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Journal of Economic Research and Studies

Journal Papers (35) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Marketing Strategic of Financial Services by Islamic Banks , Malik Shahzad Shabbir, Shar Zaman
The aim of this study is to explore and pinpoint some marketing strategies issues which can be helpful for new investors and old stakeholders in the sector of Islamic banking in Pakistan, In order to penetrate successfully in the market. The research problem of this study is to investigate that what can be suitable and effective marketing strategies for Islamic Banking in Pakistan? Our target groups are those Islamic banks and standalone Islamic bank branches that are currently working in Pakistani market and those who are interested in exploring the Pakistani market. There has come a swift transition in the financial services in the world including Pakistan. A new mode of banking, such as Islamic banking has been introduced and accepted widely in many countries of the world including Pakistan. Our study has portrayed the current situation for Islamic banking in Pakistan by investigating the current competition of the industry using porter five forces model and at using PEST analysis macro level. We have analyzed that the competition is very high in the industry and Islamic banks could take more market shares by introducing the more innovative products with less price as compared to conventional banks and by widen up their branch network to all small and big cities of Pakistan. KEYWORDS: Marketing strategies, Stakeholders, Penetrate, Innovative products.
2 Analysis of Foreign Exchange Rate Depreciation Fundamentals in a Model of Harmonised Macroeconomic Linkages in Uganda , Rogers Matte
This paper examines the foreign exchange fundamentals in Uganda and assesses the effects of foreign exchange depreciation on the economy’s level of economic activity. Using a Harmonised Macroeconomic Linkages Model the study analyses the behaviour of the economy with exchange rates linking all variables for maintaining low inflation, achieving export sector competitiveness, building up gross and net international reserves, ensuring balance of payments sustainability, and sustaining buoyant economic growth. The econometric framework involves setting a system of Autoregressive Distributive Lag functions which solve simultaneously to equilibrium levels. If was found that real exchange rates are dependent on the trend over the past three quarters, the terms of trade, primary and secondary balances of the current account, and lagged government expenditure, level of inflation, and lagged money supply. In order to observe short and long run behaviour, it is observed from the co‐integrating equation that in the short run, real exchange rate changes significantly with changes in terms of trade with a lag of one to two quarters, changes in primary and secondary balances of the current account lagged over two quarters, government expenditure (both project and none project) with lags over the first and second quarters, and finally the changes in the current and two quarter lagged money supply. In the long run, the changes in real exchange rate converge, to their long run values which are mainly determined by government expenditure and the money supply (M2). It further identifies appropriate recommendations for the medium to long‐term regarding adaptation to foreign exchange market fluctuations as well as mitigation measures against the risk of loss of wealth to volatile currency depreciation in the short to medium term. KEYWORDS: Foreign Exchange Rate Fundamentals, Auto‐regressive Distributive Lag Model, Macroeconomic Performance.
3 Book Review ‘Make Money with Corporate Souvenirs' (Malay Version) , Uqbah Iqbal
Business gift does not require high capital. We can make a goal to do the business with large capital or small capital. This business does not have a specific time to be implemented. It is run by reserve projects derived from clients. Time for carrying out this project is flexible. Due to its original purpose to increase revenues, adjust your work time with the business. The key to doing this business is how you manage projects and receive orders from customers. Don’t have project mean there is no business profit. Do not make projects, capital are not issued However exemption granted to the new entrepreneur, you may have to spend more money for promotional purposes. KEYWORDS: Corporate, Money, New Business, Legal Capital, Job.
4 The Impact of advertisement on buying behavior of the children , Malik Shahzad Shabbir
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of media on buying behavior of children in Pakistan. However, comparatively we have analyzed how the parents and peers play their roles in making buying decision of their children. We have used primary data to find out consumer socialization and factors that affect children influencing and final decision making in doing any purchase. Our dependent variable was child buying behavior which is dependent upon media, parents and peers. In primary data we have conducted questionnaire from different schools of top level to low level to get diversified responses. Different variables have shown different results which effect the advertisement, parents and friends who act as socialization agent and evaluation source in making brand perception and final decision in making purchase of food product. We have made bar charts to make the responses from our respondents more explanatory and easy for analysis. To prove our hypothesis, we analysis correlations, frequency tables, cross-tabs and chi-square through SPSS software. KEYWORDS: advertisement, consumer socialization, buying behavior, children and evaluation.
