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American Journal of Sciences and Engineering Research

Journal Papers (53) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Development and Testing of Elasticity Tine Attached to Small Tractor for Saccharum Weeder in Thailand , Dr. Ashok Kumar Sain, Prof., Arun k. Gupta
Removal of weeds from sugarcane fields is of utmost importance for optimizing sugarcane production. If weeds are not removed from sugarcane field at the right time, the yields are estimated fifty percent reduced. The traditional weeds control in sugarcane is chemical usage even though it is unsafely and unfriendly to environment. The mechanical weed control is one of the optimized methods of green technology; The spring tine cultivator attached to a small side riding tractor was developed by Agricultural Engineering Research Institute Five legs of coil spring tine were set in 2 rows; two and three times in first and second row by arranging in different positions. Of the two types of developed spring tine cultivators, type I used a coil shank and a full sweep head tine is called coil spring type. The spring tine cultivator type II is called S spring type used S-shape shank was and Mcgregor head tine type. The field validation was in Konkani province, Thailand. The average field capacity of spring tine cultivator type I and type II were 0.5 and0 0.6 ha/hr. The weeding efficiency of spring tine cultivator type I and type II were 94.7 and 97.0 percent. The fuel consumption of spring tine cultivator type I and type II were 5.9 and 4.8 liter per hectare respectively. Two types of spring tine cultivator had high working capacity and high weeding efficiency but low fuel consumption. This equipment can be adequately used for weed control in sugarcane
2 Solution for Combined Commercial and Ejection Dispatch , Haseena, Thara M
An efficient and optimum economic operation of electric power generation systems has always occupied an important position in the electric power industry. A power system operation at minimum cost is no longer the only criterion for electrical power dispatch. Combined economic emission dispatch problem is obtained by considering both the economy and emission objectives with required constraints. The purpose of Combined Economic and Emission Dispatch (CEED) is to minimize both the operating fuel cost and emission level simultaneously while satisfying load demand and operational constraints. This paper presents an optimization algorithm, for solving security constrained combined economic emission dispatch problem, through the application of programming method. Many optimization techniques are slow for such complex optimization tasks and are not suitable for on-line use. The proposed method has been tested on IEEE 30-bus test system and found to be suitable for on-line combined economic emission dispatch
3 Ameliorated RMPA using ‘Squares Enveloped by Hexadecagon’ Shaped Double Negative Metamagnets Structure in Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Band , Okonor A, Ezeja C.A
Authors analyzed and explored a significant concept of rectangular microstrip patch antenna configured by double negative left handed metamaterial which have dielectric permittivity & magnetic permeability both negative simultaneously. Metamaterials are artificial structures exhibits double negative properties. They can control Electromagnetic radiations by quantum mechanics. This work deals with miniaturisation of patch antenna using metamaterial. Rectangular microstrip patch antenna without proposed metamaterial is designed to resonate at 2.322 GHz. The antenna with metamaterial is proposed and analyzed at a height of 3.276 mm from the ground plane. The antenna along with the proposed metamaterial is designed to resonate at 0.909 GHz frequency. Main work in this design process is reduce the size of the antenna, and this target has been achieved by reducing the size of antenna up to 85% and also reduce the return loss from - 10.269 dB to -46.06dB and increases the efficiency of the antenna from 47% to 72%. In this paper authors have used the computer simulation technology microwave studio (CST-MWS) simulation software for designing and simulation, and MS-Excel for metamaterial proving. Copyright © AJESTR, all rightsreserved.
4 The Perception and Nature of War in the ‘Pagan Societies’ of North Central Nigeria from the Earliest Times to 1920 , Amin Zaigi
In a time and day, when man is unleashing unusual animalistic tendencies with unbelievable manifestation of raw brutality and barbarism, it has become necessary to once again look back at the past and learn from the forebears how emotions, conflicts and disagreements were resolved. Recent evidence suggests that war is not an innate part of human nature, but rather behavior adopted more recently. Violence in early human communities was driven by personal conflicts rather than large scale battles. This paper argues that warfare among the societies of North Central Nigeria was governed by many conventions that did not permit wanton destruction of lives and property. It contends that warfare was non imperialist in nature neither did it support conquests. This paper concludes that the absence of centralized state structures in most of the societies of Central Nigeria supports this fact. The lesson we glean from the past is the importance of ethics, humanity and respect for human life. Lessons and values, this paper argues, that have been thrown to the dogs
5 Duplicate for Three Phase to Two Phase Transformation , Sulfi A Samad, Punya S, Ajitha J
This paper the model that has been developed so far is for two phase machine Three phase induction machine are common: [1]-[3]two phase machine are rarely used in industrial application . a dynamic model for the three phase induction machine can be derived from the two phase machine if the equivalence between three and two phase is established .The equivalence is based on the equality of the MMF produced in the two phase and three phase winding and equal current magnitudes. Shows simulation results are compared
6 Maximizing Wind Power Creation of DIFG-Based Wind Turbines at Low Wind Speed Operation , Amy Heider1 and Nancy Knechtel
This paper introduces an improved strategy to increase the power production of wind turbines equipped with doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs) at low wind speed operation. The performance of DFIGbased wind turbines at low wind speeds, close to the cut in speed, is investigated. A modified control to extend the concept of maximum wind power tracking to cover the low wind speed region is implemented. The associated effects of the expanding technique are examined. Reasonable value for the dc link voltage is investigated. A comprehensive time-domain model for the wind turbine with DFIG and the decoupled dq controller are implemented using Matlab/Simulink software. Simulation results are included to ensure the validity and feasibility of the proposed modification for low wind speed operation
7 Decidedly Long-Lasting, Decentralized Cargo Space Not Withstanding Gigantic Allied Failures , Glenn P* and Suzanne. Wagner
Cloud Storage System has a collection of storage servers provides long-standing storage services over the internet. Data privacy becomes a major concern in cloud storage system because user stores his data in third party cloud system. Encryption schemes available for data privacy but it limit the number of functions done in storage system. Building a secure storage system that supports multiple functions is tough when the storage system is distributed and has no central authority. A new idea is proposed proxy re-encryption scheme for decentralizes erasure code for defending the distributed system. The distributed storage system not only supports secure and robust data storage and retrieval, but also lets a user forward his data in the storage servers to another user without retrieving the data back. The main technical contribution is that the proxy reencryption scheme supports encoding operations over encrypted messages as well as forwarding operations over encoded and encrypted messages. Our method fully integrates encrypting, encoding, and forwarding.
8 A Survey on NFC (Near Field Communication) and FFC (Far Field Communication) With Respect To RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) for Next Generation Network Infrastructure , David Schoen
This paper gives us the comprehensive analysis of security with respect to RFID (radio frequency identification) considering the Next Generation smartphone attributes i.e. NFC and FFC. The electromagnetic field that outlines the RFID antenna can be divided into two parts NFC & FFC; both are based on existing standards of the radio frequency identification network framework. NFC (near field communication) is a set of principles for Smartphone and alike devices to establish Radio Communication with each other. In this study we will try to survey the critical issues of NFC and FFC to find out the updated implementation issues for the Next Generation network infrastructures.
