Academic Journal of Forensic Science
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Age Estimation of a Dried Bloodstain Using Different Techniques – A Review Article
Bloodstains can be a crucial evidence in reconstructing the events that would have occurred during the crime. This information always strengthens and verifies the statement of witness and also narrow down the number of suspects. Currently there are many techniques available to establish the age of the bloodstains. However, there is no single reliable method which can be used in the field of forensic science to determine the exact time elapsed since the crime was committed. This review paper summarizes also the important techniques that have been used by many scientists for the determination of age of a blood stains at different conditions. By analyzing all the techniques one can select the best suited technique for his analyses, as different techniques have different accuracy rate, in addition to this some are destructive and some are nondestructive techniques. Therefore on comparing all these techniques one can able to find the best method according to the various environmental conditions and thus contributing the important role in investigation and for the court of law. Key Words: Age estimation, Blood stains, skeletonized stains, Hemoglobin, HPLC, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Reflectance Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Hyper Spectral Image Analysis, Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy, Oxygen electrode.
Recent Developments in Extraction Methods of Pesticides from Biological Samples: A Review
Pesticides are the most commonly encountered toxic substances in almost every substrate which includes any environmental sample like water, soil, fruits, vegetables or any biological sample involving viscera, blood, urine and other body fluids. This occurrence of pesticides in the biological samples is because of their tendency of deposition and accumulation in the adipose tissues of the body. The determination of these pesticides from the biological samples (viscera and other body fluids) begins with their successful extraction and isolation from the matrix. The procedure of extraction and isolation depends on the nature of the matrix and also on the selection of the method that utilizes minimum amount of solvent and is capable of providing high yield. Various methods has been developed for this purpose and used to carry out the isolation of these pesticides from the viscera sample, blood and urine and other body fluids. Numerous studies has been conducted to find out the best method to achieve this like liquid liquid extraction, solid phase extraction, and the recent ones including accelerated solvent extraction and others. In this paper a various methods that have been used for the extraction of pesticides from the biological samples is reviewed for determining the best suitable method which has the tendency to provide the results free from the matrix contaminants and have maximum amount of recovery. Key Words: biological Evidences, determination of pesticides from biological samples
Importance of Graphological Studies in Forensic Science: A Review
Graphology is a scientific method of identification, evaluation and understanding the personality of an individual. Personality mainly comprises the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings and behavior which imparts uniqueness to a person. Graphology is not only concerned with the written symbol itself, but also with the symbol's expressive value i.e. it does not depends on the matter in what context the symbol is used or whether it is neat or untidy but rather it focus on what the symbol suggests about the writer. Graphology is found to be useful for the retrieval of information related to the health issues, morality and past experiences to hidden talents, and mental problems. This present study deals with the reliability and validity of this method in the field of forensic science for the sake of dealing with criminal mind. Key Words: Graphology, Forensic Science, Handwriting, reliability, validity. Criminal mind.
A review of Credit card Fraud Detection techniques in e-commerce
With the rise and light growth in e – commerce, the use of credit card for online transactions is also increasing dramatically. Due to this there is a great amount of increase in credit card frauds for which there is a requirement of various detection techniques for determining the fraudulent transactions. Frauds can either be offline or online for regular purchases, credit card is used as a mode of payment. Fraud is considered as the most ethical issue in credit card frauds and it is a million dollar business which is rising every year. Recent advances in techniques based on Data mining, Algorithm system (Genetic algorithm, Artificial Algorithm), Machine learning, Hidden Marokov model are the modern techniques that are introduced for detecting credit card fraudulent transactions. This paper reviews all the fraud detection techniques which have some advantages and disadvantages as well. As according to the study Hidden Markov model and Data mining techniques are considered as the best suitable techniques and may be considered over other techniques successfully. Key Words: Credit card, fraud detection, Data mining, Hidden Markov model, and e –commerce.
Traced Forgery – A Case Study
In today scenario signature has great importance, as every individual signs his or her name once daily or several times in a day. Due to frequent use of the signature, the question often arises that whether the signature is genuine or not. Signature Forgery simply means altering any signature with the intent to defraud which could be executed by numerous methods. One of the method which is discussed in this case is traced forgery, which means reproducing the exact copy of the genuine signature. Traced forgery is executed by using carbon paper, indented tracing, tracing paper, transmitted light or scanned image. Forensic Document Examiner examines the every minute details of the traced signatures and conclude whether the questioned signature shows the resemblance and similar mathematical measurements in respect of model signature or not. Here in this paper, a case has been taken in which three disputed signatures is examined for giving probable conclusion. First the inter-se comparison of questioned is done followed by the comparison of signatures with admitted for finding the origin of the questioned signature. The result in this particular case, revealed that the three disputed signature exactly superimpose with slight adjustment. Keywords: Handwritten Signatures, Forgery, Tracing