5 The Role of Formal Academician in Promotion of Micro-Finance , Malik Shahzad Shabbir
Microfinance is no panacea for the alleviation of poverty in the world. The environment influences its development. Legal frameworks, monitors and supervisors, its institutions and last but not least its customers with all their commitment play a major role for the success. Due to informational asymmetries, traditional financial markets are limited or fail to include poor households. Microfinance is able to overcome these imperfections and was developed especially for poor people suffering from financial exclusion and often dependent on informal sources such as exploitative moneylenders. The different benefits, characteristics and products of microfinance will be highlighted hereafter. First a general country profile will be given with the most important economic features such as the development of GDP, economic structure, inflation and unemployment rates. The latter raises concerns, especially among young academics. KEYWORDS: alleviation of poverty, traditional financial markets, moneylenders.
6 Opinion Article “The Characteristics of a Good Worker” , Uqbah Iqbal
Hiring new employees, it can be difficult to consider how they will benefit the company organization for the long haul. Fortunately, there are a variety of ways to make sure they pick the right employees who will stay with their company. These right employees are the ones that can be promoted, don't create problems at work, and seem to know how to do their job. The managers only needs to give them direction on occasion and the workers seem to consistently show up to work on time. KEYWORDS: New workers, Job opportunity, anti-social, rude etc.
7 Psychological Factors in Banking as Depicted in Two Literary Works , Sinan Çaya
This article compares an American bank in an unknown state in the United States in 1970s with a French bank of 1850s in Paris. Even though those monetary institutions are fictitious as given, one can indeed infer a lot of truth and realism behind the hidden transcripts. As presented in the involved literary works; the French bank depicted by Émile Zola and the American bank thought up by Arthur Hailey are, despite the differences in time and geography; very similar in their functions. The former is only more deeply embedded in the stock exchange while the latter is essentially dependent upon loans made possible thanks to depositors. A war of nerves and extreme stress underline the themes of both of those superb novels. KEYWORDS: Bank, banking, money, stock exchange, shares, profit, gain, feelings.
8 An Issue of Petroleum Subsidy in India: The Critical Journey , Vishakha Agrawal, Himani Baxi
The fiscal deficit has been the area of concern for Indian economy. It had touched a high of 5.7 per cent in 2011-12, was brought down to 4.8 per cent in 2012-13 and further to 4.5 per cent in 2013-14. However, this moderate reduction in the fiscal deficit is achieved mostly by controlling the capital expenditure rather than curtailing the revenue expenditure and subsidies in particular. The theoretical framework for fiscal policy proposes rationalization of subsidies and reduction in the subsidies to control the fiscal deficits. This concern is strongly associated with the subsidies in petroleum sector. Total subsidies in petroleum sector accounted to Rs. 23,130 crores in 2000-01 which has almost got doubled to Rs. 43,580 crore in 2012-2013 along with increase of its share in total subsidies carried by Indian government from 9.69 percent in 2000-01 to above 20 percent in 2012-13 and 0.1 percent (Budget Estimate) as a percentage part of GDP. (Government of India (2014), Union Budget 2013-14) Although while shifting from Administered Price Mechanism to Market Price by 2002 Government of India has decided to reduce subsidy in phase manner but the targets have not been achieved to the fullest. Infact India has reached at a point where it is among the top five countries providing energy subsidy. Thus, the petroleum subsidy has always been a matter of political economy in India. The present research paper is an attempt to examine the trend or growth rate – both year on year and compounding, and relative share of petroleum subsidy during the period from 2001-02 to 2012-13 based on the secondary data from government publication and CAG reports. This paper also critically examines the policy statements and the targets set by the respective governments to reduce the petroleum subsidies viz-a-viz the policy implementations. For the policy recommendations, the paper will also make an attempt to study the global practices with respect to petroleum subsidies. The paper concludes that in case of petroleum subsidy, the achievements have been far from the targets set by the policy. The subsidy framework has infact led to the market distortions and also the misallocation of resources. In the country like India, where higher level of economic disparity prevails, subsidies provided in general and not catering to the specific segment of an economy or population would lead to widening the disparity. KEYWORDS: Petroleum Subsidy, Fiscal Deficit, Under-Recoveries, Subsidy Policies.
9 CONTRIBUTING FACTORS OF INLAND INVESTMENT , Malik Shahzad Shabbir
Investment is a catalyst for the economic growth, and the efforts to explore the factors catalyzing investment, whether domestic or foreign, public or private, are unstoppable. The present study attempts to investigate empirically, the factors responsible for shaping up domestic investment in the middle income Asian countries. We use a sample of twelve countries and the data extends over a period of 31 years ending at 2010. We employ empirical Bayesian approach for analysis, after undergoing the preliminary testing of data through panel unit root test, redundancy test and panel co-integration. The results suggests that domestic investment is positively determined by lagged investment, real GDP per capita growth, domestic credit to private sector, domestic saving, trade and government expenditures whereas a negative relationship of domestic investment is observed with inflation and interest rate. Findings of the study provide a torch to the policy makers who intend to boost domestic investment for attaining higher growth rates. KEYWORDS: Economic growth, domestic investment, middle income Asian countries, government expenditures.
