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Acta Scientific Dental Sciences

Journal Papers (89) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 The VAT Technique" Teaching Oral Prophylaxis , Ajay Kakar
Teaching a patient oral prophylaxis may seem like an innocuous exercise but it is a most critical aspect in clinical dentistry. It is hardly given the importance it deserves. The purpose of this issue is to highlight its importance and present an effective technique for the same.
2 The Association of Trace Elements and Vitamins with Lichen Planus: Review Article , Maryam Baghizadeh Fini
Lichen planus is a continual mucocutaneous inflammatory disorder of multifactor nature with numerous clinical symptoms. Nu-merous researchers attribute a key role in disease development to disruptions in the immune system. Appropriate doses of micronu-trients are essential for the immune system to perform effectively. Micronutrient deficiency suppresses immunity by influencing the innate immune system, responses to T-cell mediated and adaptive antibody, resulting in disruption of the balanced host response. Since these trace elements and vitamins have an important role in the immune system and oral lichen planus has a significant rela-tionship with the disturbances in the immune system, the importance of these elements should be considered for each patient. Just several articles examined the hematological anomalies and nutritional imbalances in OLP patients. In this study, all required informa-tion about trace elements and vitamins in OLP patients is obtained.
3 Coronavirus-A Review Article , Maharshi Malakar
A strain of coronavirus. The new virus has been named SARS-CoV-2 and the disease it causes, Covid-19. The WHO has declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The disease was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan, China and has since spread globally, resulting in the 2019-20 coronavirus pandemic. Common symptoms include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Muscle pain, sputum production and sore throat are less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some progress to severe pneumonia and multi-organ failure. At present it is now a great concern
4 Treating Infant Population Fracture Mandible by Prof. Katpar’s Innovative Splint technique: Reported from Pakistan , Shahjahan Katpar, Maria Shabbir, Muhtada Ahmed, Jawad Safdar, Shoaib Ayub and Muneer Zardari
Introduction: Mandibular fractures occur relatively less frequent in infantile population as compared to adults, due to elasticity of bone, protected anatomical structures and infrequent exposures to road traffic accidents etc. The treatment procedures involved for such cases is different from those of adults, due to concerns regarding growth, developing Dentition and early healing.Case Report: Here we discuss case of 8 months old female infant patient presented with fracture of anterior mandible following fall from stairs. The fractured jaw was reduced at theatre without any impression taking and cast formation procedure for acrylic splint and we avoiding using resorbable bone plates. Instead, we used Compound impression material cake piece which is a muco-com-pressive, thermoplastic material, used as a substitute for an acrylic splint. This was secured with silk suture and rubber tube pieces, replacing circum-mandibular stainless steel wire with silk following manual closed reduction of fracture, under general anesthesia.Results: The clinical application of this technique results in timely and adequate reduction of fracture in pediatric population which was confirmed on post-operative radiographs and clinical follow-up visits of patient and their family reviews.Conclusion: The article provides an innovative, pioneer, non-invasive surgical procedure to treat infantile mandibular fracture cases by “Prof. Katpar’s DUHS splinting technique” within early days of trauma, avoiding costly resorbable bone plates, acrylic splints and early reduction
5 Promotion of Oral Health Care in Infants - A Preventive Strategy to Reduce the Burden of Early Childhood Caries , Subhathira Rajasekaran, Sham S Bhat, Vidya Bhat, Sundeep Hegde K, Neha Thilak and Minu Mumtaz
Infant oral health care is the foundation on which a life time of preventive education and dental care can be built in order to help acquire optimal oral health in a child. The purpose of an infant oral health program is to improve access to oral health care and to provide counseling and anticipatory guidance in oral hygiene for children aged 6 months to 5 years. The first step of infant oral health care is the preventive oral health behavior of parents since they would influence their children’s behavior in adapting to the preven-tive oral health practices as they grow along. Early dental interventions present an opportunity to educate parents about the medical, dental and cost benefits of preventive care which is effective in reducing early childhood caries. A comprehensive infant oral care program includes risk assessments at regularly scheduled dental visits, preventive treatments such as fluoride varnishes or sealants, parental education on the correct methods to clean the baby's mouth and establishment of dental home and use of anticipatory guid-ance. The present article highlights the important guidelines of infant oral health care
6 Delivery Systems of Local Anesthetics in Dentistry: An Update , Neha Thilak, Sundeep Hegde K, Sham S Bhat, Vidya Bhat, Subhathira Rajasekaran and Minu Mumtaz OV
Effective delivery of local anesthesia is one of the most important aspects of dentistry. Obtaining adequate pain control will re-sult in minimum discomfort of the patient during dental procedures, at the same time it helps the dentist to render the treatment effectively. Even though the modern dental syringes which is the most common method of local anesthesia administration were introduced many years ago, different modifications in delivering local anesthetics have evolved over time. These innovations have lead to decreased pain during administration of local anesthesia and also reduced side effects. This article discusses about different advancements in the delivery systems of local anesthesia.
