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1 An Ex-Ante Economic Impact Assessment for Adoption of Transgenic Cassava Varieties in Uganda and Kenya   , Haruna Sekabira, Christopher Sebatta, Kenneth W. Sibiko,  Anton Bua, Nigel Taylor, Claude Fauquet  
Cassava is a major staple in Sub-Sahara Africa, securing several households against food poverty and hunger. However like other tropical crops, cassava is susceptible to diseases, thus threatening millions with food insecurity and severe hunger. Most notable diseases have been cassava brown streak virus (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) that in some instances cause up to 100% harvest losses. Fortunately, recent research efforts have used genetic modifications, and engineered Transgenic Cassava Varieties (TCVs) that are resistant to CBSD and CMD. But because these are recent technologies, their economic value has not yet been estimated to inform policy and other stakeholders. Using data from Kenya and Uganda, we estimate the ex-ante economic impact of TCVs. Adoption of CBSD–resistant TCVs, would bear financial benefits of US$ 436 million in Kenya and US$ 790 million in Uganda over 35 years. This would substantially enhance households’ incomes and food security.  
2 A Review on Home Yard Medicinal Plants Commonly Used in Diabetic Treatment , Avra Pratim Chowdhury, Shaikh Bokhtear Uddin, Sangita Boro, Raja Chakraborty
Bangladesh is a land of tropical forests and boggy jungle. As boasted with floral plantation of herbs made it an excellent source of medicinal plants. The modern analysis of herbal plants designed with highly esteemed source of medicine to treat Diabetes mellitus. On these consequences the researcher (Chowdhury AP1 et.al) illustrated the local application of raw medicinal products of herbs as a remedy of controlling diabetes. Herbal practitioners in Bangladesh both registered and nonregistered traditionally use some of the herbal plants and active chemical constituents which have a role in Diabetes including type 1 and type 2. The research protocols is subjected as local implementation of home yard medicinal plant to control diabetes in a minimal cost reviewing for its anti diabetic activity without side effects.
3 Effects of Cassava and Yam Peel Meals on Carcass Traits and Economics of Production of Finishing Broilers , Okechukwu SO, Peter-Damian Chukwunomso Jiwuba
A four week study was conducted using 180four weeks-old Abor acre broilers to determine the carcass traits and economics of production of finishing broilers fed cassava and yam peel meals as partial replacement for maize. They were randomly assigned to three treatment groups of 60 birds each. Each treatment group was replicated three times with twenty birds constituting a replicate. The three treatment groups were fed the three experimental diets(T1, T2 and T3)in a completely randomized design (CRD) for 28 days. Feed and water were provided ad libitum for the period. Proximate composition results revealed that cassava and yam peel meals are rich in energy and minerals. Birds on diets T1 and T3 had similar (p > 0.05) final live and de-feathered weights, which were higher (p<0.05) than those on diet T2.Birds on diet T2 and T3 had the lower (p < 0.05) carcass weight than the birds on diet T1. There were no significant (p > 0.05) differences in the cut parts and organ weights, but there were significant differences in the dressing percentage of the birds across the treatments. Revenue generated per bird was influenced (p < 0.05) with T3birds having better income. It was concluded that sun-dried yam peel meal can replace 20 percent of maize in the finishing broiler diet without adverse effects on performance and at reduced cost of production.
4 Scientific Substantiation Of The Application Of The Aerospace Research In Improving Irrigation In The Conditions Of Mineral Farming In Azerbaijan , RANS Aliyev Z.H*
At present, in the field of agricultural reclamation irrigation questions inadequately represented in Azerbaijan. Underdeveloped questions rational application of different methods of irrigation and improve the design of irrigation networks. Objectives of research Today's challenge lies in land development with high and steep slopes. In these circumstances, you must, first and foremost, to replace open irrigation network in earthen channel with the use of devices for water allocation between slots by more sophisticated devices that will fundamentally solve the issue mechanization and automation of distribution of water in irrigated fields.
5 Intellectual Irrigation Management In Mining Frozen Farming In Azerbaijan , RANS Aliyev Z.H *
This article examines the current state of soil and water resources, farmland t.ch.i Azerbaijan Republic , the problem of progressive water and wind soil degradation , the need for the organization of agriculture , taking into account the introduction of automated control systems for irrigation using water saving technology and hardware equipment in it, the study of the characteristics a nd analysis of experience implementing measures to stabilize ecological and drainage system of agriculture in conditions of insufficient moisture areas in the country , as well as basic aspects of development of environmental reclamation approach balanced, rational use of a particular system of crop rotation and crop taking into account the requirements of economic development and environmental management.
6 On The Availability Of Soil Nutrient Elements In The Southeastern Part Of The Lesser Caucasus , RANS Aliyev Z.H *
 As a result of our study, it was determined the actual status of soils in South-Eastern part of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains, in one of the most ancient agricultural zones of the Republic, where it was studied the agro ecological characteristics eroded soil here. Taking into account the quality points are designed for and fully recommended scientifically based system of erosion control measures. Genetic and production evaluation of land located in the system of vertical zonality, different in their genetic properties and taxonomic affiliation and bonitirovochny grouping of eroded soils in conditions of Azerbaijan.
7 Concentration of Iodine in Iodized Common salt at Household Level and Associated Factors In Jabitehnan Woreda, West Gojjam Zone, North West, Ethiopia , 2015: A Cross-Sectional Study , Wubetu Woyraw, Getachew Hailu, Getachew Mengistu
Background: Iodine deficiency leads to wide spectrums of health problems like abortion, stillbirth, mental retardation, physical incapability and deafness which are called iodine deficiency disorder. Universal salt iodization and iodine capsule supplementation are ways to prevent and eliminate iodine deficiency disorder. USI has preventive and corrective measure if all households consume adequately iodized salt in which iodine concentration of the salt ≥ 15PPM. The aim of this study was determining concentration of iodine in iodized common salt at household level and associated factors in Jabitehnan Woreda West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia, 2015. Methods: we conducted community based cross-sectional study design from September 15-23/2015. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 560 study participants. Data from households were collected using interview and measuring salted concentration using iodine concentration test kit. Epidata 3.1 and SPSS version 16 were used for data entry and data analysis respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify determinant factors for iodine concentration in iodized salt. Result: The iodine content in the salt samples collected from 48.3% of the households was adequate i.e., ≥15 ppm. Duration of salt storage (AOR=7.424(1.733-31.798)), packaging material (AOR=0.024(0.009-0.064)) and salt container (AOR=39.84(13.473-117.841)) were significantly associated with iodine concentration in iodized salt. Conclusion: The concentration of iodine in iodized salt was not adequate as compared to the daily requirements of household member recommended by WHO to prevented iodine deficiency disorder. Place of storage, having cover on the salt container, using salt packed with plastic material and short-term storage of salt at the household level are factors associated with concentration of iodine. Nutrition education and counselling about storage, duration, and volatility of iodized salt at household level should be given. Increasing awareness of females who are responsible for handling and utilization of iodized salt at household.
8 Purity analysis of carbofuran used in tomato (solanum lycopersicum l.) In Bangladesh , Mohammed Ariful Islam , Abdullah- Al- Numan, Md. Mahmudul Hasan Khan, Razi Uddin, Gazi Nazmul Hasan , Md. Mahbubur Rahman, Mohammad Sarfuddin  Bhuiyan
The aim of the present study was to conduct purity analysis of carbofuran, a frequently used pesticide by the farmers in tomato field. All the pesticides available in the markets were found as authorized pesticides and none of them were found to be extremely hazardous according to the WHO recommended classification except carbofuran. Therefore to find out present quality status of carbofuran (5G) products available in market, purity analysis of randomly chosen thirteen samples was done by GC-FID. Among them the highest concentration was found 6.82%. No carbofuran content was found in two samples. Most accurate concentration was 5.04%. The present study indicates that there is a high chance to have residual effects of pesticides in tomato as a result of preharvest or postharvest application. Most of the farmers do not know about health risk issue of using agro-chemicals. In case of purity analysis of Carbofuran, approximately 46% samples showed overconcentration, 30% showed below concentration and two samples showed no concentration of Active ingredient (AI). This variation in results indicates the reason why farmers tend to go with non-judicial application of pesticides. The level of pesticide residues in tomato is affected by washing, preparatory steps, heating or cooking, processing during product manufacturing and post-harvest handling and storage.  It is important to aware the farmers to follow the recommended dose of registered pesticides and the consumers to proper handling and processing of tomato for safe consumption. Information on health risk, exposure assessment was also highlighted for public awareness. Suggestions were provided on the handling and processing such as washing, cooking, boiling, packing, storage etc. for the safety of the consumers.
