1 “It is emotion and strength that we are conveying through music” - Interview with maestra Keri-Lynn Wilson , Adél FEKETE
Conductor Keri-Lynn Wilson began her musical studies at a very young age. While other children were still learning how to talk, she first started her piano lessons at the age of three, completing her passion for music by gradually adding two other instruments: the violin and the flute. The first major success of the young flautist was her Carnegie Hall debut at the age of 21. Soon a new passion arrose: conducting, under the guidance of Otto-Werner Mueller at The Juilliard School of Music in New York. As a student also had the opportunity of being the assistant of Claudio Abbado at the Salzburg Festival. Since then, Keri-Lynn Wilson has worked with famous symphony orchestras and opera houses all over the world, such as: Dallas Symphony Orchestra, Toronto Symphony, Los Angeles Philharmonic, Gewandhaus Orchestra, Simón Bolívar Symphony Orchestra, Vienna Staatsoper, Bolshoi Theatre, Arena di Verona, Israeli Opera. Returning to Cluj to once again conduct the great operatic masterpiece Tannhäuser, the maestra agreed to sit down for an interview focusing on about a conductor’s life and work in the XXI century, her unique musical thinking, current and future projects and on the experience of conducting in Romania.
2 German Pattern Melodies of the 16th Century Protestant Hungarian Hymns , Ágnes TÖRÖK
The appearance of the hymns of the German Protestantism in Hungary were clear and reasonable from theological and practical points of view of as well. This essay discusses the hymns and does not draw a distinction between the text writer Luther and the melody writer Luther or other German hymn writer priests. On the basis of István Gálszécsi’s and Gallus Huszár’s Hymnal this essay proves that the majority of the foreign melodies of the sixteenth century Hungarian Protestant song-material shows German relations despite some of today’s conclusions. When comparing vernacular songs we can draw up conclusions about their origins only through clear-cut differences. By identifying the possible German sources the proportion of the German and Hungarian chants can be defined well.
3 L’opera seria et ses réformes, Diana TODEA
. Melodrama or dramma per musica are terms describing the opera genre that was used for more than a century since its appearance. This genre states literary pretensions and reinforces the principle that governed this period, namely that the opera is nothing but "a solid branch of dramatic literature." In the early eighteenth century it was intended to save this "spectacular show" and purify it of all the adjacent and useless elements - overlapping plots, numerous characters, the mix of tragic elements and of puffs, abundant scenery and scenic machineries etc. The initiative come in this context from the men of letters. This reform, which was first of all a literary one led to the development of opera seria; half a century later, when one would focus again on the innovations of the genre there will be a second reform, this time more than dramatic since it will have solid musical and theoretical foundations.
4 Verdi and Wagner in early Victorian London: the viewpoint of The Musical World , Massimo ZICARI
As early as 1844, Henry Fothergill Chorley, one of the most authoritative figures of Victorian journalism, drew attention to two young composers, Giuseppe Verdi and Richard Wagner, whose recent success could not escape the critic’s attention. However, while Verdi’s operas made their regular appearance in London over the decades following Ernani’s premier at Her Majesty’s Theatre in 1845, it was not until 1870 (with L’Olandese Dannato, alias Der Fliegende Holländer) that the first full performance of a dramatic work by Wagner was given in the English capital city. Notwithstanding this disparity, a first glance at the reviews that appeared in The Times, The Musical World, The Athenaeum, The Sunday Times and The Spectator, and that were then reproduced in the columns of The Musical World, shows the extent to which, between 1845 and 1855, both composers became object of severe critical scrutiny. By the mid-1850s Wagner’s figure was conceptualized on the basis of factors that only in part depended on the quality of his music; yet, the manner in which his controversial writings impinged on the Victorian musical milieu benefited Verdi’s image, which came to be understood as a more reassuring popular composer.
5 The articulation of the notes in treaties dedicated to woodwind instruments from the Baroque era , Ignác Csaba FILIP
The articulations described in the treaties from the baroque era give proof to a wider variety, compared to the ones used in our days. The knowledge and application of these types of articulations offers a possibility to spread and enrich the expression palette of each performer and can be used not only with baroque instruments but also by performers of modern instruments.