7 Protocols during COVID-19 Outbreak- A Maxillofacial Surgeon’s Perspective , Sundaram Rajaram, Gauthami Sundar and Rajaram RS
The lightening pace of spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has made the whole world come to a standstill. The rising numbers of the people affected with this viral infection, despite adhering to the proper preventive measure guidelines has evoked a global sensation. The abundance of Corona virus (SARS-CoV2), the causative virus, in the nasal and salivary secretions in the infected has got serious and obvious relationship to the dental professionals. It becomes the moral responsibility of the Maxillofacial Surgeon to identify such patients who are infected, and avoidance of the spread of the infection. Thus, participating in the efforts to curb the spread of overwhelming infection and safeguarding the unaffected public who seek dental attention. This article aims to highlight the protocols to be followed in treating patients in an outbreak of COVID-19 virus from the Oral and Maxil-lofacial Surgeon’s point of view. Clinical Relevance: The 62-year-old ENT specialist Liang Wudong died on Saturday morning, 25th January 2020 as reported by the Chinese Global Times website. Liang’s death highlighted the pressure faced by medical staff in the state as social media was flooded with posts showing exhausted workers struggling to cope [1].Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons need to be aware and prepared for tackling any impending infectious disease challenge as might be the case in the current outbreak of SARS-Cov2 transmission and its associated Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that can be life-threatening to susceptible patients
8 Mouth Breathing-Its Consequences, Diagnosis, Treatment , Sukhdeep Singh, Neha Awasthi and Taru Gupta
The mouth breather is a patient with multiple conditions and therefore requires comprehensive and multidisciplinary clinical look to early detect this syndrome, minimizing its deleterious effects. A pediatric dentist may be one of the first healthcare profes-sionals to come in contact with a patient who exhibits mouth breathing and thus it is important to have a sound knowledge to per-form correct diagnosis and effective treatment. A review of current data on the skeletofacial, dental and gingival changes that occur in mouth breathing individuals is given, with the intention of raising the awareness of dental professionals towards the special needs of these patients
9 Ameloblastoma: Case Report , Isaque Toledo Zimmermann and Milena Bortolotto Felippe Silva
Ameloblastomas are rare odontogenic tumors of the jaws, more frequently found in mandible. Etiology, clinical and histological behavior, and various modality of treatment have been extensively discussed. Conservative treatment sometimes associated with additional procedures has been used as a good option for many treatments of this tumor. The present article has for objective describe a case of ameloblastoma of jaw treated by conservative methods where jaw fracture occurred as a complication of this initial therapeutics
10 Gingival Depigmentation , Ibrahim Mohamed Mahgoub Eldowi
Background 24 years old male complaining from gingival hyperpigmentation. Gingival hyperpigmentation is a common aesthetic concern in patients with a gummy smile Aim of the Case Study Using a diode laser with 980nm wavelength with fiber tip size 300 μm can give very good aesthetic results. Why diode laser for this case? After examination, this hyperpigmentation was due to higher secretion of Melanin pigments beyond the normal level and because of his gummy smile, it was very obvious when he speak or smile. Diode 980 nm wavelength is highly absorbed by pigments, like melanin.
11 Surgical Treatment of Impacted Tooth Associated with a Big Odontoma: Piezosurgery Approach , Cardarelli Angelo, Michele Grechi and Arun K Garg
The aim of this study is to describe a clinical case about a young patient, 13 years old, that he has a big odontoma in the right site of the mandible associated with an impacted tooth. So, it was described a piezo surgery approach in order to obtain a conservative approach.
12 Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Siebert’s Class II Case and Pier Abutments - Case Report , Swati Pustake, Kanchan Bagul, Sachin Chaware, and Preetha Negi
Replacement of teeth with periodontally compromised abutment is a challenge. A tough choice of aesthetics over function is often made by the operator for the satisfaction of the patient. The modified concepts of fixed partial dentures allow one to choose longevity of the prosthesis by not compromising on the aesthetic factors. Ridge defect often leads to a convenient treatment option of removable partial dentures which will not be preferred by the patient. Andrews bridge a fixed removable type of prosthesis is perfect solution for this situation. In long span multiple missing cases Nonrigid connectors have been recommended to reduce the forces as they provide a stress-breaking effect. In this case report, there are two opportunities that allow us to incorporate the modified fixed partial denture technique. Andrews bridge in the lower anterior segment to mask the ridge loss and the posterior long span FPD with a tenon mortise attachment. These two attachments used in this case not only prolongs the life of already compromised anterior teeth but also allows the posterior abutment to remain healthy throughout in long span fixed partial dentures
13 Psychological Effects of Orthognathic Surgery , Shalini Parihar and Sudhanshu
Orthognathic surgery refers to a group of corrective bone operations that involve movement of the jawbones completely or in parts.Orthognathic surgery is indicated when there are severe dentofacial deformities that cannot be managed by orthodontic treatment alone, especially in adulthood, when the natural growth forces have ceased. Dentofacial deformities are described as deformities that affect primarily the jaws and dentition
14 Hyaluronic Acid: Intraoral Application , Albert- López MJ, Pallarés-Serrano Al and Javier A Bardají
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a polysaccharide present in the connective tissue of many organisms. It has high molecular weight, is biocompatible and is found in various body fluids such as: synovial fluid, serum, saliva, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), etc. This component has numerous physiological and structural characteristics such as volume maintenance and improvement of tissue resistance, cellular and extracellular interactions, interactions with growth factors, regulation of osmotic pressure, tissue lubrication, bactericidal, fungistatic effects, anti-edematous and osteoconductive. The results that have been obtained show that it is a natural component that can provide numerous advantages. For all these reasons, hyaluronic acid (HA) is used in different fields of medicine is studied and recently, it was also introduced in the dental field for aesthetic purposes in perioral areas. Although it is not so well documented, it has been observed that it is intraoral application can bring many benefits. The aim of this systematic review aimed to collect the applications at the intraoral level that hyaluronic acid (HA) can have in different dental procedures.
