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International Journal of Communication Research

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1 THE FUNCTION OF SERVICE CHARTER AS A COMMUNICATION TOOL FOR CONSUMERS OF IMMIGRATION SERVICES IN KENYA , Osir OTTENG, Juliet JAGERO
This study sought to establish the role played by communication in the on-going reform programmes in Kenyas public sector, specifically in the immigration department. In particular, it has investigated the function of the service charter as a communication tool for the users of consumers of immigration services. To interrogate the above issues, the study focused on the customers (service consumer). About 100 customers, sampled from members of the public seeking services at the departments headquarters, formed part of the study sample. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to analyse the data collected from the study. Some of the key findings of the study were that a large majority of service seekers at the department do not know about the existence of service charter in the ministry. The study concludes that because the customers do not know the charter exists, few of them use it to demand services. The ministry values communication as crucial component in the public service reform programmes. The study thus recommends that the ministry should use all means at its disposal to disseminate the charter to service seekers who need to know what it promises. Such means could include service points, public forum s such as shows and exhibitions, churches and leaders meetings. The ministry should also facilitate regular interactions with service seekers to inform them of what it has to offer and get feedback on their expectations.
2 THE PHILOSOPHY OF DEPRESSION , Bogdan POPOVENIUC
Depression, together with anxiety, is one of the most fundamental emotional states of conscious being. The fall from the paradise of innocence was the fall into knowledge which brings about the freedom of choice and uncertainty of understanding altogether. The level of self-consciousness state I come with self-understanding an auto-poietic process of self-referentiality that involves both the anxiety of responsibility and depression of choosing. Consciousness begun with anxiety and depression, and was assisted by them throughout its entire evolution. The present high rate of clinical depressed people is a sign of an unbalanced functioning and of an inappropriate understanding these two fundamental axes of human psychic within modern culture, which should be reconsidered and employed for the progress of the consciousness and not foolishly pharmacological concealed.
3 OUR DAILY PRESS. A SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF THE ROMANIAN PRESS AFTER 1989 , Liviu ANTONESEI
In mid-February 2011, I attended by chance a very interesting debate as a special guest, the topic was The Liberty of Media in Romania: common solutions for common problems, which was part of a program started by a Bristish civic organization called European Alternatives - www. euroalter.com - referring to the liberty of media in the entire Europe. Before exploring the space of our press, the British organization did the same thing in Italy, then in other few countries from the Eastern and Western parts of the continent. In Romania, the organization coordinated by Mrs. Anca Magyar already has an antenna in Cluj, composed of journalists, civic activists, students etc. Some of them accompanied the rest of the team in Iai.1 Again by chance I was also asked for a text for the volume Mass media i democraia n Romnia post-comunist (Mass media and Democracy in Post-communist Romania), coordinated by my nice former students, now friends and collaborators, Daniel andru and Sorin Bocancea. I thought about taking advantage of these two events in order to try at least to sketch an analysis of the evolution of post-December press, of its relation with the destiny of democracy in our country. It is not my first personal attempt to spectrally analyse indigenous press, but it is only the second one which surpasses the dimensions and ambitions of a newspaper article.
4 THE ROLE OF CONFESSION IN SOCIAL COMMUNICATION. A FEW ASPECTS , Nicoleta DABIJA
The 20th century was dominated by mass culture, and individualization has become dominant. The present paper tries to formulate some of weaknesses of the present day society on the social, psychological, spiritual level, weaknesses which are detrimental to privacy of the self and mars real communication between people. We have also tried to outline a number of aspects and points of view expressed by some important thinkers of the last century in order to surpass the difficulties confronting the dialogue by various philosophical solutions. Out of these, the confidential conversation has developed and come to the foreground, as Hans-Georg Gadamer named it in his work Truth and Method, the role of confession in communication or the way in which the self solves its problems in privacy, in order to move successfully to a relationship, to a real communication with the other one.