6 The Complexity and Characteristics of Choral Art, Lumini?a GU?ANU
The artistic act must be expressed technically and interpretatively. In the process of interpretation of a choral work, the conductor’s mission is to attain a unity between the technical and artistic aspects. Attaining this unity is possible only when the conductor has established a mental approach of the work (the Technical Mental Approach and the Performing Mental Approach), which they can achieve after going through two stages: The syntactical – morphological analysis (SMA) and the Choral – Vocal Analysis (CVA).
7 Débats sur la «roumanité» musicale, Luana STAN
The musical «romanity» is a very exciting semiologic case. Is it a reality or just an empty musical label? In this study, we present three historical and cultural stages which constitute the musical «romanity»: between the wars (WWI – WWII), during the communist period, and after the revolution of 1989. Firstly, in the 1920’s, an important musicological movement marked the appearance of the periodical Muzica of Bucharest; the two main personalities of the Romanian music, musicologist Constantin Brailoiu and composer Georges Enesco, wrote a lot of essays to defend this «romanity». Secondly, during the communist period (1944-1989), the emphasis on the «new folklore» was an official recommendation of the State to strengthen a «national specificity» of communist vision. Thirdly, after the collapse of the dictatorial regime, the «romanity» questions strongly reappeared, but, this time, they were accompanied by some negative nuances and identity frustration. To define a national «romanity» in the context of international opening (e.g. European Union) seems to be an anachronistic phenomenon, but it is finally the normal reaction of identity protection in front of the disappearance of specificities and the appearance of standardization.
8 Une perspective sémantique intégraliste sur l’interférence texte-musique dans le cas du théâtre musical , Mirona BENCE-MUK
The present article focuses its investigation on the place of direct and private interference of the literary text with mu100sic, being consequently dedicated to the “semantic-integralist” analysis reguarding a complete cultural-artistic object which is the musical theatre. Our approach follows the same evolution of the metaphorical dynamics, identified initially in the libretto Così fan tutte, outlining a parallel with the metaphoric dynamics of the musical discourse, by using the same strategies: dia-endo-epi-phorics. Thus, our aim is to approach the integralist theses oriented, up to the present time, only towards the literary text, to another universe of cultural and artistic creation: the musical theatre. These correspondences refer to the existence of particular metaphoric strategies within the musical discourse, collaborating from the same position with the above mentioned strategies, presented in the text of the libretto in order to enhance the mystery and to articulate the metaphorical meaning existent in the final artistic text: libretto accompanied by the musical discourse.
9 Viability of Didactic Principles in Contemporary Piano Education , Stela DR?GULIN
Our paper aims at developing a system of ideas meant to bring about excellence in the performing act, both from the perspective of the performing soloist, and in the light of the educator and trainer of young musicians, endowed with higher professional skills. In the context of our preoccupations and propensity for instrumental didactics, we have formulated the guiding lines and principles for a novel piano technique, from a contemporary perspective. We have outlined a model of interdisciplinary approach, complemented and enriched with disciplines such as biology, anatomy and physiology, biomechanics, acoustics, psychology, semiotics etc. returning therewith to the importance of didactic principles, shedding upon them the light of today’s significances for piano education. We have submitted the main goals of the didactic process in the field of piano art, establishing accordingly, premises, conditions, accomplishments and perspectives in terms of evaluation within the instrumental didactics process, particularly highlighting the self-assessment skills.
10 Some Psycho-Pedagogical Considerations on Musical Education , C?lin DRAGO?
Nowadays, the educational system faces multiple challenges regarding pupils’ education, whether socio-human or professional education. Music education is the oldest component of Romanian pedagogy, highlighting values which have been structured throughout the years and represent not only cultural and historical facts, but the elements of a world outlook. It is then compulsory to present the real, correct aesthetic education within the educational system. Music teaching has had serious, acknowledged impact on artistic, humanistic, moral, civic, intellectual education. The importance of these aspects requires broader historical and cultural investigation. The full pedagogical and ethical meaning of meta-knowledge is developed in a didactic and epistemological context. As a means to acquire knowledge and strategies for success, meta-knowledge is a factor in pupils’ identification within their culture. It is used in relationship with the other, by producing a set of knowledge research and knowledge building. In this way, students can progress from music consumers to music users and producers, knowledge and aesthetic taste gatherers who strive for ideals and beauty.