15 Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of Maxilla - A Rare Case Report in Adult , Mahesh KP and Karthikeya Patil
Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) includes a wide array of lesions with varying central and peripheral nervous system having differentiating potential. It is their insidious clinical symptoms, varying locations and rarity, the accurate diagnosis of peripheral PNETs poses a challenge for clinicians. PNETs has diagnostically characteristic immunophenotypical and genetic features that distinguish them from other small round cell tumors. We recently got to treat a patient with maxillary swelling on the left side of the face, its clinical course, histopathology with immunohistochemistry correlation of this rare entity PNET is discussed.
16 Corona Virus Disease - 2019 (COVID-19) - Planning for Emergency Dental Practice and Dental Education , Fazal Ghani
The substantial knowledge of virology related to the epidemiologic characteristics, clinical spectrum, and treatment has made it possible for the dental healthcare personnel, to continue working safely by implementing efficient strategies to prevent, control and stop the spread of COVID-19. Despite this, the current COVID-19 outbreak necessitates we must be constantly aware of infectious threats that may challenge our infection control regimen in the dental settings, our preparedness for the provision of dental health care services and dental teaching and education. The infection prevention and control strategies to be adopted must have an evidence base and should follow the recommendations from the local and international centers for disease control and infection prevention and control according to the epidemic situation. The current epidemic outbreak emphasizes the need for improving the infection prevention and control strategies in the dental settings, adoption of alternative learning strategies for students and the need for further research on the ways for responding to such future contagious diseases
17 Die and Die Materials - An Overview , Sunny Sharma, Lucky Jindal, Abhishek Kumar, Kumar Gaurav, Rudhra Munshi, Anukriti
Dentists are often faced with sectioning and soldering implant supported superstructures and long span tooth supported fixed partial dentures. These steps increase chair time, procedural cost and decrease clinical efficiency. One way to decrease the number of clinical steps is by improving the accuracy of working cast/die system. A cast die system captures the necessary information so that it can be transported to the laboratory
18 An Overview on Gingival Depigmentation Procedures : Case Series and Follow up , Tanusha Sharma, Charu Agrawal and Mishal Shah
The gingival complex plays an important role in the overall esthetics of a smile . Melanin, which is a brown pigment, is the most common natural pigment that contributes to endogenous pigmentation of the gingiva. For depigmentation of gingiva many treatment modalities have been reported like Scraping, Bur Abrasion, Partial Thickness Flap, Cryotherapy, Electrosurgery and Laser. The present article describes five cases of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation - Scraping, Bur Abrasion, Partial Thickness Flap, Electrocautery and Laser Technique. The purpose of the article is to discuss and compare the different techniques employed for depigmentation.
19 Prevalence of Odontogenic-Related Maxillary Sinus Pathologies in an United States Dental School Population , Yueh Ju Hsiao, Shang Lun (Allen) Liu, Jie Yang, Randolph R Resnik and Jon B Suzuki
Objectives: Odontogenic-related maxillary sinus pathologies are identified in cone beam computerized tomography taken for maxillary sinus augmentation and dental implant therapies. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of odontogenicrelated maxillary sinus pathologies among a dental school population. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and twenty-one patients were retrospectively evaluated for odontogenic-related maxillary sinus pathologies using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Age, gender, ethnicity, and dentition status were evaluated to determine potential relationships of the presence of odontogenic-related sinus pathologies. Results: Among 534 CBCT scans, 331 scans presented without sinus pathology bilaterally and 203 scans presented with sinus pathologies in one or both sinuses. 79 scans presented with odontogenic-related maxillary sinus pathologies. The most frequent observations were mucosal thickening. The tooth most frequently associated with pathologic findings were first molars followed by second molars. The findings were higher in males than females (p = 0.006). Age and ethnicity was not a significant factor (p = 0.10, p = 0.05). Dentition status showed root canals (34.65%) were the most commonly associated with pathology. Conclusion: The prevalence of odontogenic-related maxillary sinus pathology was found in 36% of sinuses. Identification and management of odontogenic pathologies are essential to minimize complications. CBCT is highly recommended as a diagnostic tool prior to lateral wall maxillary sinus augmentation surgery and implant placement. Management of odontogenic-related maxillary sinus pathologies need to be tailored to individual patients and involves varying combinations of medical and dental management
20 Coping with the Corona Crisis-Mental Status and Beyond , Aditya Jayan and Gaurav
“Life” as Atharva Veda describes is not merely a sequence of events from birth to death, but also a culmination of various emotions, feelings and frames of mind where it ushers from the cuddling arms of the parents to the burning arms to the funeral pyre! “Lockdown” on the other hand if interpreted aptly is not an act of being imprisoned but a longer period of discipline and an act towards the Nation. Its a test of mindset wherein we are getting to serve our nation without actually doing anything being back at home! Its a persistence of the mindset that we will not go back to normal, normal never was! Our pre-corona existence was not normal other than we normalized greed, inequality, exhaustion, depletion, extraction, disconnection, confusion, rage, hoarding, hate and luck.
