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It is vital during management training of professionals related to physical education and sport, to deliberate the issues of tolerant behavior in societal interaction and communications with community via sports and physical activities. The objective of the current study is to formulate a contemporary and an articulate model of tolerance in the management and administrative skills of physical educationist, instructors and sports coaches. Regression analysis was utilized which is a statistical process for estimating the relationships among variables including evaluation of physical, psychological, personal interrelationship and qualities regarding tolerance and management of an upcoming specialist in this field and building a precise set of efficient criteria. The study will benefit the educationists appointed for the training of professional in the field of physical education and sport.
The study investigates terrorism and its effects on sports activities. To find out ways and means to promote sports activities in the affected areas, to determine the trend of common people and athletes in the conflicted areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa towards sports activities and to evaluate the Governments’ efforts in reducing the consequences of terrorism on Sports activities. The study is limited to the male athletes of Government High and Higher Secondary Schools of District Swat and Buner in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. The study consists of 200 male students, 100 each from District Swat and Buner. Respondent are students of secondary schools (9th, 10th class) and higher secondary schools (11th, 12th), with age range of 13-22 years. Simple random method was used for sampling purpose. The effects of terrorism on sports activities were assessed through interview and self-administered questionnaire. SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) version 15 was used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics like measurement of central tendency and measurement of dispersion were utilized to describe the data. Work has been done on 200 respondents. According to the result, 78% mothers of the respondents were illiterate while 22% were educated, whereas 46% fathers were illiterate while 54% were educated. 98% families became IDPs and 90% schools were closed down due to terrorism. 86% respondent attitude was positive toward sport activities and 88% schools were found to have playgrounds. 86% parents allow their children to participate in sports and 72% take part in sports activities after school time. 74% respondents were optimistic for a positive change in near future. 10% received threats who want to participate in sports activities. 26% respondent felt outside danger. 34% schools have been used by law enforcement agencies. Finally it was observed that majority of the people have positive attitude towards sports activities despite the fact that majority of schools had been closed for a long period due to terrorism.
The study intended to explore the relationship of age and performance of test batsmen to know at what age they achieved the peak performance while playing test cricket. Qualitative data was collected through interviews and Secondary data sources were used of different ICC (International Cricket Council) websites and magazines. Sample comprised of top 12 test players of Pakistan from past and present era, who played for Pakistan with distinction. Time series and regression analysis was executed to find the significance of the relationship between their age and performance (Batting average).The findings of the study revealed a parabolic trajectory relationship between age and their performance, positive relationship at the start and then a plateau and then a negative relationship between age and performance. The rise and decline pattern varied and majority of the cricket players touched the peak between the ages of 28 to 34 years. The current study will provide solid grounds to account the role of age in producing expert performance and strongly suggested through the evidence of data analysis that to achieve the expert performance of the enrolled test batsmen, patience is required until and unless the cricket players meet a specific age limit.
The study was aimed to analyze the relationship of co-curricular activities with academic progress, personality development and leadership skills of Male Secondary School students of FATA. A sample size of 200 respondents was selected on the basis of random sampling technique. The study was delimited to Qirat, Naat, Sports, Scouting, Quiz and Speech contest. A questionnaire of five points Likert Scale after seeking due permission from Principals and Head Masters was used to reach to the in-depth of the phenomena. Statistical techniques Mean, Percentage and Standard Deviation were run to analyze the collected data. The researcher analyzed the relationship between co-curricular involvement and its positive impacts on students overall performances. Finally it was determined that co-curricular activities has a durable connection with physical and mental health, self-confidence, qualities of leadership, personality development, interpersonal relationship, personal hygiene, healthy behaviors and educational performances.
Generally the performance of the long distance runners is not progressing in Pakistan. There is lack of awareness of modern sports techniques in Pakistan to improve the abilities of a long distance runner. Psychological determinants can play a very important role to identify the weaknesses and strengths of the athletes. This study is helpful to understand the importance of different psychological determinants such as sports motivation, mental toughness and sports confidence in relation to performance. The long distance 83 athletes were selected from Punjab, Pakistan having average age of 27 years. Adopted questionnaire was used to collect the survey data. Findings of the study show that there is high positive and significant effect of sports confidence and sports motivation on sports performance while mental toughness effects negatively but significantly on sports performance. On the basis of these results, the study will help coaches for the psychological training of long distance runners which may enhance their performance in practice as well as in the competitions.
The aim of present study was to evaluate the groundwater quality and its potential impacts by drinking on the health of New Karachi Town residents. For this purpose, a total of 25 groundwater samples were randomly collected through boring wells at a depth range of 961 meters from the study area. Data revealed that all the chemical parameters exceeded their guideline values of WHO for drinking purpose in most of the wells. TDS content of groundwater is very high (mean: 4781.6 mg/L) which exceeded the WHO limit (500 mg/L) for drinking purpose. Highly elevated concentration of Na (mean: 1397mg/L), K (mean: 39.72 mg/L), Ca (mean: 308.7 mg/L), Mg (mean: 1408.65 mg/L), Cl (mean: 2502.345 mg/L), HCO3 (mean: 441 mg/L) and SO4 (mean: 332.4376 mg/L) is reported in more than 85% wells which is against the corresponding WHO guideline for drinking purpose. Very high concentration of these major ions (Mg, K, Ca, Na, Cl, SO4 and HCO3) is indicating the sewage mixing with groundwater in study area. Groundwater in New Karachi town is not suitable for drinking purpose and may cause serious health impacts of acute and chronic nature.
