1 A Current Portrait of Islamic Education in Aceh, Kamaruzzaman Bustamam Ahmad
There have been many studies on Islamic education in Aceh, especially among traditional institutions. However, the new coming of ustaz Java has led to social dynamic in the province. This paper aims to examine the contemporary of Islamic authority in education in Aceh, Indonesia. It will focus with two social concepts and their role in society. It based from fieldwork in Aceh in several areas. It is argued that there is changing of Islamic authority the society in which the ustaz play more important role in education rather than teungkue. Meanwhile, the teungku are more interested in political arena.
2 A Century of NU-Muhammadiyah in Indonesia: The Failure of Islamic Modernism?, Moeflich Hasbullah
Islamic modernism represented by Muhammadiyah and Persatuan Islam and Islamic traditionalism symbolized by Nahdlatul Ulama have lasted a century old in Indonesian history (1912-2014). The unavoidable tensions and conflicts between these two contrast Islamic movements occurred in various fields. The modernist has been trying to promote their modern views and to eradicate tradition. On the contrary, the traditionalist has been working hard to maintain their Islamic tradition and fight for the modernist mission in disseminating their ideas. To some extent, the modernist is quite successful, however by comparative study methods applied in this article to see the result of these two Islamic streams, I argue that in common Islamic modernism has failed to weaken and to eradicate tradition as it was firstly introduced by their initiators over a century ago. The modernist is only successful in its attempt to build its own empire of modernism but without vanishing tradition. Rather than weakening, let alone disappearing, what has been occuring shows the opposite result. Islamic traditionalism even grows larger than modernist group and develops more dynamic in various fields. More than that, Islamic neo-traditionalism has emerged as its new variant, an intellectual movement that found a new land on the problems of modern spiritual drought.
3 Islamic Party Survives in 2014 Legislative Election? (The Case of PKS), Ahmad Ali Nurdin
This paper examines performances of PKS in the last 2009 election, West java and DKI Jakarta gubernatorial elections and the current 2014 legislative election to answer whether PKS looses or survives their political support from Indonesian people in the 2014 election. Although the cadres of PKS is still solid compare to that of other parties, there are a variety of reasons why the popularity of PKS slightly declined in the 2014 election compared to that of 2009 election. The involvement of the former president of PKS, Luthfi Hasan Ishak, in the case of beef graft has lessened the confidence of Indonesian people to the integrity of PKS in eradicating corruption in Indonesia. Thus, many Indonesians have doubt and less confidence in the capacity of PKS to solve other national problems. In addition, the weak and the least possible figure of PKS to be nominated as a president candidate is another reason why PKS cannot become a champion in the 2014 presidential election. Looking at the quick count result done by several survey institutions, however, PKS is considered to be survived in the 2014 election. They successfully maintain and strengthen their cadres’ solidity. Their leading figures were quite successful in rebuilding trust not only for their loyal cadres but also public in general that they are really ‘clean’ and ‘professional’ and ready to combat corruption in the country. PKS proved to the public that the case of their former president was ‘the only corruption case’ done by ‘personally individual’ (oknum) whom they will not tolerate.
4 The Challenge of Democracy in Indonesia: The Case of Salafi Movement, Din Wahid
In spite of strong support of the majority of Muslims in Indonesia to democratic system, there are small numbers of Muslim who reject the democratic system. To name a few, I can mention here some groups of Muslims who oppose the democracy, such as Hizbut Tahrir Indonesia (HTI), Majelis Mujahidin Indonesia (MMI) and Salafis. These groups maintain that democracy is against Islam, because Islam does not recognize democracy. Democracy as symbolized by “the power of people” contradicts the basic doctrine of Islam concerning the sovereignty. In Islam, they maintain, the power or sovereignty belongs to God only. This essential concept creates various consequences dealing with governance of the ruled. This paper discusses the views of Salafis in Indonesia on the democracy. Despite their resistance of democracy, the Salafis consider a ruler resulted from democracy is valid, and Muslims should obey him: they are not allowed to criticize him publicly, and are not allowed to rebel against him.
