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Basic Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Review

Journal Papers (63) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Response of chickpea to different planting methods and planting densities under dryland condition, Amare Girma
Response of chickpea to different planting methods and planting densities under dryland condition
2 Influence of Herbicides on Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L). Moench) in the US Virgin Islands, Dilip Nandwani
Influence of Herbicides on Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L). Moench) in the US Virgin Islands
3 Influence of Herbicides on Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L). Moench) in the US Virgin Islands, Dilip Nandwani
Influence of Herbicides on Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L). Moench) in the US Virgin Islands
4 Influence of Herbicides on Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L). Moench) in the US Virgin Islands, Dilip Nandwani
Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus (L). Moench) is a highly valued vegetable and grown for fresh market in the US Virgin Islands. Weed competition is an important factor affecting vegetable production. A preliminary study was conducted to evaluate preemergence application of two herbicides Preen Plus (trifluralin) and Scythe (pelargonic acid) on weed control in okra. Two cultivars of okra cv. Clemson Spineless, and Red Burgundy were grown in replicated field plots at the Agricultural Experiment Station University of the Virgin Islands, Kingshill. Trifluralin (2 oz. /10 sq. ft., granular) and Pelargonic acid (5% v/v) applied a day prior to transplanting okra plants into the field. No emergence of weeds was observed in treated plots within the first two to three weeks after application. Plants recovered from initial injury a few weeks after transplanting. Clemson Spineless produced higher yield (393g/plant). Red Burgundy had longer pods and comparable yield (329.4/plant). Trilfluralin was effective in suppression of a range of broadleaf and grasses in okra field. Keywords: Vegetable, Yield, Weeds, Tropical Climate
5 Livestock production challenges and strategies for tropical agro ecosystem, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, Subhash Chand
The Andaman and Nicobar islands are the largest archipelago system in the Bay of Bengal, consisting of 576 islands situated between 6?45 N to 13? 41 N latitude and 92? 12E to 93? 57 E longitude. The total geographical area is 8, 249 km2 with a coast line of 1, 962 km. This large archipelago is separated from mainland India by 1200 km; the nearest landmass in the north is Myanmar, roughly 280 km north of Landfall Island. The livestock population in the islands consists of non-descript cattle, buffaloes, pigs, and goats. As per the 2010 census, total livestock population on the islands was 175655 including crossbred. The livestock population in year 2003 (pre tsunami) was 12% higher than the Post tsunami. The total milk production was 25 lakh liters in year 2012 and per capita availability at Island level is 185 ml/day. The average per day yield is about 1.5 liters for cows and 1.5-2.0 liters for buffaloes. The productivity of milch animal is less. The per capita meat/eggs availability is about one kg/ annum and 168 eggs are annually available at island level. It may be due to continuous inbreeding. The livestock supports the agriculture in the form of draught animal power (DAP). Majority of farmers are following the concept of integrated farming in these islands for optimum use of land. The total poultry population was 800950 in year 1997 and it further increased to 930878 in the year 2003. Per capita about three birds are reared. This has resulted in self sufficiency in poultry production. Meeting the demand for feeds and fodder including healthcare and potential germplasm are the big challenge. Maize cultivation in islands has been found to be a new hope for supplementing the part of demand of concentrate feed as well as fodder in addition to provide extra income through sale of fresh cobs, tourist points and baby corn in peri urban area and for the demand of hoteliers. Scientific effort and extension agencies need to work together for technology development and transfer so that challenges can be bridged. Keywords: Livestock, challenges, prospects, constraints and scope
6 Month wise catch per unit effort of sardine species Sardinella fimbriata and Dussumieria acuta in Artisanal and Industrial fishing sector, Bikram Jit Roy
The investigation was carried out on the sardine fish species availability which captured in artisanal and industrial fishing sector during January, 2012 to December, 2012 from the onshore and off shore water areas of our marine water and total production of sardines was 7352.99MT, among this 1747.22 MT was exploited by the coastal mechanize boats in inshore areas which contributed 23.76% by weight of total sardine fish production and 5605.77 MT harvested from different industrial fish trawlers and contributed 76.24% to the total sardine landing in deep-sea fisheries and 17.51% contributed to the total fish production by commercial fish trawlers at the same study period.Still now 4 sardine species are recorded in the Bangladesh region of the Bay of Bengal. Among them, two sardine species are abundantly available and they are, Fringe-scale sardine- Sardinella fimbriata is locally call as sagar chapila and its total landing volume was 5495.79MT (74.74%) of the total landed sardines in artisanal and industrial fishing; of which contributed 31.79% (1747.22MT) in artisanal and 68.21% (3748.57MT)from industrial sector to the total production volumes of S. fimbriata. And the rain bow sardine-Dussumieria acuta call as Colombo machh, this contributed 25.26% (1857.20MT) only in industrial fishing sector in our sampling period. Generally, in artisanal fishing the peak capture season of sardine species, S. fimbriata is in the rainy season and in industrial fishing major harvesting season of S. fimbriata are the end of late autumn to first of winter in night times. D. acuta harvest only in industrial fishing and peak production season is in the winter season and highest catch observed at night in the full moon and new moon period and a few days after and before full moon and new moon. S. fimbriata are exploits within 10-20 meters depth and abundantly available in the southern part of the South patches and South of south patches and capture 40-50 m depth in north-west to north-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point) and D. acuta are harvest within 40-60 m. depth and available in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground areas (Kohinoor point) and south-west to south-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point) in the Bangladesh region of the Bay of Bengal. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) of S. fimbriata was 171.28 kg observed in artisanal fishing. Average CPUE was 172.50 kg in the selected fish landing center of Shahparir dwep followed by 198.77 kg, 257.77 kg, 189.88 kg, 115.66 kg and 93.10 kg were at Teknaf sadar, Shamlapur, Moheskhali, BFDC fish harbour, Coxs Bazar and Fishery ghat fish landing center in Chittagong district respectively. In industrial fishing average CPUE was 772.68 kg recorded at the same sampling period. Keywards: Total landing, Middle ground, South Patches, South of south Patches, Kohinoor point, Artisanal and Industrial fishing.
7 Assessment and exploitation of the pomfret fishery by the industrial fishing fleets in Bangladesh, Bikram Jit Roy
In this study, pomfret fishery data were collected from the 93 commercial fishing trawlers from July 2008 to June 2009 in Bangladesh. Total fish production of these fishing trawlers was 30191.071 Metric Tons (MT). Among them, the estimated catch of pomfret was 305.466 MT of which caught within total 18651961.05 hours and an average catch per hour of pomfret was 0.016 kilogram (kg). Three species of pomfret were recorded under the family stromateidae and carangidae. The average tow duration of per trawler per day was 16.25 hours. The percentage contribution by weight showed that, the highest catch of percentage was 1.88 and the lowest was 0.38; and the average catch percentage of pomfret was 1.01 of the total fish production in the trawl fishing. The highest landing of pomfret was recorded 65.460 MT in the month of November, 2008 and lowest was 1.146 MT in July, 2008 at the same study period. Keywords: Pomfret fishery, production, commercial trawl, current status, Bangladesh.