10 A novel approach and possibilities of cloud computing applications in the mgnrega: towards more social development powered by technologies , P.K. Paul, A. Bhuimali
The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 is one of the important tasks of Government of India by offering employment and job to the rural Indian men and women for at least hundred days. The project was effected from 2006, February and till it is growing. The scheme was launched to keep in mind the matter of unemployment. Daily Crore of people are working in this project and thus huge information and documentation details become urgent. Thus ICT and several apps from MGNREGA supported agencies already been implemented. But there is a huge scope of introducing Cloud Computing and virtualization tools and systems on large scale basis and here in this research paper such aspects are discussed, many are proposed and analyzed. The SWOT have been identified and implemented.   Keywords: Cloud Computing, Computing, Gram Panchayats, Hundred Days Work, ICT, Information Science & Technology, Information System, MGNREGA, NREGA, Rural Development, Social Equity, Social Work.  
11 The philippine informal economy: a pragmatic study   , Benedict DC. David  
Poverty is a condition of the society that is traditionally characterized by the lack or insufficiency of basic human needs, such as potable water, sufficient nutrition, health care, essential education, clothing and shelter, because of the incapacity to afford them.  However, this term is relative, like in some developed countries; the measurement of poverty is manifested by the condition of having fewer resources or less income than others within a society or country, or compared to worldwide averages. Nevertheless, the quantitative gauge of poverty is determined by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), wherein elements of a population must surpass the $1.25 / day to survive. Below this matrix, the term “Extreme Poverty” applies, which is very prevalent around the globe.  More so, poverty is also caused by certain societal conditions such as lack of institutional and private support and lack of individual motivation to uplift one’s standard of living, to name a few. Thus, poverty can also be classified as a “social disease” (Montemayor and David, 2012, 2014) [1]. This condition prompted certain people to resort to informal and underground economies – a condition wherein they have their respective business ventures but are not registered legally. The researchers were motivated to study their intent and reasons on why they have done this, and yet still doing and will still pursue such an entrepreneurial setting. Significant results revealed that: Despite all the government efforts to legalize this business practice even with lucrative incentives, the underground entrepreneurs do not trust the system. It will take a corrective strategic action such as proper mind-setting and correct poverty management programs to address this issue. Keywords: Informal Economy, Poverty.  
12 Book review ‘kumpulan kawalan mutu (qcc)’ (malay version)   , Dr. Uqbah Iqbal
Written by Tembun Ghani, Raduwan Safperwan and Joseph Paul, the Group's Quality Control activities have begun in Japan for more than ten decades. But only in recent years this activity has been intensified, not only in Japan but also extends to outside countries including the West. Malaysia who chose the East Looking policy did not miss to take this example of Japanese management techniques. The Quality Control Group is one of the most effective techniques for building human beings, especially human workers; even Quality Group Control also creates a good working environment, which allows a person to fully understand what he or she does and what others are doing with responsibility. Japan was defeated in the Second World War. The effects of war have crippled the Japanese economy, especially its corporate activities. Therefore, Japan's main focus after the Second World War was to strive to continue to exist as a nation and a country in the world. Over the next three decades, Japan is not only able to exist and build as a nation and one nation, but Japan has been able to perform remarkably well beyond its original ambitions. Now Japan has penetrated the market of various types of goods from small to medium enterprises to the production of major machinery for heavy industries and thus dominating the field of electronics and computers, a field that was once monopolized by the United States and European countries. Japan's success is not merely penetrating the market of goods that has never been associated and has nothing to do with the past Japanese culture and economy, such as tools used in sports and recreation such as tennis, badminton, music and so on. In every field it penetrated, Japan was able to penetrate and finally dominate the market for the goods concerned and at the same time overcome companies in other countries that some of them had previously dominated the market of the goods. Just look at how Japan dominates the market and takes on the role of leading and major manufacturers of goods such as cars, motorcycles and scooters, watches and sports and recreation tools. What is the secret of Japan's success? What are the philosophies, concepts and methods of management owned and practiced by Japan that have produced this excellent success? Can other nations study, master and practice these philosophies, concepts and methods in their respective societies and countries, to achieve success like the Japanese nation? The results of various studies have found that Japan has a more effective philosophy and approach in the field of manpower management. Previously, the management theory and approach developed by the West considered indirectly through its management practices, human beings as one of the factors of production. Such assumptions lead to the approach that manpower as a factor in the production process can be reduced, added, modified and interchangeable, similar to other production factors such as machinery, machinery, methods, techniques and so forth. Humans seem to be silent and passive and will accept whatever is done to him. On the other hand, the Japanese approach differs completely with this approach. Japan considers and recognizes manpower as the most valuable and valuable organizational treasure. Organizational or corporate management philosophy must be based on the awareness that this manpower needs to be adequately guarded, educated and guided so that this energy can experience satisfaction, willingness and willingness to contribute to the mind and energy to produce development and progress for himself and to improve the quality and production organization or company where the person works. This philosophy creates an approach that has the following two features of manpower that should be encouraged and given the opportunity to move in a small group according to the needs of people who are always keen to live in society or live in groups and manpower should be given regular and continuous training in the fields such as statistics, identifying and solving problems to enable them to improve quality in groups.  
