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Journal of Social Sciences (COES&RJ-JSS)

ISSN(p):2305-9494 | ISSN(e):2305-9249
Journal Papers (82) Details Centre of Excellence for Scientific & Research Journalism, COES&RJ LLC.
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Indexed Journal

1 An Exploratory Study on the Impact of Work/Life Balance and Employee Engagement on Talent Management and Organization Performance: A Case of Jordan Telecom and IT Sector , Areej Al-Khateeb, Kholoud Sudqi Al-Louzi, Dr.
This study aims to explore the relationship between talent management, work life balance, motivational drivers of employee engagement and organization performance in telecommunication and information technology sector in Jordan. Both work life balance and motivational drivers of employee engagement were examined as mediators between talent management and organization performance. The population of the study consists of the three main telecommunication operators in Jordan; Zain, Orange and Umniah with a total number of employees (3305), a random sample appointed from the population with a total 250 questionnaires filled up. The study found a positive relationship between talent management and its three dimensions, namely talent acquisition, talent development and talent retention with organization performance. Results also found a positive relationship between talent management and its three dimensions with work life balance. A positive relationship also found between talent management and its dimensions with motivational drivers of employee engagement. Finally, work life balance found to partially mediating the relationship between talent management and organization performance and motivational drivers of employee engagement fully mediating this relationship between talent management and organization performance. This study stated many recommendations for future researches.
2 The concept of trespass and its terminology , Lafi Mohammad Alazemi, Jamila Abdul Qadir Shaban Al-Rifai, Prof. Dr.
The study dealt with the statement of the comprehensive concept of the trespass and the reason why some terms relate to it, by: Indicating the meaning of the terms related to it from the perspective of the concept or from the point of view of its association as a term and comparing them, and the relation of each concept to the trespass, such as willfulness, negligence, harm, legal errors, iniquity and injustice.  The researcher concluded that the trespass is a general concept, under which many special concepts are entered, each one of them has been distinguished by its own term , to indicate an accurate meaning that takes with it its own judgment that is distinguished from the other provisions, which enters under the concept of trespass.
3 The Perceived Social and Physical Effects of Micro-loan Default on Jordanian Women / a qualitative study , Dima Shawkat Jerees Al-karadsheh, Mayada A. Daibes, Ph.D., CNS., Associate Professor, Hayat Hashem Abd Al-Qader Shoubaki
The purpose of the study is to determine the social and health impacts of microloan default on women by relying on in-depth interviews with a group of women who have failed to repay their microloans in Jordan.  It is evident that defaulting on their microloans is a result of women’s inability to repay those loans from the start. One of the predominant social repercussions of defaulting is the pressure and rebuke that women are subjected to by their family and community, especially when a woman faces prosecution for defaulting on her microloan. These repercussions have in turn led to constraints on women’s mobility and caused damaged to her health and wellbeing. In many cases, such women resorted to emotional eating which consequently developed into obesity or being subject to severe stress caused her physical harm, such as dental damage or hair loss due to vitamin deficiencies.  Finally, the study emphasizes the need to tighten regulations and procedures relevant to offering microloans and providing unemployment insurance through the Social Security Administration or the Ministry of Labor.
4 Revelations of Place in Homesick Poetry of Sevilla Analytical Semantic Study , Abedulla Mahmoud Ibrahim
This study aims at exploring artistic characteristics of the place in the homesick Poetry of Sevilla as there is an importance of the place in the Arabic poetry generally and Andalusian poetry specifically. This poetry expresses novel humanitarian meanings that were presented by very well-known poets such as Ibn Zaydun and Al-Mu'tamid ibn Abbad. The current study seeks to reveal the semantics and the emotions that are expressed by the poets. To achieve that, the study adopted the descriptive analytical methodology. The study found that the place has a vital existence in terms of the style of the used words in describing the places and their semantic usages.
5 Legitimate licenses in helping the oppressed , Fawaz Ghazi Al-Otaibi, Wa'el Mohammad Arabiat, Prof. Dr.
The license in the Sharia (Islamic Laws) is what Almighty God has prescribed from the provisions except for a general original ruling and the intention is to reduce and facilitate the servants in special cases that require mitigation, and helping the oppressed is a legitimate duty. The study aims to clarify the concept of the legitimate license and its sections and reasons. It was found that the license is divided into an abandonment license, such as leaving the duty when excusing and deed license such as permitting the prohibited deed. On this basis, the licenses were mentioned in helping. Then the research dealt with helping the oppressed, which is a duty. Among the cases in which he is authorized to abandon the duty of helping. The research dealt with cases in which he is authorized to allow the prohibitions for helping the oppressed.  The study concluded to the most prominent results that are helping the oppressed is a collective duty on the believers, and it is necessary in two cases. The first is on the Sultan (ruler) and his representative. The second is on whoever can help if he is alone if there is no one to help him other than the authority and likeness of it.  He is authorized to abandon the help in some cases, which are the inability, harm, and interest.  The prohibitions that are permissible to use for helping the oppressed are satire in the poetry of the aggressor, whether it is from Muslims or non-Muslims, use lying to prevent injustice from the oppressed, and transfer the words from one person to another for the sake of benefit or prevent corruption.
6 Sharia Standards for Classification of Joint Stock Companies Sharia Standards for Classification of Joint Stock Companies , Ahmed Mohammed Dawood Al-Satari, Emad Abdel Hafiz Ali Alzyadat
The study dealt with the institutions concerned with the legal standards of joint-stock companies, the concept of the Shariah standards for joint-stock companies, and a comparative study of the quantitative and qualitative standards for the classification of joint-stock companies. For those who say that it is permissible to contribute, the research came in an introduction in two topics and a conclusion.
7 The Impact of Social Media on the Parliamentary Performance of the Members of the Jordanian 18th Parliament from their Perspectives , Mohammed Yaser Al-Hnaity, Qasem Jamil Al-Thubetat
The study aims at exploring the degree of parliament’s follow-up to social media; to identify the degree of social media coverage of the topics needed by the MPs (Members of Parliament) in the Parliament of Jordan; to explain the degree of the impact of social media on the legislative and regulatory role of the MPs;  and to measure the degree of the impact of social media on the interaction and communication of MPs with citizens. The study was carried out on the methodology of quantitative descriptive analysis. A questionnaire was developed as a major tool for collecting data. The researcher adopted the cluster (purposeful) sample consisting of (75) MPs who constitute (58%) of The total size of the study population. A statistical analysis program (SPSS) was used to analyze and process data. The study concluded that the topics needed by MPs in the Jordanian Parliament are covered highly by social media; the impact of social media on the legislative and oversight role of the MPs scored a moderate degree; and that the impact of social media toward the interaction and communication of MPs with citizens scored a high degree. In the light of the study`s results, it is recommended holding training workshops for members of the House of Representatives about how to deal with social media and electronic media, and to improve the communication and interaction with citizens.
8 Jordanian Citizen's Confidence in the Role & Performance of the Local Municipalities , Layal Fayez Essoh
This study aims to analyze all causes or obstacles facing local municipalities, by studying the negative causes and challenges facing them, and doing a partial study of local municipalities in the various regions of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. This is done through knowing the challenges and difficulties facing the municipalities in general and knowing the municipality's ability to face these challenges and difficulties, within the capabilities available to them, and knowing its role in achieving development in these areas affiliated to it and its impact on gaining the trust of citizens. In order to achieve this confidence for citizens, it is necessary to achieve the desired goals and services provided by the municipality, and to know the gap in municipal decisions between government institutions and ministries and the impact of this on the opinion of citizens.
9 Religious sites, their role in publishing Friday speeches and their use. "Location of the Kuwaiti Ministry of Endowments" , Sultan Mufreh Nasser Hamad Al-Hajri, Ahmed Abdul Hussein Al-Awaisheh, Prof. Dr., Jehad Muhammad Mahmoud Alanati, Associate Professor Dr.
This study dealt with the topic of religious sites and its role in spreading Friday sermons and the extent of benefit from the Kuwaiti Ministry of Endowments website as a model, and demonstrated the progress of Islamic law and its distinction in treating the nation’s issues, and its endeavor to bring people out of darkness to light and ignorance to science, and showed the breadth of the concept of Friday sermon in Islamic law, and its coverage of all groups of the elderly, youth and young people who seek the pride of Islam and the safety of society from wrong behavior and treating them with guidance and advice and clarifying what God has commanded and what is forbidden  The study mentioned the extraction and extraction of information from Friday sermons held by the Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs in the State of Kuwait through its religious location, from the doctrinal and legal aspect, and the legal side of jurisprudence provisions such as marriage, zakat and others, and the ethics side of the Prophet’s creation and the creation of apology and kindness to the weak and the like  Finally, this study concluded with its most important results.
10 Arbitrariness and its effect on prayer - a practical study of fundamentalism , AbdalRahman Ebrahim Alkharraz
This research, marked with "arbitrariness and its effect on prayer", deals with the concept of arbitrariness and its definition, and the statement of its rooting in Islamic jurisprudence, and deals with the adaptation of arbitrariness, and what graduates from the fundamental rules, and then mentions what was based on the detailed partial evidence, and what is going on arbitrariness, by indicating its field of work, I then touch on the application of the theory of arbitrariness in the use of the right to apply it in the aspect of worship in matters of prayer specifically, applying arbitrariness to three issues in prayer, and I mention the words of scholars that can come out and be described as the application of the theory of arbitrariness in the use of the right in those matters, so that these issues are an example For the effect of arbitrariness in prayer, which is combined with the conflict and competition of rights, between the one who worships and others, including prayer on the side of the road, the question of praying in the Muslim community to eat garlic and onions, and the cutting of the prayer of the imam because of the prolonged reading by the imam, i addressed the words of the scholars in these pictures. Explaining the effect of the conflict of rights in them, so that the application of arbitrariness is clear.  
