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Open Access Journal of Veterinary Science & Research

Journal Papers (85) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Animal Diseases, Biosecurity and the Potential Impact on a Global Scale , Renita WM* and Harold M
The original definition of biosecurity started out as a set of preventive measures designed to reduce the risk of transmission of infectious diseases in crops and livestock, quarantined pests, invasive alien species, and living modified organisms [1]. To keep illness out of a facility, livestock producers are encouraged to maintain biosecurity standards in their operations. Biosecurity (biological safety and well-being) is the set of management practices that prevent infectious diseases from being carried into a herd.
2 Heat Stress and Its Mitigation Strategies: A Review , Vasantha SKI*, Srividya G, Gangu Naidu and Chandra Sekhar V
With raising global temperature, significance on heat stress is also increasingly important. As long as the animals are within the thermo neutral zone, they are comfortable without any seen effects. Heat stress, up to a certain level could be efficiently overcome by the inherent mechanisms within the animal’s body. But once it is crossed and the thermo neutral zone is disturbed completely, then although they are homoeothermic still they cannot maintain homeostasis and that in turn results in an adverse effe ct on the production, reproduction and health of the animal. Heat stress, the most vital climatic stress, along with an effect on the productive potential of animal, is lethal to its survival in harsh conditions. H igh temperature, air movement, solar radia tion, wind speed and relative humidity are important parameters of the climatic variables. Amongst the mentioned, high temperature, radiation and humidity are the most important factors, which drastically affect the overall performance of livestock with re duction in meat, milk and egg production. Global warming and deforestation are also important contributors for increase in the earth’s temperature, thereby causing heat stress. Keeping this in view, there is a need to take up different mitigation measures to overcome the heat stress. Although different precautionary measures are adapted to alleviate heat stress, still the livestock cannot be completely relieved of it.
3 Growth Performance, C arcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Pearl and Lavender Varieties of Guinea Fowl (Numida Meleagris) in Tropical Climate of Chhattisgarh , Kerketta N* and Mishra S
The present experiment was carried out to study the growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of Pearl and Lavender varieties of guinea fowl ( Numida meleagris ) upto 14 th weeks of age in tropical climate of Chhattisgarh state in India. The study revealed that at one day average body weight of Lavender variety (25.18±0.46 g) was significantly (P< 0.05) higher than that of Pearl variety (23.30±0.36 g). However, no significan t difference in mean body weight and body weight gain was observed in both varieties. The mean body weights of Pearl and Lavender guinea fowls at 14 weeks of age were 1120.78±10.70 g and 1097.88±10.99 g, respectively. The overall Feed Conversion Ratio duri ng total experimental period of 14 week was observed to be significantly higher (P<0.05) in Lavender variety (4.94±0.24) than Pearl variety (5.18±0.26). No significant difference was observed in dressing percentage and other carcass traits between both var ieties. Similarly no significant difference was observed between different sensory characters of both the varieties.
4 Gross Pulmonary Lesions of Bovine Lung Slaughtered Atjimma Municipality Abattoir, Ethiopia , Tsegaye S,Tessema D and Asebe G*
This study was carried out from November 2007 to May 2008 to determine the prevalence and distribution of pulmonary lesions in different lobes in Jimma municipality abattoir. Cross sectional study by gross examination of cattle lung was done in the abattoi r to determine pulmonary lesions. From 384 lungs examined, 91.7% was found to have one or more lesions. Hydatidosis (108, 28.1%), emphysema (115, 29.9%), atelectasis (72, 18.8%), congestion (191, 49.7%), abscess (21, 5.5%), and lung parasite (1, 0.3%) were found during the study period. Body condition association with the lesions were studied and pulmonary abscess and pulmonary emphysema has significant effect (p<0.05 ) on poor body conditioned animals. Animals with fat body condition were significantly affected (p< 0.05) by pulmonary congestion and atelectasis. Lung parasite and hydatidosis found having no significant association with the animal body condition. In conc lusion lung is a highly condemned organ due to different pulmonary lesions occurring which in turn results a significant economic loss.
5 Semen Analysis and Sperm Function Tests as Diagnostic Tools for Male Animals’ Infertility , Ioannis A Tsakmakidis*
rtificial insemination (AI) is a reproductive management tool that assisted a lot the increase of live stock productivity. Therefore, the impact of the male in the genetic progress, as well as, in the reproductive efficiency of the herds is more crucial. In commercial farms, a routine examination of semen is performed aiming to predict the male’s fertility.
6 Insight on the Profile and Metabolism of Intramuscular Fatty Acids toward Modern Human Consumption: A Review , Ntawubizi M*
In regards with fast growing meat consumption in modernizing countries in the 20 th Century, recommendations for a public healthier eating were formulated. It is assumed that an increasing consumption of meat, whose fat composition is considered too high in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and too low in PUFA, constitutes a public health issu e. This paper aims to collect a comprehensive overview of existing information on some of the most important aspects of intramuscular fatty acid composition and metabolism in farm animals. Trends in healthy eating resulted in selection for leaner animals t hat has characterized the meat production industries in modern countries, affecting de facto meat eating and technological indices. Similar predictions would be drawn for emerging societies thus; more reflections are needed to deal with human health aspects of meat, without however affecting its eating quality and technological processing.
7 Evaluation of Detoxified Karanja ( pongamia sp .) and Neem ( azadirachta indica ) Cakes in Total Mixed Ration (tmr) for Dairy Cattle – Effect on Nutritional, Biochemical Profiles , Raj DN, Ramana JV, Rao SBN*, Dinesh kumar D, Suryanarayana MVAN, Ravindra Reddy Y, Reddy IJ, Jash S and Prasad KS
Three total mixed rations (TMR) were prepared namely T 1 - control where soybean meal was incorporated at 9.6 % of TMR, T 2 - detoxified neem cake (dNC) was incorporated at 3.85 % of TMR and T 3 - detoxified karanja cake (dKC) was incorporated at 5.85 % of TMR and fed to three groups of six crossbred cows in each group for 90 days. Milk yield (kg/day) and FCM yield (kg/day) increased in all the groups. The average milk fat was found to be lower in (P<0.05) in T 3 - dKC group (5.03±0.21 ) compared to T 1 - control (6.13±0.25). Nutrient intakes and digestibilities were found to be same. Blood profiles like albumin, glucose, LDH and ALP concentrations were higher (P<0.05) and globulin and urea concentration were lower (P<0.05) at the end of ex periment in all the groups. Serum cortisol (nM/L) and IGF - 1 (ng/ml) concentration were also found to be same in all groups. However, final IGF - 1hormone concentrations were found to be higher (P<0.05) compared to initial values in all the groups. In can be concluded that feeding of TMR containing dNC and dKC have improved milk yield in 90 days lactation period without adversely affecting milk composition, milk production efficiency. Similar effects were observed even nutrient digestibility and nutritive valu e of diets indicating these unconventional protein supplements can be included in TMR of dairy cattle. Positive effects on serum albumin, glucose, LDH and ALP concentrations and IGF I concentrations were observed at the end of feeding period of 90 days in both treatment groups compared to control.
8 Oronasal Fistula in Dogs , Marija Lipar* and Rajka Turner
Oronasal fistula is an abnormal communication emerging between the oral and nasal cavities, and in majority of cases it is a progressive and destructive process.
9 “Antimicrobial Drug - Resistance of Zoonotic Foodborne Pathogens and Consequences on Public Health” , Daniel Sergelidis*
The emergence of antimicrobial drug - resistant bacteria and their dissemination in the community represents a real challenge to Public Health, both today and for the years ahead . Antimicrobial resistant zoonotic foodborne pathogens are a particular problem and there are wor ldwide numerous instances of severe foodborne illnesses caused by such bacteria . Some of these bacteria show increased virulence and therefore morbidity and mortality . In the majority of such infections the incriminated foods are of animal origin . Applicat ion of improved hygiene standards along the food production chain, “from farm to fork”, is of paramount importance to control the dissemination of all zoonotic foodborne pathogens, and thus the drug resistant ones . The establishment of thresholds in foods of certain foodborne pathogens to selected antimicrobials may also be a useful tool in combating antimicrobial resistance dissemination .
10 Use and Possible Reproductive Effects of Contaminated River Water on Pigs Kept in Urban Informal Settlements of Nairobi City , Ambrose NK*
Pig farmers in the informal settlements of Nairobi Kenya were interviewed to evaluate the use and possible effects of polluted river water on the reproduction of their boars. 80 farms were purposively selected and questionnaires administered to the pig own ers as respondents. Among the persons interviewed a majority; (38.8%) had attained secondary level of education. 72.5% were involved in urban farming as supplementary source of income while the rest had farming as their main occupation. N=34, (42.5%) respo ndents used polluted river water for their pigs, with n=14 citing reason for its use as; free source while n=20 cited it as being easily available. The male reproductive defect reported was that of retained testis. The occurrence of retained testis in pigs was higher (n=22) among the group which used contaminated river water for their pigs. The study concludes that most households living in informal settlement of Nairobi city access and use polluted river water in their livestock especially the pigs. This i s precipitated by the lack of knowledge on side effects, free and easy access of water and free range farming system adopted.
11 Comparative Effects of Honey and Multivitamin on the Immune Response of Cockerel Chicks to Vaccination Against new castle Disease (ND) Using Live Attenuated and “Lasota” Vaccine , Lawal JR*, Bello AM, Wakil Y, Balami SY, Audu Y, Lekko YM,Mshelia ES, Korzerzer RM and Ibrahim UI
The comparative effects of honey and commercially available multivitamin (Vitaflash ® , Kepro B.V. Holland) on the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody response of cockerel chicks to oral vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND) at 3 weeks of age using live attenuated ND ‘LaSota’ vaccine was investigated. Sixty (60) day - old cockerel chicks were purchased and reared to 2 weeks of age. The chicks were randomly divided into six groups (A, B, C, D, E 1 and E 2 ) with 10 chicks per group. Chicks in group A were placed on honey for 7 days prior to vaccination and 7 days following vaccination, while chicks in group B were placed on honey f or 7 days following vaccination. Similarly chicks in group C were placed on multivitamin (Vitaflash ® , Kepro B.V. Holland) for 7 days prior to vaccination and 7 days following vaccination while chicks in group D were placed on the multivitamin for 7 days fo llowing vaccination. Chicks in group E 1 (positive control) were place on plain drinking water ad libitum but were vaccinated at 3 weeks of age, while chicks in group E 2 (negative control) received neither treatment nor vaccination but were fed and placed on plain drinking water add libitum until the end of the experiment. Chicks in group A exhibited the highest ND HI antibody titre with a geometric mean titre (GMT) of 181.0, followed by chicks in group C that exhibited a significantly (P<0.05) lower ND HI ti tre with a GMT of 127.9. Chicks in groups E 1 and E 2 did not show any significant antibody titre throughout the period of the experiment. The high antibody titre demonstrated by chicks that were treated with honey before and after vaccination is an indicati on that honey could be a possible immune enhancer. A more detailed study is therefore required on the quantitative assessment of honey for antibody response in chicks.
12 Training and Common Injuries of Urban Search and Rescue Dogs , Wyatt TH*, Wilkerson H, Gordon LE, Cole G, Henderson A and Millis D
A keen sense of smell, excellent balance, and a strong desire to please humans are characteristics that have made dogs invaluable for search and rescue (SAR) operations since World War I. The need for land - based SAR is growing rapidly due to an increasing number of natural and urban disasters. There also are increasing numbers of persons with Alzheimer’s disease, autism, and dementia who may require the assistance of SAR dogs. For these reasons, making the most of these valuable canine resources is becoming increasingly important. First, this article describes the skills of scent discrimination, tracking, trailing, or air scenting SAR dogs use to find people lost or in distress. Next is a discussion about SAR specialties and the rigorous physical and psychological abilities they require of canines. This is followed by the reasons Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) is considered the most el ite SAR canine specialty and the veterinary care these dogs require for pre - deployment, common deployment injuries, decontamination, and post - deployment. After a discussion of reported mission - related injuries and illnesses, current research is presented.
13 Feed Processing and its Effects on Equine Nutrition – A Review , Silva RHP*, de Rezende ASC, de Castro Alves N and da Silva Inácio DF
It's expected that the Brazilian production of industrialized feed for horses reach 2 million tons by the year 2020. Feed processing consists of physical, chemical or biological modifications that are made in the feed. These modifications can increase the availability of nutrients for horses and/or preserve the quality of these nutrients in the raw material. The objective of this review was to describe the main types of feed processing used in the manufacture of feeds for horses, showing the benefits and lo sses that they may cause in nutrition and production of these animals. There are several types of feed processing and they can be classified according to the use of thermal processing treatments: cold or hot processing. Processing of grains can cause sever al changes in feed, such as change and adjustment of particle size, improving nutrient digestibility, promoting the inactivation of enzyme inhibitors, and preserving feed. The effects that cause different kinds of processing depend on many factors, includi ng the type of cereal, starch, temperature, time, humidity and pressure during processing. The process, when performed correctly, can increase the digestibility of starch and digestible energy content of the grains used to feed horses. However, you should be careful with the amount of concentrate used in horse feed.