13 The next chapter of china-africa cooperation: commitment, opportunity and policy recommendations , Ehizuelen Michael Mitchell Omoruyi
The Forum for China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) that was held from 3-5 December 2015 brought with a major relief to many African capitals. There is no doubt that China remains an opportunity there for the taking. Africans need to equal the major task of refining their capacities to gain meaningfully from this relationship. The summit coincided with the launching of China’s second Africa policy paper and become the first time that a FOCAC summit was held on African continent as the others had all been Ministerial meetings following the first summit in Beijing. FOCAC came in a watershed year for international development efforts as the year witnessed the Conference of the Parties (COP21) held in Paris, the hosting of the Ministerial meeting of the WTO in Nairobi (for the first time on the Africa continent), the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by the United Nations, the Financing for Development meeting in Addis Ababa, and the forthcoming G20 meeting in Hangzhou, China. Within this broader context, the following policy brief, which arises from the China-Africa Think Tanks meetings in Yiwu-China on April 15th-17th and the forthcoming Mombasa-Kenya on August 10th-12th, 2016, seeks to draw linkages between China’s second Africa policy paper and the declarations of the Johannesburg summit. It therefore asks what the FOCAC envisioned to accomplish as well as the ways forward concerning China-Africa relations. Keywords: Conference of the Parties, Forum for China-Africa Cooperation, Summit.  
14 Management strategies for agricultural lenders   ,
Repayment of loans depends primarily on the successful planting and harvest of crops (or the raising and feeding of livestock) and marketing the harvested commodity (including grain, milk, hay, cattle, swine, and poultry). This study examines the use of databases to improve marketing techniques and customer segmentation in lending institutions. Specifically, this study examines the use of products and services by agricultural customers, and then determines the relationship between the use of those products and services with farm business characteristics. Information is also obtained on the interest rate sensitivity of the producers and correlated with farm business characteristics. The importance of technology and strategic alliances and other influences in the decision making process are determined after survey analysis. The survey was sent to producers who had some type of loan. Respondents from this study used an average of 3.2 loan products and 7.6 services for a total of 10.8 loans and services. Five specific recommendations were made to the institutions following this study. These recommendations include: use of technology, institutional use of databases, use of influencers, and targeting and segmenting the marketplace. Keywords: Management Strategies, Agricultural Lenders.  
15 A book review: for the love of money the death of the social contract in the west   , Paul T E Cusack
16 Evaluating forecasting methods by considering different accuracy measures in air transport , Keywords:  Forecasting, Accuracy, Quantitative Techniques, Air Transport
This paper discussed few of forecasting models and their application for travel forecasting of international air passenger demand in Murtala Muhammed International Airport. Secondary data of international air passenger demand from the period of 1995 to 2017 was used for analysis. The forecasting method analyzed included: single moving average (n = 2, n = 3, n =4, n =5, n = 6, n = 7, n = 8, n = 9, n = 10) and simple exponential smoothing method (α =0.1, α =0.2, α =0.3, α =0.4, α=0.5, α=0.6, α=0.7, α=0.8, α=0.9). The accuracy of the forecasting method was measured using Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD), Mean Square Error (MSE), and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The accuracy of the forecasting method was measured using Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD), Mean Square Error (MSE), and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The result showed that the simple exponential smoothing with a smoothing constant of 0.9 obtained the best accuracy; however, it was selected as the most appropriate forecasting method. The 2018 forecast of international air passenger travel demand in Murtala Muhammed International Airport will be 2,844,230. It was revealed that the higher the value of smoothing constant nearer to 1, the more sensitive the forecast become the current conditions; the lower the value of n for the single moving average, the more realistic or reliable the forecast; simple exponential smoothing is more reliable than single moving average.