8 Analysis of livestock production conditions in North Kordofan State, Sudan, I. Bushara
The study was conducted at El-khuwei locality, North Kordofan State, Sudan, during 2010/ 2011. The main objective of this work was to determine the conditions under which livestock are raised in the studied area. Using questionnaires, 120 farmers were interviewed from 4 villages (30 for each village). The data were analyzed using frequencies variables. Results showed that all respondents are male, the majority 65.0% belonged to the Hammer tribe and 35.0% of them are of the Magana tribe. 36.7% of respondent ages ranged between 20 - 40 years, while 63.3% ranged between 40-60 years. 45% of respondents had completed primary school, 28.3% had completed intermediate school and 26.7% completed secondary school. 53.3% of interviewee are crop farmers and animal breeders; followed by those are crop farmers 26.7% then those are animal breeders 20.0%. 50% of respondents are settled, while 25% practiced transhumance and 25% of them are settled and transhumance. 74.2% of interviewers explained that their animals grazed near the residence in the autumn season; however, most of them said their animals grazed far from the residence in summer and winter seasons. The respondents revealed that camels are watered every 5 days in the winter and 4 days in the summer; however, sheep and goats were watered every 2 days and cattle every day in the summer and winter seasons. Majority of interviewees 60.8% revealed that Anthrax has the most serious prevalence amongst cattle and the remainder 39.2% said hemorrhagic septicemia; however; 64.2% revealed that the sheep pox has the most important prevalence disease in sheep, and 35.8% of them said the hemorrhagic septicemia. All respondents revealed high density of animals in pasture. 58.3% of them said that water supply is not enough; while 41.7% of them said water supply was sufficient. All respondents indicated that they were charged for watering their animals. Regarding the reasons for decreasing milk production, most respondents 67.5% cited famine of grass, while 32.5% said due to low nutritive value of grass. All interviewers offered salt to animals, however quantity of salt supplemented every 3 days were 5, 2 and 1 for cattle, sheep and goat respectively. Regarding animal marketing, all respondents sold male animals only; however 56.7% of them sold sheep compared to 23.3% and 20.0% who sold cattle and goats respectively. Majority of owners 89.2% sold goats and sheep at 6 months to 1 year; while 10.8% of them sold animals at age of 1 to 2 years. It could be concluded that analyses of livestock production conditions in North Kordofan state dependent on improvement of animal management for environmental factors. Keywards: Feeding, supplementation, diseases, activity, marketing and management, Sudan
9 Length-weight relationship and parasites of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus in Cross River Estuary Itu local government area Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, Usip Lawrence
The study describes the length-weight relationship and helminthes bioload of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Catfish) in the Cross river estuary purchased at Ayaedehe, Itu Local Government Area, Akwa Ibom State. A total of four hundred and twenty (420) life specimens of C. nigrodigitatus were collected by local fishing gear between June and November, 2011. Data obtained were statistically analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results showed that the highest length was obtained in July (100.2cm) while the least was obtained in June (15.30cm). The highest weight was 1410g obtained in October while the least was obtained in September (22.10g) and there were significant differences in monthly distribution of length and weight (P
10 Confronting the challanges and barriers to community participation in rural development initiatives in Buhera district, Ward 12 Zimbabwe, Ephraim Chifamba
Community participation in rural development is widely recognized as a basic operational principle of rural development, although debates about this concept are fervent. Beneficiaries of community projects have been seen as consumers of services, and their role in rural development has been accorded less importance. Community participation has been limited to consultation, thereby stifling the creative capabilities and potential of community members at all levels of the society. A descriptive case study design was used to collect primary data in addition to secondary data. Questionnaires were administered to participants selected through proportionate sampling to ensure representation and stratification at all levels. Two hundred respondents were interviewed. The data collected was analyzed numerically and descriptively and is presented in the sum of text and tables. The study revealed that there is relatively low degree of community influence or control over organizations in which community members participate, especially given that the services are usually controlled by people who are not poor or recipients of services. Community members are usually going through an empty ritual of participation; hence they have no real power needed to affect the outcome of rural development process. The study noted that participatory rural development has no predetermined outcomes; it can lead to transformation and change in the social patterns and sometimes it perpetuates and trigger the antithesis of community liberation, devolution and distribution of power among various stakeholders. Thus, the form of participation in rural development initiatives in Buhera has transformed and modified the relations of power that objectify and subjugate people, leaving them without a voice. The study recommended that community participation should be centered on the role of the community as primary actors who should be allowed and enabled to influence and share the responsibility (and possibly costs) of rural development process. Keywords: Community Participation, Rural Development, Decentralization, Sustainable Development, Zimbabwe
11 Valuation of mangrove services of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, Subhash Chand
Mangroves of Andaman and Nicobar Islands are matter of concern in climate change scenario. Present area under mangroves was about 617 sq.km. which has been decreasing over the years(Forest Department A and N Islands 2009). The qualitative assessment indicates that mangroves are 10 folds superior to manmade defense systems in dealing with climate associated disasters (subhash etal. 2012). The total economic value of Andaman Mangroves was worked out to be more than INR. 125 million per year. The value of goods and services harvested by per household per year was more than INR 61,000/-. Similarly, the value of mangroves per hectare in A & N Islands was more than INR 0.2 million. The peoples perception about the use and ecological services delivered by mangroves obtained from 120 respondents. About 95% of the respondents perceived that mangroves will die due to change in sea level. 56% were in opinion that damage of mangroves will result in reduction in fish catch. During 2004 tsunami, the areas fringed with mangroves were less affected than those open seas. Thus, sufficient effort should be made to conserve the existing mangroves. Keywords: Mangroves, total economic value, climate change
12 Smallholder livestock production and marketing systems in the Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia, Belay Duguma
The study was conducted in Haramaya district (Baate lega Hanboo, Xinniqqe and Tuji Gabbissaa) Farmers Associations in eastern Hararge Zone of Oromia Reginal State, Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to assess livestock production and marketing systems. The Farmers Associations were selected purposively based on their accessibility. Participatory rural appraisal (PRA), informal discussions with farmers and market participants and secondary data were used to collect data. The results show that mixed crop-livestock production system was the dominant production system. All livestock species kept in the study area are indigenous breeds. The major sources of feed were natural pasture and crop residues. Leaves of Waddessa (Cordial Africana), Ebicha (Veranonia amygdalina) and Ejersa (Olea Africana) are the major indigenous fodder trees used to supplement their animals in the dry season. Khat (Catha edulis) leaf when available was supplemented to both sheep and goats. Cattle reach a slaughter age at roughly 4-5 years. Age at first calving is between 4-5 years with subsequent calving interval of two and above years. Milk yield is low seldom exceeding 1 -1.5 liters per day. The various livestock market participants were producers, consumers, legal traders, illegal traders, butchers and brokers (middlemen). Feed shortage, poor performance of animals, disease and parasites, lack of adequate livestock production and marketing services, and the involvement of brokers (middlemen) in the marketing systems were considered as the major constraints the farmers in the study area faced. Keywords: Crop residue, Haramaya, Livestock, Marketing, Middlemen
13 Productivity of taggar goats as affected by sex of kids and litter size, Bushara I
The study was conducted in Taggar goats to evaluate the effect of two different levels of protein and energy in the rations on some reproductive and productive traits. Sixty two (62) kids of Taggar goats were allocated to sex and birth type in a complete randomized design according to live body weight. The results indicated that supplemented does secured higher litter size 1.50 and 1.33 compared to control group 1.2. Kidding rate was high in supplemented groups 100% compared with control group 93.8%. Body weight was heavier at time of kidding and weaning for supplemented does compared with control does. These results indicated that supplementation reduced body weight losses throughout the lactation period. The kidding interval for the supplemented does was shorter 247.818.38 and 242.607.88 days for does in groups B and C respectively compared to does in control group, 288.946.84 days. Similarly, the service period had been reduced in supplemented does than those in control group. Results from milk analysis indicated that higher protein, lactose and total solid content in supplemented does whereby fat content was higher in control group. The supplementation had reduced the incidence of abortion and mortality rates compared to the un supplemented does. In conclusion the investigated environmental factors showed an impact on both reproductive and productive traits of the Taggar goats under rangeland farming system. Keywords: Taggar goats, production, reproduction, concentrate ration, dry land.
14 Abundance of sardine fish species in Bangladesh, Bikram Jit Roy
The study was conducted during January, 2012 to December 2012 in the sardine fisheries which is occurred both in artisanal and industrial fishing sector in the marine water of the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. During this study period the total landing amounts by weight of sardines were 7352.99 MT, among these 23.76% (1747.22 MT) was exploited by the artisanal mechanized boats and 76.24% (5605.77 MT) captured through different industrial fishing trawlers and contributed 17.51% of the total marine fish production by commercial fish trawlers during the study period. 4 sardine species have been recorded from our marine territory. Among them, 2 sardine species are highly abundant, Sardinella fimbriata total production volumes was 5495.79 MT (74.74%) contributed 1747.22MT (31.79%) from the artisanal and 3748.57MT (68.21%) from the industrial sector and Dussumieria acuta production amounts was 1857.20MT (25.26%) contributed only from the industrial fishing sector.Species wise contribution shows that S. fimbriata contributed 100% in the artisanal sector and in the industrial fishing S. fimbriata contributed 66.87% and D. acuta contributed the rest 33.13%. The distribution of the S. fimbriata is within 10-20 meters depth and abundance was observed in the southern part of the South patches and South of south patches (N: 210.09// -22, E: 920.04/-07 to N: 200.45/-25, E: 920.18/-56) and 10-50m depth in onshore and off shore areas in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point -N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57). The distribution of the D. acuta is within 40-60 m. depth and abundance was observed in the north-west to north-east of Middle ground areas (Kohinoor point - N: 210.36/.23, E: 900.06/.43 to N: 210.18/.18, E 910.17/.57) and south-west to south-east of Middle ground (Kohinoor point- N: 200-17/.29, E: 900.15/.21 to N: 200.29/.56, E: 910.24/.22) in the Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh region. The peak capture season of S. fimbriata is the rainy season in the artisanal fishing and in trawl fishing; the peak capture season observed in S. fimbriata are the ends of late autumn and to begin of winter season. The peak harvesting season of sardine species, D. acuta is the winter season. Highest catch was observed at night, in full moon and new moon period. Keywards: Total landing, Middle ground, South Patches, South of south Patches, Kohinoor point, Artisanal and Industrial fishing.
15 Climate change: Effect on growth of animals, Padodara, R. J
Asian countries are characterized with humid subtropical climate and is subject to extended periods of high ambient temperature and relative humidity. As the primary non-evaporative means of cooling for the domestic animals (radiation, conduction, convection) become less effective with rising ambient temperature, the domestic animals become increasingly reliant upon evaporative cooling in the form of sweating and panting. Increasing air temperature, temperature-humidity index and rising rectal temperature above the critical threshold levels are related to decreased dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield and to reduced efficiency of milk yield. Body weight and growth is affected due to hyperthermia. Keywords: Climate change, Growth, Heat stress, Thermoregulation.
16 The influence of Season and Location on Body Condition Score and Weight of Oxen in Ginchi Watershed, Central Ethiopia, Belay Duguma
Shewa Zone of Oromia Regional State, central Ethiopia. A purposive sampling technique was used to select the oxen in the study area. Data were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The overall average body weight (BW) of oxen in the watershed at the end of March, end of May and end of September was 272.22.1, 264.21.9 and2682.3 kg, respectively. The average body condition score (BCS) of oxen in the watershed were 5.6 points (M+) at the end of March, 5.3 points (M) at the end of May and 5.4 points (M) at the end of September. There was a decline and rise in average BW and BCS between different seasons of measurements. For the watershed, average BW at the end of March was significantly higher than end of May (p
17 Climate effect of season of birth and litter size on taggar goats production in western Sudan, I Bushara
The study was conducted in Taggar goats to evaluate the effect of two different levels of protein and energy in the rations on some reproductive and productive traits. Sixty two (62) kids of Taggar goats were allocated to sex and birth type in a complete randomized design according to live body weight. The results indicated that supplemented does secured higher litter size 1.50 and 1.33 compared to control group 1.2. Kidding rate was high in supplemented groups 100% compared with control group 93.8%. Body weight was heavier at time of kidding and weaning for supplemented does compared with control does. These results indicated that supplementation reduced body weight losses throughout the lactation period. The kidding interval for the supplemented does was shorter 247.818.38 and 242.607.88 days for does in groups B and C respectively compared to does in control group, 288.946.84 days. Similarly, the service period had been reduced in supplemented does than those in control group. Results from milk analysis indicated that higher protein, lactose and total solid content in supplemented does whereby fat content was higher in control group. The supplementation had reduced the incidence of abortion and mortality rates compared to the un supplemented does. In conclusion the investigated environmental factors showed an impact on both reproductive and productive traits of the Taggar goats under rangeland farming system. Keywords: Taggar goats, production, reproduction, concentrate ration, dry land.
