Latest Trends in Higher Education in India: A Study
1Mantu Kakati, M.A. M.Phil.Assistant Professor, Thong Nokbe College, Assam (India)
Higher Education is undergoing continuous changes in the process of Globalization as it brings rapid development in the technology and communication skills through changes in the learning system across the world. Higher Education is a vital sector for economic growth and development of a nation. The report of the Education Commission (1964- 66) under the chairmanship of Dr. D.S. Kothari symbolized the symbiotic relationship between education and national development. The capitalist economy strongly focused in free trade, “Due to this increasing free trade around the Globe, that end protection of many sectors so that there is more competition and privatization of education is increasingly being drawn into this Global capitalist competition. A study done by Dr. Pulkit Agarwal, Miss. Taiba Ahmad and Miss. Dalgindar Kaur, has analyzed that India has a low rate of enrolment in Higher Education at only 18% compared with 26% in China and 36% in Brazil. There is enormous unmet demand and supply gap for Higher Education. By 2020 the Government aims to achieve 30% gross enrolment which will mean providing 40 million University places an increase of 14 million in six years. India is currently at the stage of demographic transition population. Government of India aimed to increase 25.2% by 2017-18 and reach the target of 30% by GER 2020-21. To achieve this, the enrolments need to be substantially revised in Universities / Colleges to reach the target by 2017- 18. The paper will concentrate on the analysis of this matter.
Impact of Female Literacy on the Development of Education among the Dimasa People of Diyungbra Block, Dima Hasao District, Assam- A Case Study
1Mili Bodo, M.A., M.Phil.Assistant Professor, Thong Nokbe College, Assam (India)
Literacy plays an important role in socio-economic development. Governmental efforts towards eradication of illiteracy also have borne fruit to a larger extent. In these days of cut throat competition no progress could be made unless the children are educated. The liberate women play an important role in the development of education. The problem of children can’t be solved unless efforts are made simultaneously to solve the women’s education. Relevant to our study, it is found that the villages are situated in hilly area. The settlement pattern indicates that only Rajbari village is agglomerated and another four villages- Baraima, Chotowashiling, Prabdisa and Washibil are dispersed and isolated villages are non-existent. The study indicated that the sample villages are well connected with the district headquarters by public transport system. Progress in educational sphere is noticed at least from the existence of L.P. School in all surveyed villages as well as from the figures of enrolment in the educational institution. The awareness towards educating the children is visibly noticed in case of Dimasa villages of the block. Drop out from the educational institution is still a problem in the villages under study. The study showed that drop out figure among the Dimasa students of illiterate mothers are more than the literate mothers. We have come to know about the impact of many things in socio-economic development of Dimasa people through the survey of Diyungbra Block and it is found that female literacy plays a vital role in this regard. It is seen from the surveyed villages, there is a lot of improvement in various field such as education, transportation and economy etc. as compared within some decades.
WOMEN AND SOCIAL MOVEMENT IN INDIA: HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY DIMENSION
1Seema Ghatak, Assistant Professor, Department of History, Hojai Girls’ College, Hojai, Assam (India)
Indian society represented a conflicting position of women vacillating between extremes of patriarchy and matriarchy. In this Indian society, the coming of British rule again led to usage of the women question which figured prominently in their colonial discourses. The colonized society was considered to be “effeminate” in character, as opposed to “colonial masculinity” which was held to be a justification for its loss of independence. The journey of confluence and conflict of gender and colonialism in India was multidimensional and multilayered. Indian women congested for their legitimate space in society challenging the overarching patriarchal set up and also participated in the national struggle for independence. Women’s participation in the Indian national movement expended base of women’s movement in India. The freedom struggle saw the participation of women from passive to active to an activist’s role. The involvement of a really large number of women in freedom struggle began with Gandhi who gave special role to women. The participation of women in public domain started during Non-Cooperation Movement (NCM), 1920 when Gandhi mobilized a large number of women. Though the domestic sphere and its fetter proved detrimental for women to participate in public space but this very segregation helped to organize their activities in the domestic sphere. In the absence of the male who would be jailed for his involvement in nationalist activity, women become the emotional support. The female activism in Quit India movement was visible most significantly. Sucheta Kripalini coordinated the non-violent Satyagraha while women also participated in underground revolutionary activities. Aruna Asaf Ali provided leadership for these activities. Mahila Atmaraksha Samiti or Women Self Defense was formed in 1942 in Bengal by leftist women leaders who mobilized the rural women to fright against colonial policies. Subhash Chandra Bose also added a womens regiment to his INA(1943) called the Rani of Jhansi Regiment. Muslim women leaders like Bi Amman, mother of Shaukat and Muhammad Ali, who participated in Khilafat & Non Cooperation Movement at a meeting in Punjab. In 1938, Muslim league started women Sub-Committee to engage Muslim women.