The study about the skills, art and science of movement of human being is known as Physical education, it is necessary for whole educational procedure. The main purpose of PE is the progress of human being. It plays a significant part in the activity levels of athletes. Physical education not only fulfills a distinctive part in education, but is also an essential component of sports activities. In this paper a concise review of the research on students perception about the coaching performance of college female directress sports have been presented. Student ratings are most important to assess of teaching effectiveness, active contribution and meaningful participation from students can be significant in the success of such teaching assessment systems. For this purpose the total number of subjects N=90 girls students (45 each from BA part I and BA part II) were used as a sample of the study from nine G. G. D. C of Hyderabad city to assess the coaching performance of female directress sports. The five point Likert scale was applied to collect the data, which ranges from “strongly agrees” to “strongly disagree”. The outcome of the study concluded that generally the female Directress sports coaching techniques were better and they comprise the potential to exhibit, train, assess, and exact the techniques. The present study outcome may demonstrate that students are usually considered for progress in teaching to be the most important for the result of a teaching evaluation system. Furthermore, the result shows that through student’s feedback about coaching evaluations the course content and format can be developed. Students should be encouraged to participate in the coaching evaluation system because through this they will be able to provide significant opinion. Quality students participation is essential sign to improve teaching efficiency.
8 CONCEPTS OF COSMOLOGY REGARDING ITS EVOLUTION , Muhammad Zeeshan Ashraf,  Dr. Saira Husnain,  Dr. Nazia Parveen Gill.
Body of beliefs on the basis mythological, religious, and cryptic literature and traditions of conception and eschatology is called Religious or mythological cosmology.Physical cosmology is examined by various astronomers, physicists, and also by philosophers, for instance meta physicians, theorist of physics, and philosophers of space and time. for this reason of communal scope with philosophy, hypothesis in physical cosmology may comprise of scientific as well as non-scientific proposals, and could rely upon notion that can,t be tested. Cosmology is concerned with the Universe as a whole whereas astronomy is concerned with person celestial objects. Contemporary physical cosmology is subjugated by the Big Bang theory, which tries to get together observational astronomy and particle physics; more particularly bring more authentic parameters of the Big Bang with dark matters and dark energies, called the Lambda-CDM model.
Aim: The present study spotlight on psychosocial factors that play vital role in influencing Participation and lack of participate of females in sports. The study discusses various difficulties of women’s participation in sports. Methodology: A self administered questionnaire was used as a tool to study. 200 subjects who were selected randomly for study purpose both government and private girls degree colleges Hyderabad. The filled questionnaire was collected and evaluated to examine the parent’s attitude towards girl’s participation in sports. Statistical analysis through Percentile and Frequency methods were done to find the parent’s attitude towards Female’s Participation in sports. The observations of the study shows that bulk of the parents acquire encouraging attitude towards female participation in sports. Despite this several psycho-cultural restraints hinders parents in showing the encouraging attitude.
The implication of mental efforts in designing physical education curriculum in modern times provides favorable environment for this academic discipline contribute to motivate the trainee players engaged in physical education activities to make the people physically fit in the national community as students often continue to exercise to increase their ability through moderate work outs concentrating to improve their skills in the societal community. The authors have briefly described the benefits of mental efforts in receiving the advantages adopting physical education curriculum through displaying sports video games in modern-day physical education course while discussing the importance of sports videos in the learning process worked out in physical education courses of academic institutions adopted in many civilized nations world over, considering the importance universally recognized to recommend to impart teaching and training through displaying exergames (telecasting sports games on videos) understanding the techniques of the games on television received enormous value in making outstanding athletes to follow modern procedure to receive the advantages of learning new techniques to recommend advanced training exercises in contributing student-players to appreciate the effects of moderate exercises carried out in achieving significant training to support players in producing to testify in adjusting the players’ fitness preparation to participate in lifelong exercises adopting variety of physical activities to make individuals physically healthy in the societal community as ddisplaying videos on TV provide exercise and gaming techniques emerge as the innovative tool to settle the crisis. only prevalent as part of students’ physical education classes as summarizes the literature on the mentioned subject matter, emphasizing on their potential to improve student-players’ physical health along with various social activities, and academic performance in the academic institutions and hopefully in future years, Pakistan may display and telecast the modern sports techniques on known national television channels.
