Journal of Hydrogeology & Hydrologic Engineering
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Water Quality and Seasonal Physico-Chemical Study of Surface Water Bodies of Harsagar Pond in Birkona Village in Bilaspur District
Renu Nayar and Sandeep Tandon
The Physico-Chemical parameters of surface water in Harsagar pond situated in Birkona in Bilaspur Chhattisgarh were studied in the months of May to October 2019 for a period of six month from four different directions such as North, South, West and East. Present work deals with a study of Physico-chemical parameters such as pH, Temperature, Total dissolved Solids, Transparency, Alkalinity, Dissolved Oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Nitrate, Phosphate in water samples of Harsagar largest pond in Birkona village. The water quality of the samples was compared with standard values given by World Health Organization (WHO) and United State Salinity Laboratory for drinking and irrigation purposes. The maximum value of pH was recorded as 9.2 at station S-N which is higher than the permissible limits of WHO and showing basic nature of water in north direction of Harsagar pond and the minimum value of pH was recorded as 7.9 at station S-E. The conductivity of the samples was always above permissible limits (WHO) and ranged between 523.7 to 666.9 µmho/cm in May -June 2019.Total Alkalinity varied between 220 [S-W] to 730 mg/l[S-S].The highest alkalinity value of 730 mg/l was seen at S-N in September 2019..Maximum DO level observed was 8.4 mg/l in September 2019 at S-N and minimum value of 3.4 mg/l was found at S-W in June 2019. The maximum value of BOD observed was 38 mg/l at S-N in May2019 and at S-W in June 2019.The nitrate ion in the investigated samples was found to be in the range from 25.7mg/l at S-E in the month of July to 34.6 mg/l at S-N in the month of June 2019 which were within the permissible limit 45 mg/l given by (WHO). From the results it was found that the some of the water samples sites S-W and S-E are slightly polluted while S-N (north) site of water sample was highly polluted as a result of contamination with agricultural and domestic wastes.
Monitoring the Effects of Drought on Vegetation Cover and Groundwater Using MODIS Satellite Images and ANN
Atta Areffian, Maryam Kianysadr, Saeid Eslamian, Ali Khoshfetrat, Saleh Yousefi
The main aim of present study was investigation on the effects of drought on vegetation cover and groundwater resources. In present study an available climatic data series (2001-2017) for 9 synoptic stations in Lorestan province were analyzed to detect wet and dry years by SPI. Also a long data series of MODIS data were analyzed by remote sensing data and the NDVI maps have been produced for study period (2001-2017). In addition the relationship between rainfall and groundwater level was investigated. Results of present study show that there is a direct significant correlation (R2=0.83) between SPI and the NDVI. In addition, results show that there is a significant correlation between groundwater level and three months ago precipitation at 95% confidence level. During study period 2008 and 2015 were selected as dry and wet years based on SPI values, respectively. The values of the NDVI in the wet year (2015) significantly are higher than the values in the dry year (2008) in 99% confidence level. Spatial variation of SPI show that for intensive drought conditions (2008) and wet year (2015) the north part of Lorestan province have the highest variation in compare with other parts of study area. Generally, the results of present study show that MODIS data in a mountainous area could be a key tool to detect effects of intensive droughts on natural vegetation cover, also groundwater level show a significant correlation with 3-months delay of monthly precipitation.
Trust Model Community Hydro Project for Economic Development in Under Developed Countries
Lila Prasad Limbu
The study on Trust Model Community Hydro Project for Economic Development in Under Developing Countries focuses on possibilities of economic development through a community based hydro project in Nepal. The research claims that direct involvement of local people in investment for the community hydro model is necessary for the economic development in rural area. It is found that, all the concerned people are not benefitted from the previous projects where there was no direct involvement of local people in investment; only people from the high society were benefited who had access to investment. Therefore it is proposed that trust community hydro model for poor, marginal, backward and helpless people that will enhance their access to capacity with skill development, heath service and education.