11 Attitudes of Regional States towards The Syrian Crises (2011-2018) , Islam Abdallah Falah Al-Mashaqbah
This study aimed at explaining the nature of the Syrian Crisis and the positions of regional states on it, and highlighting the causes of anxiety and fear among some regional political The researcher used several methods to reach results with a tangible and realistic impact, including the historical approach and the approach of International system Among the important findings of the research is that there is an active role for Iran and Hezbollah in the Syrian crisis while the Jordanian role was neutral, while the Turkish position was at the beginning of the crisis advising the Syrian regime to implement political reform MS based on a democratic system and political pluralism, but the Syrian regime managed his back Turkish demands which made Turkey stand by opposition while Saudi Arabia stood with the Syrian opposition and supported it with money.
12 The effect of opening excuses on banking services in Islamic banks , Mutlaq Saad Al-Hajri
This research examines a topic related to the principles of jurisprudence on the one hand, and contemporary financial transactions on the other hand, especially with regard to banking services in Islamic banks, where it deals with the topic (The Impact of Opening Excuses on Islamic Banking Services). The research included two topics, and it came out, indicating the effect of opening the excuses in the business and banking services in Islamic banks of different forms, especially since the need in our time for these banking services is necessary, so that the masses of the Muslim community are hardly indispensable, which requires looking at them according to the purposes of the Sharia and taking into account the need People, while preserving the principles and principles of Sharia. Then the conclusion came, and it included the most important results of the study.
13 Development endowment and Islamic financing formulas Financial leasing as an example , Abd Al-Majid Salaheen, Prof. Dr., Klwdian Zaimay, Dr., Hayel Dawood, Associate Prof. Dr.
This study aims to highlight the idea of ​​a development endowment, and deviate from the prevailing stereotypical culture of endowment in society and among many Islamic endowment institutions, considering that the endowment institution should be an integrated development institution, and the various forms of Islamic financing can play a prominent and pivotal role in the development of Islamic endowments And since the lease ending in ownership was among the most widely discussed and preferred formulas for Islamic financial institutions for their financing and investment advantages, and because this Islamic financing formula was most favored by endowment institutions for the investment options they provided and Wali, this study came to highlight the ability of this financing formula to respond to the financing and development options of Islamic endowment institutions.  This study addressed the idea of ​​a developmental endowment by using this formula, proposing several practical options for this formula, which Islamic endowment institutions can benefit from in its developmental programs, as well as the difficulties and obstacles surrounding the use of this financing formula in the endowment development and development, proposing appropriate solutions to overcome on her.
14 The Genesis of Reading and Intonation , Ekram Abdul Razzaq Abdul Arabiyat, Dr.
This research deals with the genesis of reading and intonation and began by talking about the linguistic and conventional meaning of each and related to the definition of both the reader and the reader and the fruit of the science of readings and its usefulness. In this research, i.e. the stages of the genesis of the readings at the time of the descent of the Revelation and after the revelation, the seven letters and what they mean, and what character the Companions were reading. She also spoke about the genesis of intonation, which means language and terminology, and when the science of intonation began to emerge. What is the relationship between intonation and reading science?
15 Morphology of land Uses in Aqaba City during the Period (2000-2020) , Ibrahim Bazazo, Prof. Dr., Lama’a Mahmoud Al-Orainat, PhD. Candidate, Maher Odeh Falah Al-Shamaileh, Dr.
The aim of this research is to identify the morphology of land usage in the city of Aqaba from the year 2000 through 2020, utilizing satellite data analysis and visualizations of topographic maps studying land uses and spatial organizations and relationships between all relevant users in the study area. By relying on GIS and remote sensing software, with the aim of providing a holistic picture that contributes to identifying the current reality of land uses and future forecasting within the actual territories, the study found that the importance of integrated management based on an analysis of the morphology of land use contributed most to sustainable planning. Morphological projections relating to land uses contributed the most to correct decision making in pursuit of a more holistic planning process for the study area.
16 Evidence of the narrator's truthfulness, veracity, or lies, and the severity of his negligence through his speech , Khaled Mohammed Suleiman Al-Sunaien
This research deals with highlighting a set of clues and evidence observed by critical imams in the narration, in which they deduced the narrator's truthfulness and the intensity of his negligence through his narratives, it divided the research into two studies, while the preliminary: was to explain the meaning of the evidence in this study. The research have made the first topic: to show the clues and evidence that show the narrator’s truthfulness and proven in his speech. And in the second portion: to show the clues and evidence that the narrator lied and the intensity of his neglect in his speech, and the number was fourteen presumptions. And the research concluded with the most important findings.
17 Performance problems and how to address them in the 9th century Ah. , Ekram Abdul Razzaq Abdullah Arabiyat, Dr.
This research deals with solutions to the most important performance problems and how to address them when readers of Sham in the 9th century AH through references and followers to read the Messenger of God, as the scholars said that reading is a follow-up year taken by the other from the first, and I ask God to accept what he loves and accepts. And that we have come to this study to benefit Islam and Muslims.
18 The efforts of the readers of the Levant in teaching the Holy Quran in the 9th century AH. , Ekram Abdul Razzaq Abdullah Arabiyat, Dr.
In this research, I addressed the most important readers in the Levant and highlighted their efforts in this century, in addition to talking about their efforts in teaching the Qur'an and readings and mentioning their elders and disciples, and the reason i chose this century, the 9th century AH, was fertile in the scientific movement. I chose the most prominent scholars of this century, their origin, their elders, their pupils, their status, their influence, their most important scientific writings, as well as the most important role of the Qur'an in that era.
19 The effect of emergency conditions theory on istisna'a contract , AbdalRahman Ebrahim Alkharraz
This paper deals with the theory of emergency conditions and their impact on the contract of Istisna'a. It aims to explain this term, its evidence, what is its conditions, and a statement of the Istisna'a contract, the difference and its adaptation.
20 The difference of one sayings and its effects on the Hanbalis purity as a model , Mohammad Melqat Alenezi, Rhayel Muhammad Al-Gharaibeh, Dr.
This study dealt with tagged: the difference in the views of one word and its effects on the Hanbalis chapter on purity as a model, explaining the meaning of the intakes language and terminology, then I indicated to me the choice of the meaning of the intrusions, then I mentioned the words related to the intakes, and then I mentioned the importance of knowing the intentions of the sayings, and indicated its importance from The words of the jurists, and some of their applications, and how they were expelled with their origins and did not contradict, and then I mentioned the multiplicities of one word and the fruits of its knowledge, and I said that it does not refrain from sense, reason or legitimacy from the multiplicity of sockets even if the result is the same and the methods that are connected to it are multiple or different, and from Then I mentioned the significance of the sayings of theology in the science of graduation, and indicated that it is its greatest pillar, and then examined some applications in the chapter on purity at the Hanbalis, and these applications are included in the research condition, which is that these issues and sayings are the same result; But the difference occurred in its socket and origin, then I showed the implications of that, and then I concluded this research with the most important findings and recommendations. And may God’s prayers and peace be upon our Prophet Muhammed, his family, and all his companions, and praise be to God, Lord of the worlds.
21 Nodel issues related to the verses that describe (divine self) God's self with cunning, malice, deception, cynimism and mockry , Ghalib Al-Nadi
Attributes such as cunning, malice, deception, mockery, and irony are not completely blameworthy, but rather blameworthy, as they are unfair and invalid, but when they are truly and fairly not blameworthy, they are not imperfection, but are of perfection. God Almighty has described in it a restricted description with what indicates that it is from the commendable section, which is true and justified by the example of God Almighty saying: {And God is the best of cunning}. So he described what He cunning with goodness. It indicates the perfection of his knowledge, ability, wisdom and justice. It is obligatory to prove to God Almighty what he has proven for himself on the way which is mentioned which is restricted by what indicates that it is a right and not invalid. There is no need to far-fetched interpret the many texts that prove to God the Almighty such attributes. Noting that it is not permissible to derive names from God Almighty; Because the names of Allah are twaqfiyyah ( set by Allah) and it is not correct to derive from his actions. And because it is a function of perfection in every aspect, it is not divided into what is perfect in a position and a decrease in position.
22 The Consequential Damage and Other Similar Damages , Alanoud Nader Obeid, Mohannad Azmi Abo Moghli, Prof. Dr.
This study has examined the consequential damage and its similarities; discussing the nature of the consequential damage. In reality, the consequential damage is a direct one as for the individual aggrieved party. In order to compensate the consequential damage, there must be a number of conditions that were explained, as well as explaining its materialistic and ethical aspects, then a comparison was made between the consequential damage and both unknown neighbor damages and death damage.
23 Weighting by what should do, and the effect of that on controlling contemporary fatwas , Asem Sameh, Abdul Rahman Ibrahim AlGillani
The research dealt with the study of the truth of the term of what must be weighted by work to advance the contradiction between the seemingly contradictory evidence and contradictory jurisprudence, and its effect on controlling contemporary fatwas.  The research focused on explaining the concept of weighting with what the work includes, which is to present the mujtahid, one of the two contradictory guides that contradict what most companions, followers, or divine scholars of the nation have done with it, and that taking into account what is required of work and weighting with it is a methodology that most of the companion’s scholars - may God be pleased with them - followed The followers and the leading scholars.  It also focused on showing the fact of controlling the fatwa by taking into account what is required of it and the weighting of it, as it lies in the discipline of the collective fatwa issued by the jurisprudential councils and advisory bodies, as this fatwa issued by them will be the one that has to work in the contemporary reality, so it will prevail over others and be pronounced, and as for discipline The individual fatwa, the mufti must control the fatwa issued by him taking into account what is the work and weighting it, and the weighting of what he has to work has an impact on the discipline of the fatwas in the original and contemporary issues and this is achieved by weighting the evidence or the saying that work on others.
24 The methods of media misinformation among the hypocrites in light of Surat Al-Ahzab , Ihssan Ali Mahamoud Abdel-Hadi
This study examined what are the methods of media misinformation among the hypocrites through Surat Al-Ahzab, in order to know the reality of the role they played during the Battle of Al-Khandaq, and the extent of these methods in the modern era. Among the objectives of the study are the statement of the anecdotal media methods adopted by the hypocrites, clarification of the actual media methods issued by them, and an indication of the extension of these media methods to our present time all through Surat Al-Ahzab. The researcher followed the deductive approach and the inductive approach to follow these methods in the surah. The researcher discussed in the first topic the anecdotal media methods of the hypocrites, and in the second topic the actual media methods, and in the third topic the effects of these media methods and their impact on the modern era. The study concluded that the media hypocrisy in its two ways (both verbal and actual) are more deadly in society, and more influential in souls, and in political (war), social and economic struggles.
