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International Journal of Modern Research In Engineering & Management(ijmrem)

Journal Papers (110) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Modelling and Simulation of Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Using different Types of Fluids , Vipul N. Gandhi, 2, Dr. S. N. Nemade, 3, Dr.P.V. Thorat
The shell and tube type of heat exchanger module is to be used for simulation study of various fluid systems on rate of heat transfer. The ionic fluids are used to see the difference in outlet temperature of fluid as compared to reference fluid. The cooling fluid is made by adding various amounts of solutes to water and the effect is observed on rate. Also suggestions are made on the nature of heat transfer, rate of heat transfer and improved effectiveness in the rate of heat transfer as compared to the normal process. The conclusions are made about the best simulated results obtain from Chemcad software on rate of heat transfer.
2 Effect Of Treasury Bill Rate On Exchange Rate Level And Volatility In Kenya , Maureen Muthoni Ndagara
Government through central bank sells or purchase Treasury bills to represent government securities’ interest rate in open markets operations with the aim of influencing liaquidity conditions in the financial system. Again central bank make adjustment in the treasury bill rates with the intention of devaluing her currency so as to encourage export and discourage imports. Kenya has been facing high volatility of exchange rate and a continuous depreciation of Kenya shilling to US dollar. Depreciation of the home currency decreases return on investment when investing internationally. A combination of a stable exchange rate environment and a competitive currency attracts investment, increase aggregate output and expand country's economic prosperities. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of 91-day Treasury bill rate on exchange rate level and volatility. Monthly series data on US Dollar-Kenya shilling bilateral exchange rate, 91-day Treasury bill rates, net foreign exchange intervention by central Bank, central bank rate, and inflation rate was purposively selected from January 1997 to June 2016 was used for analysis. Using GARCH model it was found that holding other things equal, a unit change in 91-day Treasury bill rate influence the exchange rate volatility by 2.5790 units in the same direction and at the same time changes the level of exchange rate return by 1.5696 units. Therefore, increasing 91-day Treasury bill rate increases the volatility of the monthly Kenya shilling to US dollar returns and appreciates Kenyan shilling against the US dollar
3 Improving maintenance management: Case Study of a Local Textile Companyges , 1Monageng R, 1Kommula V P, 1Mapfaira H, 1Gandure J, 1Segatlhe B T and 1Thabano K O H
The manufacturing sector in Botswana has been rapidly growing in recent times. Maintenance management system plays a vital role in keeping equipment on condition and also major contributor for overall productivity. The current study seeks to improve maintenance management of a local textile case study company with its operations based in Gaborone Botswana. The study sought to assist the organization take advantage of low labor costs and good export policies to manufacture goods for both local and the international markets through effective maintenance management. In order to effectively compete, organizations need to produce quality products and services. In that regard, manufacturers need to reduce redundancy in business processes, redesign products using prime components and increase availability of products and services through provision of effective equipment maintenance. The case study company’s current maintenance management system is simple and not effectively contributing in terms of equipment availability. Through this present work, we were able to develop, document and implement a maintenance management system for the organization.
4 Improving maintenance management: Case Study of a Local Textile Companyges , 1Monageng R, 1Kommula V P, 1Mapfaira H, 1Gandure J, 1Segatlhe B T and 1Thabano K O H
The manufacturing sector in Botswana has been rapidly growing in recent times. Maintenance management system plays a vital role in keeping equipment on condition and also major contributor for overall productivity. The current study seeks to improve maintenance management of a local textile case study company with its operations based in Gaborone Botswana. The study sought to assist the organization take advantage of low labor costs and good export policies to manufacture goods for both local and the international markets through effective maintenance management. In order to effectively compete, organizations need to produce quality products and services. In that regard, manufacturers need to reduce redundancy in business processes, redesign products using prime components and increase availability of products and services through provision of effective equipment maintenance. The case study company’s current maintenance management system is simple and not effectively contributing in terms of equipment availability. Through this present work, we were able to develop, document and implement a maintenance management system for the organization
5 Pesticide recommendation system for cotton crop diseases due to the climatic changes , 1, Mrs.’s. Pudumalar, 2, Ms.K.S. Suriya, 3, Mr. Ramanujam, 4, Dr.S. Muthuramalingam
Data mining is a process of extracting knowledge from a vast database using tools and techniques. Data mining plays an important role in decision making on issues related to many real-time problems such as business, education, agriculture etc. Data mining in agriculture helps the farmers to decide on crop yield ratio, water resource management, pesticides management and fertilizer management. Nowadays, climatic change is one of the challenging problems in agriculture which has a greater impact on productivity. Many researchers have contributed in the field of agriculture data mining i) To predict crop productivity, ii) water management, iii) air pollution using the naïve bias and decision tree algorithms. The Proposed work is to predict the diseases due to Climatic changes and recommended pesticide for the disease. Decision tree algorithm is used to develop a recommendation system which helps to the farmer in the usage of pesticide for the incidence of crop diseases
6 Effect of Thickness and Annealing Temperature on Optical Properties of CuIn1-xGaxSe2 (CIGS) Thin Films , Najiba Abdullah Al- Hamadani , 2,Falah Ibrahim Mustafa, 3,Jamal Jasim Al-Kabi
CuIn1-xGaxSe2(CIGS) thin films for x=0.3 with the thickness (500,1000) nm on glass substrate at ambient temperature have been prepared by thermal evaporation technique from four-component semiconductors alloy (CIGS) which obtained by the melt-quenching method. The effects of thickness and annealing temperature on structural and optical properties have been studied. The results showed that as the film thickness increases the crystallinity improves and the more improvement were observed with the increase in annealing temperature. The optical measurements revealed that most of the optical properties were significantly affected by the thickness and annealing temperature, the CIGS thin films conformed that all films have, direct allowed energy gap of (500 and 1000 ) nm thickness as prepared equal to ( 1.75 and 2.35 ) eV respectively. In addition, annealing of the thin films improves their band gap value to 2.59 eV for 500 nm to 2.44 eV for 1000 nm thin films. The values of some important optical parameters of the studied films such as (absorption coefficient, refractive index, extinction coefficient, and dielectric constant (real and imaginary parts) were determined and analyzed.
7 Enhancing the Performance of An Industrial Boiler Using Fuzzy Logic Controller , 1,Eze M.N., 2,Mgbachi C.A ; 3,Chiwetalu J.U
This paper focus on the performance of an industrial boiler using fuzzy logic controller. The parameter of the various industrial boilers are subjected to the change due to change in the environment or atmosphere. These parameter may be categorized as steam, pressure and temperature of the industrial boiler in use. In this paper work, a strategy of fuzzy logic controller called fuzzy supervisory is used which generates set points for the conventional controllers. This work also compared the performance of a boiler evaporator system when the system is controlled by a traditional proportional integral derivatives type strategy and when the system is controlled using fuzzy logic blocs to provide set point for it. The main change consists of representing only the behaviour of the drum evaporator system having a partial model of the combustion process with a simplified combustion control system and a three element boiler feed water receives a supervisory signal that comes from fuzzy logic to improve the performance of the overall control system.
8 Changes and concussion in the global labor force (A brief look on the Israeli labor) , Bushra Masri
Many economies in the world are undergoing changes as a result of the shocks caused by globalization in the local labor force. These changes must answer orderly government, and as the national mechanism will "wake up" Earlier, this country less affected in the rapid globalization which taking place all over the world. This article presents the advantages and disadvantages of this, and gives a brief picture about the state of Israel
9 Effect of dietary fibers from mango peels and date seeds on physicochemical properties and bread quality of Arabic bread , Sam Al-Dalalia, b, c* , Fuping Zhenga , Salah Aleidc , Mahmoud Abu-Ghoushd , Murad Samhourie , Ammar AL-Fargaa
The present study aims at evaluating effects of dietary fibers of Mango peels (MP) and Date seeds (DS) on the quality of Arabic bread (AB). MP was added at two levels (2% and 4%) and DS were at 4% and 6%, based on flour weight. Results showed that DS is considered as a good source of dietary fiber compared to MP. Also, it was found that MP at different levels improved the overall quality of AB. An adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used to study the properties AB with the different proportions of mango peel (M) and dates seed (D) as inputs, and two output properties (crust color CC and crumb texture CT). Experimental validation runs were conducted to compare the measured values and the predicted ones. The comparison shows that the adoption of this neuro- modeling technique (i.e., ANFIS) achieved a satisfactory prediction accuracy of about 85%.
10 Incidence of haemophilia, genealogical inheritance and transmission of haemophilia into a family line in Macedonia , Gordana Panova , Irena Kjosevska, Blagica Panova
Introduction: Haemophilia is a state of bleeding. In the blood there is a lack of coagulation factor that controls blood flow. GOAL: to show the number and treatment of cases of haemophilia, their treatment, and display a family tree. MATERIALS AND METHODS: a descriptive and epidemiological method of data capture and are presented in a tabular and graphical way. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Familial positive history in 53 individuals or 91.38% has not been done prenatal diagnosis, or only in 3,45% a prenatal diagnosis has been made. Bloody symptoms have 55 or 94.83%, with 40 or 68.9% of them having spontaneous bleeding episodes. Out of 40 people or 68.97% are on permanent treatment. Of these, indicative treatment is 32 persons or 55.17%, prophylaxis is 9 persons or 15.52%, 11 persons change the treatment or 18.97% and 6 people are unfamiliar or 10.34% are treated. Of the examinees, 39 people or 67.24% receive a coagulation factor, and 19 people or 32.76% do not receive a coagulation factor. CONCLUSION: the available therapeutic possibilities are concentrated on an indicator factor and a small percentage of prophylactic treatment, an institutional therapy, but there are also therapeutic agents that are not available for people with coagulopathies
11 Impact Analysis of Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) Meters , G. Razzaq Tunio, 2, Dr. Anwar A. Sahito, 3, Dr. A. Sattar Larik
Automatic meter reading (AMR) meters are installed in portion of Hyderabad city by Hyderabad Electric Supply Company (HESCO). Installation of AMR meters have initiated discussion on its effectiveness in the mentioned utility. In this research work, impacts of AMR are analyzed through data collection and analysis. Energy consumption is compared before and after AMR installation, which shows increase in billed energy units. Consumer survey was carried, which confirms consumer positive response for AMR installation as consumer complaints regarding electricity bills have reduced significantly.
12 Optimisation assessment model for selection of material and assembly for sustainable building projects , Liman Alhaji Saba * 1,2 , Mohd Hamdan Ahmad 1 , Roshida Binti Abdul Majid1 and Taki Eddine Seghier1
Sustainable Selection of Material and Assembly (SMA) constitutes a importants strategy in building design and construction. Current sustainable SMA methods fail to provide adequate solutions for finding the optimum improvement strategies and choosing the best alternative in a decision environment. To assist the decision-making process, this study suggests the Multi objective Optimization (MO) approach utilization. However, process improvements cannot be based only on environmental considerations, other factors like socio-economic must be also being considered in parallel. As well, the study indicates that MO coupled with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) provides a tool for balancing process environmental and economic performance. The value of this approach in environmental process analysis rests in providing an optimal option for process improvements which may be optimal and suitable for a particular situation. A decision-aid tool – optimum Life Cycle Assessment Performance (OLCAP) – is recommended. OLCAP is tested and demonstrated by application to case studies of an existing traditional construction method and contemporary construction method of low cost housing projects. The MO value in process analysis lies in allowing for an alternative option for process betterments, therefore able the selection of the Best Available Technique not Entailing Excessive Cost (BATEEC) and Best Practicable Environmental Option (BPEO).
13 Reverse Innovation in Ayurveda: Lessons to Learn , Dr. Shailly Nigam
Ayurveda has existed as a system of medicine in India since times immemorial. Earliest references to it are made in the ancient religious scriptures called Vedas dated more than 5000 years ago. The cross-country trade among the nations made the science of Ayurveda known to the western world and impress it due to the absence of adverse side effects present in Allopathy, the most widely used medical practice system in that region. Since middle twentieth century, Ayurveda has been adopted and popularised as an accepted form of alternative medicine in the Western world. However, various laws and medical regulations, unregulated practice and fast commercialisation of Ayurvedic system of medicine has also resulted in ethical and legal issues. This paper initially discusses the significance of reverse innovation and thereafter presents a case study of reverse innovation in Ayurveda to draw suggestions for the benefit of other fields. The methodology used includes analytical study of relevant documents, archival records and interviews. The research shows how indigenous frugal products can prove themselves to be financially beneficial for the global market and at the same time be used for fulfilling the need of inclusive welfare, thus playing a significant innovative role in the growth of an economy. Nevertheless, there can be certain caveats too, which, if taken care of, shall lead to a win-win situation for all the stakeholders.
14 Poincare Conjecture Proven and Disproved Using Imaginary Numbers, Imaginary Manifolds, Always Changing Manifolds, Suns or Stars, Rhombus, Trapezoids, Ellipses, Triangles, Parallelograms, Squares and Word Meanings Mathematical Classifications , James T. Struck BA, BS, AA, and MLIS
A manifold means “1. Having many forms, parts, etc.” [1] Manifolds which have many parts, forms are not necessarily one to one to 3 spheres. Poincare conjecture can be proven and disproven based on the case study of imaginary manifolds, imaginary numbers, ellipses, rhombus, trapezoids, parallelograms, triangles, squares, always changing manifolds and the Sun or stars. Proof and disproof are reasonable for the Poincare Conjecture. Homeomorphic has 2 meanings. One meaning of homeomorphic is similar in form and one meaning of homeomorphic is deformable. [2] Proof and disproof of Poincare Conjecture are supported by the 2 definitions of homeomorphic and the definitions of manifold. Dr. Grigori Perelman’s proof of the Poincare Conjecture does not place enough emphasis on the meaning of homeomorphic as having similarity of form or the definition of manifold as many, diverse or varied
15 Information Management System for Higher Educational Institutions , 1, S. Priya darshini, 2, B. Abishek Verma, 3, R. Balaji, 4, R. Madhu mitha , 5, P. Umarani , 6, V.Vijayakanth 1,2,3,4,5, Department of Computer Science & Engineering, United Inst
Mobile technology has introduced a new environment among upcoming generations that can be used to improve the management process. The proposed system will improve interactivity, accessibility, and convenience in the college management process. It is a simple yet powerful integrated platform that connects the various entities. It is a handy application that can be used by the students and the administrator to facilitate communication. The main motive of the project is to provide full automation to the user. This IMS system can also be used in academic institutes. This will help the institution to utilize its resources in an efficient manner. This system is capable of greatly atomizing work. Since human memory cannot store too much data and is volatile there are chances for errors but with the help of a system that can store huge amount of data systematically. IMS system is capable of integrating different sections in an institution like general, fees, attendance, library, exam section. The application is portable as it is used on a mobile device and improves connectivity between the students and the institution, thus helping the institution to provide a more transparent system altogether. The application also reduces a substantial amount of paperwork that is otherwise needed for the daily tasks in an institution.