5 THE WORLD AS A MUSEUM IN THE POST/POSTMODERN SOCIETY , Elena PRUS
The present study discusses actual problems on the evolution of museums at worldwide level, under the influence of some global phenomena, such as the unprecedented development of cultural tourism, consumism, rur-urbanisation and reurbanization of the society. Globalization of culture, on one side, and grasping of todays world as a museum, on the other, become the acts of a performance staged for the rashed and stressed modern traveller. The cultural touristic pattern becomes prevailing in the postmodern society, transforming the institutions into museums and everyday life - into a work of art and a total Museum. The present investigation analyzes the new significance and role of the museum in the post/postmodern society, starting from the understanding of the special regime imposed to it by globalization, and attempts at establishing its position and functions in the overwhelming, allembracing culture of divertissement of today.
6 INTEGRATING EUROPE THROUGH TRAVEL WRITING: DINICU GOLESCUS ACCOUNT OF MY TRAVELS (1826) , Oana COGEAN
Before becoming the centripetal contemporary process, European integration was a personal, centrifugal undertaking in the emerging Romanian state. 19th century Romanian intellectuals would occasionally travel across the European continent and write accounts representing Europe as a model of civilization and culture to be integrated in their own land. Dinicu Golescu is such a traveler who not only produces what can be considered the first Romanian travelogue, but is also inspired by his European journeys to bring about change back home. Attempts such as his would gradually coagulate into a national reconfiguration project. This paper offers a close reading of Golescus travelogue, analyzing how Europe is represented by this Romanian traveler and to what purpose, with a view to illustrating the dynamics of European integration through travel (and) writing.
7 MODERNIZATION OF EDUCATION IN THE MODERN WORLD , G. A. RUDIC
In this paper, based on the multidimensional thinking, the features of education in the industrial period and globalization, methodology, theory and the traps of the transition period are discussed.
8 THE REALIZATION OF COMMON EUROPEAN COMPETENCE IN MODERN FOREIGN LANGUAGE EDUCATION , Gulnar ASKAROVA
The intercultural integration processes at the national and international levels are impossible without the modernization of the national education system. Active research for promising areas of the educational system of Kazakhstan and, as a consequence, the modern tendency development of secondary and higher education can talk about fundamental changes in the educational system of Kazakhstan. A foreign-language education doesnt play the last role in the intercultural integration of Kazakhstan, which will form the specialists who know a foreign language at a level recognized by the international community and responsive to the needs of society. Achieving these goals requires a revision of the old and the formation of new approaches to the teaching of foreign languages, which ultimately could ensure the implementation of a new social order. One of the most topical for today ways of building a new educational paradigm is a competence approach. The formation of professionals who know a foreign language at a level recognized by the international community and meet the needs of society is possible through the implementation of European competence. Competencies provide a solution to problems in various conditions, and are implemented in activities aimed at the generation and perception of texts in connection with certain themes and areas of communication, and with the use of appropriate strategies.
9 POLYCULTURAL CONTEXT OF LEARNING FOREIGN LANGUAGES IN HIGHER SCHOOLS , Irina YUROVA
The polycultural component is strongly pronounced in the State Polar Academy in Saint-Petersburg, which was created in order to train a new generation of qualified experts for North, Siberia and Far East regions of Russia. Students of 58 nationalities study in the Academy. It is necessary to undertake comparative analysis of Russian, French and national languages, study their typological differences and help students to overcome interference effects that might occur during the process of learning French under bilingual and multilingual context.
10 EUROPEAN AND NATIONAL FUNDS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION AND RESEARCH , Camelia PETRESCU, Alexandra BURLUI, Cristian PETRESCU
The Structural Funds are financial instruments through which the European Union acts in order to eliminate the economic and social disparities between the regions, towards achieving an economic and social cohesion. The structural funds are post-adherence funds supplied through the European Union budget whose purpose is to support the member countries. They also support the investments in education and research.
11 THE FUTURE OF LABOUR FORCE IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION, Corina MATEI- GHERMAN
Emigration, namely movement of a person or group of persons from one place to another, is specific to both humans and animals and birds. In the beginning, the main reason of such movements was finding of food and water, later on of a job, of escaping political or religious persecutions, or of a new place for professional accomplishment. In time, emigration came to be caused by forced dislodgements, civil wars, or return to the native country. Therefore, the emigration phenomenon has existed since old times, it is still present in our days and, it will undoubtedly be continued in the future, its causes being the unequal economic development of the various countries of the world.