18 Effects of inoculation on growth promotion and biological nitrogen fixation in maize (Zea mays L.) under greenhouse and field conditions, Adriana Montaez
The application of PGPB to agriculture is increasing as it offers an alternative to the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and other supplements. Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the worlds principal cereal crops, grown for grain, silage and biofuel. Nitrogen fertilizer constitutes one of the major costs in maize production, and PGPB poses a potential alternative for achieving more sustainable production. In this study, we present the results of maize inoculation experiments with PGPB under greenhouse and field conditions. We found significant differences in shoot and root dry weight among cultivars and inoculation treatments in the greenhouse. The inoculation of Maizon with Rhanella spp. EMA83 increased shoot dry weight (22%) relative to the non-inoculated control. Similarly, the maize cultivar PAU871 increased in shoot biomass when inoculated with Pantoea agglomerans EMA82 (33%) and Rhanella spp EMA83 (50%) relative to the non-inoculated treatment. There was a negative correlation between %15N a.e. and shoot dry weight (r=0.6, P
19 Role of Krishi Vigyan Kenderas for the empowerment of rural women through vocational trainings, Tabasum Nazir
The present study was conducted to determine the role of Krishi Vigyan Kenderas for the empowerment of rural women in Kashmir valley in the year 2010-12. A sample of 400 rural women out of 800 covered under different vocational training courses of Kvks was selected by random sampling method for data collection. A structured interview schedule was prepared and was pretested on 10 percent of the respondents before final use. The study revealed that majority of the respondents (46.75%) became independent, (30.5%) respondents had reduced their dependency and a small number of respondents (22.75%) did not feel any change in their dependency. The findings revealed that majority of the respondents developed their leadership qualities, can make self assessment, got economic freedom, developed their psychological confidence and became able to take decisions. Thus vocational trainings given through kvks plays a positive role for the empowerment of rural women who have undergone through trainings and adopted the recommendations of the given practices. The findings of the study also revealed that majority of the women respondents had increased their psychological confidence and decreased their sub-ordination and cent percent of the women respondents agreed that vocational trainings given by Krihi Vigyan Kenderas provided an opportunity for women to enhance their economy and improve the socio economic status of rural women. More than half of the respondents revealed that they earn profit by adopting these skills and have increased their income and became socially, economically and psychologically empowered. The training of cutting and tailoring, knitting, fruit and vegetable preservation and tilla work has increased the economic status of trainees and also of their families. The positive change in their living status was also visible. Hence training programmes organized by KVKs especially for rural women for their empowerment plays a positive role. Keywords: Self assessment, Psychological confidence, empowerment
20 Assessing the postharvest needs of Kauran Mata Community, Kano State, Nigeria, Adegbola Adetayo Jacob
The paper posits that food problems of most of the Third world countries and Nigeria inclusive does not lie with underproduction but lies with what happens to food at post harvest stages. It indicted lack of post harvest know-how and technology as the primary bane of food security in these countries, and maintained that postharvest technology needs assessment if carried out would lead to an overall development of farming especially at postharvest stages and nip food insecurity in the bud. It carried out a postharvest need assessment of Kauran Mata farming community and found out what their needs are in this order of priority: warehouse/withholding structure, multipurpose dryer, plastic crates, evaporative coolant structure (ECS), fruits shed, leafy vegetable basket, and the fish box. Furthermore, it recommended that the government meet the postharvest needs of the community either by providing these needs for them at no cost or at a subsidized cost, or better still the farmers themselves synergise and pool resources together and acquire these needs or get help from the Bank of Agriculture or other related institutions. Conclusively, it brought to the fore the need for farmers in Kauran Mata to be trained on how to effectively utilize these technologies to achieve utmost efficiency. Keywords: postharvest, farmers, needs, priority, technologies
21 Evaluation of natural origin products for the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle artificially infested, Romo-Martneza, M
The aim of the present study was to evaluate under stable conditions, the biological efficacy of three natural products Metarhizium anisopliae, Bacillus thuringiensis and Solanum verbascifolium, sprayed on cattle artificially infested for the biological control of R. (Boophilus) microplus. The results demostrated by the number of engorged female ticks collected on 7th day post-treatment, show that the combinations of S. verbascifolium + M. anisopliae, M. anisopliae and B. thuringiensis produced the lower tick numbers with 40.50, 52.25 and 52.75 respectively. At 14 days post-treatment, the treatment with B. thuringiensis, M. anisopliae and the combination of S. verbascifolium + M. anisopliae produced the lowest engorged female numbers with 1.5, 6.25 and 6.25 respectively. At the 21 days post-treatment with B. thuringiensis, M. anisopliae, the combination of S. verbascifolium + M. anisopliae and S. verbascifolium had the lower engorged female numbers with 0.50, 0.75, 3.5 and 3.5 respectively. The treatments that produced engorged female with lower weights at the 7th day post-treatment corresponded to the combinations of S. verbascifolium + M. anisopliae, M. anisopliae and B. thuringiensis with 8.34 g, 11.13 g and 15.05 g respectively. At the 14 days post-treatment, the treatment that produced female with lower weights were B. thuringiensis, the combinations of S. verbascifolium + M. anisopliae and M. anisopliae with 0.25 g, 1.36 g and 1.61 g. At the 21 days post-treatment, the treatment with B. thuringiensis produced females with lower weight, and the combination of S. verbascifolium + M. anisopliae, M. anisopliae and S. verbascifolium produced 0.14 g, 0.27 g, 0.81 g and 1.01 g. respectively. At the 7th days post-treatment, the application of S. verbascifolium + M. anisopliae and M. anisopliae produced the lower egg mass weight with 0.81 g and 0.94 g respectively. At the 14th days post-treatment, with B. thuringiensis, the combination of S. verbascifolium + M. anisopliae and M. anisopliae were the treatments that achieved the lowest egg mass weights with 0.04 g, 0.12 g and 0.14 g respectively. At the 21 days post-treatment, B. thuringiensis, M. anisopliae, S. verbascifolium + M. anisopliae and S. verbascifolium with 0.08 g, 0.09 g, 0.33 g and 0.33 g respectively. At the 7th days post-treatment, the treatment that showed the lower egg hatch percentage were S. verbascifolium + M. anisopliae and M. anisopliae with 22.42 and 26.40% respectively. At the 14 days post-treatment the B. thuringiensis, M. anisopliae and S. verbascifolium + M. anisopliae treatments showed the lower egg hatch percentages of 0, 2.74, 7.55 and 12.40% respectively. Regarding the 21 days post-treatment, B. thuringiensis, M. anisopliae, the combination of S. verbascifolium + M. anisopliae and S. verbascifolium showed the lowest percentage of 0.44%, 2.90%, 8.75% and19.98% respectively. Values of percentage control or reproductive potential inhibition higher than 80% were achieved. For the R. (Boophilus) microplus larvae stage treated with Bacillus thuringiensis, M. anisopliae, S. verbascifolium + M. anisopliae and S. verbascifolium, the percentage of control on the reproductive potential was 99.99%, 99.46%, 98.93% and 97.84%. For the nymph stage, we found that B. thuringiensis, S. verbascifolium + M. anisopliae and M. anisopliae, produced a percentage of control of 99.99, 99.91 and 99.73% respectively. For the adult stage we observed that the treatment with S. verbascifolium + M. anisopliae and M. anisopliae, achieved a control of 99.28 and 98.17% respectively. Keywords: Cattle ticks, Biological control, Botanical extracts, In vivo tests
22 Prospects for modernization of agriculture in Sudan with an emphasis to food security, Khalid Mohammed
Sudan is among very few countries with vast recourses potentials and sparse population that could become structurally food surplus country. The total area of Sudan is about 81 million hectares (250 million acres) of which 86 million acres could easily be cultivable, which is more than half the currently cultivated acreage-base of the United States. With a total population in 2009 of about 32 millions, thus the cultivable land/man ratio is about 2.7 acre. This provided with different climatic Zones which make the production of different types of crops is possible through the year. Therefore these accompanied by different sources of water (Rivers and Rains) collectively give Sudan a comparative advantage in the field of agricultural production in general and especially in food security, (considered to be the world food basket), and hence strengthen the international competitive situation of the Sudanese agricultural products whether, the cash crops (exports) like Cotton, Gum-Arabic, Sesame, etc, or the dietary ones like wheat, Sorghum, millet, etc. But in spite of this, yet Sudan has been caught up in spiral of production constraints leading to food deficits and Suffering Problems of poverty access to food and other basic needs especially in rural areas where vulnerability and poor infrastructures are deeply rooted. Keywords: Modernization, Agricultural Performance, Food Security, Agricultural Revival, Technical packages.