11 Musical Education versus Man of Contemporary Society, Stela GU?ANU
The achievements and use of the new technologies provide contemporary education with a new structure of the social requirements. Owing to the social progress, education has become much more active, an operating factor of progress, preparing people according to the requirements of the future society. Music education prepares the individuals to understand and adequately adapt to the contemporary social culture and, through specific actions, it ensures the formation and development of their cultural creativity. Along with the other forms of art, music contributes to the society’s cultural continuity and stability. In addition, it gives birth to a vigorous dynamic interaction between the members of a group sharing the same national, religious, cultural or ideological identities. Music plays an important part in contemporary education, as part of the human culture, as a powerful means of emotional expression and interpersonal communication, as an expression of national, religious and cultural identity, as well as a means of contact, communication and exchange between different cultures, nations and religions, as a means of recreation, entertainment and aesthetic enjoyment.
12 La Relation Enseignant – Elève/Etudiant dans le Cadre du Processus Instructif-Éducatif D’Éducation Musicale , Constantina BOGHICI
After an experience of over 40 years of musical education, acquired in musical schools and high schools, and, during the last 18 years, in higher education institutions, we would like to bring to light a few principles that inspired us in our work with the pupils and with the students. From the very beginning, we considered that the relation between educator and educated is essential when carrying out the teaching activity in the artistic domain. The few failures we recorded were caused by external causes, unrelated to the teaching process: the lack of native talent as far as the pupil/student was concerned, the family’s lack of interest for the artistic aspects, defectological elements, poor health, etc. In the age of the modern communication means, the relation teacher-student has acquired new meanings: the educator needs to master the new technologies, to use his/her musical knowledge and techniques in order to highlight teaching strategies focused on the interests, preferences and aptitudes of the person who is being educated. The principles of modern teaching promote a democratic relationship, of learning through cooperation, which motivates and captivates the pupil’s/student’s attention for study, getting him/her to discover by himself/herself patterns and methods of solving different musical problems. To conclude, a positive attitude, based on modern teaching techniques, will determine the pupil/student to have a rigorous school trajectory, focused on performance and implicitly on professional musical success.
13 Janko, the Volk Opera Liszt never Wrote, Mónika IVÁNYI-PAPP
On the basis of his extant correspondence, Liszt planned composing an opera with Hungarian scenes and titled it Janko, der ungarische Rosshirt (Janko, the Hungarian horse-herder). The libretto suggests that the opera fell into the category of the folk play, a short-lived popular performance of the time, concerning its subject, characters, structure and music. Although he had consulted with librettists, he did not write a single line of the opera. The history of the opera could end here, but one of his composer colleagues Anton G. Rubinstein (the Russian Liszt) composed music on the basis of the libretto and called it Kinder der Heide (Children of the Moorland). Are there historical or musical traces of handing over the libretto? Could references to Hungarian music be found in Rubinstein’s music? And, is the ‘creation’ of a mixed category, the specific class of folk opera involved?
14 Passacaglia in the Opera of the 20th Century. The Interlude no.4 from the Opera Peter Grimes by Benjamin Britten , Gabriela COCA
In the assembly of the opera, Passacaglia represents an isle, in the same way in which the isle exists in the sea. Because of the fact that it is situated in the middle of the two scenes of this one, by the central position, it realizes the symmetric cut of the opera. On the podium, we can meet it as an independent work. Musical-dramatic, Passacaglia, by basso ostinato and by the variations which are going on this sound basement, materialized the persistence of the fix idea in the mind of the main character. This studys shows the structural and dramaturgical analysis of this part of the opera entitled Peter Grimes.