16 Lighting Control of a Resisdential Building Using Hybrid Occypancy Sensor , 1, Mutiullah Memon, 2, Dr. Faheemullah Shaikh, 3, Dr. Pervez Hameed Shaikh
The growing development and urbanization has made the alterations in the human life style and comfort requirement particularly in the offices and residential buildings. About 40-45% of world’s energy consumption is being consumed by these buildings and from this portion 20-25% is the share of the lighting loads only. So, the challenge of reduction of energy consumption by the lighting loads is yet to be addressed. Besides, human occupancy pattern and behavior also add to the power consumption. Human comfort and technological advancement is significant but the primary aim of the buildings is just to provide safety and comfort to the occupants. Several lighting control strategies have been employed up to now but among them occupancy detection control techniques are much sophisticated and sensitive in nature. Passive InfraRed (PIR) and Ultra Sonic (US) sensors are widely used for the purpose of occupancy detection because of their fast and robust response. These sensors provide the optimal use of lightings in multi-occupant buildings. This paper is of unique nature because both the sensors PIR and US are used in hybrid arrangement in order to utilize the characteristics of both just to enhance the performance of occupancy detection.
17 P=NP Proved, Disproved, Varies Based on Problem or issue, and Indeterminate Based on Similarity between Checked and Find, Consideration of the Similar Planetary Diameter Problem, Consideration of Non-Deterministic Process Always Different than implementation, Some Questions Not Solvable in Polynomial Time, P Questions Always Different than Non-Deterministic Polynomial Time Processes , James T. Struck BA, BS, AA, MLIS
We consider Dr. Stephen A. Cook’s P=NP Relation with regard to P=NP being an algebraic relationship, a relationship between being able to check a solution and find a solution and its other possible relationships. We find the relation to be provable, disprovable and varying based on problem or issue and in some cases, in which for example the value of N is not clear, to be indeterminate or uncertain. We use the field of combinatorics to show that a problem like P=NP can have more than one solution. Disproving P=NP I was able to show that problems such as "What, How, When, Are planets similarly sized, can you check for the book, can you find the mail in the mailbox, is there a God, did you like the movie, where is the bathroom, How did life begin?, How will life end?" show that Polynomial time processes can be different than non-deterministic polynomial time processes, these problems can be the same as each other and not understandable according to checking and finding concepts and not distinguishable between checking in finding in some cases. “Why?” is a question in which P=NP have an unclear relationship not involving equality disproving the conjecture’s equality thesis. When one process NP involves guessing and another P involves what a computer can deal with, those processes are clearly not equal. P does not equal NP as the processes to get somewhere are different. We, as Stephen Cook did, can still imagine P=NP though
18 Remote Sensing Method for Flood Management System , 1, Md. Ahbabur Rahman, 2, Md. Nasir Uddin, 3, Syeda Abida Khatun
Flood occurred when heavy and continuous rainfall exceeding the absorptive capacity of soil and the flow capacity of rivers, streams, and coastal areas. Land areas that are most subjected to floods are areas situated adjacent to rivers and streams, that are known as floodplain and therefore considered as “flood-prone”. These areas are hazardous to development activities if the vulnerability of those activities exceeds an acceptable level. The main objectives of this study are; to identify floodplains and other susceptible areas, and to assess the extent of disaster impact in the study area which is located at Kota Tinggi, Johor, Malaysia. This area experienced an unprecedented flood during December of 2006 to January of 2007.Questions such as how often and how long the floodplain will be covered by water, and at what time of year flooding can be expected need to be answered. Thus, an understanding of the dynamic nature of floodplains is greatly required. Multi-temporal Radarsat-1images, Landsat ETM+ image, topographical maps and land use maps were used in this study for the purpose of delineating the flood extend before, during and after the flood event. DEM acquired from topographic map is used to derive flood depth. The final outputs of this study are flood extent and flood depth maps where both of these maps show the impact of the flood to environment, lives and properties. This map is also important and can be applied to develop a comprehensive relief effort immediately after flooding.
19 Identifying Top Perfomers in the Electrician Training Programme at FSASEC - VUT using Regression Analysis: Who are the stars , 1,Langa Hendrick Musawenkosi , 2,Twala Bhekisipho
The Vaal University of Technology (VUT) has, in its faculty of Engineering and Technology a flagship community engagement project referred to as the French South African Schneider Electric Education Center (FSASEC) where young underprivileged students are recruited and trained to become occupational electricians. There is a significant skills gap in South Africa for artisans in the field of Electrical Engineering and this gap can be closed if state of the art training facilities exits where the students are prepared for landing in the workplace useful and productive. It is of primary value to be able to identify students that perform well in order to maximize the efficiency of the training program in Electrical Engineering. This paper presents some tools that can be used in identifying potentially excellent performers, at risk and underperforming students. This process ranges from when the student is admitted to the time he exits the programmed.
20 Smart Mobile Roadside Park Charging Systems , 1, Huey-Der Chu, 2, Yong-Quan Yeh, 3, Yi-Cheng Lin, 4, Meng-hung Lai, 5, Yi-Jie Lin, Ming-Sun Wu
Currently, roadside parking charging is mainly operated manually. However, this makes it difficult to achieve effective management. Aimed at removing many inconveniences brought by this current approach, this study discusses how to apply Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) in this issue. The RFID reader can be installed on a track. Through the track, the RFID reader can detect a whole row of parking spaces along the sides of the road and therefore, can replace the current approach with which people hold machines to scan cars one by one. Both parkers and managers of the parking system can use an online platform which offers an open individual inquiry system and impartial and accurate reflection of the real-time status and ensures a fair process of issuing parking tickets.
21 CMAC Neural Networks , 1, Amira Elsir Tayfour Ahmed, 2, Omer Elsir Tayfour Ahmed
The Cerebellar Model Articulation Controller (CMAC) is an influential cerebrum propelled processing model in numerous pertinent fields. There are different researches done using CMAC in many applications using its characteristics in easy implementation and good results for example: facial expression recognition, pattern recognition etc. In this paper we have presented some methods of using CMAC and presents their results
22 Synthesis of Faujasite Zeolite (Z) for Adsorption of Cationic Dye from Textile Waste Water. , A. G Olaremu, and A.O Adeola
The synthesis of Faujasite Zeolite from Locally available Erusu Kaolin clay sourced in Nigeria has been attempted using standard procedures which have proven sufficient upon slight modifications and reported in literature. The zeolite was characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometer and BET surface area analyzer. Forthwith, Adsorption of the hazardous cationic dye malachite green (MG) on the synthesized zeolite was investigated. Batch process variables for the adsorption of MG by Zeolite were determined. The mechanisms involved in the adsorption of MG by the sorbent were explored using isotherms models. The maximum equilibrium adsorption capacity was found to be 108.26 mg/g at 30˚C. It is noteworthy that the adsorption of MG was reduced (about 45%) at low pH (4) compared to that at high pH (12). Furthermore, among the other parameters affecting adsorption, a high MG adsorption capacity (about 54%) was observed at a maximum initial MG dye concentration of 200 mg/L compared to that at lower initial MG dye concentration (25 mg/L), indicating the dependency of sorption on the initial adsorbate concentration (CO) in the solution. The MG adsorption data indicate multilayer adsorption because the data were fit better by the Freundlich model (R2 >0.99) than by the Langmuir model. Surface diffusion was found to be a possible mechanism for the adsorption of MG by Zeolite. The study shed light on the potential of synthesized kaolinite derivative “Zeolite” as an efficient sorbent for cationic dye cleanup in wastewater treatment
23 The Relationship between Board Tenure and Financial Performance. The Allegiance Hypothesis , Dr. Kennedy B. Mwengei Ombaba 1Dr. David Kosgey
PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between the tenure of the board and financial distress of listed firms in Kenya. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY: The research design used in this study was exploratory design. The study employed panel regression analysis and simultaneously used pooled regression and random effects on sample size of 57 listed firms in Kenya during the period of 2007-2016. FINDINGS: The study found that board tenure was found to be negatively and significantly related to financial performance (β=-0.091; p<0.01). THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS: This study adds value to theory by studying the effect of tenure on financial performance by updating empirical literature from a developing country. ORIGINALITY: The paper fills an important gap in academic literature by providing insights into the role of board tenure in performance of firms particularly in developing economies. In addition, given the increasing collapsing of companies in developing nations, this paper provides policy makers with evidence on the implications of board composition on financial distress.
24 Failure Study of Reinforced Concrete Buildings of Kathmandu Valley In Gorkha Earthquake 2015 , Dr Rajan Suwal
Nepal lies in earthquake prone zone. There are different fault zones in Nepal. Active fault of in this region causes several earthquakes in Nepal. In the recent, an earthquake of M7.8 occurred in 77 km NW of Kathmandu (in the boarder of Gorkha and Lam Jung) at 11:56 on 25 April 2015 with shallow depth of 15 km with maximum Mercalli Intensity of IX, lasting approximately thirty seconds. Nepal faced continued aftershocks throughout the country at the intervals of 15–20 minutes, with one shock reaching a magnitude of 6.7 on 26 April at 12:54:08. And another major earthquake of 7.3 (as per USGS report) occurred in 18 km south-east of Kodari and epicenter is in boarder of Dolkha and Sindhu pal chowk district at 12.51 on 12 May 2015. This article is concentrated to study of damages of reinforced concrete buildings only which are in Kathmandu valley in Gorkha Earthquake 2015. Effect of earthquake in reinforced concrete frame structures in Kathmandu valley are considered. Height of buildings is taken from two storied to ten storied. In this study it is discussed about the types of failures of reinforced concrete structures, observations and causes of structural failures, tilting of building, fully collapsed buildings, sandwich type failure of buildings, soft story failure of buildings, column failures, crushing of concrete failure of column, shear and bending failure of columns, shear failure of beams and beam-column joint failure, failure due to reinforcement deficiency, poor quality of concrete and infill wall failure. It is found that soil exploration in building site is not done in most of the failed building area so foundation failure in excessive settlement and tilting are observed, Configuration of buildings are not regular. It is observed the lack of structural design and not properly structural designed of buildings. In addition to this it is found that not proper reinforcement detailing of building elements and lack of quality control of construction materials. So, it is recommended that in the stage of soil exploration, planning, design and supervision of buildings, building norms should be strictly fulfilled. Technical expertise should be used in all process of work.
25 A Study on Occupational Stress Among Bus Drivers , Dr. Ashok.J, 2, Harshini.E
Professional driving is a very demanding task. According to the recent scientific evidence, Bus drivers tend to report high levels of occupational stress, burnout and occupational traffic accidents. Health has always been closely linked with occupation. Occupation related stress among working people is drastically increasing worldwide. Stress at work place has become an integral part of everyday life and is referred as ‘worldwide epidemic’ by the World Health Organization. This would have impact on the body and discomfort reflected in various parts of the body bringing about certain health problems. This study is an attempt to analyze the various factors that lead to stress among bus drivers and to examine the prevalence of health problems.
26 Digital Current Mode Controller for Buck Converter , 1, Ahsan Hanif, 2, Prof. Dr. Abdul Sattar Larik, 3, Dr. Anwar A. Sahito
Power electronics applications are widely used in different fields of engineering like computer, Telecommunication, electrical power and Mechanical), one of the most useful power electronics converters is DC-DC buck converter. Owing to its numerous applications, its performance needs to be improved through a suitable controller. In this Paper, A digital current mode controller is proposed and implemented for Buck converter. Proposed current mode control technique is simulated in MATLAB/SIMULINK and results are validated through hardware implementation. Both simulation and experimental analysis show effectiveness of the proposed controller
27 Performance Analysis of DC Micro Grid with PV-Fuel Cell Hybrid Generation , 1, Noor – ul -Ain, 2, Shafi M. Jiskani, 3, Dr. Anwar A. Sahito
Conventional energy resources are being replaced by Renewable energy sources mainly due to increasing environmental concerns. Photovoltaic (PV) and Fuel cell (FC) are suitable to be used in modern DC microgrids due to their DC output. In this research work, a DC microgrid structure is proposed for small residential areas using hybrid PV and FC generation. Power Electronic converters are used to regulate generated voltage of the two sources for integration to a common DC bus. Proposed system is simulated using MATLAB SIMULINK to observe its performance. Simulation results show that output voltage is properly maintained at different DC buses of the microgrid. FC is suitable to cope up the variation in PV output and maintain load requirements
28 Effect of Planner Aspect Ratio on Vernacular Masonry Building under Earthquakes , Jagat Kumar Shrestha
The behavior of a building during earthquakes depends critically on its planner aspect ratio. This paper deals with an evaluation of the seismic performance of vernacular masonry buildings with different planner aspect ratio. Rubble stone mud mortar masonry building structures are taken as reference building for this work, which are available in the rural area of Nepal. Four different planner aspect ratio's buildings are selected for model with flexible floor diaphragm representing the scenario of the constructed or constructing buildings in rural areas of our country after 25 April 2015 Earthquake in Nepal. A static non-linear (Pushover) analysis was performed. Subsequently, the available capacity spectrums are obtained to the corresponding demand spectrum to demonstrate the pushover responses of the buildings.