23 Productivity of crossed indigenous pigeon in semi intensive system, M. Ashraful Kabir
This experiment has been done to evaluate productivity of crossed indigenous pigeon (Columba livia domestica) fed with mixed and broiler grower in pre-laying, after hatch (7 days) and above 7 days which is squab suckling phases in semi intensive cages. There are 5 couples of crossed indigenous pigeon used in this experiment, and each couple is placed in individual cages. The result indicate that the average egg production is 2 eggs/period (1.750.43), average egg weight 11 g (11.171.07), percentage of fertility was 99.420.64 and hatching rate 98.921.04, embryo mortality rate 1.170.37, interval period between two egg laying was in average 37.173.74 days. Each couple of pigeon need 40 g feed/day in pre-laying in 2 times daily, 240 g suckling stage for 3 times; these are based on the total feed consumption of mixed feed with broiler feed. Observed feed consumption there were significant differences between egg laying and hatching or suckling stage. Lowest squab weight was found at the stage of 1st week 57% (39.4319.88) and highest 91.25% (146.4310.59) at the 3rd week of age. Overall maternal ability for reproduction was observed 99.420.76 in both male and female. Keywords: Pigeons, productivity, poultry, semi intensive system
24 Practices and constraints to cabbage production in urban and peri-urban Ghana: Focus on Brong Ahafo and Ashanti Regions, Osei M. K
A survey was conducted during April-July in 2012 to assemble baseline information on farming practices and constraints to production of cabbage. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from cabbage farmers in Ashanti and Brong Ahafo regions where cabbage is intensively produced. The level of education among the respondents was low as only 10% had tertiary education. Majority of the respondents (68%) did not own the lands they cultivated thus resulting in approximately 45% of them cultivating less than one acre of cabbage crop. Majority of cabbage farmers (62%) planted cabbage on raised beds. Cabbage production in the study area was characterized by high use of inorganic fertilizer (NPK). Fifty-three percent (53%) employed the use of watering cans in cabbage production. Farmers in their quest to mitigate the high Insect pest infestation; Hellula undalis, Plutella xylostella, Brevicoryne brassicae and Zonocerus variegatus, plant parasitic nematodes infection and pathological problems such as wilting of plants, leaf curl and leaf spots resorted to high frequency of pesticides application. It is expected that the information gathered from this baseline study would form the basis for the formulation and implementation of an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy to enhance safe and environmentally sustainable production of cabbages. This would reduce environmental degradation and ensure maximum protection for humans, domestic animals and wild life. Keywords: Brassica oleracea, integrated pest management, insect pests, nematodes, synthetic pesticides
25 Prevalence of bovine mastitis, its therapeutics and control in Tatton Agriculture Park, Egerton University, Njoro District of Kenya, James Ombiro Ondiek
This study evaluated the prevalence of bovine mastitis, use of therapeutics and its control in Tatton Agriculture Park (TAP), Egerton University, Njoro District of Kenya. Egerton University is located at an altitude of 1890.0 -2190.0 M above sea level. The area experiences a temperature in the range of 14.9-21.9oC and an annual rainfall range of 850.0-1100.0 mm. The California Mastitis Testing (CMT) kit was used to identify presence of sub clinical infection. Causative agents were investigated through culture and identification then subjected to commonly used antimicrobials to determine their sensitivity. Milk from 41 lactating cows (Friesian and Ayrshire) were randomly sampled. Of all the samples 34.1% were CMT positive for sub-clinical mastitis while 82.9% yielded bacterial growths. When cultured, 21.4% of the CMT positive were without growths while 85.2% of the CMT negative yielded bacterial growths. The most prevalent bacterial species were Staphylococcus aureus (58.8%). The study showed that the causative organisms were most sensitive to augumentin, gentamycin and cortrimaxazole while resistant to cotroxin. There was 82.9% mastitis prevalence. The CMT reagent may not fully detect sub-clinical mastitis thus further diagnosis by bacteriological tests may increase accuracy. It is concluded that the Staphylococcus species were the most prevalent and augumentin, gentamycin and cortrimaxazole were more effective in the treatment and therefore are the drugs of choice. Keywords: Antibiotics, California Mastitis Testing Kit, Dairy cows, Sub-clinical mastitis.
26 Feed intake, digestibility and performance of growing small East African goats offered maize (Zea mays) stover supplemented with Balanites aegyptiaca and Acacia tortilis leaf forages, James Ombiro Ondiek
Small East African entire male goats aged 7 months and 120.4kg were used to assess the effect of supplementing B. aegyptiaca and A. tortilis to maize stover on dry matter intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, average daily gain and rumen parameters, using three diets: maize stover and mineral salt (control); control plus B. aegyptiaca and control plus A. tortilis, in a completely randomized design with eight animals per treatment. The crude protein was 46, 117 and 137g/kg DM for stover, B. aegyptiaca and A. tortilis, respectively. Intake of stover (294, 298 and 302g/d) was similar (P>0.05) across the treatments, but supplementation significantly increased (P
27 Switchgrass response to nitrogen and phosphorus during first growth after seeding, Rocky Lemusa, David J Parrish, Dale D Wolf
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a high-yielding, native perennial that could serve as a biofuels feedstock. The objectives of this research were to establish switchgrass responses to N and P under well-defined, soilless conditions and to measure its fertilizer recovery. Cave-in-Rock switchgrass was grown from seed in the greenhouse in a 2:1 (v/v) vermiculite:perlite substrate. Treatments (nine rates of N up to 400 kg N ha-1 and four rates of P up to 90 kg ha-1) were replicated three times in a randomized complete block design. In a second study, treatments from two N sources (ammonium sulfate and urea) were applied at rates up to 270 kg N ha-1. In both studies, plants were harvested 12 wk after germination, dried, weighed, and analyzed for tissue N and P concentrations. Shoot biomass increased with N fertilization up to 210 kg N ha-1. In these pot studies, root biomass increased with N only to 100 kg N ha-1. No significant effect above 30 kg P ha-1 was observed in shoot or root biomass. Biomass and tiller number were highly correlated. Increases in tillers plant-1 were observed up to 116 kg N ha-1. Shoot and root N concentrations generally increased with fertilization. Ammonium sulfate had a greater effect than urea on shoot and root biomass. In field studies found in the literature, maximum yields have been obtained with as little as 50 kg added N ha-1 to as much 744 kg N ha-1.These data suggest switchgrass can maximize biomass production with ~200 kg available N ha-1. Keywords: biomass; native grasses; feedstock; nutrient management; fertilizer use efficiency; Panicum virgatum L.
28 Agricultural water reforms versus climate changes, Karim MH (Karim Koshteh)
Water reform policy in many countries, which their economy mostly based on agricultural sector, is main preconditions for sustainable agricultural economic development. Since water is an important input in all economic sectors and particularly in agriculture, climate changes and water scarcity are more important to be considered in this millennium. Providing sufficient water for various uses is one of the main problems that most Developing Countries involved. Agricultural Water-reforms are vital while the multi-oriented issue of sustainability is of interest as well. The pros and cons of climate changes due to global warming and water-reform policy are discussed in this project. Keywords: Climate change, Agriculture, Water reforms, Sustainable development
29 Assessing of morph-physiological traits in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea schreb.) germplasms, Seyyed Mohsen Niazkhani, Bahram Maleki Zanjani, Mohammad Zeynali, Soheila Ahmadpour, Ali Reza Eivazi
Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea schreb.) is one of the important perennial grasses for creating and maintaining of pastures as well as harvesting wet matter forms. In order to evaluate of morphphysiological characteristics and selection of superior accessions in tall fescue on 36 accessions a lattice square design with three replications was carried out in agricultural and natural resources research centre of Zanjan province. Result analysis of variance showed that different types of tall fescue had significant differences in wet and dry forage yield, heading and flowering dates, panicle length, 1000-grain weight and seed maturity. Accessions of 6000-71 (Borujen-Iran origin) and 1061 (Belgium origin) had the most wet matter. In contrast 6000-70 (Borujen-Iran origin) was the lowest value. Moreover, 078 (California origin) had the highest and 6000-71 (Borujen-Iran origin), VIII (Russia origin), Sabalan (Ardabil origin) had the lowest total dry matter. Phonotypical correlation coefficient showed significant positive correlation between flowering date with heading date, date of seed maturity (r=0.618**), (r=0.456*), respectively, and between wet and dry forage yield (r=0.437*). Wet forage yield (0.437) and panicle length (0.217) had the most direct and positive effects on dry forage yield. In opposite, plant height had lower direct and positive effect (0.051). Therefore, selection based on wet forage yield and panicle length is recommended for increasing dry forage yield. Cluster analysis characterized accessions in three groups. At first group accessions located with high plant height but moderate wet and dry forage yield. Accessions with least wet, dry forage yield and panicle length settled in the second group. Third group had higher wet and dry forage yield and moderate panicle length. Keywords: Genetic variation, Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Multivariate analysis
30 Decreasing of biodiversity of fish populations from the Sava River in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Zlatko Nedi?, Selma Begovi?, Mustafa Dogan, Elvira Hadiahmetovi? Jurida, Jasmin Ferizbegovi?, Rifet Terzi?
The Sava River is one of the largest watercourses in Bosnia and Herzegovina, but unfortunately, unexplored enough in biology sense. The present study was conducted in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina during summer and autumn of 2013. The aim was to reveal, whether the number of fish species decreases or increases. A total of 120 fish individuals were collected represented 15 species from six fish families, i.e., Cyprinidae (Abramis brama, Cyprinus carpio, Squalius cephalus, Carassius gibelio, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Scardinius erythrophthalmus, Alburnus alburnus, Leuciscus aspius, Vimba vimba); Percidae (Perca fluviatilis and Sander lucioperca); Siluridae (Silurus glanis); Ameiuridae (Ameiurus nebulosus); Esocidae (Esox lucius) and Gobiidae (Neogobius fluviatilis).It was supposed that number of fish species decreasing in last 20 years for two following reasons; non implementation of Environmental laws and negative impact of anthropogenic factor. Keywords: the Sava River, ichthyofauna, fish biodiversity, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Posavina canton.