DEMAND FOR AUTONOMY AND STATEHOOD IN CONTEMPORARY ASSAM
Mayuri Bora, Research Scholar, OKD Institute of Social Change and Development, Assam (India)
The subject taken up for discussion here is the continuous demand for autonomy and statehood in contemporary Assam. Assam is inhabited by a multiplicity of ethno linguistic groups, both tribal and non tribal, has witnessed many separatist movements regarding ethnicity and autonomy. This resulted in the formation of new states carved out from the hill areas of the earlier composite state of Assam. As a process of change in development results in serious dislocation in the society and raising these issues continuously. The expansion of ethnic identity has captured political institutions and social movements. In the present context, the Bodos, Karbis, Koch Rajbongshis and Dimasas have given impetus to separate statehood and the Bodos have continuously focused on their demands. Among these the paper will focus only on the Bodo movement for separate statehood.
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN NORTH-EAST INDIA: ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
1Abu Reja Md. Parvis, Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Hojai Girls’ College, Assam (India).
In the 21st century, the crucial challenge of North-Eastern states will be how to strike a balance of the economy of the region with that of rest of India and also to ensure ecological balance. The real wealth of a nation is the human resource of the country. The basic aim of development of a country is to create environment for the people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives. But we often forgot this real truth in the pursuit of material and financial gain. The result is the destruction and diminishing of our natural resources, which must be combated. With the present paradigm, Human Development is the only alternative to have sustainable development. Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to human development without damaging environment and without disturbing the rights of future generations. Since the objective of development for a nation is to improve the welfare of its people, every nation strives hard not only to increase her wealth and productive resources but also to ensure a better standard of living for her citizens by providing them with adequate food, clothing, housing, medical facilities, education, etc. Manpower planning indicates planning of human resources for meeting development needs of the country. Just for the proper utilization of manpower resources, a country should impart proper education to its population and train its labour force in technology, engineering, management, medicine and in many other fields connected with the development of various aspects of the economy.
Hajong- A Study in Relation to Assamese and Bengali
Dr. Al Kafil Choudhury GM, Assistant Professor, Thong Nokbe College, Assam (India)
Hajong is a language used by the ethnic tribe called Hajong living in the states of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and West Bengal in India and the Mymensing district in Bangladesh. The Hajong language belongs to the Indo Aryan (IA) family of language. As per the Ethnologue, Hajong is classified as Indo-European > Indo- Iranian > IndoAryan > Eastern zone > Bengali- Assamese. The Hajong language used by the Hajong people today may be considered as a mixture of Assamese and Bengali (involving different dialects of these languages). The Hajongs of Assam are seen to use a mixture of Kamrupi and Goalparia dialects of the Assamese language in their conversation. However, Ratan Kumar Ray Hajong (1982) holds that the Hajongs had their own language in the distant past and it disappeared in course of time the certain reasons for which are known to nobody. Our study reveals that Hajong as spoken in the present day has affinity with Assamese and Bengali as well as it has some unique features of its own. “Hajong is classified as an Indo-Aryan language. It has some degree of similarity with Assamese and Bengali, the two IA languages spoken in the region” (Guts 2012). The paper tries to introduce this tribal language and analyze how it has affinity with Assamese and Bengali. It also tries to discuss about its linguistic features along with its present status concerning its development.