29 Solving Power Crisis of Bangladesh by Utilizing Renewable Energy , 1, Afshana Morshed, 2, Farzad Hossain, 3, Rifat Sultana Setu
Bangladesh is a developing country and crisis of power is one of the acute quandaries in any developing country like Bangladesh. Power is the most paramount factor and the demand of power is incrementing rapidly in the country. There are several reasons behind the power failure like lack of commitment of ascendancy, system loss, circumscription of resources, high demand, corruption in potency, low generation capacity etc. To overcome the problem of power crisis, renewable energy can be a great source. Bangladesh has huge untapped renewable energy resources which can be utilized to solve and aid the power crisis. In this paper we described about different forms of renewable energy that can be acclimated to meet the power demand by proper utilization at low cost and less risk. We also discussed about several sectors of renewable energy sources such as solar energy, wind energy, tidal energy, bio energy, hydro power, geothermal, ocean wave energy and energy from Bay-of-Bengal. Skilled manpower and new technology are required for taking initiative steps for power sectors utilizing renewable energy.
30 Present Conventional & Non- Conventional Energy Scenario in Bangladesh and Its Future Aspects , 1, Md. Sourove Akther Momin , 2, Afshana Morshed, 3, Farzad Hossain , 4, Rifat Sultana Setu
The approaching energy emergency, increased by the proceeding with the exhaustion of fossil fuels, complements the requirement for sending of Conventional & Non- Conventional energy resources in Bangladesh, now like never before some time recently. Despite the fact that hydrocarbon resources in the nation are restricted, the significant accessibility of Conventional & Non- Conventional energy sources as fossil fuels, natural gas, nuclear energy and hydroelectric energy offers chances of reasonable energy-based advancements like wave energy, energy from the Bay-of-Bengal and potential sources of geothermal energy. Insufficiency in the energy area is a noteworthy issue in Bangladesh, which obstructs the smooth financial improvement work processes. Along the lines, Bangladesh is confronting trouble to accomplish a generally maintained advance in the economy because of the absence of a sound energy security. With the goal of exploring this advance, this paper displays an exhaustive investigation of the contemporary Conventional & Non- Conventional energy situation and future prospect in Bangladesh as far as appropriation, research and infrastructural improvement in the nation. It has found the components that are valuable to diminish the current energy supply emergency and abridged the present energy situation, absence of foundation and customary energy sources to advance the Conventional & Non-Conventional energy sources to satisfy the energy request in future in Bangladesh.
31 Implementation of Social Networks as a Digital Communication Tool in Social Supermarkets , 1,Blazenka Knezevic , 2,Vida Davidaviciene , 3,Petra Skrobot
The main purpose of social supermarkets is to serve to customers, which are in material deprivation. As nonprofit organizations, they perform several business activities on everyday basis. Those activities include: (1) collecting donations in money, (2) organization of acceptance of donations in form of food and toiletries from traditional supply chains, (3) acquiring food and other stuff from other sources and (4) distribution of food, toiletries and other stuff for free and/or (5) selling goods at extremely discounted prices to socially endangered people. There are numerous possibilities of social networks implementation in such type of organizations. The aim of this paper is to analyze how social supermarkets implement social networks in communication with donors, volunteers, end users and general public. In the paper, three cases of active social supermarkets in Croatia are analyzed in order to explain the usage of social networks in their everyday operations.
32 Results of 2017 monitoring of atmospheric air pollution in Tbilisi, Georgia , 1, E.Bakradze, 2,G.Kuchava, 3,M.Arabidze, 4,I.khomeriki, 5,Q.Kvatashidze
In the work is discussed in results of air pollution monitoring on four stations and passive sampling in 2017. In Tbilisi in some cases high concentrations of some pollutants have been identified. An air pollutant is a substance in the air that can have adverse effects on humans and the ecosystem. The substance can be solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. A pollutant can be of natural origin or man-made. Pollutants are classified as primary or secondary. Primary pollutants are usually produced from a process, such as ash from a volcanic eruption. Other examples include carbon monoxide gas from motor vehicle exhaust, or the sulfur dioxide released from factories. Secondary pollutants are not emitted directly. Rather, they form in the air when primary pollutants react or interact. Ground level ozone is a prominent example of a secondary pollutant. Some pollutants may be both primary and secondary: they are both emitted directly and formed from other primary pollutants [1]. The average concentration of each contaminant is given in Table 1.
33 Disproof of the Riemann Conjecture with Infinity and the Points beyond the Critical Strip and X axis Zeroes Still Existing beyond the Critical Strip Besides the historical Proofs Discussion of the Zeta Function and Dirichlet Function beyond the Riemann Conjecture and Riemann’s Article Title of Prime Numbers Less than a Given Magnitude , James T. Struck BA, BS, AA, MLIS
We perhaps have been following the wrong path in looking at the Riemann conjecture by forgetting the article title. Riemann wanted us, as he makes clear in his title, to talk about and discuss “On the Number of Primes Less Than A Given Magnitude.” We can be happy that our look at his title “On the Number of Primes Less Than A Given Magnitude” helped us understand prime numbers a bit better than talking about the real part of ½ in relation to the zeta function. If we consider prime numbers of less than a given magnitude as on a graph or listed, we see many points that lie outside the critical strip as a type of disproof.
34 Proofs and Disproof of the Hodge Conjecture from 2016-2017- 2018 , James T. Struck BA, BS, AA, MLIS
The Godel incompleteness Theorem argues “your set of axioms will always be incomplete-they won’t be sufficient to prove all the facts. In mathematics as in life, parts of the truth are destined to remain forever elusive.” [1] Kurt Godel was a famous Austrian Mathematician and some appreciation for his incompleteness theorem should be given. Hodge Conjecture could be disproved in a few words, as axioms often are incomplete. If we take a set of irrational algebraic cycles, the result will be an irrational combination of classes. We cannot add irrational algebraic cycles and make up a rational linear combination. Yes, Hodge as we show can make up fantasies, inventions, or ideas like the Hodge Class, but that is only a definitional proof. When tested on real irrational algebraic cycles, the definition is just that a definition and not really a description of all algebraic geometric cycles like irrational shapes. The irrational algebraic cycle easily disproves the conjecture, as combinations will not be rational! I have worked on and off on the Hodge Conjecture from 2016-2018. Here I present the Historical Disproof that Hodge Classes Arose in a Non-Linear Relationship to Algebraic Cycles in the Past and Nomenclature Disproof that a Hodge Class is disproved to be a Set of Points as the Names and Words are Distinct. The problem we are faced with is the “Hodge Conjecture. On a projective non-singular algebraic variety over C, any Hodge class is a rational linear combination of classes cl(Z) of algebraic cycles.” We also present the definitional proof that Hodge can define a conjecture statement “Hodge class is a rational linear combination of classes cl(Z) of algebraic cycles” that is provable as that is how he is defining the problem and he can conjecture something as a statement of proof.
35 Paper Materials for Furniture: A Design Review , 1Wan Nurazri Wan Bukhari , 2Mohd Hisham Omar
This paper discusses the paper waste can be the alternative materials for furniture to replace the wood and metal materials. Furniture is an important product that occupies indoor and outdoor spaces that used for sitting, lying, storing, eating, sleeping and working. Paper waste in landfills has the higher amount of waste compared to other waste such as plastics, glass, metals and food waste. Besides, the recycling process is the best way to overcome the major environmental issues such as the pollution, deforestation, pervasive logging, landfill waste, dangerous greenhouse gases and global warming. So, the human must play their roles in recycling activities, process, and campaign. The advantages of the paper materials for furniture such as easy to handle, cost saving, lightweight, strong, and stiff. The waste materials had been applied in construction activities already been proven so that it can be the alternative materials to reduce the cost and usage of raw materials. The futuristic design of paper materials furniture is the best approach to satisfy the customer’s requirements and the new successor in furniture industries by using Product Development Process (PDP). The paper waste materials into furniture products is a part of the innovation and Green Technology approach.
36 Rating Framework to Evaluate Connection Flights at Tourist Airports , 1Dimitrios J. Dimitriou, 2Maria F. Sartzetaki , 3Aristi G. Karagkouni
Airport’s serving a tourist destination is an essential counterpart of the tourist demand supply chain, and their productivity is related to the region’s attractiveness and is enhanced by the air transport business. In this paper, the evaluation framework in order to prioritize the scheduled flights connecting two tourist airports is introduced, taking into consideration their available yield seats. By adopting a systemic approach, the arrivals from an airport that its connectivity is heavily depended on the departures of another airport are reviewed. The methodology approach, based on inventory control theory and the numerical example, promotes the use of the modeling formulation. The results would be essential for comparison and exercising to other similar cases.
37 Applications of the grey prediction model in Urban Residents’ Consumption Structure of Henan Province , Yong Wei Yang, Yang Yang He, Ming Xue Guo
This paper first analyses the development trend of residents’ consumption Henan province from 2009 to 2016. Then the grey prediction model GM (1, 1) is applied to predict the change trend of residents’ consumption of Henan provinc. Finally, the paper puts forward some suggestions on the upgrading of the consumption structure of urban residents
38 Sustainable Development: a controversial concept , Teresa Maria Leitão Dieguez
The issue of economic growth and development is one of the fundamental concerns of humankind. It is therefore necessary to find solutions so that people can have access to a greater diversity of goods and services, as well as better standard of living and well-being. Since ancient times, humankind has been warned about the scarcity of the resources but even with this information, they still take unreasonable measures with irreversible effects. The recent past gives us evidence that Sustainable Development is not only a practice of corporate social responsibility to gain a competitive edge, but also a necessity to meet the needs of future generations. The strength of the economic element cannot overlap with the balance of social and environmental dimensions. Having this is mind, the challenges are vast, as they are from all and for all citizens, since they are increasingly participating in building their futures, which require an awareness of a common destiny and the progressive construction of a world community. There is a clear need for paradigm shifting: civil society will be the kernel for building a change strategy with clear and strong perspectives based on identified collective shared visions. This study presents an evolutionary perspective of concerns related with sustainability, from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to the present day.
39 Measurement of Flow Rate and Impact Force on Different Vanes through Impact of Jet , 1, Farzad Hossain, 2, Afshana Morshed, 3,Rifat Sultana, 4, Md. Quamrul Islam
The objectives of the paper are to conduct an investigation into the reaction force generated by the impact of a jet of water onto various target vanes and to compare between experimental and theoretical forces which are exerted by the jet. The procedure for this experiment is to bring the weight cup in the initial position by applying weight when the flow rate is varied. It can be possible to repeat the same experiment by changing different target vanes. Moreover, the effect of different target vanes can be seen at a constant flow rate by changing the type of target vanes and applying different amounts of weights to bring the weight cup in the initial position. The vanes used in this experiment can be categorized into four geometries. Flat, inclined, spherical and conical vanes are used for this experiment. Experimental and theoretical forces and the percentage of error can be calculated in this experiment. Here, the theoretical forces are depended upon weights applied on the weight cup and the experimental forces are depended on flow rate, nozzle exit velocity, impact velocity and shape of the vanes.
40 Design and Control of a Hydraulic Servo System and Simulation Analysis , Dechrit Maneetham
This paper describes the system analysis, modeling and simulation of a Hydraulic Servo System (HSS) for hydraulic mini press machine. Comparisons among linear output feed back PID control, Fuzzy control and Hybrid of PID and Fuzzy control are presented. Application of hybrid controller to a nonlinear is investigated by both position and velocity of the hydraulic servo system. The experiment is based on an 8 bit PIC 16F877 microcontroller, and the simulation is based on MATLAB Simulink. Simulation and hardware experimental results show that the hybrid controller gave the best performance as it has the smallest overshoot, oscillation, and setting time.
41 Corporate Governance and Its Impact on Financial Performance in Nepalese Commercial Banks , Dr. Achyut Gnawali
Corporate governance is about building credibility, ensuring transparency and accountability as well as maintaining aneffective channel of information disclosure that would foster good corporate performance. Corporate governance is the extent to which companies are run in an open and honest manner is important for overall market confidence. Corporate governance describes all of the devices, institutions, and mechanisms by which corporations are governed. The basic objective of the study is to analyze the level and structure of corporate governance in Nepal and determine its effects on financial performance in commercial banks of Nepal. Descriptive research design has been followed and multistage sampling method is used. Both primary as well as secondary data have been used to collect the information. It is found that corporate governance has played the significant role to keep the corporate governance in Nepalese commercial Banks.
42 Radiolysis of Transformer Oil in The Presence of Admixtures of Polychlorinebiphenyl , 1,Z.I.Isgenderova, 2,M.A.Gurbanov
Dependence of concentration of CO2, H2O2, pH- indicator and IR-spectra of γ- irradiated transformer oil, containing polychlorinebiphenyl (PCB) admixtures from adsorbed doses in the range of 4-136 kGy was studied. It was established that radiation-chemical yields of CO2 and H2O2 are equal to 0.18 and 3.6 molec/100eV. Irradiation leads to increasing of acidity, related with dechlorination of PCB molecules. A comparative study of the radiolysis of used transformer oil and oil containing PCB under the influence of gamma radiation was carried out. The pH-value dependence and concentration of hydrogen peroxide as a function of the absorbed dose was studied. It found that during the radiolysis of transformer oil containing PCB in the presence of dissolved oxygen, radiation-initiated oxidation of the oil takes place (formation of H2O2 and CO2, a decrease in the pH-value).
43 Strategies for Considerations Requirement Sample Size in Different Clinical Trials , Altaiyb Omer Ahmed*1 – Babiker Gafar Yousif 2 -Amani Babiker Mohamed 3 - Salma Mustafa Alnaier
Usually the main problem face any investigation it how to determent a sample size, however, some considerations required in sample size to conduct the efficacy and make realistic well-researched before began study. This study aimed to determine the maximum possible sample size at different phases of clinical trials and attempt to achieve the best accuracy of the results. To achieve that the maximum sample size in different phases we found that the maximum sample size of phase I was (75) relies on largest response rate 20% and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) 15%, and because the participants are healthy often that means 15% enough to show positive results of the transition to the second phase. for the phase II clinical trials; the maximum sample size was (388) depend on the error 5% and largest response rate 50% when the response rate should not be less than 20% according to the design used in this phase. Depend on the endpoint and hazard ratio in phase III clinical trials when the probability of survival of the treatment group equal to median of the probability of survival 50% we found that the maximum sample size (4796). For the phase IV the maximum sample size in different phases of clinical trials does not affect whatever the large of the population size and remains constant as large as possible size.