21 Maximum Mouth Opening among Saudi Arabian Adults , Fahad Alshammari, Njoud AlSaheel, Najd Alhamzah, Ra’ed Salma and Ahmed Alshammari
Background: The mouth opening range is one of the major characteristics features that different one person from the other. Literature has shown that the maximal mouth opening range varies among different people, ages and regions. On average, a person should be able to fit 3 fingers in an opened mouth. However, differences exist. Aim: To set a reference measurement for maximal mouth opening in Saudi Arabian adult population. Methods: The study was conducted on patients attending dental clinics in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The maximum mouth opening (MMO) was recorded for adult patients using a ruler. The patients were requested to open their mouth at maximum level and the length between the maxillary central incisor edge and the mandibular central incisor edge in the same side of the mouth was measured. Correlation of the mouth opening with age was determined using a Spearman correlation matrix. Besides, Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests were used for comparing the continuous variables. Conclusion: The conclusion obtained from the findings is that the males mean maximal mouth opening of an adult was significantly higher than females in Saudi. A negative correlation suggesting that mouth opening decreases with age. Results: The maximal mouth opening mean ± SD of the participants was 50.1 ± 6.3 mm. Mean ± SD maximal mouth opening for males (52.5 ± 6.3 mm) was statistically significantly higher than females (47.8 ± 5.3 mm) (p < 0.05). Spearman’s test between maximal mouth opening and age showed a negative correlation of p > 0.05. No statistically significant difference was found between the mean ± SD maximal mouth opening and age groups (p > 0.05).
22 Digital Age Estimation Using Orthopatomograms in Indian Population: A Comparative Study , Ramakant Gupta, Swati Gupta and Manju Gupta
Introduction: Orthopantomographs are non- destructive tool for age estimation by indirectly measuring the rate of secondary dentine deposition. Cameriere.,et al. introduced one such Europeanpopulation based method and modified by researchers for Indian population; but their applicability is yet to be assessed. Aim and Objective: To assess the applicability of Cameriere’s method and its modification by Jeevan.,et al. Bebshet.,et al. for mandibular canines and Sexena, Jeevan.,et al,Juneja.,et al. for maxillary canines in an Indian population in Faridabad district of Haryana by evaluating the pulp/tooth ratio in canines on right side using digital orthopantomographs. Materials and Methods: Digital orthopantomographs of 60 patients (30 males, 30 females, 16- 72 years) were selected by simple random sampling. Pulp and tooth areas were measured and their ratio was computed using computer software. Age was calculated using the Cameriere’s method and its modification by Jeevan.,et al,Bebshet.,et al,Sexena, Juneja.,et al.Mean absolute error (MAE) for each method was calculated for each method. Conclusion: Jeevan’s formula revealed least MAE and slightly more percentage of cases with errors < ± 10 years i.e. acceptable’’ age estimates than others, therefore, itis more applicable for Indian population. Results: The present study showed no recognisable difference in dental age assessed by all the methods. Overestimation of age with MAE <± 10 years was found in Indian population using all the methodsConclusion: Jeevan’s formula revealed least MAE and slightly more percentage of cases with errors < ± 10 years i.e. acceptable’’ age estimates than others, therefore, itis more applicable for Indian population.
23 COVID-19 Impact on Dentists in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Qualitative Study , Zerina Hadzic
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused economic and health consequences in many countries around the world. Some occupations, including dentists, were highlighted as the most endangered due to aerosols and the possibility of spreading the COVID-19 virus during the incubation period. It is well-known that aerosol generated in dental procedures with a large number of droplets, provoking that the standard protective measures in daily clinical work may not be effective enough to prevent the spread of COVID-19, especially when patients are in the incubation period or unaware that they are infected. The aim of the study is to check the attitude and possible fear and concern related to the COVID-19 pandemic among dentists in Bosnia and Herzegovina who are employed in the public and private health sector.
24 Non-Surgical Management of Unusually Large Chronic Recurrent Periapical Abscess and an Insight on Periapical Radiolucencies , Swati Gupta, Ramakant Gupta and Manju Gupta
Recurrent inflammatory periapical lesions are commonly encountered oral pathologies. The usual cause of these periapical lesions is endodontic in nature and can be easily treated by endodontic treatment. They exhibit wide biologic behaviors and their presentation as recurrent pus discharging ulcers can lead to patient’s apprehension and even be cause for clinician’s anxiety. This is because many non-endodontic causes may also lead to periapical lesions. A thorough knowledge about them therefore, is crucial for clinicians not only to properly diagnose and manage such cases, but is also important to safeguard themselves from patient’s evil intentions of making easy money by claiming refund. The present case is one such example where unusually large chronic recurrent periapical abscess was managed with non- surgical endodontic treatment. With this case report, authors intend to discuss the different periapical radiolucencies and explain scientific guidelines for their adequate diagnosis and management.
25 Sorption and Solubility of Nanofilled Composite Resins in Mouthwashes with Different pH , Shaqran Hamid Alabbadi, Meshal Abdullah Bagari, Ibrahim Mohamed Hamouda and Khalid Talal Abdullah Aboalshamat
Objectives: The aim of this study was test the effect of mouthwashes with different pH on sorption and solubility of nano-filled composite resin restorative materials. Materials and Methods: 56 cylindrical specimens were prepared from 2 types of nanofilled composite resins, 28 specimens from each material. Specimens of each type of composite were randomly divided into four groups (n = 7). 7 specimens were used as a control group immersed in distilled water. The other 3 groups were stored in the following mouth washes (Avohex, Listerine and Parodontax) for seven days. Specimens were dried in desiccator to a constant weight before immersion. The immersion media were changed daily for 7 days, waived in air and weighted to calculate the amount of sorption. Specimens were dried again and reweighted to calculate the amount of solubility. Sorption and solubility tests were made using electronic balance. Results: Both composite resins showed varying degrees of water sorption and solubility in all storage media. SDI ice composite resin showed higher water sorption in Listerine and lower in Avohex mouth washes. SDI Ice nanohybrid composite resin showed higher solubility in Avohex mouth wash and lower solubility in distilled water. Charisma nanohybrid composite resin showed higher water sorption in Avohex mouth wash and lower in distilled water. Listerine and Parodontax mouthwashes showed intermediate comparable values. Charisma nanohybrid composite resin showed higher solubility in distilled water and lower in Listerine mouthwash. Listerine and Parodontax mouth washes had intermediate effects of sorption and solubility on both types of composite resins. Conclusion: All tested nanofilled composite resins showed varying degrees of water sorption and solubility in all storage media. SDI ice composite resin showed higher water sorption in Listerine and higher solubility in Avohex mouthwashes. It exhibited lower sorption in Avohex mouth wash and lower solubility in distilled water. Charisma nanohybrid composite resin composite resin showed higher water sorption in Avohex and higher solubility in distilled water. It demonstrated lower sorption in distilled water and lower solubility in Avohex mouth wash.