The Roots of Sayyid Qutb’s Qur’anic Studies, 1939 – 1947
1Adnan A. Musallam, Ph.D, Lecturer, Bethlehem University, Palestine.
The paper is an inquiry into the roots of Sayyid Qutb’s Qur’anic studies, 1939 - 1947, which were to pave the way for his commitment to Islam and his emergence as a leading ideologue of the contemporary Islamic movement in Egypt, the Arab and Muslim worlds. Qutb’s Qur’anic commentary Fi Zilal ai-Qur’an (In the Shades of the Qur’an) which appeared first in early the 1950’s and his other controversial Islamic writings have become an integral part of current Islamic resurgence. And like other Muslim revolutionary writers, Qutb’s Islamic writings are grounded in and justified by quotations from the Qur’an. This is clearly seen in his major Islamic writings such as al-‘Adalah al-ijtima’iyah fi al- Islam (Social Justice in Islam) (1949). The paper tries to discuss Qutub’s literary career and concerned works to focus on them and to disseminate among the world leaders.
INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN SOME SELECT COLLEGE LIBRARIES OF KARBI ANGLONG AND BISWANATH DISTRICTS OF ASSAM: A STUDY
Kishore Basumatary1*, Mr. Kalpajit Saikia2
1Kishore Basumatary Librarian, Thong Nokbe College, Assam (India),
2Mr. Kalpajit Saikia, Librarian, Kalabari College, Assam (India)
Libraries in a college are designed and built with the primary objective of meeting the information needs of the students of their parent Institution. In an institution like college, libraries are constructed with a view to help the students for their all-round development. It can help the students in acquiring knowledge for building their character, thinking, and for passing the examinations. It can also help the students to know the unknown things, to make the person strong through acquiring required knowledge and to help in fulfilling their aim in life. So, libraries can play an important role in students’ life by supplying any type of knowledge they want through different techniques and ways. A library is said to be the heart of the institution. Now-a-days, without a suitable well-organized library, the college is not recognized by the concerned university. In every inspection of a college, the library is inspected by the inspection committee and after satisfied they will recommend for recognition of that particular college. Now, in a college, we know that there are different types of students coming to the libraries seeking different types of information. That means they need different types of information to fulfill their needs. Here, this study is undertaken to investigate the different types of information seeking behaviour of the students by taking some five college libraries of Assam. The overall purpose of this study is to find out the different types of information seeking behaviour of the students and to determine awareness of the students about the library service available to them.
THE ROLE OF PALESTINIAN WOMEN IN POLITICAL PARTICIPATION DURING THE ISRAELI SIEGE IMPOSED ON THE GAZA STRIP, PALESTINE
This study aims to identify the Palestinian women involvement in the politics during the Israeli siege on Gaza between 2006 and 2014. In regard to achieve the objective of the study, the researcher designed a questionnaire with a purpose of collecting the required data. The framework of the study has used quantitative methodology, using questionnaire tool for data collection. The study population consists of 1,500 Palestinian students studying at 13 universities in Malaysia according to the list of Malaysian universities recognised by Palestinian Ministry of Higher Education. The questionnaire was filled out by a stratified random sample of 352 students. The study demonstrates that there is a positive significant relationship between political involvement of Palestinian women in the Gaza Strip and the independent variables consist of women involvement in the political parties, women involvement in the parliament and ministries, women involvement in NGOs, qualifications, women rights, and difficulties facing the women. The study concludes that Palestinian women were involved in the politics; it argues that, there is an obvious impact of the Palestinian women through the adoption of the resistance to the Israeli occupation. The study shows many difficulties facing the Palestinian women's involvement. This study however concludes several recommendations, most notably is the need to compel the Palestinian political parties to execute the principle of political pluralism, giving Palestinian women's the rights according to the Palestinian constitutions, and exceed social and cultural difficulties that prevent political involvement of Palestinian women.