9 Risk Assessment of Commonly Used Major Pesticides for Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Cultivation in Bangladesh , Abdullah- Al- Numan, Md.Mahmudul Hasan Khan*, Razi Uddin,  Md. Mahbubur Rahman, Mohammad Sarfuddin Bhuiyan, Nadia Akter
 The aim of the present study was risk assessment that is hazard characterization and human exposure assessment of chemically treated tomato available in different production areas of Bangladesh. To do the risk assessment primarily a list of available pesticides in three different region of Bangladesh (Mymensingh, Narshindgdi and Jessore) was prepared by field visit and survey. Secondarily to determine the potential health risks associated with the exposures to these pesticides a scenario based on MSDS (material safety data sheet) evaluation was given. Moreover, ADI (acceptable daily intake), MRL (maximum residue level) and RfD (reference dose) value of agro-chemicals were also used which were referred by different organizations like WHO, EPA, FDA, EFSA, FAO, Codex. According to the field survey, most common agro-chemicals were taken to the study. All the pesticides available in the markets were found as authorized pesticides and none of them were found to be extremely hazardous according to the WHO recommended classification except Carbofuran. The present study indicates that there is a high chance to have residual effects of pesticides in tomato as a result of pre-harvest or postharvest application. Most of the farmers do not know about health risk issue of using agro-chemicals. It is important to aware the farmers to follow the recommended dose of registered pesticides and the consumers to proper handling and processing of tomato for safe consumption. Information on health risk, exposure assessment was also highlighted for public awareness. Suggestions were provided on the handling and processing such as washing, cooking, boiling, packing, storage etc. for the safety of the consumers. Farmers use both recommended and non-recommended pesticides for tomato production. In most cases farmers do not follow the recommended dose and rational pesticide application. Among the most commonly used pesticides, Carbofuran was found to be highly hazardous.
10 A Study on the Indicators of Nutritional Status of Children of Historically Disadvantaged Agri-Business Families in South Africa , Awonke Sonandi*, ElliotMahlengule Zwane, Johan Adam Van Niekerk
Background: There is scarce information on the nutritional status of children of historically disadvantaged agri-business smallholders. Objective: To evaluate the nutritional status of children from historically disadvantaged agri-business families. Methodology: The study’s purposeful sample comprised of 263 agri-business households that generated an annual turnover of $11 811 - $39 370, and 327 children aged 5-14 years. A 3-day 24h dietary recall method was administered and questionnaires were used to assess the households’ socio-economic status, and the caregivers’ nutritional knowledge, and practices. Food models and Food finder III nutritional software were used to improve the accuracy of recorded food quantities. Statistical Package for Social Sciences, Version 20, was used for statistical analyses. Results: Generally, the agri-business households had modest feeding practices. The majority of their households had a monthly non-farm income of $78.82 - $118.11 (32.9%), and monthly food expenditure of $55.20 - $70.87 (23.2%).The average annual farm income payable to each agri-business smallholder was $2 903.The mean food variety score was low at 23.431±7.89, while the mean dietary diversity score was debatably high at 7.82±4.53.The households’ non-farm income was positively highly correlated to food expenditure (p<0.01).In turn, food expenditure had a significant influence on food variety score (p<0.01) and dietary diversity score (p<0.05).The majority of children had normal weight-to-age (80.14%), normal height-to-age (90.7%) and normal body mass index-for-age Z-scores (56.57%).However, the risk of overweight, the actual overweight and obesity were a concern as they were evident among 36.39%, 6% and 8% of the children, respectively. Conclusion: The agri-business families consumed meals that were predominantly carbohydrates-based, and had low food variety score and debatably high dietary diversity score. The majority of children had normal anthropometric dimensions that were indicative of good nutritional status. However, overweight / obesity appeared a creeping problem than is stunting and wasting.
11 Diabetes Glaucoma Cure & Type2 Insulin Dependent Cure (Due to Obesity and Stress Related Diabetes , Vivek Kamath*
Statement of the Problem: Diabetes Type 2 & Glaucoma Healing. As most of us are aware Type 2 diabetes can be controlled and cured completely with the diet, workouts (yoga), effective stress management and other healing methods.
12 An Ex-Ante Economic Impact Assessment for Adoption of Transgenic Cassava Varieties in Uganda and Kenya , Haruna Sekabira*, Christopher Sebatta, Kenneth W. Sibiko,  Anton Bua, Nigel Taylor, Claude Fauquet
Cassava is a major staple in Sub-Sahara Africa, securing several households against food poverty and hunger. However like other tropical crops, cassava is susceptible to diseases, thus threatening millions with food insecurity and severe hunger. Most notable diseases have been cassava brown streak virus (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease (CMD) that in some instances cause up to 100% harvest losses. Fortunately, recent research efforts have used genetic modifications, and engineered Transgenic Cassava Varieties (TCVs) that are resistant to CBSD and CMD. But because these are recent technologies, their economic value has not yet been estimated to inform policy and other stakeholders. Using data from Kenya and Uganda, we estimate the ex-ante economic impact of TCVs. Adoption of CBSD–resistant TCVs, would bear financial benefits of US$ 436 million in Kenya and US$ 790 million in Uganda over 35 years. This would substantially enhance households’ incomes and food security.
13 Constructions, Applications and the Environment of Greenhouses , Abdeen Mustafa Omer*
A greenhouse is essentially an enclosed structure, which traps the short wavelength solar radiation and stores the long wavelength thermal radiation to create a favourable microclimate for higher productivity. The sun’s radiation incident on the greenhouse has two parts: direct radiation and an associated diffuse sky radiation. The diffuse part is not focused by the lenses and goes right through Frensel lenses onto the surface of the absorbers. This energy is absorbed and transformed into heat, which is then transported via the liquid medium in copper pipes to the water (heat) storage tanks or, if used, open fish tanks. In this way, an optimal temperature for both plant cultivation and fish production can be maintained. Stable plant growth conditions are light, temperature and air humidity. Light for the photosynthesis of plants comes from the diffuse radiation, which is without substantial fluctuations and variation throughout most of the day. The air temperature inside the greenhouse is one of the factors that have an influence on the precocity of production. The selective collector acts in a more perceptible way on extreme air temperatures inside the greenhouse. Hence, the system makes it possible to avoid the excessive deviation of the temperature inside the greenhouse and provides a favourable microclimate for the precocity of the culture. Sediment and some associated water from the sediment traps are used as organic fertiliser for the plant cultivation. The present trend in greenhouse cultivation is to extend the crop production season in order to maximise use of the equipment and increase annual productivity and profitability. However, in many Mediterranean greenhouses, such practices are limited because the improper cooling methods (mainly natural or forced ventilation) used do not provide the desired micro-climatic condition during the summer of a composite climate. Also, some of these greenhouses have been built where the meteorological conditions require some heating during the winter, particularly at night. The worst scenario is during the winter months when relatively large difference in temperature between day and night occurs. However, overheating of the greenhouse during the day is common, even in winter, requiring ventilation of the structure. Hence, several techniques have been proposed for the storage of the solar energy received by the greenhouse during the day and its use to heat the structure at night. Reviews of such techniques are presented in this chapter. Air or water can be used for heat transport. The circulating water is heated during the day via two processes. The water absorbs part of the infrared radiation of the solar spectrum.
14 Study and Determination of the best Plant Density and Planting Patterns of Silage Corn (zea mays l.), H.S.C. 704 Cultivar , Alireza Saberi*
To examine the effect of plant densities and sowing patterns on yield and agronomical characteristics of corn (hybrid S.C.704), a field experiment was conducted at agricultural research station of Gorgan. This experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design arranged in a factorial with four replications. Forage corn experiment had four levels of plant densities (D1=65000, D2=75000, D3=85000, D4=95000) and with two planting arrangements ( p1=single row and p2=double row 15 cm space apart ). The results showed; there was significant difference between planting arrangement for total dry matter, number of kernel per ear, kernel per row, ear length and double row produced higher amount for all above characters. In addition, plant density had a significant effect on total dry weight, number of kernel per year, number of row per year, total fresh weight, ear length at 0.01 probability levels and with an increase in plant density amount of biomass increased. The highest forage yield was produced by 95000 plant density and 15 centimetre double row at 5% significant (93.31 ton ha-1). It might be concluded that by using double row planting pattern the inter plant competition could be decreased and higher yield might be produced.