26 Vitamin D: Another Protection Barrier for the Dentist in Times of SARS-CoV-2 , Diego Fernando López, Valentina Rios Borrás and David Alejandro Rivera
The knowledge about vitamin D role in human physiology is highly relevant in Dentistry, particularly considering the current world health emergency (pandemia) of the disease known as COVID-19, caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. The deficiency of some nutrients including vitamins and hormone precursors is a factor predisposing to disease and susceptibility to infections of the respiratory tract. Additionally, in orthodontics, vitamin D is able to increase dental movement and in Implant Dentistry improves osseointegration. The aim of the present review is to provide information regarding COVID-19 and vitamin D role in the immune system and respiratory system, useful for the dental staff to help patients and themselves to take preventive actions to mitigate the consequences of COVID-19 pandemia in near future
27 Dentistry x Covid-19 = Uncertainty? , Meenakshi Ray
In October 2015, 218 villagers were asked to submit blood samples in Jinning county, China. The villages were adjacent to caves, which were home to a variety of Coronavirus-carrying bats. The blood samples were tested to find that nearly 3% carried antibodies against SARS-like coronavirus. Bat-to-human transmission of the coronaviruses was then brought to light for the first time ever.
28 A Conceptual Evolved Model of Dental Practice - The Ideologies of an Inter-disciplinary Team (IDT) , Monu Survashe and Anita Merani
The present study explores the ideologies of an interdisciplinary team for better patient centered healthcare outcomes. The principles studied in the literature review were used to formulate a conceptual design of IDT. A conceptual design was then planned for cessation of tobacco smoking among diabetic patients by the dentist and the physician who specializes as a certified health coach, to reduce the burden of the underlying systemic issues along with the dental treatment.
29 Changing Scenario of Dentistry with COVID-19-An Overview , Ashima Trivedi and Ashwani Kumar Trivedi
Corona virus disease 2019 which proved to be a global pandemic has a noticeable impact on the field of dentistry. This is an overview of the changing scenario of dentistry with Covid-19 and the possible protocols which the Dental health care professional (DHCP) needs to follow for protection and safety in future. It covers all the changes and guidelines for dentists to continue with the dental practise. Also, the impact of novel corona virus has lead to a fear in public and professionals which may be noticed as a markable decline in dental treatments.
30 Relationship between Inflammation-Related Markers in Peri-Implant Crevicular Fluid and Clinical Parameters in Partially Edentulous Saudi Arabian Diabetic Subjects , Shaden Aljabr, Mansoor Assery, Sami Shafik, Naghshbandi Jafar, Nasser Al-Daghri, Osama Amer and Khalid Al-Hezaimi
Introduction: A high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and dental caries in Saudi Arabian population is overwhelmingly reported. The aim of the study was to assess the following: 1) clinical findings of PD, BOP, and amount of keratinized tissue present around dental implant and 2) PICF levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 in diabetic and non-diabetic partially edentulous Saudi Arabian subjects. Materials and Methods: Total of 32 partially edentulous subjects, 16 diabetic and 16 non-diabetic, were included in the study. PICF samples were taken from peri-implant sulcus using paper point and PCR essays for IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 was performed. Clinical parameters of peri-implant PD, BOP and amount of keratinized tissue were recorded. Conclusion: PD, BOP and PICF IL-6 levels were found to be significantly higher in Saudi Arabian diabetic subjects compared to Saudi non-diabetic subjects. Also, a positive relation found between deep PD and four inflammatory markers which are IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Results: Diabetic subjects had more significant BOP than non-diabetic counterparts (p-<0.001). No significant difference was found between diabetic and non-diabetic patients in the amount of keratinized tissue (P < 0.765). A significant high level of IL-6 in diabetic subjects when compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.033). No significant difference between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects in the serum level of IL-1α (P < 0.121), IL-1β (P < 0.171) and IL-8 (P < 0.223). A positive correlation between increased serum level of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 with increased PD was determined.
31 3D Printing: Towards the Future of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery , Marwa G Noureldin and Noha Y Dessoky
This descriptive review focuses on the advanced revolution of the 3D printing technology in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS). This technology is now trending and growing popular throughout the different aspects of the specialty to include oral and maxillofacial diagnosis, treatment planning, surgical interventions and novel tissue engineering. Moreover, it has an interesting prospect in education and training of dental students.