This paper addresses health issues associated with the observations of solar eclipses, in particular, eclipse retinopathy due to observation of partial-solar eclipses without proper protection to eyes. Partial- and total-solar-eclipse expeditions conducted by the author during 19952008 are described. Violation of Kepler’s second law of planetary motion was witnessed during the 1995 total-solar-eclipse expedition and the same was confirmed during the 1999 total-solar-eclipse expedition. During the 1995 expedition, seconds before the end of totality, the black circular disc changed into an elliptical shape of eccentricity 0.26, with the major axis vertical to horizon. Safe viewing of eclipse is recommended through special glasses made from 2 layers of completely exposed ASA 100 film as well as UV-cutoff glasses.
Background: Menstruation and related problems are issues of great importance for adolescent athletes. The concern becomes more crucial when it comes to the sports participation of athletes. The social and cultural setup in India leaves very less space for adolescent athletes to talk freely about menstruation. This raises a great concern regarding menstruation from health perspective. Objectives: To study sport workout and participation associated menstrual problems among adolescent athletes. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire based survey study was carried out during open sports meet 2017 in Aligarh, India. A sample of 158 girl athletes participated in this study. Data was collected using a 23-item semi structured questionnaire. Data collection lasted for two weeks and analysis was done using descriptive statistics, percentages and proportions. Results: Showed that the mean age of menarche was 13.5 years. 37.19% had irregular menstrual cycle. 73.23% (20.11% severe and 53.12% mild) athletes had abdominal pain and cramping during menstruation. While, mere, 7.98% athletes seek any medical practitioner or OB-GYN about their menstruation problems. 56.97% athletes think that sports training and participation effect their menstrual periods. 49.78% reported that diet provided to them was not well balanced and 59.09% reported that imbalanced diet had caused many problems like that of irregular menstrual periods, dizziness, sleeping difficulties, mood swings, constipation and feelings of depression to them. Conclusion: The knowledge of the participants of this study about the menstruation and related problems was very weak and did not know the safe maintenance procedures. They also have the ill faith that sports participation hampers the menstrual periods. Besides this the significant weight loss could be due to training load and dietary imbalances. This seems to have had played major role in the irregularity of the menstrual cycles.
This paper addresses the issue of vitamin-D deficiency, which is approaching epidemic scale in the Asian countries. Lack of proper nutrition and awareness contributes to this problem. After an explanation of the mechanism of production of vitamin D, the authors list adverse effects of vitamin-D deficiency and propose mandatory testing of vitamin-D deficiency during physical examinations. The remedial measures to overcome this deficiency in the context of preteen male gymnasts include supplements, proper nutrition in the form of sun-ripe fruits and vegetables as well as guarded-graduated sun-exposure. The last two are preferred over supplements as the supplements may produce toxicity if taken in higher doses.
The aim of the current study is to examine the coaching leadership behavior preferences at intervarsity level by Pakistani basketball players. A total of 150 players participated in the study. The preferred version of leadership scale for sports (LSS) developed by Chelladurai & Saleh (1980) has been used to investigate the five dimensions of coaching leadership behavior. The statistical test Multivariate analysis is used to check the gender differences in coaching leadership behavior. Distinctly, training and instructions coaching leadership behavior was found most preferred coaching leadership behavior by male and female athletes. The results of the present study will be helpful for the coaches in order to understand about most preferred coaching leadership behavior for the desired results.
15 EFFECT OF YOGA ON CARDIOVASCULAR EFFICIENCY , Brij Bhushan Singh,  Shubi Mirja,  Samiya Husain.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of yogic practices on cardio-vascular efficiency. Material and methods: Total Forty (40) subject’s boys/girls were selected as the sample of the study through the random sampling and their age ranged between 20 to 25 years from the Department of Physical Education, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh. The subjects were divided into two groups comprising 20 subjects in each group, namely group “A” (the experimental group) performs yogic practices (Asanas, Pranayamas and Kriyas) and group “B” (the control group) served as control. Statistical technique: for the assessment of the cardiovascular efficiency through Harvard step test pre and post-test was conducted and t-test was applied for the analysis. Result: revealed that there exist a significant difference between group A and group B, at .05 level of significance. On the basis of the pre and post-test among experimental and control group, experimental group found better than the control group on cardiovascular efficiency and significant result were found in this study.
