DULCE AND PROSOPIS CINERARIA LEAF AND FLOWER, Swaati Sharma, Nitika Verma, *Veena Garg and Nidhi Sharma
In Diabetes Mellitus (DM), e levated level of post prandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) is a major risk factor and its reduction can manage DM. Therapeutic approach of antidia betic activity is to minimize the production of astrointestinal glucose and inhibition of carbohydrate digesting ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase enzymes to control PPHG associated with diabetes. In this study the antidiabetic activity of ? amylase and ? glucosidase enzyme was found to be inhibitory in the leaf and flower extracts of Pithecellobium dulce and Prosopis cineraria. Antioxidants are helpful in maintaining cellular and systemic health and hence, effectively manage stress developed during diabetes. To determine anti-oxidative activity of the plants, Numerous enzymatic and non-enzymatic parameters like, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase, DPPH, hydroxyl radical scavenching assay and metal chelating activity were tested. Both the plants showed significant potential to manage invitro antidiabetic activities but out of the four extracts, the leaf extract of P. dulce showed highest significant inhibitory effect. Moreover, enzyme inhibition was increased with increasing concentration of the extracts. These plants also showed good invitro antioxidant activities. All the studied parameters of a ntioxidant activities in P. dulce and P.cineraria, significantly increased with increasing concentration of plant extract.
57 COMPARATIVE ACCOUNT ON MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA AND ITS ENDOPHYTES, Sarika R. Deshmukh*, Yogita K. Dhas and B.A. Patil
This research was aimed to study comparative account of Momordica charantia plant extract and its endophytes. Crude fruit, leaf and endophytic extracts of bitter gourd cooperated with antibiotics; streptomycin and tetracycline against four bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of bitter gourds extract with two antibiotics was tested against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. All isolated endophytes showed the maximum zones of inhibition against all four bacterial strains. The values of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined and the results had been obtained as all extracts showed that there was gradual decrease of optical density with increase in concentration of extract. After MIC determination of the crude and endophyte extracts, the extracts that showed maximum inhibition was further evaluated for MBC values. All endophytic extracts showed minimum bacterial colonies against all four bacteria. Then cytotoxicity was determined on cancer cell line (HeLa cell line). Thus, the crude fruit and all endophyte extracts were shown the highest antiproliferative activity which was ranged from 70 to 96%.
58 ENRICHMENT AND ISOLATION OF ENDOSULFAN DEGRADING BACTERIA FROM INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT, *Dipali Parmar, Dr. Ajit Pandya, Preeti singh
Development of new industries or expansion of existing industrial establishments resulted in the disposal of industrial effluents which discharge untreated causing air, water, soil and solid waste pollution and adversely affect biological growth. Endosulfan degrading bacterium was isolated from pesticide industrial effluent samples which collected from Ahmedabad (India) and its surrounding pesticide contaminated area. On the basis of morphological, cultural and biochemical test and 16s rRNA sequencing, t he isolated strain was identified as Bacillus oceanisediminis, Tistrella mobilis, Parapusillimonas granulirespectively. From this result that the isolated bacteria could be used for the removal of residues of organochlorine in contaminated area.
59 NEW POTENTIAL ALLELOCHEMICAL FROM BAUHINIA RACEMOSA LAM, R.N. Yadava* and Archana Chakravarty
A new compound m.f. C33H40O18 , m.p 264-266 ?C, [M] + 724 (FABMS); 3,7-dihydroxy-3?-methoxyflavone-3-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1?4)-O-?-L-arabinopyranosyl(1?3)-O-?-D-galactopyranoside alongwith two known compounds Isovitexin (B) and Isoorientin (C) were isolated in the stems of Bauhinia racemosa Lam. A new compound was characterized by various chemical degradations, colour reactions and spectral analysis.
60 EFFECT OF THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF SESBANIA GRANDIFLORA LINN IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETES IN ALBINO RATS, Radhika J*, Ruth Christia C, Jothi G
Diabetes mellitus is the syndrome of disturbed energy homeostatis. It has become a major public health challenge in all over the world. The present study was designed to evaluate the antidiabet ic potential of aqueous extract of Sesbania grandiflora Linn. Wistar strain of albino rats were divided into six groups of six rats each. The groups were Group I (Normal control), Group II (Alloxan induced diabetic control (150 mg/ kg.b.wt)), Group III (Alloxan + Sesbania grandiflora Linn (500 mg/ kg.b.wt), Group IV (Alloxan + Sesbania grandiflora Linn (750 mg/ kg/b.wt), Group V (Alloxan + Glibenclamide (200 mg/ kg.b.wt), Group VI (plant treated (750 kg/b.wt)) respectively. After the experimental period of 45 days, the blood and tissue samples were collected and used for analyzing various biochemical and enzymatic parameters such as plasma glucose, serum insulin, glcosylated hemoglobin, hepatic glycogen, glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, serum marker enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP). Group II rats showed significant increase in the level of plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphatase and serum marker enzymes (AST, ALT and ALP) and decrease in insulin, hepatic glycogen, glucokinase. Oral administration of Sesbania grandiflora Linn aqueous extract to diabetic rats restored all the biochemical parameters and a serum marker enzyme level which depicts the promising antidiabetic effect of Sesbania grandiflora Linn.
61 HEMATINIC ACTIVITY OF HERBO MINERAL DRUG AYAVEERA CHENDURAM (AVC) IN SWISS ALBINO RATS, D. Sangeetha*, M. Mohamed Musthafa, G.Sekar
Anemia is a serious public health challenge in India and has devastating effect on health physical and mental productivity affecting the quality of life. Ayaveera chenduram, a traditional Siddha herbo mineral formulation has been employed to treat anemia as per SR pharmacopeia. The present study has been carried out to access the hematinic activity of AVC on invivo rat models after the toxicological study (as per OECD guidelines 423 & 407) and proven safety up to 400mgs/kg p.o. The clinical trial has been approved by IEC [IEC NO: GSMC-CH/1/2013/014] and preclinical by IAEC [IAEC XXXIX/10/CLBMCP/2013 Dated 29.06.2013]. The hematinic activity was conducted in swiss albino rats by single intra peritoneal injection of phenyl hydrazine at a dose of 20mg/kg b.w. Drug treatment was carried out for 14 days at 2 dose level 200mg/kg p.o and 400mg/kg p.o. the trial drug was found to increase The hemoglobin count (Hb), Red blood count (RBC), packed cell volume (PCV), Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) significantly (P
62 SPECTROSCOPIC AND ELECTROCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF BINDING OF NEVIRAPINE WITH BOVINE SERUM ALBUMIN, M.M.V. Ramana*,Rahul Betkar, Amey Nimkar, Prasanna Ranade, Balaji Mundhe
Nevirapine is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used for the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type -1 infection and AIDS. A systematic interaction between nevirapine and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated by UV-Vis absorption, infra-red (IR) spectra, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. UV-Vis absorption and fluorescence quenching is attributed to the formation of nevirapine-BSA complex. The fluorescence analysis indicates the quenching of BSA by nevirapine occurs through static procedure. Synchronous fluorescence, CD, and IR spectra revealed the conformation and microenvironment of BSA were altered by interaction with nevirapine. NMR spectroscopic results suggested hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions played an important role in nevirapine-BSA complex formation. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) proved the interaction of nevirapine with BSA forming an electrochemically inactive complex.
63 COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF DISINFECTANT AGAINST ROUTINE LAB BACTERIAL CONTAMINANTS, Padma Singh*, Anchal Rani and Shampa Pal
During present study lab bacteria were isolated in Nutrient agar medium using expose plate method: to air & identified by colonial morphology, Grams staining & biochemical tests. Disinfectant sensitivity was determined by Kirby- Bauers method whereas phenol coefficient test (PCT) was carried out to compare the antimicrobial activity of chemical compound to that of phenol under experimental condition so as to determine the disinfectant efficacy. The lab contaminants identified as Pseudomonas, Bacillus, & Micrococcus.Disinfectant sensitivity was assessed in terms of zone of nhibition (ZOI). Pseudomonas Species showed following pattern, Lysol>Savlon>Dettol>Betadine>Phenol while Alcohol showed nil response. Micrococcus Spp.- Lysol>Savlon>Dettol>Alcohol>Phenol while Betadine showed no inhibition. Bacillus spp.- Savlon>Dettol>Lysol> Phenol> Alcohol> Betadine. The efficacy of disinfectant assessed by testing them against standard culture S. aureus appear as Lysol>Savlon>Dettol>Betadine>Alcohol & same pattern was found in all the three bacteria.
64 THERMOSENSITIVE GELS CONTAINING CARBAMAZEPINE MICROSPHERES FOR INTRANASAL BRAIN TARGETING, Panchaxari Mallappa Dandagi, Rohit Sharma*, Anand Panchakshari Gadad, Vinayak Mastiholimath
Context: Carbamazepine, derived from tricyclic antidepressant drugs is one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs. It is characterized by a considerable hepatic first-pass effect owing to the enzymatic autoinduction of its own metabolism. Objective: The objective of the present investigation was to prepare thermo-sensitive gels containing Carbamazepine microspheres for intranasal brain targeting to prolong the drug release and enhance the bioavailability. Materials and Methods: Carbamazepine loaded chitosan microspheres were prepared by emulsion cross-linking method by varying the drug: polymer ratio and evaluated. Microsphere embedded gel was prepared using Pluronic F127 and Pluronic F68 using the optimized microsphere formulation and evaluated for in vitro permeation and ex vivo permeation. Results: Microsphere formulation containing drug and polymer in the ratio 1:4 was fou nd to be optimized. 17% PF-127 and 1% PF-68 were found to be promising gel vehicles. The microspheres in the viscous media showed a prolonged release, in comparison to the microspheres alone. Histopathological studies proved that the optimized formulation does not produce any toxic effect on the microscopic structure of nasal mucosa during ex vivo permeation studies. Conclusion: Formulated thermo-sensitive gel can prove to be a promising formulation for the safe and effective intranasal delivery and subsequent brain targeting of Carbamazepine.
65 HISTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF CURCUMA NEILGHERRENSIS AN ANTIDIABETIC HERB, Nissar AR, Sudarshana MS, Smitha N, Guru C
Histochemical analysis provides a best tool for the botanical identification and standardisation of crude drugs. The present study deals with the histochemical analysis of leaf and rhizome of the C. neilgherrensis. The study reveals the identification and location of the phytochemicals like alkaloids, saponins, tannins, oils, starch grains etc in various regions of leaf and rhizome of C. neilgherrensis. Free hand sections were taken and treated with respective reagents to localise the various cellular components. The observations could be of great use in chemotaxonomy and checking the drug adulteration.
66 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF COLON TARGETTED PULSE IN CAP SYSTEMS OF THEOPHYLLINE FOR NOCTURNAL ASTHMA, Pasam jyothirmayi* B.sivaranjani
Asthma may be the most common disease with the largest circadian variation. Nocturnal asthma is currently controlled by taking either a long-acting ?2 agonists like salmetrol inhalers, or bronchodilator such as sustained release Theophylline. The oral route is considered to be most convenient for the administration of drugs to patients. But it has a serious drawback in conditions where localized delivery of the drug in the colon is required. The objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate an oral pulsatile drug delivery system for asthma by releasing the drug with a distinct predetermined lag time of 5 hrs to prolong the release and for colon targeting of TPH to treat the nocturnal symptoms of asthma. If the formulation is administered in the night at 10.00 pm symptoms that are experienced in early morning hours could be avoided. In the present study, polymers such as hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose and Xanthan gum selected for colon targeting of TPH. TPH granules were prepared by wet granulation and polymer plugs were prepared by using polymers hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose and xanthane gum to prolong the release and target to the colon. These granules filled into the formaldehyde treated capsules and plugged with optimized polymer plug to maintain the 5hr lag time. Finally capsules are ente ric coated with enteric coating polymers and conducted dissolution studies.
67 PREPARATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF DICLOFENAC ENCAPSULATED LIPOSOMES USING LIPID HYDRATION TECHNIQUE, Meesa.Rajendar*, Beedha Saraswathi
The aim of the study is to encapsulate, optimize and characterize the liposomal preparations of various formulations of Diclofenac sodium (DS) along with phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, stearylamine and dicetylphosphate. Rotary evaporator is set at a temperature of 40 0C with constant rotation speed. Liposomes were prepared by LipidHydration technique using rotary evaporator (RE-300). The prepared liposomes were analyzed for size, zeta potential, percentage of drug encapsulated, in-vitro drug release and stability studies. Particle size of the drug loaded liposome was decreased when compared to that of the drug free. Encapsulation efficiency of the drug loaded liposomes with PC shows increase in the percentage of drug encapsulated to that of the lower concentrated vesicles and positive charge inducer have revealed elevated encapsulation efficiency. Liposomes composed of PC: CHOL: SA observed to be released at high rate and stability studies confirms that PC: CHOL: SA is supreme stable at varied temperatures. Phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and stearylamine based preparations posses the suitable % drug encapsulated and release rate. The composition PC: CHOL: SA at a concentration of 16:8:4 moles proved as a stable suspension. From the study it can be concluded that cholesterol and stearylamine based phosphatidylcholine liposomes are most suitable to encapsulate the Diclofenac sodium.
68 METHOD DEVLOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF METFORMN AND GLIMEPIRIDE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC METHOD, Somnath Gaikwad*, Dr.Laxman Kavale, Namrata Bhirud, Rahinj Bebi, Nitin Girawale, Mayur Gandhi
The present work was undertaken with an objective to develop an accurate, simple, precise and reliable method for estimation of Metformin and Glimepiride in their combined dosage form. An RPHPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of Metformin and Glimepiride in tablet dosage form. The analytes were resolved by using gradient programme. Hypersil Gold C18 column (4.6 x 250 mm, 5 ?) is used for separation and injection volume was 20 ?L, mobile phase used is Methanol: Phosphate buffer (pH -3), at a flow rate of 0.8ml/min, on HPLC auto -sampler system containing UVvisible detector with Workstation Software. The detection of Metformin and Glimepiride were carried out at 237 nm and 228 nm respectively and isobestic point at 241 nm. The method gave the good resolution and suitable retention time. The results of analysis in all the method were validated as per ICH guidelines.
69 ETNOZOOLOGICAL SURVERY OF NOMADIC TRIBS FROM DROUGHT PRONE REGION SANGOLA, DIST. SOLAPUR (MS) INDIA, *Kamble V. S.
India is the country where, over million communities are actively involved in traditional health workers. They includes village bone setter, herbal medicine practitioners specializing in jaundice, paralysis, children diseases, eye diseases, poison healing etc., and midwives. Zootherapy is the healing of human diseases by use of therapeutics obtained or ultimately derived from animals. Present study deals with survey of ethnozoological knowledge of nomadic tribes from drought prone region Sangola of Maharashtra (India). About 21 animal species are used in treatment of 34 different human health aliments.
70 ANTI- HISTAMINIC ACTIVITY OF SIDDHA HERBO MINERAL FORMULATION GANDHAGA CHUNNAM IN ANIMAL MODEL, Om Sakthi T*, Mohamed Musthafa M
Siddha system of medicine is one of the foremost of all medical systems originated in India especially in Tamil Nadu. Siddhars are spiritual scientists who achieved good results in curing many chronic auto immune disorders. Siddha herbo mineral formulations are proven itself by their efficacy. The aim of the study is to evaluate the Antihistaminic action of the test drug Gandhaga Chunnam (GC). Antihistaminic study was done by hind paw method in albino rats. The XRF analysis of the test drug revealed that it has the permissible limit of Sulphur tri oxide (SO3), Calcium oxide (caO), Phosphrous pentoxide (P2O5), Silicon oxide (SiO2), Pottassium oxide (Ks2O), ferrous oxide (Fe2O2), Stranium (SrO), Copper oxide (CuO). In pharmacological view test drug GC has significant anti- histaminic action in both acute and chronic studies.
71 ACUTE AND SUB ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF A HERBOMINERAL SIDDHA FORMULATION THUTHUVALAYATHY CHOORANAM, *Nalini sofia. H, Vetha merlin kumari.H, Manickavasakam.K, Banu.G
The present study investigated the acute and sub acute toxicity study of Thuthuvalayathy Chooranam, a herbomineral Siddha formulation indicated for the management of Swasa kasam (Bronchial asthma) in experimental animal models. Thuthuvalayathy Chooranam contains Thuthuvalai (Solanum trilobatum, Linn) Echchura muli (Aristolochia indica.Linn) Chittarattai (Alpinia officinarum.Linn) karunchirakam (Nigella sativa .Linn) lluppai (Madhuca lonifolia) Chukku (Zingiber officinale, Rose.) Milagu (Piper nigrum, Linn) Thippili (Piper longum, Linn.) Kadukkai (Terminalia chebula. Retz) Perungayam (Ferula asafoetida.) thippili-ver (Piper longum, Linn.) Indhuppu (Sodium chloride impure) Vengaaram (Sodii biboras;sodii boras.) The aim of the study is to evaluate the safety of the Thuthuvalayathy Chooranam through acute and sub acute toxicity study. In an acute toxicity study the drug was administered o rally at a dose 2700mg/kg p.o and the animals were observed for any toxic symptoms upto 72hrs. The results indicated there were no toxic symptoms up to the dose level of 2700mg/kg p.o. In a Sub acute toxicity study Thuthuvalayathy Chooranam was tested at a dose ranging from 270mg/kg, 1,350 mg/kg and 2700mg/kg p.o once daily for 30 days. The animals were sacrificed on 31 st day .The liver, heart, lung, stomach and kidney were processed for histo pathological study. The result of the sub acute toxicity study d id not show evidence of any changes in body weight, food and water intake when compared with the control animals. The vital organs of animals treated with Thuthuvalayathy Chooranam for 30 days did not show any histopathological evidence of pathological lesions.
72 A STUDY ON THE PHARMACOTHERAPY OF PARA NASAL SINUSITIS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL, Dr. Anand R Kalamdani*, Dr . Pavithra Krishnan, Dr. T M Nagraj, Dr. Basavaraj Bhandare
Background: Episodes of Acute Rhinosinusitis are common among adults and are associated with a significant amount of morbidity. The symptoms of Rhinosinusitis are nasal drainage, congestion, and sinus pressure. As diagnosing bacterial sinusitis is difficult, the misuse and overuse of antibacterials for the treatment of sinusitis, has become a major problem throughout the world. Aims and Objectives: To analyse the Pharmacotherapy in Acute Bacterial Sinusitis and to assess the efficacy and tolerability of the Antimicrobials prescribed. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients diagnosed with Acute Bacterial Sinusitis were included in the study and their prescriptions were assessed which included Antimicrobials and adjuvant drugs used, route of administration, dose, tolerability, side effects and drug interactions were recorded. Results: Out of 60 patients who completed the study, 38% were males and 62% were females. Most common symptom that patients presented were nasal congestion (n=60), headache (n=50), post nasal drip (n=50). 90% of the study group received a Antimicrobial belonging to Beta Lactam group. NSAIDS like Paracetamol and Decongestants were used in all patients and Amoxicillin Claavulinic acid combination was the most frequent antimicrobial prescribed. The subjects showed good tolerability with minimal to no side effects. Conclusion: In our study we found that Amoxicillin Clavulinic acid was the primary option due to its proven efficacy, safety and tolerability. The other antimicrobials (majority Beta lactam group) that were prescribed also showed good tolerability and patient compliance.
73 EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF AN ENDOPHYTIC ASPERGILLUS SP. ISOLATED FROM AZADIRACHTA INDICA AGAINST PLANT AND HUMAN PATHOGENS., Pranay Jain*, Priyanka Sharma
Medicinal plants like neem which have been shown to contain bioactive compounds that exhibit multiple health benefits and are therefore, regarded as potential sources of new and improved therapeutic drugs. The present study aims to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of an endophytic Aspergillus sp. isolated from Azadirachta indica against ten selected plant and human pathogens. Out of the ten test pathogens, the Aspergillus sp.showed antimicrobial activity against eight pathogens. The endophytic Aspergillus sp. isolated from Azadirachta indica was found to exhibit the antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, and Gramnegative bacteria Escherichia coli (MTCC 40) and Pseudomonas fluorescens (MTCC 1748). The crude extract of Aspergillus sp. isolate inhibited the growth of opportunistic fungal pathogens, Candida albicans (MTCC 227) and Candida glabrata (MTCC 3814) which could not be inhibited by even the standard antifungal drug, Fluconazol . The Aspergillus sp. also showed zone of inhibition against phytopathogenic fungi Fusarium graminearum (MTCC 2089).
74 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF CAPECITABINE LOADED PLGA NANOPARTICLES FOR COLORECTAL CANCER, Prasanna S.Sutar*, Vijaya G. Joshi, Kishori P. Sutar, Kishore G.Bhat
The main goal of the present investigation was to formulate and evaluate Capecitabine loaded PLGA nanoparticles for colon cancer treatment. Nanoparticles of Capecitabine were prepared by Emulsion droplet coalescence method using PLGA 50-50 as the polymer. The nanoparticles obtained were evaluated for morphology, loading efficiency, in vitro release study. C2 formulation showed drug release of 66.14 at 24 hours with smaller particle size of 141.66 10.23 and 61% drug loading. Concentration of PLGA 50-50 and drug release was proportionate to each other. DSC and FTIR studies showed that the drug and polymers were compatible with each other and did not reveal any signs of interactions. SEM image of optimized formulation C2 showed spherical and smooth surfaced particles. Biological evaluation was carried by using HT29 (Human colorectal Adenocarcinoma) cell lines and formulation C2 showed 60% cell lysis. This drug delivery targeted the colon cancer cells and provided a better therapy to the patient by reducing toxicity to the normal cells. Kinetic study indicated that the formulations followed first order kinetics.
75 MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF JASMINE SPECIES BY RAPD MOLECULAR MARKERS, Sushant Shekhar and Prasad M.P*
In the following study genomic DNA was extracted from eight Jasmine species. DNA fingerprinting was performed by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR. RAPD has been one of the most commonly used molecular techniques to develop DNA markers since it does not require prior knowledge of a DNA sequence. RAPDPCR produced a spectrum of amplification products which are characteristics of the selected Jasmine DNA. From the DNA fingerprinting, Dendrogram was constructed and genetic similarity matrix were estimated which revealed variations between selected species of Jasmine. A total of 15 random primers were used for conducting the RAPD analysis. The primers were OPZ5, OPZ6, OPZ7, OPZ8, OPZ9, OPZ10, OPZ11, OPZ12, OPZ13, OPZ14, OPZ15, OPZ18, OPZ19, OPZ20, OPZ21 and OPZ22. Of t hese selected random primers OPZ8, OPZ9, OPZ10 produced clear banding patterns which were used for constructing Dendrogram. OPZ8 produced a total 58 bands ranging from 7-11, OPZ9 produced a total 91 bands ranging from 10-13 and OPZ 10 produced a total 49 bands ranging from 5-8 for eight jasmine samples. Most of the bands were monomorphic with some polymorphic bands which can be used for marker development for these jasmine species. The described approach holds great promise for genetic diversity polymorphism, cultivar characterization and genetic population conservation of Jasmine species.
76 STANDARD MANUFACTURING PROCEDURE (SMP) OF KUMKUMADI GHRITA: AN AYURVEDIC FORMULATION, PK Prajapati*, Amrutia A, Rohit Sharma, BJ Patigiri
Introduction: Kumkumadi Ghrita (KG) is one of the highly valued formulations among Ayurvedic physicians, commonly recommended in conditions like skin disorders especially Mukhdushika (Acne vulgaris). Kesar (stigma of Crocus sativus Linn) is a prime ingredient in the formulation. However due to high cost and increased adulteration trends in Kesar, another botanical Nagakesar (Mesua ferrea Linn.) is suggested by Ayurvedic experts as an substitute, which have relatively low cost and possess similar therapeutic attributes like Kesar. Recent studies also reveal equal efficacy of KG prepared with Kesar and KG prepared with Nagakesar. In spite of wide utility of KG in Ayurvedic practice, no published work is available till date on manufacturing guidelines. Aims and Objectives: To develop SMP (Standard Manufacturing Procedure) for Kesaryukta (with Kesar) Kumkumadi Ghrita (KKG) and Nagakesar yukta (with Nagakesar) Kumkumadi Ghrita (NKG). Materials and Methods: Total three batches of KKG and NKG each were prepared in the laboratory by adopting Ayurvedic classical guidelines. Pharmaceutical findings and observations during its preparation were systematically recorded. Prepared KKG and NKG were further subjected to organoleptic analysis. Results and Conclusion: The average percentage loss in final product was 10.18 % in KKG and 7.58 % in NKG. Since, Kesar is costlier than Nagakesar, NKG can be preferred over KKG as per total yield is concerned. No difference was found on average duration for preparation of KKG and NKG i.e. 9.20 hrs and 9.21 hrs respectively. The study suggests that coarse powdered ingredients should be used instead of fine powders for pharmaceutical process to achieve maximum yield in expensive formulation, Kumkumadi Ghrita, and heating should be done only up to Madhyama Paka stage. NKG was found more cost effective than KKG, thus it can be preferred over KKG for future utilization in pharmaceutical companies. Data obtained by present study may be considered as standard for future researches.
77 HPMCK4M AND GUM KARAYA: INFLUENCE ON RELEASE MECHANISM OF CARVEDILOL PHOSPHATE FROM BUCCOADHESIVE TABLETS, Gopa Roy Biswas*, Sutapa Biswas Majee, Soumendra Mohan Saha
Drug release mechanism from matrix dosage form is governed by polymer swelling, polymer erosion, drug dissolution/diffusion, drug distribution inside the matrix and drug/polymer ratio. Thus for the preparation of controlled release dosage form , hydrophilic , swellable, porous polymeric material alone or in optimum combination is essential. Here a plant derived polymer like Gum karaya (GK) and HPMCK4M have been selected to prepare buccal tablets to study the buccoadhesive strength and the release kinetics of Carvedilol phosphate. Three different ratios of HPMCK4M and Gum karaya have been considered to prepare buccoadhesive tablets. Their physicochemical tests revealed satisfactory results. Buccoadhesive strength was found to be in the range of 32-36 gm, which is good enough to hold the buccal tablets inside the buccal cavity. Percent Swelling of the buccoadhesive tablets were in the range of 47.11-53.09. Swelling is maximum in the tablet where GK and HPMCK4M ratio is 1:1. Drug dissolution from buccoadhesive tablets has been described by kinetic models. The release data were fitted in different kinetic models. like zero order, first order and Higuchi . Buccoadhesive tablets incorporating HPMCK4M and GK at 5:7 and at 1:1 provided zeroorder release over 8 hours. A combination of HPMCK4M with GK at 7:5 reveals the dominance of the high viscosity gel formed by HPMC and hence drug release obeyed mixed kinetics.
78 HEAVY METAL ACCUMULATION IN BARK OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA DUE TO VEHICULAR EMISSION, Dr. Syeda Azeem Unnisa* and Dr. C.Venkateshwar
This study is to estimate the level and accumulation of lead in Azadirachta indica (Neem) bark exposed to motor vehicle emissions and noise pollution status within the Campus of Osmania University. Noise pollution studies have been carried out using a digital sound level meter Model SL-4001made in Taiwan. Noise measurements were taken from 7 locations within the campus in three different time intervals of the day i.e, in the morning 9-10 am, midday 12-1 pm and in evening 5-6 pm on working and non-working days. The results indicate that on working days the minimum noise level was recorded as 79.88 dB and maximum of 97.57 dB whereas on non-working days the minimum noise level was recorded as 72.72 dB and maximum of 88.62 dB. The study revealed the fact that noise levels have reached an alarming level due to the vehicular emissions and the main source of heavy metal accumulation in the bark of Azadirac hta indica is directly correlated to the vehicular emissions within the campus. It is observed that all the selected locations, the level of noise was found to be above prescribed noise standard level limits of 50 dB for minimum and 40 dB for maximum for silent zone as summarized by the Central Pollution Contro l Board and Noise Pollution which calls for the urgent need in employing control technologies. Using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, concentration of lead was determined in bark samples of Azadirachta indica obtained within the campus. The level of lead in various samples varied between 0.0548 to 0.1082 mg/kg. However, the level of Pb obtained from the samples from various locations from campus was within the permissible limits of WHO/FDA permissible levels of heavy metals in herbal plants.
79 COMPARISION OF AUDITORY AND VISUAL REACTION TIME IN NORMAL WEIGHT, OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE PARTICIPANTS, Panya Jain*, Shivani Gupta, Vinu Vij
Obesity is a global epidemic and has been found to be associated with multiple health hazards. Studies have shown that the central nervous system (CNS) may also be detrimentally affected by obesity. The present study was done to find out whether there was any alteration in reaction time in otherwise healthy overweight and obese participants. Auditory reaction time (ART) and visual reaction time (VRT) were measured in the 30 normal weight, 30 overweight and 30 obese male participants who were grouped as the control group, study group 1 and study group 2 respectively based on their BMI (Body Mass Index). We found that there is a statistically significant increase (P < 0.001) in auditory and visual reaction time in healthy overweight and obese participants as compared to the normal weight participants. This increase in react ion time was more for obese participants as compared to the overweight participants, which was also statistically significant (P < 0.001). Thus it was concluded from the present study that obesity is associated with increase in reaction time which might lead to future neurological consequences. These findings emphasize the need for weight control to reduce the risk of potential future adverse neurological outcome.
80 CORRELATION OF AUDITORY AND VISUAL REACTION TIME WITH DURATION OF DIABETES, Shivani Gupta*, Panya Jain, Vinu Vij
Diabetes Mellitus affects peripheral nerves in the somatosensory and auditory system, slows psychomotor responses and has cognitive effects on patients without proper metabolic control, all of which may affect reaction time. This study was done to correlate auditory and visual reaction time among type II diabetic patients to the duration of diabetes. This study was conducted in Dr D Y Patil Medical College and Hospital, Nerul, for a period of 3 months on a total of 90 male participants aged between 40-50 years. A total of 60 type II diabetic male patients were grouped as the study group with a total of 30 male patients with the duration of diabetes from 1-5 years as group-1 and 30 patients with the duration of diabetes from 5-10 years as group-2. A total of 30 non diabetic male participants were grouped as the control group. We found that both the auditory and visual reaction time were significantly prolonged in diabetics (P
81 INDUCED HERPES ZOSTER: IS FLUVOXAMINE THE CULPRIT?, Dr Santosh S V*, Dr Yogendra M, Shashank S Hosur, Sree Nagavalli K
Herpes zoster (HZ) also known as Shingles is an acute viral infection results from reactivation of the DNA virus varicella zoster (VZV) which causes chicken pox. HZ is a localized, generally painful cutaneous eruption that occurs most frequently among older adults and immuno compromised patients. The most commonly affected dermatomes are the thoracic (45%), cervical (23%) and trigeminal (15%). The risk factors of HZ are older age, immunosuppressed individuals, diabetes, female gender, genetic susceptibility, mechanical trauma, recent psychological stress and white race. Fluvoxamine is the drug which acts by inhibiting the serotonin reuptake and has immunomodulatory action. Here we are presenting a rare case report of drug induced herpes zoster in a 58year old female patient suffering with obsessive spectrum disorder.
82 PHYTOPHARMACOGNOSTIC INVESTIGATION OF MARSDENIA TENACISSIMA (ROXB) MOON, *Arabinda Nayak and Subrata De
Herbal drugs are habitually considered to have less toxic and almost free of side effects of synthetic ones. The plant Marsdenia tenacissima is traditionally used in vario us diseases.The present study deals with pharmacognostic, preliminary photochemical and pharmacological investigations of Marsdenia tenacissima. In this, pharmacognostical studies are concerned for the determination of physicochemical constants like ash values, extractive values, and loss on drying .The roots were subjected to soxhlation using petroleum ether, alcohol, water and the extracts thus obtained were studied for preliminary photochemical screening for detection of presence of various classes of chemical principles viz., carbohydrates, proteins, steroids, glycosides, alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids and lignin and its anti-oxidant activity.
83 PHYTOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF THESPESIA POPULNEA L., *Narendar Vankudothu, R. Chandrashekar, P. Jyothi Chiatanya, Ayesha sultana, Chekuri Sudhakar, N.Lakshmi Bhavani, S.Y.Anwar
Thespesia populnea L. is a medicinally important plant which is used to treat different types of diseases, especially skin diseases. The present research work is aimed to screen the phytochemicals from leaf extracts of Thepesia populnea. Leaf powder of Thespesia was dissolved in different solvents viz., water, methanol, chloroform, acetone, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether and subjected to screen for secondary metabolites. Results revealed the presence of saponins, steroids, phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, reducing sugars, tannins. In the present investigation, the water and methanol extracts yielded more number of phytochemicals than the chloroform, acetone, and ethyl acetate. Apart from these the petroleum ether extracts showed very less amount of phytochemical constituents. We hope that the present study will be helpful for the phytochemists and pharmacologists for the identification of new compounds.
84 PERSEVERANCE OF MARINE ACTINOMYCETES ISOLATED FROM GULF MANNAR EAST COSTAL REGION AND ITS ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY, M. Mohamed Mahroop Raja* and S. Ahmed John
The objective of present work is to explore marine Actinomycetes and its antibacterial effect against Multidrug resistant pathogens. Sample of marine sediments collected from Gulf Mannar East costal region, Kayalpatnam located at Tuticorin district of Tamil nadu, India. A Total of 19 Actinomycetes strains isolated from marine sediments. Actinomycetes are characterized by both macroscopic and microcopy studies. Analysis of morphological, physiological and cultural characterization suggested that Actinomycetes isolates were belongs to the genus of Streptomyces sp, Micromonospora sp, Micropolyspora sp, Strptoverticilium sp and Intrasporangium sp. Among these isolates Stereptomyces sp were exhibited dominant level followed by Micromonospora sp. The frequency of isolated marine Actinomycetes were found to be 53% Sterptomycetes sp, 32% Micromonospora sp followed by 5% of Micropolyspora sp, Strptoverticilium sp and Intrasporangium sp. Among the 19 tested Actinomycetes, two Sterptomycetes sp designated as KPMS 5 and KPMS 14 showed potent antimicrobial activity against Multidrug resistant E.coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Staphylococus aureus. The result of this investigation revealed that the marine sediments can be useful for the isolation of novel species of Actinomycetes producing potent source of novel bioactive compounds. Further investigations are needed in order to determine the active metabolites of these isolates.
85 COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES IN GREEN AND PURPLE VARIETIES OF ZALEYA DECANDRA, Bunga. Thirupathi* S. Gangadhar Rao C.Venkateshwar
Phytochemical antioxidant properties in green and red varieties of Zaleya decandra, collected from local area of Hyderabad city were estimated. Concentration of secondary metabolite such as flavonoids (88.5), flavonols (176.3), anthocyanins (176.3), total carotenoids (7.43) was recorded higher in green as compared to red variety (73.25), (139.46), (4.31) (4.17) ?g/g Dt.wt. However proanthocyanidins, phenols was recorded maximum in red varieties (67.91),(230.66), as compared to green variety (63.58),(135.66) ?g/g Dt.wt. ? carotene 6.13,6.06 mg/g Fr.wt in green and red varieties respectively, ascorbic acid content was same in both varieties. Enzyme peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase, glutathione reductase showed higher activity in green variety with (731.05), (329), (12.11) units as compared to (539.5), (271.66), (9.05) units in red variety respectively. However catalase was recorded maximum in red variety (15.27) as compared to (11.06) units in green variety. ABTS and FRAP inhibition % between the two varieties did not differ much, however DPPH inhibition % was slightly higher in red variety.
86 IN VIVO EVALUATION OF SUN LIGHT PROTECTION PROPERTY OF ALOEVERA FORMULATIONS BY DNA FRACTIONATION TECHNIQUE, *V Malarvizhi, C Vijaya, Sudhakar Sekar, Vasudeva Rao
Pure Aloe vera extract has a mild to severe skin irritant property depending on the type of skin if it is formulated as film forming lotion the chance of skin irritation may be less. In the present study Aloe vera sunscreen formulations were prepared by incorporating 10% of Aloe vera aqueous extract in film forming lotion and gel. In order to develop a lotion, a film forming polymer (Eudragit RS 100) at 3 levels 10%, 20% and 40% solution in iso propylalcohol with vanishing cream base was used. The consistency and spreadability were checked. Based on the results, Eudragit 10% contained formulation was very suitable for applying on the skin. The Aloe vera gel was prepared by using Carbopol 934, Sodium hydroxide, Aloe vera extract and Water. In-vivo studies were conducted in Swiss Albino mice to find out the sun protective property of the formulation. The study was carried out for 5 days by exposing the skin to UVB for 15 min in each day. UV light induced DNA damage, evidenced by isolated skin epidermal DNA (genomic DNA) and fractionation of genomic DNA carried out by DNA-agarose gel electrophoresis. DNA fractionation study shows that lotion treated groups of animal genomic DNA was not damaged by UV-B radiation. Furthermore, DNA concentration estimated by UV spectroscopy reveals that lotion treated animal groups epidermal DNA concentration level is more when compared to gel treated groups.
87 OPTIMIZATION OF IRBESARTAN TABLET FORMULATION EMPLOYING ?CD AND CROSPOVIDONE BY 22 FACTORIAL DESIGNS, K. P. R. Chowdary*, K. Ravi Shankar and V. V. L. S. P. Sowjanya
Irbesartan, a widely prescribed anti hypertensive drug belongs to class II under BCS classification and exhibit low and variable oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility. It needs enhancement in the dissolution rate in its formu lation development. Complexation with ?-cyclodextrin (?CD) and use of Crospovidone are tried for enhancing the dissolution rate of irbesartan in its formulation development. The objective of the present study is optimization of irbesartan tablet formulatio n employing Crospovidone and ?CD by 22 factorial design. Formulation of irbesartan tablets (i) with NLT 85% dissolution in 15 min and (ii) with NLT 70% dissolution in 15 min employing Crospovidone and ?CD in each case was optimized by 22 factorial design. Four irbesartan tablet formulations were prepared using selected combinations of the two factors as per 2 2 factorial design. Irbesartan tablets were prepared by direct compression method and were evaluated for drug content, hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution rate characteristics. Irbesartan tablets formulated employing Crospovidone at a level of 30% of drug content and ?CD in 1:1 ratio of drug: ?CD (Fa) disintegrated rapidly within 20 seconds and gave very rapid dissolution of irbesartan, 97.18% in 15 min. Higher levels of ?CD and lower levels of Crospovidone gave low dissolution rates of irbesartan tablets. The increasing order of dissolution rate (K1) observed with various formulations was F a> Fab> F1> Fb.The polynomial equation describing the relationship between the response i.e. percent drug dissolved in 15min (Y) and the levels of rospovidone (X1) and ?CD (X2) based on the observed results is Y=60.37+33.04 (X1) 5.03 (X2) + 1.265 (X 1 X2). Based on the above polynomial equation, two optimized Irbesartan tablet formulations, One with high dissolution (OPT1) with NLT 85% dissolution in 15 min could be formulated employing Crospovidone at 24.75% of drug content and ?CD at 1:1 ratio of drug:?CD and the other with moderate dissolution (OPT2) with NLT 70% dissolution in 15 min could be formulated employing Crospovidone at 19.07% of drug content and ?CD at 1:2 ratio of drug: ?CD .The optimized irbesartan tablet formulation,OPT1 gave 88.27% dissolution in 15 min and formulation OPT2 gave 73.48% dissolution in 15 min fulfilling the target dissolution set in each case.The results indicated validity of the optimizatio n technique employed and the polynomial equation developed could be used to formulate Irbesartan tablets with any desired dissolution rate specification. Hence formulation of irbesartan tablets with any desired dissolution rate specification could be optim ized by 22 factorial design.
88 OPTIMIZATION OF IRBESARTAN TABLET FORMULATION BY 22 FACTORIAL STUDY, K. P. R. Chowdary*, K. Ravi Shankar and Ch. Chandrasekhar
Irbesartan, a widely prescribed anti-hypertensive drug belongs to class II under BCS classification and exhibit low and variable oral bioavailability due to its poor aqueous solubility. Because of poor aqueous solubility and dissolution rate, it poses challenging problems in its tablet formulation development. In the case of poorly soluble drugs the excipients in tablet formulation significantly influence dissolution rate and consequently bioavailability of the drug requiring a rational selection of binder and disintegrant combination. The objective of the study is to optimize irbesartan tablet formulation by 22 factorial designs for selecting the best combinations of binder and disintegrant giving fast dissolution of the drug, irbesartan. Much variations were observed in the disintegration and dissolution characteristics of the irbesartan tablets prepared employing various combinations of binder (factor A) and disintegrant (factor B) as per 22 factorial design. All the irbesartan tablets formulated disintegrated rapidly within 1 min 25 sec except formulation Fa which disintegrated in 6 min 10 sec. The results of ANOVA of K1 values indicated that the individual effect of binder (Factor A) and combined effects of binder and disintegrant (Factor AB) are highly significant (P < 0.01). Among all, formulation F1 (tablets prepared employing lactose, acacia and potato starch) and F b (tablets prepared employing lactose, acacia and Primojel) gave higher dissolution rates and DE30 values. The increasing order of dissolution rate (K1) observed with various formulations was F 1>Fb> Fab>Fa. Formulations F1 and F b, gave 93.07 and 93.85 % dissolution in 20 min respectively fulfilling the official dissolution rate test specification. Thus, the results of the present study indicated that combinations of (i) lactose, acacia and potato starch, (ii) lactose, acacia and Primojel are the best combinations of diluent, binder and disintegrant and hence these combinations are recommended for formulation of irbesartan tablets giving rapid and higher dissolution of irbesartan, a BCS class II drug.
89 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR CHLORTHALIDONE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS, *Sapana U. Ingle, Pallavi A. Patil, Vaishali C. Kulkarni, Sheetal V. Patil, Poonam A. Salunke, Rupali S. Wagh.
A new, simple, accurate, rapid and precise spectrophotometric method has been developed for validation of chlorthalidone (CTD) in bulk drug. An attempt was made to preclude the use of corrosive inorganic solvents by the use of 0.2 M NaOH. The developed method was the measurement of absorptivity at 274.5nm (absorption maximum of CTD). The results of analysis have been validated as per ICH guidelines. The Concentrations of this drug were evaluated in laboratory mixture and marketed formulation. Accuracy was determined by recovery studies from marketed formulation and Ranges From 97.87-107.39%. Precision of method was find out as repeatability shows the values within acceptable limit.
90 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR NEBIVOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK DRUG USING MIXED HYDROTROPIC SOLUBILISATION, *Pallavi A. Patil, Sapana U.Ingle, Vaishali C. Kulkarni, Sheetal V. Patil, Poonam A. Salunke, Rupali S. Wagh
An analytical method for the validation of NEBIVOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE by UV spectrophotometry using hydrotropic sol ubilization is described. An attempt was made to preclude the use of corrosive organic solvents by the use of 6M Urea, 25% citric acid & 1% Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). The developed method has the measurement of absorptivity at 282 nm (absorption maximum of Nebivolol HCL). The method is simple, fast and accurate and has been applied successfully for the validation of Nebivolol HCL in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Accuracy was determined by recovery studies from marketed formulation and Ranges From 99.22 100.07 %. Precision of method was find out as repeatability, Day To Day and Analyst To Analyst variation and shows the values within acceptable limit.
91 BIOEFFICACY OF NYCTANTHES ARBOR TRISTIS LINN., ON CCL4 INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN SWISS ALBINO RATS, V. Bharathi, J. Jayachitra and *P. Venkatalakshmi
he present study has been carried out to evaluate the bioefficacy of Nyctanthes arbor tristis leaves on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in swiss albino rats. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavanoids, steroids, phenolic compounds, reducing sugars and carbohydrates. Elevation of LDH, GGT and decline in NADH-dehydrogenase, Glucose-6-phosphatase, Na +/K+ dependent ATPase, Total ATPase was noted in CCl4 administred rats. Total reversal of all the above said parameters was noted in both ethanolic extract treated and Silymarin treated rats. The efficacy of the plant drug has been found to be more than the standard drug Silymarin.
92 ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF GLICLAZIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATIONS AND BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS, *Vipin Kumar Sharma, Bhaskar Mazumder
Diabetes/ Diabetes mellitus, a group of metabolic diseases is identified in patients with high blood sugar, either because the pancreatic cells does not produce enough insulin, or the body cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. It is categorized on the response of body cells towards insulin and known as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM, Type I) and non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM Type II). Numbers of drugs are used for the management of both types of diabetes and amongst the types of drugs, sulphonyl urea have their own significant. These agents stimulate the pancreatic cells to increase the insulin secretion. Gliclazide, a category II sulphonyl urea is used in the management of NIDDM. In contrast with other sulphonyl urea, gliclazide is a highly efficient drug and a specific dose is required in the management of high blood glucose level in diabetes. The variability in absorption pattern in inter- and intra-patient creates the bioavailability problems during oral administration of gliclazide. Hitherto, various analytical techniques have been developed for the quantification of gliclazide in pharmaceutical dosage forms as well as in biological fluids. This study is based on the overview of different instrumental techniques with their characteristics for quantification of gliclazide.
93 IMPURITY METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF TAMSULOSIN HYDROCHLORIDE BY USING RP-HPLC, M. Santhi Priya*, K.Shanta kumari, M. Bhanu Prasad, G.Priyanka, T.Sirisha
A simple, precise, rapid, specific and accurate reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the estimation of Tamsulosin HCl and its related substances (impurity H and impurity I) in Tamsulosin HCl sustained release pellets. Chromatographic separation was performed on kromasil C-18 (250mmx4.6mm, 5m) column, with mobile phase comprising of a mixture of buffer and acetonitrile (pH2.0, adjusted with conc.NaOH) in the ratio of 65:35v/v, at a flow rate of 1ml/min. The detection was carried out at 225 nm. The retention times of tamsulosin, impurity H and impurity I, were found to be 7.269, 24.902, and 48.239min respectively with a run time of 60min. As per ICH guidelines the method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity, limit of detection and limit of quantitation, robustness and rugge dness. Linearity of tamsulosin HCl, impurity H and impurity I were found in the range of 0.0192-0.0512, 0.02-0.12 & 0.0192-0.0512g/mL and correlation coefficient were 0.9998, 0.9993, and 0.9995 respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that the developed method was simple , precise, rapid, selective, accurate and reproducible for the estimation of impurity H and impurity I in tamsulosin HCl.
94 LIPOSPHERES OF ANTIRETROVIRAL PROTEASE INHIBITORS: AN APPROACH FOR BETTER TREATMENT OF DRUG RESISTANT PARASITES AND HIV-MALARIA CO-INFECTION, Bhavsar D B, Gonarkar A B*, Nigde A, Suryawanshi P, Yeole S, Pimple S S
Parasite resistance to antimalarial drugs is a life-threatening problem, and novel agents acting on enzymes essential for parasite metabolism, such as proteases, are attractive targets for drug development. Recent studies have shown that antiretroviral protease inhibitors (ARPIs) possess some antimalarial activity by inhibiting an aspartyl protease of malaria parasite. The present study deals with the formulation of lopinavir-ritonavir lipospheres (LOP-RIT LS) to enhance their activity in the treatment of drug resistant malaria as well as a malaria human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection. LS were prepared by using hot melt homogenization method. Fourteen different formulations (F1-F14) have been prepared by varying different parameters like lipid concentration, surfactant type and surfactant concentration. The prepared formulations were investigated for particle size, surface morphology, entrapment efficiency (EE) and in-vitro drug release. Among all formulations, F9 was found to be optimized, having a particle size (140.130.7 NM), EE (82.390.41% LOP, 83.910.42 RIT) and extended drug release (86.450.43% LOP, 83.79.120.42% RIT). Further characterization of optimized formulation for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) confirmed entrapment of both the drugs in LS, X -ray diffraction (XRD) revealed crystalline nature and stability studies prove stability. In case of in-vivo study, LS formulation was found superior to marketed product in its ability to suppress parasite.
95 VIPERINE SNAKE BITE AFTER- EFFECTS AND TRADITIONAL HERBAL SOLUTIONS, Aruna Devaraj R*, Devaraj P., Rajeev Joseph D**. & Raveena Judie Dolly D***
Medicinal plants constitute an important natural resource serving as therapeutic agents and raw materials for the manufacture of modern and traditional medicine. Haemotoxic bites of vipers affect the blood and lymph circulation, kidney function, skin and sense organs. These after effects have been treated with traditional herbalism. A total of 32 herbs out of the available 1058 medicinal plants are used in the systematic treatment of snakebites. The investigator, a traditional herbal practitioner and researcher on the ecology of snakes, gives a clarion call to conserve snakes for antivenin preparation and herbs to treat snake bite after effects. The work is based on extensive research on herbal medicine used to treat viper bite after effects. From among the 1537 snake bite herbal respondents, 100 viper bite patients were selected for the study. The cases studies reported acute renal failure with high creatinine and urea levels on entry. After 3 months herbal treatment using Rajendra Kidney formula required no dialysis and the creatinine level came down to 2.0mgs% and urea to 30 mgs%. Patients with severe symptoms of psoriasis after viper bite were treated with oil extracts of Indigofera tinctoria and herbal immunity boost ers, anti-ulcer and anti-inflammatory agents.
96 ASSESSMENT OF HEATING EFFECT ON CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF MUSTARD OIL THROUGH HPTLC PROFILING, A, Singh*, P. Raghaw, B. Dwivedi, R. Singh, P.Pant, M.M.Padhi
Several studies have been carried out for chemical analysis of mustard oil, even chemical composition/ fatty acid composition of mustard has been established by using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. As being essential food commodity, in Indian kitchens it is usually heated up for preparation of a variety of food stuffs. Owing to excessive heat or prolonged continuous boiling, the chemical composition may be altered or the constituents of nutrient value may be decomposed or destroyed. In the present study the effect of heat/boiling on the chemical composition has been assessed. Authentic oil was heated up to 400 o C, followed by collection of sample at every 20 oC interval. Then the sample s so collected were subjected to the HPTLC study. HPTLC profiles were compared with each other as well as with the bands observed in the unheated sample. Some of the bands which were present in the unheated sample were absent after heating at 300 oC and above, likewise some new bands also appeared after a certain temperature range.
97 SYNTHESIS AND SPECRAL CHARECRIZTION OF (Z)-2-((2-HYDROXY-6-METHYLQUINOLIN-3-YL) METHYLENEAMINO)-5-IODOBENZOIC ACID AND THEIR METAL (II) COMPLEXES, K. Siddappa* and Mallikarjun Kote
The Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Mn(II) and Fe(III) complexes of Schiff base (Z)-2-((2-hydroxy-6-methylquinolin-3-yl)methyleneamino)-5-iodobenzoic acid has been synthesized and characterized by various spectral techniques. The complexes were prepared by reacting the ligand and metal chloride of Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II), Mn(II) and Fe(III) in ethanol to get a series of mononuclear complexes. The complexe s were characterized by CHN analysis, conductivity measurements, magnetic susceptibility, IR, 1 H NMR, ESR, UV-Vis and X-ray powder diffraction studies. By these spectral studies it is found that Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Mn(II) and Fe(III) complexes have exhibited octahedra l geometry and Zn(II), Cd(II), Hg(II) complexes have exhibited tetrahedral geometry. The ligand and its metal complexes have been screened for their antimicrobial activities. The prepared ligand shows low activity and its metal complexes shows moderate to good activity.
98 PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF CURCUMA AERUGINOSA ROXB, *Mariat George, S. John Britto and Thamacin Arulappan
Cucurma is a tropical genus comprising of 120 species of rhizomatous herbs. They are used both as spices and medicines. Curcuma aeruginosa, is commonly known as kali haldi. The rhizome of plant is used medicinally to treat asthma and coug h, scurvy, mental derangements, and dysentery. It also possesses bioactive components like curcuminoids which are responsible for anti-inflammatory properties, wound healing, hypoglycemia, anticoagulant and antimicrobial activities. In the pharmacognostic study, leaves are seen with paracytic stomata and trichome with oil cavities. Rhizome also has starch grains and spiral, pitted and scalariform xylary elements. In rhizomes, phytoconstituents like mucilage, lignin, starch, alkaloids, tannins, calcium oxalate crystals and saponins are identified. The present study will be useful towards establishing pharmacognostic standards on identification, purity, quality and classification of plants, which are gaining relevance in plant drug research.
99 ISOLATION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTAGONISTIC ACTINOMYCETES FROM EARTHWORM GUT, Sruthy. P.B*, Anjana. J.C, J. Rathinamala, S. Jayashree
Nowadays, the drug resistant strains of pathogen emerge more quickly than the rate of discovery of new antibiotics. Because of this, many scientists and pharmaceutical industry have actively involved in the isolation and screening of actinomycetes from different untouched habitats, for the production of antibiotics. Earthworms are precious and low cost source of numerous bioactive molecules, which could find place in human and veterinary medicine. The main objective of the study was to isolate and screen for antagonistic actinomycetes from an earthworm gut. Out of six actinomycetes isolated from the earthworm gut, one isolate possessed high broad spectrum antibacterial activity in cross streak method and was selected for further st udies. It was inoculated into the fermentation medium and by solvent extraction procedure using Ethyl acetate the metabolite was extracted to its full form. The extract was highly active against selected bacterial pathogens used in the test and was further analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The UV spectra of the ethyl acetate extract for the active isolate showed an absorbance peak at 316 nm. The isolated strain was characterized for physiological and biochemical properties, nutritional uptake and the isolate fitted the Streptomyces genus. Based on the results of our study it was confirmed that Streptomyces isolated from earthworm gut was found to be a promising source for extracting novel antibiotics for treating bacterial infections in human.
100 COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF BIODEGRADATION PATHWAYS FOR CHLORPYRYFOS USING EAWAG-BIOCATALYSIS/ BIODEGRADATION DATABASE PATHWAY PREDICTION SYSTEM, Seema Khan*, Kakoli Dutt,Veena Garg
Introduction: Computational tools like pathway prediction systems are in vogue to examine the extent of degradation and possible pathways for exploration of degradative abilities of diverse microorganisms. They also give an idea of the tentative end products of the biodegradation mechanism. In-silico approach is mainly used in designing the experiments for biodegradation leading to bioremediation. Chlorpyrifos is a toxic organophosphate insecticide whose degradation pathway has not been extensively studied. It forms more toxic 3, 5, 6-trichloropyridin-2-ol which causes cancer thus, making it necessary to study its possible biodegradation mechanism. Methodology: In this study, eMolecules database and EAWAG Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database-Pathway Prediction System (EAWAG-BBD-PPS), formerly called University of Minnesota Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database -Pathway Prediction System (UMBBD-PPS), have been used to predict the degradation pathways of O,O-Diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphothiorate (chlorpyrifos). Intermediate compounds have been named using ChemDraw Ultra 8.0.6. Result: The predicted pathway showed that aerobic transformation of chlorpyrifos leads to formation of more toxic compounds viz. 3,5,6-tri -chloro-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphoric acid (DETP). Further, aerobic transformation was not easy. De-chlorination and ring cleavage of TCP, which occurred much later in the pathway formed 2-hydroxyacetate which was metabolized through KEGG. DETP eventually produced thiophosphate and ethylphosphate which are much simpler and non-toxic and can mineralize into ethanol. Conclusion: Hence, it is concluded that plausible pathways predicted by EAWAG BBD-PPS explain microbial degradation mechanism and can aid in designing pesticide biodegradation/bioremediation experiments. It can be used to efficiently design microbial consortium that can completely mineralize chlorpyrifos or any other xenobiotic, thereby eliminating it from the environment.
101 ANTIOBESITY POTENTIAL OF CLERODENDRUM PHLOMIDIS LINN AND GARCINIA CAMBOGIA LINN A COMPARATIVE ANIMAL MODEL STUDY, S. Gopinathan* & D. Naveenraj
Obesity is one of the major health concerns in the 21 st century and it is a major and leading cause of coronary heart diseases, stroke, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis and certain cancers. Available literature survey reveals that plant based drugs are much sought after therapeutic agents to prevent and cure many diseases including obesity. Objective: To evaluate the antiobesity potential of the Clerodendrum phlomidis leaf extract and its activity was compared wit h a known herbal antiobesity drug, Garcinia cambogia fruit extract in High Fat Diet (HFD) induced obese animal model. Orlistat was used as standard drug. Methods: Oral administration of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaf extract and Garcinia cambogia fruit extract (400mg/kg-bw) on HFD induced obese rats were taken for assessing (1) Behavioral parameters: ambulation, rearing and grooming; (2) Physiological parameters: weight of the animals, organs, fat pads and body temperature; (3) Biochemical parameters: blood glucose, total protein, Total lipids, free fatty acids and uric acid; (4) Liver function markers: AST, ALT and ALP and (5) Lipid profiles: serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides, LDLc, VLDLc, and HDLc. Results: HFD induced obesity to rats, and the obese rats, showed significant increase in the levels of physiological and biochemical parameters, liver function markers and lipid profiles and co-administration of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaf extract and Garcinia cambogia fruit extract significantly reduced the levels of all parameters and brought back normalcy. But the levels of total protein and HDLc were decreased in obese rats and the same were increased up to the levels of healthy rats after the administration of plant drugs. The animals treated with standard drug-Orlistat, also showed ameliorating effect in the obese rats. Conclusion: The present study revealed that Clerodendrum phlomidis leaf extract is a effective antiobesity drug and its efficacy was comparable with a known antiobesity plant drug, Garcinia cambogia fruit extract and a standard drug, Orlistat. It is already recorded that (-) hydroxy citric acid is the active phytochemical available in Garcinia cambogia fruit extract, which is responsible for its antiobesity activity. In the present study ursolic acid was isolated and identified as pharmacologically active compound in Clerodendrum phlomidis leaf extract for its antiobesity activity.
102 LIPID PEROXIDATIVE DAMAGE AND ALTERATIONS IN ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN RAT ERYTHROCYTES ON REPEATED EXPOSURE OF ?-CYHALOTHRIN AND FLUORIDE ALONE AND IN COMBINATION, Imtiyaz Ahmad, Rajinder Raina* , Pawan Kumar Verma, Mahrukh Ahmad, M Sultana
Accidental exposure or injudicious application of pesticides and toxic metals cause adverse health consequence in non-target species including human and animals. The present study was aimed to investigate the lipid peroxidative damage and alterations in antioxidant status in rat erythrocytes on repeated exposure of ?-cyhalothrin (LCT) and fluoride (F) alone and in combination. Forty two wistar were divided into seven groups with six rats in each. Group I without treatment served as control. Group II and III were provided drinking water containing F at the rate of 1 and 10 ppm, whereas rats of Group IV and V were administered LCT at the dose rate of 2 and 10 mg/kg through oral gavage respectively. The animals of group VI and VII received both toxicants daily for 28 days. Repeated exposure of either LCT or F produced significant (p
103 EFFECT OF MALNUTRITION ON THE COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT AMONG CHILDREN POPULATION, Tanvi Twara*, Sanskriti Upasna , Mamta Tiwari, Aruna Agrawal,G.P Dubey
The present study was designed to investigate the effect of malnutrition on cognitive development. Out of total 900 children 441 undernourished children were selected for this study. These 441 undernourished children of 5 to 12 years of age groups of both the gender were selected from various school of Varanasi district. Various anthropometric indices have been measured to identify undernourished children. These children were classified in mild, moderate and severe malnourished category based on Gomez classification. Total protein, albumin and globulin were estimated in selected children as these are important indicator of severity of malnutrition. Long-term and short term mem ory and attention span were determined in undernourished children to assess the cognitive impairment. It was observed that under nutrition exert profound influence on cognitive development of children. A significant poor memory and attention span was recorded in malnourished children suggested poor scholastic performance. At biochemical level low values of serum total protein and altered albumin globulin levels were estimated and the results indicated that protein energy malnutrition play a major role in the cognitive impairment of children.
104 ANTICANCER EFFECT OF NEMATOCYSTS VENOM FROM JELLYFISH ACROMITUS FLAGELLATUS, ON HUMAN BREAST CANCER CELL LINE, Maduraiveeran Hemavathi, Chinnasamy Arulvasu?, Annadurai Arulmani, Samson Kumar Shiva Shakthi and Sivasamy Sivaranjani
Background: Marine organisms comprise approximately half of the total biodiversity which serves as a vast source of discovered therapeutics and new anticancer drugs. Objective: The present investigation is made to evaluate the efficiency of the crude venom of jellyfish Acromitus flagellates, a cnidarian for its antiproliferative activity. Methodology: The nematocysts were isolated from marginal filament and oral arms of jellyfish. The crude venom of nematocystm was tested against anticancer potential on human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231) with 200 ?g IC50. Results: The protein content of the crude venom was estimated to be 1.5 mg/ml. The protein profile of crude venom protein was determined by SDS-PAGE and the molecular weight was found to be in the range of 205 kDa to 29 kDa. The isolated crude venom was tested for its antiproliferative activity against human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 by MTT assay. The results revealed that the crude venom showed antiproliferative activity at an IC 50 concentration of 200 g/ml. Propidium iodide staining and DNA fragmentation analysis expressed the induction of apoptosis in the cancer cells. Cell cycle analysis and changes of the mitochondrial membrane potential shows the cell cycle arrest at G1 phase which confirmed the potential anticancer activity of jellyfish venom against human breast cancer cell MDA-MB 231. Conclusions: A. flagellatus venom may have the potential to serve as a template for future anticancer drug development. Further analysis is warranted and necessary to substantiate our findings.
105 DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING DICLOFENAC SODIUM-ALGINATE BEAD USING BIOPOLYMER OBTAINED FROM VIGNA RADITA, Rajni Karakoti*, Vikas Bhatt, Arun Kumar Singh, Dr. Dinesh Kumar Sharma
The aim of present investigation was to isolate, characterize the biopolymer obtained from Vigna radiata, belonging to the family fabaceae and their use in development of dosages form. The biomaterial was isolated from Vigna radiata by non solvent addition method and characterise its physicochemical and phytochemical properties. Diclofenac Sodium is used as model drug for the development of biopolymer-alginate beads. Five bathes (A1-A5) of Diclofenac sodium biopolymeric-alginate bead were prepared from sodium alginate solution containing Vigna radiata (a novel biopolymer) by using ionic gelation method. The different concentration of sodium alginate, biopolymer and cross linking agent CaCl2 were used.Formulated beads were evaluated for their entrapment efficiency, drug loading efficiency, buoyancy test , in-vitro release, size & shape. Drug entrapment efficiency was found better by using optimized concentration of CaCl2 and biopolymer. Results of the present study indicates that format ion of completely aqueous enviornment avoiding the use of organic solvents to minimize the curing time of beads leaded to enhanced drug entrapment efficiency and the biopolymer serves as a better alternative excipient for the development of dosages and their prospective results was found to be in the limit of Pharmacopoeial standard.
106 COMPARATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF STEM BARK VERSUS SMALL BRANCHES OF FICUS RELIGIOSA LINN USING HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHIC ULTRA VIOLET DETECTION METHOD, S. C. Verma*, E. Vashishth, S. Subhani, R. Singh, P. Pant and M. M. Padhi
Ficus religiosa Linn, family Moraceae is an important medicinal plant and immensely used in the Indian System of Medicine to cure human diseases. Stem bark of F. religiosa has been reported for various medicinal properties such as an astringent, aphrodisiac, antiinflammatory, antiseptic, antidote, antibacterial against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and in bleeding, bone fracture, burns, cooling, diabetes, diarrhoea, dysentery, gonorrhea, gastrohelcosis, haemorrhoids and paralysis and many more. F. religiosa is commonly known as Udamber in India. Chemo-profiling screening of two parts of F. religiosa plants revealed variations in phytochemicals within stem bark and small branches. The unique properties of the chromatographic fingerprint were validated by analyzing stem bark and small branches of F. religiosa. Our results revealed that the chromatographic Finger print combined with similarity measurement could efficiently identify and distinguish F. religiosa from the other investigated Ficus species. In this paper a new, simple method is proposed in which the HPTLC-UV pattern of the extracts of stem bark and small branches of F. religiosa content is used for comparison of phytochemical present in both drug. The method can also be used for identification of different F. religiosa species. The proposed method uses cold- extraction then clean-up by solid-phase extraction before chromatographic analysis. The results revealed that the retention factor (Rf) of F. religiosa stem bark and small branches furnished a specific HPTLC chromatogram fingerprint which might be helpful for quality assurance and detection of adulteration of crude extracts.
107 THE ROLE OF CLINICAL PHARMACIST IN THE DETECTION AND MANAGEMENT OF DRUG INTERACTIONS WITH WARFARIN, Mohammad Arief*, Harika Bheemavarapu, Sarabu Ajay Kumar
Warfarin is a drug which has a narrow therapeutic index and shows a severe bleeding when it is prescribed with other medications like NSAIDS, Phenytoin, which may lead to increase the INR levels in patients unless it is monitored. The present study is an observational, prospective, non-interventional which was carried out at KIMS hospital on 148 patients who were on warfarin therapy from November-2010 to August-2011. Among 148 patients 42 patients had shown an increase in INR levels during their warfarin therapy. Out of 42, 11 patients who were on other medications had shown a profound elevation in INR level, which clearly indicates that the INR level is to be monitored especially when warfarin is prescribed with other medications which may lead to cause a severe bleeding due to increased INR levels. Our study mainly concludes that as there is a risk in adding NSAIDS and other medications which increase the INR levels, an appropriate measure is to be taken to find the alternative drugs to avoid the chance of drug interactions with warfarin and whenever it is possible a proper monitoring is to be done to prevent the risk of bleeding due to elevated INR levels. It is the prime role of a pharmacist to educate the patients to undergo for a regular INR check and provide appropriate advice to physicians and other health care team for alternative drugs which lacks drug interactions with warfarin.
108 INDUCIBLE CLINDAMYCIN RESISTANCE IN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS: A STUDY IN TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN BHOPAL, Mansi Gupta*, Navinchandra M. Kaore, Vijay Kumar Ramnani
Introduction: Emergence of increasing resistance in Staphylococcus aureus has renewed the interest in Clindamycin (lincosamide) usage because of its good pharmacokinetic properties in the treatment of Staphylococcal infections especially in Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Erythromycin (macrolide) also used to treat Staphylococcal infections but it is a potent inducer of Clindmycin resistance. Combined use of these drugs pose a threat of treatment failure. Phenotypic detection of Erythromycin induced Clindamycin resistance by a simple D- test can be done in clinical laboratories to curb inappropriate use of these drugs in Staphylococcal infections including MRSA strains. Objectives: To find out the burden of Inducible clindamycin resistance & its relation with MRSA. Materials and Methods: A total of 127 clinical isolates of S. aureus between March 2013- July2013 collected from various Clinical samples were processed to routine antimicrobial Suceptibility test using modified Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion method-using Cefoxitin (30 ?g) disc to detect MRSA. Erythromycin (15 ?g) & Clindamycin (2 ?g) disc placed at a distance of 15mm to detect Erythromycin induced Clindamycin resistance by D test as per CLSI guidelines. Results: Among 127 isolates, 21(16.53%) isolates showed inducible Clindamycin resistance, out of which 13 were MRSA strains. So percentage of inducible Clindamycin resistance was higher in MRSA (61.90%) as compared to MSSA (38.09%). Conclusions: For optimum treatment of patients, D-test which is simple and feasible t est should be used as routine lab method to detect inducible Clindamycin resistance in Staphylococci.
109 TOXICOKINETICS AND IMMUNOTOXICITY STUDY OF LAMBDACYHALOTHRIN IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS, Bhoopendra Kumar*, Nitesh Kumar
The toxicokinetics study of lambda-cyhalothrin and effect on immune response in lambda-cyhalothrin treated wistar albino rats was conducted at single oral dose 20 mg kg?1 and 10 mg kg ?1. The lambdacyhalothrin was administered in overnight fasting rats by mixing in 0.1% Tween 80 and Serial blood samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0 and 24.0 hr after administration. Liver, kidney, heart, adrenal, spleen, brain, testis and ovaries samples were also collected at same time interval. The concentration of lambdacyhalothrin concentrations were determined by HPLC. The humoral immune response and cellular immune was observed. The plasma and tissue concentrationtime data for lambd-acyhalothrin were found to fit a one-compartment open model. The elimination half-life and mean residence time for lambda-cyhalothrin were found 5.090.16 h and 7.320.11 h, respectively. The mean volume of distribution (Vdarea) was calculated to be 3.940.12 L/kg. The total body clearance (ClB) was observed to be 0.540.01 L.kg -1.h-1. The maximum plasma concentration of lambda-cyhalothrin (Cmax) was noted to be 6.420.11 g.ml-1 at tmax of 2.00 0.00 h exhibit that after oral administration, lambda-cyhalothrin was extensively but slowly absorbed. The maximum concentrations Cmax was observed highest in spleen ( 17.90.38), ovaries (9.770.81), liver (7.750.28), kidney (7.750.28), heart (4.900.42), adrenal (4.870.69), brain (6.630.25) and testis (1.460.10) g.ml -1. Tube agglutination test results showed significant (p
110 SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CEFADROXIL WITH 2, 3 - DICHLORO-5, 6 DICYANO-1, 4-BENZOQUINONE, *Dr. Mallapu.E.Rani
The reaction between Cefadroxil and 2,3 - dichloro 5,6-dicyaxo-1,4-benzoquinona (DDQ) in the presence of chloroform was investigated by spectrophoto metric method were proposed the determination was based on the formation of a charge transfer complex of drug solution with DDQ-Chloroform Mixture. The Orange coloured product under standardized conditions is scanned over the range 400-575mm. The calibration curve for the determination of drug, constructed by recording absorbance. Results of analysis of this method was validated statistically evaluated.
111 SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF DOMAPRIDONE IN PHARMACEUTICALS BY USING DIFFERENCE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD, *Dr. Mallapu. E. Rani
A new spectrophotometric method for the estimation of Domapridone in pharmaceutical formulations has been described. In this method the Domapridone containing phenolic groups produce a bathochronic shift in UV region under strong alkaline medium. The drug so lution in basic medium is scanned over the UV region by taking the acidic drug solution as blank. From the absorbance values, Spectrum was constructed. Two wave lengths are selected one at positive peak and another at negative peak. The sum of the obsolete values at these wavelengths is called amplitude. The amplitude was proportional to the amount of respective drug. Results of analysis of this method were validated statistically evaluated.
112 DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF NOVEL FORMULATION OF TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRAECUM, Radha Sharma*, Leena Vaidya, Suman Jain
In India from the ancient times Trigonella foenum graecum seeds as spice are used to flavor and improve the taste of food recipes. They are also used in cosmetics and medicinal preparat ions. After almost two decades of scientific eclipse, vaginal spermicidal contraceptive methods are gaining interest and importance due to safety and acceptability reasons. At the same time, increasing concern about the side effects of oral contraceptives, IUDs and other methods. This has resulted a shift in attention of investigators and users from these methods to traditional methods of fertility regulation. For this reason a study was carried out on seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenugreek), to explore its contraceptive efficacy regarding to its spermicidal action. The Fenugreek extract showed immense potential as a spermicidal drug. An ideal contraceptive formulation can be developed for controlling the population explosion to some extent. Irritation studies showed that upto 2% concentration range the extracts are safe while earlier studies showed that the minimum concentration of fenugreek extract for spermicidal action is 0.3%. Further the irritation potential of fenugreek extract can be minimized by developing a formulation with suitable inert base so that a safe and effective vaginal contraceptive of herbal origin may be developed.
113 STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF PARACETAMOL, GUAIFENESIN, AMBROXOL HYDROCHLORIDE, PHENYLEPHRINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND CHLORPHENIRAMINE MALEATE IN BULK AND COMBINED DOSAGE FORM, Sravya Neeli*, Shanta Kumari Katakam
An RP-HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of Paracetamol, Guaifenesin, Ambroxol hydrochloride, Phenylephrine hydrochloride and Chlorpheniramine maleate in tablets was developed and validated as per ICH and FDA guidelines. The method was carried out on a with Zodiac C18 (50mm x 4.6mm, 5m) column. Ortho phosphoric acid buffer (1M) and Acetonitrile in the ratio (50:50v/v) used as mobile phase and flow rate of 1.5ml/min. The detection was carried out at 225nm and ambient column temperature was maintained. The linearity of the proposed method was investigated in the range 10-75g/mL (r2= 0.999) for Phenylephrine, 200-1500 g/mL (r2= 0.999) for Paracetamol, 20-150g/mL (r2= 0.999) for Guaifenesin, 6-45g/mL (r2=0.999) for Ambroxol, and 4-30g/mL (r2=0.999) for Chlorpheniramine. The amount of both drugs estimated by the proposed method was found to be in good agreement with labelled claim. The developed method was validated for precision, accuracy, sensitivity, robustness and ruggedness. The developed method can be used for routine analysis of titled drugs in combined dosage form.
114 THE RATE OF BIOSYNTHESIS OF ISOLATED ACTIVE PRINCIPLE 4-[(5-CARBOXY-2-HYDROXY)-BENZYL]-1, 10-DIHYDROXY-3, 4, 7, 11, 11-PENTAMETHYLOCTAHYDROCYCLOPENTANAPHTHALENE FROM AN ANTARCTIC CYANOBACTERIUM NOSTOC CCC 537 UNDER DIFFERENT GROWTH REGIMES, Deepali*, Sreshwar P Singh, RK Asthana
The known active principle (AP) 4-[(5 -carboxy -2-hydroxy)-benzyl]-1,10-dihydroxy -3,4,7,11,11-pentamethyloctahydrocyclopentanaphthalene has been isolated from an Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc CCC537, grows well at 20 oC and showed antibacterial properties against both Gram (+) and (-) bacteria as well as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The Killing efficiency of AP is high when methanol used as a solvent as compared to water and DMSO. Even the biomass age of 60 day, the target cyanobacterium possess maximum antibacterial potential. To enhance rate of biosynthesis of AP, resuming the nutrient components of growth medium such as nitrate and phosphate. Under 29 M of phosphate as compared to 116 M, normal (58 M), the biomass production were reduced while rate of AP biosynthesis raised. Similarly for nitrate, biomass had increased maximum for 10mM while AP maximum in 5mM concentration. The production rate of AP were analyzed qualitatively by size of inhibition zones (Antibacterial bioassay) and quantitatively by HPLC.
115 A REVIEW OF CONGENITAL DISORDERS IN NEONATES, *Dr. Madhuri Mahadar, Dr. Deepa Khajgiwala, Dr. Lad Meenal
A Congenital Disorder is a medical condition that is present at birth. It can be detected before birth, at birth or even years later. Congenital anomalies are an important cause of child hood mortality and morbidity. Congenital disorder is condition that exists at birth and then develops through the rest of ones life. A congenital malformation is a congenital physical anomaly that is structural defect which is perceived as a problem. Birth defect is a widely used term for a congenital malformation i.e. a congenital, physical anomaly which is recognisable a birth.
116 BRAIN TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A NOVEL AND ADVANCED CONTROLLED RELEASE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM, Manish Ladola*, Jaya Devnani, Krupal Vaghela, Mehal Thhakar, Ramprakash Parmar, Vrushaank Keskar
Targeted drug delivery is a method of delivering medication to a patient in a manner that increases the concentration of t he medication in some parts of the body relative to others. Targeted drug delivery seeks to concentrate the medication in the tissues of interest while reducing the relative concentration of the medication in the remaining tissues. The inherent advantage o f this technique has been the reduction in dose & side effect of the drug. The brain is a delicate organ, and evolution built very efficient ways to protect it. The brain is shielded against potentially toxic substances by the presence of three barrier systems: the blood brain barrier (BBB), the blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) and the blood tumor barrier (BTB). General methods that can enhance drug delivery to the brain are of great interest in treatment of various CNS diseases. By localizing drugs at their desired site of action one can reduce toxicity and increase treatment efficiency. In response to the insufficiency in conventional delivery mechanisms, aggressive research efforts have recently focused on the development of new strategies to mo re effectively deliver drug molecules to the CNS. This review intends to detail the barriers in brain targeted drug delivery system, mechanism of transfer of drug via BBB, problems faced in brain targeted drug delivery, various approaches of brain targeted drug delivery system and its applications in treatment of various CNS diseases.
117 SYNTHESIS OF COPPER (II) COMPLEXES USING PENTADENTATE SCHIFF BASE LIGAND BY ECO FRIENDLY SOLVENTLESS METHOD AND ITS ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES, Prabakarakrishnan R., Manoranjitham S. And Geetha Kannappan *
The complexes were synthesised using pentadentate Schiff base ligand with three different precursors by eco-friendly method and it was characterised by UV-VIS, FT-IR, ESR spectral techniques and Conductivity Measurements. The electrochemical behaviour was investigated by Cyclic Voltammetry for the complexes. The ligand and complexes were subjected to antimicrobial studies. A correlation of these data suggested that the com plexes are of the type [MLR] where R= [(NH2)-C6H4COO], R= [(COOH)-C6H4COO] & R= [C6H5CH=CHCOO] are the complex-I, II & III respectively.
118 QSAR MODELING FOR INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF NON-PEPTIDE HIV-1 PROTEASE INHIBITORS: A MLR APPROACH, Mithlesh Kumar Dwivedi, Purushottam Das Soni, Shailaja Sachan*, Santosh Tiwari
The multiple linear regression (MLR) methods were used to develop quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) models for inhibitory activity of non-peptide HIV-1 protease inhibitors. The results revealed the significant roles of topological, g eometrical and substituent electronic descriptor parameters on the inhibitory activity of non-peptide HIV-I protease inhibitors of the studied molecules. The most significant quantitative structure activity relationship model, obtained by MLR could explain and predict 80% of variance in the pIC50 data, respectively.
119 GC-MS AND HPTLC FINGERPRINTING OF BAUHINIA VARIEGATA LEAVES FOR ANTICANCER ACTIVITY, Gayathri Gunalan*, Vijayalakshmi Krishnamurthy and (Late) Ariamuthu Saraswathy
Background: Plant extracts usually contains thousands of different constituents. The separation of the active components in medicinal plant extracts provides solutions in studying their pharmacological efficacy. B.variegata is a medicinal plant belongs to Caeselpiniaceae family and it is used for the treatment of various diseases. Objective: To explore the phytochemical constituents present in the leaves of Bauhinia variegata Linn using GC-MS and HPTLC analysis. Method: The shade-dried leaves of B.variegata were extracted with ethanol and the crude ethanolic extract was subjected to column chromatography. Active fractions were identified by testing the anticancer activity on COLO 320 cell lines. The active fractions were further subjected to GC-MS and HPTLC analysis to identify the bioactive components. Results: In GC-MS analysis, 28 bioactive compounds and 17 bioactive compounds were identified in active fraction I and active fraction II respectively. In HPTLC analysis, active fraction I showed the presence of 12 compounds and active fraction II showed the presence of 10 components. Further, the amount of various phytochemicals and nutrients were also determined. Conclusion: The results of the present study justifies and enhances the traditional use of B.variegata which possesses several known and unknown bioactive compounds, which may be used as an effective source of drugs against various diseases.
120 METFORMIN-THE TIME TESTED TRUSTWORTHY MEDICINE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF TYPE 2 DIABETES, Revi Kumar. KG, Mohsina Hyder.K, Shahina PT, Veena R*
Diabetes is the fourth or fifth leading cause of death in most high income countries. The number of people with diabetes is increasing due to population growth, aging, urbanization and increasing prevalence of obesity, sedentary life and lack of physical activities. In the age group of 35- 64 years, 1 out of 10 deaths are estimated to be due to diabetes. The primary goal of type 2 DM treatment is to achieve and maintain good glycemic control, and to reduce the mortality. Metformin, dimethyl biguanide, originally marketed as Glucophage in 1957 is believed to be the most widely prescribed anti-diabetic drug in the world. Metformin improves glucose tolerance in diabetic patients, lowering both basal and post prandial plasma glucose. Metformin also has positive effects on several components of the insulin resistance syndrome. Metformin decreases plasma triglycerides and LDL-C by approximately 8% to 15%, as well increasing HDL-C very modestly (2%). Metformin reduces levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and causes a modest reduction in weight (2 to 3 kg). It is a time tested trustworthy medicine for the management of Type 2 diabetes and is having a good safety profile. Metformin became available in the British National Formulary in 1958 and was approved in Canada in 1972. In the United States alone, about 50 million prescriptions are filled in a year for its generic formulations. By 2014 metformin formulations became the largest selling pharmaceutical formulation in India with a sales turnover of 1050 million INR.
121 ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF BURSERA PENCILLATA LEAF EXTRACT ON DERMATOPHYTES, Ashok. T* Madhuri. N,Sravanthi.P , Shilpa Vemula
To evaluate the in v i t ro ant ifungal act ivit y of Bursera pencillata leaf extract s and fractions on t he clinical isolat es of der mat ophyt ic fungi like Tric hophyt on ment agr ophytes, Tri chophyton rubrum, Mi crosporum cani s, Mi crosporum gypseum and Epidermophyton floccosum. The minimum inhibitory concentrati on (MIC) and minimum fungici dal concentrati on (MFC) of various extracts and fract ions of the leaves of Bursera pencillata were measured using method of Nat iona l Commit tee for Clinical Laborator y Standards ( NCCLS). Bursera pencillata leaf extracts and fractions were found to have fungicida l activity against various clinical isolates of dermatophyti c fungi . The MIC and MFC was found to be high in water and ethyl alcohol extracts and methanol fractions (200 g /mL) against dermatophytic fungi studi ed. Bursera pencillata l eaf extracts significantly inhibits the growth of all dermatophyti c fungi studi ed. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studi es and if the compound is isolated and i denti fied, i t could be a remedy for dermatophytosis
122 HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF HERBAL FORMULATION IN PARACETAMOL INDUCED TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS, Yuvarani . S, Radhika. J*, Jothi. G, Sangeetha. D
Hepatotoxicity is an injury to the liver that is associated with impaired liver function caused by exposure to a drug or various other agents. The present study was carried out to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of a formulation comprising of Atrocarpus heterophyllus LamCurcuma amada Roxb and Piper longum Linn in wistar albino rats. The animals were divided in to six groups comprising of six rats each. Hepato toxicity was induced using paracetamol at a dose of 2g/kg bw orally as a single dose. Group 1 served as normal control. Group II was induced with paracetamol at a dose of 2g/kg bw orally as a single dose. Group III was induced with paracetamol and administered the formulation at a dose of 100mg/kg bw for 15 days orally. Group IV was induced with paracetamol and administered the formulation at a dose of 200mg/kg bw for 15 days orally. Group V was induced with paracetamol and administered Liv 52 at a dose of 1ml/kg 3 times a day for 15 days. Group VI received formulation alone at a dose of 200/kg bw for 15 days. Serum enzyme markers Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT) were measured. Further that serum bilirubin, liver glycogen, membrane bound Na + K + - ATPase and lipid profile in both serum and tissue were analysed. Histopathology of liver tissue was performed. The results obtained were statistically significant (p
123 PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF DESICCATED FRONDS OF SELAGINELLA BRYOPTERRIS (L) BAKER (PITTAKALU), P. Rupa* and N.Lakshmi Bhavani
The present work has been carried on the fern Selaginella bryopteris (L) Baker which belongs to family Selaginellaceae. It shows high desiccation tolerance, during summerfronds are folded inside and form as fist, the desiccated plant rehydrates back with water availability.The present study aims to screen the presence of the various types of phytoconstituents in desiccated plant . For this study both root and stem were extracted using methanol, ethanol and distilled water as solvents. Specific phyto chemical screening tests for each group were adopted to find various phytoconstituents like alkaloids, phenols, saponins, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids, aminoacids, terpenoids, and carbohydrates. The present study revealed the presence of alkaloids, amino acids, tannins, glycosides, steroids, flavonoids and Carbohydrates in both root and stem extracts. But phenols, anthraquinonesandsaponins are absent in both root and stem esxtracts. Terpenoids are present only instemextraction (not screened in aquacious extract). Phytochemicalsare separated effectively in methanol solvent followed by ethanol and distilled water.
124 EFFECTS OF JALOUKAVACHARAN IN STYE & CONJUNCTIVITIS, *Dr. Shilpa Dhote, Dr. Aparna Bhoite
nflammation is defined as the local response of living mammalian tissues to injury due t o any agent. It is a body defence reaction in order to eliminate or limit the spirit of injurious agent as well as to remove the consequent necro ssed cells & tissues. Inflammatory Ophthalmic disorders are very commonly seen in our day to day practises which cause much discomfort and annoyance to the patients. Raktamokshana ie. Bloodletting is one of the important procedure of Shodhana Karma which is very useful in the treatment of some of the eye disease especially in Rakta-Pitta disorders.
125 EFFECT OF PURE MANGIFERIN VIS-A-VIS CRUDE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT FROM MANGIFERA INDICA BARK ON HAEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS IN MALE ALBINO RATS, Arnab Das, Chaitali Bose, Subhasish Ghosal, Indrani Chakraborty, Nirmal Pradhan*
Different parts of mango tree have great medicinal value in different clinical fields. But the bark extract is very important in the field of pharmaceutical research and clinical applications. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of crude ethanolic extract (mother) of Mangifera indica bark in comparison to pure mangiferin on haematological indices in adult male albino rats. In this study, eighteen animals were divided at random into three groups i.e. vehicle control, M.indica bark extract and pure mangiferin, which received intraperitoneally 0.1ml 70% methanol, 0.1ml bark extract and 1mg pure mangiferin in 0.1ml 70% methanol/100gm b.wt./day accordingly for consecutive 14 days. Result s showed no change in body growth rate, weights of heart and lung, where weights of adrenal and spleen were significantly increased in extract treated group than control. But the weights of kidney and spleen were reduced in pure mangiferin group in respect to extract treatment. Significant reduction of liver weight was observed in pure mangiferin group than control. The SGOT, SGPT and serum ALP showed no significant change. Haematological indices like Hb, TC of RBC and PCV were significantly increased in pure mangiferin group when compared to control. Notably, TC of RBC was also significantly high in pure mangiferin group when compared to extract treatment. But MCV and MCH showed significant reduction in pure mangiferin group than control and extract treat ment. The MCHC showed no change. TC of WBC was significantly higher in treated groups than control. From the results, it may be concluded that mangiferin of M.indica bark extract may be an active haemopoietic principle, which can be therapeutically used for haemopoiesis.
126 UV SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ALLOPURINOL IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM, Srujani. Ch*, Anushakanthi. M, Varanasi. S.N. Murthy
Allopurinol, 1H-pyrazolo [3,4-d]pyrimidin-4(2H)-one is a drug used primarily to treat hyperuricemia and its complications, including chronic gout. A simple, rapid, accurate, specific and highly sensitive UV spectroscopic methods were developed and validated for the estimation of Allopurinol in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form. The absorption maxima was found to be 250.6nm for the method A(Zero order), 238nm for method B(first order derivative) and for method C(Area under curve) was measured from 245-255nm. The solvent used was methanol for the preparation of stock solution and distilled water was used for the further dilutions. The methods were found to be linear in the range of 5-35?g/ml and the correlation coefficient values were found to be 0.999, 0.999, 0.9985 respectively . The developed methods were validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision in accordance with the ICH guidelines. The proposed methods can be used for the estimation of Allopurinol in bulk and Pharmaceutical dosage forms.
127 HERBAL TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS: A REVIEW, Bhaskar K. Gupta*, Mukul Tailang
In the present review we have studied the role of herbal plants and their phytoconstituents in the treatment of diabetes. The routine path of treatment is oral hypoglycemic agent and insulin therapy which leads to many side effects. The natural products shall be considered as the best in primary health care because of their better acceptability, safety, efficacy, potency, cost effectiveness, and lesser side effects. Several herbal medicines and supplements have been studied as potential therapeutic agents in the management of diabetes and its related complications. Many polyherbal formulations are available in Indian markets which have been proved to be efficacious in treatment of diabetes. Only plants and plant metabolites (eg.epicaechin, barberine, diabecon etc.) have the capacity to protect and regenerate ?-cells. Thus we can say that phytoconstituents from such potential plants can be proposed to be a better source for Antidiabetic drugs.
