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International Journal of Current Medical Science and Dental Research

Journal Papers (13) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 The Red Fruits (Pandanus Conoideus) Extract Immunomodulation on the Mammary Tumor Bearing Mice T Lymphocytes and Macrophages , Yulhasri || Kusmardi Kusmardi || Aryo Tedjo || Eva Zakiyah || Suprianto || Novianto
Objective: To investigate the effect of the red fruits (Pandanus conoideus) oil extract (RFOE) on activities of T lymphocytes (TL) derived from spleen and peritoneal macrophages (PM) of mammary tumor bearing mice in vitro. Materials and Methods: The RFOE was obtained by ethanol extraction consists of fraction 1-5 and used at 2 ppm concentrations. TL and PM were isolated, stimulated to proliferate while 24 hours of in vitro cultures. TL and PM activity were studied with the fraction 1 to 5, β- carotene, tocopherol, linoleic acid, RFO and negative control. Results and Conclusion: our study showed that fraction 2 and 3 of RFOE, β-carotene and tocopherol have effect in enhancing the CD8, CD 25 expression on T lymphocytes cultures; and fraction 1 on the CD 54 and CD64 expression of PM cultures.
2 Using Jigsaw and Problem-SolvingTasks to Enhance English Speaking Ability , Kamollapat Chaisongkram
The purposes of this research were: 1) to study and compare the English speaking ability before and after learning through Jigsaw and Problem Solving Tasks of undergraduate students at Kalasin University, and 2) to study the students’ attitudes towards teaching English speaking using Jigsaw and Problem Solving Tasks. The sample consisted of 23first-year undergraduate students at Kalasin University, Kalasin Province, in the second semester of the academic year 2019. The research was a one group pretestposttest design. The research instruments included 12 lesson plans, an English speaking ability test and an attitude questionnaire. The experiment lasted 12 weeks, 2 hours a week, or 24 hours for all. The mean, percentage, standard deviation and t-test for Dependent Samples were used for data analysis. The findings of this research were as follows: 1) The students’ pretest and posttest English speaking ability scores were 25.04 % and 83.19% respectively. The students’ posttest score was found significantly higher than that of the pretest at the .01 level. 2) The students’ attitude towards teaching English speaking using Jigsaw Task was at a very good level.
3 Health and Health Care Financing in South Asia:Continuing Inequity? , Dr. Anwar Islam
Along with the Indian sub-continent (India, Pakistan and Bangladesh), South Asia also includes a few other smaller countries such as Afghanistan, Bhutan, Maldives, Nepal and Sri Lanka. These eight South Asian countries, with 5.1 million square kilometres of landmass, compriseonly 3.4%of the world’s surface. However, with a combined population of 1.75 billion, South Asia houses more than 23% of the global population. Except Bangladesh, the basic health indicators in the South Asian countries are not impressive. It should be noted that Bangladesh has made impressive gains in recent decades in this regard. The paper examines the pattern of health expenditure as a percentage of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as well as health expenditure per capita to better understand and explain the poor overall health indicators. In South Asian countries, the government expenditure as a percentage of the total health expenditure is also substantially lower than in many other developing countries. This may help explain, partially at least, the continuing inequity in health in these countries.
4 Mental Health in South Asia:Resource Scarcity and Systemic Neglect , Dr. Anwar Islam
In population size India, Pakistan and Bangladesh comprising the Indian sub-continent are the largest in South Asia with a combined population of 1.66 billion. Although widespread poverty, natural disasters, environmental degradation and rapid urbanization make the population of these countries most vulnerable to health hazards, they spend little money as a percentage of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on health care. While India spends only 4.7% of its GDP on health, Pakistan and Bangladesh spend even less - 2.6% and 2.8% of their GDP on health respectively. Resources dedicated to mental health are far lower. The paper critically examines the pattern of mental health resources (human, financial and facilities) in these South Asia countries with a view to highlight the plight of the mentally ill. This may help explain, partially at least, the continuing systemic neglect faced by mental health in these South Asian countries comprising more than 23% of the global population
5 The Patient Check List , Zaid Mera,2,Manal Al-kaiem
In our everyday practice, when the patient attends his outpatient appointment, he/she expects a full perfect session of consultation with the expert. So, a good preparation from both parties promotes a better quality of the consultation and minimises the risk of missing any information.It is estimated that over 80% of diagnoses are made on history alone, a further 5-10% on examination and the remainder of investigation [1].Despite this might be debatable and differs from case to case, the patient presenting history remains the essential aspect of clinical practice and appropriate history taking can easily lead the clinician to make a correct diagnosis of the health problem in many cases.So that, the patient’s preparation before the consultation is highly recommended, and importantly, we need to focus on the records before reviewing the patient.