15 Internet Symphony No. 1: Rethinking the Orchestra as a Virtual Community , Bianca ?IPLEA TEME?
The article outlines, from a historical and sociological perspective, the evolution of the Symphony Orchestra from its origins (Vingt-quatre violons du roi) to its most recent incarnation as a product of current information technology: the YouTube Symphony Orchestra. The project recreates the ensemble as a virtual community, exploiting advances in technology to convert the artistic act into a transmedia product; it includes a selection process by video and e-mail, and online educational assistance for the musicians, followed by the video ’mash up’ of selected candidates, constituting the final version of Tan Dun’s piece Internet Symphony No. 1. Not being a single case, it has a ‘vocal’ equivalent in Eric Whitacre’s Virtual Choir, which is in fact a mix of 185 tracks individually recorded. The interaction between musicians is redefined within a multiplicity of contexts, providing a new framework for conceptualizing the artistic act as a matrix of integrative “multi-track creativity”.
16 Meditations of a lonely bassoon, Cristian BENCE-MUK
17 Der Musikalische Sprache des Komponisten Pierre Villette in den A Capella Motetten Hymne à la Vierge (Op. 24) und Panis Angelicus (Op. 80) , Miklós FEKETE
This paper presents first of all the importance of the 20th century French composer Pierre Villette, who’s instrumental, vocal-instrumental and choral works are relatively unknown even between musicians. Secondly, this writing focuses on the choral music of the composer, presenting the result of the analysis of the two chosen a cappella motets mentioned in the title (written by Villette in two different periods of his creation). The musical analysis proposes to identify and exemplify a few procedures, compositional techniques of Villette, which – on the one hand – do define the structure, the melodic and harmonic aspects of the musical discourse, and – on the other hand – aim to express the religious belief of the composer.
18 Opera and Italian Identity. The Long View, Stefano CASTELVECCHI
The nineteenth century is generally acknowledged as the period in which modern ideas of nation and nationalism crystallised; it is also seen as the period in which those ideas played a part in the process of Italian unification. The role that opera may have played in that process has been the object of much debate. Here I take a longer view, and begin to explore the more elusive ways in which music and opera may have contributed to the emergence of an Italian identity (an important condition for any thought about political unification) in the eighteenth century. Operatic practice can be seen as an element of social, linguistic and cultural integration across the Italian peninsula. Moreover, when Italian opera predominated throughout Europe, Italy exported an army of people associated with its creation, performance and business. What these Italians did, how others interacted with them, and the widespread association between them and opera — all had an effect on their perceived image, helping to foster the impression that they were indeed a group with shared characteristics. More open and complex ideas of Italian identity may eventually emerge from the exploration of these historical realities.
19 Historical Melodies in Gallus Huszár’s Hymnal of 1560, Ágnes TÖRÖK
Gallus Huszár’s hymnal is the first Hungarian Protestant congregational hymnbook. The origin of its melodies is mainly from Europian sources: Luther’s songs, odes, Gregorian chants, other mediaeval melodies and their variations can be found in this cantional. The Hungarian melodies are represented by some special Gregorian variations but mostly with historical songs. The two historical song collections, Tinódi’s Cronica and the Hoffgreff Cantional printed in Kolozsvár, give model for some congregational songs in Huszár’s hymnal. In Gallus Huszár’s hymnal the group of he historical songs contains 10 songs, for 5 of which there are melodies, although all of the melodies are known from chant notes. Some of them were new variations or new melodies for well-known poems but one of them was a newly discovered historical melody. This new melody is András Szegedi’s historia “De expugnatione urbis Ierusolimitanae”.
20 Innovative Sound Effects and Elements of Music Notation in George Crumb’s “Black Angels” for Electric String Quartet , Tudor FERARU
The article discusses the revolutionary compositional ideas and the extremely innovative music notation elements employed by George Crumb in his unique string quartet. The study focuses on the unconventional performance techniques that singularize this particular work. As a musical-theatrical composition, “Black Angels” reflects the spirit of American avant-garde, while at the same time representing an artistic manifest against war and terror. Finally yet importantly, the article attempts to familiarize the reader with a bizarre sound universe, bordering achievements in electronic music, and to promote the work of a highly original author.
21 Synesthesia between Sound and Colour, George APOSTOLESCU
Synesthesia is a syndrome or better said a psychological state that became manifest in music, art and literature. Mainly in the 20th century it takes a different shape as a result of scientific progress and especially of the effects it has generated. Synesthesia in music is recognized due to the effects created by Alexander Scriabin in Prometheus – The Poem of Fire as well as ”the painting” on the score of Hartmann’s pictures in his famous work Pictures at an Exhibition by Modest Mussorgsky. At the opposite pole we come across synesthetic episodes in pop-rock music or in disco dance music. The Avant-garde is a decisive factor of synesthetic development due to the synergy between music and visual art. The appearance and diversification of synesthesia creates new effects that influence all the people who interact with music and colours directly or indirectly.