12 FROM THE LIMITS OF AUTHENTICITY TO THE CRISIS OF COMMUNICATION , Diana VRABIE
Created by the inter-war generation, the notion of authenticity will witness a fulminating career along time, drawing the attention of both men-of-letters, on one side, and of philosophers, historians, theologists, diplomats, etc., on the other. Nothing of the effervescent substance of this concept will remain outside the interest of the intellectuals actively involved in a genuine competition of ideas.
13 MEDIA VIOLENCE EXPLAINED MATTHEW S. EASTIN (ED.), ENCYCLOPEDIA OF MEDIA VIOLENCE, SAGE PUBLICATIONS, 2013 , Camelia GR?DINARU
Encyclopedia of Media Violence is a very recent editorial outcome that has been published in October by the reputable Sage Publications. In 134 signed entries developed in 456 pages, this book intends to become a reference in the field of communication and media studies, psychology or sociology. The encyclopedia editor, Matthew S. Eastin, is an associate professor in the Department of Advertising and Public Relations at The University of Texas at Austin. He has published papers in prestigious journals such as Journal of Communication, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Communication Research, Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media, CyberPsychology and Behavior, Computers in Human Behavior, Human Communication Research and he edited another two books. His main research concerns the media behavior, with a special focus on video games engagement, including violence.
14 UNDER THE SIGN OF THE STRANGER , Irina ROTARU
The paper aims at discussing some hypostases of the stranger encountered in the history of philosophy. The concept of the stranger we outline is not the one defined as such as a result of cultural differences; we are more interested in cases of characters who decline their identity in order to introduce to the audience new ideas, new ways of understanding the world. By means of our analysis we intend to draw attention on how different the freedom of speech is perceived at different times, given the differences of how fond people are of perpetuating traditional ways of understanding. Our main focus will be Platos Sophist, a dialogue where we encounter an Eleatic Stranger.
15 THE DOCUMENTARY FILM AND THE NEW MEDIA , Alexandru BOHAN?OV
For quite a long time, classifications of television documentary productions started from the similarities and differences between the documentary and the TV documentary film. The real "transfiguration" of the nonfiction film was manifested in the era of digital revolution. Hybridization of postmodern television communication and of the interactivity concept, promoted by the new media, has gained ground and led to new structures of audiovisual type. Numerous researchers show that the quality of information is losing ground in favour of the visual impact. At the same time, the documentary film has to observe and obey the new rules, adapted for surviving on a media market increasingly subservient to facile entertainment productions.
16 CULTURAL STEREOTYPES IN THE PRESS FROM THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA:NATIONAL REALITIES AND EUROPEAN DESIRABILITY, Valentina ENACHI
The aim of this paper is to analyze the ethnic and cultural stereotypes used in Moldova mass media regarding the Russian and European Union. The paper generalizes and classifies the problems and difficulties connected with nowadays interethnic and intercultural communication in Moldova Republic.
17 SOUND AND IMAGE- COMMUNICATION BY TEXT IN AUDIO-VISUAL MASS-MEDIA OF ROMANIA , Eva NAGY
This paper focuses on the language of communication, first, presenting some introductory notions, then, discussing the changes occurring in the domain of communication, the consequences determined by the structure of society, the stages in the communication research from the society of information to the culture of information.
18 THE LATIN CULTURAL ORIGIN OF THE ROMANIANS. SOME CONSIDERATIONS , Dana GALANTON
The Latin cultural origin and the statehood are defining elements of the East Roman researchers. Among these traits the idiorrhythmics of monastic life and architecture of the XIV century are to be found.
19 THE LATIN CULTURAL ORIGIN OF THE ROMANIANS. SOME CONSIDERATIONS , Dana GALANTON
The Latin cultural origin and the statehood are defining elements of the East Roman researchers. Among these traits the idiorrhythmics of monastic life and architecture of the XIV century are to be found.