15 Dissipation Behaviour of Fluopyram and Tebuconazole in/on  Pomegranate , CS Patil*, Shashi Vemuri, BV Deore, YS Saindane, K Kavitha, V Anitha
Supervised field trial was conducted in 2016 to determine the residues and dissipation of fluopyram, its metabolite and tebuconazole in/on  pomegranate and in soil resulting from spray application of fluopyram + tebuconazole (Luna Experience 400 SC) @ 0.075 % and 0.15 % concentration (75+75 and 150+150 g a.i./ha) by giving two sprays of fluopyram 200 + tebuconazole 200 (Luna Experience  400 SC) at an interval of 10 days, initiating first spray at fruit setting stage. Samples were collected at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 20th day after second spray. Third spray was given 15 days before harvest and mature fruits and soil samples were collected at harvest. Residues of fluopyram dissipated with a half life of 4.90 and 5.29 days, at recommended and double dose, respectively. For tebuconazole, the half life values recorded were 5.02 and 4.86 days respectively. The residues reached below quantification limit (BQL) on 15th and 20th day in both the fungicides at recommended and double the recommended dose, respectively. Results suggest that Pre-Harvest Interval (PHI) of 13.74 and 12.59 at recommended dose  whereas 21.92 and 18.97 days at double the recommended dose can be proposed for fluopyram and tebuconazole, respectively when applied at 75 g a.i./ha and 150 g a.i./ha.
16 Factors That Influence Farmer’s Adoption of Citrus GergaLebong Technology in Bengkulu Indonesia , Umi Pudji Astuti*, Dedi. Sugandi, Heni Purwaningsih
The adoption technology infuenced by internal dan external factors. The internal factors included knowledge, skill, the education level, farmer age, farming activities, and the external factors are the distance to the supplies production market, the distance to the field, price of product, and transportation. Citrus agribusiness development in Lebong is certainly supported by the role of stacholder and citrus farmers, as well as the proper dissemination of methods. Adoption process in the extension can be interpreted as the changes of behavior process such knowledge (cognitive), attitude (affective), and skill (psycho-motoric) in a person after the received "the innovation" from extension worker by target communities. The outputs of this study were: 1)to analyze the factors that influenced farmers' adoption; 2) to analyze the effectiveness of field day method in improving farmers’ cognitive and affective ability; 3)to know the relationship between the knowledge and the adoption level of the farmers. The methods of this study were field day and survey to 76 respondents with the structured questionmaire by deep interview in Rimbo Pengadang Sub District, Lebong Regency in 2014. Data analysis was done by descriptive and statistical parametric methods (multiple linear functions). The results showed that: 1) The factors that influence farmers’ adoption level toward   PTKJS are the internal factors such as: education, knowledge, training intensity, and the external factors like: distance from home to field farming, distance from home to production supplies store; 2) The field day method was effective in improving the farmers’ knowledge (23.17% ) and the farmers’ affective ability in the cultivation of citrus RGL is positive with the score  of 4.03; 3)The identification of the adoption level shows that there is a very close and  positive relationship between farmers’ knowledge level and farmers’ adoption level about PTKJS innovation.
17 Physico-Chemical and Functional Characteristics of Palmyrah (Borassus flabellifer L) Spongy Haustorium flour , C. Vengaiah*, B. Vijaya kumari, G. N. Murthy, K.R Prasad
 Palmyrah spongy haustorium is delicious and nutritive product from palmyrah seed nut at sprouting stage. It is also known as spongy endosperm and Thavan. The aim of this study is to determine the physico-chemical and functional properties of Palmyra spongy endosperm for its utilisation. The spongy endosperm collected and dried at 60 °C for 24 hrs, milled using pulveriser to pass through a 250 μm sieve, packaged in polyethylene bag and kept in a refrigerator (4 °C). The moisture content of the palmyrah spongy endosperm flour was 5.5 %. The ash and fat contents (dry matter basis) were 5.0 % and 2.1 % respectively. The protein content and carbohydrate content were 5.4 %, and 70.0 % respectively. The pH value is 7.0. Water absorption capacity (2.8%), fat absorption capacity (1.0 %) and bulk density (56 g/cm3) were recorded for the palmyrah spongy haustorium flour. The values for swelling power, foam capacity and foam stability were 345%, 5 % and 20 min respectively. The values moderately higher than of similar flours and the flour may be used direct or combined with other flours for preparation of foods.
18 Amino Acid Profiles and Cytotoxicity of Mirabilis expansa (Ruiz and Pav.) Standl.; Baseline Data for A Rare Indigenous Andean Crop , M Kritzer Van Zant*, WJ Banz, HB Chai, G Apgar, DA Lightfoot
  Rare, indigenous, Andean Mirabilis expansa (Ruiz and Pav.) Standl. (Nyctaginaceae), has promise as a new, green, climate change resistant crop for arid areas. Leaves and stems were used as fodder, roots and rhizomes for human food. Two crop varieties of M. expansa were grown in lysimeter sand plots in southern Illinois. Herbage and root profiles were compared to amino acid profiles for other crops, eggs and milk. Quinoa, wheat, soybeans, and skim milk had greater percentages than M. expansa of all individual amino acids reported. However, M. expansa samples have all essential amino acids, and matched or exceeded other sources examined for percentages of crude and total protein. Total protein per 100 g dry sample averaged 5.98 g in roots and 24.43 g in leaves. Cytotoxic, non-volatile micro molecules were not detected in methanol extracts of M. expansa assayed against HT-29 colon cancer cells. Processing should improve palatability and food safety for this crop.
19 Nourishment & Nutrient Information , Monica Butnariu*, Ioan Sarac
 Eating and choosing a balanced diet are permanent concerns of human society since ancient times. Nutrition, the most important component of quality of life, has been the engine of humanity. Since ancient times, with no knowledge of physics, chemistry, engineering, biology, society has evolved due to the need and desire to consume food. Throughout life, biological systems, including humans, are subject to stress that free radicals have an important contribution to. Nourishment a voluntary and conscious, and therefore educative process. This depends on a free decision of the individual. That's why adherence to healthier eating habits calls for a deep conviction. Nutrition is no doubt the custom that most influences people's health. Human Nutrition is the totality of the physiological processes by which the human body acquires the necessary nutrition to grow and develop, to obtain energy for vital processes, to restore tissues, etc.  
20 Research on the Combination of Commercially Available Thickeners and Nutritional Supplemental Drink -Aiming At the Care Food That Can Be Done In the General Family - , Shoko Kondo, Megumi Oohashi, Naomi Katayama*
Background: Japan is currently a super-aged society with a percentage of people aged 65 and over exceeding 27.8%. According to the survey results of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, it was found that there were many elderly people who wanted to take care at home. It turned out that a total of 75.5%of the elderly wanted to receive family care or care services at home. Therefore, eating problems in home care are taken up a lot. Material and Methods: Food viscosity was tested using the line spread test (LST). Since commercial products differ in each maker, in order to adjust viscosity, it is necessary to adjust according to each maker’s instruction. A survey of viscosity control foods, thickeners and solidification supplements; nutraceuticals was conducted in the internet, pharmacy, and supermarkets. The available commercial food was actually purchased and the viscosity checked by LST. Results: As a result, we found 23 companies and 90 types (53 types of viscosity control food and 37 types of solidification supplements). Among them, we selected three types of viscosity control foods. Moreover, as for the commercial food which adjusted viscosity, the jelly was the six products and 13 types of taste, and the beverage was the seven products and 25 types of taste. Among them, we selected jelly foods and dietary supplement beverage that are also available to the general household. Food viscosity was tested using the line spread test (LST).It was found that when the food contains a large amount of protein and lipid, it is difficult to obtain viscosity depending on the compatibility with the thickener. Conclusion: The compatibility between the viscosity control food and the solidifying food supplement sold by each manufactures is good. When combining products from other companies, it is necessary to make adjustments and optimize in advance.  
