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International Journal of Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine

Journal Papers (48) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Crystallization, mechanical and electrochemical behavior of Al-Ce-TM (TM = Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) amorphous alloys   , Jianqi Zhang, Chenyuan Chang, August Chang, Tian Zhao, Jiyu Jia, Na Na, Pengzhong Shi, Wenwen Li, Shumei Li, Qiang Wang, Furen You, Dianchen Feng, Xuemei Wang, Yinfeng Zhao, Tao Li, Yiquan Song,Yongchang Huang and Shengli An
Al86Ce10TM4 amorphous alloys (TM=Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) were fabricated using melt-spin fast-quenching method. The crystallization, mechanical and electrochemical behavior of the as-spun and the post-annealed alloys were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), micro-indentation and electrochemical techniques. It was found the completely amorphous Al86Ce10TM4 alloys (TM=Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) go through two crystallization processes, where the first exothermal peak represents nucleation of nano-crystalline particles and the second exothermal peak signifies growth of the nano-crystalline precipitates. Both the nucleation and growth processes rely on diffusion-controlled mechanism. The first onset crystallization temperature Tx1 associated with activation energy E1 and frequency factor Ko1 can be used to evaluate the thermal stability of the amorphous alloys while the second onset crystallization temperature Tx2 associated with activation energy E2 and frequency factor Ko2 can be taken to judge the thermal stability of ideal amorphous-nanocrystalline mixed structure in sustaining optimized mechanical and electrochemical properties. The as-spun and post-annealed alloys exhibit higher mechanical hardness (860~1180 MPa), corrosion resistance (10-8A/cm2 ) and high temperature endurance (284, 300 and 420°C for Al86Ce10Co4 , Al86Ce10Ni4 andAl86Ce10Fe4 , respectively) compared to hardness 500~600 MPa, corrosion resistance 10-7A/cm2 and high temperature durability 200°C of traditional Al crystalline alloys, manifesting the value on scientific studies and engineering applications of the Al86Ce10TM4 amorphous alloys.
2 In-situ Polymerization of N-(3-aminobenzyl)-N, N-dimethyl-N-dodecyl Ammonium Bromide on Glassy Carbon Electrode for Estradiol Detection   , Shu Hu, Xiaohui Jiang*, Yunwen Liao, Qiang Pu and Ming Duan
Al86Ce10TM4 amorphous alloys (TM=Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) were fabricated using melt-spin fast-quenching method. The crystallization, mechanical and electrochemical behavior of the as-spun and the post-annealed alloys were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), micro-indentation and electrochemical techniques. It was found the completely amorphous Al86Ce10TM4 alloys (TM=Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) go through two crystallization processes, where the first exothermal peak represents nucleation of nano-crystalline particles and the second exothermal peak signifies growth of the nano-crystalline precipitates. Both the nucleation and growth processes rely on diffusion-controlled mechanism. The first onset crystallization temperature Tx1 associated with activation energy E1 and frequency factor Ko1 can be used to evaluate the thermal stability of the amorphous alloys while the second onset crystallization temperature Tx2 associated with activation energy E2 and frequency factor Ko2 can be taken to judge the thermal stability of ideal amorphous-nanocrystalline mixed structure in sustaining optimized mechanical and electrochemical properties. The as-spun and post-annealed alloys exhibit higher mechanical hardness (860~1180 MPa), corrosion resistance (10-8A/cm2 ) and high temperature endurance (284, 300 and 420°C for Al86Ce10Co4 , Al86Ce10Ni4 andAl86Ce10Fe4 , respectively) compared to hardness 500~600 MPa, corrosion resistance 10-7A/cm2 and high temperature durability 200°C of traditional Al crystalline alloys, manifesting the value on scientific studies and engineering applications of the Al86Ce10TM4 amorphous alloys.
3 Chemical Combination of 4-(4-Hydroxybut-2-ynyl) Pyridine and 3-Methylbenzenamine to Construct an Effective Inhibitor: Theoretical and Practical Investigation , Rujang He, Guangqang Xia, Xiaohui Jiang*, Yunwen Liao, Qiang Pu and Ming Duan
A new inhibitor, N-m-benzylamine-4-(4-hydroxybut-2-ynyl) pyridinium bromide (designated as BAP) was designed and synthesized. Quantum chemical calculation and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations manifested that BAP, a compound by covalent combination of 4-(4-hydroxybut-2-ynyl) pyridine (HYP) and 3-methyl benzenamine (MBA), functioned better than did the two moieties (HYP and MBA) for X70 steel corrosion inhibition. The corrosion inhibition investigation revealed that the experiment outcome was in good consistency with the theoretical calculation. The inhibition efficiency of BAP was 95.72% for X70 steel in 5 M HCl at 90 0C. BAP adsorbed on X70 steel surface, obeyed Langmuir isotherm, retarded both the metal dissolution and the hydrogen evolution, and enhanced greatly the acid corrosion resistance of X70 steel. Comparative test demonstrated that the inhibition efficiency of BAP was about 10 times of that for MAB and 8 times of that for HYP albeit the concentration of BAP was tenth of that of HYP and MBA. The experimental investigation backs up the theoretical calculation and manifests intramolecular synergism of the structure moieties being beneficial to design of high effective inhibitors.
4 Morphological and Raman Study of an Anodized Tio2 Nanotubular Matrix without Presence of Nanograss, Using Graphite as Cathode , Marcos Luna Cervantes*, Adriana Báez Rodríguez, Julián Hernández Torres and Luis Zamora Peredo
One set of TiO2 nanotubes is anodized to identify and study the time lapse of a matrix of them without presence of nanograss as a residual layer. The anodization process consists of an organic media of ethylene glycol and NH4 F salts, constant voltage for a time period from 10 to 60 minutes. All anodized samples are rinsed and annealed to 400 °C by 2 hours to obtain an anatase crystalline structure. The morphological characterization was carried out by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy to verify the presence of the nanotubes and calculate the surface roughness factor and film porosity. It was observed that roughness factor and porosity doesn’t have important variations, as time function, except for 60 minutes where nanograss has a strong presence and the gaps between nanotubes are minimal. Raman Spectroscopy was used for optical characterization in order to identify the changes in signal intensity and Eg mode Shift associated with anodization time. It was observed that intensity suffers an increment and Eg mode Shift suffers a decrement as thickness function (anodization time).