20 THE HUMAN ACTION FROM EFFICIENCY TO FAILURE. A CULTURAL APPROACH , Georgel RUSU
From a generic point of view the human action includes the intentions of the human being that generated it. The obtained results may be identical or resembling in different places of the world. The ways to get to the final results are often different and bear, without doubt, the stamp of the culture of the people who contribute to their being achieved. The specific management and the traditional characteristics are evident in the product (object, service, art, science etc). More than that, we have to point out the real contribution brought about by communication. Communication, language, put their stamp not only upon the purpose of the human activity, but also on the speed by which it can be achieved, on the efficiency of the work and especially on preserving the cultural originality and the ethnicity under discussion. Therefore, to obtain the desired efficiency in the framework of globalization, which should involve us all, to avoid actions harmful like non kinetic operations, in order not to compromise the existence as a nation, it is necessary to reevaluate whatever contributes to the social management which is responsible for the future.
21 CHANGING PLACES IN A GLOBALIZED WORLD INTERCULTURAL ISSUES, Elena CIORTESCU
Intercultural awareness has become a crucial element in professional communication in general and business negotiation, in particular. From this perspective, although a study on David Lodges Changing Places could be perceived as hardly anything more but a return to the past (the book was written in 1975), it may also be seen as an insight into the intercultural issues related to the academic world and beyond. Apparently obsolete, the novel opens a gate to a world in which individuals are constantly exposed to the need of changing places. Nowadays, either private or public sector actors, we are all, to a certain extent, faced with the possibility of dealing with a different culture. For these reasons, a look into Lodges novel could be both a pleasant and useful initiative especially for the young reader who will, undoubtedly, enjoy the experience. The aim of this paper is to explore the tips in David Lodges above mentioned novel as well as the extent to which they can be used in todays globalized world in order to achieve successful intercultural communication, primarily addressing those interested in the process of intercultural exchanges.
22 THE INTEGRATION OF ROMANIAN CULTURE IN EUROPE AND THE NATIONAL IDENTITY PROBLEM , Mariana FLAI?ER
Literary men, linguists, philosophers of the culture, historians have sought over time the core of Romanian culture originality, speaking of its personality or national character and finding the root of the Romanian stylistic matrix in the soul of the Romanian people, in the beauty, originality and balance of the Romanian language. These coordinates have defined us and they are still defining us in the world. In the current context of globalization, where the computerization resulted in new approaches to the communicative act, the literary language, in general, and scientific language, in particular, suffer strong neological pressures, whose consequences we also find in the big picture of the Romanian culture. We are not denying that the advantages of neologisation, especially in the structure of the Romanian scientific language and neither the fact that the current policy of the translations in English of the Romanian writings represent a way to make ourselves known in the world. But the exaggerations in the current Romanian scientific journalism by giving up to the Romanian language threatens the cultural identity of the nation, identity that is firstly supported through language.
23 TRANSCENDENCE AS A UNIVERSAL PARADIGM , Solomon MARCUS
The idea of transcendence is approached and discussed from a large variety of perspectives. Beginning from its etymological explanation, the concept of transcendence, as it is employed and understood in philosophy, music, theatrical art and - especially - mathematics, is thoroughly and most subtly analyzed. Starting from quite common, easy-to-understand examples, an abstract demonstration - involving essential philosophical notions - is brilliantly developed.
24 EUROPA MAGAZINE, NOVI SAD, AND ITS INTERCULTURALITY , Pavel G?T?IAN?U
Europa, a magazine of science and art in transition, published in Novi Sad by the Europa Foundation, an organisation with a status of nongovernmental organisation, was first issued in 2008. The initiative belonged to the writer Pavel Gtianu and a group of Romanian supporters from Novi Sad and from Vojvodina in order to facilitate the cultural direction of Romanian intellectuals from Serbia to Europe.
25 OPERA AND OPERETTA. SIMILARITIES AND CONTRASTS , Floren?a Nicoleta MARINESCU
Lyrical theatre is an infinite resource of communication between the audience and the artists. Based on its musical and vocal primal instruments it has been reaching out to public of all social classes throughout history. This universal artistic language is expressed on stage through various representations expanding in different genres and subcategories, defined by their historic periods and ages. This communication is realized through the human voice; this wonderful and mysterious weapon of artistic creation cannot be tuned to the standards of physical playable instruments, but can surely be the vessel that brings the audience an emotional and powerful experience. This form of artistic performance is full of spiritual and timeless emotion. No doubt a great contribution to cultural life to many civilizations of the world, its message is direct and always straightforward aimed at audiences all around the globe.