9 Computer Network - IP Address & Subnetting , Shawn Kosmala, Dr. Carrie Teresa
The next-generation Internet Protocol, initially known as IP Next Generation (Ipng), and then later as IPv6, has been developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to replace the current Internet Protocol (also known as IPv4). Which offers 2128 possible addresses to enable the integration of IPv6 into current networks, several transition mechanisms have been proposed by the IETF IPng Transition Working Group? This work examines and empirically evaluates two transition mechanisms, namely IPv6 to IPv4 tunneling and dual-stack mechanism, as they relate to the performance of IPv6. The primary focus of this paper is to compare and analyze IPv4 and IPv6 networks, study their characteristics and header formats. The paper also attempts to outline the key deployment issues and security-related challenges which are being faced and dealt with during the migration process
10 Influence of Running Fluid and Operating Parameters on the Act of Traveling Wave Thermo Acoustic Prime Mover , Dr. Gamal Tag
The paper present the performance studies on a traveling wave thermoacoustic system developed in our laboratory. Experiments were carried out for different working fluids such as Helium, Argon and Nitrogen and at different operating pressures. The results indicate that the working fluids with different charge pressures are critical to the performance of the system. The above experimental results are compared with simulation (CFD and Delta EC) results wherever possible and they are in good agreement.
11 Performance Evaluation of Various Active Queue Management for Bufferbloat , Kanu Monga
Due to unprotected large buffers in network devices, the Internet is suffering from high latency and jitter which leads to decreased throughput. The perseveringly full buffer problem, recently exposed as “bufferbloat” [1] [2] has been observed for decades, but is still with us. As a solution to this problem, several new AQM algorithms CoDel, sfqCoDel and CoDel-DT have been proposed. This paper aims to evaluate these AQM algorithms by carrying out simulations in ns-2 and compares their performance with that of DropTail. sfqCoDel outperforms various peer solutions in variety of scenarios in terms of bottleneck link utilization, packet drop rate and mean queue length.
12 Reengineering Healthcare using Information and Communication Technology: Structural Equation Model for Healthcare Information Systems , Nizar Hussain M, Suresh Subramoniam
It is claimed that reengineering healthcare using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) can bring many benefits to the healthcare organisation. Many ICT applications remain underused by healthcare professionals and healthcare organisations. Human and organisational factors have frequently been identified as the main causes of ICT implementation underuse. Therefore, it is very important to identify the Critical Success Factors (CSF) necessary for the implementation of Healthcare Information Systems (HIS). Existing models of CSF on information systems related to healthcare sector are practically less, globally, and almost nil with respect to India. Hence, the purpose of this research is to develop a conceptual model of CSF especially for HIS adoption, use and redesign in India. Such identified factors for redesign will also have international bearing as redesign possibilities discussed are mainly based on emerging technologies. The rationale of the purpose is justified by the fact that India is a leader in developing information systems, especially medical applications. Further, India is emerging as an international destination for healthcare due to the advancement in medical technology and is offering high quality health services at reduced cost
13 A Fast FPGA based Architecture Implementation for Reversible Image Watermarking , Kunal G
Now a day’s different techniques are available for digital image watermarking including software and hardware implementation. Reversible contrast mapping (RCM) is one of the technique is used for embed secret information into the digital form. RCM algorithm is simple integer transform of the pixel pair and there LSB bits are used for data embedding. RCM offers high embedding rate, low mathematical calculation and good robustness. This paper focuses on implementation of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based fast image watermarking using RCM algorithm. The given architecture requires 52 slices, 52 number of flip-flop, 85 number of 4-input LUTs and transceiver data rate is up to 3.2Gbps with an operating crystal frequency is 100MHz. Given architecture is implemented with Xilinx 14.7 on Spartan-6 FPGA family. The given architecture is acceptable for various application areas such as digital cameras, medical and military applications, etc
14 Physico-Chemical Composition and Energy Content Analysis of Solid Waste: A Case Study of Castlereagh District, Northern Ireland , Adeyinka Sikiru Yusuff, Wasiu John, Oluwashola Okoro
The physico-chemical characterization of municipal solid waste generated in Castlereagh district in Northern Ireland was carried out. The solid waste type were observed to comprise of glass (9.59%), metal (2.74%), paper (25.83%), plastics (3.87%), compostable (organic matter) (57.48%), WEEE(0.22%) and other waste(0.27%). Both WEEE and other waste were lumped and referred to as uncompact municipal waste (UMW). The moisture content as-discarded, density and solid waste generation rate were obtained to be 16.3692%, 150.489kg/m3 and 25.94tonne/day respectively. Its chemical formula with and without sulphur were also determined and obtained to be C510.909H1136.545O476.891N13.255S and C38.546H85.748O35.979N respectively. The suitability of the municipal solid waste as a possible source of energy was also put into consideration; an energy content of the solid waste was determined and observed to be 14.74MJ/kg which is significant. Hence, it can be used to generate energy in Castlereagh district
15 Applicability of Becker’s theory of Allocation of Time in Modeling Married Women’s Allocation of time between Household Duties and Labour Force Participation in Zimbabwe , Anil gaur
With the rise in women participation in labour force and gender equality campaigns on the one hand and cultural norms which characterise women as house makers on the other, most married women often find themselves in a dilemma as to how to allocate their time among competing needs. This paper used a theoretical approach in reviewing the applicability of the proposals of Becker’s allocation of time theory to the married women’s allocation of time between household duties and labour force participation to the Zimbabwean situation. It was concluded that though the model ignores the cultural norms of assigning household roles to specific gender, it explained to a greater extent the trends observed in which women spend more time in household chores to which they have a comparative advantage as opposed to their male counterparts. The substitution and income effects explained in this model are also applicable to the preferences and patterns of time allocation by married when faced with a change in wages
16 Reengineering Healthcare using Information and Communication Technology: Structural Equation Model for Healthcare Information Systems , Nizar Hussain M, Suresh Subramoniam
17 Particulate Matter (PM2,5) Increases MDA Levels Serum of Workers at Surabaya Bus Station , John Burg, Aliyana H
: Particulate matter (PM2,5) in the air that are free radicals and enter through the respiratory station workers. Inability of antioxidants neutralize free radicals will increase MDA levels serum and cause oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to look at the differences in MDA levels serum and PM2,5 influence on MDA levels serumon several main station attendant Surabaya. The design of this study was an analytic observational with cross-sectional study. The population in this study was bus station workers and administration workers, large of samples were 12 people in each group. Measurement of PM2,5 with EPAM 5000 and MDA levels in serum using TBA test method. The results of t test analysis 2 free samples to show that there are differences in serum MDA levels were highly significant (ρ <0.05) in the bus station workers and administration workers. Multiple linear regression showed that there are significant PM2,5 exposure and body mass index (ρ <0.05) on serum levels of MDA. The conclusion of this study is the PM2,5 exposure can increased serum levels of MDA on several main bus station workers. Suggestions for health officials to control the station regularly and use a mask while on duty in the area of Surabaya station
18 Particulate Matter (PM2,5) Increases MDA Levels Serum of Workers at Surabaya Bus Station , John Burg, Aliyana H
Particulate matter (PM2,5) in the air that are free radicals and enter through the respiratory station workers. Inability of antioxidants neutralize free radicals will increase MDA levels serum and cause oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to look at the differences in MDA levels serum and PM2,5 influence on MDA levels serumon several main station attendant Surabaya. The design of this study was an analytic observational with cross-sectional study. The population in this study was bus station workers and administration workers, large of samples were 12 people in each group. Measurement of PM2,5 with EPAM 5000 and MDA levels in serum using TBA test method. The results of t test analysis 2 free samples to show that there are differences in serum MDA levels were highly significant (ρ <0.05) in the bus station workers and administration workers. Multiple linear regression showed that there are significant PM2,5 exposure and body mass index (ρ <0.05) on serum levels of MDA. The conclusion of this study is the PM2,5 exposure can increased serum levels of MDA on several main bus station workers. Suggestions for health officials to control the station regularly and use a mask while on duty in the area of Surabaya station
19 Importance of Exclusive Breast Feeding and Complementary Feeding Among Infants , AshmIkA M
The aim of this review is to document the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding along with concerns which may hinder the practice of breastfeeding and focuses on the appropriateness of complementary feeding and feeding difficulties which infants encounter. Breastfeeding, as recommended by the World Health Organisation, is the most cost effective way for reducing childhood morbidity such as obesity, hypertension and gastroenteritis as well as mortality. There are several factors that either promote or act as barriers to good infant nutrition. Factors which influence breastfeeding practice in terms of initiation, exclusivity and duration are namely breast engorgement, sore nipples, milk insufficiency and availability of various infant formulas. On the other hand, introduction of complementary foods, also known as weaning, is done around 4 to 6 months and mothers usually should start with home-made nutritious food. Difficulties encountered during the weaning process are often refusal to eat followed by vomiting, colic, allergic reactions and diarrhoea.