5 The Role of Roughness in Random Superhydrophobic Surfaces , T Nahum, H Dodiuk, S Kenig, C Barry and J Mead*
To investigate the role of roughness in superhydrophobic coatings a variety of superhydrophobic and non-superhydrophobic surfaces were synthesized using various polymer binders, nanosilica particles and fluoro chemistry on both glass and polycarbonate substrates. The roughness of the coatings was measured by profilometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM) and analyzed by a variety of statistical methods. Superhydrophobic surfaces showed a peak to peak distance below 5 microns and a radius of less than 0.5 micron, but this information alone was insufficient to predict superhydrophobicity. The skewness and kurtosis for the surfaces indicated that all coated samples, both superhydrophobic and non-superhydrophobic, had a random Gaussian roughness distribution, but there was no significant difference in the skewness and kurtosis values for either superhydrophobic or non-superhydrophobic surfaces. The power spectral density function (PSDF) was found to be an effective tool to predict the required roughness for superhydrophobicity and provides information over the entire range of length scales. The average peak radius for the micro and nano scales calculated from ACL and RMS values were found to be less than 3 µm and 520 nm, respectively, which supports the accepted theory is that superhydrophobic surfaces require tightly packed asperities and small micron and nano roughness. The characterization of the surfaces allowed experimental verification of theoretical models for the roughness factor and critical roughness parameters. It was found that the RMS/ACL values should be 0.35 or higher for designing surfaces with contact angles above 150°. This work shows a unique method for measuring, quantifying, and understanding the role of roughness, that can be used to design surfaces for superhydrophobicity and future applications such as self-cleaning, icephobicity, anti-biofouling, corrosion resistance, and water repellency.
6 Engineered Doxorubicin Delivery System Using Proteinoid-Poly (L-Lactic Acid) Polymeric Nanoparticles of Narrow Size Distribution and High Molecular Weight for Cancer Treatment , Stella Kiel, Michal Kolitz-Domb, Enav Corem-Salkmon, Igor Grinberg and Shlomo Margel*
Doxorubicin (Dox), a widely used anti-cancer drug, was encapsulated within new special-tailored proteinoid nanoparticles (NPs), with the intention to overcome side effects while keeping the drug potency. The synthesis and characterization of four newly-made proteinoids of very high molecular weights (122-149 kDa) and low polydispersity (1.01-1.03) is presented. The proteinoids were synthesized from L-lysine, L-arginine, L-histidine, L-phenylalanine and poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) segments, and are named P(KRHF-PLLA). Using this selection of amino acids provides basic positive-charged novel tailored proteinoids, with a rigid and biodegradable backbone, achieved by the incorporation of PLLA. The proteinoids self-assemble to yield NPs of a narrow-size distribution. This self-assembly procedure was utilized to encapsulate Dox within the NP core. The optimal Dox-encapsulated NPs were chosen by a study of their size, size distribution and Dox content. The chosen NPs, 15% Dox-loaded P(KRHF-PLLA) NPs were checked for their stability in different conditions. In order to improve tumor uptake and time of circulation in the blood, the chosen NPs were further PEGylated and the effects of PEGylation of the NPs, as well as the effect of the environment, on the release rate of Dox from the NPs were investigated. Additionally, the cytotoxicity of the PEGylated and non-PEGylated Dox-containing NPs was studied by XTT assay and their generation of immune-response was investigated by cytokines induction assay. Overall, the Dox-loaded NPs were found stable, non-immunogenic and showed good cell toxicity, making them good candidates to be used against cancer, while PEGylation improved all parameters
7 Large Single Crystal Graphene Manufacture , James C. Sung* , Jian She Liu and Hai Chao Wang
Large single crystals of graphene ware made by using a solvent-catalyst of nickel metal. Both solid and liquid processes were experimented with graphene single crystals of mm demonstrated. The carbon source may be solid or gasses. For example, green house effected carbonaceous gasses could be used to strip carbon in forming large crystals of graphite that would be a source for making precious graphene.
8 Nanoparticles for Effective Combination Therapy of Cancer , Rahul Jadia, Cody Scandore and Prakash Rai*
Cancer continues to remains a major healthcare problem across the world despite strong translational research efforts towards tackling the disease. Surgery, when possible, along with radiation and chemotherapy continue to remain the mainstay of cancer treatment. Novel targeted therapies or biologics and immunotherapies have recently been approved to improve treatment efficacies while reducing collateral damage to normal, non-cancerous tissues. Combination therapies have shown better results than individual monotherapies in the clinic but often the improvements in therapeutic indices remain marginal, at best. Several combinations treatments have been clinically approved for different types of cancer. Nanomedicine, the application of nanotechnology for medicine, has already made some positive impacts on the clinical care in this fight against cancer. Several nano-sized formulations of conventional chemotherapies have been clinically approved. Nanotechnology provides a novel way to deliver combination therapies with spatiotemporal control over drug release. This review explores the recent advances in nanotechnology-mediated combination treatments against cancer. Multifunctional nanomedicines for mechanism-based combination therapies are likely to deliver the right drugs to the right place at the right time for optimal treatment responses with reduced morbidity. No nanomedicine that combines two or more drugs in a single platform has been approved for clinical use yet. This is because several challenges still remain in the development of nano-combinations including but not limited to - the optimal drug ratios in these nanomedicines, control over these drug ratios over multiple batches, large scale, reproducible manufacturing of these nanomedicines and cost of these nano-combinations among others. These challenges need to be addressed soon using a multidisciplinary approach with collaborations between academia, the pharmaceutical industry and the regulatory bodies involved to ensure that nano-combination therapy delivers on its promise of better treatment outcomes while severely reducing morbidity thus improving the quality of life in cancer patients.
9 Development of Nanostructured-based Composites as Advanced Thermal Interface Materials , Vignesh Varadaraju and Pradip Majumdar*
Thermal management is one of the most critical issues in electronics due to increasing power densities. This problem is getting even worse for small and sophisticated devices due to air gaps present between the heat source and heat sink. Thermal interface materials (TIM) are used to reduce the air gaps and significantly increase the heat transfer capability of the system. A high-thermal-performance, cost-effective and reliable TIM would be needed to dissipate the generated heat, which could enable significant reductions in weight, volume and cost of the thermal management system. In this study a number of different nanostructured materials are reviewed for potential use as a filler material in our effort to develop advanced TIM composite. Some of the candidate filler materials considered is Carbon Nanotubes, Graphene and Few Layer Graphene (FLG), Boron Nitride Nanotubes (BNNT) and Boron Nitride Nanomesh (BNNM) and Boron Arsenide (BAs). Objective is to identify composition of boron arsenide as filler in polymer-nanostructured material composite TIM for high heat flux applications. In order to design boron-arsenide-based TIM composite with enhanced effective thermal conductivity, a number of metallic and nonmetallic base-filler material composites are considered with varying filler fractions. Empirical mixture models based on effective medium theories (EMT) are evaluated for estimating effective conductivity of the two-component boron arsenide-filler composite TIM structure.
