Evaluation of EFL Textbook ‘Traveller Elementary’ from the Perspectives of Instructors and University Students
Undoubtedly, foreign language teaching intends to make students obtain the required competence so as to get the linguistic knowledge needed in a foreign language. With this respect, a textbook should supply to the users as much as possible, be satisfactory to fit into the syllabus, and meet all the needs and expectations of the students during the learning process in order to achieve required targets in foreign language learning. Particularly in English Language Teaching, textbooks as the basic instructional materials are expected to build learners’ four skills that are speaking, listening, reading and writing. Depending on this basic assumption, this study attempts to get in-depth evaluation of the textbook in terms of methodology and language content, language skills, practicality, topic, social and cultural values by taking into consideration university first year students and their instructors’ evaluations, observations, beliefs, and suggestions on the textbook. From the students’ perspectives, results reveal that the textbook is moderately efficient in terms of methodology and language content, language skills, practicality, topic, social and cultural values; however, instructors find some parts of the textbook weak; especially some aspects of language skills, practicality, social and cultural values. As a result, the textbook is neither completely insufficient nor perfectly adequate. At the end of the study some suggestions for instructors and material writers are provided.
Dramatic Transformation: The Hamlet-Type in Shakespeare's and Chekhov's versions
Fuad Abdul Muttaleb
Shakespeare wrote Hamlet at the very beginning of the seventeenth century, at the height of his creative powers. It is arguably the most popular and famous play ever written, and its hero seems to have exerted a huge fascination over theatre audiences of every age, nation, colour and creed. Shakespeare often borrowed plots and ideas from different sources, but they were transformed by his poetry and his dramatic talents, and this applies largely to Hamlet. He used an early version of Hamlet and rewrote it to suite his own idea and artistic purpose. It seems that he was casting an eye on the thrown of Queen Elizabeth I while creating his paly. A lot has been said and written about this subject matter; therefore, some critical and theoretical views were introduced to discuss and consolidate the argument about the transformation of the type and the drama. In the same way Shakespeare anglicized the type of Hamlet and made it a representation of the Renaissance spirit and man, Anton Chekhov, in his full- length plays, russified it and made it a representation of the Russian life and characters of the intellectuals of the last two decades in the nineteenth century. The main point this work is trying to put forward, critically and comparatively, is how the Hamlet- type was manipulated by two prominent dramatists, Shakespeare and Chekhov, to express their own feelings, intellectual questionings, and artistic concerns.