20 Estimation of Resistant Starch Content of Selected Routinely Consumed Indian Food Preparations , Mohd. Aziz
Resistant Starch, an important component of the diet, shows the potential health benefits against lifestyle diseases and many other health conditions. Resistant Starch (RS) refers to the portion of starch and starch products that resist digestion as it passes through the gastrointestinal tract, gets fermented in the colon by colonic microflora and produces short chain fatty acids which directly or indirectly help in preventing and/or controlling many diseases.Since the main sources of RS in the Indian diet are starchy foods like varieties of cereals, cereal products, roots and tubers, raw and processed legumes etc.it becomes important to determine the RS content of typical traditional Indian starchy cereal and legume preparations.Therefore the aim of this research was to estimate the RS content of selected, routinely consumed Indian food preparations and to determine the change in RS content of cereal and pulse preparations on cooking and on storage. RS content was estimated for two varieties of rice and four rice preparations, whole and refined wheat flour and four preparations made using these flours, legumes like whole moong, Kabuli chhana, Chana flour and preparations made using them. Five of these preparations were also analyzed for their RS content after an overnight storage in the refrigerator, to understand the effect of storage on their RS content. Amount of RS was estimated using the procedure given by Parchure and Kulkarni. RS content in freshly cooked preparations was compared with RS content in equivalent amount of raw ingredients. RS content of freshly cooked preparations was also compared with RS in equivalent amount of cooked and stored samples. Comparison of means was done using paired t test. One-way ANOVA was also used to compare RS content of freshly cooked rice preparations, wheat preparations and legume preparations. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant.The RS content of raw food samples ranged from as low as 0.50g% in whole wheat flour to 27.67g% in Kolam rice. The two varieties of rice, Basmati and Kolam contained 20.22g% and 27.67g% RS respectively whereas Whole wheat flour and Refined wheat flour contained 0.50g% and 0.65g% RS respectively. The RS in raw legumes was 1.93g%, 1.98g% and 4.52g% in Kabuli Chana, Chana flour and Whole Moong respectively.Among four freshly cooked rice preparations RS varied from 0.46g% in cooked Kolam to 0.78g% in Khichdi. Among four wheat preparations (freshly cooked) RS content varied from 0.47g% in Puri to 0.61g% (food as eaten) in paratha. Chapatti and Bhatura contained 0.49g% and 0.54g% RS (food as eaten) respectively.RS in legume preparations ranged from 0.09g% in freshly cooked Pithle to 2.38g% in cooked Chole.
21 Nutrient Adequacy of Foods Eaten by Students Attending Boarding and Day Secondary Schools in Owo , Olanike A, Olaide F.
The nutrient adequacy of foods eaten by students attending boarding and day secondary schools in Owo municipal was assessed. The study was carried out among two day secondary schools and two secondary schools with boarding facilities. A total of 200 students were systematically selected from the class register. The 24-hour dietary recall procedure was used to assess food consumption and nutrients intake. The nutrient intake of the student shows that the intake of energy was 98% of RDA while that of protein was above RDA 123%. However, vitamin A, E, B6 folic Acid and vitamin C were found to be lower than RDA as intakes were 38%, 21%, 62%, 55% and 23% respectively. Also mineral intake shows that there is low consumption of calcium 43% while Iron intake exceeded RDA 127%. However, there was no significant difference in the energy intake of the day and boarding student while intake of vitamin C was higher among day students. Access to low cost healthy local foods especially fruits and vegetables in school and at home should be encouraged.
22 Estimation of Resistant Starch Content of Selected Routinely Consumed Indian Food Preparations , Mohd. Aziz
Resistant Starch, an important component of the diet, shows the potential health benefits against lifestyle diseases and many other health conditions. Resistant Starch (RS) refers to the portion of starch and starch products that resist digestion as it passes through the gastrointestinal tract, gets fermented in the colon by colonic microflora and produces short chain fatty acids which directly or indirectly help in preventing and/or controlling many diseases.Since the main sources of RS in the Indian diet are starchy foods like varieties of cereals, cereal products, roots and tubers, raw and processed legumes etc.it becomes important to determine the RS content of typical traditional Indian starchy cereal and legume preparations.Therefore the aim of this research was to estimate the RS content of selected, routinely consumed Indian food preparations and to determine the change in RS content of cereal and pulse preparations on cooking and on storage. RS content was estimated for two varieties of rice and four rice preparations, whole and refined wheat flour and four preparations made using these flours, legumes like whole moong, Kabuli chhana, Chana flour and preparations made using them. Five of these preparations were also analyzed for their RS content after an overnight storage in the refrigerator, to understand the effect of storage on their RS content. Amount of RS was estimated using the procedure given by Parchure and Kulkarni. RS content in freshly cooked preparations was compared with RS content in equivalent amount of raw ingredients. RS content of freshly cooked preparations was also compared with RS in equivalent amount of cooked and stored samples. Comparison of means was done using paired t test. One-way ANOVA was also used to compare RS content of freshly cooked rice preparations, wheat preparations and legume preparations. P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant.The RS content of raw food samples ranged from as low as 0.50g% in whole wheat flour to 27.67g% in Kolam rice. The two varieties of rice, Basmati and Kolam contained 20.22g% and 27.67g% RS respectively whereas Whole wheat flour and Refined wheat flour contained 0.50g% and 0.65g% RS respectively. The RS in raw legumes was 1.93g%, 1.98g% and 4.52g% in Kabuli Chana, Chana flour and Whole Moong respectively.Among four freshly cooked rice preparations RS varied from 0.46g% in cooked Kolam to 0.78g% in Khichdi. Among four wheat preparations (freshly cooked) RS content varied from 0.47g% in Puri to 0.61g% (food as eaten) in paratha. Chapatti and Bhatura contained 0.49g% and 0.54g% RS (food as eaten) respectively.RS in legume preparations ranged from 0.09g% in freshly cooked Pithle to 2.38g% in cooked Chole.