31 Computational outlook of alpha amylase (PDB: 1VJS) and investigation by Gyration Radius and Ramachandran Plot, Z. Eslamifar
The ?-amylases have required for the break of starch into oligosaccharides and have studied extensively from various sides. Thermo stable ?-amylases have a key role in industrial hydrolysis of starch because starch has the most solubility at high temperatures. The temperature effects on the structure and the activity of enzymes have improved. In this research, we studied the temperature effects on the relative stability energy of bacillus licheniformis ?-amylase (PDB: 1VJS) by molecular dynamics, monte carlo and langevin dynamics simulations. All this calculations carried out by Hyperchem 8.0 software. Then the quantities such as gyration radius and ramachandran plot surveyed for investigation on simulated enzyme. Gyration radius and ramachandran plot studied by VMD 1.9.1 program. The results obtained from this research showed when the temperature increased, all kinetic, potential and total energies increased and it showed the stability temperature of molecule. We showed in three dimensional structure of simulated enzyme by langevin dynamics (MM+) at 400K, catalytic site amino acids were in allowed limits of ramachandran plot hence improved that simulation of this alpha amylase by Langevin dynamics (MM+) is the best. Thus the survey of ramachandran plot confirmed that simulated enzyme by Langevin Dynamics (MM+) has suitable configuration at 400K. Keywords: Thermo Stability, gyration radius, ramachandran plot, molecular dynamics, Langevin Dynamics, Monte Carlo, MM +, OPLS, bacillus Licheniformis alpha amylase.
32 The use of some bio-fertilizers as sources of soil amendment for sweet potato (Ipomea batatas) production, Ofoefule A.U., Eze S.C., Ibeto C.N and Onah R. N
Field experiments were conducted during the 2009 and 2010 cropping seasons to evaluate different bio-fertilizers from dried effluent sludge obtained from biogas digestion of some organic wastes. The bio-fertilizers were used as soil amendments for sweet potato (Ipomea batatas (L) Lam) production. The treatments were paper waste alone (PW-A), paper waste plus cow dung (PW+CD), plantain peel plus cow dung (PP+CD), plantain peel plus swine dung (PP+SD), poultry manure (PM), NPK fertilizer and no-treatment control, while the sweet potato variety was Tis 2532-0P-1.13. The experiments were set up in the same location but different fields for the two years. The design was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications per trial, while necessary husbandry practices were carried out. Each field was harvested after 5 months of planting. Data were collected on number of leaves and main branches 8 weeks after planting, while data on tuber/stand and tuber yield in kg/ha were collected at harvest. Statistical analysis was carried out by one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results obtained showed that for the 2009 cropping year, the highest and significant tuber yields were obtained with paper waste alone (14.17 kg/ha) and poultry manure (14.10 kg/ha) soil amendment while lowest tuber yield was recorded with paper waste combined with cow dung (9.80 kg/ha). In 2010, paper waste alone and paper plus cow dung amended soil gave the highest tuber yield (25.10 kg/ha) while plantain peel combined with swine dung recorded the lowest tuber yield (18.36 kg/ha). General results indicate that biogas effluents (bio-fertilizers) are very good soil amenders and paper waste which does not have much regards as a waste would serve as a veritable source of bio-fertilizer. Keywords: Biogas, waste effluent, sweet potato, bio-fertilizers, tuber yield
33 Switchgrass response to nitrogen and phosphorus during first growth after seeding, Rocky Lemus, David J Parrish, Dale D Wolf
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a high-yielding, native perennial that could serve as a biofuels feedstock. The objectives of this research were to establish switchgrass responses to N and P under well-defined, soilless conditions and to measure its fertilizer recovery. Cave-in-Rock switchgrass was grown from seed in the greenhouse in a 2:1 (v/v) vermiculite:perlite substrate. Treatments (nine rates of N up to 400 kg N ha-1 and four rates of P up to 90 kg ha-1) were replicated three times in a randomized complete block design. In a second study, treatments from two N sources (ammonium sulfate and urea) were applied at rates up to 270 kg N ha-1. In both studies, plants were harvested 12 wk after germination, dried, weighed, and analyzed for tissue N and P concentrations. Shoot biomass increased with N fertilization up to 210 kg N ha-1. In these pot studies, root biomass increased with N only to 100 kg N ha-1. No significant effect above 30 kg P ha-1 was observed in shoot or root biomass. Biomass and tiller number were highly correlated. Increases in tillers plant-1 were observed up to 116 kg N ha-1. Shoot and root N concentrations generally increased with fertilization. Ammonium sulfate had a greater effect than urea on shoot and root biomass. In field studies found in the literature, maximum yields have been obtained with as little as 50 kg added N ha-1 to as much 744 kg N ha-1.These data suggest switchgrass can maximize biomass production with ~200 kg available N ha-1. Keywords: biomass; native grasses; feedstock; nutrient management; fertilizer use efficiency; Panicum virgatum L.
34 Malnourishment status of childbearing families in Coastal Area of Sindh Province, Saghir Ahmed Sheikh, Muhammad Ismail Kumbhar, Aasia Akber Panhwar
Malnourishment amongst male and female children including their mothers leading to enhanced mortalities has been a global issue but more so, in developing countries. The study was embarked upon to determine the prevalence of malnutrition in terms of wasting, stunting and underweight among the children under the age of 5 years was found coastal district of Sindh province of Pakistan. The findings of present study reflected that malnourishment is principal factor which must be addressed and controlled in the given socio-economic environment by suggesting way and means by health policy makers through appropriate measures like counseling about breastfeeding, birth interval and proper ways of weaning of their children. It is recommended that community based nutrition trainings and seminars must be conducted in various villages throughout Sindh province of Pakistan in order to reduce malnourishment leading to malnutrition in rural children at least among children of 5 years or less. Keywords: Malnutrition, Children, Families, Mortality, Nourishment.
35 Sterile triploid plant induction through artificial crossing (Gossypium. hirsutum x G. arboretum) and GA3 in cotton, Ali Jafari Mofidabadi
In order to establish a reliable genetic broadening system in cotton, artificial crossing have been made between wild type cotton species (2x) and tetraploid (4x) commercial cotton varieties in two direction. 100 ppm giberlic acetic acid was used to prevent pollinated flower abscission for seven days after pollination. 3, 30 and 45 days old embryo have been isolated and transferred to MS medium supplemented with 30 g/l sucrose and 0.5 mg/l BA growth hormone regulator. Highly significant differences have been observed between control and hormone growth regulator for hybrid boll setting at ?=0.05 level using Chi-square test. In spite of a few boll developments, in control treatment, no seed was observed after 45 DAP (Day after pollination). Analysis of collected data showed that there was a significant difference between crosses for boll development at ?=0.05 level through Chi-square test. There was significant differences between diploid (25%) and tatraploid (43.5%) female parents for boll setting when used as female parent in crosses at ?=0.05 level. Maximum boll development (64%) has been observed in Sephid as atetraploid with Hashem Abad (2x) when treated with 100 ppm GA3 after 45 DAP. The seeds were not as well developed as those from the self pollinated female parents. The sterile triploid hybrid plant showed more vigorous than either parent. Keyword: G. hirsutum, G. arboretum, gibberellic acetic acid (GA3), Diploid, Tetraploid and Hybridization
36 Possibility of reducing harvesting time in sugarcane using bioactivators, Netsanet Ayele, Alemayehu Dengia, Abiy Getaneh, Leul Mengistu and Zinaw Dilnesaw
Over the last 50 years, the sugarcane yield at Wonji-Shoa Sugar Estate showed a declining trend. To mitigate the problem the use of bioactivators could play a role. Therefore, studies on the effect of three fertilizer rates (0, 100 and 200 kg ha-1) and two types of bioactivators (Agrostemin applied in furrows at 30 gm ha-1 and Crops foliar applied at 30 ml ha-1) as well as untreated (no bioactivator) treatments were investigated to determine the effect on early growth, yield and quality of sugarcane variety NCo334. The experiment was carried out at Wonji-Shoa on clay loam textured soil in a factorial RCBD design using four replications. Analysis of variance revealed that in sucrose percent cane, the sole application treatments 100 kg ha-1 urea, 200 kg ha-1 urea and the treatment that didnt receive either urea or bioactivator gave significantly (p
37 Smallholders and their livestock production conditions in the Central region of Cte dIvoire, Didier Paulin Sokouri, Ngoran Etienne Loukou, Chia Valentine Yapi-Gnaore, Brahima Soro, Assanvo Simon Pierre Nguetta
This study aims to determine the characteristics of farming practices in the Central Region of Cte d'Ivoire. So, the survey consisted of collecting information using a questionnaire. Sampling covered 599 farmers of which 71 were sampled in Bouak, 149 in Boumi 120 in Dabakala, 110 in Katiola and 149 in Sakassou. The study revealed that farmers are mostly male. Only, 1 5% of them have attended modern school at the primary level and 18% have attended secondary school of general education. Agriculture is the main activity in 8 1% of cases. Five main types of cattle are owned; NDama (11 % of farmers), Baoul (39 %), zebu (6.5 %), Mr (20.5 %). On average, 45 % of farmers claimed that they practiced crossbreeding mixing local breeds (Baoul and NDama) with Sahelian zebu breeds to reach their production targets (meat, milk). Furthermore, the animals do not benefit enough control program and vaccination. Farmers do not seek or technical supervision or veterinary assistance. The animals are generally used for the payment of dowries or slaughtered during animist ritual ceremonies, especially funerals. Obviously, farmers estimate that revenues from livestock products are not important and do not bring satisfaction. Keywords: analysis, smallholder, socioeconomics, herd management
38 Grey water treatment by slanted soil system under real conditions in rural area, H. Amadou, Y. Maiga, M. Sou/Dakoure, A. Abdou, A. H. Maiga
The Performance of the slanted soil for grey water was evaluated in light of required water quality of irrigation reuse. This study aimed to assess the treatment performance of grey water system by slanted soil and check the possibility of reuse this water treated in irrigation. The greywater was collected every week in two pilot families in Kologondiss village. The levy was made at the input and output of grey water in the treatment system and the storage tank points. Samples were submitted to physicochemical and microbiological analysis. Following changes to the treatment system, it is expected a strong improvement of purifying performance of this system. The results of this survey showed a very good purification performance of organic matters up to 89.78% for suspended solids (SS), 86.75% for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 87% for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). Regarding the reduction of bacterial pollution, the obtained results are greater to those of previous studies with 2.48 log, 3.33 log and 1.99 log respectively for E. coli, coliforms and enterococci. These results are slightly higher than the standards of reuse in irrigation. Keywords: Grey water, Performance, Slanted soil, Treatment
39 Biocidal and repellent effect of Saccharopolyspora spinosa and Nerium oleander extract against stored product pests, Abdul Khaliq, Mudassar Javed, Muhammad Hannan Ahmad, Muhammad Yasir, Muhammad Sagheer and Mansoor-ul-Hasan
Among stored grain insect pests, Trogoderma granarium and Rhyzopertha dominica are serious threat to stored commodities in under developed countries. Objective of studies was a step towards eco friendly management with plant derived chemicals along with synthetic insecticides for mortality and repellent action against T. granarium and R. dominica. Significant (p> 0.05) individual effect of both was recorded especially Spinosad caused high mortality (78.88%) in Khapra beetle at 15% concentration as compared to lesser grain borer (60.11%) but no combine effect of both insecticides was evaluated. Mortality due to Plant extract was high (50.36%) in R.dominica and low (48.66%) against T. granarium proving less effective as compared to synthetic insecticide. Keywords: Trogoderma granarium, Rhyzopertha dominica, mortality, repellency, insecticide
40 Developing sustainable agro-ecosystems on some rice Plains of the Western Highlands of Cameroon, Zephania Nji Fogwe