21 Quality Improvement of Thai Flat Rice Noodle Restructured with Starch Digested Enzyme and Resistant Rice Starch Type III , Jirapa Pongjanta* and Chutima Lerdluksamee
Traditional flat rice noodle (gÅ­ay-dtÄ­eow) is popular food in which was elastic texture and sweet taste of natural rice without food additive and chemical modified starch added. Now a day many traditional GÅ­ay-dtÄ­eowfactory got problem on elasticity texture, because of the physicochemical quality of broken rice change due to the climate change. Thus, the objective of this work is effort to improve the properties of flat rice noodle by using food grade enzyme and resistant rice starch type III (RSS III). Three food greed enzyme namely Pululanase (PLN), a-amylase (AML) and Glucoamylase (GML) were added during soaking broken rice grain for 16 hrs. The water from soaked rice were taken to analysis of total soluble solid, pH, and glucose content. The result found that the soaked rice water from 0.012% and 0.015% of  AML was the highest of total soluble solid(TSS) (2.2 and 2.8oBrix) and glucose (10.27 and 15.34 g/100g glucose std.) and following by PLN and GML which was 0.9, 0.8, 0.5 and 0.4oBrix and 1.49,3.12, 1.22 and  2.55 g/100g glucose, respectively. The soaked rice samples were stone mill with water to produced rice flour slurry prior addition of cassava flour in the rice solution and mixed well before steaming, cutting and physicochemical analysis. Result revealed that the 0.012% glucoamylase treatment could improve the quality of the traditional Thai flat rice noodle which lowers on cooking lost value, higher in tension test and overall acceptance by 30 trained panelists than the other treatments. Thus, the GML enzyme treatment was selected for improvement of nutritional quality of the flat rice noodle by adding RRSIII with 0, 1 and 2% of total rice flour solution. Results revealed that the 1% of RRS III was the lowest on cooking loss, highest in Tensile-strength and total acceptance score by 30 panelists. In addition, nutrition value and in vitro starch digestibility revealed that an increase of RRS III content was a significant higher in resistant starch content and dietary fiber.
22 Effects of Storage Time on the Physicochemical Properties of Shortenings Produced from Tallow Tree (Allanblackia floribunda) Seed and African Pear (Dacryodes edulis) Pulp Oils , Akusu O.M*, Wordu G.O, Obiesie C
The objective of this work was to evaluate the changes that occur in physicochemical characteristics of bakery shortenings produced from the oils of African pear pulp and tallow tree seed during storage, so as to ascertain its keeping quality. Edible oils were extracted from the pulp and seeds of African pear (Dacryodes edulis) and tallow tree (Allanblackia floribunda), respectively, using bulk extraction method. The oils were blended in the ratios of 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 (tallow tree seed oil: African pear pulp oil), emulsified, homogenized, pasteurized and crystalized to form bakery shortenings which were labelled as samples B1, B2, B3 and B4, respectively. The shortenings were stored in opaque sealed plastic cups at room temperature (28±20C) for 80 days. Changes in physicochemical characteristics were studied in intervals of 20 days till the end of the storage period. The result proved no significant (p>0.05) change in refractive index of the samples. Slip melting point (SMP) of all the products increased significantly (p<0.05) during the storage period. The SMP of samples B1, B2, and B4 increased from 35.36 – 36.380C, 35.30 – 36.300C and 35.46 – 36.900C, respectively. Samples B1, B2 and B3 did not show any significant change (P>0.05) in smoke point throughout the 80 days storage period. The smoke point of sample B4 reduced significantly from 205.20 – 203.770C. Iodine value (IV) of the shortenings for samples B1 and B2 reduced slightly from day zero to day 80. Though, these reductions were not significant (p>0.05) while that of samples B3 and B4 reduced significantly from 47.23 – 47.08g/100g and 49.23 – 48.01g/100g, respectively. There was no significant increase in peroxide value (PV) and percentage free fatty acids (FFA) of the shortenings. The FFA of sample B2 increased slightly from 0.106 – 0.110%, 0.094 – 0.101% for B3 and B4 0.081 – 0.090% during the 80 days storage period. This showed that shortenings can be formulated from the blends of Allanblackia seed and African pear pulp oils since the product recorded quality physicochemical characteristics and prolonged shelf stability.
23 Creatine Supplementation: Resisted, Sprint and Jump Training Program , Juliano Elias Farah, Maria Gisele Dos Santos*
Great results regarding physical activity and performance (increasing muscular strength, power, and endurance) may be obtained through appropriate dietary diet, associated with the structure-training program. Creatine supplementation seems to promote increases in strength (relative and absolute) and muscular power, and its effects are more evident in predominantly anaerobic activities; however, some studies have demonstrated evidence in aerobic activities (increase in performance in intermittent aerobic activities and modifications in the use of energy substrates during movement).  Physical Activities such as strength training (resistive exercises), jumps, and sprints appear to be significantly affected by creatine supplementation. Up to the present time, there is no evidence that creatine can cause health problems; therefore; people, who want to improve their athletic performance, might use creatine as a supplement.
24 Perceived Effects of Usage of Mobile Phone Applications for Nutritional Benefits and Factors Affecting the Usage , Bander Alkhudairi*, Mohammed Alkarni, Noor Alhazmi
Mobile applications for nutritional benefits are effective in improving the quality of health, though factors exist as to their usage. The study sought to investigate the perception of the effects of the applications and the factors affecting the use of the applications in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. More than half of the studied patients (52.48%) reported not using the applications. The effectiveness of the applications, however, is held among majority of clients, users and non-users of the applications, and dietetics professionals, with perceived effects such as helping to find sought information and improving health. The applications, perceived usefulness of the applications and the need for personalized care, however, are factors affecting their use. Moderating the factors to support use of the applications can improve quality of health in the Kingdom.  
25 Dietary Consumption and Cancer Prevention , Fatima Irfan*
Cancer is applied to large group of diseases characterized by multiplication of abnormal cells, caused by the changes in genes in DNA. Some cancer may eventually spread and reside into other tissues, affecting almost any part of the body. There are more than 200 types of cancers, carcinoma, leukemia, lymphoma to name a few. According to WHO 9.6 million people were estimated to die from cancer in 2018, making it as the second leading cause of mortality globally. Deaths from cancer worldwide are projected to reach over 13 million in 2030, accounting for 45% between 2008-2030. Another study at WHO, 70% of deaths from cancer occur in low and middle-income countries. 30-50% or one third of all cancer demise could be minimized and prevented by avoiding key risk factors, implementing dietary and lifestyle modifications. Healthy changes such as consuming and adapting a balanced diet, including fruits and vegetables, high consumption of fiber, salt preserved foods, reducing smoking and alcohol, taking vitamins and minerals can translate and transform life. Herbs and natural products such as anti-oxidants, flavones, omega-3 fatty acids, carotenoids and vitamins provides substantial therapeutic value in cancer as well as several diseases. Cancer harms virtually every aspect of health and life. Healthy living is not cast-iron guarantee against cancer, but the odds are in the favor of reducing and pressing pause of developing risks.
26 Food Protein Induced Enterocolitis Syndrome to Quinoa , Vásconez-Montalvo A*, Carrión-Jaramillo E, Vásconez-Muñoz F, Naranjo-Estrella A, Borrero-Cruz C
Food protein induced enterocolitis is a non-IgE, cell mediated food allergy. It is not a well-known condition, but it can be severe in some children. The predominant feature is vomit 1 to 4 hours after consuming the offending food. There is limited evidence of allergic reactions to quinoa and generally it has been considered to be safe for children diagnosed with food induced enterocolitis (FPIES) to other foods. There is not enough data on FPIES to solid foods since these are rarely considered as potential triggers for this entity. After a review of the literature we found that there are no reported cases of FPIES to quinoa. We report a case of a toddler that was admitted to the emergency department with unenforceable vomiting and diarrhea with dehydration signs and increased abdominal sounds. The laboratory results showed metabolic acidosis, and the infectious parameters were negative. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of FPIES to quinoa.