14 Study on Epidemiology and Socioeconomic Impact of Epizootic Lymphangitis in Carthorses in Southwestern Shoa , Jagema T and Jarso D
A study was conducted between December 2008 and April 2009 on 705 carthorses in three towns of Southwestern Ethiopia namely Sebeta, Asgori and Woliso to investigate the Epidemiology and Socioeconomic impact of Epizootic lymphangitis (EL). The study has revealed an overall prevalence of 25.1% (177/705). There was no statistically significant (X 2 =3.88, P> 0.05) difference on the occurrence of the disease in the three districts. The highest prevalence being observed at Woliso with 27.9% and the lowest was at Sebeta with 20.2%. The result of histopathological and mycological examinations has revealed characte ristic features of HCF. Result of differential leukocyte count had shown a statistical significant difference across the severity of the disease and neutrophil count (r=0.87, F=6.08, P<0.005) while lymphocyte count were inversely related to the severity st age of the disease (r=0.94.F=23.28, P<0.001). The yeast forms of Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum were isolated on the sabouraud’s dextrose agar. The result of questionnaire survey from 35 carthorse owners indicates that EL was the first and the ma jor important disease of carthorses by creating a negative impact on the economy of the carters. Despite its impact, awareness on the transmission and control mechanism of the disease was not uniformly known by the carthorse owners. Therefore, further stud y on the extent of the disease and educating the owners both on the disease and its way of transmission was recommended.
15 Epidemiology of Ovine Pasteurellosis in Lume District, East Shewa Zone of Oromiya Region, Ethiopia , Sadia H, Abunna F and Jarso D*
The study of ovine pasteurellosis was conducted in Lume districts, East Shoa Zone of Oromia region, Ethiopia to determine the prevalence of M annheimia haemolytica , Pasteurella trehalosi and Pasteurella multocida from nasal swabs (384), abattoir specimens (145 ), and the serotype diversity among the species from sheep sera (150). A total of 115 isolates of M. haemolytica , P. treha losi and P. multocida were isolated from nasal swabs of apparently health and clinically sick sheep and from pneumonic lungs. The M. haemolytica, P. trehalosi and Pasteurella multocida were isolated from the nasal swabs (11.2%), (7.6%) and (2.1) respective ly, whereas M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi were isolated from pneumonic lungs (11.7%) , ( 10.3 ) respectively. However, Pasteurella multocida was the lowest among species isolated (2.1%). The overall isolation rate of M. haemolytica, P. trehalosi and Pasteurella multocida was 15.7%, 11.5% and 2.9%, respectively. From 145 lung samples collected and cultured, Pasteurella was isolated successfully in 35 (24.1%) sheep. Out of 35 sheep lung lesion sample, the percentage recovery rate of M. haemolytica 17(11 .7%), P. trehalose 15(10.3%) and P. multocida 3(2.1) % respectively. On the basis of these results, M. haemolytica and P.trehalose were the most common cause of pasteurellosis in sheep at the study area. A total of 150 sheep sera were examined for serotype specific antibodies using indirect haemagglutination test for M. haemolytica, P. trehalose and P. multocida serotypes. Variation in prevalence among the different serotypes was observed (P<0.001). The IHA test revealed that serotype A1, A2, A7, T3, T10, a nd T15 were the dominant serotypes with 23.3%, 42.6%, 32, 51.3, 29.3 and 30% positive by IHA whereas serotypes P. multocida biotype A and T4 were the least positive with 14.6% and16% respectively. Generally, both bacterial and serological results of this s tudy revealed that the causal agents of pasteurellosis are prevalent in the area, and serotypes A1, A2, A7, T3, T10 and T15 were dominant over the other serotypes.
16 Study on Prevalence of Ovine Fasciolosis in and Around Debre Berhan Sheep Breeding and Forage Multiplication Center , Jarso D*, Alemayehu F, Teka Gand Tesfaye A
A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of ovine fasciolosis in Debre Berhan region based on clinical, abattoir and field survey from November 2007 to March 2008. Of total 475 ovine faucal samples examined 229 (48.21%) positive for fasciolosis. Sex wise Prevalence off sciolosis 73.05% in male a nd 26.95% in female animals. Statistical analysis of prevalence rate on sex basis showed no significant difference (P>0.05) infection rate between the two sexes. Age wise prevalenc e recorded was 67.79% in adult and 32.21% in young. Analysis of infection rates on age basis had no significant differences (P>0.05). Asite wise of fasciolosis were 28%, 13.68%, 19.37%, 32.63%, and 6.32% in Atekelt, Delacha, Genet, Kerafino and Seladigay r espectively. Statistical analysis of prevalence rate on site basis showed significant difference (P<0.05) in infection rate between sites. Breed wise of fasciolosis was 75.53% local, 18.11% cross and 6.53% exotic breed is recorded. Statistical prevalence r ate on breed basis showed significant difference (P<0.05). The monthly prevalence of fasciolosis recorded was, 12.42%, 39.16%, 37.05, 5.05 & 6.32% in November, December, January, February and March respectively. The difference in monthly prevalence was sig nificant (P<0.05). The result of the study has been discussed in detail in comparison with the finding of other workers and in relation to site and ecological condition of the area that affects the prevalence rate of fasciolosis. Finally, appropriate contr ol strategies implemented in the study area is recommended to reduce the impact of fasciolosis on livestock production in the area.
17 Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Toxoplasmosis in the Cows (Cattle), Bos indicus Linnaeus (Mammalia: Eutheria) from Dir Upper, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan , Perveen FK* and Shah H
Toxoplasma gondii (Nicole and Manceaux, 1908) (Apicomplexa: Coccidia) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, causing toxoplasmosis in humans and cattle worldwide. In the current research, seroprevalence and risk factors for toxoplasmosis in the cows (cattle), Bos indicus Linnaeus 1758 (Mammalia: Eutheria) of Dir Upper (DU), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan were determined. Bos indicus (n t =250) including males (n m ale =86) and females (n f emale =164) were tested for the presence of antibodies against T. gondii using Latex Agglutination Test kit ® . Agglutination at 1:16 dilution was considered positive. A 14% overall prevalence was recorded. The antibody titers to T. gondii positive (apparent prevalence) sera were 10%, 2%, 1% and 0% by dilution of 1:16, 1:32, 1:64 and 1 :128, respectively, but true prevalence, for male, female and total were 0.536 % , 0.514 % and 0.525 % , respectively . However, males were found more infected (16%) compared to females (12%). Moreover, the highest rate (16%) of infection was recorded in the 1 - 4 years age range, while the lowest (7%) was in the 5 - 8 years range. However, no significant correlation was found between toxoplasmosis and sex/age. Furthermore, infection was the highest (25%) in B. indicus with 5 pregnancies and no abortion was observed in infected B. indicus . In addition, presence of cats, Felis catus Linnaeus, in households, source of drinking water and type of management of B. indicus resulted to be important risk factors. In conclusion, toxoplasmosis is prevalent in B. indicus in DU. Prompt control measures and public awareness is recommended to lower the risk of infection with T. gondii.
18 Canine Scent Detection of Lung Cancer: Preliminary Results , Albertini M*, Mazzola, Sincovich M and Pirrone F  
Several researches have evidenced that cancer cells can produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which are released not only in breath but also in other organic fluids, such as blood and urine. This study has evaluated the olfactory capability of trained dogs to detect human lung cancer VOCs in urine. We recruited 150 subjects from European Institute of Oncology (IEO) divided into three groups: 57 patients with lung cancer (group 1); 38 patients with lung disease, other than cancer (group 2); 55 healthy co ntrol subjects (group 3).The results are referred to the last 45 days of training, and evidenced that dogs reached a mean success rate that exceeded 80%, with a sensitivity of 0,72 and a specificity of 0,94 for two out of three dogs enrolled. The important novelty is that dogs can discriminate lung cancer not only from healthy subjects, but also from patients with other lung diseases. The results obtained so far are encouraging and lead us to persevere with the training session in order to improve the succe ss rate, reaching values as close as possible to 100%. If so, we believe that, in the future, dogs may be used to perform early diagnostic tests, useful in improving the chances of survival in cases of human lung cancer.
19 Schinus Terebinthifolius Raddi, Popular Use, Chemical Composition, and Biological Activity: A Systematic Review , Ângela F* and Luiz Filipe DS  
Introduction: The advance of quantitative and qualitative research has been proving the use of plants as medic ine. Considering that many people are adept at popular practices and Schinus terebinthifolis Raddi is native to South America, abundant in the coastal regions of Brazil, where it is popularly known as ‘aroeira’ (Brazilian peppertree). Objective: Identify the primary studies regarding the popular use, chemical composition, and the main biological activities of Schinus terebinthifolis Raddi. Metodology: This study attempted to identified, through a previous defined methodology, the systematic review, primary studies regarding the popular use, chemical composition, and the main biological activities of Schinus terebinthifolis Raddi. The survey was conducte d in virtual libraries commonly accessed by the scientific community following a script execution and inclusion of some articles. Results: After all steps of selection, we obtained a total of eighty - one, a number of studies on popular use, the chemical co mposition, and biological activities of the plant were achieved. The biological activity found and described for this plant is quite extensive. Thirty - eight works surveyed demonstrate that are several scientifically proven recommendations for using differe nt parts of the plant. Conclusion: This review enabled to systematize the knowledge produced on the main popular use, the main researches related to biological activity, and the range of chemical constituents of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi already isola ted.
20 The Prevalence and Economic Impact of Bovine Fasciolosis in Mekelle Municipal Abattoir , Ashenafi K*, Alemu A, Hagos A, Biniam T and Aklilu F  
A cross sectional survey was conducted at Mekelle Municipal abattoir in Tigray region, northern Ethiopia, from November 2007, to April 2008 to determine the prevalence of bovine fasciolosis and to assess its economic impact. A total of 668 bovine liver wer e examined in the abattoir and267 (39.97 %) were found to be affected by fasciolosis. Out of the total positives 211 (79%) and 56(21%) were adult and young cattle respectively, no statistical significance difference between age groups (p>0.05). Study shown 182 (68.1%) and 85 (31.8%) were positive from high land and low land respectively. Based on the body condition animals having body score 1, 2 and 3 were found 10.4%, 79.4% and 15.9% positive respectively. F. hepatica, F. gigantic species recovered from in fected livers were 62.1%, 13% and 11%, mixed infection and 13.1% immature fluke. In the present study, no direct relationship between fluke count and magnitude of liver lesion in moderately affected liver. The magnitude of livers affected by fasciolosis is 96 (35.8%), 112(42.2 %) and 59 (22%) light, moderate and severe lesion respectively. From the total feacal samples of cattle examined 50 (7.4 %) were found egg positive that of 267 (39. 9%) post mort empositive. The economic loss due to fasciolosis was su mmarized as 122, 414.47 Ethiopian Birr during the study period and 183.25 per head of the animal. This is obviously great economic loss. In the study area bovine fasciolosis significantly prevalent parasitic disease affecting the health, productivity of an imals and has economic impact.
21 Incidence of Village Chicken Diseases in Eastern Shewa Zone, Ethiopia: The Case of Newcastle and Infectious Bursal Disease , Jarso DM*
A longitudinal study was carried out from September 2014 to May 2015 on village chicken of Lume district for the aim of determining incidence rate of mortality of Newcastle disease (NCD) and infectious bursal disease ( IBD) and the associated risk factors. In addition in a retrospective survey past occurrence of these diseas e was assessed. Simple random sampling method was used to select the peasant associations (PAs) and the households. Owners and veterinary field workers perception on chicken diseases was collect ed from 120 respondents through structured questionnaire. The majority (75%) of the respondents put diseases as major causes of village chicken mortality, out of which 78.3% of the respondents indicated NCD locally known as “Fangle” as the leading disease that cause mortality of chicken in the village.Of the 1358 reg istered chicken, 202 (14.9%) survived the entire follow - up period. A total of 843 chickens found dead of NCD outbreak during the follow - up period. The general mortality rate was 62.1% whereas the incidence rate was113.2 cases per 1000 chicken month.Over th e duration of the study, serum samples of 521 chickens were collected to confirm the cause of the outbreak, 242 from sick and 279 from apparently health chicken. Serology using HAI and I - ELISA test were conducted to determine the seroprevalence of NCD and IBD, respectively. In total 28.6% (149/521) and 20.7% (108/521) were positive for NCD and IBD, respectively. Among the 242 sera collected from clinically diseased chicken 61.6% (149/242) and 38.4% (93/242) were positive for NCD and IBD, respectively. Statis tically significant ( p<0.05 ) difference in prevalence of NCD was found between highland and lowland; chicken flock size and sampling months. Statistically significant ( p<0.05 ) difference in seroprevalence of IBD was found between different age groups; hous ehold flock size and sampling months. This study has shown that NCD and IBD are one of the major infectious diseases threatening the survival and productivity of traditionally managed local chickens in East Showa zone. Thu s, routine vaccination program is recommended.