16 GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE AND SPORTS , Shamshad Akhtar,  Muhammad Rafique Dhanani
Climate change is not the new phenomenon. The palaeo-climatic studies reveal that during the Pleistocene and Holocene periods several warm and cold periods occurred, resulted change of sea level and change in climatic processes like rise and fall of global average temperature and rainfall. The last medieval warm period was observed from 950 to 1350 AD, followed by the little Ice Age from 1400 to 1900 AD. Occurrence of these climatic changes and their impacts are considered due to natural processes that are geological and astronomical. In 1970s environmentalists and some climate scientists pointed that earth’s average temperature is rising linked with the anthropogenic causes of global warming and emission of carbon dioxide through fossil fuels. In late 1980s the problem was discussed in politics and media. To examine and monitor the global rise of temperature and its impacts due to the emission of carbon dioxide an organization of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was created in 1988 by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The IPCC released several reports based upon anthropogenic causes of climate change and their impacts. According to IPCC, 2007 report on climate change during the last 100 years the earth’s average temperature has increased up to 0.6 degree Celsius and if emission of greenhouse gases particularly carbon dioxide continues to rise, global temperature will rise up to 5.8 degrees Celsius by the end of 2100 AD. Similarly as a result of this threat of global warming, glaciers will disappear even from Antarctica and Arctic sea will open for navigation throughout the year. Many islands and coastal cities will submerge as a result of sea level rise. In 2004 Canadian Broadcasting T.V presented a documentary with the name “ The doomsday called off” in which leading climate scientists, astrophysicist and geophysicist presented evidences that science of global warming presented by IPCC scientists is incomplete and incorrect based upon computer models and stimulations which are deliberately exaggerated. Many climate scientists have shown disassociation with the IPCC views and speculations on the basis of its doubtful manipulated and exaggerated figures of global warming and some consider it a climate scam. Since then debate between UN pro man-made global warming scientists and anti-man-made global warming climate scientists continue.
Self-esteem has earned much interest which is believed to be an important construct for athlete to be able to perform during competition however it is the most crucial and influencing factor contributing to the success or failure of an athlete. The present research explored the aforementioned factor, which influences the performance of volleyball players. The study explored through survey and interview. To triangulate the data, volleyball players of urban areas of Sindh province were interviewed using Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Players were asked to rank various factors that affected their self-esteem. The study was conducted in Hyderabad, Karachi and Mirpurkhaas.The participants were 200 in number. All participants were players of volleyball game only, ranged from 16 to 20 years. The findings indicated that the selfesteem was witnessed low in volleyball players at public colleges. Results from this study suggest that coaches and sport psychology consultants to understand, prepare, and devise and implement, more effective strategies in order to help volleyball players in heightening self-esteem.
The female directress sports in colleges have to performed double tasks. They educate their subject to graduate level students in the classroom and conduct activities of games in the field. The female directress sports might have to acquire all those traits and experiences as compared to other subject tutors. The present study was an attempt to examine theperformance of the female directress sports in classroom (discipline) of college area. A five point likert scale questionnaire (1=Strongly disagree, 2= Partially disagree, 3=Neither agree/nor disagree, 4=Partially agree and 5=Strongly agree) were utilized for collection of data and to acquire the suitable answers about the classroom administration performance of the female directress sports. The questions were disseminated between the (N=90) girl’s pupils of graduate level classes in colleges of Sindh Province. The major conclusion of the study was to observe generally Classroom administration Performance has positively associated with qualification of female directress sports. It was assumed that the female directress sports that possess better knowledge and were high qualified so they can demonstrate better Classroom administration Performance in their professional field as compared to low qualified and less knowledgeable female directress sports.
The study was aimed to analyze the relationship of co-curricular activities with students’ physical and mental health of Male Secondary School students of FATA. A sample size of 200 respondents was selected on the basis of random sampling technique. A questionnaire of five points Likert Scale after seeking due permission from Principals and Head Masters was used to reach to the in-depth of the phenomena. Statistical techniques Mean, Percentage and Standard Deviation were run to analyze the collected data. The researcher analyzed the relationship between co-curricular involvement and its positive impacts on students’ health performances. Finally it was determined that co-curricular activities have a long-lasting connection with physical and mental health of secondary schools students.
20 PREVALENCE OF ANEMIA IN CHILDREN 6 TO 59 MONTHS OF AGE IN GADAREF STATE, SUDAN -2013 , Dr. Mohmoud Mohammed Ahmed,  Prof. Elsadig yousif Elbadawi
Background: Anemia is a condition characterized by reduction in thevolume of red blood cells and a decrease in the blood concentration of haemoglobin (less than 11gm/dl). Haemoglobin is a main part of red blood cells and binds oxygen. This can lead to range of adverse symptoms. The most common cause of anemia worldwide is an iron deficiency. This study attempted to estimate the prevalence of anemia among children 6 to 59 months of age in Gadaref State, and to determine the related factors, which include socio demographic factors and nutritional status of children. Patients and Methods: A total of 384 children 6 to 59 months of age wereincluded in this cross sectional (community based) study in Gadaref State. The data was collected by interviewing mothers through questionnaire, clinical examination, and blood examination. Data was analyzed by the computer using SPSS.version16. Chi-Square test was used for testing significance. P=0.05 or less was considered statistically significant. Results: Forty eight percent of children were anemic; there is a significantrelation between anemia and nutrition of children in this age. Malnutrition was related to anemia in the affected children; 35.1 % of anemic children had mild malnutrition, 23.8% and17.3% had moderate and severe malnutrition subsequently. Social factors related to anemia in children in Gadaref State are: family income, size of the family and mother education. Conclusion The prevalence of anemia in children 6 to 59 months of age InGadaref State is high. It is more frequent in the age group of 23 months to 59 months; females are affected more than males. There is an association between anemia and nutritional status of children.