32 Dentistry in the Post COVID-19 World- Are We Prepared? , Vrushali Abhyankar, Gabriela Fernandes, Vinay Jain and Paul Luepke
Background: Covid-19 pandemic has affected dental profession tremendously and has placed dentists and dental professionals in the very high exposure risk jobs. Practicing dentistry requires the provider to be in close proximity of the patients and their oral cavity. Many dental procedures tend to generate aerosols owing to the use of an air rotor or highspeed handpiece. The impact of Covid-19 on dentistry, like all other professions is ever evolving and newer guidelines are published almost every day. The authors also examine the ethical, psychological and financial implications of this pandemic to the dental professionals as well as patients. The important role of organized dentistry is highlighted in facilitating change to adapt to the new norm and implement the safer practice guidelines. Conclusion: The authors conclude that significant changes need to be undertaken to protect patients, dental professionals, auxiliary personnel.
33 Low-Level-Laser-Therapy after Third Molar Removal in a Patient Affected by Osteogenesis Imperfecta , Chiara Moreschi and Stefano Bianchi
LLLT is used in oral surgery to reduce the discomfort of the patients after surgical procedures, such as pain, swelling and trismus. We showed in our case report the use of LLLT as for the reduction of post-operative discomfort as to prevent osteonecrosis of the jaws, since our patient was affected with osteogenesis imperfecta. The patient did not have any complications after surgery and after a one year follow-up she did not show any radiological or clinical sign of osteonecrosis of the jaws
34 Utility of Sodium Tetradecyl Sulphate for the Management of Oral Venous Malformation , Krishna Kishor, Shiv Kishor, Heera, Hiralal Ash, Kumar Arunesh and Sudarsan Sen
Venous malformation are one of the most common lesions of oral cavity. The lesion may be congenital malformation in neonates or arteriovenous malformation in adults. Various surgical and medical managements are possible for vascular lesions which includes surgical excision, laser therapy, cryotherapy, selective embolization, intralesional sclerosing agents, beta blocker and steroid therapy. In this current study we assessed the efficacy of intra lesioned injection of sclerosing agent i.e. 3% sodium tetra decyl sulphate in oral lesions of venous malformation. Sclerotherapy with 3% sodium tetra decyl sulphate is an effective agent in treating benign oral lesion of vascular malformation and provides alternatives to surgical method.
35 Synergistic Effects of Cordycepin and Genistein on Preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 Cells with Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Jiaxuan Lu, Xin Luo and Xiting Li
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activation disturbs bone homeostasis and plays an important role in osteolytic bone diseases development. Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine), a natural structural analog of adenosine, possess multiple pharmacological activities and exerts osteoprotective effect. Genistein can be used as protectors or synergists of adenosine drugs. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the combination of cordycepin (Cor) and genistein (Gen) regulates proliferation, migration and differentiation of preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells in a tunicamycin (TM)-induced acute ER stress model. Cell viability were assessed using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and osteoblast migration were evaluated by transwell chamber assay. The differentiation was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining assay. qRT-PCR assay was performed to confirm the establishment of ER stress model and to measure the mRNA level of key molecules involved in osteogenic differentiation. Exposure to the combination of 10μM cordycepin and 10μM genistein had no cytotoxicity in MC3T3-E1 cells, but increased the number of proliferative cells after pretreatment with 2 μg/ml TM. Analogously, ER stress-induced suppression on MC3T3-E1 cells migration was restored to control levels by the administration of cordycepin and genistein combination. Cordycepin and genistein combination significantly up-regulated ALP activity of MC3T3-E1 cells in TM-induced ER stress model. The qRT-PCR data demonstrated that the combined treatment effectively accelerated osteogenic differentiation by enhancing the mRNA level of differentiation markers including collagen type I, ALP, BSP and OPN. These results reveal that the co-administration of cordycepin and genistein exerts synergistic osteoprotective effects and has the potential to serve as a host risk reduction strategy for osteolytic bone diseases associated with ER stress activation.
36 Studying the Correlation between CBCT Linear Measurement and Actual Measurement during Surgery in Implant Candidates , Mehrdad Panjnoush, Yadollah Shayesteh, Elham Romoozi and Maryam Johari
Background: One of the main uses of CBCT is the design of implant therapies, and linear calculations in these therapies are important in quantifying bone (height and width). However, previous researches have all been conducted on dry skulls and no research has been performed in patients' clinical conditions. Aim of the Study: The aim of this research was to determine the correlation between CBCT linear measurements and actual measurements during surgery in patients undergoing implant surgery. Materials and Methods: In diagnostic research, 54 patients were selected for implant treatment in the premolars and the distance of the mental foramen to the apex of the ridge was measured using a caliper during surgery. The same calculations were repeated in CBCT images with Romex is software by two observers at two 2-week intervals. The difference in bone height calculations in CBCT images and actual measurements during surgery were analyzed by repeated values and ANOVA. Results: The difference in absolute value of bone height in CBCT images (second observer) and its actual values was 0.811 ± 0.54, 0.894 ± 0.67 between the first observer and its actual values,0.871 ± 0.63 between the first observer in the next 2 weeks later and the actual values,0.804 ± 0.57 between second observer in 2 weeks later and its actual values. The mean difference of bone height observations by 2 observers in 2 weeks from its actual values was equal to 0.0 ± 828.89 mm. No significant differences were observed between the absolute magnitude values of bone height measurements in CBCT images and their actual values at the time of surgery after exposure. Conclusion: Given the limited bone height difference in CBCT images from its actual values, this imaging modality appears to be a useful and accurate tool for estimating bone height in implant surgery in clinical settings.