26 NATIONAL CULTURAL IDENTITY, REGIONAL CULTURAL IDENTITY , R?zvan THEODORESCU
We have identified Romanian regional differences in the 17th-19th centuries: Moldavian aristocratism opened to the West and the Wallachian democratism opened to the Balkans.
27 UNDERSTANDING AND MISUNDERSTANDING IN THE HISTORICAL AND LITERARY SPACE OF THE 27S. MIHAIL SEBASTIANS POSITION , Simona STANCU
The structure of a generation is based on a series of events, states and facts, common to a particular space and to a well-defined period of time. Romanias Young Generation of the 27s ends up being a representative cultural identity in the development of the inter-war literature. Mihail Sebastians position as a key representative of his generation, lucid, rationale and balanced spirit, is one that is opposed to the outlook which denies the value of rationalism and of the desire to live in adventure.
28 ROLES OF THE POLISH, RUSSIAN AND ROMANIAN LANGUAGES IN THE POLISH DIASPORA IN MOLDOVA , M. A. Kamila M. WIELGOSZ
According to a survey, representatives of the Polish diaspora are mostly Russian speakers. 69% of the surveyed acquired Russian at home, while only 25.3% learned Romanian, and 22.9% - Polish, from their parents. Research on the declared knowledge of these three languages indicates the overwhelming predominance of Russian, known by all respondents, mostly on a very good and good level. The survey has shown that daily communication proceeds mostly in Russian, and the studied population has a positive or neutral attitude towards it. Russian is the first language for Polish people in Moldova. The level of Romanian language knowledge is much lower: 9.4% of respondents did not know the official language of the country of which they were citizens, and the respondents attitude towards the language is mostly neutral or negative. Responses indicated contact with Romanian in state institutions, everyday life, with family and friends and when communication in Russian was impossible. Polish was liked the most among the surveyed languages, and it is acquired mainly in courses of Polish as a foreign language and the speakers level is close to that of Romanian. According to responses, Polish was mostly used among other Poles in Moldova, in the Catholic Church and during trips to Poland.
29 THE SELF-TRANSLATION OF THE COLLOQUIAL DISCOURSE IN ROUMAINS DRACINS BY PAUL MICL?U , Tamara CEBAN
The focus of this study is represented by the selftranslation of the colloquial discourse in Roumains dracins, the autobiographical novel of the Romanian writer of French expression Paul Miclau. As the writing of the novel was unfolding, the writer explored the idea of using the colloquial discourse as he practised it in his communication with his students while teaching Romanian for foreign students at the University of Montpellier, the Faculty of Letters and Humanities. The idea of employing this type of discourse arose out of the necessity of using spontaneous phrases in French without interfering with the nature of the language from an ethnological point-of-view. The phrases pertaining to the colloquial discourse are scattered throughout the novel which leads us to believe that the writer-translator made intentional use of this type of language in order to transfigure a surprising universe with a view to gaining the appreciation of the Francophone readership, a goal which the writer accomplished, as in 1996 he won the European Prize granted by Association des crivains de Langue Franaise for his original volume Roumains dracins (1995). If the use of this type of discourse was possible in French, as it was close to the students jargon, things are quite different when it comes to its translation into Romanian; some phrases were translated into the Banat dialect, their rendering being difficult or even impossible.
30 INDIRECT COLOUR TERMS IN A WORK OF VERBAL ART , Arina POLOZOVA
The present article is focused on colour terms in general and on their indirect variety in particular. Colour has already proved to be an indispensable part of the expression plane of a work of verbal art being highly connotative, it abounds in various associations meant by the author. Direct colour terms have already been the subject of quite a few scientific studies; however, much too little attention has so far been given to the colour terms which denote colour indirectly the so-called indirect colour terms which include the objects of extralinguistic reality: the names of flowers, precious stones, dyes and other objects which have a typical colour and immediately provoke the association with it. The aim of this article is to show most clearly that this variety of words denoting colour is no less expressive and meaningful in a literary text and, therefore, it deserves much more scientific attention than it has received. We thought it useful to include the texts of translation in our analysis in order to discover if the importance of the indirect colour terms occurring in the original is observed by translators and, thus, rendered in the resultant text.