128 VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE AND GLIMEPIRIDE IN BULK AND COMBINED DOSAGE FORM, Ganesh Manohar Guthi*, Shanta Kumari Katakam, Surendra Nama, Sambasiva rao Pathakamuri
A new Simple, Precise, Fast and Accurate RP-HPLC Method has been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Metformin Hydrochloride (MET) and Glimepiride (GLM) in bulk and combined dosage form. The method was carried out on a Agilent CN (250mm 4.6mm i.d, 5m) column with mobile phase consisting of Buffer and Acetonitrile in the ratio of 45:55v/v and flow rate of 1ml/min. The detection was carried out at 229 nm. The retention time of MET and GLM were found to be 2.868min and 5.104min respectively. The MET and GLM followed linearity in the concentration range of 0.2-3.03 g/ml and 10.01-150.15 g/ml respectively with r=0.999 for both MET and GLM .The amount of both drugs estimated by the proposed method was found to be in good agreement with labelled claim. The developed method was validated for precision, accuracy, sensitivity, robustness and ruggedness. The developed method can be used for routine analysis of titled drugs in combined dosage form.
129 EVALUATION OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SUDANESE HONEY AGAINST TYPHOIDAL& NON-TYPHOIDAL SALMONELLAE, Eljack M S*, Kafi S K
Back ground: Typhoid fever remains a serious public health problem throughout the world, with an estimated 1633 million cases and 500 000 to 600 000 deaths annually. Honey has been used by humans to treat a variety of ailments, from gastric disturbances to ulcers, wounds and burns, through ingestion or topical application, but only recently have the antiseptic and antibacterial properties of honey been chemically explained. Few studies that have studied the antibacterial activity of Sudanese honey were reported but none of them evaluated the antibacterial activity of honey on certain Salmonella species. This study was therefore performed to study the effect of three types of honey on selected Salmonella species. Materials and methods: the antibacterial activity of three mono floral Sudanese honey (Acacia, Sidr and Sunflower honey) were evaluated using agar well diffusion susceptibility method in different concentrations(undiluted honey,75%, 50% and 25%v/v) against nineteen salmonella isolates in addition to reference strain (S.typhimurium NCTC12023, ATCC14028) compared to the commercial antibiotics (ciprofloxacin). Results: All clinical isolates and the reference strain were observed to be susceptible to undiluted honey, 75% and 50% v/v dilutions of the three types of honey used according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) formerly NCCLS. Variations in susceptibility of some isolates were observed at dilution of 25%v/v of the three honey types.
130 ACUTE TOXICITY (LETHAL DOSE 50 CALCULATION) AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF BERBERIS VULGARIS IN MICE, Muhammad Ahmed*, Aisha Azmat
The arithmetic method of Karber for the calculation of LD50 and histopathology were used to study the acute toxicological effects of Methanolic extract of Berberis vulgaris root pulp (BRPM) on albino mice. The study involved different doses (10, 100, 500 and 1000mg/Kg) of the extract by intraperitoneal administration to groups of mice. Signs of toxicity and possible death of animals were monitored for 24 hrs to ascertain the median lethal dose (LD50) of the extract. At the end study, all the animals in all the dose groups were sacrificed and the internal organ-body were compared with values from the control group. The LD50 was found to be 666.66 mg/Kg body weight upon intraperitoneal administration in mice. The histopathological examination indicated that the at the dose of 1000mg/Kg, extract induced several histopathological changes in the liver of mice such as necrosis of some hepatocytes, edema, scattered bile canaliculi and damage in septa between lobes of liver. The obtained LD 50 values classify the BRPM (i.p.) as slightly toxic according to Hodge and sterner toxicity scale.
131 QUALITY CONTROL ASPECT OF POCT, *Dr. Jayesh P. Warade
Number of Point of care tests (POCT ) have evolved in the recent years. The field of POCT is rapidly developing and the market share is constantly increaseing. POCT devices are beneficial in providing bed side testing and rapid reporting of the tests that helps in managing patients in emergency situation. However theses POCT instrument are only reliable if the results provided are reliable and accurate. Quality controls (QC) exists to ensure accuracy and reliability. For many of the healthcare workers using POCT instruments, QC will be unfamiliar territory, as these staffs are not trained in testing the QC material as well as the analysis of the QC results. Many of the standard QC procedures applied in laboratories cannot be applied to POCT devices. Although there are many benefits of using POCT devices in terms of their convenience, these benefits are only true if the results produced are both accurate and reliable. Ensuring accuracy and reliability is the primary responsibility of Quality Control.
132 SCREENING FOR SIDEROPHORE AND AMMONIA PRODUCTION FROM RHIZOSPHERE ISOLATES OF ORYZA SATIVA, Ritesh Singh and M.P. Prasad*
The Rhizosphere is biologically and chemically highly diverse, complex and dynamic interaction occurs between plant roots, soil (micro) biota and the physicochemical conditions of the soil. The autotrophic plant partner is providing substrate and energy flow into the rhizosphere and gets in return essentials for its development and growth: nutrients, minerals and water. Heterotrophic soil biota usually are limited in the supply of carbon and energy and thus a complex sequence of responses are initiated, which in due course also influence the plants. In the present study the microorganisms were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of rice from nine different locations in and around Bangalore to understand the diversity of the microorganisms, interaction and to determine the siderophore activity and production of ammonia of the isolates. A total of 116 micro organisms were isolated of which 110 were bacterial isolates and 6 Actinomycetes. 53 bacterial isolates found to be morphologically different were used for the current study. 6 isolates out of the 53 microorganisms showed positive results for the production of siderophore by forming orange yellow halo zones on CAS agar media plate. R-19 isolate showed the highest zone and was considered as the highest producer of siderophore. Whereas 36 isolates showed positive for ammonia production out of which 6 isolates showed maximum production and 12 isolates with fairly good production.
133 REVERSED-PHASE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF ATENOLOL AND NIFEDIPINE IN A CAPSULE FORMULATION, *Sahaya Asirvatham, Neelam Sachin Kamble
A simple, rapid, precise and accurate reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for simultaneous determination of Atenolol in combination with Nifedipine. This method uses a mobile phase of 0.01M phosphate buffer solution: methanol (50:50 v/v, pH 4.0). The retention times for Atenolol and Nifedipine are 1.8 min and 7.7 min, respectively. The method is validated and shown to be linear. The linearity range for both Atenolol and Nifedipine was found to be 10-100 ?g/ml. The Percentage recovery for Atenolol and Nifedipine are ranged between 99.32 100.02 and 99.10100.4 respectively. The correlation coefficients of Atenolol and Nifedipine are 0.999 and 0.999 respectively. The relative standard deviation for six replicates is always less than 2%. The Statistical analysis proves that the method is suitable for analysis of Atenolol and Nifedipine as a bulk drug and in pharmaceutical formulation without any interference from the excipients. The propose method was validated as per the ICH guidelines parameters like Linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness limit of detection and limit of quantitation. The method was accurate, precise, specific and rapid found to be suitable for the quantitative analysis of the drug and dosage form.
134 AYURVEDA FOR CANCER THERAPY, Subha Ganguly*
Cancer, one of the most deadly challenges spreading drastically in 21st century, has now officially become the most dangerous killer in the world according to the World Health Organization. Cancer is related to adversary of modernization and advanced pattern of irregular and stressed life dominated by Western medicine. Scientists are making their best efforts to fight this disease; however the sure -shot cure is still awaited. The excruciating experience of dying cancer patients can be ameliorated by making use of Ayurvedic principles. Ayurveda can be helpful in the management of cancer in many ways such asprophylactic, palliative, curative and supportive. Ayurvedic medicines help to improve the quality of life of the patients through various pharmacokinetic mechanisms.
135 OPTIMIZE ENVIRONMENTAL PRODUCTION CONDITIONS OF EXTRACELLULAR ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE FROM Bacillus sp. I, Rabab Omran*,Jaafar Anwer Qaddoori
Background: Alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) has vital applications in many aspects of life as molecular biology and genetic engineering applications is used in non-radioactive detection techniques, probing, blotting and sequencing systems and in immunology, diagnosis, linked enzymes in ELISA. Thus it is commercially produced from calf intestine and Escherichia coli. Bacterial enzyme located in periplasmic space of E.coli cells that require costlier extraction method and complex downstream processes. Whereas Bacillus spp. capable to produce Extracellular ALPase which is extracted and purified from crude filtrate and the amount of ALPase is more and easier downstream processes. The present paper amid to isolate new bacterial producer for ALPase regarded to Bacillus sp. and optimize some environmental conditions of enzyme production. Methodology: We used fifteen Bacillus isolates were isolated previously from different soil and waste sources were collected from polluted area, in Advanced Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Laboratory , College of Science in Babylon University ,Iraq. The production of extracellular ALPase enzymes were screened, in liquid media and the best isolate was selected and identified, subsequently it was grown in different cultural conditions as pH, temperature, incubation periods and aeration and agitation to optimize enzyme production. Results: twelve out of fifteen isolates had capable to produce extracellular ALPase enzymes at variant levels. The best one ( Bacillus sp.I) was selected to produce the enzyme depending for its high value of specific activity of ALPase. After that the environmental conditions for enzyme production were optimize and results revealed that the optimum conditions of extracellular ALPase production in fermentation medium were pH 8.2, 40C for four days in stand incubator. Conclusion: Most Bacillus isolate produce extracellular ALPase enzymes that encourage more screening of Bacillus isolates for ALPase enzymes production especially that isolated from extreme environment sources as alkaliophilic and thermophilic sources.
136 TOXICOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING STUDY OF TREMA GUINEENSIS (ULMACEA), PLANT OF CTE D'IVOIRE (WEST AFRICA), Kouakou Ybou Koffi F, Gnahoue Goueh, Yapi Houphouet F*, Ayebe Edwige Aka, Nguessan Jean D, Djaman Allico J
The leaves of Trema guineensisare used in traditional medicine to treat several pathologies like the pains, the yellow fever, cough and hypertension. In order to indicate its Tolerance limits, we determined acute toxicity threshold by the Overall Harmonized System of classification (SGH) using predetermined dose method. We have also highlighted principal chemical groups responsible for pharmacological activity. The results allowed us to conclude that any dose of Trema guineensisleaves aqueous and ethanol extracts (300 and 2000 mg/kg) was lethal for the inoculated animals. DL50 was thus higher than 2000 mg/kg. That proved clearly that the aqueous and ethanolic leaves extracts of Trema guineensiscould be used with some degree of safety by intraperitoneal route. The phytochimical analysis indicated the presence of sterol, terpen, polyphenol, flavonoi d, tannin, saponosid and alkaloid in the aqueous extract whereas only the polyphenol, The Alkaloid, sterol, terpen were revealed in the ethanolic extract. The presence of these compounds confred several pharmacological activities on the leaves of the plant.
137 EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANANAS COMOSUS LEAVES ON GLUCOSE TOLERANCE AND ACETIC ACID-INDUCED PAIN IN SWISS ALBINO MICE, M.M. Faisal, Fairuj Maliha Mhazabin Hossa, Shahnaz Rahman , A.B.M. Anwarul Bashar, Shahadat Hossan, Mohammed Rahmatullah*
In oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), methanol extract of Ananas comosus leaves, when administered orally to glucose-loaded Swiss albino mice at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight led to dose-dependent reductions in blood glucose levels. At these doses, the percent reductions in blood glucose levels were, respectively, 6.5, 20.2, 30.5, and 46.9% compared to control animals. A standard ant hyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight reduced blood glucose levels by 47.3%. The extract at the afore-mentioned four doses, also dose-dependently reduced acetic acid-induced abdominal constrictions in mice by 29.6, 37.0, 44.4, and 48.1%, respectively. A standard analgesic drug, aspirin, when administered at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg reduced the number of abdominal constrictions, respectively, by 44.4 and 55.6%. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins in the extract, which components can be responsible for the observed blood glucose lowering and analgesic effects.
138 ORAL GLUCOSE TOLERANCE, PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ACUTE TOXICITY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY EVALUATION OF LEAVES OF PHRYNIUM CAPITATUM, Joyanto Kumar Nandi, Samira Sultana, K.M. Hasanur Rahman, Shahnaz Rahman, Md Moshiur Rahman, Mohammed Rahmatullah*
Oral glucose tolerance tests were conducted with methanolic extract of leaves of Phrynium capitatum in glucose-loaded Swiss albino mice. The extract, when administered at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, dose-dependently reduced blood glucose by 16.8, 26.3, 42.7, and 48.9%, respectively. Glibenclamide (a standard antihyperglycemic drug), when administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg reduced blood glucose level by 47.4%. In analgesic activity tests conducted with intraperitoneally administered acetic acid-induced pain model in mice, the extract at the afore-mentioned four doses reduced the number of abdominal constrictions, respectively, by 33.3, 37.0, 44.4, and 59.3%. A standard analgesic drug, aspirin, when administered at doses of 200 and 400 mg per kg reduced the number of abdominal constrictions by 48.1 and 63.0%, respectively. The results suggest that the leaves of the plant possess 3antihyperglycemic and analgesic potential and may be used for reducing blood sugar and for alleviating pain.
139 BIOSORPTION OF METHYLENE BLUE FROM WASTE WATER USING SCABIOSAPROLIFERA (CARMEL DAISY), Mhamad-Aly Moussawi, Akram Hijazi*, Hussein Hamad, Hassan Rammal, Wassim Ramma, Mohamad Alameh, Daoud Naoufal
Many industries use synthetic dyes and pigments that may find their way into natural waterways [1]. Reactive dyes, an anionic or cationic dye, are most commonly used due to their provision of bright colors, excellent color fastness, and easy application. However, many reactive dyes are toxic to organisms and may cause direct harm to aquatic life. Accumulation of these dyes in wastewater from industries such as textiles, paper, cosmetics, rubber, and plastics has been regarded as a significant source of water pollution [2]. Discharge of colored wastewater without proper treatment can results in numerous problems such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) by the water body and an increase in toxicity.
140 PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF CITRULLUS LANATUS SEED AGAINST SOME PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS, Nwankwo, I.U, Onwuakor, C.E* . Nnadi, C.J and Nwosu V.C.
The phytochemical and antibacterial potentials of C. lanatus were evaluated. This was carried out by the crude extraction of the seeds with hot water, ethanol and methanol. The extracts were used to verify the occurrence of phytochemicals. Stock cultures of test organism such as Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Proteus mirabilis and Streptococcus pyogenes were used to test the antibacterial effects of the extracts using the agar well diffusion method. The extracts showed presence of antibacterial activities which were compared to antibacterial activity of a commercial antibiotic (Ciprofloxacin) against the test organisms. At 62.5mg, ethanol extract showed a week inhibitory effect against Proteus mirabilis (3mm), Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (2mm respectively). Antibacterial activity of the extract was pronounced at higher concentrations (100mg, 500mg and 250mg) for all the extracts. Hot and cold water extracts showed the presence of phenol and methanol extract showed highest bacterial activity. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of phenol, saponnin, tannin, flavonoid, alkaloid and cyanogenic glycoside. From this research, watermelon seeds when properly extracted and purified, acts as antibiotics which can be used in treatment of infections caused by pathogenic microorganisms in relation to orthodox medicine.
141 NUTRITIONAL AND MICROBIAL ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT BRANDS OF APPLE JUICES SOLD IN GILGIT CITY, Dr. Muhammad Shahnawaz, Shehnaz Sher, Sadat Sher Khan and Muhammad Saeed Awan.
In the present study microbiological and physico-chemical characteristics of four samples of commercially available apple juices were examined. These samples were Haleeb Just Fruit (Apple Nectar), Nestle Fruita Vitals (Apple Nectar), Olfruite (Apple Power Up) and Tops Pulpy (Apple Drink). All juices were found To have a divers degree of chemical compositions. Acidity was more than the standard acidity. Among the products, TOPS pulpy Juice was found deficient in certain chemical compositions. Besides, all the juices were found free of microbiological contamination as indicated by total viable count (TVC). Similarly , all samples were Found to be free of contamination by coliform bacteria (both total coliforms and fecal coliforms). Yeast and mold were also absent in all the samples. These results show that apple juice brands analyzed in the present report are free of contamination and microbiologically fit for human consumption.
142 ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITY EVALUATION OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF RAPHANUS SATIVUS L. AERIAL PARTS, Tania Khan, Shahnaz Rahman , Mohammed Rahmatullah*
Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the ant hyperglycemic and analgesic potential of methanolic extract of Raphanus sativus aerial parts in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Extract was administered orally at doses of 50-400 mg/kg. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to evaluate ant hyperglycemic activity in glucose-loaded mice. Analgesic activity was assessed in intraperitoneally injected acetic acid-induced pain model. Results: The extract, at doses of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, reduced blood glucose levels by 15.8, 27.6, 35.4, and 49.2%, respectively. By comparison, a standard ant hyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide (10 mg/kg) reduced blood glucose levels by 49.2%. In acetic acid-induced pain model, the extract reduced the number of abdominal constrictions by 31.0, 41.1, 44.8, and 51.7%, respectively, at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. A standard analgesic drug, aspirin (200 mg/kg) reduced abdominal constrictions by 34.5%. Conclusion: The extract possesses significant ant hyperglycemic and analgesic potential.
143 BIOACTIVITY OF RECOMBINANT HUMAN INSULIN PRODUCED BY PICHIA PASTORIS, Rafid abdulwahid, Dr. Subhi. Jawad *
Background: Recombinant DNA technology has made a revolutionary impact in the area of human healthcare by enabling mass production of safe, pure and effective rDNA expression products, currently several categories of rDNA products like hormones of therapeutic interest, haemopoietic growth factors, blood coagulation products, thrombolytic agents, anticoagulants, interferons, interleukins and therapeutic enzymes are being produced using recombinant DNA technology for human use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Production of human insulin was perfumed by standard methods total RNA was isolated from pancreatic tissue, then RNA was converted to cDNA using RT-P RCR reaction and preproinsulin gene was inserted into the pPIC9K to produce the expression plasmid named pPIC9K-hpi expression vector. Which then transferred to Pichiapastorisby electroporation method. four groups of diabetic rats were used in this study according to protocol used by animal models of diabetic complication s consortium (AMDCC) members to induce type 1diabetes in a number of the animal models developed by the consortium (AMDCC, 2013). Plasma glucose levels of all four groups were measured before and after experimentation.
144 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES WITH ANGIOPTERIS EVECTA ROOTS, Md. Forhad Molla, Shahnaz Rahman, A.B.M. Anwarul Bashar, *Mohammed Rahmatullah
Objective: The objective of the present study was to phytochemically screen and evaluate the antihyperglycemic and analgesic potential of methanolic extract of Angiopteris evecta roots. Methods: Extract was administered orally at doses of 50-400 mg/kg. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was used to evaluate antihyperglycemic activity in glucose-loaded mice. Analgesic activity was assessed in intraperitoneally injected acetic acid-induced pain model. Results: The extract, at doses of 50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, reduced blood glucose levels by 11.3, 23.0, 32.8, and 46.7%, respectively. By comparison, a standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide (10mg/kg) reduced blood glucose levels by 47.4%. In acetic acid-induced pain model, the extract reduced the number of abdominal constrictions by 25.9, 40.7, 48.1, and 59.3%, respectively, at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. A standard analgesic drug, aspirin (200 and 400 mg/kg) reduced abdominal constrictions by 48.1 and 63.0%, respectively . Conclusion: The extract possesses significant antihyperglycemic and analgesic potential.
145 EFFECT OF SUBACUTE ORCHIDECTOMY ON HEAMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND LIPID PROFILE IN WISTAR RATS, *Sulaiman I,Dissi, G.M, Mabrouk, M.A. Gotam K, Shamim A K , Khairi CM, Nordin S, Atif, A.B
The effect of hypogonadism on some cardiovascular risk factors remains controversial and occasionally conflicting. This study was designed to determine the effect of orchidectomy induced hypogonadism on some hematological predictors of cardiovascular health status and body defense system. Fifty Wistar rats (25 male and 25 females) were used for this study. Male wistar rats were grouped into five groups (n=5), Group 1 consisted of the bilaterally orchidectomized rats, Group 2 were unilaterally castrated, Group 3 were sham operated, while group 4 and 5 were the experimental and passive controls respectively. The study lasted for six weeks. Conventional methods were applied for sample collection. Laboratory analysis of concentrations of testosterone, FSH, LH, lipid profile, full blood count, ESR, PCV and Hb concentration were conducted. Data was subjected to statistical analysis using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare means (P ? 0.05). Bilateral orchidectomy was found to significantly decrease testosterone concentration (65.62%), triglycerides concentration (17.52%), red blood cell count (53.24%), total white blood cell count (54.64%) and percentage lymphocytes (26%) in the differentials. Significant increase in concentrations of LH (82.81%), FSH (97.12%), MCV (70.76%), MCH (76.23), total cholesterol (12.45%), LDL (25.34%) and percentage neutrophils relative to the differentials (69.4%) were also observed in the group. No significant change in PCV, Hb, MCHC, thrombocyte count, ESR, HDL. In conclusion, bilateral orchidectomy lead to characteristic macrocytic normochromic aneamia, increased susceptibility to infection and dyslipideamia associated with hypercholesteroleamia and elevated LDL concentration which may increase atherosclerotic plaques formation. Though the procedure may be used in a number of procedures, the subacute complications that follows the procedure appears to be highly detrimental to healthy leaving.
146 MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF THE PROMOTER REGION OF THE SMN2 GENE IN PATIENTS OF SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHY TOWARDS SCRUTINIZING THE CLINICAL SEVERITY OF SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHY, Atif AB*, Chan YY, Shamim A K, Gotam K, Zilfalil BA
In patients of spinal muscular atrophy from different clinical types and with different copy numbers of the SMN2 gene the level of FL- SMN (Full length Survival of Motor Neuron) protein is reported to be same and even with same copy no. of the SMN2 gene the FL-SMN levels were reported to be different. We postulated that the difference in the promoter region of SMN2 gene might produce the different level of FL-SMN protein in SMA patients. To verify this hypothesis, the DNA samples of 69 SMA patients were analyzed forSMN1 deletion followed by the SMN2 copy no. analysis and NAIP deletion analysis to remove any clinical bias. Based on the bioinformatics analysis and the designed primers, PCR amplification was done for different regions in promoter of the SMN2 gene in SMA patients (n=10) followed by direct DNA sequencing. The molecular analysis confirmed the absence of any variation in the promoter region of the SMN2 gene between normal healthy individuals (n=2) and SMA patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is first study analyzing the promoter region of SMN2 gene in all clinical types of SMA.
147 ASSESSMENT ON KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE OF FOOT CARE AMONG DIABETES PATIENTS ATTENDING MEDICAL OPD IN HIWOT FANA UNIVERSITY SPECIALIZED HOSPITAL, HARAR, Hawa Redwan, *Vijai basker G*
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) foot complications are a leading cause of mortality in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and practice of foot care among diabetes patients attending medical OPD in Hiwot fana University specialized hospital in Harar. This study was carried out from March to May 2014. The respondents were interviewed on a pre-tested structured questionnaire after their verbal consent. The data was collected by direct face to face interview from diabetic patients attending medical OPD. The outcome variables were knowledge and practice regarding foot care. The knowledge and practice scores were classified as adequate if score ?80%, moderately adequate if score was 51-70% and Inadequate if score was < 50%. Of 235 diabetes patients, 9% had adequate knowledge and 5 % had adequate practice of DM foot care. Majority 58% of patients with poor practice had poor knowledge of foot care. With regard to knowledge, 69% of diabetes patient should not look after their feet because wounds and infection may not heal quickly and 61% were unaware of smoking cause poor circulation affecting their feet. Poor foot practices include 76% were not keeping dry well between their toes and 72% were not checking their feet daily for any injury. Educational status and marital status were significantly associated with knowledge and practice of foot care. This study has highlighted the gaps in the knowledge and practice of foot care in DM patients and underscores the need for an educational programme to reduce of diabetic foot complication.
148 IN VITRO AND IN VIVO EFFECT OF THREE AQUEOUS PLANT EXTRACT ON PATHOGENICITY OF KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIA ISOLATED FROM PATIENT WITH URINARY TRACT INFECTION, Sura Ihsan Abed Chabuck*, Nagham Adil Ghani Chabuck
This study was aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of four aqueous plants extract (pomegranate, apple, lemon & orange peel) on the survival and virulence factor of Klebsiella pneumonia isolated from urine in vitro and in vivo. Antimidrobial assay relied on the estimation of the colony forming unit number present the pomegranate was higher effect than a anther plant. when study the hidrophobicity of cells precent plant extract have different effect from very strong hydrophopic (apple , lemon ) to hydrophilic (orange) . Bacterial strain loss their ability of hemagglutination in present lemon and apple but orange & pomegranete extracts did not show any alteration of hemagglutination. In curli expression thes found only bacteria incubated in the presence of all concentrations of pomegranete extract and 8000mg/mL of orange& lemon extracts formed white colonies which indicated the loss of curli fimbriae. Other extracts did not inhibit the synthesis of curli fibers. The antihemolytic activities were obtained in the present of pomegranate in 500 mg/ml and orange peels in concentration 1000 mg/ml and higher. Bacteria growing in the presence of apple extracts did not show effect on heamolytic. Bacteria growing in the presence of apple, lemon and pomegranet extracts did not show effect on viscosity in concentration 62.5mg/ml. The histopathological change in mice kidney infect with bacterial suspension only is acute cellular degeneration and degenerated glomeruli and severe degeneration of renaltubules aggregation of inflammatory cells and bleeding in the renal tubule while mice kidney infected with bacterial suspension and pomegranate not observed any histopathological change.
149 ORTHOSTATIC BLOOD PRESSURE IN PRIMARY HYPERTENSION, F.Z.Milouk., D.Benchakroune., El Bakkali., Y.Radjab., A.Lachhab., S.Aboudrar, H.Benjelloun
Background: Measurements of blood pressure (BP) are usually done on supine position. Studies on orthostatic BP (Ortho BP) in hypertension (HT) would be of interest. The objective of this work is to assess the Ortho BP in hypertensive patients. Patients and methods : This prospective study included a group of 121 primary hypertensive patients (mean age: 54 years). Ortho BP was recorded for 10 minutes at the rhythm of 3 measurements per minute and was compared to the mean value of supine preorthostatic BP (mean Preortho BP). According to the changes in Ortho BP, three subgroups of primary hypertensive patients were selected as follows: Subgroup A: Ortho BP was higher than mean Preortho BP by 10 mm Hg or more. Subgroup B: Ortho BP was lower than mean Preortho BP by 20 mmHg or more. Subgroup C: there were no significant pathologic changes in Ortho BP compared to mean Preortho BP : -20 mm Hg < (Ortho BP -mean Preortho BP) < + 10 mmHg. Results : supine mean BP was 154.2 12.7 mmHg while orthostatic mean BP, not including patients with orthostatic hypotension, was 172,0 16.5 mmHg. In orthostatic position, 22,3 % of hypertensive patients showed an increase of their BP, ?BP equal or higher than 10 mmHg, and 14.9 % showed orthostatic hypotension (OH). Also, 2/3 of patients mantained or increased their BP at orthostatism. Discussion: the increase in Ortho BP could be explained by sympathetic hyperactivity. Conclusion: orthostatic test (OT) would be performed in all patients with high BP, in order to detect associated orthostatic HT or OH.
150 MANAGEMENT OF JUVENILE DELINQUENCY THROUGH AYURVEDA AND YOGA, Satish Patil, K.H.H.V.S.S. Narasimha Murthy, Mangalagowri V Rao*
There are roughly 75 million juveniles in the United States as of 2013, that means, one in four Americans have the potential of being labeled as juvenile delinquents. Even in India, over 33,000 juveniles have been arrested for crimes like rape and murder across the country in 2011. Delinquent children belong to that category of exceptional children who exhibit considerable deviation in terms of their social adjustment. Ayurveda emphasizes on various factors like Prakriti, certain mental disorders, desire, hatred, consumption of alcohol, intellectual errors, intake of Rajasika and Tamasika food etc. as a causative factor for anger and violent behavior which will further result in juvenile delinquency. The answer to manage this juvenile delinquency is establishment of self-control by means of modification in the diet, behaviors, intake of Medhya Rasayana as mentioned in Ayurveda and disciplined lifestyle in the form of Yoga.
151 A REVIEW ON TARDIVE DYSKINESIA AND ITS MANAGEMENT, Gamini N S Santhoshi Lakshmi* , Dr.Singuru Kiran Kumar, Kodamanchili Vidya Bharghavi, Kesava Rao Kannuru, Pasam Ravi Sankar,Datla Divya Bharathi.
Tardive dyskinesia is a movement disorder and it is usually associated with the chronic use of first generation antipsychotics which includes involuntary rapid movements of face and body like grimacing, tongue movements, lip smacking, lip puckering, pursing of the lips, excessive eye blinking, rapid and involuntary movements of the limbs, torso, and phalanges. With the availability of second generation antipsychotics, the risk of tardive dyskinesia is decreased to some extent. The pathophysiology of tardive dyskinesia was not completely understood but the possible mechanisms include post-synaptic dopamine receptor hypersensitivity, striatal GABA neurons abnormality, and striatal cholinergic inter-neurons degeneration. There is no evidence based treatment which is effective in treating the tardive dyskinesia till date. Several drugs have been tried to determine their efficacy in decreasing the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia.
152 POLLENDIVERSITY OF ETHNOMEDICINAL PLANTS OF NIRMAL FOREST DIVISION IN ADILABAD DISTRICT, TELANGANA STATE, INDIA., R. Prabhakar and H. Ramakrishna*
The present study deals with the study of pollen diversity in forty one important ethnomedicinal plants viz., Alangium salvifolium, Aerva lanata, Catharanthus roseus, Nerium oleander, Plumeria alba, Aristolochia bractiolata, Phoenix sylvestris, Decalepis hamiltonii, Sphaeranthus indicus, Tridax procumbens, Dolichandrone atrovirens, Bauhinia racemosa, Cassia alata, Delonix regia, Carica papaya, Celastrus paniculata, Cleome gynandra, Terminalia arjuna, Evolvulus alsinoides, Jatropha curcus, Jatropha multifida, Abrus precatorius, Pongamia pinnata, Tephrosia villosa, Leucas indica, Plectranthus barbatus, Tinospora cordifolia, Pithecol obium dulce, Moringa oleifera, Musa paradisiaca, Syzygium cumini, Boerhaavia diffusa, Zizyphus mauritiana, Murraya konigii, Sapindus emarginatus, Manilkara zapota, Datura metel, Physalis minima, Eriolaena hookeriana, Sterculia urens and Tectona grandis of Nirmal forest division of Adilabad district in Telangana State. These plants have been used by the inhabitant tribes for medicinal purpose to cure various ailmen ts. The pollen of these plants have diversity of morphological characters viz., symmetry, shape, polarity, apertural pattern and sculpture. This diversity may help in authentic identification of various taxa and thus may be useful in taxonomy.
153 AGAVE SISLANA: A PLANT WITH HIGH CHEMICAL DIVERSITY AND MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE, Devesh Tewari*, Y C Tripathi, Nishat Anjum
Agave species has been used from an ancient era for the production of fiber and alcohol, however apart from the fibre, Agave species especially A. sisalana is rich in the phytoconstituents responsible for the potent medicinal activities. An attempt is made to emphasize the reported phytochemicals and therapeutic utilization of Agave sisalana plant with some of its other beneficial uses globally.
154 SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES: A PROMISING AND NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM - A REVIEW, Kinjal Patel*, Divakar Goli, Soma Pramanik
Solid lipid nanoparticles is the rapidly emerging field of nanotechnology with numerous potential applications in drug delivery, clinical medicine, cosmetics and research, as well as in other varied sciences. Solid lipid nanoparticles, colloidal drug carrier for incorporating hydrophilic or lipophilic drugs, the ability to incorporate drugs into nano-carriers offers a new prototype in drug delivery that could be used for secondary and tertiary levels of drug targeting. Due to their unique size-dependent properties, lipid nanoparticles hold great promise for reaching the goal of controlled and site specific drug delivery and hence have attracted wide attention of researcher. This article gives an outline about the potential advantages and disadvantages of solid lipid nanoparticles, the excipients and all the different methods involved in the production. The characteristic of SLN stability and secondary steps involved in their stabilization like freeze drying, sterilization etc. Analytical methods involved in SLN evaluations are discussed in detail. The route of administration and current applications are mentioned in the article.
155 ASTHMA MANAGEMENT: A REVIEW, Dr.S.P.Chaudhari*, Prajakta Talele
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that causes a high burden on the global health care system. Despite advances in therapy, asthma remains a disease that, in many patients, is not optimally controlled. Efforts has been made to make a document that discusses the medications for asthma management, the long-term management of asthma; the management of asthma exacerbations ; the management of asthma in special populations; findings of research literatures, and Herbal therapy for asthma management. Various herbs are used as antiasthmatic with efficient therapeutic response. An attempt has been made to review antiasthmatic drugs and medicinal plants, in the present article.
156 REVIEW OF A POLY HERBAL SIDDHA FORMULATION VEEZHI ENNEI IN THE TREATMENT OF GARPA VAAYU (POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME), Pratheepa. C, Nalini Sofia. H, Vetha merlin kumari.H, Mohan.S
Veezhi ennei is a traditional Siddha poly herbal formulation being prescribed for Garpa vaayu (Polycystic ovarian Syndrome). This formulation composed of 11 herbal ingredients. According to the scientific review each ingredients of Veezhi ennei possesses antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity which could have potent therapeutic role in the management of Garpa vaayu (Polycystic ovarian Syndrome)
157 ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS: A REVIEW, Manoj Kumar*
Plants have been used for thousands of years to treat health disorders and to prevent diseases including epidemics. The knowledge of their healing properties has been transmitted over the centuries within and among human communities. Through observation and experimentation, hum an beings have learned that plants promote health and well-being. The role of these herbal remedies is not only cost efficient, but also safe and virtually free from dangerous side effects. More or less of the medicinal herbs are thought to cure practically every human disease from head to tail. Natural drugs are better safe than synthetic western medicines; therefore peoples are coming back to the field of traditional medicinal plants. The village elders, farmers and tribal have tremendous knowledge about for health reasons started thousands of years ago and are still part of medical practice by folks of several parts of the Indian sub-continents as well as several other nations of the globe. This review article shade a small beam of light on some medicinal plants and it can be used for various human ailments. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a ground for further and future phytochemical and pharmacological fields.
158 EFFECT OF DISTRACTION ON CHOICE REACTION TIME IN NORMAL FEMALES AND MALES, *Dr. Pranjali C Shinde, Dr. Pushpa A Pazare
This study compared effects of Distraction on Choice Reaction Time in males and females. Audiovisual Choice Reaction Time was studied in 100 Medical students (50 Males and 50 Females) age range 17-19 years using a 608 Audiovisual Reaction Timer. Five stimuli viz Red, Green and Yellow lights and High and Low pitch sounds were presented at random and the subjects were asked to respond by pressing an appropriate button on the subjects panel with index finger of their dominant hand. The statistical significance was determined by Students Unpaired test for comparisons between males and females and Paired t test for comparison among themselves. Choice Reaction Time to Light and sound increased in cases of distraction in both males And Females respectively and the result were statistically significant.
159 DRUG RESISTANCE AND BIOFILM FORMATION OF ACINETOBACTER BAUMANII ISOLATED FROM INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, Mamatha. C* and Dr. J. Vimalin Hena**
A. baumanii was not given much importance until recently when it started emerging as a serious threat in hospitals all over the world. Development of multiple drug resistance and ability to form extensive biofilms is considered as the major reasons behind this emergence. Hence it is the need of the hour to understand more about this ability exhibited by this pathogen. This study was designed with this aim in focus. Here the organism was isolated from the patients admitted in ICU and was identified by its phenotypic characterization and the antibiotic sensitivity testing was done by Kirby Bauer method. Further the biofilm forming ability of the organism was checked by growth on Congo red agar and by tube method and then the extend of bio film formation was checked on b oth plastic and glass tube. All the strains Isolated had the ability to form biofilms and were resistant to almost all the antibiotics tested. Plasti c tube supported the formation of biofilms more than glass test tubes.
160 A NOVEL ECOFRIENDLY SYNTHESIS OF CHALCONES AND COMPARATIVE CYTOTOXIC STUDY, Rajeshbabu. KA, Naveenkumarb and Dr. V.Madhavaraoa*
Few chalcones are synthesized from substituted aceto phenones and substituted aryl aldehydes in presence of an efficient, ecofriendly and recyclable catalyst i.e.;- Aqs [Zn/L-Pipiridine -2-oic acid]? under reflux condition. Progress of the reaction was monitored by TLC. Obtained chalcones were characterized from I.R., HNMR and mass spectral data. Synthesized compounds were screened for comparative study of cytotoxic analysis.
161 SUBSTITUTED PYRIDINE CATALYSED DOMINO SYNTHESIS OF PYRAZOLINES AND PYRIMIDINES., Rajesh Babu.K, Luke paul.V, Dr. Madhava Rao.V*
A novel and efficient base catalysed domino synthesis of pyrazolines and pyrimidines through chalcones as intermediate compounds were reported. The base employed as catalyst to synthesize ab ove compounds was alkyl substituted pyridines due to more basic strength, low volatility and low toxicity. In order to synthesize chalcones, catalytic amount of Cu + was added to make active methyl group more active. We achieved good yields and products were characterized by IR, 1 H NMR and Mass spectral data.
162 EFFECT OF HYDROALCHOLIC PERICARP EXTRACT OF MOMORDICA CHOCHINCHINENESIS ON HYPOGLYCEMIC AND ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITIES IN NORMAL AND STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS., Swathi Putta, *Eswar Kumar Kilari
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by raise in blood glucose levels known as hyperglycemia. The prev alence of diabetes were found to be 246 million by Wayne Katon J, 2008 and estimated to be 325 million at 2025. In the present study, the hydroalcoholic pericarp extract of Momordica chochinchinensis (HAPMC) was evaluated for hypoglycemia and its antihyperglycemic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The % inhibition of blood glucose levels in hypoglycemic activity of HAPMC 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg were found to be 28.18% (3h) & 23.9% (6h) and 32.75% (3hr) & 23.6%(6 hr) hypoglycaemic normal rats. The ant hyperglycemic activity of HAPMC with 150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg in STZ induced diabetic rats were found to be 32.94% and 36.47% at 6hr respectively. The biphasic reduction was observed in both in normal and diabetic rats mi ght be due to biphasic absorption or biliary secretion of the active principle present in HAPMC. Further the samples from diabetic rats were estimated for lipid profile. The lipid profile parameters were significantly brought back to near normal by the treatment if HAPMC for 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks study period the serum parameters like bilirubin, creatinine, total protein, albumin, uric acid and urea were found to be increased in diabetic rats and treatment with HAPMC there is a significant reduction in all the parameters. In conclusion, the HAPMC found to have significant ntihyperglycemic, antihyperlipedemia activity and significant protection against the damage to kidney. Which might be due to antioxidant potential present in the HAPMC.
163 A STUDY OF METOPIC SUTURES IN SOUTH INDIAN SKULLS, Dr. Arun Kumar S. Bilodi, David Ebenezer, Dr. Rajasankar, M. Ram Kumar
Aim of Study : The objective of this study is to record types and variations of metopic suture. Place of Study : This study was done on unknown dry human skulls obtained from department of Anatomy, Velammal Medical College Hospital and Research Institute, Madurai, India. Period of Study : This study was done during the month of June - July 2014. Materials and Methods : 32 skulls from the department of Anatomy constituted the material for the present study. Each skull was examined for the presence or absence of metopic sutures. Their extent was measured from nasion to bregma. Their pattern was recorded compared and correlated with available literature.
164 SEVERITY AND PATTERN OF DEPRESSION IN MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER WITH AND WITHOUT DELUSIONS, Dr. Santosh S.V*, Dr. Sudarshan C.Y, Dr. Shilpa B.J
BACKGROUND Majo r depr ess ive d iso r der ( MDD) is a co mmo n ps ychiatr ic illness. Severity and pattern of depression in MDD with and without delusions has been a subject o f r esear ch since many year s. This stud y co mpar es two gro ups o f patients o f MDD with and witho ut delusio n with r esp ect to so cio - demo gr ap h ic featur es, clin ical var iables, patter n and sever it y o f depr essio n. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Sixty eig ht p atients fu lf illing DSM- I VT R cr iter ia fo r MDD wer e selected . Amo ng them 35 patients wer e with d elu sio ns ( Gr o up - 1) and 33 p atients wer e witho ut delu sio ns ( Gr o up - 2) . So cio - demo gr ap hic details and clin ical var iables wer e assessed. Delus io ns wer e identif ied and the two gro ups wer e co mp ar ed with r espect to So cio - demo gr ap h ic featur es, clin ical var iab les, patter n and sever it y o f depr essio n. RESULTS: Sig n if icant nu mber o f gr o up - I patients wer e aged 33.94 11.88 year s. Dur atio n o f illness fr o m the o nset o f f ir st ep iso de, late inso mn ia, lo ss o f insig ht and melancho lic featur es wer e sig nif icantly mo r e in gr o up - 1 patients with sig n if icantly sever e depr essio n. I n gr o up - 2 patients histo r y o f pr ev io us ad missio ns was sig n if icantly mo r e. CONCLUSION: Majo r depr essive d iso r der with delu sio n app ear s to be a su bgr o up o f MDD having sever e depr essio n.
165 TCF4 MAY ACT AS A TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENE IN COLORECTAL CARCINOGENESIS, Rabia Farooq, Shajrul Amin, Haamid Bashir, Bashir Ahmad Ganaie, Sabhiya Majid*
Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading malignancies as being the third most cause of cancer causing death in the world. Carcinogenesis is a complex process caused by various genetic and epigenetic changes in various genes like tumor suppressor genes, DNA repair genes, translation regulatory genes and others. The Wnt/?-catenin pathway plays multiple and diverse roles in development by regulating gene expression via T-cell factor/Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (Tcf/Lef) DNA binding factors. Misregulation of this pathway is thought to initiate colon adenoma formation. The Wnt pathways with its molecular gladiator Tcf4 plays an important role in transforming a normal tissue into a malignant one. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of aberrations in Tcf4 gene in the pathogenesis of CRC in the Kashmir valley. Materials and Methods: We examined the paired tumor and normal-tissue specimens of 100 CRC patients from Apr 2010- June 2013, from Department of Surgery, Government Medical College, Srinagar and its associated hospital Shri Maharaja Hari Singh Hospital (SMHS) and analysis of promoter hypermethylation for exon 1 and intron 8 of T cf4 gene was also carried out using Methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR). Results and Conclusion: Promoter hypermethylation of Tcf4 of the exon 1 of Tcf4 gene among 100 CRC cases was found to be 66 per cent (66 of 100) and for intron 8, it was 70%. Besides in both cases of males and females, the hypermethylation status of intron 8 is more than exon 1 of Tcf4, the study confirms the role of epigenetic gene silencing of th e pivotal molecular gladiator, Tcf4, of the Wnt pathway in the development of CRC in the Kashmiri population. So, it was concluded that Tcf4 promoter may be used as a diagnostic tool for colorectal carcinogenesis and therefore can be used a marker for its diagnosis.
166 MOLECULAR MODELING STUDY AND COMPUTERAIDED DRUG DESIGN OF PEPTIDE DEFORMYLASE PDF INHIBITORS, K. Gobalan*, S. Ahamed John
Molecular Modeling Study and Computer Aided Drug Design of Peptide deformylase (PDF) is essential in a variety of pathogenic bacteria but it is not required forcytoplasmic protein synthesis in eukaryotes, which makes this enzyme an attractive target for developing novel antibiotics. Because PDF inhibitors are one of the most promising classes of antibacterial agents discovered to date, we designed a series of PDF inhibitors and we predicted their biological activities using molecular simulation methods . The Docking simulations of PDF inhibitors with the ligand binding pocket of PDF have been carried out.The binding conformations and binding affinities of these inhibitors have been obtained using the flexible docking protocol FlexX. Calculations performed for test compounds suggested that FlexX can reproduce the bindingconformation of the crystal structure. Moreover, the predicted binding affinities have a good correlation with the biological activities of these inhibitors, thus allowing us to determine the interaction model of PDF inhibitors. A series of designed inhibitors have been docked to the PDF model and the computed docking scores have been used as a reference standard to evaluate the activities of these inhibitors. The results presented in this paper show that several of our designed compounds are promising PDF inhibitors.
167 MICROWAVE SYNTHESIS- CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES OF NOVEL LIGAND (2, 6- DIACETYLPYRIDINE AND 5-AMINO-1, 3, 4-THIADIAZOLE-2-THIOL) AND ITS METAL COMPLEX, Dr.Mohammed.Fakruddin Ali Ahamed*, Segni Asafa
Metal complexes of Cu (II) with a new Schiff base derived from 2,6-Diacetyl pyridine-5-amino -1,3,4-thiadiazole -2-thiol (DAPATT) in methanol are reported. The complexes have been characterized using chemical analysis, (IR, UV-VIS, H1-NMR), conductometric data. According to these data, we propose an octahedral geometry for metal (II) complexes. The invitro antibacterial activities of the investigated complexes were evaluated against few microorganisms by well diffusion technique. It was found that the metal complexes have higher activity that the standard drugs. Antibacterial activity of the ligand and its complexes were studied against to gram positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus and bacteria Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli.
168 ISOLATION AND EXTRACTION OF ARTIFICIAL SWEETNER (STEVIA), Suchita Aminha*, A.N.Soumya, V. Govinda Raju, B. Manish Goud, Mohammad Irfath, Syed Ali Pasha Quadri
Steviosi de is extracted from the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (asteraceae or compositae) plant. Due to its sweet taste it is used as a natural non caloric sweetener. These glycosides are 300 times sweeter than sugar and also exhibit wide therapeutic activity. Stevia plants are also rich in carbohydrates (61.93% d.w), protein(11.41% d.w), crude fibre (15.52% d.w), minerals(K-21.15; Ca-17.7; Na-14.93; Mg-3.26 mg/100gm d.w; Cu-0.73; Mn-2.89; Fe-5.89; Zn-1.26 mg/100gm d.w) and also essential amino acids. It is used as a substitute for sucrose in food & beverages in many countries. In the present experiment isolation of stevioside from stevia le aves had been done by low cost methods. Isolated stevioside was analyzed by TLC method. The RF values of TLC were 0.50 & 0.67.
169 COMPARITIVE STUDY OF VARIOUS SUBSTRATE SUPPLEMENTS IN THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF AGROCYBE AEGERITA, BLACK POPLAR MUSHROOM, Nagalakshmi Muthu, *Krishnakumari Shanmugasundaram and Kathiravan Subramanian.
The present study was conducted to standardize the spawn production and cultivati on technology of Agrocybe aegerita, Black poplar mushroom. The mushroom culture procured was grown in Malt Agar (MA) medium and the culture was preserved in MA slants. The slant mushroom culture was used for the production of mushroom spawn. White sorghum seeds were used as a substrate to produce mushroom spawn. The quality spawn produced after complete mycelium spreading was used for the cultivation of mushroom in the mushroom cultivation chamber. The paddy straw substrate was supplemented with various amendments and the potency of each supplement in growth and yield of mushroom were studied. The various steps involved in the cultivation process was repeated and standardized for the optimum production of fruiting bodies with paddy straw as the substrate. The mushroom beds were monitored for their growth and fruiting bodies were harvested. The result indicated the rice bran supplementation of 10% to the paddy straw gave the maximum yield and bio efficiency in par with other supplements.
170 SYNERGETIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF SYZYGIUM CUMINI (L) SKEELS (SEEDS), COSTUS IGNEUS (NAK) (LEAVES), AND MUCUNA PRURIENS (L.) DC (SEEDS) FOR ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY., Arjun .G*, Kiran.B, Yogisha.S
In vitro evaluation of three plants viz., S. cumini (Seeds) C. igneus (Leaves) and M. pruriens (Seeds) showed a promising result in inhibition of ?- Glucosidase tested at 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0, 40.0, 80.0 and 160 g/ml concentration. Moderate activity was recorded in 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 g/ml concentration. 22.11 percent of inhibition was recorded in 20.0 g/ml, 38.22 percent in 40.0 g/ml, 42.11 percent in 80.0 g/ml and 49.13 percent in 160.0 g/ml. all the result was compared to standard acarbose. In aldose reductase inhibition assay tested at 5 to 320 g/ml concentration showed significant activity and recorded 8.90 percent in 20.0 g/ml, 12.33 percent in 40.0 g/ml concentration. Highly significant activity was observed in 80, 160 and 320 g/ml concentration and recorded 20.11, 24.55 and 34.55 percent respectively.
171 MOBILE PHONES: POTENTIAL VECTOR FOR NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION, Dr. Surender Kaur*, Dr. Abhijit Awari
Background and Objectives: Mobile phone is indispensible accessories of our life. However, cell phones which are seldom cleaned and often touched during or after the examination of patients without hand washing can be substrate pathogens and become an exogenous source of nosocomial infections among hospitalized patients. These can harbor various potential pathogens and become an exogenous source of nosocomial infections. Materials and Methods: 200 samples from touch and non-touch mobiles of health care workers were collected and subjected to culture and sensitivity as per the standard guidelines. Results: Out of 200 isolates, 80.5% showed growth predominately on Keypad mobiles. The most common organism colonized on Keypad mobiles were Coagulase-negative staphylococcus in 45.0% and 38.5% on Touch screen mobiles. 6.5% MRSA were detected only on Keypad mobiles. Conclusion: Colonization was predominately seen in keypad mobiles of Healthcare persons.
172 BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY OF DOFETILIDE IN HEALTHY HUMAN VOLUNTEERS UNDER FASTING AND FED CONDITIONS, R Arunkumar*, A Ruckmani, Lakshmipathy Prabhu R, Pradeep G Nayar, M Chokkalingam, D Rajasekaran, O Arjun Arumugam
Dofetilide is an antiarrhythmic agent belonging to class III. It is indicated for the conversion and maintenance of sinus rhythm in atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. The objective of this study is to investigate the bioequivalence of generic dofetilide 0.5 mg in comparison with Tikosyn (dofetilide) 0.5 mg under fasting and fed conditions in healthy human volunteers. The study was designed as a two period, two treatment, two way , cross over, open label study. 12 healthy, adult, male subjects were enrolled after obtaining written informed consent. Six of them received the medications under fasting conditions and the remaining six under fed conditions, both generic and innovator drugs with the wash out period of 5 days in between. Blood samples were collected for dofetilide estimation in K3EDTA blood collection tubes. QTc interval was recorded at scheduled time points to assess the effect of the drug on ECG. There was no adverse effect observed during the study. The generic and innovator products were well tolerated. Both the formulations produced an increase in the QTc interval, which returned pre-dose level within 8 to 12 hours. The drug concentration was measured using LCMSMS with the validated bioanalytical method. Pharmacokinetic and statistical analysis were done using WinNonlin and SAS. The results indicate that the generic dofetilide produced pharmacokinetic parameters cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf that met bi oequivalence limits of 80-125 under fasting conditions but failed to meet the BE limits under fed conditions for cmax whereas it met the limits for AUC0-t and AUC0-inf.
173 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING ORAL FILMS OF METOPROLOL TARTRATE, Vishakha S. Hastak*, Yogyata S. Pathare, Amruta N. Bajaj
Aim: Metoprolol tartrate, commonly used as antihypertensive agent, has poor bioavailability due to extensive first pass metabolism. The objective of present study is to develop fast dissolving oral films of Metoprolol tartrate with high porosity which dissolves rapidly in mouth, using HPMC E15, HPMC E5 and PVA as hydrophilic polymers. Methods: Fast dissolving oral films were prepared by solvent casting method. Different concentrations of all three polymers (HPMC E15, HPMC E5, and PVA) and their combinations were used to investigate the film forming capacity, thickness and drug content of films. Glycerin was used as plasticizer. The drug - polymer mixture was homogenized on magnetic stirrer for 45 min. The casted films were dried for 12 h. to allow complete dryness of films. The fast dissolving oral films were evaluated for average weight, thickness, pH. determination, percentage moisture absorption, percentage moisture loss, in-vitro disintegration time, drug content and in-vitro drug release. Drug-excipient interaction was investigated by FTIR and DSC study. Best formulation was evaluated for stability as per ICH guideline. Results: All films had in vitro disintegration time Less than 73 sec, drug content were within limits. FTIR study revealed no drug-excipient interaction. A stability study for optimized F2 formulation as per ICH guideline for 90 days showed no changes in drug content. Conclusion: Therefore, it may be concluded that developed fast dissolving oral films of metoprolol tartrate dissolve rapidly in mouth within 43 sec and showed 97% drug release.
174 AM1 STUDY ON THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND CONFORMATIONS OF LACTAM-LACTIM TAUTOMERISM IN PHENETHICILLIN, Banda Upender Reddy, Bojja Rajeshwar Rao and Battu Satyanarayana*
The geometry, conformation and electronic structure of lactam -lactim tautomerism in phenethicillin have been optimized and calculated in the gas phase by semi-empirical molecular orbital AM1 method usually considering an isolated molecule surrounded by vacuum. In this connection, the mechanism of protonation in lactim tautomer of phenethicillin has been studied by comparison of the different positions of net charges at nitrogen atoms in the molecule. Further, the heats of formation (?Hfo), dipole moment (), ionization potential (IP), full atomic charges and energies of frontier molecular orbitals (E HOMO and E LUMO) have been performed and discussed. The conformational analyses of mono- and di-protonated lactim tautomers and their stable conformations have also been performed.
175 IN VITRO SCREEENING OF PHYTOCHEMICALS AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF ARGEMONE MEXICANA LEAF EXTRACT, Selvaraj Varun, Sudha Sellappa*
The present study investigates the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major bioactive constituents of Argemone mexicana in aqueous, ethanol and methanol extract of root, stem and leaf. Phytochemical analysis of the root, leaves and stem extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, phenol, sugar, terpenoids, glycosides, flavonoids and tannins. The flavonoids and tannin contents were present in maximum level in the aqueous extract of A. mexicana leaf followed by stem and root extracts. MCF- 7 Breast cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of the aqueous extract of leaf at two different time intervals. Cell viability and apoptosis induction, were investigated. A.mexicana extract treated MCF-7 cells exhibited a marked increase in apoptosis as compared to untreated group and the data showed that the activity of caspase-3, -8 and -9 were significantly enhanced by A. mexicana treatment. Aqueous extract of the leaf showed dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptotic effect in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The phytochemical analysis of A.mexicana fetches pharmaceutical companies in the production of the new drugs against cancer.
176 METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF GENOTOXIC IMPURITIES METHYL METHANESULFONATE AND METHYL IODIDE IN MONTELUKAST SODIUM DRUG SUBSTANCE BY GC-MS, Dr.Nalavade Atul Kakasaheb*, K. Ramakrishna, V. Srinivasarao
Montelukast sodium is a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA) and is used for the maintenance treatment of asthma and to relieve symptoms of seasonal allergies. Manufacturing process of montelukast(Fig. 1) sodium involves use of methyl iodide (fig. 2) and methanesulfonyl chloride. Also methanol was used as solvent in the process and it is a well known fact that methanesulfonyl chloride does react with alcohols to form corresponding mesylate i.e. it would form methylmethanesulfonate (fig. 3). As per the IARC monograph methyl methanesulfonateisgenotoxic impurity and being aliphatic halide, methyl iodide is also a genotoxic alerting impurity. Hencethe study wasproposed and completed for the content of methyl iodide and methyl methanesulfonate in montelukast sodium using gas chromatographic technique with mass spectrometer as detector. Based on the daily dose evaluation limit wasdecided as 150g/g. Validation of the method was proposed and completedbased on International conference on harmonization guidelines.The results obtained after completion of validation were all within the set acceptance criteria. The LOD and LOQ values established for Methyl iodide were2g/g and6g/g (i.e. 0.02g/ml and 0.06g/ml) respectively . Similarly LOD and LOQ values established for Methyl methanesulfonatewere2g/g and 6g/g (i.e. 0.02g/ml and 0.06g/ml) respectively . Percentage recovery results and Linearity for both the components were very well within the limits and hence the range of the method was from LOQ to 150% with respect to the evaluation limit. Also three commercial batches of montelukast sodium were analyzed in the validated method. In all the three batches the content of Methyl Iodide was observed below LOQ while, the content of Methyl methanesulfonatewas not detected.
177 QUESTIONING DEFINITION OF RESEARCH IN INDIA, Dr. D. K. Jain, Dr. Himanshu Sharma, Dr Raj Kumar Arya
In India, there is misunderstanding and confusion about meaning of research and category of original research paper. This discussion is important because in India, research papers are made compulsory for promotion of medical teachers.There is no uniform policy regarding publications. All medical journals have different pattern regarding titles and publications. There should be uniform pattern of all medical journals. Innovative thoughts, new ideas,and arguments which prevent pollution in the field of research work should be promoted by the editors. Thanks to editor, WJPR, who really understands what research, is? All editors of different medical journals should follow policy of WJPR.
178 HAEMATINIC ACTIVITY OF DHASADEEBAAKINI CHOORANAM (A SIDDHA HERBO-MINERAL FORMULATION) IN PHENYL HYDRAZINE INDUCED ANAEMIC RATS, M. Subashini*, S.Gandhimathi, F.R. Shameem
Anaemia is the most widespread nutritional problem in the world and is predominant in children, particularly in developing countries like India. Untreated anaemia may manifest as fatigue, reduced immunity, impaired memory and decreased quality of life. The gross incidence of anaemia in India called for formulation of an effective and safe traditional drugs to treat anaemia. One such medicine mentioned in the Siddha system of medicine is Dhasadeebaakini Chooranam . Hence, the present study was aimed to validate the haematinic activity of Dhasadeebaakini Chooranamin phenyl hydrazine induced anaemic rats. Anaemia was induced by an oral administration of phenyl hydrazine for a period of 5 days. The trial drugwas administered at the various dose levels of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg orally to the animals for 14 days. Hb, RBC, PCV, MCV, MCH were analysed as indices of anaemia. Phenyl hydrazine significantly decreases the haematological parameters. After 14 days of treatment with the trial drug significantly reverse the haematological parameters and come towards the decreased values into normal levels. This result supports the traditional practice of Dhasadeebaakini Chooranam to treat anaemia.
179 FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF NIFEDIPINE SOLID DISPERSION, Rajesh. M*, Subanitha.R, Vimal Krishnan.P, Thalaimani.A, Maheswari.C, Shibin Raj.C, Ramasubramaniyan.P and Palanichamy. S
Solid dispersion consists of a microcrystalline dispersion of a poorly soluble drug in a matrix consisting of physiologically inert, readily soluble carrier. In this study, an attempt was taken to enhance the solubility and dissolution characteristics of Nifedipine, poorly water soluble calcium channel blocking agent, by preparing solid dispersions with water soluble carriers. Polyethylene glycol (PEG)6000 and Urea by fusion method. The interaction between drug and carrier were characterized by IR spectroscopic studies. The IR results showed no interactions between the drug and carrier. The prepared solid dispersions were evaluated for various parameters such as percentage yield, drug content determination, solid dispersion efficiency and dissolution studies. Drug loading in solid dispersions was found Uniform and they produced satisfactory results on drug content analysis. In vitro dissolution study showed that all the formulations were found to be effective in improving the dissolution of nifedipine to several folds when compared with the pure drug. In conclusion PEG 6000 was found to be the most effective carrier to enhance the dissolution behavior of nifedipine.
180 HEAVY METAL LEACHING BY A NOVEL Aspergillus sp. ISOLATED FROM A POLLUTED SITE, Nilika Bhattacharya*, Apala Pal, Preeti Khan, Moumita Basu , Sohini Chakraborty, Nayanika Sengupta and Dr. Arup Kumar Mitra
In this investigation, a polluted soil from a metal industry of Kharagpur was collected; serially diluted and plated in a microbiological media. The organism isolated was found to be the blue green mould Aspergillus sp. Atomic absorption specificity analysis of soil shows maximum presence of Cu (7.47mg/kg) and Fe (61495.21mg/kg) and the organism also shows appreciable tolerance to heavy metals. This heavy metal stress also brought about certain morphological variations, percentage shrinkage in vesicular size with respect to con trol is 30.23%, 66.00%, 27.30% for Fe-750ppm, Fe-1000ppm and Cu-10ppm respectively , but the size of conidia remained invariant. On the basis of precipitates collected from the culture tube, the change of oxidation state from 2-3 for both the metals was observed. Accordingly Cu and Fe dependent oxidases of the organism was estimated. Iron Oxidase showed an increase by 0.20u/mg of total protein in presence of Fe and copper dependent oxidase showed an increase by 0.25u/mg of total protein in presence of Cu. Phase contrast microscopy distinctly proved the morphological modification. Hence we propose that the fungus not only is tolerant to Cu and Fe but also removes it from the cyclical pool to reservoir pool having adequate potential for biomining.
181 PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND IN VITRO STUDY OF ANTIOXIDANT ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF IPOMOEA QUAMOCLIT, K.Renuka*, K.Ravishankar
The aim of the present study is to investigate the phytochemical constituents, antioxidant antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Ipomoea quamoclit. Preliminary phytochemical tests revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavanoids, glycosides, phytosterols, carbohydrates, aminoacids, phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity of Ipomoea quamoclit was evaluated by 1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picryl Hydrazyl free radical scavenging activity, phosphomolybdenum method ,reducing power method, scavenging of nitric oxide and the IC 50 values for the Ipomoea quamoclit and reference standard Gallic aid were found to be(68.4g/ml,0.82g/ml for DPPH method),(96.4g/ml,2.44g/ml for nitric oxide method).Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by Agar Well Diffusion method. In vitro screening of Ipomoea quamoclit ethanolic extract showed species specific activity in inhibiting growth of bacteria and fungi. The ethanolic plant extract showed good activity against selected gram -positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis,Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus werneri)gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas putida,Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruinosa,Proteus mirabiis,Klebsiella pneumonia)and fungal strain (candia albicans).The observations revealed significant zone of inhibition and supports to antimicrobial activity. The cytotoxic studies indicate the Ipomoea quamoclit inhibit caco 2 (colon cancer) cell viability in a dose dependent manner. The IC 50 values calculated were >100g/ml for ethanolic plant extract, 22.12g/ml for standard drug 5-fluorouracil.These findings revealed that the ethanolic extract of Ipomoea quamoclit has cytotoxic, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The bioactive compound responsible for these activities could be isolated and identified to develop a new drug.
182 PHARMACEUTICAL EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT SUPER DISINTEGRANTS IN DESIGN OF METOPROLOL TARTRATE ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS, Uday Bhasker GoudGoundla*, Jakkampudi Sri Venu Prakash, Pranav KumarAvadhanam, Sreenivas ReddyGangi Reddy, ManikantaSai Krashna, PangaJanaki Ramulu
Purpose: The Purpose of the present study was to develop orodispersible tablets of metoprolol tartrate (beta blocker used in treatment of angina pectoris, hypertensionand congestive heart failure.) for improving patient compliance, especially, those of paediatric and geriatric categories facing problem or difficulties in swallowing. Orodispersible tablets of metoprolol tartrate Prepared with different super disintegrates by using direct compression method. Methods: Orally disintegrating tablets of metoprolol tartrate was prepared using three different super disintegrates namely croscaramellose sodium, crospovidone and sodium starch glycolate with three concentrations (3%, 6% and 9%) were prepared by direct compression method. The final blend of the drug and excipients were evaluated for powder flow properties, bulk density, tapped density and compressibility index. All the formulations were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, disintegration time, hardness, friability, wetting time and water absorption ratio. Results: The optimised formulation F4 containing 3% w/w crospovidone, showing maximum drug release within 10min. Short-term stability studies (at 402o/755% relative humidity) on the best formulation indicated that there are no significant changes in drug content and in vitro disintegration time. FTIR-spectroscopic studies indicated that there are no drugexcipients interactions. Conclusions: The present study clearly demonstrates that orodispersible tablets of metoprololtartrate could be successfully prepared by direct compression method and It can be concluded that the tablets containing 3% crospovidone F4 formulation is optimized due to its fast in-vitro dispersion when compare to other formulation.
183 ANTI-DIABETIC, ANTI-OXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF ETHANOLIC PLANT EXTRACT OF SALICORNIA BRACHIATA ROXB. IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS., G.V. Pavan Kumar*, B.Pooja, Dr. D. Srinivasa Rao
Salicornia species traditionally used as food material commonly called as glasswort. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the antidiabetic, Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract taken from salicornia brachiata Roxb (Chenopodiaceae). Acute toxicity study and oral glucose test of the extract was performed. Diabetes was induced in rat by single intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg).The rats were divided into following groups: Group I normal control,Group II (Vehicle) diabetic control, Group III (STZ-toxic) salicornia extract I (100 mg/kg, p.o.), Group IV salicornia extract II (250 mg/kg, p.o.), Group V salicornia extract III (500 mg/kg, p.o.), Group VI glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o.). Body weight of each rat in the different groups was recorded daily. Biochemical and antioxidant parameters were determined on day 28.Ethanolic extract of salicornia brachiata did not show any acute toxicity up-to the dose of 2000 mg/kg and shown better glucose utilization in oral glucose tolerance test. orally treatment of different doses of extractdecreased the level of serum glucose, glycated hemoglobin, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1-6-bis phosphate andincreased the level of plasma insulin, hexokinase,decreased liver malondialdehyde but increased thelevel of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. In oral glucose tolerance test observed increased utilization of glucose. Streptozotocin induced diabetes group rats treated with different doses of salicornia brachiata plant extract and glibenclamide significantly increased the body weight.
184 EFFECT OF PHYSOSTIGMINE ON CARDIOTONIC ACTIVITY OF PAROTOID GLAND SECRETION OF BUFO MELANOSTICTUS (SCHNEIDER) ON ISOLATED HEART OF FROG, Raju Neerati, Ankaiah Meesala, Samatha Talari, Prasad Neerati and Venkaiah Yanamala*
The present investigation was carried out to study the cardiotonic activity of parotoid gland secretion of common Indian Toad Bufo melanostictus on isolated perfused frog heart (Rana tigrina). The cardiotonic activity of parotoid gland secretion of B. melanostictus in normal as well as when induced with physostigmine (eserine) (an organophosphate) was studied. The cardiotonic activity was studied through Symes technique; digoxin and propranolol were used as standard drug and ?-blocker respectively to characterize the effects on the receptors. The isolated perfused and hypodynamic heart of frog showed a dose dependent positive ionotropic effects. Cardiac stimulant activities were exhibited by the parotoid gland secretion on frogs heart. Propranolol was unable to block the effect of physostigmine on toad parotoid gland secretion.Thus, the present investigation reports that the parotoid gland secretion increased the force of contraction, heart beat and cardiac output in perfused frogs heart, whereas, there was no change on hypodynamic heart, indicating that there may be existence of two components, one with ?receptor stimulating activity and other acting directly on the frogs heart (independent of ? 1-adrenoreceptors).
185 DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF PARACETAMOL AND METOCLOPRAMIDE HYDROCHLORIDE CHEWABLE TABLETSDEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF PARACETAMOL AND METOCLOPRAMIDE HYDROCHLORIDE CHEWABLE TABLETS, Dhruba Sankar Goswami*, Deepak Kumar
The present study was aimed to developed and evaluate chewable tablets of Paracetamol and Metoclopramide hydrochloride. Paracetamol and Metoclopramide hydrochloride is an oral fixed dose combination for the preparation of chewable tablets used to treat the symptoms of migraine as it comply with physicochemical properties require to improve the effectiveness of therapeutic agent, better bioavailability, improved patient acceptance (especially pediatrics) through pleasant taste, patient convenience; need no water for swallowing, fasten the absorption of drug and for rapid onset of action.The investigation was carried out to study the effect of different proportion of Aerosil, cros carmellose sodium, cross povidone and neem gum. Maize starch was used as binding agent. Tartrazine was used as coloring agent. Aspartame and Vanilla flavor were used as sweetening agent and flavoring agent respectively. Several physicochemical parameters like thickness, diameter, hardness, %weight variation, %loss in weight, drug content, disintegration time, in vitro dissolution studies, kinetics of drug release and stability study for all the formulations were studied and were found within the acceptance limits. Formulation F10 containing neem gum (1%) showed best cumulative drug release for Paracetamol 99.550% and for Metoclopramide hydrochloride 98.587% and disintegration time of 400.03 secs, emerging as best formulation.
186 ABRUS PRECATORIUS, PHASEOLUS LUNATUS SEEDS PHYTOCONSTITUENT ANALYSIS - A COMPARATIVE STUDY, Krishnaveni M*, Dhanalakshmi R, Nandhini N
Seeds are the store house of nutrients for the seedling that will grow from the embryo. The nutri ents that are stored depend upon the kind of plant and the family it belongs. Seeds serve several functions for the plants they produce. Some seeds are edible and others are poisonous, non edible. Whether it is an edible seed or not, it is a source of medicine. Hence, the present study was initiated to assess the properties of seeds belonging to Fabaceae both qualitatively and quantitatively. Our results show, that both the seeds were found to contain phyto-chemicals such as carbohydrate, alkaloid, glycoside, steroid, tannin, phenolic compounds, protein, amino acids and fixed oil. The behavior of both seed powders with different chemicals showed positive result for alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, proteins. The fluorescence study was positive with Phaseolus lunatus and the yield in percentage was also higher for Phaseolus lunatus (22.58) when compared to Abrus precatorius (17.31%). According to our results, the carbohydrate content was found to be high with Abrus precatorius (179.331.15mg/g) while, the protein and amino acid content was high (17.410.07mg/g, 03.080.19 mg/g) with Phaseolus lunatus.
187 ANTIPROLIFERATIVE EFFECT OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES SYNTHESIZED USING VITEX NEGUNDO ON HEPG2 CELL LINE, Amudha Murugan and Krishnakumari Shanmugasundaram*
The environmental friendly synthesis of nanoparticles process is a revolutionary step in the field of nanotechnology. In this study, the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was carried out using Vitex negundo leaf extract as reducing agent. UVvisible spectroscopy was used for quantification of silver nanoparticle synthesis. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X- ray analysis (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The anticancer effects of silver nanoparticles were challenged with HepG2 cancerous cells in dose and duration dependent manner.
188 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF PRONIOSOMAL TRANSDERMAL GEL OF DITHRANOL, Patsariya Surendra Kumar*, Middha Anil
The current study was undertaken to prepare and evaluate proniosomal transdermal gel of dithranol. Dithranol (DTH) is a drug which used in the treatment of psoriasis. Proniosomal transdermal gel has prolonged delivery and more importance because the proniosomes are more stable than existing liposomes and niosomes. simultaneously, gel based formulations are better dermal absorption than other preparation such as already existing creams and ointment preparation. Therefore, transdermal gel of dithranol was prepared using different surfactant and incorporated gel base polymers such as Carbopol 934. The study encompasses compatibility studies using DSC spectra, drug content, viscosity, spreadability, and rheological consideration. Optimization of formulati on was subjected to 32 full factorial designs by Design Expert 9.0.1 Version software. Additional, the optimized formulation was evaluated by Rheological parameter and ex vivo diffusion study. Formulation batch DPNS6F8 was containing Carbopol 934, Span 60 and cholesterol (act as permeation enhancer) showed 89.80 % PDE and drug Flux 9.89 (/cm2/h). Stability studies conducted under accelerated condition were shown acceptable results. It was concluded that surfactant span 60 produced better results than other grade of Span with combination of cholesterol. Proniosomes incorporated in Carbopol gel containing dithranol showed good consistency, spreadability, homogeneity as well as stability. Proniosomal transdermal gel had wider prospect for treatment of Psoriasis.
189 ENCAPSULATION OF ? DNA IN CHITOSAN MICROSPHERES AS A GENE DELIVERY VEHICLE, Hire Nitin N*, Derle Dilip V, Bhagat Anirudh B.
The biodegradable polymers like Chitosan are considered as the green eco-friendly materials due their biocompatibility and non-toxic properties. Biodegradable microspheres and nanoparticles have proven to be very useful in protein and DNA delivery systems. These are easily taken up by immunocompetent cells, shows prolonged antigen release characteri stics and provide a long lasting immunity. Micro and nano-particulate based protein and DNA delivery systems have its importance for various therapeutic and biomedical applications. Microspheres were formulated by complex coacervation method and characteri sed for their surface morphology, size, loading efficiency, and release profile study. The microsphere morphology was examined by SEM and Zeta sizer. It was found that Chitosan encapsulated with ? DNA showed loading efficiency more than 82% It was also found that The particle size for Chitosan was varying between 162-373 nm. Release of ? DNA from encapsulated Chitosan microspheres were checked spectrophotometrically with optical density 260 nm for ? DNA, by taking samples at different time intervals dissolved in PBS (phosphate saline buffer, at pH 7.4).
190 ANTIDIABETIC EFFICACY OF MOLLUGO OPPOSITIFOLIA LINN. EXTRACT- AN ANIMAL MODEL STUDY., Dr. S. Gopinathan* and Ms. S. Subha
Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia resulting in complications affecting the nerves, kidneys, eyes and micro and macrovascular structures. This metabolic disease causes disturbance in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolisms and primarily due to the lack of insulin secretion and/or resistance to insulin. Diabetes and its prevalence is growing alarmingly due to the aging, urbanization, sedentary food habits, obesity and lack of physical activity. A wide number of traditional medicinal plants are used to treat diabetes mellitus. There are more than 400 plant species which have scientifically proved for their antidiabetic activity. Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of Mollugo oppositifolia extract on alloxan induced diabetic rats and compare their efficacy with the standard drug, Glibenclamide. Experimental design: An animal model study was carried out by using albino Wistar rats. The rats were divided into four groups Group I: Normal healthy control; Group II: Disease control-alloxan (150mg/kgbw) induced diabetic rats. Group III: Diabetes induced rats treated with Mollugo oppositifolia extract (400 mg/kg-bw); Group IV; Drug control animals-diabetes induced rats treated with Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg-bw). After the experimental period of 35 days, the blood and the liver tissue samples were collected and analyzed. Results obtained: Administration of alloxan induced diabetes in rats and showed a significant alterations in (1) biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, serum insulin, glycosylated haemoglobin, serum protein, liver tissue protein, serum urea, serum creatinine, liver glycogen, (2) Glycogen metabolizing enzymes: liver glucokinase, glycogen synthase, glycogen phosphorylase, liver glucose-6-phosphatase, liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, (3) Lipid profiles: total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol in serum , (4) Liver marker enzymes: serum aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), serum alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), (5) Biomarker antioxidants: reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation and (6) Antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Treatment with plant extract normalized the adverse effects of diabetic condition. Conclusion: Treatment of diabetic rats with Mollugo oppositifolia extract brought back the normalization in all the parameters investigated, which indicate the antihyperglyc emic and antidiabetic efficacy of Mollugo oppositifolia extract. The efficacy was comparable with the standard drug, Glibenclamide. In most of the parameters the performance of plant extract was better than the standard drug.
191 ANTIHYPERTENSIVE ACTIVITY OF Nardostachys jatamansi IN HYPERTNSIVE RATS FOLLOWING RENAL GOLD BLATT OCCLUSION METHOD., V.Velpandian*, N.Anbu, S.Elangovan, M. Mohamed Musthafa
Siddha drugs are gaining popularity in recent years and there is a significant increase in scientific researches on traditional Siddha drugs because of theirs potent effects with no or less adverse effects.One of the safest and potent anti-hypertensive drug from the reservoir in Siddha system of medicine is Sadamanjil Chooranam (Nardostachys jatamansi). Hence an attempt was made to validate the antihypertensive potential of Sadamanjil Chooranam in hypertensive rats following renal Goldblatt occlusion method. After induction, hypertensive rats were randomly divided into four groups each consists of five rats. All the groups were categorized into normal control, hypertension control, SMC 500 (500mg/kg) and SMC 1000 (1000mg/kg). The test drug Sadamanjil Chooranam was administered (500mg/1000mg/kg) orally from the next day for 10 days. The systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure of the animals were recorded with tail cuff BP apparatus. Administration of SMC at the dose levels of 500mg and 1000mg /kg b.w. for 10 days significantly decreases the Systolic BP and Diastolic BP as compared with hypertensive animal group. Decrease in systolic and diastolic BP was more pronounced in high dose level (1000mg/kg) than low dose (500mg/kg) indicated the dose dependent activity of Sadamanjil Chooranam. The results concluded the anti-hypertensive potential of Sadamanjil Chooranam in a scientific way.
192 ACUTE AND SUBACUTE TOXICITY STUDY ON AMIRTHA SANJEEVI KULIGAI, D.P. Sangeetha*, V.Banumathi, S. Jayasree
Single and polyherbal preparations are being traditionally used in Indian system of medicine especially in siddha medicine. Mostly herbal preparations have less side effects so it is suitable for paediatric use. Amirtha Sanjeevi Kuligai(ASK) is prepared as per classical text book of Balavagadam for respiratory problem in paediatric age group. Before conducting clinical trial, preclinical study should be undergone as per WHO guidelines. The clinical trial has been approved by IEC (IEC.NO - GSMC-CH/1/2013/016). The present preclinical study aim is to carry out safety and toxicity of ASK (IAEC. NO: XXXIX/13/CLBMCP/2013/ dated 29.6.2013). Adult both sex of swiss albino rats weighing 220- 250 gm were used. Acute and Sub-acute toxicity were carried out as per OECD guidelines 423 and 407. Hematological parameters, biochemical parameters, histo-pathological study were performed for all animals. The study concludes that on oral administration of 400 mg/kg of body weight of ASK to swiss albino rats, there was no characteristic clinical sign of toxicity or mortality observed.
193 PREPARATION, SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION, THERMAL STABILITY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF Mn (II) COMPLEX WITH 2- AMINOBENZONITRILE AND OCTANOATE, R. Govindharaju*, S. Balasubramaniyan, L. Palanivelan , K. Rajasekar & T. Ramachandramoorthy
Metal complex of Mn(II) with 2-aminobenzonitrile (ABN) and octanoate ion ligand was synthesized by using microwave irradiation and characterized by the elemental analysis, metal estimation, molar conductance, UV-Visible , IR and Far-IR spectra, non-electrolyte behaviour and monomeric nature of the complex assed from their low molar conductance value. The IR and UV-visible spectra suggest that the complex has Distorted octahedral geometry. The thermo gravimetric analysis of the complex shows the thermal stability of them. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of ligands 2-aminobenzonitrile and sodium octanoate and Mn(II) complex were studied against the following strains of microorganisms E-coli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococci, Salmonella typhi, P.aeruginosa, C. albicance, Aspergillus Flavus and Aspergillus niger by disc diffusion method. Mn(II) complex show enhanced activity compared with that of free ligand for Klebsiella, Streptococci and P.aeruginosa, organisms at100g/ml and at 50g/ml.
194 BARIATRIC SURGERY AND ITS EFFECT ON THE METABOLIC ASPECT IN DIET INDUCED OBES RAT MODEL, Surya Prakash Singh, Ramji Gupta*, Sokindra Kumar, Mukesh Kumar
Bariatric surgery is the only treatment for obesity after failure of medication that may confers the definitive weight loss at long-term duration. Furthermore to weight loss there is a strong evidence to cure various co-morbid conditions originated with obesity like obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, Type II diabetes mellitus, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease and osteoarthritis. While systematic study on the bariatric surgical mechanisms is still unknown. The main objective is to measure the effects of sleeve gastrectomy on the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance in high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. Sleeve gastrectomy was performed in DIO rats. Food intake, body weight and fasting blood glucose were measured after SG. Blood plasmic parameter such as GLP-1, Gut harmone (Adipokines). Blood glucose, fasting ghrelin level and insulin during meal test from 1 to 3 and 5 month were measured periodically. The insulinogenic index and (HOMA) Homeostatic model assessment were measured between sleeve and sham operated rats. Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) play a potential role in producing weight loss and resolving in type 2 diabetes also show higher successive rates and lower mortality and represent reliable restrictive procedure to treat obesity and their associated co-morbidities.
195 HPTLC FINGERPRINTING AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF EXTRACT OF PHYLLANTHUS FRATERNUS WEBSTER LEAVES, Santosh Vilas Gandhi*, Purnima Vishwanath Shinde, Aakanksha Avinash Dube
The objective of present investigation was to develop HPTLC fingerprinting and evaluate analgesic activity of pet ether and methanolic extract of Phyllanthus fraternus webster leaves in rats. Extraction method used was maceration. Three solvents were used for extraction of phytoconstituents (pet ether, methanol and hydromethanolic). Various mobile phase were tried and the optimized mobile phase was n-Hexane : ethylacetate (6:4) v/v. used for fingerprinting. Analgesic activity of both extract of Phyllanthus fraternus Webster leaves was tested at a dose of 500 mg/kg & 1000 mg/kg. Activity was evaluated by Digital randall selitto and tail immersion method using Wistar rats of either sex (n = 6 in each group). The results indicated that the methanolic extract exhibited significant analgesic activity . It may be due to presence of saponin, steroids & alkaloids in it.
196 SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF CARBAPENEM RESISTANT KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE WITH COMBINATION OF MEROPENEM & COLISTIN-A CASE REPORT, Apollo James*, Sudhakar.R, Yasaswini B, Minu.k.George, T.R.Ashok kumar, T. Sivakumar
One of the most serious problems in global public health today is the increasing incidence of antibiotic resistant bacterial infections , which increases mortality, morbidity, length of the hospital stay and cost of the treatment. Among the enterobacteria harboring Carbapenemaseencoding genes, Klebsiella Pneumoniae is the most common, rapidly become endemic in many hospital settings around the world. Of particular concern, emergence of Enterobacteriaceae that are resistant to Carbapenemes, the class of antibiotics considered being a serious threat which is seen in this case and limited treatment options associated with these organisms. In this we report a case of Carbapenem resistant K.Pneumoniae in a patient diagnosed with Subdural hemorrhage and right lower lobe Pneumonia (Hospital acquired) and who was successfully treated with antimicrobial combination of Meropenem and Colistin.
197 SCREENING OF EXTRACTS FROM ENDEMIC SOCOTRAEN MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR ANTIRADICAL AND ANTIFUNGL ACTIVITY, Nasser A. Awadh Ali*, Hassan A. Samaha, Norbert Arnold, Mehdi Alhaj, and Ludger Wessjohann
A total of fifty different extracts from eighteen endemic Soqotran medicinal plants belonging to twelve plant families were screened for their antioxidant activit y, using the DPPH free radical scavenger assay and their antiphytofungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum, using a microbioassay on TLC plates. Of the extracts tested, 8 out of 25 methanol extracts showed more than 50% antiradical activity at a concentration of 200 g/ml. Extracts of Kalanchoe farinaceae, Caralluma socotrana, and Boswellia socotrana were the most active ones. Nine out of fifty extracts exhibited antifungal activity. Chloroform extracts of Pulicaria stephanocarpa leaves and roots showed at concentration of 400g inhibition zones of 20 and 18 mm, respectively. The chloroform extract of Kalanchoe farinaceae leaves exhibited stronger antifungal activity (18 mm inhibition zone) than the methanolic extract (15 m m inhibition zone). The most active methanolic extract was obtained from Acridocarpus socotranus leaves with 18 mm inhibition zone for 400 g applied.
198 SCREENING OF EXTRACTS FROM ENDEMIC SOCOTRAEN MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR ANTIRADICAL AND ANTIFUNGL ACTIVITY, Nasser A. Awadh Ali*, Hassan A. Samaha, Norbert Arnold, Mehdi Alhaj, and Ludger Wessjohann
A total of fifty different extracts from eighteen endemic Soqotran medicinal plants belonging to twelve plant families were screened for their antioxidant activit y, using the DPPH free radical scavenger assay and their antiphytofungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum, using a microbioassay on TLC plates. Of the extracts tested, 8 out of 25 methanol extracts showed more than 50% antiradical activity at a concentration of 200 g/ml. Extracts of Kalanchoe farinaceae, Caralluma socotrana, and Boswellia socotrana were the most active ones. Nine out of fifty extracts exhibited antifungal activity. Chloroform extracts of Pulicaria stephanocarpa leaves and roots showed at concentration of 400g inhibition zones of 20 and 18 mm, respectively. The chloroform extract of Kalanchoe farinaceae leaves exhibited stronger antifungal activity (18 mm inhibition zone) than the methanolic extract (15 m m inhibition zone). The most active methanolic extract was obtained from Acridocarpus socotranus leaves with 18 mm inhibition zone for 400 g applied.
199 ANTIOXIDANT AND HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITIES OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF THE LEAVES OF DIOSPYROS PILOSANTHERA BLANCO (FAMILY EBENACEAE) IN DIETHYLNITROSOAMINE-INDUCED RAT LIVER TOXICITY, Mayrose L. Quezon* and Dr. Mafel C. Ysrael
Liver cancer is among the leading causes of death worldwide. Diospyros species has been reported to have pharmacological applications arising from its extensive folkloric uses. The claims include antioxidant and anticancer properties. This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties of D. ilosanthera, an endemic Philippine plant, in Diethylnitrosoamineinduced rat liver toxicity . Hepatoprotective property of the extract was evaluated against Diethylnitrosoamine (DENA) induced liver toxicity in rats. Rats were pre-administered orally with the ethanolic extract (200, 500 and 1000 mg/kg BW) and sillymarin 125 mg/kg BW for fifteen days prior to a single dose of DENA (50 mg/kg BW; p.o.). Invivo biochemical parameters like catalase, glutathione, alanineaminotranferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were evaluated to determine the antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Diospyros pilosanthera. Histopathological examination of the liver tissues of the rats induced with DENA was also done. Evaluation of the hepatoprotective property of the extract revealed that a dose of 1000 mg/kg possessed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with sillymarin. Treatment with the extract markedly obviated increases in ALT, AST and ALP while averting significant decreases in reduced glutathione and catalase enzyme levels. Histopathological changes such as centrilobular necrosis, extensive hepatocyte swelling and sinusoidal congestion with red blood cells were averted by extract administration. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, triterpenes and phenolic compounds. HPLC showed the probable presence of rutin that could be responsible for the tested pharmacological properties. Results of the studies indicate that the ethanolic extract exhibited significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities.
200 VESICULAR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZA (VAM) ASSOCIATION OF MOUNTAIN FLORA OF JABALPUR REGION, I.P.Kori, Jaya Singh*, N. Raipuria & R.K. Verma
Mycorrhizas are broadly classified into endomycorrhiza present on. the externally and internally, respectively. The endomycorrhizae are aseptate fungi forming vesicles .and arbuscules hence the name VAM. VAM are obligate symbionts, nonhost specific, and .occur over a broad ecological range from aquatic to desert environment. They are common in tropical temprate and arctic regions. Exploration and exploitation of mountain plants by the tribals of the region is one of the practices in the cultivation of herbal plants to maintain a steady supply to support the increasing demand due to a decline in their natural population.
201 THE ROLE OF CYTOKINES IN AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS PATIENTS IN BASRAH CITY SOUTH OF IRAQ, Issa A.H., Rodeen, A.M., Ali, E.T. Munther, H.J
Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic type of hepatitis, several cytokines have been implicated in the disease pathogenesis, these cytokines initially identified as products of immune cells that act as mediators and regulators of immune processes. The study aimed to explain the role of cytokines in AIH pathogenesis in Iraqi patients, Seven types of cytokines are measured (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, INF?, TNF, and TGF?) by ELISA technique for 25 diagnosed AIH patients and 15 healthy donors (control group). The result exhibited significant elevation in both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines among patients the results was (184. 413, 426, 4832, 279.91, 370.235, 291.13, 403.82 and 180.844) pg/ml for IL-4 , IL-6 , IL-10 ,IL-17 ,INF? ,TNF, and TGF? respectively that reflex complex interplay of several cytokines in AIH pathogenesis, and there is a positive correlation between IL -6 and TGF? with IL-17 that reflected the negative effect of TGF? in AIH in present of IL-6.