10 Room Temperature Synthesis of Monodisperse ZnO Nanoparticles Using Ultrasonically Atomized Precursor Mist in Simple Chemical Route , DG Patil, SD Bagul, PS Sonawane, LA Patil and MS Wagh*
Monodisperse zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were synthesized using ultrasonically atomized precursor mist in simple chemical route at low temperature. Analytical grade sodium hydroxide and zinc chloride were dissolved in 100 ml methanol. Zinc chloride precursor solution was converted into very fine mist (atomized) using a nozzle (Sono-Tek Corporation, U.S.A.) operated at ultrasonic frequency of 120 KHz. Fine mist droplets were added slowly (50ml/ hour) into sodium hydroxide solution in 2 hours. The NaOH solution in beaker turned slowly into white product due to addition of zinc chloride. The white product was kept in constant temperature bath at 90°C for 3 hours. The white product was washed five times using double distill water and dried in oven for 2 hours. Different powder samples were synthesized using same procedure by changing the molarity of sodium hydroxide keeping the molarity of zinc chloride and other preparative conditions same. The structural, microstructural, thermal and optical properties of fine powders were analyzed using X Ray Diffractometer, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Simultaneous Thermal Analyzer, UV-Vis Spectroscopy and Photoluminescence Spectroscopy. Fine ZnO nanorods, elongated and spherical nanoparticles were observed due to change in molarity of NaOH. The results are discussed and interpreted.
11 A Shift in Theoretical Attention for the Properties of Bulk Materials to Those of the Borders , Anna CM Backerra
In the previous fourteen years twin physics has been developed to reconcile descriptions of phenomena on a quantummechanical and astronomical scale, by considering them in a complementary way, according to the conviction of Heisenberg. The deduction of the central formula is presented in a visual way by using complementary colors, thus side-stepping theoretical difficulties and making the model more accessible. The examples are presented in a geometrical way. The obtained theoretical results have been identified with basic physical phenomena, like the forces of nature, elementary particles and neutron decay. Moreover, it is possible to describe two types of protons, three types of neutrons and four types of electrons. One type of electron is related to electricity at the border of bulk materials. It is accompanied by a finite magnetic field, restricted to a space of about molecular size.
12 Successful Encapsulation of Hydrophilic Drug in Poly (Lactic Acid)/Chitosan Core/ Shell Nanoparticles , Karine Cappuccio de Castro*, Rodolfo Debone Piazza, Rodrigo Fernando Costa Marques and Maria Gabriela Nogueira Campos
Nanotechnology may be an alternative to overcome the limitations of conventional treatments, through the creation of nanostructured devices capable of directing the antimicrobial to the affected tissue. In this paper, polylactic acid (PLA)/chitosan (CH) nanoparticles were synthesized for controlled release of gentamicin (hydrophilic drug) through the simple emulsification-solvent evaporation method. The results suggest the successful formation of PLA/CH coreshell nanoparticles. Zeta potential analysis showed that the particles have positive surface charges, which is attractive for cell adhesion and suggest the presence of CH in the shell. The burst release observed at the first 6 hours was due to the gentamicin bonded in the CH shell. However, after 24 hours, the system resumed releasing, confirming the interaction and release of gentamicin from the PLA core. The antimicrobial assay indicated inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus, confirming the effectiveness of the encapsulation and release of gentamicin from PLA/CH nanoparticles
13 Engineered Nanomaterials: Safety and Health Hazard , Sanjay Singh and Ashutosh Kumar*
An exponential growth in nanotechnology, an enabling technology, has led to a rapid progress in diverse areas including medicine, manufacturing, personal care products, ground water remediation, removal of toxic contaminants from air streams, electronics and energy production. Due to the large production and widespread use in consumer products, it is expected that ENMs will be released into aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric environments through washing and disposal, where their fate and behaviour are still largely unknown. This could lead to unexpected and unanticipated consequences to environment and human health.Humans get exposed to ENMs at various steps of its synthesis (laboratory);manufacture (industry), use (consumer products, devices, medicines etc.) and the environment (through disposal). Due to the concerns over nanomaterial risks, there has been a dramatic increase in focused safety research. The present review provides a summary of the published findings with regard to the (1) nanomaterial exposure;(2) hazard posed by nanomaterial to humans and the environment (3) the present discrepancies in our understanding of risk. Also, the nanomaterials induced pulmonary, dermal, systemic, environmental, brain, cardiovascular toxicity and carcinogenicity has been discussed in detail.
14 Nanotechnologies for the Future , Dalvinder Singh Grewal
The needs of the world are growing while the sources are decreasing. The existing systems have not been able to cope up this developing situation. It is likely that with the fast increasing population will worsen this situation. All types of sciences, commerce and arts have not been able to provide the solutions to this situation so far. Nanotechnology is the new field which provides us some hope to meet the growing challenges. New wonder nanomaterials like carbon nano-tubes, fullerenes, bucky-balls, dendrimers, quantum dots, nano-crystals, titanium dioxide nano-particles, silver nano-particles, silver nano-wire and other such nano-sized particles have brought a change in the materials at a surface level but need now is changing the redundant systems into new workable nanotechnology systems which could provide worthwhile solutions to the ever growing problems. This concept paper aims at delineating the role of Nanotechnology in the new world.
15 Modification of Energy Band Gap in Natural Dye-Sensitized Tio2 Nano Particles , Yogesh Kumar and Dalvinder Singh Grewal
The photovoltaic devices have been fabricated using conventional semiconductor materials such as silicon (Si) which are quite expensive and difficult to manufacture. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are attractive alternative to Si-based solar cells as they can be inexpensive, portable, thermally stable, light in weight and flexible. The pure TiO2 nano particles have been prepared by sol gel method for DSSC in this project. The anatase phase of TiO2 has been confirmed using XRD. Transmission Electron Microscopy has been used to the nano particle size of the TiO2 nano particles. The coating of natural dyes extracted from spinach and marry gold has been done on TiO2 nano particles. The Scanning Electron Microscope and EDX study reveals the morphology and elemental composition of the pure and natural dye coated TiO2 nano particles. Tauc’s Plots confirmed decrease in band gap with the natural dye coating. The natural dye coated nano particles are found to be better candidates for DSSCs.
16 Synthesis of Graphene-Metal Nanocomposite Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries , Osman Eksik*, Can Aksakal, Reha Yavuz, Nilgun Karatepe
Graphene-based nanocomposites have been demonstrated to be promising high-capacity anodes for lithium ion batteries to satisfy the ever growing demands for higher capacity, longer cycle life and better high-rate performance. In this study, graphene–metal based anode materials which have high mechanical, electrochemical, electrical and thermal properties were synthesized. To synthesize graphene-based composite anode materials, primarily bulk graphite was oxidized by using modified Hummers method and then graphite oxide was reduced to nano graphene material through thermal exfoliation method. By virtue of this technique, from bulk graphite good quality graphene in high quantities were obtained. Finally, nano metal particles Tin (Sn) and Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) were added into the graphene nano structure to produce graphene-metal hybrid material. Structural characterization of the obtained samples was characterized by surface electron microscope (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman Spectroscopy. Also electrochemical performances of the prepared composite samples were analyzed in coin cell.