21 A Model Football Academy for residents of Lyari Town, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan , Prof. Dr. Syed Arif Kamal,  Shahid Ali Khan,  Prof. Dr. Soniha Aslam.
This paper reviews and analyzes factors contributing to the rise and the fall of football game in Lyari Town. This town has the passion and the talent for football, which should be groomed to produce international players. A model football academy on the pattern of Grêmio (Brazil), Altınordu (Turkey), La Masia (Spain) and INF Clairefontaine (France) is proposed with football- oriented curriculum and international-level-football-training facilities on a green campus. The players are to be inducted at the age of 5 years after rigorous psychological and physical examinations as well as fitness testing. They study and play football here till they pass their Higher Secondary Certificate Examination. Measures are suggested for safety and security at campus as well as use and abuse of controlled substances. A survey was conducted to obtain opinions of footballers, coaches and general public in order to determine causes of decline of football in Lyari. The questionnaire was divided into 3 parts — lack of physical resources, noises influencing football game and shortage of human resources. The responses were indicative of the community‟s strong feeling that Lyarites can become international- standard footballers, if they are given the infrastructure and the facilities combined with motivation to achieve distinction. The proposed football academy should be the first step to change mindset of Lyarities from indulging in drugs and crime to healthy sport activities.
22 The Relationship of Sports and Physical Activity to the Academic Achievement- A Case of Hearing-Impaired Children , Aqsa Shamim Ahmed, Hafiza Sadeea, Saadia Mahmood ul Hassan.
Sports and physical activity is not only important for normal children but it is equally essential for the children with physical disabilities.   Effective sports participation of children with hearing deficits has physical, mental, intellectual as well as societal benefits. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of sports participation on academic achievement of hearing impaired children. For this purpose, a total of  children were selected, divided into  groups on the basis of comparative experimental design.  Half of the sample  was assigned to control group including those students who did not participate in sports whereas, other half  was assigned to experimental group including those children who participated in sports activity including Badminton, Football and Volleyball. After pretest and post test data was collected with the help of Sports Participation Scale and Academic Performance rating scale. The overall reliability of the scale was found to be. Results indicated that there was a significant positive impact of sports participation on the academic achievement from  to   with betterment level of .  According to these results we can conclude that sports participation creates a positive impact on academic achievement of Hearing-impaired students.
23 Effect of Sports Participation on Failure in General Life-An Exploratory Study , Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Butt, Muhammad Abdul Jabar Adnan, Qandeel Mughal.
Sports have bit by bit turned into a necessary piece of understudy life. It is a well-acknowledged thought that sports support increments physical wellness and improves wellbeing. The constructive outcomes of physical movement on wellbeing and prosperity have been seen in different researches. The current study has the objective to explore perception of students about effects of sports participation on failures in general life. The nature of the study was quantitative in which data was collected through questionnaire (Close ended) having 20 items, quality of which was categorized on 5-point Likert Type Scale. The population was University students and sample was collected from 200 (n=200) male and female students of University of the Punjab, Lahore using simple random sampling technique. Overall results showed that sports participation may not cause mismanagement in students’ life (Sig. .000), sports participation is not the waste of time (Sig. .000), involvement in university athletics has helped students’ health (Sig. .000), overall career development, socialization, eradication of feelings of loneness (Sig. .000), confidence, mental health, motivation towards success (Sig. .000), physiological and psychological wellbeing (Sig. .000), daily, life style, life barriers management (Sig. .000) in positive way. It is recommended that sports should be the integral part of any academic program or otherwise should be made compulsory along with academic activities in different academic disciplines in all age groups.
24 Identification and Evaluation of the Aerobic Capacity of Athletic and Rowing Team Players of Islamabad City (The Capital of Pakistan) , Muhammad Safdar Ali, Pro.Dr. Mohibullaha Khan Marwat, Ghulam Shabbir Anjum.
Aerobic capacity is dominant factor of every individual for attaining dominating performance in sports particularly to achieve optimum performance in the endurance sports. The aim of study was to assess the aerobic capacity of the players of Athletics and rowing team of Islamabad. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises can be beneficial for the fitness and depending on the intensity, duration and events.  The mechanism of respiration and heart rate is differ in aerobic and anaerobic activities. Thirty athletes from middle and long distance events of track and field age group (23.9 ± 3.0) weight (64.13 ± 7.0) and thirty players of the rowing team age group (27.9 ± 4.1) weight (81.4 ± 8.7) from the Capital city Islamabad team were selected to investigate their aerobic capacity through the PACER (Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run) test. The PACER test for both teams was conducted at the same time and in the same conditions. The data were recorded and tabulated in respect of both the teams. The SPSS version 21 was used to analyze the data by applying individual sample t- test. It is concluded that Peak values of VO2 max of athletics team (58.81% ± 3% l/min), were significantly higher (p<0,005) than rowing team players which had (55.29 % ± 3%  l/min. Rowing players require higher degree of endurance for optimum achievements. The results indicated that peak values of VO2 max of athletics team is higher due to less body weight as compared to rowing team. Body weight has significant impact on aerobic capacity.