23 The Impact of Structure and Cage Climate on Productivity of Dairy Cattle in the Highlands Area , Natsir Abduh1 , Tamrin Mallawangeng2 , M. Tang3
There are four microclimate elements that can directly affect livestock productivity, namely temperature, humidity, radiation, and wind speed, while the other two elements, evaporation and rainfall, affect livestock productivity indirectly. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of building structure and temperature of the cage on the level of milk production of dairy cows. The research location in Enrekang Regency which included in the highlands in South Sulawesi Province. The number of samples used is 35 samples from 50 existing cattle pens with purposive sampling technique. Data collection through direct measurements, observations, questionnaires and interviews. The results obtained there is no significant difference in temperature and humidity of the air in the cage and outside the cage. Temperature shifts from the comfortable range in cattle are sure to experience both hot stress (hyperthermia) and cold stress (hypothermia). Dairy cows need a place to live according to their needs. The cows cannot place in the same cage building because it will affect their health. The cage made primarily as a building for the management of dairy cows and its security against theft and predators.
24 The Vale Brazilian Dam Collapse: An Ethical and Engineering Disaster , Peter A. Stanwick, Sarah D. Stanwick
Vale S.A. is the largest iron ore mining company in the world. On January 25, 2019, Dam1 of Vale’s Corrego do Feijao iron-ore mine in Brazil collapsed. The dam was built upstream on a mountain in order to contain mining waste or tailings, which are made up of dirt, rocks and bits of ore that are dumped into a dam reservoir. The mining waste was estimated to be travelling as fast as 50 miles an hour downhill toward the city of Brumadinho. The mining waste killed 270 people within minutes, and it is the deadliest mining disaster of its type in more than 50 years. Mine sediment from the dam was found as far away as 119 miles from the dam. There were several causes for the dam’s failure including: the use of cheap materials, Vale’s managers ignoring warnings of structural problems, and monitoring equipment that was no longer working. Both Vale and its safety inspector TUV SUD are under criminal investigations for their actions leading up to the dam collapse.
25 A Study of Application of Tracers in Groundwater Hydrology , J.O. Jeje , O.O Fadipe
Laboratory study was carried out to investigate the effect of acidic and alkaline characteristics of groundwater medium on three tracers (rhodamine B, eosin and potassium dichromate) commonly used for groundwater investigations. This is with the view to improving the criterion used in the selection of tracers for groundwater investigations. The factors considered are: the maximum tracer concentration, Cmax, which could be observed during the experiment, the time, tm, at which this occurs and the percentage of the tracer recovered during experiment. Others are the time, ti, of first detection of the tracer and time, tf, of total disappearance of tracer from the investigation area.A lysimeter apparatus of circular cross section with diameter, D = 45 mm was constructed and uniformly filled with coarse sand and fine gravel (each at a time). Throughout the column, steady water discharge (2.5 ml/min) at a pH value between the ranges of 5 – 8 was maintained, to carry the tracer solution through the soil column. Effluent from the bottom of the lysimeter were subjected to spectrometric analysis to determine tracer concentration.. The results suggest that rhodamine B is a suitable tracer for groundwater investigation in acidic medium but may not be suitable for alkaline medium. Values obtained for eosin showed the tracer to be good for investigation in both acidic and alkaline medium,while potassium dichromate as a tracer may be a good tracer in alkaline medium only.
26 The Effectiveness of Group Work Role Play on EFL Students’ Accuracy in Speaking Skill at Dong Nai Technology University , Thu Tran Thi Minh , Duyen Vu Thi
In recent years, role-play activities have been widely used in the ESL/EFL classroom as an effective teaching method. This research paper aimed to investigate how group work role play activities can produce effect on students’ accuracy in speaking skill as well as how students get involved in the activities at Dong Nai Technology University. The experiment lasted in eight weeks and about fifteen students took part in this project. Oral tests were designed at the end of the experiment to measure students’ improvement. In addition, three research methods employed in my research were observation, semi-structured group interview and students’ diaries in order to perfectly understand how group work role play activities affected the participants and their attitude toward role play. The research paper came up with a positive result that all students participated in the activities and generated strong motivation in the classroom. As the research observed, the lessons with role play seem to be more interesting and attractive. In the contrast, an unexpected outcome was that role play could help improve students’ fluency but not accuracy. This paper points out both strong and weak aspects of using group work role play in improving students’ accuracy in speaking English. Based on the principal findings, conducting this research greatly affects our future practice as teachers. We believe that this research can help us respond to new challenges and become a better practitioner. As a consequence, this process would make tremendous impacts on our future practice.
27 Applying Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT) To Enhance Students ‘Communicative Grammar Competence at Dong Nai Technology University , Nguyen Hong Ngoc
Grammar teaching and learning play important roles in English acquisition. However, Vietnamese educational system still favors grammar written tests to evaluate students’ English proficiency. Therefore, students tend to learn more about language forms rather than meaningful language use. This has no doubt resulted in students’ poor communicative ability. Task-based language teaching (TBLT) is a suitable teaching approach, if applied to teach grammar for teenager students, it will not only promote their communicative ability but also instruct them to use grammar correctly and comprehensively. In other words, teachers use TBLT to balance the learning process in which learners both fulfill meaningful communicative tasks and comprehend linguistic forms. In spite of the benefits brought to learners by TBLT, they are still in theory. Therefore, in order to bridge the gap between theory and practice, it is essential to conduct a study which can prove the effectiveness of applying TBLT. As the matter of fact, the research question is ‘How do students respond to grammar learning with TBLT?’ The objective of this work can only be achieved by collecting and analyzing data, so choosing research methods has to be done accurately and carefully.
28 Using Jigsaw Strategy for Teaching Reading to Teenager Learners in Vietnam , Huynh Nhu Yen Nhi
This paper indicates strong points of using the jigsaw strategy for teaching reading to teenagers. Two kinds of datasets including survey and interview provided the researcher with enough evidence in order to judge innovation. Although this is not a very successful innovation, it helps the researcher experience jigsaw reading lessons in her own teaching context. Vitally important, the innovation helps engage students in reading lessons and create meaningful interaction among them. Therefore, the research results will be applied into other reading courses at institutions in Vietnam and the researcher hopes that it might be useful for those who are interested in teaching reading through the jigsaw strategy
29 Analysis of Road Transport Dynamics in Gombe City, Gombe State, Nigeria , R. B. Hashidu , A. M. Abbas , M.A. Jimme
Road transportation, particularly in developing world continuous to be among the crucial factors of global change in the 21st century affecting the physical dimension of cities. As such, the paper examines the road transport development in Gombe city. In order to achieve the objectives of this research, road maps of Gombe metropolis of 1996, 2005 and 2014 were acquired to determine the changes in road network development using alpha, beta and gamma indices and 282 copies of questionnaire were distributed to assess the effects of road transport development on commercial activities in the study area. The results of the computation of gamma: 56.9%, 57.9% and 60.0%, beta: 1.61, 1.70 and 1.80 and alpha 31.3%, 35.3% and 38.9% indices indicated that there is a significant increase in road connectivity in Gombe metropolis from 1996 through the 2005 to 2014. Further results revealed 95% of the respondents indicated that improvement in road network affects movement and economic activities in many ways which include: provision of access to commercial outfits which bring about profit by locating along major roads, junctions and roundabouts which in turn result to increase in income, improvement in standard of living and reduction in poverty. It is therefore, concluded that road transport development dictate the pattern of urban commercial outfits and also affects commercial activities positively. The study discovered the importance of road transport infrastructure to the improvement of commercial activities in the study area. It is consequently, recommended that more roads should be constructed, renovated and dualyzed in order to improve and diversify the commercial nature of Gombe metropolis. The study further exposed that urban roads are given more priority in Gombe State. Thus, recommended that rural roads should be improved to harness the economic potentials in the state at large.
