|1 A REVIEW ON SOLID DISPERSION, Parimita Kalita, Aditya Bora
The oral route of administration is the mostly and easily used method of delivery due to convenience and ease of ingestion for many drugs it can be a tricky and inefficient mode of delivery for water-insoluble drug. There are some drugs which typically decreases dissolution rate limited absorption resulting in poor bioavailability of drugs when delivering via the oral route.Solid dispersion is a competent approach to deal with drugs that suffer from dissolutionlimited absorption. This strategy has proven to improve the bioavailability by dispersing the hydrophobic drug as very fine particles within hydrophilic matrix that results in increased solubility with increased surface area available for dissolution.The review covers concise preface of solid dispersion highlighting various approaches for their preparation, Technology involved, selection of carriers and methods of characterization.
|2 PHARMACOGNOSTICAL CHARACTERIZATION ON THE LEAVES OF EUPHORBIA HIRTA (FAMILY: - EUPHORBIACEAE), Santosh Kumar*, Niranjan Sutar, Anurag Kumar, Ranju Sutar, Sonu Sonkar
Objective: Nature has provided a complete storehouse of remedies to cure ailments of mankind. About 80% of the world's population depends wholly or partially on traditional medicine for its primary health care needs. Pharmacognosy is mainly concerned with naturally occurring substances having a medicinal action. The aim of the present study was to investigate the morphological Microscopical characters of Euphorbia hirta L. leaves. Method: The pharmacognostical investigations carried out in terms of organoleptic, macroscopic, microscopic, and fluorescence analysis parameters. The Physicochemical properties such as loss on drying, total ash value,acid insoluble ash value, Water soluble ash value, pH, solubility and Extractive values of Euphorbia hirta L. leaves belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. Result: Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as steroids, proteins, saponin glycosides, taxerol, frieldelin, P-sitosterol, myricyl alcohol and ellergic acid, The leaves are opposite, elliptical, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, with a faintly toothed margin and darker on the upper surface. The flowers are small, numerous and about 1 cm in diameter. Conclusion: In the present investigation, microscopical characters are evaluated and different parameters are applied for the physico-chemical studies include evaluation of colour, consistency of different extracts, extractive value, ash value, moisture content, fluorescence analysis and also qualitative phytochemial screening was performed
|3 REVIEW ON TRIDAX PROCUMBENS (L.) AND ITS MARKETED PRODUCT, Anurag Kumar*, Dharam Veer Singh, Niranjan Sutar,Uma Shankar Sharma,Ranju Sutar
Objectives: To review the phytoconstituents and marketed product of Tridax procumbens (L.). Materials and Methods: The information was collected and compiled from scientific literature present in different databases viz., Science Direct, PubMed, Elsevier and Google Scholar. Results: Literature search revealed that weeds possess diverse group of phytoconstiuents such as phenolics, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenes, steroids, saponins etc. Weeds have been used for their therapeutic values in Ayurveda and Unani systems of medicine. The phytoconstituents present in them are responsible for the biological activities. onclusion: Natural products of plant origin have been used for the treatment of various infectious and degenerative diseases. The diversity of phytochemicals present in plants provides drug leads for the development of novel therapeutic agents.
|4 VALIDATED UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR ESTIMATION OF
TOLNAFTATE, Ashish Kumar Sarawal and Dr. Sharad Wakode
A new UV Spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of tolnaftate in bulk drug and pharmaceutical formulaton. Tolnaftate, an antifungal drug of thiocarbamate class, is used topically in 1% topical formulations as fungicide. Though its exact mechanism is unknown, it is believed to prevent ergosterol biosynthesis by inhibiting squalene epoxidase. It has also been reported to distort the hyphae and stunt mycelial growth in susceptible organisms. The spectra of Tolnaftate in Acetonitrile showed maximum wave length at 258nm and obeyed Beer’s law in the concentration range of 2-12 µg/ml. Standard curve depict line equation y = 0.1633x + 0.0218 with correlation coefficient of 0.9992 (shown in Table 1 and Figure 1 ). The developed method was validated with respect to linearity, precision (method precision, intermediate or inter-day precision), accuracy, stability in analytical solution, robustness or system suitability. The developed method exhibited the best results in terms of the aforesaid validation parameters. The other components and additives did not interfere in their determinations. The objective of present work is to develop simple, precise and accurate UV Spectrophotometric method for estimation of Tolnaftate in organic solvent. The organic solvent acetonitrile is used was AR grade. This method can also be used for routine analysis of Tolnaftate in bulk and its marketed formulations.
