1 Biogenic amines production and its relationship with psychrophilic bacteria load in whole yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) during ice storage, Shiva Afsharmanesh, Yousef Peighambari, Bahare Shabanpure and Ahmad Reza Hosseini
Production of biogenic amines (histamine, putrescine, cadaverine) investigated for whole Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) stored in ice on-board of catch vessels, after discharge were studied. The maximum mean concentration of putrescine, cadaverine and histamine were reached to 23.39?g/g, 12.37?g/g and 4.30 ?g/g in one of samples, respectively. The psychrophilic bacteria load of this sample became dominant at ice storage and the numbers exceeded the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) limit of 107 cfu/g (more than 108 cfu/g in this study). According to statistical analyses, putrescine was the main biogenic amine formed and its highest value (23.39 mg/kg) was recorded and found the best correlation between putrescine and psychrophilic bacteria load (r2=0.94). Histamine development was found to be lower than the Food and Drug Authority (FDA) safety level but have been reported that Cadaverine and putrescine to enhance the toxicity of histamine. The mostly of fishes that are stored in the catch vessels with this storage method (Ice storage) are still suitable for consumption after discharge. Keywords: Yellowfin tuna, Biogenic amine, Psychroohilic bacteria, Ice storage, Catch vessels
2 Characterisation and thermostability of purified oranges isoperoxidases, Edmar Clemente
Soluble peroxidise was extracted from oranges (Citrus sinenses (L.) Osbeck). Small amounts of purified anionic and cationic isoperoxidases have been obtained by preparative isoelectric focusing and ionexchange chromatography. It has been shown that peroxidase activity present in crude extracts of oranges juice, albedo and peel is less stable to heat than the enzymic activity of highly purified individual orange isoperoxidases. For the purified isoperoxidases heat-inactivation is still non-linear- It is suggested that this may be due to microheterogeneity in covalently bound oligosaccharide residues at the molecular level. The crude soluble peroxidase fractions were particularly heat stable and regenerated when held at 30°C following heat inactivation. Isoperoxidase activity had a small regeneration after heat treatment. Keywords: Orange, isoperoxidase, characterization, thermostability, purification
3 Overview of food security in Uttar Pradesh, India, Mishra Atul Anand, Broadway A. A. and Jain Jyoti
Uttar Pradesh is a big state having tropical monsoon climate with 9 different climatic zones. This article discusses various challenges to food security in Uttar Pradesh. It is analyzed that per capita availability of cereals are 36% higher as compared to the sufficient demand, vegetables are 34 % higher as compared to the sufficient demand and fruits are 56% higher as compared to the sufficient demand which exceeds the ICMR dietary requirements whereas the per capita availability of pulses, milk do not even meet the sufficient demand and are 32%, 24% less which is well below from the ICMR dietary requirements. It is estimated that out of the total area of food grains crop, 19.8 million hectare, roughly 6.6 million hectare would be taken out of farming i.e. production loss of 14 million tons of food grains. Therefore, it is essential to develop food security strategies to avoid hunger and mal nutrition in the state of Uttar Pradesh. Keywords: Food, security, pulses, Uttar Pradesh.
4 A multi-step optimisation approach to extend burger shelf life, Gammariello D, Incoronato A.L, Conte A, Contò F and Del Nobile M.A.
This research presents a multi-step approach to extend the shelf life of a new burger made of 60% dairy cow, 20% turkey and 20% chicken meat. In particular, antimicrobial compounds and a natural colour (cochineal) were combined with Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP). The work was divided into four subsequent experimental trials: the first trial was aimed to select the antimicrobial compounds; for this purpose, 0.02%, 0.05% and 0.07% potassium sorbate, 0.02% and 0.03% thymol and 1.98%, 3.60% and 5.40% sodium lactate were added to the burger samples. The second trial was aimed to apply modified atmosphere. Afterwards, the selected compounds and MAP were combined. Finally, chosen combination was combined with the cochineal. Microbiological, pH, gas composition and sensory changes were monitored during the storage at 4°C for 10 days. Results demonstrated that the proper combination of sodium lactate (3.60%), cochineal (0.30%) and MAP (30% O2, 70% CO2) assured a shelf life of 9.85 days ,compared to the control burger which remained acceptable for less than 4 days. Keywords: dairy cow, turkey and chicken burger, shelf life, sodium lactate, thymol, potassium sorbate, cochineal and MAP.
5 Evaluation of selected emulsifiers and buttermilk in the manufacture of reduced-fat paneer, Suneeta Pinto, Bhatt J.D and Prajapati, J.P
Selected emusifiers viz. (viz. polysorbate-80, glycerol monostearate (GMS) and lecithin) and buttermilk were tested for their potential to improve functional and quality attributes of reduced fat paneer. Polysorbate-80 was incorporated in reduced-fat paneer @ 0, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.075, GMS @ 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15, lecithin @ 0, 0.025, 0.05 and 0.075% (by wt. of paneer milk respectively. Sweet cream buttermilk was added at 0, 20, 30 and 40 % level in paneer milk. Results indicated that addition of polysorbate-80 up to 0.075 % (w/w of milk) resulted in improved moisture retention which increased yield of paneer markedly. However, addition of polysorabte-80 at all the levels studied adversely affected the flavour scores of reduced fat paneer resulting in decreased overall acceptability scores. Incorporation of GMS up to 0.10 % level of addition (% w/w of milk) resulted in improved moisture retention which increased yield of paneer markedly. However addition of GMS at all the levels studied did not improve the sensory attributes of paneer significantly. Incorporation of lecithin at all the levels studied resulted in increased yields. Incorporation of buttermilk did not influence flavour, body and texture, colour and appearance even though it had significantly improved the moisture content and thereby yield compared to control. Amongst all the emulsifiers and respective levels studied, lecithin was preferred the most with respect to flavour, body and texture, colour and appearance as well as total scores as it provide a “fat-extending” effect with an increase in lubricity and slipperiness in the mouth. From amongst the ingredients viz. polysorbate-80, GMS, lecithin, buttermilk and respective levels studied lecithin and buttermilk were found to improve the sensory scores and yield at lower levels studied viz. 0.025-0.05 % (w/w) and 20 and 30 % addition respectively. The results indicated that emulsifier utilization in reduced fat paneer production has commercial potential in overcoming the defects related to fat reduction. Keywords: Paneer, emulsifiers, reduced fat, lecithin, buttermilk