27 Establishment of Some Health Benefits in Consumption of Cocoa Powder among Secondary Schools Students in Southwest Nigeria , Jayeola Olayinka Christianah*, Aroyeun SO, Ogunwolu SO, Yahaya LE, Famuyiwa SB, Lawal JO, Williams OA, Olubamiwa O
There are increasing literature evidence and anecdotal reports worldwide on the health benefits of cocoa powder consumption. Regular consumption of cocoa powder beverage (95-100% cocoa powder) has been shown to combat malaria, diabetes and increase wellness. The study specifically established reports of some health benefits of cocoa consumption such as; increase in wellness, educational performance and alertness through consumption of cocoa powder. The study was carried out in 4 states; Ogun, Oyo, Ekiti and Osun in Southwest Nigeria. Two thousand four hundred respondents; between the ages of 10-15 years were randomly selected from the class register of 12 secondary schools and where parent negated inclusion students were substituted. They were included for daily consumption of cocoa drink for 8 weeks. Permissions were obtained from parents and the ministries of education and health. Information was solicited using key interpretative methods; Participant observers, unstructured interview, recorded video and individual class results before and after. The study revealed that 50.17% were male while 49.83% were female, the mean scores of educational performance before was 4.70 + 1.39, and 6.8 + 2.17 after. Reports from participants’ observers claimed improvement in class attendance, student educational performances; increase in wellness while 62.17% liked the taste, 64% preferred it to other drink and 81.65% like it as a daily drink. Responses were also documented from their Teachers and some parents who were persuaded for their wards inclusion wished the program be emulated by the government. It was concluded that consumption of cocoa powder and cocoa products will increase cocoa market and consequently achieve better price for cocoa farmers and combat some health challenges.
28 Biopreservation of Meat by Using Antimicrobial Proprieties of Essential Oil from Laggera Aurita in Burkina Faso , Henriette B. Mihin*, Marius K. Somda, Donatien Kabore, Souleymane Sanon, Agbémébia Y. Akakpo, Alfred S.Traore,  Aboubakar S. Ouattara1
Essential oils are natural substances which can be used as natural conservators for foods. The present work aimed to evaluate biological proprieties of essential oil of Laggera aurita and its effect on shelf-life of beef. The extraction was carried out by hydro-distillation. Antioxidant activity was determined by method of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and FRAP (Ferric reduction antioxidant power). Antimicrobial activity was determined by microdilution and diffusion. Eleven pathogens strains were tested. The conservation test of ground meat using essential oil was carried out by monitoring the evolution of different microbial groups. Extraction showed 0.22 % yield of essential oil. The DPPH assay gave IC50 of 10.562 ± 0.3305 µL. The essential oil of Laggera aurita showed inhibitory activity on Bacillus cereus (50.000 ± 2.143 mm), Listeria monocytogenes (48.167 ± 2.472 mm), Staphylococcus aureus (47.667 ± 1.027 mm) and Clostridium perfringens (30.167 ± 1.472 mm). The MIC varied from 0.065 ± 0.009 % to 2.083 ± 0.139 % and the MBC from 0.312 ± % to 5.000 %. Biopreservation assay using essential oil revealed an important decrease of microbial charge in the ground. The results demonstrated that essential oil from Laggera aurita could be used as natural conservator for food industry.
29 Effects of Planting Dates on Nutritional and Phytochemical Compositions of Onion Varieties under Rain-Fed and Irrigation Facilities in Ogbomoso, Nigeria , Olaniyi Joel Oyekunle*
Onion is a high value vegetable consumed in Nigeria on a daily basis, and it forms an integral part of diet but the nutritional quality is low due to lack of appropriate cultural practices. The study examined the effects of planting dates on the nutritional quality of onion varieties in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Five onion varieties (Local white, local red, karibou, gandiol+ and safari) were subjected intofour different planting dates namely, two under rainfed (early April and August) and two under irrigation (early September and November). The 5 x 4 factorial treatment combinations were arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. Onion bulbs and leaves were collected separately from six plants in each treatment and used for proximate analysis. The mineral (N, P, K, Ca and Mg), nutritional and phytochemical compositions (protein, fat, crude fiber, ash, moisture content, vitamin C and quercetin) of onion bulbs and leaves were assessed. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance. The results showed that variety significantly influenced the minerals, nutritional and phytochemical compositions of onion leaves and bulbs. Karibou contained highest minerals, nutritional (except fat) and phytochemical compositions of onion leaves, while local white gave the least values. The vitamin C and quercetin contents of the onion bulbs were higher (20.08 and 0.59 g/mg, respectively) in karibou as compared to other varieties. Planting date exerted significant influence on the nutritional quality of onion leaves and bulbs. The highest quercetin content of 0.58 and 0.23 g/mg for onion bulb and leaves respectively, were obtained from onion planted in November, while April planting date gave the least values.
30 The Mind of Misbranding-An Exploratory Study , Howard R Moskowitz, Aurora A Saulo*, Ryan Zemel, Yehoshua Deitel, Attila Gere
Mind Genomics, an advanced form of conjoint analysis, was applied to investigate how different statements on food labels with geographical indications are perceived to be truthful versus deceptive. Stimuli comprising typical combinations of messages or vignettes (as opposed to single messages) were combined by experimental design with each respondent evaluating different vignette on a bipolar scale of deceptive to truthful. Regression analysis revealed the degree to which each message drove the perception of both truthful and deceptive information on food labels. Respondents considered it truthful when the name or brand or vignette of the product is consistent with the manufacturer’s location declared on the package. Two mind-sets emerged with different interpretations of misbranding. Mindset 1 considered it deceiving (misbranded) when there is no relation between contents, name, brand, or vignette of the product and the manufacturer’s location. Mindset 2 considered labels misbranded when there are no sensible facts. Both mindsets agreed on the need for truthful and honest food labels with geographical indications.
31 Assessment of Nutrition Knowledge of Students Enrolled in Human Performance and Leisure Studies Courses at Historically Black Colleges University , Heather L. Colleran*, Tiffany M. Fuller, Roberta Claro da Silva
Introduction: Approximately one-third of all college students aged 18-29 were classified as overweight or obese, increasing their risk for chronic disease. Nutritional knowledge is an important first step to developing strategist to improve the food choices of college students and promote healthy lifestyle behaviors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the current nutritional knowledge of students enrolled in courses within the Human Performance and Leisure Studies (HPLS) Department at an HBCU. Methods: Paper based surveys were used to administer the 56-question Nutritional Knowledge Questionnaire (NKQ) for students enrolled in HPLS courses in Spring 2017. Results: Response rate was 65.6% (n=236). Gender distribution was equal among the surveyed students (45.3% male vs. 53.8% females). The majority reported majoring in sports science and fitness management (SSFM) (76.7%), were between 18-24 years old (86.9%) with a self-identified ethnic origin of Black or African American (89.8%). The average nutritional knowledge score was 49.2 +/- 9.8 or 44.8%. Knowledge of diet-disease relationship was higher in females (5.4 +/- 1.9) compared to males (4.8 +/- 2.3), p = 0.03. Conclusion: In this study, we found a need to improve nutritional knowledge in college students enrolled in select HPLS courses in the spring of 2017 at an HBCU. The findings highlight a gap in nutrition education and the opportunity to develop courses or programs aimed at healthful eating for students majoring in SSFM or attending an HBCU.  
32 Natural Way to Take Control of Diseases Caused By Microorganisms , Bin Zhao*, Xia Jiang, Jinming Cao
The present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of aqueous extracts of Malus domestica (peel and pomace) against food-borne pathogens (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus feacalis). Extraction conditions (temperature and time) were optimized to obtain maximum yield by using response surface methodology. Antibacterial potentials of the extracts were examined through disc inhibition zone technique and the results were compared with commercial antibiotic. Results indicated that maximum antibacterial activity was shown by peel extract against Staphylococcus aureus with average zone of inhibition 19.25±0.89 mm while pomace 12.75±0.71 mm. The antibacterial activities of peel extract were comparable with commercial antibiotic (20.13±0.83 mm). Escherichia coli were appeared to be the most resistant with inhibition induced by the extracts of peel 15.00±1.07 mm and pomace11.50±0.53mm.
