Concept of Manas With Special Reference to Its Connection With Brain
Dr. Adityarajsinh Jadeja
Background: Mana or Manas is mentioned as Antarindriya in Ayurveda which connects the sense organs and their actions with soul. Its molecular structures are relevant to molecular nature of neurochemicals while other functions are simile to all functions of brain in conjointly. Characteristics: It is essential for real cognition. Manas represents the external world. It decides the attitudes or tendencies of human beings leading to frame a personality. All realities attached to Manas is attached to decipherment of functions of brain. Planes of Manas: Patanjali Yoga Sutra alludes Kshipta, Mudha, Vikshipta, Ekagra and Niruddha as planes of mind. Even modern psychology has referred the planes similarly. State of Manas: Depending upon concentration of mind, four states are mentioned as Laya, Vikshepa, Kashaya and Rasaswada. Factors Affecting Manas: Family problems, past experiences, pressure in life etc. are highlighted as external factors while genetic relationship, physiological causes and physical impacts are taken under internal factors affecting the mind of anyone. Brain-mind relationship: Mind cannot be segregated from brain as brain controls, directs and stores all qualities quoted for Manas as thinking, rationalization etc. Location of Manas: Ayurveda illustrates the abode of Manas in heart due to strong connection of brain and heart as heart is source of nutrition and oxygen for brain through blood. Without energy, brain stops to work. Conclusion: Manas can be referred to essence of brain. It cannot be separated from brain. Neuroimaging have already proved the changes in brain based on specific thinking. Key words: Manas, Mana, Brain, Brain-mind relation...........
A Clinical Evaluation of Tripahaladya Avaleha in Iron Deficiency Anaemia
Dr. Chitra A.N.
Background: Iron deficiency anaemia is common problem throughout the globe among women . Ayurveda use term, ‘Pandu’ for this problem based on symptoms. Many of herbal, herbo-mineral and mineral preparations are suggested for treatment of Pandu in Ayurvedic classical texts. Triphadya Avaleha is one of important among them. Materials and Methods: Women of 15 to 49 years were selected for study based on criteria of low haemoglobin level in blood and microcytic hypochromic anaemia from peripheral blood smear. Subjective parameters were included as mentioned in classical texts viz., Panduta, Bhrama, Aruchi etc. Result: Mean haemoglobin level was noted increased from 8.92 to 9.96 g/dL. Improvement in subjective parameters were observed except in Panduta. Differences in scores for subjective parameters were also compared pre- and post treatment. Paired t-test was used for stastistical analysis of objective parameters while subjective parameters were statistically tested by Wilcoxon Signed Rank test. Discussion: Loha bhasma, Swarnamakshika bhasma and Rajatmakshika bhasma are ingredients rich in iron. Triphala and Trikatu are related to improvement in gastrointestinal conditions in terms of better digestion and laxation. Many of these herbs contain ascorbic acid, cyanocobalamin and folic acid. They are important factors to increase haemoglobin level and formation of red blood cells. Conclusion: Triphaladya Avaleha is efficacious in increasing the haemoglobin level and betterment of subjective parameters. Key words: Iron deficiency anaemia, Pandu, Triphaladya Avaleha, Haemoglobin...........
Anumana Pramana, One of Source of Correct Cognition in Indian Philosophy and Ayurevda
Dr. Chaitrika Prakash
Prof. (Dr.) S.N. Belavadi
Background: Anumana or inference is taken as an importance source of valid cognition by Indian philosophy and Ayurveda. It is based on deductive reasoning after matching the characteristics of objects to be inferred with established one. Components of Anumana Pramana: Sadhya, Hetu, Paksa, Vyapti and Paramarsha are deliberated as components of Anumana Pramana. Classification of Anumana Pramana: Based on Expression or Cause-Effect Relationship: Purvavata, Sheshavata and Samanyatodrisht Anumana are said in Indian texts on the basis of cause and effect relationship. Purvavata emphasizes on cause while Sheshavata refers to effect as more important than cause. Cause and effect are not emphasized in Samanyatodrishta. Based on Inference for oneself or for others: It is divided in to Swarthanumana and Pararthanumana. Swarthanumana is used to convince oneself who is inferring while Prarathanumana is used to convince others. Steps suggested for Pararthanumana include Pratigya, Hetu, Udaharana, Upanaya and Nigamana. Hetu means reasoning. It is further divided in to five types as Pakshadharmata, Sapakshasattva, Vipakshasattva, Badhita Vishayatva and Asat Pratipakshatva. Discussion: Anumana relies on concomitant relationships of characteristics of objects to be inferred. It is based on deductive approach of reasoning. Further detailed in-depth understanding of Anumana is needed to explore more steps suggested in Indian texts for reasoning. Key words: Anumana, Inference, Puravavata, Sheshavata, Samanayatodrishta, Pratigya, Hetu, Udaharana, Upanaya, Nigamana ...........