17 Effects of Oxygen Ion Irradiation on PZT Modified Ferroelectric Materials for Space Applications , Padmaja Guggillia*, Ryan Moxon, A.K. Batra and Rachel Powell
Lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) is an important and high performance piezoelectric and pyroelectric relaxor material having wide range of applications in infrared sensor devices. Present work studies the fabrication and dielectric characteristics of PMN-PT in the bulk form. The PMN-PT bulk material was prepared in sol-gel method and subsequently irradiated with heavy ion oxygen. The materials were analyzed and determined that the relaxor ferroelectric material indicated changes in its dielectric constant and pyroelectric coefficient after irradiation. Due to the radiation fluent of 1×1016 ions/cm2, the dielectric constant of the material increased uniformly, while its pyroelectric coefficient showed a sharp increased to the value of 5×10-9 μC/cm2 °C with increase in temperature. Its dielectric constants showed increase in values of 527 μC/cm2 °C at 50°C, 635 μC/ cm2 °C at 60°C and 748 μC/cm2 °C at 70°C. Properties such as the material impedance, admittance and modulus were investigated for changes in properties which became evident after irradiation. In this paper effect of oxygen ion irradiation on the LiTaO3 and two commercial samples BM 300 and BM 941 are also reported and analyzed. All these bulk materials were functional even after irradiation and was showing enhancement in some of the key characteristics of ferroelectric material.
18 Innovative Martensite-Free Precipitation Hardened Tool Steel Composites with Improved Fracture Toughness , Waleed Elghazaly, Omyma Elkady, Saied Elghazaly*
Good combinations between strength and toughness are always the aim of all researchers working in the field of material science. Unfortunately strength and toughness of materials are alloys counter acting properties. However, carbon contents in the steel define to a great extent its strength and toughness. In this research an effort is paid to produce steel alloy composites that can give higher strength together with good toughness without alloying with carbon. The mechanism of strengthening in Iron-Cobalt-Tungsten composite alloys with variations in Co and W contents is investigated. The fracture toughness, hardness, and strength are measured for all alloy composites under investigation. The changes in microstructures after heat treatment are emphasized using metallurgical microscopy and SEM-aided with EDX analyzing unit.
19 Real Time Remote Monitoring and Anomaly Detection in Industrial Robots Based on Vibration Signals, Enabling Large Scale Deployment of Condition based Maintenance , Rita Chattopadhyay*, Mruthunjaya (Jay) Chetty, Eric XiaozhongJi, Stephanie Cope and Jeffrey E Davis
Loss of wafers and expensive repairs of process equipment are often caused by uncontrolled and unmonitored failures of critical components during semiconductor process. High volume manufacturing (HVM) of semiconductor chips employ large number of robots. Malfunctioning of these robots causes particle contamination, wafer slip and wafer breaks, resulting in production yield loss, equipment down time and factory throughput. Presently, wafer handling monitoring instruments diagnose vibrations of a robot at the end-effector. Detection of anomaly in these vibrations are performed manually during scheduled maintenance and are highly dependent on the experience of maintenance personnel. This not only is prone to human error, but also limits large scale deployment in semiconductor fabrication. The proposed solution automates this process by monitoring the vibration signal patterns, continuouslyin real-time, to proactively identify robots that are at risk of failure. The vibration signals are captured using tri-axial accelerometers placed near the bearings in the arms of the robot. The proposed method analyzes specific parameters of the vibration signal and generates alerts for maintenance, before the uncontrolled vibrations affect production. Identifying parameters which are correlated to failures ischallenging. This work presents four such indicative parameters, determined based on time and frequency domain analysis of the vibration data collected from good and faulty robots. The proposed method based on outlier detection is an Edge /Cloud architecture for remote monitoring and alerting
20 Linear Acceleration over water surface by using magnetic strips , Suresh Kumar Baliyan
Permanent Magnets are known from thousands of years and this human eagerness to utilize magnetic force for useful work. Magnets have north and south poles, similar pole always repel and opposite poles attract to each other. Magnetic Strips are made of thousands of tiny magnets in similar arrangement in the form of long strip. In this article magnetic force behavior of magnetic strips over water surface in two different cases has been discussed. A linear acceleration is generated along the magnetic strip which is responsible for the motion of movable disk in both directions only by changing the inclination angle, and in second case the continuous force on the internal disk which makes the disk rotating over the water surface.
21 Quality Assessment of Akinbo River Sediment around Lafarge Cement Wapco, Ewekoro, Nigeria , Adeoye Abiodun Oluwatosin*, Abdus-Salam Nasiru, Ademola Olamide Sodiq, Odebiyi and Oluwasegun Samuel
A study was conducted to assess the impact of industrial discharge on the quality of sediment obtained from River Akinbo around Lafarge Cement WAPCO, Ewekoro. Four locations were chosen along the water course (River Akinbo) to reflect a consideration of all industrial activities that are capable of changing the quality of sediments. Sediment samples were collected in three monthsbetween (October 2015 - June 2016) at the four sampling points. The physicochemical parameters determined were sediment pH, moisture content, sulphate (mg/l), nitrate (mg/l), phosphate (mg/l) and chloride (mg/L) using standard methods. Sequential Extraction Procedure (SEP) was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals to include (Pb, Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni, Fe) while XRF was used to determine the geo-chemical index of the sediment. Sediment pH is between slightly alkaline, the bioavailability of the metal followed a trend Ni > Cr >Mn> Cd>Pb> Fe with a little interchange at some sampling point. Percentage by weight trend for the XRF were in the order of major metals Al > Fe >Ca> K > Na and in the order of minor metals Mn> Cr > Zn. The concentration of cadmium, chromium and iron were above the permissible limit WHO and FEPA. The high concentration of heavy metals in sediment is most likely as a result of the amount of effluents (dust and waste water) discharged into the river from the factory. To prevent mass extinction of aquatic organisms due to anoxic conditions, proper regulations should be implemented to reduce the organic load the river receives.