25 Developing a Computer Application for the Identification of Similar Butterfly Species Using MATLAB Image Processing , Lubna Nasir eddeen, Ansar Khoury, Osama Harfoushi
Identification of insect pests to the species level is very important in the field of plant protection. The species name is a filing and retrieval system which enables us to store and/or retrieve all data for a species such as host plants, life cycle, damage, or pesticide resistance. However, identification of insects to the species level requires special knowledge and training. We aimed in this research to develop a computer application for the untrained person to identify digital images for three morphologically similar butterfly species. The first was the cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae leucosoma Schawerda, a common pest of Cruciferae, while the other two (Euchloe ausonia melisande Fruhstorfer, Pontia daplidice daplidice Linnaeus) were generally considered non-pest species. Matlab 2017 software was used to build an implementation of the developed image processing technique. The insect digital image processing steps included resizing, orientation, filtering, extracting wing colors, and finally calculating the ratio of colors. Some images were used to train the computer to identify the images and the rest of images were used for identification by the computer. In addition, Graphical User Interface Application was developed to let any user (computer programmer or amateur) to upload process and identify an image. More than 99% correct identifications were obtained. The developed application may be a promising tool for insect image identification when more species are included and refinement of the technique is achieved.
26 The significance of mega sporting event on infrastructure development: A case of FIFA 2022 World Cup in Qatar , Khalifa Al-Dosari
This study sought to find how significant mega sporting events to a country are beneficial insofar as infrastructural development is concerned. The study used the 2022 FIFA World Cup in Qatar as the case study in reference. Various researches around the concept of infrastructure development due to mega sporting events were analysed in this study. The evidence of infrastructure development due to mega sporting events was also dissected and presented in the study. The research was conducted with the help of online survey questionnaires, and the data collected was analysed by using descriptive statistics as well as an OLS regression analysis. The variables measured were infrastructural developments in the country to find the significance of the 2022 FIFA World Cup. It was found that the 2022 World cup significantly affects the development of infrastructure in the country. It was therefore concluded that major sporting events are significant in the development of infrastructure of a country. It’s recommended that the research should be used for future references in the analysis of infrastructural changes due to major sporting events.
27 The role of the mass media in managing the Corona Virus Pandemic “A field study from the point of view of faculty members working in political science departments in Jordanian Universities” , Mohammad Khair Farhan Qerba
This study aimed to identify the role of the media in managing the Coronavirus pandemic, “a field study from the point of view of faculty members in the political science departments in Jordanian universities.” The researcher used the descriptive analytical method and the comprehensive survey method. A questionnaire, had been designed for this purpose and distributed on the study population which consisted of 75 faculty members, through which 56 questionnaires were analyzed using the (SPSS) program. The study found an impact of the media in managing the Coronavirus pandemic, a field study from the point of view of faculty members working in political science departments in Jordanian universities. The study recommended the following: Adopting targeted and studied media programs at appropriate times for citizens, adopting the principle of limpidity and objectivity in conveying the facts, setting deterrent sanctions for those who spread rumors related to the crisis and tend to exaggerate its effects.  
28 The extent of achieving the goals of civic education in the light of the concept of globalization in the curriculum of the civic and national education of high elementary schools from Aqaba teacher’s perspective , Doha I. AL- Tarawneh, Dr., Jehan Hashim AL-Safasfeh, Ekhlas M. Al.Edi, Dr.
The study aimed at revealing the extent of achieving the goals of civic education in the light of the concept of globalization in the curriculum of the civic and national education of high elementary schools from Aqaba teacher’s perspective.  The study population consists of all the teachers of the social studies in elementary schools at Aqaba Governorate for the year (2019-2020). It consists of 49 teachers distributed in 17 schools. The study tried to answer the following questions: To what degree the goals of civic education in the light of the concept of globalization in the curriculum of the civic and national education from Aqaba teacher’s perspective can be achieved? Are there any statistical difference in the teacher’s evaluations to achieve the curriculum of the civic and national education based on gender and level of education?   The study tools were a test and a questioner that measures the teachers’ view of the extent of achieving the goals of civic education in the light of the concept of globalization. Therefore it was divided into two parts one pertaining the citizenship values and the other one pertaining the goals of globalization. The researcher got the arithmetic averages and the standard deviations for each paragraph and for each field of the study. The stability coefficients of the study were measured individually in addition to the questioner coefficient of stability as a whole which was (0.78). The globalization stability coefficient was (0.78) and the civic education was (0.896) all of which are high and accepted stability coefficients. The arithmetic averages and the standard deviations were measured for the two parts of the study. It was noticed that the civic education got the lowest arithmetic average (3.01) and a standard deviation (0.91). As for the second part namely the globalization that got the highest arithmetic average (3.29) and a standard deviation (1.16). The researcher believes that the awareness of civic education and the goals of globalization are very important and should be included in the curriculum. Both come in accordance with the study conclusion.
29 The Impact of Capital Structure on Jordanian Banks Performance , Rania Al Omari, Dr.
Due to the great importance of the financing structure of banks, the impact of capital structure on the financial performance of banks listed on the Amman Stock Exchange has been examined. To achieve the objectives of this study, we have followed the experimental approach. The study relied on financial variables. The Capital Structure has been measured by the ratios of total debt to total assets and total debt to total equity. Both ratios are independent variables. The dependent variable in this study is the financial performance of banks represented by the ratio of return on assets, the ratio of return on equity, the ratio of return on investment, and the ratio of return on share.   The study community and sample consisted of twelve commercial banks listed on Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) during the period (2007-2017). Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software was used in testing of research hypotheses. The most important results are that the capital structure has an impact on return on assets (ROA), while it has no impact on return on equity (ROE), return on investment (ROI) and earnings per share (EPS) in Jordanian commercial banks.  
30 The Effect of Corporate Social and environmental Responsibility on Leverage and Performance: Evidence from Jordan , Lamees Talal Al-Radaydeh, Manal Sulieman Abughniem, Dr., Mohammad Adnan Hilal Al Aishat, Dr., Rania Al Omari, Dr.
This study aimed to test the effect of corporate social responsibility through activities towards society and environmental activities on financial leverage and corporate performance, the study population consists of all companies listed on the Amman Stock Exchange. The study sample reached 187 companies for the period 2014-2017, to achieve the goals of the study; regression analysis was used to find out the effect of social  and environmental responsibility on leverage and performance, the study reached the results that the social responsibility towards the society affects the financial leverage of the company while the environmental activities did not affect the financial leverage, responsibility for social and environmental activities did not affect the performance of companies, and there was a positive correlation between social and environmental responsibility and financial leverage, and a negative link was found between financial leverage and performance.
31 The relationship between the academic achievement of computerized tests and traditional tests of Business College students. An empirical study , Dr. Rania Al Omari  
The study aims to investigate the relationship between the academic achievement of computerized tests and traditional pen and paper exams of Business College students at the University of Jordan- Aqaba branch as well as relate differences results to students` gender.   The study sample comprised 136 students of a compulsory course at the Business Faculty. A computerized mid-term test was held while the final one was traditional. The results of the two tests were compared where the other general factors affecting students` academic achievement, namely (the same students, course subject, course subject lecturer) were set. The tests marks were sampled as percentage to the test mark so as to delete the denominator difference of marks where the mid-term mark is out of 30 while the final test is out of 50.   The SPSS was used to compare the results of the two tests. Results were related to students’ gender, whether gender-related differences are found. The study concluded that there is no statistical significant relationship between the academic achievement of computerized tests and traditional ones (paper and pen) held at the Business College in The University of Jordan- Aqaba branch.   The results also indicated that the academic achievement differences resulting from computerized tests have to do with the student gender variable in favor of male students. 
32 The Dimensions of the Prophetic Discourse in the 40 Hadiths Nawawi , Mahmoud Hussein Ahmad Al-Zuhayre, Dr.
This paper aims at exploring the rhetoric of the prophetic discourse in the Hadiths collected by Al-Nawawi. It is composed of four aspects. Firstly, public discourse by using the words who and all, or what pertains to a specific incident for a person whose name was not assigned for polite purposes, so that the speech is directed to any recipient or Muslim over time, focusing on the event not on the person and associating actions with their past and present times. Therefore, the rhetoric was expressed as a result of arranging the words, employing them and their beauty in harmony with their context and location. Secondly, the command and prohibition discourse of the individual and the group according to the purpose of the discourse and its rhetoric with the beauty that was brought about in the style and verbal ornaments associated with the status of the recipient. For example, "O, Sons of Adam", "O Young boy", and "O My Servants "in the Qudsi Hadith, employing the method of urging, "May I..?". Such wordings were crowned by the aspect of the wording texts, briefly and shortly in terms. However, it included great meanings and benefits with beautiful phrases and eloquent style, implying social, educational and global dimensions that have their impact on the recipient. These phrases have had their echo in societies and assemblies, such as, "(The value of) an action depends on the intention behind it" and ".. And he who is slow-paced in doing good deeds, his (high) lineage does not make him go ahead.", that have made them general rules and a method of life to be followed.
33 The effect of sound and rhythm in highlighting the Quranic image , Dr. Mahmoud Hussein Ahmad Al-Zuhayre
This research was studied on the effect of sound in highlighting the Qur’anic image, so it took a descriptive approach to analysis. Without a performance, then the search for the description with words to represent the performance was to approximate the meaning and the image and approximate the oral Quranic performance. The research concluded that the sound showed the image and meaning previously in that lexical meaning, and it was noticed that the image came from many words and vocabulary in order to clearly highlight the image and the meaning, and that the sound sometimes overcomes the dictionary meaning and precedes it among the recipients in understanding, as much of the phonemic performance was not mentioned in the dictionaries due to Because of its lack of form in words, the research noticed that any movement, sound, or rhythm in the Holy Qur’an is not devoid of the meaning of a goal or an intended goal, so the sound lies behind the meaning and moves the image and makes it clear.