44 Effects Of 600 Microns Particles of Eggshell on Tensile Strength of Zinc-Aluminum (ZA27) Alloy , Adedayo, A. V.1,3* ; Abdusalam, Y.N.2,3
The study investigates the effects of eggshell particulate and particulate sizes on tenstile strength of ZA27 MMC where eggshell served as particulate reinforcement. ZA27 MMC was produced by melting and casting ZA27 alloy and particulate eggshell in a lift-out crucible furnace, to produce rods of ZA27 MMC. Control sample rods which have no eggshell content were also produced by melting and casting in sand molds. The tensile strength of the produced rods were tested, and the results show a significant dependence of this property on added particulate eggshell content.
45 A Neuromarketing Study on Mongolian Consumers’ Buying Decision Process , BOLDBAATAR Gonchigjav
There has been almost 20 years since science of marketing has developed in Mongolia and there has been significant progress in acquiring and using it. Business companies’ leadership have become aware of the importance of this science and see marketing as business philosophy and understand that analyzing the market, business environment and conditions by consumers is the key to success. Today’s society demands from marketing professionals’ delicacy and taking into account consumers’ needs and creating new needs and new means of consumption. Main purpose of business entities is to be aware of consumer needs, to establish its position on the market and to be successful. In order to provide consumers with the best products and keep them at the center of their attention it is important to establish optimal ratio of marketing factors that would most efficiently influence consumers with different behaviors.
46 Validation Approach on CAD Model and Prototype Model of the Paper Chair , 1Wan Nurazri Wan Bukhari, 2Mohd Hisham Omar, 3Mohamad Sobri Abu Bakar
This paper represents the possibility of paper materials transforms into the chair model that has potential in the furniture manufacturing in the future. This paper aims to design, simulate and analyze with the static analysis using the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and validation testing with a real-life prototype model of the paper chair that has been proposed from the Product Development Process (PDP) in terms of design structure and materials used. Paper waste materials are the best selection of unwanted and worthless waste that can be transformed into the usable and functional furniture products where it can help to solve the lack of recycling activities and reduce the major environmental problems. The result in terms of the static analysis where a lower value than the proposed yield strength which means the design structure is very durable and can endure the human’s weight that over 80 kg. Plus, the Factor of Safety (FOS) result shows the blue color region of the analysis has passed successfully where it is durable to withstand the human’s weight and safe to use. The result in terms of the paper waste materials that have been designed for the validation process has a good durability and toughness along with a good reliability of the Cronbach Alpha value that was concluded the paper materials for furniture manufacturing have the capability to succeed in the future.
47 From Intentions to Actions: Entrepreneurial Education , Teresa Dieguez
Entrepreneurship is an issue that causes a lot of controversy. Some people assert that becoming an entrepreneur is a solution for young students; some others argue that this statement is not so obvious, since the implementation of a business demands investment and requires capital, capital that is not easy to obtain. This article looks at a sample of 275 college students in Portugal and seeks to investigate if there is any relationship of entrepreneurial intentions of university students and some variables as training areas, higher education institutions, gender, age and family influences. To achieve this goal, a survey was carried out to college students, trying to understand how the training schools encouraged the creation of an entrepreneurial culture, in what extent students were motivated to entrepreneurship and what are their intents for the future. The results demonstrate that entrepreneurial education is the basis of cultivating the entrepreneurial spirit in college students. The training areas, the ambition of having his/her/own business, having a great idea and having family´s history of entrepreneurial characteristics are the main causes that influence entrepreneurial intentions in college students.
48 Survey on Text Mining Based on Social Media Comments as Big Data Analysis Using Genetic Algorithm , 1,Brijesh Kumar, 2,Ankita Khan, 3,Prof. Ramya R, 4,Prof. Divyashree G
The tax gives an important role for the contributions of the economy and development of a country. The improvements to the taxation service system continuously done in order to increase the State Budget. The performance of the country will be upgrade from the public opinion about the tax. The opinion of the public will be considered as a data for the growth of the nation. Text mining can be used to know public opinion about the tax system. The rapid growth of data in social media initiates the researchers to use the data source as big data analysis. The dataset used is derived from Face book, Twitter public sentiment in part of service, website system, and news can be used as consideration as a input of tax comments. In this paper, text mining is done through the phases of text processing, feature selection and classification with genetic algorithm (GA). Efficient framework is used for pre-processing the data. Testing is used to measure the performance level of GA by using the evaluation metrics such as purity, entropy and F-measure.
49 Uses of Plastic Waste in Road Construction in Maiduguri , 1,Abdullahi Muhammad Abba, 2,Zara Kyari Kolo , 3,Ahmed Tujanni Gubio, 4,Deborah James Malgwi
This study investigated the use of waste plastics for the modification of properties of road aggregates. The shredded plastics waste was thoroughly mix with heated aggregates forming a layer on the surface of the aggregates. These plastics waste coated aggregates are tested for impact value, crushing value, specific gravity and water absorption. It has been found that there is significant improvement in the properties of plastic-coated aggregates after testing.
50 Analysis and Simulation of Flat Plate Laminar Boundary Layer , 1, Farzad Hossain, 2, Afshana Morshed, 3, Rifat Sultana
In this paper, an analysis was done on laminar boundary layer over a flat plate. The analysis was performed by changing the Reynolds number. The Reynolds number was changed by changing horizontal distance of the flat plate. Since other quantities were fixed, the Reynolds number increased with increment of horizontal distance. Iterations were increased in scaled residuals whenever the Reynolds number was increased. Maximum value of velocity contour decreased with the increment of the Reynolds number. The value of the largest region of velocity contour decreased with the increment of the value of the Reynolds number and it also affected the appearance of contour. The value of pressure contour increased with the increment of the Reynolds number. Vertical distance versus velocity graph was not depended on the Reynolds number. In this graph, the velocity increased rapidly with the increment of vertical distance for a certain period. After that, the velocity decreased slightly with the increment of vertical distance. Finally, the velocity became around 1.05 m/s.
51 The May 1975 Student Strike in Mauritius and its Aftermath: A reflection on decolonisation of education , Betchoo Nirmal Kumar
The 1975 Student’s strike in Mauritius was a trigger to the need for greater equality in secondary education. It was a time when such education was not free and students attending private secondary schools had to pay to afford learning beyond their primary education to achieve the School Certificate and aim for a decent job. The May 1975 uprising gave way to upper secondary level students’ demonstration in the urban areas with echoes all over the country. The benefits of such a reform are manifold like wider access to secondary education to girls, greater possibility for students to pursue education up to the Higher School Certificate including the democratisation of education through the creation of Junior Secondary Schools (JSS). This paper claims that May 1975 remains to-date an important turn in the secondary education system in Mauritius bringing a higher level of democracy and creating a pathway for the decolonisation of education through the abolishment of the Moray House Junior Scholarship, the ‘mauritianisation’ of local texts, the use of Kreol in teaching. However, the lessons of 1975 might not apply to the contemporary context whereby elitist education still persists, socialist ideologies have died and new student uprising has never been seen afterwards just to sum up that decolonisation remains a challenging process albeit the 1975 unrest as a starting point of educational decolonisation.
52 Design and Simulation Analysis of Sliding Mode Controller for DC-DC Cuk Converter , 1, Amir Muhammad, 2, Dr. Anwar Ali Sahito, 3, Prof. Dr. Abdul Sattar Larik, 4, Faisal Nawab
Due to compact size and fast dynamic response DC-DC converters are used to a great extent. DC-DC Cuk converter has switching transients which leads to switching losses and harmonics generation. With a linear controller like Proportional integral derivative (PID), the transients and oscillations under supply and load variations cannot be controlled. So, it becomes necessary to use a nonlinear controller to make transient performance of the converter stable increase its efficiency. A great advantage of this controller includes, it’s based on large signal model of DC to DC converters hence its stability is not bounded by the size of the interpretations around the working point. In this research work, simulation model of cuk converter with sliding mode controller is developed and tested using MATLAB SIMULINK. Effectiveness of proposed sliding mode controller for cuk converter is proved from simulation results.
53 The Geotechnical Properties of Jamshoro Soil (Shale) With Cement , 1, Gul Zaman, 2, Dr. Zaheer Ahmed Almani, 3, Dr. Aneel Kumar Hindu
--------------------------------------------------ABSTRACT-------------------------------------------------------- The geology of Jamshoro soil is nearly consist of multilayers in alternative form. The alternative layer of Jamshoro soil occur in the form of lime stone and shale or vice versa. The basic aim of this research is to improve the geotechnical properties of Jamshoro soil (shale) by using the cement as the stabilized material. This paper reports the effect of cement on the geotechnical characteristic of the cohesive soil and swelling potential of the Jamshoro soil. The soil sample used for testing purpose are thoroughly mixed to obtain the homogeneity. After that thoroughly mixed was dried in the oven. Oven dried sample was mixed with cement at different proportion that was 5% ,10%, 15% and 20% by the soil weight. Water content used in the mixture to form the specimens at optimum moisture contents of the soil. The compacted this prepared soil specimen was done by followed the procedure of standard proctor test. Compacted specimens were cured for the period of 1, 7, 14 and 28 days. After the completion of curing duration of specimen direct shear test was done. On the base of experimental result, it was concluded that the cement showed an appreciable improvement of the cohesion with the curing period
54 Disputes Impact in Pakistan Construction Industry: A Comprehensive Study of Road Development Projects , 1, Saeed Ahmed, 2, Dr. Nafees Ahmed Memon, 3, Engr. Ali Raza Khoso 4, Syed Abdullah Shah Hashmi, 5, Dr. Aftab Hameed Memon
The road construction works have tendency to build strong variances among the stakeholder which involved in projects, they can turn quickly into disputes and become difficult to resolve them. All developing countries are increasing their economic growths, Pakistan is one of them which rapidly growing its resources spending on construction projects effectively. Road construction disputes are one the major issues which will affect the successful completion of the projects. This research aim to analyze the causes and impacts of disputes in roads construction projects of Pakistan construction industry. This study is undertaken to identify the causes, impacts and remedial measures/appropriate suggestion to overcome from disputes. The construction claims are considered as one of the most unpleasant and disruptive event of a construction project, which will effects intern of costs overrun, time overrun and dynamic nature of projects. This study is limited to determination of causes and Impacts of disputes as observed by Clients, contractors and consultants working in road construction projects. Get a path way to manage disputes from informed, selection of remedial measures. The data were collected from respondents which are concerned in road construction, after analysis of the data, concluded that incomplete documentation, inappropriate contract system, unrealistic price of tenders, errors in design and overstated claims are the major Causes of disputes in construction projects. Mediation and negotiation were identified the common desired method to manage disputes.
55 Moisture Adsorption Isotherms Characteristics of a New Moisture Adsorbers , 1,Yué Bi Yao Clément, 2,Bouatene Djakalia, 3,Tano Kablan
The purpose of the study was to analyze the effect of the replacement rate of the most hygroscopic moisture adsorber on the adsorption properties of a new moisture adsorbers formulated. Moisture adsorption isotherms of this new moisture adsorbers formulated were determined at 4 ± 1 °C, using the standard static gravimetric method. All moisture adsorption isotherms of new moisture adsorbers were type II following Brunauer’s classification. The moisture isotherms were sigmoid shaped and showed a clear dependence on the substitution rates of the most hygroscopic moisture adsorber (ads 3). Of the eighteen new moisture adsorbers formulated, only AB (40:60) and AL (60:40) adsorbers had the characteristic appearance of better moisture adsorbeers in modified atmosphere packaging of fruits and vegetables (tomato and mushroom). Thus, their incorporation into the packaging could avoid the condensation of water vapor by maintaining an optimal relative humidity. Based on statistical parameters, additive isotherm approach of Labuza (1968) could not correctly describe the adsorption characteristics of all this new moisture adsorbers formulated. However, this model gave better prediction with the new AB moisture adsorbers than with the new AL moisture adsorbers with sums of relative mean errors of 165.89% and 293.71%, respectively.
56 A Machine Learning based Network Sharing System Design with MPTCP , Yu-Ching Lin
The information and communication technologies (ICT) integrate different types of wireless communication to provide IT-enabled services and applications. The great majority end devices are equipped with multiple network interfaces such as Wi-Fi and 4G. Our goal is to integrate the available network interfaces and technologies to enhance seamless communication efficiency and increase resources utilization. We proposed a heterogeneous network management algorithm based on machine learning methods which includes roaming and sharing functions. The roaming function provides the multiple network resources in physical and media access control layers. The sharing function supports multiple network resources allocation and the service handover process based on the Multi-Path TCP protocol. The simulation result also shows that the proposed scheme can increase the network bandwidth utilization effectively. The sharing system could be used in home, mobile and vehicular environments to realize ubiquitous social sharing networks
57 Modeling and Development of Pneumatic Accumulating System , Engr. Riaz Hussain1 , Prof. Dr. Dur Muhammad2 , Dr. Saifullah3 , Engr. Muhammad Atif
In the recent few years the quest for renewable energy has been increased. In developing countries like Pakistan, energy crises are considered as critical problem for country’s economy. In this scenario there are two possibilities either to improve the efficiency of energy conversion method or to discover new energy resources i.e. renewable sources. Therefore, the main concern of this study is to develop an accumulating system which can harness some amount of wasted energy of moving road vehicles. It has been found that road moving vehicles are wasting huge amount of their potential energy. This wasted energy can be harvested by installing a pneumatic accumulating system underneath the transient rout of moving vehicle, which can simulate wasted energy for useful work. For the proposed system, mathematical model with governing equations is developed, that shows efficient conversation of potential energy to the pressure energy. Developed model is programmed in MATLAB for the real time comparison of output. It is observed that the proposed system is applicable to extract wasted energy of road vehicle for useful purpose.
58 Thermodynamic Analysis of Cooling Tower with Air to Air Heat Exchanger for Reducing Evaporative Losses , 1, Ans Ahmed Memon, 2, Muhammad waqas Chandio, 3, Saadat Ali khokhar
In this paper a thermodynamic analysis of cooling tower with air-to-air heat exchanger is presented. During manual operation of conventional cooling tower, a good quantity of water is evaporated which requires equivalent amount of makeup water for their condensers. So, in this regard, the thermodynamic model of a cooling with an air to air heat exchanger is developed using engineering equation solver (EES) software and then simulated in different climatic conditions of two major cities of Pakistan namely Karachi and Jamshoro through the period of June & December 2017. The results show a significant variation in water vapor recovery with respect to atmospheric conditions mainly humidity and ambient air temperature. Results reveal that the when a cooling tower coupled with air to air heat exchanger maximum amount of water vapors are recovered at Karachi and ranges up to 67% and 62% in Jamshoro during the month of December.