202 PROTEIN MARKER IDENTIFICATION OF VERATOXIN FROM CLINICALLY ISOLATED ESCHERICHIA COLI, Aseer Shakir Ajel, Ganesh Dama , Prasad M.P, Balasubramanian Sathyamurthy*
This investigation was carried out to identify the protein marker for veratoxin from clinically isolated E.coli samples. The E.coli samples were isolated from clinical samples like blood, urine and stool of infected patients. The E.coli samples were conformed by the growth of the bacteria on EMB agar medium where they showed metallic sheath. The E.coli samples were grown on nutrient broth for the isolation of the protein. The proteins were precipitated using ammonium sulphate. The proteins got precipitated at 50% saturation of ammonium sulphate. The eluted proteins were then identified using SDS-PAGE with standard protein marker. Three E.coli samples isolated showed the band with 32,000KDa determing the presence of veratoxin protein in the E. coli samples.
203 AUTOIMMUNE HEPATITIS AMONG AUTOIMMUNE LIVER DISEASE IN BASRAH SOUTH OF IRAQ INCIDENCE AND DIAGNOSIS, *Rodeen, A.M., Issa A.H.1, Hammadi , S.SH., Ali ,E.T.
Autoimmune hepatitis is necroinflamatory disease, it can be divided into two types, Diagnostic features include biochemical evidence of transaminitis, elevated IgG and positive utoantibodies.the study aimed to estimate AIH among Autoimmune Liver Disease and it is clinical feature, the results exhibited that out of 218 patients diagnosed as a autoimmune disease during the period from January 2012 to December 2012 forty patients (29 Female and 11 Male) age ranged (11-45 years ) diagnosed as a autoimmune Liver disease patients. The level of AMA, ANA, SMA, LKM-1, SLA and total IgG are measured for patients and twenty five Healthy controls volunteers (19 female and 6 Male) the result exhibited SLA is more frequent among the patients (50%) while LKM-1 was (7.5%), patients reported significant elevation of IgG level (2619.34+408.29) mg/as compared with healthy control (1127.6+204.25) mg/l p ? 0.05. Simplified score system was applied for the patients diagnosis, only 25(62.5%) of patients are collected ?7 (defined AIH) were the others 14 (35%) collected
204 ACUTE AND SUB ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY OF THE SIDDHA DRUG UTHAMANI CHOORANAM (PERGULARIA DAEMIA), S. Jayasree *, M. Subashini , D.P. Sangeetha, V. Banumathi
Atopic Dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, highly pruritic inflammatory skin disease, and is one of the most common skin disorder in children. Uthamani Chooranam has been employed as a traditional remedy for Atopic dermatitis (AD), which is a herbal formulation containing whole plant of Pergularia daemia. As a mandate, steps were taken to evaluate safety profile of UC in rats using OECD guidelines. Swiss albino rats of either sex weighing 220-240 gm were used. Acute and Sub-acute toxicity studies were carried out as per OECD guidelines 423 and 407. aematological, biochemical parameters, histo pathological study were performed for all animals. The study concludes that on oral administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of UC to swiss albino rats, no change in behavioural and characteristic clinical sign of toxicity was observed.The UC was found to be safe in animals. No toxic effect was observed in both acute and sub-acute toxic studies of Uthamani Chooranam.
205 PILOT SCALEUP TECHNIQUES FOR SOLID DOSAGE FORM - AN OVERVIEW FOR TABLETS, P. Ramasubramaniyan, C. Shibin raj, P. Nagarajan, D.Sherly, L. Subramanian, P. Solairaj
Pilot scale up techniques for solid dosage form will provide guid line for the manufacture of large scale process and this will play a pivotal role in large scale manufacturing. The parameters such as granulation feed rate, compression parameters, temperature and rate of drying will have a critical role in development of any solid dosage form.
206 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF NOVEL LIGAND-2, 6-DIAMINOPYRIDINE-2-ACETYL-5-CHLOROTHIOPHENE AND ITS METAL (II) COMPLEXES, Dr.Mohammed.Fakruddin Ali Ahamed, Dr. Venkatesan Jayakumar, Sileshi Tolera Goshu.
The biologically active Schiff base (imines) was synthesized by the reaction of 2, 6-Diaminopyridine-2-acetyl-5-chloro thiophene in the presence of conc. Acid. The characterization of Schiff bases were carried out by using elemental analysis and VSM including FT -IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR analyses. The Schiff bases were checked for biological screening and found that the compound with -SH group to be more biologically active than the compound with halo (-X) group Jobs continuous variation method and Mole ratio method revealed 1:1 metal to ligand ratio, by chelation of metals Zn (II) with Penta-dentate complexes were synthesized
207 ENHANCING SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION OF ITRACONAZOLE BY SPRAY DRYING USING PLURONIC F-68, Mudit Dixit*, Parthasarthi Keshavarao Kulkarni and R Narayana Charyulu
Itraconazole, an anti -fungal drug, exhibits poor water solubility, dissolution and flow properties. Thus, the aim of the present study was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of itraconazole by preparing microspheres by spray drying technique. Microspheres containing different ratio of Itraconazole and Pluronic F-68 were produced by spray drying using dichloromethane as solvent to enhance solubility and dissolution rate. The prepared formulations containing different ratio of drug and polymer were evaluated for in vitro dissolution and solubility. The prepared formulations were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Dissolution profile of the spray dried microspheres was compared with its physical mixture and pure sample. Spray dried microspheres exhibited decreased crystallinity and the solubility and dissolution of the microspheres containing different ratio of drug and pluronic F-68 were significant improved compared with its physical mixture and pure sample of Itraconazole. Dissolution of microspheres containing 8:2 w/w (SD 4) showed higher % release i.e. 98 % in 40 min compare to other prepared ratio formulation. Consequently, From the above result it can be conclude that spray dried microspheres of itraconazole is a useful technique to improve the solubility and dissolution of poorly water soluble drug like traconazole.
208 AMPLIFIED REVIEW REFLECTING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THERAPEUTIC CANCER VACCINES, Aliya Parveen*, Amtullah Amena Ahmed, Rumaisa Saher, Arshee Banu, Mehjabeen Syed.Azizullah Ghori
Cancer is a group of disease characterized by abnormal, excessive, uncoordinated, autonomous and purposeless proliferation of cells. In spite of significant development in the cancer therapy, it is on e of the leading causes of death worldwide. According to American Cancer Society in 2014, there will be an estimated 1,665,540 new cancer cases diagnosed and 585,720 cancer deaths in the US. According to International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), parts of WHO effective preventive measures like vaccination, diet etc. are the only way to prevent cancer crisis. About 50% of the cancer cases can be reduced by vaccination alone. Cancer vaccines are the biological preparations that are used to prevent the cancer in high risk individuals (preventive vaccines) or to treat the disease that already exists (Therapeutic Vaccines). These vaccines aim to recognize the antigens expressed in tumor cells and destroy them leaving the normal cells intact by priming Ag-specific T cells and reprogramming memory T cells. Research in molecular biology and immunology has resulted in the development of a range of recombinant vaccines viz., antigen, tumor cell, anti -idiotype antibody -based, dendritic cell-, DNA-, and viral - vector based- vaccines. Cancer vaccine are ineffective due to immunological barriers like mutations and tolerance, lack of awareness, inappropriate choice of tumor antigen or unoptimised antigen delivery system or vaccination schedule or selection of wrong patient group. More research is required to overcome the potential limitations of vaccines. These new vaccines along with those in use may substantially reduce the global mortality from cancer and proveto be a savior to mankind.
209 AWAKE MRI IN A CHILD WITH BARDET- BIEDL SYNDROME, Dr. Shusheela Taxak, Dr. Manju Bala*, Dr. Deepak Singh, Dr.Nupur Abrol
Bardet- Biedl syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder. The cardinal features are truncal obesity, postaxial polydactyly, cone-rod dystrophy, hypogonadism, cognitive impairment, diabetes mellitus and renal dysfunction. Children with Bardet- Biedl syndrome frequently require multiple anaesthetics for diagnostic and therapeutic measures. Here we describe a case of 6 year old male child with Bardet- Biedl syndrome scheduled to undergo MRI. In this case we successfully counselled the child for awake MRI and avoided the risk associated with anaesthesia in a syndromic child.
210 PROCESS VALIDATION OF MEBENDAZOL TABLETS 100MG, A.A. Varade*, V.A. Jagtap, P.S. Shewale , V.L. Badgujar
Process Validation is a reqirement of the cGMP regulations for the finished pharmaceuticals. Purpose of research was to study Process Validation of Mebendazol 100mg tablets dosage formulation, which acts as an Anthelmintics agent. Three initial process validation batches (MD3001, MD3002, MD3003) of same size, method, equipment & validation criteria was taken. The critical parameter involved in sifting, dry mixing, preparation of granulating agent, wet mixing, wet milling, drying, sizing, lubrication & compression stages were identified and evaluated as per validation master plan. The outcome indicated that this process validation data provides high degree of assurance that manufacturing process produces product meeting its predetermined specifications and quality attributes.
211 IMPACT OF PATIENT EDUCATION ON HEALTH RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN MIGRAINE PATIENTS, Rejitha Thomas M.Pharm, Ramesh. Adepu M.Pharm, PhD, B.S. Keshava MD, DM, S. Harsha MD, DM, G. Parthasarathi , M.Pharm Ph.D Juny SebastianM.Pharm
Background: Migraine is rated as one of the leading causes of the global burden of diseases (GBD) and account ing for 1.4% of total global years lived with disability (YLD). Although migraine is not a life threatening disease however it impairs an individual?s quality of life. Objective: To assess the influence of pharmacist provided medication counselling on knowledge, attitude and practice, medication adherence behaviour and overall health related quality of life in migraine patients. Setting: The study was conducted at outpatient Neurology clinic in a South Indian Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital. Methods: The enrolled patients were randomized into control and test groups. Validated KAP questionnaire, Morisky?s medication adherence behaviour questionnaire and Migraine specific HRQoL questionnaire were administered to each patient at every follow up. The test group patients received education regarding the disease, medication and life style modifications. The control group patients received education at the final follow up. Results: Anxiety and stress were the major triggering factors for migraine in study patients. A statistically significant improvement (P
212 KINETICS OF OXIDATION OF PHARMACEUTICAL DRUG DOXYCYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE BY CHLORAMINE-T IN NaOH MEDIUM. A MECHANISTIC STUDY, Poorigali Rangaswamy Rangaraju , Thimmappa Venkatarangaiah Venkatesha* and Rangegowda Ramachandrappa
The kinetics of oxidation of doxycycline hydrochloride(DOX) by chloramine-T (CAT) has been investigated in NaOH medium at 303 K. The Stoichiometry of the reaction was found to be 1:1 and the oxidation product of DOX, 1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,5,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-1,4,11-trioxotetracene-2-carboxamide is identified by the spot tests and further by LC-MS spectral analysis. The reaction followed first -order kinetics with respect to [CAT] 0 , [DOX]0 and fractional-order with [OH -]0 . The effect of added halide ions, reduction product, p-toluene sulfonamide (PTS), ionic strength (NaClO4) and dielectric constant of the medium was studied on the rate of reaction. A mechanism was proposed on the basis of experimental results. The activation parameters with respect to the slow step of the mechanism were evaluated, and the thermodynamic parameters was also determined and discussed.
213 GARCINIA GUMMI-GUTTA (L) ROBS. VAR. GUMMI-GUTTA AS A HERBICIDE, Dhanya. P.* & Benny.P.J.
A study was conducted to evaluate the weedicidal potential of Garcinia gummi-gutta leaf leachates on germination of weeds. The effect on seed germination was assayed by Sandwitch method. Results revealed that the plant is a strong weedicide. The extract of the plant has also been tested against the mature seedlings grown and brought up in soil media maintained in pots. This has been performed in order to determine the toxicity of the purified compound when used aginst weeds. Results also revealed that the plant is exerting its allelopathic effect only on the germination stage of seeds whereas a null effect was observed with matured seedlings.
214 IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY IN COMPARISON OF ONCOGENE HER1 AND HER2 WITH HORMONAL EXPRESSION IN PRIMARY IRAQI BREAST CANCER, Ali Hussein Al-Khafaji, Sahar A. H. Al-Sharqi* and Ekhlass Noori Ali
Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide.The objective of this current project was to expression the HER1 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 1), HER2 (Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2), ER (Estrogen receptor), PR (Progesterone receptor), Ki67 and CK18 (Cytokeratin 18) among primary breast cancers. The expression of HER1, HER2, ER, PR, Ki-67, and CK18 was studied by immunohisto chemical (IHC) analysis in 50 patients breast cancer. The molecular classification was used in commonly breastcancer by IHC analysis. Based on this analysis, there were characterized five molecularly different subclasses: luminal t ype A and B, HER-2, basal-like and unclassified. In multivariate analysis, weexamined the significance of HER1 with other biomarkers which was showed HER1 significant difference with HER2, ER and Ki67.In addition, Luminal A subtype presented a higher percentage (38%) than other molecular subtypes but Luminal B and unclassified subtypes recorded a lower percentage (12%).HER1 a significant difference (p?0.05) association with TNM(Tumor size, Lymph Node status, Metastases) stage (I+II) of the patients was showed. Also, we found a significant ifference(p?0.05) association between HER2 with age ?50 and TNM stage (I+II). Moreover,significant difference (p?0.05) association was noticedbetween both ER and CK18 with invasive ductal carcinoma. Our findings suggest that HER1 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of primary breast cancer and associated with clinicopathological parameters and molecular subtypes.
215 PROCESS VALIDATION OF PIROXICAM DISPERSIBLE TABLETS, R.N.Rajput*, R.D.Wagh, R.L.Shirole, N.L.Shirole
The purpose of the research investigation was to study prospective process validation of Dispersible tablet dosage form. Quality cannot be adequately assured by in process and finished inspections and testing but it should be built in to the manufacturing process. These processes should be controlled in order that the finished product meets all quality specifications. Therefore building of quality requires careful attention to a number of factors, such as the selection of materials, product and process design, control variables in process Control and finished product testing. The critical process parameters were identified with the help of process capability and evaluated by challenging its lower and upper release specifications. Three initial process validation batches of same size, method, equipment & validation criteria were taken. The critical parameter involved in sifting, dry mixing, preparation of granulating agent, wet mixing, wet milling, drying, sizing, lubrication & compression stages were identified and evaluated as per validation plan.
216 A REVIEW ON FORMULATION APPROACH TO ENHANCE ORAL BIOAVAILABILITY OF POORLY SOLUBLE DRUGS BY SELF EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM, *Harendra Prasad, Amit Kumar Batra
Most of the drugs which are recently discovered are poorly water soluble and the oral delivery of these drugs have become a major problem. Drugs of Class II or IV, as per biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) exhibit poor aqueous solubility. The oral delivery of these drugs are affected by low bioavailability, erratic absorption, inter and intra subject variability and lack of dose solubility. Since last couple of years Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems are becoming important tool in novel drug delivery. It is very useful in solving problems such as low bioavailability issues associated with poorly water soluble drugs. The bioavailability of lipophilic drugs (BCS-II and IV) can be enhanced by these systems. SEDDS is released in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) after administration and with the aid of GI fluid a fine emulsion (micro-/nano-emulsion) is formed. The increased surface area and amphoteric nature of SEDDS lead to increase in bioavailability. In this review we present a report on the formulation, characterization and dosage forms and applications of self-emulsifying formulations, with examples of currently marketed preparations.
217 SYNTHESIS AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF MIXED LIGAND COMPLEXES OF CO (II) WITH OXYGEN AND NITROGEN DONOR LIGANDS, *P.R. Shirode, P.M. Yeole
The mixed ligand complexes of the type [ML1L2]Cl2. Where M=Co(II), AND L1=Pyruvic acid semicarbazone L2= Acetone semicarbazone, Acetophenone semicarbazone,Benz aldehyde semicarbazone, Cyclohexanone semicarbazone, O-hydroxy acetophenone semicarbazone have been synthesized, by the reactions of metal chlorides with two different semicarbazones in 1:1:1 molar ratios. The resulting products have been characterized on the bas is of elemental analysis, magnetic measurement, IR and Electronic spectra, conductivity measurement, thermal analysis, antimicrobial activities. The metal complexes show ratio 1:1:1 with metal, ligand L 1 and ligand L2.The ligands are bonded through oxygen and nitrogen to metal ion.
218 PHYTOCONSTITUENT STUDY OF BROWN RICE, M. Krishnaveni* and R. Dhanalakshmi
Brown rice is whole grain rice, reduces insulin and glycemic indices, and also offers other health benefits. Considering the benefits offered by brown rice as reported in the literature, it was decided to conduct a preliminary research on the qualitative, quantitative aspects of it. Hence, brown rice was studied for its phytochemicals, behavior with different chemicals, fluorescence nature, percent yield, nutrient content. Brown rice contain phytochemicals such as carbohydrate, alkaloid, glycoside, tannin, phenolic compound, flavonoid, steroid, sterol, saponin, protein, amino acid, fixed oil, starch, anthroquinone. The percent yield was found to be 10.50 and was fluorescing yellow in color. Total carbohydrate, protein, amino acid content calculated was 179.331.15mg/g, 1.460.23mg/g, 3.320.09mg/g. From the results obtained, it is concluded that is rich in phytochemicals with therapeutic ability.
219 REVIEW OF PREPARATION, MOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF 1, 3, 5-TRIAZINES, Dr. Vasudeva Rao Avupati,* and Prof. Rajendra Prasad Yejella
The existing research in the field of drug discovery and development focused on the synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation of some new substituted 1,3,5-triazines as potential pharmacological agents against various multifactorial diseases. The present review focuses on the methods preparation, molecular spectroscopy and biological activities of various substituted 1, 3, 5-triazines. This review summarizes substituted 1,3,5-triazines which were biologically active with special attention on the most potent compounds.
220 QUESTIONING SILENCE AGAINST PUBLICATION QUERIES, *Dr Dinesh Kumar Jain,Dr Prakash Dubey, Dr Raj kumar Arya, Dr Himanshu Sharma
"Knowledge is defined as the information, understanding and skills that you gain through education or experience." [1] Knowledge is also acquired through enquiry, research, exploration and information. And science is "Knowledge about the structure and behavior of the natural and physical world, based on facts that you can prove, for example by experiments." [2] Science can also be defined as "Knowledge ascertained by observation and experiment, critically tested, systematised and brought under general principles." [3] Science is also an attempt to answer questions about nature.
221 BIOACTIVE PYRAZOLINES: AN UPDATE, Dr. VasudevaRao Avupati,* and Prof. Rajendra Prasad Yejella
In the recent past, substituted pyrazoline derivatives have been extensively studied because of their synthetic feasibility, varied chemical behavior, diverse biological activities and different applications. The current review focuses on the methods of synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and biological activities of pyrazoline s. This review mainly summarizes the antimicrobial and antiinflammatory potential of different synthetic pyrazolines.
222 DIAZEPAM LIKE EFFECTS OF HERBAL EXTRACT ACACIA TORTILIS GROWING IN KSA ON LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY IN MICE, Waheeb D. M Alharbi and Aisha Azmat*
Aims: Acacia Tortilis belong to Fabaceae. In Acacia Tortilis lack of essential oils can be an advantage in search for safe and effective medicines. In present study the effect of the Acacia Tortilis leaves extract were evaluated on locomotor activity. Study Design: Effect of Acacia on locomotor activity Place and Duration of Study: Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah. Saudi Arabia. This study was performed between January 2012 and May 2012. Methodology: The Aqueous extracts of the leaves were prepared. Two Different doses of the extracts (400 and 800 mg/Kg) were administered either orally (p.o.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.) in the mice and locomotor activity were evaluated in mice in open field at different doses. Results: The spontaneous locomotor activity measured in the open field test after the administration of Acacia Tortilis leaves (400 and 800 mg/Kg) extract, was not modify significantly. Although high dose of Extract (800 mg\Kg) when administered intraperitoneally (i.p) was found to affect locomotor activity significantly (P
223 ADVERSE DRUG REACTION MONITORING AND REPORTING BY COMMUNITY PHARMACISTS: A REVIEW, Srikanth M.S and Ramesh Adepu*
Adverse drug reactions are one of the leading causes of morbidity, mortality and increased health related cost. Since the incidence of ADRs is more than 50% in community settings, community pharmacists in overseas are playing vital role in monitoring and reporting the ADRs to their respective national Pharmacovigilance program. Research studies have corroborated that community pharmacists in Canada (89%), Australia (41%), The Netherlands (40.2%), Spain (26%) and Portugal (24%) are reporting ADRs to their respective national Pharmacovigilance programs. However in India, due to trader attitude the community pharmacists have not yet started their contribution to Pharmacovigilance program of India (PvPI). This review article describes about the attitudes, behaviours and current practices of community towards ADR reporting and a brief discussion on barriers in reporting ADRs.
224 BIOGENIC SECRETS OF CURD: THE AYURVEDIC APPRAISAL, Dr. Neeru Nathani
Curd is a fermented dairy product, widely used in majority of Indian meals and religious ethos since ages. In Ayurvedic medicine curd is grouped under liquid food items, and its qualities, uses and contraindications are described scientifically. Generally the Curd or Dadhi is unctuous, hot in potency, aphrodisiac, sustains life, alleviates vata, and removes diarrhoea, anorexia, rhinitis, emaciation. Depending upon the type of milk of eight different mammals used for curd preparation, the qualities of curds vary with their specific effects on body. Properly coagulated curd restores the bacterial balance in digestive tract and removes bloating and indigestion. To get the beneficial effects one should eat completely coagulated curd at proper time and season. Curd is usually contraindicated in summer, autumn and spring seasons and its intake in winters and rainy seasons is beneficial, although its effects are modified by other conditions like the nature of the patient and disease condition etc. Curd taken at night produces many diseases, so it should always be contraindicated at night or may be taken with sugar, ghrita, honey, green gram soup or amalaki powder. Certain food items should never be consumed with curd as they are incompatible foods so difficult to digest together and may produce allergic reactions e.g. milk, radish, melon etc. Curd should never be heated as the bacteria cannot withstand the high temperature. Avoid over consumption of curd because its excessive intake causes many diseases like diabetes, skin disorders etc. To get the nutritive and therapeutic benefits of curd the specific principles regarding intake of curd should be followed regularly.
225 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SUGAR INDUSTRY EFFLUENTS OF GAYATHRI SUGAR FACTORY NIZAMABAD DISTRICT, TELANGANA STATE, BondugulaVanitha*, Dr. Nirmala Babu Rao,
Present work is based on the physico chemical analysis of effluents released from gayathriSugarFactory. Sugar mills place a major rolling polluting the water bodies by discharging a l arge amount of waste water as effluent. The sugar mill effluent are having high amount of Suspended solids, dissolvesolids, BOD,COD, Chlorides, Sulphates, Nitrates, Calcium and Magnesium. The Continuous use of the Effluents harmfully affects the crops when used for Irrigation. It was found that the sugar industries consume large amount of water and released almost equal amount effluent containing highly toxic material in solid and dissolve form. Sugar Factory effluents was more worst like Average values of lower PH (6.2), high temperature (42 ?c),chloride (862mg/ lit), total hardness (571mg/lit), calcium (362 mg/Lit), Magnesium (211 mg/Lit), total solids (2452 mg /Lit),Total Dissolved solids (1915 mg/Lit), Total Suspended Solids (542 mg/Lit), Nitrate (0.8 Mg/Lit), Phosphate (9.8mg/Lit), Sulphate (49.3 mg/Lit) and Oil & Grees (87.8 mg/Lit). And finally this water is Unsafe for domestic and agriculture purposes. Therefore it should be recycled and utilized for Industrial purpose only.
226 EFFECTS OF SOME ANTIOXIDANT VITAMINS AND CHELATING AGENT ON BIOCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC RATS., Arafa, M.M, Aly S. A. and Shaheen, N.E*
A total number of sixty adult male Wistar rats were used in this study to investigate the protective effects of vitamin C (vit C), vit E and EDTA alone and their combinations on hypercholesterole mia through markers of lipid profile, thyroid function, some liver and oxidativeenzymes. Rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). Group I: normal control, Group II: hypercholesterolemic rats, Groups III: received ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (1gEDTA/kg 1g/Kg), group IV: received 1gml/Kg body weight of vit C, group V: received vit E1g/Kg feed and Group IV received EDTA, vit C and vit E. The results of this study showed that ration supplemented with EDTA, VC and vit E either individual or in a Combination group induced significant decrease (P
227 GREEN SYNTHESIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES FROM LEAF EXTRACT OF MUNTINGIA CALABURA, Pranay Peddoju, Siddhartha Marupati and A. Thirupathaiah*
Nanotechnology is one of the most active researches nowadays in modern material science and technology. Eco friendly methods of green mediated synthesis of nanoparticles are the present research in the limb of nanotechnology. The present work leads to the synthesis of Silver nanoparticles from 1mM AgNO3 solution through aqueous leaf extract of Muntingia calabura as reducing as well as capping agent. Synthesized nanoparticles are characterized under UV-Vis spectroscopy at the range of 350-420nm.The chemical groups studied using FT-IR analysis. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles have been investigated against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by the Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. Based on the result obtained it can be said that the plant resources can efficiently used in the production of silver nanoparticles and it could be utilized in various fields such as biomedical, nanotechnology and so on.
228 SYNTHESIS, STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF NOVEL (E)-N'-BENZYLIDENE-3-(PIPERAZIN-1-YL)BENZO[B]THIOPHENE-2-CARBOHYDRAZIDE DERIVATIVES, Kushal Bansal, Prabodh Chander Sharma, Rajeev Kharb*
A novel series of (E)-N'-benzylidene-3-(piperazin-1-yl)benzo[b]thiophene-2-carbohydrazide derivatives (5a-5l) were synthesised from the starting materials like cinnamic acid, thionyl chloride, chlorobenzene and pyridine resulting in synthesis of 3-Chlorobenzo(b)thiophene-2-carbonyl chlorides which were further reacted with hydrazine hydrate, aromatic aldehydes and finally with substituted piperazines to yield the titled compounds. Structural characterization of the synthesized compounds was carried out by instrumental method of analysis like IR, 1 H-NMR and Mass spectroscopy. The titled compounds were subjected to in-vitro antibacterial activity against bacteria E. coli and S. aureus and antifungal activity against fungi C. albicans. The biological results indicated that compound 5l showed most potent antibacterial activity and 5c displayed most potent antifungal activity on comparision with Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole as respective standard drugs.
229 A NOOTROPIC EFFECT OF BENINCASA HISPIDA ON ACH AND CHAT ACTIVITY IN COLCHICINE INDUCED EXPERIMENTAL RAT MODEL OF ALZHEIMERS DISEASE: POSSIBLE INVOLVEMENT OF ANTIOXIDANTS, Chandan Roy*, Debasis Mazumdar
The fruit Benincasa hispida (BH) is an important ingredient of Kusmanda lehyam? (Ayurvedic medicine), which is widely used, in nervous disorders. The present study has been designed to evaluate the cognition facilitating effect of BH pulp extract in colchicine induced experimental rat model of AD and to investigate the role of central cholinergic system in the nootropic effect of BH pulp extract with the possible involvement of antioxidant enzymes. The behavior study, Acetylcholine concentration, cholineacetyl transferase activity, antioxidant level such as, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level were studied in different parts of the brain such as frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus (HPC) in colchicine induced experimental Alzheimer rat model before and after treatment with BH. BH (400 mg/kg p.o.) induced statistically significant reversal of colchicine induced cognitive deficits. BH (400 mg/kg p.o.) markedly induced frontal cortical and hippocampal concentrations of Ach and ChAt activity, the effects being statistically significant on days 7, 14 and 21 respectively. Moreover, BH significantly increased SOD, CAT, GSH activities and significantly decreased LPO level on day 7, 14 and 21 respectively. The aqueous pulp extract of BH (400 mg/kg body weight) containing vit- A, C, E results significant protection in the level of antioxidant status in frontal cortex and hippocampas after a certain period of co administration on colchicine induced oxidative stress without causing any general and metabolic toxicity and possibly thereby induced frontal cortical and hippocampal concentration of Ach and ChAT activity.
230 STABILITY-INDICATING DENSITOMETRIC, FLUORIMETRIC AND DIFFERENCE ABSORBANCE (?A) METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF SOTALOL HCl, Sawsan A. Abdel Razeq, Khalid M. Abel Salam, Manal M. Fouad* and Tahany F. Mohamed.
Three simple, accurate and precise stability-indicating methods are presented for the quantitative estimation of sotalol-HCl in presence of its degradation products. The first is based on TLC separation of the drug from its degradates followed by densitometric measurement of the intact drug at 230 nm using a developing system composed of methanol- chloroform- conc. ammonia (7:3:0.05 by volume). The second method measures the fluorescence intensity of sotalol-HCl in ethanol at ?em 306 nm after its excitation at 238 nm, whilst the third one depends on measurement of pH absorbance difference (?A) of the drug solution between 0.1M HCl and 0.1 M NaOH at 249 nm. Regression analysis of Beers plots shows good correlations (r = 0.9996 - 0.9997) over concentration ranges of 2 - 17.5 ?g / spot, 1 - 15 ?g mL -l and 2 20 ?g mL -l of the drug for the three suggested methods, respectively. The three methods retain their accuracy in the presence of up to 80%, 70% or 60% degradant, respectively. The proposed methods are also successfully applied to analyze sotalol-HCl in its formulation; Betacor tablets with mean recoveries ranging from 99.23 to 99.97 %. The results obtained are validated and statistically analysed and found to be in accordance with those given by a reported method.
231 THE POSTCHALLEMGE IMMUNE PROTECTION MEDIATED BY SMOOTH LIPOPOLYSACCHRIDE OF VIBRIO FLUVIALIS IN A MOUES MODEL, Dr Ibrahim M S Shnawa*, ALZamily K. Y., Dr Rabab Omran
From V.fluvialis smooth form culture a lipopolysacchride LPS was prepared and purified into the limits of partial purity as F1 and F2.These F1 and F2 were assessed for mitogenicity, immunogenicity and immune protectivity in a mouse model.They were mitogenic through skin induration and bone marrow lymphocyte blatogenicity, rise up of V.fluvialis specific antibody titres, cytokine activator for IL4,IL6,and TNF alpha causing postchallenge cytokine imbalance between proinflammatory IL6 and anti-inflammatory IL4 and immune protective via survivors record. Thus, V. fluvialis SLPS F1&F2 were mitogenic, immunogenic and postchallenge immune protective in mouse model.
232 CO-PROCESSING EFFECT OF MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE/PRE-GELATINIZED MAIZE STARCH ON PROPERTIES OF DIRECTLY COMPRESSED FOLIC ACID TABLETS., *Mohammed, B. B
A binary mix powder containing various proportions of microcrystalline cellulose(MCC) and pregelatinized maize starch (PGS) was obtained, pelletized into 500 mg compacts, comminuted into granules which were compressed into 75 mg tablets containing 5 mg of folic acid powder using the direct compression method. The effect of the proportion of the binary components and compaction pressure on the proportion of comminuted pellets fines, mean granule size and tablet properties, were evaluated.The proportion of MCC in the binary mix was directly related to the proportion of fines produced and indirectly related to the mean granule size, showing that MCC had a lower binding effect than MCC. Increase in compaction pressure reduced tablet thickness, increased tablet hardness and reduced friability. This is due to higher densification effect on the tablets. PGS produced tablets with longer disintegration time (13.5 mins) compared to pure MCC content (0.8 mins). This showed that MCC is a better disintegrant than PGS.
233 DETERMINATION OF MERCURY (II) BY SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC AND FLOW INJECTION TECHNIQUES USING NEW REAGENT 2-(4-BROMO-2, 6-DIMETHYL PHENYL) AZO 4, 5-DIPHENYL -1-IMIDAZOL), Abid Allah Mohammed Ali, Khdeeja Jabbar Ali and *Haider Norri Raheem
Mercury (Hg) is very toxic element; therefore, accurate detection of such dangerous elements is of paramount importance. This research includes preparation of new organic reagent 2-(4-bromo-2, 6- dimethyl phenyl) azo 4, 5-diphenyl -1- imidazol) and its identification by UVVisible spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and then use of this reagent for determination of mercury ions. The reagent was prepared and the absorbance spectrum was generated for the reagent as well as its mercury complex. The comparison of two spectrums depicted the differences between two spectrums and maximum absorbance was observed at 504nm for mercury complex. The optimum absorbance was recorded at pH 7, with reagent concentration of 10 -4M. The complex was observed to be stable at various temperatures (5-70 0C) and for a longer period of time (1440min). The stoichiometry of complex was determined by two methods (mole ratio and Job method) and found to be (2:1) (reagent: ion). The interference of foreign ions was studied and suitable masking agent for each ion was recorded. The new reagent was used for determination of mercury ion in a new design of flow injection system (FIA). Various parameters (physical and chemical) affecting the determination have been investigated. The ideal parameters were found to be pH 7, flow rate 14.5 ml/min, reaction coil length 50cm, volume of reagent 235l and volume of sample 117.l. For FIA system, the average dispersion coefficient was found to be 1.117. The results obtained in this study showed that the new reagent can be employed for accurate determination of mercury ion.
234 PYROGLOBULIN AND HUMAN ARTHROPATHY, *Ibrahim M S Shnawa
Two cases of pyroglobulins were found among 138(1.45%) arthropathy human patients sera but not from the 25 apparently normal control subjects sera. The first of which was showing; Semi-opaque and viscous precipitate. While the second reveals jelly-like precipitate. These pyroglobulins were coexisted with copyroprecipitates in a rat of 20:138(14.49%).Whereas, these two cases have shown clinical significant concentration of the inflammatory immunoproteins ,CRP 48.5, 57.5 mg /IU/ml and the normoglobulin responses, Rheumatoid factor 57, 68 mg/ml. The author is of the opinion holds that there may be a presence of pyroacting B lymphocyte clones within their immune system components that are involved in this pyroglobulin response initiation and mounting, since it has been reported with different isotypes and different clinical settings, though their rarity.
235 PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF DOMPERIDONE TRANSDERMAL PATCHES, Maha M. Ali and Nawal A. Rajab*
Background:Domperidone is a dopamine antagonist with antiemetic properties having a plasma half-life 7-9 hr. with 13-17% oral bioavailability. Objective: The aim of the present study is to prepare a domperidone transdermal adhesive matrix patch to improve its therapeutic efficacy, patient compliance and to reduce the frequency of dosing and side effects, as well as to avoid its extensive first pass metabolism. And then evaluate the physicochemical and mechanical properties as well as in vitro release and rat skin permeation of domperidone. Methods: Different formulas of the patches were prepared by solvent/evaporation casting technique using Chitosan, Eudragit E100, Eudragit RS 100 and Eudragit L100 as polymers with many suitable plasticizer. The physicochemical parameters like drug content, thickness, and weight variation, mechanical parameters like elongation%, elastic modulus and strain as well as drug release and permeation study were evaluated for the prepared patches.FTIR, DSC, SEM, and X-ray diffraction analysis were done to estimate any physicochemical between domperidone and other components of the prepared transdermal patch. In addition to that, skin adhesion, sensitivity test and stability study were done for the optimized transdermal patch.Results: The prepared patches containing Eudragit L100 as polymer and propylene glycol as plasticizer with concentration of 10, 20 and 30% w/w for FL7, FL8 and FL9 respectively showed the best physicochemical and mechanical properties. FL7 transdermal patch with a minimal concentration of propylene glycol 10% gave the uniform dissolution profile of 93.37% domperidone released within 24 hours. The using of dimethyl formamide ( 5% DMF) as a permeation enhancer significantly improved (p
236 COMMON RISK FACTORS AMONG FEMALES SEEKING TREATMENT FOR INFERTILITY IN MUSCAT, Fathiya AL-Hassani, Eman Al Azawi and Havagiray R. Chitme*
Female infertility in married couples is considered to be a social and familial stigma. The diagnostic tests and treatments are more expensive, uncomfortable and complicated due to series of tests and trial periods extending over several months and years posing a financial burden on patient and family. Therefore, identification of causes and risk factors plays an important role in early prevention of avoidable factors and improve outcomes. Present study was carried out to understand causative and risk factors underlying in infertile Omani females who sought treatment in two infertility centres located in Muscat. This study was a prospective and retrospective involving patients from both infertility centres. Prospectively study was carried out by using standard questionnaire. Retrospectively the data was collected from case files. Results of our study indicate that there is a significant relation between 26-30 age group and female infertility. The risk of infertility is more after 2 years of marriage; also, it increases after second attempt to pregnancy. It has also revealed that irregular periods in females increase the risk of infertility. Family history of infertility, miscarriage and thyroid disease are significantly associated with infertility. Patients having the past surgical history for fibroids, ovarian cystectomy and early treatment of vaginal infection have significantly lesser risk for infertility. Based on the results we conclude from this study that there is a need to consider identified global causative and risk factors along with local factors for successful prevention and treatment of female infertility.
237 DETERMINATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND HPLC PROFILE OF EUPHORBIA COTINIFOLIA LINN. LEAF EXTRACT GROWING IN BANGLADESH, Hemayet Hossain*, Shaikh Emdadur Rahman, Proity Nayeeb Akbar, Tanzir Ahmed Khan, Md. Mahfuzur Rahman, Ismet Ara Jahan
Antioxidant properties and HPLC profiling of polyphenolic contents of ethanol extract of Euphorbia Cotinifolia leaves were evaluated. Antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS radical scavenging activity, with an IC 50 value of 95.60 0.19 ?g/ml, and maximum absorbance of reducing power of 0.0996 0.013 at 250 g/ml. The total antioxidant capacity, and total phenolic and flavanoid contents were also determined and were found in the range 328.7 3.01 mg of ascorbic acid/g, 64.64 2.14 mg/g of gallic acid, and 81.72 6.05 mg/g of quercetin equivalent, respectively. Polyphenolic compounds like catechin, vanillic acid, p-coumeric acid, rutin hydrate and quercetin were obtained in the extract by reverse-phase HPLC and varied within the range of 80.14 1.75, 3.09 0.12, 1.22 0.05, 27.09 1.09 and 1.73 0.03 mg/100 g extract, respectively. Due to the higher phytochemical content and significant antioxidant activity, the leaf extract of E. cotinifolia was selected as a valuable plant extract. A relationship between the polyphenolic compounds present in E. cotinifolia and its antioxidant activity can be suggested.
238 FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SELF MICROEMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (SMEDDS) OF FLURBIPROFEN, *Jawad A., Intan F. S., Jiyauddin K., Asbi A. ,S. Budiasih, M. Kaleemullah and Samer A. D.
A selfmicro-emulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) has been developed to enhance diffusion rate and oral bioavailability of Flurbiprofen. The solubility of Flurbiprofen was checked in different oils, surfactants, and co-surfactants and ternary phase diagrams were constructed to evaluate the micro-emulsion domain. The Flurbiprofen SMEDDS was prepared using Capmul MCM (oil), Tween 80 (surfactant), and polyethylene glycol 400 (co-surfactant). The particle size distribution, zeta potential, and Polydispersity index were determined and found to be 12.3 nm, ?0.746, and 0.138, respectively. Diffusion rate of Flurbiprofen was measured by in vitro dialysis bag method using phosphate buffer pH 6.8 as diffusion media. Developed high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to determine drug content in diffusion media. Oral bioavailability of Flurbiprofen SMEDDS was checked by using mice model. Results of diffusion rate and oral bioavailability of Flurbiprofen SMEDDS were compared with those of pure drug solution and of marketed formulation. Diffusion of Flurbiprofen SMEDDS showed maximum drug release when compared to pure drug solution and marketed formulation. The area under curve and time showed significant improvement as the values obtained were 607ng h/mL and 1 h for SMEDDS in comparison to 445.36 and 1.36 h for market formulation suggesting significant increase (p
239 BIOLOGICAL SHIELD TO AVOID DEFILEMENTS AND DISEASES: IMMUNITY: AN OVERVIEW, *Radha Sharma, Suman Jain
Immunity can be defined as the ability to withstand against diseases. In other words immunity is the state of having sufficient biological shield to avoid defilements and diseases or other unwanted biological invasion. The most probable causes of diseases are microbes or foreign substances. Immunity mainly distributed into innate and acquired immunity. Immunity involves both specific and non-specific components. Naturally acquired active immunity occurs when a person is exposed to a live pathogen, and develops a primary immune response, which leads to immunologic memory. Artificially acquired active immunity can be induced by a vaccine, a substance that contains antigen. There are somany factors affect your immune system. Our immune system does a magnificent job of preventing you against disease-causing microorganisms. But sometimes it unsuccessful: A germ successfully makes you sick. It possible to disturb in this process and make our immune system stronger by making improvement in your diet; by taking certain vitamins or herbal preparations; and by making other lifestyle changes.
240 AROMATHERAPY AS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE-SYSTEMATIC REVIEW, Ravindra N. Kamble*, Piyush P. Mehta, Vaibhav M. Shinde
Aromatherapy is truly holistic therapy taking in to account mind, body and spirit. It can provide a useful and most popular complementary medical service both in healthcare and in private practice too. Aromatherapy and Aromatology can bring real complementary help to many patients, and hence it is come under the one of the Complementary? therapies. Essential oils are pivotal materials in aromatherapy which are usually combine with the Carrier oils. Aroma hand massage, Aromatherapy with light Thai massage, Selfaromatherapy massage, aromasticks, the m technique, Aromatherapy acupressure and other methods are present which give the effective results. Aromatherapy massage seems to be a helpful, non pharmacological and pharmacological method that exerts positive effects. By knowing this scenario following review was frame out which consolidates different reported activities of aromatherapy.
241 IMPORTANCE OF ANTIOXIDANTS AGAINST DISEASES, *Dr. Jyoti Saxena
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a collective term used for oxygen containing free radicals, depending on their reactivity and oxidizing ability. ROS participate in a variety of chemical reactions with biomolecules leading to a pathological condition known as oxidative stress. Antioxidants, therefore, can stop the formation of free radicals and the chain reactions, which would otherwise result in cell damage or even death. It is therefore, necessary to validate the utility of antioxidants in improvement of human health in order to take full advantage of their therapeutic potential. The human body has several mechanisms to counteract oxidative stress by producing antioxidants, which are either naturally produced in situ, or externally supplied through foods and/or supplements. This mini-review deals with antioxidants deleterious effects on cellular activities, and the concept of free radical biology and role of different antioxidants on human health and diseases.
242 ALPINIA SPECIOSA: A GOLD ORNAMENTAL PLANT A REVIEW, V. Subhadra Devi* and Dr. M. Gopal Rao.
For many centuries, several health disorders have been treated by using plant extracts from medicinal plants. In the last decade, the study of plant extract has attracted attention in curing various challenging diseases. Alpinia speciosa is widely used in the indigenous system of medicine. It is also known as Alpinia zerumbet. Different parts of the plant root, rhizome, seed and flower have medicinal values. The flower of the plant is specifically used as an ornamental plant. The therapeutic action of the plant is due to presence of major chemical constituent flavonoids. The herb is beneficial in treating digestive, spleen, liver and abdominal pains. Many pharmacological activities viz., antiulcer, myorelaxant, antispasmodic, anti inflammatory, anti emetic, antioxidant, and cytoprotective and spasmolytic activity had been reported in different plant extracts. Based on many scientific researches this article is reviewed to reveal the therapeutic aspects of the herb for the beneficial for further research.
243 A FACET UPSHOT ON TRANSDERMAL THERAPEUTIC SYSTEMS: IN MIDDLE OF UPDATED PERSPECTIVE, *Riddhi Patel, Om Bagade, Bindiya Patel
Transdermal drug delivery (TDD) is a non-invasive route of drug administration, although its applications are limited by low skin permeability. Transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver the drug through the skin in order to achieve both local and systemic effect of drug at a predetermined rate over a prolonged period of time. Its main advantages includes with minimum side effects, improved bioavailability, bypass first pass metabolism and many more. The main challenge is in the design of a polymer matrix, followed by optimization of the drug loaded matrix not only in terms of release properties, but also with respect to its adhesioncohesion balance, physicochemical properties, and compatibility and stability with other components of the system as well as with skin. The low permeability of the skin relative to other biological tissues is well known and keeps the skin as a minor port of entry for drugs. The skin is a very effective barrier for the permeation of most xenobiotics. It is rare that the industry produces a new chemical entity specific for dermal or transdermal use and often, therefore, its inherent physicochemical properties are not ideally suited to uptake into and through the skin. This means that considerable effort has to be expended on the appropriate design of a formulation or a device to deliver enough of the medicine such that there is sufficient present at its site.
244 A REVIEW ON MICROBIAL KERATITIS, V. Nithya* and Anusha Bhaskar
keratitis, inflammation of the cornea, the transparent domelike portion of the eyeball in front of the iris and pupil. There are several varieties of keratitis, which can be caused by either infectious or non-infectious processes. It is caused by bacteria, fungi and virus. Effective diagnosis is important in detecting this condition and subsequent treatment as keratitis is sometimes mistaken for an allergic conjunctivitis. Treatment depends on the cause of the keratitis. Infectious keratitis can progress rapidly, and generally requires urgent antibacterial, antifungal, or antiviral therapy to eliminate the pathogen. Treatment is usually carried out by an ophthalmologist and can involve prescription eye medications, systemic medication, or even intravenous therapy. It is inadvisable to use over-the-counter eye drops as they are typically not helpful in treating infections, also using them could delay correct treatment, increasing the likelihood of sight threatening complications. Some infections may scar the cornea to limit vision. Others may result in perforation of the cornea or even loss of the eye. With proper medical attention, infections can usually be successfully treated without long-term visual loss.
245 A RESEARCH AND REVIEW ON LOW BACK PAIN& ITS MANAGEMENT, Manish Gunjan*, A,K Jha, Parmanand Verma, Achal Mishra, RE Ugandar, Anand Mahalwar, Goutam K Jana
Pain is the main symptoms in low back pain. According toEuropean Guidelines for the management of chronic non-specific low back pain; Low back pain is defined as pain and discomfort, localised below the costal margin and above the inferior gluteal folds, with or without referred leg pain. Following the authors of the above quoted guidelines, chronic pain is defined as: pain persisting for at least 12 weeks. This duration of 12 weeks includes sub acute back pain, back pain that has lasted for a very long period of time and also cases of recurrent pain, with the current episode of pain lasting approximately 12 weeks. In this study we have tried to find out the reasons, associated Problems, probable treatment as well as the management of low back pain by using survey based analysis.
246 FLUORIDE: A DOUBLE EDGED SWORD, Shweta Sachan*, Aditi Singh#, Jyoti Prakash, Garima Awasthi
Fluorine is a highly reactive gas seldom occurs in nature in elemental form. It combine with other elements or molecules and form fluorides (F-), e.g. Calcium fluorite (CaF2), Cryolite (Na3AlF6) etc with a v ery high affinity. Geological crust in India is very rich in fluoride bearing minerals. Groundwater with high fluoride concentration occur in many areas of the world including large parts of China, Africa, Southern Asia and the middle East, including India. Although drinking water is usually the largest contributor to the daily fluoride intake, it is also found in atmosphere originating from the dusts of fluoride containing soils, from gaseous industrial wastes and from burning of coal fires in populated areas. Fluoride can reduce or prevent dental decay and strengthen bones, so that it prevents bone fractures in older people. When the level of fluoride is naturally low, studies have shown higher levels of dental caries (tooth decay) and fractures. But is too much of a good thing always beneficial? Excessive ingestion of fluoride during the early childhood years can damage the tooth-forming cells, leading to a defect in enamel known as dental fluorosis. Another well known cause of excess fluoride is skeletal fluorosis, which is difficult to diagnose in early stages and can be confused with various forms of arthritis. Apart from teeth and bone, excess fluoride has been found to be affecting kidney, brain, thyroid gland and the gastrointestinal gland. Fluoride is purposely added to toothpastes and sometimes other products to promote dental health. Fluoride is also found in some food stuffs and in the air, so the amount of fluoride people actually ingest may be higher than assumed.
247 SULFUR BLISS OR CURSE FOR ENVIRONMENT, Abhishek. R. Shivappagowdar, Nathiya T, and Anand Prem Rajan*
Life on earth evolved because of Sulfur as debated by many scholars. The anthropogenic sulfur released in the environment has started a visious cycle in the nature. Reckoned Sulfur is a yellow crystalline solid that occurs in nature as a pure element or as sulfide and sulfate minerals. It is a multivalent non-metal that is abundant, tasteless and odorless. The major derivative of sulfur is sulfuric acid (H 2SO4), one of the most important elements used as an industrial raw material, it is of central importance to the world's economies, its production and consumption is an indicator of a nation's industrial development. But when sulfur burns in air, it produces sulfur dioxide, the emissions of which cause adverse impacts to vegetation, including forests and agricultural crops. Hence a careful extraction of sulfur from the natural bodies is necessary. Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a Gram-negative bacterium which is abundant in natural environments associated with pyritic ore bodies, coal deposits and their acidified drainages. It is an important member of microbial consortia used to recover copper via a process known as bioleaching or biomining. It is capable of anaerobic growth on elemental sulfur, using ferric iron as an electron acceptor . This ability of A.ferrooxidans to grow under anaerobic conditions is relevant to its application in biohydrometallurgy. For very low-grade metal sulfide ores that cannot be economically recovered using traditional metallurgical methods, the use of bioleaching is a environmental friendly alternative for the metallurgical industry. In this review, the sulfur production, its effects on the environment and the role Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in sulfur bioleaching is discussed. Furthermore, the closely related species of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans are also considered.
248 PRODRUGS: A REVIEW, Shaifali Dubey*, Vandana Valecha
Prodrugs are bioreversible derivatives of drug molecules that undergo an enzymatic and/or chemical transformation in vivo to release the active parent drug, which can then exert the desired pharmacological effect. This approach has several advantages over conventional drug administration. Prodrugs are with altered physicochemical, biopharmaceutical or pharmacokinetic properties of drugs so the efficiency of drugs gets improved with specific target delivery. This article includes classification, effect of prodrug on solubility, chemical stability, bioavailability, long duration of action and site targeted challenge with examples of prodrug illustrating the role of produg as a better way for the more effective treatment of different diseases.
249 SWARNAPRASHAN CLASSICAL REVIEW & CURRENT SCENARIO, Deepshikha*, Amit Kumar rai
Child health is the key to healthy youth and adulthood. Child mortality of a nation signifies level of its healthcare standards. Several diseases of adulthood bear their roots to childhood. It is thus important to improve health status of children and prevent diseases to facilitate their growth into healthy adults. Swarnaprashan is an age-old time tested mode of disease prevention in Ayurveda using oral intake of gold. It dates back to 1000 B.C. and is still practiced in several parts of India. This article reviewed the classical knowledge on the subject, analysed it in light of contemporary science and research, presented its picture of current scenario and future prospects. It is found that swarnaprashan not only prevents several diseases but also helps brain development. It is thus recommended that this art of medicine deserves to be widely publicized and included in national health programs extending its benefits to large masses.
250 CLERODENDRUM COLEBROOKIANUM WALP: A PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW, *Plazapriya Rajbongshi
Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp. belongs to family lamiaceae is widely used for the treatment of hypertension. It is a perennial shrub which is native to South and Southeast Asia. Traditionally, the leaves of this plant are used by the indigenous people of Northeast India as a remedy for the treatment of intestinal tapeworm infections. It is traditionally used in the treatment of diabetes, hypertension, cough and rheumatism. The major chemical components reported from the genus are phenolics, steroids, di- and triterpenes, flavonoids, volatile oils, etc. The present review focuses on the traditional use, chemical constituents and pharmacological activity of this plant. Antihypertensive, anthelimintic, analgesic, antioxidant and antistress activities are reported by various extracts of Clerodendrum colebrookianum Walp.
251 REVIEW ON DIFFERENT BARIATRIC PROCEDURE WITH POST OPERATIVE PROBLEM AND NUTRITIONAL COMPLICATION IN RATS, Ramji Gupta*, Surya Prakash Singh, Saurabh KumarVind, Sokindra Kumar, Arshad Parwez, Preeti Singh
Obesity is a progressive metabolic disease that decrease life span of human and associated with a wide range of problems ranging from heart disease and diabetes to infertility and cancer. Loss of weight can significantly help to cure and reduce the chances of future health problems. Approximately nearly 10% body weight loss occur through anti-obesity drugs, but it not confer clinically benefit in patients with a body mass index exceeding 40 kg/m2, for whom bariatric surgery is indicated. The number of bariatric operations increase worldwide in recent few years with the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (gastric bypass) is the most commonly performed operation. It is important to understand the physiological mechanisms by which gastric bypass induces and maintains body weight loss. The bariatric operations in rat model have not only mimic time profile as well as magnitude of human weight loss but also allow researchers to control post operative critical physiological factors and associated complications. The aim of this article is to summarize and discuss the technical, experimental aspect as well as etiology associated with the risk and benefit of bariatric surgery.
252 AN OVERVIEW OF STRESS AND ITS MANAGEMENT AMONG THE COLLEGE STUDENTS, Sripada Ramam*, Bonam Jyothi, Kodamanchili Vidya Bhargavi, John Kirubakaran, Polla Govindh Raj, Magharla Dasaratha Dhana Raju.
Stress was found to be the major problem in the college students all over the world. The concept of stress was first described by Hans Selve in the journal Nature in 1936. Previous studies revealed that stress was significantly experienced by college students, which was found to be significantly correlated to academic achievement. Majority of the students suffer from episodic stress while preparing for examination, while attending an interview. The drastic changes due to stressors in a students life may affect the psychological and physical health. The stressor impact may vary from person to person. Academic stressors are the main stressors in the student population. According to various statistical surveys, highly stressful environment in the colleges and universities results in various student related issues and these issues may often leads to suicides also. Now-a-days an advanced and effective psychological treatment is available for treating anxiety and depression that are responsible for stress. Hence, students should seek psychological counselling in case of anxiety and depression along with the pharmacological treatment with anti anxiolytics and anti depressants respectively if necessary. There is an urgent need for the evolution of a stress management program in students which should effectively cope and manage the stress. In stress adjustment process, coping behaviour plays a crucial role. To overcome the stress, management strategies suggested by Indiana university health centre was very much popular and beneficial. Among students, adequate stress is essential in everyones life for better motivation towards the goal and for regulating and maintaining the physical and psychological health, but excessive stress may lead to negative consequences that affect the daily activities. To adjust the emotion and to the resolve the stressful situations, effective copping strategies are essential. It is the responsibility of the educational institutions to provide a psychological counsellor in their campus, in order to rein force the mental well-being of the students.
253 OGTT A PRELIMINARY APPROACH TO DETECT IMPAIRED GLUCOSE TOLERANCE IN CHRONIC PANCREATIC DISORDERS, Dr.C.V.Sarada, Dr. Sujatha Rani Akuri*
Chronic pancreatic disorder patients are more prone for diabetes. To rule the prediabetes condition in chronic pancreatic disorder patients we do various tests for confirmation like Serum insulin test, OGTT, Serum peptide tests. OGTT test used for to rule out diabetes in normal condition. In this present study we took 30 chronic pancreatic disorder patients and 20 healthy volunteers and tested OGTT levels both fasting and after glucose load. From this study we came to know that fasting OGTT levels are almost same in both the groups but the 2nd hour levels are high in the case group. The primary application of OGTT is after glucose loading. The high levels of OGTT after 2nd hour may be due to decreased insulin production or due to insulin resistance. The high levels of the post glucose load glucose levels in cases indicate irregularity in glucose metabolism. This represents the patients with Chronic Pancreatic disorders have a chance to develop Diabetes Mellitus II in future.
254 SYNTHESIS AND CONFORMATIONAL STUDIES OF N-(3Z)-5-FLUORO-2-OXO-2,3-DIHYDRO-1H-INDOL-3-YLIDENE]-3-CARBOHYDRAZIDE WITH SPECIFIC PHARMACOPHORIC FEATURES., Shazia Haider, Zafar Saied Saify, Afshan Naz, Kaniz Fizza , Tabinda Z. M, A.Arain, Toqeer ahmed Rao, *Seema Ashraf, Dr. Abdul Ghaffar
Isonicotinic acid hydrazide (isoniazid,INH) and isatin are potential bioactive agents[1-5].Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of mortality throughout the world. Resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to antituberculosis drugs becomes very serious problem [6]Isonicotinic acid hydrazide (isoniazid, INH) belongs to the group of the first line antituberculosis drugs being in clinical practice over 50 years. Chemical modifications of isonicotinic acid hydrazide were performed on all parts of the molecule, but the activity of these derivatives against M.
255 IN SILICO APPROACHES FOR DRUG DESIGNING AND PREDICTING ADMET PROPERTIES OF DRUGS AGAINST DENGUE FEVER, Arpit Trivedi, Pallavi Gangwar* , Ankur Mohan, S.M. Dave
Dengue fever which is a mosquito-borne tropical disease caused by the dengue virus and also known as breakbone fever. Symptoms include fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash that is similar to measles. Dengue Virus contains Structural and nonstructural proteins. Among all these proteins Non-Structural protein named is responsible for replication of dengue virus. The 3D structure of NS5 RNA dependent RNA polymerase was downloaded from PDB (2J7U). NS5 RNA dependent RNA Polymerase contains ligand named Tri Ethylene Glycol, which was selected as a drug target candidate. Compounds were downloaded from the various compound databases and screened on the basis related structures and properties with Tri Ethylene Glycol using similarity score. The properties like Common Name, IUPAC name, Melting Point, Boiling Point, pKa Value, Polarizability, Molecular Weight, Solubility, Density etc. were tabulated. Docking was performed on the structure files of the compounds by using docking software named Argus Lab. ADMET properties of chemical compounds were analyzed by Online Database named Danish QSAR database. After reviewing physical, chemical properties, docking and ADMET analysis of all the screened chemical compounds the following chemical compounds were confirmed as drug candidates for Dengue Virus. Ethanol, 2- 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethoxy (DB02078), Ethanol, 2-butoxy (CID57448621), Ethanol, 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)- -( CID57999328), Diethylene Glycol (CID60096730), 1,1'-oxybis- ,Ethoxy Ethane, - (D01772), D-Xylose (D06346), Ethanol, 2-ethoxy- (DB01749), Ethanol, 2-methoxy- - (DB02806).
256 SOL-GEL METHODOF SYNTHESIS OFMGO AND CAO NANO PARTICLESAND THEIR CHARACTERIZATION, S. Priscilla Prabhavathi, Ranjith, Shameela Rajam, *Maruthamuthu, Kingsley Raja
Since the innovation of Nano chemistry in past decades number of materials in Nano-scale have been synthesized via, many methods. Nanoparticles have been widely used in various fields, such as photoelectric, recording materials catalysts, sensors, ceramic materials, etc., due to their special structures and property. In particular Nano sized MgO finds application in nano generators, gas sensors, biosensors, solar cells, photo deduction and photo catalyst.In the same way, Nano sized CaO is extremely stable compounds and finds application in ceramic structures. The present study is aimed at synthesizing MgO and CaO nanoparticles using simple sol-gel method and reagents and the characterization of MgO and CaO using FT-IR, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). KEYWORDS: Nano metal oxides, Sol-gel, FT-IR, XRD, SEM.
257 ANTI-MICROBIAL PROFICIENCY OF PHYTOCHEMICAL EXTRACTION IN METHANOL FROM SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS, Asha D. Lazras, *Anil Kumar, B.D. Nagle and Akansha Gayakwad
The some medicinal plants part has antimicrobial properties such as Azadirachta indica (Neem), Ocimum scantum (Tulsi), Curcuma longa (Turmeric), Annona squamosal (Sugar Apple), Allium sativum (Garlic) etc. its leaves and stem used for phytochemicals extraction in methanol. Each sample has divided into two replicates for extraction in hot and cold methanol. Extracted phytochemicals applied to TLC plate for separation of various compounds and know their Rf values of each separated bands on TLC plate, pigments parts dissolved in distilled water, and its mix with culture media of plates, carry on open to plates in air environment for 5min. and incubated at 37C for 24-48 hours, observed antimicrobial effect to compared with control plate. In which maximum 194 colonies inhibited by dark green phytochemical of leave Azadirachta indica and another maximum 188 colonies inhibited by yellow pigment which Rf value 0.1825 of stem bark of Azadirachta indica and light green which Rf value 0.2625 of stem Ocimum scantum and less effective 8 colonies inhibited by unknown pigment of stem bark of Azadirachta indica from out of 300 colonies of control plate.
258 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF EXTENDED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF DESVENLAFAXINE SUCCINATE, Gajanan Jalindar Chavan*, Sachin Dhondiram Patil, Atul Pandurang Kumbhar, Nikhil Prabhakar Patil, Swapnali Roshan Charya, Rohit Bhaskar Kadam
The objective of this investigation was to prepare extended release of Desvenlafaxine succinate and to carryout in-vitro dissolution studies to demonstrate sustained action of designed dosage form. The design of dosage form was performed by choosing hydrophilic hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4M), Carbopol (Acrypol 974), Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) polymers as matrix builders and Polyvinyl pyrolidone (Kollidon K30) as granulating polymer. Granules were prepared by mixing thoroughly HPMC K4M, Carbopol (Acrypol 974P) and Microcrystalline cellulose with the drug and then by kneading with granulating solution of Polyvinyl pyrrolidone with Isopropyl alcohol & air dried. Optimized formulation of 100 mg Desvenlafaxine was formed by using 33.78 % HPMC K4M, 3% Microcrystalline cellulose, 15% of Carbopol (Acrypol 974) and 5% ratio of Kollidon K30 as binder .The network formed by HPMC, MCC and Carbopol (Acrypol 974) in the granules when compacted by compressing it into a Tablet exhibited 24 hours extended drug release in vitro.
259 ROLE OF CURCUMIN AS AN ADJUVANT IN CHMEORADIOTHERPAY IN HEAD AND NECK CANCER: A RANDOMIZED TRIAL, S. Sudarsini*, Dr K.Velavan, Dr. Fahad I. Al-Saikhan
The purpose of this randomized study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of curcumin as an adjuvant and its effects on chemo- radiotherapy in terms of tolerance and local control in the management of head and neck cancer. A study protocol was designed as per ICH guidelines and eighty histologically proved patients of head and neck cancer were selectively randomized into four arms (two study arms and two control arms). Group I (study arm) received 6600 cGy external radiation in conventional fractionation along with curcumin 1gm and group II (study arm) was treated with 6600 cGy external radiation and chemotherapy along with curcumin. One control arm (group III) was treated with 6600 cGy external radiation alone in conventional fractionation schedule. Other control arm (group IV) was treated with chemotherapy with 6600 cGy external radiation therapy in conventional fractionate schedule. The study result shows that patients were well matched in both the treatment groups(I & II). Chemo radiation tolerance was found more satisfactory with less sever acute chemo radiation toxicity in study arm patients. No patient with curcumin adjuvant therapy developed grade 3 acute radiation toxicity as encountered in control arm, 20 out of 72 patients (27%). A better quality of life during therapy was demonstrated in study arm patients with enhanced subjective response and improved Karnofsky performance status. However, overall response rate was not affected by curcumin chemo radiation therapy. It is concluded that Curcumin is well tolerated in head & neck cancer patients. It enhances the radiation tolerance, reduces accompanying acute radiation and chemo toxicity, and improves performance status and quality of life.
260 STUDY OF CROSS-LINKED SODIUM RBOXYMETHYLCELLULOSE (NACMC) AS AN ALTERNATIVE SUPERDISINTEGRANT IN FAST DISSOLVING FORMULATION., A. S. Kulkarni, S. H. Majumdar, N. H. Aloorkar, K. M. Karande, Dada D. Kodalkar*
The present study was aimed towards the formulation and evaluation of Fast dissolution tablets of The ophylline using Cross-linked Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. Fast disintegrating tablets of Theophylline was prepared using three different super disintegrants Namely crospovidone, cross-linked sodium carboxymethylcellulose,and Non cross-linked sodium carboxy methylcellulose, and with three concentrations (2%, 3% and 5%) were prepared by direct compression method. The final blend of the drug and excipients were evaluated for powder flow properties, bulk density, tapped density and compressibility index. All the formulations were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, disintegration time,hardness, friability, wetting time and water absorption ratio. Formulation F3 showed thelow est disintegration time. In vitro dissolution studies revealed that formulation F3 showed96.36 % percent drug release at the end of 30 minutes. These results revealed that the formulation F9 containing. Cross-linked sodium carboxymethylcellulose (5%)as super disintegrant was better one which satisfied all the criteria as a Fast Disintegrating tablets.
261 VALIDATED METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LOSARTAN POTASIUM AND CHLORTHALIDONE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC METHOD, Nitin S. Jadhav, K.G. Lalitha*
A new, simple, rapid RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Losartan potassium and Chlorthalidone in tablet dosage form. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Agilent XDB C18( 150 x 4.6 mm, 5?m) particle size column was used with PDA detector by using mobile phase containing mixture of 0.02M Potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (KH2PO4) buffer : acetonitrile (70:30 % v/v pH 3.5) was used. The flow rate was 1 ml / min and detection was carried at 254 nm. The retention time for Chlorthalidone and Losartan was found to be 2.718 and 4.848 min. respectively. The method was linear over the concentration range of 12.5 - 75g/ml for Losartan potassium and 1.55 9.35 g/ml for Chlorthalidone respectively. Limit of detection (LOD) for Losartan potassium and Chlorthalidone was 0.121 g/ml and 0.0168g/ml. and Limit of quantitation(LOQ) for Losartan potassium and Chlorthalidone was 0.369g/ml and 0.0510g/ml respectively. The proposed method in this study was found to be simple, rapid, precise, accurate, sensitive and applicable for the simultaneous determination of Losartan potassium and Chlorthalidone in combined dosage forms.
262 EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PHOSPHATE ESTERS BY WELL DIFFUSION METHOD, Mithilesh Kumari Gupta, S. K. Jadhav, S. A. Bhoite*
Resistance in some pathogenic bacterial strains to conventional antibiotics has initiated to search for effective treatments against microorganisms. In this context antibacterial activity of mono-6-chloro-2,4-dinitroaniline phosphate and di-2-methyl-5-nitroaniline phosphate were studied by determining the zone of inhibition of bacterial growth against four pathogenic bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 3160, Klebsiella oxytoca ATCC 13182, Bacillus subtilis BAB 2437 and Bacillus licheniformis MS 17. Different concentrations of test compounds were applied against bacterial strains to examine their antibacterial activity by using well diffusion method. Gentamycin and water were taken as a positive and negative control to test the bioactivity of phosphate esters. Zone of inhibition was observed and measured in mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of phosphate esters against pathogenic bacterial strains was also determined.
263 EXPLORING SAMUDRA-FENAS AN ALTERNATIVE EXCIPIENT IN THE MANUFACTURING OF FAST DISINTEGRATING TABLET., A.S. Kulkarni*, S.H. Majumdar, N.H. Aloorkar, K.M. Karande, S. N. Dhayagude
Salbutamol Sulphate is a short acting, selective ?2 adrenergic receptor agonist widely used as a bronchodilator which is used for the treatment of asthma. The purpose of this research was to explore samudra-fen as alternative excipient in the manufacturing of fast disintegrating tablet. Recently fast disintegrating drug delivery system have started gaining popularity and acceptance as a new drug delivery system because they are easy to administer and lead to better patient compliance. In present work an attempt has been made to formulate and evaluate fast disintegrating tablets of Salbutamol Sulphate. Samudra-fen, Croscarmellose sodium, Sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone were used as super disintegrating agents. Direct compression technique was used as it is economical process. The prepared tablets were evaluated for precompressional as well post compressional parameters. Formulations containing combination of 3% Samudra-fen and 3% Crospovidone as super disintegrating agent show rapid disintegrating time as compared to other formulations.
264 NOVEL ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF LURASIDONE HYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS BY RP-HPLC, P. Ravisankar*, G. ajyalakshmi , Ch. Deva Dasu, P. Srinivasa Babu, P.Venkateswar Reddy
isocratic Reversed Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of Lurasidone HCl in pharmaceutical tablet dosage forms. RP-HPLC method was developed by using Welchrom C18Column (4.6 X 250mm, 5m), Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence Liquid Chromatograph. The mobile phase composed of 10mM Phosphate buffer (pH-3.0, adjusted with triethylamine): acetonitrile (50:50v/v). The flow rate was set to 1.0 mL.min -1 with the responses measured at 235nm using Shimadzu SPD-20A Prominence UV-Vis detector. The retention time of Lurasidone HCl was found to be 4.333 minutes. Linearity was established for Lurasidone HCl in the range of 10-50g.mL-1 with correlation coefficient 0.9999.The LOD and the LOQ were found to be0.0653?g.mL-1 and 0.1980?g.mL-1 respectively. The amount of Lurasidone HCl present in the formulation was found to be 99.90 %. The validation of the developed method was carried out for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness, limit of detection, limit of quantitation. The developed method can be used for routine quality control analysis of Lurasidone HCl in pharmaceutical tablet dosage form.
265 REMOVAL OF RHODAMINE B DYE BY ADSORPTION TECHNIQUE USING NATURAL ADSORBENTS OF PLANT ORIGIN, *S. Priscilla Prabhavathi, Ranjith, Shameela Rajam, Maruthamuthu
Due to industrial revolution, number of industries have increased enormously in recent years. These industries discharge industrial waste water into the aquatic systems affecting flora and fauna, which in turn affect animals and human beings as these effluents contain many dissolved synthetic dyes. Some of the Industries like textile industry, tanning industry, paper industry, food industry and chemical industry using (or) manufacturing compounds like Rhodamine B and methylene blue. These are very harmful for living organisms and aquatic life. Due to the leaching of dyes, ground water gets contaminated by using these dyes unknowingly and get accumulated in the liver and kidney of animals and human beings. In the present work, It is planned to conduct batch mode adsorption study by colorimetric method for the removal of Rhodamine B from waste water using Neem seed powder (NSP) and Jamun seed powder (JSP) as adsorbents.
266 EXCISION AND INCISION WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF STEM BARK AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF BAUHINIA VARIEGATA LINN. IN DIABETIC ALBINO RATS, Rajeev Kumar*, Bhupendra Nath Dwivedy, Anil Bhandari, Rajesh Kumar Nema
The basic objective of the present work was to assess the wound healing activity of aqueous extract of Bauhinia variegata stem bark by providing better tissue formation and protection against microbial invasion. The stem bark of Bauhinia variegate were subjected for extraction with aqueous. Various ointments of extracts in various proportions were prepared and subjected for assessment of wound healing activity in diabetic albino rats using four parameters i.e., Wound contraction studies (Excision Wound), Tensile strength measurement (Incision Wound), Hydroxyproline content determination (Incision Wound) and Histopathological studies (Incision Wound).Based on the comparison of wound healing activity of various formulations, the formulation comprising of 4% (w/w) aqueous extract of stem bark of Bauhinia variegata found to be superior to that of control and standard formulation (0.3% w/w neomycin ointment). The present studies evidenced the significant wound healing activity of Bauhinia variegata by increasing cellular proliferation, formation of granular tissue, synthesis of collagen and by increase in the rate of wound contraction.
267 PHYTOCHEMICAL AND WOUND HEALING ACTIVITY OF ALLIUM SATIVAM LINN., IN WISTAR ALBINO RATS, Dr. V. Nithya*
Wound healing is an intricate process whereby the skin repairs itself after injury. The present study was evaluated that the wound healing activity of Allium sativam Linn on albino rats of Wistar strain using two different models viz, excision and dead space wound. There was a significant increase in wound closure rate, tensile strength, dry granuloma weight, wet granuloma weight and decrease in epithelization period in Allium sativam Linn treated group when compared to control and commercial drug treated groups. From the results, it may be concluded that, the ethanolic extract of Allium sativam Linn had greater wound healing activity than the soframycin ointment.
268 DESIGN, FABRICATION AND EVALUATION OF DRUG RELEASE KINETICS FROM METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS BY USING NATURAL GUMS, *Raju.Manda, Bonagiri Sreedevi, Virajaji Kaya, Bandla Navya and Dr.R.Suthakaran
Sustained release formulation of Metformin hydrochloride presents significant challenges due to its poor inherent compressibility, high dose and high water solubility. Sustained release matrix tablets of Metformin hydrochloride were formulated using different concentration of Guar gum, Xanthan gum, and Chitosan polymers, Drug: Polymer ratio of (3X3+1) 5:1, 5:2, 5:3 and 5:4 by direct compression method. The formulated powder blends were evaluated for angle of repose, bulk density, true density, compressibility index and total % porosity. The tablets were subjected to hardness, friability, % weight variation and % drug content. In vitro release studies were carried out at pH 1.2 and pH 7.2 using the dissolution test apparatus IP/BP/USP. The formulated powder blends and tablets showed satisfactory results from selected formulation. Tablet thus formulated provided Sustained release of Metformin hydrochloride over a period of 10 hrs.
269 DESIGN AND INVITRO EVALUATION OF NON ERODIBLE POLYMERIC MATRIX TABLETS OF ISONIAZID USING SINTERING TECHNIQUE, *Raju. Manda, Virajaji Kaya, Bonagiri Sreedevi, Rachamalla Sai Santhosh and Dr.R.Suthakaran
Tubercul osis rampant infectious disease is considered to be the foremost cause of death caused by Mycobacterium tuberculi. I soniazid (300 mg ) is a one of t h e m o s t important first line drug recommended by World Health Or ganization (WHO) for the treatment of tuberculosis. I soniazid and different proportions of additives were mixed. Tablets containing 300 mg equivalent to Isoniazid were compressed (surface lubricated with magnesium stearate) on sixteen punch tableting compression machine. From the invitro dissolution data, it can be conclude d that Eudragit RL 100 had retarding capacity of drug from being released. This retardant capacit y was more in E4 sintered at 4.5 hr as compa red to all other formulations and release kinet ics model follows Higuchi diffusion model. No statistically significant differences were observed the release profile of optimized formulation E4 sintered at 4.5 hr and also release kineti cs were unaltered lastl y no significant phy sical characterist ics were changed when stabilit y stud y was done for three months 40 0C 20C at 75% RH & 5%RH. From the above it was concluded that formulation E4 sintered at 4.5 hr was stable in short term stabilit y study .
270 SYNTHESIS AND STRUCTURAL CORRELATION TWO COPPER(II)COMPLEXES, Jeeva, J.* and Ramachandramoorthy, T.
Copper(II) complexes with 4- hydroxypyridine and cyanate ion / thiocyanate ion were synthesised in microwave field using a microwave oven. They were characterized and these two complexes were compared for their structural and biological activities.
271 SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF SOME 1,3,4-OXADIAZOLES,1,2,4-TRIAZOLES POSSESSING s-TRIAZOLE MOIETY, *D.Kumudha, T.Kalavathi, R.Venkatanarayanan, R.R.Reddy
Starting from substituted benzohydrazides, 2-(3-mercapto-5-substituted phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl) acetohydrazide[6a-d] were prepared. From [6a-d], a series of new 1,3,4-oxadiazoles [9a-d], 1,2,4-triazoles [10a1-a2 10d1-d2 ] were synthesized and evaluated for anticonvulsant, CNS depressant activity and Neurotoxicity.
272 MORINGA OLEIFERA POTENTIALLY A NEW SOURCES OF BIOREMEDIATION FOR WATER POLLUTION, Jaya Singh, *Saurabh Gupta, Anupama Gautam, and Seema Bhaskar
The Moringa tree had spread to most part of Asia, nearly the whole of Africa, South America, southern part of North America and some pockets in Europe. It has been found useful in nutrition, agriculture, soil control, water purification, industrial applications, cattle feed etc. The effect of the seed oil cake of Moringa oleifera on the turbidity of the water and waste/effluent water samples is A considerable reduction in turbidity was obtained in the range of 25.00 94.64%. As far as the pH is concerned there was no evidence that fluctuations from pH range of 3.10 to 8.33 indicating that the textile waste water has the highest pH value of 8.33 before treatment with the coagulants to the range from 3.94 7.26 (1 hr after treatment with seed oil cake) and 4.08 7.16 (24 hrs after treatment with seed oil cake) The seed oil cake of Moringa reduced the turbidity of most water samples in the range of 1.8420.65% and increased the waste samples in the range of 27.10-31.61%.
273 VALIDATED RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF MELOXICAM AND AMOXICILLIN SODIUM IN BULK AND COMBINED DOSAGE FORM, Nazia sultana Shaik *, Shanta Kumari Katakam
A new simple, precise, accurate and selective RP-HPLC method has been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of Meloxicam (MEL) and Amoxicillin sodium (AMXS) in injectable dosage form. The method was carried out on a C8 (250 mm 4.6 mm i.d., 5m) column with a mobile phase consisting of Phosphate Buffer, Acetonitrile and Methanol in the ratio of (45:10:45v/v/v) and flow rate of 1.5 ml/ min. The detection was carried out at 233nm.The retention time for MEL and AMXS were found to be 7.548 and 4.837 min respectively. The MEL and AMXS followed linearity in concentration range of 1-7g/mL and 20-150g/mL respectively with r=0.9990.The amount of both drugs estimated by the proposed method was found to be in good agreement with labelled claim. The developed method was validated for precision, accuracy, sensitivity, robustness and ruggedness. The developed method can be used for routine analysis of titled drugs in combined dosage form.
274 PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF BARK SKIN OF SARACA INDICA (ASHOKA) AND SHOREA ROBUSTA (SHAL), Poonam S. Mohod, C. R. Jangde, S. D. Narnaware*, Subhash Raut
Shorea robusta (Shal) and Saraca indica (Ashoka) are important traditional Indian medicinal plants used in various ailments and rituals. The use of different parts of these plants like leaves and resins as a medicament for treatment of various inflammatory conditions is well documented in literature. However, the studies on phytochemical constituents and the medicinal properties in the bark skin of these plants are scanty. Initially the bark samples were subjected to macroscopy and microscopy under which organoleptic characters like appearance, size, shape, colour, taste, odour etc. were noted. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of bark skin of Saraca indica and Shorea robusta were prepared and evaluated for their phytochemical analysis using different methods. The extractability of aqueous and alcoholic extract of bark skin of Saraca indica and Shorea robusta were found to be 20.26%, 18.33% and 30.17%, 24.57% respectively. Phytochemical analysis of both the extracts of Ashoka revealed the presence of tannin, essential oil, terpenoid and steroid whereas both extracts of Shal revealed the presence of tannin, resins, terpenoid, and essential oil.The analgesic properties of bark skin of Ashoka and Shal mentioned in the Ayurveda literature can be attributed to the presence of different bioactive compounds such as alkaloids and steroids as revealed by phytochemical analysis of the present study.
275 ANTIOXIDANT STUDY AND PHENOLIC CONTENT OF CARALLUMA FIMBRIATA HERB, Abhinandan R. Patil*, Ajit B. Patil, Snehal S. Naingade, John I. Disouza
Antioxidant compound reduces the oxidative stress, which leading to reduce or neutralizing oxidation in cell. Antioxidant play major role in health protecting. The present study shows the total phenolic compound and antioxidant power of ethanolic and aqueous extract of Caralluma Fibriata herb. The total phenolic compound study done by Foline-Ciocalteu method and the antioxidant study done by DPPH assay, Hydrogen Peroxide assay, FRAP assay. The ethanolic extract of Caralluma Fibriata herb shows higher antioxidant property than aqueous extract.
276 ANTIFUNGAL SCREENINGOF NITROGEN AND SULPHUR DONOR ATOM CONTAINING LIGAND 3,3-THIODIPROPIONICACID-BIS(5-AMINO-1,3,4-THIODIAZOLE-2-THIOL) AND ITS Mn(II),Co(II) COMPLEXES: SYNTHESIS, SPECTRSCOPIC APPROCH, MOLECULAR MODELING, Sulekh Chandra*, Seema Gautam, Amit Kumar
A novel series ofMn(II)and Co(II)complexes were synthesized by condensation reaction of nitrogen and sulphur donor atom containing ligand 3,3-thiodipropionicacid-bis (5-amino-1,3,4-thiodiazole-2-thiol)(L) and corresponding metal salt in 1:1 ratio. This multi donor ligand was synthesized by conventional condensation reaction between 3,3-thiodipropionic acid and 5-amino-1,3,4-thiodiazole-2-thiol in 1:2 ratio. The mode of bonding of ligand toto metal ion and geometry of the synthesized complexes were inferred through elemental analysis, 1HNMR, Mass, IR, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, electronic spectra, epr, and molecular modeling. On the basis of above studies, octahedral geometry was assigned for Mn(II) andCo(II) complexes. The in vitroantifungal activityofligand and its Mn(II)and Co(II) complexes was studied. Fungi C.krusei, C.albicans, C.tropicalisand C. parapsilos were takenand well diffusion method was applied to study antifungal activity. A comparative study ofinhibition values indicated that complexes exhibited higher activity than the ligand.
277 DESIGN, SYNTHESIS & EVALUATION OF NOVEL SUBSTITUTED FLUOROQUINOLONE-BENZIMIDAZOLE ANTIBACTERIALS, *Shital J. Patil, Dr. Ashok P. Pingle, Khudabaksha Tamboli
The current developments of the chemical and biological aspects of fluoroquinolones in a chronological manner touching upon their antibacterial properties based on the structure- activity relationship while pointing out to their mode of action. . Out of more than 8000 analogues of fluoroquinolones synthesized bearing variety of ring systems, a few dozen have been established in the market, and more are in the horizon to be introduced. Bacterial resistance to fluoroquinolones is seriously challenging the clinical applications of this class of antimicrobial agent. Most of the fluoroquinolones currently on the market or under development have only moderate activity against many gram-positive cocci, including staphylococci and streptococci. Fluoroquinolones effectiveness is concentration-dependant. It has been shown that in order for bacteria to be highly susceptible to Fluoroquinolones and prevent resistant mutants, the maximum concentration must be 10 times that of the minimum inhibitory (MIC) concentration when treating against gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial activity of some substituted Benz imidazole derivatives against Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli was investigated.
278 SNAKE VENOM - FACTS FIGURES AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE, R. D. Bendbhar, B. P. More, M. K. Malve, S. S. Pingale and B.R. Khot
Forensic science laboratories in Maharashtra receive many samples for the detection of snake venom under Cr. Pc.174. Maharashtra having largest number of deaths reported due to snake bite 1. The author of this paper has brought light on negative results for the presence of snake venom. With the help of empirical and statistical studies, this paper highlights various parameters responsible for the negative results of snake venom samples received in laboratories. Forensic serologist has to carry out analysis of different body fluids in murder and rape cases. Though snake venom analysis is the less priority case but is having different social dimension. This paper reviews the social perspective in this regard.
279 ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON WILD EDIBLE PLANTS USED BY MALAYALI TRIBALS OF MELUR, BODHA HILLS, SOUTHERN EASTERN GHATS, NAMAKKAL DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU, INDIA, *Deepa. P*, S. Murugesh, K. Sowndhararajan & P. Manikandan
A survey of wild edible and food plants was undertaken and identified various species used by the malayali tribes of Melur, Bodha hills, located in the Rasipuram taluk, Namakkal District, Southern Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India. The purpose of the study was to document the traditional wild edible plants used by malayali tribals. Tribals mostly depend on wild plants and such natural products for their food such as vegetables of leafy varieties, unripe fruits and ripen fruits. The local tribe community depends for their dietary requirements since a long time using these plants. The study identified 95 wild edible plant species under 75 genera and 48 family. Out of 95 wild edible plant species, Leafy vegetables (43- species), wild fruit (38 species) eaten as a raw, some wild unripe fruit as vegetables and are consumed by this tribal people in this study area have been identified and documented. These leafy vegetables, unripe fruits, and tubers are collected in different seasons, cooked and eaten along with boiled rice or millets. These wild edible plants are have enriched with high nutrition and free from artificial chemicals.
280 ANTIBACTERIAL SCREENING OF DATURA INOXIA AGAINST MULTI-DRUG RESISTANCE STRAINS, Priti Mathur*, Manodeep Sen, Chandni Tandon
The development of drug resistance as well as the appearance of undesirable side effects of certain antibiotics has necessitated the search for new antibiotic from natural sources. Keeping this in view, we have studied the antibacterial effect of Datura Inoxia leaf by preparing their hexane, ethanol and aqueous extracts against multidrug resistance strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The results of agar well diffusion assay indicated that the ethanol extract were most susceptible against Staphylococcus aureus, while aqueous extract were found to be ineffective against both the strains. This study has shown that the Datura Inoxia can act as promising plant for developing new antibiotics (herbal antibiotics) to Overcome the bacterial resistance problems worldwide.
281 THERAPEUTIC PROSPECTIVE OF WHEATGRASS JUICE (TRITICUM AESTIVUM) ON CERVICAL CANCER, Pragati Singh*, B. R.Shrivastav, Archana Shrivastav, Nishant Sharma
Worldwide, cervical cancer is one of the Second most common cancers in women. Free radicals, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) also play an important role in the initiation and progression of multistep carcinogens is by DNA damage which is mostly caused by oxidative stress. Oxidative stress assayed by analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide anion and H 2O2, and antioxidant enzymes. Chemotherapy is one of the promising treatment for cervical cancer before or after surgery. Chemotherapy has many side effects which are life threatening. Wheatgrass juice to help offset chemotherapy side effects and may inhibit cancer by reducing oxidative stress. Nutritive supplements of wheatgrass juice maintains the blood LPO level and a positive balance of antioxidants for a better outcome in terms of delayed recurrence and better Quality of Life for cervical cancer patients.
282 ISOLATION, CULTIVATION, IDENTIFICATION AND SCREENING OF THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC ACTIVITY OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA ON COFFEE BERRY BORER, *K.Soundari, A.Saranya and G.Senthilkumar
Economically important crops should be safeguard from residual pesticides. At present, application of microbial inoculants is extremely followed for the management of soil borne disease. This paper summarizes the progress and achievements made in the last decade in mass production, formulation and application technology of the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo). Data were presented on the production of proteins, phenols, enzymes like chitinase and pectinase to degrade the chitin and pectin present in the insect integuments, bioassay to detect the lethal effect of coffee Berry borer by B.bassiana at different concentration and field application of the fungus.
283 SCREENING OF THE ENTOMOPATHOGENIC ACTIVITY OF BEAUVERIA BASSIANA ON BANANA WEEVIL, *K.Soundari, V.J.Kavitha and G.Senthilkumar
Microbial control of plant pathogens and insect pest is an important component of effects to reduce our reliance on chemical pesticides and increase sustainability of agriculture. Banana is the fourth most important economic crop. Its yield decreases due to the pathogenic effect of pests. Banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus is an important economic pest of banana Beauveria bassiana is formulated in commercially available biopesticide for control of insect pests. Because this fungus can grow inside plants without affecting their health of growth. B.bassiana has potential as biological control agent for plant pathogens as well. Development of biopesticides that can control both plant pathogens and insect pests can have enormous value for plant protection in agriculture, with many environmental advantages. Among the various biocontrol methods used to control insects, fungal entomopathogen, Beauveria bassiana is highly promising. The qualitative and quantitative estimation of protein was done to analyze the presence of protein in the fungus. In the present study fungal protein was extracted, purified and crystallized.
284 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF GUAZUMA ULMIFOLIA, C.Selvaraj, Haripriya.R, Naveen Raj .D and P.Thirumalai Vasan*
The preliminary phytochemical analysis of ethanolic extract of Guazuma ulmifolia was analysized. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrate, flavonoids, glycosides, phenols, protein, saponins , terpenoids and tannins. The phytocompounds were separated using thin layer chromatography. The antibacterial activity of separated phytocompunds such as alkaloids, flavonoids , saponins, tannins and terpenoids were tested against human pathogenic bacterial strains such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca , Klebsiella pneumonia , Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus. The saponins compounds exhibited promising activity against tested bacterial pathogens.
285 STATISTICAL OPTIMIZATION OF L-GLUTAMIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM MUNTINGIA CALABURA FRUITS USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY, Payala Vijayalakshmi*, Dr. Dhurjeti Sarvamangala, Dr. I. Sarat Babu
An experimental study was carried out with the aim of producing LGlutamic acid from cheap fermentable substrate-fruits of Muntingia calabura Linn using C.glutamicum DSM 20300 T. The production was tested at varying physico-chemical parameters like p H, temperature, time, urea, biotin and mineral salt solution concentration using OFAT strategy. Out of six variables three variables urea, biotin and mineral salt concentration were further optimized through central composite design (CCD). The results revealed that, the determination coefficient value was R2=0.9390 indicated that 93.9% of the variability in the response could be explained by the model. The adjusted determination coefficient (Adj R 2=0.8841) value was also high which specifies the significance of the model. The highest yield obtained was 15.1 g of L-Glutamic acid per 100g of substrate in a 5L fermentor. At the end of fermentation, the fermented broth was subjected to crystallization at the isoelectric point (pH3.2) of L-glutamic acid using IN HCl.