34 Liability Limits of Transport Commission Agent , Dr. Mohammad Battah
Considering the importance of transport commission agent's work and through the examination of transport commission agent's liability, the intensity and burden of transport commission agent's liability is shown. The legal nature of a transport commission agent's obligation is an obligation to achieve a result, thus he usually has to contract out of liability, either through the legal limits of liability where the law established the legal exemptions that the transport commission agent would benefit from, as well as the agreement limits of liability through the cases in which the law allowed the transport commission agent to establish a condition under the agreement exempts him from liability or specify his damage liability.   Since the law prohibited the transport commission agent from establishing any condition that exempted him from liability in the cases of damage and injury, thus he is bound by compensating his agent fully for the occurring damages, except the cases in which the transport commission agent establishes a condition to limit his liability within the limits permitted by the law.   Lastly, the development and importance of the transport commission agent's trade and profession and its resulting legal conflicts and problems are the reason behind conducting this study in order to identify the liability limits of the transport commission agent.
35 The Using the Words HEAD, HEART and HAND in Arabic Idioms and How to Render their Meanings into English , Ibtehja Mohammed Akhorsheda
Translation is the process of rendering a unit from one language (Source Language) into another (Target Language). When it comes to idioms (fixed expressions consisting of two words or more giving a meaning different from the meaning of the individual words), the translators are going to face a number of troubles. This study focuses on translating the Arabic idioms that contain the words HEAD, HEART or HHAND. The methodology of this study is based on a number of statements collected verbally or through written texts and expressing the meaning by paraphrasing them. The results show that none of the Arabic idioms used in this study have equivalences in English language and so, what is shown are the paraphrased meaning for each. 
36 Sharia Hisba and public lawsuit: An original study comparing Sharia and Libyan law , Salem Salem Juber, Muhammad Awad Saker, Dr.
The Sharia Hisba is an integrated Islamic system of pillars and construction whose theme is enjoining good and forbidding evil, and aims at stabilizing societies and the supremacy of virtue and high morals in it, and rejecting vice and bad morals from it.   The legal public prosecution system is an accusatory system that seeks to safeguard the right of the state and the right of the individual to the public order to ensure a society free from apparent crimes, and a regular picture of the state and individuals is formed in a coherent body without chaos.   The Hisba system is a symbiotic social system that moves through the community’s control of the community, while the public case system and its tools from the Public Prosecution and other institutions is a deterrent institutional system that moves in the light of the law and deals in accordance with its principles and limits.
37 Fear in the story of prophet "Moses" peace be upon him.Objective, analytical study , Dr. Hamza Salem Issa  
Fear is considered as an innate instinct of the human being created on it, and since this innate instinct has a great impact on a Muslim in his behavioral and advocacy activities on himself as well as on society, thus the Qur'anic stories had a great role in highlighting and explaining the way how to deal with it in all conditions and the activities of the Muslim, on top of these stories is the story of "Moses" peace be upon him. Thus and starting from this fact, came the idea of this research to show the effect of the instinct of fear based on the approach of the prophets and messengers being the best example for all humans, and how to deal with it ــ The Great Allah said: (You have had lessons in their stories) ]Yousef : 111[ ــ this is through studying the verses that dealt with this subject in the story of Moses, and analyzing these verses , and devising the divine approach in dealing with this instinct.   It was found to the researcher that the effect of fear in the story of Moses, peace be upon him, was positive on all stages of his life before and after his prophetic mission, as it was a material cause that God gave to him so that he could escape from the attempt killing him by Pharaoh and his army, and this was before the appearance of the  prophetic mission, but after that, fear of Moses Peace be upon him became on the message itself  and not on the messenger, so the fear that they would hasten to kill him  which means that if the killing is happened then the intended message would not happen , as well as fear when confronting magicians became a hidden one inside Moses, did not appear in his face, no wonder that it will not appear after which God brought him under his eyes and care, until the fear  disappeared after the drowning of Pharaoh and his army, no longer had an effect in the heart of Moses, peace be upon him, or an effect on the scenes of his story.
38 The effect of Iraqi Hanafi Schools on the formulas of generalities for Al-Mutakallimeen   , Mahmut Muhammet OZDEMIR, Raed Abu Moanes
The study of scholar and academic alternations effects ‎amongst Fundamentalist Schools considered significant issues on gaining knowledge of Fundamentals of Jurisprudence and modification fundamental's opinions.‎   This article aims to explore the supposition effects of ‎Hanafi’s on Al-Mutakallimeen through Muhammed Ibn es-Sucaa as-‎Salchi’s views on the matter of the Formulas of Generalities.‎ In addition, the article also figured out that the Hanafi School of Iraq effected on ‎the School of the al-Mutakallimeens fundamentally which is presumed ‎on denying the Formulas of Generalities and the waqf on it, and ‎exemplarily Abu 'Ali Muḥammad al-Jubba'i, Imam al-Ash’ari and al-Qadi al-Bakillani in particular.‎
39 Al-Farabi between Philosophy and Religion and the Influence by Plotinus , Maha Alsamhori, Dr., Mahmoud Bani Domi, Dr., Mona Seine, Dr., Manal Fathi Anabtawi, Dr., Talal Al-Qdah, Dr
This study aims at finding to which extent Farabi’s philosophy was influenced by Neoplatonism, especially in terms of the topics presented and the way they were addressed. This comes in the framework of knowing to which level both Farabi and Plotinus influenced, and were influenced by religion in the matter of: The One, The Intellect and The Soul on one hand, the knowledge, reconciliation between religion and philosophy, on the other. The study also examined the similar circumstances that surrounded Plotinus and Al-Farabi, which may have been a major reason for presenting and raising similar topics. The study concluded that the philosophical context is derived from the events and circumstances that philosophers live through, and that the issues raised by both philosophers show influence on and by religion. Most importantly there is no way to either deny or affirm what they agreed or disagreed upon, except for their aim; for the philosophy they both presented asserted that they sought happiness.
40 “A message about what love is” between the Al-Safa Brothers and Ibn Sina , Marwa Mahmoud Kharma, Dr
A closer look at the works of the most famous philosophers of Islam indicates that they are less interested in the subject of love. Their primary concern was research in nature and metaphysics, Only a few of Muslim philosophers was written in the love and the most important of them were: Al-Safa Brothers and Ibn Sina, They devoted messages about what love is, and they included in their conversation about it from human material love to divine love, And it is noticed that they have analyzed what love is, and explain its causes and differences in its divisions. I divided the research into an introductory topic: it includes explaining the concept of love, its parts, benefits, harms, and treatment. And to two topics: The first topic: What is love and its belongings among Al-Safa Brothers, and the second topic: What is love and its belongings at Ibn Sina, inspite of the different approach and some opinions among them, everyone agreed to encourage people to rise from the love of images to the love of the photographer, and from the love of the creature to the love of the Creator Almighty.
41 The Partnership of Beneficial Owner (Rabb al-Mal) with Managing Trustee (Mudarib) in Business , Hayel Abdul Hafeez Dawood, Dr.
Passive partnership contract (mudarabah) occupies a prominent place in the jurisprudence of Islamic financial transactions, and Islamic jurisprudence has surrounded it with provisions, controls and conditions that guarantee its performance of its role. If some of these terms and conditions are violated, this may lead to invalidation of the mudarabah or its being corrupted. Among the conditions stipulated by jurists for the validity of Passive partnership contract is that the beneficial owner not to interfere in performance of its contract except in a manner that guarantees adherence to the controls and restrictions agreed upon by the owner of the money with the managing trustee, including that the owner of the money delivers the capital to the mudarib. This study aims to explain the rule of stipulating that the money owner be involved in performing the work, himself or his representative, as well as the rule of his participation in the work without stipulating that in the contract. The study concluded that it is permissible for the owner of the money or his representative to work with the mudarib, and that this does not affect the validity of the contract unless it leads to restricting the work and preventing the mudarib from disposing of Passive partnership contract.
42 The Impact of the Western Occupation on the Cultural Rooting of Modern Arabic Critical Movement: Ahmad Dayf, Taha Husain, and Mohammad Mandour as a Model , Abedullah Mahmoud Ibrahim
This study aims to investigate the retreat of the critical Arab mind by examining selected stances of three Arab modern critics: Ahmad Dayf, Taha Husain, and Mohammad Mandour. The study highlights the relationship between the culture and colonization to reach to determine three concepts: culture, orientalism and reformation. Thus, the effects of these concepts on intellectual retreat. Furthermore, the current study discusses the negative role of the universities and the necessity of changing their teaching methods in order to establish liberal criticism free of the other's dependency.
43 The Physical and The Sexual Violence against the Woman in the Jordanian Society- Descriptive Analytical Study Based on The Demographic and Health Survey 2017-2018 , Dr. Mona Izzat Seine
This study aims at revealing the reality of physical and sexual violence against the woman in the Jordanian society. Utilizing data from the latest Demographic and Health Survey in Jordan 2017-2018, and analyzing existing official statistics, the results showed that: one in every five women in Jordan is subjected to physical violence, which is more prevalent among women aged between 15-19, who have an elementary education, who are currently unmarried (divorced, separated, widowed), who are not employed and who come from Zarqa Governorate. The results also showed that the perpetrator of the physical violence is mainly the husband (current/ previous) then the brother followed by the father. As for sexual violence by the husband, the results showed that it is five percent prevalent, among women aged between 30-39, who have an elementary education, who are currently unmarried (divorced, separated, widowed), who are employed and who come from Balqa Governorate.
44 The Impact of Green Human Resource Management (GHRM) Practices on the Competitive Advantage of the Jordanian Educational Institutions , Ahmad Hussein Ahmad Nawafleh
The current study aimed to find the impact of GHRM practices in terms of Green selection and recruitment (S&R), training and development (T&D) and rewards system (RS)on the Jordanian educational institutions’ competitive advantage in terms of the differentiation, responsiveness, and the cost leadership in the Jordanian educational institutions. The study sample consisted of 130 respondents from the human resources departments at three universities (Yarmouk University, Jordanian University of Science and Technology, and the Jordanian University). To achieve the study objectives, the researcher designed a questionnaire for data collection.   The study revealed that the implementation of GHRM practices have a positive relation to increase the competitive advantage of the educational organizations in Jordan. The results of the study indicated a medium implementation of GHRM practices sub-variables in the educational sector in Jordan. T&D has the highest implementation rate among the sub-variables, then S&R followed by RS.