22 Opera and Film – an Unlikely Marriage, Julianna KÖPECZI
SUMMARY. The aim of the following study is to analyze the manner in which opera music influenced film and became a crucial building block of certain cinematic narratives, in such films as Jonathan Demme’s Philadephia (USA, 1993), Luc Besson’s The Fifth Element (France, 1997) and Liliana Cavani’s Il portiere di note / The Night Porter (Italy, 1974). By revealing the correspondence between these audiovisual mediums and examining the common language used by them we intent to reveal numerous facets of this symbiotic relationship, all put in the service of lending meaning to the film, thus making the viewer’s escapist adventure truly unique.
23 “The Hungarian Folk-Song ... Echo of the Entire Hungarian Soul” – Thoughts upon a Quotation from Zoltán Kodály , Zoltán SZALAY
“... it is false method to start out from the diatonicism and then later turn back to the pentatony as if to an exceptional oddity.” Zoltán Kodály writes these lines in 1943, after he ascertains that pentatonic tunes constitute the Hungarians most ancient music. Thus the pentatonic scale is very important in Hungarian music in general. The pentatonic scale mirrors the Hungarian characteristic: the pentatony is that which receives into, and accepts. It is open to foreign elements (and the pien notes which are often very characteristic of the Hungarian pentatony, represent the foreign elements). It models that spirit, in which he lives his life in its entirety. However, that entirety is formed from many tiny little parts. Therefore it receives the foreign elements without changing its own pentatonic character. Nevertheless the diatonic scales are closed. In them, folk-songs only very rarely use the foreign notes in their system. They represent a spirit which takes itself out of unity, and in most cases it is unable to accept the strange difference, the mentality and the world view in which it finds itself quite foreign. The pentatonic scale is a separate system, independent of the heptatonic. There is no direct kinship between the pentatony and the diatonicism. In the same way as there is no kinship amongst the people who use these two different systems basically. The only people are the Hungarians who use both scales in an exceptional way.
24 Competence Based Music Teaching, Éva PÉTER
Lately there have been some modernization tendencies in education that aim to concentrate the teaching process on students acquiring competences necessary to life. The paper hereby begins by evaluating various approaches to the concept of competence, than it deals with the problem of music competence.
25 The Tonal and the Instrumental Symbolism in “Magnificat” (BWV 243), D major, of J. S. Bach , Gabriela COCA
The present study constitutes the synthesis of a detailed analysis of the musical work “Magnificat”, BWV 243, in D major, by J. S. Bach, published in book form in 2008, at the Cluj University Press publishing house in 2008. The analysis was carried out starting from the details to the whole, in each of the 12 parts, view on the following aspects: the text, the orchestral ensemble, the shape, the tonal structure, and the instrumentation. Each part attached as an Annex the coloristic spectrum of tonal-instrumental structure of hers. The synthesis of the analysis of this study presents conclusive, the full text of its historical datas, the dramaturgy of the form, the power centers, the relevance of the power centers in the poetic text, the dramaturgical dosing of the poetic text, the dramaturgy of the tonalities, the dramaturgy of the instruments using, and aspects of the illustrative program in music. The analysis is an original one, and not based on bibliographic processing.
26 A First Compositional Attempt into the World of Silent Short Films – Sanctuary by Nelio Costa (with Music by ?erban Marcu) , ?erban MARCU
This paper presents the author's first attempt at writing film music. The film under discussion is Sanctuary, a silent short film produced by Nelio Costa, Professor of film journalism at the UNA University Center in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The study highlights the suggestions that the composer derived from the film, the musical solutions the composer came up with in order to “counterpoint” the visual discourse and the context in which the film was presented, at the 2nd edition of the InnerSound International New Arts Festival, in Bucharest, 2013.