37 Intraoperative Anatomical Surface Marking and Cone Beam Computerized Tomography for Assessment of the Hamulus in Palatoplasty by Younger Cleft Surgeons , Bergonzani M, Uy V, Zeinalddin M and Lotha B
Understanding the surface anatomy markers for the hamulus in palate surgery is often a useful pointer to the position of the hook of hamulus during cleft palate surgery. This innovative idea is of particular use in Veau 1 and 2 where only medial incisions are used. Younger cleft surgeons feel more comfortable when they are able to clearly see palate structures during careful dissection. Using the intraoperative method of marking out the position of the hamulus makes the whole process of identifying the hook of hamulus a lot simpler. Drawing a vertical line from the mid tuberosity which intersects a horizontal from the level of the posterior spine, the hamulus which lies a few mm below and medial to the intersection, can easily be found. We divide each region into clockwise zones 1, 2, 3, 4 and found the position to be consistent in zone 4, slightly medial and below the intersection of the two lines. This finding was also noted on cone beam CT images of adult and pediatric palates.
38 Efficacy of Garlic in Conjunction with Pentoxifylline in the Management of Oral Submucous Fibrosis - A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study , Leelakshi, Vathsala Naik and Gaurav
Introduction and Objectives: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic, progressive, and irreversible disease of the oral mucosa. Though numerous modalities have been tried but all are palliative and have no curative value. Pentoxifylline possessing vasorelaxive and antifibrotic properties believed to potentiate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and immune modulating properties of garlic. So, the present a cross-sectional pilot studywas undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of Garlic in conjunction with pentoxifylline in the management of OSMF. Methods: The study consisted of 10 OSMF patients. Pentoxifylline (400 mg) was administered thrice daily along with garlic pearls, 2 pearls; thrice daily. Drugs were administered systemically after food for a duration of 2 months. Patients were evaluated every 15 days for the assessment of clinical parameters, i.e. Burning sensation, reduction in mouth opening, tongue protrusion and cheek flexibility. Pre and post treatment study parameters were measured and compared. The improvement was assessed at the end of the study. Results: All the patients were males with the mean age of 26.04 years. Patients exhibited a mean reduction of 95.68% in burning sensation and an increment of 5.37 mm in mouth opening. The cheek flexibility and tongue protrusion also showed significant improvements in the study groups. All the patients showed significant (p > 0.001) improvement in SOD levels following treatment. Conclusion: Overall assessment of the all clinico-biochemical parameters showed a significant improvement. Thus, choice of such therapy is beneficial, affordable, easily available and most importantly a non-invasive treatment modality for OSMF
39 Mandibular Fractures and their Radiographic Diagnosis , Latika Bachani Chopra, Ashok Lingappa, Monika Singh and Anshul
When a patient who has sustained facial trauma is brought to our clinic, the question of bony involvement arises in our mind. The accurate diagnosis of fractures depends upon a thorough clinical examination followed by appropriate radiographic diagnosis. Hence, it would be wise to say that clinical and radiographic examination go hand in hand for the diagnosis of fractures.
40 Future of Dentistry due to COVID-19 , Yesh Sharma
As we all know since a few months, we are facing the same dilemma or fear of COVID-19. The whole world is suffering from this viral infection, and according to the WHO, this virus hold a large number of family of other viruses too. Every sector whether medical, dental, sports, business or industries all are affected by this COVID-19. Still the count of getting infected is increasing day by day, many people lost their lives at early stage of their life or at late stage of their life.
41 Role of Xp-Endo Finisher Agitation File with the Use of EDTA and Chitosan, on Smear Layer Removal by SEM and the Use of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry to Quantify the Concentration of Calcium Ions: An In Vitro Study , Marwan (Mohammad Shafik) Ashour Seyaj, Salsabyl Mohamed Ibrahim and Shaimaa Ismail Gawdat
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the XP-endo Finisher file on smear layer removal in straight root canals after biomechanical instrumentation in comparison to two different chelating solutions (EDTA and Chitosan) by scanning electron microscope and to quantify the concentration of calcium ions on surface of root dentin by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry with flame (AASF).
42 Legal Validity of Criminal Identification from the Comparative Analysis of Bitemarks , Joana Mancellos, Maria Inês Guimarães and Joaquim Gonçalves
Human bitemarks are normally associated with violent crimes, and when recorded, they can be the basis for the constitution of forensic evidence in a legal context. The recording and the comparative analysis of these marks, allied with data on the suspects, enable the elaboration of forensic reports that lead to the exclusion or non- exclusion of suspects, and they also contribute to the unfolding of a criminal proceeding in which the court is responsible for issuing a sentence to a defendant. The legal validity of the comparative analysis of bitemarks in human identification is a widely discussed topic in the scientific community. The numerous publications on this subject reveal different opinions regarding its contribution in crime situations and whether or not it is legally valid. The objective of this literature review is to determine the legal significance of bitemarks in the identification of criminals, considering the methods used to study bitemarks and the reliability of their results.
43 CBCT Localization of Impacted Maxillary Canines - Case Study , Al-Kiyumi H, Shetty K, Al-Senaidi A, Zeinalddin M and Viswapurna PS
Impacted maxillary canines are commonly encountered in orthodontics. The permanent maxillary canine is the second most frequent impacted tooth after the third molar. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is as an effective method to localize and evaluate the exact position of the maxillary impacted canines. In this case report, Initial conventional radiographs were taken. CBCT was performed to localize the actual position of the impacted
44 Saliva: In Relation to COVID19 , Manal Abdalla Eltahir
COVID19, as it designated by WHO, infection outbreak is constitute a real disaster worldwide, from December 2019 to April 2020, the number of affected individuals is more than the million victims. This short review aimed to gather information in the form of answering important questions in the context of Saliva in relation to COVID19 Which is caused by SARS-CoV2, as an emergent infection with limited information about. These questions are: is saliva just an environment facilitates the viral transmission?, How the saliva gets infected with corona virus? what is the actual role of the ACE2 receptors express in the oral cavity in the context of the pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease? What is the life span of the virus in saliva? and What is the role of antiviral components of saliva in combating of the coronavirus?
