Selcuk Journal of Agriculture and Food Sciences
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The Effect of Microbial Fertilizer Applications on Grape Yield, Quality and Mineral Nutrition of Some Early Table Grape Varieties
Serpil Tangolar, Semih Tangolar, Ayfer Alkan Torun, Güzin Tarım, Melike Ada, Oguzhan Aydın, Sevda Kaçmaz
In this study, a commercial microbial fertilizer (Bio fertilizer) containing 3.5×107 cells/mL of Chlorella vulgaris algae with a pH ranging from 3.5 to 5.5 was used. Four applications of microbial fertilizer; 1) control (no fertilizer), 2) leaf treatment, 3) soil treatment, 4) soil plus leaf treatment were performed in the experiment. The effects of the treatments on grape yield and cluster, berry and juice characteristics of 4 years old Trakya ilkeren, Yalova incisi and Prima grape varieties were investigated. In addition, the effects of these applications on macro and micro element contents of leaf samples were examined during the veraison. Microbial fertilizer application was done 5 times starting with the shoot length of 20cm and including the veraison time. The highest yield (6076 g /vine, 3038 kg/da), bunch weight (300.1 g) and 100 berry weight (622.6 g) as well as other berry characteristics and maturity index (60.21) values were obtained from the Yalova incisi variety. It has been determined that the most suitable fertilizer application was soil+leaf application with the highest yield (4059 g/vine, 2030 kg/da) and bunch weight (249.7 g). It has been observed that soil application caused earlier maturation of the grapes. The content of nutrients in the leaf samples was different in terms of varieties except nitrogen and manganese. The highest K content was found in Trakya ilkeren; while highest Ca, Mg and Fe were found in Yalova incisi and highest P, Fe and Zn were in the Prima variety. There were no significant differences in leaf N, P, Mn and Zn contents between fertilizer applications. For the other elements, the highest values were obtained from leaf application followed by soil plus leaf applications.
The Determination of Population Development and Infestation Rate of Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Ceratitis capitata (Wied)) in Peach Orchards in Meram (Konya) Province
Şerife Nur Üçpınar, Levent Ünlü
This study was carried out in 2017 and 2018 in Meram district (Konya) in order to determine the population development and infestation rate of the Mediterranean fruit fly (MFF) (Ceratitis capitata (Wied)) (Dip.: Tephritidae) in the peach orchards. In the study, traps called Decis Trap were used to catch the adults of the MFF. As a result of the study, adult population development determined different in two years, two population peaks occurred in 2017 and four times in 2018. The pest may give two to four generation in Meram district according to climatic conditions and years. The first adults of the MFF appeared in 2017 in the third week of August and were active for four months, and appeared in 2018 in the third week of July and were determined to be active in the nature for about five months. In addition to the results of the study conducted in the years 2017-2018, the infestation rates were 5% and 2% in Ekmekkoçu, 3% and 2% in Hasanköy, 96% and 96% in Hatıp, 94% and 100% in Karahüyük, 0% and 2% in Yenibahçe location, respectively. Farmers are advised to use Decis Trap at the beginning of July and to carry out other maintenance work in orchards, especially the destruction of the fruit falling on the ground.
The Effect of Knife Clearance on the Machine Performance in Disc Type Silage Machines
Mustafa Ahmed Al-Sammarraie, Osman Özbek
In this study, active knife and fixed knife of single-row disc silage machine has three different clearance C1, C2 and C3(1, 3 and 5 mm) and it is tried in three different working speed V1, V2 and V3 (1.8, 2.5 and 3.7 km / h) and PTO speed (540 min-1) and machine's fuel consumption (l/h), average power consumption (kW), field energy consumption (kW/da), product energy consumption (kW/t), field working capacity (da/h), product working capacity (t/h) and Chopping size distribution characteristics of the fragmented material were determined. It has been found that knife-counter knife clearances smaller than 3 mm (1 mm) and larger (5 mm) have a negative effect on machine performance in general. In terms of fuel and power consumptions, the most suitable combination of work was C2V1, and in terms of field-product energy consumption, C2V3 combination was found to be optimal. The highest field-product working capacity was achieved at the V3 working speed. In terms of silage mincer size, all working combinations gave the appropriate shredding length distribution; especially the 1st knife-counter knife clearance (1 mm) was determined to give a more suitable Chopping size distribution in terms of animal feeding. In the second clearance (3mm), both the energy consumption and the Chopping size distribution were positive.