|5 DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ULTRAVIOLET-VISIBLE
SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF DRUG
FLUPIRTINE MALEATE IN BULK DRUG AND PHARMACEUTICAL
DOSAGE FORMS, Dharti Patel and Dr. Sharad Wakode
ABSTRACT: An economical, simple and accurate UV-Visible spectrophotometric method for the determination of the drug Flupirtine maleate in bulk drug and pharmaceutical dosage form has been developed. Flupirtine maleate is non steroidal, non NSAID and non opiod drug which is used in neuromuscular pain, back pain, dysmenorrheal etc. The absortion maxima of the drug was observed at 245nm. The linearity range was found to be 2-16µg/ml with regression coefficient value 0.9994. Validation of the proposed method was done in accordance with the ICH guidelines.
|6 SURVEY OF ETHNO-MEDICINAL WEEDS OF DISTRICT RAJHAN PUR,
PUNJAB, PAKISTAN., Muhammad Shahzad Aslam*, Saumendu Deb Roy , Muhammad Abuzar Ghaffari , Bashir A.
Choudhary, M Uzair, Abdul Subhan Ijaz, Tariq Riaz Khan
Rajanpur is a district of Punjab province in Pakistan. The district lies in the western bank of the River Indus. The present study was performed on the weeds of district Rajhanpur and for that four locations were selected, namely; Kot mithan, Rojhan, Chachran sharif and Fazilpur. Quadrate method was used for the Survey, whereby percentage frequency, density and cover were calculated easily by taking each quadrate of 1m × 1m. And a questionnaire method was implemented for documentation of ethnomedicinal knowledge. Finally we got some valuable information’s regarding folklore medicines of the region.
|7 EVALUATION OF RATIONAL DRUG PRESCRIPTION IN RENAL IMPAIRED PATIENTS
IN MULTAN, PAKISTAN., Sana Kunwal, A Subhan Ijaz, M Shahzad Aslam*, Bashir A. Choudhary
ABSTRACT: The intervention of the pharmacist in the therapy of patients with renal failure can contribute to improve safety, reducing the potential for kidney damage. To determine whether appropriate dosage adjustments are made in patients with significant renal impairment for drugs with a high fractional renal clearance. Evaluation of the Pharmacy Department recommendations about drug dose adjustment in patients with serum creatinine greater than 1.2 mg / dl. We reviewed 76 prescriptions. Glomerular filtration rate creatinine clearance (CrCl) was calculated for patients with serum creatinine greater than 1.2 mg / dL, using the cockkroft-gualt formula. We conducted dose adjustment if the creatinine clearance was less than 50 ml / min. During the study, we observed through 76 creatinine values in which 37 patients (48.68%) were having CrCl less than 50ml/min, out of which 18 patients (48.64%) were in requirement of dose adjustment. The number and percentage of patients with each one of the drug evaluated was pyrazinamide 1 patient (5.55%), ceftriaxone 3 patients (16.66%), metoclopramide 4 patients (22.22%), tanzo (piperacilin + tazobactam) 3 patients(16.66%), levofloxacin 1 patient (5.55%), ranitidine 3 patients (16.66) and metformin in 1 patient (5.55%), The mean creatinine clearance (CrCl) observed was 32.62 ml/min. It has also evaluated that 23.68% of patients were in need of dose adjustment. Out of them, the most common drugs prescribed in overdose without dose adjustments were more than 50% were antibiotics. Anti TB, Antiemetic, Hypoglycaemic, H2 blocker were each 11.11% A significant percentage of patients with renal impairment are admitted to hospital on inappropriately high doses of drugs, with a high fractional renal excretion and low therapeutic index.