22 Quality Assessment of Akinbo River Sediment around Lafarge Cement Wapco, Ewekoro, Nigeria , Adeoye Abiodun Oluwatosin*, Abdus-Salam Nasiru, Ademola Olamide Sodiq, Odebiyi and Oluwasegun Samuel
A study was conducted to assess the impact of industrial discharge on the quality of sediment obtained from River Akinbo around Lafarge Cement WAPCO, Ewekoro. Four locations were chosen along the water course (River Akinbo) to reflect a consideration of all industrial activities that are capable of changing the quality of sediments. Sediment samples were collected in three monthsbetween (October 2015 - June 2016) at the four sampling points. The physicochemical parameters determined were sediment pH, moisture content, sulphate (mg/l), nitrate (mg/l), phosphate (mg/l) and chloride (mg/L) using standard methods. Sequential Extraction Procedure (SEP) was used to determine the concentration of heavy metals to include (Pb, Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni, Fe) while XRF was used to determine the geo-chemical index of the sediment. Sediment pH is between slightly alkaline, the bioavailability of the metal followed a trend Ni > Cr >Mn> Cd>Pb> Fe with a little interchange at some sampling point. Percentage by weight trend for the XRF were in the order of major metals Al > Fe >Ca> K > Na and in the order of minor metals Mn> Cr > Zn. The concentration of cadmium, chromium and iron were above the permissible limit WHO and FEPA. The high concentration of heavy metals in sediment is most likely as a result of the amount of effluents (dust and waste water) discharged into the river from the factory. To prevent mass extinction of aquatic organisms due to anoxic conditions, proper regulations should be implemented to reduce the organic load the river receives.
23 Nanostructure Self-Organization as Cause of Wavelike Radiation Embrittlement of the RPV Steel , E.A. KRASIKOV
Influence of neutron irradiation on reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel degradation are examined with reference to the possible reasons of the substantial experimental data scatter and furthermore-nonstandard (non-monotonous) and oscillatory embrittlement behavior. In our glance this phenomenon may be explained by presence of the wavelike recovering component in the embrittlement kinetics. In our opinion controversy in the estimation on neutron flux on radiation degradation impact may be explained by presence of the wavelike component in the embrittlement kinetics. Therefore flux effect manifestation depends on fluence level. At low fluencies radiation degradation has to exceed normative value, then approaches to normative meaning and finally became sub normative. As a result of dose rate effect manifestation peripheral RPV’s zones in some range of fluencies have to be damaged to a large extent than situated closely to core. Moreover as a hypothesis we suppose that at some stages of irradiation damaged metal have to be partially restored by irradiation i.e. neutron bombardment. Nascent during irradiation nanostructure undergo occurring once or periodically evolution in a direction both degradation and recovery of the initial properties. According to our hypothesis at some stage(s) of metal nanostructure degradation neutron bombardment became recovering factor. As a result oscillation arise that in tern lead to enhanced data scatter. In this case we have to consider irradiation as a recovery factor. Disclosure of the steel degradation oscillating is a sign of the steel nanostructure cyclic self-recovery transformation as it take place in self-organization processes.
24 BonAir: Making Sense of Big Data with a unique IoT based advanced analytics solution , Ergi Sener*, Irem Korkmaz and Muhammed Kanlıdere
In recent years, the increasing importance of “big data” has also led to “big” expectations. Particularly with the introduction of the concept of Internet of Things (IoT), each object is linked to the internet and with the continuous increase in mobile and digital applications and services, data has been gathered at a surprising rate from various sources. When used and evaluated correctly, data has become a crucial competitive weapon, so in the technology world, data is frequently expressed as “new gold”. So far, the most referred reference to “big data” and objectively one of the best definitions has been made by Duke University Professor Dan Ariely: “Big data is like teenage sex. Everyone talks about it, nobody really knows how to do it, everyone thinks everyone else is doing it, so everyone claims they are doing it… [1]”.
25 Enhancement of Photocatalytic Activity by Mg2+ Doped Ceria Quantum Dots , Ramasamy V* and Mohana V
The pure and Mg2+ doped CeO2 quantum dot were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The prepared quantum dots were characterized using X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDX). The XRD results show cubic structure of the CeO2 quantum dots. The crystalline size (D), microstrain (ε), dislocation density (δ) and lattice parameter (α) were calculated and analyzed. SEM-EDX analysis shows the morphology and the presence of elements. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized quantum dot was evaluated based on the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) by UV-Vis spectrometry
26 The Helicity of a DNA-2’-Fluoro DNA Hybrid Duplex Structure , Md Gias Uddin, Salman M Ahmad, Robert Tseng, Benjamin E Ley, Yoel P Ohayon, Ruojie Sha and Nadrian C Seeman*
Structural DNA nanotechnology is a system whereby branched DNA molecules are fashioned into objects, or 1D, 2D and 3D lattices, as well as nanomechanical devices. Normally, one is dealing with the usual B-form DNA molecule, but variations on this theme can lead to alterations in both the structures and the properties of the constructs. 2’-Fluoro DNA (FDNA), wherein one of the hydrogen atoms of the 2’ carbon is replaced by a fluorine atom, is a minimal steric perturbation on the structure of the DNA backbone. The helical structure of this duplex is of great interest for applications in structural DNA nanotechnology, because the DNA-FDNA hybrid assumes an A-form double helix, without the instabilities associated with RNA. Here we have used an atomic force microscopic method to estimate the helicity of DNA-FDNA hybrids, and we find that the structure contains 11.8 nucleotide pairs per helical turn with an error of ± 0.6 nucleotide pairs, similar to other A-form molecules.
27 Geoexchanger System for Buildings Heating and Cooling , Abdeen Mustafa Omer
Geothermal heat pumps (GSHPs), or direct expansion (DX) ground source heat pumps, are a highly efficient renewable energy technology, which uses the earth, groundwater or surface water as a heat source when operating in heating mode or as a heat sink when operating in a cooling mode. It is receiving increasing interest because of its potential to reduce primary energy consumption and thus reduce emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHGs). The main concept of this technology is that it utilises the lower temperature of the ground (approximately <32°C), which remains relatively stable throughout the year, to provide space heating, cooling and domestic hot water inside the building area. The main goal of this study is to stimulate the uptake of the GSHPs. Recent attempts to stimulate alternative energy sources for heating and cooling of buildings has emphasised the utilisation of the ambient energy from ground source and other renewable energy sources. The purpose of this study, however, is to examine the means of reduction of energy consumption in buildings, identify GSHPs as an environmental friendly technology able to provide efficient utilisation of energy in the buildings sector, promote using GSHPs applications as an optimum means of heating and cooling, and to present typical applications and recent advances of the DX GSHPs. The study highlighted the potential energy saving that could be achieved through the use of ground energy sources. It also focuses on the optimisation and improvement of the operation conditions of the heat cycle and performance of the DX GSHP. It is concluded that the direct expansion of the GSHP, combined with the ground heat exchanger in foundation piles and the seasonal thermal energy storage from solar thermal collectors, is extendable to more comprehensive applications.