The sustainability of traditional farming systems in parts of Africa is threatened by losses in the variety of species, reduction in land, forest, soil and water resources under demographic pressure. Together with foreign influences these farming system are no longer in equilibrium with local culture and ecology so disintegrate due to the lack of local capacity to adjust to these changes. This has led to environmental degradation. The paper employs a combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques to: analyse the farming systems, assess the effect of cropping intensification on the climatic climax vegetation, and to establish the post-cultivation vegetation successions in fallows. It reports four crop fallow rotations: crop 3 years with 1 year bush fallow, crop 5 years with 1-2 year bush fallow, crop 10 years with 1-3 year bush fallow and continuous cropping. The post-cultivation successions present a plagioclimax dominated by Hyparhenia species with scattered shrubs maintained by cycles of cultivation and burning. The paper concludes that these shifting cultivation cycles involving cropping intensification and post cultivation savannization have deprived the farming system of its ecological benefits, that is, nutrient recycling through a long and mature fallow. The inability of the vegetation to reconstitute itself requires the development of farming systems that combine trees and crops in the field because of proven micro-ecological and ecological benefits. The paper therefore identifies the scope for the development of socially, economically and ecologically sustainable agro-ecosystems as a development path for shifting cultivation systems. Keywords: agro-ecosystem, environmental degradation, cropping intensity, post-cultivation, vegetation successions
41 Impact of pretreatments and magnetized water application on seeds of Acacia nilotica and Albizia saman, Maaz Maqsood Hashmi, Kanwal Waqar, Saqib Shakeel Abbasi, Umar Aftab Abbasi, Khizra Gul
In view of the carbon sequestration potential of Albizia saman, commonly known as Trembesi tree. Increase in land cover and carbon trading were key objectives. Seeds of trembesi tree were tested for viability and sustainability for sub-tropical broad leave evergreen forest environment of Pakistan in comparison with Acacia nilotica. The seeds were applied pretreatments to enhance the growing process and testing of the viability in the respective environment. Secondly the effect of magnetic water was also recorded. Both the species were given similar treatment and growing environment. Acid scarification method (conc.H2SO4) and controlled treatments were applied to both the species. The observed results were not much deviated from each other. However the Acacia nilotica was evaluated more susceptible than that of the trembesi tree. Keywords: Albizia saman, Acacia nilotica, seed pretreatments, magnetic water, germination.
42 An overview of agricultural policy for pro-poor growth and its interaction with environmental resources in Nigeria, Abdullahi Hussaini
The Nigerian agricultural sector has improved in the recent years. But this improvement needs to be sustained to achieve the development target set for the sector. The growth pattern must be pro-poor, gender sensitive and environmentally friendly. The agricultural sector also needs to diversify its activities to high value production. This will not come automatically. Policies and strategies are needed to improve farmers access to technologies, credit, markets, and information and to encourage private sector investment in processing and marketing business. Improve governance, equitable and well functioning markets, supplies of essential inputs such as seeds and fertilizer, access to sustainable technologies and absence of conflict are likely to make Nigerian agriculture flourish. Agricultural policies must be carefully designed to prevent overlapping organizational roles and responsibilities. The need to have an agricultural system that is pro-poor and having all the ingredients for environmental sustainability calls for this overview. Keywords: Agriculture, Pro-poor, Environment, Sustainability
43 Ochratoxins - A review, S.O Fapohunda, Negedu, A, Okeke, O.F.I, Fapohunda, T, Wahab and Okeke, F
The economic and health implications of ochratoxin contamination are discussed together with efforts by various bodies to set standards and ensure compliance. Occurrence on African crops, detection techniques and management systems are highlighted. This mycotoxin produces diverse morbidities in animals and man It also compromises export value of crops. Good agricultural and manufacturing practices still hold the promise for an effective ochratoxin control in store, home and industry. The need to set and ensure compliance with standard on OTA in crops and livestock is highlighted. This could also come only after a credible country wide assessment on ochratoxin is carried out and an Africa Union attention centred on it Keywords: Ochratoxin, food, man, livestock. morbidities
44 Assessment of insecticidal potential of medicinal plant extracts for control of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamaismotschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Abdul Khaliq, Asmat Nawaz, Muhammad Hannan Ahmad, Muhammad Sagheer
Biocidal potential of three plant extracts as Chicorium intybus L. (Kasni), Terminalia chebula L. (Harror) and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Malthi) was probed under laboratory conditions against Maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. Bioassay for the toxicity was assessed at diverse exposure time (24, 48 and 72 hours) and concentrations (5, 10 and 15%). Results depicted that utmost mortality was from C. intybus (89.09%) and T. chebula (81.81%) at 15% concentration while at same level minimum effect was recorded for G. glabra (60.1%) after 72 hours. C. intybus exemplified extra potential against weevil death with the passage of time. Present research indicates that further experiments of these plants for commercial use can be helpful in management of S. zeamais. Keywords: S. zeamais, Chicorium intybus, Mortality, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Terminalia chebula
45 Fungicide seed treatment and host resistance for the management of wheat crown rot caused by Fusarium culmorum), Shree R Pariyar, Abdelfattah A Dababat, Julie M Nicol, Gul Erginbas-Orakci, Melanie B Goll, Clifford Watrin, Etienne Duveiller, Hans J Braun, Richard Sikora
Seed treatment of wheat with the fungicide thiabendazole on the development of crown rot caused by Fusarium culmorum was evaluated on six wheat genotypes with different genetic sources of resistance under controlled conditions in a growth chamber. Seed of three susceptible (S) cultivars, Seri 82 (Spring bread wheat), Kiziltan 91 (Winter durum Wheat), and Demir 2000 (Winter bread wheat) and three moderately resistant (MR) wheat lines, 2-49 (Spring bread wheat), Altay 2000 (Winter bread wheat), and Burbot-6 (Winter bread wheat) were treated with thiabendazole at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 g ai per 100 kg seeds. Thiabendazole seed treatment caused a significant (P< 0.05) reduction in severity of crown rot on 4 out of the 6 wheat genotypes. The highest crown score reduction was recorded on S genotypes Seri 82 and Demir 2000. Thiabendazole at 100 g ai per 100 kg seed gave the highest CS reduction on both the S and MR wheat genotypes. Seed coating with thiabendazole did not show any effect on plant height, plant weight, root length and root weight. No phytotoxicity symptoms were observed at any concentration of the fungicide. Keywords: Fusarium crown rot, resistant, susceptible, thiabendazole, wheat genotype
46 Traditional cattle production in the highlands of Hararge: Case study for East and West Zones of the high lands of Harerge, Eastern Ethiopia, Estefanos Tadesse, Tesfaye A. Tucho, Feyisa Hundesa, Gashaye Weldu, Tatek Weldu, Tesfaye K Balay and Osho Tibesso
The survey was conducted to characterize cattle production system in two zones of Harerge high lands eastern Ethiopia. In the survey structured questionnaire was used to collect from 120 households. Purposive sampling was employed to select the farmers. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and index ranking. Result indicated that household head, the whole family and household head with spouse respectively, were ranked as the owner of the cattle in the household. The most common feed resource was crop residue and the most common management system was tethering. Means of acquiring ranked for cow and bull were Purchase, birth within the herd and inheritance, and birth within the herd, purchase and inheritance respectively. Income generation, draft power and manure production for bull and food (milk production for house consumption), milk yield merit of the cow and manure production for cow were ranked purpose of keeping the cattle in the study area in decreasing order of importance. Age at first mating and calving for heifers was 400.94 and 5159 months respectively. Wet season was mentioned as the major breeding season for cattle in the area. Criteria for culling cattle in three rank equally first rank comprised old age and poor temperament the second rank was poor health and third rank was small body size Major constraints to cattle production were shrinkage of grazing land (62.4%), feed shortage (15.8%) and low productivity of the local cattle (7.5%).While the opportunities were presence of different locally recognized breed of cattle and the traditional management practice result in unique beef production famous in the local market. Keywords: Breeding season, cattle feeding, constraints, herd dynamics, opportunities
47 Simultaneous layout and pipe size optimization of pressurized irrigation networks, R. Rajabpour, Naser Talebbeydokhti
The layout of irrigation water distribution networks is usually branched. In most of the previous studies pipe sizes of the network had been optimized assuming a predetermined layout of the distribution system. However, only few researches have focused on the simultaneous layout and pipe size optimization. In this study a hybrid approach is adapted for simultaneous layout and pipe size optimization of branched pipe networks as a cost minimization problem. This new approach is based on combination of a pipe size optimizer (LIDM) with a layout optimizer for joint layout and pipe size optimization. At each iteration, the layout optimizer algorithm acts as an outer loop and LIDM acts as an inner loop. Once all the solutions are developed (each solution is a specific layout), LIDM can be used to optimize pipe sizes of each developed branched layout (solution). Then solution costs can be calculated and according to them, layout optimizer rearranges the solutions and the process continues. Two different approaches are used for layout optimization. At the First approach by using the loop model each branched layout is encoded as a string of eliminating links and a Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization for combinatorial optimization, called JPSO is applied to select the best sting of eliminating links. To avoid the problems associated with the Loop Model, at the second approach instead of coding the solutions into strings, an especial form of Genetic Algorithm which includes a tree growing algorithm within its reproduction phase is used as the layout optimizer. Proposed methods are applied for simultaneous layout and pipe size optimization of a small benchmark example in the literature and the results are presented and compared to the existing results. The results showed that the developed methods have significant advantages compared to other methods used. Afterwards, another example is considered to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed Genetic Algorithm for layout and size optimization of real-world networks. Keywords: distribution networks; Optimization; branched layout; JPSO; Genetic Algorithm; Hybrid approach
48 Fertilizer N- and P-rates Response on sunflower intercropping with Mungbean in North-West, Pakistan, Murad Ali Khan, Mohammad Akmal and M. Afzal
Intercrop mungbean in sunflower may increase yield, improve soil quality and use the resources (e.g. air, water and light) more efficiently. We, therefore, compared mungbean intercropped in sunflower by increasing N and P fertilizer rates. The given fertilizers rates were 30, 60, 90 kg ha-1 each for N and P2O5 including a control treatment (no N and P fertilizer) as sole sunflower, mungbean and their intercropping in spring 2011 and 2012. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan. Results revealed that grain yield (kg ha-1) of sunflower crop did not differ as sole or intercrop but did reported higher for mungbean as sole than intercrop which were due to healthier traits of the mungbean crop as sole than intercrop. Fertilized than control obviously showed better yield and yield traits of both sunflower and mungbean. Increased N-rates from 30 to 90 kg ha-1 showed a significant (p
49 Ectoparasitic crustaceans are not responsible for decreasing of fish populations from the Sava River, Zlatko Nedi?, Rifet Terzi?, Isat Skenderovi?, Avdul Adrovi?, Elvira Hadiahmetovi? Jurida, Mato ivkovi?, Jasmin Ferizbegovi?