45 The Original Sin in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam: A Comparative Stud , Talal Mshafi Al-Naimat
This study explores the issue of the Original Sin as it pertains to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The researcher examines the texts that mention the story of the sin according to the chronological order of their original sources. The story of the Original Sin is considered fundamental, upon which many conceptions and religious interpretations in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam have been built. The study highlights the role of Eve in committing the sin as well the responsibility of the sin and its most important consequences on Adam and Eve. The researcher also examines the most important elements upon which the three religions agree upon in ms of the Original Sin and also mentions the elements upon which they diverge.  
46 A Critical Discourse Analytical Study on the Significance of Communicative Language Teaching Case study: Jordanian English Teachers in the Southern Badia , Abdel-Hameed Al-Awabdeh
The purpose of the study is to cast the light on Jordanian English teachers in the Southern Badia views on the importance of communicative language teaching. I t is difficult for English foreign language teachers to select an appropriate method of language teaching to achieve the learning goals and the essential outcomes of the English courses that taught in different fields such as schools and colleges. CLT has indicated the track for certain procedures and strategies to accomplish essential goals for teaching English language.  Teachers in teaching English as a foreign language has adopted many methods, such as Reading Method, Structural Method, Direct Method, and CLT. They seek to find the appropriate to teach English for their students and they work hard to make teaching English more effective in their classes.
47 Linguistic Features’ Variation in Translating Technical Texts , Dr. Abdul- Hamed Al-Awabdeh
This research examines the contribution of language variation in translating technical texts from English into Arabic language. It aims at analysing language variation, technical texts translation competence, creating subject field knowledge and generating authenticity in technical texts and translation setting. This study attempts to uncover problems that English language and literature students at the University of Jordan / Aqaba branch problems of translating technical texts. This qualitative research included 30 B.A students selected randomly from the Dept. of English Language and Literature at the University of Jordan. The results of the study revealed that literature students encountered many problems when translating technical texts, particularly when using two different varieties of English American / British into Arabic language. This research recommends that translators and professional in the field should be concerned with translating technical texts and include them in translation syllabi.
48 The Impact of Divorce on Mothers with children living conditions and behaviors: A study on a Sample of Divorcees in Jordan , Reham Abu Ghaboush, Talal Al-Qdah, Dr., Wafa A. Jomah
Background and Objectives: Divorce is known to have tremendous negative impacts on children. These impacts are detrimental to the development of children and their standards of living. Globally this topic is well research, while in our region still it needs more investigation and interventions. Therefore, the current research investigates the consequences of divorce on children and their mothers. It responds to the following questions, (a) Does divorce impact the daily living arrangement of divorced mothers and their children?, (b) Does mothers’ divorce impact the social behavior of their children? And (c) Does divorce impact the living standards of mothers’ and their children? Methodology:  The population of the study was divorced men and women in Jordan at the time of data collection. The sample of the study consisted of 400 participants (divorced men and women). Data were collected through interviews conducted by professional and trained researchers using a questionnaire which was designed as a main tool for the study. Results: Finding of the study show that children are severely impacted by divorce. They daily life was interrupted, they living arrangement was altered, their level of education was lowered. In addition, they experience psychological and emotional and social problems. Conclusions: The findings of the study contributed to the international research finding from various regions in the world and through decades of research that divorce is a highly stressor for children in their present and future life. Precautious measures and interventions should be used to mitigate the negative impact of divorce on children. Recommendations: Further investigation using children samples is proposed, with the intention of developing evidence-based intervention to counter the negative impact of divorce and to help children and their mothers (and fathers) to better adjust and cope with the consequences of divorce.
49 Computer Programming and Readability Scoring Tests between Arabic and English of Surat Al-Fātiḥah , Dr. Ibrahem Mohamad Khalefe Bani Abdo
The present paper investigates computer programming of the readability feature in Al-Fatihah (Arabic: ٱلْفَاتِحَة‎), the first chapter (Surah) of the Quraan, with its English equivalent and whether the different statistics scores of readability may affect the translation’s value of the holy text (Al-Fatihah) compared to its target text equivalent. This paper uses the computer programming of readability tests. It uses different formulas as (i) Flesch Kincaid Reading Ease; (ii) Flesch Kincaid Grade Level; (iii) Gunning Fog Score; (iv) SMOG Index; (v) Coleman Liau Index; and (vi) Automated Readability Index. These formulas identify the easiness of the source text compare to the translated text (target text). This study identifies the readability scores that may affect the translation text compared to the source text. The study reveals that the readability scoring tests between Arabic (ST), Arabic –Latin (Transliteration), and the target text (TT) English version of Surat Al-Fātiḥah from The holy Book Al Quraan are different. The ST is much easier to read by their audience than the TT readers. It also affirms that the translating process may cause slightly changes in the TT compared to the ST ones. Finally, the lack of knowledge of such computer software during the translating process may increase or decrease the complexity of the text for readers. 
50 Preserving Style in Translating Metaphors of a Literary Text from English into Arabic , Dr. Ibrahem Mohamad Khalefe Bani Abdo
This paper investigates the stylistics issues in translating metaphors of George Orwell's Animal Farm from English into two different Arabic translations and whether the metaphors’ style is maintained or not in the target texts. The research presents concepts related to metaphor translation such as text types and semantic/ communicative translation. This study is based on Newmark’s (1988) classifications of metaphors. The data are selected randomly from the novel, then the target texts equivalents are provided to investigate the maintaining of metaphors’ style in TT (1) and TT (2) as compared to the ST. The study concludes that the translators try their best to reproduce the same image in the TT (target text) as closely as possible. Although, it is important for a metaphor to be retained in the translation, however, the study reveals that some metaphors has been translated word-by-word in both target texts (TT1 and TT2). TT (2) follows the target readers’ culture (Arabic culture) in translating some of these metaphors to some-extent more than the TT (1). Metaphors are translated in both denotative and connotative associations. TT2 has deleted some metaphors from the translation (TT2) which may cause some loss in meaning. TT1 is to some-extent successfully conveyed all metaphors which may express the translator’s fluency as a well-known author. Omissions reveal that TT2 is conventional to the target culture.  Finally, the study concludes that TT1 is more restricted to the ST style; whereas, TT2 is restricted more to the target language (Arabic).
51 Almighty saying: (We offered the Trust" al'amana" …) an analytical study and faith indications , Marwa Mahmoud kharma, Dr., Omar Arafat, Dr.
This research deals with the study of a noble verse that raises questions about its understanding; As it relates to offer the Trust "al'amana" to God’s creation, accepting it from some and not accepting it from others. The study aims to clarify the meaning of the offer, the trust and the bear it and the research has been divided into two topics: The first: the analytical study of the noble verse, and it contains four demands: The first: what the offer is, how it is, and its time.  The second: What is Trust and what it means to carry the heavens, the earth, the mountains, and the human being to it. And the third: the meaning of declined to bear it and feared it from the heavens, the earth, and the mountains. And the fourth: the meaning of the fact that a person is unjust and ignorant, then came the second topic to explain: The faith indications of the noble verse: It includes three demands: The first: the manifestations of divine power and mercy in this verse.  The second: the explanation of holding a person accountable for his burden of trust. And the third: the honor of slavery and the benefits of carrying trust to the human being. Then a conclusion with the most prominent results, including: that the offer to the heavens and the earth and the mountains was not an obligatory proposition, but rather an offer of choice, so they declined to bear it uunderestimating themselves and not arrogance to obedience, and that honesty is everything that is entrusted to him, in terms of orders and prohibitions and matters of religion and the world, and the entire Sharia is trust, and human has taken it as an honor for him, and God has promised to help him in carrying it, and that slavery is a great honor for the servant, so carrying us to trust was to complete our existence, raise our status, and achieve our happiness in this world and the hereafter.
52 Defamiliarization / Estrangement in Nabil Abd-Alkarim's Short Story Collection Beautiful Pictures (Al-Suwar Al-Jamilah) , Yousef Hussein Hamdan, Dr., Sami Mohammed Ababneh, Dr.
This paper highlights artistic techniques in Nabil Abd-Alkarim's short story collection Beautiful Pictures which represents common and familiar issues at the level of reality and in literary studies. The paper relies on Shklovsky's concept of "defamiliarization" to examine the role techniques play in estranging familiar and recurring topics that have already become automatic and ineffective. Artistic techniques aim to reintroduce these topics to the human understanding in a unique and unusual way, so they look new, as if the person gets to know them again. The paper highlights a number of artistic references in the collection that reflect the cognitive awareness upon which they are based, as they belong to the imagination even when they deal with realistic issues. Then, it studies "defamiliarization" in the collection at the level of language, and it focuses on its intensification, its wide dependence on images, the use of details, and the resulting ambiguity. The paper also tackles "defamiliarization" at the level of characters, as they appear in the collection eccentric and perform abnormal behavior. The stories present this in an analytical framework which reveals hidden and pressing psychological factors that drive them to such behavior. While the paper studies several stories, it focuses in particular on two, namely, “Beautiful Pictures” an eponymous story, and “Mutual Services” (“Khadamat Mutabadalah”), as two examples of what the paper refers to in the collection.
53 Hadith-based Values in the cyberspace and virtual societies and their Role in the Development of Individual and Society , Dr. Alladein Mohammad Ahamad Adawi
This research deals with the most important values ​​mentioned in the Prophet’s Sunnah. The values in question are presented and linked to the virtual communities; such values should be applied in the era of the electronic revolution, and the era after the information openness that the world is witnessing. This is done with a focus on stating their role in the development of the individual and society. This research comes to study the system of Islamic values ​​that should govern what is called cyberspace, and electronic societies that are called virtual, fictitious or digital societies as opposed to real societies. The study is divided into an introduction, and three sections. The first section: Cyberspace and virtual societies, definition, reality. The second section: Hadith values ​​that govern cyberspace and virtual societies. The third section: the means of making use of cyberspace and virtual societies in promoting values, and finally come the conclusion and results.