28 Nano composites commonly used in medicine and veterinary , Alireza Jahandideh*, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh, Ahmad Asghari, Reyhanehmanochehri masouleh and paniz tahzibi
Nanocomposite in various fields were discussed and tested and show various results. Assessment of polycaprolacton (PCL) nanocomposite scaffold compared with hydroxyapatite (HA) on healing of segmental femur bone defect in rabbits. Assessment of tricalcium phosphate/collagen (TCP/collagene) nanocomposite scaffold compared with hydroxyapatite (HA) on healing of segmental femur bone defect in rabbits. Alteration in the trace minerals of cutaneous wounds of rabbits grafted with calciumsilvernanocomposite films Development of shampoo, soap and ointment formulated by green synthesised silver nanoparticles functionalised with antimicrobial plants oils in veterinary dermatology: treatment and prevention strategies. The impact of potential feed additive nanocomposite (AG,Cu,Fe,andMnDioxide) on eggs quality parameters of lying hens compared with metal salts. Biomimetic synthesis of bone-like nanocomposites using the self-organization mechanism of hydroxyapatite and collagen. Synthesis and Properties of Silicone Rubber/Organomontmorillonite Hybrid Nanocomposites). Self-healing hybrid nanocomposites consisting of bisphosphonatedhyaluronan and calcium phosphate nanoparticles.
29 Editorial on Advanced Nanomedicine , Manu Mitra
In advanced nanomedicine not only construction and repairing of human biological systems; but also monitoring and controlling can be implemented using nanostructures and nanobots at molecular level. The future of nanomedicine is not only riveting but also captivating in most of the areas of human biological system. Few of them are discussed below from abundant advanced nanomedicine research which will aid in the long run.
30 Biomimetic Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles for Breast Cancer Therapeutics and Its Mechanism , Yasmin Khan* Muhammad Qasimnasar, Muhammad Numan, IkramUllah and Zabta Khan Shinwari
Scientists are investigating to find new strategies in the field of nanotechnology for the cure and diagnosis of breast cancer as it is considered as real medical issue for women. Women carrying a pathogenic germline transmutation in BRCA1/2 and has hazard of causing breast cancer because of its high lifetimeand extensive amount of cancer with BRCA1 transmutation which is related with the TNBC phenotype. Nanotechnology is an emerging field which makes best utilization of idle metals like silver, gold, and platinum to combine metallic nanoparticles. Synthesis of nanoparticles using biological system have several benefits over synthetic andphysical synthesis (nontoxic, not expensive, eco-friendly and less energy is require). Use of medicinal plants in the field of nanotechnology is fascinating many more researchers towards the biological synthesis of metallic nanoparticles. Such plants can be considered as the best source of diverse phytochemicals for the synthesis of bio-conjugative silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). In this review, we discuss the synthesis of AgNPs from plant extracts and their proposed mechanism of action on breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, we have thoroughly discussedits cases and achievements accomplishedby the use of biogenic AgNPs as cancer therapeutics agents. It is concluded that biogenic AgNPs can become a potential cancer therapeutics agent in the future.
31 Natural Polymers For A Cleaner Environment , P.Morganti, M. B.Coltelli and G.Morganti
Natural polymers or biopolymers, produced by living organisms, are organized as monomeric units covalently bound to form larger structures [1,2]. They in nature play an essential role, performing many fundamental functions like cell energy storage as well as preservation and transmittance of genetic informations. Moreover, they represent an inexpensive biomaterial, easily degraded to chemical compounds that, while release carbon dioxide, resorb it directly on the land by crops, reducing its level in the atmosphere [1,2]. However, the majority of the biomaterial present on the Earth is represented by polysaccharides, such as starch, lignin, chitin and other polymers, the most common of which cellulose, comprises 33% of all the plant components. On the other hand chitin, the second component present in nature after cellulose, is industrially obtained in quantity of 1 billion tons from marine source. This biomaterial, obtainable by agricultural or industrial by-products is considered of great interest to produce, for example, biodegradable plastics.
32 Micro or Nanorobotics In Pharmaceutical Sciences , Dhyani Archana* and Juyal Divyahimalayan
Miniaturized robotic systems that make use of micro technologies are termed as microrobots. A microrobot may also be defined as one that possesses traits of a robot in the macro world and has some form of reprogrammable behavior and is capable of adapting, the only difference to a macrorobot being the scale at which they are placed. The terms micro robots or micro robotics are also linked to robots that are able to handle objects and carry operations at the micrometer range [1].
33 Soft Tissue Wound Healing by Laser , Mohammad Nazrul Islam
Background: In 1967 a few years after the first working laser was invented, Endre Mester in Semmelweis University Budapest, Hungary wanted to find out if laser might cause cancer. He took some mice, shaved the hair off their backs, divided them into two groups and gave a laser treatment with a low powered ruby laser to one group. They did not get cancer and to his surprise the hair on the treated group grew back more quickly than the untreated group. That was how “laser biostimulation” effects were discovered. (Effect of laser on hair Growth of mice (in Hungarian). Mester, E. Szende, B. and Tota, J.G. (1967). Kiserl Orvostud 19. 628- 631). Purpose of the work: The effects of pulsed monochromatic light, with fixed pulsations and wavelengths, on the healing of pressure ulcers were evaluated in this prospective, randomized, controlled study. Method: A placebo-controlled, double-blind study using low energy photon therapy (LLLT) was performed in ten patients with bedsore on the back. Treatment was given three times a week for 10 weeks, using monochromatic (red) optical sources; diode 660nm (GaAl- 660). The patients who were randomized to placebo treatment received sham therapy from an identicalappearing light source from the same delivery system. Results: Ten patients with bedsore were randomized to receive LLLT or placebo therapy. At the conclusion of the study, the percentage of the initial ulcer area remaining unhealed in the LLLT and placebo groups was 24.4% and 84.7%, respectively (P = 0.0008). The decrease in ulcer area (compared to baseline) observed in the LLLT and placebo groups was 193.0 mm2 and 14.7 mm2, respectively (P = 0.0002). One patient dropped out of the study, complaining of lack of treatment efficacy; he was found to be randomized to the placebo group. There were no adverse effects. Conclusions: In this placebo-controlled, double-blind study LLLT was an effective modality for the treatment of bedsore which were resistant to conventional medical management. The results are encouraging as pulsed monochromatic light increased healing rate and shortened healing time. This will positively affect the quality of life in elderly patients with pressure ulcers.