The Sava River is one of the most important hydro-ecosystem in Bosnia and Herzegovina because it is very heterogeneous in biological sense. The present study was conducted in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina (Posavina region) during summer and autumn of 2013. Primary aim was to reveal which ectoparasitic crustaceans parasitize on fish from the Sava River and for that purpose total of 120 fish individuals were collected and analyzed. Study showed that sampled fish individuals belong to six fish families: Cyprinidae, Percidae, Siluridae, Ameiuridae, Esocidae and Gobiidae. Study also showed the presence of two ectoparasitic crustacean species: Argulus foliaceus and Ergasilus sieboldi. Second aim was to find out what kind of consequences can occur on infected fish individuals and if the ectoparasitic crustaceans are responsible for decreasing of fish populations. Keywords: Sava River, Bosnia and Herzegovina, ectoparasitic crustaceans, Posavina.
50 Effect of density of Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Loureiro) W. Clayton (Poaceae) on the performance of grain maize in MBahiakro (East-central Cte dIvoire), Kouakou Nanan. Joseph, Ipou Ipou Joseph, Toure Awa, Adou Lydie, Kouame Kra Frderic
The present study aims to determine the density of Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Loureiro) W.Clayton that may influence the production of maize in order to help define technical pathways for the control of this species. Ten density levels ranging from 1 to 10 feet of Rottboellia cochinchinensis around a pocket / parcel of maize were tested; which is 8-80 feet of R. cochinchinensis per plot area of 4 m2 (2-20 feet / m2). The experimental design is a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications and 44 samples. The average reduction in corn yield of R. cochinchinensis is of the order of 44.41% on average, with a minimum of 22.61% for treatment of a plant of R. cochinchinensis and a maximum of 89.28% for treatment of 10 plants of R. cochinchinensis. The tolerant density can be estimated at 2 R. cochinchinensis plants per square meter. Beyond this critical value, we note an early interference between plants of the weed and of the maize from the third week. This study demonstrates that the presence of the weed affects the maize yield. Thus, the best yields were obtained from the plots without R. cochinchinensis. The yield of grain corn decreases with increasing density of R. cochinchinensis. Plots with low densities of R. cochinchinensis produced more maize compared those with high densities. These results can help improve the technical pathways with respect to weed control of fields that are densely populated by R. cochinchinensis. Keywords: Cte dIvoire, Rottboellia cochinchinensis, influence, maize grain yield
51 Proficient physiognomies and herbage of blue panic grass (Panicum Antidotale) at variable clipping intensities, Mazhar Habib, Maaz Maqsood Hashmi, Umar Aftab Abbasi
Pakistan is an agriculture based country and a major portion of it falls under rangelands. Presently these rangelands are desecrated continuously because of high human impact. Contemporary necessity is to restore the forage potential by enhancing the efficacy of forage species in rangelands. A study on Blue panic grass (Panicum antidotale Retz.) was conducted.Stubbles of this grass was grown at NARC, Pakistan. Four clipping stages i.e. D1, D2, D3 and D4 (clipped after 20, 40, 60 and 80days, respectively) were studied. The response variables were morphological characters (plant height, tiller density and herbage yield) of Blue panic grass. With the increase in clipping stage the plant height and number of tillersin the grass increased (P
52 The best methods of control sarcoptic mange infested cattle, sheep and rabbit farms, Abd El-Aleem Saad Soliman Desoky
This paper studied to identify the best method to control scabies for animals, cattle, sheep and rabbits. Ivermectin Injection method is considered under the skin of the animal accompanied by anti-surface of the animal body, such as the use of Tincture iodine or sulfur ointment or spray a pesticide recommended is the best method to kill scabies in animals where control is internal and external at the same time. Keywords: anti-surface; Ivermectin Injection; scabies; sulfur ointment ; Tincture iodine
53 Gamma radiation and sodium azide influence on physiological aspects of maize under drought condition, Nahla Hamideldin, Noha Eid Eliwa
Grains of pure strain Giza 4 (G4) of Maize (Zea mays L.) were treated with gamma irradiation ) 60Gy) or sodium azide (0.001M) before sowing and evaluated under normal and drought condition, some physiological parameters were studied. The drought stress increased proline, amino acid and phenols content also the ratio of Ca, Mg and K increased. The gamma irradiation recovers the drought stress by increasing the total pigment and amino acid content. Proline and total phenols contents were decreased. Also, the ratio of Ca, Fe and K decreased as well .Sodium azide less effective in drought stress recovering it increased the total pigment and amino acid content but decreased proline and total phenols content. Also, the ratio of Ca, Fe, and Na increased but the ratio of K and Mg decreased. The Peroxidase, Malate dehydrogenase, Alkohol dehydrogenase isozyme electrophoresis showed appearance and disappearance of some bands under drought, gamma irradiation or sodium azide effect. These bands can be used as molecular marker. Keywords: Drought, gamma radiation, maize plant, physiological analysis, sodium azide.
54 Seedbed preparation time and weeding intervals and their response on maize yield and traits in KP-Pakistan, Shahid Ali, Mohammad Akmal and Muhammad Afzal
Under uniform nutrients, irrigation and density, optimum timing of seedbed preparation and weeds control is highly important in tropics and subtropics for maximum productivity. The response of plowing time (dawn, noon and dusk) for seedbed preparation with appropriate weeding intervals (2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks) on maize (Zea mays L.) yield performance was observed at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan during summer 2006. Experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design, split plot arrangements in four replications. Plowing time was assigned as main plot and weeding interval as subplot treatments including a control as no weeding. Fertilizer was applied as single application during seedbed (N = 120 and P2O5 = 50 kg ha-1) from Urea and Single Super Phosphate (SSP) sources. Results revealed higher (p
55 Extraction, identification and quantitative HPLC analysis of flavonoids from fruit extracts of Arbutus unedo L. from Tiaret area (Western Algeria), Khadidja Bouzid1, Fouzia Toumi Benali, Rabah Chadli, Mohamed Bouzouina, Aman Bouzid, Amal Benchohra, Mustapha Mahmoud Dif, Samia Bouzid
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the total phenolic, flavonoid content and to investigate the antioxidant capacities of the fruit extracts of Arbutus unedo L. that grows in Tiaret area (Western Algeria). First we have extracted the fruit by some non-polar solvent (chloroform, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol). Total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were evaluated according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure, and a colorimetric method, respectively. Extracts content was determined by using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV method. The total phenolic contents of A.unedo L. varied between 12.750.06 to 34.171.36 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of dry weight of extract. The total flavonoid varied from 2.180.10 to 6.541.14 mg catechin equivalent/g. The antioxidant potential of all extracts was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity, the IC50 of acetate ethyl was the best by 0,009 mg/ml may due to the phenolic compound. The antioxidant activity of all extracts was better than ascorbic acid. The extract obtained under optimum conditions was analyzed by HPLC and five flavonoid compounds were identified; they are catechin, apiginin, silybin, fisetine and naringin. Keywords: antioxidant activity, Arbutus unedo L., fruit, flavonoids, phenols, HPLC, Western Algeria.