59 Design of Cold Recycled Emulsified Asphalt Mixtures Using Portland Cement as A Partial Replacement of Aggregate Mineral Filler , 1Engr. Abdul Qudoos Malano, 2Prof. Dr. Naeem Aziz Memon, 3Engr. Gulzar Hussain Jatoi and 4Engr. Abdul Hafeez Memon
Cold Recycling is getting popularity in research sector and construction industries because it overcomes all the issues of Hot Mix Asphalt of more consumption of natural resources, high production energy, central plant recycling, effect of greenhouse gases and non-feasibility in colder regions. In this research study, a cold recycled mixture is designed and compared in terms of mechanical and volumetric properties with control hot mix asphalt mixture, using 60% RAP (reclaimed asphalt pavement) aggregates and 40 % virgin aggregates to fulfill gradation requirements. Asphalt emulsion for cold recycled mixtures is used as a binder with varying five contents (4.3%, 4.8%, 5.3%, 5.8% and 6.3%). Also, a modified cold recycled mixture is prepared at optimum emulsion content of control cold recycled mixture by partially replacing conventional aggregate mineral filler with three different contents of Portland cement (2%, 3% and 4%) of total dry mass of aggregates. Marshall mix design procedure was adopted to calculate the optimum (bitumen, emulsion and filler content) for control hot mix asphalt, control cold recycled mixture and modified cold recycled mixtures respectively. Mechanical properties of each of these mixtures were compared with each other and it was found that modified cold recycled mixtures were better than controlled cold recycled mixture and comparable in properties to hot mix asphalt mixtures and Optimum filler content of Portland cement for modified cold recycled mixture was found to be at 4%.
60 Design and Evaluation of Open Graded Hot Mix Asphalt Using Cement as A Grouting Material , 1,Gulzar Hussain Jatoi, 2,Naeem Aziz Memon, 3,Pervez shaikh, 4,Abdul Qudoos Malano, 5,Abdul Hafeez Memon
Road networks ought to be efficiently designed to be safe, speedy and loading sustaining as it has a significant importance in country’s development. For that, pavement should be designed efficiently to exhibit better strength, durability and economical at the same time. Generally, a pavement is classified as Flexible or Rigid. Flexible pavement is opened early to traffic, has good riding quality and ease of maintenance but owing to heavy loading conditions these pavements are more susceptible to wear and tear. On the contrary rigid pavement is load sustaining, durable but having higher construction cost and poor riding quality. World is heading to semirigid pavement which exhibits characteristics of both these pavements. It is the combination of cement concrete and porous asphalt concrete which is achieved by leaving 25% to 30% air voids infused by cement grouts and is known as Semi-rigid pavement.In this research, semi-rigid pavement was designed using ratio of grout of optimum mix was 1:0.55 at water cement ratio by 2% of cement dosage with SP. Study concludes that, Semirigid pavement’s Marshall stability of 7 days was almost 85% of rigid pavement and 28 days compressive strength of semi-rigid pavement was almost 30.5% that of rigid pavement. Besides, it has been ensured that 7 days strength is comparable to 28 days strength of Semi-rigid pavement.
61 Fresh and Hardened Properties of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Made Concrete , 1, Asaf Nawaz Khan, 2, Dr. Fareed Ahmed Memon, 3, Samar Hussain Rizvi 4, Quratulain Bhanbhro, 5, Naraiandas Bheel,
This research work was carried out on concrete specimens made with different proportion of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) as a cement substitution in concrete. To accomplish the goal of the research work, overall 75 cubes and 60 cylinders were made. Out of 75 cubes and 60 cylinders, 15 cubes and 12 cylinders were cast for control concrete, and 60 cubes and 48 cylinders were cast by replacing 5,10,15 and 20% of cement with GGBFS. The cubes and cylinder specimens were 100x100x100 mm and 100x200 mm respectively, and mix design was done for 28 Mpa. All specimens were tested at 3. 7, 28 and 90 days of curing ages. The fresh properties such as workability and hardened properties such as compressive and tensile strength of all mixes were determined. Tests results showed that the workability of the concrete mixes made with GGBFS was higher than control mix. As the percentage of GGBFS increased the workability also increased. Hardened properties of concrete mixes made with GGBFS was lower than control concrete at early ages of curing. At the later age, hardened properties of GGBFS made concrete was more than control concrete. Furthermore, water absorption and density of GGBFS made concrete was lower than control concrete.
62 Proposed Framework for Effective Management of End-User Stakeholders’ in Public Private Partnership Road Projects in Nigeria , 1,Luqman Olalekan Toriola-Coker, 2,Mohammed Agbali, 3,Wasiu Adeniran Belloc 4, Chaminda Pathiragec 5, Lukmon Oyedele
Significant infrastructure such as roads, prisons, schools, rail tracks and train systems, among others are currently developed through the involvement of Public Private Partnership (PPP) arrangements which have been acknowledged internationally in recent time. The poor management of end-user stakeholder during PPP projects in developing nation like Nigeria has been established as one of the major factor affecting the successful growth and development of PPP projects. Due to the paucity in research on end-user stakeholder management on PPP projects in Nigeria, informs this study aim to expose the main strategic factors that can accommodate end-user stakeholder’s management in any PPP road project in Nigeria. The professionals that have worked on the project cum the end-user of the project area were used as targeted respondents for the adopted case study and survey strategies method approach. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the eighteen (18) interviews that were conducted having completed and analysed total number of 282 questionnaires using reliability and factor analysis approach. Seven valid underlying factors were revealed from 28 variables that were left on the questionnaire data with the aid of factor analysis which were used later as factors affecting end-user stakeholders’ management in PPP road project in Nigeria. A proposed framework was created with the seven underlying factors as a template for any successful PPP road project in developing country like Nigeria. These will quench the agitation of enduser stakeholders’ quarrels on PPP toll road projects.
63 Predicting Trade Conflict Outcomes using a Third-Party Intervention Model , 1,Rejoice Nyatsanza, 2,Haiyan Xu
As anti-import sentiment and protectionism have been increasing, more papers have focused on using theories to explain or resolve them. However, most research has focused on disputes involving larger nations such that there is not much relatable information for disputes such as the one between South Africa and Zimbabwe. The aim of this paper was to bridge the knowledge gap by using the graph model for conflict resolution and the decision support software GMCRII to simulate possible responses to this regional trade conflict. This thirdparty intervention model will assist in investigating and prescribing a diplomatic solution with fair compromise to resolve the unequal trade problem between Zimbabwe and South Africa without harming the economies of both the countries. This research found that a peaceful resolution of the disagreement could be found by the addition of a third-party to help in the conflict resolution thereby ending the prolonged trade conflict. This undertaking will serve as a template for modelling and predicting an outcome in the event of third-party intervention for future trade disputes involving regional trade partners with emerging or developing economies such as those that exist in Africa.
64 Efficiency Evaluation of Thailand Gross Domestic Product Using DEA , Achirawee Kuntano1 , Xu Haiyan
The goal of this research is to evaluate the efficiency of GDP in Thailand from the past years and provide suggestions for government and policy-makers on ways to manage inputs and improve outputs in the future while enhancing the GDP of Thailand. The paper analyzed the data collected from Office of the National Economic and Social Development of Thailand through a period of 25 years ranging from 1993 to 2017. The results show that the year 2017 was the worst years in terms of efficiency. In order to achieve the research goal, data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used. Theoretically, research has found that evaluation of GDP can be improved by eradicating the negative values of slack movement. In economic terms, the research proposed the promotion of export-led growth, business incubators, and entrepreneurship to boost not only the inputs but also the GPD of the country. In general, the GDP of Thailand is quite efficient. This research can provide strategic advice for Thai Government to improve the Gross Domestic Product thoroughly.
65 Semi-automatic Picture Book Generation based on Story Model and Agent-based Simulation , 1,Kiyohito Fukuda, 2,Naoki Mori, 3,Keinosuke Matsumoto
In the fields of artificial intelligence, automatic narrative generation has attracted considerable interest. Lots of studies on narrative generation have been reported such as novel, comic, and picture book. However, most of those reuse original stories, pictures, and sentences. As a result, there is a problem that generated narratives infringe on copyright. In this paper, we focus on the picture book as the narrative because picture book is a mix of images and language. As a first step of automatic story generation without representation mediums, we propose a novel semi-automatic picture book generation method based on story model and agent-based simulation. The computational experiments are carried out to confirm the effectiveness of the proposed method
66 The Effect of Workplace Relationship toward Job Satisfaction of Divine Word Colleges’ Employees in Region I, Philippines , 1,Damianus Abun, 2,Theogenia Magallanes, 3, Hema Paynaen, 4, Sylvia Lalaine Grace L. Foronda, 5,Marylin Pre
The study was conducted to determine workplace relationship between employer and employees and among employees of Divine Word Colleges in Ilocos Sur, Philippines and its effect on the job satisfaction. Literatures and studies were reviewed, and questionnaires were used to gather the data related to workplace relationship and job satisfaction. The respondents of the study are employees of the colleges of Ilocos region which include Ilocos Sur and Ilocos Norte. The study is a descriptive study involving survey and fact-finding inquiry. Weighted mean and Pearson r were used to determine the workplace relationship and its correlation with job satisfaction. The study found that there is a significant correlation between workplace relationship and job satisfaction. Therefore, the study recommends that management need to monitor and improve workplace relationship between employer and employees and among employees and also improve and monitor factors that affect job satisfaction.
67 Energy Conservation through Smart Building and Smart Lighting System , Muhammad Irfan
Energy conservation is an extensive topic due to the propagation of electricity demand and challenges globally and is regarded as one of the most significant issues affects the power system quality, global environment and consumers. Smart building is a technology that can connect everything to networks or systems to monitor and control them in various areas such as offices, energy-consuming devices especially in laboratories, security devices etc. Nevertheless, people's perception about using smart technology for energy saving is still in the mind’s eye. This means that people discuss about environmental awareness readily. Due to the availability of electricity and its elemental role, regulating consumers’ behaviours towards power savings can be a challenge. Remarkably, the gap in today's smart technology design in smart buildings is the compassionate of consumers’ attitudes and the merging of this perspective into the smart technology. Implementation of PLC based controlling system is a convenient method to save the power and energy strategy for whole building. Furthermore, prepare a lighting scheme can results a rapid response in energy conservation. Consequently, PLC Automatic system removes the human intervention which makes the process smart and energy reduction will gives benefits to the consumers in terms of reducing the cost of electricity bills. Nonetheless, contemporary buildings’ energy conservation has been significant solution to cope with the rising electricity necessity.
68 Epidemiological study for Trichomonas Vaginalis for Discrete time model and Continuous time model , Alaa Hussein Khaleel
During the period of July until December 2017 Conduct an epidemiological study to investigate the prevalence of Trichomonas Vaginalis among women who have been consulted for the consultation and emergency of the maternity and child hospital in Diwaniyah city in Iraq. The number of specimens examined was 857 samples and the ages ranged between 15-60 years. After the swabs were taken, the direct examination and coloring and planting on the different food communities to diagnose parasitic Trichomonas vaginalis the incidence of Trichomonas vaginalis was 129 (17%). Using the mathematical model discrete time model and continuous time model, it was observed that the highest percentage of infection was in July and the disease began to fade until it reached the lowest rate in December. Using the mathematical model mentioned above, it was noted that teaching a significant role in curbing the spread of the disease.
69 The Policies of Government Intervention as Third-Party for Conflict in Bike-Sharing War in Nanjing , 1,Abdikane Hussein, 2,Haiyan Xu
This research accesses to the unbalance phenomenon between the rapid development of Sharing bicycle industry and the good public order. Taking into account the inconsistent goals of bicycle companies and users, the local government is employed as a third party to mediate the conflict. We establish the conflict model including three decision makers - Enterprises, Citizens and Government - based on GMCR (Graph Model for Conflict Resolution) theory, and then find out the equilibrium by means of the decision support system GMCR II. The results show that the sustainable development of the Sharing bicycle market requires the cooperation and efforts of all the three parties, the government plays a necessary role to guide the enterprises and the users. We also propose some management insights on how to provide suggestions for the sharing bicycle companies to improve their dispatching services, and how to establish and improve relevant laws and regulations to guide citizens to use shared bicycles in order to achieve mutual benefits.
70 Lyapunov-type inequalities for a fractional q, -difference equation involving p-Laplacian operator , 1,Yawen Yan, 2,Chengmin Hou
In this paper, we present new Lyapunov-type inequalities for a fractional boundary value problem of fractional q, -difference equation with p-Laplacian operator. The obtained inequalities are used to obtain a lower bound for the eigenvalues of corresponding equations
71 Reactivity Feedback Effect on the Reactor Behaviour during SBLOCA in a 4-loop PWR Westinghouse Design , S. Helmy
The reactivity coefficient is a very important parameter for safety and Stability of reactors operation. To provide the safety analysis of the reactor, the calculation of changes in reactivity caused by temperature is necessary because it is related to the reactor operation. The objective is to study the effect of the temperature reactivity coefficients of fuel and moderator of the PWR core, as well as the moderator density and boron concentration on fluid density, reactivity, void fraction. peak fuel clad temperature and time to core uncover were found for two feedback cases. This paper focuses on the effect of the Reactivity feedback, of the 6" (6-inch) Cold Leg SBLOCA sequences in a 4-loop PWR Westinghouse nuclear power plant with a scram for various feedback, moderator density coefficient, MDC, moderator temperature coefficient, MTC, the fuel temperature coefficient, FTC, and boron concentrations. Dragon neutronic code is used for calculating reactivity's coefficient which is used in RELAP5 thermal hydraulic computer code to simulate the effect of Reactivity feedback during Cold Leg SBLOCA. The plant nodalization consists of two loops; the first one represents the broken loop and the second one represents the other three intact loops. In the present analysis two models in RELAP5 code for computation of the reactivity feedback, separable and tabular models are used. The 6-inch break size was chosen because the previous work [1], showed that it was the worst size break in a 4-loop PWR Westinghouse. The results show that the neglecting of the reactivity feed-back effect causes overheating of the clad and that the importance of the reactivity feed-back on calculating the power (reactivity) which the key parameter that controls the clad and fuel temperatures to maintain them below their melting point and therefore prevent core uncover and fuel damage where the fuel temperature, clad temperature and core water level are in the range.