17 Human computer interaction vis-à-vis mahatma gandhi national rural employment guarantee act (mgnrega): a swot analysis , P.K. PaulFBAS, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Shibpur- An Institute of National Importance, Howrah, West Bengal A. BhuimaliVice Chancellor, Raiganj University, Raiganj, West Bengal M. GhoseDean (Academics), Sikkim Manipal University, Gangtok, Sikkim Poovammal. EHOD, Computer Engineering Department, SRM University, Kattankulathar, Tamilnadu
Human Computer Interaction (HCI) and allied domain are important name for better information designing and display. Usability Engineering is similar and related to the HCI but mainly focuses on user interface designing and has limited scope than HCI. Human Computer Interaction and Usability Engineering today widely using in several fields and domains and in NREGA there are lot of existing and future possibilities. NREGA project is very much close with many tools and computing devices for its efficient and smart governance and there huge scope are awaiting for more sophisticated Information Management and Dissemination with support from the principles and tools related with HCI, Interactive Science and Information Science principles. NREGA, 2005 mainly deducted to the common rural people with promise of at least hundred days work and it is running widely. The HCI and Usability Engineering (UE) applications in NREGA are positively mention in this paper. Keywords:  Human Computer Interaction, , HCI, Usability Engineering, NREGA, MGNREGA, Rural Employment, Social Reforms, Employment Guarantee, , Information Science and Technology, Social Computing
18 Mgnrega and implemented technologies specially nregasoft: a healthy information and technological management for solid administration Authors     , P.K. PaulFBAS, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Shibpur- An Institute of National Importance, Howrah, West Bengal A. BhuimaliVice Chancellor, Raiganj University, Raiganj, West Bengal K. KumarVice Chancellor, VMS University, Gangtok, Sikkim, West Bengal B. KarnDepartment of Computer Engineering, BIT Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 (MGNREGA) is a social security measure by ensuring employment to the rural people regardless of gender, caste, religion. This providing a guarantee of at least hundred days work and it is treated as a kind of social work and volunteer based services. The scheme is spread pan India basis and touches all he states and Union Territories with large amount of financial investment. The program is managed by thousands of skill managers, officers, IT professionals. Thus Information Technology has an important and most valuable role for managing the content and information in this regard. During the last few year, Government of India and respective State Government already taken initiatives on ICT activities in NREGA and this paper highlights few areas and aspects on that.  The role of NREGASoft is specially highlighted among others. Mgnrega and implemented technologies specially nregasoft: a healthy information and technological management for solid administration. Keywords:  Information Technology, , Information Systems, MGNREGA, Employment, Hundred Days Work, Information Science & Technology, Manpower, NREGASoft, Cloud Computing, Social Security Measure
19 Keywords: Information Technology, , Information Systems, MGNREGA, Employment, Hundred Days Work, Information Science & Technology, Manpower, NREGASoft, Cloud Computing, Social Security Measure , P. K. PaulFBAS, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Shibpur- An Institute of National Importance, Howrah, West Bengal A. BhuimaliVice Chancellor, Raiganj University, Raiganj, West Bengal, India A. KumarMM University, Ambala, Haryana                                                                                                                                                                                        B. KarnDepartment of CSE, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, India                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           D. ChatterjeeVice Chancellor, Seacom Skills University, Bolpur, West Bengal
This paper describes various aspects of Information and Knowledge Management with special reference to its educational opportunities available in India Knowledge management process is a question of proper vision, organization networks, educated decisions and the best use of lessons learnt as the key to organizational learning. We describe the need of information management for ensuing information explosion and overload. This paper deals with the courses and institutes engaged in Information and Knowledge Management (IKM) education, researches and its job prospects in brief.    Keywords:  Computer Education, Corporate Training, Education, Information Management, Knowledge Management, Higher Education.