31 THE PERISHING BEING IN INITIATION JOURNEYS THE JOURNEY BEYOND THE VEIL , Tamara CONSTANTINESCU
During time, man has been preoccupied with the topics of initiation journeys, of journeys beyond the veil, of Heaven and Hell. According to Jacques Le Goff, stories about journeys beyond the veil follow three traditions. One known Irish legend tells of St. Patrick, who visited the Inferno and the Purgatory. In twelve-century England, priest Adam Ros portrayed, in a poem, the journey of St. Paul to Hell. The myth of Orpheus also deals with this topic. Among the rare descendings to Hell mentioned by the Greek mythology, that of Orpheus becomes the most popular. Ulysses journey in Homers Odyssey can be also interpreted as an initiation journey, a form of knowledge of the world, but also a form of self-knowledge, a central path. The world beyond the veil appears as a universe outside time. The reason for the journey can be the knowledge of the world beyond the veil, a journey to the Lord in order to receive recompense or a journey for being given advice. Initiation journeys can also be followed in Virgils Aeneid or Dantes Divine Comedy. Aeneass wish is that of descending into the Inferno to meet his father. A symbolical descending done to learn and to receive some advice. Dantes Divine Comedy represents an allegorical view of the other world, as a path to salvation. The other world is an allegory and an image of this world; it is the history and the mystery of the soul. The Divine Comedy thus appears as a story of the soul, which, from form to form, identifies itself with God, pure intelligence, pure love, and pure act.
32 ONLINE IDENTITY AS A NARRATIVE PROJECT , Camelia GR?DINARU
This paper focuses on the reinterpretation of online identity in the conceptual frame done by Giddens key terms self-identity and reflexive project. This rethinking of digital identity emphasizes the conscious, active, and introspective modalities in which an individual constructs and manages her or his identity using the digital tools. Thus, constructivism and symbolic interactionism underpin this investigation. The choices that new media offer introduce from the very beginning a sort of awareness about the project of virtual self-building. The differences that occurred between the early stages of the development of new media and the actual state of affairs in the digital realm impose some changes in the presentation of the self and in its conceiving. In this respect, the paper underlines some relevant developments and possibilities for the affirmation of the self, but, in the same time, presents some constraints and limitations that are visible in the current stage of new media. The problem of digital archive that should preserve the autobiographical narratives is the main example that I will develop, because the identityforming process is shaped by the narrative pieces that we select as representative for our image about ourselves. Thus, the understanding of the modalities through which people compose their digital self-narratives (writing, posting, or archiving) and use them in the self-knowing process describes a chain of action that is very valuable for the edification of our identity.
33 SOUTH AFRICA REFORMED: SOCIAL CHANGES IN NADINE GORDIMERS THE HOUSE GUN , C?t?lin TECUCIANU
Published in 1998, The House Gun is Gordimers testimony of South African realities four years after the first democratic elections took place. It has been tagged in many ways; as a courtroom thriller (The Times), a triumph () a passionate, multi-layered story of awakening (Yorkshire Post), an engrossing and deeply considered novel about violence and its consequences (Esquire), a work of exceptional caliber (Sunday Times), or as a pro-tolerance novel (Harpers and Queen). At its core, the novel is an attempt to lay bare and account for some of the problems South Africa was facing at that particular moment in time. By taking The House Gun as the point of reference, this papers aims at investigating the changes occurring in the South African social fabric and the new relationships established between blacks and whites.