6 The effect of addition NaCI 150 mOsmol pH 7 on liposomes Tetraether Lipid (EPC-TEL 2,5) with sonication , Yulhasri, 2,Widya Safitri, 3,Erni H Purwaningsih, 4,Kusmardi Kusmardi
As a drugs carrier, liposome can alter the pharmacokinetics of the entrapped drugs. Thus, drugs can act directly on the targeted cell while their systemic side effects are reduced. To become an effective drugs carrier, liposome must reach its stability in chemical, physical, and biological conditions. Liposome stability can be achieved by changing the lipid composition, such as EPC-TEL 2,5 which is made from the combination of Egg Yolk Phosphatydyl Coline (EPC) and TEL 2,5 mol % that is extracted from Thermoplasma acidofilum. The aim of this study is to test the chemical stability of liposome EPC-TEL 2,5 with sonication by addition of NaCI 150 mOsmol pH 7 solution. The increase in number of liposome larger than 100 nm is the stability parameter in this study. After observation at day 0, 7, 30, 60, 90, there was no significant increase in the number of liposome larger than 100 nm after addition of NaCI 150 mOsmol pH 7 compared with control.
7 Clinical Features and Patterns of CD4+ T Lymphocyte Counts Among HIV/AIDS Patients Attending A University Teaching Hospital in North-Central Nigeria , Godwin T. Jombo1 , Jeremiah Oloche2 , James O. Tsor3 , Joseph Mamfe1 , Alfred Orinya
Background:The use of CD4+ T Lymphocyte count as a vital component to ascertain the stage of HIV/AIDS disease as well as monitor the progress of the disease continues to take centre stage in the management of HIV/AIDS in Africa and beyond. Most health centres in Sub-saharan Africa rely on cut off reference values from different races and distant parts of the world. Aim:This study was designed to establish the range of CD4+ T Lymphocyte counts among the HIV-negative individuals and also HIV-positive patients at initial booking in the anti-retroviral clinic of our hospital where clinical diagnosis was established. Methods:Patients were recruited into the study as they report to the hospital on daily basis; structured questionnaires were administered where socio-demograhic and relevant clinical information were obtained. Blood samples (3-5mls) were collected using aseptic techniqueand processed where HIV screening was conducted, and CD4+ T Lymphocyte cell count was carried out using Cyflow (Partec, Germany). Results were fed into Microsoft excel 2007 version and analysed using SPSS 14. Results:A total of 386 HIV-positive and 145 HIV-negative individuals were recruited into the study. The average CD4+ T Lymphocytes count among the HIV negative individuals was 850 cells /µL and ranged from 200 to 1950 cells/µL with CD4+ T Lymphocyte counts of less than 300 cells/µL being 5 (3.4%). The CD4+ T Lymphocyte counts of less than 500 cells/µL among the HIV-negative individuals was 19(13.1%). However, the CD4+ T Lymphocyte counts among HIV-infected individuals ranged from 50 to 1450 cells/µL, 0.8% (n=3) while 45.9% (n=177) presented with CD4+ T Lymhocyte counts of 50 or less and less than 250 cells/µL respectively. The fact that 75.9% (n=293) of the patients had a CD4+ T Lymphocyte counts of less than 500 cells/µL shows the general late presentation of patients with HIV infection at our health settings, and as much as 50% of these were aware of their HIV status the very first time. Conclusion:Late presentation of patients at the HIV clinic is still a major challenge as many are still not aware of their HIV status. More awareness and sensitization campaigns should be deployed to bridge this gap. Also,very Low CD4+ T Lymphocyte counts may as well be recorded in HIV-negative individuals and hence CD4 T Lymphocyte values should be interpreted based on this understanding.