33 Evaluation of the Physico-chemical, Thermal, and Behavioural Properties of Consciousness Energy Healing Treated Thiamine Hydrochloride , Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Snehasis Jana*
Thiamine hydrochloride plays an important role in the cellular production of energy and is also responsible for enhancing normal neuronal activities. This study was designed to determine the impact of the Trivedi Effect® on the physicochemical, spectral, and thermal properties of thiamine hydrochloride. For this, the sample was divided into two parts, i.e., control and treated. The control part was kept untreated, while the treated part received the Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi. The particle size values in the treated sample were significantly altered by 5.63% (d10), -6.27% (d50), -11.37% (d90), and -8.04% {D (4, 3)} compared to the control sample. The specific surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 1.36% than the control sample. Besides, the PXRD relative peak intensities and the crystallite sizes of characteristic peaks in the treated sample were significantly altered from -10.73% to 19.15% and -11.77% to 14.29%, respectively, compared to the control sample. Moreover, the average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 2.93% in comparison to the control sample. The total weight loss of the treated sample was decreased by 1.10% compared with the control sample. The DSC data showed a slight increase in the melting and dehydration temperature of the treated sample; however, the latent heat corresponding to those points was altered by 8.37% and -35.24%, respectively, compared with the control sample. Thus, the thermal stability of the treated sample was observed to be increased than the untreated sample. The Trivedi Effect® might help in producing a novel polymorphic form of thiamine hydrochloride that may possess improved solubility, absorption, bioavailability, and thermal stability compared with the untreated sample. The Biofield Energy Treated thiamine hydrochloride would be helpful in designing more efficacious pharmaceutical formulation against vitamin B1 deficiency diseases such as, ulcerative colitis, poor appetite, diarrhoea, diabetic pain, boosting the immune system, alcoholism, heart disease, cataract, glaucoma, cerebellar syndrome, canker sores, aging, motion sickness, Alzheimer's disease, Wernicke's encephalopathy syndrome, alcohol withdrawal, and preventing memory loss, etc.
34 Influences of Different Storage Conditions on Postharvest Quality of Mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Sein Ta Lone) , P.P. Lei Yi, T. T. Soe*, Y.Yamamoto, KT.D Myint
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the most exportable fruits in Myanmar. “Sein Ta Lone” (STL) mango is the most popular variety and the highest postharvest losses due to the most perishable fruit. The objectives of this study are to investigate respiration and ethylene production rates of STL mango and to assess the postharvest quality and storage life as affected by different storage conditions. The wrapping materials were foam net sack and paper; non wrapped fruit was treated as control. The fruits were stored at room temperature and the optimum cold storage temperature of mango at 13ËšC. Treatments were laid out by factorial arrangement in randomized complete block design with four replications. The data on weight loss, color index, skin firmness, Brix%, total titratable acidity, respiration rate, ethylene production and shelf life were analyzed. The fruits stored at 13ËšC significantly showed the longer shelf life than those stored at room temperature. There were no significant differences in color index and shelf life of fruits among the wrapping treatments at room temperature. Thus, STL mango can be stored the shelf life of 7 days at ambient condition (36ËšC, 50% RH) and 14 days at 13ËšC.The ethylene production and respiration rates of STL mango under 13ËšC were considerably lower than that of room temperature storage. The ethylene production and respiration rates were not significantly different among the wrapping treatments at respective temperatures. The minimum rate of respiration and ethylene production of untreated mango were 10.37 mg kg-1hr-1 and 0.24 ul kg-1hr-1, respectively. The results were revealed that net sack wrapping could be used at room temperature storage due to lower weight loss and ethylene production rate while paper wrapping could be used at cold temperature storage of 13ËšC due to lower ethylene production and respiration rate with higher value of color index than other treatments.
35 Linking Food Endorsement Labels & Messaging to Perceived Price and Emotions. A Mind Genomics® Exploration   , Aurora A Saulo1*, Howard R Moskowitz2, Attila Gere3, Petraq Papajorgji4, Linda Ettinger Lieberman5, Dvora Feuerwerker6  
      Respondents evaluated systematically created vignettes (short combinations), comprising actual logos, along with messages. The approach, Mind Genomics, allows each respondent to evaluate a unique set of combinations, rating each combination on two attributes, appropriate price and feeling/emotion best describing one’s feeling after reading the vignette. The experimental design uncovers the relation between the presence/absence of the 36 elements (including logos and messaging), and both the selected price and linkage to positive and negative emotions, respectively. The results were analyzed for total panel, gender, those who identified themselves as halal or kosher, respectively, and emergent mind-sets.         The authors concluded that the use of the Mind Genomics approach did not produce clear segmentation when the respondent made a judgment of price or emotion. They were just different. Halal users were willing to pay much more for halal food and those with labels that stress the Muslin Qur’anic origin than were kosher users. The Torah origin of kosher did not dramatically increase the price willing-to-pay of kosher users. Halal users appeared to be more positive toward halal food, than kosher users including when they read about halal. Thus, the strongest relations emerged from respondents who identified themselves as halal users. The application of Mind Genomics to any aspect of everyday life expands many types of scientific studies.  
36 Enzyme Supplementation in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Glutenase vs. Lactase   , István G Télessy*
      Recently, enzyme supplementation in frequently occurring digestive diseases, like lactose and gluten intolerance became more and more popular. Unfortunately, some myths have born in connection with these treatment options. Etiology of the diseases and the background and mechanism of action of these therapeutic enzymes are addressed in the review.    
37 The Olfactometry Results for Ten Years (2009-2018) In the Yakumo Study by Using the Odor Stick Identification Test   , Naomi Katayama1,2,3*, Shoko Kondo4, Yui Nakayama2, Takafumi Nakada5, Seiya Goto3, Satofumi Sugimoto3, Wakako Kinoshita3, Masaaki Teranisi3, Michihiko Sone3, Yasushi Fujimoto3, Hironao Otake6, Hirokazu Suzuki5, Seiichi Nakata7, Tsutomu Nakashima8, Kenji Kondo9, Takaki Miwa10
      For ten years (2009-2018), we have conducted olfactory examination by using the Odor Stick Identification Test in Yakumo town inhabitant medical examination.The Odour Stick Identification Test (OSIT-J) was used to assess odour perception. This test possesses high reliability and validity. The OSIT-J includes 12 different odorants to be identified.As we have already reported, the olfactory test results decrease in the number of correct answers as the age increases. However, from 40’s to 80’s, few studies have clarified the distribution of the number of correct answers according to age. Therefore, this study aimed to compare and calculate olfactory test results for the past 10 years according to age and sex.         A total of 3836 people (1652 males and 2184 females) had a total number of subjects who participated in the Yakumo town resident health examination in 2009-2018. The Odour Stick Identification Test (OSIT-J) was used to assess odour perception. The aromas used in the OSIT-J includes curry, perfume, Japanese cypress, India ink, menthol, rose, wood, stinky socks/sweat, roasted garlic, condensed milk, gas for cooking, and Japanese mandarin orange.         In the forties, the number of perceptions found by most people was 10 out of 12 different smells. Similarly, 10 different smells in 50’s, 9 different smells in 60’s, 6 different smells in 70’s and 4 different smells in 80’s out of 12 different smells were answer of the OSIT-J. Female response was more perceived than male responses. From the present results, it can be said that the olfactory test results need to be evaluated by age, and also by gender.  