72 Fabrication and Performance Analysis of Solar Tracking System by Using By-Pass Diodes and Super-Capacitor Technology , 1, Majid Ali Tunio, 2, Dr. Pervez Hameed Shaikh, 3, Dr. Mazhar Hussain Baloch
Energy is a burning issue that almost every person experience now a days. Energy demand increases exponentially since a decade. Due to the global warming and it’s threatening impacts on human life. Therefore, to overcome such disastrous impacts on the planet, renewable energy resources play vital role now a days. Solar energy is one of the vastest available renewable energy resources around the globe, but the main issue is its poor efficiency. Pakistan is facing energy shortage that can be compensated through solar power and the need is to design a project that maximizes its efficiency. So, the research is mainly focused on improving efficiency of solar panels against shading loss by using different techniques. In this research, different results will be obtained and compared with different techniques which are LDR based solar tracking system, by-pass diodes technology and super capacitors. Fabrication of solar tracker is based on Microcontroller that drives L298N driver to operate stepper motor
73 Is Lean Management applicable to the hospital and for which results? , Tafiani née Boufatahkeltouma
lean management is a mode of organism inspired by Toyotism; His practice is evident throughout the world and is one of the most affected institutions, except that the latter is a different profession. There is no shared vision among the different actors on measuring the performance of the hospital. The activity of the hospital applies to unique "products": each patient, with its peculiar specificity. The relationship of the workers with the patient is radically different from the relationship of the worker with his product. That is why the practice of Lean has a certain specificity in the health field.
74 MIM (Mobile Instant Messaging) Classification using Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) and Bayesian Algorithm , 1, Kashaf-u-Duja, 2, Muhammad Bux Alvi, 3, Tariq Jameel Saifullah Khanzada, 4, Nisha Kumari
The focus of the study is based on binary sentiment classification on aspect level to develop a hybrid sentiment classification framework of WhatsApp MIMs (Mobile Instant Messages). It has been carried out into two phases i.e. training phase and testing phase. The training phase, 75% data is used for training dataset. Pre-processing techniques like tokenization, removing stop words, case normalization, removing punctuation and stemming are applied to acquire cleaner dataset to be used as input. The output is sent to the classifier after applying TF-IDF for feature weighting. In the second phase, the classifier is trial with 25% testing dataset. Bernoulli’s Naïve Bayesian classifier which is an improved form of traditional Naïve Bayesian classifier is used to classify sentiments. There are 417 messages in total where 244 and 173 are classified as positive and negative respectively. The proposed model has achieved satisfactory results up to 81.73% in comparison to base-line classification model by getting 12 points higher accuracy i.e. 69.23%.
75 MIM (Mobile Instant Messaging) Classification using Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) and Bayesian Algorithm , 1, Kashaf-u-Duja, 2, Muhammad Bux Alvi, 3, Tariq Jameel Saifullah Khanzada, 4, Nisha Kumari
The focus of the study is based on binary sentiment classification on aspect level to develop a hybrid sentiment classification framework of WhatsApp MIMs (Mobile Instant Messages). It has been carried out into two phases i.e. training phase and testing phase. The training phase, 75% data is used for training dataset. Pre-processing techniques like tokenization, removing stop words, case normalization, removing punctuation and stemming are applied to acquire cleaner dataset to be used as input. The output is sent to the classifier after applying TF-IDF for feature weighting. In the second phase, the classifier is trial with 25% testing dataset. Bernoulli’s Naïve Bayesian classifier which is an improved form of traditional Naïve Bayesian classifier is used to classify sentiments. There are 417 messages in total where 244 and 173 are classified as positive and negative respectively. The proposed model has achieved satisfactory results up to 81.73% in comparison to base-line classification model by getting 12 points higher accuracy i.e. 69.23%
76 Analysis and Implementation of Solid-State Relays in Industrial application For Instantaneous Current Supply , Fawad M.Memon 2, Engr.Noor Nabi Shaikh, 3, Engr. Nizamuddin Channa 4, Engr. Shafqat Hussain Memon
There are many applications and circumstances where switching devices are required for proper operation, controlling and isolating the high power and low power systems. The most widely used switching devices are electromechanical relays and solid state relays. In this work, analysis and implementation of solid state relays over electromechanical relays with respect to instantaneous current supply inindustrial application is conducted and compared. For this purpose, an experimental setup is arranged for switching operation of electromechanical relays and solid-state relays.The results of voltage and the current transients are analyzed and compared. It was observed that there are no transients occurred during switching of solid state relays where as during switching of electromechanical relay transients observed in volatge and current waveforms. So, it is advisable to use the solid state relays over electromagnetic relay for safe and smooth operation of the system
77 IoT based Environmental Monitoring and Control System , 1,Ghulam Rubab Mirza, 2,Mukhtiar Ahmed Mahar, 3,Abdul Sattar Larik 4,Abdul Razzaque Jawad, 5,Ghulam Fiza Mirza
IoT plays a major role in collecting the information from the sensing unit enclosing our environment due to alterations in the climate which led to the significance of environmental monitoring. This Paper presents a development of real time environmental monitoring and control system by utilizing Node MCU, DHT11 sensor, ACS712 current sensor, Thing Speak (Open IoT analytics service) and Blynk application. The main task of monitoring parameters (Humidity, temperature and power consumption) with real time sensors is done by Thing Speak continuously which has API (Application programming Interface) for gathering sensed data and enabling users to observe the monitored data in graphs for an interval of every 15 seconds. This project is also designed to control home devices sitting at any place in the world by utilizing power efficiently through Blynk application which is used to read data from sensors located in home environment using smart phone and to turn on/off heating and cooling appliances automatically with respect to room temperature values.
78 Anti-Smog Radar Application for Vehicles , 1,Ghulam Fiza Mirza, 2,Abdul Razzaque Jawad, 1,Hyder Bux Mangrio, 3,Ghulam Rubab Mirza
Smog is regarded as a dangerous situation for vehicles as the visibility of human fails and a person cannot drive smoothly and safely which can lead to severe accidents and routine disturbances. Hence, “Anti-Smog Radar Application for Vehicles” is proposed using Internet of Things technology which ensures the smooth flow of vehicles in smog and prevents accidents in time and cost-efficient manner by detecting and displaying the front objects with their important information (distance, position, velocity and size) on smart phone used by authenticated drivers. The radar application controls the hardware system to be deployed on vehicles through which the user can start, stop and set the hardware in particular direction. The hardware contains NodeMcu (Microcontroller with built-in Wi-Fi), Ultrasonic sensor and servo motor. The servo is used to detect the position of front objects and ultrasonic sensor is clipped on servo to detect the objects. For alerts, the objects are drawn with different colors on application i.e. the red colored objects will be near to the vehicle, the yellow colored objects will be at some distance from the vehicle and the green colored objects will be far from the vehicle. Kalman algorithm is used to filter the ultrasonic readings to eliminate the noise. The proposed system can work in every condition i.e. in day and night.
79 Neural Network Control of Switch Mode Dc Dc Converter , 1,Anees U Rahman , 2, Dr. Mukhtiar Ahmed Mahar , 3,Dr Abdul Sattar Larik
Power electronic converters are periodical variable structure system owing to their switching operations, being a simple in structure, lot of researchers are working on power electronic converters. As they have been found practically more efficient and cheapest. That’s why they are being used vastly. The Switch Mode DC DC Converters being a highly underdamped produces oscillations and nonlinearities in the output voltage. Lot of controlling techniques have been used to mitigate the oscillations but those controllers/ controlling techniques have certain drawbacks. In this research paper PI controller is being compared with Artificial Neural network controller based on Switch Mode DC DC converter at higher switching frequency under Steady state as well as dynamic state (line and load variations). Although Artificial Neural network controller is being used in problems involving nonlinearities and uncertainties but here it is used/applied to Step down chopper converter to control voltage under steady state as well as dynamic state. Here Neural Network is trained by using Levenberg Marquardt (trainlm) Algorithm. It is executed and operated in Matlab/Simulink, and Simulation results are shown here.
80 Failure Analysis of Boiler Tubes at LPGCL (Khanote) , 1Ahmed Abdullatif, 2Dr. Dur Muhammad Pathan, 3Dr.Muhammad Ishaque Abro
Failure of boiler tubes in a thermal power plant is a very common phenomenon. So run the plant safely it is imperative for every plant owners to investigate the reason of failure and find out the remedies to prevent frequent plant shut downs. This paper, therefore, aims to provide the failure analysis report of boiler tubes at Lakhra Power Generation Company limited LPGCL (Khanote). The investigation is comprised on visual examination, fractography analysis, microstructural investigations and chemical analysis of the tube material. Optical microscope, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and electron dispersion spectroscopy (EDS) techniques were used. Results indicated that the major cause of failure was localized short-term overheating of the tube due to improper material used for manufacturing of boiler tube. The fracture appearance is called fish mouth opening.
81 Detection of COD Value in Aquaculture Water by Near Infrared Spectroscopy , 1,Zhu Chengyun, 2,Chen Jie, 3,Wang Rong, 4,Liu Yan, 5Zhu Lijuan
Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an important parameter of aquaculture water quality, which seriously affects the safety of aquaculture. This paper studies the COD detection technology of aquaculture water based on near infrared spectroscopy. In this paper, standard normal variate (SNV) transformation as a spectral pretreatment algorithm is used to pretreat the near infrared original spectrum of water samples, and the COD prediction model is established by partial least squares (PLS) algorithm. In order to reduce the computational complexity of the model and improve the computational speed of the model to achieve rapid detection, genetic algorithm (GA) is used to filter the spectral characteristic wavelengths, and a GA-siPLS model is established. The training set and the prediction set were tested respectively with the established model, and the prediction set Rp = 0.9924, RMSEP = 3.15; the training set Rc = 0.9937, RMSECV = 2.95. The results show that the genetic algorithm can significantly reduce the dimension of input variables, reduce the amount of calculation and ensure the prediction accuracy.
82 Efficiency Evaluation of The Agricultural Sector in Senegal Based on Suitable Combinations of Inputs, CCR, And BBC in DEA , 1,Souleymane Diba, 2, Kuntano Mr. Kuntano
With regards to the global competitive environment that becomes more and more intense due to local and foreign competitions resulting from international trade and foreign direct investments, the emphasis has been put on the implementation of efficient production system in the Senegalese agricultural sector in order to gain high earnings and adapt in the global competitive market by means of achieving an efficient production and a high-quality product. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the efficiency of the agricultural sector in Senegal based on suitable combinations of inputs in order to enhance performance of the sector in Senegal. We have adopted an approach based on a data envelopment analysis (DEA) to obtain reliable and accurate results through purposeful combinations of inputs and output. We employed an input orientation approach when inserting labor and capital as our two inputs and earnings as output. The results highlight that measures can be taken through the interpretations of the efficiency scores and demonstrate that changes in inputs through an increase in labor input and a decrease in capital input constitute a suitable input combination that diminishes cost input costs while offering the best output.
83 Thermodynamic Analysis of Solar assisted vapour absorption air conditioning System , 1. Aakash Ali Khoso, 2. Abdul Fattah Abassi, 3.Samiullah Qureshi
In This study thermodynamic modeling is presented for an air conditioning system by using waste heat of CNG station, also assisted by solar collector. The continuous compression of Natural gas at CNG station results huge amount of heat energy, which is wasted without any utilization. This heat has great potential of recovery and can be utilized for useful purpose. This research work represents the thermodynamic model development of waste heat recovery from the Compressed Natural gas (CNG) station. Therefore, a thermodynamic model has been developed for the Vapour absorption cooling system along with adjustable solar energy. The thermodynamic model has been developed in engineering equation solver (EES) software. For the analysis of developed model, a parametric study is carried out by considering various parameters. The results of developed model reveal that the Coefficient of performance (COP) of cooling system increases with increase in generator temperature. Higher COP is achieved with adjustable solar collector efficiency. The overall results reveal that about 140KW of cooling load can be saved through waste heat and solar energy
84 PID Controller for DC-DC Boost Converter for Photovoltaic Power Generation , Zoya Hanif1 , Prof. Dr. Syed Asif Ali Shah2
The output voltage of solar energy systems or rectifier converter is basically unregulated DC voltage. DC-DC Boost converter is used to provide stable output DC voltage. In this research work, PI controller proposed for Boost converter having solar pv as input. DC-DC Boost converter has switching transients resulting in harmonics generation and switching losses. Proposed system is simulated using MATLAB SIMULINK to observe its performance. Simulation results shows that system has low overshoot and settling time for initial transient supply and load variations
85 Finances Associated with Implementation of Condition Monitoring System and Its Payback Duration , 1,Engr. Daniyal Nisar Khan, 2, Prof. Dr. Rizwan Ahmed Memon, 3, Dr. Shakeel Shaikh
Most manufacturers are facing a push on cost due to few factors. These tough times on our economy plus global recession has cornered the manufacturers in either reducing the quality of product or in some cases reduction in some services. The impact of this is highly observed in markets like ours where we already have to face cost deviations and sudden cost jumps in industrial utilities such as, (gas, electricity, oil) and even the availability at times is hard to maintain which increases cycle time, down time thus inducing extra labor cost and co-related increases, so in order to compete internationally we need to use advanced systems which reduces costs rather than cutting back on things. Condition based monitoring have achieved greater acceptance over the years but the actual returns and payback is not understood clearly which puts the idea and adoptability at doubts this research work has marked the importance of understanding need, benefits and payback of the implementation cost of condition-based monitoring system including buying the equipment Vibxpert 2. This work is based in manufacturing organization and after calculating all the costs which were incurred in implementing conditionbased monitoring. It was found that in 5 years and 2 months the cost of implementing condition-based monitoring will be paid off
86 An Evaluation of The Influence of Corn Cob Ash (CCA) on The Strength Parameters of Bentonite Clay , 1,Umair Hussain Memon, 2,Aneel Kumar Hindu, 3,Zaheer Almani, 4,Nazim Nisar Memon, 5, Ammaar Noor Memon
It is of major reflection to with clear geotechnical investigation results. There are many methods for improvement of soil which include a variety of procedures like excavation and refilling of grouting, nailing etc. These procedures are valuable within their limits but require a certain amount of mechanical and chemical work to be used which in terms harms the environment or is not usable for a variety of soils. If the soil on which structure is going to be constructed is not having considerable bearing capacity, soil stabilization techniques are to be applied. So, we must look towards the techniques which are environment friendly to progress forward in the field and have a wide range of application. Among them one is our topic “An evaluation of the influence of CCA on the strength parameters of Bentonite Clay”. We will use CCA as improvement method on Bentonite Clay which as problem of water absorption and swelling. CCA will be mixed with Bentonite Clay at varying percentages of 0.5%, 1% and 2% of the dry weight of the soil. Soil-CCA composite samples now will be subjected to Modified Proctor Compaction tests and CBR (Soaked and Un-Soaked). From the results we came to know that as we add CCA in bentonite its strength becomes better.