22 Replacing Sub - Therapeutic Antibiotics in Feed with Consumer Acceptable Performance Enhancers , A Connolly* and S Shane  
Since introduction in the late 1940s, the role of antibiotics in animal production has changed. Originally a means of combating illnesses and maintaining the health of flocks and herds, it was soon recognized that antibiotics could drastically increase productivity and financial return through enhanced and expedited weight gain. Since then criticism has been leveled at the use of antibiotics at sub - therapeutic levels to promote growth and feed conversion efficiency. Although the recent demonstration that plasmid genes encoding for resistance are present in the environ ment and feces of swine and in carcasses there has been little evidence other than point - of - sale surveys that livestock are contributing to emerging drug resistance among bacterial pathogens affecting humans. Irrespective of the lack of firm scientific evi dence that the use of antibiotics in intensive livestock production is directly contributing to drug resistance in hospital and community settings there is a wide perception among consumers that lax regulation over sub - therapeutic administration to food an imals is deleterious to public health. Accordingly use of antibiotics for performance enhancement was banned in the EU in 2006 and in the US effective January 2017. Administration of antibiotics for therapy or prophylaxis is now strictly regulated in the E U and the U.S and subject to veterinary prescription applying Prudent Use Principles. Multiple stakeholders must be considered as food production responds to new legislation and rules to limit antibiotic use by farmers, producers, consumers, the medical pr ofession and veterinarians. This paper identifies possible replacement modalities that are acceptable to consumers and the food industry without detrimental effects on animal health and performance. The five criteria producers should consider before adopti ng alternatives to antibiotics are reviewed. Alternatives include but are not limited to probiotics, prebiotics, short and medium chain fatty ac ids, enzyme feed supplements, essential oils and botanicals. The paper stresses that no single additive will rep lace the declining benefits of sub - therapeutic administration of antibiotics. It will be necessary in the future to create programs with a holistic approach to replacement of antibiotics in conformity with EU and U.S. restrictions. Accordingly greater atte ntion should be applied to management, control of immunosuppressive viruses and protozoal parasites, nutrition and the selection of suitable genetic strains to achieve sustainable and safe production of livestock.
23 Microparticle Vaccines Made from Biodegradable and Biocompatible Poly (Lactide - Co - Glycolide) Polymers , Chung-Da Y*
Vaccination is undoubtedly the most effective strategy for disease prevention and eradication. However, significant information obtained recently indicates that future investigations on vaccine development have to include effective adjuvants for enhancing protective immunity against pathogenic infections in animals and humans. Microparticle s made from poly (lactide - co - glycolide) (PLG) polymers can be designed as safe and potent adjuvants or delivery systems to encapsulate vaccine antigens for the developmen t of controlled - release Microparticle vaccines. Adjuvant effects of the PLG microencapsulation can protect antigens from unfavorable degradation, allow the sustained and extended release of antigens over a long period, and enhance antigen uptake by antigen - presenting cells (APCs). Although only a countable number of formulations based on PLG - encapsulated technique are available in market, much work still remains to confirm and optimize the stabilization of protein release for presenting to the immune system.
24 Functional Involvement of Reproductive Tracts on Sperm Physiology , Wang TE, Lai YH and Tsai PSJ*
25 Concentrations of Progesterone Alter the Odds of Retention of Transferred Bovine Embryos , Cuadra EJ*, Mason MC, Roberts A, Vann RC and Yoonsung J  
Two studies were conducted to examine the role of progesterone on the odds of survival of embryos transferred into lactating and non - lactating recipient cows. In each study, recipients were synchronized for estrus following the Select Synch + CIDR ® protocol. O n d 7, after exhibiting estrus, embryos were inserted in all cows bearing a viable corpus luteum; embryos were placed in the uterine horn of the ovulating side. Randomly, animals were divided into two groups. Contrary with the control group, cows in the CI DR - group had a CIDR inserted on that same day the embryo was inserted and removed 14 days later. Blood samples for analysis of progesterone were taken at insertion (d 7) and continued at 7 - day intervals for three more weeks. All animals were weighed and bo dy condition scored at the beginning of the studies. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed around d 90. No significant differences were observed in body weights between treatments. Progesterone between treatments within days and between days within treatments are reported. Progesterone between pregnant and non - pregnant cattle was also reported between treatments and within treatments. Progesterone seems to increase the odds of retention of transferred bovine embryos during early gestation. Results also seem to point out that patterns of progesterone secretion during the first two weeks after the transfer have a decisive effect on the survival of bovine embryos. Nevertheless, authors of this document suggest that more research is needed to closely examine these f indings.
26 Microscopic and Molecular Detection of Camel Anaplasmosis and Piroplasmosis in Banadir region, Somalia , Abdalla M I   * , Ahmed AH K   and Hamisi S N  
The socio - economic importance of dromedary camels ( Camelusdromedarius ) is unique for Somali community. It has been a rich area of research before the civil war. The present study was planned to investigate piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis in camels from Banadir region of Somalia using microscopical (Blood Film) and molecular ( PCR) techniques. A total of 182 camels including semi - intensive dairy camel farms and nomadic (extensive) systems were sampled from three districts in Banadir region between December 2015 and March 2016.The prevalence rate using parasitological and molecul ar examinations was52.2% and 54.9% respectively. In microscopical results, the prevalence rates Varies significantly (p < 0.05) between different production systems, Districts and sexes. However, these differences were not significant after molecular confirm ation. Using Kappa test, PCR technique was more sensitive and more specific in determination of piroplasms than conventional blood film method. The prevalence rate of Anaplasma sp. using microscopical examination was13.2%. Mix - infection of piroplasms and A naplasma sp. is usual in the present study. The degree of anaemia (PCV%) in the infected camels was significantly affected (p=0.05) after molecular confirmation of piroplasmosis. The present paper was to be the first report on camel piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis in Banadir region and may be in whole Somalia. In conclusion, camel piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis are highly prevalent in camels from Banadir region of Somalia. Further studies in the clinical and economical impact of camel all T&TBDs is reco mmended. Moreover, the control measures including effective treatment should be conducted to improve the general condition of Somali camels.
27 An Assessment of Dog Behaviour with Regard to Scientific Research Findings , Paweł Bury - Burzymski   and Marta Walczak*
Dogs have been used in the field of law enforcement for over 100 years . Despite advances in the overall performance of police officers due to improved training methods and use of various innovative devices, it is hard to imagine a fully effective police force operating without the involvement of specialist dog - handler teams. T he uniformed services generally hold in high regard the role that a well - trained canine team can play, serving as an essential deterrent to criminal activity, as well as assisting police departments in the locating of illegal drugs and explosives, in track ing fugitives and with finding missing persons or locating bodies . An understanding of general dog behaviour and interaction with different environments are essential elements, not only in the case of assessing candidate suitability for different types of training programme but also for behaviour evaluation of a companion animal. The ever - increasing demand for both working and pet dogs has seen the study of dog behaviour find itself a niche position in the realm of scientific research.
28 Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis and Associated Risk Factors in East Shewa Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia , Hajie S* and Teka G
A cross sectional study was conducted in selected districts of East Shewa Zone of Oromia Regional Stat from November 2013 to April 2014 on dairy cows to determine the prevalence of mastitis and determinant of its major risk factors. The study was done on 250 lactating cows, of which 109 were local and 14 1 cross breed by using clinical examination , California mastitis test (CMT) and culture. Of these 108 (43.2 %) were positive by clinical examination and CMT for clinical and sub clinical mastitis, with prevalence of 4 % and 38.8 %, respectively. All the p otential risk factors considered in this study namely, parity ( p < 0.05), breed (p< 0.05), age (p < 0.05), stage of lactation (p < 0.05),breed (p < 0.05) and husbandry (p < 0.05) showed a significant effect on prevalence of mastitis in present study. Thus , high prevalencence of mastitis was observed in older cows >7 years and cows with parity >7 but high prevalence was obtained on early and late stage of lactation. The study also revealed that cross breed lactating cows and those managed intensively were s usceptible to mastitis. The highly prevalent bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aurous (46 %) followed by Streptococcus agalactiae which accounts (19.4 %), and others were Staphylococcus intermidius, E. coli and Corynebacterial species with respective pr oportion of 16.6, 10.9 and 7.1%. The present study also revealed that mastitis is the major problem in smallholder dairy farms in the study area specially the sub clinical form, so that creation of awareness about the importance and prevention of subclinic al mastitis among smallholder dairy farmers, milking infected animals and periodic monitoring of infection status of the udder is recommended.
29 The Effect of Processing and Ingredient Interactions on Thiamine Degradation in Canned Cat Food: A Modern Nutrition - Health Dilemma , Molnar L, Aldrich CG* and Trible SD  
Water soluble vitamins play an integral role in normal metabolic function in cats. Thiamine deficiencies are a common issue in the pet food industry because thiamine degrades easily during processing. Specifically, when cats are fed a diet low in thiamine they may devel op life threatening health issues including anorexia, ventroflexion, neurological impairment, and possibly death within a few weeks if not treated. However, little research has been published using a pet food matrix regarding what specific factors in pet f ood processing result in the most losses and whether these can be controlled. Thiamine can be degraded in a canned food due to heat, moisture, long - term storage, sulfites, pH, and thiaminase enzyme activity. Thermal processes used to produce wet pet foods sold in cans, pouches, and trays are required to be heat treated for extended periods of time. This is detrimental to thiamine retention. Because the cat, like other carnivores, has a very high metabolic requirement for thiamine, they are susceptible to th ese losses. For this reason, supplementation is often a logical step. However, survival of more than 10% of the thiamine may not be assured. This review summarizes the prevailing literature on the topic with application to pet food. Further, suggestions re garding potential investigations to remedy the issue are discussed. Finding an optimal time x temperature x pH x ingredient combination is a real possibility that has the potential to save many cats in the future.
30 Putative Role of Micro - RNA s i n Female Reproductive Tract , Hitit M* and Kurar E  
Female reproductive tract is composed of ovarium, oviduct, cervix and uterus. Development and function of reproductive tract is dispens a ble for maintenance and achievement of reproduction. Reproductive tract responses to cyclic changes and ovarium hormones which provide optimum conditions for gam e t e movement and development. While the potential influence of pitu i tary and gonadal hormones on reproductive function is clearly understood, the molecular mechanism regulating reproductive tract remains elusive. Although, post - transcriptional gene regulation has critical role in cell differ e ntiation and proliferation, little information is ava i lable in post - transcriptional gene regulation in reproductive tract. Post - transcriptional g ene regulation includes splicing, processing, transport and translation of mRNA. In addition, role of RNA binding proteins and recently discovered miRNAs were also implicated in reproductive tract.
31 Rev iew on Ovine Fasciolosis in Ethi opia , Tagesu Abdisa*
Fasciolosis is one of the major constraint factors for ovine production development in Ethiopia by inflecting direct and indirect loss at different parts of the country. Ovine fasciolosis is an economically important parasitic disease of sheep caused by tr ematodes species of the genus Fasciola , which migrate in the hepatic parenchyma and establish and develops in the bile ducts. In Ethiopia, both species co - exist at different altitudes. The snails of the genus lymnae are mainly involved as an intermediate host in the life cycle of fasciolosis. Ovine fascioliasis in Ethiopia were losses annually estimated at 48.4 million Ethiopian birr due to mortality, productivity (weight loss and reproductive wastage), and liver condemnation at slaughter. This fasciola di sease has three phases of clinical sign acute, sub - acute and chronic forms. Acute fasciolosis occurs as disease outbreak following a massive, but relatively short - term, intake of metacercariae. Death usually results from blood loss due to hemorrhage and ti ssue destruction caused by the migratory juvenile flukes in the live resulting in traumatic hepatitis. Diagnosis of Fasciolosis is based on clinical sign, grazing history, and seasonal occurrence, examination of feces by laboratory tests and post mortem ex amination. Treatment of infected animals will largely depend on the correct use of appropriate and registered anthelmintic. Triclabendazole is the most effective anthelmintic drug which can be destroys or kills all stage of fasciola. Fasciolosis may be con trolled by reducing the populations of the intermediate snail host, or by appropriate anthelminthic treatment and the population of snail should be destroyed by applying Molluscicide and destroying the environment that suit for snail’s reproduction.