27 Echoes, Tudor FERARU
28 An Evocation of Ion Vidu 150 Years after his Birth. His Activity as a Composer and as a Conductor, Ion Alexandru ARDEREANU
Towards the end of the year 2013 the birth of the composer Ion Vidu will be marked by the commemoration of the 150 years that have passed. A memorable figure of the musical scene from Banat, the founder and promoter of the Orthodox choral movement for which Banat is known even internationally, Ion Vidu can righteously be defined as a most complex cultural personality whose legacy entitles him to be called a canonical composer for the history of the Romanian choral music and a remarkable conductor, teacher, publicist and organizer of the cultural life in Banat in general and of the choral movement in the same area in particular. Thus, in this commemorative year, this paper sets out to highlight yet again not a general portrait of Ion Vidu (in which case the risk of a shallow approach would be very high), but the two most common dimensions of his personality: Ion Vidu, the composer and the conductor.
29 La Compréhension de la Relation Texte - Musique dans Lady Macbeth du District de Mtsensk de Dmitri Chostakovitch , Valentina TOMA
This study proposes an analysis of the opera Lady Macbeth of Mzensk by Dmitry Shostakovitch from the point of view of the relationship between text and music. The approach is coordinated according to the hermeneutic law, which implies that the whole must be understood by the particular, and the particular by the whole, this rule which comes from the ancient rhetoric, being transferred (after Hans-Georg Gadamer ) by the mediation of the hermeneutic of the art of declamation towards the art of comprehension. Thus, the hermeneutic research implies also elements of rhetoric, one of these elements being pars pro toto, based on the principle of “unity between selection and combination in the formation of the basic image: as a part which will represent the whole (…)” Knowing all this, we have insisted only on a limited number of musical examples extracted from the original score, which are relevant from the point of view of the relationship between text and music. “Words in the opera can not be dissociated from music, but when one looks with his eyes at the text in the score and does not here it with his ears, lots of things may look distasteful.” This passage quoted from a letter of Dmitry Shostakovitch expresses his esthetics and the principle which lies at the basis of the opera Lady Macbeth of Mzensk.
30 Die reformierte Beerdigungslieder und - Bräuche des Gebietes am Bach Nádas, Miklós GYÖRGYJAKAB
In this paper I will present the customs regarding the Hungarian reformed funeral songs in the area by the stream Nádas, an area that is located in the heart of Kalotaszeg in Romania. The paper follows a theoretical and a practical thread. In the theoretical part I examined the funeral song-material of old Hungarian song collections, while the practical part describes my visits to a number of villages with significant folk traditions, inhabited by Hungarians, where I collected and summarized the musical traditions associated with funerals. In this paper I will shortly report on my findings, observations and experiences.
31 The Musical Score: From Paper to the Electronic Medium , Ciprian Gabriel POP
The article presents several aspects regarding the evolution of the musical score. It touches upon a series of aspects of the development of musical notation support in consistency with technological evolution. The first part focuses on the traditional score, while the second one treats the close connection between the score and the electronic medium both from the point of view of its building and from the perspective of creation.
32 Le masque comique de l’opéra dans l’Italie du XVIIIe siècle, Diana TODEA
Opera performances are characterized in the seventeenth century by heterogeneity which brings together in the musical-drama perspective, both tragic and comic situations. These make the serious scenes to constantly mix with various comic episodes. This approach is maintained until the early eighteenth century, when the former dramma per musica, which aimed to be entertainment for the aristocracy, removes from its librettos the comic element that is found to be irrelevant to the topic and not in accordance with the tragic style. During this period there was emphasised the need for the retrieval of verisimilitude and simplicity which were to be found in the comic opera emerged from the common people. These two trends will mark the final separation between the serious and comic styles that will begin to develop from now on towards two independent types, opera seria and comic opera.
33 The Collection of Manuscripts from the Noul-Neam? Monastery, Stela GU?ANU
The new monastery, called “The New Neam?” (Romanian: “Noul Neam?”), established in 1864 by the monks who had left the old Neam? community, took over not only the name of the oldest and richest monastic foundation in Moldova, but also the secular traditions of this important cultural center. The monastery’s abbot, Teophan Cristea, adopted both the traditions and the institution previously founded here by Saint Paisius from Neam?. The Neam? monks brought with them numerous precious manuscripts, documents and old Romanian books, which they also protected in this new location.