56 Determinants of farm households graduation from productive safety net program (PSNP) in Emba Alage District, Northern Ethiopia, Berihun Kassa Hailu* and Hayalu Godefey Seyoum
To trim down food insecurity and poverty in Ethiopia in general and in Tigray region in particular, as a program, PSNP has long been in place basically widening its intervention among the chronically food insecure areas and households. In doing so, graduating the targeted households was the central pattern of the program. Unfortunately almost half of the program beneficiaries were non-graduates. As a result of this, this research paper has aimed at examining the determinants of graduation. Primary data basically cross sectional data was collected through semi-structured questionnaire administered on 246 randomly selected beneficiary households. For data analysis purpose, descriptive statistics and econometric models particularly binary logistic regression model were employed. The regression results revealed that gender, irrigation use, access to credit, total crop production and targeting mechanism were found to have positive and statistically significant relationship with the level and likelihood of graduation; while occurrence of natural calamities particularly drought and number of dependents carried a negative and statistically significant association with the level and likelihood of graduation. It is recommended, therefore, that irrigation practices coupled with the introduction of drip irrigation need to be facilitated and smallholder farmers need to be motivated to participate in some other non-farm income generating activities that should be supported by credit access be it formal or informal basically that could serve as a startup capital. Keywords: PSNP, Graduation, Logit Emba Alage, Tigray, Ethiopia
57 Fertilizer N- and P-rates Response on sunflower intercropping with Mungbean in North-West, Pakistan, Murad Ali Khan, Mohammad Akmal and M. Afzal
Intercrop mungbean in sunflower may increase yield, improve soil quality and use the resources (e.g. air, water and light) more efficiently. We, therefore, compared mungbean intercropped in sunflower by increasing N and P fertilizer rates. The given fertilizers rates were 30, 60, 90 kg ha-1 each for N and P2O5 including a control treatment (no N and P fertilizer) as sole sunflower, mungbean and their intercropping in spring 2011 and 2012. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement at Agronomy Research Farm, the University of Agriculture Peshawar, Pakistan. Results revealed that grain yield (kg ha-1) of sunflower crop did not differ as sole or intercrop but did reported higher for mungbean as sole than intercrop which were due to healthier traits of the mungbean crop as sole than intercrop. Fertilized than control obviously showed better yield and yield traits of both sunflower and mungbean. Increased N-rates from 30 to 90 kg ha-1 showed a significant (p
58 Responses of zygotic embryos of galbanum (Ferulagummosa Boiss.) in in vitro conditions, Najmeh Hadi, Reza Omidbaigi, Ahmad Moieni
Galbanum (Ferula gummosa) is a valuable medicinal-industrial plant native to Iran which is at risk of extinction due to irregular and overharvesting from natural habitats. The objective of the study was to investigate the growth response of zygotic embryos of galbanum, originated from center of Iran, in in vitro conditions. The results however, showed that zygotic embryos of galbanum had not a suitable germination in in vitro conditions. Nevertheless, the best treatment for in vitro germination of embryos was MS (MS with macro elements) medium supplemented with 0.3 mg l-1 GA3. The results also showed the embryos had good callus production in MS medium (MS with macro elements) supplemented with 2 mg l-1 BA and 10 mg l-1 NAA. Keywords: Galbanum, zygotic embryos, in vitro conditions
59 Evaluation of the managers views to water user associations in GAP-Harran Plain, Turkey, Mustafa H. Aydogdu
It is a must to operate and manage water resources effectively and efficiently beacuse of growing demands. Water management and operations were transferred to water user associations (WUA) since 1996 in Turkey. Increasing ownership and efficiency of irrigation systems by users is one of the basic expectations. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the Managers Views to WUAs in GAP-Harran Plain. The data used in this study come from 22 WUAs managers in the GAP-Harran Plain, and interviewed face to face. Likert and SPSS.15 used for analysis. The results indicate that sufficiency of knowledge levels about WUAs were determined as 83.9%, service level and overall sufficiency was calculated as 65.9%, 75.3% of the managers were believed that economic power of the WUAs in terms of financial structure do not sufficient for expected services. 63.3% of managers considered that water charges are very low. 67.5% of the managers stated that irrigation water charges are not paid on time by the farmers. 44% of the managers do not satisfied with the current structure. This study is the first of its type in the GAP region. Keywords: Irrigation water management and operation, water user associations, GAP region, Harran plain, Turkey
60 Evaluation of forage yield and grain yield of barley genotypes in the amount of nitrogen, Alireza Alazmani
The present research was aimed to study the effect of different levels of inorganic fertilizer N on the yield and yield components of barley varieties at Gorgan Research Station, Iran in 2013-2014 year. A split plot layout within randomized complete block design with 3 replications was used. Main plot were different level of nitrogen fertilizer (35,70 and 105 kg ha-1) from urea source, and sub plot were different varieties (Line 3, Line 7 and Line 17). Condition represented the effect of nitrogen was significant on feed and grain yield, Protein yield, Plant height, HI. Maximum Plant height, HI and grain yield was recorded in sterling. The highest Feed yield, grain yield was observed in Line 5 variety. Nitrogen applied at the rate of 105 kg ha-1 resulted in maximum Plant height, Harvest Index, feed yield, grain yield, Protein yield. Keywords: Barley, forage, grain yield.
61 Assessing the impacts and mitigations of heat stress in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica), Radi A. Mohamed, Mohamed F. Abou Elazab, Nagwan M. El-habashi, Mabrouk R. Elsabagh, Mahmoud M. Eltholth
The aim of this study was to assess the impacts and potential mitigations of heat stress (HS) in Japanese quails. In the first experiment, 75 birds were allocated into a control group (CG) and four experimental (HS) groups. The CG was offered a basal diet and kept at 22 C. The heat stressed birds were offered the basal diet plus either 5% onion (G1), 5% garlic (G2), or 2.5% garlic and 2.5% onion (G3) and the basal diet (G4) and kept at 34C for 8 h/day for four weeks. In the second experiment, 60 birds were allocated into CG and three HS groups. The CG was kept at 22C and reared under white light (WL). The HS birds were offered the basal diet and reared under WL (G1), basal diet and subjected to blue light (BL) (G2), basal diet, 5% garlic and BL (G3) and kept at 34C for 8 h/day for four weeks. There was a significant decrease of tonic immobility and respiratory rate, WBCs and an increase in RBCs, Hb, PCV and MCHC in CG, G1, G2, and G3 in the first experiment and CG, G2 and G3 in the second experiment. Pathological changes that have been noticed in HS birds were alleviated almost completely in birds feed on diet with garlic and partially in birds feed diet with onion. In conclusion, HS in quails could be mitigated by adding garlic and/or onion to the diet, available and cheaper than other feed additives, and rearing under BL. Keywords: Heat stress, garlic, monochromatic light, onion, quail welfare
62 Effect of dietary energy and protein combination on egg production performance of Fayoumi chickens, Tesfa Geleta, Samson Leta
The effect of dietary energy and protein combination on dry mater feed intake and production performance of Fayoumi chickens was determined through 180 days feeding trial in Adami Tulu Research center. Experimental diets/treatments (T) were formulated from maize, wheat bran, fish meal, layer premix, salt and limestone. In the trial 96 Fayoumi chickens with 18 weeks of age were distributed according to completely randomized experimental design with 2x2 factorial arrangement, consisting of two crude protein (CP) levels (14% and 16%) and two metabolizable energy contents (3322 and 2992) kcal/kg diet with three replicates per treatment and eight (8) birds in each replicate. Chickens were reared in group in pens and feed offer and refusal measured daily. Egg laid collected daily. Significantly higher (0.05) between T1 (899.5), T3 (878.1) and T4 (899.6). Significantly higher (P0.05). Non significant (P>0.05) different egg shell weight in gram was observed between T1 (4.750.45), T3 (4.780.52) and T4 (4.560.55). No significant difference (P>0.05) in egg shell weight was observed between T2 (4.780.52) and T4 (4.560.55). Egg shell thickness in millimeter and yolk color score on DSM yolk color fan were not statistically significant (P>0.05) between treatments. In the study done 67.27, 33.29, 21.7 and 7.42 net Ethiopian Birr was obtained per chicken from T3, T4, T1 and T2 respectively within six months. From the biological and economic data analysis, we can conclude and recommend that feed with 16% CP and 3322kcal/kg diet could be used for layer Fayoumi chickens in mid rift valley of Ethiopia. Keywords: Dietary, Diet, Crude protein, performance, Energy
63 Effect of plant spacing and harvesting age on growth, biomass and oil yield of rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium Graveolens L. Herit), Haileslassie Gebremeskel, Kebede Woldetsadik
In order to investigate the effect of plant spacing and harvesting age on growth, biomass and oil yield of rose-scented geranium; a study was carried out at the research field of Wondogenet Agricultural Research Center in 2013/14 cropping season. Four levels of plant spacing (30 x 30, 30 x 40, 30 x 50 and 30 x 60 cm and five levels of harvesting age (90, 105, 120, 135 and 150 days after transplanting) were arranged in a 4x5 factorial randomized complete block design with three replications. Plant height, number of internodes/plant, internode length and leaf area were influenced by main effects of plant spacing and harvesting age; whereas, number of branches/plant, number of leaves/plant, leaf area index, aboveground biomass/ha, fresh leaf yield/ha, dry leaf yield/ha, dry stem yield/ha, harvest index, essential oil content and essential oil yield/ha was influenced by interaction effect of the two. Essential oil yield (21.01kg/ha) at 30 x 30 cm plant spacing when harvested at 135 days after transplanting was relatively higher than those of all treatment combinations, which, however it did not statistically different with that of 30 x 30 cm combined with 120 days after transplanting (20.87 kg/ha). Keywords: Rose-scented geranium; plant spacing; harvesting age; dry leaf yield; essential oil content (%); essential oil yield