38 Age and Gender Differences in the Recognition of 12 Different Odors Results for Ten Years (2009-2018) In the Yakumo Study   , Naomi Katayama1,2,3*, Shoko Kondo4, Yui Nakayama2, Takafumi Nakada5, Seiya Goto3, Satofumi Sugimoto3, Wakako Kinoshita3, Masaaki Teranisi3, Michihiko Sone3, Yasushi Fujimoto3, Hironao Otake6, Hirokazu Suzuki5, Seiichi Nakata7, Tsutomu Nakashima8, Kenji Kondo9, Takaki Miwa10
For ten years(2009-2018), we have conducted olfactory examination by using the Odor Stick Identification Test in Yakumo town inhabitant medical examination.The Odour Stick Identification Test (OSIT-J) was used to assess odour perception. This test possesses high reliability and validity. The OSIT-J includes 12 different odorants to be identified.As we have already reported, the olfactory test results decrease in the number of correct answers as the age increases. However, from 40’s to 80’s, few studies have clarified the distribution of the number of correct answers according to age. Therefore, this study aimed to compare of recognition of12 different odors in olfactory test results for the past 10 years according to age and sex. A total of 3275 people (1308 males and 1967 females) had a total number of people is who participated in the Yakumo town resident health examination in 2009-2018. The Odour Stick Identification Test (OSIT-J) was used to assess odour perception. The aromas used in the OSIT-J includes curry, perfume, Japanese cypress, India ink, menthol, rose, wood, stinky socks/sweaty, roasted garlic, condensed milk, gas for cooking, and Japanese mandarin orange.          From all the data, the odour that male recognition was high was in the order of steamed socks /sweaty, wood, curry. As same as female recognition was high was in the order of roasted garlic, gas for cooking, rose. Males and females differed in perception of odour type. We compared odors with high recognition by gender by age. In males in their 40’s, odors with high recognition were in the order of roasted garlic, rose, curry. In females in their 40’s, odors with high recognition were in the order of rose, roasted garlic, steamed socks / sweat. In males in their 80’s, odorous with high recognition were in the order of wood, steamed socks / sweat, rose. In females in their 80’s, odors with high recognition were in the order of steamed socks / sweat, roasted garlic, curry. Although the types of odors with high awareness differed by gender and age, roasted garlic, steamed socks / sweat, wood, gases of cooking, rose and curry were almost on top in all. In the future, when many patients are examined by screening, the examination will be performed with six types of odors (roasted garlic, steamed socks / sweat, wood, gas of cooking, rose and curry). If patients don’t know these three odors, more detailed examination s can be used to test many patients in a short time.
39 Development and Nutritional Evaluation of a Bread Type Crouton Supplemented with Moringa oleifera Leaves and Sweetened with Stevia rebaudiana.   , Novelo-Góngora, Aurora; Burgos-Jiménez, Miriam*; Chan-Gómez, Israel; Ucán-Rodríguez, Elizabeth; Loeza-Peraza, Jacinto
       People with diabetes require high care to balance their food, insulin and oral medications, and exercise, to help control their glucose level. Moringa oleifera is recognized for its many functional properties, one of which is the control of the blood glycemic index. Similarly, Stevia is a 100% natural sweetener, which contains no calories and virtually no carbohydrates. As a result, there is no adverse effect on the glycemic index. Therefore, the investigation of new products including Moringa oleifera and Stevia could benefit people looking for new alternatives to control their blood sugar. This study aims to investigate the development of a new bread product ideal for people with diabetes. The breads was carried out in 3 batches, M1: control, with 100% white flour sweetened with commercial sugar, M2: was added whole wheat flour and flour white in 1: 1 ratio and sweetened with Stevia, M3: addition of 100% whole wheat flour, sweetened with Stevia. Samples M1 and M2 were added with Moringa oleifera leaves.  
40 Menopausal Symptoms: From Soy Isoflavones to Combined Soy-Exercise Interventions   , Anna Raguzzini1, Marco Bernardi2, Ilaria Peluso1, Maura Palmery2, Paola Aiello 1, 2, 3*
Diet and physical activity affect menopausal symptoms. We aimed to review recent evidence based on clinical trials and meta-analysis on the effect of soy isoflavones on menopausal symptoms and the potential synergistic effect of soy consumption and exercise on menopausal women. Many studies have investigated the effect of soy isoflavones on menopausal symptoms and the data indicates that equol status is the main determinant for efficacy. Despite this, it is well known that exercise changes microbiota composition. Only one study has investigated the combined intervention with soy and exercise and reported that soy extract did not improve the positive impact of mixed exercise training. Moreover, soy proteins have anti-nutrient effects on iron and zinc, and negatively influence protein digestibility. In conclusion, although isoflavones could improve menopausal symptoms in equol-producers, postmenopausal women doing exercise should avoid high soy consumption. Furthermore, a recent prospective study has suggested caution against the use of supplements containing soy isoflavones in women with a family history of breast cancer.
41 Food Waste in Portugal – A Public Policy with the Commitment of All Society , Nuno Vieira E BRITO1*, Paula BICO2, Carlos BRANDAO1
       It is estimated that 30% of the world’s useful agricultural area, equivalent to 300 kilos of food lost per inhabitant and corresponding to an economic cost of 750,000 million dollars, is wasted annually. On the other hand, in Europe there is an unacceptable direct relationship between economic development and the level of food waste where 89 million tons of food end up in the trash, in a scenario shared by different developed countries outside the European Union. In this context it is important to define and maximize strategies for reducing food waste, which is a global, social, civic, economic, technological, scientific and human commitment. Any strategy to be implemented will have to include different variables. In a reflected proposal, 5 intervention axes are to be considered: to carry out studies to know how much, how, where and why of food waste; disseminate and promote good practices and awareness raising actions; analyse and review normative aspects; encourage the design and development of new technologies; collaborate with the agents and organizations involved in this field. Considering these variables, in Portugal, in the past year of 2014, through a formal commitment "Combating Food Waste, a commitment of all", a common strategy was defined for all agents of the food chain who were actively involved in an organized, structured and coordinated way, committing to change attitude, working procedures and management systems.
42 The Mysterious Low Carb Diet – Reckon with Oncology , István G Télessy*
     Targeted composition of daily meal and artificial nutrition may influence output of diseases by modification of metabolic pathways. Carbohydrate restriction is one of the dietary interventions that has proved medical impact. Ketogenic diet (KD), the extreme version or low carb diets (LCDs) in epilepsy treatment became a standard treatment modality in drug-resistant forms. Based on the safety of its use over 20 years attempts have been made to influence other diseases, too. Here we review the results in neurology, metabolic diseases (metabolic syndrome), the cardiovascular diseases and others. One of the most controversial is its use in cancer patients therefore we survey the relevant preclinical and clinical research activities. We summarize the recent results and highlight the limitations.
43 Diet, Sport Practice and Academic Stress in Female University Students   , Alejandro Martínez-Rodríguez1*, Yurani Alexandra Cárdenas1, José Miguel Martínez-Sanz1, María Martínez-Olcina1, María Hernández-García1, Daniela Alejandra Loaiza-Martínez2, Daniel Giménez-Monzó1, Rocío Ortiz-Moncada1
Aim: To analyze the academic stress and the level of physical activity on junior students at the University of Alicante and determine the relationship between physical activity and eating habits. Methods: Descriptive, correlational and transversal study was performed in a sample of 207 female students. The measuring instruments are; the consumption frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and an academic stressors questionnaire (A-CEA, R-CEA, E-CEA). Results: There are no statistically significant differences in the scale of stress, neither in the response to stress nor in the academic stress questionnaire depending on whether the women do physical activity or not. Correlational analysis shows an association between the dimensions of academic in 4 of the 17 established food groups, being significant in some cases. In terms of stress response dimensions, this association it’s seen in 6 food groups. Conclusion: There are no differences in the dimensions of stressors nor in the responses to stress depending on whether women are active or inactive. The consumption of fruits and vegetables correlated significantly with active women.
44 Anti-Atherogenic Diets: Observations from Mouse Models , Mahboubeh Molaei1, 2, Zahra Khoshdel2, Ramandeep Kaur1, Rita Rezzani3, Francesca Bonomini3, Gaia Favero3, Gabor Fischer4, Mohammed H. Moghadasian*1, 2, 5  
     In this article we have summarized our observations on anti-atherogenic properties of a number of functional foods and dietary agents in apolipoprotein E-knockout and low-density lipoprotein receptor-knockout mouse models. Among various diets and dietary agents, our data show strong anti-atherogenic properties for plant sterols, wild rice, germinated brown rice, corn fractions and kgengwe seeds in these animal models. However, fish oil, wheat bran, corn bran, octacosanol and flaxseeds did not show significant anti-atherogenic activities under our experimental conditions in these mouse models. Anti-atherogenic properties of test diets may be mediated through beneficial alterations in lipid metabolism, antioxidant system and inflammatory pathways.  