32 Hematological Parameters in Trout: A Comparative Study between Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus Mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) and Brown Trout Salmo Trutta Macrostigma (Dumeril, 1858) , Fazio F   *, Saoca C   , Perillo L   , Vazzana I   and Piccione G
The aim of this study was to obtain a basic knowledge of some blood haematological parameters in two different species of trout, Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) and Brown trout Salmo trutta macrostigma (Dumeril, 1858). O. mykiss was caugh t in a farming system (commercial farm Palazzolo Acreide (Siracusa, Italy) while S. t. macrostigma in natural habitat (Anapo river, Siracusa, Italy). White Blood Cell Count (WBC), Red Blood Cell Count (RBC), Haematocrit (Hct), Hemoglobin concentration (Hg b), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), Thrombocyte Count (TC), were measured in blood samples from a total of 40 fish (20 for each species). The fork length, total weight a nd condition factor of the individuals were measured. Unpaired Student’s t - test between two species showed statistically significant differences (P < 0.001) for RBC, Hct, MCV, MCH, MCHC and TC. No statistically significant differences were found in WBC and Hgb. These results are useful to obtain a basic knowledge of two different species of trout in order to monitor the health status of these species of great commercial value.
33 Prevalence and Economic Significance of Bovine Hydatidosis and Cysticercosis in Mekelle Municipality Abattoir, Northern Ethiopia , Getachew T*, Olani W and Sadia H
A cross - sectional study was conducted from November 2009 to March 2010 on cysticercosis ( Cystice rcus bovis ) and cystic echinococcosis in cattle slaughtered at Mekelle municipality abattoir in Tigray region of Ethiopia with over all objectives of determining the prevalence of metacestods and providing the baseline data on their status and socio econom ic importance in the study area. Accordingly, a total of 1800 randomly selected slaughtered cattle were examined both during ante mortem and postmortem inspection and then a prevalence of 22.2% (399/1800) for hydatidosis and 4.44% (80/1800) for cysticercos is observed. The distribution of Cysticercosis in infected organs and tissue showed: masseter muscle and heart (0.2%), lung (0.7%), tongue (0.4%) and liver (3.1%). The logistic regression analysis of potential risk factors revealed that there was statistic ally insignificant difference in the prevalence of taeniasis between animals from different origin and age (P > 0.05). Regarding the distribution of hydatid cyst; lung (13%), liver (8.2%), spleen (0.44%), kidney (0.17%) and heart (0.3%). Study results indi cated that age, body condition and origin have significant effect (P < 0.05) on the prevalence of the disease. A lower percentage of calcified cysts (23.3%) out of cyst examined and relatively high percentage, 37.8% and 38.9% of the total cysts were fertil e and sterile, respectively. The total annual economic loss from organ condemnation and carcass weight loss due to hydatidosis and cysticercosis was estimated to be 930,918.52 ETB. The result of this study revealed that metacestode is the major disease cau sing direct and indirect economic losses significantly in the study area. Control strategies should be instituted taking into account the social, cultural and economic condition at the study area.
34 Isolation and Identification of Methicilin Resistant Staphylcoccus a ureus (MRSA) from Bovine Mastitic Milk in and around Wolaita Sodo, Southern Ethiopia , Biniam Tadesse Derib   *, Biruk Tesfaye Birhanu, Tesfaye Sisay Tessema and Ashenafi Kiros Wubshet  
In recent years, there has been increased concern about antibiotic resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and multiple antibiotic resistant strains have started to emerge. Development of resistance has been attributed to the extensive therapeutic use o f antimicrobials. A cross sectional study was conducted from November 2013 to May 2014 in and around Wolaita Sodo town, Southern Ethiopia, to isolate and identify MRSA and their resistance to different antimicrobials and also identify risk factors associat ed with occurrence of dairy cow mastitis. A total of 257 dairy cows were included during the study period. Total of 1010 quarters were examined to detect clinical and subclinical mastitis by physical examinations of udder and milk and California mastitis T est (CMT), respectively. Milk samples were collected from each of clinically and sub clinically mastitic non - blind quarters of the selected cows for bacterial isolation. The Staphylococcus aureus isolates were tested for anti - microbial susceptibility by di sc diffusion method. The occurence of mastitis was 40.9%. Out of this, 4.66% and 36.18% were clinical and subclinical respectively. The univariate logistic regression showed that among potential risk factors considered from the farm attributes, age, milkin g hygiene, parity, lactation period, farm floor and previous mastitis treatment had significant (p=<0.05) effect on the prevalence of mastitis. The present study showed the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to penicillin G (100%), cefoxitin (71.8%), amox icillin - clavulinic acid (61.5%), tetracycline (69.2%), streptomycin (66.7%), chloramphenicol (35.9%), sulphamethoxazole - trimethoprim (43.6%) and vancomycin (56.4%). In the present observation, 28 (71.8 %) Staphylococcus aureus isolates not only showed MRSA but also multidrug resistance (MRSA). The present study emphasizes the importance of MRSA on dairy farms in and around Wolaita Sodo, Southern Ethiopia. The development of antimicrobial resistance is nearly always as a result of repeated therapeutic and/or indiscriminate use of them. Regular antimicrobial sensitivity testing helps to select effective antibiotics and to reduce the problems of drug resistance development towards commonly used antibiotics.
35 Boar Quality Semen Testing and Presence of Mycoplasma Organism , Milovanović A, Petrović T, Apić J, Lupulović D, Barna T, Lazić G and Lazić S*
This paper describes results of mycoplasma organism and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae detection in semen of boars. During routine examination of semen quality in 2015 and 2016, different percent of specific changes in the spermatozoa of 23 b oars were observed and these samples were subjected to mycoplasma detection. The se changes were manifested as frequent distal midpiece reflex abnormalities with sporadic coiled principal piece; but booth loops were filed with fine, net like /reticular form s ( “ entrapped pseudocytoplasmatic droplet ” ). Based on the observed morphological forms i t is suspected on the presence and influence of microorganisms, primarily of Mycoplasma origin . PCR and real time PCR molecular methods were examined in all suspected s perm samples. The presence of Mycoplasma spp was found in 15 samples, of which, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae was found in 8 samples. In the remaining seven samples differentiation to other mycoplasma species were not carried out . This article is indicating t hat genital form of mycoplasma could manifest its effect on semen quality and this may be more significant than current literature data are indicating and recogniz ing as problem in boars. In the same time, i ts high incidence in suspected semen samples coul d be more stressed as a source of sexually transmitted infection. Further estimation of Mycoplasma influence on boar semen quality is needed.
36 Review on Adeno Virus; As a Vaccine Vehicle , Tadesse B   * , Tesfaye B   , Sisay T   and Kiros A  
Adenoviruses have moved to the forefront of vaccinology and are showing substantial prom ise as vehicles for antigen delivery for a number of vaccines currently being developed. Most studies to date have focused on human serotype adenoviruses, particularly human adenovirus type 5. Human serotype adenovirus vaccine vectors are particularly usef ul for development of veterinary vaccines as neutralizing antibodies to the vector will not usually be present in the vaccinates. Most vectors currently used as vaccine carriers are deleted in E1 gene. The original E1 deleted adenoviral vectors were constr ucted by homologous recombination. Replication incompetent vectors contain an antigen expression cassette substituted for the deleted E1A – E1B region. These replication incompitant adenoviruses can not replicate because of the deletion of the essential vir al E1 gene region containing two genes. Replication competent adenoviral vectors encode all of the remaining adenoviral antigens in addition to the transgene product, i.e., the vaccine antigen. The potential for adenoviruses to elicit powerful B cell and T cell responses in the mammalian host are the main reason for the use of these vectors in vaccine development. For effective veterinary use, extensive research on adenoviral vaccine vectors should be undertaken.
37 Structure and Mucopolysaccaride Type of Major Salivary Glands of the Sunda Porcupines ( Hystrixjavanica ) , Budipitojo T   *, Ariana   and FibriantoY  
Sunda porcupines are one of the rodent species endemic to Indonesia. There is lack information related to the anatomical structure of their major salivary glands. The study aims to identify the anatomical structures and types of mucopolysaccharides produce d by the major salivary glands of Sunda porcupine. Four tissue samplesof major salivary glands of Sunda porcupine were processed for paraffin method and analyzed by Hematoxylin - Eosin, Alcian Blue - Periodic Acid Schiff, and lectin histochemistry for saphora japonica agglutinin and wheat germ agglutinin . The parotid gland found in the preauricular region and along the posterior surface of the mandible, while the submandibular and sublingual glands were located on the floor of the mouth posterior to each mandib ular canine. The parotid gland was divided into two lobules, each composed by different types of acini in a separate lobulation. HE staining showed that parotid gland looks unique because in the anterior lobe, the acini are dominated by serous cell - type, w hile in posterior lobe are composed by mixed of serous and mucous cell - types. The acini of submandibular gland consist of serous cells - type, but sublingual gland acini covered by mucous cell - type. All of three major salivary glands have complete duct syste m comprising intercalated, striated and excretory ducts. The acini of parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands contain acid and neutral, neutral, and acid mucopolysaccharides, respectively. Lectin staining using SJA and WGA indicates that acini in sal ivary glands of sunda porcupine contain sugar residue of N - acetylgalactosamine and N - acetylglucosamine which is a derivative of galactose and glucose by the order of intensity from weak to strong in the parotid, sublingual and submandibular glands.The pres ent results provide for the first time data on the anatomical structure and mucopolysaccharides type produced by major salivary glands of Sunda porcupines. Sunda porcupine, major salivary gland, anatomical structure, mucopolysaccharides.
38 Assessment of pH of Fermented Camel and Buffalo Milk by Using Lactobacillus Fermentum and Lactobacillus Helveticus as Starter Culture at Different Time Interval , Tak L   , Bais B   *, Singh R   and Singh S  
The aim of this study was to assess the periodical evaluation of pH of fermented camel and buffalo milk collected at weekly interval for period of 2 months from camel dairy maintained at ICAR - NRC on Camel, Bikaner(Rajasthan),India and buffaloes maintained under the project “Establishment of live demonstration models of diversified livestock production systems for motivating adaption to enhancing agricultural income (RKVY - 15)” CVAS, RAJUVAS, Bikaner(Rajasthan),India respectively .The samples were inoculated with Lactobacillus fermentum NC DC 214 ( L. fermentum ) and Lactobacillus helveticus NCDC 288 ( L. helveticus ) cultures @ 1% in both pasteurized camel and buffalo milk and after proper mixing the samples were drawn at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 hours and were subj ected to analyse, for change in pH. The results of present study revealed a highly significant (P<0.01) decrease in the pH value of camel milk samples and buffalo milk samples with advancement of fermentation hours as well as with treated bacteria that is L. fermentum and L. helveticus.
39 Macro and Micro Mineral Contents in Plasma of Different Age Group Dogs , Sarita D*,Sharma MC and Yatoo MI
Minerals play very important role in physiology and metabolism of all living organisms. Plasma macro and micro minerals profile of 226 dogs reported to Referral Veterinary Polyclinic (RVP), IVRI, Izatnagar, belonging to different age and being provided with vegetarian homemade diet by their owners was assessed for estimation of macro (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K) and microminerals (Cu , Fe, Zn, Se and Co), and their status analysis. Selected dogs were further subdivided into six (0 - 1 yr, 1 - 2 yr, 2 - 3 yr, 3 - 4 yr, 4 - 5 yr and >5 yr) different age groups. Present study revealed deficiency of plasma macro (Ca, P and Mg) and micro minerals (Cu , Fe, Zn, Se) in the surveyed dogs.