30 Prediction of Relation of I. R. Iran and Saudi Arabia in Region by Game Theory , Saeed seyd agha Banihashemi  , Majid Eshaghe
This article examines the relations between Iran and Saudi Arabia after the reign of king Salman and we study major changes in the cabinet, including the Saudi Foreign Ministry and defense. And, using the game theory, we show that likely to be in war between Saudi Arabia and Iran on basis Saudi-Arab air and naval forces. And a ground attack can also take place from ISIL forces around the borders of Iran. Most of them are Sunnis. Initially, we strat with statement of the game Combat Death Hunting, We explore relations and goals between Iran and Saudi Arabia in the region. Then, the situation in Saudi Arabia in Syria, the war in Saudi Arabia and the situation in Saudi Arabia in Yemen. Finally, we look at the relationship between the two countries in the Middle East. Because of the war Iran's Saudi Arabia The whole Islamic world is weakened. Israel can easily reach its destination in the region, using this opportunity to attack Islamic countries like Lebanon, Syria and even Saudi Arabia. Iran uses Hezbollah to fight Israel, Saudi Arabia with Iran and, ultimately, Israel with Iran. During this period, Iran is constantly seeking to negotiate and find common interests with Saudi Arabia, while Saudi Arabia constantly looking for non-cooperation with Iran. It is not interested in having common interests with Iran. Saudi Arabia seeks to persuade Iran to attack the military. Saudi Arabia continues the game before the completely lifting of Iran's sanctions by European and American nations and eventually a military strike against Iran will begin. There are reasons why the Iranians may be Inhibition in the region from Saudi Arabia, which could provide some attractions for attacking Iran in Saudi Arabia. In this article, we will also examine this charm and, using the game theory, we anticipate the probable time of Saudi invasion of Iran on 2018.
31 Evaluation of the Ichthyotoxicity of Dioscorea Dumetorum on the African Catfish, Clarias Gariepinus Fingerlings and Anuran Tadpoles , Nsikak NseAkanse, Blessing Julius Oribhabor
Dioscorea Dumetorumtubers are used in stupefying fish for easy harvesting in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria specifically in Annang part of the state. D. dumetorum belongs to the family of Dioscoreaceae and is commonly known as bitter yam. This study was conducted to determine the bioactive components and evaluate the acutetoxicity of the aqueous extract of the D. dumetorum on C. aariepinus fingerlings and anuran tadpoles. The 96hLC50 values of D. dumetorum tuber aqueous extracts were determined in the laboratory under static bioassay conditions against C. aariepinus fingerlings and anuran tadpoles. Range finding bioassays were conducted to get the range of concentrations for the definitive bioassays. The range of concentrations of test media for C. aariepinus fingerlngs was 0.6-5mgl-1 while that of anuran tadpoles was 1.6-3.8mgl-1 . The median lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined using probit analysis. The 96hLC50 value of the test plant against exposed fingerlings was 2.153mgl-1 with lower and upper confidence limits of 1.869 and 2.485mgl-1 respectively while that of tadpoles was 2.538mgl-1 with lower and upper confidence limits of 2.295 and 2.771 mgl1 respectively. Unpaired t-test showed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the toxicity of the test plant to C. aariepinus fingerlings and that of anuran tadpoles. The mean water quality parameters were within the optimal range requirement for the test species. The study indicated that D. dumetorumexerted piscicidal property on C. aariepinus fingerlings and anuran tadpoles. The indiscriminate use of this plant to catch fish by local fishermen should be discouraged.
32 Application of Game Theory to Select the Most Suitable Cryptographic Algorithm in Asymmetric Conditions , Saeed Seyed Agha Banihashemi  , Eman visheh
The cryptographic systems used in an organization use a fixed cryptographic algorithm and the specific procedures of that system. Due to the fact that the algorithm is fixed in these systems, the probability of failure or success of such systems depends on human resources, hardware resources and work environment so that it can be said that the probability of success or the failure of these systems is 50%. Also, in this kind of systems, there are no other algorithms based on the needs of the user. This research addresses the question of how we can use multiple asymmetric algorithms in a cryptographic system that does not defeat the algorithm by the opponent. In this research, selection of algorithms based on some environmental parameters and the possibility of breaking the algorithm by the opponent should be selected. This will be done using game theory. The problem is modeled as a model of solvable problems by game theory and generated outputs will be use by Gambit software which is especial for Game theory. The results obtained from this study indicate the ease of choosing the algorithm based on the need and with regard to the attack on the opponent and how to reduce the likelihood of breaking the algorithm.
33 Adsorption kinetics of Copper, Lead and Zinc by Cow Dung, Poultry Manure and Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao) Pod , D. M. Olim , S.M. Afu  , P.I. Adie  , E.A. Akpa
This study highlights the effect of cow dung, cocoa pod and poultry manure in the removal of heavy metals from solution and their applicability to Langmuir and Freundlich models was studied in the Soil Science Laboratory of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike in Abia State, Ngeria. The amendments used in the study were locally sourced, sundried, ground and sieved with 2mm sieve. The salts of the three heavy metals were separately used to prepare heavy metal solutions of 100 mg/L. Batch study was carried out at room temperature on a mechanical shaker using 120 ml plastic bottles at different time intervals of 15, 30 and 60minutes. After shaking, the amendments and heavy metal solutions were separated using whatman No 1 filter paper, stored in the refrigerator and analyzed for heavy metals concentration. The amount of heavy metals adsorbed was calculated. The results revealed that high adsorption occur at low equilibrium concentrations in all the amendments with decreasing levels of adsorption with increasing equilibrium with cow dung and cocoa pod having higher adsorption capacity than poultry manure. Coefficient of determination (R2) showed that the experimental data fit in to both Langmuir and Freundlich models. For reduced heavy metal uptake by plants and subsequent contamination of the food chain, cow dung, cocoa pod and poultry manure should be used as amendments in heavy metal contaminated soils.
34 Association of Iron Deficiency with Dysphagia: Review Article , Sabreen Noor Ali, Rabbiah Sohail , Fatima Yousuf , Sabeen Rajput, Sonia Shah
Objective: Patients will Iron Deficiency Anemia has been found to have Dysphagia associated with Oral, Pharyngeal and at esophageal level however, limited data and studies are available to discover the relation of this nutrient with swallowing difficulty. Therefore the following review of the available studies has been conducted to proof the direct relation of Iron deficiency in the cause of dysphagia and the same supplements can help to improve swallowing difficulty. Purpose: The study made here under, hypothesizes to identify the following aspects: 1. Does Iron deficiency Anemia affects all levels of Dysphagia? 2. Can Iron supplements be used to improve swallowing difficulty with adult patients? 3. Is it the Iron deficiency that causes impairment in the pharyngeal and esophageal track or, does is it the dysphagia that causes Anemia? Method: A systematic review analysis was conducted through the published studies from Skyhub or Pub Med to form a critical investigation and view point. The included readings taken into account were from 2001 to present date. Conclusion: The association of Iron with Dysphagia was found to be positive, how the exact nature of interdependence remained ambiguous
35 Analysis of Factors Influencing Participation of Farm Households in Watermelon Production in Some Selected Local Government Areas of Sokoto State, Nigeria , Salihu Abdullahi Abubakar , Bello Abdulrahman , Maryam Bello Ali , Abdullahi Muazu , Dalha Magaji
The study analyzed the factors influencing participation of farm households’ in watermelon production in the study areas. Three local government areas out of Sokoto state were purposively selected. Questionnaire was used to collect data. Multistage of sampling techniques were used to arrive at the sample size of 181 farm households’ for the study. Likert scale is used to analyse the level of participation of farm households’, frequency and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that (55.8%) of the farm households are within the ages of 25-30 years, majority (96.7%) are male It shows that majority (64.0%) of the farm households participated in watermelon production as a result of higher income generated. Multiple regression analysis result revealed significant relationships between farm households participation in watermelon production and their socio-economic characteristics at P<0.05. The constraints faced by the farm households are storage technology and improved agricultural inputs. Most (63.5%) of the farm households believed that provision of subsidized agricultural inputs and market accessibility are forms of assistance that will encourages farm households to partake in watermelon production. It is recommended that government and donor agencies should encourage farm households’ by providing them with the modern agricultural inputs so as to influence them to participate fully into watermelon production irrespective of their Socio-economic differences.