5 Nurcholish Madjid’s Idea of Inclusive Theology in Islam, Munir A. Muin
Nurcholish Madjid was one of Indonesian Muslim intellectuals who had shaped specific school of Islamic thought known as neo-modernism. One of contemporary issues that he was concerned with was the problem of religious plurality, which was a fact in Indonesian religious life and had been debated among Indonesian Muslim scholars before him. However, at his era, the discussion of such an issue became more controversial and attracted wider debate. This is because he interpreted “Islam,” which is commonly understood as religion of the followers of Prophet Muhammad, to mean “surrender” to God’s will which is at the heart of all prophetic religions before him. In addition, he extended the concept of people of the book (ahl al-kitab), which includes exclusively the adherents of Judaism and Christianity as traditionalists understand, to cover other religious traditions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, and so on. Drawing greatly on Nurcholish’s works, this article argues that his theology of religious pluralism can be categorized as inclusive, which is different from exclusivism.
6 Internet, Identity and Islamic Movements: The Case of Salafism in Indonesia, Asep M. Iqbal
The revolution of information and communication technology has transformed the world into different shape, including Muslim world. This technology in the form of internet does not merely have the democratizing potential for Muslim world, but also has created a new public sphere and new Islamic authority. This paper discusses the role of internet as played by Muslim religious movement, especially Salafism in Indonesia. Using textual analysis of data collected from their websites, this article argues that the internet as modern technology of information and communication has helped Salafism rise to the public to show their ideological and doctrinal stances as well as to challenge their enemies such as Liberal Islam Network (Jaringan Islam Liberat), Shiah, and so on. Through the internet too, this movement respond to such contemporary issues as terrorism, earthquake and others. This means that although orthodox in doctrine and attitude, this movement can benefit from the internet very much for its missionary purposes.
7 Islamic Philanthropy and the Third Sector: The Portrait of Zakat Organizations in Indonesia, Dani Muhtada
This paper discusses the role of zakat organizations as the emerging Third Sector in Indonesia. It presents the profiles of three currently leading zakat organizations: Rumah Zakat Indonesia (RZI), Dompet Dhuafa (DD), and Pos Keadilan Peduli Ummat (PKPU). This paper highlights that the zakat organizations play an important role in serving public needs in Indonesia. They offer many services in such areas as health, economy, education, agriculture, and disaster reliefs. Competition does exist among zakat organizations, particularly if they operate in the same areas and target the same segment of donors (e.g., wealthy Muslims in urban areas). This paper argues that some more efforts are still needed to strengthen the roles of zakat organizations as part of the Indonesian third sector. This could be achieved through strengthening the accountability and the transparency of zakat management as well as by encouraging zakat organizations to allocate more funds for economic development programs. Allocating more funds for economic development programs would make zakat organizations more powerful in promoting social welfare in the society.
8 Abangan-Islam or Making Islam Indigeneous?, Fachry Ali
Book Review: Mystic Synthesis in Java: A History of Islamization from the Fourteenth to the Early Nineteenth Centuries, by M.C. Ricklefs (Norwalk, CT: EastBridge, 2006), 275 pp. (English). Price $25.44. ISBN-13: 978-1891936616
9 The Book of Man?qib and Prophetic History, Heddy Shri Ahimsa-Putra
In order to understand and to read the book completely with high curiosity, historians and scholars of socio-cultural studies need to be not merely critical as usually required in every discipline, but also should be widely open-minded and fully aware that history has diverse meanings in accordance with perspective used to interpret it. Why? This is because this book is an unusual book of history in usual sense of the word. Although written using historical sources or written documents about empirical events occured in the past, this book discusses the meaning of history and its sources started with doubting or questioning—indirectly—various assumptions underlying historical inquiries that so far have been conducted. This book basically is a narration or story about the Book of Manaqib that describes the legend of famous Muslim scholar (‘ulama’, sing ‘alim) who was known among the Sufis as “Prince of Saints” (sultan al-awliya’) or “pole of saints” (wali al-qutb), Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani. Among Indonesian Muslims, he is popularly known as Syekh ‘Abdul Qadir Jaelani., Of course, this book does not simply discuss the life of this legendary scholar, but also discusses the position and the significance of the Book of Manaqib of Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani. The question remains, “what are the reasons leading Dr. Ajid to discuss such a book?” We can find the answer to this question throughout this book explicitly and implicitly.