40 Molecular Detection and Genetic Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii using SAG1 & 18SrRNA Genes in Rodents of Golestan Province, Northeast of IRAN , Javid S   *, Abdolhosein DA   , Ehsan SB   , Somayyeh N   and Ali DG  
Background : Toxoplasma parasite is from Toxoplasmatidea family that initially was seen in Ctinodactylus Gondii rodent. Toxoplasma parasites that extracted from different rodents are same in immunologic and morphologic characteristics but have differences in pathogenicity and genotypes in mice. The rodents are most reservoir host in environment that by attention of human environment vicinity to rodent's environment causes Toxoplasma dispersio n in that area. The aim of this study was abundance detection of toxoplasmosis in rodents of golestan province using SAG1 and 18SrRNA genes. Materials and methods : In this study we collected 285 rodents from Golestan forest and extracted brain and heart t issues to obtain DNA of SAG1 and 18SrRNA genes from these tissues. We divided these rodents to 4 groups and then detected the positive samples by PCR method. Results : In this study we found 68 samples of these rodents were positive for SAG1 and 18SrRNA ge nes. 38 samples were Ratus ratus, 10 samples were Ratus norvegicus, 10samples were Mus musculus and 10 samples were Rombumys opimus. Conclusion and Discussion : in this study we found that the different types of rodents were responsible to spread of toxopl asmosis, also SAG1 and 18SrRNA genes were very useful markers to detect toxoplasmosis in rodents of northeast area of IRAN.
41 Stiffness Comparisons of SOP Interlocking Plate Configurations in 3D Printed Canine Lumbosacral Vertebrae , Early PJ*,Mallard A and Kraus KH  
There are no published biomechanical studies evaluating the effect of stabilization techniques on the stability of the 3D printed models of the canine lumbosacral junction. The purpose of the study was to quantify stiffness of String of Pearls (SOP) interl ocking plating system on the lumbosacral junction in dogs. Testing was performed on five canine lumbosacral junction 3D printed models. Four - point bending was applied and displacement along the ventral aspect of the lumbosacral junction measured. Stiffness of six stabilization techniques was tested:  Models with contiguous polymer reconstruction articular facets.  Models with two dorsal SOP plate each with two pedicle screws in L7, two sacral screws and contiguous polymer reconstruction articular facets.  Models with two SOP plates with two L7 pedicle screws, two sacral screws and disarticulated L7 - S1 articular facets.  Models with two SOP plates with only the caudal L7 pedicle screw and two sacral screws and disarticulated L7 - S1 articular facets.  Models wit h two SOP plates with only the cranial L7 pedicle screw, two sacral screws and disarticulated L7 - S1 articular facets.  Models with one SOP plate, with two pedicle screws in L7 and two sacral screws and disarticulated L7 - S1 articular facets. The greatest st iffness was obtained in models with contiguous polymer reconstruction articular facets stabilized by two SOP plates with two screws engaging the pedicle of L7 (90.13 ±11.16 N/mm). There was no difference in gap stiffness between models with two SOP plates and disarticulated articular facets (54.43 ± 6.25 N/mm), and models with two SOP plates and only a cranial L7 pedicle screw (42.01 ± 8.64 N/mm). The lowest stiffnesses was recorded in constructs with two SOP plates and a caudal L7 pedicle screw (26.38 ± 4. 56 N/mm) and one SOP plate (26.94 ±5.83 N/mm) and intact models, contiguous polymer reconstruction articular facets, with no stabilization technique applied to the lumbosacral junction (16.16 ± .89 N/mm). The study - demonstrated stiffness using a single cra nial pedicle screw in the pedicle of L7 was no different from models with two pedicle screws in L7. Contiguous polymer reconstruction articular facets had a constructive effect on overall stiffness of the lumbosacral junction.  
42 A Review on Traditional L ivestock Movement Systems (Godantu) in Bale Zone: An Implication to Utilization of Natural Resources , Belete A* and Aynalem T
Livestock is a key livelihood component for the majority of inhabitants of the Bale Eco region and sh ould be central to sustainable land and resource use planning and management in the area. In majority of bale zone Livestock management is maintained through high level of seasonal mobility ( Godantu ) which allows access to vital grazing, water resources an d mineral springs as rotational grazing system and risk minimization mechanism of pastoralist. Even though, Godantu system is efficient and effective mechanism of natural resources utilization and management, the system is challenged by factors like Shorta ges in grazing land, reduced water availability (particularly in the dry season); long distance and time to access grazing area and watering point, resource user conflicts (between livestock and crop farming/forest protection/National Park conservation, animal health problems due to increased vulnerability, lack of support and government policy towards pastoralists.
43 Influence of the Probiotic Prolam TM at the Oxidase Activity of Blood Neutrophils of Newborn Calves , Korablyeva TR* and Senchuk IV
The aim of our research was to study the influence of different doses of the probiotic Prolam TM о n the germicidal activity of neutrophils of calves’ blood in a newborn period. Our studies have shown that the daily watering of probiotic Prolam TM to the calves within 10 days after birth in a dose of 5 ml did not have a material impact on the adaptive reserve of neutrophils having oxidase activity . The use of this probiotic in a dose of 20 ml optimized homeostasis that was evidenced by the reduction of the relative content of neutrophils in the blood of calves to the normative values and caused the rising of the oxygen - dependent germicidal activi ty of neutrophils of calves blood. The selection of effective doses of probiotics can be justified indicators oxidase activity of blood neutrophils of newborn calves.
44 Positive Impact of Physical Exercise for Managing Stereotypies in Dogs , Ostrovsky G, Álvarez F, Risso A, Pellegrino FJ, Marchionni M, Aversa D and Corrada Y*
Stereotypies in dogs are repetitive behavioral patterns that occur always in the same sequence but do not play any role. This altered behavior may thus take over the animal’s life, changing its sleep patterns and eating habits. The drive to adopt the speci fic behavior becomes increasingly stronger, to the extent that the animal may sometimes even mutilate parts of its own body, such as the tail and limbs. The overall approach to the problem through retraining of owners, environmental modification and enrich ment and proper use of psychotropics proved necessary for restoring the patients’ balance. However, it was also necessary to introduce a physical exercise routine with a canine motorized treadmill and/or daily walks. Although exercise itself may contribute to increased anxiety in the animal, the potential benefits justify considering its introduction for managing dogs with stereotypies
45 Bovine Mastitis: Prevalence, Risk Factors, Major Pathogens and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Test on the Isolates around Addis Ababa, Central Ethiopia , Tesfaye B*
A total 351 lactation cows were investigated during th e study period. Out of total 351 lactation cows the overall prevalence of mastitis were 80(22.79%) (Table 1), where lower 5 (1.99%) and higher 73 (20.79%) were respectively by clinical and sub clinical type of mastitis. And the prevalence of mastitis was l ower 20.94% and higher 24.13% in Sululta and Bareh districts respectively. From examined lactating cows 7.40% was at least 1teat blind. From currently tested few isolates using selected antimicrobial agents, all susceptible for Chloramphenicol and Gentamyc in except one each isolates of S.aureus and micrococcus spp for both and C.pyogenes for Chloramphenicol and CNS for Gentamycin which shows intermediate. Similarly most of the isolates susceptible to Amoxycillin except some isolates of S. aureus, Str.uberis, CNS and C. pyogenes. However, high resistance was observed by most of isolates to Penicillin and tetracycline which are drugs currently in use for mastitis therapy in the study area. Prevalence of mastitis, particularly, the subclin ical one could bring about major economic losses in dairy cows without notice as result of reduced milk production, poor growth or mortality of suckling calves and dam health.
46 Mini Review: Wastewater in the Context of Punjab , Asima Z and Sumiyah R  
Wastewater from the livestock farms has been the problem in India especially wastewater from dairy farms. Punjab is the leading state with respect to dairy farms and is the fast developing state but lack of the intercommunication and cooperation between the different stakeholders has complicated water pollution situation to an alarming level. Budha nallah is the well - known example of water quality deterioration in Punjab. This problem of water pollution with wast ewater from livestock farms can be tackled by cooperation between the different stakeholders.
47 Reproductive Biotechnologies in Indian Cattle , Purohit GN*
In recent years there have been immense improvements in application of reproductive biotechnologies in ca ttle and include artificial insemination, embryo transfer, ovum pick up and in vitro fertilization, semen sexing, cloning, transgenics and xenotransplantation. The purpose of these technologies had been improvement of the genetics of animals or producing a nimals of benefit to human beings. The application of these technologies in indigenous dairy cows of India had been slow. This manuscript describes the status of some of the reproductive biotechnologies as applied to Indian breeds of cows.
48 Somatotropic Axis Associated Growth Governance in Livestock , Afsal A and Sejian V*
49 Probiotics Role in Control of Coccidiosis in Poultry Industry , Anas M*, Rizwan HM and Kasib Khan M  
Cereal products fermented by lactic acid bacteria are documented first in Egypt and Iraq during 2000 - 3000 B.C. These are one of the oldest fermented foods. In 1907, Elie Metcnikoff was the first scientist who not only observes but also put forward the scie ntific basics of fermentation. Then to explore gut bacteria intensive researches were made in late 1940s. In 2006 FAO and WHO give the complete definition of probiotics, living microbes beneficial for health provided in feed. For treatment of Coccidiosis p robiotic combinations of different microbes such as Lactobacillus, Bifidibacterium and Streptococcus are used now days. Coccidiosis, a parasitic disease mainly of poultry sector, caused by Eimeria specie’s. Coccidiosis causes serious damage to the intestin al epithelium resulting in diarrhea. This problem can be effectively controlled by the use of feed probiotics.
50 Study on Bovine Trypanosomosis and Tse Tse Fly Challenge in Darimu District of Birbir Valley, South Western Ethiopia , Teferi Benti* and Biniam Tadesse
This study was undertaken on bovine trypanosomia sis and its vectors at Birbir valley located in Darmu district, Illubababor zone. The parasitological examination was conducted using Buffy coat technique while vector survey was conducted using odour baited Monopyramidal trap. The objective of the study w as to determine the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in cattle, to determine fly density and to identify associated risk factors. From 392 Blood samples were collected, 45(11.5%) were found to be positive by Buffy coat technique and trypanosome species identi fied by their motility were T.congolense 40 (88.9%) and T.vivax 5(11.1 %) and Trypanosoma congolense was the dominant species. A total of 52 Monopyramidal traps were deployed and 1836 (73%) tsetse flies and 676(26.9%) biting flies were caught. From flies c aptured, 971(52.9%), 540(29.4%) and 325(17.7%) Glossina morsitans sub morsitans of savannah flies, Glossina fuscipes fuscipes of reverine and Glossina pallidipes of savannah species were identified respectively. The overall apparent densities fly / trap / day (FTD) were 17.7 and 6.5 for tsetse and biting flies respectively. There was no statically significant difference (P > 0.05) in the prevalence of trypanosome infection between sex group while statistically significant difference was observed between age group(x 2 =41.0, p=0.000 , p<0.05). The mean PCV of the parasitemic and aparasitemic animals were 21.3% and 24.3% respectively .The difference between the mean PCV value of the parasitemic and apparasitemic animals were statistically significant(P< 0.05). Designing and implementation of trypanosomosis control should be targeted to the major cyclically transmitting tsetse flies.
51 Effectiveness of Bacteriophages in the Era of Antibiotic Resistance , Ramya K, Sowmiya PV, Rani N and Sankar P*
The prognosis of many diseases in the present circumstances is often dubious or uncertain. The reason for the present - day state is the consequences of reckless role of human mankind towards nature and irresponsible use antibiotics since when the antibiotics were discovered. The health of the human beings and livestock in the near future remains obscure If the same situation prevails. Hence, the decline in the effectiveness of antibiotics warrants the exploration of novel strategies and elements to combat the emerging antimicrobial resistance globally. Bacteriophages are one such alternate for antibiotics which can be commendably used in various fields like therapeutics, bio fe rmentation, food processing etc.
52 The Effects of Melatonin in Bone Healing , Ahmad Oryan, Somayeh Monazzah and Amin Bigham-Sadegh
Melatonin, an endogenous hormone, regularly is produced in pineal gland. Suprachiasmatic nucleus and the light/dark cycle controls melatonin function. Melatonin doesn't act upon specific target tissue; it reaches all organs and tissues and enters all intra cellular structures like mitochondria and nucleus. Melatonin has an important effect on physiological processes of body including regulation of blood pressure, circadian rhythms, ovarian function, seasonal reproduction, and immune function. The general ef fects of melatonin in bone health were proposed by many researchers during the last years. First experiments studied the influence of the pineal gland on level of serum calcium. It has been saw that inhibition the melatonin biosynthesis by exposure of youn g rats to the fluorescent light decrease the concentration of calcium in the serum. The effects of melatonin on bone healing were investigated by scientists, and they observed which melatonin protects the bone from fracture. Studies have showed which melat onin has an influential role on bone - healing because of its regulation of bone cells, antioxidant properties, and promotion of angiogenesis actions. Scientists have been show that melatonin has aninfluential role in bone healing process due to its regulati on of bone cells, antioxidant properties, and promotion of angiogenesis actions.