286 BIOACTIVE COMPOUND FROM LEAVES PART OF LANTANA CAMARA, Mamta Saxena*, Dr Jyoti Saxena, Dr Rajeev nema
Lantana camara is regarded both as a notorious weed and a popular ornamental garden plant has found many parts of the world. The methanolic extract of the leaves of Lantana Camara yielded a flavonoid. The compound was characterized as 5, 7-dihydroxy-6,4?-dimethoxyflavone on the basis of IR,UV, and NMR(1H, C) spectral studies.
287 QUESTIONING PRANAYAM, *Dr. Dinesh Kumar Jain and Dr. Raj Kumar Arya
Pranayam is being used as a dramatic cure of all type of diseases. Hyperventilation and hypoventilation both are parts of Pranayam. Yoga promoters say, take oxygen in large amount by rapid and deep breathing. More oxygen in blood gives mo re energy and is responsible for treatment of many diseases. Yoga experts say that yoga is a science of introspective psychology and Pranayam is helpful in physical, intellectual and spiritual well being. But available knowledge of modern medical science does not prove any therapeutic effect of Pranayam. It is being said unscientifically and wrongly that by increasing breathing activity, extra oxygen will reach in tissue which will cure all the diseases and extra oxygen will prevent development of diseases. Therapeutic effects of Pranayam are not proved by any proper clinical study. On the contrary, Pranayam creates many harmful effects by hypoventilation and hyperventilation.
288 EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROSCOPY & HPTLC OF CALOTROPIS PROCERA, B. Dwivedi, A. Singh*, S. Mishra, R. Singh, P.Pant, L.K.Thakur, M.M.Padhi
In the present study the major phyto-constituents of leaves hexane extract of Calotropis procera investigated qualitatively & quantitatively by GC-MS. A optimize HPTLC profile of leaves extract has developed to resolved and screened the phyto compounds appeared in UV light and after derivatization. In HPTLC analysis seven bands in 254nm, twelve bands in 366nm & five bands after derivatization were observed at different Rf values. Twelve major phyto compounds were identified and estimated by GC-MS analysis. The result obtained by GC-MS study revealed that in hexane extract of leaves, highest peak area % of 25.22 was obtained by Ergost-5-en-3-ol (C28H48O) at retention time of 45.020 and the lowest peak area % of 0.24 was obtained by 9 octadecenoic acid 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)- (C18H34O2) at retention time of 17.353. This study summarizesthe information concerning the phyto-constituents present in hexane leaf extract which may be responsible for various therapeutically effects.
289 EFFICACY OF SUPPLEMENTATION OF METHIOREP, A HERBAL METHIONINE SUPPLEMENT IN IMPROVING GROWTH, PERFORMANCE & CARCASS TRAITS IN BROILERS: A FIELD STUDY, Vijay Kumar.M, K. Ravikanth, Shivi Miani, Adarsh*
Objective of the experimental trial was to study the efficacy of supplementation of Methiorep, a herbal methionine supplement for improving growth, performance and carcass traits in broilers. 200 day ol d unsexed broiler chicks ( Vencobb) were us ed f or the trial and were randomly all otted to two treatment groups, T0 & T1 comprising 100 chicks each. Group T0 supplemented with commercial feed only (no over and above Methionine- DLM supplementation) and in group T1 commercial feed supplemented with Methiorep (M/S Ayurvet Limited, India) @1.5 kg/tonne of feed. The experiment lasted for 42 days. Statistical analysis of results showed that in group T1 a significant (P
290 TAPPING THE ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF A NOVEL ISOLATE -CHLORELLA EMERSONII, Sneha S. Sawant, Animesh A. Joshi, Dr. Ashok Bhagwat, Dr. Varsha Kelkar- Mane#
There is a quest for alternative and economical antioxidants, to be substituted for the chemical ones used in personal and health care sectors. These alternative sources are usually of plant or algal origin. With a known potential antioxidant activity of freshwater microalga, and the obvious advantage of scaling up in comparison to seaweeds/macroalgae, this study isolates and evaluates the antioxidant principles from a so far an unexplored species of Chlorella. Materials and Methods: Chlorella was enriched from a fresh water pond in Chu?s medium No.10 at 283 0C and was identified as Chlorella emersonii morphologically as well as by 18s rDNA sequencing (NCBI accession number-KJ725233). C. emersonii was cultivated in BG-11 medium at different temperatures, so as to optimize its temperature for biomass production. The mass obtained was then dried and three different solvents: water, methanol and hexane were used to extract the antioxidants. The antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content were quantified by FRAP and Folin- Ciocalteau methods respectively. Results: Highest activity of 15.3480.0908 and 17.9750.436 mg ascorbic acid g-1 ; 9.9630.3667 and 18.230.525 mg ascorbic acid g-1 for aqueous and methanolic extract respectively. The antioxidant potential of the hexane fraction was found to be the lowest 0.2570.024 and 0.3800.10 mg ascorbic acid g-1. Conclusion: The correlation coefficients for antioxidant potential and phenolic content of aqueous fractions was found to be R2= 0.9999 indicating significant contribution of the phenolic compounds to the antioxidant activity for Chlorella emersonii KJ725233.
291 ISOLATION OF FLAVONOID DERIVATIVE FROM CURCUMA LONGA, Sahu R*, Saxena J
The present study was carried to isolate flavonoid present in Curcuma longa rhizome extracts using column and thin layer chromatography separation techniques. And elucidated the structure by using, UV, IR, NMR & Mass. The spectral data proved it to be 2-(3,4, 5-trihydroxyphenyl)-5,7-dihydroxy-3-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?6)-?-D-glucopyranosyl oxy]-4H-chromen-4-one.
292 BIOLOGICS: ROLE IN RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS, Harish Thanusubramanian, Amberkar Mohan Babu Vittal Rao, Meena Kumari Kamal Kishore *
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease which is chronic in nature and the exact etiology is unknown. Genetic and environmental factors disrupt the immune system which causes interaction between the T-cells and antigen presenting cells (APC). Biologic diseasemodifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are biologic response modifiers that target a particular protein that contributes to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Biological agents are anti-TNF agents, abatacept, rituximab, tofacitinib citrate, anakinra, tocilizumab and some under trial drugs. Various studies have shown that efficacy of biological DMARD+ conventional synthetic DMARD combination is more effective than only biological DMARD treatment. Various adverse effects are seen with biologics caused due to suppression of the immune system. Biologics are given according to 2013 EULAR (EUROPEAN LEAGUE AGAINST RHEUMATISM). The use of biologics is determined by measuring the disease activity with certain tools like Simplified Disease Activity index (SDAI) and Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI).
293 A REVIEW ON MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLET USING DIFFERENT SUPER DISINTEGRANT, Mr. Vijay Kumar Singh*, Utkarsh Singh, Ashutosh Mishra, Dinesh Chandra, Rajesh Sahu
Hi storically, t he oral route of drug administ ration has been the one used most f or both convent ional as well as novel drug deliver y . The reasons for thi s pref erence a re obvi ous because of the ease of administration and widespread acceptance by pat ients. Drugs taken orally for syst emic effects have variable absorption rates and variable serum concent rations which may be unpredi ctable. This has led to the development of sustained rel ease and controlled-release systems. The high acid content and ubiquitous di gest ive enzymes of t he digest ive tract can degrade some drugs well bef ore they reach the si te of absorption into the bl oodstream. This i s a particular problem f or ingested proteins. Therefore, thi s route has limi tat ions f or administration of bi ot echnol ogy products. Many macromolecules and polar compounds cannot effect ively t raverse the cells of the epi thelial membrane in the small intestines to reach the bloodstream. Their use is limi ted to l ocal effect in the gastrointestinal tract. Many drugs become insoluble at the low pH levels encountered in the digest ive tract. Since only t he soluble f orm o f the drug can be absorbed into the bl oodstream, the transi t ion of the drug to the insoluble f orm can significantly reduce bioavailabili t y. The drug may be inact ivated in the liver on i ts way to the systemic circulat ion. An example of thi s i s the inact ivat ion of glycer yl t rini trate by hepat ic monoxygenase enzymes during the fi rst pass metabolism. Some drugs i rri tate the gastrointest inal tract and thi s is partially counteracted by coating. Oral route may not be suitable f or drugs targeted to specific organs. Despi te disadvantages, the oral route remains the pref erred route of drug deliver y. Several improvements have taken place in the f ormulat i on of drugs for oral deliver y f or improving their action.
294 SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING PLUMERIA RUBRA EXTRACTS AND TO STUDY ITS ANTI-BACTERIAL PROPERTIES, Hana Sarah Haseeb And Justin Packia Jacob.S*
Silver nanoparticles have found applications in catalysis, optics, electronics and other areas due to their unique size-dependent optical, electrical and magnetic properties. Currently most of the applications of silver nanoparticles are in antibacterial/antifungal agents in biotechnology and bioengineering, textile engineering, water treatment and silver-based consumer products. In this study, silver nanoparticles were successfully prepared from AgNO3 using Plumeria rubra extract. The products were characterized by FTIR (Fourier-transform IR) and SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) analysis. The size of the spherical silver nanoparticles was found to be in the range of 70.2 to 127.2 nm. The results revealed that AgNP is an effective broad- spectrum antimicrobial agent, which exhibited an effective antibacterial property.
295 MICROWAVE ASSISTED SYNTHESIS AND SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE Hg(II) COMPLEX WITH 2-AMINOBENZONITRILE AND OCTANOATE ION, R.Govindharaju*, S. Balasubramaniyan, K. Rajasekar & T. Ramachandramoorthy
Microwave irradiation was used for the preparation of Hg(II) complex with 2-Aminobenzonitrile (ABN) and octanoate ion as ligands. The prepared complex was characterized by elemental analysis, metal estimation, electrical conductivity, UV-Visible, IR, Far-IR and NMR spectral studies. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of both ABN and Octanoate ligands and the Hg(II) complex was carried out by disc diffusion method at various concentrations. From the analytical data the molecular formulae of the complex was arrived. The geometry of the complex from the UV-Visible spectrum, ligand entry and metallinkage atom from IR and Far-IR spectra was arrived. The antibacterial and antifungal activity of the complex is higher than that of the free ABN and Octanoate ion
296 SCREENING OF PHYTOCONSTITUENTS ACTIVITY AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF GNAPHALIUM POLYCAULON, K. Shanmugapriya and Dr.Tha.Thayumanavan*
The present study comprises the efficiency of phytochemical and antimicrobial activity of aqueous, ethanol and hexane extracts of leaf, stem and flower of Gnaphalium polycaulon. The qualitative phytochemical investigation was carry out by identifying the presence of major phytochemicals using standard procedure. The selected plant used in traditional Indian medicine was examined against human pathogenic Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and fungus using the agar well diffusion method against various diseases causing drug resistant microorganisms. Based on the results obtained, the phytochemical screening relieved that the leaf and stem were rich in alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, tannins, Alkaloids, amino acids, fatty acids, glycosides, steroids and saponins, than flower extract and confirmed the presence of all Phytoconstituents in selected plant. The antimicrobial activity of various extracts of G. polycaulon showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against the studied bacterial and fungal pathogens. Result findings provided evidence that crude organic solvent extracts of selected plants contain medicinally important phytochemical compounds and their use in the traditional herbal medicines. Therefore, further studies on this medicinal plant will be widely used in number of pharmacological actions for the treatment of different diseases.
297 TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF CHEMICALS STRESS DEGRADATION CONDITIONS ON LORNOXICAM IN SELF EMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS (SEDDS) FORMULATION BY HPTLC METHOD, V. V. Chopade* And P. D. Chaudhari
Presents study was carried out the effect of chemicals stress degradation conditions on lornoxicam in self emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) by using high performance thin layer chromatographic technique. The method employed TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 as the stationary phase. The solvent system consisted of dichloromethane : ethyl acetate : glacial acetic acid (9.5:0.5:0.1 v/v/v/v) This system was found to give compact spots for Lornoxicam in SEDDS formulation (Rf value of 0.45). Lornoxicam SEDDS formulation was subjected to acid, alkaline, oxidation, photodegradation and dry heat treatment was given also the degraded products were well separated from the pure drug. Densitometric analysis of Lornoxicam in SEDDS formulation was carried out in the absorbance mode at 383 nm. The linear regression data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship with r 2=/0.998/ in the concentration range of 200-/600 ng/band. The method was validated for precision, accuracy, ruggedness and recovery study. The SEDDS formulation undergoes degradation under acid, alkaline, and oxidation treatment. Peaks of degraded product were resolved from the standard drug with significantly different Rf values. This indicates that the drug is susceptible to acid,/alkaline and oxidation degradation. Statistical analysis proves that the method is reproducible and selective for the estimation of sensitivity of chemical stress conditions in SEDDS formulation of lornoxicam. As the method could effectively separate the drug from its degradation products, it can be employed as stability study.
298 PLANTS USED IN ETHNO-VETERINARY MEDICINE BY MALAYALI TRIBALS OF MELUR, BODHA HILLS, SOUTHERN EASTERN GHATS, NAMAKKAL DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU, INDIA, *Deepa. P, S. Murugesh, K. Sowndhararajan & P. Manikandan4
A survey for documentation of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants used by the Malayali traditional healers in Melur, Bodha hills, Namakkal district, Tamil Nadu, India has been conducted during April 2011-April 2012. Ethanoveterinary information was gathered through individual interviews and observation among the Malayali tribals. A total of 70 species of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants belongs to 42 families and 65 genera were recorded in the study with the help of fifteen ethnoveterinary traditional healers. Among the plant parts used by the Malayali tribals for their domestic animals, leaves are most commonly used for the preparation of medicine. The present study was suggested that, the documenting of the medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge can be used for conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in the area and for validation of these plants for veterinary treatment.
299 MICROWAVE ASSISTED SYNTHESIS, SPECTRAL, ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF Cu(II) COMPLEX WITH 4-AMINOANTIPYRINE AND OXALATE ION, K. Rajasekar*, S. Balasubramaniyan, L. Palanivelan , T.Ramachandramoorthy And P. Durairaj
In the background of green chemistry, microwave irradiation provides an alternative to the conventional methods, for providing heating energy to a system. Microwave assisted reactions are fast, clean, economic and eco-friendly and this technique has been proposed as the Technology of Tomorrow. The Cu(II) complex of 4-aminoantipyrine (AAP) and oxalate ion was prepared by microwave irradiation. The composition of complex [MXL 2] (where M= Cu(II), L=AAP& X=C2O42-) was arrived from the elemental analysis, metal estimation, molar conductivity measurements, magnetic moment, UV-Visible, IR and Far-IR spectral studies, tetragonally distorted octahedral geometry is proposed for the complex. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the AAP and Cu(II) complex were tested against E.coli streptococcei and C.albicance (fungus) by disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were measured; the results show that the complex is more potent than the free AAP.
300 PRESCRIBING PATTERN OF DRUGS USED IN TONSILLITIS PATIENTS OF OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF TERTIOARY CARE HOSPITAL, Rajesh Kumar Suman*, Ipseeta Ray Mohanty*, Rakesh Kumar**, Y A Deshmkh*
Objective: The present Study was undertaken to evaluates the baseline data on Drugs used in acute tonsillitis. Method: Questionnaires based Performa was specifically designed to collect the prescribing information from ENT Out patients. The performa contain Demographic data of patients, Diagnosis of disease and Drug regimen.Result: A total 110 prescriptions of patients were analysed who had confirmed diagnosis of Tonsililitis from ENT OPD Department. Maximum patients were patients were of the age group between 1 10 yr (39.09%). Incidence male(55%) were higher than female(45%). The total 495 drug were prescribed. Average drug per prescription was 4.95. Mong total 495, 110(22.22%) antibiotic were prescribed. Most common antibiotic prescribed were Combination of Amoxicillin + Clavulinic Acid (43.63%) followed by Amoxicillin+Cloxacillin(25.45%) etc. The common drug prescribed was Antiinfective: Bitadine gargle (25.97%), followed by Multivitamin (25.97%), Analgesic: Diclofenac (24.6%), etc. Among 110 patients, only 15 patients were sent For Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern Testing. Common Organism isolated were Streptococcus, Pseudomonas, and Klabsiella sp. Conclusion: The present study showed most common drug prescribed were Anti-infective gargle, Analgesic, Multivitamin and Amoxicillin +Clavulinic acid combination of antibiotic. Prescribed by brand name is still matter of concern.
301 CONSERVATION OF SOME PHARMACEUTICALLY IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM DIMAPUR DISTRICT OF NAGALAND, *Rama Shankar, Ashish Kumar Tripathi, Abhimanyu Kumar
The areas under study belong to the district Dimapur Nagaland is district Kohima in the East, Karbi Anglong district of Assam in the North and West and Peren district of Nagaland in the South.. The district is located in the geographical coordinates of 93 44' 30" East longitude and 25 54' 45" North latitude. According to the census conducted in the 927 square Kilometers with a population of 378, 811. The district is chiefly inhabited by the Naga tribes. The paper deals with the important Pharmaceutically important medicinal plants from Dimapur district of Nagaland.
302 FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SELF MICROEMULSIFYING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM (SMEDDS) OF FLURBIPROFEN, *Jawad A., Intan F. S., Jiyauddin K., Asbi A., S. Budiasih, M. Kaleemullah and Samer A. D.
A self micro-emulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) has been developed to enhance diffusion rate and oral bioavailability of Flurbiprofen. The solubility of Flurbiprofen was checked in different oils, surfactants, and co-surfactants and ternary phase diagrams were constructed to evaluate the micro-emulsion domain. The Flurbiprofen SMEDDS was prepared using Capmul MCM (oil), Tween 80 (surfactant), and polyethylene glycol 400 (co-surfactant). The particle size distribution, zeta potential, and Polydispersity index were determined and found to be 12.3 nm, ?0.746, and 0.138, respectively. Diffusion rate of Flurbiprofen was measured by in vitro dialysis bag method using phosphate buffer pH 6.8 as diffusion media. Developed high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to determine drug content in diffusion media. Oral bioavailability of Flurbiprofen SMEDDS was checked by using mice model. Results of diffusion rate and oral bioavailability of Flurbiprofen SMEDDS were compared with those of pure drug solution and of marketed formulation. Diffusion of Flurbiprofen SMEDDS showed maximum drug release when compared to pure drug solution and marketed formulation. The area under curve and time showed significant improvement as the values obtained were 607 ng h/mL and 1 h for SMEDDS in comparison to 445.36 and 1.36 h for market formulation suggesting significant increase (p
303 EFFECT OF CYNODON DACTYLON ON FREE RADICAL LOAD OF LYMPHOID ORGANS OF ASIAN CATFISH, CLARIAS BATRACHUS, Mishra, P.* Jurry, R., and Gupta, S
The aim of the present study was to asses the effect of aqueous and alcoholic extract of Cynodon dactylon on free radical load of lymphoid organs viz., spleen, thymus and head kidney of Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus. For this 36 fishes of mixed sexes were randomly divided into three group; each group consists of 12 fishes. Group one treated as control and group 2 and 3 treated as test receiving 50 and 100 ppm of aqueous or alcoholic extract of Cynodon dactylon every alternate day till 28 days. Test and control fishes were sacrificed after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days and lymphoid organs were collected in icecold containers for enzyme assay. The Cynodon dactylon treated fish showed significant increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase and decrease in lipid peroxidation. No mortality was observed at these doses. Result of ANOVA for SOD & CAT revealed a statistically highly significant main effect of treatment (T), duration (D) of experimentation and interaction effect of treatment with duration (TXD). The result of ANOVA for LPO also showed statistically significant results except alcoholic extract in thymus where duration of experimentation and interaction effect (TXD) was not significant and aqueous extract in spleen where interaction effect (TXD) was not significant.
304 A REPORT OF FIVE CASES OF FLUOROQUINOLONE-INDUCED EPIDERMAL NECROLYSIS AT A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL IN NORTHERN KARNATAKA, Bhandarkar Anoosha P,Kop Priyadarshini B, Pai Varadraj and Navin A Patil,
Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) are life-threatening, epidermal necrolytic adverse drug reactions (ADRs) considered to be within a spectrum of severe exanthematous vesico-bullous disorders, mostly attributable to drugs like anticonvulsants, NSAIDS and antimicrobials. Lately, the reports on Fluoroquinolone (FQ) induced SJS/TEN are rising. Our retrospective study conducted in this direction, brings in five such cases which manifested with severe epidermolyticmucocutaneous lesions after taking oral FQ therapy for gastrointestinal/ respiratory/genito-urinary indications. With the dechallenge of offending agents and adequate management of patients? clinical condition, four of them improved but the immunocompromised patient with TEN died despite intensive systemic corticosteroid and I.V-immunoglobulin therapy.
305 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDIES OF NOVEL LIGAND( DIETHYL 5-AMINO 4-METHYL THIOPHENE 3,5-DICARBOXYLATE-2,6-DIAMINOPYRIDINE) AND ITS METAL COMPLEXES, *Dr.Mohammed.Fakruddin Ali Ahamed, Kassahun Desalegn Gebremariam
Metal complexes of Cu (II) and Hg (II) with a new Schiff base derived from Diethyl 5-amino 4-methyl thiophene 3,5-dicarboxylate-2,6-Diaminopyridine(DAMTDDAP) in methanol are reported. The complexeshave been characterized using chemical analysis, (IR, UVVIS, H 1-NMR), conductometric data. According to these data, we propose an octahedral geometry for metal (II) complexes. The invitro antibacterial activities of the investigated complexes were evaluatedagainst few microorganisms by well diffusion technique. It was found that the metal complexes havehigher activity that the standard drugs. Antibacterial activity of the ligand and its complexes werestudied against to gram positive bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus and bacteria Salmonella typhi , Pseudomonas aureginosa and Escherichia coli.
306 GASTRIC ULCER CURATIVE POTENTIAL OF MOLLUGO OPPOSITIFOLIA LINN. EXTRACT- A PRECLINICAL STUDY., Dr. S. Gopinathan* and Ms. S. Nija
Peptic ulcer is a major health hazard both in terms of morbidity and mortality. It occurs due to imbalance between offensive factors such as acid and pepsin secretion, Helicobacter pylori infection (a stomach inhabiting pathogen), increased bile secretion, increased production of free radicals and decreased antioxidant activity versus defensive factors such as secretion of mucus and bicarbonate, blood flow and the process of restitution and regeneration of cellular injury. The plant products are proved as effective preventive as well as curative agents. They have been acquired a greater appreciation because they have lesser side effects and higher efficacy. Objectives: The present study was aimed to evaluate the gastro protective and antiulcer efficacy of Mollugo oppositifolia plant extract in the alcohol induced ulcerated rats. The activity was compared to the known antiulcer drug, Omeprazole. Experimental design: An animal model study was conducted by using albino Wistar rats. The rats were divided into four groups comprising of six rats in each group and treated as follow. Group I: Normal healthy control, Group II: Disease control (ulcer was induced by 50% alcohol), Group III: Ulcer induced rats treated with Mollugo oppositifolia extract, Group IV: Ulcer induced rats treated with Omeprazole. Results obtained: Ulcer induced rats showed increased level of ulcer index and reduction in the gastric output and total acidity, but they showed significant reduction in serum protein and carbohydrate levels. The level of lipid peroxides and activities of enzymatic antioxidant such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and non enzymatic antioxidant such as reduced glutathione were altered. There was a significant decrease in the level of hemoglobin and Red Blood Cells count and an increase in the White Blood Cells count. The treatment with Mollugo oppositifolia extract significantly inhibit the alcohol induced ulcer congestion, hemorrhage and necrosis in diseased stomach which was evidenced from the resumption of various parameters. Conclusion: The results of the present study substantiate that Mollugo oppositifolia extract is a potential gastro protective and antiulcer herb. Its activity was comparable with standard drug, Omeprazole.
307 HYPOCHOLESTEROLEMIC PERSPECTIVES OF GARLIC SOUP CONTAINING BIOACTIVE INGREDIENTS, Muhammad Ashraf, *M.S. Butt, Ijaz Ahmad, M.K. Saeed and Quratulain Syed
The present study was an attempt to probe the health claims of locally grown garlic variety/line lehsan gulabi (garlic pink) for the management of serum cholesterol. Functional chicken garlic soups were prepared by adding whole garlic, garlic powder and garlic oil. The treatments and storage exerted non-significant differences in total soluble solids of soups. However, pH and acidity affected substantially with storage. Color tone showed non-significant decline in L* value whilst enhancement in a* and b* values was observed as function of treatments. A non-substantial declining pattern was observed in color tonality. T1(soup containing whole garlic) exhibited highest scores for all sensory characteristics. During the efficacy study, provision of garlic based diets i.e. whole garlic (G 1), garlic powder (G 2) and garlic oil (G3) resulted in reduction in cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, serum triglyceride as compared to control (G0). The highest decline was observed in G1. However, HDL level was raised and the highest rise was also observed in G1. Thus pink garlic in different forms proved beneficial to cope with metabolic threats. Conclusively, the detrimental consequences of altered serum lipid can be ameliorated by the supplementation of garlic preparations specially with whole garlic in the daily diet.
308 EFFECT OF OBESITY IN RATE PRESSURE PRODUCT OF MALE INDIVIDUALS, Dr Horshajyoti Chutia*, Dr Rwitusmita Bharali, Dr Dibyajyoti Dutta, Dr Smriti Pathak Dutta
Overweight and obesity are the fifth leading risk for global deaths. Obesity increases adverse cardiac events in many ways.Increased blood pressure, heart rate and rate pressure product (Double product) can affect the cardiovascular system in numerous ways. They can determine MVO2 and are thought to act as risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. With this background this study was carried out to find the impact of obesity on blood pressure, heart rate and double product.In this comparative cross-sectional study, 150 obese males (BMI>23) and 150 non-obese males (BMI
309 MEDITATION MEDICATION IN PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS, *Dr. Prashant kumar Sharma
Meditation is a mind-body practice in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). There are many types of meditation, most of which originated in ancient religious and spiritual traditions. Generally, a person who is meditating uses certain techniques, such as a specific posture, focused attention, and an open attitude toward distractions. The aim of Meditation is to reduce or eliminate irrelevant thought processes through training of internalised attention, thought to lead to physical and mental relaxation, stress reduction, psycho-emotional stability and enhanced concentration. Physiological evidence shows a reduction with Meditation of stress-related autonomic and endocrine measures, while neuroimaging studies demonstrate the functional up-regulation of brain regions of affect regulation and attention control. . In this paper we discuss the physiological and neurophysiological benefits of Meditation and its potential effectiveness as a complementary treatment approach for mental illness.
310 EMERGING PHAACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS OF PIPERIDINE, PYRROLIDINE AND IT S DERIVATIES, Shazia Haider, Zafar Saeed Saify*, Nasreen Begum, Seema Ashraf, Tabinda Zarreen, S.M.Ghufran Saeed
Heterocyclic compounds form largest classical division of organic chemistry by gaining enormous importance in industry and biology. . The mainstream of pharmaceuticals is heterocyclic. Numerous modifiers and stabilizers used in different industrial applications such as cosmetics, information storage, plastics, optics, electronics and reprography along with biologically active agrochemicals are heterocyclic in nature. Pyrrolidine and piperidine both secondary amines are members of saturated heterocyclic compounds demands main cause of interest for chemists, biologist and pharmacist due to their significant and diverse range of promising biological activities like analgesic, anti-inflammatory, CNS, antioxidant, antihistaminic, cytotoxic, antimicrobial and others from last few decades. In the present review we attempts to give information about the synthesis and biological activities of various kinds of Pyrrolidine and piperidine derivatives which might be helpful for both pharmaceutical and chemist in further research.
311 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MICROPARTICLES FORMED BY AMPHIPHILLIC CRYSTALLIZATION TECHNIQUE: OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS PARAMETER, Ujwala S. Desai*, Dhaval B. Bhavsar
The objective of the current work was to develop a crystallization process for the production of microparticles of aceclofenac with a controlled particle size distribution (PSD) to enhance its solubility. The strategy of increasing the in vitro dissolution has the potential to enhance the oral bioavailability when using nanosized crystalline drugs. Solvation of aceclofenac in aqueous poly(ethylene glycol) 400 (PEG 400) was investigated using UV spectroscopy and FTIR. Aceclofenac was crystallized from PEG 400 solutions by the addition of water under a variety of conditions of supersaturation and stirring speed. The crystals were filtered, dried at room temperature. A logarithmic increase in solubility of aceclofenac was observed with increasing concentration of PEG 400 in water enabling the aqueous antisolvent crystallization of aceclofenac from PEG. A central composite design, study showed the particle size to decrease with increasing supersaturation. The physicochemical properties of pure drug and microparticles were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as, measuring the particle size. The DSC and XRPD results indicated that this process did not affect the intrinsic crystalline properties of drug. Amphiphilic crystallization provided a novel method to produce microparticles of aceclofenac with a controlled size range.
312 AMYLASE INHIBITORY POTENTIAL OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES BIOSYNTHESIZED USING BREYNIA RETUSA LEAF EXTRACT, Sekar Nithiya, R. Sangeetha*
Biological methods are less cumbersome and much ecofriendly and this paper reports the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the extract of Breynia retusa leaves extract. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was assisted by microwave irradiation to minimize the time taken for the reduction of silver ions. The nanoparticles thus synthesized were subjected to physical characterization. The UVVisible spectra, Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy spectra, Xray diffraction pattern were studied. The size and surface morphology of the nanoparticles were determined using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The silver nanoparticles were also analyzed for amylase inhibitory activity. The nanoparticles proved to be potential inhibitors of amylase and thus promising anti-diabetic agents.
313 IN VITRO CYTOTOXICITY EFFECT OF MANGROVES AGAINST NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CARCINOMA A549 AND NCI-H522, C. Ravinder Singh and K.Kathiresan
This is the study mainly focused on to find the anti-prolifertative effect of field grown and tissue cultured callus materials. The mangrove species Acanthus ilicifolius, Callophyllum inophyllum and Excoecaria agallocha and two different non-small cell lung cancer cell lines A549 and NCI-H522 were used for this present investigation. Cytotoxicity studies were conducted with root extracts of Acanthus ilicifolius, Callophyllum inophyllum and Excoecaria agallocha and its respective calli. The results were recorded from different concentration at different time interval. It is likely to point out that all the roots and root calli extracts these mangroves showed the toxicity activity. The root callus of all the studied mangrove extracts exhibited the better activity against both A549 and NCI-H522 than the field grown root extracts. Among the different concentrations tried, 6.5 mg/ml was f ound to be the optimum concentration for both the A549 and NCI-H522 lung carcinoma. This present study revealed that the mangrove species Acanthus ilicifolius, Callophyllum inophyllum and Excoecaria agallocha have the anti-proliferative effect and it may lead to new drug development for this leading cause of global disease.
314 CONDUCTANCE MEASUREMENTS OF MCM-41 AND TIO2-MCM-41 IN PRESENCE OF NICOTINAMIDE (A HYDROTROPIC AGENT) IN ETHANOL FOR PARTIALLY SOLUBLE DRUGS, Srabani Swagatika*, Suresh Kumar Dash and Upendra Nath Dash
The conductance measurements of MCM-41 and TiO2 -MCM-41(10 and 15 weight %), have been measured in the concentration range of 40 ppm-140ppm in ethanolic solution of hydrotropic agent nicotinamide at different temperatures ranging from 298.15 K to 313.15 K at an interval of 5 K. The conductance data have been analyzed by Shedlovsky method to obtain ?0 and KA. The thermodynamics parameters,such as change in enthalpy, entropy and free energy for the ion pair formation have been calculated from the value of ion association constant at constant temperature. The results have been discussed in terms of ion-ion, ion-solvent and solventsolvent interactions and also the effects of various substituents(groups) were investigated. This investigation gave detailed information regarding pharmakokinetics and pharmakodynamics of these drug carriers.
315 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND HPLC ANALYSIS OF THE WHOLE PLANT OF ACHYRANTHES ASPERA (LINN) OBTAINED FROM VINDHYA REGION OF U.P. INDIA, *Brij Raj Singh
Amaranthaceae is a cosmopolitan family consisting of 64 genera and about 800 species, mostly abundant in tropical regions of America, Africa, and India .The family represented by herbs and few shrubs, contains most of the important allergic species. Achyranthes aspera Linn, Family: Amaranthaceae or its common name Apamarga is a stiff, erect herb, found commonly as a weed throughout India up to an altitude of 900 m. An abundance of traditional herbal medicine practice has been adopted for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of various diseases. Many such practices were experimentally proved depicting the scientific insight following their traditional acceptance. At present, outlooks are high about natural products. Achyranthes aspera has been reported to passes number of medicinal properties. The current study describes some phytochemical investigations and HPLC analysis undertaken on the whole plant of Achyranthes aspera Linn. The samples for research were collected from Vindhya hills region of Utter Pradesh India.
316 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATIONS AND SPECTRAL STUDIES OF 2, 2-{1,1'-( FERROCEN-2,4-DIEN-1-YL) -2,2'-DIYLBIS[(E) METHYLYLIDENE (E) AZANYLYLIDENE]}DIBENZOICACID WITH SOME TRANSITIONAL METAL IONS, Gulam Farooq M and Manohar V Lokhande*
The new series complexes of 2, 2-{1,1'-( ferrocen-2,4-dien-1-yl) -2,2'-diylbis[(e) methylylidene (e) azanylylidene]}dibenzoicacid have been prepared and characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, infrared, mass spectra, electronic spectra, thermal analysis, magnetic moment, conductivity, X-ray powder diffraction and antimicrobial activity. From the analysis data the complexes are 1:1 metal: ligand ratio with general formulae is [ML.2H2O]. The prepared complexes are non-electrolytic nature. The magnetic moment values, indicates that the complexes exhibited paramagnetic as well as diamagnetic in nature. The coordination behavior of the metal ions takes place through HC=N- and -COOH groups of acid. The electronic spectral data shows that, complexes are covalent in nature, octahedral with co-ordination number six. The thermal studies indicate that, loss of ligand with increasing temperature. The prepared metal complexes are screened for their antibacterial activity against some Gram positive and Gram ve bacterial species. The Antimicrobial activity data show the Pt metal ion complexes are more active as compare to other metal ions.
317 MICRODETERMINATION OF ENTECAVIR DRUG IN ITS PHARMACEUTICALS FORMS AND IN BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS USING ANODIC VOLTAMMETRY, *H.M. Elqudaby, H.A.M. Hendawy, M.A. Zayed
Entecavir (ETV) drug is oxidized at the glassy carbon electrode. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) showed one well- defined oxidation wave. The anodic peakwas detected at + 1.07V in a Britton- Robinson buffer at pH 8.0. The oxidation process was found to be irreversible and exhibited diffusion controlled process. The mechanism of the oxidation process was discussed depending upon the number of involved electrons. According to the linear relation between the peak current and the concentration in both differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) methods; they were used for ETV quantitative determination in raw material, pharmaceutical dosage form and biological fluids. These two voltammetric techniques were used for the determination of ETV in Britton- Robinson buffer; which allows its quantitation over the range of 2.2 to 32.4 M and 1.5 to 44.6 M in supporting electrolyte for DPV and SWV, respectively. The linear response was obtained in the range of 3.9-23.5 and 3.5-27.5 M for spiked urine sample and 4.7- 21.3 and 3.1-28.0M for serum sample using DPV and SWV, respectively. The repeatability and reproducibility of the methods for all media ( supporting electrolyte, urine and serum samples) were detected. The proposed techniques were successfully applied for the assay of the cited drug in tablets without interference from excipients. No electro active interference from endogenous substances was found in the biological fluids.
318 THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DEEP FRIED VEGETABLE OIL ON CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM IN RATS MODEL, Ramji Gupta*, Saurabh Kumar Vind, Surya Prakash Singh, Sokindra Kumar, Mukesh kumar
In vegetable oil (Olive oil, Soya oil, sunflower oil, Palm oil and Coconut oil) contains saturated, polyunsaturated fatty acids and triglyceride which is used in food, domestic and medicinal purpose. Recycling cooking oil for deep frying makes denatured of oil and more vulnerable to lipid peroxidation that generates oxidative compounds, linking to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Ingestion of deep-frying oil has been reported to cause physiologic and histological changes in experimental animals tissue, increase the oxidative stress, and possibly lead to death. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of deep-frying oil on oxidative stress formation free radicals And blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive. Long-term effect of recycled deep-frying oil cause increase plasma nitric oxide level, and vascular reactivity on blood pressure and aortic structure change in rats.
319 MOLECULAR DOCKING AND MUTATIONAL STUDIES OF HUMAN SURFACTANT PROTEIN D, Lubna Nousheen, Akkiraju PavanChand, Sreenivas Enaganti
Surfactant protein-D (SP-D) is C-type lectin which is synthesized in various parts of the body, SP-D play a key role in the auto immune disorders and lung infections and also helpful in the postnatal pregnancy these also plays an active role in the host-defense mechanisms. In the host defense mechanism SP-D binds with various micro-organisms and other particles that enter the human body and act against the microorganisms. In our present study we targeted on the interactions of surfactant protein D with the lipid molecules where their interaction plays an important role in the defense mechanism. In our study lipid molecules were docked against the SP-D protein and interaction studies were carried-out. We have generated mutations at sites F335G and R343V and interactions of the lipids with the mutated protein molecules was studied. Among the wild and the mutant protein molecules mutant protein F335G showed highest interaction with the lipid molecule distearoylphosphatidylcholine with a CDocker energy of 94.726. These studied showed that mutant molecules are showing highest binding with the lipid molecules when compared to the wild protein molecule. Among all ligand molecules chosen distearoylphosphatidylcholine showed highest interaction followed by dilaurylphosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and tocopherol showed the least binding affinity with both wild and the mutant protein molecules.
320 SOLUBLE GUANYLYL CYCLASE ACTIVATOR BAY 41-2272 IMPROVES VASCULAR ACTIVITY OF THORACIC AORTA ISOLATED FROM DOCA HYPERTENSIVE MALE WISTAR RATS, ShahidPrawez*, Azad A Ahanger2 , Kathirvel Kandasamy, Thakur U Singh, Santosh K Mishra and Souvendra N Sarkar
Hypertensionis the most common cardiovascular disease and of great concern to public health. Bay41-2272 a soluble guanylylcyclase activator induces vasodilation and reduces mortality. DOCA hypertensive group envisaged administration of Deoxycorticosterone acetate salt in soyabean oil in unilaterally nephrectomised male wistarrats @25mg/kg b. wt. subcutaneously twice in a week for 4-weeks with a provision of drinking water containing sodium chloride (1%) ad lib. Sham control unilateral-nephrectomised male wistar rats were treated with soyabean oil providing normal tap water. After completion of four weeks, rats were anaesthetized with pentobarbital sodium to evaluate Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) and found significant increase (P
321 CHEILOSCOPY AND GENDER DETERMINATION - AN ORIGINAL RESEARCH , *Dr Tim Peter, Dr. Laxmikanth Chatra, Dr. Prashanth Shenai , Dr.Deepthi Anna Cherian, Dr. Tom Peter, Dr. Betsy Thomas
Cheiloscopy is a forensic investigation technique that deals with identification of humans based on lips traces. The aim of this study was to throw light on the gender determination aspect of cheiloscopy. Study group comprised of 500 individuals from Mangalore comprising of 250 males and 250 females of the age group 15-60 years. Materials used were digital camera in a photoshot stabilized tripod stand and cephalostat machine to stabilize the individual. Type 1 lip groove lines were found most common in all regions of lips in both males and females except for lower middle region where Type 1 lip groove lines are found more common. Certain lip groove lines may be found more common in specific region of both males and females. Even though statistically highly significant values are there for certain types of lip groove lines, it is not possible to do the gender determination solely based on the lip groove lines. Cheiloscopy does promise to be a promising tool in personal identification, however its potential in gender determination in still under scrutiny.
322 METEMPSYCHOSIS OF PIOGLITAZONE: THE SAY OF THE WORLD WIDE WEB, Dr. T Nivethitha*
Aims and Objectives: Pioglitazone, a member of thiazolidiones, is commonly used to treat diabetes mellitus. However, recently there has been a lot of debate regarding its use because of its withdrawal from the Indian market fearing risk of bladder cancer and subsequent reintroduction. Since internet remains an easily accessible tool for millions, this study was performed to assess the quality and reliability of such articles on the internet. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on September 24th 2013. The keyword PIOGLITAZONE was used in search engines GOOGLE, YAHOO, ASK and BING. Top 10 websites of search results from each search engine were browsed. A total of 40 web sited taken for review. The quality of information related to PIOGLITAZONE published was Assessed using a quality criteria questionnaire tool for health information, designed by the university of Oxford, called DISCERN. The overall quality of each website is rated as low, moderate and high. Results: Of the total 40 websites taken for analysis, 75% (n = 30) were of moderate quality and 7.5% (n = 3) of high quality. About 17.5% (n = 7) of the websites display poor quality information about PIOGLITAZONE. Conclusion: Though there are innumerable websites available which display huge amount of information on PIOGLITAZONE, the overall quality of this information is moderate. Hence internet search engines can only be used as a valuable adjunct but can never replace the expert opinion of a physician.
323 NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND QUALITY OF LIFE DURING RAMADAN AMONG HIGHER INSTITUTION LEARNING CENTRE STAFFS WITH DIFFERENT BODY WEIGHT STATUS, *R., Mohd Adzim Khalili, A., Ummu Habibah, A.H., Norhayati , M.Z., Zetty Hulwany, M.N., Mohd Nasir, M.A., Intan Suhana Munira and D.V., Muralidara
Ramadan fasting altersmeal time and frequency of food consumed.Meals are exclusively nocturnal and less frequent; consequently, this may affect energy and nutrient intake. It is proven that what we eat will affect our quality of life (QoL), which also influenced our selfidentification, social interactions, and psychological well-being.The aim of this study was to assess the total calorie and macronutrientsintake, as well as the quality of life (QoL), andalso toinvestigate any correlationson quality of life (QoL) towards dietary intake before, during and after Ramadan among UniSZA staffs. This study was conducted in four phases; a week before Ramadan, first week of Ramadan, second week of Ramadan, and after Ramadan. The total of 55 UniSZA staffs was recruited.Qualitative analysis of food consumed showed that the percentage of energy as carbohydrates, protein, and fat remained unaffected by Ramadan fasting. Therewere significance difference (p< 0.05) in the mean score of physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, and vitality. Results showed that there weresignificant correlat ions (p
324 STUDY ON ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF BISMILLAH LEAF (VERNONIAAMYGDALINA)., Mohd Adzim Khalili Rohin*, NorhayatiAbd Hadi, Rochman Naim, Atif Amin Baig and Khairil Mahmud
Vernoniaamygdalina is commonly called bitter leaf because of its bitter taste. The leaves may be consumed either as a vegetable (macerated leaves in soups) or aqueous extracts as tonics for the treatment of various illnesses. This study was carried out to evaluate antioxidant capacity of the methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of V. Amygdalina and as antiproliferative agents in inhibiting the growth of human colon adenocarcinoma cell line (HT-29) and human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7). It was found that ethyl acetate fraction have maximum amount of polyphenolics compounds (2.69 mg/g GAE in concentration 0.5 mg/mL); more effective than methanol and chloroform extract. This fraction also exhibited fairly good antioxidant activity with in both TBA (17.39% mg/g GAE) and FTC (12.65% mg/g GAE) methods. Antiproliferative study indicated that V. Amygdalina crude extract have great potential as antiproliferative compounds against various cancer cell lines and can significantly inhibit the growth of MCF-7 and HT-29 cancer cells. The methanol V. Amygdalina extract has a broad spectrum of activity by inhibiting the growth of MCF-7 and HT-29 cancer cells.
325 OPTIMIZE OF SOME BIOREACTOR PHYSICAL CONDITIONS AFFECTING ON ACCUMULATION OF ACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN SUSPENSION CULTURES OF EGYPTIAN DATE PALM (SAMANYCULTIVAR)., *Taha H.S, A.M.Abd El-Kawy and M.K. El-Bahr
Date palms (Phoenix dactylifera L., Arecaceae) are one of oldest cultivated plants in the Middle East and North Africa, and used in folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. The concept of this study is investigate the effects of agitation rates (100 to 160 rpm) and aeration (40 to 80 % dissolved oxygen DO) as a stirred tank bioreactor (STB) physical conditions on mass cells proliferation, total phenolic (TP) and total flavonoid (TF) contents. Further, evaluate the antioxidant activity in suspension cultures of Egyptian date palm (Samany cultivar). The highest value of mass cell proliferation recorded with the agitation rate of 120 rpm and 40 (%) of DO. However, the highest values of TP and TF contents 6.45 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per 100 g fresh cells, and 1.12 mg/100g rutin equivalents, respectively recorded with 120 rpm and 60 % of DO. Whereas the antioxidant activities of methanolic extracts were evaluated in vitro using scavenging assays of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) radical. Effectiveness scavenging concentration (IC50) on DPPH radical (2.45 mg/l) estimated with 120 rpm and 80 (%) of DO. These results indicated that date palm (Samany cultivar) cell cultures could be physical controlled in bioreactor, further considered a good natural source for active and medicinal compounds production.
326 DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, Mehreen Asghar, *Zafar Saeed Saify, Khwaja Zafar Mehmood Ahmed, Seema Ashraf and Iram lehrasab
Diabetic retinopathy is a major micro vascular complication of Diabetes mellitus that usually leads to blindness in working age adults throughout the world. Risk of Diabetic retinopathy increases in patients of type 1 and type 2 diabetes having hyperglycemia, blood pressure, oxidative stress, inflammation and micro/macrovascular complications. Diabetes effects all the 4 major types of retinal cells and interfere in their proper functioning. The purpose of this study was to understand the pathophysiological pathway behind the development of diabetic retinopathy and initial and long-term effects of insulin treatment on behavior of DR. Contents of this articles are based upon various studies and clinical trials conducted in various countries of the world showing the retinal cells structure, alteration of retinal cells in diabetes, pathophysiology of DR, bloodretinal barrier breakdown, Retinal micro vascular dysfunction and use of Insulin its effect and various other therapies. In addition this study also shows the relationship between the developments of cognitive impairment due to DR. finally, an overview of various drug therapies have also been provided. It showed that in addition to use of insulin to delay the worsening of DR, laser therapy, intravitreal antiVascular Endothelial Growth Factor treatment, steroidal injections and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors cause significant stabilization or even improvement from diabetic retinopathy. Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that now a days in young adults DR is a challenging disease to manage due the high prevalence of Diabetes mellitus. This review demonstrates that with the current concepts and novel therapeutic approaches diabetic retinopathy can be manage. Regular screening examination and self-monitoring of blood glucose can reduce the extent of DR related visual impairment. Other new therapies are in pipeline, and forthcoming randomized clinical trials are required to study the effect of all these novel therapies.
327 VARIATION IN PHYTOCHEMICALS WITH RIPENING STAGES OF RUSSIAN OLIVE (ELAEAGNUS ANGUSTIFOLIA) VARIETIES GROWN IN CENTRAL HUNZA, GILGIT BALTISTAN, *Muhammad Shahnawaz, Ehsan ul Haq, Mir Nasir and Sadat
Three varieties of Russian olive berries grown in central Hunza Valley were evaluated for phytochemicals analysis at different ripening stages (un-ripened, semi-ripened and fully ripened). Flavonoid, carotenoid and total phenolic contents were determined at each ripening stage. A uniform trend did not appear with ripening stages rather variable results were found. In Xharey variety, total phenolic contents were increasing whereas totalphenolic contents were slightly decreased However, carotenoids were remain constant. Likewise, total phenolic contents were decreased with the ripening conditions in Bulbulkiyanz variety. Whereas total flavonoid were highly increased with ripening which was estimated the highest among three varieties showed 0.409mg/g. Carotenoid contents also showed slight decreasing trend with ripening in Bulbulkiyanz variety. In Hook variety, total phenolic contents were increased ripening stage at highest concentration of 0.438mg/g. Total flavonoids showed decreasing trend with ripening while carotenoid contents were highest amongst the three varieties at un-ripened stage.
328 MEDICINAL VALUE OF VACCINIUM MACROCARPON (CRANBERRY): A MINI REVIEW, *Sikandar Khan Sherwani, Asia Neelam, Tasveer Zahra Bokahri , Omm-e-Hany, Rana Kausar and Shanana U. Kazmi
This article goes over the medicinal value of cranberry extract. Which has a long history of use by Native Americans. Historically, cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) has been used for the treatment of many diseases like urinary tract infection. It is a rich source of bioactive compounds with broad spectrum activities. It is being extensively studied for their anti-aging activities and to improve cardiovascular health and enhance the ability to inhibition or retarded the growth of cancer cell in the body. The phytochemical constituent present in cranberries includes vitamin C, anthocyanidins, catechins and proanthocyanidins (PACs). This peculiar combination of phytochemicals present in cranberry may produce synergistic health effects and serve as a potential promising source against many diseases.
329 POTENCY OF ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTED FROM SOME SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS AGAINST BACTERIAL AND FUNGAL PATHOGENS, Nighat Ziaudin, Hasnain Nangyal, *Sikandar Khan Sherwani, Syed Husnain Raza, Ihsan ul Haq, Tasveer Zahra Bokhari, and Rana Kausar
Medicinal plants have a great importance in biological field. Mentha longifolia, Angilica glauca, Artemisia meritima,Cerdus deodara,Thymus serypelleum and Sassura lappa are selected medicinal plants used in this study for the sake of extraction of essential oils. The essential oils were extracted by hydro distillation method. Essential oils from these medicinal plants have great impact for antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) activities against different strain of bacteria by using microbiological assay (disc diffusion method) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results revealed that essential oils have moderate antibacterial effect.
330 OXIDATIVE STRESS STATUS IN OBESITY ALGERIANS POPULATION, Karouche Saida*, Rouabah Leila , Ameddah Souad, Benlatreche Moufida, Bellil Ines, Hamma Sihem Amina, Rouabah Abdelkader
Methods: To realise this study, a survey of anthropometric measurement was carried out on 61 subjects with a BMI ? 25, aged 20 to 67 years, were recruited at the city of Ain Fakroun, and located in eastern Algeria. Blood assays include at fasting blot biochemical assays, vitamin E, A, and antioxidant status. Results: Antioxidant serum levels of vitamins E/A, GSH and catalase activity is higher among overweight subject than in obese subject (BMI ? 30) with increase in the MDA levels (P < 0.05). Catalase activity is significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the obesity group; however the SOD activity was not decreased. Plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting glucose were significantly higher in obese subjects (P < 0.05). A reduced antioxidant status in women serum is associated with an increase in the percentage of physical inactivity (P < 0.05). According to these results, women are in the early stages of obesity against the latter persists long in men. Blood pressure was positively associated with waist circumference, obesity and age, obesity increases with age (P < 0.05). Conclusion: These preliminary results reveal that obesity reduces the serum levels of antioxidant status.
331 MISCIBILITY AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF POLY (VINYLPYRROLIDONE-VINYL ACETATE)/ EFAVIRENZ GLASS BLENDS PREPARED BY MELT PROCESSING, Lucyenne Barbosa*, Marcos L.Dias, Fabio Dantas, Rodrigo Anjos, Jonatas Vieira, Rafael Seiceira
Efavirenz (EFV) is HIV crystalline drug with poor water-solubility exhibiting low dissolution rate andlimited oral bioavailability. In this work, amorphous solid solutions of a vinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetatecopolymer (Kollidon VA64) with EFV containing up to 50 wt% of the drug were prepared using melt processing in a mixing chamber. Melt processing studies revealed that a decrease in torque and specific processing energy was observed as the drug concentration increased. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and thermal analysis were used to examine the morphology, thermal behavior and chemical stability of the glass solids. Kollidon VA64/EFV blends showed miscibility in concentrations up to 50 wt% of EFV. Following storage for one year at 25C the Kollidon/EFV glass solid remained completely amorphous.
332 SEPARATION, PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND MITOGENICITY OF ENTERIC VIBRIO FLUVIALIS ANDAEROMONAS HYDROPHILA LIPOPOLYSACCHRIDES IN CHICKEN AND RAT, Dr.Ibrahim M S Shnawa*, Khalied Y Alzamily and Dr.Rabab Omran
Crude smooth LPS preparations were made from Vibrio fluvialis and Aeromonas hydrophila. Then these preparations were processed in gel filteration using sepharose 50 resine which give two fractions from each of the test isolates that reach the limits of partial purity. Test for an in vivo mitogenicity were carried out using chicken and rat models. The assessments were performed through skin induration and bone marrow lymphocyte blastogenicity. Fraction 1 and fraction 2 from each of the LPS preparations were proved to be mitogenic, Though F2 of the two LPS preparations were of higher mitogenicity than fraction 1.Such mitogenic potentials were stable and crossing the species barriers.
333 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF PALM WINE EXTRACT OF DATURA STRAMONIUM ON THE ACTIVITY OF TISSUE ENZYMES AND HISTOPATHOLOGY OF ALBINO RATS., Sanni, M., Ejembi, D. O., Abbah, O. C., Olajide, J.E, Ayeni, G., Usman, S.S., and Salifu, M
Phytochemical screening and the effects of oral administration of palm wine extract of Datura stramonium on the activity of tissue enzymes and histopathology of rats was investigated. Forty (40) experimental rats of average weight of 100-150g were divided into four groups; A, B, C, and D comprises ten (10) rats each. Subgroups A, B, and C were administered with varying concentrations of palm wine extract of Datura stramonium, and group D served as the control group. The animals were kept in separate metabolic cages and fed with rat chow with water provided ad libitum. Rats in each group (A, B, C) where given 0.5ml/ kg body weight of the extract per day and sacrificed after day 7, 14, and 21. Rats in the control group (D) were given 0.5ml/ kg body weight of fresh palm wine daily. The enzyme activities acid phosphatase (ACP), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT) were measured. The serum total protein was measured using Biuret method. Histological analysis was carried out on the tissues (kidney, liver and intestine). A significant increase (p
334 THE IMPACT OF HCV KNOCKDOWN ON STAT3 AND ADI1 EXPRESSION IN HUMAN CON1 CELLS, *Shaymaa M. M. Yahya, PhD
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease besides, it is the main causes of liver-related morbidity and mortality. There are many host genes modulate viral infection and are an underappreciated target for antiviral therapy. From the important host genes playing role in HCV infection are STAT3 and ADI1genes. In this study, siRNA targeting the 5'HCV (siHCV) was designed using siVIRUS software. This siRNA Human Con1 cells (Huh-7 expressing HCV con1 I377/NS3-3 replicon). Cells were transfected with the siHCV siRNAs and the all star negative control at 10nM concentrations. RNA was isolated using Qiazol buffer (Qiagen, USA) according to manufacturer instruction. RNA was subsequently cleaned up using RNAeasy mini Kit (Qiagen, USA). HCV, STAT3, and ADI1 copy numbers were quantified using QuantiFast Sybergreen RT-PCR. The copy numbers were normalized to the house keeping beta actin gen. Con1 cell transfection with 10nM siHCV significantly reduced the viral replication as compared to negative control treatment. Consequently, HCV knockdown resulted in significant reduction in both STAT3 and ADI1 gene expression as compared to negative control treatment. The results from this study revealed the strong relation between STAT3 and ADI1 host genes and HCV replication. Consequently, they could be used as potential targets in the fight against HCV infection.
335 PULMONARY DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: CURRENT PRACTICES AND APPLICATIONS, Praful Kadam*, Hema Kanekar and Anubha Khale
Pulmonary route of drug delivery is gaining much importance in the present day research field as it enables to target the drug delivery directly to lungs, both for local and systemic treatment. It has the potential of a pulmonary route as an non-invasive administration for systemic delivery of therapeutic agents due to the fact that the lungs could provide a large absorptive surface area (up to 100m2) but extremely thin (0.1?m 0.2?m) absorptive mucosal membrane and good blood supply. Respiratory system mainly consists of three regionsnasopharyngeal region, tracheo-bronchial region and Alveolar region.For this region?s most commonly used devices are nebulizers, metered-dose inhalers, and dry powder inhalers, they can be used for protein and peptide drugs.Pulmonary drug delivery is used not only for management of pulmonary disease but also for treatment of diabetes, angina pectoris, cancer, bone disorders, genetic disorders. This review discusses about basic anatomical principles, basis of drug absorption from lungs, mechanism of drug deposition, method to manufacture pulmonary drug delivery system and its quality requirement. The current practices such as administration of drug carriers through liposomes, nano and microparticles, cyclodextrins, micro emulsions, micelles, suspensions, or solutions are included and these pharmaceutical carriers can be further explored to target drugs into the lungs for treatment of various ailments.
336 A SURVEY OF PLANTS IN TRADITIONAL HOME REMEDIES FROM BHANDRDARA AREAS OF AHMEDNAGAR DISTRICT (M.S.), INDIA, *Salave Ashok P. and P. G. Reddy
The present communication reveals the traditional herbal remedies practiced in Akole tahasil areas of the Ahmednagar district against various liver diseases and disorders from Maharashtra, India. In all total 19 plant species belonging to 17 genera from 14 angiosperm families used for treatment of certain human ailments and disorders have been documented. of these, uses of --plant species found unknown or less known to India.
337 THERAPEUTIC ASPECTS OF FLUOROQUINOLONES CLINICAL ROLE IN PEDIATRICS, *Bangari Anil Kumar, T.Bhanu Chand, CH.Venkat Rao, K.Blessy Lavanya, V.P.Mahesh Kumar
This study was aimed with an objective to review the pharmacokinetics and clinical indications of Fluoroquinolones in children.A MEDLINE search (January 1966March 2013) was conducted for relevant literature.Data from published studies were reviewed for the assessment of pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and clinical indications of Fluoroquinolones in children.Fluoroquinolones were successfully used in immunocompromised children and also in those suffering from multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections (including neonatal infections and multidrug-resistant enteric infections caused by Salmonella and Shigella spp).Fluoroquinolones have broad spectrum coverage of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa and intracellular organisms. Fluoroquinolones are well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, have excellent tissue penetration, low protein binding, and long elimination half-lives. Ciprofloxacin is the most frequently used. Fluoroquinolones in children used most often in the treatment of pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis as well as salmonellosis and shigellosis. Other uses include chronic suppurative otitis media, meningitis, septicemia, and urinary tract infection. Fluoroquinolones are associated with tendinitis and reversible arthralgia in adults and children. The use of Fluoroquinolones in children has been restricted due to potential cartilage damage that occurred in research with immature animals. Fluoroquinolones although with limited safety data in pediatric population are used as mainstay for pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis, Gram-negative neonatal meningitis, shigellosis and salmonellosis. Currently they are considered pediatrics as secondline antibiotics, and as alternative for other drug therapies when they do not show adequate therapeutic effect. Many pneumococcal, staphylococcal strains are known to develop rapid resistance to them rendering them ineffective. The studies have been done to identify high rate of articular adverse effects in children treated with Fluoroquinolones, although this couldnt be established with firm evidence. Dosing recommendations for children need to be studied more extensively along with assessment of safety data.
338 A REVIEW OF OBSTRUCTIVE UROPATHY AND THEIR MANAGEMENT IN AYURVEDA, *Dr. Kanchan Chowdhury
Kidney is the most vital excretory organ. The nephrons filter a large amount of blood and eventually form urine. But sometimes there may be abnormality in the whole process which can lead to various disorders.Ayurvedic system of medicine has elaborated whole diseases into two distinct pathology Mutrakriccha and Mutraghata. They are again divided into various subtypes and accordingly medications are prescribed. Susruta and Charaka described different Mahakashayas which includes ten drugs in each groups to treat those diseases. Concept of diuretic is not new to Ayurveda. Modern medicine has classified kidney diseases according to the site and nature of the disease. Their classification is very distinct. Modern investigations like USG, CT scan can spot the exact location of the disease very smoothly. Yet Ayurveda has a lot of role to play in kidney disorders of modern era.
339 REVIEW ON MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, Ammula Uhanjali*, Dhulipalla Surekha, Divi Manasa and Venkata Rao Vutla*
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common neurological disorders especially in North America and in Europe. It affects 400,000 Americans at any one time.MS causes nerves of CNS to degenerate by inflammation of nerves which causes myelin to disappear. As a result CNS impulses that travel along the nerves decelerate causing interference in vision, speech, memory, and writing. Most common symptoms are blurring vision, dizziness, fatigue , weakness, numbness or tingling in arms or legs.MS is diagnosed by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Scientists and doctors have not discovered a permanent cure but discovering out how to treat and manage MS based on his or her type of MS. Usually steroidal and antidepressant drugs are given orally or through intravenously. A person is diagnosed with MS between 20 and 50 years of age, but MS has been diagnosed in children and elderly people. Cause of MS is still unknown. In last 20 years it was found that MS is progressive immunological mediated disease of brain and spinal cord (CNS).MS management draws on many disciplines, such as pharmacists, neurologists, speech therapists, nurses, physiotherapists, counselors.
340 RECENT TRENDS ON IMMEDIATE RELEASE DOSAGE FORM: A REVIEW, Varsha Kanwade*, N. B. Mahale, K. S. Salunkhe, P.P. Shinde, S. R. Chaudhari
Tablet is the most popular among all dosage forms existing today because of its convenience of self administration, compactness and easy manufacturing; however in many cases immediate onset of action is required than conventional therapy.To overcome these drawbacks, immediate release pharmaceutical dosage form has emerged as alternative oral dosage forms. Tablet is the most popular among all dosage forms existing today because of its convenience of self administration, compactness and easy manufacturing; however in many cases immediate onset of action is required thanconventional therapy. The basicapproach used in development tablets is the use of superdisintegrants like Cross linked carboxymelhylcellulose (Croscarmeliose),Sodium starch glycolate (Primogel), Kollidon CL etc. which provide instant disintegration of tabletafter administration. A new dosage form allows a manufacturer to extend market exclusivity, while offering its patientpopulation a more convenient dosage form or dosing regimen. In this regard, immediate release formulations are similarto many sustained release formulations that are now commonly available.
341 A REVIEW ON DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHOD, Tejes Jatar*, R.N.Kachave, Chaudhari S. R
Analytical method development and validation play important role in discovery , development and manufacture of pharmaceuticals. Method development is the process of proving that an analytical method is acceptable for use to measure the concentration of an API in a specific compound dosage form which allow simplified procedure to be employed to verify that an analysis procedure , accurately and consistently will deliver a reliable measurement of an active ingradient in a compound preparation. The analytical method validation is essential for analytical method development and tested extensively for specificity, linearity, precision, range, and robustness.
342 ETHNOMEDICINE IN CANCER THERAPY: A REVIEW, Dr. Anu Gopalakrishnan, Dr Varuna P. Panicker, Dr Devi Gopinath, Dr Gurupriya Vijayasaraswathy S., Dr Jayakiran Kasa
Ethnomedicine is the study of the traditional medicine (indigenous or folk medicine) practiced by various ethnic groups, and by indigenous people. Hence the word ethnomedicine can be used as a synonym for traditional medicine. These Traditional knowledge systems are developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine. At present, majority of the people in developing countries rely on traditional medicine for their primary healthcare, and about 85% of traditional medicines involve the use of plant extract.
343 ANTIOXIDANT AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF MULBERRY (MORUS SP.): A REVIEW, H.L.Ramesh., V.Sivaram and V.N.Yogananda Murthy*
Mulberry is exclusively used for rearing silkworm due to the presence of unique chemo-factors like morin, ?-sitosterol in leaves. Plant is a potential source for curing debilitating diseases. Flavonoids, anthocyanin and alkaloids present in the leaves, bark, root and fruits of mulberry play a pivotal role in containing free radicals and prooxidants generated in the body due to metabolism and phagocytosis. Though oxygen is much imperative for life processes, metabolism imbalance and generation of free radicals are prime reason for causing different ailments. The review reveals the wide range of important Pharmacological uses of mulberry including phytochemical composition, antioxidant, and medicinal properties. Present paper provides concrete evidence on the role of mulberry for antioxidation therapy and management of human diseases.
344 INDIAN HERBAL MEDICINES USED FOR TREATMENT OF DEMENTIA: AN OVERVIEW, Birendra Kumar, Chandraprakash Dwivedi*, Shurbhi Kesharwani, Trilochan Satapathy, Sandip Prasad Tiwari, Rajni Yadav, Kunal Chandrakar
Dementia is a progressive neurological disease of the brain. It demolishes the vital brain cells, causing trouble with memory, thinking, and behavior, brutal enough to affect work, lifelong hobbies, and social life. Recognized factors in dementia include acetylcholine deficiency, free radicals, and inflammation of the brain tissue. Since, the drugs and natural remedies have been prescribed to enhance the memory and protect the memory functioning in dementia people. The traditional herbal medicine, numerous plants have been used to treat age related cognitive disorders.The use of herbs to treat ailments would later form a large part of Ayurveda.In the first millennium BCE, there emerges in post-Vedic India the traditional medicine system known as Ayurveda, meaning the "complete knowledge for long life". According to the compendium of Charaka, the Charakasamhita health and disease are not predetermined and life may be prolonged by human effort. The compendium of Su?ruta, the Su?rutasamhit? defines the purpose of medicine to cure the diseases of the sick, protect the healthy, and to prolong life. Most remarkable is Sushruta's penchant for scientific classification His medical treatise consists of 184 chapters, 1,120 conditions are listed, including injuries and illnesses relating to ageing and mental illness. Dementia is a progressive neurological disease of the brain. It demolishes the vital brain cells, causing trouble with memory, thinking, and behavior, brutal enough to affect work, lifelong hobbies, and social life. Recognized factors in dementia include acetylcholine deficiency, free radicals, and inflammation of the brain tissue, It is syndrome or set of symptoms and signs occur at the same time is due to a disease in the brain. It is progressive impairment of memory, thinking, and orientation, learning capacity, language and judgments.Dementia occur due to the cerebral ischemia, energy failure, and calcium over load, glutamate mediated exitotoxicity, oxidative stress and structural and functional changes.
345 HYDROGELS- A NOVEL A ND SMART DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: AN UPDATED REVIEW, Ritesh Kumar*, Pawan Kumar Gautam, Amrish Chandra and Vijay Kumar Sharma
The availability of large molecular weight protein and peptide-based drugs due to the recent advances in the field of molecular biology has given us new ways to treat a number of diseases. Synthetic hydrogels offer a possibly effective and convenient way to administer these compounds. Hydrogels are hydrophilic, three-dimensional networks, which are able to imbibe large amounts of water or biological fluids and thus resemble to a large extent a biological tissue. Here we discuss recent progress in overcoming these challenges, particularly with regards to effectively delivering hydrogels inside the body without implantation, prolonging the release kinetics of drugs from hydrogels and expanding the nature of drugs which can be delivered using hydrogel-based approaches. Therefore, the precise account of hydrogel behaviour as well as mathematical description of equilibrium swelling, dimensional changes due to solvent uptake, desorption and drug release profiles were the main objectives in many investigations. The objective of this manuscript is to give a brief review on existing mathematical models and theories in the field of hydrogel swelling as well as the description of the drug release mechanism from swelling-controlled networks. The most important properties of hydrogels relevant to their swelling behaviour as well as kinetics and thermodynamic of swelling are also presented.
346 COMPARITIVE STUDY OF DOSSIER SUBMISSION PROCESS FOR DRUG PRODUCT IN USA, EU & INDIAN REGULATORY, Swapna.G*, Bindhu Madhavi .Ch, Anusha.P, Rupa.T, Mohini.D, Venkkana.B
In this presentation we did individually study about the rule & regulations1 which are followed for drug approval 2process in USA, Europe & India. Data 3 in the dossier 4 gives the answer of following questions: What is the product? Is the quality 5 presented acceptable on grounds of Safety 6 and efficacy? Is the quality 7 presented reproducible? How long can the quality be maintained 8 ? Quality must ensure consistency of safety and efficacy during the shelf life 9 of all batches Produced. And in last we did the comparative 10study. This comparative study of dossier compilation given a brief idea about the difference in regulatory requirements 11 for drug approval process among USA, EU & India.
347 REVIEW OF PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF HARIDRA (CURCUMA LONGA L.), *Kharat Ravindra Sahebrao, Lad Meenal Deepak
Haridra is widely used medicinal plant by every Hindu individual. The medicinal uses of Haridra are of utmost important. In the Ayurvedic literature also it is one of the most commanaly used herb. A review of research work done regarding ancient and ayurvedic properties of haridra i.e Curcuma longifolia is mentioned here.the studies showed that, haridra is possessing various pharmacological properties,according to Ayurveda, Kushthaghna, Pramehaha, Krimighna, Raktadoshanashak, Shothahar, Apachihar, Kamala ,Medhya ,lekhana, Vranaropan, Panduhar, Pinasahar, Aruchihar, Twakdoshahar, Varnya, Balya, Kandughna and Vishaghna And according to modern are anticancer activity, anti-inflammatory activity, antihepatotoxic activity,anti-oxidant activity,antidepressant activity,inhibition of aggregation of human blood platelets,topoisomerase i and ii enzyme inhibition activity, antifungal activity and mosquitocidal activity,neuroprotective activity,hypoglycemic activity,hypolipidaemic activity,antifungal activity,wound healing activity,anti allergic and anti histamine activity and complexion promoting activity.
348 FAST DISSOLVING TABLET REVIEW ARTICLE, K.Umasankar*, P.Jayachandra Reddy, V.Prabhakaran
Fast dissolving Tablets are disintegrating and/or dissolve rapidly in the saliva without the need for water. Some tablets are designed to dissolve in saliva remarkably fast, within a few seconds, and are true fastdissolving tablets. Others contain agents to enhance the rate of tablet disintegration in the oral cavity, and are more appropriately termed fast-disintegrating tablets, as They may take up to a minute to completely disintegrate. Oral delivery is currently the goldstandard in the pharmaceutical industry where it is regarded as the safest, most convenient and most economical method of drug delivery having the highest patient compliance.
349 CHIKUNGUNYA: NEED AN ATTENTION AMONG THE HEALTH PROFESSIONALS AND THE PUBLIC, Dr. Shiv Sagar Konda, Dr. Mrunmay Palaye, Kanav Khera, Dr.Girish Thunga
Need an attention among the public Chikungunya is a reemerging disease caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) belonging to the Togaviridae family and Alphavirus genus. It is biologically transmitted via the bite of a mosquito, Aedesegypti. The word Chikungunya is derived from Makonde root word Kungulya meaning that which bends up which refers to the arthritic manifestations of the disease, causing pain in the joints.Chikungunya first emerged in 1952 on Makonde plateau in Tanzania. It then started spreading to other countries like India and other south-east Asian countries. In India, it first occurred in Kolkata in 1963 and Chennai in 1965 during which about more than 3,00,000 cases of chikungunya were reported. 1 There was a huge outbreak in 2005 spreading over 13 states in which more than 1.4 million people were affected. Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka were the most affected states with maximum number of suspected cases, followed by Orissa and Maharashtra.
350 GREEN SYNTHESIS OF NANOSILVER AND ITS EFFECT ON PHASE SOLUBILITY OF FEW BCS CLASS II DRUGS, Dr. Ajit Shankarrao Kulkarni*, Mr. Kailas Madhukar Karande, Dr. Nagesh Hanumantrao Aloorkar, Mr. Jayprakash Sitaram Suryavanshi
Nanometals are developing tools for drug delivery systems owing to their unique properties viz. surface plasmon resonance, high surface to volume ratio, ability to interact not only with biomolecules but also drug molecules, precise therapeutic targeting etc. These core properties pertaining to drug delivery make them potential tool in pharmaceutical research.In present investigation, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using bioexcreta, cow urine and gelatin as stabilizing agent. Synthesized nanosilvers were characterized by absorption spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron spectroscopy and XRD. Absorption spectroscopy revealed successful synthesis of nanosilver. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed contribution of functional groups stabilizing nanosilver. TEM depicted spherical uniform size and shape of nanosilver. XRD study revealed face centered cubic crystals. These nonfunctionalized nanosilvers were subsequently evaluated for acute toxicity study and found safe. Studies were also extended to confirm effect of synthesized NS on phase solubility of simvastatin and atorvastatin, and revealed appreciable increase in solubility of these drugs. Present investigations suggest that a green method can be used to synthesize NS which is ecological, economical, and time efficient. Further, NS could enhance solubility of simvastatin and atorvastatin.
351 DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF MICROEMULSION FORMULATION FOR TOPICAL DELIVERY OF LORNOXICAM, Nandkishor Sudam Wani* Amol Pandurang Ilag and Niraj Nemichand Sanghai
The purpose of the present study was to assess and optimize the promising use of microemulsions as a topical drug delivery for poorly water soluble NSAID, lornoxicam. The pseudo-ternary phase diagrams were developed for various microemulsion formulations composed of Oleic acid (oil phase), Tween 80 (surfactant) and Propylene Glycol (co-surfactant) by using water titration method. Formulations of microemulsion with different proportions of oil, Surfactant (SAA), Cosurfactant (Co-SAA) was prepared and optimized using simplex lattice mixture design. The effect of independent variables (concentrations of surfactant: co-surfactant and water) were investigated on the particle size and cumulative amount of drug (lornoxicam) diffused per unit area (CADD) of excised mouse skin. The microemulsion was also evaluated for physicochemical properties like pH, viscosity, zeta potential and stability studies. The results showed that the optimized microemusion formulation was composed of oleic acid (5%, w/w), tween 80 (20% w/w), propylene glycol (30% w/w) and water (45% w/w). The mean particle diameter was 57.09 nm and the drug release was 29.53 %. Thus it was concluded that the permeating ability of lornoxicam was significantly increased from the microemulsion formulation.
352 COMPARATIVE ENZYME ASSAY OF CARISSA CARANDAS FRUIT AT VARIOUS STAGES OF GROWTH WITH STORED RIPE STAGE, Dipanjali Saikia*, Manika D. Kataki
Carissa Carandas Linn. (Karaunda) is a widely used medicinal plant by tribals throughout India and popular in various indigenous system of medicine like Ayurveda, Unani and Homoeopathy. All parts of the plant are used in traditional medicine. Traditionally the plant has been used in the treatment of scabies, intestinal worms, pruritus, biliousness and also used as antiscorbutic, anthelmintic. The notable biological activities reported are analgesic, anti inflammatory, anti pyretic, cardiotonic and histamine releasing. Hydrogen peroxide is disposed by catalases and peroxidases. In plants, catalase is found predominantly in peroxisomes (and also in glyoxysomes) where it functions chiefly to remove the H 2O2 formed during photorespiration (or during ?- oxidation of fatty acids in glyoxsomes) (Bowler et al., 1992). In spite of its restricted location it may play a significant role in defense against oxidative stress since H 2O2 can readily diffuse across membranes. Some of these enzymes have broad substrate specificity while others can only function with one. The peroxidases with broad specificity are often found in cell wall where they utilize H2O2 to generate phenoxy compounds that then polymerize to produce components such as lignin (Greppin et al., 1986). In addition to their role in the biosynthesis of cellular components, reactive oxygen species are thought to act as secondary messengers in cells. The present study was formulated to assess the enzyme assay of C. carandas. Stored Carissa fruits have specific peroxidase enzyme activities of 0.012units/min/mg protein i.e. decreased almost 2 times then at ripened stage and specific catalase enzyme activities of 0.051units/min/mg protein i.e. increased almost 5 times then at ripened stage and 3 times then at matured stage. The research on pharmaceuticals from Carissa must gain momentum to promote the fruits as functional food and to develop cheap, eco-friendly and safe therapeutics. The findings reported here are expected to stimulate interest and open the possibility of clinically effective drugs from this genus.
353 PHARMACOGNOSTICAL IDENTIFICATION OF ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS WILLD. (ROOT) WITH THE HELP OF HPTLC METHOD, S. Selvarajan*, V. Gayathri Devi, Anitha John, J. Jeyakannan, D. Balakrishnan, N. Raaman
Asparagus racemosus commonly known as Shatavari is used in traditional systems of medicine as a uterine tonic, as a galactogogue, in hyperacidity, and as a general health tonic. The present study provides a detailed pharmacognostic study based on its physicochemical, macroscopic, microscopic and chromatographic features. The physicochemical parameters such as loss on drying, solubility in different solvents, ash content, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, volatile oil, fibre content etc. were determined by standard methods. Anatomical features of the roots of Asparagus racemosus were determined. For this the sample was fixed in FAA, cast into paraffin blocks and sectioned with the help of Rotary Microtome. The stomata morphology, venation pattern and trichome distribution were studied. Microscopic descriptions of tissues were supplemented with micrographs wherever necessary. Photographs of different magnifications were taken with Nikon Labphot 2 Microscopic Unit. Powder microscopy was carried out using standard methods. HPTLC profile of the ethyl acetate plant extract was carried out in short UV, long UV and using vanillin-sulphuric acid as detection reagent. The R f values of the spots developed were noted which is an important parameter for identification of plant materials. The pharmacognostical parameters along with the HPTLC profile may be utilized to identify the drug material and for laying down the pharmacopoeial standards.
354 RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF EMTRICITABINE IN SYNTHETIC MIXTURE, K.Sujatha, *T.Sheela Rani K.Anand Babu, K.Kavitha, K.Chitra
A facile, sensitive, accurate and validated HPLC method has been developed to determine Emtricitabine in bulk drug and synthetic mixture. Chromatographic separation is conducted on Phenomenox C18 (250mm x 4.6mm,5m) column at ambient temperature using sodium dihydrogen orthophosphate (0.02M) and methanol (50:50v/v) as a mobile phase and at a flow rate 1ml/minute at a wavelength of 280 nm. The retention time for Emtricitabine was found to be 3.5minute. The Calibration graph was plotted over the range of 80-240g/ml with correlation coefficient 0.9990. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for Emtricitabine were 0.0112 and 0.0375g/ml. Accuracy was between 99.53% and 100.01%. The percentage RSD for precision and accuracy of the method was found to be less than 2%. The newly developed method was validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision and specificity.
355 CYTOTOXIC AND IMMUNOMODULATION EFFECT OF ROASTED FLAXSEED AND SOYBEAN EXTRACTS, Dharshini, T.Thirunalasundari, S.Sumayaa
Research is focusing on the search for new types of natural chemotherapeutic agents derived from plant sources which are providing to be excellent sources of new compounds. Thus, Soybean (Glycine max (L)) and flaxseed (Linuim usitatissimum L.) are known to have a number of health benefits ranging from the well documented many chronic diseases. The present research article was aimed to study the cell viability and cytotoxic activity of roasted form of soybean and flaxseed extracts. The in-vitro methods used for the determination of cell viability by trypan blue dye exclusion method and cytotoxicity by MTT and SRB assay against MCF-7. The cell viability also showed significant result.The IC 50 value of roasted form of soybean and flaxseed are 125g & 80g, 135 g & 140g respectively in MTT and SRB assay whereas this extracts were found to be non-toxic to normal PBMC. It is proved that the extracts of roasted soybean and flaxseed exhibits significant anticancer potential non-toxicity on MCF-7 cell line.
356 PROCESS VALIDATION OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE EXTENDED RELEASE TABLETS USP 500MG, P.S. Shewale*,V.A.Jagtap, A.A.Varade , V.L.Badgujar
Process Validation is a reqirement of the cGMP regulations for the finished pharmaceuticals. Purpose of research was to study Process Validation of Metformin HCL 500mg tablets dosage formulation, which acts as a type 2 diabetes. Three initial process validation batches (MF2001, MF2002 & MF3001) of same size, method, equipment & validation criteria was taken. The critical parameter involved in sifting, dry mixing, preparation of granulating agent, wet mixing, wet milling, drying, sizing, lubrication & compression stages were identified and evaluated as per validation master plan. The outcome indicated that this process validation data provides high degree of assurance that manufacturing process produces product meeting its predetermined specifications and quality attributes.
357 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION ANDINVITRO CYTOTOXIC EVALUATION OF NOVEL AMIDE DERIVATIVES OF 5-[2-(4-METHOXYPHENYL)PYRIDIN-3-YL]-1, 3, 4-THIADIAZOL-2-AMINE., Adimule Vinayak, Medapa Sudha, Kumar S lalita, RaoPrakash Kumar
In this research we have synthesized five novel amide derivatives of 5 -[2-(4-methoxyphenyl) pyridin-3-yl]-1, 3, 4-thiadiazol-2-amine and evaluated their cytotoxicity by MTT assay. Three cell lines were used for the evaluation HeLa, HepG2 and PANC-1. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by LCMS, IR, 1H and 13C (proton and Carbon 13) spectroscopies and elemental analysis. These compounds were evaluated for invitro anticancer activity on three different human leukemic cell lines, namely HeLa, HepG2 and PANC-1 .In total five compounds were synthesized and studied for their MTT assay. Among five synthesized novel compounds, the compound 2-chloro-N-{5-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyridin-3-yl]-1, 3, 4-thiadiazol-2-yl} pyridine-3-carboxamide6d is highly cytotoxic on HeLa and PANC-1 cell lines having IC 50 of 2.8?M and 1.8 ?M respectively. Rest all the compound showed less cytotoxicity on all the three cell lines as compared with the standard 5-FU1.
358 DERMATITIS ARTEFACTA A DIAGNOSTIC LABYRINTH IN A MEDICAL STUDENT, Dr. Maitreyee Panda*, Dr. Nibedita Patro, Dr. Bikash Ranjan Kar, Dr. Surjeet Sahoo, Dr. Ajaya Kumar Jena, Dr. Susant Mishra, MS
Dermatitis artefacta although a very well known entity can be misdiagnosed if not thoroughly observed. We present a case of dermatitis artefacta in a medical student cleverly manipulated by her knowledge of medicine leading to diagnostic delay by the dermatologists.
359 NANOTECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES TOWARDS ALZHEIMERS DISEASE TREATMENT, Anurag Sangwan, Parth Malik*
Ever since the development of medical science, effective diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders have been a prominent question of interestfor medical specialists and research community all over the world. Alzheimers disease (AD) is one of these troublesome disorders with complex pathophysiological background. Current treatment available enables a weak detection and prolongs only the appearance of related symptoms. This has considerably effected the severity of this disorder and consequently it has been presumed within the scientific brains across the world that death is the only destiny for sufferers. However, a ray of hope has been discovered in the better diagnosis and handling of this disease at the clinical stage by nanotechnologists which not only enables the early detection, but also significantly improves the treatment methodologies involved. This requires the crossing of complex blood brain barriers. Nanocarriers such as nanoemulsion, nanosuspensions and dendrimer encapsulated with suitable drug formulations can be engineered to ensure targeted and sustained release at effected sites within the brain, so as to treat the disease in a better way. This article reviews various nanotechnological insights with an aim to cure the pathogenic impacts of AD along with a thorough understanding of molecular aspects associated with the occurrence of AD.
360 ASSESSMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF A LECTIN ISOLATED AND PURIFIED FROM ADHATODA VASICA L., Cyrilyuvaraj Sathish Claimer* S. Ahmed John
Adhatoda vasica belongs to a member of the family Acanthaceae. It is a well-known plant drug in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine and which is found in worldwide distribution. A lectin has been isolated from the leaves of Adhatoda vasica by the purification procedure of 80 % ammonium sulphate precipitation, followed by dialysis against 50 mM Tris HCl pH (7.6) and sephadex G -100 column chromatography. The Flow rate of 1.5 mL 12 min ?1 fractions showed haemagglutinating activity against on rabbit 4% erythrocytes. The purified lectin named as Adhatoda vasica Lectin (AVL) results for molecular mass determinations produced a single band on SDS PAGE (20 KDa), revealing that tetrameric nature. It agglutinated against human A, B, AB, and O system, cow, sheep, Goat, mice, rabbit, and big erythrocytes and result that rabbit erythrocyte specificity. Haemagglutination was inhibited by D-galactose sugar specificity. The antimicrobial activity of the purified lectin was carried out by Agar disc diffusion using appropriate standards. The antimicrobial effect of AVL was evaluated by determining the minimal inhibitory, bactericide and fungicide concentrations. Highest bacteriostatic and bactericide effects were detected for S. paratyphi 13 mm g ml -1 and antifungal activity 13.25 mm g ml -1 S. aureus and S. epidermis MIC value (3.59, 2.5 and 1.72, 1.6)g ml -1 E. coli and S. paratyphi respectively. The thermo stability of AVL is 30C to 60C. pH stability of the lectin in the range of 5 - 7. AVL confirmed a remarkable antibacterial activity against the pathogenic bacteria and inhibited the growth of fungi.
361 THE CORRELATION BETWEEN ABSORPTION OF WATER AND MOISTURE CONTENT WITH DURATION OF BLACK AND WHITE SOYBEAN SEEDS., Kirtikumari D. Patel and Dr. Ajit V. Pandya
The physical properties of soybean are important in designing and fabricating equipment and structures for handling, transporting, processing and storage and also for assessing the quality of soybean. The study conducted to investigate the soybean at different time duration. The average length, width and thickness of white soybean were 6.47 mm, 5.724 mm and 4.466 mm respectively on day 0. The average length, width, and thickness of black soybean were 6.51 mm, 5.28 mm and 4.16 mm respectively on day 0. Moisture content of white soybean increased from 3.06 %, 43.19 %, 58.54 %, 61.83 %, 57.04 % and 56.31 % on day 0,1,2,3,4 and 5 respectively whereas the corresponding total solids decreased from 96.93 %, 59.8 %, 41.45 %, 38.16 %, 42.95 % and 43.46 % for day 0,1,2,3,4 and 5 respectively. Moisture content of black soybean increased from 4.08 %, 52.99 %, 58.11 %, 54.56 %, 55.42 % and 57.89 % whereas the corresponding total solids decreased from 95.91 %, 47.0 %, 41.88 %, 45.43 %, 44.57 % and 42.1 % on day 0, 1,2,3,4, and 5 respectively.
362 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF HPTLC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CEFIXIME TRIHYDRATE AND ORNIDAZOLE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM, *Smita S. Aher, Dr. R .B. Saudagar.
A simple, precise, accurate and rapid high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed and validated for the estimation of Cefixime Trihydrate and Ornidazole simultaneously in combined dosage forms. The stationary phase used was precoated silica gel 60F254. The mobile phase used was a mixture of Methanol: Toluene (7:3 v/v) The detection of spots was carried out at 301 nm. The method was validated in terms of linearity, accuracy, precision,LOD andLOQ. The calibration curvewas found to be linear between 60to 160 ng/spot for Cefixime Trihydrate and 150 to 400 ng/spot for Ornidazoleand Itopride is used as internal Standard. The proposed method can be successfully used to determine the drug content of marketed formulation.
363 EFFICIENT SCALABLE APPROACH FOR CLOPIDOGREL BISULFATE THROUGH PREFERENTIAL CRYSTALLIZATION OF()-2-(2-CHLOROPHENYL)-(6,7-DIHYDRO-4HTHIENO[3,2,C]PYRIDINE-5-YL-ACETAMIDE., M. M. V. Ramana* and Rajesh K. Rao.
The present work deals with the efficient synthesis of Clopidogrel Bisulfate (Generic name : Plavix by Sanofi) through resolution of an important precursor () -2-(2-chlorophenyl)-(6,7-dihydro-4Hthieno[3,2,c]pyridine-5-yl-acetamide by preferential crystallization. This compound was synthesized in its racemic form as per the known process and was resolved by preferential crystallization. These efforts led to a successful isolation of enantiomerically pure isomers of ()-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-(6,7-dihydro-4H-thieno[3,2,c]pyridine-5-ylacetamide.
364 A MICROWAVE ASSISTED ONE POT SYNTHESIS OF TICLOPIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE THROUGH 4,5,6,7 -TETRAHYDRO (3,2-C) THIENO PYRIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE, M. M. V. Ramana* and Rajesh K. Rao
The microwave assisted Pictet Spengler reaction of thiophene ethyl amine and formaldehyde afforded 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro (3,2-c) thieno pyridine hydrochloride (I), which was then subjected to alkylation with 2-chloro benzyl chloride under microwave conditions to afford Ticlopidine Hydrochloride, thus making it one-pot, efficient and economical approach.