34 THE LANGUAGE OF CINEMA: FILM GRAMMAR AND VISUAL LITERACY , Daniela TECUCIANU
Regarded as a visual esperanto transcending the barriers of national language, cinema is irrefutably a powerful means of communicating meaning, a language in itself, comparable to mathematics and music in its universality. Nonetheless, this language has its own peculiarities and it functions in a unique way, displaying its own grammar. Indeed, film may be said to have a grammar in the sense that there are certain conventions of shooting and editing that are often followed to determine particular emotional responses or to create the illusion of continuous action in time and space. As print-oriented literacy requires recognition of words and the patterns in which they are usually combined, so film literacy requires recognition of cinematic techniques. Our current paper sets out to investigate how the language of cinema works and to prove that, in order to adequately understand this type of language, we have to be both visually and aurally literate.
35 DOCUMENTARY ART FILM AS A EUROPEAN SPACE OF COMMUNICATION , Dumitru OL?RESCU
The author examines the mechanisms of the communicational process through the film dedicated to arts on the bases of the arguments of the domestic and European cinema. He substantiates that due to new techniques and technologies the process of communicating of spiritual values is facilitated an important fact in the comprehension and assimilation of these values worldwide.
36 TRANSLATION AND GLOBALIZATION, OR HOW TO DECODE A TEXT AT THE TIME OF GLOBALIZATION ILLUSTRATION WITH A COLLECTION OF POETRY , Efstratia OKTAPODA
Between French and English, the English tropism is certainly present, but English shall not save the world. Without being Anglophobe or Francophobe, in the era of Globalization we should valorize the learning of the difference. The translation (and interpreting) may also be a channel, but is it necessary that it turns as deeply imprinted in the language and the thinking of the Other. A translation must be capable to rend this difference obvious not by means of language, but through culture. In the 20th century a number of issues arose regarding the translation related to languages that had several horizons. The globalization of the 20th century put more than ever groups and individuals of different languages in contact, increasing the number of translations of works and the theory of translation. To advance my comments on literary and poetic translation, I will use excerpts from a collection of translated poetry Ce soleil percera-t-il les nuages? of Najib Redouane (Montral: ditions du Marais, 2009) and its translation in English Will this Sun break through the clouds? made by Abby Heraud and Mary Mcgiven (Rome: Aracne editor, 2011).
37 FORCE DEMONSTRATION AND FORCE THREATENING WAYS OF COMMUNICATION AMONG STATES AND GROUPS OF STATES , Mihail ORZEA??
Force demonstration is usually organized as a military parade. Military exhibition, military test of different weapon systems, military live exercises and military interventions are among other types of force demonstrations. Force demonstration is a multipurpose action. One of the most common purposes of force demonstration in to send a message to international community about organizers military potential and possible consequences in case one of the international actors would like to engage in a military confrontation against organizers. Another purpose is to offer for transactions military technology. Despite the official documents content referring to principles for international relations, threaten to force is quite often used for solving disputes among states. It is too sad that many people and especially communities leaders had forgotten that violence gives birth to violence.
38 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN COMMUNITARY LAW AND THE INTERNAL LAW OF THE MEMBER STATES OF EU , Dumitru POPA
Communitary Law can implement its norms in the internal legal order of the member states, without being tofulfill certain formalities in order to integrate them into the internal legal norms..The communitary law has a direct applicability, regardless of its sources. As a result, it has a direct effect, in the sense, that it can create rights and obligations not only for the member states, but also for individuals.This characteristic of the Communitary Law to induce a direct effect is linked to the essence of the communitary legal order.Therefore, the direct effect of the Communitary Law consists of its capacity to create rights and concrete obligations for the physical persons and for the legal ones in the member states and their impossibility to resort to the communitary norms in front of the national legal courts and of the communitary organisms.The Court of Justice has also established that the secondary legislation creates a direct effect, like the primary legislation, being able to make use of the provisions included in the communiatry treatises in order to initiate an action in the Court.. Bringing motivation to this solution, the Court proved that the communitary legal order is a new legal, autonomous order whose subjects are not only the member states but also their resortisants.Being independent from the national law, the communitary law provides for individuals not only obligations but also rights resulting not only from an explicit assignment but also as being a correlative right of an obligation included in treatises alloted to member states.If the state does not fulfill the obligation imposed by the Communitary Law, its resortisants can invoke it in front of the legal national and communitary courts.