53 Effect of Sargassum wightii on Growth, Carcass and Serum Qualities of Broiler Chickens , Athis Kumar K*
The basic feed supplemented with Sargassum powder (1%, 2%, 3% and 4%) provided more amount of essential amino acids, long chain fatty acids and minerals necessary for the growth of poultry than the basic feed. The growth promoting ability of Sargassum increased from 1% to 2% and then there was ste ady state, which is reflected in the weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion rate, carcass qualities and serum parameters of poultry. Sargassum powder had increased the growth to gain about 1265g more weight compared to the control and the supplementing effect was the maximum at 2% Sargassum powder. The feed intake per bird increased from 4647g at 1% Sargassum powder to 4813g at 4% Sargassum powder while it was 3042g in the control group. The feed conversion rate increased from 51.5 to 51.8 instead of 33. 9% in the control. Sargassum treatment increased the liver weight from 2.26% to 2.30%, the heart weight from 0.53% - 0,45%, the gizzard from 1.76% to 1.83%, the intestinal weight from 210.2 to 226.18%, the leg proportion from 3.77% to 4.57%, the breast weigh t from 28.26% to 30.27%, the thigh weight from 13.37% to 14.68%, the drumstick from 14.16% to 15.28% and the dressing from 70.32% to 81.12%. The maximum supplementary effect was noted at 1% and 2% of the Sargassum powder. Dietary treatment of broiler chick s with Sargassum powder significantly (P<0.05) decreased plasma cholesterol and globulin while increased the total serum protein, albumin, calcium, phosphorus and triglyceride compared to control. The 1% Sargassum gave 1.8 fold profits while 2%, 3% and 4% Sargassum powder gave 1.95 fold profit compared to the control. Meat qualities of chicks fed with 1% and 2% Sargassum were superior to the meat of poultry fed only with the basic feed.
54 Rare Case Report on Emamect in Benzoate Poisoning in Buffaloes , Sudhakara Reddy B and Sivajothi S*
Emamectin benzoate is a macrocyclic lactone which is commonly used as pest control in agriculture and indiscriminate use of these compounds causes toxicity in the livestock. Two buffaloes were reported to be had a history of acc idental ingestion of emamectin benzoate mixed solution and they showed disorientation, circling, incoordination, salivation, nasal discharges and shivering. Animals were treated with atropine sulfate, fluid therapy with vitamin supplementation and oral lax atives. Adult buffalo was recovered from the toxicity by the fifth day of therapy but buffalo calf was died by the second day of therapy.
55 RNA in Semen and Sperm: Importance and Transcriptome Analysis in Buck , Saraswat S*
Mammalian sperm contains an array of RNAs including messenger RNAs (mRNAs), ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and small RNAs (sRNAs), largely representing remnant transcripts produced during spermatogenesis. Increasing evidence has indicated that ncRNAs, which control gene expression at transcriptional, post - transcriptional, and epigenetic levels, play critical roles in male germ cell development. Sperm transcribe their RNA,RNAs have different role, high fertile buck have more RNA yie ld /spermatozoon vs low fertile buck, transcripts such as miR - 34c, BMP2, TRADD influence semen quality and fertility.
56 Breeding for Reduced Methane Emissions in Livestock Species , Rebeka S and Shrivastava K*
57 Review on California Mastitis Test (CMT) , Tesfaye B*
The California Mastitis Test (CMT) is a quick, simple test that accurately predicts the somatic cell count of milk from individual quarters or on composite milk samples [1]. The California Mastitis Test is a simple, inexpensive, rapid screening test for mastitis. The test is based upon the amount of cellular nuclear protein present in the milk sample. Since inflammatory cells associated with mastitis are the predominant cell type present in milk the CMT reflects the SCC level quite accurately and is a rel iable indicator of the severity of infection. The test is appropriate for cow - side evaluation of udder health and the procedure can be taught quickly to producers and the milking crew. With proper training test results are very repeatable among those condu cting the test. It is necessary that producers also be made aware of the limitations of the CMT and the proper application of management decisions based on CMT results.
58 Management of Dystocia due to Schistosoma reflexus in a Cross - Bred Cow , Sheetal SK*, Patil AD, Sahatpure SK, Gahlod BM and Akhre SB
Schistosoma reflexus is a rare type of foetal monster which causes dystocia in cow. It was managed by caesarean - section to save the life of the dam and the cow recovered uneventfully following post operative therapy.
59 Prevalence and Identification of Ixodide Ticks in Cattle in Lalo Assabi District, West Wollega Zone, West Oromia, Ethiopia , Kebede A*, Lemmi E and Dugassa J
Ticks are important parasite of cattle that cause huge economic loss at private and national level. Therefore, the cross sectional study was conducted from October 2016 to June 2017 in Lalo Assabi district of West Wollega Zone . The aims of the stud y were to determine the prevalence of tick infestation and to identify their predilection site, possible risk factors and distribution in the rural and urban area of Lalo Assabi districts. Peasant Associations (PAs), sex, age, body conditions of animals an d ticks genera were major factors involved in the study. A systematic random sampling study design was followed to collect samples. From the total of 384 cattle, 265 ( 69%) cattle were found to be infested with tick. Out of five peasant associations examined, highest prevalence (80.4%) was recorded at Barko Daleti Peasant Associations. Highest prevalence ( 82% ) was observed in male than in female animals (59%). Relatively highest prevalence was recorded in adult animals (70.7%) as compared with young a nd old age animals. Amblyomma, Boophilus and Rhipicephalus were tick genera with infestation rate of 30.7 %, 23.2% and 15.1%, respectively. Animals with good body condition were relatively affected (74.1%). Different tick genera have different predilection sites. Amblyomma had strong preference for udder or scrotum (19.3%), Boophilus was highly prevalent on Udder or Scrotum and Genus Rhipicephalus was highly found attached to Dewlap (21.1%) . However, there was no significant variation on the prevalence of ti ck infestations (P>0.05). The study revealed that ticks are the most important ectoparasites and cause economic losses in the area. A nimal’s husbandry and management improvement is warranted to reduce the rate of tick’s infestation.
60 Update on Veterinary Viral Vaccines: A Review , Gadissa L and Yune N*
Vaccine has made a very significant impact on the control of viral diseases in both humans and animal species. Worldwide eradication of small pox and rinderpest an d drastic reduction in other infection disease are confirming to the fact that vaccination is the most feasible and cost effective strategy for prevention, control and eradication of infectious disease. Veterinary science has made a significant contributio n to the field of vaccine research and development. Among the numerous of infectious diseases in animals, those of viral etiology account for a high burden of cases and they are the most relevant from a veterinary perspective. So, vaccination is the most f easible means that has to be implemented for controlling and eradicating these diseases. The viral vaccines used in veterinary medicine generally categorized into 1 of 3 categories: inactivated vaccines (in which antigens are typically combined with adjuva nts); live attenuated vaccines; and recombinant technology vaccines, which may include subunit antigens or genetically engineered organisms. The majority of vaccines available today rely either on attenuation (weakening) techniques or inactivated (killed) forms of the infectious agent. Even though many vaccines are available and vaccine producing technologies are existed, several viral disease s have no vaccines yet and there are also limitations even on existing vaccines. Therefore, the objective of this seminar paper is to overview the development of veterinary viral vaccines and challenges and opportunities existing in the process of its deve lopment. To be profitable from the veterinary viral vaccines the challenging factors for the development of the vaccines should be managed. In addition, the novel vaccine technologies should be encouraged because they can fill the limitations of convention al live and killed vaccines.
61 Fungal Diseases of Fish: A Review , Patel AS*, Patel SJ, Bariya AR, Pata BA and Ghodasara SN  
Now a day, fishes are used for biomedical researches along with use as a food also. Chemical contaminants of marine environments are of momentous concern. Similar to other flora and fauna, fish can also be ill with various types of diseases. Freshwater fishes are an important protein source for people of many countries. Fish farming in various parts of the world has increased many folds in the last decade. Bacterial hemorrhagic septicemia, lernaeasis, saprolegniasis and anoxia are the most frequently occurring fish diseases in pond fishes. Fungal infections are among the most general diseases seen in temperate fish. Water moulds infections cause losses of freshwater fishes and their eggs in both natural and commercial fish farms. Although, infection as a result of microbial contamination does not frequently result in disease but ecological stress may upset the balance between the probable pathogens and their hosts. Prevention is, as always, the best medicine. Most infe ctions can be successfully treated if caught early.
62 Ebola Virus and its Public Health Significance: A Review , Yobsan D, Walkite F and Nesradin Y*
Ebola virus disease is a severe, often - fatal, zoonotic viral disease in humans and Nonhuman primates (NHP) like monkeys, gorillas and chimpanzees. Ebola is RNA virus that belongs to the family filoviridae, genus Ebola virus. The viruses (EBOV) are enveloped, non - segmented, negative - sense, single - stranded RNA viruses. Ebola virus disease (EVD) was first described in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) in 1976. The exact origin, locations and natural reservoir of Ebola virus remain unclear. People can be exposed to Ebola virus from direct contact with the blood and/or secretions of an in fected person. Hunting and butchering of wildlife (great apes and fruit bats) has been identified in previous outbreaks as a potential source of infection. The onset of Ebola virus disease is sudden and early symptoms includes; fever and headache, followed by vomiting and diarrhea. Patients in the final stage of disease die in the clinical picture of massive bleeding, severe dehydration, hypovolemic shock and multi - organ failure. Ebola virus infections can be diagnosed by detecting antigens with an antigen capture ELISA and by detecting viral RNA with Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT - PCR). No specific treatment has been demonstrated yet to be safe and effective for Ebola virus. Standard treatment currently consists of supportive therapy, i ncluding maintenance of blood volume and electrolyte balance, as well as standard nursing care. Prevention and control is mainly based on appropriate precautions to break ways of transmission. Despite the fact that no detection of the virus had been discov ered in Ethiopia so far, it is in medium risk country because of most people travelling from West Africa to South Africa travels via these countries. But, there is lack of updated information on Ebola virus and its zoonotic importance. All the necessary pr ecautions should be made to prevent the virus from entering the country and thus Ethiopian Airlines has been informing passengers on ways to reduce risking exposure and preventing the spread of the disease for those traveling to and from affected countries .
63 Bone Regenerative Medicine and Bone Grafting , Harsini SM* and Tafti AK
Bone tissues can repair and regenerate it: in many clinical cases, bone fractures repair without scar formation. Nevertheless, in large bone defects and pathological fractures, bone healing fail to heal. Bone grafting is defined as implantation of material which promot es fracture healing, through osteoconduction osteogenesis, and osteoinduction. Ideal bone grafting depends on several factors such as defect size, ethical issues, biomechanical characteristics, tissue viability, shape and volume, associated complications, cost, graft size, graft handling, and biological characteristics. The materials that are used as bone graft can be divided into separate major categories, such as autografts, allografts, and xenografts. Synthetic substitutes and tissue - engineered biomateri als are other options. Each of these instances has some advantages and disadvantages. Between the all strategies for improving fracture healing and enhance the outcome of unification of the grafts, tissue engineering is a suitable option. A desirable tissu e - engineered bone must have properties similar to those of autografts without their limitations. None of the used bone grafts has all the ideal properties including low donor morbidity, long shelf life, efficient cost, biological safety, no size restrictio n, and osteoconductive, osteoinductive, osteogenic, and angiogenic properties; but Tissue engineering tries to supply most of these features. In addition it is able to induce healing and reconstruction of bone defects. Combining the basis of orthopedic sur gery with knowledge from different sciences like materials science, biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering can overcome the limitations of current therapies. Combining the basis of orthopedic surgery with knowledge from different sciences like materi als science, biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering can overcome the limitations of current therapies.
64 The Chicken Heterophil - A Short Review , Anand Laxmi N*
65 West Nile Virus: Measures against Emergence in Malaysia , Mohammed MN and Yasmin AR*
West Nile virus has a potential to emerge in new areas and cause large epidemics as was witnessed in the United States following its introduction in 1999. The virus is now a global public health threat, having been detected on every continent except Antarc tica. Once restricted to Africa, its expansion beyond its natural habitat is related to some viral, vectoral, anthropologic and environmental factors. The successful establishment and spread of the virus depend in part on viral adaptations, availability of competent hosts and mosquito vectors and suitable environmental conditions. A combination of measures can be applied to minimise the likelihood of a WN virus epidemic. Available vaccines are only for veterinary use, human vaccines are still in development . Vector control, animal vaccination, targeted surveillance and strong cooperation between relevant authorities are important in preventing a WN virus epidemic in Malaysia.