365 QUANTIFICATION OF MINERALS IN SOME MEMBERS OF FAMILY ASTERACEAE, ChavanY.R.* Thite S.V. Aparadh V. T. and Kore B. A.
This study reports mineral content in the leaves of some medicinal belongin to family Asteraceae viz. Artemisia nilagirica Pump., Blumea eriantha DC., Cythocline purpurea Buch., and Sphaeranthus indicus L. Mineral composition varies from plant to plant and i.e. directly related to their mineral nutrient status.
366 EFFICACY OF HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINES IN THE TREATMENT OF ACNE, *Swami Shraddhamayananda
Acne is the involvement of the oil glands at the base of hair follicles characterized by Papular and pustular eruptions over face, forehead, chest and back. The teenage groups are commonly affected. It not only causes a serious cosmetic disfigurement but it is also associated with functional impairment as well often manifested as a high magnitude of psychological problem. As conventional treatment is often ineffective in many cases, a selective group of such patients were treated with homeopathic medicines along with a control group treated only with placebo containing the vehicle of the original medicines. In our clinic we treated and analyzed one hundred such acne cases along with 10 control cases that were followed for two months. Out of one hundred cases 97 cases showed promising results within six months and in most of these cases, the patient has got back pre infection status within 3 months. Only single oral homeopathic medicines (either Sulphur or Tuberculinum) were used without any local application. The results of this study were very encouraging indicating a definite role of homoeopathic medicine in acne
367 ASPECTS ON THE ANTIFERTILITY PROPERTY OF PIPER BETEL LINN. LEAF STALK EXTRACT: EFFECT ON GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS AND CAUDA EPIDIDYMAL SPERM PARAMETERS, Vengaiah V, Govardhan Naik A & Changamma C
Although many types of contraceptive agents are available but these have several side effects, there are several medicinal plants known to possess male contraceptive properties either by suppressing spermatogenesis or by spermicidal action. In the present study the betel leaf stalk extract was administered orally at the dosage of 50 mg/kg body weight/day for 15days. The investigations are carried out on sperm analysis and gravimetric analysis. The reduction in the caudal epididymal sperm count, sperm motility as well as sperm viability are clear indications that piper betel extract can affect one or more aspects of spermatogenesis. The increase in the testes weight may be attributed to impaired secretary activity of the testes. Decreased weight of accessory sex glands indicate the atrophy of glandular tissue and diminished secretary ability reflects the decreased level of testosterone as these organs are androgen dependent. Reduction in the weight and weight ratio of accessory sex organs might be due to low levels of androgen, which was not enough to maintain the weight of accessories. The atrophy of glandular tissue and diminished secretary ability reflects the decreased level of testosterone as these organs are androgen dependent.
368 CLINICAL SCENARIO OF INFLUENZA A PANDEMIC (pH1N1) FLU INFECTED PATIENTS AT TERTIARY REFERRAL HOSPITAL IN NORTHERN INDIA, Nivedita Tiwari, Sheetal Verma, Tapan N. Dhole*
H1N1 subtype of pandemic 2009 (pH1N1) influenza virus lineages has raised severe concerns about its pandemic potentiality. Clinical and epidemiological factors associated and outcome for this virus remain unclear in subcontinent. We analyzed data obtained from such patients to characterize the epidemiological characteristics of H1N1 cases in India. A prospective observational study among suspected cases with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection in North India between 2009 to 2014. The presence of the H1N1virus was done by RT-PCR. Information of clinical and demographic characteristics were collected on proforma and Hospital information system. A total of 5090, 947(18.6%) cases found positive for pandemic flu Influenza A virus and 535 males and 412 females patients. The majority were between the age group of 6-20 years and predominantly males. The median duration of symptoms before hospitalization was 7(2-30) days. Common presenting symptoms were fever in 902 (95.23%), cough in 872 (92.06%), breathlessness in 842 (88.88%), chest pain in 706 (74.60%), diarrhea in 315(33.33%). 30 patient (3.1%) required ventilatory support. Cause of death was multi-organ failure in 10 patients (1.05%). Severe disease and complications can occur due to influenza infection that can lead to hospitalization and death. Young persons and those with medical co-morbid conditions (like asthma, diabetes, and cardiac disease) were affected. The mainstay of treatment depends on antiviral medications. Vaccination must be employed in community for target population for preventing influenza illness and effective control of epidemics.
369 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF RHIZOMES OF TURMERIC VARIETIES FROM TELANGANA STATE, N Prashanth* and N Lakshmi Bhavani
Antibacterial and Antifungal activity of rhizome extracts of turmeric was investigated. The present study aimed at comparing the Antimicrobial activity of four turmeric varieties i.e. Prathiba, ErraGunturu, TellaGunturu, ManaPasupu from Andhra Pradesh. Three Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis were subjected to test the antimicrobial activity along with fungi namely Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus,Pencillium crysoginum, Fusarium oxysporium. The ethanolic extracts of rhizomes were subjected to microbial susceptibility assays using agar well diffusion method.Among all four varieties, Prathiba and ErraGunturu varieties had the most inhibitory effect on the growth of all bacterial strains tasted as compared to Tella Gunturu and ManaPasupu varieties. Of the four varieties, Prathiba variety had the mostinhibitory effect on the growth of all fungi strains. Among the four varieties tested, the Prathiba variety was found to be superior for its antimicrobial potential.
370 RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF DESVENLAFAXINE SUCCINATE MONOHYDRATE IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM, *Ratna Kailas Pingle, Kishor Salunkhe, Sanjay Chaudhari
The objective of this work was to develop and validate simple, rapid and accurate chromatographic method for determination of Desvenlafaxine succinate in solid dosage form. This RP-HPLC method was based on Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography, on Kromasil C-18, (250 mm 4.6 mm, 5.0 ?m) , using Acetonitrile: Ammonium Phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) (70:30 v/v) as the mobile phase, at a flow rate of 1 mL/min at ambient temperature. Quantification was achieved by UV detection at 220 nm over a concentration range of 20-160 ?g/mL for Desvenlafaxine succinate. The mean retention time for Desvenlafaxine succinate was found to be 2.44 min. The amount of Desvenlafaxine succinate estimated as percentage label claim was found to be 99.67.
371 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI-MICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SUBSTITUTED BENZOXAZOLE DERIVATIVES, *D.Maruthamuthu, Shameela Rajam, Christina Ruby Stella, Ranjith, Rajakumar
A Series of some novel benzoxazole compounds were synthesized and evaluated for anti-microbial activity. The reaction of o-aminophenol with dicarboxylic acid yield substituted benzoxazole. The title compounds were synthesized by treating substituted benzoxazole with oxalic acid,cinnamicacid, succinic acid,phthalic acid,salicylic acid.Their structures were confirmed by IR, 1 HNMR, and 13 CNMR. Anti-microbial activity against staphylococclus aureus was studied for the synthesized compounds.
372 DETERMINATION OF PATIENTS ADHERANCE TO BETABLOCKERS AFTER MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION DISCHARGE, Mohammad Arief*, Syed Aziz Ghori, Shaik Irfan Pasha, Sheik Mudassar
Beta-blockers, which are considered as one of the most important drugs in the secondary prevention of AMI, were underutilized by many patients over the world, though there is no absolute contraindication. Though the outcome of various studies showed that the use of betablockers in post MI patients with mild COPD, Asthma, Diabetes may also get benefited but still the usage is less. In view of this our study mainly aims to determine whether the patients are in compliance with their prescriptions or not. It also targets how to improve the adherence of patients to the prescription drugs. The present study is an observational, prospective, non-interventional in which data on 320 patients surviving acute- MI over 8 months was collected, at KIMS hospital. Among 320, 205 discharged with prescription on beta-blocker and 115 without a prescription on beta-blockers. Out of 205 patients, only 160 prescriptions were received during the first 30 days after discharge. This number had declined to 92, 84 after 120 and 240 days respectively. The decreased number of prescriptions was also seen in patients who were not discharged on beta-blockers; initially 115 prescriptions were received during the first 30 days, followed by 103, 96 after 120 and 240 days respectively. Our study mainly concludes that along with appropriate dosing and monitoring, patient education is essential to maximize efficacy of therapy, moreover the decreased usage of beta-blockers in post-MI patients indicates the need of pharmacist intervention for the regular use of beta-blockers by patients for secondary prevention of AMI.
373 EVALUATION OF ENZYMATIC AND NON ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ARISTOLOCHIA BRACTEATA RETZ, Muthuraj K*, K. Armugasamy, N Nagarajan, P. Sumathi and E. Krishnan
This study significantly focused on the enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidant activity of Aristolochia bracteata Retz. belongs to the family Aristolochia ceae which is exploited for the treatment of various free radical mediated ailments. Plant is mainly used for antidote and skin disease. Catalase activity, Superoxide dismutase, reduced Glutathione, Ascorbic acid, ?-Tocopherol and total Carotenoids were estimated by following methods. The enzymatic assay shows best activity in Catalase activity (28.30.14 /mg), reduced Glutathione (49.70.08 /mg) followed by Superoxide dismutase (17.80.25 /mg) respectively and in non enzymatic assay Carotenoids (283.86.14mg/g) shows significant results. Thus this plant can be suggested as an alternative source for antioxidants.
374 IN SILICO AND IN VITRO EXPLORATION OF ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ENTADA PURSAETHA BY MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDIES, Narasimharao Bhogireddy, Pardhasaradhi Mathi, Nagavamsikrishna Ambatipudi, Venkata Raman Bokka*
Back ground: Cyclooxygenase (COX), the key enzyme inside the conversion process involving arachidonic acid to prostaglandins which was involved in the pain prone process in living vertebrates. Cyclooxygenase isoforms are already identified and therefore are called COX-1 in addition to COX-2. Beneath a lot of situation, the actual COX-1 enzyme is usually developed constitutively (i.e., gastric mucosa) in contrast to COX-2 is usually inducible (i.e., sites of inflammation). Drug treatments, similar to aspirin, which hinder cyclooxygenase task, are already obtainable in much more towards the general public for approximately 100 years. A single key aim with this is usually to lay out a good anti-inflammatory molecule having a larger restorative window. This article explores the medicinal values of the Entada pursaetha which is having strong anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Materials and methods: Compounds were identified by GC-MS analysis through conventional extraction procedures. Identified lead compound structures were sketched by using chemsketch and marvinsketch softwares. An In silico study has been carried out by using the software Schrdinger maestro. Results and Discussion: The compound oleoyl chloride was found to have great anti-inflammatory action [~ 80 % than standard: Diclofenac]. The interactions of the isolated compounds has been proposed based on the docking studies.
375 A NOVEL AND FACILE ONE STEP PROCEDURE FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF 2-SUBSTITUTED BENZIMIDAZOLES FROM ONITRO ANILIDES IN AQUEOUS MEDIA, Dasari Raju, Gaddam Prabhakar, Dr.B.Madhavarao, Dr. .M.Choudary*
A new method for the synthesis of 2-substituted N-H benzimidazoles was achieved in one step by reaction with Na2S2O4 via a reductive cyclo dehydration of o-nitro anilides in water. It was observed that Methanol or Ethanol could also be used as co-solvent. This method provides facile access to a series of 2-substituted N-H benzimidazoles (la-ln) containing various functional groups in good to excellent yields.
376 SEPARATION, IDENTIFICATION AND QUANTIFICATION OF LAWSONE AND METABOLITES BY CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHODS, Dr. Gandhimathi Muruganathan*, Bharathi Mandala, Thengungal Kochupapy Ravi
Two simple, precise and accurate chromatographic methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Lawsone and its metabolites. In RP-HPLC the separation was carried out by C18 column by using mobile phase (0.06%v/v trifluoro acetic acid buffer): methanol: acetonitrile (60:30:10 v/v/v) with pH 3.7 and flow rate of 0.8ml/min in isocratic mode. The PDA detection wavelength was 235nm and 20 l of sample was injected. For HPTLC the solvent system comprised of toluene: ethyl acetate: ethanol: formic acid in the ratio of 8:2:1:1 drop % v/v/v/v detection was done at 235nm. The Rf value of lawsone, salicylic acid and catechol were found to be 0.37, 0.33 and 0.49 respectively. Linearity was found to be 10-160 g/ml for Lawsone, 5-80g/ml for salicylic acid, 40-640 g/ml for Catechol in HPLC; 20-320 g/ml for Lawsone, 10-160g/ml for salicylic acid, 80-1280 g/ml for Catechol in HPTLC. The above methods were validated according to ICH guidelines and successfully employed for estimation of lawsone and its metabolites.
377 AN APPROACH TO FORMULATE AND EVALUATE LABETALOL AS FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS, Manoj Varma Gottumukkala *, Senthil Kumar K , Dr. Mohammed Gulzar Ahmed and Krishna K
Delivery of drugs is always been a challenge and is the most important aspect in formulation. Drugs are usually delivered via different delivery systems and selection of the system depends on drug solubility, bio availability, half life, site of action, etc. Oral delivery is usually the most preferred route of drug administration, and there have been many advances in controlling the release rate of a drug and its bioavailability. Increased patient compliance is important for any Drug delivery system. Many patients do not adhere to a regime of prescribed drugs because of difficulty in administration or the taste of a drug. So it is vital to ensure the convenient administration of a drug. In the present work, fast dissolving tablets of Labetalol were prepared using novel co-processed superdisintegrants and physical mixtures consisting of crospovidone and sodium starch glycolate in the different ratios 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 and in vice versa. Labetalol is a drug of choice which is used in treatment of Hypertension and Angina. Drug compatibility with excipients was checked by FTIR studies. After examining the flow properties of the powder blends the results are found to be with in prescribed limits and indicated good flow properties. It was then subjected to tablet compression. All the formulations were subjected to post compression parameters like hardness and friability and they showed good mechanical strength and resistance. The wetting time is an important criteria for understanding the capacity of disintegrants to swell in the presence of little amount of water and were found to be in the range of 21 to 55 sec. Among all the designed formulations, formulation F5 was found to be promising and it showed an in-vitro disintegration time of 21 sec, which facilitates its faster disintegration in the mouth. The formulation F5containing co-processed superdisintegrant(3:1 mixture of crospovidone and sodium starch glycolate) emerged as the overall best formulation based on drug release characteristics with 6.8 pH Phosphate buffer as dissolution medium. Short-term stability studies on promising formulation F5 indicating no significant changes in hardness, drug content and in-vitro drug release. From this study, it can be concluded that dissolution rate of Labetalol FDTs can be enhanced by the use of coprocessed superdisintegrants.
378 ANTIDEPRESSANT LIKE EFFECTS OF JASMINUM SAMBAC INVESTIGATION OF INVOLVEMENT OF MONOAMINERGIC SYSTEM, Krishnaveni A, Lavanya Y, Pradeepthi Ch, Bindu P, Santh Rani Thaakur*
Jasminum sambac (JS), an evergreen plant belongs to the family of Oleaceae, extensively used in traditional Malay medicine for the treatment of depressive disorders. The present study investigates the antidepressant activity of JS and also to evaluate possible mechanisms involved in its antidepressant action. JS at a dose of 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg were administered to mice for 7days. Imipramine (25 mg/kg) was used as standard. Tail Suspension Test (TST) and Forced Swim Test (FST) were used to evaluate the antidepressant activity of JS. Malondialdehyde, Reduced glutathione and Vitamin C were evaluated to assess the antioxidant activity of JS against depression induced oxidative stress. The mechanisms were probed by measuring brain neurotransmitters and monoamine oxidase enzyme activities. After one week of treatment, JS showed decreased immobility time in TST and FST, increased climbing time in FST significantly, but with no change in swimming time. JS showed increased brain dopamine levels dose dependently and increased brain serotonin levels at 500 mg/kg significantly, but showed no significant effect on brain norepinephrine, monoamine oxidase-A and monoamine oxidase-B levels. These findings demonstrated that JS produces antidepressant activity and the mechanism involves serotonergic and dopaminergic systems there by causing generalized increase in the monoamine turnover.
379 EVALUATION OF KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE OF PHARMACOVIGILANCE AND ADVERSE DRUG REACTION REPORTING AMONG THE PRESCRIBERS AND NURSES IN A TERTIARY CARE TEACHING HOSPITAL OF NORTHERN INDIA, Afroz Abidi*, Ali Ahmad, S.K. Gupta, Dilshad Ali Rizvi, Sukhpreet Singh
Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the status of knowledge, attitude and practice towards pharmacovigilance and ADR reporting in our teaching hospital.Material & Methods: This study was a cross- sectional questionnaire based survey conducted in our tertiary care teaching hospital of North India. Study instrument was a self developed, pre-validated questionnaire consisting of a total of 26 questions. The target respondents were doctors, residents and nurses. Results: A total of 228 questionnaires were considered for analysis, giving a response rate of 64.04%. The highest response rate was seen in residents i.e 53.94%. In our study 61.4% subjects were aware about pharmacovigilance but only 59.6% knew the importance of pharmacovigilance. The attitude of all the respondents was positive towards ADR reporting and a large number 73.2% thought that ADR reporting is necessary. The reporting rate in our institute was only 27.63% and the main reasons attributed for non reporting/under-reporting were lack of awareness of how to report and where to report, paucity of time, indifference, diffidence and non remuneration. Conclusion: Under-reporting is a grave problem in our institute also similar to other colleges of India. Increasing awareness by regular CMEs, symposiums, distribution of booklets, newsletters, display of posters across the hospital with helpline numbers will help in better understanding and can improve the reporting status of ADRs.
380 EFFECT ON CANCER CELL GROWTH BY METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF GORDONIA OBTUSA WALL.EXUT AND ARN, AN ENDEMIC WILD TEA PLANT, Shalimol. A*, K. Arumugasamy, M. R. Udhayasankar, R. Nantha kumar, V. Asha devi and P. Uma Maheswari
The methanolic extract of Gordonia obtusa (Theaceae) was evaluated for its effects on growth in two malignant cell lines including a Human Lung cancer cell lines (A549) and Colon cancer cell lines (HT-29) using MTT assay. In these cell lines studied, the extract decreased cell viability, inhibited cell proliferation, and induced cell death in a dose dependent manner. The ethanolic extract of G. obtusa showed good cytotoxicity and their IC50 values were found to be 35.12g/mL and 6.65 g/mL respectively. It could be a reliable source of potent pharmacophore for treatment of disease like cancer.
381 ANXIOLYTIC AND ANTIEPILEPTIC EFFECTS OF ASAFOETIDA OLEO-GUM RESIN, Prashant P. Saxena*, Kalyani Divakar, Divakar Goli, Amlan Mishra
Swiss albino mice were grouped and treated with either distilled water or diazepam (3 mg/kg p.o.) as standard or Asafoetida (286 or 667 mg/kg p.o.) 1 h before to evaluate anxiolytic activity by using Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) test, Light & dark test, Locomotor activity test and Rota rod test whereas Maximal electroshock (MES- 42 mA, 0.2 s) induced convulsion test and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ- 80 mg/kg i.p.) induced convulsion test were used for the assessment of the antiepileptic activity where phenytoin (25 mg/kg p.o.) or diazepam (5 mg/kg p.o.) was administered as reference standard respectively. Both the doses of Asafoetida did not show statistically significant anxiolytic effect in EPM Test and Light & Dark Test but showed significant (P
382 ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS, Vijay Kumar, Umesh Kumar* and Veeru Prakash
The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity of five medicinal plants viz., Acoruscalamus, Pelargoniumgraveolens, Cymbopogonmartini, Cymbopogonnardus andCymbopogon citrates. Antioxidant activity of the plant was assayed by 1,1-dephenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH). The highest antioxidant activity (68.890.31) was observed inP.graveolensand the least (14.530.08) in A.calamusat the lowest concentration i.e. 50 g/ml.However the higher concentrationof plant extractsi.e. 250g/mldisplayed theeconomically affective dose.P.graveolens was observed to be the richest source of phenolic compounds (22.270.284mg GAE ml -1 )whileminimum concentration (7.630.046mg GAE ml -1 ) was measured in A.calamus. The ethanolic extracts of five medicinal plants showed inhibitory activity against all the four bacteria in which the diameter of zone of inhibition varied from 17 mm to 24 mm, 20 mm to 26 mm,21mm to 24mm, 18 mm to 24 mm and 16 mm to 22 mm respectively inA.calamus,C.nardus,P.graveolens,C.citratus,C. martini.Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assayrevealed thatC.citratushas highest antimicrobial activity at a minimum concentration (5 mg/ml) against S. aureus and E. coli.
383 COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF THE EFFICACY, SAFETY AND QUALITY OF LIFE WITH THE TREATMENT OF ROSUVASTATIN AND ATORVASTATIN IN DYSLIPIDEMIA PATIENTS, *S.Alavudeen, Madhavan Mallayasamy, P.Rajasoundarapandian, R.Meera
Background and Aim :Lipid lowering drugs provide benefit in patients across the entire spectrum of cholesterol levels; primarily by reducing levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol .This study is to assess the percentage reduction in lipid levels achieved in Rosuvastatin and Atorvastatin in dyslipidemic patients and also to define patient groups who are at high risk for dyslipidemia and analyse the percentage of adverse effect in Rosuvastatin and Atorvastatin. Materials and Methods: This study enrolled 60 patients and divided into four groups of 15 patients in each group. Group-1 patients received Rosuvastatin 10 mg tablet once in a day, Group-2 received Atorvastatin 20 mg tablet once in a day, Group-3 patients received Rosuvastatin 20 mg tablet once in a day, and Group-4 received Atorvastatin 40 mg tablet once in a day for a period of 20 weeks.Results :Statistical analysis using student unpaired t-test shows that Rosuvastatin 10mg is better than Atorvastatin 20mg and also shows that Rosuvastatin 20mg is better than Atorvastatin 40mg in the reduction of total cholesterol,Low density lipoprotein, Triglycerides and in increasing of HDL and found to be statistically significant.The comparison of Diastolic and systolic Blood Pressure in rosuvastatin and atorvastatin patients did not show any significant difference. The Side effects differed between the rosuvastatin and atorvastatin groups; the incidence of Side effects in rosuvastatin and atorvastatin patients is not statistically significant. Conclusion : Patients treated with rosuvastatin had significantly greater reductions in LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides levels compared with those receiving atorvastatin. Patients receiving rosuvastatin were more likely to attain lipid goals compared with patients treated with atorvastatin.
384 ADA ESTIMATION IN BODY FLUIDS OF TUBERCULOSIS PATIENTS, *Dr. Aparna Pandey PhD, Dr. Jayesh Prabhakar Warade MBBS MD
Aim: The aim of the study is to determine the ADA level in tuberculous patient and figuring cut off value for ADA to use it as a diagnostic marker. Methods: ADA levels were estimated in serum and body fluids of 100 tuberculous and 100 non-tuberculous diseased patients. Results: Serum ADA for tubeculous patients (19.322.15 U/L) is significantly higher than non - tuberculous patients (10.550.90 U/L). Also the ADA in Pleural fluid (29.613. 93), Pericardial Fluid (28.531.02), Peritoneal Fluid (27.912.23), CSF(28.401.86) in tuberculous patient is significantly higher than non tuberculous diseased pleural (10.331.28), peritoneal (10.110.53), pericardial (10.461.00) and CSF (10.070.88) . The cut off value suggested is 15 U/L which yelds the sensitivity and specificity of about 98% and 100 % respectively. The ratio of body fluid ADA to serum ADA in subjects with tubercular cases is significantly higher than and non-tubercular disease patients. Conclusion: Conventional markers of TB i.e. serum ADA levels are significantly higher in tuberculous patients as compared with the healthy subjects and subjects with other disease. It is also concluded from the study that the Body fluid (pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid and CSF) ADA to serum ADA ratio is significantly higher in TB cases as compared to that with non-tubercular cases. The cut-off value suggested for the parameters studied in the study yields a high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of tubercular infection.
385 UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AZILSARTAN MEDOXOMIL IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM., Smita S.Aher*, Dr.RB.Saudagar
In the present research work simple, accurate, precise Area under curve method have been developed and Validate for Azilsartan Medoxomil in Active Pharmaceutical Dosage form Azilsartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used in the treatment of hypertension. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Azilsartan Medoxomil for the treatment of high blood pressure in adults. This method involves calculation of integrated value absorbance with respect to wave lengths of 239nm and 259 nm respectivelyan absorption maximum was found to be at 249 nm with the solvent system methanol. The drug follows Beer law in the range of 4-14 ?g/ml with correlation coefficient of 0.989. The percentage recovery of Azilsartan Medoxomil ranged from 99.9 to 100.3 % in pharmaceutical dosage form.The developed methods are validated according to ICH guidelines. Hence these methods can be used for the routine analysis of Azilsartan Medoxomil in bulk and tablet dosage form.
386 SCREENING OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY IN POLAR AND NONPOLAR FLOWER AND STEM EXTRACT OF ANISOMELES MALABARICA PLANT, Packialakshmi N and Nilofer Nisha HM
Anisomeles malabarica flower and stem were tested for their antibacterial properties against some pathogenic gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The growth of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Proteus vulgaris were significantly inhibited. The maximum zone of inhibition were found in Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris and Bacillus subtilis. The FTIR spectroscopic studies revealed different characteristic peak values with various functional compounds in the crude (Flower and Stem). The FTIR method was performed on a spectrophotometer system, which was used to detect the characteristic peak values and their functional groups. The study revealed the presence of halogen, alkanes, amides, acid anhydride, ester, nitro compounds, amines and ketones. These findings have confirmed the use of this plant in treating of several bacterial infections both traditional and folk medicine in india.
387 IN VITRO STUDIES ON SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING Streptomyces griseoflavus BPM18 AND EVALUATING ITS ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY, *Baskar.V, Subha.K, Kanimozhi.K and Panneerselvam.A
Microbial synthesis of nanoparticles has a potential to develop simple, cost effective and eco-friendly methods for the production of technologically important materials. In this study, silver nanoparticles synthesized by Streptomyces griseoflavus BPM18 and characterized by UV - Visible spectroscopy, FT - IR and SEM analysis. The nanoparticles were in the size of ranging from 20 - 60 nm. The morphology of the nanoparticles was mostly spherical shaped. The silver nanoparticle synthesized by Streptomyces griseoflavus BPM18 showed effective inhibitory activity against tested plant pathogen ie., Fusarium oxysporum caused wilt disease in cotton. Synthesized AgNPs by Streptomyces griseoflavus BPM18 could be used effectively to control fungal pathogen. The secondary metabolites produced by Streptomyces griseoflavus BPM18 could be responsible for the observed antifungal activity
388 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A ULTRA PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF HYDROCHLOROTHAIZIDE AND ALMODIPINE IN FORMULATIONS, E.Sasikiran Goud*, Dr. V. Krishna Reddy, N. Suresh Babu
Aim of the present work was to develop a simple, shorter and effective UPLC method with dual mode, 270 for hydrochlorothiazide and 237 for amlodipine and subsequent validation for the simultaneous determination. The effective on achieved on Zorbax RP-8, 50x4.6 mm, 3.5 column. The mobile phase is composition of buffer and acetonitrile in the ratio of 64: 34v/v . The buffer was prepared by dissolving the 2g of sodium perchlorate and 1mL of triethyl amine in 1000mL of water and adjusts pH 3.6 with orthophosperic acid. The flow rate of mobile phase was 1.2mL/min with injection volume 2L. The relative standard deviation for five injections was observed to 0.1 for hydrochlorothiazide and 0.1 for amlodipine. The observed result shows that the method was rapid, precise, accurate and simple. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines.
389 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF AZITHROMYCIN SOLID DISPERSION USING POLOXAMER, T. Raja Sekharan*, Appikatla Deepthi, R. Kannan, Ganapathi Thappatla and Kasirao Ragulakollu
Solid dispersion technique is used to improve the dissolution/ bioavailability of poorly water soluble drug. When the drug is incorporated with water soluble carriers the dissolution /bioavailability can be increased. Azithromycin is a poorly water soluble drug. In this study azithromycin solubility is increased with the help of poloxamer 188 and 407. The solid dispersion was prepared by solvent evaporation method. The drug and the carrier compatibility study were determined with the help of IR spectroscopy. The prepared formulations were evaluated for percentage yield, drug content and dissolution studies. With the help of dissolution datas the release kinetics was determined. The formulations showed satisfied drug release.
390 3D QSAR STUDIES ON THIAZOLIDINONE DERIVATIVES AS POTENTIAL EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR INHIBITORS, Sanmati K Jain*, Ravi Tripathi and Piyush Ghode
Three dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship (3D QSAR) analysis was performed on thiazolidinone analogues for their Epidermal Growth Factor inhibitory activity (EGFR inhibitors) by k Nearest Neighbor Molecular Field Analysis (kNN-MFA) method using Molecular Design Suite (VLife MDS) software. kNN-MFA coupled with stepwise variable selection (forward-backward) method was applied to derive QSAR models and these models were validated for statistical significance by internal and external validation. Among the models generated, two models with optimum values of validation parameters had q2 and predr2 values of 0.8032 and 0.7843 for model 1 and 0.7933 and 0.7700 for model 2 respectively. The negative value of steric field point at S_374 in both the models indicates the need of less bulky group at this point for favorable biological activity. The positive value of electrostatic field point at E_555 suggests the need of positive ionizable group. The present work may help in providing guidance for further lead optimization and designing of potent anticancer agents.
391 ETIOLOGY AND ANTIBIOGRAM OF COMMUNITY ACQUIRED URINARY TRACT INFECTION IN HYDERABAD, Sivaleela C*, Pragathi E
Introduction- Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the second most common infectious presentation in community practice. The most common pathogenic organisms of UTI are Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus saprophyticus . Treatmentof UTI cases is often started empirically and therapy is based on information determined from the antimicrobial resistance pattern of the urinary pathogens.The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of organisms that causes urinary tract infections and the antibiotic sensitivity and resistance pattern of pathogenic organisms isolated. Materials and Methods- A total of 100 urine samples were screened for pathogenic organisms. 5-10 ml of single clean catch midstream urine was collected from symptomatic patients of urinary tract infection.The samples were inoculated on Blood agar, MacConkey agar, Cystine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient agar (CLED), Urichrome (Himedia) agar. Culture plates were incubated aerobically at 37?C for 18-24 hours.The isolated organism was identified by standard biochemical tests and antibiogram was done. Results Out of 100 samples, females were of 76% and males 34%. Urinary tract infections were most commonly found in the age group between 31 -40 years in females and 36-40 years in males.The most common isolate was Escerichia coli(58.3%). Conclusion - A high prevalence of ESBL(Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases) and AmpC beta lactamase in community acquired infection is a matter of concern. It is quite alarming to note that, multidrug resistant isolates including ESBL and AmpC beta lactamase producing bacteria circulating in community. Henceforth it is important to formulate a strict antibiotic policy.
392 A BRIEF SUMMARY ON VORTIOXETINE, Kattula Rao Vinay Rajan*, Pilla Sree Surya Durga Devi, Penugonda Vineela, Ravisankar Pasam, Haritha Allu, Prasad Reddy M
Vortioxetine is a novel atypical antidepressant indicated in the treatment of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Vortioxetine got approval by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its use in MDD in the USA in September 2013. It mainly acts by serotonin reuptake inhibition. Preclinical studies demonstrated that not only does vortioxetine have an antidepressant action but also that unlike many established antidepressants it may have cognition-enhancing effects and vortioxetine also elevates levels of the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters such as serotonin, noradrenaline, dopamine, acetylcholine and histamine in specific areas of the rat brain. The most commonly noticed adverse events associated with vortioxetine treatment were nausea, headache, and dizziness. Sexual dysfunction and somnolence were also noticed in some patients. The recommended initial dose is 10mg once daily. . It should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit outweighs the potential risk to the foetus. This present review summarizes the pharmacology of vortioxetine.
393 FORMULAION AND EVALUATION OF ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS OF RIZATRIPTAN BENZOATE REVIEW, Sandeep Aher* Dr. Salunkhe K. S Dr. Chaudhari S. R
Formulation research is oriented towards safety , efficacy &and quick onset of action of existing drug molecule through novel concepts of drug delivery . Orally disintegrating tablet of Rizatriptan benzoate were prepared by direct compression method to provide faster relief from pain to migraine sufferers . Due to problem of swallowing ability with age , The paediatric and geriatric patient complian of difficulty to take conventional solid dosage forms . The ODTs are solid dosage forms that dissolves and disintegrates rapidly in the oral cavity. This results in solution or suspension without the need of water. Mian objective of this work to formulate and evaluate Rizatriptan Benzoate ODTs using different concentration of super disintegrating agents like croscarmellose , Sodium starch glycolate (SSG) , Crospovidone . Tablets were prepared by direct compression method and evaluate for hardness, thickness, friability, disintegration time, and percentage drug release . the results indicated that formulation prepared with Crospovidone was found to be optimised which provides maximum drug release (100%) and minimum disintegrating time.
394 IN VIVO AND IN VITRO BIOCHEMICAL ESTIMATION OF METABOLITES FROM TWO MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT PLANTS VIZ. INDIGOFERA CORDIFOLIA AND INDIGOFERA LINNAEI, Shipika Upman, Renu Sarin* and Jasvinder Kaur Chahal
Since ancient times medicinal plants have been virtually used in all cultures as a source of medicines. Primary metabolites obtained from plants for their pharmacological assay. Wild plants are the vast source of innumerable therapeutic agents representing molecular diversity engineered by nature. This research article shows the composition of primary metabolites from two plants species of family Fabaceae. Two medicinally important plants were selected for the present study viz. Indigofera cordifolia and Indigofera linnaei. The primary metabolites (total soluble sugar, starch, lipids, proteins and phenol) of Indigofera cordifolia and Indigofera linnaei have been estimated from different plant parts viz., leaves, stem, root and callus. The observations of the study showed maximum amount of total soluble sugar and starch in roots (58.00.21 mg/g.d.w) and stem (56.330.47 mg/g.d.w) of I. cordifolia respectively. Proteins in the stem (48.31.24 mg/g.d.w), lipids (75.67 mg/g.d.w) in leaf explant of I. cordifolia but phenol content was highest(50.00.21 mg/g.d.w) in stem of I. linnaei in comparison to other parts investigated.
395 EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS, Ansar M. Patel*, Dr. Rudraprabhu. V. Savadi
The objective of the present study was to determine the antibacterial activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Erythrina indica leaves, Bergenia ciliata rhizome and Cissampelos pareira stem. Antibacterial activities of above extracts were evaluated against five pathogenic bacterial strains i,e. Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi . Testing was done by agar cup plate method using sterile nutrient agar. Zone of inhibition of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of above three plants was compared with that of standard Ampicillin prepared in DMSO. Ethanolic extracts of Erythrina indica, Bergenia ciliata and Cissampelos pareira shows greater antibacterial activity as compared to their aqueous extracts.
396 BACTERIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF VENTILATOR ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA IN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT, *Dr. A. Ravishankar Reddy, Dr.A. Swathi, Dr.V. Ramadevi, Dr. K. Kamal Chand
Interventions to prevent pneumonia in the ICU should combine multiple measures targeting the invasive devices, microorganisms, and protection of the patient. VAP is particularly common in patients with ARDS, after tracheotomy, in patients with COPD, and in injured and burned patients. It is the most common cause of hospital acquired infection and death among patients admitted in ICU. So we aimed to study the incidence of VAP, their microbiological profile in the intensive care unit of Kamineni Hospitals. A Prospective study conducted on 300 randomly selected Patients after Institutional Ethics Committee clearance has been taken. The diagnosis of VAP was established on the basis of Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score. A MiniBAL sample was collected Culture was done on blood agar and Mac Conkey agar 97 patients developed VAP. Results were tabulated Incidence of VAP was found to be 32.3 %, the organisms isolated in VAP patients are Acinetobacter- 65.9%, Klebsiella pneumoniae - 15.46%, E.coli - 7.21%, Pseudomonas -6.18%. Conclusion: Clinicians must focus on eliminating or minimizing the incidence of VAP through preventive techniques. The causes of VAP and the likelihood of infection by an antibiotic-resistant strain can be predicted based on the patient characteristics, the duration of hospitalization, the duration of mechanical ventilation, prior exposure to antibiotic therapy, and prior colonization patterns. Local microbiology and antibiotic susceptibility data are essential for making informed antibiotic treatment choices.
397 AMELIORATIVE EFFECTS OF MURRAYA KOENIGII IN CHRONIC CONSTRICTION INJURY OF SCIATIC NERVE INDUCED NEUROPATHIC PAIN IN RATS, Deepika Saini, Tapan Behl*, Ishneet Kaur, Meenu Nagpal, Heena Goel, Rajesh K. Pandey
Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage and is induced by noxious stimuli. The sensation of pain is a protective mechanism for the body and it initiates nociceptive reflexes. Neuropathic pain is defined as pain initiated or caused by a primary lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system, either central nervous system (CNS) or peripheral nervous system (PNS). As the onset of neuropathic pain may be delayed after nerve injury, pain may still be present after healing is complete. This makes proper diagnosis and early treatment difficult. Moreover, neuropathic pain commonly occurs as a secondary symptom in diseases like diabetes, cancer and herpes zoster infection; it may also occur with treatments such as chemotherapeutics or cytotoxic drugs. The various first line drugs available for neuropathic pain (such as gabapentin, pregabalin, duloxetime, tricyclic antidepressants etc.,) are not found to be fully effective in the treatment. Henceforth, alternative treatments are being researched upon. Murraya koenigii is one such possible alternative, which is considered in the present study and is successfully found to provide positive results towards the prevention and maintenance of peripheral neuropathic pain due to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and cellular calcium modulatory action.
398 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS AND IN VITRO FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF CAYRATIA TRIFOLIA (L.), Sundaram Sowmya, Palanisamy Chella Perumal, Palanirajan Anusooriya, Balasubramanian Vidya Prabhakaran Pratibha and Velliyur Kanniappan Gopalakrishnan*
Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species has been implicated in several diseases and hence antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was to evaluate the quantitative analysis and in vitro free radical scavenging activity of stem ethanolic extract of Cayratia trifolia. The content of total phenols, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids analyzed. Free radical activity was assayed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydroxyl (DPPH), 2,2 azinobis-3 ethylbenzothiozoline-6 sulfonic acid (ABTS+) cation decolourization test, hydroxyl radical (OH.), hydrogen peroxide assay (H 2O2 ), nitric oxide radical inhibition activity (NO), superoxide radical, metal chelating assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), reducing power activity using established assay procedure. The ethanolic extract of Cayratia trifolia exhibited major content of secondary metabolites present in the stem extract. The antioxidant activity of the extract was compared with standard ascorbic acid. In conclusion, the results presented in the stem of Cayratia trifolia have a strong antioxidant property against free radicals and it may serve as a good pharmacological property.
399 INTERPRETATIVE IN VITRO PHYTOCHEMICAL,TLC, SYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES AND THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL SCREENING OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA L. (NONI) FRUIT AND THEIR COMPARATIVE STUDY, Jahnavi Alwala, Manisha D.R, Vasanth Kumar Mandla, Sreedhar Bojja, Sreelakshmi Chittamuru, Raju Nalvothula, M.P.Pratap Rudra*
NONI is common name for Morinda citrifolia fruit. This belongs to Rubiacea family.Nonis unique medicinal property is known to mankind since more than 2000 years.Noni helps in normalization of abnormally functioning cells by delivering the bio-chemical nutrients. It contains Proxeronine and more than 160 nutraceuticals.NONI is beneficial for the unique food supplement of which will be added to the probable list of drugs for cancer, heart diseases (hypertension), arthritis,allergy,menustral irregularities, gastric ulcers, diabetes, immune system, eye inflammations and it is a most important nutritional booster etc.,.The major aim of present study was to evaluate extractability of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts were assessed by the ecofriendly method and also to screen the ethno medicinal use, the phytochemical screening of Morinda citrifolia L.,(Noni fruit) excavate that most of the important constituents like alkaloids, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, saponins, phenols, tannins, quinones, celluloses, steroids and gums which interprets its medicinal values. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is an important in the field of nanotechnology, which has the economic and ecofriendly beneficial for chemical and biophysical characterization. The present study reveals the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using both the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Morinda citrifolia fresh fruits were assessed by 1mM Silver nitrate solution. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible Spectrophotometer, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), also thin layer chromatography (TLC) for chromatogram visualization (Rf values) of both the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Morinda citrifolia fresh fruits and also antibacterial studies for the formed nanoparticles.
400 ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS IN LEAF EXTRACTS OF CLEOME VISCOSA L., *A.Rajani, E.M.Sunitha, K.Shailaja
The Present paper focused on phytochemical screening of leaf crude extracts of Cleome viscosa L. Specific tests were conducted to find out each group of the phytochemicals of various extracts of Cleome viscosa L. The leaf extracts of Cleome viscosa L was extracted separately with methanol, ethanol, acetone, petroleum ether and chloroform that were screened for their phytochemical constituents. Among all the extracts tested acetone extracts showed more phytochemicals than the others followed by methanol, ethanol, chloroform and petroleum ether. Analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, saponins, steroids, flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids. The Phytochemical studies indicate that the crude leaf extracts of Cleome viscosa L Tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, alkaloids were mainly found in all the five tested solvent extracts of leaf. Phytochemicals like saponins are found only in acetone extracts.
401 SPIRONOLACTONE/DIGOXIN INDUCED GYNECOMASTIA (A COMPARATIVE CASE STUDY), Mohamed Murtuza Kauser., KasiJagadeesh.M*., Kumaraswamy.R.C, Manoj Kumar. M , K.V. Jagadeesh
Gynecomastia is an abnormal proliferation of breast tissue in males. It has a broad range of causes that are classified as either physiological or pathological, although in many cases there is no specific causes can be found. Most of the causes for gynecomastia are due to Drugs (10-25%). This pathological case study is about a 54-years male patient who received digoxin & spironolactone as a treatment of choice in dilated cardiomyopathy. Here we are suspecting gynecomastia due to spironolactone and digoxin as the pathological cause. These two drugs may have adverse drug reaction due to drug-drug interactions, that we are discussing in this case study. Interactions were evaluated by Medscape multi drug interaction checker, as well as Micromedex solutions which suggested that ADR due to Drug interaction is possible.
402 EFFECT OF MANNITOL AND MCC ON RAPIDLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS, Bhargav R. Harkare*, Ajit S. Kulkarni, Nagesh H. Aloorkar, Shivprasad H. Majumdar.
The main intention of this research was to develop rapidly disintegrating tablets of Amlodipine besylate for quick action. These tablets rapidly disintegrate in mouth in less than a minute, so no need to swallow whole tablet and no need of water to take it. Tablets were prepared by direct compression technique by using three different superdisintegrants, i.e. Crosspovidone, Sodium starch glycolate and Croscarmellose sodium. The prepared tablets were evaluated for thickness, hardness, weight variation, friability, drug content, In-vitro Disintegration time, wetting time and water absorption ratio and In vitro Dissolution studies. The hardness of all the formulation batch tablets was ranged from 2.40.10 kg/cm 2 to 4.20.15 kg/cm 2 and friability of all formulations was less than 1%, weight variation and drug content were within official limit.In-vitro disintegration time and in-vitro drug release shows that among all the superdisintegrants used Croscarmellose sodium gives the least in-vitro disintegration time and release the maximum amount of drug. The results show that an increase in Croscarmellose sodium concentration leads to a decreases in the in-vitro disintegration time and thus increase in the in-vitro drug release. Thus formulation F11 was selected as best formulation among those examined. Formulation F11 was then studied for accelerated stability studies as per ICH guidelines for 30 days that shows no significant change in the formulation. Therefore no evidence of degradation of drug was observed.
403 PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF Parthenium hysterophorus L. LEAF, Krishnaveni Marimuthu* and Dhanalakshmi Ravi
The phytochemical screening and its nutrients was done using standard methods. Qualitative analysis of aqueous Parthenium hysterophorus leaf extract was studied for the presence of carbohydrate, alkaloid, steroid, sterols, glycosides, tannin, phenolic compound, saponin, flavonoid, oil. Carbohydrate, protein, aminoacids were determined spectrophotometrically. The aqueous extract was studied for its fluorescence and yield. The behavior of Parthenium hysterophorus leaf powder (proceesed) was assessed for it behavior with different chemical reagents. The results showed that most of the phytochemicals were found to be present in aqueous Parthenium hysterophorus leaf extract, the percentage that has been recovered is 27.91. The nutrients such as carbohydrate, protein, aminoacid content was found to be 164.03.46mg/g, 4.170.15mg/g, 0.880.07mg/g. The behavior of aqueous leaf extract was found to be satisfactory showing presence for alkaloid, steroid, flavonoid, anthroquinone and protein.
404 AMELIORATIVE EFFECTS OF ALLIUM CEPA IN ETHANOL INDUCED NEUROPATHIC PAIN IN RATS, Prabhjot Kaur, Tapan Behl*, Shweta Bhardwaj, Heena Goel
Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage and is induced by noxious stimuli. The sensation of pain is a protective mechanism for the body and it initiates nociceptive reflexes. Neuropathic pain is defined as pain initiated or caused by a primar y lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system, either central nervous system (CNS) or peripheral nervous system (PNS). As the onset of neuropathic pain may be delayed after nerve injury, pain may still be present after healing is complete. This makes proper diagnosis and early treatment difficult. Moreover, neuropathic pain commonly occurs as a secondary symptom in diseases like diabetes, cancer and herpes zoster infection; it may also occur with treatments such as chemotherapeutics or cytotoxic drugs. The various first line drugs available for neuropathic pain (such as gabapentin, pregabalin, duloxetime, tricyclic antidepressants etc.,) are not found to be fully effective in the treatment. Henceforth, alternative treatments are being researched upon. Murraya koenigii is one such possible alternative, which is considered in the present study and is successfully found to provide positive results towards the prevention and maintenance of peripheral neuropathic pain due to its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and cellular calcium modulatory action.
405 CHARACTERIZATION OF GREVILLEA ROBUSTA GUM TO ESTABLISH IT AS A PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENT, Darekar A.B., Kahane J.U., Saudagar R. B., Gondkar S.B., Chavan M.J., Ashawat M
The gums are common constituents of plants, and being used in pharmaceutical and in other various industries due to their abundance in nature, safety and low cost. The present study was undertaken to isolate gum from the plant of Grevillea robusta, to explore its use as a pharmaceutical excipient. The isolated gum was evaluated for various physico-chemical characterizations.The parameters applied from the present study include solubility, hygroscopicity study, moisture content, ash values, swelling index hydration capacity, angle of repose, bulk and tap densities, hausners ratio, compressibility index, pH value, rheological study, microbial count, acute toxicity study. The results obtained in the acute toxicity study indicates that Grevillea robusta gum did not produce any visible toxicities or mortality with oral doses up to 2000 mg/kg within 24 hrs of single treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD), Differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transmittance infra red (FTIR), were used to characterize the gum sample which can be used further for the formulation development.
406 STUDIES ON THE PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND DELETERIOUS EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF DATURA STRAMONIUM ON ALBINO RATS, Sanni, M., Ejembi, D. O., Abbah, O. C., Olajide, J. E., Ayeni, G., And Asoegwu, C.M.
Datura stramonium is a commonly known natural plant throughout the world for its hallucinogenic effects. It is also known to produce other effects such as euphoria. The phytochemical constituents of Datura stramonium was determined quantitatively, and its effects on albino rats was determine using some biochemical parameters such as AST, ALT, ACP, and total protein as well as histological examinations of the liver, kidney and intestine of the rats. Twelve adult male albino rats constituted groups of four (4). Three (3) albino rats each was treated with 2.0g/kg, 1.5g/kg, and 0.75g/kg per body weight of the aqueous extract of Datura stramonium respectively and the equivalent volume of distilled water was given to the remaining three animal that served as control, daily for twenty one (21) days. The levels of AST, ALT, ACP, and Total Protein in the serum were higher in the animals treated with Datura stramonium relative to those of animals in the control group. There was a statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in the mean value of AST and ACP of animals treated with Datura stramonium relative to the control group but a non statistically significant difference (p
407 STUDY OF TESTOSTERONE LEVELIN A COHORT OF HYPERACTIVE SCHOOL CHILDRENVERSUS SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH PRO-SOCIAL TRAITS IN IRAQI PROVINCE, Shatha Q. Jawad, Amina N. Al-Thwaini, *Salwa SH. Abdul-Wahid
Background: The various childhood problems that are often subsumed under the heading of "hyperactivity" occur in various combinations and, apparently, for various reasons. Objective: To assess the association between testosterone concentrations, among primary school children with attention deficient hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), versus control school children with pro-social traits. Subjects & Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted for the period from the first of April- 2013 to the 31 April-2014. The study sample was one hundred primary school children diagnosed with behavioral disorders including ADHD with or without conduct disorder, in comparison with (100) control school children characterized with pro-social traits. Assessment of behavioral disorders (ADHD, and conduct) depend on Rutter child behavioral Questionnaire (RCBQ), as a scale used by teachers for assessment of school children behavior, including disorders in behavior, (ADHD and conduct or antisocial behavior), versus pro-social behavior. Measurement of serum testosterone levels was done to the school children with ADHD with or without aggressive behavior and to the controls, prosocial character. Result: Testosterone levelhighly increase 0.6506 0.654 ng/ml for male's school children with ADHD than its level in pro-social control group 0.4492 0.4198 ng/ml. On the other hand ADHD, comorbid aggression group had higher testosterone levels (0.87860.8421) ng/ml), than non-aggressive ADHD group (0.43160.25689 ng/ml) with a highly significant differences (p
408 EVALUATION OF DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE - ?-CYCLODEXTRIN INCLUSION COMPLEX IN WISTAR RATS, Sanae Masmoudi*, Bouchra Meddah, Mounia Bouabdellah, Yahia Cherrah, Layachi Chabraoui, Abdelaziz Bouklouze
The thiazide diuretics are the first line treatment recommended for hypertension, in particular hydrochlorothiazide (HCT). The aim of the present study is to evaluate the diuretic activity of HCT- ?-Cyclodextrin (HCT-?CD) inclusion complex in comparison with HCT alone. Vehicle (distilled water), HCT- ?CD complex (10mg/kg) and HCT alone (10mg/kg) were administered orally to male wistar rats and their urine output was quantitated after 24 hours. Volume, pH, conductivity, and Na+, Cl -, K + concentrations of urine were measured. The results showed significant improvement of the urine output of HCT-?CD complex compared to HCT alone respectively 5,52 0.52 versus 4,3 0.28 ml/100g/24h . Urinary electrolyte excretion and conductivity was also incresead. Significant diuretic (p < 0.05) and electrolyte excretion effects (p < 0.05) were observed in treated groups by HCT-?CD complex compared to the control and reference standard (hydrochlorothiazide). Therefore, we can conclude that HCT-?CD complex produced notable diuretic effect.
409 DYNAMISM OF RHIZOSPHERE ORGANISM IN THE ENHANCEMENT OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY, Jaylakshmi Hazra*, Arup Kumar Mitra
Rhizosphere includes many microorganisms which show different types of interactions with the soil. Rhizospheric effect is more in bacteria than any other soil microorganisms. Rhizospheres help in bioremediation. Some bacteria namely Pseudomonas, Aerobacter, Agrobacterium have the ability to solubilize the insoluble inorganic phosphates like tricalcium phosphate, rock phosphate etc. Some enzyme producing microorganisms like Triticum viridae which produces cellulase and chitinase degrades cellulose and chitin respectively. In the rhizospheric soil some nitrogen fixing bacteria are found like Azorhizobium, Allorhizobium, Rhizobium. Some free-living bacteria found helps in the plant growth. Some organic acid producing fungi like Aspergillus niger which produces citric acid is used as blood anti coagulant, descaler etc. These organic acid producing fungi have many economical uses like tanning and leather industry, plastic, cosmetic industry. Siderospores are present which are iron-chelating protectant produced by all aerobic rhizospheric organism.
410 ADENOID CYSTIC CARCINOMA OF PALATE IN YOUNG - A RARE SIGHT, Dr. Deepak Daryani* , Dr. Gopakumar R, Dr. Sudipto Dutta , Dr. Amith Adyanthaya , Dr. Tushar Tanwani, Dr. Paulomi Bagchi
Adenoid cystic carcinoma is rare malignant neoplasm of salivary gland accounting for 1% of all malignant tumor of the oral and maxillofacial region and 6% of all salivary gland tumors. Typically it presents as slow growing painfull mass affecting predominantly women in 5th to 6th decade of life. Known for prineural invation, if not treated early it may prove fatal. Although much has been documented about the lesion since its discovery, Adenoid cystic carcinoma remains a topic of controversy regarding its origin, clinical course, treatment modality and recurrence. This case report documents yet another peculiar presentation of an aggressive Adenoid cystic carcinoma in a 30 year old woman. A detailed clinical differential diagnosis is also discussed.
411 NEW SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR DETERMINATION TRIFLUOPERAZINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS BY USING OXIDATIVE COUPLING REACTION, Mohauman Mohammad Al-Rufaie*, Kasim Hassan kathem
A simple, rapid and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of microgram amounts of Trifluoperazine Hydrochloride drug in aqueous solution is described. The method is based on the Oxidative coupling reaction between Trifluoperazine hydrochloride and para brome aniline in the presence of sodium periodate and Hydrochloride acid to form an intense colored product with maximum absorption at 556 nm. Beers law is obeyed over the concentration range of ( 0.4 6.4) ppm with molar absorptivity of 1.1296 10 5 l.mol -1 .cm -1 and Sandell`s sensitivity of 0.003 g.cm -2 . The method does not resort to temperature control or to solvent extraction. The optimum conditions for all colour development are described and the proposed method has been successfully applied for the determination of Trifluoperazine hydrochloride in bulk drug and pharmaceutical Preparations(Stellamide, Stellasil and Iralzin drugs). The common excipientsand additives did not interfere in this method
412 VIRULENCE GENES OF ENTERIC ISOLATES OF VIBRIOAND VIBROID, Dr.RbabOmran, Khaled Y Alzamilyand ,*Dr. Ibrahim M S Shnawa
The vibrio species and the vibroid enteric isolates were found as Vibrio fluvialis andAeromonashydrophila though using API20E identification system. The to be total DNApreparations were separated from both of the organisms on agarose gel electrophoriesisand confirmed through the use of UV trsnsillumination. Such prepared and purifiedDNAwere amplified by PCR and allowed to pair with primers of four virulence genes as; Vhf,hupO ,tox and VhpfA for V .fluvialis and the primers of the genes Aer, hyl for A.hydrophila.Only Vhf and tox genes were positive in V.fluvialis and the genes Aer ,hyl were positive inA.hydrophila. Thus, PCR can be of use for the diagnosis for both of these organisms fromclinical samples,this will reduce labor and time needed for diagnosis.The authors were of theopinion holds that,four virulence genes from each of these organisms may served as abattery useful in molecular diagnosis of these disease agents
413 FECUNDITY AND GONADOSOMATIC INDEX (GSI) OF Osteobrama vigoressi (sykes) FROM NIRA RIVER, BHOR DISTRICT (MAHARASHTRA) INDIA., *Nirbhay S. Pimple and Sanjay S. Kharat
The study about Fecundity and Gonadosomatic index (GSI) of Osteobrama vigoressi (skyes) was undertaken to investigate the reproductive potential of this fish. The fecundity was in range of 6241 to 25262 with a mean value of 14517.4 42.54. The mean Gonadosomatic index (%) was 211.81 9.134 with a range of 4.349-10.051. The correlation coefficient for Fecundity (Y) and total body weight (X) was 0.9629. The correlation coefficient for Fecundity (Y) and total gonads weight (X) was 0.8937, the correlation coefficient for Fecundity (Y) and total body length(X) was 0.9629, and the correlation coefficient for Gonad weight (y) and total body weight (X) was 0.9202. The regression was linear when graph was plotted against the fecundity for TL, BW, GW, and GSI. The variable observed were significant at P
414 INVITRO ANTIOXIDANT PROFILE OF TODDALIA ASIATICA. L (CRUDE ALKALOIDS), M.Suriyavathana*, A. Praveena and G.M.Keerthana
Several studies are going on worldwide to find natural antioxidants from plant origin which possess strong antioxidant activity with less side effects. A report about the phytochemistry of the the stem of T. asiatica showed that they contained some alkaloids. Crude alkaloids were separated from the stem and as far as our literature survey could ascertain, no information was available on the in vitro antioxidant activities of the alkaloids of the stem. So, this study was conducted to investigate the free radical scavenging activity of the crude alkaloids. For the determination of in vitro antioxidative capacity, established assay methods such as 1, 1-diphenyl 2-picryl hydroxyl (DPPH) radical assay, reducing power, ferric ion chelating assay, superoxide anion, nitric oxide scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays were used with reference to synthetic antioxidant ascorbic acid. The free radical scavenging properties of the alkaloids increases with increase in concentration of 150-750 g/ml and they were comparable to the standard ascorbic acid. Our findings provide evidence that the crude alkaloid extract of Toddalia asiatica.L is a potential source of natural antioxidants, and this justified the plants uses in folkloric medicines.
415 BI-LAYER TABLET AND IT S TECHNOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW, P.B.V. Siva Prasad*, C. Haranath, C.Surya Prakash Reddy, Dr. C. Sowmya.
In recent times, various developed and developing countries move towards combination therapy for treatment of multiple diseases and disorders requiring long term therapy. Combination therapy have various advantages over mono therapy such as problem of dose dependent side effects is minimized, a low dose combination of two different agents reduces the dose related risk, the addition of one agent may potentiate effects of other agent. In the last decade, interest in developing a combination of two or more Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) in a single dosage form has increased in the pharmaceutical industry, promoting patient convenience and compliance. Bi-layer tablet is new era for the successful development of controlled release formulation along with various features to provide a way of successful drug delivery system. Bi -layer tablet is suitable for sequential release of two drugs in combination, separate two incompatible substances and also for sustained release tablet in which one layer is immediate release as initial dose and second layer is maintenance dose. Bi-layer tablet is improved beneficial technology to overcome the shortcoming of the single layered tablet. Several pharmaceutical companies are currently developing bi-layer tablets. This arti cle explains about types of bi -layer tablets, potential reasons for considering bi-layer dosage form, challenges related to bi -layer tablet technology and about various bi-layer tablet press.
416 EVALUATION OF MEDICATION FOR THE PALLIATIVE CARE PATIENTS-ADVERSE DRUG MONITORING - A PHARMACOVIGILANCE AWARENESS FOR THE PALLIATIVE CANCER PATIENTS RESIDING AT HOME CARE IN AND AROUND VELLORE DISTRICT HOSPITAL - VELLORE MEDICAL COLLEGE HOSPITAL AND CMC HOSPITAL PATIENTS, A. Arul Selvam*, Dr. E. P. Kumar, Dr. Lingegowda.K.B, Dr. G. Jaya Balan and Kambham Venkateswarlu
Palliative care research and treatment is one of the most essential program me for the cancer patients our object is to study the different types of cancer patients-palliative care patients and the drugs they are consuming both the pain killers and other poly pharmacy they are consumed. The main aim of the study is to evaluation of medication benefit v/s risk factor of the individual drug or combination of drug therapy - the management of medication for the safety of individual patients in order to prolong the safety and span of life.
417 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION OF SOME NOVEL MANNICH BASES OF THIAZOLIDINONES DERIVED FROM PYRAZOLINES, Prerana Pujari, Ramesh V MeenaChandran*, David Paul, A R Bhat, K Krishnakumar
The main approach of medicinal chemistry is to synthesize compounds that show promising activity as therapeutic agents with lower toxicity. Thiazolidinone and Pyrazoline derivatives may show different activities such as analgesic, anti -inflammatory, antitubercular activitiesetc. Mannich base derivatives of Thiazolidinones from Schiff bases have been synthesized by reacting them with previously prepared Pyrazolines from Chalocnes, with the yield ranging from 56% to 71%. The identification and characterization of the synthesized compounds were carried out by melting point, TLC and FT-IR to ascertain that all prepared compounds were of different chemical nature than the respective parent compound.
418 ESTIMATION OF BETULINIC ACID IN EXTRACTS AND FORMULATIONS CONTAINING ALBIZIA LEBBECK BY HPLC, Pratima Tatke*, Sonal Desai, S. Y. Gabhe
A triterpene acid, betulinic acid has been studied extensively because of its wide range of biological properties specially its anti -tumor activity. The present method discusses a new, simple and sensitive reversed phase HPLC-DAD method for quantitative estimation of betulinic acid in stem bark extract and formulations of Albizia lebbeck. Betulinic acid was analysed using MZ-Analytical C18 column (250 mm X 4.6 mm, 5 m) as stationary phase. Elution was carried out using acetonitrile: water (92:08, v/v) at flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. Detection was carried at 205 nm. Column oven temperature and injection volume were kept at 25 0 C and 20 l, respectively. Linearity of the proposed method was found to be over the range 0.3-60 g/ml. LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.1 g/ml and 0.3 g/ml, respectively. The method was found to be accurate with % recovery of 92.40 - 96.54 %.
419 DESIGNING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ATENOLOL FAST DISSOLVING ORODISPERSIBLE FILMS USING DIFFERENT POLYMERS, Amit B. Patil*, R. Narayana Charyulu
The present research was undertaken with the objective to evaluate the film forming properties of pullulan, hydroxyypropyl methyl cellulose 15cps (HPMC) and poly vinyl alcohol in formulating fast dissolving orodispersible films (FDOF) of atenolol.Solvent casting technique was employed to formulate atenolol FDOF. Glycerin and aspartame was used as plasticizer and sweetening agent.The optimum concentration of plasticizer, polymer and solubilizing agent were developed through morphological characterization such as deformation caused during removing from die cavity, surface stickiness and transparency. The physiological evaluation such as thickness, weight variation, disintegration time, in vitro dissolution, drug-excipient studies was also performed. Atenolol FDOF showed optimum thickness, drug content and folding endurance. The disintegration time of formulation PU3 film was found to be 13 sec with in vitro drug release of 98.01 % in 105 sec, which was better than other prepared formulations. Drug-excipients interaction studies performed using FTIR; showed no interaction. Surface pH was found to be neutral, indicating safety of administration. Atenolol FDOF formulated using pullulan and PVA showed complete transparency with smooth surface.Thus based on the results of the present research it can be concluded that polymer pullulan showed optimum characteristics as a film forming polymer for atenolol FDOF when compared to HPMC 15cps and PVA.
420 AN OVERVIEW: THE NOVEL CARRIER FOR VESICULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM, Dinesh Chandra*, Kamlesh Km Yadav, Vijay Kumar Singh, Anand Patel, Shashi Chaurasia
The focus of this review is to development of a novel drug delivery system. Novel drug delivery system aims to deliver the drug at a rate directed by the needs of the body during the period of treatment, and channel the active entity to the site of action. A number of novel drug delivery system has emerged encompassing various routes of administration, to achieve controlled and targeted drug delivery. Encapsulation of the drug in vesicular structure is one such system, which can be predicted to prolong the existence of the drug in systemic circulation, and reduce the toxicity, if selective uptake can be achieved. Consequently a number of vesicular drug delivery system such as liposomes, niosomes, sphinosomes, transferosomes and pharmacosomes are used to improve the therapeutic index of both existing and new drug molecules by encapsulating an active medicament inside vesicular structure in one such system. The era of vesiclular delivery has much to explore by achieving success in various upcoming systems such as aquasomes, cryptosmes, discomes, emulsomes, enzymosome, genosomes, photosomes, virosomes, vesosomes, proteosomes etc. The approaches like pro vesicular drug delivery, coating of vesicles, layerosomes, ufosomes system etc have also been developed which have better stabilities in comparison to simple vesicular drug delivery systems.
421 ENHANCING HEATH THROUGH FOOD WSR TO IMMUNITY A REVIEW, Dr. Mamta Tiwari*, Dr. Anurag Pandey, Dr. Neeru Nathani, Prof. Aruna Agrawal, Prof. G.P. Dubey
The immune system plays a crucial role in the body's ability to fight infection and reduce the risk of developing autoimmune and degenerative disorders. On the global scale it has been accepted that malnutrition, in its both forms under nutrition and over nutrition contributes to higher mortality and morbidity. Ayurveda, the ancient wisdom recommends various food items and behaviours for physical and mental well being. This work aims to reveals the hidden secrets of Ayurveda dietetics and immunity through comprehensive review of available literature. Taking leads from Ayurveda the effects of different food products with specific nutrient on immune response is discussed to give the clinical insight into the age old doctrines of Ayurveda related to diet for promoting and preserving health. This review has profound clinical and public health implication. This will boost the idea of nutritional manipulation of immune system as an innovative powerful tool to reduce illness and death caused by different communicable and non communicable disease.
422 IN VITRO ANTI-HIV ACTIVITY STUDIES ON ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE (LAM), RAYNAL.WHOLE PLANTS, P. Praveena*, Ashwini Dhamanage, Megha Pawar, Dr. Smita Kulkarni and Dr. D.Sudarsanam
Enicostema axillare (Lam.). Raynal, syn. Enicostemma littorale Blume (Family) Gentinaceae is a perennial herb found throughout the greater part of India. Locally it is known as chota chirayita and used in indigenous medicines in the treatment of fevers and as bitter tonic and forms one of the ingredients of many hypoglycemic marketed formulations. In the present study, we evaluated anti-HIV activity of the whole plant. Methanolic extract showed prominent anti-HIV activity.
423 METFORMIN: CURRENT CONCEPTS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES, Disha Shetty, Veena Nayak*
Metformin, a biguanide is a preferred oral hypoglycemic agent for type 2 diabetes. It has also found to be beneficial in delaying the occurrence and progression of complications of diabetes Metformin is also being used as an off label drug for polycystic ovarian syndrome, antipsychotic induced weight gain, obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus. Research to study its role in malignancies is ongoing. The pleiotropic effects of metformin definitely will lead to multiple indications for metformin in the near future. This review focusses on the current status and future perspectives of metformin.
424 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY-INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF FORMOTEROL FUMARATE AND BUDESONIDE IN METERED DOSE INHALER FORMULATION, *Nanasaheb R. Kale, Dr. Ashok P. Pingle, Javed A. Mirza, Govind N. Dhongade
A stability indicating RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Formoterol Fumarate (FF) 6g and Budesonide (Bude) 400g in metered dose inhaler formulation. The chromatographic separations was carried out with Waters alliance 2695 separation module, 2996 PDA detector and empower software and Shimadzu LC HCT 10 with UV detector and LC Solution Software instruments, using Hypersil BDS C-18, 150 x 4.6mm, 5 column and gradient elution with NaH2PO4.H2O buffer (pH 3.1 wi th OPA) and acetonitrile as mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 ml/min. The detection was carried out on dual wavelength detector at 214nm and 247nm for FF and Bude respectively. The detector response is linear from 0.3-0.9 g/ml and 20-60 g/ml concentrations for FF and Bude respectively. The linear regression equation was found to be y = 56974 x-170.74 (r = 0.9997) for FF and y = 28487 x 44972 (r = 0.9994) for Bude. The stability indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments. The method was satisfactorily validated as per the ICH guidelines.
425 PCR BASED DETECTION AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA ISOLATED FROM CLINICAL AND WATER SAMPLES, *Wathiq Abbas Aldraghi
700samples consist of 350 vaginal swaps from pregnant women in Kamal al-Samarrai hospital, Baghdad, Iraq and 350 of pool water samples . This study was carried out during January 2013 to January 2014 conducted by biochemical tests to diagnose the bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa and compare these results with the diagnosis by PCR technique based on gene gyr B by the special primer . The result was of the samples contain Pseudomonas aeruginosa , it was found that 50 positive sample (7.1%) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa , 10 isolates from clinical samples and 40 isolates from water samples. Distribution of age groups in relation to the clinical samples was as follows: The highest frequency of infection (62%) was observed at 3140 years followed by 4150 years (23%). The highest percentage rates of resistance were found for cefotaxim (100% of all isolates), nalidixic acid (75%), gentamicin (58.5%), and trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole (49%). Resistance rates were 24% or lower for piperacillin, kanamicin, cefaclore, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin, and amikacin. A highly specific assay was developed by targeting gyrB gene for the detection of P. aeruginosa in inflammations, combined with optimized sample collection methods and sample processing, so the direct DNA extraction from vaginal swaps was possible while achieving the desired sensitivity of the method.
426 ANALYSIS AND BIOTREATMENT OF TEXTILE EFFLUENT, S. Umamaheswari* And A. M. Padmanaban
Economical and bio-friendly approaches are needed to remedy the wastewater from textile and other industries. Present study has adopted bacterial strain capable of decolourizing textile effluent within 12h, 24h and 48hours with the colour removal range of 55.26% to 86.84% respectively . The microbes function in an optimal condition obtained for decolourization of textile effluent pH, temperature and culture was maintained static and agitated conditions. Effective colour removal in textile effluent was achieved in 48 hours.
427 EFFECT OF NEEM DERIVATIVES ON ADULT EMERGENCE OF DYSDERCUS CINGULATUS (HETEROPTERA: PYRRHOCORIDAE), S. Umamaheswari* and A. Rajarajeswari**
Neem oil and neem cake extract were evaluated for their adult emergence effect on the nymphs and adults of Dysdercus cingulatus. The data indicated that total inhibition by neem oil varied from 46.66%, 60.00% and 66.66% and in Neem cake extract from 20.00%, 33.33% and 40.00% at a concentration range of 2.0%, 3.5% and 5.0%. At a similar concentration range, the nymphal mortality by neem oil and neem cake extract ranged from 13.33% to 53.33% and 6.66% to 13.33% in the fifth instars. Azadirachta indica A.Juss was used for controlling the insects which gave a significant mortality and suppressed the adult emergency effect of Dysdercus cingulatus. An increase in the concentration of test solutions resulted in an increase in the inhibition rate.
428 DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF CONTROLLED RELEASE OCULAR MINITABLETS OF FLUOROQUINOLONES, Phadke Ninad Mukund*, Phadtare Dipti Ganesh, Saudagar Ravindranath Bhanudas
Transport of drugs applied by traditional dosage forms is restricted to the eye, and therapeutic drug concentrations in the target tissues are not maintained for a long duration since the eyes are protected by a unique anatomy and physiology. There is urgent need to develop ocular drug delivery systems which provide controlled release for the treatment of chronic diseases, and increase patients and doctors convenience to reduce the dosing frequency and invasive treatment. This research was carried out to develop Ocular Minitablets which are novel ocular dosage forms for the treatment of the posterior segment of the eye that produced controlled release of drug for the period of 12 hrs. Basically these formulations are nothing but ocular inserts prepared by direct compression technique. Levofloxacin, Carbopol 971G, HPMC K4M, HPMC K100 M, Sodium CMC and magnesium stearate were used for preparation of ocular minitablets. Antibacterial studies showed that the Levofloxacin ocular minitablets are best suited for the treatment of bacterial keratitis or conjunctivitis.The formulations were found to be non-irritating with no ocular damage.
429 SPECTRAL CHARACTERIZATION AND DOCKING STUDY OF NEWLY SYNTHESIZED BENZOTRIAZOLE DERIVATIVES, *Maruthamuthu, Shameela Rajam, Christina Ruby Stella
Some novel benzotriazole derivativeswere synthesized and their interaction with proteins was studied through docking. The reaction of o-phenylenediamine with sodium nitrite, yield benzotriazole. The title compounds were synthesized by treating benzotriazole with CH3COCl, C6H5COCl, C6H5Cl,C6H5NH2Cl and C6H5NH2Cl. Their structures were confirmed by IR 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR. Docking study was done and the compounds Aand C were found to fit well with the target protein COX-1.
430 IN-SILICO STUDY OF GERANIOL ANALOGS AGAINST EGFR FOR VALIDATING ITS POTENCY TO BE CANDIDATE CANCER DRUG, Swechha Mishra*
Receptor tyrosine kinase is a key regulator of various physiological pathways. Anomaly in this protein might lead to cancer, and therefore it holds great potential to be potent target for combating cancer .With the aim of validating effect of geraniol analogs on tyrosine kinase, insilico screening was carried out. In this study we have taken different geraniol derivatives and performed molecular docking against receptor tyrosine kinase in order to check the efficiency of docking. Further toxicity test was performed to detect the compatibility of selected compound to that with the human system.
431 EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF HEART WOOD OF PTEROCARPUS MARSUPIUM ROXB (FABACEAE)., Vinutha Bhat, Shivananda Nayak B*, Mamatha Ballal, Shivananda Baliga
The aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity and phytochemical constituents of heart wood of pterocarpus marsupium. The alcoholic extract of heart wood of pterocarpus marsupium was tested against two gram positive (Enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus) and negative (Escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa) microbial organisms and a fungal strain Candida albicans. The heart wood extract was also evaluated for determining the phytochemical constituents. All the microorganisms tested were sensitive to the extract which demonstrated the positive activity of the extract. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, tannins triterpenes and flavonoids which could also be responsible for the antidiabetic activity of the plant extract.
432 AN OVERVIEW OF NUT GRASS (CYPERUS ROTUNDUS) WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO AYUSH, Nalini sofia. H*, Thomas M.Walter, S. Merish, M. Tamizhamuthu
Plants have always been a common source of medicament either in the form of traditional preparations or pure active principles. It is well known that traditional herbal medicines existed before the application of the modern scientific methods to health care; and even today majority of the world population depends on herbal health care practices 1 . Cyprus rotundus is a plentiful species occurring throughout the plains of India, especially South India. It is well documented in ancient literature for the therapeutic uses of skin, urinary, digestive and reproductive diseases. The present review covers the basic botanical information, Physical properties, Therapeutic actions, Phytochemistry, Ethno medicinal uses, Experimental Pharmacology and Classical preparations from AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha & Homeopathy) systems of Medicine.
433 MONTMORILLONITE: A MILD AND EFFICIENT RECYCLABLE SOLID ACID CATALYST FOR DETRITYLATION OF TRITYL TETRAZOLE IN SARTAN MOLECULES, D. Raju, G. Prabhakar, *B. Madhavarao, K. Sudhakar, M. Rajesh, B. M. Choudary
Proton and metal ion-exchanged Montmorillonite catalyzes the detritylation of trityl tetrazole in sartan molecules under mild conditions in high yields. The reactions are carried out in methanol in presence of 1 equivalents of water. Catalyst was reusable without any appreciable loss in its catalytic activity .
434 IN SILICO DESIGN, SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF QUINAZOLIN-4-ONE DERIVATIVES AS POTENTIAL MULTITARGET AGENTS., Rajkumar Mohanta*, Liptika Mohanta, Mrityunjay Banerjee and Susant Kumar Sahu
An applied simple computational technique of molinspiration and Hex6.3 software are emphasized us to designing the synthetical path way of quinazolin-4-one derivatives. The biological scoring activity was provided by molinspiration software while the energies minimization values(E.total values) of quinazolin-4-one derivatives were obtained from Hex 6.3 docking soft ware by interaction of target proteins (E.coli-3GI9, S.aureus-4AE5 and S.typhi-3FHU). As per the standard drug protocol, the synthesized compounds (4a 1-6 ) were found to have highly drug likeness properties due to the highly negative E. total energies. Therefore it was observed that the both in vitro and insilico methods parallely determined the antibacterial activity which revealed that the synthesized compounds quinazolin-4-one derivatives act as antibacterial agents. The Structures of synthesized quinazolin-4-ones were established by spectrophotometers (FT-IR, 1 HNMR and MS).
435 ENZYME ACTIVITIES OF AKP, CPK, SGOT & LDH IN BLOOD SERUM OF MALARIA PATIENTS, Purohit Chitra*, Jain Suman
Malaria is one of the most serious tropical diseases in the world. It becomes a severe health problem in country like India due to poor hygienic conditions; malnutrition borne non-defensive immunity system. Enzyme activity plays vital roles in metabolic pathways & are disturbed in malarial patients. In present study, blood serum Creatine phosphokinase (CPK), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Alkaline Phosphatase (AKP) & Glutamate Oxalo-transaminase (SGOT) activity was evaluated in 30 malarial patients & in the same number of normal control subjects using kit method. The enzyme activity of AKP, LDH & SGOT increases significantly, whereas the activity of CPK decreases in malarial patients as compared to control subjects.
436 MODULATORY ACTIVITY OF RHIZOMES OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA AGAINST ENDOSULFAN INDUCED HEPATIC DEGENERATION IN FRESH WATER AIR BREATHING FISH CLARIAS BATRACHUS, G.B. Chand*, Rizwan Ahmad & Prakash Singh
Effect of aqueous extract of root of Withania somnifera (WSR) on the biochemical alteration in few profiles of Liver Function Test (LFT) and histopathological anomalies in hepatic tissue of endosulfan induced fish was investigated. Serum Alanine Amino Transferase (ALT), Asperate Amino Transferase(AST),Alkaline Phosphatase(ALP) and Acid Phosphatase(ACP) showed a significant rise in test group (4 ppb & 8 ppb endosulfan treated). Dilation of nuclear membrane, congregation of heterochromatin on the inner nuclear membrane, broken array of cisternae of endoplamic reticulum were prominent histopathological alterations incurred in liver tissues due to endosulfan exposure at transmission electron microscope (TEM) level. The animals were subjected to aqueous WSR extract @ 50 mg/kg body weight) for 14 days by gavage method. A significant decrease in ALT, AST, ALP and ACP level in curative group (WSR treatment in endosulfan exposed group) was observed. Besides these groups showed nearly 70% restoration in the cytoarchitecture of hepatic cells. Biochemical and histopathological findings highlight the modulatory effect of aqueous WSR extract against endosulfan induced hepatic injury in fish.
437 TASIMELTEON: A NOVEL DRUG IN NON-24 HOURS SLEEP WAKE DISORDER, Dr. Joonmoni Lahon*,Dr. Lalromawii ,Dr. Dhriti Kr. Brahma ,Dr. Julie Birdie Wahlang
Free-running type or non 24 hour sleep wake disorder is a rare but chronic circadian rhythm sleep disorder (CRSD) that disrupts the sleep-wake cycle and affects the majority of totally blind individuals leading to insomnia. Tasimelteon, a melatonin receptor agonist has proved its potential as a circadian regulator that resets the biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, thus synchronizing the bodys melatonin and cortisol circadian rhythm with the day -night cycle in patients with non 24 hour sleep wake disorder. Its potential for use in jet-lag, mood disorders and depression due to circadian rhythm disorder is under evaluation. Tasimelteon (Hetlioz) by Vanda Pharmaceuticals Inc. was approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on 31 st January, 2014 for treatment of non 24 sleep wake disorder.
438 ANTIFUNGAL EVALUATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS TO CONTROL THE GROWTH OF MOULD FUNGI ON BUILDING MATERIAL, Mamta Chauhan* Padma Singh
To control the growth of building biodeteriorating fungi require the use of botanical fungicides which can be derived from medicinal plants instead of chemical fungicides. These chemical fungicides are mainly compound of copper, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. The present study was designed to evaluate the antifungal activity of plant extracts of Emblica officinalis and Tagetes erecta against Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium chrysogenum isolated from various sites of buildings in Haridwar. The antifungal activity was assayed by passion food method. In case of T. erecta methanol (extract) showed maximum activity comparatively ethanol extract of T. erecta whereas ethanol extract of E. officinalis showed highest activity in comparison of methanol. Essential oil of E. officinalis gave best activity then essential oil of T. erecta against A. flavus and P. chrysogenum. Maximum dry mycelium weight of A. flavus and P. chrysogenum was recorded after 20 and 25 days respectively at incubation of 28C.
439 DEVELOPMENT OF ORAL DISINTEGRATING TABLET OF RIZATRIPTAN BENZOATE WITH INHIBITED BITTER TASTE, Sandeep Aher*, Dr. Salunkhe K. S., Dr. Chaudhari S. R.
The purpose of this research was to mask the bitter taste of Rizatriptan benzoate (RB) and to formulate an oral disintegrating tablet (ODT) of the taste-masked drug. Taste masking was done by mass extrusion with aminoalkylmethacrylate copolymer, Eudragit EPO, in different ratios. The drug: polymer ratio was optimized based on bitterness score and RB -polymer interaction. Taste masking was evaluated by checking the in vitro release of RB in simulated salivary fluid (SSF) of pH 6.8 and by sensory evaluation in human volunteers. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) were performed to identify the physicochemical interaction between RB and the polymer. For formulation of rapid- disintegrating tablets of RB, the batch that depicted optimum release of RB in SSF, was considered. ODTs of Rizatriptan Benzoate were prepared by using superdisintegrants namely, sodium starch glycolate, crospovidone and croscarmellose sodium using the direct compression method. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, wetting time, in vitro disintegration time. The optimum formulation was selected and the tablets were evaluated for thickness, drug content, content uniformity and m outh feel, in vivo disintegration time, in vitro drug release at pH 1.2 and 6.8 and stability study. Eudragit EPO was able to mask the bitter taste of Rizatriptan benzoate effectively in 1:1 ratio by mass extrusion method. FTIR and DSC data revealed absence of RB-polymer interaction. ODTs containing crospovidone (5% w/w) depicted minimum disintegration time. Taste evaluation of ODT in human volunteers revealed considerable taste masking, with all 6 volunteers, reporting the taste of ODTs as good in comparison with RB. Thus, results conclusively demonstrated successful taste masking and rapid disintegration of the formulated tablets in the oral cavity with adequate dissolution. The research work suggests a rapid, simple and cost effective mass extrusion method for formulation of ODT of Rizatriptan benzoate.
440 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUBLINGUAL TABLET OF RIZTRATRIPTAN, Sandeep Aher*, Dr. Salunkhe K. S., Dr. Chaudhari S. R, Prin. and Dr. Aher A.B
Rizatriptan benzoate is a potent and selective 5-HTIB/ID receptor agonist and is effective for the treatment of acute migraine. Sublingual formulation has the advantage of offering fast relief from migraine due to faster drug delivery. The present study involves the formulation and evaluation of fast disintegrating sublingual tablets of rizatriptan benzoate to produce intended effects. The sublingual rizatriptan benzoate tablets were prepared by the method of direct compression. The superdisintegrants used were cross carmellose sodium and cross povidone. The powder flow properties of all formulations were evaluated for diameter, thickness, weight variation, hardness, friability, wetting time, water absorption ratio, drug content, in vitro and in vivo disintegration time as well as in vitro release and were found to be satisfactory. The optimised formulation containing cross povidone disintegrated very fast and invitro drug release was very high.
441 RESEARCH REPORT ON 150 PRIMARY INFERTILITY COUPLES AND CASE STUDIES OF CHOCHOLATE CYST WITH HERBAL SUCCESS., Aruna Devaraj R* and Pushpam Fernando SR.
Primary Infertility has drawn the attention of Naturopaths and yoga therapists today. It has become a cause for depression and anguish in many families. The Physical, physiological, emotional and social problems may be many. Nearly 30 problems in woman and 20 in man had been identified so far but these could be classified under a ten to ten deficiencies and physical curable problems. Dysmenorrhea, PCOD, LPD, GSF may be the common gynecological defects in women. But the dietary deficiencies like minerals, vitamins, cholestrolic fats form a major concern in Infertility. Chocolate cysts and Pcods have added gravity to the situation. The present investigation gives a classified table of causes, two case studies, touching almost all the problems, with the success story of delivering babies after a pause of 4years and 51/2 years are presented. Nano-fert a herbal dosage starts with a clear setting of normal cycles in ladies, reducing obesity, improving the Oestrogen and progesterone balance and removing blocks in the tubal parts of the reproductive system. DE-cholopack brings down cholesterol to normal limits to maintain ovum and sperm health and clearing LPD. The prior history with investigations and further fo llow up in the early trimester period of pregnancy is given top priority by the co-author and investigator.
442 THE CARDIOVASCULAR ACTIVITY OF BENZOPYRANS: A REVIEW, Soma Pramanik*, Amit Kumar Das, Kinjal Patel
Benzopyrans (chromene) are synthetically versatile substrates, where they can be used for the synthesis of a large variety of heterocyclic compounds, and as raw material for drug synthesis. The advances in the use of benzopyrans for the pharmacological properties mainly the cardiovascular properties during the several years are reported in this review.
443 ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF CINNAMOMUM MALABATRUM BURM. ON CHOLESTEROL DIET INDUCED RATS, Natarajan P*, Sumi John, Thangathirupathi A, Kala R
Hyperlipidemia is an increase (hyper) in the lipids (lipi), which are a group of fats or fatlike substances in the blood (emia). The aim of the study was to reduce the elevated levels of lipids in the blood thus reduce the risk factors responsible for developing ischemic heart disease or the occurrence of further cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases using ethanolic extract of leavs of Cinnamomum malabatrum on hyperlipidemic rats. The plant extract showed significant decrease in levels of TC, TGs, LDL, VLDL and a significant increase in HDL cholesterol. They also reduced the atherogenic index (A.I) and LDL/HDL ratio when compared to hyperlipidemic control group. Atorvastatin and Cinnamomum malabatrum leaf extract resulted in significant increase in the antioxidant enzymes activities and GSH contents in liver and heart homogenate. Alcoholic extract of Cinnamomum malabatrum produced significant increase in HMG Co-A / mevalonate ratio in liver as compared to normal group shows that it blocks the HMG Co-A reductase activity. The phytochemical screening reveals the presence of many components responsible for its antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity which includes phenolics, flavinoids, saponins and the pharmacological effects may be due to its presence.
444 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF HPLC-UV METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF E AND Z GUGGLESTERONE IN RAT PLASMA: APPLICATION TO PLASMA PROTEIN BINDING STUDY, Shriyans Jain*, Vikas Kumar, Aina and Rajvir Singh
A simple, sensitive, precise and accurate reversed phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the estimation of E and Z guggulsterone in rat plasma. The method was developed using a Phenomenex C-18 Column (150 x 4.6mm, 5) with a mobile phase consisting of Methanol : TDW (0.5% Formic Acid) 75 : 25, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min -1 . With prednisone as internal standard, plasma samples were extracted by manual solid-phase extraction method using C-18 SPE cartridges. Detection was performed by HPLC-UV detector. The UV detection was achieved at 240 nm, over a wide dynamic range of 0.62 to 20 g mL -1 . The retention time of E & Z guggulsterone and internal standard was 7.2, 9.2 and 11 minute respectively. The method was successfully validated in accordance to FDA guidelines acceptance criteria for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision,. Calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 0.62 to 20 g mL -1 (r 2 ? 0.998) for both analytes. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision method were within -4.05 to 5.92 (% bias) and 3.97 to 12.98 (% RSD) respectively. The analytes were stable after three freeze-thaw cycles. The method was successfully applied to protein binding study of E and Z guggulsterone in rat plasma.
445 FORMULATION AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS OF OLMESARTANMEDOXOMIL, Sheik Muddasar*, Dasari Prasad, Dr. Yasmeen, Dr.Sudhakar
The objective of this research was to formulate fast dissolving tablets of Olmesartan medoxomil (Antihypertensive drug) for rapid action. Demand for fast dissolving tablets has been growing especially for elderly and children who are swallowing difficulties. The problem of certain fast dissolving tablets is their low physical resistance and high friability. In this investigation fast dissolving tablets are prepared by using 3 different super disinitegrants Crospovidone, Croscarmellose sodium, Sodiu m starch glycolate in 4%, 5% by 6% by direct compression technique. Prepared tablets were evaluated for pre and post compression parameters. All the formulations were evaluated for influence of disintegrates and their concentrations on the characteristics mainly on disintegration time and dissolution studies. Crospovidone in higher concentration showed, rapid disintegration, wetting and in vitro drug release as compared to other formulations.