87 Analytical Solutions for One-dimensional Advection-dispersion Equation with Uniform and Varying point source in a Heterogeneous Porous medium , 1,R. R. Yadav, 2,Vijayshree Yadav
In this study, analytical solutions for one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation in a semi-infinite porous domain with temporally dependent dispersion coefficients are considered. Seepage velocity is taken inversely proportional to spatially and temporally dependent function. It assumed that retardation factor is inversely proportional to square of the spatially dependent function. In this study, two cases for the boundary conditions are taken into consideration. The input condition is considered continuous of uniform and varying input of increasing nature both. The solution is obtained for the proposed mathematical model in a semi-infinite initially not solute free domain. The solution has been obtained by using Laplace Transform Technique. A comprehensive study on the effect of different geological parameters and heterogeneity of the medium on the solute movement during movement processes is carried out for heterogeneous porous medium. The developed analytical solution is illustrated using a hypothetical example and may help benchmark numerical codes and solutions. The effects of parameters on the solute concentrations with respect to position and time are explained with help of different graphs. In real scenario, such mathematical model is helpful for the ass
88 Autonomy supportive and Controlling behavior of Senior High School and Grade XI Students' participation in Class discussion in Ilocos Region, Philippines , 1,Damianus Abun, 2,Theogenia Magallanez, 3,Frederick Agoot
The study wanted to determine the relationship between teachers‟ behavior in classroom and students‟ participation in classroom discussion. To support the study, theory was proposed, and related literature and studies were reviewed. To carry out the study, statements of the problems were proposed, and validated questionnaires were used to gather the data. The study used descriptive correlational research design aided by fact finding inquiry to explain teachers‟ behavior and its correlation with students‟ participation in classroom discussion. The population of the study was composed of 300 Senior High School Grade XI students of Divine Word College of Vigan, Ilocos Sur and Divine Word College of Laoag, Ilocos Norte. The study found that teachers‟ behaviors, particularly autonomy supportive and controlling behavior correlate to the students‟ participation in classroom discussion.
89 Assessing the Energy & Environmental Benefits and SocioEconomic Impacts of Solar Microgrid in Rural Areas in Sindh , 1, Rehan Aslam, 2, Abdul Razzaque Sahito, 3, Manoj Kumar Maheshwari, 4,Agha Shafi Muhammad, 5,Allah Dino Amur
In terms of energy, one of the challenges nowadays is to provide to electricity in rural areas. Provision of the electricity through the grids is costly in rural community. On the other hand, electricity produced from the conventional energy sources include oil, gas and coal is not only costly but also generated the environmental pollutions. Among the non-conventional energy resources, solar photovoltaic energy is one of the promising energy sourcesfor rural electrification. In the present work, an energy audit was conducted, followed by designing of the solar micro-grid for a village at district Thatta. It involves the estimation of the power required, cost of the system, per unit cost of electricity, and payback period. Moreover, three villages were compared for socioeconomic impact and empowerment of the woman based on solar electrification. Production of electricity through the solar micro-grid was also compared with fossil fuels. The load demand of the village was estimated as 15 kW, which cost Rs. 2 million rupees. It will generate 21900 units of electricity per years. The payback period was estimated as 6 years. A significant reduction of emissions was also observed from the solar electrification. The solar micro-grid empowers the communities especially to the woman and uplift of the socioeconomic of rural areas by creating new jobs and improving the quality of life
90 Groundwater Study using Application of a Resistivity Survey of Typical Mine Site of Thario-Halepoto Village of Thar Desert , 1,Engr. Junaid ur Rahman Memon, 2, Dr. Sheeraz Ahmed Memon, 3,Engr. Imran Aziz Tunio, 4,Engr. Love Kumar, 5,Engr. Kundan Kumar
This study is based on analysis and assessment for convenience of groundwater to village Thario-Halepoto of Tharparakar, to shows groundwater availability. The groundwater of Thario-Halepoto is roughly categorized into different type of classes on the bases of its hydro geomorphological and analysis condition of study area. In this study a detail electrical survey is carried out of Thario-Halepoto and three surrounded villages for preparing various thematic maps viz. Electrical resistivity, physical and chemical parameter of water were analyzed. Thario-Halepoto is mining area where various constructive and destructive activities are carried out, which may deteriorate quality of groundwater and soil fertility due to construction of big dam surrounding to Thario-Halepoto for storage of groundwater extracted from coal mining pit, which may also diminish dug well groundwater surrounding mining pit. Geoelectrical resistivity survey technique was used to study the availability of water layer currently. The resistivity meter (PASI Model 16GL-N) was used to collect the vertical electrical sounding (VES) resistivity data at different sites, followed by Schlumberger electrode configuration, the collected data were interpreted in terms of resistivity and the outputs were observed by dug well groundwater. The combination of VES data with dug well groundwater data provided useful information on subsurface hydrogeologic conditions by observed that geoelectrical resistivity of the layers containing groundwater ranged between 50 to 500 Ωm resistivity and VES criteria of fit groundwater quality for aquifer resistivity values of 300 to 350 Ωm was valid for the sites. The results indicate that VES survey has the potential to identify the layer containing water and groundwater depth
91 Analysis of Groundwater Quality Parameter of Hand-Dug Well and Their Health Risk Assessment of Study Area Tharpakar , 1,Love Kumar Maheshwari, 2,Sheraz Ahmed Memon 3,Engr. Imran Aziz Tunio, 4,Muhammad Irfan Rajput, 5,Sohail Ali Naqvi, 6,Komal Naeem 7, Engr. Junaid ur Rahman Memon
Water is the important factor among the basic needs of the life, whether it’s human and animal or plants life. The quality of water is the main measuring tool to assess the risk of health. Where water is considered as a life driven tool, there it threatens the life too if the physical and chemical parameters of water exceed the permissible limits. The study has been carried out to measure the quality of ground water in hand-dug wells in Islamkot Tharparkar. These wells are only the source of water for the households fifteen wells were selected for the laboratory tests to measure the quality of water. The report indicates the high vulnerability of the residents to expose with the diseases due to high exceeding values of chemical and physical parameters of the water
92  Implementation and Effectiveness of Six Sigma by Using Dmaic Approach in Pharmaceutical Industry , Engr. Aziz Ahmedˡ, Prof. Dr. Shakeel Shaikh ², Dr. Mohammad Saad Memon³
six sigma is a systematic approach which follows five basic steps i.e. dmaic (define, measure, analysis, improve & control). all steps are encumbered multiple tools of problem solving, root cause identification and process improving and controlling. the problem of yield loss is also being solved through six sigma methodology. Initially the study is focused on defining the problem, following the process flow, drawing the project boundary in between the process flow to focus on real problem, identification and measurement of the variables which influence the yield. Identified factors are then analyzed to hunt potential causes. Significant improvement in the cause identified resulted in improved sigma level and equipment efficiency, finally the control is built keeping in view the failure mode effective analysis results for standardizing and sustaining the improvement for longer period of time through control charts and fool proof systems. the purpose of this deep dive is to investigate and identify the major potential causes which results in low profit and turnover due to low yield products in a pharmaceutical company. Manufacturing process is a major area of profit generation of pharmaceuticals and play a vital role in achieving the market share. continuous decline of its profit due to yield losses made itself a great challenge. it is identified that on an average there is 1.40% yield loss in every batch. therefore, it is necessary to stop the interruption in the production schedule and at the same time resolve the problem with suitable effective and long-term viable solution. however, six sigma methodologies are applied to resolve the complex level of problems and to have optimum and effective solution to continue smooth flow of production and to reduce the wastages.
93 Utilizing Building Information Modeling to Create Site Safety and Construction Project Coordination Efficiency , Engr. Zain Juratli, ACP. and Dr. Alan Hoback, PE
Safety, coordination and timely completion are the three essentials of construction. Among these, safety has been automated the least. In the United States, around 48 percent of all safety-related casualties happen from slipping off building heights. The causes of unsafe outcomes are usually reversible because they emanate from low-key managerial planning (Nadhim, Hon, Xia, Stewart, & Fang, 2016). For instance, the crew does not check the site properly before it begins work, but then there is a hitch. The second cause is when safety barriers are not set up in a timely manner. This is especially important because improper scaffolding leads to the majority of construction casualties (Collins, Zhang, Kim, & Teizer, 2014). Thus, the overall problem of safety relates to low-level planning and project coordination. Across all industries, the construction industry ranks first in terms of site-related fatal accidents. Around 48 percent of workplace deaths in the world in 2016 emanated from falls at construction sites (Nadhim, Hon, Xia, Stewart, & Fang, 2016). This represented 36.9 percent of workplace fatal casualties in the US and 31 percent in Britain in the year 2013 (Nadhim, Hon, Xia, Stewart, & Fang, 2016). In totality, all such deaths represented a 49 percent margin of a multi-industry comparison in the same year in the United States (Natonal Safety Council, 2015). The rate was high from the early to mid-2000s. It then leveled down in the following years before it climbed slightly in 2012 (Natonal Safety Council, 2015). The graph below represents the statistics as shown in Figure 1.
94 Influence of Doping on the Structural, Optical Properties and Dispersion Parameters of CdO Thin Films , 1,Amal A. Khalaf, 2,Salah Q. Hazaa, 3,Sabria A. Dhaba
Un-doped and bismuth (Bi) doped cadmium oxide (CdO) films were deposited on glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis method at (400℃) temperature. The effect of Bi concentration (1,3 and 5 wt %) on the structural, optical properties and dispersion parameters of CdO thin films were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the all films had a polycrystalline with cubic structure and crystallite size increases with the increase of doping percentage. The optical properties and dispersion parameters of films have been studied over a wavelength range (400-900) nm. The optical band gap, refractive index, single-oscillator energy, dispersion energy, moments of the optical spectra (M−1) and (M−3), average oscillator strength, average oscillator wavelength were calculated and analyzed as a function of Bi concentration. It was shown that the doping percentage has significant effect on the properties of CdO thin films.
95 The Predictive Capacity of the Holt-Winters Model Using Different Initialization Methods. An aplicación to the Agricultural Sector , 1,Juan Manuel Izar-Landeta 2, Carmen Berenice Ynzunza-Cortés, 3,Raúl Ignacio Hernández-Molinar
This work introduces the application of the Holt-Winters (HW) Model to forecast the consumption of electrical energy using three different initialization methods. The model is used with historical data associated to electricity consumption of a produce farm located in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Three smoothing constants are employed, which are: α to consider the variable level; β for its tendency; and γ, for seasonality. The idea is to propose an evaluation method that minimizes the prediction error of forecasting technique. To get it, the first step consists in verify that HW model is feasible, that means that the variable presents tendency and seasonality. Then the results are estimated using three initialization methods, and a comparison of them is realized. The findings show that the best option has been the second one, since it has a lower error value when the method considers the initial smoothing constants and their optimal values. The obtained results prove that the application of this type of forecasting methods can contribute to improve the decisions making in order to save in consuming electrical energy for irrigation and agricultural activities as well as increasing economic benefits.
96 Comparative Analysis of Peak Current Mode, Average Current Mode and Voltage Mode Control for Synchronous Buck Converter , 1,Mansoor Mangrio, 2,Engr. Shafi Muhammad Jiskani, 3,Engr. Muhammad Rashid , 4,Engr. Noor Nabi Shaikh, 5,Iraj Mazhar
In this paper comparative analysis of three controller techniques for synchronous buck converter are presented. One is voltage mode control (VMC) second one is crest current mode control and third is normal current mode control technique for synchronous buck converter. The voltage mode control adjusts addition also influence of the system dynamics performance as any variation in input voltage follows in the system. VMC cannot spot-on any disruption suddenly till that one is sensed at the output meanwhile the instabilities are hindered in point through the inductor and capacitor before the output changes. The voltage mode control does not contain protection of switches in the converter. The pinnacle inductor current (IL) controlled by the peak current mode control, innate pinnacle current restricting and distributing, worthy energetic presentation as shown in results sections. It include switches protections so, preferable control techniques to use in DC-DC synchronous Buck converters. While (ACM) average current mode control technique has least ripples in voltage as compared to other control techniques.
97 Annealing effecting on some properties of CTAB modified Tellurium dioxide thin films by hydrothermal Technique , 1,Sozan A. Hassan , 2,Sabri J. Mohammed
modified with hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), the investigation of nanostructural and optical properties of TeO2 thin films was studied. The films are performed on glass substrates, the concentration of CTAB and hydrothermal treatment temperature played crucial roles and used as the parameters to control morphology by hydrothermal technique. At room temperature and annealing by tubular quartz furnace at temperature (473,673) K for 8 hours with air. XRD measurements showed that the structure for all samples is polycrystalline with a Tetragonal nanostructure. Surface morphology was studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy FESEM, Energy‐dispersive X‐ray spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy AFM. After annealing, the roughness of the surface and the mean grain size were increased. Optical properties as a function to wavelength in the range (300-1100 nm) have been studied. Absorption spectra of Teo2 thin films showed that the absorption coefficient decreases with increasing annealing temperature. Direct energy gap for a Teo2 thin film was increased with increasing temperature for all samples due to crystal growth.