8 A study on clinical presentation and various risk factors associated with phthisis in patient reporting , Prof. Hyacinth E. O
Background: Tuberculosis is one of the most ancient infectious diseases caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The population most affected is the young and economically productive one. The social factors include poor quality of life, poor housing, overcrowding, population explosion, under nutrition, lack of education, and last but not the least lack of awareness of cause of illness. Aims and Objectives: 1. To study the clinical presentation of tuberculosis in patients. 2. To study various risk factors of tuberculosis. Material and Methods: This study was conducted at selected designated microscopic centre (DMCs) Kanpur Nagar district has a population of 45.73lakh ( Census 2011).All the patients who were registered in the selected DMCs in the last one month of the year 2016 ( between April and May) were taken into consideration for the present study. Data was collected on predesigned and pretested questionnaire using direct personal interview method of patients at DMCs on the DOTS days of the week i.e Monday, Wednesday and Friday. Informed consent of the study subjects was taken before interview. A total of 105 registered patients were interviewed personally and also the treatment card of patients was obtained from their respective DMCs. Results: Out of 105 cases of tuberculosis which reported at DMCs maximum no. of patients belongs to age group between 21-40 yrs of age group (58%). Majority of cases were married (65.7%) cases. (62%) cases were Hindu by religion and (58%) belongs to other backward caste. In the study we found majority of patient was illiterate (34.3%). Most common clinical presentation was cough, fever and cough with expectoration, anorexia was reported in (61.9 %) of cases (77%) were cigarette/bidi smokers, 60% were tobacco chewer. Diabetes was reported in (12.4%) cases and (3.8%) cases were HIV positive
9 Extraction of Saffron Crocin as a Natural Pharmaceutical Source with Solidification Method , Steve Safrany
In this research with crystallization method, saffron Crocin was extracted. Ethanol 80% and acetone was chosen as the best extraction solvent. Crystallization and purification process was performed in two steps in zero and -5c° degree. In first step, saffron Crocin was extracted with ethanol and after keeping in - 5c° for 23 days obtained Crystals were separated. Obtained Crocin crystals from the first step had low purity and thepure crystals were yielded during the second crystallization. Extraction and purity of Crocin crystals were studied by UV-visible spectrophotometry and Fourier transform spectrometry and HPLC analysis compared to Crocin Sigma-Aldrich. Results show that the extraction intensity and purity of the obtained Crocins were significantly higher than Sigma Aldrich crocin. The results of this research showed that purchased Crocin according to the chromatograms is not pure and some unknown impurity was seen. Besides, Chromatogram spectra's shows that obtained Crocin crystals were in higher purity than purchased one.
10 Appropriate Use of Metered- Dose Inhalers Technique and its Determinants Among Asthmatic Adult Patients Attending Chest Clinics in Al Noor Specialist Hospital and Hera General Hospital at Makkah Al- Mukarramah, 2018 , Dr. Abrar Tariq Alamoudi1 , Dr. Karimah Mohammad Qutah2 , Dr. Fahad Saqib Lodhi3
Background: The most common route for managing bronchial asthma is using inhaled medications. Correct inhaler technique requires steps performed in sequence. However, various studies have reported critical errors in the inhaler technique by patients. Objectives: To estimate the frequency and identify the determinant of the appropriate use of Metered- Dose Inhaler technique among asthmatic patients attending pulmonary clinics in Al Noor Specialist Hospital and Hera General Hospital, in Makkah Al Mukarramah, 2018. Material and methods: Cross-sectional study included 145 asthmatic adult patients recruited from 30thSepmber – 30thOctober 2018 from pulmonary clinics at the mentioned hospitals. An Interview validated questionnaire was usedbased on Asthma Control Test- for data collection and observational validated checklist. Results:Among 145 asthmatic patients, the mean age was 48 and standard deviation ±16.1 years.Overall, asthma was controlled among 31.7% of patients, based on the Adult Control Test. The appropriate use of metered-dose inhalers technique by asthmatic patients was observed among 35.2% of them. It was significantly higher observed among patients live in Makkah (p=0.004), single patients (p=0.013), higher education (p=0.006), with income ranged between 9001 and 10000 SR/month (p<0.001) and young (p=0.005). Patients treated regularly by family physicians (p<0.001), those who had no other chronic diseases were more likely to use appropriately inhaler technique, Higher number of use of inhalers per week p=0.029, Patients who trained/retrained on the right way of using asthma inhaler andpatients trained through YouTube or relatives p<0.001. Conclusion:Improper inhaler use is common among adult asthmatic patients in MakkahAl- Mukarramah. However, it was not significantly associated with poor asthma control.