25 Impact of Attitude Towards Physical Activity and Exercise on Academic Performance of School Students , Yasir Iqbal, Muhammad Badar Habib, Muhammad Adeeb.
This research aims to measure the impact of attitude towards physical activity (PA) and exercise on academic performance of school students. The cross sectional and correlational research method were employed. The population of this research was school students of District Sargodha. The total of 307 (154 Male and 153 Female) school students were selected using convenient sampling technique for gathered the data. The attitude towards physical activities questionnaire using to measure the students’ attitude towards PA and exercise; and academic performance was measured through last year academic result of student. The data of this research was analyzed by SPSS (24.0). The results of bivariate correlation revealed positive significant correlation between PA and exercise with academic performance among school students. Students who maximum participate in PA and exercise, they secure better academic marks in their annual exams. Further, the results of linear regression found that PA and exercise significantly impact on academic performance of students. In gender, boys and girls are same in PA and exercise but girls are significantly better than boys in academic performance. This research would be helpful for teachers, physical and sports teachers, psychologist, parents and government agencies for policy making.
26 Impact of Self-Esteem and Body Image on Sports Participation of Female Athletes , Sumera Sattar, Dr. Shahzaman Khan, Sharin Iqbal.
With reference to Pakistan, it has been observed that young female students are reluctant to take part in sports because of social pressures that affect their health in the long run. This research was conducted to examine the effect of self-esteem and body image on sports participation of female athletes mainly with two objectives i.e. to quantify the relationship between self-esteem and body image of sports participation of females and to quantify the impact of self-esteem and body image as motivators for sports participation of females. The purpose of selecting this topic was that both self-esteem and body image can play a major role to motivate females participate in sports. By applying the simple random sampling, a total of 200 female students were selected from four different universities to participate in the study.  These female students belonged to the physical education department of different universities of Lahore, Pakistan. Adapted questionnaires of Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (1965) and Offer Scale of Body-image (1972) were used to get the opinion of the participants. Results indicated a positively significant relationship between self-esteem and sports participation of female students as the values of the correlation were 0.317. In case of body image, positive significant relationship was observed between body image and sports participation as the value of correlation was 0.442. The research concluded that female students having high level of self-esteem and perfect body image, were more enthusiastic to participate in sports. The findings will help the physical trainers, instructors and teachers to find out the causes from the females who have low self-esteem.
27 Physical Exercise to Combat Academic Burnout in Students , Asif Ali, Muhammad Azam, Asad Hussain Shaikh.
The purpose of this analytical study was to synthesize existing evidence relating to the association of exercise or physical activity with academic burnout in students. Relevant articles were systematically and rigorously searched using ten research databases. Following screening for relevancy, ten studies (eight cross-sectional, one cohort, and one interventional) were selected to include for final synthesis. All of the cross-sectional studies had good or satisfactory quality ratings, and the cohort and interventional studies included in this review had moderate to strong quality ratings.  Six out of eight cross-sectional studies showed an inverse relationship of physical activity or exercise with academic burnout with the exception of two studies showed no significant associations. The cohort and interventional studies also demonstrated negative relationships of physical activity with academic burnout.  The findings are likely to provide some evidence that physical activity may be capable to reduce academic burnout in students.
28 Nutritional Supplements & Athletes- An Analysis of Potential Side Effects , Syed Muhammad Bilal Gillani, Syed Ihtisham Ahmed, Basit Ali.
Nutritional supplements are commonly accessible products used as an extension to the normal diet and are mostly used by athletes. Among all users of supplements, the utilization among athletes tends to be more noteworthy than the overall public. With such a vast number of athletes utilizing dietary supplements, it is vital to evaluate about side effects of nutritional supplements among gymnasium going athletes. This study was Analytical, conducted on 57 male athletes from Lahore, who were regularly going to gymnasium since past three months and were using nutritional supplements at the time of evaluation. The most frequently used supplements were the mostly consumed nutritional supplements were protein or whey protein powders (61.4%), multivitamins (56.1%), and creatine (38.6%). Most common side effects after utilizing nutritional supplements were Dry Mouth/Dehydration (n=28, 49.1%), Constipation (n=22, 38.6%), Insomnia/Lack of Sleep (n=18, 31.5%) Nausea (n=17, 29.8%) and Heart Palpitations/Abnormal Heartbeats (n=16, 28%). Pearson’s Correlation indicated that the casein protein and soy protein were the major cause of many side effects. It is concluded that athletes were having some side effects after utilizing nutritional supplements and they were utilizing supplements without consulting a proper nutritionist/dietitian.
29 Sports as a Source of Social Learning among the Collegiate Female players , Dr. Syed Zia-ul -Islam, Afshan Jabeen, Maryam Iqbal.