Extending the Postharvest Quality of Peach Fruits by Salicylic Acid and MAP Treatments
Ferhan K. Sabır, Sevil Unal, Mays Talal Kadhim Maadheedi, Israa Mohammed Mahdi Mahdi
Postharvest salicylic acid (SA) treatments can decrease the fungal decay of horticultural crops by affecting the ethylene biosynthesis and inducing the systemic resistance during cold storage. In the present study, effects of SA and modified atmosphere packages (MAP) on the postharvest quality maintenance of fruits of peach cv ‘J. H. Hale’ were investigated. After harvest at commercial maturity, half lot of each of the fruits was subjected to 1 mM SA for 5 min and was packed with or without MAP. The remaining lot was not subjected to SA but was also stored with or without MAP. All the fruits were stored at 1°C and 90% relative humidity for 60 d. Weight loss, color of flesh and skin, firmness, total soluble solid, titratable acidity, total phenolic and total antioxidant analyses were performed with 15 d intervals to compare the effectiveness of treatments. SA treatment had positive influences on theof postharvest quality maintenance of the fruits. In pParticularly, the combined use of SA and MAP was more effective than their individual use ion maintaining the firmness of the fruits, delaying the biochemical changes in thewith flesh and alterations in the skin color than their single use.
Estimation of Variance Components for Birth and Weaning Weights in Holstein-Friesian Calves by using WOMBAT software
İbrahim Aytekin, Şükrü Doğan, Ömer Odacı, Göksel Gökcan
The aim of this study was to determine the variance components for birth and weaning weights in Holstein calves. In this purpose, a total of 675 calf birth weight and 295 weaning weight records of Holstein calves raised at Kuzucu Dairy Cattle Farm in Ereğli, Konya Province were used for estimation of phenotypic and genetic parameters for calf birth weight and weaning weight. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were estimated by WOMBAT program using a Single Trait Animal Model (STAM). The model constitutes of additive direct effect, maternal genetic effect (only for Model II) and errors as random effects, birth type, sex of calf, season of birth, year of birth and age of dam as fixed effects. Least square mean of calf birth weight was determined as 34.992 ± 0.572 kg. The direct heritability (ha2) of calf birth weight was calculated as 0.180±0.109 in Model I and the direct heritability (ha2) and maternal heritability (hm2) of calf birth weight were calculated as 0.154±0.096 and 0.141±0.106 in Model II, respectively. The effect of calving season, birth type, sex and age of dam on birth weight of calf were significant (P<0.01), but not calving year (P>0.05). As for calf weaning weight, least square mean was determined as 74.250 ± 1.775 kg. For calf weaning weight, the direct heritability (ha2) in Model I was calculated as 0.104± 0.126 and the direct heritability (ha2) and maternal heritability (hm2) in Model II were calculated as 0.104± 0.127 and 0.00002±0.341, respectively. The effect of calving year (P<0.05), birth type (P<0.05), sex (P<0.01) and birth weight (P<0.01) on weaning weight of calf were significant, except for calving season and age of dam (P>0.05) Furtermore, estimated breeding values (EBVs) estimated by BLUP (Best Linear Unbiased Prediction) for calves, sires and dams were found to be in general with the range of -3.245 to 2.577, -2.607 to 2.631 and -1.714 to 1.747 for birth weight and -2.969 to 2.274, -2.650 to 2.376 and -1.456 to 1.301 for weaning weight, respectively.
Some Reproductive Characteristics of Hasak and Hasmer Sheep: 1. Some Fertility Criteria
Uğur Trabzon, Ayhan Öztürk
In this study, Hasak and Hasmer ewes were used in order to determine the effects of age, year and breed on the conception rate, prolificacy, viability and productivity. The least-squares means for these parameters of all flock were found as follows; 87.27±0.01 %, 117.16±0.01 %, 87.06±0.01 % and 103.34±0.02 %, respectively. In addition, the effects of sex of lamb and birth type on viability were also studied. Except for prolificacy, effects of the age on these parameters were found to be not statistically significant. The maximum prolificacy was obtained with 6-years old ewes. Effect of breed was significant on the prolificacy (P<0.05) and conception rate (P<0.01). With regard to prolificacy, Hasmer ewes were superior to Hasak (120.90 % vs. 113.41 %). The year factor had a significant effect only on the prolificacy (P<0.05). Birth type on the viability was not significant, but sex effect effected viability significantly; female lambs being superior to male ones.