34 Growth C-Axis Zno Nanowires By Upturned Crystalline Growth Method on P-Si(111) Substrate , MarwaBakour*, Dr.M.A.Batal and Dr.AmirAlhajSakur
The using method a low temperature and low cost growth method of high quality active materials for optoelectronic devices. ZnO nanowire arrays growth on p-Si(111). The effects of thermal annealing on the optical properties of ZnO nanowires were prepared on sol-gel ZnO-seed-coated substrates. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) AFM and... AFM images were found at 130 °C well aligned vertically, and the well defined crystallographic planes, providing a strong evidence that the nanowire arrays orientate along the c-axis. The annealing temperature of the ZnO thin film plays an important role on the microstructure of the ZnO grains and then the growth of the ZnO nanowire arrays.From PL spectra, an evident ultraviolet near-band edge emission peak at 382 nm is observed. From (I-V) characteristic that the material behaves p-n junction diode, ideality factors >> 2.0, that was attributed to tunneling via deep levels in the forbidden gap. Impedancespectra shows the spectrum of the Impedance resistance that the curve does not represent a regular semicircle and this indicates that the structure of the material is not regulated granules but rather is in a different form which is the nanowires.
35 Structural-Parametric Model Electroelastic Actuator of Mechatronics Systems for Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine , Sergey M Afonin
Structural-parametric model, decision of wave equation, parametric structural schematic diagram, transfer functions of the electroelastic actuator of mechatronics systems for nanotechnology and nanomedicine are obtained. Effects of geometric and physical parameters of the piezoactuator and the external load on its dynamic characteristics are determined. The parametric structural schematic diagram and the transfer functions of the piezoactuator for the transverse, longitudinal, shift piezoelectric effects are obtained from the structural-parametric model of the piezoactuator. For calculation of the control systems for nanotechnology with the piezoactuator its the parametric structural schematic diagram and the transfer functions are determined. The generalized parametric structural schematic diagram of the electroelastic actuator is constructed.
36 Utilisation and Development: Biomass Analysis for Renewable Energy , Abdeen Mustafa Omer
This communication discusses a comprehensive review of biomass energy sources, environment and sustainable development. This includes all the biomass energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce emissions globally. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impacts of biomass technology. This study gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biomass technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated, but especially in remote rural areas.
37 Conference Proceedingon Nanomaterials and Nanochemistry Hard Carbon and Silica based Films Synthesized under Atmospheric Pressure , Tetsuya Suzuki* and Akira Shirakura
Atmospheric pressure-plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (AP-PECVD) method using a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD)is a cost-effective process because of no need of vacuum process. In this study, we synthesized silicabased films (SiO:CH) and hydrogenated amorphous carbon films (A-C:H) by AP-PECVD method. We synthesized SiO:CH films from tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) and O2 diluted with N2 and investigated the effect of the substrate temperature and the TMOS flow rate on hardness of the films. The hardness increased from 4.0 to 6.9 GPa as the substrate temperature increased from 80 to 300°C. To synthesize a-C:H films, filamentary DBD (FDBD) was used to improve the hardness compared to the films synthesized by glow DBD (GDBD), which is generally used for APCVD.The hardness of the films increased from 3.7 to 11.9 GPa by using FDBD.
38 Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Near–Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and Mid–Infrared Spectroscopy (MIRS) Comparative Study on Malignant and Benign Human Cancer Cells and Tissues under Synchrotron Radiation with the Passage of Time , Alireza Heidari
In the current study, we have experimentally and comparatively investigated and compared malignant human cancer cells and tissues before and after irradiating of synchrotron radiation using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) and Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy (MIRS). It is clear that malignant human cancer cells and tissues have gradually transformed to benign human cancer cells and tissues under synchrotron radiation with the passage of time (Figures 1-3) [1-117].
39 The Creature of the New Effective Methods Modernization Preservative Solution for Red Blood Cells by Means Preparations of Nanotechnology , Andrey Belousov*, Elena Malygon, Vadim Yavorskiy and Ekateryna Belousova
This study was devoted to the learning of the use of nanotechnology to correct the functional activity of red blood cells (RBCs) at the storage stages at a positive temperature. It was established that saline NaCl, which had previously been processed by magnetite nanoparticles (ICNB) had a marked membrane-stabilizing effect, inhibits hemolysis and increasing the sedimentation stability of preserved RBCs. The complex analysis of the obtained data allowed to determine the primary mechanisms effect of the saline NaCl, which had previously been processed by ICNB on the preserved RBCs. The proposed method of additive modernization of preserved RBCs was adapted to the production process. The optimization results were obtained in creating a simple and practical method of additive modernization of preservation solutions that does not violate the compliance requirements, improves the quality, efficiency and safety transfusion of RBCs.
40 Graphene and its Health Effect , Awodele MK*, Adedokun O, Bello IT and Olusola Akinrinola
This study is a review of risk-related information on graphene with the purpose of outlining potential environmental and health risks. It is a guide to future risk-related research on graphene. The study will be based on the emissions, environmental fate, and toxicity of graphene. It shows that graphene could exert a considerable toxicity, emission of graphene from electronic devices and composites are possible in the future. It is known that graphene is both persistent and hydrophobic. Although these results indicate that graphene may cause adverse environmental and health effects, and that there are many risk-related knowledge gaps to be filled with the environment. Graphene can bind the cell surface and cause physical and chemical damage to the cell membrane. It is known that graphene may interact with protein and nucleic acids, altering their structure and function on the other hand, graphene may regenerate reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can also cause disruption of membrane, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. The toxicity of graphene should be further studied.
41 Synthesis and Characterization of hybrid Organic–inorganic near infrared Absorption OV-POSS-Squaraine-amine and improve the Properties , Nahla Omer and Hongyao Xu*
Recently Squaraine dye have been receiving the interest of researchers due to its improved solution process ability, scalable synthesis, tunable chemical and physical properties via molecular design and of course its low cost. However, problems of compatibility and wet-ability have limited broad application of Squaraine dye. In this study, we used octavinyl-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane OV-POSS to prevent all these problems and to enhance the dye properties. This is the first time to designe a novel near-IR absorption multifunctional materials over a wide PH (2- 9) with excellent properties of compatibility. A novel system of organic-inorganic hybrids optical material near-IR was prepared by OV-POSS with 6-Bromoquanaldine and Squaric acid to get system1 of (OV-POSS-Squaraine) then reacted with 4-bromaniline to get our last system OV-POSS-Squaraine-amine. Our structure, composition, properties were characterized and evaluated by 1 HNMR spectrum, contact angle and FE-SEM. we believe that the novelty would open new path for more synthesis and applications.
42 Easy Synthesis Method of MoS2/TiO2 Nanostructure with Great Performance of Catalytic Activity Under Visible Light ,
In this study, TiO2 nanoparticles modified with MoS2 were synthesized using the low temperature hydrolysis method. Samples of pure TiO2 and samples of MoS2 /TiO2 were prepared using different amounts of MoS2 (1.0% and 10.0% by weight). The samples were annealed at 500°C and 700°C and characterised by ICP-AES, XRD, Raman, FT-IR, TG, XPS and DR-UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results suggest that the MoS2 added during synthesis is a satisfactory source of Mo to produce doping of the TiO2 structure. In addition, the transformation of anatase phase to rutile is delayed when the concentration of Mo incorporated into the structure increases. Finally, the effectiveness of the synthesized MoS2 /TiO2 samplesused as photocatalyst for the photodegradation of methylene blue dye under visible light irradiation was investigated. TiO2 doped with MoS2 was shown to improve the degradation of methylene blue under visible light. There was found to be an optimal temperature and level of doping to achieve improved photocatalytic activity, in our case 10.0% MoS2 /TiO2 at 700°C.