98 Design and Evaluation of Hot Mix Asphalt Using Brick Dust as Mineral Filler Replacement , 1 Jazib Qadir Shah, 2Dr. Naeem Aziz Memon, 3Dr. Aneel Kumar, 4Abdul Qudoos Malano, 5 Muhammad Saleem Raza
Hot Mix Asphalt is the integral part of flexible pavement which is the mixture of suitable proportion of coarse aggregate, fine aggregate, fillers and the binder. Fillers are of the size of less than 0.075 mm. Fillers are very essential part of Hot Mix Asphalt that fill the voids within the aggregates, provide the stability and other important properties. Various Mineral fillers have been used such as waste glass, marble dust, stone dust, ordinary Portland cement by researchers to enhance the properties of mixes, however there is still need of other material such as Brick Dust to be used to further control the properties of the Hot Mix Asphalt. The aim of the research is to investigate the effect of powder as mineral filler on the mechanical properties of Hot Mix Asphalt. Using varying percentages of bitumen ranges from 3.0% to 5.0% with the interval of 0.5%, fifteen conventional specimens were prepared to check the properties and to obtain the Optimum Binder Content and using that optimum bitumen content and four different percentages 25% to 100% of Brick Dust as partial replacement of conventional filler, other fifteen mixes were prepared and examined to compare the results with the properties of controlled mixes and to obtain the Optimum Filler Content. From the results of Marshall Tests conducted for Asphalt wearing coarse Brick Dust found optimum at 10% filler Content in the Hot Mix Asphalt.
99 Role of Enterprise Resource Planning (Erp) System: A Case Study of Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro , 1,Mohammad Junaid Memon, 2, Dr. Arabella Bhutto, 3, Dr. Adnan Pitafi, 4, Muhammad Saleh Ansari
Enormous studies were conducted on the impact of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems on organizational performance. Past researches have demonstrated a blended connection among ERP and organizational performance where some recommended that ERP improves and others found that it doesn't. This study is focused to analyze and compare the performance of previous working and reporting system which was manual and present working system and reporting system i.e. ERP of Directorate of Finance, Mehran University of Engineering and Technology, Jamshoro. The main aim of this research is to identify the effect of ERP on employee’s productivity, service quality, working performance of the employees and satisfaction level of internal and external customers. The result shows that after implementation of ERP system the working performance has been significantly improved. However, some important recommendations have also been given to the management of the University for incorporating improvements in the system. So that functions of ERP system by developing some modules can be improved.
100 Designing Production Flow Line using Heuristic Techniques: A Case Study at Zeal Pak Cement Factory Ltd, Hyderabad , 1, Yasir Hashmi, 2, Prof. Dr. Abdul Salaam Soomro, 3, Hammad Hashmi
Heuristics play a vital role in our daily life specifically in production and manufacturing sectors where organizations strive to extract maximum output from their systems, in this research work flowline of a cement factory has been redesigned using Ranked Positional Weight method in order to get more efficient system. To achieve most effective flowline various efforts have been made in rearranging the tasks and workstations. Results shown that Ranked positional weight method does not guarantee an optimized flowline but it enables us to make a better understanding regarding time consumption at each task, which can be arranged in a suitable manner to provide maximum output.
101 Smart Waste Management System Using Sensor Technology , 1,Pervez Ahmed Jamali, 2,Hima Zafar, 3,Dr. Faisal karim Shaikh
In this paper, we present the smartbin that transform the waste management system taking a step towards clean public places. The mechanism developed comprises of Arduino Microcontroller used to interface with the three ultrasonic sensors that help to detect waste in the bins with more accuracy. Further, it is connected through the Wi-Fi installed with GSM and GPS module. In the next phase, we visualized and analyze bins data using ThingSpeak platform. The data collected from this platform help the authorities to decide from where to collect waste instead of going to every bin in different areas by indicating the location of every bin. An android application and SMS notification are also used in this system showing the current status of the bins. The data collected from the reports comprise based on waste collection from different areas can be used for management purposes. This innovation for waste management is cost-effective, energy-efficient requiring fewer human resources.
102 Utilization and measurements of WO3/ITO &Novel WO3@NaDCC/ITO thin films prepared by Hydrothermal method as a Nitride Dioxide gas sensor , 1,Mohanad Q. Kareem, 2,Nadim K. Hassan
Polycrystalline WO3/ITO and WO3@NaDCC/ITO thin films were prepared by hydrothermal technique at temperature 200oC for six hour , characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD),An X-ray diffractions pattern showed abroading in the FWHM with doping NaDCC and confirmed the formation of polycrystalline monoclinic structure for WO3/ITO and WO3@NaDCC thin films , ITO has a cubic in structure , .Morphology analyzed by Atomic Force Spectroscope (AFM). The results expressed the formation of nanoparticles and decrease an average diameter size when doped NaDCC in WO3/ITO thin films.then investigate and revealed a Nitide Dioxide gas sensing properties of fabricated thin films by .The results reveal that the sensitivity increase as the thin films of WO3/ITO modified by NaDCC , we found that the maximum sensitivity of about 730% of WO3@NaDCC/ITO thin films a moderate optimum temperature of 200oC and an optimum NO2 gas Concentration of 50 ppm.
103 Stabilization and Reinforcing of Soft Soils with Various Materials Including PET Strips – A Review , Ammaar Noor Memon1 , Aneel Kumar Hindu2 , Noor Ahmed Memon3 , Abdul Hafeez Memon4 , Mutahar Ali Amur 5
Pollution due to solid waste is one the emerging problems of world. Among the waste materials plastic is the non-biodegradable material which needs decades to decompose completely. However, up to its complete decomposition it is often that it occupies the most visible part of the landfills and causes serious environmental issues to the society. The major type of plastic waste is the PET (Polyethylene Terephthalate) plastic bottles which are used for mineral water and soft drinks. On the other hand, construction of foundation on highly compressible and expansive soils with poor shear strength is highly risky. This paper presents the state of the stabilization and reinforcing of soft / expansive soils with different materials. In order to have one more step towards sustainable geotechnics the study concludes the object as “Improvement of Geotechnical Properties of Clayey soil Using Waste Plastic Bottles Strips as Reinforcement”.
104 To Explore the Level of Adoption of Prefabrication in Construction Industry of Pakistan , 1, Muhammad Imran, 2, Dr. Nafees Ahmad Memon, 3, Dr. Aftab Hameed Memon, 4,Naseeb Ullah Mengal
Construction industry is facing many problems in terms of construction waste, quality, environment, durability, safety and higher construction cost. Adoption of prefabrication is possible solution to these problems. Prefabrication has been regarded as the emerging technique in the world for improving cost, quality, time and efficiency. The adoption level of this technique has been lower in developing countries like Pakistan. The aim of this research work is to study the level of adoption of prefabrication with regard to the construction industry of Pakistan. Three factors as buildings, roads and bridges were selected to form literature review and questionnaire survey. 75 questionnaire was sent to construction industry professionals, 60 questionnaire were received. Data analysis was done through SPSS version 20. The results shows that the mean and standard deviation (SD) value for the bridge have higher that is 2.95 and 2.158, respectively. For buildings mean value is 2.92 and SD value is 1.807, and for roads mean value 2.55 and SD value is 1.872. The results shows that prefabrication is mostly used in bridges, than in buildings and lastly in roads. Concluding on the basis of above results the use of prefabrication is likely to increase in Pakistan.
105 Effect of Silica Fume and Fly Ash on Compressive Strength of Unfired Clay Bricks , 1Vishan Das, 2Aneel Kumar, 3Sheva Ram, 4Love Kumar
Readily available engineering materials are preferred in construction of different projects due to its low cost. Clay brick being cheaper and easily available is vastly used in developing countries like Pakistan. Even though clay bricks are largely used in Pakistan however no consideration have been exercised in the brick making industry to lower the use of brick making soil and enhance its compressive strength by using certain waste materials which possess clay like properties. This paper presents the results of a study made to assess the effect of Silica fume and Fly ash on compressive strength of unfired clay bricks. For that Silica fume and Fly ash were used in different proportions (from 2% to 10%) to the weight of clay soil to prepare the soil samples of 22cm×11cm×7.5cm and prepared samples were compared with conventional clay bricks of same site in terms of compressive strength. It was observed from results that compressive strength was increased at each different percent both of the materials. Hence obtained results suggest that there is potential to replace brick soil with either Silica fume or Fly ash to produce the unfired clay bricks with higher compressive strength.
106 Management Theories in Modern World , Levkovich Lavan Limor
management theory is a collection of ideas which set forth general rules on how to manage a business or organization. Management theory addresses how managers and supervisors relate to their organizations in the knowledge of its goals, the implementation of effective means to get the goals accomplished and how to motivate employees to perform to the highest standard. Nowadays the global and modern world has a new implementing plans for management. this article would present and analysis the 3 actual modern management theories that implementing in management culture in the global world.
107 Analysis of eggshell powder as a partial replacing material in concrete , 1,Nisar Ahmed Gabol, 1,Fareed Ahmed Memon, 2,Mian Jawaduddin , 3,Zaheer H Zardari
In this research, eggshell powder (ESP) was used as a partial substitute for cement in concrete to decrease the usage of cement in concrete production. The main objective of the study was to determine the workability and reinforcing properties including compression, tensile and flexural strength of concrete using various percentages (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 & 10) of ESP by weight instead of cement. A total of 120 concrete samples were cast (60 cubic meters, 30 cylinders and 30 prisms) with a target strength of 28 N/mm2 . The compressive strength of a cube sample (100 × 100 × 100 mm) was tested after 3, 7, and 28 days, while tensile strength were also measured for 3 days, 7 days and 28 days using a cylindrical specimen (200 × 100 mm). The bending strength of the specimen (100 x 100 x 500 mm), cast during 3, 7, and 28 days of curing. The test results showed that during the. With ESP 7.5%, tensile strength increased by 9.6%, and a maximum strength of 8% was obtained using ESP 7.5% during 28-day cure. As the percentage of ESP increases, the workability of fresh concrete decreases. ESP is used in concrete to enhance the power of a concert.
108 Carbon credit potential of biogas plants in Pakistan , 1, Imran Ali Rajar, 2, Abdul Razzaque Sahito, 3, Prem Salhani, 4, Shams Kharrik
Biogas technology, beside the source of energy and manure, supplies an admirable prospect for alleviation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and reduces global warming through replacement of firewood for cooking. A study is carried out to calculate biogas potential from animal dung in Pakistan, global warming potential from animal's dung and GMP by domestic biogas plant and thereby earning carbon credit in Pakistan. Dairy information of Pakistan states that Pakistan has approximately 39.7 and 34.6 million animals in the form of cows and buffaloes respectively produce about 1.12 million kg accumulated dung per day. The international market of CO2 is USD20 to 40/ton, carbon market initiative increased in 2018 as USD7 to 16/tCO2e as compared to 2017. It is about 9.7ton CO2 equivalent global warming per annum can be mitigated by a domestic biogas plant. In the light of clean development mechanism (CDM), it can be earned USD242.5 through carbon credit yearly from the mitigation of GHGs discharge. A domestic range biogas plant can replace usage of fossil fuel approximately 4,400 kg animal dung, 5,535 kg firewood and 316 Litters of kerosene oil. In this way with the replacement of fossil fuels to biogas, yearly about to 16.4, 11.3, 987.0 and 69.7 kg of NOX, SO2, CO and volatile organic compounds can be reduced respectively from the atmosphere. Presently, about 6000 domestic biogas plants has been installed throughout country by government of Pakistan, which are capable to mitigate 0.06 Mt CO2 equivalent and yearly earn USD 1.455 million as carbon credit under Clean Development Mechanism. If total collectable dung is used for biogas production, then in Pakistan about 5 million biogas plants can be installed and annually USD 1206.5 million can be achieved as carbon credit with reduction in GHGs production from household burning of firewood and kerosene oil. The declination in global warming should encourage policy makers to promote biogas technology to war of climate change and integration of carbon revenues will help the farmers to develop biogas as a profitable activity.
109 Rapid Adsorption of Methylene Blue from an Aqueous Medium via various Bio-sorbents Impregnated with Iron Chloride , 1,Mian Jawaduddin, 2,Zubeda Butt, 3,M. Faizer Panhwar, 4,Ali Akbar
Activated carbon (AC) is an adsorbent commonly used in the separation and purification industries. Activated carbon (AC) relay porosity and its external structure adsorption capacity. The aim of this study was to prepare activated carbons (ACs) from various agriculture wastes including cotton ginning trash (CGT), cotton stalk (CS) and rice straw (RS) using two-step physio-chemical activation method. The carbonization process was carried out at 550 C 0 for 1 hour in a sealed nitrogen atmosphere. The char products were impregnated with iron chloride (FeCl3) at impregnation ratio of 1:4 (gm FeCl3: gm Charcoal). The chemically treated chars then proceeded to the oven for 24 hours at 110 C 0 . In last dried chemically treated charcoals were active at an activation temperature of 400 C 0 , with iron chloride. The methylene blue adsorption results for CGT, CS, and RS were 330.25 mg/gm, 156 mg/gm, and 183.25 mg/gm. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) method used to analyze the porous structures formed on the surfaces of ACs after the carbonization and activation process, while through X-ray diffractometer (XRD) graphs the crystalline arrangements of ACs were also examined. The presences of various functional groups which are key factors in an adsorption process were identified with the help Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR) method.
110 Decision-Making Method Based on Picture Fuzzy Sets and Its Application in College Scholarship Evaluation , 1,Yong Wei Yang, 2,Yang Yang He
In view of the bad competition caused by the evaluation scope of college students' scholarship selection, we first constructs an objective and reasonable scholarship evaluation index system and index weight. Then we constructs the distance measure based on the membership functions of the picture fuzzy set, and shows the advantages of the distance measure proposed in the paper through the comparative analysis of examples. Finally, a multi-attribute decision making method is proposed by combining the distance measure of picture fuzzy sets with TOPSIS, and it is applied to the evaluation of college students' scholarships.