446 ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF CLERODENDRUM PHLOMIDIS Linn. AND GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE Linn. IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS - A COMPARATIVE PRECLINICAL STUDY, S. Gopinathan * and D. Naveenraj
The present study was aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of Clerodendrum phlomidis leaf extract and compare i ts efficacy with Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract, a known antidiabetic herb al drug and a standard reference drug, Glibenclamide on alloxan induced diabetic rats. The rats were divided into five groups and treated accordingly; Group I: Normal healthy control rats; Group II: Disease control Alloxan induced diabetic rats; Group III: Diabetes induced rats treated with Clerodendrum phlomidis leaf extract; Group IV: Diabetes induced rats treated with Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract; Group V: Drug control rats - diabetes induced animals treated with Glibenclamide. Oral administration of plant extracts on alloxan induced diabetic rats showed a marked decrease in the levels of biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, liver glycogen and glycosylated hemoglobin. The levels of blood urea and serum creatinine were also brought to normal l evels in the rats treated with plant drugs. The activity of glycogen synthase was reduced and the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were increased in diabetic rats. Profound alteration was observed in lipid profiles (total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and phospholipids). Levels of lipoproteins (HDL, LDL and VLDL) showed a significant impairment in diabetic rats which were brought back to normal in plant drug treated and standard drug treated rats. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and alkaline phophatase (ALP) activities were increased in diabetic rats. The treatment with plant drugs brought back to normalcy of these enzymes. Reduced glutathione and lipid peroxidation levels were increased in the diabetic condition and significantly increased after the plant drug treatment. The activity of catalase was reduced in the diabetic rats and the activity was normalized after plant drug administration. The present study evidenced that Clerodendrum phlomidis leaf extract is a potent antidiabetic herbal drug and its efficacy is comparable to Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract and Glibenclamide. Ursolic acid (a pentacyclic triterpenoid carboxylic acid) was isolated and identified as pharmacologically active compound in Clerodendrum phlomidis leaf extract.
447 FORMULATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE, *Javed A.Mirza, Dr. A.P.Pingle , Nanasaheb Kale, Mayur Gandhi, Sandesh More, Govind Dhongale
Objective of the present study is to formulate and evaluate the matrix tablets of Metformin hydrochloride. Formulations were designed by using 3 2 Factorial designs and a total of nine formulations were prepared (F1-F9). Preformulation tests were performed for identification of drug and characterization of polymers . Blend of powders of respective formulations were evaluated for Bulk density, tapped density, Hausner s ratio, Carrs Compressibility index, Angle of repose. Tablets were prepared by direct compression method and evaluated for thickness, hardness, friability, weight variations and drug content. Dissolution studies were performed and percent cumulative release was found to be satisfactory with 93.14% and formulation was found to be stable at 40 0 C2 0 C and 75% RH.
448 QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE STUDY OF PHYTOCHEMICALS IN MUNTINGIA CALABURA L. LEAF AND FRUIT, Marimuthu Krishnaveni* and Ravi Dhanalakshmi
Muntingia calabura L is a fast growing medicinal plant, attracts fruit eating birds such as flower peckers. The timbers are lightweight, durable and used in carpentry. Fruit from Muntingia is also harvested for export overseas. The leaves and fruits were studied for its phytochemical analysis both qualitatively and quantitatively and also for its behavior with aqueous extract powders, fluorescence, nutrients. Among the phytochemicals assessed, the carbohydrate, glycosides, tannin, phenolic compounds, proteins and aminoacids showed strong reactions, whereas, moderate reaction was observed with rest of the phytochemicals. Positive result was observed with flurosence study. The total yield obtained from 15gm powder was 09.95% with leaf and 16.01% with fruit. The carbohydrate content was found to be higher with leaf (204.03.46mg/g carbohydrate ) when compared to fruit (75.334.61mg/g carbohydrate). But, the protein content was higher with fruit extract (6.440.15mg/g protein) on comparison with leaf extract (2.040.15mg/g protein). Moderate amount of aminoacids content was observed with leaf and fruits. The behavior of the extract powder was positive for alkaloids, proteins, flavonoids, anthroquinone.
449 ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATON OF Helicobacter pylori SKP FROM SALIVA SAMPLE, *Subha.K, Baskar.V, Kanimozhi.K and Panneerselvam.A
Helicobacter pylori infection is considered as one of the most common infectious diseases throughout the world, the carriage rate of Helicobacter pylori is reported to be 20-80% for adults in the developed world, and more than 90% in the developing world. It is also associated with peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma and specially cofactor in the instance of happening again of aphthous ulceration, gastric colonization and mucosal attachment. In the present study the causal agent of human ulcer disease Helicobacter pylori SKP was isolated from patients of Government hospital, Mannargudi, Thiruvarur (Dt.), Tamil Nadu, India. The suspected bacteria isolated from the saliva samples from five patients with symptoms and signs suggesting gastritis was cultured on columbia blood agar. In routine practice the typical colonical and morphological appearances and rapid urease test is sufficient for establishing the identification of Helicobacter pylori.
450 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF COPPER (II), COBALT (II),NICKEL (II) AND MERCURY (II) COMPLEXES OF SCHIFF BASE DERIVED FROM 2-ACETYL-5-CHLORO THIOPHENE 5-AMINO-1,3,4-THIADIAZOLE-2-THIOL, Dr. Mohammed. Fakruddin Ali Ahamed*
The biologically active Schiff base (imines) was synthesized by the reaction of 2-acetyl-5-chloro thiophene and 5-amino-1, 3, 4-thiadiazole-2-thiol in the presence of conc. Acid. The characterization of Schiff bases were carried out by using elemental analysis and VSM including IR, 1 H -NMR, EI-MS analyses. The Schiff bases were checked for biological screening and found that the compound with -SH group to be more biologically active than the compound with halo (-X) group. Jobs continuous variation method and Mole ratio method revealed 1:2 metal to ligand ratio, by chelation of metals Cu (II) Co (II),Ni (II), and Hg (II) with octa-dentate complexes were synthesized.
451 ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF HERITIERA FOMES LEAVES, Bhupendra Nath Dwivedy* , Prashant Dabral, Rajeev Kumar
Antioxidants have been widely used in the food industry to prolong shelf life. However, there is a widespread agreement that some synthetic antioxidants such as butyl hydroxyl anisole and butyl hydroxyl toluene (BHA and BHT, respectively) need to be replaced with natural antioxidants because of their potential health risks and toxicity. Thus, the search for antioxidants from natural resources has received much attention, and efforts have been made to identify new natural resources for active antioxidant compounds. Phenolic natural products such as flavonoids are of particular interest because of their antioxidant activity through scavenging oxygen radicals and inhibiting peroxidation. Antioxidants that scavenge free radicals play an important role in prevention of cardiovascular disease, aging, cancer, and inflammatory disorders.
452 PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF AEGLE MARMELOS IN LEAD INDUCED GENOTOXICITY IN BONE MARROW CELLS OF MICE., K.Rudrama Devi, Ch.Prabhakar Reddy and J.Karuna Kumari.
In the present studies, the protective effects of Aegles marmelos fruit extract has been evaluated against Lead nitrate induced micronuclei in bone marrow cells of mice. Single I.P treatement of Aegles marmelos fruit extract of various test doses 200, 400 & 600 mg/kg had shown non toxic nature in bone marrow cells of mice. In Lead nitrate treated groups, there is a significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes of mice when compared with control values. However, along with Lead nitrate when animals were primed with Aegles marmelos fruit extract there is an inhibition in the frequency of micronuclei was observed at all dose levels. Thus that clearly indicate protective effects of Aegles marmelos fruit extract against Lead nitrate induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of mice. Therefore the data showed Aegles marmelos fruit extract is a safer dietary component in heavy metal induced DNA damage in cancer chemotherapeutic strategy.
453 FINGERPRINTING ANALYSIS OF TRACHYSPERMUM AMMI, ALANGIUM LAMARKII AND ADHATODA VASICA BY HPTLC, Safeena Sheikh*, Suhail Asghar, Showkat Patni
Medicinal plants are not only a major base for the traditional medicine and herbal industry but also provide livelihood and good heath to humans and hence taken a step to standardized/identified Trachyspermum ammi, Alangium lamarkii and Adhatoda vasica are reported to be medicinally useful. The authentic samples of herbs were subjected to fingerprinting analysis through HPTLC of the raw herb for better comparison and evaluation. The data evolved in the present work will aid in identifying these drugs in dry forms and in standardization of the drugs and drug formulations.
454 IDENTIFICATION OF IMPURITIES RELATED TO AMODIAQUINE HYDROCHLORIDE BY USING SOME ANALYTICAL TECHNIUQES, Nitin G. Rathod and Manohar V. Lokhande*
Unknown impurity related with the synthesis of Amodiaquine hydrochloride bulk drug during the process was detected by high performance liquid chromatography was subjected to ion trap mass spectroscopy for preliminary determination of mass for identification. It was difficult to elucidate the structure with only ion-trap ms and ms/ms since, it is having a unit mass resolution , it became important to isolate the impurity using preparative chromatography for further studies. The preparatively isolated impurity was subjected to a high resolution accurate liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy for determination of molecular formula which gave a highly confident and accurate data for structure elucidation. The postulated structure was unambiguously confirmed by 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR was proposed to be 1, 1-bis-(7-chloro-4-hydroxy-3-quinolyl}-ethane (AMQ Dimer). This AMQ Dimer impurity was not been previously reported in any of the analytical literature pertaining to Amodiaquine hydrochloride. A rapid Acquity H-class gradient method with runtime of 15.0min was developed for Quantitation a C18 Hypersil gold column (100 mm x 2.1 mm i.d. 1.9 m) was used for chromatographic separation and validated for parameters such as precision, accuracy, linearity and range, robustness. The limit of detection (LOD) established for AMQ Dimer impurity was found to be 0.0197ppm i.e. 0.012% and limit of quantification (LOQ) was found to be 0.0598ppm respectively.
455 THERMAL STABILITY OF CELL AND ?-AMYLASE PRODUCED BY BREVIBACILLUS BORSTELENSIS R1 IN DIFFERENT IMMOBILIZATION MEDIA, K.Suribabu* and K.P.J Hemalatha
Oceans contain diverse microbial habitat. Bacteria have been regarded as treasure of many useful enzymes viz., amylases, proteases, lipases, hydrolases and reductases. Among them amylolytic enzymes have great biotechnological applications and economic exploitations. Extension of the use of immobilized enzymes to other practical processes requires new methodologies and a better understanding of current techniques. By cell/enzyme immobilization on carrageenan and sodium alginate there was an increase in ?-amylase production by more than 100% at 60 0 C, the property of which is useful in food processing industries. The ?-amylase was found to be useful in bakery, food, fodder for poultry, automation dishwashing and laundry industries. The ?-amylase was also useful in solving the problem of water pollution of industrial effluents and sewage water by hydrolyzing the substrates.
456 AN ETHNOMEDICAL, PHARMACOLOGICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL REVIEW OF AMMANNIA BACCIFERA L., Vasudevan Poornima, Manoharan Sharanya and Muthusamy Jeyam*
Ammannia baccifera L. is commonly used in traditional medicine in India and China to raise blisters in rheumatism and in the treatment of scabies, ringworm , parasitic skin infections, common cold, typhoid, strangury, spinal disease, gastroenteropathy and aphrodisiac. The present review covers all the available information on Ammannia baccifera from scientific journals, books, thesis, reports and conference proceedings via academic libraries and electronic search databases accepted worldwide (Pubmed, Pubmed central, Tropicos, Google scholar, Scopus, Internet archive and Thieme). These sources were scrutinized and evaluated about its botany, traditional uses, biological aspects, chemical constituents and pharmacological relevance. The in vivo studies of extracts from Ammannia baccifera showed antitumor, antiinflammatory, antiarthritic, antianalgesic, antipyretic, antidiuretic, and wound healing pharmacological activities which can be attributed to the presence of flavonoids, tannins, polyphenols, triterpenes and sterols. The plant was evaluated and validated for the traditional medicinal activity against microorganisms and antimalarial properties using in vitro studies. Tetrolane derivatives were found to have antitubercular activity and high toxicity against brine shrimp.
457 ISOLATION OF EMODIN FROM THE LEAVES OF AMARANTHUS SPINOSUS L. (AMARANTHACEAE), Debiprasad Ghosh, Prasenjit Mitra,Tanaya Ghosh, Sumanta Gupta, Basudeb Basu and Prasanta Kumar Mitra*
A compound was isolated from the leaves of Amaranthusspinosus L. by solvent extraction, acid hydrolysis, chromatography followed by crystallization. Infra red spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance studies revealed that the isolated compound was chemically 1,3,5-trihydroxy -7-methylanthracene-9,10-dione, also known as emodin.
458 DESIGN, FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT OF FENOFIBRATE, A WATER INSOLUBLE DRUG BY SOLID DISPERSION TECHNIQUE, Md. Zakaria Faruki*, Elizabeth Razzaque, Rishikesh, Rehana Akhter and Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan
Fenofibrate is a lipid lowering agent used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. In order to improve the solubility and oral absorption of Fenofibrate in gastric fluid and to enhance i ts dissolution rate solid dispersion technique by solvent evaporation method has been designed and evaluated. Poloxamer 188, Poloxamer 407, Polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000, Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP), Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and Mannitol have been used as the hydrophilic polymers which were employed as carriers for formulation of solid dispersion with model drug in ratio of (Drug: Cariers) 1:1, 1:3, 1:5, 1:7 and 1:10. The pure drug and solid dispersions with all their ratio were characterized using FTIR techniques. The effect of solvent evaporation methods preparing of solid dispersion on dissolution behavior was investigated. Dissolution studies indicated a significant increase in dissolution of Fenofibrate when dispersed in carriers. In all the cases solid dispersions showed improved dissolution of Fenofibrate compared to that of pure drug. It was observed that higher concentration of carriers in preparing solid dispersion showed higher release of Fenofibrate. Solid dispersion prepared with Poloxamer 188 showed fastest and maximum release (93.74%) among all formulations and solid dispersions with PVP, HPMC, Poloxamer 407, PEG 6000, Mannitol showed 88.21%, 88.14%, 82.87%, 76.50% and 65.77% release respectively in 1:10 ratio within 1 hour whereas pure Fenofibrate showed only 23.60% release. The release of drug was plotted in Zero order, First order, Korsmeyer and Higuchi release pattern. The correlation coefficients values of the trend lines of the graphs showed that the formulations best fit in Higuchian release pattern.
459 EVALUATION OF ENZYMATIC AND NON-ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF IN VIVO AND IN VITRO REGENERATED ALOE VERA L., Neelofar Khanam* and G.K. Sharma
Since ancient time a great number of aromatic, medicinal, spice and other plants contain chemical compounds exhibiting antioxidant properties, such as their secondary metabolites, which play an important role in protecting the cell or tissues from oxidative damage. In the present investigation in vitro enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant activities in the leaves of in vivo and in vitro regenerated Aloe vera L. were tested. The plant leaves were analysed for the selected enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and for the non-enzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbic acid, tocopherol, total carotenoids, total phenols, reduced glutathione, flavonoids were examined. Results were showing that the leaves from in vitro propagated Aloe vera L. were having higher level of antioxidants when compared to antioxidant levels in the leaves of in vivo grown Aloe vera L.
460 ASSESSMENT OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN WATERMELON (CITRULLUSLANATUS (THUNB.) BY USING SDS-PAGETHROUGH GENETIC ANALYSIS SOFTWARE, Rajesh Goud Gajula*, Dr. Shailima RD Vardhini, Dr. Sujatha Edupuganti, G.Raghavendar
Seed storage Protein profiles of five varieties of CitrullusLanatus were analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Total seed storage protein of Citrullus Lanatus were resolved on 10% SDS Polyarylamide gels showed variations in their banding pattern. The dendrogram constructed by NTSys PC software. The SAHN clustering based on UPGMA algorithms has put the all accession into different cluster groups. The Jaccords coefficient also calculated. Maharaja Variety and Super dragon verity has close genetic relation. Shahanshah and Maharaja have highest variation among five cultivars.Jaccards similarity shows that Maharaja and Shahanshah are 55% similar which is less similarity in all cultivars, Maharaja and Super Dragon are 73% similar, Maharaja and Durgesh has 73% similarity, Super Dragon and Durgesh are 71% similar. More work is needed to identify the specific genes in the cultivars, quantitative trait loci (QTL) works are carrying out to identify and correlate the genes for different traits using RAPD Technique.
461 EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE FLAVONOIDS IN MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT ARID ZONE PLANTCLERODENDRUM PHLOMIDIS LINN., Jasvinder Kaur Chahal and Renu Sarin*
Medicinal plants are source of many valuable drugs and the isolation, identification, purification and characterization of bioactive compounds of these plants are beneficial for healthy living of human beings. Several wild plants and herbs species used traditionally in medicinal field as rich source of medicine. This article is based on the evaluation of the crude flavonoid (free and bound) of Clerodendrum phlomidis against some pathogen. The benzene extracts of plants parts and callus culture (l eaves, root and calli) were found to be effective against Gram positive bacteria - Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) (B.s.), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) (S.a.) Gram negative bacteria -Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) (E.c.), Psedomaonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) (P.a.) and fungal strains Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16404) (A.n.), Aspergillus flavus (ATCC 9807) (A.f.), Candida albicans (ATCC 5027) (C.a.) and Candida glabrata (ATCC 66032) (C.g.). However, aqueous extracts of C. phlomidis did not show any inhibitory effect against tested pathogenic fungal and bacterial strains. This investigation concluded that the flavonoids extracts of C. phlomidis are effective for both antifungal and antibacterial activities.
462 QSAR ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURALLY SIMILAR 1, 3, 4-OXADIAZOLE/THIADIAZOLE AND 1, 2, 4-TRIAZOLE DERIVATIVES OF BIPHENYL-4-YLOXY ACETIC ACID AS ANTIINFLAMMATORY AGENTS, Ramesh L Sawant*, Dnyaneshwar B Hardas, Karan K Pawa, Abhishek K Shinde
Two dimensional (2D) and three dimenstinal (3D) QSAR analysis of series of structurally similar 1, 3, 4- Oxadiazoles /thiadiazole and 1, 2, 4-triazole derivatives of biphenyl -4-yloxy acetic acid as antiinflammatory agents have been done using VLife MDS 4.3 software. The compounds were divided into training and test set. Various models were built by using Partial Least Square (PLS) regression analysis and Principle Component Regression (PCR) analysis. Best QSAR model was selected on the basis of various statistical parameters like square correlation coefficient (r 2 ), cross validated square correlation coefficient (q 2 ) and sequential Fischer test (F). The results of the 2DQSAR models were further compared with 3D-QSAR models generated by Molecular Field Analysis coupled with partial least square (PLS) detecting the substitutional requirements for the favorable anti -inflammatory activity and providing useful information in the characterization and differentiation of their binding sites. The results derived may be useful in further designing novel anti-inflammatory agents prior to synthesis.
463 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING OSMOTIC DELIVERY SYSTEM OF CARVEDILOL, Shubham Kundu, Gangadharappa H.V.* and Adithya Pramod
Floating osmotic delivery system is a combination of floating and osmotic systems that provides site specific and controlled drug release. Carvedilol is non- selective ? blocker under bio pharmaceutical classification system (BCS) class II is widely used in the treatment of hypertension. Half-life of model drug is 6-8 h. The model drug showed promising pharmacokinetics and physico - chemical properties required for controlled releases dosages. Therefore this drug was selected for present investigation. Floating drug delivery system was developed initially by formulating the osmotic core tablet followed by multilayer coating for floating the system. Core tablet comprised of Carvedilol, Mannitol, and sodium bicarbonate which was coated with cellulose acetate (osmotic layer), followed by coating of floating layer with Hydroxyl propyl Methyl cellulose (E15 / E50) and sodium bicarbonate and further coated with entrapment layer composed of Eudragit RL30D.The drug and polymers were characterized by DSC and pre-compression like bulk density, tapped density and Hausners ratio. The prepared tablets were evaluated for physical properties like floating lag time, duration of floatation. Invitro studies revealed that drug release depends on concentration of polymer, agitation speed and pH of the medium. From the results, it indicated that formulation were intact. Floating lag time and floating time were dependent on hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose grade used in floating layer and coating percentage on entrapment layer. Drug release was controlled by changing the amount of mannitol in the core tablets.
464 PHARMACOVIGILANCE OF AYURVEDA: QUESTIONING ITS EFFICACY, Dr Dinesh Kumar Jain*, Dr Rajkumar Arya
Ayurveda is based on balance of vata, pitta and kapha in the body. Increase of these humours creates diseases. Removing or calming these humours is the main objective of the treatment in Ayurveda. In Ayurveda, plants, metals, climates, seasons, physical activities are divided in to two groups. They increase or decrease imaginary humours and used accordingly to maintain balance. Astrology, incantations, hymns, mantra-tantra, worship, prayers, emesis, enema, catharsis, cranial catharsis, blood letting are used in treatment. These concepts of Ayurveda are irrational, illogical, unscientific and not supported by knowledge of medical science. Ignorance and silence of medical personnel regarding this crucial concept indicate their dishonesty towards society and science. Pharmacovigilance also includes study of efficacy of drugs. If evidence of ineffectiveness of Ayurveda put in front of Central Government, then Government is ready to prohibit use and manufacture of the Ayurvedic drugs. It is the duty of pharmacologists and medicine specialists to protect the society from the ineffective and useless therapeutic systems.
465 EVALUATION OF RENOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF MESOZEAXANTHIN IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS, Shaveta Bhardwaj*, Tapan Behl, Kulwinder Singh, Pyare Lal Sharma
Diabetic nephroopathy (DN) is one of the most common complications of a common prevalent chronic endocrine disorder diabetes mellitus. It involves a great deal of damage to the renal anatomy and physiology. The following mentioned study was undertaken to investigate the renoprotective effect, if any, of mesozeaxanthin, an antioxidant in experimentally induced diabetic nephropathy in rats. A single dose of Streptozotocin (STZ) (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was incorporated to precipitate the induced-condition of diabetes mellitus in the concerned rats. Diabeti c nephropathy developed after 8 weeks of STZ administration and was assessed by the measurement of various parameters viz., levels of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine clearance, renal collagen content. Furthermore, changes in renal TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and reduced glutathione levels were measured as markers of oxidative stress besides measuring the levels of glucose and lipid content for also observing the possibility of the drug action via some other therapeutic activity. Mesozeaxanthin treatment for the first time has been demonstrated to significantly attenuate STZ-induced DN, as evidenced by a significant decrease in serum creatinine, BUN, renal collagen content and a significant increase in creatinine clearance. Mesozeaxanthin treatment dose-dependently decreased the renal oxidative stress in diabetic rats. It is, thus, concluded that the renoprotective effect of mesozeaxanthin is due to its antioxidant property as no significant changes were observed in blood glucose and lipid profile, confirm that mesozeaxanthin is a pure antioxidant.
466 EFFECT OF ARPIPRAZOLE ON AMISULPRIDE INDUCED HYPERPROLACTINEMIA IN PATIENTS WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA, *Dr.Ramasubramanian Chellamuthu, Dr.Vikhram Ramasubramanian, R.Meera, P.RajaSoundara Pandian, Madhavan Mallayasamy
Aripiprazole is a dopamine D2 receptor partial agonist with partial agonist activity at serotonin 5HT1A receptors and antagonist activity at 5HT2A receptors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Aripiprazole on hyperprolactinemia in adult schizophrenia patients induced by Amisulpride. The study sample consists of 53 patients, 18 to 50 years old treated for schizophrenia. Out of 53 patients, 35 patients had a normal prolactin level within 2 weeks, 9 patients within 4 weeks and 4 patients within 6 weeks and 2 patients within 8 weeks. However the prolactin level was not back to normal for 3 patients and one patients prolactin level decreased below normal level. Amisulpridedose was not changed during the study period. Enrolled patients showed normal level of prolactin after augmenting the Aripiprazole in the treatment and the authors concluded that the addition of Aripiprazole rapidly normalizes the Amisulpride induced Hyperprolactinemia. The normalization of patients prolactin level is highly statistically significance and the P value is less than 0.0001by conventional criteria (Student t-Test).
467 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF STABILITY INDICATING ASSAY METHOD OF LACIDIPINE BULK DRUG AND ITS MARKETED FORMULATION BY RP-HPLC., Sonawane Yogesh *, Chopade Vitthal, Chaudhari Pravin
A simple, sensitive, precise and stability indicating RP-HPLC method of analysis of lacidipine in bulk as well as formulation was developed and validated. Separation was carried out on Inertsil C18 column (250mm x 4.6mm x 4.6mm, 5 um particle size) using mobile phase Acetonitrile : Methanol (55:45 v/v) at PDA detector. The drug was subjected to stress degradation conditions like acid, alkaline, oxidative, photo and thermal degradation. The method was validated for specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, robustness and solution stability. Method was found to be linear with correlation coefficient 0.998 and also found to be robust as %RSD values are less than 2%. Stress degradation study shows that lacidipine undergoes degradation in acid, base and oxidation (15.20%, 5.96%, 11.24% respectively). Degradation products which are formed during studies did not interfere in detection of lacidipine and thus assay can be considered stability indicating.
468 BIOASSAY-GUIDED ANTIDIABETIC MECHANISMS OF CINNAMOMUM INERS LEAVES EXTRACT, Fazlina Mustaffa*, Zurina Hassan , Nur Adlin Yusof, Khairul Niza Abdul Razak Mohd Zaini Asmawi
Background:Cinnamomum iners has been traditionally claimed to be consumed by diabetic patients as natural supplements. However, no scientific data is available to validate the folklore claim.. Hence, this study evaluated the antidiabetic mechanisms of active methanol extract, active chloroform fraction and active subfraction 1 of C. iners leaves which is the extension from our previous study. Methodology: The possible antidiabetic mechanism was validated using ex vivo model and immunochemistry procedure. In addition, the insulin stimulatory effect of active extract, active fraction and active subfraction of C.iners was determined using rat insulin ELISA kit. Results: Our study demonstrated that the antihyperglycaemic effect of C. iners leaves is mediated both, at pancreatic level by direct stimulation of insulin and at peripheral level by increasing glucose uptake by muscle. Conclusion: Our study clearly justified the use of this plant in the indigenous system of medicine.
469 PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND NEUROPHARMA COLOGICAL STUDIES OF CAPPARIS ZEYLANICA ROOT BARK, Ramya Kuber Banoth* and Santhrani Thaakur
The aim of the study was to evaluate neuropharmacological activities of the alcoholic extract of Capparis zeylanica (CZ). The alcoholic extract was given at a dose of 50, 100, 200 mg/kg. Spontaneous motor activity, analgesia, grip strength, alertness, immobility period in forced swimming test and tail suspension test were analyzed. The extract at given doses significantly dose dependently decreased exploratory activity, spontaneous motor activity and swimming, climbing behavior in forced swimming test and did not alter other parameters. The preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of sterols, alkaloids, carbohydrates, saponins and flavonoids. The results of the present study indicated that the alcoholic extract may have active constituents with CNS depressant activity and at the given doses it is devoid of memory impairment and neurotoxicity.
470 ANALGESIC AND ANTIEMETIC ACTIVITIES OF FICUS EXASPERATA VAHL., AND CLEOME CILIATA SCHMACH AND THONN., Misbah Zubair, Syed Waseemuddin Ahmed, Salman Ahmed*, M.Shaiq Ali and Patrricia Akpomedaye Onocha
The present investigation is an attempt to evaluate analgesic and antiemetic activities of Ficus exasperata; Cleome ciliata leaves methanolic extract by using chick emesis model (oral treatment) and acetic acid induced writhing test (intraperitoneal treatment) in mice respectively. The antiemetic activity (150 mg/kg b.w., of extract) was carried out by using chlorpromazine (150mg/kg) as standard antiemetic drug. The analgesic activity (250 mg/kg b.w., of extract) was performed by using aspirin (150mg/kg) as standard analgesic drug. The results showed significant analgesic and antiemetic effects.
471 KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICE (KAP) TOWARDS DISPOSAL OF MEDICINES: A QUALITATIVE STUDY AMONG HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS IN SOUTH INDIA, Lagishetty Radhakrishna, Prabhu Nagarajan*, Suvidya Sushima Vijayanandhan, Thirumalaikolundusubramanian Ponniah
The main objective of this investigation is to explore knowledge, attitude and practice of Medical professionals (Doctors, Nurses) towards the safe disposal methods and the hazardous effects of improper disposal of pharmaceuticals. A qualitative interview study was conducted. Data was collected by face to face semi structured interview among Medical doctors, dental doctors and nurses. Data was analysed by conventional content analysis. The current study has evaluated the common disposal methods that are followed. It was ruled out by this study that, safe disposal methods for various categories of pharmaceuticals in an environment friendly route were less in practice and given less importance. This study emphasizes the need for proper disposal methods, to avoid the contamination of pharmaceutical waste in environment. Most of the interviewees suggested necessary action should have to be taken towards giving information, training, educating and making policies towards disposing the pharmaceuticals to minimise the risk.
472 SOCIAL IMPACT OF HAIR LOSS IN MEN AND ITS MANAGEMENT, Shahid Masood Raza, Daulat Haleem Khan, Musaddiq Hussain , Umair Ikram Dar, Muhammad Zaman, Izzatullah Khan, Muhammad Yasir Ali, Faiza Mumtaz, Rabia Munir
The study aims to evaluate the social impact of hair loss in men and the success of medical and surgical treatments for hair loss. Hair is considered as one of the most important and defining aspect of human appearance. Androgenetic alopecia or male pattern baldness (MPB) is responsible for the vast majority of hair loss in men. MPB sufferers actually inherit hair follicles with a genetic sensitivity to Dihydrotestosterone (DHT). A structured data collection form was designed with open and close ended questions and a retrospective study was conducted on 111 patients, aged between 18 to 65 years from March 28 th May 2 nd , 2012. After evaluation of data, it was found that MPB did have a negative effect on social lives of men. They became more depressed, introverted, less confident and in some way their career was affected too. The results showed that success rate of hair transplantation was more than medicines, as people were reluctant to use them. Minoxidil spray was used more than the finasteride tablets. Quality of life of patients was significantly improved. Role of Pharmacists was not very significant.The patients should be made aware of the existence of pharmacists as they can ensure rational use of medicines.
473 PELLETIZATION: A MOST SIGNIFICANT TECHNOLOGY IN THE PHARMACEUTICALS, Pathade Shriram Shankar*, Phadtare Dipti Ganesh, Saudagar Ravindra Bhanudas
Pelletization is an agglomeration process that converts fine powders or granules of bulk drugs and excipients into small, free flowing, spherical or semi spherical units, referred to as pellets. Pelletization is a technique that enables the formation of spherical beads or pellets with a mean diameter usually ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 mm. These pellets can eventually be coated and very often used in controlledrelease dosage forms. In present times, the Pelletization technologies are giving much attention as they represent an efficient pathway for manufacture of new drug delivery system .It has good advantage over the conventional dosage form as it leads to an improvement in flow ability, appearance and mixing properties thus avoiding for generation of excessive dust and reduces segregation and remove the undesirable properties and improve the physical and chemical properties of fine powder. The aim of this paper is to review some general aspects about pellets and Pelletization and some common techniques used in the pharmaceutical industry. Pellets are prepared by different techniques, such as extrusion and spheronization, rotogranulation, solution, suspension or powder layering, spray -drying or spray-congealing. Several other alternative methods are currently being developed, such as: hot-melt extrusion, freeze Pelletization, emulsion / solvent evaporati on, granulati on using foamed aqueous binders.
474 IDENTIFICATION OF CYMBOPOGON SPECIES BY USING RAPD TECHNIQUE, Parul Tripathi*, Dr. Aditi Singh
Cymbopogon species shows a wide variation in morphological attributes & oil composition at inter & intraspecific levels. Knowledge of germplasm diversity is very important for plant conservation & improvement, therefore there is an interest in determining the genetic diversity in Cymbopogon germplasm. Although, morphological traits may be used to access genetic diversity as they are strongly influenced by environmental conditions & show little variation at the intraspecific level. Therefore, molecular markers are used to obtain much reliable estimates of genetic diversity. Amongst them, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs have been widely employed for the identification of ancestors, cultivars & discerning the genomic diversity in Cymbopogons. However, RAPDs have some limitations as molecular markers, the most important is being poor reproducibility of the profiles across the laboratories. The objective of the present study is to analyse genetic relationship as well as diversity amongst the three species of cymbopogon (winterianus, citrates, martinii). The three specieses are collected from approximately same geographical region of India. DNA after isolation amplified with specific forward & reverse primers & RAPD was performed. The study showed minor level of genetic diversity, which may be because they were from approximately same geographical region.
475 EFFECT OF RAPHANUS SATIVUS ROOT EXTRACT ON GLUCOSE TOLERANCE IN GLUCOSE-LOADED HYPERGLYCEMIC MICE, Asaduzzaman, Prashanta Kumer Paul, Shahadat Hossan, Shahnaz Rahman, Mohammed Rahmatullah*
In oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), m ethanol extract of Raphanus sativus roots, when administered orally to glucose-loaded Swiss albino mice at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight led to dosedependent reductions in blood glucose levels. At these doses, the percent reductions in blood glucose levels were, respectively, 21.9, 34.0, 39.7, and 53.9% compared to control animals. A standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when administered at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight reduced blood glucose levels by 49.2%. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and saponins in the extract, which components can be responsible for the observed blood glucose lowering effect.
476 MICROWAVE SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF NOVEL METAL-COMPLEXES WITH SCHIFF BASE DIETHYL 5-AMINO 4-METHYL THIOPHENE 3,5-DICARBOXYLATE-2,6-DIACETYLPYRIDINE, Dr.Mohammed.Fakruddin Ali Ahamed.*, Dr.Venkatesan Jayakumar
A series of some Schiff base complexes of Cu(II),Ni(II),Cr(II),Co(II), with a penta-dentateSchiffs base Diethyl 5-amino 4-methyl thiophene 3,5-dicarboxylate -2,6- Diacetylpyridine(DAMT-DAP) has been synthesized under microwave conditions. The process is economical, easy, environment friendly and provides better yields of metal complexes in a shorter period of time. All the synthesized metal complexes and ligand were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, 1 H -NMR, IR and mass spectral data and study of antibacterial activity. The Schiff base and metal complexes displayed good activity against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and the fungi Aspergillusniger and Candida albicans. The antimicrobial results also indicated that the metal complexes displayed better antimicrobial activity as compared to the Schiff bases.
477 PREPARATION AND BIO-POTENTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF Zn(II), Cd(II) AND Hg(II) COMPLEXES WITH PHENYLACETYLUREA AND BENZOATE ION LIGANDS, A.Arunachalam*, T.Ramachandramoorthy, S.Padmavathy and R.Narendran
Phenylacetylurea (PAU) is a biologically active, neutral bidendate ligand. The present study deals wit h the microwave assisted preparation, physico-chemical, spectral and biological characterization of Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes containing PAU and benzoate ion (ben) ligands. The complexes were prepared by microwave irradiation technique. The molecular formulae of the complexes were arrived at from the estimation of metals and electrical conductivity values. The electronic spectral data confirm the entry of ligands into the coordination sphere of the metals. The antibacterial and anti fungal screening of the three complexes against the bacteria, viz., Raoultella planticola, Vibro cholera, Lactobacillus brevis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococus luteus and fungi, viz., Candida albicans, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus sojae were carried out. The results indicate that Hg(II) complex exhibits higher antibacterial activity against Raoultella planticola, Vibro cholera, Lactobacillus brevis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococus luteus than Zn(II) complex, Cd(II) complex and pure ligands. All the complexes show high antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus sojae. The diphenylpicrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity of the above three complexes are lower than the standard compound, vitamin-C.
478 EVALUATION OF ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIOXIDATIVE EFFECT OF SEED OF EUJENIA JAMBOLANA IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC MALE RAT, Kishalay Jana, Abhinandan Ghosh, Tushar Kanti Bera, Debidas Ghosh*
Present study focus on the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of seed of Eujenia jambolana (E. jambolana) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic male rats. Rats were divided into four groups (n=6), control, diabetic, ethyl acetate fraction treated (200 mg/kg body weight/day for 35 days) and glibenclamide treated (20 mg/kg body weight/day for 35 days) group. Fasting blood glucose levels (FBG) were measured of all animals. Important carbohydrate metabolic enzymes i.e. hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were measured in hepatic tissue. Serum insulin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA 1 C) and glycogen content also measure in hepatic and skeletal muscle tissue. For antioxidant activity we measured catalase (CAT), peroxidase (Px) superoxide dismutase (SOD) along with the quantification of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and conjugated diene (CD) in hepatic and renal tissue. Histological study of pancreatic tissue also evaluated. Serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) levels were measured for toxicity assessment. The FBG levels, serum insulin, HbA 1C, three carbohydrate metabolic enzymes activity and antioxidant enzymes along with lipid peroxidation end product were recovered significantly after fraction treatment in compare to untreated diabetic group. Degeneration of pancreatic islets cell were noted in untreated diabetic group, but after fraction treatment it was recovered towards the control animals. All results were compared with glibenclamide treated group, a standard antidiabetic drug. This study indicates that the ethyl acetate fraction of seed of E. jambolana is effective for the treatment of diabetes mellitus without any toxicity.
479 POTENT ULCER PROTECTIVE ACTION OF ANTIINFLAMMATORY HERBS: A SHORT REVIEW, Ramesh B. Nidavani*, Mahalakshmi AM, Mallappa Shalawadi
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune, symmetrical polyarticular disease that affects primarily the diarthrodial joints, which is characterized by chronic inflammation of the synovial joints. The measure antirheumatic drugs used in the treatment of RA are nonsteroidal anti -inflamammtory drugs (NSAIDs) DMADs, biological agents and others The NSAIDs utilized in treatment of inflammation are one the most widely used classes of drugs throughout the world, but their undesirable side effects on gastric mucosa and cardiovascular system are well known. However, NSAIDs, despite their great number, their therapeutic efficacy seems to be hampered by the presence of a number of undesired and often serious side effects. Recently, there has been much interest in natural medicines derived from the traditional knowledge of plant pharmacological properties. Large number of medicinal plants and dietary nutrients has been shown to poses gastro-protective activity and anti -inflammatory activity. Present study highlighting comprehensive review on herbal drugs showing both anti inflammatory and potent gastro-protective effect.
480 PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL IN FLORAL EXTRACTS OF CALENDULA OFFICINALIS LINN, Pawan Kumar Verma, Rajinder Raina*, M Sultana
Calendula officinalis Linn. (Compositae) commonly known as pot marigold is distributed throughout world as an ornamental plant. It also has long history of usage by folk systems because of rich ethanomedicinal values. Present study was aimed to determine phytochemical constituents endowed with antioxidant potential in floral extracts of C. officinalis. Ethanolic extract has significantly high (P
481 PIPERINE: DELIGHTFUL SURPRISE TO THE BIOLOGICAL WORLD, MADE BY PLANT PEPPER AND A GREAT BIOAVAILABILITY ENHANCER FOR OUR DRUGS AND SUPPLEMENTS., Mr. Vijay kumar Singh*, Preeti Singh, Ashutosh Mishra Anand Patel, Kamlesh KM Yadav
Several of the common spices consumed as food adjuncts to impart flavour, aroma and colour to foods are also documented to exhibit several health beneficial physiological effects1. The beneficial physiological effects of the black pepper (Piper nigrum) are incidentally attributable to their active principles piperine (the biting principle of black pepper)1. Piperine is a major ingredient of black pepper and long pepper, which are widely used as a spice and in Ayurvedic medicine. Piperine {[1-5-(1, 3)-benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-oxo-2, 4-pentadienyl]-piperidine}, an alkaloid responsible for the pungency of black pepper & long pepper. Systemic pharmacological studies on piperine have revealed that this compound elicited diverse pharmacological activities; analgesic, anti -pyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti -convulsant & CNS-depressant activities. Piperine {[1-5-(1, 3)-benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-oxo-2, 4-pentadienyl]-piperidine},an alkaloid responsible for the pungency of black pepper & long pepper. Systemic pharmacological studies on piperine have revealed that this compound elicited diverse pharmacological activities; analgesic, anti -pyretic, anti-inflammatory , anti -convulsant & CNS-depressant activities. Black pepper is used not only in human dietaries but also for a variety of other purposes such as medicinal, as a preservative, and in perfumery. Many physiological effects of black pepper, its extracts, or its major active principle, piperine, have been reported in recent decades. Dietary piperine, by favorably stimulating the digestive enzymes of pancreas, enhances the digestive capacity and significantly reduces the gastrointestinal food transit time.
482 SAPONIN AS ABSORPTION ENHANCER, Ashwini Kumar*, Mayank Bansal, Ashutosh Kumar Singh, Aashutosh Prasad
One of the important aim for the pharmaceutical industry is to optimize bioavailability of orally administered drug. Drug transport across mucosal membrane is a fundamental step for oral absorption. Class III and IV drugs of biopharmaceutical classification system, show low membrane permeability. Strategies such as, structural modification of the drug molecule to increase lipophilicity, prodrug method, formulating with permeation enhancer, ion pairing and complexation have been reported to enhance membrane permeation. In this article, we have reviewed the use of saponin as absorption/permeation enhancer. Saponin contains a steroidal or triterpenoid aglycon attached to one or more sugar chains. They exhibit membrane permeabilizing property. Saponin acts mainly by solubilising cholesterol and leaves much of membrane structure intact. Saponin can affect the integrity of biological membrane. By many examples of saponin viz. Gypsophylla saponin, saponin from Aralia elata, saponin from Phytolacca americana, saponin from Tribulus terrestris it may described.
483 BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF AZA-HETEROCYCLIC DERIVATIVES AND THEIR INTERMEDIATES, Erum Dilshad, Bushra Mirza*, Muhammad Shabbir, Zia-ul- Haq, Zareen Akhter
The objective of present study was to carry out biological evaluation of aza-heterocyclic derivatives including methoxy, phenoxy, alkyl and aryl derivatives of pyrazoles and their intermediates i.e. diketones. All of the compounds were evaluated to find their potential as antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitumor agents. Antimicrobial screening was done by finding the bactericidal and fungicidal activity of the test compounds using agar well diffusion and agar tube dilution methods. Antioxidant potential was examined by DPPH free radical scavenging and DNA damage assays. Whereas antitumor findings were based on the potato disc tumor assy. Among all the tested compounds, 2-(5-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-phenyl-1H- pyrazol-3-yl)phenol (IX), a pyrazole having three phenyl groups has shown the highest antimicrobial, antitumor, and DNA protective activity while the compound 1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(2 methoxyphenyl)propane-1,3-dione (I) has shown the best antioxidant potential. Data obtained from these experiments indicated the possible biological activities of these compounds and enabled us to compare these compounds as antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitumor agents. On the basis of these findings, efforts for the pharmacological applications of these heterocyclic compounds can be initiated.
484 A REVIEW ON CHEBULINIC ACID FROM MEDICINAL HERBS, Surya Prakash DV and Meena Vangalapati*
Chebulinic acid is a phenolic compound found in the fruits of Terminalia chebula (Haritaki), Phyllanthus emblica (Amla) and seeds of Dimocarpus longan (Longan) species etc. Its also known as 1,3,6-Tri-O-galloyl-2,4-chebuloyl-?-D-glucopyranoside. Chebulinic acid is extracted from the medicinal herbs using soxhlet extractor, column chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) etc. It showed many pharmacological activities including inhibition of cancer cell growth like human leukemia K562 cells, colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cell lines, anti-neisseria gonorrhoeae activity, inhibiting the contractile responses of cardiovascular muscles activities etc.
485 ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF JELLYFISH, CHRYSAORA QUINQUECIRRHA (DESOR 1848) FROM VELLAR ESTUARY, SOUTHEAST COAST OF INDIA, Suganthi Krishnan*, Perumal Pachiappan, Tufail Ahmed Mazharbasha and Keerthana Ranganathan
Background: Marine organisms are considered to be an inexhaustible source of chemical compounds that produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. Scyphozoan jellyfishes have become an important target for the biotechnology industry because of the large number of bioactive compounds recently discovered from them. Objective: The present investigation pertains to the evaluation of the anticancer activity of extracts of jellyfish Chrysaora quinquecirrha, collected from Vellar estuary, South east coast of India. Methodology: The nematocyst extracts of tentacles of jellyfish were characterized for protein contents and their anticancer potential was determined on human lung cancer cell lines (A549) with 205.0 g GI50 . Results: The study showed that the extracted peptides could be amino acid residues (secondary amides) which might be responsible for the anticancer potential on human lung cancer cell lines (A549). Conclusions: Marine organisms are considered to be an inexhaustible source of chemical compounds that produce a wide variety of biologically active secondary metabolites. Scyphozoan jellyfishes have become an important target for the biotechnology industry because of the large number of bioactive compounds recently discovered from them. This paper focuses on the anticancer potential of marine species with certain pharmaceutical interest, which could confer anticancer activity.
486 QUESTIONING HOMEOPATHY, Dr. Dinesh Kumar Jain*, Dr. Rajkumar Arya
Hahnemann introduces the practice of Homeopathy in the early 19 th century in reaction against Allopathy. After review of all Homeopathic principles on the basis of present medical knowledge, it has been found that they are illogical, irrational and not in accordance with the Knowledge and available criterias of scientific therapeutic system. The aim of my work is to find truth. The aim of my work is to protect poor and uneducated people from dangerous consequences of Homeopathy because people ignore advantageous medical science. The aim of my work is to remove illogical and wrong concept from science. The aim of my work is to help in evolution of knowledge. If Homeopathy is accurate then costly modern Allopathy should be replaced by Homeopathy. India is a poor country then why we have accepted costly Allopathy? If Homeopathy is wrong and treatment of diseases is not possible by Homeopathy, then it should be banned and it is no use to expend money and time on Homeopathy.
487 AN UPDATED REVIEW ON PITYRIASIS ALBA, Sripada Ramam*, Bondada Neelima, Bonam Jyothi, Bondada Bharatha Pushya Raja Sanjay, Magharla Dasaratha Dhana Raju, Gudimetla Lilli Sailaja.
Pityriasis Alba (P. Alba) is a relatively common skin disorder characterized by the presence of fine scaly hypo pigmented macules or patches. It was first described by fox in 1923. He was unable to account for its pathogenesis and kept unnamed for many years. There was no gender variability for this skin disorder and was prevalent all over the world. The exact etiology of P. Alba is not known. Lesions are usually oval or round or irregular in shape with red or pink or skin coloured and may ranges from 4-20 in number. They are often characterized by hypo pigmented patches with 0.5-6cms in diameter. Spongiosis, acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis are the histological findings that can be observed during diagnosis. Low potency topical steroids like Hydrocortisone (0.5%) and (1%), Desonide (0.05%), Tacrolimus (0.1%), Pimecrolimus (1%), Calcitriol (0.0003%), Sorbityl furfural palmitate cream, Elidel, Lac-Hydrin, Zetar (2%) in Cordran cream, Vioform cream (1%) were found to be effective in treating this disorder. Treatment with 308nm excimer laser twice a week for 12 weeks is also an effective treatment approach. Patients should be strictly advised not to expose to harsh sunlight. Lesions become prominent in sun exposure so in order to reduce the discrepancy, sunscreen creams or lotions are recommended. In some circumstances, P. Alba remained mysterious to understand because of no exact etiology, histological pattern and effective treatment approaches. Hence there is an urgent need for the evaluation of etiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and effective therapeutic plans to provide better patient care for individuals with P. Alba.
488 EMERGENCE OF SENSITIVITY OF CO-TRIMOXAZOLE IN URINARY TRACT INFECTION, Dr. Dinesh Kumar Jain*, Dr. RajKumar Arya, Dr. K.P.Ranjan, Dr. Neelima Ranjan
Antibiotic cycling is a process of planned antibiotic restriction, which improves antibiotic effectiveness. Limited use of co-trimoxazole in clinical practice is responsible for increased effectiveness of cotrimoxazole in Escherichia coli and Klebseilla spp in urinary tract infections. The retrospective study supports this concept. This study concludes that sensitivity of Escherichia coli and Klebseilla spp to cotrimoxazole has been increased.
489 PREVALENCE AND PROPERTIES OF PREGNANT WOMEN WITH LOW PREGNANCY ASSOCIATED PLASMA PROTEIN A (PAPP-A) IN THE FIRST TRIMESTER SCREENING, Zeinab Zamanpur, Mojgan Barati*, Razieh Mohamad Jafari , Sara Masihi, Najmieh Saadati
Background and Aims: Pregnancy associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) is a large glycoprotein which is produced by the placenta and deciduas. It is supposed that PAPP-A serves to prevent the recognition of the fetus by the maternal immune system. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the prevalence of low PAPP -A in the first trimester among screened population of pregnant women as well as their properties. Materials and Methods: This retrospective medical record reviews study was performed on the 137 singleton pregnant women with PAPP-A
490 EXPERIMENTAL CHRONIC TUBERCULO-TYPHOID EXPOSURE IN A LAPIAN IMMUNE EVALUATION MODEL II: CUMULATED EFFECT, *Dr. Ibrahim M.S. Shnawa, Dr. Zainab Khudhur Ahmed Al-Mahdi
Aim of the Study: To evaluate the possible influences of chronic cumulated exposure to lower concentrations of tuberculin on the immune response to typhoid antigen in a lapin model. Methods: Residual tuberculin concentration of 0.00005 ,0.0005, 0.005 and 0.05 IU were nasally applied through aerosolizer in a week wise manner to ten newzeland white rabbits, five of which were left four days t hen immunized with S. typhi O antigen (group I). The other five however were left as such for one more week (Group II). Ten other neuzland white rabbits were equally subdivided in to S. typhi immunized rabbits (Group III) and saline injected rabbits as control (Group IV). A set of immune function test were performed to the four groups of these rabbits. Result: The cumulated tuberculin exposure (Group II) lead to increase of NBT neutrophil phagocytosis ; significant LIF percentage; E.rossete count; IL-1?, IL-12 and IL-10 but not IL-4 and skin DTH. While combined Tuberculo-Typhoid exposure (Group I) lead to increase in NBT, E.rosette and IgM anti S. typhi O but not DTH. Both of the exposure modalities shifts cytokine balance towards proinflammatory cytokines. Conclusion: The major immune feature of these exposure modalities was: 1- Immunomodulation, 2-T-Cell competition, 3-Cytokine unbalance and 4- inhibition of IgM class switching to IgG.
491 THE EVALUATION OF DRUG RELATED PROBLEMS (DRPs) OF THE TUBERCULOSIS (TB) PATIENTS AT THE LUNG DISEASE WARD IN THE INSTALLATION OF STAYED CARING OF CENTRAL GENERAL HOSPITAL PERSAHABATAN (RSUP PERSAHABATAN), *Diana Laila Ramatillah, Siti Suhartini, Noviani Nongkang, Syahrul Tuba, Candra Junaedi, Mumar, Aprilita Rinayanti
Indonesia was the country that has the tuberculosis patients placed on the 3 rd most in the world after India and China, it was supposed that there are about 10% of the TB patients from whole TB patient in the world 3 . Tuberculosis was the disease which was caused by the infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and it becomes the main health problem of the people in indonesia 3 . This research aimed for knowing the number and percentage of Drug Related Problems (DRPs) which was occurred to the patients of TB at lungs diseases ward at IRIN RSUP Persahabatan. This research was descriptively, the collecting of the data has been done prospectively to 8 patients with the patient criteria of TB diagnose and had been stayed caring at the lungs diseases ward of RSUP Persahabatan. The data was taken on March 2014. The identification of Drug Related Problem (DRP) related with the choice of the drugs that was not Appropriate, it had been done through the discussion and the clinicians. The analysis of the data had bee n done descriptively. The result shows that the problem of the choosing of the inappropriate drugs happened on 42 cases. This problem including the drugs without the indication was 8 cases, there was the indication without the drugs that was 5 cases, the dose of the drugs was too high that was 1 cases, the dose of the drugs was too low that was 6 cases, the inappropriate of choosing the drugs that was 3 cases, undesirable of the drugs reaction that was 4 cases, the drugs interaction that was 7 cases and the failure of the patient in receiving the drugs was 8 cases. In reducing the Drug Related Problems (DRPs) on the patient of TB at lungs diseases problem need the improvement of the active functioning of the pharmacists and also the cooperation between the medical experts in giving the health service.
492 DRUG RELATED PROBLEMS IN THE TUBERCULOSIS PATIENT AT THE PERSAHABATAN HOSPITAL (RSUP PERSAHABATAN), *Diana Laila Ramatillah, Siti Suhartini, Aprilita Rinayanti
Tuberculosis is the critical infection or chronic which is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria 6 . This infection is obtained from an individual who contracted TB active through the air (airborne) 6. The patient, Mrs. EN. Age 44 years old, entered RSUP Persahabatan on the 10 th of March 2014 with the diagnosed CAP (Community Aquired Pneumonia). TB lungs BTA (+) LLKPO (Lesi wide case drug break) DM type II was not controlled and dyspepsia syndrome. The medical therapy during the treatment was 4FDC, sukralfat, ceftriaxon, ranitidin, streptomisin, humalog and levemir. Based on the result of the clinic secretariat at the ward of lungs disease in RSUP Persahabatan, it could be concluded that there were DRPs (Drug Related Problems) such as the correlation between the medical therapy and the clinical condition such as the reduction of appetite , hipertrigliserida and hipoalbuminemia (indication without the medicine), the regimen of dose which was not appropriate in used of ranitidin dan sukralfat (the dose of the medicine is too low), the medicine interaction (rifampisin and INH; INH and ethambutol; rifampisin and pyrazinamide; INH dan pyrazinamide) and the failure of the patient in receiving the medicine.
493 IMPACT OF SUB-INHIBITORY CONCENTRATIONS OF AMOXICILLIN ON HELICOBACTER PYLORI VIRULENCE FACTORS, Fabiana C Donofrio*, Maria Stella G Raddi, Iracilda Z Carlos, Elaine T Miranda, Danielle C G Maia, Jenifer Ferrezini, Mariana Fioramonte, Emanuel Carrilho, Fbio C Gozzo
Helicobacter pylori are etiological factor of human acute and chronic gastritis. Critical host responses that influence the progression to H. pylori-induced carcinogenesis include gastric inflammation. This study was conducted to evaluate whether subinhibitory concentrations of amoxicillin can affect H. pylori-induced cytokines by RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. In addition, a proteomic approach was used to compare H. pylori protein expression profiles under amoxicillin treatment. H. pylori ATCC 43504 was cultured with or without amoxicillin at subinhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs). The cytokines (IL 1-?, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-?) released by infected RAW 264.7 cells were quantified by a sandwich immunoassay. Differential protein analysis of H. pylori was performed using 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by mass spectrometry and the sequences were searched against the SWISS-PROT data bank. Pre-treatment H. pylori with sub-MIC of amoxicillin increased IL-1? and IL-12 production by RAW 264.7 cells. Proteomics analyses of proteins revealed that the sub-MIC treatment affected the expression of several classes of proteins. Among the nine most over expressed proteins included heat shock proteins, superoxide dismutase, enolase, ATP synthase alpha subunit, neutrophil activating protein and argininosuccinate synthase. The results shown in the present work indicate that sub-MICs of amoxicillin can induce specific changes on the cell wall proteins and behavior of susceptible H. pylori that can contribute to the pathogenesis of the bacterium.
494 STUDY ON RAMADAN FASTING TOWARDS LIPID PROFILES AND TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT STATUS (TAS) AMONG HIGHER INSTITUTION LEARNING CENTRE STAFFS, *Mohd Adzim Khalili, R., Zetty Hulwany, M.Z., Norhayati, A.H. Mohd Nasir, M.N., Muralidara, D.V and Intan Suhana Munira, M.A
Objective:The study was conducted to determine the changes of lipid profile and total antioxidant status (TAS) before, during and after Ramadan fasting among staffs in Institute of Higher Education, UniSZA. Methods:A total of 46 subjects were recruited (31% males and 69% females) ranging from the age of 25 to 40 years old. Information about socio-demographic data was obtained via questionnaire. Lipid profile and TAS were determined using Olympus AU-400 analyser machine and Cayman?s Antioxidant Assay kit respectively. Results:The changes were detected in TC value, TG value, HDL- C value, and LDL- C value before, during and after Ramadan fasting. The TC value has shown significant changes at T2, T3 and T4 (p< 0.05). However, TG value was significantly changed only at T3 (p = 0.31). There was no significant difference in HDL-C value except the value was recorded to increase significantly at T3 (p=0.22). In contrast, significant changes in LDL- C was noted at T4 (p =0.01). TAS reading has shown no significant changes towards these three distinctive periods. However, there was significant difference of TAS value between male and female at T1 (p = 0.03). Conclusions:Ramadan fasting provides various information in evaluating lipid profile. This is hoped to help health professionals to construct strategic dietary intake during Ramadan.
495 IN VITRO EFFECTIVITY PARA METHOXY CINNAMATE ACID (PMCA) IN SOLID LIPID NANOSTRUCTURE (SLN) SYSTEM USING CETYL ALCOHOL AS LIPID FORMULATED IN HPC-H GEL BASE, Noorma Rosita*, Widji Soeratri, Tristiana Erawati, Ayunanda, Wakhida Fitriyani
Introduction: In vitro effectivity of solid lipid nanostructure (SLN) as carrier system has been studied on para methoxy cinnamate acid (PMCA) as a means of releasing PMCA and penetrating to prolong antiinflamasi preparation. Methods: SLN was made using cetyl alcohol as lipid and Tween 80 as stabilizer, produced by high shear homogenisatian (HPH) method. SLN was then formulated in HPC-H 3% gel base. Release study were conducted in phosphat buffer medium pH 7,40,05 at 32C and stirred at 100 rpm using apparatus type 5-paddle overdisk. Penetration study were investigated in same medium at 37C by using Wistar male rat skin 2-3 month age and weight 115-180 gram, as a membrane. Results: Both PMCA released and penetrated PMCA concentration was measured spectrophotometrically at 286 nm as ? max. Spherical SLNAPMS with particle size of 26-265 nm and 64.86% drug entrapment were produced. PMCASLN had pH 3,790,05 in HPC-H gel. In vitro release and penetration study were investigated using PMCA only (F-I), PMCA in macroemulsion (F-II) and PMCA-SLN (F-III) which was formulated in gel HPC-H. PMCA which was dispersed in gel had largest release and higher penetration, followed by PMCA in macroemulsion and lastly PMCA-SLN. Release flux for formula PMCA only, PMCA in Macroemulsion and PMCA-SLN were 62,6969 1,33; 48,7949 1,07 and 27,4652 0,84 g/cm2/second- , whereas penteration flux were 0,3065 0,1470; 0,1795 0,0634 and 0,2925 0,0996 g/cm2/second1 for formula I, II and III respectively. Conclusion: SLN system has been able to retard released and penetrated PMCA.
496 DRUG RELATED PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH THE TREATMENT FOR CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE (CHF) AND ACUTE MIOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN PGI CIKINI HOSPITAL, *Aprilita Rina Yanti, Muhammad Ashar Muslimin and Diana Laila
Congestive Heart failure (CHF) is the condition where the heart gets the failure to pump out the blood. The deviation of this heart function is caused by the coronary atherosclerosis that disturb the cardiac contraction through the miocard infarct and iskemia. The patient Mr. AS, age 55 years old entered the PGI Hospital Cikini on 9 th of February 2014 with the chronic miocard infarct diagnose (coronary heart disease), Congestive Heart Failure, breathless, sweety, sleep disorders, get tired easily, nause, vomiting, and swelling on feet. Patient has treated with heparin, KSR, Digoxin, ranitidine, ascardia, lactulac, plavix and durefo for hospitalized. Basically, there are 2 interventions that have been done during the clerking of this patient, those are inappropriate dosage regimen (the dose is too low) and drug interaction (ranitidin and ascardia; durefo and digoxin; plavix and heparin; heparin and ascardia; digoxin and ascardia; plavix and digoxin).
497 DRUG RELATED PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH THE TREATMENT FOR SEVERE ANEMIA WITH KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION'S HISTORY IN PGI CIKINI HOSPITAL, Aprilita Rina Yanti*, Karmadina Oswanty and Diana Laila
Anemia is a condition that develops when blood lacks enough healthy red blood cells or hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is a main part of red blood cells and binds oxygen. Anemia may also be diagnosed where there is decreased oxygen-binding ability of each hemoglobin molecule due to deformity or lack in numerical development as in some other types of hemoglobin (Hb) deficiency. Mr. PA, 72 years old was diagnosed with severe anemia. This diagnosis based on examination of Hb that is very low at 5,29/dL (normal 12-14 g/dL). Patients have had a kidney transplant in 2004 and also had type 2 diabetes , until now he is still using insulin. During hospitalized, he has received 17 types of drugs, those were Claforan (cefotaxime), Folic Acid, Neurobion 5000, Rocer (omeprazole), Imuran (azathioprine), Urdahex (ursodeoksilat acid), Kalmethason (dexamethasone), Actrapid (insulin), Normal Saline 0,9%, Mycostatin (nystatin), Myfortic (mucophenolic acid), Cavit D3, Calcium gluconas, Cefixime, Cetirizine, Codipront, and Heparin. Giving many drugs (polypharmacy) certainly is not recommended, but in this case the treatment according to the patient condition. Based on the result of the clinic secretariat at the ward of K in PGI Cikini Hospital, it could be concluded that there was DRPs (Drug Related Problems) such as drug interaction, adverse drug, improper drug selection, and untreated indications. Adverse Drug Reactions was caused by concomitant administration of immunosuppressant drugs that Imuran, Myfortic and Kalmethason. Use of these drugs may suppress excessive immune responses to facilitate the onset of infection and candidiasis. Using erythropoietininjection is essential for the treatment of cases of severe anemia.
498 ACUTE TOXICOLOGY AND NEUROBEHAVIORAL STUDIES ON A NEW 7-AZAINDOLE DERIVATIVE, Nausheen H Siddiqui, Arshad Arain, Zafar .S.Saify, Iqbal Azher, Shazia Haider and Zafar A Mahmood*
In view of the biological significance of 7-Azaindole containing compounds, we report the synthesis and the evaluation of 1-methhyl -4-{1H-pyrrol [2, 3-b] pyridine-3-yl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (A 1 ) for acute toxicological effects and neurobehavioral studies using animal module. The compound 1-methhyl -4-{1H-pyrrol [2, 3-b] pyridine-3-yl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (A 1 ) was synthesized in laboratory and subjected to acute toxicological observations. The compound was investigated with emphasis to determine the LD50 and to observe neurobehavioral effects in rats and mice. Six dose levels, i.e., 10, 25, 50, 75,100 and 125 mg/kg for rats was selected for the animal model. The LD50 was determined by Arthmatic method of Karber. Prominent signs and symptoms of toxicity was observed. Data plotted using functional observation battery method indicated increase in severity with the increase of dose. The study revealed that 1-methhyl -4-{1H-pyrrol [2, 3-b] pyridine-3-yl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (A 1 ), a 7-Azaindole compound as neurotoxic.
499 COMPARISION OF INVITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIFFERENT CRUDE PAKISTANI HONEY SAMPLES AND COMMERCIALS ANTIBITOTICS AGAINST CLINICAL PATHOGENS, *Samiyah Tasleem, Syed Baqir Shyum.Naqvi,
Honey is a natural medicinal substance, has been applied since ancient times as a natural remedy of various aliments and diseases. It is valued to possess antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity. The object of the present study was to determine the invitro antimicrobial activity of different honeys samples belonging to Pakistani floral sources against certain clinical pathogens and to compared with commercial antibiotics. For the investigation of antimicrobial activity ten different floral sources Apis mellifera honey samples (09 = Mix flora, 11= Gossypium species, 13= Phoenix dactylifera, 35= Salvadora persica, 39= Mangifera indica, 46= Acacia, 56= Carissa opaca, 58= Helianthus annuus, 59= Zizyphus, 65= Medicago sativa) were used, harvested during 2003 - 04 and 2004 - 05. The antimicrobial activity of honey samples were evaluated by ICLS (formerly NCCLS) reference Disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method against recently isolated most common six Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium diptheriae), eleven Gramnegative (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteries, Salmonella typhi, Salmonella typhi para A, Salmonella typhi para B, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Enterobacter species, Pseudomonas aerugenosa) bacteria and one Fungus (Candida albicans),commonly encountered in human infections. Most of the samples of honey used in the study exhibited broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and promising antifungal activity. The results indicated that activity was present in all the honey samples. Comparison of crude honey samples with the existing commercial antibiotics was also carried out, in all cases the honey samples were found comparable to antibiotics used in the study.
500 PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LUTEIN: A REVIEW, Ammayappan Rajam Srividya*, Vaithiyalingam Jagannathan Vishnuvarthan
Lutein is along with ?-carotene, one of the most widely distributed carotenoids in fruits and vegetables frequently consumed by different populations. Chemically lutein is the dihydroxy derivative of ?-carotene presenting two hydroxyl group at the terminal rings of the molecules. Lutein plays an important role in Prevention of HypoxiaInduced Cell Damage in the Eye, in Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD), in Diabetic Retinopathy, in Retinal Detachment, Lutein in the Lens and in the Uvea. Lutein has become known as the eye vitamin and its dietary intake is important in maintaining its concentration in human lens and retina. It also gives protection to the skin against UV light radiations and cancer. Lutein had an Inhibitory effect on Epstein-Barr virus activation in tumor activity to suppress the tumor promotion. Lutein showed the anti-tumor promoting activities in mouse two-stage skin carcinogenesis and decreased the number of aberrant crypt foci in rat colon. Lutein suppressed tumorigenesis in skin and colon in mice.
501 INTEGRATED IMMINENT WIDE SCIENTIFIC POTENTIAL FROM TROPICAL WEEDY MEDICINAL PLANT OF TEPHROSIA PURPUREA (LINN.) PERS. AN OVERVIEW, *S. Sujatha and Briska Renuga
Tephrosia purpurea (L.) pers a well-known plant of Indian and Chinese traditional system of medicines, commonly known as Sarapunkha has drawn attention of researchers in recent times. The weedy plant of T. purpurea native to east India Wild Indigo grows as common wasteland weed. Mainly it has been used as a traditionally folk medicine. This review deals with the key bioactive compounds and the role of medicinal value in various aspects of medicine in India and their earlier investigations. It has also been used traditionally in many parts of the world for its innumerable medicinal properties but still its identity as a medicinal plant is not established. To date, several flavonoids, Isoflavonoids, tannins and protein fractions have been isolated from its different parts and their medicinal uses have been established, but many bioactive constituents and pure compounds have so far been neglected by phytochemists and pharmacologists and a large amount of work has been done only on extracts and not the isolated fractions which shows scope for further study in this direction. Since there has been an increasing demand for the Phytopharmaceutical products need frm of Ayurvedic industries in all the countries because allopathic drugs have more side effects. Many pharmaceutical companies are now concentrating on manufacturing of Ayurvedic Phytopharmaceutical products. Ayurveda is the Indian traditional system of medicine, which also deals about pharmaceutical science. T. purpurea the principal bioactive chemical constituent of the plant has shown credible anticancer, anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, Antihelminthic activity, antidiabetic, antimalarial potentially in various investigations around the globe. This paper contains brief explanation about active constituent and pharmacological activity of tropical weedy plant T. purpurea. Different type of plant parts used for the Ayurvedic formulation; overall out line of those herbal scenario and its future prospects for the scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used by traditional healers are also discussed. In India most of them, where Ayurvedic treatment is frequently used, for their ailments and provides instructions to local people how to prepare medicine from the herbs. As much as possible importance is also given for the taxonomic literature.
502 A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF PARTS OF MUCUNA PRURIENS USED AS AN AYURVEDIC MEDICINE, S. C. Verma1*, E. Vashishth, R.Singh, P. Pant and M. M. Padhi
Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. belongs to the family Fabaceae is commonly known as Velvet bean, Cowitch, Cowhage in English and Kawaanch, Kavach in Hindi. It is mainly distributed in Asia, Africa, Pacific Islands and the United State. M. pruriens has been of keen interest in phytochemical and Ayurvedic research due to its excellent medicinal values. Traditionally it is used in treating diseases such as arthritis, anxiety, cancer, cough, diarrhoea, dysentery, diabetes, dysmenorrhea, delirium, gonorrhoea, gout, impotency and sexual debility, muscular pain, parasitic infections, Parkinson's disease, rheumatic disordersas an analgesic and antipyretic, to induce vomiting, to treat snakebite and scorpion stings, sterility ,tuberculosis etc. The plant exhibit wide array of phytoconstituents like alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and phenolic compounds which are responsible for varied potent physiological and pharmacological activities. This review is in a narrative format and consists of publications relevant to M. pruriens available in public doman.
503 SMART POLYMERS: A SMART APPROACH TO DRUG DELIVERY, *Supriya Shidhaye, Farheen Badshah, Nikhita Prabhu, Priyank Parikh
Stimuli-responsive or smart? polymers are macromolecules that display a significant physiochemical change in response to small changes in their environment such as temperature, pH, light, magnetic field, ionic factors, etc. The uniqueness of smart polymers lies in their non-linear response triggered by a very small stimulus. These materials are able to sense a small change (stimulus) in their environment, respond to it, and then return to their original shape/state when the stimulus is removed. This review article focuses on smart polymers that respond to temperature, pH, enzymes, as well as polymers that respond to multiple stimuli.
504 PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT STEM CELLS: REDEFINING THE FUTURE OF TISSUE REGENERATION, *Dr. Deepthi Cherian and Dr. M.M Dayakar
The goal of periodontal therapy is the arrest of periodontal disease progression and regeneration of structures that are lost to disease. Osseous grafting and Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) are widely used techniques. The success of these approaches has been limited as a result of insufficient biocompatibility, resorption of bone and donorsite morbidity. Tissue engineering provides an alternative approach to current treatments. It regenerates living and functional dental structures. A critical component of it is the choice of stem cell population. Stem cells are the cells that are capable of self replicating and are able to differentiate into atleast two different types of cells. In dental structures, mesenchymal stem cells are obtained from the dental pulp , gingiva, dental follicle and periodontal ligament. Stem cells of periodontal ligament are activated following damage to the periodontium. They undergo terminal differentiation into ligament forming cells which secure the connections between the cementum and the adjacent alveolar bone. Periodontal ligament cells were found to generate clonogenic adherent cell colonies. Differentiation assays suggests that these cells exhibit unique properties compared with other mesenchymal stem cells. In this article an overview of periodontal ligament stem cells and its potential for use in periodontal regeneration is discussed.
505 EUPHORBIA HIRTA LINN - A REVIEW ON TRADITIONAL USES, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY, Asha.S, Deevika.B, Mohamad Sadiq.A*
Euphorbia hirta Linn. is a small herb, belongs to family Euphorbiaceae , distributed throughout the hotter part of India, often found in waste places along the roadsides. The plant parts are widely used in traditional system of medicines, in the treatment of respiratory diseases, gastrointestinal disorders, wound healing, pulmonary disorders, urinogenital disorders, tumors, lactation in women etc. The plant has also been used as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antidiabetic and free radical scavenging, anti allergic, analgesic and antianaphylactic, antioxytic, sedative, antiarthritic, antidiarrhoeal, spasmogenic, antithrombocytopenic, diuretic, GI tract, burn wound healing, immune stimulatory, sperm motility, genotoxic, synergic, antiviral, antihelmentic, immunoprohylatic, antimalarial, antimicrobial, herbicidal, antimolluscidal, larvicidal property and so on. In this report we explore investigations related to taxonomy, monographs, distribution, morphology, phytochemistry, traditional uses and pharmacological uses of the plant.
506 FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: AN APPROACH TO GASTRO RETENTION, Rupali S.Wagh*, Poonam A. Salunke, Sheetal V.Patil, Shital S. Patil, Amit Ratnaparkhi, Mayur Pawar, Swati Rathod,
The oral route of drug administration is the most convenient and commonly used method of drug delivery. Floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) have a bulk density lower than gastric fluids and thus remain buoyant in the stomach for a prolonged period of time without affecting the gastric emptying rate. While the system is floating on the gastric contents the drug is released slowly at a desired rate from the system. After the release of drug, residual system is emptied from the stomach. This result in increase in the gastric residence time and a better control of fluctuation in plasma drug concentration. Gastric emptying is a complex process and makes in vivo performance of the drug delivery systems uncertain. In order to avoid this variability, efforts have been made to increase the retention time of the drug- delivery systems for more than 12 hours. Several approaches are utilized in prolongation of the gastro retention time. In this review, the current technological developments of FDDS and Pharmaceutical basis of their design, advantages and future potential are discussed. In addition marketed products have been discussed.
507 COMMUNITY ASSOCIATED METHICILLIN RESISTANT S.aureus (CA-MRSA) INFECTIONS, Javid Ahmad Bhat*, Rajesh Kumar Tenguria
Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium commonly found on the skin, axillae, perineum, and in the nares of healthy individuals. At least 30% of the population may permanently or intermittently carry S. aureus. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common and important pathogen, responsible for the majority of nosocomial infections. S.aureus is an opportunistic bacterium, normally, part of the human micro-flora but, attacks immediately when the immune system of the host becomes susceptible. MRSA associated with healthcare has posed a major problem throughout the world. The recent rapid rise of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) has further added to the burden of MRSA infections. Thus, attention has been increasingly focused on the severity and frequency of infections caused by MRSA, and its greater clinical and economic impact compared to methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Infections caused by communityacquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) have become epidemic over the last decade. Treatment of infections caused by this organism is problematic due to its resistance to many drugs. Recent reports of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) infections in patients with no known risk factors have serious public health implications. Therapeutic options for these infections are untested; therefore, the potential exists for high morbidity and mortality.
508 PROCESS VALIDATION OF PARENTERAL FORMULATION, Sudarshan Kakad*, Kiran Wale, Mahesh Balsane, Dr.K.S.Salunkhe, Dr.S.R Chaudhari
To validate the reproducibility and consistency of a process, the full defined process is carried out using validated equipment, under the established procedure usually at least 3 times. The process must successfully and consistently meet all acceptance criteria each time, to be considered a validated process. The objective of study is to systemically conduct the validation study pertaining to manufacturing activities of parenteral preparation & confirm that the product manufacture with the present method consistently meets the predetermined specifications and quality attributes. The validation of the reproducibility & consistency of the process is carried out using validated equipment under established procedure usually at least three times. The process must successfully & consistently meet all acceptance criteria each time, to be considered a validated process. Worst case conditions are used for the validation to ensure that the process is acceptable in the extreme case. Sometimes worst case conditions for systems can only really be tested over time & hence must be evaluated using a long term monitoring.
509 NICULA (BARRINGTONIA ACUTANGULA LINN. GAERTN.): A PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW, Nirmal Kumar*, Shivani Ghildiyal, Anil Kumar Singh
Medicinal plants are widely used by the traditional medicinal Practitioners for curing various diseases in their day to day practice. A large number of plants are equally used by tribals and folklore tradition in India. Nicula (Barringtonia acutangula (Linn.) Gaertn.) is a medicinal plant which is use in several diseases. It is commonly known as Nicula, Hijjala, Vidul etc. Hijjala is used as a folk medicine as a remedy for diarrhoea, amoebic dysentery, worm infestation and gastrointestinal disorders. Present researches have been evaluated antioxidant, anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, anthelmintic, hepatoprotective, anti-diarrheal and wormicidal activity in this plant. These research studies support the use of this plant for uman and animal disease therapy and reinforce the importance of the ethno-botanical approach as a potential source of bioactive substances.
510 SAFETY MARGIN OF COSMETICS: A REVIEW, Praveen Nasa*
Cosmetics are daily used products. Everybody use cosmetics in one or other forms. Almost all of the cosmetics used by humans caused a lot of adverse effects. These adverse effects are mainly due to the ingredients added in the cosmetics. These ingredients are mainly added as preservative, stabilizer, fragrance and coloring agent. But these ingredients entered into the body by penetrating the skin. However the serious adverse effects occurred on long term use of these ingredients. These adverse effects mainly includes cancer and organ system toxicity. The main classes of cosmetics which have low margin safety include: shampoos, hair dye, lotions, nail polishes, facial makeup etc.
511 HOMALIUM ZEYLANICUM BENTH: AN ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW, Tekuri Manoj Kumar, Krishna KL*, Ramesh B. Nidavani
Plant Homalium zeylanicum Benth. (H. zeylanicum) belongs to Flacourtiaceae, of habitat evergreen and semi-evergreen forests, native to South India and Srilanka. The various parts of plant including, bark and leaf having many traditional uses, mainly in diabetes, rheumatism and wound healing. A variety of phytoconstituents are identified and isolated from the H. zeylanicum which includes mainly, homalicine, dihydrohomalicine, vacciniin, homaloside A, homaloside D, () 5'-methoxyisolariciresinol-3?-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, (+) lyoniresinol-3?-O-?-D -glucopyranoside, (+) isolarisiresinol-3?-O-?-D -glucopyranoside, () isolarisiresinol-3?-O-?-D -glucopyranoside, icariside E5, 3-phenylisocoumarin, friedelin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, catechol, methyl-?-arabinofuranoside, and uridine. Anthelimintic, anti-diabetic, antidyslipidemic and hepatoprotective activities are reported by various extracts of H. zeylanicum. An overview and details of the ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of H. zeylanicum is presented in this review.
512 REVIEW ON POTENTIAL PLANT BASED DRUGS FOR MEMORY ENHANCER, Ramji Gupta*, Arshad Parwez, Sokindra Kumar, Saurabh Kumar Vind, Surya Prakash Singh
Many herbal plants are used now a day for various purposes. There extensive used is mainly due to their less toxic effect in comparison of other synthetic drugs, there are a number of preparation are present in the market like creams, tonics, tablets, capsules etc. One of the great achievements of herbal drugs is to improve the learning and memory. Memory is the ability of a human individual to record the information and recall it at later when needed. Several diseases such as dementia, Alzheimers disease in which memory progressively decreases over period of time. The herbal drugs or their extracts are used to improve the memory by different ways. They decrease the activity of AchE enzyme and hence increase in cholinergic activity which causes the improvement in learning and memory. Many herbal drugs act as antioxidant and prevent the ageing due to which memory improves. Restoration of insulin receptor by herbal drug also improves the memory. The improvement in learning and memory of experimental animals can be determined by the elevated plus maze test, passive avoidance test and different biochemical estimation. After administration of these drugs show positive result in above mention test.
513 PRECISE DIAGNOSIS OF FATAL RESPIRATORY TRACT VIRAL INFECTIONS IN SMALL RUMINANTS: A REVIEW, Subha Ganguly*
The causative agent of this economically important disease of small ruminants is a Morbillivirus, the Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV), under the family Paramyxoviridae of order Mononegavirales [1] . The virus is closely related to Rinderpest virus (RPV), another member of Morbillivirus genus, which causes similar disease in large ruminants [2].
514 SUPERPOROUS HYDROGEL (SPH): A NOVEL AND ADVANCED TECHNIQUE OF ORAL CONTROLLED RELEASE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM, Manish Keshavlal Ladola*
Gastroretentive drug delivery is an approach to prolong gastric residence time, thereby targeting site specific drug release in the upper part of GIT for local or systemic effect. Gastroretentive drug delivery system involves various approaches like: Highdensity system, bioadhesive system, swelling and expanding system, magnetic system, superporous hydrogel, incorporation of passage delaying food agents, ion exchange resins, bioadhesive liposomal system and floating systems. Superporous hydrogels (SPHs) were developed as novel oral controlled release drug delivery system for those drugs having absorption window in stomach and upper part of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and to retain drug in the gastric medium. Superporous hydrogels (SPHs) are different from superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) in their very fast swelling property, within minutes, to the equilibrium swollen state regardless of their size. The fast swelling property is based on water absorption through open porous structure by capillary action. The poor mechanical strength of conventional SPHs (CSPHs) was overcome by developing the second-generation SPH composites (SPHCs) and the third-generation SPH hybrids (SPHHs) and superporous hydrogel interpenetrating network (SPHs-IPN). This review includes the differences between SAPs and SPHs, advantages, disadvantages, various generations, methods of preparation, techniques of drug loading, ingredients required for synthesis with their role, methods for synthesis, characterization and applications of SPHs.
515 OCULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW, Bhujbal S.S.*, Wale K.K., Mahale N.B.,Landage A.D.,Sayyed S.F.,Chaudhari S.R
Ophthalmic drug delivery is one of the most interesting and challenging endeavors facing the pharmaceutical companies in the market. In ophthalmic formulation to the eye like solutions, suspensions, and ointments are available in the market shows drawbacks such as increased precorneal elimination, high variability in efficiency, and blurred vision. The major problem associated with the convent ional dosage forms is the bioavailability of drug. In the last three decades to improve the bioavailability by common to adding viscosity-enhancing agents or mucoadhesive polymers into dosage formulations. To overcome to conventional dosage formulations there were non-conventional technologies such as nanotechnology, microspheres, micro emulsion and ocular inserts could be developed in pharmaceutical market. This review focuses on recent development in conventional and nonconventional ophthalmic dosage formulation and products used to achieve prolonged contact time of drugs with the cornea and increases their bioavailability.
516 A REVIEW ON PHARMACEUTICAL PACKAGING MATERIAL, Praveen Nasa*
Pharmaceutical package is an integral part of Pharmaceutical product. An ideal package protects the product from harmful effects of environmental gases, moisture, microbes etc. Primary package is in direct control with the product and secondary package is the package which surrounds the primary package. Tertiary package is the package used for transportation purpose.Pharmaceutical package provides the hermetic seal which do not contaminate the Pharmaceutical product. Glass, Plastic, Metal and rubber are the important component of container closure system. Various types of glass, plastic, metal packaging material are used for construction of containers and closures. The selection of these material depends upon the products which is to be stored in the container. Closure is also an important part of Pharmaceutical packaging and it is direct contact with the pharmaceutical preparation. So container and closure material should be carefully selected which do not affect the therapeutic efficacy of the products. This review article mainly focused on the Pharmaceutical packaging material properties, their use and their limitations.
517 METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF OFLOXACIN AND DEXAMETHASONE SODIUM PHOSPHATE BY RP-HPLC, G.N.Renukadevi*, M.Sri lakshmi, V.Prathyusha, SK.Sharmila, K.Shantha Kumari
A new simple isocratic analytical method has been developed and validated for estimation of Ofloxacin and Dexamethasone sodium phosphate was carried out on Agilent CN, 250mm x 4.6mm, 5m column in isocratic mode using mobile phase composition of Acetic acid Buffer : Acetonitrile (70 : 30% v/v) with flow rate of 1.0 ml /min at 241 nm. The linearity of the method was demonstrated over the concentration range of 6-180 g/ml for ofloxacin and 2-60 g/ml for Dexamethasone sodium phosphate with correlation coefficient of 0.999 & 0.999 respectively. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The amounts of both the drugs were found to be in good agreement with label claim. The developed method was validated for precision, accuracy, sensitivity, robustness and ruggedness. Hence, this method is used for routine analysis of titled drugs in combination of tablet formulation.
518 STUDY ON ANTI-SOLAR ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES OF IPOMOEA BATATAS LINN, Pawar D. B.*, Doijad R.C., Sankpal P.S., Pawar D.A
The sunlight which stimulates melanin and the pigment that acts as the skin natural sunscreen. But excessive radiations of sunrays are unprotected and leading to painful sunburn or other skin related complication. The aim of this work was to evaluate UV absorption ability of Ipomoea batatas Linn in view of a possible application as maceration process and method was performed by UV visible spectrophotometry in range of 200-400 nm for this plant. The finalize result of extract was reported as maximum absorbance at 324 nm while the moderate absorbance at 260- 350 nm.
519 SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF 2-(DIALKYLAMINO)-N-(5-(5-(ALKYLTHIO)-1, 3,4-OXADIAZOL-2-YL)BENZOXAZOL-2-YL) ACETAMIDES, Nageshwara Rao Chilumula, Blessi Priyanka K*, Ravi J*, Kusuma B,Kalyani T., Gade Dayakar
A series of 2-(dialkylamino)-n-(5-(5-(alkylthio)-1, 3, 4-oxadiazol-2-yl) benzoxazol-2-yl) acetamides were synthesized by taking 4-carbomethoxyphenol a starting material.The final resultant compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity by using disc fusion method. All E.coli and S.typhi ,B.subtilis and S.aureaus and A.niger and C.albicans were adopted as Gram negative, Gram positive and fungal organisms. Among all the compounds of 2-(dialkylamino)-N-(5-(5-(alkylthio)-1, 3, 4-oxadiazol-2-yl) benzoxazol-2-yl) acetamides (XV),compound XVd was active against both Gram positive B.subtilis and S.aureaus and Gram negative bacteria E.coli and S.typhi. Compound XVd, XVk and XVp were active against the organisms A.niger and C.albicans.
520 DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL OINTMENT FORMULATION CONTAINING EXTRACTS OF OCIMUM SANCTUM, ANTHOCEPHALUS CADAMBA, ALLIUM SATIVUM AND ORIGANUM VULGARE, T. Rajesh* Anup Kumar Roy, V.N.Raju Erumalla, Divakar Goli, Syed Jalaluddin Basha
Most of the antibiotics were originally derived from micro-organisms while the chemotherapeutic agents are from plants. Along with other dosage forms, herbal drugs are also formulated in the form of ointment. An ointment is a viscous semisolid preparation used topically on a variety of body surfaces. The objective of the study was to formulate and evaluate the antimicrobial herbal ointment from the local medicinal plants. The hexane, ethyl-acetate and ethanolic extracts of the selected plants were taken in different ratio randomly and the antimicrobial tests of the combinations were carried out. The most effective combination was then determined by comparing the results of the zone of inhibition given by the 12 different extracts ratios on Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-3160), Escherichia coli (MTCC-1652) for antibacterial and Aspergillus niger (MTCC-282) for antifungal were used. Then the minimum inhibitory concentration of the effective combination was found out. The ointment base was prepared and formulation of ointment was done by incorporating the active ingredients in most effective ratio in the base by trituration. After the completion of the formulation, quality of the ointment was assessed in terms of irritancy, pH, viscosity, spreadability and stability studies. Comparative antimicrobial studies for prepared formulations with marketed antibiotic discs and herbal ointment.
521 ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECT OF BOERHAVIA DIFFUSA AND PUNARNAVASAVAM ON URINARY TRACT INFECTION (UTI) CAUSING PATHOGENS, Vineeth T, Deepak M and AB Rema Shree*
The aim of the present study was to determine the antibacterial activity of Boerhavia diffusa leaves and an ayurvedic product Punarnavasavam on five Urinary Tract Infection causing pathogens. Klebsiella species, Pseudomonas species, Enterococcus species, Escherichia coli and Proteus species were isolated from urine samples using standard microbiological procedures. The antimicrobial activity of punarnavasavam which contains Boerhavia diffusa and different extracts of Boerhavia diffusa leaves were investigated on these pathogens using the Disc diffusion method, Well diffusion method and Minimum inhibitory concentration. HPTLC quantification of the Boerhavia diffusa water and ethanolic extracts were also carried out. The ethanolic extract of Boerhavia diffusa and the Polyherbal formulation Punarnavasavam were highly effective against all the bacterial species isolated. Results indicated that Punarnavasavam and ethanolic extract of Boerhavia diffusa leaves contain compounds with therapeutic activity. Antibacterial activity observed higher in Punarnavasavam compared to Boerhavia diffusa leaves.
522 HEAVY METAL AND TRACE ELEMENT CONTENT IN STEREOSPERMUM COLAIS BARK, S. Prema, K. Chitra1, V. Gopal
Heavy metal (Hg, Ar, Cr, Cd, Pb) and trace element (K, Se, Zn) composition of stem bark of Stereospermum colais was evaluated with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Estimation of heavy metals was performed using hydride generation technique (cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry) and in which carrier gas was nitrogen. The results obtained revealed the presence of trace elements and heavy metal was within the limit showing the safe use of the bark of Stereospermum colais as herbal drug for various treatments like cancer, arthritis etc.