54 The Impact of Prevention Costs in Improving the Value Chain in the Jordanian Industrial Public Shareholding Companies , Hanaa Kamal Jomaa
This study aimed to demonstrate the impact of prevention costs on improving the value chain in Jordanian public shareholding industrial companies. That was through the development of the questionnaire as the study tool, whereby the study population is from all the industrial Jordanian public shareholding companies, whose number is (62) (Amman Financial Market, 2019), where a random sample consisting of (53) companies was taken. A (160) questionnaire was randomly assigned to these companies and (107) questionnaires were retrieved for analysis, and the data were analyzed using the SPSS program. The results of the study showed that there is a positive effect of prevention costs in general on improving the value chain in Jordanian public shareholding industrial companies, and the results of the study indicated that there is a high impact for each of the variables (quality planning costs, product design costs, preventive maintenance costs, training costs. On quality, costs of externalities) on improving the value chain. As for the costs of studies and research, they had a moderate impact on improving the value chain. The study recommended the need to develop and improve work with quality tools, especially costs of prevention, to improve productivity and improve the value chain in industrial companies.
55 The Impact of Renewable Energy Investment on Economic Growth , Harith Hadi Mohammed AlDarraji, Amir Bakir, Dr.
The study aimed to define and assess the impact of renewable energy on economic growth. This included the use of panel data for 18 different countries during the period of 2008-2015. The FMOLS econometric technicality was used to estimate the relevant relations between the independent variables, namely; renewable energy, capital, labor and trade openness and the dependent variable, real GDP per capita. The study found that renewable energy affects economic growth positively, however, the elasticity was highly inelastic. Also, the study found positive and significant relationships between economic growth and the other three independent variables with inelastic elasticities. The study concluded that countries should be encouraged to invest in renewable energy and gradually decrease their dependence on conventional energy. Furthermore, it highly recommended to remove all obstacles facing the development of renewable energy.
56 Prequalification and Classification System for Enterprises in Public Sector of Jordanian E-government , Dima Alrwashdeh, Heba Alrawashdeh, Dr., Issam Hamad Alhadid, Dr., Sufian Khwaldeh, Dr.
The use of information and communication technology (ICTs) in the public sector is one of the most important effects were caused by IT. Nowadays, with the development of e-government, set of information are available about the public sector in electronic databases significantly, that may be agree with each other. Public sector information is considered the most important thing in e-government environment, it has a great value (Shao & Wang, 2010). Moreover, the government environment become is using the Internet and information technology, mainly on their interactions with businesses and citizens, and among themselves. One of the e-Government initiatives is the development of the government-to-business (G2B) system, which is an agenda sets to promote a higher service quality between government entities and the business sector (Dong, Xiong & Han, 2010).This paper aims to discover the importance of the government's small and medium enterprises under the umbrella of e-services G2B. G2B transactions include various services exchanged between the government and the business community, including the deployment of policies and memos, rules and regulations. It includes commercial services provided access to current business information, application forms are loaded, renewal of licenses, registration of companies, to obtain permits, pay taxes, e-Procurement service ERAs (slaves and Abu Shanab, 2010).
57 The foundations of societal security deduced from Surat Al-Baqara , Dr. Tamam Odeh Alassaf
This study aims to elicit the foundations of social security that were included in Surat Al-Baqara, by using the inductive analytical method.   The types of social security that was mentioned in Surat Al-Baqara consist of: economic security, social security, family security, and intellectual security. The following pillars emerge from each of them: -  Economic security and its pillars; warning from usury, documentation of debt and mortgage. - Social security and its pillars ; Represented in encouragement upon Spending money in God’s way, Benevolence to orphans , legislation of Executing the murderer.  - Family Security; among the issues that destroy and disperse it that was handled by Surat AL-Baqarah: celibacy from the wife and divorce. Breastfeeding helps in the normal upbringing of children; and God mentioned and explain that in case of divorce. - Intellectual Security; among the deterrent acts that were mentioned in Surat Al-Baqarah for its achievement and preservation are the prohibition of alcohol, gambling, magic.  
58 Causes that Alter the prohibition from this apparent meaning according to Imam Abu Al-Walid Al-Baji , Muath Muhammad Aldeihani, AbdAllah Ali Mahmood Alsaifee, Prof. Dr.
The study links the science of fundamentals with the science of jurisprudence to Imam Abu Al-Walid Al-Baji, And that is by raising the issue of forbidding and what it distracts from its apparent clues. It is an issue that Imam Al-Baji dealt with in his book (Ihkam Al-Fusul). And broadcast its applications in the folds of his book (AlmuntaqaaSharahAlmawta). Whereas the pure evidence streamed in the Al Muntaqa. It was appropriate to follow two basic approaches in this research. The descriptive method based on extrapolating the evidence used by Imam Al-Baji in exchange for the prevention of its appearance. And the analytical method to analyze the reasons for prohibiting it from its appearance. This research has been divided into three sections. The first of which was in the translation of Imam Abu Walid al-Baji. Its origins and journey were mentioned in the search for knowledge and its place among scholars. The second topic is to explain the concept of pure evidence, its function, the concept of prohibition, and its significance among fundamentalists. As for the third topic, I’m showed the clues that Imam Al-Baji used In exchange forbidding of its appearance. And that after reading his book (almuntaqaasharah almawta). The study summarized that the clues to forbidding its truth with Imam Al-Baji are: the act of the Prophet, peace and blessings of God be upon him, forbidding him, his approval of those who did it, and the act of the Companions,  May God be pleased with them, for forbidding him, and measurement.
59 The Populist Tendency in Shi’a Islam , Amal Abdullah Al-Neimat, Dr., Ali Miqdadi Al-Hatimi, Prof. Dr.
This study examines the issue of populism, its concept, its reality, and to what extent it influences Shi’a Islam in the past and the present. Among what has been concluded is that the populism is rooted in Shi’a Islam, even it has become one of the pillars of Shi’a  jurisprudence, their dealing with the texts of Shari’a, and with others. Consequently, the Shi’a has beena tool of populism throughout the history, and a poisonous dagger in the middle of both the Arabic and Islamic nations. In addition, they continue their hostility to the religion and the nation. The reality testifies their practices in Iran, Iraq, Yemen, and the levant, while their eyes still striving to get all of the Arabic and Islamic countries, in order to restore the legacy of the Persian state by exporting the Imami Shi’a Islam. Thus, the researchers implemented the descriptive approach, through presenting the related concepts of the study. In addition, they implemented the inductive approach, by tracking what the scholars have mentioned regarding with this matter, mainly in the Shi’a sources and references, in addition to the analytical approach.
60 The abuse of the right and its impact on the door to the banquet , Abdullah Hizam Fahid Al-Ajmi, Ridina Ibrahim Al-Rifai, Prof. Dr.
The researcher has addressed in this study about the abuse of the right and its impact on the door of the banquet, there is no doubt that the door to the banquet is one of the important things that people use in their daily lives, and it is one of the most prominent ways of marriage, it is from this standpoint that the researcher has taken up this study and divided this study into two subjects and it falls Underneath are demands, as he discussed in the first topic a definition of arbitrariness and the right language and terminology, and mentioned evidence of arbitrariness from the Qur'an and Sunnah and the effects of the companions and legislative principles and legal rules, as well as the researcher mentioned the criteria of the theory of arbitrariness in the use of the right, and the part resulting from arbitrariness, and the second topic the researcher has touched the definition of the banquet in the language and convention, and mentioned the legality of the banquet and the ruling on its answer, and the researcher expressed the arbitrary use of the right in the banquet section. This study concluded that what is meant by arbitrariness is to contradict the intent of the street to act legally authorized according to the original, and that the criteria for arbitrariness are divided into two parts, namely the subjective criterion and the objective criterion, and that the general standard that regulates the criteria: is the use of the right other than what is prescribed for it, and that Abuse of the right to enter the feast door.
61 The types of escape in the Holy Quran and its faith significance , Dr. Marwa Mahmoud Kharma
This study dealt with induction the pronunciation (escape) and its derivatives in the Holy Quran, and aims to clarify the types of escape mentioned in the Holy Quran and its faith significance. The study included a preliminary and two topics: The first topic: the escape from a specific, and has two requirements; the first requirement: escape from a certain plainly (whether in the world or the hereafter), the second requirement: escape from a certain unauthorized but known from the context, and the second topic: the escape from a non-appointed. Then stamped with a conclusion in which the most important results زAmong the most prominent results was that the escape contained in the Holy Qur’an can be divided in two ways: In terms of the escape from it, and in terms of the extent of the use to escape, and Every escape mentioned in the Noble Qur’an was a definite escape from it and not beneficial to its companions. Except for fleeing to God Almighty, it is general and includes escape from everything to Him. And it is the only escape that realizes safety and contentment.  
62 The Impact of Global Innovation on Economic Growth in Developing Countries , Saleh Abdul Mola Al-Zaroog, Amer Abdul Fatah Baqir, Dr.
The study aimed at identifying the effect of innovation on economic growth in developing countries, relying on it determinants, namely fixed capital formation, labor force, trade openness and the global innovation index (GII). The study relied on panel data for 32 developing countries covering the period (2011-2018). The FMOLS methodology was adopted to estimate the relationships between the above Mentioned variables. The study disclosed a positive and statistically significant relationship between economic growth and each of fixed capital formation, labor force and the global innovation index (GII). However, trade openness was statistically insignificant. The reached several conclusion regarding the efficiency of innovation to enhance growth such as, creating a suitable environment for institutions to work in, enhancing the effectiveness of education, increasing expenditure on scientific research, optimal investment in human capital, freeing markets, encouraging the increase in the size of business and innovation output also . The study recommended that developing countries should focus intensely on translating innovation policies into national strategies, which can have a positive effect on economic growth.