36 Review on Biogas Production in Nigeria , Baki, A.S , Bande, Y.M , Bello, A
One of the greatest challenges facing the Nigerian societies now and in the future is the reduction of green house gas emissions, energy generation, power supply and thus preventing the climate change. It is therefore necessary to look for an alternative with renewable and recycling sources, such as biogas. Biogas can be produced from various organic waste streams or as a byproduct from industrial processes. Beside energy production, the degradation of organic waste through anaerobic digestion offers other advantages, such as the prevention of odor release and the decrease of pathogens. Moreover, the nutrient rich digested residues can be utilized as fertilizer for recycling the nutrients back to the fields. However, the amount of organic materials currently available for biogas production is limited and new substrates as well as new effective technologies are therefore needed to facilitate the growth of the biogas industry all over the world. Hence, major developments have been made during the last decades regarding the utilization of lignocelluloses biomass, the development of high rate systems and the application of membrane technologies within the anaerobic digestion process in order to overcome the shortcomings encountered. The degradation of organic material requires a synchronized action of different groups of microorganisms with different metabolic capacities. Recent developments in molecular biology techniques have provided the research community with a valuable tool for improved understanding of this complex microbiological system, which in turn could help optimize and control the process in an effective way in the future.
37 Comparative Study of Impact of Aluminium and Titanium Oxides Nanoparticles on Viscosity of Water Based Drilling Fluid , AKINYEMI O. P.  , OGUNGBADE E. O
Drilling fluid has a lot of importance and application in the oil drilling process which includes the removing of cuttings and prevention of fluid transfer to and from the rock strata. With the addition of nanoparticles it is possible to facilitate in-situ control of the drilling fluid rheology, increasing the hydraulic efficiency of drilling campaigns and reducing costs in a variety of reservoir environments. This study was aimed at investigating how water based drilling fluid (WBDF) rheological property can be improved using Aluminum oxide and Titanium oxide nanoparticles. To achieve this aim, ten laboratory samples of drilling fluids each in different proportion of additives and nanoparticles were prepared and analyzed. The WBDF samples were prepared using the standard laboratory barrel (350 ml) method. Different proportions of Xanthan gum, Aluminum oxide and Titanium oxide were used. Brookfield rotational viscometer was used to determine the rheological properties of the samples. Also, the structural analysis of the interaction between the nanoparticles and the xanthan gum were determined using Fourier Transformation Infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that aluminum and titanium oxide nanoparticle improved the rheological properties of the water based drilling fluid. In conclusion, the introduction of Aluminum oxide and Titanium oxide nanoparticles improved the rheological performance of water based drilling fluids with xanthan gum additive.
38 Energy Recovery of Biomass: Study Comparative Experimental of Fixed Bed Combustion Olive Grignons and Wood Biomass , Mohammed Alswat
Energy recovery of biomass is considered as an important source of energy. The main objective of this experimental study is to validate the use of olive pomace as an alternative fuel using a comparison with that of wood. Therefore a biomass boiler was designed and fabricated based on two separate compartments. Experiments tests showed that the average temperature in the boiler is around 700 °C for pomace and 670 °C for sawdust with variations up to 100 °C depending on fuel supply. In this study, the temperature distributions within of the combustion chamber of pomace and sawdust of wood are presented, evaluated and analyzed. The removal of combustion gas is produced via a probe of a multi-gas analyzer placed at the smoke outlet. Analysis of combustion gases such as NO, CO, CO2 and O2 are illustrated and discussed. The results showed that low values of nitrogen oxides NOx have been observed, well below standard limit values and absence SOx.
39 Analysis of the Usage of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in Accessing Agricultural Information by Smallholder Farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria , C.O. Farayola , F.Y. Gbadamosi , O. A. Alalade , K. Baba-Yusuf
Owing to the importance of information communication technologies on activities of rural households, this study analyzed the usage of ICTs in dissemination of agricultural information to smallholder farmers in Kwara state, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit information from 210 smallholder farmers which were selected using both random and systematic sampling techniques. Descriptive statistics and chi square were used to analyze data. The results reveal that the mean age of the farmers was 37.6 years, while 52.9% of the farmers were females. The three most important ICT tools used by farmers were mobile phone, radio and television. There was relevance and timeliness in the quality of information through radio and mobile phone, respectively based on farmers’ perception. However, the major constraints identified by farmers were erratic power supply, high call rates and bad networks. There was significant relationship between respondents’ age (χ2=17.333., p= 0.010), gender (χ2=32.267., p= 0.000), education (χ2=122.000, p= 0.000), marital status (χ2=18.467, p= 0.048) and the type of ICTs used in agricultural information dissemination. The study therefore concludes that ICTs is well used by the farmers. The study recommends amongst others the need for relevant stakeholders to set up an enabling environment that will enhance economic development.
40 Authentication of Lumps Formation in a Laboratory Scale - Fixed bed Combustion of Biomass Fuels – Impact of Additive , Akindele David.O , Yang Zhang , Oluwadare B.S , Adeleye S.A
This study has focused on the impact of additive / authentication of agglomeration behaviour in some selected biomass fuels - white wood, willow, and miscanthus during their combustion processes in a laboratory-scale fixed bed by which Gooch crucible was used as the combustion chamber. Biomass fuels contains huge quantity of alkali metals particularly potassium, K and sodium, Na with potassium playing the predominant roles in the agglomeration formation of these selected problematic biomass fuels. Agglomerates were formed in the combustion chamber at 750 0C and 802 0C under the atmospheric pressure. This was credited to the formation of eutectic compounds in the form of alkali-silicates (K-silicates or Na-silicates). The eutectic compound has a lower melting temperature than the melting temperature of either the alkali metals from the biomass fuels or the silica from the bed materials (sand). It therefore melts quickly in the bed and formed chunks in form of agglomerates. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM and EDX) on the samples confirmed agglomerates formation during the combustion processes of these selected biomass fuels. EDX results indicated that, the interior of the agglomerates was overshadowed with Si from the sand while the exterior or the peripheries were dominated with alkali metals, K, and Na from the biomass fuels ash. Other trace elements present in the agglomerates are P, Al, Ca, Cl, Fe, and Mg. With the addition of 10%additive (kaolin) Al2 Si2 O5 (OH)4 to the bed materials and the combustion processes repeated under the same operating conditions, no agglomerate was formed at either 750 0C or 802 0C. The results have shown that, addition of 10% kaolin (additive) to the biomass particles grossly reduced formation of agglomerates in the bed. Gooch ceramic crucible is a very reliable tool for the agglomeration experiments in the laboratories during biomass fuel combustion for heat generation or combine heat and power generation (CHPG). This is also applicable to other combustion beds particularly fluidized bed combustion (FBC).