43 Nano-Biotechnology: Developing Nano-silver coated cotton fabrics by means of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Aspergillus terrues strain (MTCC9618) against staphylococcus aureus , Abaysew Ayele Flif, Rita Singh Majumdar
Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles, especially fungal mediated method is given attention in the development of new drugs for resistance pathogens, molecular diagnosis, drug delivery therapy and in catalytic sensor due to its cost effective, none toxicity and eco-friendly. The present study focused on the fungal mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Aspergillus terrues strain (MTCC 9618). The synthesized nanoparticles was monitored by spectrophotometer SEM, XRD and its band gap was determined by Tuac equation. After while the fungal crude cells was exposed to 5mM silver nitrate the reduction reaction was recorded according to red shift colorchange. Based on ultra violet spectrophotometeran absorbance was recorded in a distinct pick around 430nm - 450nm and also the band gab was determined using Tuac equationsuch that 2.08eV, 2.02eV, 2.0eV and 1.96eV at about 10min, 30min, 12h and 24h respectively. The AgNPs coated cotton fabrics was developed through direct exposed to extracellular metabolites and 100ppm colloidal solution of AgNPs. The antimicrobial efficacy of the synthesized AgNPs coted cotton fabrics against gram positive Hospital staphylococcus aureus pathogenstrains was conducted by disk diffusion assay. In which the antimicrobial efficacy of coated cotton-Ag against human pathogens was proofed how the staphylococcus aureus had susceptible too and (16mm) zone of inhibition was recorded. Based on disk diffusion assay at 10ug/mL minimum inhibition concentration (MIC)10.5 mm inhibition zone was noted consequently, this study accomplished that Aspergillus terreus strain mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is cost effective, time saving, eco-friendly and small spherical (<10nm) had produced against to Physio-chemical means. The bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles cotton fabrics publicized that a higher efficacy of antimicrobial activity against staphylococcus aureus and the result was considerable suggested in widely range used in textile and pharmaceutical industries to enrich durability, strength, quality of products against a clinical pathogens application as well bad odor and spoilage of dusts from fabrics.
44 Artificial Intelligence Driven Resiliency with Machine Learning and Deep Learning Components , Bahman Zohuri* and Farhang Mossavar Rahmani
The future of any business from banking, e-commerce, real estate, homeland security, healthcare, and marketing, the stock market, manufacturing, education, and retail to government organizations depends on the data and analytics capabilities that are built and scaled. The speed of change in technology in recent years has been a real challenge for all businesses. To manage that, a significant number of organizations are exploring the Big Data (BD) infrastructure that helps them to take advantage of new opportunities while saving costs. Timely transformation of information is also critical for the survivability of an organization. Having the right information at the right time will enhance not only the knowledge of stakeholders within an organization but also providing them with a tool to make the right decision at the right moment. It is no longer enough to rely on a sampling of information about the organizations’ customers. The decision-makers need to get vital insights into the customers’ actual behavior, which requires enormous volumes of data to be processed. We believe that Big Data infrastructure is the key to successful Artificial Intelligence (AI) deployments and accurate, unbiased real-time insights. Big data solutions have a direct impact and changing the way the organization needs to work with help from AI and its components ML and DL. In this article, we discuss these topics.
45 Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel Smart Behavior as Cause of Instability in Kinetics of Radiation Embrittlement , E. Krasikov
Fast neutron intensity influence on reactor materials radiation damage is a critically important question in the problem of the correct use of the accelerated irradiation tests data for substantiation of the materials workability in real irradiation conditions that is low neutron intensity. Investigations of the fast neutron intensity (flux) influence on radiation damage and experimental data scattering reveal the existence of non-monotonous sections in kinetics of the reactor pressure vessels (RPV) steel damage. Discovery of the oscillations as indicator of the self-organization processes presence give reasons for new ways searching on reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel radiation stability increasing and attempt of the self-restoring metal elaboration. Revealing of the wavelike process in the form of non monotonous parts of the kinetics of radiation embrittlement testifies that periodic transformation of the structure take place. This fact actualizes the problem of more precise definition of the RPV materials radiation embrittlement mechanisms and gives reasons for search of the ways to manage the radiation stability (nanostructuring and so on to stimulate the radiation defects annihilation), development of the means for creating of more stableness self recovering smart materials.
46 Rheological Properties of Aqueous Solutions Based on Polyvinylpyrrolidone , Bagirova SR
The study describes the dependences of the density and viscosity of aqueous solutions of polyvinylpyrrolidone (1 -5%) on temperature (15-50°C) were investigated and the intrinsicviscosity [η] and the Huggins constant (k) were determined. It was obtained that the viscosity decreases monotonically and Hugginsconstant increases with increasing temperature.
47 The Magnetic and Structural Properties of the Alloys of Iron Produced by Mechanical Alloying , S Mebrek*, M Zergoug and N Haine
In this study, nanostructured powders, (Fe65Co35) 100-x Crx with (x=0, 10), were synthesized by a high-energy mechanical grinding process, usually used to obtain soft magnetic systems. For this purpose, the metal elements Fe, Co and Cr, of respective purities 99.9, 99.8 and 99.5% and of average size less than one hundred microns, were milled at different times, ranging from 1 hour to 36 hours. In a second step, the nanopowders obtained were characterized by several techniques, namely X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques. The analysis of the results obtained showed the complete formation of the (Fe65Co35) and (Fe65Co35) 90Cr10 phases from 12 hours of grinding. For (Fe65Co35), the remnant field Br and the saturation magnetization Ms have similar evolutions namely, a decrease between 8h and 24h, followed by an increase until the end of the grinding. In addition, the high values of Br and Hc suggest that this system is magnetically hard. The presence of chrome in the ternary (Fe65Co35) 90Cr10 amplifies the maximum value of Hc, while maintaining a similar behavior.
48 Applying Segmentation Pattern Analysis to Investigate Postprandial Plasma Glucose Characteristics and Behaviors of the Carbs/Sugar Intake Amounts In Different Nations (GH Method: Math-Physical Medicine) , Gerald C Hsu
In this paper, the author presents the results of his national segmentation pattern analysis of the sensor PPG data based on both high-carb and low-carb intake amounts. It also verified his earlier findings on the communication model between the brain and internal organs such as the stomach, liver, and pancreas.