66 Abattoir Prevalence of Bovine Cysticercosis in Cattle Slaughtered at Haramaya Municipal Abattoir, Eastern Hararghe Zone Of Oromia Region , Ahmed Adem M*
A cross - sectional study was conducted from November, 2011 to April, 2012 on bovine cysticercosis in cattle slaughtered at Haramaya Municipal Abattoir with the objectives of determining the prevalence of bovine cysticercosis and to characterize the viabilit y of the cyst. Out of 384 systematically selected slaughtered cattle, 28 (7.27%) were infected with Cysticercusbovis. A total of 126 cysts were collected in which 76 (60.32%) were viable while others 50 (39.68%) were degenerated. The anatomical distributio n of cysticerci was liver, heart, shoulder muscle, tongue, masseter and lung in decreasing order of cyst harboring. A statistical analysis of infection rate on the basis of origin of the animal and sex has no significant difference (p> 0.05) but age has si gnificant difference (p<0.05). In conclusion, the present study imply that the disease deserves due attention to safeguard the public health and promote beef industry in the country. Therefore, appropriate control and preventive measures should be taken in order to reduce the disease problem on public health even if its economic significance associated with cysticercosis is minimal.
67 Canine Leishmaniosis: A Silent Burden in Southeast Asia and Elucidating Existing Knowledge Gap , Shaharul Nizim N, Watanabe M and Abdul Rani PA*
Canine leishmaniosis is one of the most important canine vector - borne diseases (CVBD) caused by protozoan Leishmania sp . which pose zoonotic threat as some of its species are zoonotic. This parasitic disease is classified as Neglected Tropical Disease (NTD) and can be found in parts of the tropics, subtropics and southern Europe. A lot of studies had been carried out across the globe but lack in Southeast Asia, thus its epi zootiology is still poorly understood. This article is meant to create awareness of the existence of this zoonotic disease amongst veterinary personnel, scientific community and readers.
68 Comparative Growth Performance of Camel Calves Feeding on Natural Range Land and Supplementary Diet , Sallam A Bakheit , I Adam Idris, Ali A Hassabo and Ebrahiem MA*
The study aimed to investigate the impact of supplementary feeding on the young camels calve growth rate and daily gain. A total of 16 heads of young male camel calves from the Arabic camel breeds were selected and div ided into four equal groups (1, 2,3,4). Four heads of camel calves in each group, their body weight ranged from 176 - 220 kg. Experimental animal in group one was control supplemented nothings jus t depend on the natural range land, group two was feed on watermelon seeds, group three was allowanced concentrated diet composed of ground nut cake and the animals in group four intake mixture diet consist of watermelon seeds and ground nut cake 50% for e ach. The body weight of the experimental animal was determined biweekly using table balance. The random complete experimental design was used and the Analysis of variance and Tukey test were applied for data analysis and means separation. The results indic ated that the average Body weights of the camel calves were 174.75±3.3, 275.93± 9.0, 241.50± 8.5 and 236.50±8.2 Kg, in group one, two, three and four respectively. The higher body weight was recorded in group two (275.93±9 Kg) in which the animals feed on watermelon seeds and followed by group three and four (241.50± 8.5 and 236.50±8.2) respectively. On the other hand the less camel calves body weight was obtained in group one (control) that experimental animals not intake supplementary feeding. Highly diff erences (P ≤ 0.01) were obtained in the body weight between the groups. The daily gain of the first group, second, third and fourth were 214±12g, 624±28g, 542±19g and 528±12g, respectively, while no significant differences (P ≥ 0.01) between diets groundnut cake 242 kg and mixture diet 237 kg. The protein content was higher in ground nut cake 41% when compared to the protein content in watermelon seeds 36%, on the other hand the percentage of fat was highest in watermelon seeds 27.8% compared to ground nut ca ke 13.4%.
69 Comparison between Minimum Alveolar Concentration and Minimum Alveolar Concentration for Blunting Adrenergic Response after Administration of Sevoflurane in Cats , Sano T   *, Akashi N   , Ishizuka T   , Tamura J   , Fukui S   , Oyama N   , Itami T   , Ishikawa Y   , Sakata H   , Miyoshi K   and Yamashita K  
Objectives : Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) is defined as the alveolar concentration of anesthetic at 1 atmosphere that produces immobility in 50% of subjects exposed to a noxious stimulus. There is limited information regarding the MAC of sevoflurane required for blunting adrenergic responses (MAC - BAR) in cats. The aim of this study was to compare the MAC and MAC - BAR of sevoflurane required to prevent autonomic responses and purposeful movem ents in cats. Methods: Six adult healthy domestic short - haired catswere anesthetized with sevoflurane. The MAC and MAC - BAR values for sevoflurane were determined by judging the cats’ responses to a noxious electrical stimulus (50 V, 50 Hz, 10 msec) applied to the ventral side of the tail base. Results: The difference between the MAC and MAC - BAR values for sevoflurane was not statistically significant. Conclusions and R elevance: These results suggest that autonomic responses are prevented by anesthetic conce ntrations of sevoflurane at which purposeful movements are absent. Detrimental cardiovascular side effects, such as hypotension and impaired cardiac contractility, can occur easily in cat’s anesthetized using sevoflurane.
70 The Effect of Husbandry and Management System on Sudan Desert Sheep Leather Production and Quality , Ebrahiem MA*
This trail is aimed to demonstrate the effect of husbandry and management system on Sudan desert sheep performance and skin quality. For this purpose a questionnaire was designed and distributed randomly for 20 sheep breeders in each of the five chosen sheep breed area’s (Total of 100 ques.). The questionnaire include beside the personal data, twenty two (22) questions mainly about; system of feeding and application methods in each season, husbandry systems in each season , the main effective treatments on skins quality and common skin diseases and external parasites. The results revealed that, most of Sudan desert sheep owners or breeders were illiterate and most of them were herder 48.0%, while 37.5% were herder and farmer at the same time. All respondents confirmed that the open system depending on natural grazing was the main h usbandry and management system in all study target area. In autumn sheep depends totally on natural pasture grazing, while in winter sheep partly fed on natural grazing and the breeders complete it's feeding depending on the litter that remained from food crops after harvesting. Sudan desert sheep breeder in summer are using their stock of forage hay that collected either during the rainy season from good growing autumn pastures or from agricultural byproducts such as sorghum and sesame straw or groundnut r esiduals. The additional diets is varies by the variation of Sudan desert sheep locations. sometimes when forage are limited and for marketing purposes Sudan desert sheep breeders adding little amount or uncountable amount of sorghum grains, cotton seed ca kes, groundnut seed cake as finisher diet concentrate beside agricultural byproducts such as groundnut byproduct hay, sorghum byproduct hay and sesame byproduct hay for the herd that offered for sale or for fleshing or steaming up ewes during lambing seaso n. Branding is the most common and known damage in skins generally. Also some animal breeder's belief that by means of hot iron branding some animals may acquire immunity against certain diseases. The respondents attributed causes of mechanical damages of skins of animals on range land mainly to the domination of thorny bushes and grass with hairy and spiny seeds in pastures. External parasites and skin diseases cause most of skins damages and wastages in Sudan generally. Sheep pox spreads on sheep skins wi th high rates (88%). On the other hand, mange are resulting in (8%) of sheep skins infections. However, ticks infect most of sheep skins (80%), when Lice infection estimated at 20% of sheep skins.  
71 Incidence and Associated Risk Actors of Heifer Mastitis in Dairy Farms at Mekelle Town, Northern Ethiopia , Bisrat M   *, Biruk TB   , Aklilu F   , Getachew T   , Ashenafi K   , Biniam T   and Tesfaye ST  
A longitudinal study was conducted from November 2013 to May 2014 in Mekelle town, Northern Ethiopia, to assess the incidence of heifer mastitis, to isolate and identify the causative pathogens and their susceptibility to different antimicrobials and also identify risk factors associated with occurrence of heifer mastitis. Twenty - five heifers were included from 4 d airy farms and 11 cooperative small holder’s dairy farms during the study period. Total of 100 quarters were examined to detect clinical and subclinical mastitis by physical examinations of udder and milk and California mastitis Test (CMT), respectively. T he incidence of mastitis per gland at risk was 64 % and the spontaneous cure rate of infected quarters was 33 %. Incidence of heifers’ intra - mammary infections (IMI) in the study area was highest at calving (28%). Infection per quarter revealed that 49% we re mastitis positive of which 8.2% of their quarters were clinical and 45/49 (91.8%) quarters were sub clinical type of mastitis. The incidence rate per quarters were statistically significant (p <0.05) and higher in rear quarters than front quarters. The univariate logistic regression showed that among potential risk factors considered from the farm attributes, breed, age, practice of milking mastitic cow last, housing nature, hand wash before and in between milking and udder hygiene had significant effect on the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. Coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) (54.5%) and Staphylococcus aureus (21.8%) , were the predominant bacteria. Relatively most of the isolates are susceptible to Chloramphenicol, Gentamycin, Ciprofloxacin and V ancomycin but resistant to Penicillin. The study also revealed that S.aureus, E.coli and S.agalactiae were highly incident at calving. It is concluded that prevalence of CNS, lack of hygienic practice and infestation of ticks should give serious attention. Intramammary treatment of prepartum heifer with appropriate antimicrobials may help to reduce the incidence of mastitis at calving and subsequent lactation period.  
72 Fish - An Ideal Model for Immunology Teaching and Research , Michael RD*
73 Human - Animal Bond: Suggestions to Future Research , González - Ramírez MT*
74 Therapeutic Prospective of Stem Cells in Veterinary Practice , Suranji Wijekoon HM*
Therapeutic application of stem cell in veterinary medicine continues to develop rapidly both experimentally and clinically. Identification and isolation of multi - potential capability of stem cells from different sources of animal tissues and testing their efficacy to use in regenerative medicine are the novel trend in tissue engineering. Several animal models are being using for preclinical evaluation of stem cell applications in human and animal in areas such as spinal cord injury, cartilage defects, ligament defect and myocardial infarction. Today, numerous veterinary diseases are being treating with the administration of stem cells. However, these applicati ons have not been implemented well, to overcome the challenges faced by the clinicians. Further, with the limited data the therapeutic role of stem cells in regenerative medicine is not fully understood. This review will emphasize the application of stem c ell therapy in veterinary medicine offering a safe and clinically effective tool for the clinician to assist treatment of the animal.
75 Reproductive Characteristics of Male Rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ) Fed on Spirulina ( Spirulina platensis ) Hydro - Ethanolic Extract , Ousmane IAD, Ngoula F*,Issa YA,Tchoffo H,Vemo BN and Madjina T  
Spirulina , a filamentous cyanobacteri um, possesses diverse biological activities and nutritional significance due to high concentration of natural nutrients . This work aimed to evaluate the effects of hydro - ethanolic extract (HEE) of Spirulina platensis on organ weights, sperm characteristics , reproductive hormones and fertility index in male rabbits. 30 male rabbits were randomly distributed into 5 groups (6 rabbits/group). For 120 days, group 1 animals (control) were orally given distilled water, those of group 2 were treated with 100 mg/kg bw of vitamin E, while groups 3, 4 and 5 received respectively 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bw of spirulina extract. The results showed that the relative weights of the vas deferens and sexual glands increased significantly (p<0.05) in the HEE groups compared to the control, whereas no significant (p>0.05) difference was noticed in the weights of testes and epididymis, sperm mobility and membrane integrity. Sperm count was significantly (p<0.05) higher in animals given 400 mg/kg bw of HEE of spirulina with refere nce to all other treatments. The sperm morphological anomalies declined significantly (p<0.05) in HEE - treated rabbits compared to distilled water and vitamin E - given animals. The serum concentration of FSH decreased significantly (p<0.05) in rabbits receiv ing 400 mg/kg bw of HEE of spirulina compared to those of other groups. Meanwhile, that of LH did not show any significant (p>0.05) difference among treatments. The serum content in testosterone increased significantly (p<0.05) in spirulina extract - treated and vitamin E groups with reference to the control group. The litter size and the sex ratio did not present any significant (p>0.05) difference among treatments. The kid weight at birth and the litter size at weaning increased significantly (p<0.05) in sp irulina extract - treated and vitamin E groups with the reference to the control group. The viability rates at weaning were significantly (p<0.05) higher in spirulina extract - treated groups referring to the vitamin E and distilled water groups. In conclusion , the administration of hydro - ethanolic extract of spirulina enhanced the sexual organ weights, sperm characteristics, reproductive hormone levels and performances in male rabbit.  