Influence of Mono-ammonium and Di-ammonium Phosphate on Phosphorus Use Efficiency of Maize and Bread Wheat Plants
Ahmed M. Yossif, Sait Gezgin
Phosphorus fixation in soils is a big problem, for that, it affects negatively on phosphorus use efficiency of the plant. The amount of phosphorus which had fixed depends on orthophosphate ions and some soil properties. The goal of two experiments [In the first maize (Zea mays L.) and the second bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)] to know the different influence of mono-ammonium phosphate [MAP NH4H2PO4] and di-ammonium phosphate [DAP (NH4)2HPO4] fertilizers when were applied in the soil at rates (0, 30, 60 and 90 mg P2O5 kg-1) on phosphorus use efficiency under greenhouse condition. Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was arranged for both experiments in four replications in first experiment and three in the second. Results cleared that plant dry weight (PDW, g pot-1) and plant phosphorus uptake (PPU, mg P pot-1) were increased with increasing doses of MAP and DAP fertilizers in both experiments according to control (0 ppm). Furthermore, apparent recovery phosphorus use efficiency (ARPUE, %) increased in DAP at maize and decreased in MAP at wheat trial when increasing phosphorus doses. All parameters had highly significantly affected by phosphorus. Also, fertilizers were a highly significant effect on PDW, PPU and agronomic phosphorus use efficiency (APUE) in maize and PPU in the wheat trial. Otherwise, interaction (F×P) had a highly significantly affected on PPU, physiological phosphorus use efficiency (PPUE) and ARPUE in wheat and APUE in maize. Additionally, PDW had a significant effect on interaction. When the MAP and DAP were increasing, that means increased PDW and PPU but MAP is better than DAP. Additionally, the results of the MAP in phosphorus use efficiency are better than DAP too.
Effects of Bacteria and IBA on the Rooting of Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium L.) and Trifoliate Orange (Poncirus trifoliata Raf.) Cuttings
Mustafa Çınar, Lütfi Pırlak, Güçer Kafa, Metin Turan
In this study, the effects of Agrobacterium rubi A-18 and Bacillus OSU-142 bacterial strains alone and in combination with 1000, 2000, 4000 ppm IBA on rooting of bitter orange and trifoliate orange citrus rootstock in softwood, semi-hardwood and hardwood cuttings were investigated. In the case of IBA solution, Agrobacterium rubi A-18 and BacillusOSU-142 were prepared in solution at a concentration of 1x109 bacteria / ml and applied to steel. Application is made in the mist propagation system, in the perlite are planted in the environment. Steels kept in the fogging environment for 3 months were removed at the end of this period and rooting rates (%), callus formation rates (%) and survival rates (%) were determined. According to the results of the research, the rooting rates of the steels taken at different periods were found to be low. The highest rooting rates of bitter orange softwood cuttings were 2000 ppm IBA + OSU-142 (6.67%), semi-hardwood cuttings OSU-142 (20.00%), and 4000 ppm IBA + OSU-142 (20.00%) in hardwood cuttings. It has been not rooting in trifoliate orange softwood cuttings, the highest rooting was in the case of semi-hardwood cuttings with 4000 ppm IBA + OSU-142 (26.67%), in hardwood cuttings 1000 ppm IBA + OSU-142, 2000 ppm IBA + OSU-142, 4000 ppm IBA + OSU-142, 1000 ppm IBA + A-18, 2000 ppm IBA + A-18 and 4000 ppm IBA + A-18 (20.00%). According to the cuttings pick-up period, the rooting rates of bitter orange are not different between the periods, in the trifoliate orange the hardwood cuttings were found to be higher. As a result, it can be said that plant growth promoting bacteria and IBA applications have no effect on rooting in the softwood, semi-hardwood and hardwood cuttings of the bitter orange and trifoliate orange citrus rootstocks, it can be said that studies on rooting in these rootstocks can be useful in different bacterial breeds
Agronomic Characteristics of Domestic and Abroad Originated Lentil Genotypes
Furkan Ulukuş, Mustafa Önder
This research was established under the ecological conditions of Nevşehir in the Central Anatolia Region, whereby lentil agriculture is practiced in Turkey. Research was carried out in order to reveal the important features of indigenous and exotic lentil genotypes which may be the basis for future breeding studies. A total of 220 domestic and foreign originated lentil genotypes and 4 varieties (Pul, Yerli Kırmızı, Çağıl, Fırat-87) as standard were grown. Field trial was established on April 10, 2017 according to the Augmented trial design with 5 blocks.According to the results of the research, following ranges were determined; 50% flowering days 46.5-82.00 days, vegetation length 79.85-120.85 days, plant height 17.68-43.99 cm, number of pods per plant 9.21-440.62 pieces, weight of 1000 seed 12.92-78.31 g, seed yield 0.19-35.88 g plant-1 were determined. As a result; the lentil genotypes were found on the morphological and agricultural characteristics of our selected varieties. These superior genotypes can be used as material in breeding studies for future programs.