11 Pain Perception among Orthodontic Patients in Benghazi City , Dr.Iman Abdelgadier1 , Wisal Elfergani2
Aim: to explore the pain and discomfort experience among patients undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance after different time interval and procedure, and to elucidate predicting role for patient’s motivation for treatment and awareness of discomfort to the intensity of pain Material and method: The study group consists of 74 patients 17 male, 57 female their age range from 13 to 27 years. Modified McGill Pain Questioner (MCQ) with visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was modified and translated to Arabic and distributed to orthodontic patients. Patients were asked about the onset, predisposing factors, type and duration of pain and if they have used any medications to relief the pain or not, Statistic analysis was used. Results: Descriptive statistics showing percentage of patients experiencing pain after bonding at different time intervals. 87% of patients complained from pain and 12% did not, most pain scale percentage was 5 of 10, most frequency of pain started after insertion of arch wires, most duration pain continued to 2 days, 26% of patients took medications and 73% did not , the most pain trigger was chewing, the most affected site of pain were all anterior teeth and finally the most prescription of pain was pressure. Conclusion: The present findings provide useful information in relation to the likelihood of pain, discomfort, and side effects for patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. However, further studies are needed to assess the change over time of specific impacts related to wearing of orthodontic appliances
12 The Level of Knowledge and Determinants of Children’s Developmental Milestones from Birth to 36 Months among Mothers Attending Well-Baby Clinic at Al-Eskan Primary Health Care Center in Makkah Al-Mukarramah, 2018 , Rehab Khalid Hafiz
Aim: To evaluate the level of knowledge and the determinants about the children’s developmental milestones among mothers. Methodology: An observational cross-sectional study on 197 mothers attending the Well-Baby Clinic with their children at Al-Eskan primary health care center. Data were collected using the Caregiver Knowledge of Child Development Inventory. Results: The main sources of mothers’ knowledge about children’s developmental milestones were their family/friends, internet and social media. About half of mothers had poor knowledge regarding general knowledge about developmental milestones. Non-Saudi mothers had poorer knowledge regarding cognitive and social-emotional development of infants than Saudi mothers p<0.05. Mothers with lowest education had significantly poorest knowledge. Unemployed mothers had significantly poorer knowledge regarding cognitive and social-emotional development of toddlers than employed mothers p<0.02. Mothers with low educational status had significantly poorer knowledge regarding gross and fine motor development of children than employed mothers p<0.05. Younger mothers had significantly poorer general knowledge regarding developmental milestones of children p<0.05. Non-Saudi mothers had significantly poorer general knowledge than Saudi mothers p<0.05. Mothers with low education had significantly poorer general knowledge p<0.001. Unemployed mothers had significantly poorer general knowledge than employed mothers p<0.02. Conclusions: Mothers’ knowledge about developmental milestones is suboptimal. Their main sources of information are family/friends, internet. Younger, non-Saudi, less educated, and unemployed mothers have less knowledge than older, Saudi, more educated and employed ones.
13 Knowledge and Practice of Management Type2 Diabetes Mellitus during Ramadan and Associated Factors among Family Physicians in the Primary Health Care Centers of the Ministry of the Health Inside Makkah - Al Mukarramah City 2018 , Ghadeer AL-Aidarous 1 , Osama Mohammed AL Wafi
Background: Islam permits certain groups of Muslims from not fasting Ramadan including Muslims with diabetes. However, many patients insist on participating in Ramadan fasting. Objectives: To evaluate knowledge and practice of management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus during Ramadan and associated factors among family physicians in the primary health care centers. Subjects and methods: Cross-sectional study among family physicians (specialists and consultants) in primary health care centers of the Ministry of Health inside Makkah Al- Mukarramah city. A self-Administered questioner was utilized for data collection. Results: The study included 80 primary healthcare physicians. The guideline mostly followed for management of diabetes during Ramadan among the participants was ADA, followed by IDF. Adequate knowledge of basic concepts/management skills, non-insulin dose modification, nutrition plan and insulin management of type 2 diabetes during Ramadan were observed among 46.2%, 81.2%, 23.7% and 21.2% of the physicians, respectively with an overall adequate knowledge level of 41.2%. Older physicians (p=0.001), consultants (p<0.001), physicians who reported having access to the online medical library (p=0.043) and those who had a history of attending conferences, workshop, seminars, courses about diabetes management during Ramadan (p=0.037) were more knowledgeable regarding management of type 2 diabetes in Ramadan than others. Overall the percentage of the safe practice score of management of diabetes during Ramadan ranged between 53.3 and 100%. Conclusion: Overall, knowledge regarding management of T2DM during Ramadan was unsatisfactory among family physicians in Makkah. However, their safe practice of management of diabetes during Ramadan was satisfactory