20 Internet saathi: a step towards promoting rural indian women , P.K. PaulFBAS, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Shibpur- An Institute of National Importance, Howrah, West Bengal A. BhuimaliVice Chancellor, Raiganj University, Raiganj, West Bengal      
Internet is the network of networks. This is most wonderful gift of electronics and communication science during the last century. Internet actually a global system and interconnected computers and that are from wide sectors including the private, public settings and also educational, research—and so on. Internet is useful to get and provide information services to the connected devices with proper communication, format etc. India is one of the important country in the world in internet uses. Millions of people are using the internet services but it is a fact that many are still not using the services due to economical and social barrier. The ‘have’ and ‘have not’—these perspectives are also there in internet world. Thus this resulted digital divide. The Internet Saathi is scheme to remove digital divide by transforming internet and web applications.   Keywords:  Internet Saathi, India, Internet, Digital Divide, Information Divide, Information Literacy, Computer Literacy, , Network Literacy, Development, Information Sciences, Social Information Systems
21 Government expenditure and the growth of the education sector in nigeria , Patrick OlogbenlaFederal Inland Revenue Service, Abuja. Nigeria
The research work investigates the effect of government expenditure on the growth of the education sector in Nigeria. The research work employs both descriptive and inferential statistical analysis particularly the multiple regression estimating technique. Two models are formulated to examine this. The first model used average school enrollment as proxy for education growth while the share of the education sector in the GDP is used to proxy education sector growth in the second model. The independent variables are recurrent the total government recurrent expenditure, the total capital education and the GDP. The result shows that recurrent expenditure does not have significant impact on the share of education sector in the GDP while it has significant and negative relationship with average school enrollment. On the other hand capital expenditure does not have significant impact on the average school enrolment but it does on share of education sector in the GDP. The implication of the result is that enrollment growth in the education sector in Nigeria does not correspond with the recurrent expenditure in Nigeria. Also the capital expenditure in terms of provision of educational and infrastructural facilities has not been having significant impact on the volume of school enrollment in Nigeria. This study has added to the literature calling for the increase in funding of the education sector in Nigeria.   Keywords:  Recurrent expenditure, Capital expenditure and School Enrollment
22 Finance- growth nexus in nigeria: an empirical peep on deposit money banks , Paul NdubuisiDepartment of Banking & Finance, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria Kalu E. UmaDepartment of Economics & Development Studies, Federal University, Ndufu Alike Ikwo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria
This paper empirically looked into the role Deposit Money Banks play in the Nigeria Economy with particular reference to their role in the facilitation of flow of money and credit in the economy and how it impacts on economic growth index.  In this study, the growth rate of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was used as the dependent variable while the independent variables included the following: Private Sector Credit to GDP (BCGDP), Private Sector Deposit to GDP (PDGDP), and ratio of Broad Money Supply to GDP (M2GDP).  Data were analysed using regression method.  Findings revealed that the productive sector (Real sector) has not been favoured significantly with regard to quantum of credit allocation.  As a result, the impact on growth becomes insignificant and negligible.  The paper therefore recommends amongst others that Deposit Money Banks, should focus on productive sectors by directing credit to them for improved economic growth.  Also the Central Bank should strengthen the Financial System for effective credit delivery.   Keywords:  GDP, Private Sector Deposit, Regression Method
23 Effectiveness of micro financing for poverty alleviation , Syed Zahid Abbas Naqvi Department of Business Studies ,Pakistan Insitute of Economics,Islamabad,Pakistan
Poverty is a serious issue which is faced by masses around the world. This study aims to determine whether the microfinance institutions established for the purpose of reduction of poverty have been successful in achieving their objective or not. Primary data was collected for the proposed research study through structured questionnaires. In order to analyze the collected data multiple liner regression and paired t-test were applied. Results show that microfinance has a strong positive impact on children education and enterprise financial performance. However, there is mixed evidence found on food security, household expenditures and household assets. No impact has been observed on housing and income smoothening of enterprise. Among other independent variables, it was revealed that number of salaried persons was found to be very important variable contributing to the wellbeing of the microfinance clients. This research has made a significant contribution in unraveling some of the myths of microfinance hence advancing literature and research on this important issue.     Keywords:  micro credit, poverty alleviation
24 Threshold of micro - financing in morocco , Dr H AhmedDept. Economics, Institute for Higher Education, Morocco
This study examines the historical portfolio of Micro – Finance in Morocco. The microfinance sector in Morocco relies on continued support from its Government through the legal framework. Their aim was to improve access for low-income micro entrepreneurs to financial services and help them to broaden their businesses, raise their income and increase employment. Moreover it was intended to strengthen the capacities of local associations to grant microcredit services. The ideal of microfinance was conceived as a process that seeks sustainability of its actions and synergy with all the policies of national and sectorial development. MFIs focused on individual and small business lending and could so increase loan sizes by 132 % between 2002 and 2008. Morocco seems to be aware of the importance of microfinance and puts a lot of effort into the development of the sector. The country’s success will depend on how it deals with future challenges. As long as the focus does not lie solely on profits, but accommodates sustainable growth and poor clients, Morocco will be able to continue its success story further.   Keywords:  Low-Income Micro Entrepreneurs, Portfolio, Microcredit, Financial Services