41 Buckingham PI Dimensional Analysis of Cake Yield from Sludge Filtration Process , Onwe, John Ituma , Ademiluyi , Joel Ojo. Agunwamba, Jonah
Buckingham Pi dimensional analysis was used to derive an equation expressing filterability in terms of Filter cake yield. The model shows that the cake yield from a pressure filter is directly proportional to the filter area of the vessel, applied pressure and initial solids content of the sludge while being inversely proportional to specific resistance, viscosity of filtrate, compressibility coefficient of the slurry and pressing time. The new model which incorporated the compressibility attribute of the slurry hitherto unaccounted for in previous models enables performance of a pressure filter (Filter Press) to be predicted from a simple laboratory determination of cake yields. It was observed that increasing ferric chloride dosage from 11.87% to 22.61% increased filter cake yield from 3.785 x 10-4g/cm2 s to 4.4118 x 10-4g/cm2 s while reducing specific resistance from 1.7372 x 1010cm/g to 1.5940 x 1010cm/g. Moreover, the optimum dosage from the graph to attain acceptable filtrate quality was 19.63% for an operating pressure of 6628.18g/cm2 . It was also observed that increasing compressibility from 0.7076 cm s2 /g to 0.7314 cm s2 /g led to decreased solids capture from 3.7682 g/cm2 s to 3.5763 g/cm2 s for the tested 0.0194 g/cm3 sludge sample. Considering the differences in the parameters tested, the comparative analytical results showed that there was closer agreement between the actual cake yield and predicted values while values predicted from other models were out of range. Experimental verification of the new model showed that the predicted performance agrees with the actual experimental values with a correlation coefficient of 0.993.
42 The Effects of Communicative Language Teaching approach (CLT) on Grammar Teaching , Cam Lien
Grammar Translation Method or GTM, which greatly supports students for grammar-based written tests, is the priority way of grammar teaching in Vietnam. That’s why many students are gradually lacking communication abilities. In the light of Communicative Language Teaching approach or CLT, grammar is now taught in more interesting ways. Lately, many studies have found that teaching and learning grammar in communicative contexts helps students gain better level of language proficiency especially more fluent and accurate speaking skill. Therefore, this paper aims to evaluate the impact of CLT in grammar instruction for first year English majored students at Dong Nai Technology University. In addition, how students respond to the lessons instructed by CLT method is also fully described in the paper. The results show that CLT approach brings many benefits for EFL students. Moreover, students gain strong motivation and positive attitude through the lessons with CLT
43 Observations of Teacher-Student Interactions in Vietnam , Nguyen Thi Thanh Van
Every day, teachers make dozens of interactions with students to make sure that the students can achieve their learning goals effectively. Classroom practices with teacher-student interactions not only help teachers build a good working environment but also assist students in forming their responsibility for learning. This paper points out the limitation of Vietnamese teacher-student interactions in the classroom and then suggest several solutions to this problem.
44 College Students' Attitude towards Premarital Sex: Implication for Guidance and Counseling in Nakuru County Kenya , Janerose Mulamba Mayabi
In many African countries, discussing sexuality still remains a taboo, despite the increasing number of sexual activities among college students. The study sought to find out college students attitude towards premarital sex and the implication of guidance and counselling. It was guided by the social learning theory. Using a descriptive survey design data was collected through personally delivered questionnaire to 452 students who were randomly selected from middle level colleges in Nakuru County. The questionnaire was validated through piloting in one college outside Nakuru. Reliability coefficient for questionnaire was estimated through test-retest method and Cronbach’s alpha stood at R=84. Data was analyzed using qualitative and quantitative data. Study findings indicate that 258 or 57% of the respondents were liberal about premarital sex and viewed it as a normal act that should not attract criticism. A total of 194 or 43% were conservative and believed that it is against the norms of society and the teachings of the church. Factors associated with premarital sex, include love, peer pressure, drug abuse and economic factors. Counselling was seen as the best strategic to handle sex issues, but was not effective due to stigma associated with premarital sex. The study recommended the college administrators step up strategies to supervise both the social and academic life of the students. By providing them with information, to make informed consent on sexual matters.
45 Using Information Gap Activities in Promoting Speaking Skills for Elementary Level Students at Dong Nai Technology University: Students’ Perspectives , Truong Trong Nhan
In recent years, communicative approach is considered one of the primary methods to develop students’ speaking competence. When applying communicative approach in the classroom, information gap activities are employed to promote students’ oral skill. These activities have brought many benefits for students in the classroom and become good stimulations for students to boost their speaking skills. The study took place at Dong Nai Technology University with the objectives to investigate the students’ perspectives of teachers using the information gap activities to help students improve their speaking competence. The data were collected via survey questionnaires and semistructured interviews in sequence. Sixty students took part in the survey questionnaire to answer 14 questions on their perception on speaking skills and information gap activities. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with 6 volunteer students to explain more deeply about their answers in the survey questionnaires to evaluate the validity of the findings from the survey and give the answers to see whether these activities can affect students’ speaking skills in the developed way. The findings from the study shows that information gaps activities are effectively utilized for the development of students’ speaking skills.
46 Impact and Performance of Linen Fiber Reinforced Concrete in Slender Columns , Ashraf Milad
This study was consisted of two phases, revealed the behavior of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) specimens of small-diameter slender column to achieve high quality concrete properties without using concrete vibrator. The first phase investigated the effect of linen fiber on the rheological properties of SCC using two mixes types: type I mix: without lime powder, and type II mix: with 20% lime as a replacement of cement content. The linen fiber was contented of 0, 2, and 4 Kg/m³. In the second phase, the type II mix was used to cast three columns; one with plain SCC and the other two with 2 and 4 Kg/m³ fiber contents. These columns were cured and cut in a certain manner to obtain 7 cylinders 150 × 300 mm and 8 slices 20 mm thickness. The cylinders were used to measure the distribution of unit weight, compressive strength, and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) along the column height. The rheological properties of SCC were reduced with the additives of fibers to the mix constituents, but the properties of Fiber reinforced SelfCompacted Concrete (FSCC) were tested at 4 Kg/m³ fiber content. The distribution of unit weight, compressive strength, and UPV provided good compaction of concrete. Also, the distribution of coarse aggregate at bottom, middle and top sections of columns were uniformly distributed
47 Nutritional Profile and Physicochemical Properties of Peach Varieties in Ethiopia , Kebede Dinkecha , Habtam Setu
Nutritional and functional characteristics of fruits are related to their quality and are influenced by genotype and ripening stage, and by environmental conditions and orchard management practices. The purpose of this research was to test nutritional profile and selected physicochemical properties of different improved and adopted peach varieties in Ethiopia and comparative study among varieties and between study varieties and standard reference. The result got show that improved peach varieties greater amount of ash (4.3-5.51%), protein (4.34-6.05%), fat (0.097-1.386%) and fiber (2.87-4.611%) than standard reference (0.263, 1.423, 0.427, and 1.20%, in the aforementioned order) but lower in carbohydrate (84.411-89.90%) than standard of (96.678%). The mineral content higher in K (0.48-1.182%), Ca (0.162-0.565 %), Mg (0.037-0.066%), Fe (16.33-159.2%) and Zn (2.43-8.84%) than standard reference (0.942, 0.051, 0.071, 16.32, 3.213%), respectively except Na, Mg, Cu and Sulfur while the fruit quality was revealed low moisture content which less water and medium vitamin C (3.99-5.55%) and TSS (8.36- 14.31%). We observed variation in proximate composition and mineral content among sixteen peach varieties.