34 Approaches to the Ample-form Works in Music Schools, C?t?lina GU?ANU
Working on ample-form creations is a process consisting of certain phases, which a professor must go through with his/her students. In order to be able to approach this type of work, the student must be instructed by his/her professor to take the following steps: 1.Practice and study the scales and the crosshatches thoroughly, so that the left-hand and right-hand techniques are equally developed; 2.Become familiar with the studies that contain crosshatches from the concerto, which will be approached later. In addition to the previously mentioned steps, we emphasize the fact that studying smaller works is also very important. Prior to exercising the concerto, the professor must explain to the student what an ample form is and what the specifics of this form are, that is its phrasing mode and its method of interpreting hatches, accents, nuances, the melodic course and rhythm. To help the student study the work more easily and approach it correctly from an interpretative and stylistic point of view, the professor should present him/her with information regarding the composer’s biography, the style of the concerto and the period in which it was composed.
35 Berceuses du chat by Igor Stravinsky, R?zvan METEA
Berceuses du chat by Igor Stravinsky for voice and clarinet trio - picollo clarinet, clarinet in A, bass clarinet - is a cycle of four vocal-instrumental miniatures that are part of the Russian period of the composer’s work, being completed in 1915-1916. The timbral balance achieved between the voice and the instrumental ensemble, the lyrical manner of musical expression, the specific rhythmic-melodic typologies of writing, the chromatic versus diatonic dichotomy, the affiliation of the opuses to the comic aesthetic category are characteristics of this series of four micro-art-songs, cradle songs, dedicated to and apparently describing the characteristics of a cat.
36 Analytical Journeys in Three pieces for clarinet solo by Cornel ??ranu , Cristian BENCE-MUK
Three pieces for clarinet solo by Cornel ??ranu carry the compositional impression of the ‘80s highlighting a perfect – micro and macrostructural – balance between construction and freedom. The first piece, Toccata ostinato, builds arrhythmic ostinato on a repeated sound, in alternation with a melodic “pattern” of modal-chromatic essence. The second piece, Improvisazione, was written long time before the other two and represents a median contrast, where the sonorous discourse is delivered in a quasi-improvisational development. The third piece, Cadenza, is based on a nucleous made up of (major and minor) second and augmented fourth, transposed and built on various sounds, serving to an expressivity close to that of the lament, suggestively presented by the descending glissando.
37 Repetition and Fantasy in Spring, Poem for Soprano, Clarinet and Piano, by Carmen Petra-Basacopol, ?erban MARCU
The present study, part of the research grant The artistic and social impact of the contemporary music of the 21st century from the perspective of the relationship composer-performer-audience (project director Assistant Professor Cristian Bence-Muk, D.Mus.) investigates the structural and rhetoric aspects in the poem Spring, for soprano, clarinet and piano, by Carmen Petra-Basacopol, on the verses of poet Mariana Dumitrescu. The annalysis focuses on the relationship between musical techniques (tonal systems, rhythm, timbrality) and the literary text, highlighting the oscillation between rigour (leitmotifs, ostinatos, elements of reprise) and fantasy (improvisational writing – especially for the clarinet –, the madrigal-type discourse).
38 The Choral Framework in the Opera “Decebal” by Teodor Zgureanu, Lumini?a GU?ANU
Zgureanu’s entire work is influenced by the folkloric ethos. On the whole, the resort to the folkloric substance is one of the constant features of his work. For the most part, he uses rhythmic-melodic elements specific to the folkloric melodicity, elements that draw their essence from the century-long experience of the folk artist that he decants by subjecting them to his own, unmistakable language. The multiple-level contrasts (dynamic, rhythmic, timbral, of registers), the vitality, energy, tension, harshness and density are the main characteristics of this opera, in which we find clarity and self-confidence in composition, build-ups and tensions disrupted by breaks or by contrasting sections, but also a persistency in using melodic-rhythmic cells of folk origin. It is a style the composer has perfected with great toil, characterized also by timbral refinement and subtlety in the game of nuances. The entire structure is built either upon agglomerations or rarefactions, or upon sudden disruptions and contrasts.