25 The demand and strategy model to obtain competitive advantages in wonogiri organic tourism central java , Dr. WinarnaSTIE AUB Surakarta Endah NawangsasiSTIE AUB Surakarta Basuki Sri RahayuSTIE AUB Surakarta
Agrotourism is in principle an industrial activity that expects the arrival of consumers (domestic and foreign tourists) directly at tourist attractions held. Improving the quality of agrotourism can be done by applying the demand model and strategy in gaining competitive advantage. This research is in line with the strategic plan and roadmap of research institutions and the Service to the Community of STIE-AUB Surakarta, especially in the focus of Good Governance Economy and Business Local namely the development of a creative economy. The aim to be achieved in this study is to see the effect of ease towards the location of prices. beauty and uniqueness, to tourism demand in organic tourism in Wonogiri, and the strategies used in gaining competitive advantage. The population of this study was the visitors of organic tourism in Wonogiri Regency by convenience sampling method. The results of the study using SEM analysis obtained, first results, All constructs used to form a research model in the confirmatory factor analysis process have met the criteria for the goodness of fit. Second, The Chi-Square test indicate that the model is not fit. The results of the revised model show that the value of the Goodness of Fit statistics generated has met the recommended critical value (cut-of value). Third,  The structural model evaluation test showed that the data was normal distributed, there were no multivariate outliers and the indicators in the study had well represented the latent construct developed. Fourth, Based on the causality test, the hypothesis shows that location, uniqueness and price have no significant effect on competitive advantage in Wonogiri Central Java organic tourism, while Location, uniqueness and price have a significant effect on tourist visits in Wonogiri Central Java organic tourism but competitive advantage has no significant effect on organic tourist visits. Wonogiri, Central Java.   Keywords:  Ease to Location, Price, Beauty and Uniqueness, Tourism Demand
26 Strategies to address labor delays among mothers giving birth at sphmmc , Yared Lasebew Asreswith Saint paulos hospital millennium medical college
Maternal delay is one of the contributing factors for high maternal mortality in developing countries. High maternal mortality is associated with lack of effective measures to prevent the “three delays” as defined by WHO. Ethiopia has a high MMR which constitutes 442 per 100,000 maternal deaths and one of the six countries which have contributed to more than 50% of all maternal deaths across the world. Delay in referral systems and poor access to appropriate health care are among the causes for this high mortality rates. This project is going to assess the cause for delays and complications leading to maternal deaths in mothers giving birth at saint paulos hospital millennium medical college. The objective of the study is to identify Strategies that address labor delays among mothers giving birth in the hospital( by the strategies listed indesign criteria). The project budget will be covered by federal minster of health and the hospital and there are different stake holders to participate for the success of the project. Keywords:  Maternal delay, maternal mortality, developing countries
27 Editorial on pharmaceutical management and its impact , Prakash PantRGPV, Mandsaur, M.P, India
Pharmaceutical Management is a discipline of management courses, which works with the health and chemical sciences and ensures the safe and secure use of pharmaceutical drugs”. Pharmaceutical management combines the study of the basics of pharmaceutical sciences with management and marketing studies. It prepares your careers in pharmaceutical marketing, management, sales, and other fields related to the healthcare industry.   Keywords:  Pharmaceutical Management, Chemical Sciences, Pharmaceutical Drugs, Healthcare Industry
28 Editorial on online shopping in nepal , Dr Pushkar BhattTU, Kathmandu, Nepal
Online shopping became very popular among Nepalese customers due to easy access to the internet. Interactive shopping apps attract growth in the online shopping companies. Time saving, offers, easy ordering system and information available at the online shopping portal, were the main reasons for the shoppers, to prefer online shopping. The service quality, punctuality, attractiveness provided by the online company, made the Nepalese customer, prefer online shopping. The quality of the product delivered to the customer was seen to be problematic in Nepalese online shopping. The delivery of the wrong product was also seen one of the problems in online shopping in Nepal. Keywords:  Access, Online shopping, Attractive
29 Editorial on digitalization in nepal , Pushkar BhattTU, Kathmandu, Nepal
Digitalization in banking means the application of new technologies to transform the existing banking business model into a new banking business model. It also includes online banking, internet banking, mobile banking, or paperless banking. For the last decade, the rapid advancement in information and communication technology has significantly influenced the banking industry in Nepal. Banks and financial organizations have improved their services as financial intermediaries by adopting various IT solution services.   Keywords:  Digitalization, Banking Business Model, IT Solution
30 Effect of covid on environment and other resources , Dr. Maya PantGovt College , Jaora, Ratlam, M.P, India
The global disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in numerous impacts on the environment, social, economical, psychological, and climate.  Low combustion of fuel leads to the minimal release of a pollutant that has caused many regions to experience a large drop in air pollution.  Increased, significant quality of Air, Water, Wildlife with decreased Carbon emissions. Keywords:  Carbon Emissions, COVID-19, Economical, Environment, Social, Psychological