An Assessment of Agricultural Machinery Presence and Usage in Konya Districts Through Geographical Information Systems
Ali İhsan Yıldırım, Mustafa Konak
Agriculture provides livelihood of 2.5 billion people in the world and the agriculture sector is vital for all humanity. According to the United Nations data, the world population, which is currently 7.3 billion, is expected to rise to 9.7 billion in 2050. FAO estimates that agricultural production, which covers crop production, livestock, fisheries and aquaculture, should increase 60% by 2050 to satisfy the growing human population. At the same time, the negative effects of global climate change continue to be an element of pressure on agricultural production in Turkey as in many other countries. In a changing climate, the necessity of more efficient and sustainable agricultural production in the world is paramount to feed an increasing population. Currently agricultural machines, which minimally disturb the soil, produce less waste and consume less energy, are being used. The most important factor in this process is the change and transformation in agricultural machinery used in agricultural production. In the province of Konya, production is still carried out with traditional agricultural machinery. The size of the land and the density of agricultural production are not taken into consideration in the purchase and use of agricultural machinery. In this study, the impact area of the agricultural machines/machinery groups in the districts of Konya will be calculated, compared with the size of the cultivated areas and their efficiency will be evaluated. At the same time, by using Geographical Information Systems (GIS), the presence of agricultural machinery and the impact areas of machine groups in the districts of Konya will be mapped. This study, which is conducted for the first time in Konya province, will provide a guide in determining which agricultural machinery/machinery groups are overbought, used below capacity, or insufficient in Konya districts.
Using Geographical Information Systems in Determination of Production Areas of Ornamental Plants Konya, Turkey
Zuhal Karakayacı, Ahmet Tuğrul Polat, Yusuf Çelik, Ahmet Eşitken
The increase of dependency of people in nature, due to the gradual increase of population at cities and the effect of life conditions, causes an increase in demand for green areas and ornamental plants. This increase of demand had provided an economic sector dimension to cultivation of ornamental plants. This study had been realized in order to determine suitable areas for cultivation of ornamental plants in the province of Konya which is a significant agriculture potential of Turkey and which has an ecology suitable for cultivation of many agricultural products. In the determination of these suitable areas, Geographical Information Systems having many functions such as location determination, data storage, data analysis and spatial analysis had been used. Climate, topography and soil features required for cultivation of ornamental plants had been obtained in map environment for the research area, and the analyses required for determination of suitable areas had been made in ArcGIS module. As the result of the analyses, it had been determined that the south-east and south-west areas of the province of Konya were suitable or conditionally suitable areas for cultivation of ornamental plants. These areas will be assessed considering their proximity to market and the socio-economic features of the current producer potential, and establishment of ornamental plants cultivation facilities at the most suitable area will provide significant contributions for the province of Konya in economic, social and environmental aspects.
Agronomic Characteristics of Domestic and Abroad Originated Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Genotypes
Mustafa Önder, Mehmet Güçlü
Present research was realized during 2017 vegetation period according to Augmented Trial Design under Konya - Tukey ecological conditions. Yield and some agricultural characteristics of totally 100 promising bean genotypes were determined for the purposes of using on selection and hybridization breeding programs. Results of the research were ranged as following; 3,23-57,28 g for seed yield, 8,28-61,94 g for 100 seed weight 5,28-218,61 cm for plant height, 1,16-4,16 for number of main branches per plant, 2,28-60,94 for number of pods per plant, 0,82-6,16 for number of seeds per pod and 95,94-137,27 days for vegetation length. A total of 20 bean genotypes which were used as material in the study were determined as promising for the seed yield and some agricultural characteristics which may be used as genetic source for the future breeding works.