63 Arbitration of oil contracts in oil-producing Arab Countries , Mousa Sami Al-Qaaida
In this article, the principles of governing arbitration in Arab oil contracts are investigated.It focused on the independent nature of arbitration and the distinguished characteristics that make an arbitration the most preferable means to settle international economic disputes. As well asitsheds light on the arbitration agreement which included in the oil contracts in a way that excludes this agreement from the legal rules that usually prevent such agreements from developing in scope and content on the one hand, whereas, on the other hand, the article takes a look on the arbitration tribunal (An arbitral tribunal) that resulted from the arbitration agreement that included in the oil contracts which have a special characteristics that distinguishes them from any other contracts in other economical and trading ventures. The article concluded it is better for the disputes resulting from the oil contracts to be resolved via arbitration thus, arbitration remains the most popular method for resolving international trade disputes. Additionally, settlement of disputes for issuing the arbitration decision should be acceptability by both parties in conflict, if arbitration is established by agreement, it is more flexible there is a greater chance of implementation. Finally, the researcher recommends arbitration as the only viable tool in settling conflicts/disputes of oil contracts in oil-producing Arab countries because it is generally faster and less expensive than going to court, most reliable, less expensive and save a lot of time by allowing resolution in weeks or months.
64 The Effect of Export Diversification on the Economic Growth of West-Asian Arab Countries , Ibrahim Qasem Alshomaly, Dr., Walid Shawaqfeh, Dr.
In this article, the principles of governing arbitration in Arab oil contracts are investigated.It focused on the independent nature of arbitration and the distinguished characteristics that make an arbitration the most preferable means to settle international economic disputes. As well asitsheds light on the arbitration agreement which included in the oil contracts in a way that excludes this agreement from the legal rules that usually prevent such agreements from developing in scope and content on the one hand, whereas, on the other hand, the article takes a look on the arbitration tribunal (An arbitral tribunal) that resulted from the arbitration agreement that included in the oil contracts which have a special characteristics that distinguishes them from any other contracts in other economical and trading ventures.   The article concluded it is better for the disputes resulting from the oil contracts to be resolved via arbitration thus, arbitration remains the most popular method for resolving international trade disputes. Additionally, settlement of disputes for issuing the arbitration decision should be acceptability by both parties in conflict, if arbitration is established by agreement, it is more flexible there is a greater chance of implementation. Finally, the researcher recommends arbitration as the only viable tool in settling conflicts/disputes of oil contracts in oil-producing Arab countries because it is generally faster and less expensive than going to court, most reliable, less expensive and save a lot of time by allowing resolution in weeks or months.
65 Entre la guerra y la cocina: La metáfora en el discurso periodístico español desde la perspectiva de la lingüística cognitiva , Dr. Abdullah M. Al.Amar
The main objective of this paper is to analyze the political metaphor in in Spanish journalistic discourse from the perspective of cognitive linguistics. For this purpose, a selection of journalistic citations was selected on the occasion of the political events that took place in Spain, from 1977 to 1988. The theoretical foundations of the analysis are developed within the framework of the cognitive linguistic focus, with special emphasis on the work of G. Lakoff Metaphor and war (1991) and Hernández in his work The Political Metaphor in the Venezuelan Press (2004). Regarding the argumentative functions of metaphor, we have chosen the cognitive function mode analysis in different journalistic contexts. However, to reach our purpose of analysis, we have chosen the field of war and cooking as the metaphorical fields most used by the current Spanish press. It is concluded that the analysis of the metaphorical processes in the journalistic discourse allows us to observe the way in which the issuers perceive and conceptualize the political events that are collected by the journalists.
66 The Impact of Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) Systems on Internal Auditors’Operational Performance (Case study in Jordanian Banks) , Sulaiman R. Weshah
ERP systems are spreading widely inside banks environments for many reasons such as develop making decisions process, customer satisfaction and Competitions. This study was to identify the impact of ERP systems’ dimensions represented by (performance management, task characteristics, technology characteristics and individual characteristics) on internal auditor’s operational performance dimensions represented by (Standardization, Quality, Deliverables). A virtual model was developed to reflect the relationship between the variables and hypothesis of the study. (215) questionnaire distributed with response of (86.5%). Then by using descriptive and statistical methods based on the statistical package of the social sciences SPSS the study revealed a number of results, the most prominent of which were: The level of ERP systems implementation was high inside banking environment and there is a significant impact of the ERP systems on operational performance of internal auditors in Jordanian banks. The study found that there were differences in the level of operational performance related to internal auditors’ experiences that correspond to the work field. These results were presented a set of recommendations, the most important is to provide the internal auditors in Jordanian banks with sufficient training to deal with modern electronic environment so that they can face challenges and support their operational performance.
67 The concept and scope of restorative justice for juveniles According to the Islamic and Jordanian Legislations , Ebtisam Al-Saleh, Dr., Kefah Al-Soury, Dr., Hanan Al-Daher, Dr.
The adoption of the restorative justice approach is more appropriate for the children in conflict with the law and more sensitive to achieving their best interests and rehabilitating them to facilitate their reintegration into society again (socializing), and to play a constructive role in the society,  and not to return to violating the law again,  unlike the traditional policy in the criminal justice, which did not give the sufficient weight to the personal and objective circumstances of the child, and it focused on the punishment and criminalization for every wrongful act without looking at restorative alternatives to the convicted child. The restorative justice, therefore, is an alternative approach to the ordinary criminal procedure in certain cases. The judicial system is not the only procedure that must address the phenomenon of children in conflict with the law in all cases.   In certain cases, it is better to conduct a dialogue and mediation between the perpetrators and the victims, with the aim of reaching to repair the harm and to rehabilitate the perpetrators (children) according to the measures outside the judicial system. This is what Islamic Shari’a called fourteen centuries ago. The Shari’a (Islamic Law) defined the criminal reconciliation and approved it as one of the most serious types of crimes against the self by the adult, as it has indicated. According to the Shari’a, the juvenile, whether he is cognizant or not of, is not criminally responsible for the violations he commits nor a case will be filed against him and no penal action will be taken against him. 
68 The Associations among Human Resource Management (HRM) Practices, Total Quality Management (TQM) Practices and Competitive Advantages , Hadeel Fareed Tawalbeh, Mais Jaradat
The current research aimed to investigate the relationship between human resource management (HRM) practices, total quality management (TQM) practices and competitive advantages in Telecommunication organizations in Jordan. A self-administrated questionnaire was designed and distributed over a sample of telecommunication employees of 400 employees. The percentage of filled questionnaires is 80% (320 questionnaires). The research hypotheses were tested by using multiple regressions. The study concluded that there is a relationship between human resource management practices and total quality management practices. It was also concluded that there is a relationship between total quality management practices and competitive advantage. Finally, there is a relationship between human resource management practices and competitive advantage. A number of recommendations emerged in light of the findings, is that the telecommunication organization are advised to focus more on the human resource management activities and total quality management activities that improve the utilization of competitive advantages.
69 The Impact of Talent Management on Organizational Effectiveness in Healthcare Sector , Haneen Yassin, Bader Yousef Obeidat, Prof. Dr.
The current research aim is to investigate the direct effect of talent management on organizational effectiveness in the health care sector. The study population consisted of all working employees at all levels, from the medical and the managerial domains with a total of 3512 employees, a quantitative research design and regression analysis were used to a convenience sample on a total of 251 valid returns that were gained in a questionnaire based survey, applied among workers from Joint Commission International (JCI) accredited Jordanian private hospitals. The findings showed that there is a strong positive correlation between the study variables; talent management and organizational effectiveness; talent management with its dimensions; attract talent, maintain talent, and develop talent, have a significant effect on organizational effectiveness. In addition the organizational effectiveness dimensions, namely job satisfaction, and organizational involvement were positively and significantly related to each other. This study implies that Jordanian hospitals should try their best to adopt and facilitate talent management strategies implementation to keep its talented employees in nurture tone and more sustained, which will eventually yield favorable results for those hospitals in regard with its effectiveness.
70 Housing Patterns from the Perspective of the Provisions of Regulation and Housing Density: Salt City as Case Study , Suhad Isaaf Al-Azab, Othman M. Ghnaim, Prof. Dr.
The study aimed to present and analyze housing patterns from the perspective of the provisions of regulation and housing density in the city of Salt, and to achieve its goals, the descriptive approach was used.  The study data were collected and analyzed using simple descriptive statistics methods, deduction and extrapolation methods, and categorical analysis using GIS technology. Results revealed that the housing pattern of the category of organization (D) concentrated in the city center on the basis that it is the oldest part in it, followed by the category (C) housing pattern, and the more we head towards the outskirts of the city, the greater categories of housing (housing A + housing B + private housing + agricultural housing. Additionally, the housing category (D + C) is almost not existed in the outskirts of the city. The results    confirmed the fact that the city has a dual urban personality; the old personality which is dominated by (D + C) housing pattern, while the modern urban personality is dominated by housing with an organized category (A + B + Private + Agricultural). It is also noted that the housing density rises in the housing pattern of the organizational category (D) and decreases in the housing patterns in the categories A, B, and C and in the private and agricultural housing. The study recommended that decision makers and planners in the city of Salt should look at the most important factors affecting population growth and housing density during the design process of the city's population policies, in addition to stop giving permits for construction in the old city neighborhoods to preserve the architectural heritage style that distinguishes the city and determines its identity, as many buildings have been demolished under the pretext of revamping the residential building.
71 The ability of cash flows to predict the earning , Dr. Omar Alhawatmeh
This study aims to test is ability of cash flows to predict the earning, his research is expected to give contribution in providing evidence on whether (1) operating cash flow is useful to predicting earning. (2) Investing cash flow is useful to predicting earning. (3) Financing cash flow is useful to predicting earning.   In the present research, Statistical population consists of firms listed on London Stock Exchange Group (LSEG) during 2015-2018. Earning (dependent variable) was measured by net income, operating income and independent variable, namely cash flows through operating, investing and financing operations. The results generally indicates the models' ability to interpret hypothesis and confirm the ability of cash flows to predict earnings. 