523 SYNERGISTIC INTERACTION OF CHLOROGENIC ACID WITH PHOTOCHEMICALLY GENERATED tert-BUTOXYL RADICAL INDUCED ASCORBIC ACID RADICALS A KINETIC APPROACH TO REGENERATION OF ASCORBIC ACID, G Vijayalakshmi*, M Adinarayana & P Jayaprakash Rao
The rates of oxidation of ascorbic acid and chlorogenic acid (CGA) by tert-butoxyl radicals (t-BuO ? ) were studied by measuring the absorbance of ascorbic acid at 265 nm and CGA at 328 nm spectrophotometrically. Radicals (t-BuO ? ) were generated by the photolysis of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) in presence of tertbutyl alcohol to scavenge OH ? radicals. The rates and the quantum yields (?) of oxidation of CGA by t-BuO ? radicals were determined in the absence and presence of varying concentrations of ascorbic acid. An increase in the concentration of ascorbic acid was found to decrease the rate of oxidation of CGA, suggesting that ascorbic acid and CGA competed for t-BuO ? radicals. From the competition kinetics, the rate constant for the ascorbic acid reaction with t-BuO ? radicals was calculated to be 6.65 ? 10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 . The quantum yields (?expt) were calculated from the experimentally determined rates of oxidation of CGA under different experimental conditions. Assuming that CGA acts as a scavenger of t-BuO ? radicals only, the quantum yields (?cal) were theoretically calculated. ?expt and ?cal values suggested that ascorbic acid not only protected CGA from t-BuO ? radicals, but also regenerated CGA from CGA radical, formed by the reaction of CGA with tBuO ? radicals. Results indicated a possible synergistic interaction between CGA and ascorbic acid in which 59.9 % of CGA was regenerated by ascorbic acid. Keywords: Chlorogenic acid, ascorbic acid, regeneration, synergism, tert-butoxyl radicals, oxidation.
524 AMELIORATIVE EFFECT OF Coccinia grandis LEAF EXTRACT ON NEUROCHEMICAL ALTERATIONS OF SCIATIC NERVE IN STZ INDUCED DIABETIC RATS., Bhaskar Nagilla*, Pratap Reddy K
The role of Coccinia as a hypoglycemic agent in diabetic rats has been proved earlier. The present study investigates the effect of Coccinia on glucose metabolism of sciatic nerve in STZ induced diabetic rats, and reports its amelioration. Coccinia grandis leaf extract (200 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to STZ induced diabetic rats for 3 weeks. Metformin (150mg/kg body weight) was used as standard reference drug. After 21 days of experimentation neurochemical alterations such as glucose, fructose, sorbitol and reduced glutathione were determined in sciatic nerve. Enzymes such as hexokinase, aldose reductase, sorbitol dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were also determined after 3 weeks. A histopathological alteration of sciatic nerve was also studied. Plasma glucose levels were significantly reduced after oral administration of Coccinia to diabetic rats for 21 days. In normal glycolytic pathway glucose is channelized through it, but reduced hexokinase activity in STZ induced diabetic rats indicated a portion of the glucose was found to be directed to polyol pathway, which was evident by increased polyol pathway enzymes aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase activity , glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase causing accumulation of sorbitol and fructose. Decreased reduced glutathione content in sciatic nerve indicates its antioxidant effect. Coccinia treatment forbade activation of the polyol pathway and its metabolites accumulation. The sciatic nerves were also protected against the structural abnormalities found in diabetes with Coccinia treatment. The results suggest that it has the property to ameliorate the progression of diabetic complications in peripheral nerve with its efficient antidiabetic effect.
525 BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF GARLIC LEAVES EXTRACTS FOR CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM, IN VITRO, Gangadhar A. Meshram*, Tanushri S. Kulkarni, Ganesh S. Metangale, Shraddha S. Khamkar
Allium Sativum. Linn (Garlic) is one of the widely used herbs in food and medicine. The cloves of garlic are investigated for anti-diabetic potential; however, no efforts have been made to explore the potential of leaves to modify carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes viz. ?-amylase and glucoamylase. The inhibitors of these enzymes are used to achieve greater control over hyperglycemia in Type II Diabetes Mellitus. The present work was designed to investigate the inhibitory potential of the different extracts of Allium Sativum, on enzymes ?-amylase and glucoamylase. Different concentrations of the extracts were used to study inhibition of enzymatic activity of those enzymes. The current study for the first time, revealed ?-amylase and glucoamylase inhibitory potential of A. Sativum leaves and the study could be helpful to isolate and characterize hypoglycemic compounds.
526 INDUSTRIALLY IMPORTANT ENZYMES FROM SPENT OYSTER MUSHROOM BED WASTES, Haripriya.R , Parkavi.V , Jothi.D , Delphin.D.V and P.Thirumalaivasan*
Discarded oyster mushroom beds were examined for their bioactive compounds and industrially important enzymes. Spent oyster mushroom beds were used as substrate by micro organisms such as Bacillus megaterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Micrococcus sp were used production of industrially important enzymes and bioactive compounds. Bioactive compounds such as total sugars and reducing sugars were produced by B. amyloliquefaciens. B. megaterium, B. amyloliquefaciens showed positive result in lipid hydrolysis. Microorganisms such as B. megaterium, P. aeruginosa, P. vulgaris, B. amyloliquefaciens, and Micrococcus sp used spent oyster mushroom bed as good source for production of industrially important enzymes such as laccase, lignin peroxidase , manganese peroxidase, cellulase, protease, amylase, pectinase, xylanase and catalase.
527 EVALUATION OF SOY LECITHIN AS A DIRECT COMPRESSION VEHICLE AND SUBSTITUTE OF LUBRICANT IN DICLOFENAC SODIUM TABLETS, R.E.Ugandar*, J. Sarah, Kiran.C.Nilugal, Dr. Nagarajan Srinivasan, Dr.Nagashekhara Molugulu, Asif Iqbal Chittur
In the current study soy lecithin powder was evaluated as a direct compression vehicle (DCV) and as a substitute of lubricant in the manufacture of directly compressed diclofenac sodium tablets. In the study two formulations, F1 and F2 of diclofenac sodium were prepared by direct compression method. F1 was prepared with the blend of drug, MCC and magnesium stearate where as F2 was prepared with the blend of drug, soy lecithin powder and a small proportion of MCC. The prepared formulation blends were subjected to pre-compression studies such as; angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, compressibility index and Hausners ratio. The blends were subjected for direct compression. The prepared tablets of F1 and F2 were subjected to post compression studies like weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegration and dissolution. From the data the drug release profile fro m F1 and F2 were studied. The results of F1 are compared with obtained results F2. On comparison the pre-compression parameters of F2 were nearly same as those of F1 and the post compression parameters were found to be slightly better than those of F1 by resulting in slightly better release of the drug. The study revealed that soy lecithin could function both as a direct compression vehicle and lubricant in tablets and shown enhanced bioavailability of the drug during in-vitro dissolution study.
528 ELUCIDATION OF IN VITRO ANTI- INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM BY HRBC MEMBRANE STABILIZATION AND PROTEIN DENATURATION, Jain Suransh, Dr. Vikram Kumar*, Prof. (Dr.) A.N.Pathak
The bark extract of Cinnamomum zelanicum were assessed for In-vitro Anti-Inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilization method and Inhibition of protein denaturation method. The presence of flavanoids has been reported earlier in C.zeylanicum. Since the flavanoids have remarkable anti -inflammatory activity, so the present work aims at evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of C.zeylanicum. Different concentrations of extract were compared against standard Diclofenac sodium. Maximum stabilization in our study is 68.41 % at 1000 g/ml and maximum inhibition is 78.30% at 1000 g/ml. Therefore, our studies support the use of C.zeylanicum in treating inflammation.
529 PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CYNODON DACTYLON EXTRACT ON HIGH FAT DIET INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIA IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS, Sridevi visvanathan*, S.Janathul Firdous and V.Bharathi
Hyperlipidemia has been ranked as one of the greatest risk factors contributing to prevalence and severity of coronary heart diseases . Coronary heart disease, stroke, atherosclerosis and hyperlipidemia are the primary cause of death The hypolipidemic activity of Cynodon dactylon extract was studied on high fat diet induced models of hyperlipidemia in rats. Hyperlipidemia in experimental rats evidenced by an enhancement in the levels of Lipid profile. The Cynodon dactylon extract showed significant hypolipidemic effect by reduction in the level of serum Cholesterol, TG, LDL, VLDL and increase in HDL level .
530 INVITRO ANTI ARTHRITIC ACTIVITY OF MARKETED SIDDHA FORMULATION RUMAGESIC CAPSULE, *Anand Babu. K, Prema. S, Deepa. S, Ajit kumar. T, Chitra. K
Rumagesic Capsule is a Siddha medicine which is used as anti-arthritic agent. The aim of the present work is to compare and evaluate the Invitro anti-arthritic activity of marketed siddha formulation Rumagesic capsule at different concentration with standard Diclofenac sodium by Bovine serum albumin method. The maximum percentage inhibition of protein denaturation membrane stabilization of test (methanolic extract) and standard were observed as 83.69% and 87.38% respectively at 500g/ml.
531 PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF SOLANUM LYCOPERSICUM FRUIT EXTRACT ON LEAD INDUCED MICRONUCLEI IN BONE MARROW CELLS OF MICE, *K Rudrama Devi and K Dilip Reddy
In the present investigation the antimutagenic effect t of solanum lucopercicum fruit extract has been evaluated against lead nitrate induced genotoxicity. Single IP administration of solanum lycopercicum fruit extract at various doses i.e. 250, 500 and 1000 mg /kg. When treated individually did not induce micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes of mice. A single I P of 40mg/kg of lead nitrate induced significant increase in the percentage of micronuclei in bone marrow cells of mice. However after co administration of three doses of Solanum lycopercicum fruit extract there was a dose dependent decrease in the % of micronuclei was observed. Thus the results clearly indicate the preventive effects of solanum lycopercicum fruit extract against lead induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells of mice. Therefore the data indicate that SL fruit extract is a safer dietary component in cancer chemo preventive strategy.
532 ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF A NEW ISOFLAVONE GLYCOSIDE FROM THE ROOTS OF Prosopis Spicigera Linn, R. N. Yadava* and Prakrati Yadav
A new Isoflavone glycoside 5, 7, 4? trihydroxy-6-methoxyisoflavone-7-O-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1?4)O-?-L-arabinopyranosyl-4?-O-?-Dxylopyranoside (A) was isolated from the roots of prosopis spicigera Linn. together with two known compounds Wogonin (B) and Diosmetin (C). The structure A was elucidated on the basis of various chemical degradations, color reactions and spectroscopic analysis viz. UV, IR, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR. Compound A exhibited higher radical scavenging activity in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay system and also screened against various bacteria an d fungi.
533 DEPLETION OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY - A STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ON THE GROUNDWATER QUALITY OF EDAMALAIPATTIPUDUR AREAS OF TIRUCHIRAPPALLI DISTRICT, TAMILNADU, INDIA, S. Padmavathy*, N. Balasubramanian, T. Ramachandramoorthy, B. Jayalakshmi, K. Rajasekar and M.Soji George
A systematic study has been carried out to explore the physicochemical characteristics of groundwater in Edamalaipatti pudur areas of Tiruchirappalli District. Groundwater samples from Open Well (OW), Bore Well (BW) and Hand Pump (HP) in Edamalaipatti pudur areas during January-March 2014 and they were analysed for pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Alkalinity (TA), Total Hardness (TH), Calcium Hardness (CH), Magnesium Hardness (MH), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and Fluoride (F). The calculated Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) revealed the scale forming nature of the groundwater samples. The relationship between the parameters using the Pearson correlation matrix has also been determined.
534 PHARMACEUTICALS APPLICATIONS OF CHITOSAN HYDROGEL BEADS, Anuja Agarwal* and Manjusha Rani
The paper addresses development of pH sensitive interpenetrating polymeric network (IPN) beads composed of chitosan-mono sodium glutamate cross linked with glutaraldehyde and their use for controlled drug release. The beads were characterized by SEM to understand the surface morphology and internal structure. The swelling behavior of the beads at different time intervals was monitored in solutions of pH 2.0 and pH 7.4. The release experiments were performed in solutions of pH 2.0 and pH 7.4 at 37 o C using salicylic acid (SA) as a model drug. The swelling behavior and release of drug were observed to be dependent on pH, degree of cross linking and their composition. The results indicate that the newly constructed cross linked IPN beads of chitosan- mono sodium glutamate might be useful as a vehicle for controlled release of drug. The kinetics of drug release from beads were best fitted by Higuchis model in which release rate is largely were best fitted by Higuchis model in which release rate is largely governed by rate of diffusion through the matrix.
535 SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF NI (II) AND CO (II) USING CINNAMALDEHYDE THIOSEMICARBAZONE BY FIRST ORDER DERIVATIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC TECHNIQUE, D.Gopala Krishna* and Ch.Kethani Devi
Cinnamaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (CMTSC) was used as chromogenic reagent for Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of Ni (II) and Co (II) ions. The reagent (CMTSC) gives intense yellow colour water soluble complexes with Ni (II) and Co (II) in presence of micellar medium (Triton-X-100 (5%) at pH 9.0. The maximum absorbance was observed at ?max 440 and 400 nm for Ni (II) and Co (II) respectively. The molar absorptivity and sandells sensitivity for Ni (II) and Co (II) complexes are found to be 4.77x10 4 , 4.70x10 4 L.mol -1 .cm -1 and 0.0012, 0.0012 g/cm 2 respectively. The reagent (CMTSC) forms 1:1 [M:L] complexes with Ni (II) and Co (II) with stability constants 8.17x 10 5 and 10.10x10 6 respectively. The First order derivative spectrophotometric technique has been developed for the simultaneous determination of Ni (II) and Co (II) at ?max 460 and 420 nm. The present simultaneous method was used for the determination of micro amounts of Co (II) & Ni (II) in some alloy steels and soil samples.
536 EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY IN TRIGONELLA FOENUM GRAECUM LEAVES, Chaitanya Sravanthi Kota*, Bhargavi N, Abhinay Kumar R
Pharmacological industries have produced a number of new antibiotics in the last decades, resistance to these drugs by microorganisms has also increased. For a long period of time, plants have been a valuable source of natural products for maintaining human health, especially in the last decade, with more intensive studies for natural therapies.The use of plant extracts and phytochemicals, both with known antimicrobial properties, can be of great significance in therapeutic treatments. The main objective is to study the anti-bacterial activity of Trigonella plant extract which was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. The highest antimicrobial potential was observed for the methanolic leaf extract of Trigonellafoenumgraecum when compared with the standard drug, Gentamycin. Steroidal and Phenolic constituents are found to be present in the leaf extract.
537 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A NOVEL ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF TELMISARTAN IN TABLET DOSAGE FORMS USING HYDROTROPIC SOLUBILIZATION, Pal Tapas Kumar*, Panda Moumita, Roy Chowdhury S
The objective of the present work was to explore the application of a hydrotropic solubilization phenomenon in the quantitative analysis of a model poorly water soluble (BCS Class II) drug. Other part of study was to develop and validate simple, easy, cost effective, eco-friendly unique spectrophotometric method of analysis for the novel poorly water soluble drug, Telmisartan, in pure and tablet dosage forms, utilizing the principle of single hydrotropic solubilization involving 20(M) Urea and 2(M) Sodium Benzoate. Solubility of Telmisartan in distilled water and each of the hydrotropes were determined and compared. The percentage label claims of Telmisartan in bulk and tablet forms were estimated by this novel spectrophotometric method. This method was validated for accuracy, linearity, precision, specificity and robustness as per recommendations in official guidelines. The study results revealed that the solubility of Telmisartan had been enhanced by more than 19 times in 20 (M) Urea and 11 times in 2(M) Sodium Benzoate respectively. The standard calibration curves were found obeying Beer-Lamberts principles as well as linearity at concentration range of 5 - 20 ?g/ml (R 2 = 1 and % RSD < 2 both intra- and inter-day precision). Analysis of commercial tablets were found to contain drug content well within specified official label claim, (100.53% - 102.95%) of Telmisartan utilizing both the hydrotropes; while per cent recoveries in both the hydrotropes were found ranging from (100.13%-103.73%) - which was well within the specified official limit (90.0%-110%) of Pharmacoepoeal monograph of Telmisartan tablets (ref. USP 2011), even comparable to official HPLC method of analysis. %RSD and %CV were calculated and found < 2 with low standard error. LOD and LOQ were 0.575, 1.745 and 0.406, 1.231 in Urea and Sodium Benzoate respectively. In this assay method, there was no significant interference from any common pharmaceutical additives and diluents. The developed analytical method was proved as simple, specific, selective, reproducible, robust and validated for routine analysis of Telmisartan in pure and tablet dosage forms even without using costly and harmful organic solvents.
538 ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF A NOVEL PROBIOTIC STRAIN (LACTOBACILLUS PARACASEI KUMBB005) FROM COW MILK SAMPLES AND ITS ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY, V.Usha Rani and B.V. Pradeep*
Lactobacillus sp., was isolated from 10 raw cow milk samples using MRS agar, out of 15 isolates 4 Lactobacillus isolates (KUMBB001, KUMBB002, KUMBB003, KUMBB005) were selected for characterization study. The isolates were examined for their probiotic properties such as pH resistance, NaCl tolerance, bile salt tolerance, antibacterial activity and antibiotic susceptibility. Among the 4 isolates KUMBB005 showed resistance to acidic pH 6, maintained good growth at NaCl concentration (1-9%) and the isolates depicted good tolerance against (1-5%) bile salt (Ox-gall). Based on the biochemical characterization the isolates KUMBB005 has shown potent growth and antibacterial activity which was further subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing. The sequence was submitted in NCBI with accession number KM008572. After sequencing and phylogenetic analysis the isolate KUMBB005 was identified as Lactobacillus parcasei. The cell free extract of the isolate exhibited good antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae MTCC 4030, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Salmonella typhi MTCC 734. Lactobacillus paracasei KUMBB005 also exhibited good resistance towards various antibiotics such as Kanamycin, Erythromycin, Vancomycin and Streptomycin. Lactobacillus paracasei KUMBB005 obtained from milk sample were more effective than other isolates and could be assigned as potential strain for further research work towards its probiotic application.
539 ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF STEM BARK OF OUGEINIA OOJEINENSIS (ROXB.)HOCHR, Mohan Mandrekar, Vedita Hedge Desai, Madhusudan Joshi, Yogita sardessai, Arun Joshi
Ougeinia oojeinensis (Roxb.) Hochr, is an ethnomedicinal plant of Western Ghats seen in deciduous forests. Since ancient times, plant bark has been used to treat several ailments based on traditional knowledge such as inflammation, constipation, leprosy, skin allergy, leucoderma, diarrhoea, dysentery, gonorrhoea, and diabetes. It is also useful in vitiated conditions like urrorrhagia, verminosis, haemorrhages, fever, ulcers, and general debility. This investigation was carried out to assess the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of its stem bark. This is a first report of antimicrobial study done on this plant. Methodology: The stem bark was collected, washed and dried completely. The dried bark was then coarsely powdered .Approximately 100gm of the powdered drug was extracted with 0.5 litre of ethanol (95%) by using the cold maceration technique for three days with occasional shaking. After completion of three days, the ethanol layer was decanted off. The process of maceration was repeated thrice. The solvent from t otal extract was distilled off and the concentrate was evaporated to syrupy consistency and then evaporated to dryness. The antimicrobial activity was screened by using agar diffusion method against 10 bacterial strains and 1 fungal strain. Result: The ethanolic extract of Ougeinia oojeinensis was found to exert significant antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria particularly against Salmonella typhimurium and the yeast Candida albicans. Conclusion: The claim on use of this plant bark in folk medicine is justified and extract has phytoconstituents which have potential anti-candidiasis and anti-salmonella properities.
540 EVALUATION OF MEDICINAL ACTIVITES OF COSTUS SPECIOSUS, *Indu Sanadhya, Annika Durve, Meeta Bhot, Jossy Varghese and Naresh Chandra
The aim of the present work is to evaluate the antioxidant, antiinflammatory and an anti-viral activity of Costus speciosus leaves extract through in vitro bioassay analysis. Antioxidant activity was studied by in vitro biochemical assays, anti-inflammatory by human RBC membrane stabilisation in vitro assay and anti-viral through haemagglutination and anti-haemolysis of human RBCs methods. The results were found to be positive for all the assays and reveal the use of Costus speciosus as a good herbal source of antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anti-viral agent. TLC fingerprinting data reveals that the positive results of Costus speciosus leaves extract for medicinal properties may be due to presence of separated phytochemicals.
541 LEMON GRASS- A HERBAL THERAPEUTIC AGENT, *Indu Sanadhya, Annika Durve, Meeta Bhot and Jossy Varghese
The aim of the present work is to evaluate the anti-tumour potential of Lemon grass through preliminary cytotoxic analysis. Cytotoxic potential of Lemon grass fresh leaves extract was evaluated on chicken liver cell line through cell viability assay. Antioxidant study was also carried out to proof it as a safe source of herbal drug. TLC fingerprinting data reveals that the positive results of Lemon grass for cytotoxic and antioxidant potential may be due to presence of separated phytochemicals.
542 USE OF PRONISOME GEL IN ANTIDEPRESSANT THERAPY: DESIGN AND EVALUATION, Sarfaraz Md*, Vasantakumar D, Doddayya Hiremath, Prakash Goudannavar
Selegiline is an irreversible monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B inhibitor used at low doses for the adjunctive treatment of Parkinson's disease. Mouth ulcers and stomatitis may occur with the oral lyophilisate. Selegiline is interacted with tyramine in food. Early studies suggested that oral selegiline was effective as an antidepressant in a dose range that preserved the selectivity of MAO-B inhibition. However further open trial studies have indicated that dose of oral selegiline required for clinical antidepressant like activity in most patients are relatively high (?30 mg/day) and nonselective producing inhibition of MOA-A. Such a loss of specificity would mean that patients taking selegiline for depression would need to observe dietary restriction applicable to nonselective MAOIs. Unlike oral MAO inhibitors, transdermal selegiline delivers antidepressant drug concentrations to the central nervous system without substantially impairing gastrointestinal MAO-A activity. At the target dose of 6 mg per 24 hours, tyramine dietary restrictions are not needed. Dermal therapeutic formulation like proniosome gel of selegiline was developed and evaluated for effective treatment of depression. The present work deals with the formulation and characterization of selegiline hydrochloride Proniosome gel with an aim to enhance drug permeation through the barriers of skin and to maintain the controlled plasma level concentration. The optimized proniosomal gel P8 containing selegilne hydrochloride showed significant anti-depressant activity at P < 0.05, Primary Dermal Irritation Index (PDII) value of 0 and drug release of 92.41% over a period of 24 hrs. The results led to conclude that proniosomes offers an effective alternative colloidal carrier approach in transdermal drug delivery.
543 HPLC ANALYSIS OF WITHANOLIDES IN HEAVY METAL TREATED PLANT DRUG PARTS (LEAVES AND ROOTS) OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA (L) DUNAL, Ch. Saidulu*, C. Venkateshwar, S. Gangadhar Rao
Plants were grown in pot culture experiments with three treatments in black soil, Treatment No I. a control without any addition to the soil, Treatment No II Cadmium 10ppm, Chromium 20ppm, Nickel 16ppm were introduced into the soil, Treatment No III one % of Calcium hydroxide was also added along with heavy metals to soil. Then plants were grown up to the productivity levels. Withania somnifera roots, leaves and preparations of the plant are traditionally used as tonic, sedative and diuretic. It is also having a high medicinal value and possesses potent anti-tumor and antioxidant properties. Withania somnifera which mainly contains Withanolides are which biologically active secondary metabolites present in roots and leaves. In the present study the maximum concentration of Withanolide A was observed in the roots and in the leaves of in the control plants (Treatment I) when compared to the other two treatments. Withanolide A concentration is almost same in heavy metal treated plants (Treatment II) and heavy metal +1% Ca (OH) 2 treated (Treatment III) plants. The roots showed Withanolides A more concentration when compared with leaves in three treatments. The concentration of Withanolies A of roots and leaves in three treatments there was no significant differences. So leaves can also be used as the raw material for the extraction of Withanolide A from Withania somnifera.
544 FACILE GREEN SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF SOME NOVEL THIAZOLIDINONES WITH PYRIMIDINE MOIETY, Pravina Baburao Piste* and Maruti Sidhu Kanase
As a part of systematic investigation of synthesis and antimicrobial activity of 6-methyl-4-(Sub.)Phenyl-2-Oxo/Thioxo-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydropyrimidine-5-(2-Sub.Phenyl, 3-Amido )thiazolidine-4-ones ( IVa-l ) was achieved from corresponding Mannich Base (IIIa-l) by reaction with mercapto acetic acid and anhydrous zinc chloride for 2-3 minutes in Microwave irradiation. The synthesized compounds have been screened in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and E.coli. Some of the compounds displayed pronounced biological activity. The resulting products were characterized by IR, 1 H NMR and Mass spectroscopic method.
545 PATTERN OF SELF-MEDICATION WITH ANTIBIOTICS IN KHARTOUM STATE, SUDAN, Arwa H. A.Elhada*, Idris B. Eltayeb, Mahmoud M. E. Mudawi
Aim: Self-medication is becoming a field of interest for research, but yet no much data are currently available about its major determinants. This study was aimed at determining the proportion of general population who practice self-medication with Antibiotics, the type of Antibiotic employed and the reasons for resorting to self-medication with Antibiotics. Methods: This cross- sectional survey used a pre-tested questionnaire to collect data from a sample of 442 adult persons, selected from the seven provinces of Khartoum State, Sudan, using a multistage stratified clustered sampling. Results: A total of 442 questionnaires were analyzed. The prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics during the 6 month prior to the study was 41%. Amoxicillin was the most popular (38%) antibiotic for self-medication besides erythromycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin to treat the following symptoms: cough and sore throat, common-colds, skin infections, gastrointestinal infections and urinary tract infections with the length of use was mostly less than five days. Pharmacies were the most common source of antibiotics used for selfmedication (72%). Previous experience was reported to be the main reason for using non prescribed antibiotics (50%). There were no socio-demographic variables significantly associated with the actual practice of using non-prescribed antibiotics. However, health insurance, marital status, occupation and level of education were significantly associated with the intent to self-medicate with antibiotics (p < 0.05). Having no health insurance, being single, is associated with the intent to self-medicate with antibiotics. It's surprising that despite being educated, most of those who self-medicated were university graduates and university students. Conclusion: Given the findings, factors influencing people's intentions to self-medicate with antibiotics are required to be investigated to better understand such behavior. Impact of health insurance coverage on self-medication with antibiotics should also be further investigated.
546 SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LOPERAMIDE HYDROCHLORIDE AND NORFLOXACIN BY VALIDATED UVSPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD, Sharma Ravi*, Kaur Amandeep
A simple, accurate, precise and reproducible spectrophotometric method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous estimation of Loperamide hydrochloride and Norfloxacin in combined capsule dosage form by Q-Absorbance ratio method. Q-Absorbance ratio method involves two wavelengths; the iso-absorptive point and ? max of loperamide hydrochloride i.e. 231.5 nm and 222 nm respectively in methanol. The linearity was detected in the range of 5-35 g/ml (R 2 = 0.999) for Loperamide hydrochloride and 1-7 g/ml (R 2 = 0.998) for Norfloxacin. The accuracy existed between 98-102% and the %RSD was less than 2%. The developed method was validated for linearity, accuracy and precision as per ICH guidelines.
547 PROTEOMIX AND ENZYME KINETICS IN NORMAL AND CATARACTOUS HUMAN LENS, Dr. Ajit V. Pandya
Opacity of lens is called cataract. Blindness due to cataract increases to great extent globally, more than 50 % people are experiencing profound or total loss of vision due to cataract. Oxidative damage plays major role in cataract development and defects are recorded in the antioxidant and related enzymes in lens during this disease. The mean value of GLUTATHION REDUCTASE activity is 1.463 0.079 and 0.730 0.062 n moles/min/mg, GLUTATHION-S-TRANSFERASE activity is 1.780 0.069 and 0.545 0.342 n moles/min/mg and ?-GLUTAMYL TRANSPEPTIDASE activity is 9.595 0.094 and 3.7 0.216 n moles/min/mg respectively for normal and cataractous lenses. An explanation for fall in GLUTATHION REDUCTASE activity would be the inhibitory effect of oxidants on the activity of reducing enzymes. The activity of GLUTATHION-STRANSFERASE is very low compared to GLUTATHION REDUCTASE and YGLUTAMYL TRANSPEPTIDASE. The turn over of GSH by Y-GLUTAMYL TRANSPEPTIDASE and GLUTATHION-S-TRANSFERASE is thought to be groups led with several factors including GSH level. Altered activity of the enzymes associated with the synthesis, catabolism and utilization of glutathione in the lens have been reported in mixed type of cataract.
548 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FIXED DOSE COMBINATION PRODUCTS OF ANTITUBERCULAR DRUG, Shital Shantaram Patil*, Poonam A. Salunke, Rupali S. Wagh
Objective of the present study is to formulate and evaluate fixed dose combination tablets of Rifampicin and Isoniazid. The granules of Rifampicin and Isoniazid were prepared separately by wet granulation, then lubricated blend was compressed using tablet compression machine by setting the machine speed in the range 12- 28 RPM with desired processing parameters such as average weight, uniformity of weight, thickness, hardness & friability. These tablets were evaluated for the various physical parameters like appearance, weight variation, hardness, friability and disintegration. Coating was done in Ganscoater coating pan in two lots. Dissolution studies FDC tablets were performed along with uncoated and film coated tablets separately. The cumulative percentage drug release for coated tablet was found to be around 96%. From in vitro studies it was concluded that the prepared tablet gives more satisfactory results and patient compliance.
549 DESIGN, AND EVALUATION OF OCULAR INSERTS FOR CONTROLLED DRUG DELIVERY OF KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE, *Appa Rao Potu, Veera Reddy Prabhakar Reddy.
Conventional ophthalmic dosage forms are easy to instill but needs to be applied very frequently and suffer from poor bioavailability and therapeutic response due to pre-corneal and, lacrimo-nasal drainage constraints. One of the novel classes of drug delivery systems, ocular inserts, are gaining worldwide popularity, release drugs at a preprogrammed rate for extended period by increasing the precorneal residence time. Ketorolac tromethamine is a potent non-narcotic analgesic with moderate anti-inflammatory activity. It is conventionally used in the short term management of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, postoperative ocular pain and inflammation. The present study was undertaken mainly to develop a suitable ocular insert matrix system with the aim of increasing the contact time, achieving controlled release, reducing the frequency of administration, improving patient compliance. Different proportions of gelatin, hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose, and ethyl cellulose (EC) were used along with the plasticizers and prepared by by film casting technique. Prepared inserts were subjected to different physicochemical evaluation tests. Formulation F18 is identified as the optimized one on the basis of in-vitro drug release data and other physic-mechanical characteristics. Release of drug from the optimized formula was found to be of first order model and non-fickian nature. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) studies have indicated no interaction between the drug and polymers. Ocular irritation tests conducted in rabbit indicated no signs of toxicity.
550 FACILE SYNTHESIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF PYRAZOLE DERIVATIVES, Pravina B. Piste*
A series of novel and significant compounds containing pyrazole derivatives have been synthesized from base catalyzed reaction between N-acetyl-3-4-diphenylpyrazole and substituted benzaldehydes by grinding technique afforded 1-benzoaceto-3-5-diphenyldihydropyrazole (Ia-d) followed by reflux with different reagents like phenyl hydrazine ,Hydrazine hydrate in acetic acid and Hydrazine hydrate in sodium acetate gave corresponding N 1 -(3,4-diphenyl,5 -dihydro-2,3-pyrazol)-3,5-diphenyl,4- diydro pyrazole( IIad),N 1 -(4-phenyl,3-acetyl,5-dihydro,2,3-pyrazol)3,5-diphenyl-4-dihydropyrazole (III a-d), N 1 -(4-phenyl,5-dihydro-2,3-pyrazol)-3,5-diphenyl -4-dihydro pyrazole (IV a-d ) respectively. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds have been confirmed on the basis of elemental analysis and spectral data. Some of the synthesized compounds exhibit significant antibacterial activity.
551 HYDROGEN PEROXIDE INDUCED DNA DAMAGE: PROTECTION BY ANTIOXIDANT COLEUS AROMATICUS, Dinesha Ramadas, Sachidananda Gurumahadevaiah., Harsha Ramakrishna, Subhas Chandrappa Mundasada*
The antioxidant properties of boiling water extract of Coleus aromaticus were evaluated using lipid peroxidation inhibition activity, hydroxyl radicals scavenging activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect and Superoxide radical scavenging activity. The extracts of Coleus aromaticus effectively protects H 2O2 (100M) induced cell death in human peripheral lymphocytes. Further Coleus aromaticus extract prevents H2O2 (1mM) mediated calf thymus DNA damage as evidenced by agarose gel electrophoresis. The present study reveals that, the boiling water extract of Coleus aromaticus showed significant antioxidant and DNA damage protectant activity when compared to antioxidants like BHA, Curcumin and ?-tocopherol.
552 COMPARSION STUDIES ON TRANSDERMAL FILMS OF NATURAL TAMARIND SEED POLYSACCHARIDE EXTRACT CONTAINING ANTI HYPERTENSION DRUG WITH PVA ,HPMC AND GUAR GUM., M.SantoshNaidu, G.V.Radha, P.Girish and D.Lohithasu*
Objective of the study: The present study was to compare the transdermal film property of the natural Tamarind seed polysaccharide extract with the synthetic and natural polymers like PVA, HPMC and Guar gum. The transdermal films prepared by solvent casting method using Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) alone and combinations with other polymers and film properties are evaluated. The release property of various film forming agent in increasing order are TSP>PVA>guar gum>HPMC. Conclusion: Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) combination has showed the drug retardant property. The order of drug release for different formulation is given as follows F2>F1>F8>F7>F14>F11>F6>F5>F4>F3>F13>F12>F9>F10. Formulated Transdermal Films evaluated for various physicochemical parameters and in vitro permeation studies. Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) facilitates delivery of therapeutically effective amount of drug across a patients skin with controlled rate.
553 MARINE ALGAE ENTEROMORPHA INTESTINALIS ACTS AS A POTENTIAL GROWTH PROMOTER IN PRAWN FEED, Kunal Mondal*, Subhra Bikash Bhattacharyya and Abhijit Mitra
A newly prepared powder from marine algae Enteromorpha intestinalis (Aqua-Naturale) has been found as a potent growth promoter in freshwater prawn. Juveniles of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were fed with Aqua-Naturale at 5% level through fishmeal based supplementary diet for a period of 240 days. The study was an attempt to observe the responses of Aqua-Naturale diet towards muscle growth pattern of the culture species as well as the probable economic returns obtained from the experiment in order to commercialize the particular product in local aquafeed market. The desired level of AquaNaturale administration produced animals with significantly (p
554 EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS STEM EXTRACT OF ECLIPTA ALBA, Mahanthesh M.C*, Swati MP, Popat SK, Vikram HP, Jadhav SY, J.I.Disouza
The present study expose that the anticonvulsant activity of Eclipta Alba (Asteraceae) stem extracts. The anti-convulsant activity of plant extracts was evaluated by using the Maximal Electroshock (MES) induced convulsion technique. The convulsions in experimental animals were induced with Maximal electroshock of 150 mA current for 0.2 sec. Then administration of normal saline, standard drug and stem extracts at respective doses. The stem extract exhibited a significant reduction in various phases of epileptic seizure. The aqueous extracts treated groups showed significant decrease in duration of flexion; clonus and stupor phase of MES induced convulsions. The Eclipta alba possessed significant anticonvulsant activity against MES and PTZ induced convulsions.
555 STUDIES ON MEDICINAL PLANTS OF A.V.V.M. SRI PUSHPAM COLLEGE CAMPUS THANJAVUR DISTRICT OF TAMIL NADU, SOUTHERN INDIA, *D.Rekha, A.Panneerselvam and N.Thajuddin
In thepresent investigation an attempt has been made survey on medicinal plantsof Poondi Campus of Thanjavur District of Tamilnadu. The exploration revealed some unknown medical uses of medicinal parts. The scientific name, family, vernacular name (Tamil), parts used, and mode of drug preparation, dosage and duration was also reported and traditional usage of 190 species belonging to 167genera and 67Families of angiosperms and gymnosperms were discussed here for the treatment of different ailments viz., snake bite, skin ulcers, urinary bladder, fever, rheumatism, indigestion, cough, cold, acezema, asthma, bone fractures, ear ache, wounds, elephantiasis, vomiting, diarrhoea, hair loss, digestive, stomachic, high blood pressure, diabetes, jaundice, leprosy, toothaches, dysuria, liver, kidney problem and eye infection. The dicotyledons were represented by 177 species of 160 genera and 59 families while monocotyledons were representedby 12 species of 6 genera and 7Families. Gymnosperms were representing in 1 species of 1 genus 1 families. Poondi campus is in good vegetation status and conservationists should take necessary action to protect this college and plastic pollution. For this, an environmental awareness programmes should be conducted to the local people to safeguard this college from pollution. Conservation and management plan to attain the sustainable biological wealth.
556 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CEPHALEXIN MONOHYDRATE RECONSTITUTIONAL ORAL SUSPENSION WITH PIPERINE AND THEIR ANTIBACTERIALACTIVITY, Vijay Kumar Singh*, Vikash Kumar Mishra, Jayant Kumar Maurya, Sarvesh Kumar Singh, Ashutosh Mishra
The modern scientific and technological advancement in the pharmaceutical field had created bank of interest in reconstitutable oral suspension dosage form in the recent year. A variety of technical and scientific approaches is been conducted in the field of research and development for the formulation of reconstitutable oral suspension. By addition of piperine in reconstitutable oral suspension of cephalexin monohydrate, increase the bioavilibility of dosage form so its antibacterial activity is increase. The basic aim behind developing this reconstitutional oral suspension system was to improve the chemical stability, increase the bioavailability and controlled the duration and onset of action of the drug. The purpose of writing this thesis work on reconstitutable oral suspension of cephalexin monohydrate was to collect all the recent updates from the literature and do on this basis with the main goal to method of prepration of the reconstitution oral suspension, good qualities of ideal reconstitutional oral suspension, factors to be considerd at time of prepration and its evalution parameter.
557 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LIPOSOMES CONTAINING FAMOTIDINE, Biresh K Sarkar*, Maddi Ramaiah, Manish Devgan, Y.Ankamma chowdary
In the present study liposomal formulations containing Famotidine were prepared and studied. Liposomal formulations were evaluated for drug entrapment, surface characterization and in-vitro drug release studies. Drug excipient compatibility was determined by using spectral studies. Liposomal suspensions were prepared using film hydration technique by varying concentrations of ingredients and optimize the ideal combination for required drug release. The prepared liposomes were rigid, intact and fulfilled all official requirements. The results of in vitro drug release studies showed that release from liposomal formulation was slow and sustained for more than 8 hrs period. Thus the liposomal suspensions of Famotidine were successfully formulated and established for their quality control parameters.
558 FORMULATION, IN-VITRO EVALUATION AND ANALYTICAL QUANTIFICATION OF ZALTOPROFEN MICROCAPSULES, Biresh K Sarkar*, Manish Devgan, Y.Ankamma Chowdary
Zaltoprofen was formulated as novel enteric microcapsules for improved delivery using the polymer ethyl cellulose as the retardant material. Micro encapsulation of Zaltoprofen was done to achieve a controlled drug release profile suitable for per oral administration. Microcapsules were prepared by and emulsion solvent evaporation method. The prepared microcapsules were evaluated for different quality control parameter like; size analysis, drug content, encapsulation efficiency, and drug release characteristics etc. Results of study revealed that Zaltoprofen release from microcapsules greatly affected by the size of the microcapsules. A precise UV method also developed for the estimation of zaltoprofen in prepared dosage form. Drug followed the BeerLamberts law in the concentration range of 5- 25?g/ml. Slope, intercept, correlation coefficient, detection and quantization limits were also calculated. Results of the analysis were validated statistically and were found to be satisfactory.
559 GC, GC/MS CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ENICOSTEMA LITTORALE, *P.Praveena, Dr.D.Sudarsanam, Karthik Saravanan
The whole plant parts of Enicostema littorale collected around from the Tirunel veli District obtained good yield. The crude extract was examined by a combination of capillary GC and GC/MS. In some instances the structure elucidation based on GC and GC/MS data had to be corrected. More than thirty six constituents were found. This study clearly illustrates the advantage of complementary identification techniques.
560 ANTI-TUMOR ACTIVITY AND ANTI-OXIDANT STATUS OF EUPHORBIA THYMIFOLIA LINN AGAINST EHRLICH ASCITES CARCINOMA IN SWISS ALBINO MICE, G.C. Mamatha*, T. Prabhakar, Pandya Naitik, V. Madhuri, K. Neelima & V.N. Raju Erumalla
Aim: To study Anti-tumor effect and anti-oxidant status of Euphorbia thymifolia Linn Materials & Methods: The present study deals with life span of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing hosts, peritoneal cell count, hematological profile, solid tumor mass and biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, superoxide distmutase and catalase activities. Results: Euphorbia thymifolia at oral dose of 200mg/kg prolongs the life span of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-tumor bearing mice and causes significant increase in number of peritoneal cell count and significant decrease in volume of solid tumor mass compared to Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing control animals. Hematological profile including Red blood cells count, White blood cells count, Hemoglobin and protein estimation were found to be nearly normal levels in extract treated mice compared to tumor bearing control mice. Euphorbia thymifolia significantly decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and significantly increased the levels of superoxide distmutase and catalase in treated group of animals. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that ethanolic extract of Euphorbia thymifolia is an effective anti oxidant and anti tumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma tumor in mice.
561 CHARACTERIZATION OF GREVILLEA ROBUSTA GUM TO ESTABLISH IT AS A PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENT, Darekar A.B., Kahane J.U., Saudagar R. B., Gondkar S.B., Chavan M.J., Ashawat M
The gums are common constituents of plants, and being used in pharmaceutical and in other various industries due to their abundance in nature, safety and low cost. The present study was undertaken to isolate gum from the plant of Grevillea robusta, to explore its use as a pharmaceutical excipient. The isolated gum was evaluated for various physico-chemical characterizations.The parameters applied from the present study include solubility, hygroscopicity study, moisture content, ash values, swelling index hydration capacity, angle of repose, bulk and tap densities, hausners ratio, compressibility index, pH value, rheological study, microbial count, acute toxicity study. The results obtained in the acute toxicity study indicates that Grevillea robusta gum did not produce any visible toxicities or mortality with oral doses up to 2000 mg/kg within 24 hrs of single treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD), Differential scanning colorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transmittance infra red (FTIR), were used to characterize the gum sample which can be used further for the formulation development.
562 EFFICACY OF CONVOLVULUS MICROPHYLLUS ROOT EXTRACTS IN REVERSING CARBOFURAN INDUCED OVARIAN ANOMALIES IN CLARIAS BATRACHUS (Linn): AN ULTRA STRUCTURAL STUDY, Prakriti Verma and G. B. Chand*
The impact of aqueous extract of Convolvulus microphyllus root (CMR) was investigated against carbofuran induced ovarian atrophy in fresh water air breathing fish Clarias batrachus. Fishes were exposed to 1.5 mg L -1 of carbofuran for 1, 2 and 4 weeks respectively. These fishes were further treated with aqueous extract of CMR for a period of 30 days @ 50 mg kg -1 body weight daily orally by gastric intubation. The T3 (Triiodothrionine), T4 (Tetra iodo thrionine) and TSH (Thyroid stimulating hormone) in blood serum were assayed. The histopathological examination of ovarian tissues was done on light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The serum level of T3, T 4 and TSH showed a significant elevation of carbofuran treated fish when compared with control. They showed a significant recovery after CMR treatment for 20 days. Concomitant treatment of carbofuran and CMR to the experimental group showed non significant (at P
563 EFFECT OF GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE LEAVES EXTRACT ON GASTRIC ULCER, *Merai Ankit H and Anil G Jadhav
Recently the world is turn to green/herbal pharmacy because the allopathic drug having major side effect. The main aim of present study was to evaluate the anti ulcer activity of Gymnema sylverstre. For the gastric ulcer there are varieties of drugs available but these drugs having major side effects. Bone structure alteration, iron deficiency anemia, risk of vitamin B 12 deficiency may cause by Cimetidine, Famotidine, Ranitidine, Sucralfate drugs use in gastric ulcer. Cardiac problems may also cause by proton pump inhibitors. Anti ulcer activity study was studied using different leaves extract like pet-ether, chloroform, alcohol, aqueous of Gymnema Sylverstre on different models of gastric ulcer, such as acetic acid induced chronic gastric ulcer, pylorus ligation and stress induced ulcer models. The extracts administered orally with the dose of 200mg/kg. All the extracts increase the healing process of ulcer (P< 0.05). But alcoholic extract was more significant when it compare with standard (P
564 INFLUENCE OF SOLUBILIZING AGENTS ON ATENOLOL FAST DISSOLVING ORODISPERSIBLE FILMS OF PULLULAN, Amit B. Patil*, R. Narayana Charyulu, C. S. Shastry
The present research study is aimed at developing and characterizing the influence of solubilizing agent such as tween 80 and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on the morphological and physicochemical characteristic of fast dissolving orodispersible films (FDOF). Pullulan is used as film forming polymer and glycerine was incorporated as plasticizing agent. The embodiment of atenolol as antihypertensive drug, in FDOF was achieved by solvent casting technique. Atenolol is ?1 blocker, prescribed widely in diverse cardiac abnormalities. Literature reports that faster disintegration leads to optimum drug release resulting in higher bioavailability. The present research work also attempts to correlate the effect of concentration of pullulan and solubilizing agent on the disintegration time and drug release profile. The atenolol FDOF were characterized for physical appearance, deformation caused during removing from die cavity, disintegration time, in vitro dissolution, etc. The optimum concentration of plasticizer, polymer and solubilizing agent was developed on the basis of flexibility, tensile strength and stickiness of the film. In the presence of solubilizing agent the morphological characters was found to be better than in its absence. Atenolol FDOF showed optimum drug content and folding endurance. The disintegration time of formulation PUD7 film was found to be 10 sec with in vitro release of 99.27 % in 90 sec, which was better than other prepared formulations. Drug-excipients interaction studies performed using FTIR; showed no interaction. Surface pH was found to be neutral, indicating safety of administration. Atenolol FDOF formulated using DMSO showed optimum results as compared to tween 80 and FDOF without solubilizing agent. Thus based on the results it can be concluded that the FDOF formulated using solubilizing agents can enhance the disintegration time and drug release profile.
565 PROSPECTS OF STUDIES ON TEPHROSIA PURPUREA L. FOR SEED CHARACTERS AND SEED MORPHOLOG IN VINDHYA REGION, Rashmi Arnold, *Seema Tiwari and R. M. Mishra
The plant Tephrosia purpurea L. of the family papilionanceae had been investigated for certain of its pharmacologically active phytoconstituents. The perusal of literature, however revealed that not much attention was given to the phytosocilogy of the species in the various climatic and phytogeographical areas. In the present study, Tephrosia purpurea and its associates have been recorded in the four districts viz. Rewa, Satna, Sidhi and Shahdol of the Vindhyan region with special reference to seed characters and seed germination physiology.
566 SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOME TRANSITION METAL COMPLEXES WITH SULPHUR CONTAINING LIGAND, *Abhishek Kumar Mishra and Mohammad Aslam
The ligand was prepared by reacting piperdine with carbon disulphide and sodium hydroxide. Its transition metal complexes were synthesized by substitution reaction by reacting sodium salt of piperdine dithiocarbamate with salt solutions. These complexes were characterized by elemental analysis and spectral studies. Based upon these analyses, it was confirmed that In all these complexes dithiocarbamate group is coordinated symmetrically as bidentate ligand. In all these complexes the metal is either tetra or hexacoordinated giving square planer or octahedral geometry.
567 STANDARDIZATION OF A SIDDHA FORMULATION WITH MODERN TECHNIQUES, Shree Devi M.S*, Ravichandiran.V, Jaya kumari.S
Standardization of Siddha formulation is essential in order to assess the quality, purity, safety and efficacy of drugs based on the amounts of their active principles. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the Siddha formulation containing four active ingredients for asthma. In this study an attempt has been made to develop pharmacognostical and pharmaceutical standards for Siddha formulation. For evaluation of Siddha formulation containing many herbs various parameters were tested. Parameters for finished product include macroscopic, microscopic, loss of drying, total ash and extractive values. HPTLC study, heavy metal analysis, microbial analysis and pesticide residue analysis were carried out as a part of evaluation. Results indicate that Siddha formulation has passed through all organoleptic and physicochemical parameters.
568 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERISATION & ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL ( OMEGA-3-FATTY ACID ) THIOSEMICARBAZIDE OF LINUM USITATISSIMUM (LINSEED) SEED OIL, *Shobha Borhade
There are two subclasses of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), omega-3-fatty acid ?-Linolenic acid or ALA (18:3n-3) & omega-6-fatty acid gamma-linolenic acid or GLA (18:3n-6), . Linum usitatissimum (Linseed) seed oil used for synthesis of thiosemicarbazone derivative contains 28.05 % alpha-linolenic ( omega-3 fatty acid ) & 18 % linoleic ( omega-6 fatty acid ). Seed oil was extracted by n-hexane & fatty acid present in the seed oil is necessary for the synthesis of derivative with thiosemicarbazone. Thioemicarbazones are potent intermediates for the synthesis of pharmaceutical and bioactive materials and thus, they are used extensively in the field of medicinal chemistry Omega-3 fatty acid thiosemicarbazide of Linum usitatissimum (Linseed) seed oil was synthesized. The absorption spectra, infrared spectra and X-ray diffraction of essential ( omega-3-) fatty acid thiosemicarbazide was studied. The antibacterial activity of essential fatty acid thiosemicarbazide was studied.
569 EXTRACTION AND THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY OF PIGMENT FROM THREE VARIETY OF EUCALYPTUS AND ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OIL, Jaya Singh, *Saurabh Gupta, Shivangee Anuragi
The genus Eucalyptus (Family- Myrtaceae) comprises well-known plants of over 600 species of trees. In all parts of the world, Eucalyptus leaves, bark, wood and Essential oils are utilized on a large scale. Eucalyptus essential oils could be grouped into three types- Medicinal, Industrial and Perfumery. The essential oils were highly used in the Aromatherapy and Antimicrobial activities. Eucalyptus essential oil compositions from various countries have been extensively investigated due to their numerous uses in the Pharmaceutical and Cosmetics Industries. The Essential oils isolated by the steam distillation using Clevenger-type apparatus from the leaves of the three Eucalyptus species- E. saligna, E.tetragona and E.terticornis. Antimicrobial activity of Eucalyptus sp. Essential oil againts pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Was evaluated following agar disc diffusion and poisoned food technique procedure both qualitatively and quantitatively. The essential oil of eucalyptus was found active toward gram-positive bacteria compared to gram negative and showed activity towards drug resistans mutants of A.tunifuciens, Staphylococcus oureus, A. niger, C. lunata Eucalyptus oil may provide avaluable antimicrobial agent for microorganism
570 PHYTOSOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON TEPHROSIA PURPUREA L. IN VINDHYA REGION, Rashmi Arnold, *Seema Tiwari and R. M. Mishra
Ecological studies determines the influence of environment on the life of plants and crops community. The structure of a community is formed with the continuous interaction of climatic, edaphic and biotic factors. A competition among the different species as well as the same species also affects greatly the structure of the community. Thus during the course of present investigation only the qualitative characters viz. Frequency, Density, Dominance and Importance Value Index has calculated to assess the structure of the community in which the plant Tephrosia purpurea L. flourishes. In the present study, Tephrosia purpurea and its associates have been recorded in the four districts viz. Rewa, Satna, Sidhi and Shahdol of the Vindhyan region.
571 EFFECT OF MOSQUITO COIL SMOKE ON THE DEVELOPING CHICK EMBRYO (GALLUS GALLUS), *Ravi, Sangeeta Devi
The attempt was made to evaluate the effect of mosquito coil smoke on the development of chick embryo under laboratory conditions. It was reported earlier that the burning of coil causes problems in rats like inflammation of the tracheal epithelium, atelectasis of the lung parenchyma, emphysema and increase of alveolar macrophages in the alveolar space and perivascular infiltration of polymorph nuclear cells, which was studied by the Department of Anatomy and Department of Biology (BAPTIST College)-Hongkong. In the present endeavor we try to evaluate the effect of D-trans allethrin which is a component of in the mosquito coil. The compound has adverse effect on various stages of chick development. Microsomia and Tachycardia are the major deformities observed due to d-trans allethrin. The compound was found to induce certain structural anomalies in the developing embryo. The characteristic deformities during this study have been co-related with the results which we obtained from current investigation. In conclusion the mosquito coil smoke is embryo toxic. The continuous use of mosquito coil may lead to undesirable consequences in vertebrates. According to us the best option to get rid of mosquito bite is to use the mosquito net.
572 ASSESSMENT OF CIPROFLOXACIN CONTENT VARIATION IN ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST DISCS BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY, Mahathi Kothapalli*, Gurubasavaraja swamy PM, V.N.Raju Erumalla, Rajesh Telugu, Swetha Chenna
A new simple, rapid, selective, precise and accurate isocratic reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography assay has been developed for the estimation of Ciprofloxacin bulk powderand in discs. The separation was achieved by using C-18 column (Phenomenex Luna C18 column 250 mm4.6mm id, 5 particle size) coupled with a guard column of silica in mobile phase ammonium acetate buffer and acetonitrile (25mM ammonium acetate buffer with 75:25). The flow rate was 1.0ml/min and the drug was detected using UV detector at the wavelength of 275nm. The retention time was within 2.468 - 2.473 minutes. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Antimicrobial activity viz., Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against S. aureus and E. coli was subjected by using ciprofloxacin bulk powder and discs, and the results were interpreted by determining the zone of inhibition using Disc diffusion method of two different batches of 10?g and 30?g of ciprofloxacin discs from the same manufacturer.The Propose HPLC method is simple, precise, accurate, robust, significant and suitable for determining the assessment of ciprofloxacin content variation in antimicrobial susceptibility test discs by liquid chromatography.
573 DERIVATIVES OF CYCLOPROPYL AMINES AS AN INHIBITOR FOR HUMAN EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR (EGFR), *Meena Chandran, Kumaran Santhalingam, K Krishnakumar, D Rajasekar
In silico methods help in identifying drug targets via bioinformatics tools. They can also be used to analyze the target structures for possible binding/ active sites, generate candidate molecules, check for their drug likeness, dock these molecules with the target , rank them according to their binding affinites , further optimize the molecules to improve binding characteristics. The present paper describes the molecular docking studies of cyclopropyl amines, derived from Ephedra plant, as inhibitors of HER2 for cancer. Docking studies cyclopropyl amines have been carried out in the active site of HER2 by using Auto Dock. The protein file of HER2 [PDB ID: 1MFG] was taken from the protein data bank. The lead moiety from cyclopropyl amines has shown best ligand pose -5.1981kcal/mol.All the derivatives of cyclopropyl amines have shown best ligand pose energy between -3.57 kcal/mol to -5.86 kcal/mol. Among them N-cyclopropyl-4-methoxybenzamide (1C), 3,4-dichloro-Ncyclopropylbenzamide(1E), 2-chloro-N-cyclopropylbenzamide and (1F) has shown best ligand pose like -5.86 kcal/mol, -5.50 kcal/mol, -5.29 kcal/mol and -5.05 kcal/mol with HER2 respectively. The theoretical results have shown a higher estimated binding energy of cyclopropyl amines suggesting a better anti-cancer activity and efficient inhibitor to treat breast cancer.
574 SAFETY MARGIN OF COSMETICS: A REVIEW, Praveen Nasa*
Cosmetics are daily used products. Everybody use cosmetics in one or other forms. Almost all of the cosmetics used by humans caused a lot of adverse effects. These adverse effects are mainly due to the ingredients added in the cosmetics. These ingredients are mainly added as preservative, stabilizer, fragrance and coloring agent. But these ingredients entered into the body by penetrating the skin. However the serious adverse effects occurred on long term use of these ingredients. These adverse effects mainly includes cancer and organ system toxicity. The main classes of cosmetics which have low margin safety include: shampoos, hair dye, lotions, nail polishes, facial makeup etc.
575 PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF TASTE MASKING COMPLEX OF CIPROFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDE BY USING INCLUSION COMPLEXATION APPROACH, Manali Shamkant Mulay, Vidhyadhar Bankar, Sughosh Vishweshwar Upasani
Administration of an oral drug delivery system having bitter taste and acceptable level of palatability has always been challenge in developing a formulation for pediatric and geriatric purpose. The present study evaluates the possibility of inclusion Complexation of Ciprofloxacin HCl with ?-Cyclodextrin as an approach for taste masking. Improvement in taste masking capability of ?-cyclodextrin towards Ciprofloxacin HCl was evaluated by formulating a complex. Complex was prepared using kneading method and was further characterized by DSC and FT-IR study. In-vitro dissolution study was carried out to investigate the effect of inclusion complexation on drug release. Taste perception study was carried out on human volunteers to evaluate the taste masking ability of inclusion complexation. Kneading complex showed effective taste masking and at the same time showed no limiting effect on the drug release. The effective taste masking was attributed to the enhanced complexation of ciprofloxacin HCl in kneading complex and the same was confirmed from the characterization studies. In conclusion, the study succeeded in inclusion complexation?s utilization as an alternative approach for effective taste masking.
576 QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION AND VALIDATION OF URSODEOXYCHOLIC ACID TABLETS BY RP-HPLC, A.Santosh Kumar Sreevatsav*, A.K.Hareesh babu, P.Vamsi reddy, K.Radhika, Shravani Boguda, N.Mamatha..
The study involves validate analytical method for Assay of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Udihep Tablets by HPLC as per Method of Analysis. Establish documentary evidence that the method meets the acceptance criteria, as the method given for assay is a nonpharmacoepial method and developed in-house. Here the different parameters like suitable, selective, specific, precise, linear, accurate and robust are performed for the development of analytical method of assay of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Udihep Tablets by HPLC and obtained standard deviation and Relative standard deviation of each parameter and it found that analytical method is validated and can be used for routine analysis and for stability study.
577 A SIMPLE AND RAPID METHOD FOR THE QUANTIFICATION OF IMATINIB MESYLATE AND DESMETHYL IMATINIB IN HUMAN PLASMA USINGLC-MS/MS AND ITS APPLICATION TO ROUTINE THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING, Jose Francis* Biswajit Dubashi Rajan Sundaram Suresh Chandra Pradhan Adithan Chandrasekaran
Introduction: Imatinib mesylate is the standard of care in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can be used as a tool to cross-check treatment adherence or toxic manifestations to imatinib mesylate in chronic myeloid leukemia patients. The study aimed to develop a simple, cost effective and rapid method for quantification of imatinib mesylate and desmethyl imatinib in human plasma using LC-MS/MS. Methods: The biological samples were prepared by a simple protein precipitation method and separated using an XTerra MS C18 column. Imatinib and its metabolite desmethyl imatinib was quantified using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer working in the positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) mode using verapamil as internal standard. RESULTS: The method was validated and found to be precise and accurate within the dynamic range of 5ng-8g/mLfor the drug and 5ng-1g/mL for the metabolite. The method was then applied to routine therapeutic drug monitoring of CML patients and the meanSD trough level concentration was found to be 1437459 ng/mL. CONCLUSION: This simple and rapid LC-MS/MS method was validated to be sensitive, specific, precise and accurate for thequantification of imatinib and its metabolite in human plasma. The method was found to be cost effective for implementing in routine TDM process.
578 GASTRO-RETENTIVE FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM CONTAINING ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUG AN OVERVIEW, Ghorpade Prafull* Kamble Shrenik
The purpose of writing this review on gastro retentive floating drug delivery system was to compile the recent literature with special focus on the principal mechanism of floatation to achieve gastric retention. Hypertension is one of the world?s major diseases.It currently affects an estimated143 million people worldwide and the number is growing rapidly. Research is directed towards overcoming physiological adversities such as short gastric residence time (GRT) & unpredictable gastric emptying time (GET). These systems will be very much useful to deliver narrow absorption window? drugs. Four technologies have involved a substantial number of human clinical trials: floating, mucoadhesion, density modification, and expansion. The floating drug delivery system can remain in the gastric region for several hours via float on the gastric contents and hence significantly prolong the gastric residence time of drugs.In the recent years, scientific and technological advancement have been made in the research and developed of novel drug delivery system. By overcoming physiological troubles such as short gastric residence time and unpredictable gastric emptying times, oral route is the most preferable route of administration but it has certain limitation for those drugs which absorb from upper part of GI tract or having narrow absorption window. The bioavailability of these drugs by increasing the residence of the dosage form in the stomach. The gastric residence time of the dosage form can be improved by formulating them as floating drug delivery system. The current and recent development of stomach specific antihypertensive drug formulated as floating drug delivery system is discussed in this review.
579 ORODISPERSIBLE FILM DOSAGE FORM: A REVIEW, Dnyaneshwar H.R*., Wale K.K.,Sayyed S.F., Dr. Chaudhari S.R.
Orodispersible dosage forms are promising new approaches for drug delivery. They enable an easy application, as there is no need to drink high amounts of liquids or swallow large solid dosage forms. The aim of the study was to develop an orodispersible film (ODF) as an alternative to tablets, syrups or suppositories for the treatment of vomiting and nausea, especially for the pediatric population. Oral thin film, a new drug delivery system for the oral delivery of the drugs, was developed based on the technology of the transdermal patch. Fastdissolving oral thin film is a solid dosage form, which disintegrate or dissolve within 1 min when placed in the mouth without drinking of water or chewing. Oral film includes various ingredients forits formulation which includes polymers, active pharmaceutical ingredient, film stabilizing agents, sweeteners, flavours, colors, saliva stimulating agents, preservatives, surfactants etc but the first and far most a very essential ingredient which helps in film formation is a Polymer. Fast dissolving Film is prepared using hydrophilic polymers that rapidly dissolves on the tongue or buccal cavity, delivering the drug to the systemic circulation via dissolution when contact with liquid is made. Water-soluble polymers are used as film formers for fast dissolving films. The water-soluble polymers achieve rapid disintegration, good mouth feel and mechanical properties to the films. Fast-dissolving oral thin film offer fast, accurate dosing in a safe, efficacious format that is convenient and portable, without the need for water or measuring devices. In this review article the different polymers used for preparation of fastdissolving oral thin film like Pullulan, Gelatin, Sodium Alginate, Pectin, Rosin, Starch, Chitosan are discussed together with th physicochemical properties and film forming properties.
580 BIOCHEMISTRY OF AQH OF THE HUMAN EYE - A PHYSIOLOGICAL-AGING AND PATHOLOGICAL-CATARACTOUS STUDY, *Ajit. V. Pandya
In the aqueous humor of the normal and cataractous human eye respectively the concentration of ascorbic acid is 118.04 ? 3.26 M / 100 ml. and 45.92 ? 1.24 M / 100 ml; the concentration of GSH is 3.24 ? 0.87 M / 100 ml and 1.65 ? 0.61 M / 100 ml and the concentration of total proteins is 46.72 ? 4.76 mg/100 ml and 53.24 ? 5.08 mg /100 ml. Significant changes are found to occur between these three parameters under normal and cataractous condition. The concentration of these constituents varies in different types of cataract. This indicates that the changes in parameters are not entirely age dependent but are conditional in AQH of human eyes.
581 STUDIES ON TEPHROSIA PURPUREA L. WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO SEED GERMINATION PHYSIOLOGY, Rashmi Arnold *Seema Tiwari and R. M. Mishra
The nature of much germination regulating mechanism in seeds lends itself to an interpretation in terms of survival value of species. There are always consistent efforts from farmers, researchers and scientists all over the world to produce good quality seeds. Earlier studies showed that seeds of Tephrosia purpurea are small oblong and very slightly compressed laterally. Each pod of the plant is 4.67 cm long and contains 4-6 such seeds. Present investigation was carried out to study seed dormancy and seed germination physiology of Tephrosia purpurea.
582 DPP 4 INHIBITORS: A NEW ERA OF TREATING TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS, Jadav H*, Lad K, Jadav P
Type 2 diabetes is a complex metabolic disorder, comprising altered insulin sensitivity and impaired insulin secretion. Now-a-days various treatments are available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) is a novel treatment for type-2 diabetes. In recent years, various DPP-4 inhibitors have been released as therapeutic drugs for type 2 diabetes. These agents inhibit thedegradation of the incretins glucagon -like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropicpolypeptide (GIP) and hence potentiate glucose-dependent insulin secretion.They are well-tolerated with no weight gain and few adverse effects, and, of particular interest, no increase in hypoglycemic episodes.DPP-4 inhibition is suggested to be a first-line treatment of type-2 diabetes, particularly in its early stages in combination with metformin. Several DPP-4 inhibitors are in clinical development, and many are already available in the market like sitagliptin, vildagliptinetc. some of them have patents for chemical entities for inhibiting DPP 4 enzyme in vitro and in vivo. However, further studies are needed to validate both longtermb-cell preservation and the role of these agents in the management of diabetes.The present review gives an inside out of the DPP IV inhibitors, novel drugs in clinical trials, patents and combination therapy with other anti diabetic drugs.
583 RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF NORFLOXACIN IN BULK FORM, Sharma Ravi*, Kaur Amandeep, Malhotra Dipali
A simple, selective, accurate and precise high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for estimation of Norfloxacin in bulk form was developed & validated. The estimation was carried out on Phenomenax luna C-18 (250x4.6 mm, 5?) column using a mobile phase consisting of 0.03 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate, triethyamine: Acetonitrile (88:12 v/v) of pH 3.8 adjusted with orthophosphoric acid, at a flow rate 1 ml/min. The UV detection was carried out at 280 nm. Method validation was performed as per the ICH guidelines. The method was validated for the precision, accuracy, linearity and robustness.
584 COMPARISON OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PHENOLIC CONTENT OF GARLIC, LEEK AND ONION VEGETABLES IN DIFFERENT COOKING METHODS, *Mirzaei Ali, Mirzaei Nooshin
Epidemiological studies have shown consumption of vegetables and fruits were related with reduced risks of several age-related and degenerative human disease, cardiovascular and cancers. Among the widely consumed vegetables garlic (Allium satium L.), leek (Allium porrum .) and onions (Allium cepa L are important medicines to the ancient Iranian. Material and Methods: The vegetable samples (2.5 kg) were collected and five portions (500 g each) were prepared. One portion was kept raw as control stored at 4 ?C in the fridge and others were subjected for four thermally treatments such as boiling, Pressurecooking, Microwave cooking and frying. Raw and cooked vegetables were analyzed by different antioxidant activity such as diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) methods and total phenol contents. All data were expressed as means standard deviation .For statistics analysis samples one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied.Results: The total phenolics content of onion samples was insignificantly reduced after cooking procedures . However significant reductions in leek and garlic were reported. In total phenol procedure the highest losses were reported by leek in boiling method .Leek showed highest scavenging activity (32.7 M TE/g) whereas onion had lowest activity with 21 M TE/g by DPPH assay .According to result of the TEAC radical scavenging activity the highest losses were reported in garlic in boiling method. The boiling cooking method in all assays was reported with maximum of % losses. Conclusion: Among spice vegetables tested, garlic had the highest phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. All antioxidant activities decrease in the vegetables except leek in thermal treatments by different methods.
585 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE BENZOTHIAZOLE DERIVATIVES, *D.Maruthamuthu, Dr. (Mrs.) P.Shameela Rajam, Dr. (Mrs.) P. Christina Ruby Stella, R.Ranjith
A series of some benzothiazole was synthesized and evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The reaction of aniline compounds with ammonium thiocyante and HCl yielded 1 phenylthiourea. The title compounds were synthesized by treating 1-phenylthiourea with bromine in glacial acetic acid. Their structures were confirmed by IR, 1 H-NMR and 13 C-NMR spectral techniques. Docking study was done to find the binding capacity of the synthesized compounds with the protein molecule COX-2
586 A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF CRUDE EXTRACTS PREPARATIONS OF FIVE MEDICINAL PLANTS: OCIMUM SANCTUM, AJADIRACHTA INDICA, PUNICA GRANATUM, PSIDIUM GUAJAVA, AND SYZYGIUM AROMATICUM AGAINST MULTI DRUG RESISTANT BACTERIA OF CLINICAL ORIGIN., *Dr.Alka Mishra, Prabhakar Babele
Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of crude extracts of Ocimum sanctum, Ajadirachta indica, Punica granatum, Psidium guajava, and Syzygium aromaticum against multi drug resistant strains isolated form community acquired infection The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential of plant extracts on standard microorganism strains as well as multidrug resistant bacteria which were isolated from hospitals. The important necessity and potentiality of medicinal plants in the practice of medicinal today is well established and cannot be overlooked. The present study is an attempt to assess the variation of drug resistance among bacterial pathogens isolated from community patients in hospitals. Hence, more studies pertaining to the use of plants as therapeutic agents should be emphasized, especially those related to the control of antibiotic resistant microbes. Methodology:The medicinal plants used were Ocimum sanctum, Syzygium aromaticum, Punica granatum, Azadirachta indica, Psidium guajava. All of these five species were collected from Birala hospital garden in Gwalior district MP. Plants sample were washed three times by water, dried and powdered for farther used. Clinical isolates of the following organisms: Methicillin-sensitive and resistant S. aureus, Ciprofloxacin-susceptible and resistant P.aeruginosa, and two ceftizoxime-susceptible and resistant E. aerogenes and E. coli. All bacteria were obtained from clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Birla Hospital, and Gwalior MP.J Four out of three bacteria used (pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. aerogenes, E. coli) were Gram negatives and one (S. aureus) was gram positive. There was significant variation in the antibacterial activities (DIZ value) of different extract. Results: In our study we observed highest antibacterial activity in the extracts of the Punica granatum (Pomegranate) showed the highest antimicrobial activity in methanol extract for Ent. aerogenes and the less effect was observed in ethanol extract on E. coli. The DIZ value (diameter of zone of inhibition) of pomegranate were between 19-26 mm. Syzygium aromaticum (clove) plant extract (flower buds) at a same concentration showed the highest antimicrobial activity in ethyl acetate extract against E. coli and the lowest antibacterial activity in ethanol extract against S. aureus. While A. indica (Neem) plant extract (leaves) observed in highest antibacterial activity in methanol extract against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the lowest antibacterial activity in same extract on E. coli. Then Ocimum sanctum (basil) plant extract (leaves) showed the highest antimicrobial activity in ethyl acetate extract against E. aerogenes and no inhibition was seen on Ocimum sanctum (basil) methanol extract with E. coli. Psiduam guajava (guava) plant extract (leaves) showed the highest antimicrobial activity in methanol extract in ethanol against E. aerogenes and the lowest antibacterial activity in ethanol against S. aureus.
587 COMPARATIVE STUDY OF TIOTROPIUM AND IPRATROPIUM IN CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE SOUTH INDIAN TEACHING HOSPITAL, *Reema Thomas, Ramesh Adepu, G. Parthasarathi Jayaraj B.S and Mahesh PA
Objective: To compare the bronchodilator efficacy and safety of tiotropium and ipratropium in patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Methodology: The present study was a prospective randomized study conducted for 12 weeks. Eligible COPD patients were randomized in to two groups to receive either tiotropium 18 mcg once daily via metered dose inhaler (MDI) or ipratropium 40 mcg four times daily via MDI. Lung functions tests, baseline dyspnoea index (BDI) and transition dyspnoea index (TDI), health related quality of life (HRQoL), concomitant use of salbutamol were carried out to assess the lung function. Results: At the end of the study, a total of 70 patients (35 patients in Tiotropium and 35 patients in Ipratropium) completed the study. Both groups showed an improvement in lung functions, HRQoL and dyspnoea indices (p0.05) in lung function compared to ipratropium group. Tiotropium group showed a significant improvement in dyspnoea indices (p0.05). Dry mouth was the common adverse effect observed in both groups. Conclusion Tiotropium in a dose of 18 mcg once daily via MDI showed a non significant improvement in dyspnoea, lung functions and all domains of SGRQ compared to ipratropium 40 mcg four times daily.
588 HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS BARK EXTRACT OF ALSTONIA SCHOLARIS IN PARACETAMOL AND ETHANOL INDUCED LIVER DAMAGE IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS, G.V.Sampath Kumar*, Santosh Kumar Ranajit, Dr.K.Eswar Kumar
The In vivo hepatoprotective effect of aqueous extract of Alstonia scholaris (AEAS) bark was evaluated in male rats against ethanol and paracetamol induced liver damage in preventive and curative models. Liver injury was induced by 40% ethanol administration (3.7 g/kg bw, orally) for 28 days and in the other case hepatic damage was induced by the administration of Paracetamol at a dose of 2g/kg bw for 11 days. In two different sets of experiments, the AEAS extracts (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bw) and silymarin (100 mg/kg bw) were administered orally in preventive and curative models. Ethanol administration as well as Paracetamol administration caused severe hepatic damage in rats as evidenced by elevated serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin levels. The AEAS and silymarin administration prevented the toxic effect of ethanol and Paracetamol on the above serum parameters in both preventive and curative models. The present study concludes that aqueous extract of Alstonia scholaris bark showed significant hepatoprotective activity against ethanol induced hepatotoxicity as well as Paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity.
589 PHARMACOSOMES: A NOVEL CARRIER FOR TARGETED AND CONTROLLED VESICULAR DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM, Vijay Kumar Singh*, Anand Patel, Dinesh Chandra, Kamlesh.K.Yadav
Vesicular drug delivery system showed application in targeted and controlled drug delivery and transport the active agent to the tissue through biological barriers. Novel vesicular drug delivery carrier intend to delivery the drug at a rate directed by the need of body during the period of treatment and channel the active moity to the site of action providing target. Pharmacosomes are one of the most promising approaches for this system to increase the bioavailability of drug substance, improve drug stability, and prolong the existence of the drug in systemic circulation and target drugs to specific site in the body. Pharmacosomes are amphiphilic, colloidal dispersion prepared from drug lipid conjugates with or without additional surfactant. Targeted pharmacosomal drug delivery system is very useful in caner therapy because such pharmacosomes should selectively localize anticancer drug at the tumour site, thus reducing the toxicity of the drug to normal cell and improving their therapeutic activity. The great advantages of pharmacosomes are it may be minimize drug degradation and diminised the toxicity (GIT).
590 PROCESS VALIDATION OF SOLID DOSAGE FORM, Mahajan Harshal D*, Kawathe Sagar R, Kachave Ramanlal N, Salunkhe Kishor S, Chaudhari Sanjay R
The goal of quality system is to consistently produce products that are suitable for their intended use. Quality is the primordial intention to any industry and its products manufactured. Multiple views on obtaining such quality are the current interest in the pharmaceutical industry. It is establishing documented evidence that a process does what it purports to do, base on information generated during actual implementation of the process. In process monitoring of critical processing steps and end product testing of current production is involved in concurrent validation. Validation is the art of designing and practicing the designed steps alongside with the documentation. Solid dosage forms include tablets and capsules. Validation and quality assurance will go hand in hand, ensuring the through quality for the products. Hence, an emphasis made on to review that gives a detailed, overview of validation concept of designing, organizing and conducting validation trials. Despite the ongoing development of more sophisticated solid drug delivery system, tablets are still by far the most prevalent solid dosage form. Additionally a view of validation against the quality assurance, drug development and manufacturing process has been discussed.
591 ANTIBACTERIAL SCREENING ON LEAVES OF ARGYREIA CYMOSA ROXB., AGAINST PATHOGENIC BACTERIA, Packia lakshmi N and Fazila Beevi H
The present study deals with the aqueous leaf extract of Argyreia cymosa (Roxb) were evaluated for antibacterial activity.The aqueous leaf extract of Argyreia cymosa is active against E.coli, P.aeruginosa, S.epidermidis, Proteus sps. The compound was separated using column chromatography. This compound was also evaluated for antibacterial study. The plant is well reputed in traditional system of medicine; present studies will help in further validation and standardization of the plant.
592 ISOLATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND ESTIMATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF NOVEL BACTERIOCIN FROM LACTOBACILLUS CASEI, Arunava Das*, Santanu Sasidharan and Thejus Achuthan
Food borne pathogens are continuing to become a matter of great concern in various industries like diary, egg and other food industries. Various gram positive and gram negative bacteria like Salmonella typhi, Bacillus subtilis are the main causative organisms. The present study is based on isolation, identification and screening of major food borne pathogens and novel bacteriocin producing strain of Lactobacillus casei. Investigations were conducted on 389 food samples and from this 12 different genus of bacteria were identified and isolated. From the 62 isolates of Lactobacillus sp. isolated, 9 isolates were Lactobacillus casei and of which 11% (1 isolate) were found capable of producing bacteriocin in large amounts. The isolates were grown for 96 hours under stress condition and the bacteriocin was extracted by centrifugation. Ammonium sulphate precipitation at 70% level of saturation was performed and the precipitate was centrifuged. Well diffusion assay of the extracted protein was performed on different isolated food borne pathogens and the diameter of the zones of inhibition was recorded. The study reveals the extensive scope of bacteriocin as preservatives in the field of food industry and the need for further research in it.
593 INVITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND ANTI -INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT OF COCCULUS HIRSUTUS, Dr. S.Umamaheswari*, K.S. Sridevi Sangeetha
Aim is to study the invitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action of the ethanolic extract of leaves of Cocculus hirsutus. Preliminary Phytochemical anlalysis showed the presence of flavones, flavonoids, triterpenoids, anthocyanins, coumarins, proteins, reducing sugars, alkaloids, tannins, glycosides and quinines. The invitro antioxidant study was done by DPPH, Nitric oxide radical generation and reducing power assay. The anti-inflammatory study was done by HRBC (Human Red Blood Cell) assay. Ethanolic extract of the leaf of the plant showed significant antioxidant activity and the anti inflammatory activity. The maximum percentage of inhibition by DPPH method was found to be 56.73 % at the concentration of 800 g/ml and the maximum percentage of inhibition by Nitric oxide method was found be 58.6 %. The invitro anti inflammatoy activity was found to 79.77 % at the concentration of 25 g and it increases with increase in concentration at the concentration of 800 g it was found to be 94.74%. The antioxidant and the antinflammatory activity is may due to the presence of flavonoids. From the above it was concluded that the ethanolic leaf extrac of cocculus hirustus having in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Further investigation has to be done in experimental animals to find out the mechanism of action.
594 EFFECTIVENESS OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS, STREPTOCOCCUS, KLEBSIELLA AND CANDIDA SPECIES AMONG HIV INFECTED CHILDREN - A RANDOMISED CONTROL TRIAL., Dr. Tom Peter*, Dr. Vijaya Hegde, Dr. Rajani Mary George and Dr. Eby Aluckal
Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is one of the major global health concerns. Lack of immunity and opportunistic infections are the major threat to these patients. Ayurveda has been of immense help in managing these type of patients. The present study was conducted to assess the anti bacterial and anti fungal effectiveness of Tinospora cordifolia and to compare its effect with chlorhexidene. Saliva and swab specimens were collected from 12 people living with HIV infection. Study subjects were divided into two groups and one group was given chlorhexidene and other group Tinospora cordifolia leaves. Saliva and swab samples were taken before and after, and sent for microbial analysis. Statistical analysis of the results revealed that there is no statistical significance between the two groups. ( p > 0.05). From the present study, we can conclude that both Tinospora cordifolia and chlorhexidene have antibacterial and antifungal effectiveness and since Tinospora cordifolia is locally available, it can be used as an adjuvant to oral hygiene practice, especially in case of AIDS patients who are more prone to opportunistic infections.
595 AYURVEDA AS A COMPLEMENTARY DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW, Shinde P.P*, KanwadeV.A,Sayyad S.F, K.S. Salunkhe
Ayurveda is ancient medical science which was developed in india thousands of years ago (Ayur =Life,Veda=Science).Differant Herbal formulation are availabal in market vary in quality and therapeutic efficacy due to the differences in composition of product.These formulation are safe ,less side effect ,less cost and easily available in market.This reveals the fact that traditional medicines are amazingly significant even today and have the capabilities to take the global care of diseases such formulation are use for different diseases, Antianginaltreatment, Antiarrythmics, Antihypertensive. but major drawback is lack of standardization ,and improper patient treatment, to avoid this problem use integrating modern scientific principles with traditional ayurvedic concepts, to convert formulation in to modern medicinemeans an attempt complementary alternative medicine (CAM).
596 FORMULATION DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLETS OF TELMISARTAN USING SOLID DISPERSION TECHNIQUE, *Ananda Chaudhary, Mukesh Sangra, Sandeep Kumar
The purpose of this research was to formulate mouth dissolving tablet of Telmisartan for rapid action, beneficial for patients having difficulties in swallowing and in conditions where access to water is difficult. Telmisartan is an antihypertensive drug used for the treatment of hypertension. The crucial aspect in the formulation of mouthdissolving tablets is to mask the bitter taste and to minimize the disintegration time while maintaining a good mechanical strength of the tablet. Solid dispersion was prepared to increase the solubility and dissolution rate of Telmisartan with Poloxamer188 (PXM188) by using fusion method. Drug polymer interactions were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). For the preparation of Telmisartan mouth dissolving tablets, its 1:3 solid dispersions with PXM188 was used with various synthetic superdisintegrants (Croscarmellose sodium, SSG). In an attempt to construct a statistical model for the prediction of wetting time, disintegration time and percentage friability, a 3 2 full factorial design was used to optimize the influence of the amounts of superdisintegrants. The results indicate that the optimized tablet formulation provides a DT 45 sec, WT 65 sec, cumulative percentage drug release 96.23% and acceptable friability (0.82%). Stability studies of optimized formulation revealed that formulation is stable.
597 AN INVESTIGATION OF THE SOIL MYCOFLORA IN TURMERIC FIELD OF PUDUKKOTTAI DISTRICT-TAMIL NADU, *Sarathi.V., Senthil kumar.R. and Panneerselvam A.
Soil is a complex ecosystem, delimited by physico-chemical parameters that hold enormous number of living organisms. This study deals with the seasonal variations in soil fungal population of traditional turmeric field in Pudukkottai district, Tamil Nadu viz., Ganapathipuram, Adhanakkottai, Pudunagar, Manjapettai and Thethuvasalpatti. About 66 different species belonging toPhycomycetes, Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes were isolated by using potato dextrose agar medium and identified by using standard manual. The predominant species were Aspergillus flavus, Pythium aphanidermatum, Penicillium chrysogenum, P.citrinumfollowed by T.viride, and T.glaucumfrom the turmeric field soils of Ganapathipura in various seasons whereas, in Adhanakkottai soils the predominant species werePythium aphanidermatum, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium solani, Penicillium citrinum, Mucor sp. and Trichoderma viride. In Pudunagarsoils the predominant species were Verticillium species, Pythiumaphanidermatum, Penicillium chrysogenum and P.lanosum, A.flavus, Mucor sp. and T.harzianum, in Manjapettai soils the dominant species wereA.niger, A.flavus, A.awamori, Pythium aphanidermatum, P.japanicum, P.citrinum and Trichoderma viride and Thethuvasalpatti soils the dominant species wereA.conicus, Pythium aphanidermatum, A.terreus followed by A.flavus, P.chrysogenum, T.harzianum, T. glaucum and Verticillium speciesrespectively. Total fungus in five station, they are 44 species belong to 15genera were identified from Ganapathipuram station, 37 species belong to 16 genera were identified from Adhanakkottai, 38 species belong to 16 genera were identified from Pudu Nagar, 38 species belong to 12 genera were identified from Manjapettai, 42 species belong to 12 genera were identified from Thethuvasal patti.
598 CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIPHYTOFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OILS FROM TWO ARTEMISIA SPECIES, Nasser A. Awadh Ali*, Martina Wurster, Annika Denkert,Saeed S. Al-Sokari, Ulrike Lindequist, LudgerWessjohann
Hydrodistilled essential oils from aerial parts of Artemisia abyssinica Sch.Bip. ex A. Rich, and Artemisia arborescens L. growing in Yemen were screened for their cytotoxic and antiphytofungal properties as well as their chemical compositions. Twenty-seven components were identified in the essential oils and the main components of these species were found to be davanone (42.34%), camphor (22.88%), nerolidol (8.96%), and chamazulene (4.46%), from A. abyssinica oil and artemisia ketone (51.05%), camphor (14.09%), ?-bisabolol (12.56%) and ?-phellandrene (8.69%) from A. arborescens. At concentration of 50 and 25 g/mL, A. arborescens oil showed a strong cytotoxic activity with growth inhibition of 95%(1.6) and 74%(3.8) (IC 50 of 16.91 g/mL) against HT29 tumor cells (Human colonic adenocarcinoma cells), while A. abyssinica oil exhibited at concentration of 100 and 50 g/mL growth inhibition of 71.0% (12.5) and 27.3%(14.4) (IC 50 of 75.42 g/mL) respectively. Bioautographic assay was used to evaluate the antiphytofungal activity of the oils against Cladosporium cucumerinum.
599 IN-VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING POTENTIAL OF ROOTS OF SALVIA SPLENDENS (SCARLET SAGE), Sailesh Narayan*, Abhilasha Mittal
Objective: The objective of present work is to study the In-vitro antioxidant activities of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Salvia Splendens roots. Material and Methods: The extracts were studied using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 ), Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and Total Flavanoid Content (TFC). The total Phenolic contents and Flavanoid contents were estimated taking gallic acid and rutin calibration curve respectably. Results: All the extracts posses In-vitro anti-oxidant activities. But the order of possessing activities were methanolic > ethyl acetate > petroleum ether extracts of Salvia Splendens roots. The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavanoid content (TFC) was highest in Methanolic extract. Conclusion: It can be concluded that Salvia Splendens roots extracts possess anti-oxidant activities.. The methanolic extract of Salvia Splendens roots possess highest anti-oxidant activity in-vitro.
600 IN-VITRO FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF CANTHIUM CORAMANDELIUM EXTRACT, *Dr.V.P.Karthik, Dr.Srinivasan, Dr.Gowri, Dr.Punnagai
Introduction: CanthiumCoramandelium is a shrub widely indicated for dysentery. An antioxidant is molecule that inhibits the oxidation of other molecules. Antioxidants are widely used in dietary supplements and have been investigated for the prevention of diseases such as cancer, coronary heart disease and altitude sickness. In this study we have attempted to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity of CathiumCoramandelium using in-vitro 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Objective:The objective of the present study was to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity and antioxidant potential of Canthium Coramandelium. Material & methods: DPPH radical scavenging activity was done using the method of Modified method of Bios (1985). The reaction mixture containing 1ml of DPPH solution (1mM in ethanol) with different concentrations of the substance (20, 40, 60, 80, g/1ml) was shaken and incubated in dark for 20 min at room temperature. The resultant absorbance was recorded at 517nm using spectrophotometer. The percentage inhibition was calculated using the formula Percentage inhibition = Abs control- Abs sample * 100. Abs control Results:At concentrations of 20, 40, 60, 80 ?g/ml percentage of inhibition observed was 10.360.18, 31.980.54, 68.070.19 and 91.020.04 respectively. Discussion & conclusion: Thus this invitro study suggest that CanthiumCoramandelium possesses antioxidant properties. Prior phytochemical analysis CanthiumCoramandelium shows the presence of flavonoids, tannins and glycosides. The antioxidant property of CanthiumCoramandelium may be attributed to the presence of flavonoids and tannins. However pharmacokinetic and safety profile of Canthium Coramandelium requires pre-clinical testing prior to its clinical application in human beings.
601 MATRIX TABLET: AS A SUSTAINED RELEASE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM, Anil B. Phad*, N. B. Mahale, Dr. S. R. Chaudhari, Dr. K. S. Salunke
Now a day?s pharmaceutical industry focusing for development of sustained release oral dosage forms as it become an important tool in medical practice. These sustained release formulations are designed to release drug in pre-determined rate and able to maintained plasma drug concentration in therapeutic window with minimum side effects. The basic rational behind sustained release drug delivery is to alter biopharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic and pharmcodynamic of drug to reduce side effect, give patient compliance and cure the disease. Sustained release drug delivery is improved patient compliance due to less frequent drug administration, reduction of fluctuation in steady- state drug levels, maximum utilization of the drug, increased safety margin of potent drug, reduction in healthcare costs through improved therapy and shorter treatment period. The principal goal of sustained release forms is the improvement of drug therapy assessed by the relationship between advantages and disadvantages of the use of sustained release system. This review article contained basic information of matrix type of sustained release drug delivery system.