48 Effect of Inhibitor Concentration and Immersion Time on the Corrosion Rate and Inhibition Efficiency of AISI 1019 Steel in Inhibited Seawater Environment , E.Iyeni , O.Awheme
The effect of inhibitor concentration and immersion time on the corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency of AISI 1019 steel in seawater environment were investigated by means of weight loss measurement (WLM) at an interval of 6days for a period of 60 days. AISI 1019 steel were immersed in seawater solution in the absence and presence of varying inhibitor concentrations of potassium chromate (PC), Sodium Nitrite(SN), Methyl Orange (MO), Methyl Red (MR), Terminalia Catappa Leaves (TCL) Extract, Carica papaya Leaves (CPL) Extract. The results showed that there is an increase in inhibition efficiency with increase in inhibitor concentration and decrease in inhibition efficiency with increase in immersion time. The inorganic inhibitor (potassium chromate), inorganic inhibitor (Sodium Nitrite), the organic Inhibitor (Methyl Orange), the organic inhibitor (Methyl Red), the green inhibitor (Terminalia Catappa Leaves) and green inhibitor (Carica Papaya Leaves) produced their best inhibition efficiency of 71.94%, 634%, 68.94%, 68.32%, 627% ,59.79% respectively at a concentration of 10g/L. From the result obtained, the potassium chromate inhibitor has better inhibitory property than other inhibitors, which revealed that it is best suited for inhibition of corrosion of mild steel in seawater environment
49 Actuality Test - A Technique for Expeditious Agglomeration Detection in a Laboratory Scale - Fixed Bed Combustion of Biomass Fuels - Impact of KOH , Akindele D.O, Ojo A.A , Oluleye M.A
This research has concentrated on the application of actuality/reality test for speedy confirmation of lumps/agglomerates formation thereby emphasizing the roles of alkali metals and silica in agglomeration during the combustion of some selected biomass fuels (miscanthus, white wood, and willow) in a laboratory-scale fixed bed. Biomass fuels are CO2 neutral and very rich in alkali metals especially potassium, K and sodium. Potassium played predominant roles in the agglomeration formation of these selected biomass fuels. During the experiments, huge agglomerates were formed at a lower melting temperature of 350 0 C when potassium hydroxide, KOH and silica sand were heated together directly (reality test) in the combustion chamber (Gooch crucible). Harder and tougher agglomerates were produced at 502 0 C. This attested to the fact that, agglomerates are produced from the formation of a low melting temperature eutectic compound (alkali-silicate) in the form of K-silicate. The eutectic compound has a lower melting temperature than the melting temperature of the parent materials - the alkali metals or the silica from sand, which is the bed material. It therefore melts sharply in the bed and formed lumps in form of agglomerates. The results of this research have indicated that, potassium K and silica SiO2 are very important in the formation of agglomerates during the combustion of biomass fuels. Gooch ceramic crucible is a very good combustion chamber for the combustion of biomass fuels experiments/tests in a laboratory – scale fixed bed. It accommodated more heat distribution into the combustion chamber than the conventional ceramic crucible
50 Thomas Samuel Kuhn’s Conceptual View on the Historical Philosophy of Science through Paradigm Shift , Marcel Papka Agah
This study emphasizes the Thomas Samuel Kuhn’s concept of paradigm as an intellectual framework. Philosophers and historians of science, including Kuhn himself, ultimately accepted a modified version of Kuhn's model, which synthesizes his original view with the gradualist model that preceded it. Think of a paradigm shift as a change from one way of thinking to another, it’s a revolution, a transformation, a sort of metamorphosis. Kuhn’s influence has been immense not only in the philosophy and history of science but also in other disciplines. His contributions showed a shift from historical, psychological and sociological approach to a philosophical one
51 Assessment of the Spatial Compliance and Negligence of Environmental Laws on Waste Management Practices and Consequences in the South-South Region of Nigeria , JEGEDE, Amen Osamede, PhD
This research work examined the spatial compliance and negligence of environmental laws on waste management practices and consequences in the south-south region of Nigeria. Data for this study were collected from primary and secondary sources, through the administration of one thousand, seven hundred and twenty eight (1,728) copies of questionnaire using the random sampling method on respondents. Simple percentages, charts, student’s ttest, anova, and correlation statistical techniques were used in the analysis of the data collected. This study revealed that waste management practices and controlled dumpsites location in the study area were not in compliance with environmental laws. The null hypothesis one was rejected in favour of the positive hypothesis and concluded that, there is a significant relationship between the waste dumpsites in the study area, and the impacts of their health hazards on the immediate environment. The study therefore recommends that, in our pursuit of environmental protection and compliance of environmental laws, we should strive towards achieving a balance in the benefits we derive from activities that cause environmental pollution and the resultant harmful effects
52 Effect of Enterprise Risk Management on Sustainable Financial Performance of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria , Oko, Sylvanus Ushie, Oko, John Odama
The paper is aimed at determining the effect of Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) on Sustainable financial performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria. The specific objectives of the research is to determine the effect of ERM on earning per share (EPS) and to ascertain the effect of ERM on Tobin Q. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study considering the total population of all the twenty-one listed deposit money banks in Nigeria. Data were gathered via secondary source from five (5) public annual reports of the listed deposit money banks for a period of six years ranged from 2013-2018 and analysed using percentages and ratios. Multiple regressions was employed in data analysis and testing the hypotheses; in determining if there is a significant effect of Enterprise Risk Management on Earnings per Share and Tobin Q of listed deposit money banks in Nigeria. The study revealed that there is a positive and significant relationship between ERM (Firms Size, Leverage) and sustainable financial performance (TQ & EPS) of listed deposit money banks in Nigeria. Based on the findings, the study recommends that financial institutions in Nigeria should employ robust Enterprise Risk Management Practices as these are likely to greatly influence their financial performance in one way or the other and that Central Bank of Nigeria and other regulators should endeavour to strengthen the enforcement of risk control mechanism to boost a robust bank performance
53 Public Awareness in Management of Pro-Environmental and Sustainable Tourism Area , Natsir Abduh , Syahril Idris, Savitri P Mulyani
Attitudes and behaviours of caring for the environment are the willingness arising from internal encouragement to express actions to care about the environment, to improve or maintain the quality of the environment. The purpose of this research is to see the dominant factor that influences the attitudes and behaviours of caring for the environment in the community who live in the tourist area. Research is in the Bili-Bili Dam Tourism Area, South Sulawesi Province. The number of samples in this study was 100 respondents. The survey method in this study conducted by in-depth interviews and through questionnaires to respondents. The sampling technique used is to use purposive sampling. Processing questionnaires obtained from respondents then proceed with data analysis with confirmatory analysis or often referred to as Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) with IBM AMOS Program. The results showed that attitudes and behaviours in environmental care would increase if there is direct involvement of the community in tourism management in the region. The existence of a sense of belonging will lead to attitudes and behaviours to guard the tourist area. Factors that are encouraging attitudes and behaviours to care for the environment by the surrounding community will have a direct impact on the sustainability of the region and the environment.