45 Pesticides, Inhalation Toxicity and Risk for Operators , Mario Ciccotti*, F. Spagnolo
Background: Some pesticides, chemical compounds used in agriculture, can be so toxic to pose a risk to operators. In Europe phytosanitary management is entrusted to regulations, such as No. 1107/2009 among others, aimed to achieve high-standard-protection for humans, animals and environment. Furthermore, the European Community, through the Prior Informed Consent (PIC) Regulation no. 649/2012, carries out the Rotterdam Convention that promotes shared responsibility in relation to marketing of banned or severely restricted pesticides in its territory. It is essential though to develop expertise to spot and evaluate any dangerous substance that could affect both environment and public health. Methods: This study analyzes the inhalation toxicity for 307 pesticides included in the PIC Regulation by means of in silico techniques, toxicological databases (Toxnet, Cameo, Toxin and Toxin Target Database, PubChem, Environmental Protection Agency and ECHA) and computational chemistry tools (QSAR toolbox with Trend Analysis methods; products’ SDS). The quantitative damage estimation is obtained applying the probit function (Green Book of TNO Organization) to in vivo toxicity reported in the literature. Results: From all 307 listed pesticides, we extracted 15, reported in the PIC Regulation, that hold an LC50 toxicity comparable to traditional chemical warfare agents such as Sarin, Tabun and Soman. Therefore, they are dangerous for both operators and exposed population. Our results are compliant with the European Community ban applied for 11 of such substances and circulation limit for 4 allowing their export, except for respecting an express refusal by the importing country. Conclusions: In silico techniques are fundamental for the management of all information connected to the risk estimate and allow to promptly highlight any dangerous characteristics. In this case, we confirm the need to raise awareness among operators regarding the pesticide inhalation toxicity and to disseminate the ethical green message of Bamako Convention: anything restricted or prohibited in importing countries is hazardous waste.  
46 Minerals, Antioxidant Activity and Consumer Preference of Ginger Spiced Yoghurt , Njoya Moyouwou Amadou1*, Ejoh Aba Richard2, Kuiate Jules-Roger3, Mendi Stephen Dung1
 The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of form of ginger incorporated into yoghurt during production on its mineral content, antioxidant activity and consumer preference. Spiced and unspiced yoghurt samples were obtained by incorporation into plain yoghurt, ginger powder (0.5% m/v) and different extracts (5% v/v) of ginger. The mineral content of the spiced and unspiced yoghurt samples were determined using standard methods. The antioxidant activity were also determined using the DPPH and FRAP methods and the consumer preference evaluated using 102 untrained panellists. From the results obtained, incorporation of ginger powder increased the iron, copper and manganese contents of yoghurt while incorporation of aqueous ginger extract led to an improvement in iron and copper content. Yoghurt spiced with ginger powder showed the highest antioxidant activity (PË‚0.05) while the yoghurt spiced with decocted dry ginger and the unspiced yoghurt had the lowest antioxidant activity (PË‚0.05). All spiced yoghurt samples had similar (P>0.05) ferric reduction power. The yoghurt spiced with 0.5% of ginger powder was least preferred. The yoghurt made with macerated dry ginger at room temperature had a lower level of preference compared to the samples of other yoghurt spiced with ginger extracts. The form of incorporation of ginger affects the mineral profile, the antioxidant activity and the consumer preference of yoghurt. The use of ginger extracts in the production of yoghurt can therefore be considered in the milk industry with little prospects for the incorporation of powder ginger into yoghurt.
47 Comparative Study on Antioxidant Activity of Brassica rapa var. parachinensis Leaves and Seeds , Mona Ghanad*, Rosimah Nulit, Rusea Go, Christina Yong Seok
The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant activities of B. rapa var. parachinensis leaves and seeds. The aqueous extraction of leaves and seeds were analyzed for total amount of phenolic, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, chlorophylls, carotenoids, 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and reducing power capacity. The total amount of biochemical compounds showed different variety between leaves and seeds. The content of vitamin C was incredibly higher in seeds while the quantity of chlorophyll, carotenoids and phenolic contents was higher in leaves. DPPH scavenging activity of seed extraction displayed higher percent of inhabitation in comparison with leaves. The reduce power of seed and leaves at 10 mg extract were0.46±0.024 and 1.03±0.058, respectively. The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA multiple comparison test followed by Duncan’s multiple range test.
48 Consumption of Sugar and Sweets in Movie Pictures Fiction: To Go Beyond Individual against Collective Consumers , Vincent Chenille1, 2*
Sugar and sweets presence in movies have been presented in 349 fictitious films broadcasted in France during the last century. National and style of films particularities have been noticed: A relatively low rate in the United States of America and France explained by a low rate for action films (explanation for the USA and Japan), as well as social and sexual particularities: An under-representation of low classes for the first decades of the twentieth century, and of women until the eighties. Because movies statistics have been compared with consumption reality. Movie characters eat less sugar than real persons, particularly inaction movies. The fainting is a real surprise because the sugar consumption increased after test performances onto soldiers and sportsmen: characters very present in war, adventure or detective movies. Even it explains this is why the low classes are under-representation (lots of soldiers are low classes). Lamps of sugar, candies, ice creams, jams, chocolates are present on screen but fruits and cakes, together, represent 60% of the sweets in movie pictures. Fruits and cakes are the most represented because they are the most consumed for meals and by every social classes. Though, the missing sugar in movies may be explained by a moral value opposing collective against individual sugar consumption. The cinema carried that opposition with birthdays or weddings meals, feasts, on one hand and individual consumption (even in collective rooms) on the other hand, until the fifties. After that the cinema showed sweet collective consumption without harmony, moral authorities encouraging individual consumption, giving relativity to the moral consumption of sweets. The cake example is particularly studied because esthetically it is adapted to collective or individual forms, from the white wedding cake to the small biscuit.  
49 “Healthy Snack” Intervention to Improve the Nutritional Knowledge of University Students , Objective: To examine the impact of presenting healthy snack foods on the knowledge of the key recommendations for healthy eating patterns among university students. Design: Cross sectional. The four-week intervention included the presentation of healthy snacks and informative leaflets to the participants. Each week featured a key recommendation of healthy eating (i.e. eat more dietary fiber) that was given in dietary guidelines. A nutrition knowledge questionnaire was administered pre and post-intervention. The questionnaire included some items from the General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire (GNKQ) by Parmenter and Wardle [1]. Setting: Participants were presented with the snacks and informative leaflets in their classrooms in their lecturers` presence. Test and re-test were taken under the same setting. Participants: First year undergraduate students (n=378) studying a mandatory course at a remote campus. Results: When the items belonging to the same theme (i.e. key recommendation) were grouped and analysed, no significant differences were observed in the distribution of responses (i.e. correct, incorrect and unsure) for “dietary fiber”, “salt” and “sugar” after the intervention. However, the change in the distribution of the responses relevant to “less saturated fat and trans-fat” was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusions: The intervention elicited positive response from the students and lecturers, who commented that the intervention made them more aware of healthy eating. There is a need for other nutrition education interventions (with longer durations) to improve eating behaviours of university students. We strongly recommend the consideration of nutrition-related modules in the higher education curriculum.  
Ayten Aylin Tas1*, Hira Ahmed2, Gizem Alnatour2, Kaan Koca2   
50 The Synergistic Interaction between Probiotics and Food Affects Their Beneficial Features , Serena Bocchi1*, Valeria Sagheddu2, Marina Elli1, 2, Chong-Yoon Lim1, Lorenzo Morelli3  
Background: Effectiveness of probiotics is conditioned by several factors. Scarce evidences currently available about the impact of the food in which or with probiotics are delivered on their beneficial features, like the adhesion to human gut. Adhesiveness plays an important role to colonize the gut, especially for specific stage of life. The aim of this work was to investigate whether the in vitro adhesiveness of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, a mandatory prerequisite of probiotic strains, was enhanced after food matrices fermentation, focusing on weaning stage. Methods: Probiotics were firstly evaluated for their capacity to ferment some complementary food and then for their ability to adhere to human cell lines in culture (HT-29, HT29-MTX and Caco-2) in comparison with the same strains cultured in conventional laboratory medium. Results: Our results showed that the adhesiveness of selected probiotic strains resulted to be improved or decreased by specific weaning food, supporting the idea that probiotic strains applied to food fermentation can interact synergistically with the substrate. Conclusions: The adhesiveness of the selected probiotic strains improved or decreased with specific weaning foods, supporting the idea that probiotic strains applied to food fermentation can interact synergistically with the substrate and therefore weaning-specific fermented functional foods could be developed.