72 Earning Management AND International Financial Reporting Standard (IFRS) Implementation Process: Empirical Study , Dr. Omar Alhawatmeh
This research came for studying the implementation IFRSs and its impact on earning management in Jordan .The data onto analysis will be the  listed companies of Amman Stock Exchange (ASE) for period is from 2001-2018, and to find value earning management (EM), we used modified Jones model .the result shows the implementation IFRS have negatively effects on earning management.
73 The relationship between organizational changes and job satisfaction in the Jordanian telecommunication industry , Najda Hayajneh, Taghrid Suifan, Bader Yousef Obeidat, Dr., Mohammd Abuhashesh, Raed Kareem Kanaan
The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between organizational change and job satisfaction in telecommunication companies in Jordan. A convenience sample was selected from among employees working at three communication companies (3636 employees) in Jordan. The findings indicate a significant positive relationship between organizational change and job satisfaction. to increase employees’ job satisfaction, their level of job stress during organization change operations in telecommunication companies must be decreased.
74 Basic principles of economic policy and public decision in the 21st century , Oscar González Muñoz, Dr., Milagros Cano Flores, Dr.
In the midst of the new contributions to economic theory and the new challenges that represent globality as a means of integrating markets through the economic policy of the neoliberal order, versus the consolidation of a neo-institutional system through the defense of the Sovereignty as a nationalism of attention to the conditions of political life, it is necessary to conduct a respectful analysis of the new scenario of international life through current economic theory. The objective of this paper is to carry out an analysis of the known economic policy models through the theoretical contribution of classical economists. It is a theoretical exercise and bases its result on the concretion of the complexity of the economic model currently known.  
75 Poses in Drug Abusers’ Divorce , Dr. Tamam Odeh Alassaf
The study found that the drug abusers’ divorce is void, since the right statement is directed to be correct with correction of his divorce and its happening even that consequences of this divorce and its effects are on him alone. But if the harm involves the wife and children, how can others be punished for doing it? This is rejected by the justice of Islamic law. Preserving and sustaining family life is one of the pillars of Islam.   The reasonable person will not deny the fact that the abuser is absent from his mind by his own will and choice, as well as that he does not have the mental powers to make the decision to disengage from the marriage, therefore, It is necessary to intervene stop this reckless man from destroying his family, by taking preventive measures and actions, to prevent him from continuing his unconscious and uncontrolled behavior in order to maintain family cohesion. But these means and methods of deterrence should not be a reason for involving others in punishment, harm and related sequences, on the pretext that he is the one who had corrupted his mind, by committing the prohibited and the sins.   The independent balanced view is the main feature of Islamic law, and it is the ultimate goal pursued by the independent researcher; who seek to reach the right path in which the wisdom of legislation and the meaning of the text are realized and achieved.  
76 The Reality of Using Modern Teaching Methods in Teaching Arabic for Speakers of other Languages from Teachers’ Perspective , Ibrahim Hassan Mohamed Rababah, Dr.
The current study aims at finding out the reality of using modern teaching methods in teaching Arabic for speakers of other languages from teachers’ perspective in the Language Center at the University of Jordan in terms of its availability and use as well as finding out the effect of variables such as qualification, work experience, and sex. The sample of the study included 26 teachers. The researcher uses a descriptive and analytical method because it is appropriate for the study. To achieve the goals of the study, the researcher designed a tool for the study that is made up of two parts; the first of which includes 23 modern teaching methods to show their availability and use. The second of which are the criteria that have to be taken into consideration when using a modern teaching method. To analyze the results of the study and to process its data statistically, arithmetic averages and standard deviations have been calculated. These findings show the reality of modern teaching methods in the Language Center at the University of Jordan. They also indicate that the use of modern teaching methods in teaching Arabic to speakers of other languages is restricted to a certain number of them, and that other methods are available.The findings also indicate that there are no statistically significant differences due to qualification except for the modern teaching methods and their relation to teachers as well as learners. The findings also indicate that thereare no statistically significant differences due to sex except for the relationship of modern teaching methods to teachers as well as to learners, which are in favor of females. The findings indicate that there are substantial statistical differences due to different experience and in favor of experienced teachers with 11 years of experience and more. Based on these findings, the researcher recommendsintroducing more modern teaching methods in teaching Arabic to speakers of other languages. He also recommends carrying out similar studies to identify the perspectives of teachers, learners, and the administration of centers and institutes concerned with teaching Arabic for speakers of other languages. These studies are necessaryto find out the reality of the use of modern teaching methods and their importance in teaching Arabic to speakers of other languages. The researcher stresses the necessity of having special labs for modern teaching methods in language centers.  
77 Communicative Competence by Learners of Arabic as a Second Language (the Writing Skill as a Model) , Asem Bani Amer, Dr., Ibrahim Hasan Mohamed Al-Rababah, Dr.
Communicative Competence is a basic concept in teaching Arabic for speakers of other languages. Both learners and instructors of Arabic who speak other languages alike have to master it so that the educational process can be successfully completed. Therefore, the study attempts to uncover how to achieve communicative competence in the writing skill among the learners of Arabic as a second language by untangling the overlapping between communicative competence and other similar concepts. After that, the elements of communicative competence will be explained as well as finding out obstacles that hinder the acquisition communicative competence by learners of Arabic as a foreign language. Finally, the study will attempt to put forward solutions that contribute to solving these problems.  
78 The potential of the strategic recruitment of the Hashed al-Shaabi (Popular Mobilisation) after The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) , Ziya M. Abbas, Hussein Abbas
After getting rid of ISIL's military presence in Iraq, the problem of having a strategic vision in recruiting the PMF strengthened national security. In addition to the internal and external challenges that do not agree on a unified vision about these forces, which now has a law and regulation governing its work. In light of these changes, a vision is formed of the possibilities of employing these forces and making them an independent institution linked to the commander in chief of the Iraqi armed forces while preserving their national identity.   The study was divided into two major parts. The first included the political and doctrinal dimensions of issuing the fatwa of jihad and the stage that witnessed the establishment of Hashed al-Shaabi. The second part included the strategic vision of employing Hashed al-Shaabi in a post- ISIL period. This part dealt with the obstacles to the strategic recruitment of Hashed al-Shaabi. Internal obstacles such as terrorism, political sectarianism and administrative corruption. The external obstacles dealt with the positions of some international and regional forces toward Hashed al-Shaabi and It's relationship with Iran. The last part discussed the possibilities of strategic recruitment of Hashed al-Shaabi in Iraq.   The study relied on a number of references that dealt with the subject of Hashed al-Shaabi in several languages, such as books, analysis of research centers and academic articles for specialized researchers and media such as newspapers and television. In addition to the laws and decisions of the Iraqi government issued about Hashed al-Shaabi.
79 The Short Story and its Role in the Teaching of Arabic to Non- Native Speakers , Hussein Abdul Karim Al Btoush, Dr., Ibrahim Hassan Al Rababah, Dr., Qutaiba Yousef Habashneh, Dr.
The Arabic short story has an important impact in the field of teaching Arabic to non-Arabic speakers; therefore, this research aims to provide a methodological vision to show the effective role of the short story in the field of teaching Arabic to non-native speakers, starting from the theoretical application through which the researchers address the issue of the Literary text in general and its connection with teaching a foreign language. The research also adopts in-field application based on social survey sample. The instrument of the research is a questionnaire designed for non-native learners of Arabic at the Languages Center at the University of Jordan. The research has concluded that teaching the short story is effective due to its functional, recreational, cultural, linguistic and aesthetic qualities based on the challenges facing the teaching-learning process of a second language.  
80 The persistence of the companions ’faith and their non-apostasy after the death of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him. Nodular study , Dr. Ahmed Abdul Hussein Al-Awaisheh
        The research deals with the issue of the continued belief of the Companions (Allah be pleased with them) in response to those who said Apostasy of   the companions after the death of the Prophet peace be upon him, and the meaning of companionship in the language and terminology. The research also shows that the justice of the Companions does not mean their infallibility of iniquity and sin. Quran shows various evidences which proves the faith of the Companions, as the research shows that companionship on levels and not all companions on one status, and the research models some Attitudes   of the Islamic groups and scholars of old and recent companions God be pleased with them.  
81 Syrian Crisis in Jordan: Case Study of Hosting Community Psycho-social in Low Income areas in Amman , Dr. Manal Fathi Anabtawi
This paper explores the influence that the Syrian crisis has on hosting community psycho-social in low income areas in Amman, Capital of Jordan. Case study was chosen as a design that would support a wider and in-depth exploration because it would be able to address the sensitivity of the issue; based on data from a qualitative study involving ten focus groups conducted from July to October 2017. Available reports and researches have investigated Syrian refugee needs and experiences, while few studies have explored the experiences of Jordanians in a hosting community, especially their psycho-social. In this paper, researcher argues that policy makers and service providers have to pay attention to hosting community experiences; especially their psycho-social. Paper concludes that Jordanians living in low income areas in Amman have been influenced by the Syrian crisis; suffering from  frustration and despair, fears, anger, low self-esteem and hopelessness.  
82 Claim of Transport Commission Agent Liability and Compensation Provisions , Dr. Mohammad Battah
Through examining the transport commission agent liability, it is clear to us the heavy burden of transport commission agent liability. The legal nature of the transport commission agent commitment is the nature of commitment to achieving a result. The liability claim in the transport commission agency contract has two types, first, a claim in which the assignor or consignee demands compensation for damages and secondly, a claim in which the transport commission agent demands compensation to be paid by the person who causes damage. Therefore, the assignor and transporter shall return directly to each other to claim the rights of the transport contract. The passenger or consignee and transporter shall return directly to each other to claim the mentioned rights.   In all cases, the transport commission agent shall be implicated in the claim Since the legislator has prevented the agent of the transfer commission from establishing any conditions exempting him from liability in cases of loss and damage, he is obliged to compensate his client for full damages, except for the cases where the agent requires the transfer commission to determine his liability within the limits permitted by law, and we will know the provisions of compensation whether the compensation agreement or judicial compensation. Eventually, the prevailing trade development as well as the profession of transport commission agency, its importance and resulting legal disputes and problems led to carry out this study to identify the transport commission agent liability and its limits. In this study, we also deal with applying this liability through liability claim, how to dismiss this claim, and finally how to calculate the compensation.