31 Impact and consequences of covid on nepalese economy , Dr. Maya PantGovt College , Jaora, Ratlam, M.P, India
Death trolls and rapid increase in positive cases in COVID-19 leads to complete lockdown in Nepal. As per the analysis by various leading banks and govt agencies, the outbreak of this deadly disease will hit almost every sector of the Nepali economy. The impact has already started to surface in a number of sectors like tourism, trade and production linkages, supply and health. Especially the entire service industries: tourism, aviation, and the hospitality sector have been hit hardly by the outbreak. Strong boost up in the economy and strategically implemented unlock is very much needed to overcome the decline in the economy.   Keywords:  COVID-19, Economy, Lockdown, Outbreak, Unlock
32 Impact and consequences of covid-19 on indian economy , Dr. Maya PantGovt College , Jaora, Ratlam, M.P, India Dr. Bhagwateshwari KarkiKumaun University, Almora, Uttarakhand, India
The economic impact of the 2020 coronavirus pandemic in India has been largely disruptive. According to the survey (industry survey that is jointly conducted by industry body FICCI and tax consultancy Dhruva advisors), COVID-19 is having a 'deep impact' on Indian businesses, over the coming month's jobs are at high risk because firms are looking for some reduction in manpower. Further, it is added that already COVID-19 crisis has caused an unprecedented collapse in economic activities over the last few weeks. Further, according to the World Bank's assessment, India is expected to grow 1.5 percent to 2.8 percent. And IMF projected a GDP growth of 1.9 percent for India in 2020 because the global economy is affected by the COVID pandemic, the worst recession since the Great Depression in the 1930s. Also, we can't ignore that the lockdown and pandemic hit several sectors including MSME, hospitality, civil aviation, agriculture, and allied sector. Keywords:  COVID-19, FICCI, GDP, Indian Economy, Pandemic
33 Effect of the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic on schooling , Imran MaqboolUniversity of International Business Economics PR,China Umeed AliShah Abdul Latif University (working Project on Sindh Education Foundation (SEF) School under TFC Program Jamil AhmeedShah Abdul Latif University, Pakistan
The 2019–20 corona virus pandemic has influenced instructive frameworks around the world, prompting the close absolute terminations of schools, colleges, and universities. At the center of April 2020, approximately 1.723 billion students have been influenced because of school terminations in light of the pandemic. As indicated by UNESCO observing, 191 nations have executed across the country terminations and 5 have actualized neighborhood terminations, affecting about 98.4 percent of the world's understudy population. School terminations sway understudies, educators, and families, however, have expansive financial and cultural consequences. School terminations in light of COVID-19 have revealed insight into different social and monetary issues, including understudy obligation, digital learning, food insecurity, and homelessness, as well as access to childcare, wellbeing care, housing, internet, and handicap administrations. The effect was increasingly serious for hindered kids and their families, causing intruded on learning, traded off sustenance, childcare issues, and resulting financial expense to families who couldn't work. In light of school terminations, Universities suggested the utilization of separation learning projects and open instructive applications and stages that schools and instructors can use to arrive at students distantly and limit the disturbance of education.   Keywords:  COVID-19, Pandemic, School, UNESCO
34 Relationship between work-life balance and employee’s job attrition , Pooja RaniDepartment - school of management studies Punjabi University, Patiala (Punjab) Dr. Satinder KumarDepartment - school of management studies Punjabi University, Patiala (Punjab)
Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to study the relationship Between Work-Life Balance and Employee’s Job Attrition in IT and ITES Industry. In this way, there are many factors like as Absence of optimum Work-Life Balance, Significant time lost due to commuting to and from home to office, higher work pressure, excessive work hours, stiff, time-bound deadlines, increasing materialistic aspirations, Over-demanding expectations and Bossy attitude of Superiors, spiritual values, lack of proper training, non-involvement in decision making that influence employee’s job attrition in the organization. Therefore, job attrition plays a critical role in decrease the productivity level of the organization.   Keywords:  Job Attrition, Job Satisfaction, Morale, Motivation, Productivity, Work Life Balance
35 Influence of organizational culture and work motivation on employee performance through organizational and organizational citizenship commitments behavior , Dr. Agus SolikhinSahid Tourism Institute Of Surakarta Dr. Nazief NirwantoEconomics and Business Faculty, Merdeka University Malang Dr. Boge TriatmantoEconomics and Business Faculty, Merdeka University Malang
The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of organizational culture and work motivation on organizational commitment, OCB, and hotel employee performance in Surakarta City and analyze the influence of organizational culture and work motivation on employee performance when mediated by organizational commitment and OCB. The population of this study is Sahid Jaya Hotel employees, Sahid Kusuma Hotel, Lor In Hotel, and Alila Hotels in the city of Surakarta, totaling 606 employees with a total sample of 241 employees and respondents selected using a simple random sampling technique. After questionnaires were distributed, out of 241 questionnaires distributed there were 118 questionnaires that could be used while the rest could not be used because respondents were incomplete in completing the questionnaire. So that the sample of this study was 118 employees. Data analysis techniques used are Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The results of the study show that organizational culture and work motivation influence employee performance. Organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior are able to mediate the influence of organizational culture and work motivation on employee performance.   Keywords:  Organizational Culture, Organizational Commitment, Work Motivation, OCB And Employee Performance