76 Quantitative Detection of Aflatoxin M1, Ochratoxin and Zearalenone in Fresh Raw Milk o f Cow, Buffalo, Sheep and Goat by UPLC XEVO - TQ i n Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt , Rania M Kamal   , Mohamed A Mansour   , Mahmoud M Elalfy   * and Walaa R Galala  
Animals’ derived food as milk is highly nutritive food for human and substitute mother’s milk for children especially after 6 months. To better produce and maintain sa fe milk and milk product, Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography XEVO - TQ (UPLC) used to monitor mycotoxins as aflatoxin, ochratoxin and zearalenone levels in fresh raw milk of dairy domestic animals. AFL - M1 was detected in all samples in cow, buffalo, she ep and goat milk with different concentration ranged from high, medium and very low with mean 906, 811.1, 1394.86 and 1183.68 ng/L respectively. According worldwide standard for aflatoxin M1 level in milk as EC and according US FDA Limit, all samples of raw milk exceed this limit up to 100ng /l while 50%, 80, 90 and 60% exceed US FDA Limit. Notably, the Egyptian raw milk is free from ochratoxin and zearalenone mycotoxin. Taken collectively , strict strategies should be taken to reduce level of aflatoxin in raw milk between producer and consumer and so reduce risk of adverse effect on health.
77 Grafting in Veterinary Medicine: A Mini Review , Alkattan LM*
Grafting refers to a surgical procedure to move tissue from one site to another on the body, or from another creature, without bringing its own blood supply with it. Instead, a new blood supply grows in after it is placed. There were many types of grafts for reconstruction defec ts in many organs as bone graft, skin graft and tendon graft
78 Jumping of Camelid Coronavirus in Bovines: A Report from Rural Area of Haryana, India , Minakshi P*, Brar B,Ikbal,Ranjan K,Singh I, Nehra V and Misri J
Bovine coronaviruses (BCoVs) are generally species specific, but cross species transmission has been demonstrated experimentally. Several examples have represented the infection of humans by coronavirus. Most of the coronaviruses are found in domestic as well as wild animals, and it is possible that they arose in human population though zoonotic transmission. In the present study, we evaluated presence of bovine corona virus (BCoV) in bovine fecal samples and reported the infection using RT - PCR assay. BCoV was detected using trans - membrane (M) gene specific RT - PCR with 523 bp amplicon size. A total three hundred thirteen (313) bovine fecal samples were collected for the present study. Out of 313 buffalo fecal samples, 31 buffalo were found infected with coronavirus by RT - PCR assay. The results suggest that RT - PCR is sensitive and specific method to detect BCoV, especially in subclinical cases. These results were further c onfirmed by sequencing of PCR products. The phylogenetic analysis showed that BCoV strains ABT/16/BF/Bocv183, ABT/BF/16/Bocv164 and ABT/BF/16/Bocv86 have close association with bovine strains from USA and Japan. However, ABT/BF/16/Bocv167 strain formed a s eparate clad along with camelid coronavirus strains and revealed the cross species transmission from camel to bovine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of interspecies transmission of coronavirus form camel to bovine.
79 Acupuncture as a Modality for Treating Anxiety Related Disorders in Canines , Kontogianis K*, Greene S and Fanucchi L
Canine anxiety is a common behavior disorder that may manifest as aggression or violent behaviors and often culminates in animal surrenders. While there are sc ientifically supported behavior protocols available today, behavior problems are still a major concern for many dog owners. Thus, this case study series sought to explore an additional potential treatment modality, acupuncture. Four case reports were completed; they included two client - owned dogs and two shelter dogs. All dogs presented because of anxiety and aggression. Questionnaires completed by the pet owner throughout the study, heart rates before and after treatment, and researchers’ observations were used to compare the dog’s pre - and post - acupuncture behaviors. While the client - owned dogs were reported to have decreased anxiety and aggression, the shelter dogs were reported to have very little to no improvement in anxiety or aggression. This study was limited by the small sample size, the subjective nature of the data collected, the lack of a control group and the lack of blinding. Further research is needed to determine if acupuncture has significant therapeutic potential for canine anxiety; ideally, future studies would include a larger sample size and quantifiable data such as blood serotonin measures, endogenous opioid levels, or cortisol measures. Alternatively, future studies may include a contro l group and double blinded design.
80 A Rapid and Effective Method to Prolong Pain Relief in Sheep Using Bupivacaine and Intralipid ® Combination , Farzin Sahebjam*, Preet Mohinder Singh and John Paul Chambers
Background : To compare the duration of action of a local anesthetic block using a lipid formulation of bupivacaine to the commercially available aqueous formulation. Bupivacaine 0.5% was mixed with an equal volume of either lipid emulsion (Intralipid, Fresenius Kabi) or normal saline resulting in a final concentration of 0.25% bupivacaine. Eighteen sheep were administered a n erve block of either control or treatment at the metacarpal region of each forelimb to compare the efficacy of the injected formulations. The nociceptive test was determined by applying a blunt noxious stimulus to the foot below the nerve block at multiple time intervals until the sheep responded by withdrawing its foot. The person assessing the response to the noxious stimulus was blinded to the treatment. Results: The Intralipid formulation significantly extended the duration of the nerve block compared to the control group. The mean analgesic period (mean±SD) in the control legs was 4.23±1.8 hr. compared to 5.81±1.78 hr. in the Intralipid injected legs (p=0.013). Conclusions : In conclusion, an Intralipid® - based formulation provided a more prolonged dura tion of local anesthesia after nerve blocks in the sheep metacarpal region compared to aqueous bupivacaine.
81 Effects of Injecting GnRH 48 Hours after PGF2α on the Dynamic Follicular and Luteal Endocrine Cells in Post - Pubertal Holstein Heifers , Mason MC and Cuadra EJ*
Eighteen cycling Holstein heifers were allotted at random by weight and body condition score to one of two treatments to evaluate the effects of GnRH on luteal response when injected 48 hours (h) after the first injection in a 10 day interval between two i njections of PGF2α . Heifers in the control group (n=9) received an injection of saline 48 h after the first injection of PGF2α; however, heifers in the μg) 48treatmenthafter group n=9) received an injection of GnRH (100 the first injection of PGF2α. Heife rs were checked for estrus 3 times daily for 60 minutes each time. Blood samples were collected for analysis of progesterone on d ays 0 (first injection of PGF2α), 2 (48 h after the fi rst injection), 10 ( at the second injection of PGF2) and at day 17 (7 days a fte r the second injection of PGF2α ). Plasma samples were analyzed fo r concentration of progesterone via radioimmunoassay to evaluate luteal cell function. Concentrations of progesterone did not differ between the control heifers and treatment animals at any day of the study. However, heifers treated with GnRH showed a significant decline in concentration of progesterone from day 0 to day 2 in a luteal response to the injection; nevertheless, concentrations of progesterone increased significantly from day 2 t o day 10. Thus, this data demonstrated that injecting GnRH 48 h after PGF2α either speeds up formation of new corpus luteum or prevents full regression of the corpus luteum present prior to the first injection of PGF2α.
82 Antioxidant Potential of Ferulic Acid on the Freezability of Bull Semen , Omur AD*, Ertay S,Güney M, Sahin A, Kucukler S, Camli M,Chachar MFA, Tayhan A, Yolalan Ö and Aksu EH
Ejaculates were collected twice a week from the bulls, via an artificial vagina, during two weeks. The suitable ejaculates obtained for sperm density (≥ 1.4 × 10 9 spermatoz oa / ml) and for motility (≥ 75%) were used for dilution and freezing of semen. A Tris - based extender (Tris 297.58mM, citric acid 96.32mM, fructose 82.66mM, egg yolk 15% (v/v), glycerol 5% (v/v), gentamicin 0.1 ml / 100ml, pH 6.8 - 7.0) was used as the base extender (cryopreservation diluent). Pooled ejaculate was split into 2 equal aliquots and diluted at 32 °C with base extender containing ferulic acid (100 μM) and no antioxidant (control), respectively. Each aliquot was diluted to a final semen concentrati on of approximately 1.2 × 10 8 sperm/ml (single step dilution), in 15 - ml polypropylene centrifuge tubes. After dilution, semen samples were kept at room temperature for 10 minutes then, the diluted semen samples were aspirated into 0.25 ml French straws, seal ed with polyvinyl alcohol powder and equilibrated at 5 °C for 3 h. After equilibration, the straws were frozen in liquid nitrogen vapour (4 cm above the liquid nitrogen, ~ - 100 o C ) for 10 min and then plunged into liquid nitrogen for storage, - 196 o C . In the study, sperm samples containing antioxidant and non - antioxidant were evaluated for spermatozoa motility and membrane integrity after freezing / thawing. In the present study, no statistically significant difference was found between the control and experim ental groups for motility and membrane integrity after freeze - thawing. The application consisted of 4 replications.
83 Using Food Grate Stainless Steel Rods for Internal Fixation of Transverse Fractures in Rabbits , Humam H Nazht*
This project was designed to replace the medical stainless steel pins (MSP) which used in internal fixation of the transverse fractures femoral bone in rabbits by the food grate stainless steel rods (FGSR) 2.25 and 2.5 mm which used in the food industry. 175 adult local bree d rabbits were used from 2008 – 2019, 60 of them used to induced transverse fractures in the mid shift of femoral bones, the o thers employed to remove 1cm of diaphysis bone and replaced by either xeno - bony sheep implantation in 26 rabbits, or replaced by xeno - bony bov ine implantation in 75 rabbits , while the others14 rabbits replaced by the synthetics bony nano scaffold implantation, then all fixed by FGSR as internal fixation devices for the induced femoral fractures or fixation the implanted devices. The parameters w hich were used for evaluation were, the p hysical and general examination , laborato ry analysis for elements ratio, clinical application with radiographic and histopathological examination . The results revealed FGSR easy to find and use and handling , with lo w prize and high economic values, and the chemical elemen ts ratio the same as in the MSP , nobody rejection or complication , not changed before and within and after implantation and sterilization , give stability, and support the body weight , and the rabbits quickly used affected limb in walking and running, the FGSR visible radio graphically with good alignment of fractures bones with normal healing radiographic finding, while the histopathological examination shows normal histopathological changes during fr actures healing processing . The conclusion FGSR size 2.25 – 2.5 mm can be used strongly and successfully in internal fixation of induced transverse mid shift fractures of femoral bones in rabbits instead of the MSP.
84 Radiological Evaluation of Fractures Healing Processing Fixed by Food Grate Stainless Steel Rods in Rabbits , Humam H Nazht*, Rania Kand Sumaya M
This study was designed to follow up the radiological changes of the fracture healing process of the induced transverse femoral mid shift fracture in rabbits that fixed by food grate stainless steel rods (FGSR). Eight adult local breed rabbits were employed to induce complete transverse mid shift fracture in the femoral bone, under general anesthesia with highly aseptic technique. The fracture fragments fixed with FGSR, the study followed for more than two months by weekly radiographic examination, which revealed, the fracture healing occurs by secondary or indirect bone union, in which the new bone formation can be visible radiographically at the end of 2 nd week Post operati on (p. o.) around the fractures line which still visible, the callus formation increase in volume and density at the end of 3 rd week, at the end of 4 th weeks bony bridge formation and disappear of fracture line, at the end of the 6 th weeks radiological unio n occurs and the FGSR removed and remodeling phase started and continuous next week the conclusion the fracture healing processing of the induced fracture in the femoral bones in rabbits which fixed FGSR as internal fixation methods can be determined radio graphically.
85 Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Haemoparasitosis in Village Chickens (Gallus Gallus Domesticus) in Gombe State, Nigeria , Law al JR, Ibrahim UI, Biu AA and Musa HI
The present study was conducted between November, 2016 and September, 2017, aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with haemoparasitosis in village chickens in Gombe State, Nige ria. Blood samples were collected from a total of 1820 village chickens and Giemsa stained thin blood smears were microscopically examined for the presence of haemoparasites. Results revealed an overall prevalence of 19.6% of three genera of avian haemopar asites in a single and mixed infection. Amongst the haemoparasites encountered, Plasmodium (13.9%) was the most prevalent followed by Haemoproteus (2.6%) and Leucocytozoon (0.4%) in single infection, while the prevalence of mixed infection with Plasmodium + Haemoproteus was 2.6%. Higher prevalence rates were recorded in cocks (28.5%) compared to hens (8.9%), as well as in adults (23.0%) compared to the growers (11.0%) village chickens. The prevalence rates was found to be higher in the rainy (39.3%) compare d to cold dry (12.5%) and hot dry (7.7%) seasons of the study period. The difference in prevalence of haemoparasites among sex, age groups, and season was statistically significant (<0.0001). In conclusion, haemoparasites exist among village chickens flock s in Gombe State, Nigeria probably due to the presence of vectors and inadequate practice of biosecurity measures. It is therefore, recommended that awareness should be created on the prevalence of haemoparasites, further researches involving molecular cha racterization of haemoparasites should be carried out and village chicken farmers should be educated on the need for maintenance proper biosecurity measures on their farms.