The study aimed was to investigate sports predictor as a source of social learning among collegiate female players at district D. I. Khan, KPK, and Pakistan. The study population was all the female players enrolled in Government Degree (W) Colleges of district D. I. Khan. Four hypotheses formulated to explore the study objectives. The quantitative method with Cross Sectional approach was applied for data collection from sample colleges. 124 female players of both sample Colleges in district D. I. Khan were selected as a targeted population. No sampling technique applied for selection of study sample as the study population was accessible and supposed to contact easily. The 5-point Likert scale was designed and used for data collection. The research instrument was made valid through validity and reliability method accordingly and reliability of scale was as 0.76. The ANOVA, linear regression, and independent sample t-test were used to investigate sports predictor as a source of social learning among female players at college level. The study results found that sports have an excellence to offer events for female separately regarding to their society and culture norms which indicated that sports participation develop the Gender socialization among collegiate female players. Likewise, it indicated that their language socialization/communication skills also improved among female players. The researchers suggested that sport activities should be organized in educational institutions for youth; it leads to develop their communication skills and may have social interaction among them.
30 Analysis of China-Pakistan Leisure Sports Industry under the Background of "The Belt and Road" , Huang Liang
Scholars stress the importance of leisure sports activities for a healthy body and mind. There is a positive correlation between socioeconomic uplift and leisure sports activities. China-Pakistan economic corridor (CPEC) is the flagship project under the “The Belt and Road” initiative led by the Chines government, with pouring in of huge investment centered around CPEC. It is hoped that it would have positively affected leisure sports activities. Relying on qualitative and quantitative data, the study analyzed the impact of CPEC on leisure sports activities. The findings suggest the positive impact of CPEC on leisure activities. These activities were facilitated with the provision of sports facilities, infrastructure development, economic uplift, and cultural influence.
31 Coaching Strategies and Sports Performance of Female Athletes , Hummaira Farah, Shahzaman Khan, Sharin Adeel.
The measurement of perceptions of female athletes about coaching strategies and their effect on athlete satisfaction and sport performance is vital for success. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between perceived coaching strategies during training and self-reported satisfaction of athletes and their sport performance. A total number of 120 female athletes of individual and team sports from seven different universities of Lahore, Pakistan participated in this study. Three different scales were used to measure participant responses relative to strategic thinking, leadership and flow. Results indicated that female athletes Scale for Athletic Performance. The results indicated that female athletes of individual and team sports were satisfied with their coaches’ coaching strategies (p=0.001) and a significant relationship between coaches’ coaching strategies and sporting performance was also reported by female athletes (p=0.001). A significantly positive relationship was observed between problem solving strategies and sports performance of female athletes (p=0.000), no significant association between team building and sports performance was observed (p=0.812), and a significantly positive relationship was observed between leadership and sports performance of female athletes (p=0.000). Based upon results, coaches' problem solving and leadership skills were significantly associated with sport performance as compared to team building. It is recommended that additional research be conducted using different age groups and males to determine a more definitive perspective related to athlete perceptions.
32 Effect of Playing Venue on Hormonal Responses and Psychological State of Inter-University Volleyball Players , Yasmeen Tabassum, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal Butt, Nabila Roohi.
The home advantage is a powerful wonder that happens in the realm of amateur and professional games where most teams win more than 50% of matches. The present study compared the effects of playing venue on hormonal responses and psychological state of inter-university volleyball players at home and away ground. A total of 96 male players age, 18 to 24 years from eight different public and private universities were selected as the subject in this study. Matches were scheduled in such a manner so that each team would play one match on home ground and one on away ground. The results of this study showed that a 13% reduction in the testosterone level of players was seen on the opponent’s home ground before playing the match, whereas, 18% elevation in cortisol level of players was recorded on the opponent’s home ground before-match. Psychological measures indicated that players’ cognitive and somatic anxiety levels were increased on away ground (10% and 13%, respectively) whereas, their self-confidence level declined  by 17% on an opponent’s home ground before the commencement of the match. The present study supports the notion that there are differences in pre-competition hormonal and psychological states that may play a key role in ‘the home advantage’ which could affect players’ behavior and match outcomes.
33 Pattern of Facebook Usage and its Impacts on Physical Activity , Muhammad Adnan, Faisal Mehmood, Bilal Ahmad.
Objectives:  The study was to find out the relationship between Facebook usage and participation in physical activities. Methods: During the year 2020, a cross-sectional study was conducted on 250 identified students from 5000 in the faculty of Allied Health Science at the University of Lahore, Pakistan. According to this survey use the technique of convenience sampling, after the formula of sampling by Yamane (1967). All of the questioners of the independent and the dependent variable are used for the measure Facebook addiction of the participation in physical activity. Results: Demographic data male participation 134 (53.6%) and 116 (46%) females in this study. The relationship among variables is .11, which is significant at p> .001. This result shows that there is a greater than a 0.1% chance that the independent variable (F.B) affects participation in the physical activity. The study reveals the limited benefits excessive use of Facebook is a little effect on participation in physical activity. Conclusion: As per this result, the limited benefits excessive use of Facebook is a little effect on participation in physical activity; another aspect may be an effect on the participation on the physical activity like social, educational, behavioral and economic, etc.