602 FORMULATION, DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MICROSPHERES OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM BY SPRAY DRYING TECHNIQUE, Kanawade Sunil S*, SalunkheKishor S, Chaudhari Sanjay R
Losartan Potassium is antihypertensive agent called angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs).is a highly water soluble drug. Losartan Potassium has shorter half-life of 2.1 0.70 Hrs and after oral conventional administration mostly it is degraded in the liver and does not show prolonged effect.To overcome these problems the sustained release microspheres of Losartan Potassium is developed which will deliver the drug over a longer period of time. Microspheres of Losartan Potassium were prepared by spray drying technique using the lipophillic polymers i.e.EudragitRS100 and Ethyl Cellulose in drug:polymer ratio 1:8.The microsphere of Losartan Potassium showed an increasing trend of entrapment efficiency and in-vitro drug release. The in vitro drug release study suggests the sustained release of drug despite being highly water soluble.Scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and FT-IR study of the drug and formulation was carried out.
603 ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF PAPAIN HYDROLYSATES OF OYSTER MUSHROOM (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS) PROTEIN, Dr.Sundaram Meignanalakshmi*, Huldah,J., Palanisammi. A and Dhinakar Raj,G
In the present study Oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) protein has been isolated and concentration of protein was found to be 12.4mg/ml by biuret method. The total protein was hydrolysed by papain. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and superoxide free radical scavenging activity of total protein and papain hydrolysate were analysed. Papain hydrolysate was found to be having highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide free radical scavenging activity and was purified by using HPLC. Out of four fractions obtained, fraction 2 was found to be having highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity of 93.69% and 93.44% of superoxide free radical scavenging activity at 1mg/ml concentration.
604 CALLUS PRODUCTION OF GLOBE ARTICHOKE AND MILK THISTLE: IN VITRO HYPOLIPIDEMIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES, Shawky A. Bekheet, Mohamed K. El-Bahr, Sanaa A. Ali*, Manal A. Hamed
The goals of this study were to develop an in vitro callus growth system of globe artichoke and milk thistle plants and investigate their hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities. For callus induction, leaf explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l NAA + 2 mg/l Kin + 0.1 mg/l GA3. For solidifying culture medium, gelrite showed high growth of callus in comparison to agar. The effect of picloram added to culture medium on development and growth of callus was examined. Addition of 3 mg/l picloram to culture medium registered the best results of calli growth of the two plants presented as fresh weight and growth value. The influence of salicylic acid (SA) on growth parameters of calli of the two plants was investigated. The most effective level of SA was 75 M in which the highest callus fresh weight and dry matter were registered. Otherwise, effect of the different concentrations of jasmonic acid (JA) on fresh mass and dry matter of both two plants species was tested. Among the tested concentrations of JA, 50 M was more suitable for callus growth. However, i t was noticed that, callus of milk thistle was more positive responding for exogenous application of both SA and JA compared with callus of globe artichoke. In vitro hypolipidemic effects of extracts of globe artichokes and Milk thistle callus cultures were studied. Extracts of calli of both plants showed hypolipidemic viability effects in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, globe artichoke and milk thistle extracts recorded potent antioxidant effects as compared to their standard. There were significant differences between extracts of calli and standards at the low levels groups (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 mg/l). Moreover, globe artichoke extract showed more potent hypolipidaemic and antioxidant effects than the milk thistles extract.
605 ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOL EXTRACT AND ITS FRACTIONS OF STREBLUS ASPER (LOUR.) ROOTS, Elora Tasneem Rahman*, Sheikh Zahir Raihan, Zobaer Al Mahmud and Nazmul Qais
The roots of Streblus asper (Lour) (Family: Moraceae), a quite available medicinal plant of Bangladesh, has been investigated for the screening of its analgesic activity by peripheral mechanism of pain reduction. The powdered roots were extracted with methanol at room temperature and partitioned with petroleum ether, carbon tetrachloride, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate by modified Kupchan partition method. In the screening of peripheral analgesic activity by acetic acid induced writhing method, the ethyl acetate and petroleum ether fraction at doses 400mg/kg and 200mg/kg body weight induced extremely significant (p
606 PERFORMANCE OF DNA OF SUSCEPTIBLE AND RESISTANT BIOMPHALARIA ALEXANDRINA SNAILS AS IMMUNOGENS IN SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI INFECTED MICE, Manal A. Hamed*, Hanan F. Aly, Sanaa A. Ali, Nagy S. El-Rigal, Nadia S. Metwally, Samir H. Haggag, Maha Z. Rizk.
The aim of the present work is to evaluate the role of DNA of either susceptible or resistant Biomphalaria alexandrina snails as a vaccine in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice. The evaluation was done through estimation of parasitological, biochemical and histopathological parameters in S. mansoni infected mice liver. The results revealed that malondialdehyde (MDA), xanthin oxidase (OX), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6Pase), acid phosphatase (AP) and 5` nucleoprotein (5`Nu) are significantly increased in S. mansoni infected mice, while glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and E, glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, succinate and lactate dehydrogenase (SDH & LDH) showed significant reduction after infection. Alternation of the energetic parameters (ATP, ADP, AMP, phosphate potentials, inorganic phosphate), amino acid fractions and LDH isoenzymes were also noticed. The work was extended to measure ova and worm counts as well as the histopathological picture of liver. Vaccination of S. mansoni infected mice with DNA of either susceptible or resistant snails, recorded amelioration levels of the selected parameters by variable degrees. In conclusion, we found that the DNA of susceptible snails was more effective in protecting against schistosomiasis. Further examinations of the DNA constituents must be performed to identify the specific target responsible for protection against infection.
607 INVESTIGATION OF DRINKING WATER QUALITY IN SIRTELIBYA, Salma M. M. Attaf and Hany A. Omara *
This study investigated the quality of drinking water supplied from the Man-made River (MmR) to the general drinking water network of Sirte city. A total of 18 sites were selected for water analysis. Chemical and biological parameters were determined and compared to the WHO and Libyan Standard. The analysis has been devised to investigate the possibility of quality changes in the drinking water during the study period. 59% of users responded that water quality is acceptable, where 22% of them answered the questionnaire on the quality of water by bad and only 19% good. Chemical and biological analysis revealed that the distributed water is safe to drink except in one site, (Health Institute) where the count of E. coli was notably high (1100 CFU/100 ml). Analysis also showed that the quality of MmR water remains mostly unchanged in terms of chemical and biological (micro-organisms) aspects for its transport from the main sources in Alserer and Alkoffra wells. Moreover, the water of MmR exhibits a better quality during the study period when compared to previous studies. The results obtained from this study revealed that the EC value is low (41.6-705 s/cm) even lower than the recommended value by WHO. Other parameters such as Cl (11.7-70.2 mg/L), SO4 (17.2-104 mg/L), NO 3 (0.7-9.6 mg/L) are also lower than that of the WHO and Libyan Standards. Estimation of other metals such as (Zn, Cd, Mg, Mn, Fe), were below the limits. Overall, it has been stated that a combined bio-chemical approach that has cover the investigation of both chemical and microbial aspects become an effective method of monitoring drinking water. the investigation is needed to pin point possible sources of contamination such as storage tanks and pipeline to ensure the reach of safe drinking water to the users.
608 EFFECT OF CAMPYLOBACTER COLI LPS ON PHAGOCYTOSIS IN VITRO AND IN VIVO, Dunya Fareed*, Rasmia Abed Abu-Risha and Ali Hafedh Abbas
Campylobacter coli usually live in the intestinal tract of animals and cause inflammation of the intestine and diarrhea. In this study, C. coli were isolated from patients having diarrhea and identified based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is major outer membrane structural component of gram negative bacteria which induces a broad range of biological response. Here, LPS was isolated with hot phenol-water extraction and purified by gel filtration using Sephadex G-200. Phagocytosis is essential for fighting infections in immune responses to protect organisms from bacteria invasion hence we studied the effect of purified LPS on phagocytosis both in vitro and in vivo. The results reported in this study may prove to be valuable in analyzing the LPS effect on host immune response.
609 PREVALENCE OF CYP2D6 PHENOTYPES IN A YEMENI POPULATION, AM Othman*, Hussien O. Kadi Anes A. M. Thabit
Due to lack of information on existence and prevalence of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism in Yemeni population, this study was undertaken to reveal such information in Yemeni males. 70 healthy unrelated Yemeni males participated voluntarily as subjects in this study. They were categorized into two groups including 50 Arabs in one group and 20 Blacks in the other group. Each subject swallowed a standard dose (30 mg) of dextromethorphan (DM; the probe drug of CYP2D6) and slept overnight. The metabolic ratio of the drug to its major metabolite (dextrorphan; DOP) for each subject was determined by HPLC analysis of his urine sample collected 8 hours post-dosing. CYP2D6 phenotyping depended on the antimode ranges, of log metabolic ratio, that separate the phenotypes from each other. These antimodes were determined from the probit plot of log metabolic ratio of subjects in each group. Each subject was then phenotyped as either ultrarapid , extensive (normal), intermediate and poor metabolizer according to the value of his log metabolic ratio. The prevalence of CYP2D6 phenotype in each group was then calculated. It was found that CYP2D6 poor metabolizer phenotype in the Arab and Black subjects were 4% and 10 %, respectively, while the ultrarapid metabolizer phenotype was observed only in black subjects (20 %). These findings reveal the existence of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphism in both Arab and Black Yemeni males . However, pheno/genotype correlation remains to be established.
610 OPTIMIZATION OF NUTRIONAL FACTORS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CYCLODEXTRIN GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASE BY A NOVEL MUTATED BACILLUS SP TPR71HNA6 USING PLACKETTBURMANN DESIGN, *Ravinder Kashipeta
The cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase (CGTase) enzymes are the most important group of commercially produced enzymes. The production of CGTase was optimized using a newly isolated mutated Bacillus sp. TPR71HNA6. The fermentation variables were selected and optimized via PlackettBurman design. Eleven nutrients belonging to three categories viz.; nitrogen sources, carbon sources and mineral sources were screened. This design screens n variables in n-1 number of experiments. The results showed that the CGTase production varies from 18 to 68U/mL indicating that the selected compounds showed significant effect on the enzyme production. From these results it was also observed that yeast extract has highest significant than all other variables followed by starch, peptone and urea. Glucose has the least effect on the CGTase production by mutated Bacillus sp. TPR71H NA6.
611 HYSTEROSCOPY FINDINGS IN WOMEN WITH IMPLANTATION FAILURE AFTER IN VITRO FERTILIZATION (IVF), Roshan Nikbakht, Kobra Shojaei*, Neda Torabifar
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the uterine cavity by hysteroscopy of women with infertility and implantation failure. Intrauterine environment plays a major role in implantation and achievement in clinical pregnancy. Materials & Methods: This research was a cross sectional study which included 80 patients with primary or secondary infertility with also one or more In Vitro Fertilitisation (IVF) cycles failed despite of good quality of embryo transfer and normal appearance of the uterine cavity in hysterosalpingography. All patients were examined by transvaginal ultrasonography (TVU) and then hysteroscopy. Evaluation of the uterine cavity, endometrium and tubal Ostia were performed by hysteroscopy and findings were recorded. Patients with severe cervical stenosis were excluded from the study. A patient with noted uterine cavity pathology appropriate surgical management was administered in same setting. Results: A total of 46.2% of the study population showed abnormality in hysteroscopy of uterine cavity. Abnormal hysteroscopic findings were including: uterine sub septum (25%), endometrial polyps (13/8%), endometrial adhesion (6.2%), and submucousal myoma (1.2%). Conclusions: Reevaluating the uterine cavity by hysteroscopy prior to further IVF embryo transfer cycles can be suggested to women with implantation failure to determine intrauterine cavity abnormality and treatment of them to enhance the clinical pregnancy.
612 REGULATION OF GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS IN CELL MEMBRANE DURING DIABETES: IMPACT OF FLAXSEED OIL SUPPLEMENTATION, Jihan Hussein*, Zakaria El-Khayat, Olfat Shaker, Dina Abo El-Matty, Wafaa Rasheed, and Jakleen Raafat
Insulin resistance is associated with cell membrane properties . Some studies have demonstrated relationships between fatty acids composition of cell membrane phospholipids and insulin action. This study aimed to improve cell membrane structure ( increasing the omega-3 fatty acids ) in order to decrease insulin resistance through regulation of glucose transporters. Forty male albino rats were used in this study and divided into four groups .Group I (control group): healthy rats received a vehicle. Group II (flaxseed oil group): healthy rats received 1.2 ml flaxseed oil / kg b.w. / day orally. Group III (diabetic group): diabetic rats received a vehicle. Group IV (treated group): diabetic rats received 1.2 ml flaxseed oil / kg b.w. / day orally . Fasting blood sugar and plasma insulin were determined .Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids were estimated by HPLC column C 18 ( 260 X 4.6 , particle size 5 ?l ) , mobile phase was acetonitrile / water mixture (70/30) v/v by isocratic elution with flow rate 1 ml / min and 214 nm wave length. GLUT 1 and GLUT 4 were estimated by PCR . The current results indicated that, the percent of changes of GLUT1 and GLUT4 in treated group from diabetic were 18.42 and 44.64 % respectively; also a negative correlation was observed between insulin resistance and glucose transporters. In conclusion, flaxseed oil supplementation has an important role in improving the cell membrane structure and elevation of glucose transporters resulting in a reduction of insulin resistance during diabetes.
613 TOXICITY PROFILING AND ASSESSMENT OF IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DIOSPYROS PHILIPPINENSIS A.D.C. (EBNACEAE) METHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACT, Estela P. De Vera and Librado A Santiago*
The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential antimicrobial and to have a profile on the toxicity of Diospyros philippinensis, an endemic medicinal plant in the Philippines. Methanolic extraction of the leaves yielded 23% crude extract. The MCE was non-lethal at a dose of 2000 mg/kg BW, however histopathological examination showed to be slightly hepatotoxic. Furthermore, MCE was partitioned using solvents with increasing polarity (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water). Each solvent partition crude extracts was subjected to Total Phenolic Content (TPC) and Total Flavonoid Content (TFC). Ethyl acetate fraction (EF) gave the highest phenolic (31.920.001 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid content (8.660.001 mg QE/g). This was further subjected to silica gel column chromatography (hexane, hexane:ethyl acetate (1:1), ethyl acetate, ethyl acetate:n-butanol (1:1) and n-butanol). Antimicrobial activity of MCE, fractions and subfractions 1, 4 and 6 was carried out using Disc Diffusion method and found out that the 100% concentration of MCE, EF and ESF6 can inhibit the growth of gram positive-bacteria (14-19 mm zone of inhibiton). MCE, EF and ESF6 were subjected to HPLC where gallic acid and quercetin were identified in both MCE (18.860.08 mg gallic acid /g dry weight; 0.6581.03 mg quercetin/ g dry weight) and EF (10.100.08 mg gallic acid /g dry weight; 0.0591.03 mg quercetin/ g dry weight). ESF6 was identified with gallic acid (6.860.08 mg gallic acid /g dry weight), but no peak for quercetin. Data was expressed as mean standard error (SEM) and was analyzed using SPSS v.19.
614 BILAYERED TABLET TECHNOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW, *Rishikesh Ghosh, Md. Anwarul Haque, Tripti Rani Paul, Al-Amin Mohiuddin Ahmed Bhuiyan, Irin Dewan
Bi-layer tablet is a new era for winning development of controlled release formulation along with various features to provide successful drug delivery. Bi-layer tablets can be crucial option to avoid chemical incompatibilities between active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) by physical separation and to facilitate the development of different drug release profiles. Bi-layer tablet is appropriate for chronological release of two drugs in combination and also for sustained release of tablet in which one layer is for immediate release as loading dose and second layer is maintenance dose. So use of bi-layer tablets is a very different aspect for anti-hypertensive, diabetic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs where combination therapy is often used. Several pharmaceutical companies are currently developing bi-layer tablets, for a variety of reasons: patent extension, therapeutic, marketing to name a few. General tablet manufacturing principles remain the same, there is much more to consider because making multi-layer tablets involves multiple often incompatible products, additional equipment and many formulation and operation challenges. The present object provides an introduction to bi-layer tablet technology, challenges in bi-layer tablet manufacturing, various tablet presses used, quality and GMP requirements for their production various techniques used for bi-layer tableting and recent developments in the field of bi-layer technology.
615 EVALUATION OF THE ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITIES OF THE PLANT ALPINIA NIGRA (FAMILY: ZINGIBERACEAE), Syeda Sadia Ameen*, Syeda Rawnak Jahan, Md. Yousuf Ali
Alpinia nigra is an important medicinal plant having application in jaundice, fever and various other disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antipyretics activities of the whole plant A. nigra. The roots, stems, barks and the leaves of the plant A. nigra was sun dried and extracted using methanol. The antiinflammatory activity was evaluated using the carageenan induced paw edema in rats. The crude methanolic extract at a dose of 600mg/kg showed very potent anti-inflammatory activity in carageenan induced rat paw edema model with 68.59% inhibition of paw edema after the fourth hour of study. The Antipyretic activity was evaluated by the yeast induced pyresis method. The crude methanolic extract at both 600mg/kg and 300mg/kg dose showed significant Antipyretic effect.
616 CHARACTERIZING THE ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTICANCER PROPERTIES OF SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM RED AND WHITE CABBAGES BRASSICA OLERACEA L. VAR. CAPITATA, Alaa A. Gaafar*, Hanan F. Aly, Zeinab A. Salama and Khaled M. Mahmoud
Vegetables belongs to Brassicaceaeare rich in polyphenols, flavonoids, glucosinolates, vitamin C and their hydrolysis products which may have antioxidant and anticancer properties.This study was carried out to evaluate and differentiate the total phenolic content, total flavonoids, vitamin C and their antioxidant potential activities and cytotoxic effects between red and white cabbages after extraction with two different solvents (80% methanol and aqueous extracts). The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents varied from 29.13 to 11.44 mg/gdw and from 11.44 to 4.37 mg/gdw for red and white cabbage respectively that extracted with 80% methanol. Levels of total phenolic and flavonoids extracted with water were ranged from 21.38 to 10.36 mg/gdw and from 12.33 to 3.69 mg/gdw for red and white cabbages respectively. While, vitamin C ranged from 64.87 to 44.25 mg/100gfw. Red cabbage was the richest sources of dietary antioxidants, while their content was the lowest in white cabbage. Phenolic compounds present in the extracts showed antioxidant activities investigated using DPPH . radical scavenging activity, iron chelating and reducing power. The extract of red cabbage exhibited a stronger ability to scavenge DPPH . radicalas compared to white cabbage. Iron chelating and reducing power activities were also stronger in red cabbage. Results of the HPLC analysis indicated that, among phenolic compounds, luteolin and rutin were the main constituents in red cabbage extracted with 80% methanol. Red and white cabbages were tested for their anti-cancer activity using three cancer cell lines; hepatocellular cell line (HePG2), colon cell line (HCT116), breast cell line (HCF7) and a normal cell line (human dermal fibroblast cell line). Each extract is evaluated cytotoxicity inhibition effects. Red cabbage aqueous extract showed cytotoxic inhibition effects of 46.40, 31.20 and 22.40 % for HePG2, HCT116 and MCF-7, respectively. Red cabbage seems to be a very good source of dietary antioxidants possessing high antioxidant and anticancer activities. Thus, it could be concluded that,Brassica vegetables contain bioactive substances such as phenolic and vitamin C with potential cancer preventive effects.
617 LIPOIDAL COMPOSITION AND BIOACTIVITY OF LEAVES AND BARKS OF SWIETENIA MAHOGANI AND SWIETENIA MACROPHYLLA GROWN IN EGYPT, Ola Mohamed Mousa*, Marwa Yousry Issa, Hesham Ibrahim El-Askary, Soheir Mohamed El Zalabani and Amani A. Sleem
Ethanol (90%) extractives of leaves and stem barks of Swietenia mahogani and Swietenia macrophylla were fractionated and comparatively examined regarding yield, lipoidal composition and bioactivity. Bark ethanol extractives were obtained in higher amounts than those of leaves. Lipoids were detected in the petroleum ether and chloroform-soluble fractions of ethanol extracts. Unsaponifiable lipoids (USL) and fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) of petroleum ether extracts were analyzed by GC/FID. Despite close qualitative similarity, GC profiles revealed quantitative variability. Relative percentage of identified phytosterols in S. macrophylla samples exceeded that in S. mahogani with prevalence of ?-Sitosterol; meanwile n-Tricosane was the predominant hydrocarbon in all tested samples. Three known lipoids were isolated from S. macrophylla bark: n-nonacosane and ?-sitosterol from the petroleum ether fraction of its ethanol (90%) extract and ?-sitosterol-3-O-?-D-glucoside from the chloroform fraction. Identification of isolated compounds was through physicochemical, chromatographic and spectral data. S. macrophylla ethanol extracts were found more efficient as cytotoxic against the in vitrotested human cancer cell lines (liver, HEPG2; colon, HCT116 and brain, U251) with best efficiency exhibited on HCT116. Determined LD50 s demonstrated the safety of all extracts in the range of the orally given doses. Prolonged administration of all extracts significantly decreased the level of liver enzymes in CCl 4 -intoxicated rats indicating a hepatoprotective activity. A moderate antipyretic effect was exerted by extracts of leaves only; and none of the samples exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effect. The highest potency was, in most cases, observed for S. mahogani leaves extract particularly as antiulcer, antioxidant and hepatoprotective.
618 BIOACTIVITY AND COMPOSITION OF THE FLOWERS OF SPATHODEA CAMPANULATA P. BEAUV, Naglaa G. Shehab*, Hanaa H. Eid and Soheir M. El Zalabani
Among plant metabolites, phenolics were found to possess a wide spectrum of biological activities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ethanol extract of the flowers of Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. (EEFSC) in terms of bioactivity and composition. Special emphasis was made on its phenolic components. The LD50 of EEFSC (up to 4 g/kg) indicated its safety. The growth inhibitory activity of EEFSC, and its hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions was evaluated in-vitro against a set of microorganisms and 2 human tumor cell lines (breast and colon). The chloroform fraction exhibited the highest antibacterial effect and the least IC50 against both cell lines. The anthelmintic and acute anti-hyperglycemic potentialities of EEFSC were also explored and found noticeably significant. RP-HPLC with UV detection was employed for identification and quantification of the floral phenolics. Six compounds were isolated from the active chloroform and ethyl acetate/n-butanol fractions. The purified isolates included three phenolics, and were identified as phytol, ?-methylcinnamaldehyde, ?-sitosterol -3-acetate, naringenin, catechin-3-O-?-rhamnopyranoside and 5, 6, 4' trihydroxy flavonol-7-O-?-rhamnopyranoside, all being for the first time reported from the flowers. The observed bioactivities were correlated to the isolated constituents.
619 CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC POTENTIAL OF GRAPE SEED EXTRACT (VITIS VINIFERA) AGAINST CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN MICE, *Naima Z. Mohamed and Hanan F. Aly
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the most potent chemotherapeutic antitumor drugs. Oxidative stress has been proven to be involved in cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity. Damage to normal tissues due to toxic metabolites limits the usage of CP efficiently for treating various cancers. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the antioxidant potential of low and high dose (100 and 300 mg/kg body weight) of grape seed extract (GSE) against the toxicity of cyclophosphamide have been evaluated in adult Swiss albino mice. Cyclophosphamide treated animals revealed significant elevation of liver markere enzymes ; alanine aminotransferase (ALT) aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), while the activities of antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase (GR) and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) were decreased in liver, colon and testis of mice. Furthermore, mice administered cyclophosphamide showed a marked increase in DNA tail length, percentage of DNA in tail as well as DNA tail moment (comet assay parameters) and GSE significantly attenuated them.
620 APPLICABILITY OF REVERSE PHARMACOLOGY FOR THE ANTI MALARIAL AYURVEDA HERBAL DRUG DEVELOPMENT: AN OVERVIEW, Dr Chakrapany Sharma* and Dr Manju Singhi, Dr Chandan Singh, Dr P. K. Dam
Ayurveda, the ancient life science, has a history of over 4000 years of practice. It is a great living tradition that addresses health with a unique holistic approach. Currently, the Government of India has developed formal structures to regulate issues related to quality, safety, efficacy and practice of herbal medicines. Thus basic principle of Ayurveda is based on personalized approach can be used for creating personalized, customized or designer medicines. Therefore science of Ayurveda has the potential to revolutionize modern medicine and drug discovery processes. The credit for stimulating interest of Indian chemists and pharmacologists in medicinal plants should rightfully go to Sir Ram Nath Chopra who has been acclaimed as the Father of Indian Pharmacology. Gananath Sen laid the foundation of Reverse Pharmacology of medicinal plants by pursuing clinically documented effects of Ayurvedic drugs. Reverse Pharmacology (RP), designed as an academic discipline to reduce three major bottlenecks of costs, time and toxicity. RP (Reverse Pharmacology) can be perceived to comprise of three phases. The scope of reverse pharmacology is to understand the mechanisms of action at multiple levels of biology and to optimize safety, efficacy and acceptability of the leads in natural products based on relevant science. In this approach as the candidate travels a reverse path from clinics to laboratory? rather than classical laboratory to clinics. A wide array of modern drugs included the international pharmacopoeia have an origin in ethnopharmacology and traditional herbal medicine. Numerous plant extracts and their ingredients have unique pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-carcinogenic, vasodilatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anticonvulsant, sedative and antipyretic effects. Recently, a study carried out in Kenya and has proved the applicability of R P for new drug discovery for the treatment of Malaria. However, very few randomized-controlled studies have been carried out to precisely evaluate their therapeutic efficacy and safety. Nonetheless, for some of the botanical materials, there are relatively well-organized database available describing the therapeutic potential, and their active ingredients can be tested by exploiting modern scientific methods These desirable accidental discoveries are referred to as drug serendipity. There are many examples of medicinal plants and their constituents that have provided serendipitous bedside observations. Such clinical hits can be a basis of drug discover y and development. Advances in combinatorial chemistry and systems biology have created many drugable new entities. Reverse pharmacology integrates documented serendipitous clinical and experimental hits into leads that are further developed into drug candidates or formulations through more systematic and precisely designed preclinical and clinical research. A salient feature of this approach is the combination of knowledge learned from traditional or folk medicine and the modern technology to provide better and safer leads. RP is now getting formally established in India as an organized trans-discipline through efforts by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR). Authors made an attempt to explore the Reverse Pharmacology applicability to the Ayurveda Herbal Drug for the Development of Anti-malarial drug.
621 CORONARY PERFORATIONS AND GENERATION OF STENTS: AN UPDATE AND REVIEW, *Supriya Shidhaye, Nikhita Prabhu, Farheen Badshah, Priyank Parikh
Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) is a standard treatment for coronary arterial disease. Use of this ?noninvasive treatment has rapidly expanded, since its introduction in 1977, to more than 500 000 cases per year in the United States alone. There has been a high restenosis rate of the treated segment following PTCA, up to 30%. Metallic intracoronary stents were introduced to prevent arterial dissection, elastic recoil, and intimal hyperplasia associated with PTCA treatment. However, metal stents themselves induce an inflammatory response which can contribute to intimal hyperplasia 2, 3 . This problem has led to the intensive development of drug eluting stents and bioabsorbable stents that can be loaded with various drugs for the treatment of coronary arterial disease. This review article not only highlights various problems on coronary arterial disease but also gives an updated review of various stents which are currently used for its treatment.
622 DESIGN OF CONTROL RELEASE OSMOTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A REVIEW, Saroj Jain*, Rashmi Sharma
The development of an ideal drug delivery system providing constant release of drug has been focus of much research, mainly with the objective of providing constant drug delivery during passage the GIT irrespective of variation in pH, surface tension, and viscosity as well as motility of GIT. Osmotic controlled drug delivery system is not influenced by different physiological factors with in the gut lumen and the release characteristic can be predicted easily from the drug and dosage form. Good product performance in osmotic system includes permeability of coating and drug release from the system. Osmotic pumps consist of an inner core containing drug and osmogens, coated with a semipermeable membrane. As the core absorbs water, it expands in volume, which pushes the drug solution out through the delivery ports. Osmotic pumps release drug at a rate that is independent of pH and hydrodynamics of the dissolution medium. The historical development of osmotic systems includes development of Rose-Nelson pump, Higuchi- Leeper pumps, Alzet and Osmet systems, elementary osmotic pump, and push-pull system applicability map and controlled porosity osmotic pump. This paper highlights the principle of osmosis, materials used for fabrication of pumps, types of pumps, advantages, disadvantages, and marketed products of this system.
623 ELECTRON MICROSCOPY: A REVIEW, Vijaya Barge*, Pranali Yendhe, Kavita Kodre, Sneha Attarde, Ravindra Patil
An electron microscope is an instrument, which utilizes short wavelength of electrons as a source of illumination for observing objects at a greater magnification. The major significance of an electron microscope is that it has the highest resolution and magnification. Max Knoll and Ernest Ruska in 1931, developed the first electron microscope. The electron microscope works on the principle similar to that of a light microscope. An electromagnetic field and a beam of electrons act in a way similar to the action of a glass lens and a beam of light. Electron microscope is classified into two types- 1. Scanning electron microscope and 2. Transmission electron microscope. The detail information about above two types covered in the review.
624 VALIDATION OF FLUIDIZED BED DRYER, V.P. Pandey*, Srikanth.Paturi, A.G. Joshi and H.L.N. Rao
The present study is undertaken to validate pharmaceutical equipment, fluidized bed dryer (FBD), for ensuring quality products as well as processes. After study of design qualification (DQ), installation qualification (IQ), Operational qualification (OQ) and performance qualification (PQ), it is found that machine is working satisfactorily and its design and drawing reveal that the machine is according to the order of the company. The drug chosen for this study is cephalexin and it is observed that steam heating is more efficient than heat banks. It is found that as the drying time increases, the percentage of fines in the granules get increased. So shorter drying time will produce desired granules with fewer fines.
625 LITERARY RESEARCH ON EKA KUSTHA WITH SPECIAL REFERANCE TO PSORIASIS, *Dr. Kanchan Chowdhury
The term Eka Kustha is found in various Ayurvedic texts and its characteristic features gives a clear picture of what the disease is, like Aswedanam, Mahavastu and Matsyashakolopama. It is a vata-kapha predominant tridoshaja vikar. It can be easily treated by both shodhana and shamana chikitsa. Raktamokshan,Vaman and Virechan are the mainstay. Amlaki, Rasanjan, Manjistha, Lelitaka are important among internal medications. The disease is quite similar to Psoriasis in modern medicine. According to them, it is a hereditary, autoimmune chronic inflammatory skin disease of unknown etiology. The five main types of psoriasis are: 1. Plaque 2. Guttate 3. Inverse , 4. Pustule and 5. Erythrodermic. It typically manifests as red and white scaly patches on the top layer of the skin. Skin biopsy is confirmatory.
626 SERUM MALONDIALDEHYDE, VITAMIN-CSTATUS IN ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASES, Balu Mahendran.K, *Santhosh Kumar.N, Kalaivanam K.N, R.Bheemasen
Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is an alcohol induced disease with multiple factors influencing its development and manifestations. It is proposed that alcohol ingestion produces metabolic imbalances in liver leading to increased formation of reactive oxygen species and decreased levels of antioxidants. The study intends to understand the mechanism of the disease by evaluating the role of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in the patients of ALD. The present study involved 40 participants of which 20 were patients admitted with diagnosis of ALD and other 20 were age and sex matched healthy controls who fulfilled inclusion criteria. In ALD patients compared to controls significant increase in following parameters was observed. Malondialdehyde and uric acid are significantly increasedcompared to controls (P
627 INFLAMMATION AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY STRATEGIES IN STROKE, *Manzoor A Mir and Raid S Albaradie
Stroke is an important public health issue due to high rates of disability, morbidity/ mortality and is now the third leading cause of death after heart disease and cancer affecting 15 million people worldwide each year. In spite of extensive research in the field of stroke during past decade the current therapeutic strategies have been largely unsuccessful. One possible explanation is that research and pharmacological management have focused on very early events in brain ischemia. Two important pathophysiological mechanisms involved during ischemic stroke are oxidative stress and inflammation. Brain tissue is not well equipped with antioxidant defenses, so reactive oxygen species and other free radicals/oxidants, released by inflammatory cells, threaten tissue viability in the vicinity of the ischemic core. Recent studies have shown that brain ischemia and trauma elicit strong inflammatory reactions driven by both external and brain cells. Clinical observations suggest that patients with stroke have higher plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines or soluble adhesion molecules and anti-inflammatory therapy is effective at reducing stroke incidence in not only animal models, but in humans as well. This suggests that inflammation might directly affect the onset of stroke. The recognition of inflammation as a fundamental response to brain ischemia provides no vel opportunities for new anti-inflammatory therapies. Currently, little is known about endogenous counter regulatory immune mechanisms. Statins have been shown to decrease the stroke incidence via anti-inflammatory effects that are both dependent and independent of their cholesterollowering effects. Here in this review we will discuss the molecular aspects of oxidative stress and inflammation in ischemic stroke. We will also present the latest findings about the cellular and humoral aspects of immune and inflammatory reactions in the brain. This will increase our understanding regarding neuro -injuries and role immune reactions play in the brain milieu. This all may have an impact on the potential therapeutic strategies that target neuro-inflammation and the innate immune system.
628 A CRITICAL REVIEW ON VIDANGADI LOUHAM: A CLASSICAL AYURVEDIC PANACEA, Monojit Debnath*, Moulisha Biswas, Pallab Kanti Halder
Ayurveda the century old science for healthy life prescribed a series of formulations in its various treatises, which are being used by the humans safely from the time immemorial. Some drugs are mentioned as rasayana means they are having the rejuvinative activity. They acts like panacea and are used as immunomodulator. Vidangadi louham is such a preparation which is used in many disorders and complications. In Ayurveda there are five different types of formulations are mentioned in the name of vidangadi louham. All the ingredients with their proportions in the formulation have been mentioned in details in this study. The common ingredients have been discussed scientifically in contrast of both ayurvedic and modern view with recent pharmacological evaluations. After performing the whole study it may be concluded that among the key ingredients like vidanga, sunthi, pippali, amlaki, haritaki etc. having the rasayana activity and recent pharmacological evaluations give positive effort by approving their antioxidant activity. The other individual activities have also been discussed under the discussion part. So as a gross it can be sum up that vidangadi louham is a unique combination of broad spectrum elixirs which can mitigate a series of diseases.
629 CURRENT STATUS OF ORALLY DISINTEGRATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM AND FUTURE PROSPECTS, Sachin B. Dudhe*, Pravin K. Bhoyar, Mangesh H. Hingankar, Upadesh B. Lade
Over the past three decades, Orally Disintegrating Tablet (ODT) has gained much attention as a preferred alternative to conventional oral dosage form such as tablet and capsules. This are also called as orodisperse, mouth dissolving, rapidly disintegrating, and fast melt system. This disintegrates in the mouth in seconds without chewing and the need of water which is advantageous mainly for pediatrics, geriatrics and patients having difficulty in swallowing tablets and capsules. Conventional preparation methods are spray drying, freeze drying, direct compression, Molding, and sublimation while new technologies have been developed for the production of orodispersible tablets. This review describes various formulation aspects, disintegrants employed and challenges in formulating ODTS, along with various exipients, evaluation tests and industrial applications in detail.
630 PRINCIPLES OF DRUG RELEASE IN VARIOUS DOSAGE FORMS, K.Venkata Ramana Reddy*, Dr. B.Venkateswara Reddy, P.Shruti
Among various dosage forms parenteral dosage form stands in first place to exert its action in individuals and next to this in current day?s aerosol and nasal dosage forms competent to parenteral route. Drug release may follow mixed mechanism of release; it may involve both diffusion and dissolution controlled processes. The drug release is function of excipients, in which the drug is embedded or covalently bound. type of excipients, their concentration, method of manufacturing, physico-chemical properties of drugs and excipients, design of dosage form (geometry), routes of administration, pharmacokinetic and physico-dynamic parameters of drug. Morphological characteristics such as porosity, tortuosity, surface area, and shape of the system. Hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of the system, chemical interaction between drug and polymer, polymer characteristics such as glass transition temperature and molecular weight .It is not always correct to show the same type of release in all dosage forms with same excipients and is going to vary and depend upon release the all above parameters to subject optimization.
631 IMMOBILIZATION OF THERAPEUTICALLY BENEFICIAL ENZYMES, Ammayappan Rajam Srividya*, Vaithiyalingam Jagannathan Vishnuvarthan
Immobilization is a process used to restrict the freedom of movement of enzyme or cells. Immobilization is a convenient term covering the methods of generation of heterogenous biocatalysts The use of immobilized cells as industrial catalysts has many operational advantages associated with the use of free cells together with number of additional merits. Immobilized microorganisms are convenient to handle and permit easy separation of product from the biocatalyst. Adsorption, covalent binding , entrapment, encapsulation , cross linking are the various methods adopted to immobilize the enzymes or whole cells. An support is used to immobilize the cells or enzyme. An ideal support and the choice of matrix for immobilization will depend on the nature of the bio- catalyst, nature of the reaction and its ultimate application in proper reactor geometry, commercial success has been achieved where the support material has been chosen for its flow characteristic, cost, non-toxicity and immobilization method tailored to give maximum bio- catalytic while retaining the desirable flow characteristic
632 A REVIEW ON PATENT RELATED TECHNOLOGIES OF ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS, Harendra Prasad* and Navneet Kumar Verma
New drug-delivery technologies are often championed by contract manufacturing organizations. For new technologies that provide significant clinical as well as financial value, research and innovation in the contract manufacturing and pharmaceutical segments lead to the emergence of numerous competing versions of the technologies. Such a technology evolution has been evident for orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs). Designed to disintegrate rapidly on contact with saliva and enable oral administration without water or chewing, these formulations offer increased convenience and ease of administration with the potential to improve compliance, particularly in certain populations where swallowing conventional solid oral-dosage forms presents difficulties. The Zydis lyophilization technology provided the first approved ODT in the United States in 1996. The earliest US regulatory definition for an ODT reflected the lyophilized ODTs that prevailed at the time. An ODT was defined as a solid-dosage form containing medicinal substances which disintegrates rapidly, usually within a matter of seconds, when placed on the tongue (1). The emergence of multiple ODT technology platforms created some regulatory challenges due to increasing variance in the critical product attributes of ODTs, notably disintegration time and tablet size. It can be assumed that the regulatory challenge was most acute for generic product applications. Hypothetically, in an abbreviated new drug application, the disintegration time of a generic product could be 3045 s, and the disintegration time of a reference product 010 s. Prolonged disintegration times may result in failure to meet the defining performance characteristics of the ODT dosage form, such that the product might require water for administration or chewing to facilitate swallowing. Where the patient or caregiver?s expectation is for rapid dispersion in the mouth, larger units with slower disintegration times could result in confusion regarding the product quality and even present a choking hazard. Thus, in addition to product definition, patient safety is also a significant consideration.
633 A LATEST REVIEW ON LIQUISOLID TECHNIQUE AS A NOVEL APPROACH, D.Lohithasu*, J. V.Ramana., P.Girish, I.N.S. Harsha, G.Madhu ,K.Lavanya and D..Swathi Sri
The bioavailability and solubility were major challenge for the pharmaceutical industry with developments of new pharmaceuticals. The liquisolid technique is a new and promising method that can change the dissolution rate of water insoluble drugs. Generally, Watermiscible organic solvent systems with high boiling point like propylene glycol, polyethylene glycols, or glycerine are used as liquid vehicles for improved wettability and ensures molecular dispersion of drug in the formulation and leads to enhance solubility in liquisolid technique. When the carrier is saturated with liquid, a liquid layer is formed on the particle surface which is instantly adsorbed by the fine coating particles forming a dry, free flowing and compressible powder. Generally, Micro Crystalline Cellulose is used as carrier and silicon dioxide as coating material in liquisolid technique. Liquisolid compacts of poorly soluble drugs containing a drug solution or drug suspension in a solubilising vehicle show enhanced drug release with increased surface area of drug release, increased aqueous solubility and improved wettability of the drug particles. There are various methods but liquisolid technique is a new and promising method that can change the dissolution rate of water insoluble drugs. In liquisolid technique, suspension and solution of solid drugs in non-volatile solvent systems and liquid drug convert into solid dosage form by using carriers and coating materials. Liquisolid system is characterized by flow behaviour pattern, wettability, powder bed hydrophilicity, saturation solubility, drug content, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, in-vitro release and in-vivo evaluation. By applying this novel and capable technique, solubility and dissolution rate can be enhanced, sustained drug delivery systems be developed for the water soluble drugs. It contains liquid medications in powdered form. This technique is an efficient method for formulating water insoluble and water soluble drugs.
634 BIOFILM: AN EXTRA POLYMERIC SUBSTANCE ACCOUNTABLE FOR CHRONIC INFECTIONS AND ITS EMERGING LINK WITH PHAGE THERAPY, Erica Sequeira and Saraswathy N*
Biofilm is a group of microorganisms that are embedded in a selfproduced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance. The formation of biofilm occurs in three steps. The unique nature of a bacterial biofilm makes it a formidable foe to the immune system as well as to modern medicine. Biofilm is responsible for the chronic infections and due to the increasing resistance of biofilm to antibiotics, newer approaches are being researched, phage therapy is one of the promising treatments with several advantages. This article reviews on the impact of biofilm, and the role of phages, phage cocktails and the genetically engineered phages for removal of biofilm.
635 DEVELOPMENT OF NEW VALIDATED ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR THE ESTIMATION OF BOSENTAN IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRY, Mastanamma Shaik*, Pasupuleti Saidulu, I.S.Tejaswini. U . Annapurna
The present study describes a simple, accurate, precise, specific and highly sensitive methods for the determination of Bosentan present in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Bosentan exhibits maximum absorbance (? max) at 269 nm (Method A) and Method B is an area under curve(AUC)method 264-274nm.The drug obeys the BeerLamberts law in the concentration range of 2.5-15 g/ml in two methods. The methods were validated and can be successfully applied to estimate Bosentan in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The proposed methods were validated in terms of linearity, precision and accuracy the present work provides an accurate and sensitive method for the analysis of Bosentan in bulk and tablet formulation.
636 SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, ANTIMICROBIAL, ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF NOVEL MANNICH BASES OF BENZIMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES, Abhay Kumar Verma*, Rashmi kumari, Arun Kumar Singh (Sr.), B.Nagaraju, Mukesh Chandra Sharma
A new series of novel Mannich bases of benzimidazole were synthesized by condensation of substituted secondary amines and aldehyde in ethanol. These compounds were identified on the basis of melting point range, Rf values, elemental analysis, UV, IR and 1 H NMR spectral analysis. The compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. All compounds exhibited significant to moderate biological activity.
637 OCCURRENCE OF YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA IN DRINKING WATER IN THE ABSENCE OF INDICATOR ORGANISM, Sahota P*, Sharma N, Kirandip and Pandove G
The drinking water quality with respect to bacteriological and physicochemical examination was done for 238 drinking water samples from different water utilities (municipal corporation supply taps, submersible pumps, filter samples, water tanks, storage tanks, water coolers, etc.) of urban areas of Ludhiana, Punjab, India. Standard methods were used for the analysis of pH, TDS, while E. coli, Yersinia spp. determination was carried out using BWTK and Multiple Tube Technique. Yersinia spp. was detected in 164 (68.91%) water samples. Statistical correlation was examined between the bacteriological and physicochemical parameters and found to be independent from each other. Difference between mean in each case, high standard deviation indicate that the distribution is widely off normal and exhibit an asymmetric distribution. The occurrence of E. coli was also not found to be associated with the presence or absence of Yersinia enterocolitica. So, E. coli was not found to be a suitable indicator for Yersinia spp. The findings of the current study reports the occurrence of Y. enterocolitica in drinking water and suggesting that there is need for further surveillance studies to understand the global epidemiology of emerging pathogens.
638 DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION OF COBALT TOLERANCE IN CHLORELLA VULGARIS & THEIR EFFECT ON GROWTH AND BIOPIGMENT, *Namita Sikarwar and G.P.Singh
Chlorella vulgaris could be tolerant at 3.5 ppm CoCl26H 2O and a zinc tolerant strain with maximum tolerance concentration (MTC) 10 ppm CoCl26H 2O was obtained by stepwise transfer to higher concentrations. The adaptation was irreversible even after three generation in metal free medium. The tolerant strain grew with a shorter lag period of 4 days as against 6 days in the case of the wild strain. The tolerant strain had higher MTC than that of the wild strain. The zinc tolerant strain of Chlorella vulgaris was obtained by transferring a 10 days old wild strain from minimal medium containing known concentration of Cobalt salt. At same doses also estimated various biochemical activities including chlorophylls (chl -a, chl-b & total chl) and carotenoid in these experiment.
639 PREVALENCE, VIRULENCE CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE OF HIPPURATE HYDROLYZING CAMPYLOBACTER JEJUNI IN DRINKING WATER, Dr. Param Pal Sahota, Vainy Garg, Dr. Gulab Pandove*
Campylobacter jejuni have emerged as important zoonotic waterborne emerging pathogen and have been associated with higher incidence of progression to Guillain-Barre syndrome. The present study was carried out for one year (2012-2013) to determine the prevalence of C. jejuni and E. coli in all drinking water utilities (Hand Pump, Submersible pump and municipal tap water supply) of Ludhiana, Punjab, India. The contamination rates with positive C. jejuni and E. coli were 39% and 21% respectively. No positive correlation between the simultaneous occurrence of C. jejuni and E. coli were observed (P < 0.005, R 2 = 0.474). All the isolates of C. jejuni (n=39) were positive for virulence marker test Congo dye uptake and hemolysis. Hemolysin associated with lecithinase production and showed multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) of 0.42 (> 0.2). MAR index higher than 0.2 identifies organisms that originate from high-risk sources of contamination, where antibiotics are often used. These results highlight the pathogenic potential of C. jejuni in drinking water which calls for public health concern.
640 EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL, ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIDIARRHOEL ACTIVITY OF JATROPHA GOSSYPIFOLIA L. ROOT METHANOL EXTRACT IN SWISS ALBINO MICE, Rani B. Bhagat*, and D. K. Kulkarni
The roots of J. gossypifolia used for treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, inflammation in ethno-medicinal practices. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis showed presence of secondary metabolites like-alkaloids, Phenols, flavonoids, tannins etc. The root was undertaken to study antidiarrhoeal activity using suitable animal models. Root powder was successively extracted with petroleum ether, methanol and distilled water. Solvents from these extract were removed under reduced temperature and pressure. Exploratory studies revealed presence of significant antidiarrhoeal activity only to methanol extract. This extract was studied using suitable tests consisting of castor oil and magnesium sulphate induced diarrhoea and barium chloride induced peristalsis using Swiss albino mice. The in vitro antimicrobial activity against micro-organisms also showed potent activity. Extract showed action against castor oil, magnesium sulphate induced diarrhoea and enteropooling activity due to castor oil treatment as well as on normal and barium chloride induced peristalsis of small intestine significantly in mice, so also antimicrobial activity against common pathogens responsible for diarrhoea in vitro. The results of above investigations are supporting the ethno-medicinal use of J. gossypifolia root for the treatment of diarrhoea.
641 IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC SCREENING COMPARISION OF VARIOUS CRUDE EXTRACTS OF THE FRUITS OF CUCUMIS TRIGONUS ROXB. AND CUCUMIS SATIVUS LINN, Subarayan Bothi Gopalakrishnan*, Thangaraj Kalaiarasi, Ezhumalai Vadivel
Anthelmintic activity of the various crude extracts (Petroleum ether (40-60C), benzene, chloroform, ethanol and water) of the fruits of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. and Cucumis sativus Linn. was evaluated on Indian adult earthworms, Pherentima posthuma and compared. Time of paralysis and time of death of the worms were considered as the parameters to assess the anthelmintic action. The results revealed that the ethanolic extracts of both the fruits of Cucumis trigonus and Cucumis sativus showed significant anthelmintic activity at a higher concentration level of 100 mg/ml on time taken for both paralysis and death of the worms when compared to other extracts. Hence the ethanolic extracts of the fruits of Cucumis trigonus and Cucumis sativus were also tested in various doses (80mg, 60mg, 40mg, 20mg). The results revealed that the ethanolic exract of the fruits of Cucumis trigonus showed excellent anthelmintic activity compared to that of Cucumis sativus. Albendazole was used as standard drug.
642 BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDY OF VAGINAL FLORA IN MOTHERS AT TERM, Nikhil Payal*, Nitin Goel Insan, Chitra Pai, Harpriya kar, Sujeet Shah, B. L Chaudhary, Nidhi Nair
The female genital tract is a complex ecosystem containing an abundance of microorganisms. The composition of the vaginal flora is not constant, suffering variations in response to exogenous and endogenous factors. The vaginal microflora appears to be so critical to health and disease. In cases of recurrent UTI the dominant organisms are the uropathogens, generally Escherichia coli; in recurrent bacterial vaginosis, these are anaerobic Gram negative rods, generally Gardnerella vaginalis. Lactobacillus acidophilus was the dominant member of a healthy vaginal microflora. Samples were collected by a trained faculty of Dept. of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. Sample processing and Identification of bacteria were done by standard procedures. Most commonly isolated aerobic bacteria was CoNS (43.4%) and anaerobic bacteria was Bacteroides fragilis (26%). Most common pathogenic bacterial isolate was Staphylococcus aureus (42%)
643 FORMULATION AND IN- VITRO EVALUATION OF ALFUZOSIN HCL FLOATING TABLET, Hemant Maheta*, Dr.M.R.Patel, Dr.A.D.Patel
The purpose of this Research work was to prepare and optimized floating tablet of Alfuzosin HCl. Alfuzosin HCl is an alpha-1 adrenergic receptor blocker for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Alfuzosin HCl exhibits narrow absorption window in the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract & jejunum appear to be the main region for absorption. Alfuzosin HCl has a short biological half life (3-5 hours). The dose may range from 2.5 mg thrice a day to a maximum of 10 mg once a day which results into inconveniency to the patients. By preparing sustained release floating tablet of Alfuzosin HCl that deliver drug for longer time, reduce dosage frequency & better patient compliance. The present Research work describes the influence of the concentration of Xanthan Gum and Sodium bicarbonate on Alfuzosin HCl floating tablet using Central Composite Design. The Xanthan Gum (X1) and Sodium bicarbonate (X2) were selected as independent variables, while time required for 50% drug release (t 50 ), time required for 90% drug release (t 90), drug release at 12 hr (Q 12 ), floating lag time, diffusion exponent (n), release rate constant (k) were selected as a dependent variables. Tablets were prepared by direct compression technique & evaluated for pre-compression and post-compression parameters. Dissolution data were fitted to various models to ascertain kinetic of drug release. Regression analysis and analysis of variance were performed for dependent variables. All the batches were evaluated for the pre-compression and postcompression parameters and results were within the limits. All the batches exhibited appropriate floating lag time & showed total floating time of more than 24 hrs. It was observed that concentration of Xanthan Gum and Sodium bicarbonate had significant influence on t 50 , t 90, Q 12, floating lag time, n, and k. Optimized formulation (H10) showed 99.52% drug release at the end of 24 hrs and maximum similarity factor (f 2 =83.15) and minimum dissimilarity factor (f 1 =2.80) with Theoritical release profile of Alfuzosin HCl. Optimized formulation followed by anomalous non Fickian release mechanism and found to be stable after 23 days at accelerated condition.
644 FORMULATION AND IN- VITRO EVALUATION OF TOLPERISONE HCL BUOYANT TABLET, Dr.Asfak Meman*, Dr.M.R.Patel, Dr.K.R.Patel, Dr.A.D.Patel
The aim of present investigation was undertaken with the objective of formulating buoyant tablet of Tolperisone HCl. Tolperisone HCl is a skeletal muscle relaxant. Drug is more stable in acidic medium (pH < 4.5), and in alkaline medium (pH 4 to 7) tolperisone breaks down into 4-MMPPO [2methyl-1-(4methylphenyl)-propanone] and piperidine. Thus, the patient is exposed to an uncontrollable quantity of genotoxic agent 4-MMPPO. By preparing buoyant tablet of this drug with controlled release reduce dosing frequency, better patients compliance and eliminate side effects. Tablets were prepared by direct compression method using Xanthan Gum and Guar Gum as a matrix forming agents to control the release of drug and Sodium bicarbonat e as gas generating agent. 3 2 full factorial design was used for optimization of formulation variable. The drug: polymer ratio (X1) and concentration of sodium bicarbonate (X2) were selected as independent variables, while time required for drug release 50% (t 50 ), time required for drug release 90% (t 90), drug release at 12hr (Q 12 ), Floating lag time, release rate constant (k) and diffusion exponent (n) were selected as a dependent variable. Prepared tablets were evaluated for pre compression and post compression parameters. The release mechanisms were explored and explained by applying zero order, first order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer equations. Regression analysis and analysis of variance were performed for dependent variables. All the formulations were evaluated for the pre compression and post compression parameters. The evaluation results revealed that all formulations comply with the specification of official pharmacopoeias and/or standard reference. Optimized formulation (B6) showed 99.27% drug release at the end of 24 hrs and maximum similarity factor (f 2 = 74.41) and minimum dissimilarity factor (f 1 = 4.24) with theoretical release profile of Tolperisone HCl. Optimized formulation followed by anomalous non Fickian release mechanism and found to be stable after 21 days at accelerated condition. It was observed that drug: polymer ratio and concentration Sodium bicarbonate had a significant effect on drug release rate and floating lag time. It was concluded that drug release rate decrease with increase in drug: polymer ratio and drug release rate increase with increase in the concentration of Sodium bicarbonate.
645 FORMULATION, OPTIMIZATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF FLOATING TABLET OF MISOPROSTOL, Neelima Goswami*, Mukul Tailang, A. K. Pathak
The purpose of the present study to develop an optimized gastric floating drug delivery system (GFDDS) to prolong the gastric residence time after oral administration, at a particular site and controlling the release of drug especially useful for achieving controlled plasma level as well as improving bioavailability. Gastro retentive drug delivery is an approach to prolong gastric residence time, thereby targeting site-specific drug release in the upper gastro intestinal tract (GIT) for local and systemic effect. The present study has been a satisfactory attempt to formulate floating drug delivery system of Misoprostol, an orally administrated gastric Ulcers/ duodenal ulcers drug with a view of improving its oral bioavailability and giving sustained release of the drug. A number of parameters affect the characteristics of the formulated floating tablet. These parameters must be optimized to achieve floating layer with the desired attributed and characteristics viz. percent drug release and lag time. In the present work the relevant parameters (independent variables) were optimized using 3 3 factorial designs (Statease ver. 9.0). These 27 formulations are evaluated for parameters. All the formulations shows results in the acceptable range. All preliminary formulations are subjected to in-vitro bouyancy and dissolution study. The data obtained from the in vitro release study was fit to various kinetic models to explain the release profile of the drug. Kinetic models were used zero and first-order equations, Higuchi, Hixon Crowell Krosmeyers peppas models.
646 ANTIMICROBIAL, LARVICIDAL AND ACARICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA AND CARICA PAPAYA LEAVES, S. Krishnaveni and P.Venkatalakshmi*
The present study has been designed to evaluate the antimicrobial, larvicidal and acaricidal activities of the ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata and Carica papaya leaves. Antimicrobial activity of the extract was evaluated against five pathogenic bacterial and two fungal strains. The activity was compared with a standard antibiotic Erythromycin. Larvicidal activity of the extract was evaluated as the percentage mortality of mosquito larvae using different concentrations of the extract. Acaricidal activity was evaluated against the cattle tick Rhipicephalous annulatus.The results of the present study are presented and discussed. The findings of the present study, clearly demonstrates the antimicrobial, larvicidal and acaricidal activities of the ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata and Carica papaya.
647 FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF MICROSPHERES BASED ORO DISPERSIBLE TABLETS OF ROXITHROMYCIN, Chauhan Vanita*, Preksha Doshi, Nilay Modi
Objective: The objective of the present work is to mask the intensely bitter taste of Roxithromycin and to formulate an oro dispersible tablet (ODT) of the taste-masked drug by incorporation of microspheres in the tablets. Method: Microspheres of Roxithromycin were prepared by solvent evaporation method using acetone as solvent for pH-sensitive polymer: Eudragit EPO and light liquid paraffin act as the encapsulating medium. The physical properties of prepared microspheres were evaluated with regard to yield, drug content, flow properties, particle size, in vitro drug release and taste. The average size of microspheres was found to be satisfactory in terms of the size and size distribution. The ODTs prepared by direct compression method and evaluated for hardness, thickness, weight variation, friability, disintegration time, drug content, wetting time, in vitro disintegration, in vitro drug release and stability. Result and discussion: Comparison of the dissolution profiles of microspheres in different pH media showed that microspheres having drug: polymer ratio of 1:3 to 1:5 produced a retarding effect in simulated salivary fluid (pH 6.8) and sufficient flow properties was shown in the drug: polymer ratio of 1: 3 compared to other ratios. So these microspheres were further used for formulation of ODTs using different concentration of superdisintegrants. ODTs containing Croscarmellose sodium 4.8% showed batter drug release profile as compared to other Superdisintegrants. Conclusion: Effective taste-masking was achieved for Roxithromycin by of preparation of microspheres and ODTs of acceptable characteristics.
648 SOLUBILITY AND DISSOLUTION RATE ENHANCEMENT OF OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL BY SOLID DISPERSION AND DEVELOPMENT OF ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS, Ashok M. Khandekar*, Kishorkumar B. Burade, Sagar J. Kanase, Ganesh R. Sawant, Devidas S.Narute, Suresh B.Sirsath
The main objective of the research work is to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of olmesartan medoxomil by solid dispersion with carriers like PVPK30,PEG6000 and sodium lauryl sulfate.The solid dispersion were prepared by kneading method. The prepared solid dispersion were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-RayDiffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The FTIR and XRD spectra of olmesartan/carriers solid complexes showed that olmesartan medoxomil could form complex with carriers in solid state. The XRD spectra of olmesartan/ carriers solid complexes indicated olmesartan medoxomil existed in amorphous state, this could be explained the fact that the aqueous solubility of olmesartan medoxomil was increased. From the prepared solid dispersion, orally disintegrating tablets were formulated by using various superdisintegrants like sodium starch glycolate and croscarmellose sodium in various concentrations (5-15%).Prepared tablets were evaluated for physical parameters and drug release by invitro dissolution studies. Dissolution studies showed fast release of olmesartan medoxomil in tablets containing a high level of crosscarmellose sodium. Complexation of olmesartan medoxomil with carriers significantly improved the solubility of the drug and improved the mechanical properties of tablets produced by direct compression.
649 ISOLATION, SCREENING AND OPTIMIZATION OF NOVEL LACCASE PRODUCTION FROM PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM, Ganiya,R and Anuradha,R*.
The present work focuses on isolating, screening and optimizing the process parameters to achieve the maximum production of extracellular laccases by penicillium chrysogenum obtained from marine soil. Guaiacol was used as substrates for screening the laccase activity. Culture condition like pH, temperature and nutritional parameter like carbon source were optimized. The optimization studies revealed that the laccase yield was highest when operated at pH 6.0 tempherature 60?C and carbon source-maltose in the production medium. The present study showed that relatively simple plate test screening method can be used for discovery of novel laccases.
650 PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL, FT- IR AND ANTIBACTERIAL EVALUATION OF LEAF OF EUGENIA FLOCCOSA BEDD (MYRTACEAE), Dr. P. S. Tresina and Dr. V. R. Mohan*
The present study aims to examine the phytochemical and antibacterial potential of different solvent extracts of leaf of Eugenia floccosa. The preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, saponins, phenols, tannins, coumarins, catechin and sugars in the methanol and ethanol extracts of leaf of E. floccosa. The FT-IR spectrum confirmed the presence of C=O, C-H, C=C, C-O and C=C. The antibacterial activity has been observed in the petroleum ether, methanol and ethanol extracts of leaf of E. floccosa against the tested bacteria with wide-ranging activity. The methanol extract of leaf of E. floccosa showed highest zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (16 mm). It is hoped that, this study would direct to the establishment of some compounds that could be used to formulate new and more effective antibacterial drugs of natural origin.
651 SELF MEDICATION OF ANTIMICROBIALS AND EXPLORING AWARENESS OF ADRS TO SELF MEDICATION OF ANTIMICROBIALS IN PUNE, MAHARASHTRA, INDIA, Giriraj Gajendra, Yogendra Keche*, Radha Yegnanarayan, Shruti Jaiswal, Aditi Dakua, Gourav Das, Kshitija Chandanwale, Aishwarya Bhat, Surabhi Jain, Vinaya Lanke, Sailee Belvi
Objective: To find out self medication pattern of antimicrobials in Pune. Methods: II MBBS students collected the information of names of antimicrobials self medication, dose, frequency of administration, health related problem for use of self medication, source of information of self medication and information about ADRs with the help of semi-structured questionnaire. Students also educated the population about ADRs to antimicrobial with the help of ADR checklist. Medical shopkeepers knowledge about ADRs and reasons for not providing information of ADRs to population had been explored. Results: Macrolides and fluroquinolones were commonly self medicated in Pune and fluroquinolones groups caused ADRs in about 66 %. Drugs like levofloxacin, roxithromycin, ampicillin were taken less than WHO DDD and some antimicrobials were taken less than 3 days period. 70-80% population was ignorant about ADRs to antimicrobials. About 85 % medical shopkeepers did not provided information of ADRs to self medication and lack of time was observed as major reason for this. Conclusions: Strict FDA regulations for dispensing of antibiotics strictly with prescription of RMP may help in decreasing hazards of antimicrobial self medications like adverse effects and development of resistance.
652 THE STUDY OF DRUG USAGE PATTERNS IN PEDIATRIC PATIENTS AT MGM HOSPITAL, NAVI MUMBAI, Rajesh Kumar Suman*, N.C Mohanty, Ipseeta Ray Mohanty, Y. A Deshmukh
Objective: The present study evaluated the pattern of Drug usage in Pediatrics department at a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai . Method: Questionnaires was specifically designed factoring patients demographical profile, illness history, prescription regimen. Result: A total 302 prescriptions (78% OPD and 22% IPD) of children attending Pediatric department were analyzed. Maximum children were of the age group between 0 1 yr (40%) followed by 1-2 yr (27%). Of total 302 patients, drugs were mainly indicated for fever (44%), acute diarrhea (42 %), malaria (8%), other disease like, seizure, thrombocytopenia etc (6%). A total of 814 drugs were prescribed in the 302 prescriptions studied. Average number of drugs per prescription was 2.7. Most commonly encountered drugs were antipyretic: paracetamol syp (44%), Nasal decongestant: phenylephrine (44%), Zinc (42%), Oral rehydration solution (40%), Vitamin (40%), antihistaminic: Levocetrizine (20%) and antibiotics (32%). Most widely prescribed antibiotic group was Cephalosporin. Among IPD patients mainly Inj Ceftriaxone was used while in OPD patients, oral Cefixime was used. 23% of the drugs were prescribed by parenteral route. Except ORS, all the drugs were prescribed by brand names. Other medication prescribed were Domperidone, Ondansetron, Diazapam, Chloroquine etc. Conclusion: Good prescribing practices adhering to standard WHO prescribing guidelines were followed. However, prescription of drugs by brand names instead of the recommended generic names is a matter of concern.
653 CONTROLLED RELEASE MICROSPHERES OF AMBROXOL HYDROCHLORIDE: EFFECTS OF FORMULATION PARAMETERS, Nayana S. Baste*, Dilip V. Derle, Charulata T. Nemade, Vandana R. Daga
The present work was undertaken to examine the potential for the controlled release of ambroxol hydrochloride by forming microspheres. The effect of formulation variables such as polymer concentration and variation of dispersing agent on microsphere properties such as average particle size, encapsulation efficiency and drug release from the microspheres were studied. Microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation technique using ethyl cellulose as a matrix-forming agent. Morphological and physicochemical properties of microspheres were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. SEM revealed that microspheres were spherical, discrete having smooth and non-porous structure. Encapsulation efficiency of microspheres was found to be 81-94% and drug release was extended up to 12 h. The infrared spectra and differential scanning calorimetry thermographs showed stable character of ambroxol hydrochloride in the drug-loaded microspheres and revealed the absence of any drug-polymer interactions. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that there was decrease in crystallinity of the drug. The best-fit release kinetics was achieved with zero order kinetics and drug release was found to be diffusion controlled. Encapsulation efficiency and drug release was affected by both, concentration of polymer and presence of aluminium tristearate. Particle size was affected by polymer concentration not aluminium tristearate.
654 PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF HEPATIC PROFILE OF NIMESULIDE ALONG WITH BERBERINE, Dr.Md.Akram Minhaj*, Tanzeel Ahmed Khan, Shafique Ahmad
Hepatotoxicity is an injury to the liver that is associated with impaired liver function caused by exposure to a drug or various other agent. Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid found in various plants, including Hydrastis Canadensis (goldenseal), Coptis chinensis (Coptis or goldenthread), Berberis aquifolium (Oregon grape), Berberis vulgaris (barberry) and Berberis aristata (tree turmeric).The effect of Beberine at 160 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg dose were evaluated by its efficacy to protect against Nimuslide induced hepatotoxicity. After completing 10 days of drug treatment,on day 11, blood was collected through orbital plexus for estimation of various parameters .The measurement of serum SGPT and bilirubin levels used as a biomarker for diagnosis of liver disease. Nimesulide (100 mg/kg, i.p.) increased serum SGPT,and Bilirubin at the end of 10 th day of drug treatment reflecting the liver injury in comparison to control group. The present study found that berberine had both preventive and curative effects on Nimesulide -induced liver damage. Moreover, our findings suggest that dosages may be an important factor for pharmacological effects of berberine. The dosage of Berberine (160 mg/kg, p.o.) has higher efiicacy than the doses (80mg/kg, p.o.).Treatment by berberine significantly decreased serum SGPT and Bilirubin. The results demonstrate the hepatoprotective effects of berberine against liver damage induced by nimesulide.
655 RPHPLC-DAD METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF CEFIXIME TRIHYDRATE AND OFLOXACIN IN COMBINED TABLET DOSAGE FORM, Mangesh H. Hingankar*, Pravin K. Bhoyar, Sachin B. Dudhe
A simple, accurate, sensitive and validated RP?HPLC method involved with Diode Array Detection was developed for simultaneous determination of Cefiximetrihydrateand Ofloxacin in combined tablet dosage form has been developed. The sample was analyzed by reverse phase Teknokroma (Kromosil) C8 (150 x 0.6 mm i.d.) column as stationary phase with PDA detection at 285 nm. The separation was carried out using a mobile phase consisting of 0.01 %v/v Triethylaminephosphate buffer of pH 5.2 and Acetonitrile in the ratio of 80: 20 at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. at ambient temperature conditions. The method was validated for Accuracy, Precision, Linearity, Ruggedness, and Robustness. The method was successfully applied on tablet dosage form.
656 PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PT.ET. EXTRACTED LYCOPENE AND VISCOSITY, SURFACE TENSION CHARACTERIZATION BY MANSINGH SURVISMETER, Anil Kumar, Bijendra Singh and Kapil Tyagi
The Physico-chemical characterization of Lycopene by applied analysis methods such as Absorbance, pH, Viscosity and Surface Tension, Lycopene is a lipid molecules substrate present in vegetables fruits for responsible to red color appeared with nutritional and medicinal properties, mostly used in skin cancer and Lycopene is protective in several chronic diseases and also Lycopene have phytochemical properties, thats way determined to applied parameter values. Qauntities of Lycopene in samples CS1, AS2 to 0.042783 and 0.016227 in mg/100gm, viscosity of CS1, AS2 to 0.400467 N.sm -2 and 0.371466 N.sm -2 and surface tension of CS1, AS2 to 20.59763N.m -1 and 22.87903 N.m -1 and the pH values was CS1 of 6.25, AS2 of 6.60 and pure PtEt of 6.77. Keywords: PtEt, Lycopene, pH, Absorbance, Viscosity, Surface Tension.
657 ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPIC DETERMINATION AND COMPARISON OF SOME MINERAL ELEMENTS IN ULVA RIGIDA C. AG. FROM HARE ISLAND, THOOTHUKUDI, TAMIL NADU, INDIA, Dr. John Peter Paul, J.* and Muthu Sheeba, M
Seaweeds are potential sources of mineral contents that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. The present study was aimed to screen the important minerals such as Calcium, Magnesium, Manganese, Zinc, Chromium and Lead using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer in Ulva rigida C.Ag. collected from Hare Island, Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu, India. The collected plant samples were air dried and digested by wet digestion method and analysed by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The essential metals and heavy metals in the plant extracts were quantified. Results obtained in the present study showed that the aqueous extracts of Ulva rigida C.Ag. investigated contain four essential elements namely Calcium (50.3084ppm), Magnesium (31.7284ppm), Manganese (0.1008ppm) and Zinc (0.0081ppm) and two heavy metals that is Chromium (0.0142ppm) and Lead (0.2946ppm). From the present study, it is concluded that the levels of mineral elements present in Ulva rigida C.Ag. fall in the permissible range.
658 STUDIES ON TANNIN EXTRACT, FROM CAESALPINIA CORIARIA AND ANACARDIUM OCCIDENTALIS, USING DIFFERENT EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES AND SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC QUANTIFICATION, B. Lenin Kumar, N. Lokeswari
Tannins are a large class of complex phenolic compounds, comprising hydrolysable, condensed and complex. Extracts of Caesalpinia coriaria and Anacardium occidentalis was analysed by quantitative spectrophotometric method. Three extraction methods were used in this study and results were compared respectfully, under reflux extraction, microwave extraction and ultra sonication. From this study it can be observed that, for all investigated plants, Anacardium occidentalis has highest concentration of tannins and that microwave extraction is the best choice for extraction technique.
659 ROLE OF GRAPE SEED AND SKIN EXTRACT IN PREVENTION OF DOXORUBICIN INDUCED CARDIOTOXICITY IN RAT MODEL, Dr. Subinay Datta* and Dr. Mrinal Pal
Background: Doxorubicin is a potent chemotherapeutic drug The clinical usefulness of doxorubicin has been limited largely by the risk of cardiomyopathy and life-threatening heart failure. Cellular changes leading to this toxicity are suggested to be mediated through a druginduced increase oxidative stress. Grapeseed Proanthocyanidin [GSP] seeds possessing a potent antioxidant properties Aim: So, the present study was conducted to investigate possible protective effects of Grape seed and skin extract in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in rat model. Method: The male Wister rats (n = 34) were randomly selected and divided into three groups. The control group (n = 12) received distilled water [1ml/kg body weight] orally for 15 days, second group (n = 10) rats were injected intra peritoneal with a single dose of Doxorubicin (10mg/kg) in normal saline and in third group Doxorubicin (10mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally and pretreatment with Grape seed and skin extract extract (200mg/kg body weight) before one hour DOX treatment by oral gavage for 15 consecutive days. Result: It was revealed by elevated serum cardiac biomarkers in comparison of control and associated with increasing levels of myocardial malondialdehyde [MDA] with simultaneously increase in the level of Superoxide dismutase. On daily oral administration of aqueous suspension of GSP seeds extract in the dose of (200 mg\kg ) for 15 days produced normalization in the serum levels of heart marker enzymes. Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that Grape seed and its skin has got definite potency to ameliorate oxidative stress and Doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity.
660 EFFECT OF MELIA AZEDARACH L.ON NICOTINE INDUCED HORMONAL CHANGES IN FEMALE ALBINO RATS, *Bhuvaneswari Karunakaran and V.Elango
Tobacco use has reached the proportion of a global epidemic. Studies show that there is an association between nicotine of cigarette smoke and serum levels of sex hormones. This investigation was done to determine the nicotine induced toxicity (subcutaneously injected at the dosage of4mg/kg b.wt. per day for 30 days) on different tissues of female albino rats and corresponding ameliorative observations of Melia azedarach L. (orally administered at dose of 100 mg per kg b.wt. per day during the treatment). Nicotine causes significant changes in the organ weight (ovary and uterus) and depletion of proteins and alteration of cholesterol. Nicotine affects the production of female hormones more significantly. Melia azedarach effectively ameliorates the deleterious effect of nicotine.
661 A RAPID AND STABILITY INDICATING RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF TIOTROPIUM, FORMOTEROL AND CICLESONIDE IN A DRY POWDER INHALER, *Sunita Sule, Sushama Ambadekar, Abhay Singh, Phalguni Naik
A stability indicating reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed and validated for simultaneous assay of Tiotropium, Formoterol and Ciclesonide from a dry powder inhalation formulation. Separation was achieved on a C18, 5m x 250 mm column at 40C temperature using Acetonitrile as organic modifier; Disodium hydrogen phosphate anhydrous as buffer and Decane sulfonic acid sodium salt as the ion pairing agent at pH 3.5 and UV detection at 230 nm. Forced degradation studies was performed and the method could effectively separate the interferences from placebo, primary packaging material, impurities and degradants, hence the method is specific and stability indicating method. The method was validated in line with the ICH guidelines in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity, robustness and solution stability.
662 PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SOLID DISPERSION OF FUROSEMIDE, *Purohit Nimesh Bhikhabhai
The purpose of this study was to develop solid dispersion(SD) tablets of furosemide. Furosemide is poorly water soluble, anti -hypertensive and diuretic drug mainly used in hypertension and pulmonary edema.The crucial aspect in the preparation of SD of furosemide is to improve solubility of furosemide.The SD prepared by two methods using Physical mixing and Solvent evaporation method using four polymers PEG4000, PEG6000, PEG8000 and Poloxamer407 using different drug carrier ratios such as 1:1, 1:3, and 1:5. The prepared solid dispersion is characteri zed by solubility test, FT-IR spectroscopy, DSC study, X-ray diffraction. A successful increase in solubility of furosemide is obtained by preparing SDs. SD with Poloxamer407 with solvent evaporation method using drug carrier ratio 1:3 shows highest improvement in solubility than others. But the SD formulation is not convenient to take patient orally. So to ease of patient the tablets of SD is prepared using direct compression method. In the In-vitro drug release evaluation of SD tablets it also shows that the highest 97.41% drug release given by SD tablet containing Poloxamer407 with drug carrier ratio 1:3. This best formulation is compared with marketed conventional tablet of furosemide and charged for Stability study.By preparing SD of furosemide the enhancement of solubility can be achieved and solvent evaporation method is better than physical mixing can be concluded.
663 NEW ANDROGRAPHOLIDE DERIVATIVES AND THEIR CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY, S. Vijay Kumar, P. Swapna, P. Venkat Reddy, Ravindra Patil*
A new series of sulfonyl -type of andrographolide derivatives were synthesized from andrographolide, the cytotoxic constituent of the plant Andrographis paniculata. The derived analogs (4a-4g) were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against human small lung cancer (NCI-H187), leukemia K562, breast cancer (MCF-7/ADR) and lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cell lines. Most of the analogues show significant cytotoxic activity against tested cell lines. The methyl sulfonyl derivative 4a had higher activity than parent compound andrographolide 1, and reduced activity than standard drug cisplatin against tested cell lines.
664 MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL STUDY OF UNDERGROUND WATER, M.I.Kumbar*, K.G.Pujar, M.S.Yadawe, S.C.Hiremath, A.S.Pujar and U.S.Pujeri
Drinking water quality assessment in North Karnataka has always been crucial with reference to public health importance. A study was conducted to evaluate the quality of underground water. A total of 12 water samples were randomly collected from tube wells. The samples were analyzed for microbial and physico-chemical parameters. The study revealed that 98% of tube wells found to cross the WHO guideline value for drinking water. The water samples collected from different regions of Bijapur district were found to have significant impurities, considerable deterioration and remarkable variation. The physico-chemical and microbiological characters of different water samples showed that maximum samples were not suitable for drinking purposes.
665 DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF BILAYERED TABLETS OF AMLODIPINE BESYLATE AND METOPROLOL SUCCINATE, Dr.B.Venkateswara Reddy*, K.Navaneetha, K.Venkata Ramana Reddy, P.Poli Reddy
The present work aims to develop a bilayer dosage form containing one immediate release drug amlodipine besylate and another extended release drug metoprolol succinate. The immediate release layer was prepared by using micro crystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, crosspovidone and dicalcium phosphate. The sustain release layer was prepared by using HPMC K15, Sodium CMC, Carbopol. FTIR studies for the drug and polymers shows that they are compatible. The optimized formulations from both layers are used to prepare the bilayer tablet. The prepared tablets are evaluated for various properties. Release of Metoprolol Succinate from the tablets formulated by employing Carbopol and PEO showed that the drug release was as per within the USP limits. So formulation M7 is concluded as optimized formulation for sustained release. Amlodipine besylate from the tablets formulated by employing dicalcium phosphate, MCC and sodium starch glycolate showed that the drug release was as per within the USP limits. So formulation A8 is concluded as optimized formulation for immediate release. And for further study batch A8 and M7 were used for tableting a bilayered formulation which is subjected to post compression and In-Vitro dissolution studies by HPLC. The release kinetics of optimized formula (A8M7) showed nonfickian transport and followed Higuchi model. Thus it can be concluded that the combination therapy uses lower doses of drug to reduce the patients blood pressure.
666 FORMULATION, DEVELOPMENT AND IN VITRO EVALUATION OF PULSATILE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, S R Kawathe*, K S Salunkhe, S R Chaudhari, M H Harwalkar
The chronomodulated drug delivery system is widely used for treatment of diseases occurs due to circadian changes in the body the body. This system is aims to release drugs at a programmed pattern i.e.at appropriate time and/or at appropriate site of action. In this research, formulation developed for the chronotherapy of cardiovascular diseases to treat high blood pressure early in the morning. For that purpose the compression coated tablet of candesartan cilexetil was prepared by using different coating polymers like hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose K4M, Eudragit L100-55 and Eudragit S100. These polymers were gives the pulsatile drug delivery from the formulation.
667 IDENTIFICATION & SCREENING OF NSSNPS FOR HYPERTHYROIDISM & PERFORMING MODELLING & DOCKING STUDIES ON NSSNPS CODING PROTEIN OF HYPERTHYROIDISM, Jyothi J S*, Anitha P M, Kusum Pau
Hyperthyroidism, commonly known as overactive thyroid, occurs mainly because of the presence of thyroid hormone in the bloodstream in an abnormal way. The thyroid hormones are found in the thyroid gland, which is located in the neck. Graves disease, Toxic thyroid adenoma and Toxic Multi nodular goiter are some of the other reasons causing hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is characterized by the symptoms such as nervousness, irritability, increased perspiration, hand tremors, anxiety and muscular weakness. Genetic variation and Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) analysis will be an effective approach to understand the molecular mechanism involved in hyperthyroidism in an enhanced way. In our work, we identified genetic variations followed by SNPs to investigate the genes involved in hyperthyroidism, so as to obtain the target genes. The genetic variation and SNPs identification fetched us C1QTNF6 as a target gene. There was need to find the structural information for C1QTNF6 genes, Modeller tool was used to serve this purpose. Finally, model led structure was validated, followed by docking studies to analyze interaction between target protein and lead molecules.
668 LABORATORY SURFACES CAN ACT AS A SOURCE FOR TRANSMISSION OF INFECTION?, Gurjeet Singh*, Raksha, R.K. Mukhia, A.D. Urhekar
Background: Laboratory surfaces harbor many microbial pathogens as the patient samples are kept on laboratory surfaces during processing. The aim of the study was to find out bacterial and fungal pathogens on laboratory surfaces of various sections of Microbiology laboratory Bacteriology, Mycology, Serology, media preparation and discard section. This study will help design methods to help in prevention of laboratory acquired infection among laboratory workers and others who transport the samples from patients to laboratory and also collect the reports. Material and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in a microbiology laboratory of Mahatma Gandhi Hospital, Navi Mumbai, India. The period of study was 6 months from November 2013 to April 2014. Samples were collected from - various surfaces of microbiology laboratory with moistened (pre-moistened with sterile peptone water) two cotton swabs. One swab was inoculated onto MacConkey agar, Blood agar, and Chocolate agar media and incubated at 37C for 24 to 48 hours and other inoculated on Sabourauds dextrose agar media and incubated for 1 to 7 days at 25-28C. Results: We isolated and identified various bacteria and fungi from these surfaces. In our study , the distribution of microorganisms on laboratory surfaces were Bacillus species 36.36% followed by Coagulase negative Staphylococcus 14.29% Staphylococcus aureus 12.99%, Diptheroids 10.39%, Micrococcus 9.09%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella species 6.49% each, Aspergillus species 2.60% and Candida species 1 1.30% were isolated. Conclusions: Our study showed that all areas of the laboratory are contaminated with pathogenic / non pathogenic bacteria and fungi. It indicates that these are a potential source of transmission of infection from the hands of laboratory workers to themselves / others if proper precaution is not taken.
669 DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF COLLOIDOSOMES OF GLIBENCLAMIDE, Ramchandra N. Chilkawar*, S. M. Patil, Dr. B. K. Nanjwade, V. S. Panchal
Glibenclamide (Glyburide) is a potent oral antidiabetic agent and orally active second generation sulphonyl urea used in lowering bloodglucose in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Glibenclamide has short half life of 4-6 hours. The objective of this study is Development and evaluation of colloidosomes of Glibenclamide for controlled/sustained drug release. An attempt was made to formulate and evaluate colloidosomes of Glibenclamide as a model drug using oil in water emulsion based method by using CaCO3 as a colloidal particle with a view to deliver drug at controlled/ sustained manner in GIT and consequently into systemic circulation. The prepared colloidosomes were evaluated for particle size, shape and surface morphology, FTIR study, DSC, XRD, % yield, % drug entrapment efficiency, Zeta potential, In-vitro drug release studies. The release rates were studied using GRAPHPAD PRISM software. The obtained Colloidosomes were found to be discrete and spherical in shape and had mean particle size range of 45 m -115.14m, drug entrapment efficiency was found to be 65.88 % to 76.28% All the colloidosomes formulations were stable and good sustained release of the drug for a period of 8 hours. The release profile was very promising as compar ed with marketed formulation and followed Zero order kinetic Model. This implies that developed formulations have a potential to deliver the drug in controlled release manner. This outcome from release profiling strongly recommends that developed Glibenclamide loaded colloidosomes can be useful delivery carrier to deliver drug in controlled release manner which is a prime requirement for the treatment of type II Diabetes mellitus (NIDDM).
670 FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING POTENTIAL OF LEAVES OF DRYPETES SEPIARIA (WIGHT & ARN.) PAX & K. HOFFM., Edison Dalmeida Daffodil, Pious Soris Tresina, Packia Lincy, Veerabahu Ramasamy Mohan*
The total phenolics and flavonoids and in vitro antioxidant activity of petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol extracts of leaves of Drypetes sepiaria were determined using various antioxidant model system viz, DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, ABTS and reducing power. Total phenolic content was estimated by folinciocalteau method. Flavonoids were determined by Aluminium chloride method. In vitro antioxidant activity of petroleum ether, benzene, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol extracts were evaluated by studying 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical cation scavenging activity and reducing power using standard procedure. The total phenolics and flavonoids in methanol extract were found to be 1.128 g 100 g -1 and 0.98 g 100 g -1 respectively. Among the solvent tested, methanol extract of D. sepiaria leaf showed potent in vitro antioxidant activities. This investigation explored that, D. sepiaria leaves are a potential source of natural antioxidant.
671 SYNTHESIS OF PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVE 8-[2 / -(3 // , 5 // -DIMETHYL-4 // -ETHOXY CARBONYL PYRROLYL) HYDRAZINE] SUBSTITUTED PHENOTHIAZINES DERIVATIVES, Dr. Meghasham N. Narule*
Phenothiazine derivatives substituted in the 2, 3 and 4 positions belong to a big group of tricyclic aromatic compounds. They are in extensive use in psychiatry as tranquilizers and neuroleptics. Due to their characteristic structure they exhibit many valuable analytical properties. A short facile synthesis of 8-[2/-(3//, 5//-dimethyl-4//-ethoxy carbonyl pyrrolyl) hydrazine] substituted phenothiazines (5a-j) from 2-arylamin benzal-2-(3?,5?-dimethyl-4?-ethoxy carbonyl pyrrole)hydrazines (4) in presence of sulphur and iodine. These compounds were screened for their antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli as well as for their antifungal activity against C. albicans and A. niger. The synthesized compounds are characterized by FTIR, 1 H NMR, elemental and chemical properties.
672 AN OVERVIEW OF TREATMENT MODALITIES FOR PEPTIC ULCER, Diptesh T. Patil1, Pratiksha V. Doke*1, Dr. Vanita Kanase2, Dr. Pramila Yadav
Both duodenal and gastric ulcer disease are closely associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. An infected individual has an estimated lifetime risk of 10 -20% for the development of peptic ulcer disease, which is at least 3-4 fold higher than in non-infected subjects. Many drugs are been used as inhibitors of acid secretion and antacids are also effectively used. New potential drugs are also developed and introduced for acid related disease. Combination therapy like triple and quadruple therapy more effective for removal of Helicobacter pylori. Homeopathy and Ayurvedic therapy are also consider as treatment of ulcer. Role of surgery can be option for the bleeding ulcer or ant severe case.
673 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATED STABILITY INDICATING RPHPLC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF PANTOPRAZOLE IN PURE FORM AND ITS TABLET DOSAGE FORM, Puppala Sindhu*1, Dr. Gampa Vijayakumar1, Ramya Sri Sura2
A rapid and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the validated of Pantoprazole, in its pure form as well as in tablet dosage form. Chromatography was carried out on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 (4.6250mm) 5? column using a mixture of Methanol: TEA Buffer pH 4.0 (70:30 v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0ml/min, the detection was carried out at 280nm. The retention time of the Pantoprazole was 2.302 0.02min respectively. The drugs were exposed to thermal, photolytic, acid, alkali, and oxidative stress and the stressed samples were analyzed by use of the proposed method & chromatograms from the stressed samples, obtained by use of the photodiode-array detector. The method produce linear responses in the concentration range of 10-50mg/ml of Pantoprazole. The method precision for the determination of assay was below 2.0%RSD. The method is useful in the quality control of bulk and pharmaceutical formulations.
674 BUTACHLOR INDUCED OXIDATIVE AND HORMONAL IMBALANCE CORRELATED WITH OVARIAN ANOMALIES IN FRESH WATER INDIAN CAT FISH CLARIAS BATRACHUS (LINN.): SEM STUDY, Prakriti Verma* and G. B. Chand
Fresh water Indian cat fish Clarias batrachus (Linn.) were exposed to Butachlor 2 chloro-N-(2-6 diphenyl) acetamide exposure at a dose of 1.5?l/L for 5, 10 and 15 days respectively. At the termination of each exposure blood samples were collected and analysed for serum Lipid peroxides (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and Estradiol level as per standard method of WHO. The ovarian tissues were fixed in chilled (4C) 2.5% gluteraldehyde followed by its post fixation in 1% OSO4 in 0.1 M Phosphate Buffer at pH 7.2. The tisssues were further processed for SEM studies. The results showed a significant (p
675 INFLUENCE OF SEAWEED LIQUID FERTILIZER OF GRACILARIA DURA (AG.) J.AG. (RED SEAWEED) ON VIGNA RADIATA (L.) R. WILCZEK., IN THOOTHUKUDI, TAMIL NADU, INDIA, Shri Devi, S.D.K. and John Peter Paul, J*
The present study deals with the investigation of the effect of Seaweed Liquid Fertilizer (SLF) of the red seaweed Gracilaria dura (Ag.) J.Ag. on the growth, biochemical and pigment characteristics of Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek., in Hare island, Thoothukudi, Tamil Nadu, India. The seaweed liquid fertilizer (SLF) obtained from Gracilaria dura (Ag.) J.Ag was treated in different concentration such as 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% and tested on Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek. Among the different concentration of SLF investigated, plants that received 10% Seaweed Liquid Fertilizer showed maximum content of total carbohydrates, total proteins, total lipids, total phenols, total chlorophylls and total carotenoides compared to other concentrations. From the results obtained, it was suggested that there are considerable gain to be made