34 Impact of Positive Reinforcement Theory on Weightlifter’s Performance , Saqib Fayyaz, Sabahat Afsheen, Adeel Khan.
A common problem was observed at local level weightlifting clubs in Lahore, Pakistan i.e., coaches use inappropriate ways (shouting and abusing) to get desired performance results but, it ends in young weightlifter’s resentment and take them away from their sport targets and some choose to quit weightlifting sport as well. The existing literature about acquiring desired results in sports suggests; only positive approach can be useful i.e., Positive Reinforcement Theory ‘PRT’ developed by B F Skinner (Marzieh Gordan, 2014). Hence, in this applied deductive type quantitative study, an eight-week experiment was conducted in Lahore which tested the implications of Positive Reinforcement Theory on young weightlifters’ performance. The objectives of this study were; (a) to apply Positive Reinforcement Theory in weightlifting sport to examine the cause-and-effect relationship between positive reinforcement and young weightlifter’s performance, (b) to test if the study’s Positive Reinforcement Program ‘PRP’ model helps young weightlifters to achieve desired targets within given timeframe or not? At first, pre-competition was administered to record standard performance results of both groups. Secondly, ‘PRP’ Model based on ‘PRT’ was introduced to experimental group and then post-competition testing was conducted to record and compare performance results of both groups. The results of both groups’ Paired Sample t-test and Independent Sample t-test, using statistical package SPSS version 23, showed a significant impact of ‘PRP’ model on the young weightlifter’s performance. Therefore, it is concluded that; acquisition of young weightlifters’ desired performance results. Coaches should use ‘PRP’ model rather than applying inappropriate ways to motivate young weightlifters. The PRP model also helps young weightlifters to achieve their targeted performance results within given timeframe.
35 Awareness of Sport Massage Therapy among University Level Football Players in Pakistan , Muhammad Zeeshan Butt, Syed Muhammad Bilal Gillani, Basit Ali.
Sports massage is very common among the athletes of developed nations. Since many of studies have been conducted and revealed positive benefits of Sports massage (SMT). The results of different studies show that it improves health, enhance immunity, speedy recovery after an injury, and after intensive training. This study is aimed to investigate the knowledge of university level athletes in Pakistan about the concept of Sport Massage Therapy (SMT). 125 participants were participated in this study, the sample was selected using convenient sampling technique and data was gathered using sport massage questionnaire developed by Lloyd Leach and Mignon Schilz. The results show that there is very little awareness and knowledge about Sport Massage Therapy among the University Football Players. The results of this study also indicate athletes perceive that sport massage helpful in rehabilitation and just an event of enjoyment. It was concluded on basis of results that athlete have very little knowledge about the role of sport massage in Sport Performance.
36 Relationship between Coaches' Leadership Style and Athletes' Performance in Kwara State Sports Council , Adebayo Babatunde Samson, Surajudeen Tosho Bakinde.
Leadership in coaching is a critical component to enhance and sustain optimal sports performance and athletes’ satisfaction. This study investigated the influence of coaches' leadership styles on athletes’ performance in Kwara State Sports Council.  Descriptive survey design of correlational type was employed. The sample of the study comprised 150 athletes selected using simple random and proportionate sampling techniques. Standardized questionnaire (Leadership Scale for Sports) was the instrument for data collection. Descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) statistic was used to analyze the data. The findings of the study revealed that training behavior, autocratic behavior, democratic behavior, social support, and rewarding behavior of the coach have significant influence on athletes' performance in the study area. Based on the findings, it was recommended that the management of Kwara State Sports Council should establish a mechanism for positive feedback and social support to foster good leadership behaviour to assist in enhancing athletes' performance.
37 The Effect of Circuit Resistant Training on Cardiorespiratory indices; Implication for Developing a Test Model for Soccer Players of Higher Education Institutions , Wasim Khan, Tasleem Arif, Mirza Sajid Baig Khan.
The current research aimed to incorporate appropriate circuit resistant training protocol in the current literature and device that could help improve cardio-respiratory endurance of soccer players.  A pre-test and post-test longitudinal research format was applied because the suggested parameters of cardiorespiratory endurance were appropriately calculated by such research designs. A sample of (n=40) healthy volunteers equally distributed into two different groups namely, an experimental group (EG) and a control group (CG). The circuit resistant training (CRT) 3 times per week with specified intensity, repetition, set and rest period continued for 06 weeks among experimental group. Results of the analyzed data revealed a significant increase in the cardiorespiratory indices (CO, SV, IRV, ERV) among the participants of experimental group (p < .05). These results tend to interpret that cardiorespiratory fitness of soccer’s players can be improved with the help of 06 week (CRT) program. Apart from this, health and physical education teachers, physiotherapists and other relevant persons can recommend CRT for lifestyles improvement.