45 Extra Corporeal Fixation of Cranial Bone Fracture , Sundaram Rajaram, Manjunath NM, J Joseph Arnold and Gauthami Sundar
Fracture of the frontal bone, although form a low percentage of Maxillofacial cases, carries significant risk for the patient, regardless of the type of injury. Usual methods of stabilizing fragments in cranial bone fracture include the use of threads, wires, plates, titanium clamps. This article presents and discusses a case of cranial bone fracture and subsequent management of the same. The uniqueness of this article lies in the new approach to facilitate the fixation of the fractured bone fragments extra corporeally. Thus, this article aims in describing a technique that is safe and simple for the operator and patient. The fixation was very rigid and aesthetic results were attained.
46 Clinical and Radiological Retrospective Multicenter Analysis on 864 Implants with more than 10 Years Follow-up , Giuliano Garlini, Salvatore D’amato, Valeria Chierichetti, Luca Levrini, Clelia Di Serio and Marco Redemagni
The use of dental implants is a widely accepted treatment modality for fully and partially edentulous patients. The beginning of the year 2000 brought the development of moderately rough implant surfaces and macro-designs that are nowadays considered to represent the gold standard for implant treatment. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to present long-term data more than 10 years, on survival rate, marginal bone level changes and peri-implant soft tissue healthy status of 709 patients with 864 dental implants in fully and partially edentulous cases.
47 Educational Needs of Dental Laser as Perceived by Dental Graduates: A Survey of Knowledge and Skill Requirements , Faisal Hameed, Irfan Al, Waheed Gul Shaikh, Laraib Mazhar, Nabeel Hafeez, Muhammad Aqeel Aslam and Faizan Abdul Hussain Lakhdir
To assess the educational level and knowledge of the use of laser in Dentistry among the undergraduate and postgraduate students, fresh dental Surgeons and the consultants of different colleges in Karachi.Descriptive, Cross-sectional study was carried out at different dental colleges of Karachi using a self-administered pretested questionnaire from January 2018 to December 2018. The questionnaire consists of 2 parts. First part is about dental laser education and the second one is about the knowledge of dental laser applications. The second part is sub-sectioned to 6 sections. Each section consists of several items related to the uses of laser in 5 different dental specialties in addition to a section in laser protection. The analysis was performed by scoring 2 for a correct response, 0 for don’t know response and -2 for an incorrect response. Students’ knowledge scores will be calculated and transferred to a scale ranged between 2 and -2. Score of > 1 considered as sufficient knowledge, while score of <1 will be considered as insufficient knowledge.
48 A Case of Sinonasal Lymphoepithelial Carcinoma Presenting as a Palatal Swelling , Nikolaos Kolomvos, Dionysios Kyrmizakis, Evangelia Piperi and Evanthia Chrysomali 
Lymphoepithelial carcinoma is a rare type of undifferentiated carcinoma, characterized by atypical epithelial cells surrounded by a reactive lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. We report a case of sinonasal lymphoepithelial carcinoma arising in the left maxillary sinus in an 80-year-old Caucasian male patient. The lesion had invaded the adjacent lateral wall of the nasal cavity appearing on the palate as a painful swelling. There was no evidence of tumor involvement from the nasopharynx and larynx assessment and no swollen cervical lymph nodes were noticed on the head and neck imaging examination. An incisional biopsy from the oral cavity, as well as an endoscopic biopsy of the neighboring nasal mass were performed. The histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of both specimens showed identical features and a common diagnosis of sinonasal lymphoepithelial carcinoma was rendered. In conclusion, oral swellings located on the palate may be associated with maxillary sinus malignancies. Thus, the clinician should include in the differential diagnosis not only primary oral carcinomas, but also malignant neoplasms arising from neighboring anatomic sites.
49 Role of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in Potentially Malignant and Malignant Lesions of Head and Neck , Paramita Ingle, Basavaraj Bhagawati and Meenal Jethlia
The sixth most common cancer diagnosed worldwide are head and neck cancer (HNC). In 2008, 633,000 new cases were diagnosed out of which 355,000 cases resulted in mortality. Early detection of precancerous lesions remains a challenge to clinicians. In 1983, evidence of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection was identified in a subset of oropharyngeal carcinomas (OPC). Thus, confirming HPV as a causative agent in HNC. HPV is now recognized as an important risk factor for the development of oropharyngeal cancers, and results of previous studies have demonstrated epidemiological and molecular evidence of the presence of the HPV genome in pre-malignant oral lesions in SCC tissues, especially of the subtypes of HPV-16 and -18. There is close to no evidence linking HPV to carcinoma. However, this review focuses on the role of HPV in oral oncology and to comment on the HPV DNA reported frequencies potentially malignant oral lesions
50 Clinical Comparison of Treatments for Dentine Sensitivity from Non-carious Cervical Lesions , Karen Pintado-Palomino, Bruna Neves de Freitas, Larisse Eduardo Adami, Mariana Montanhini de Lima, Takami Hirono Hotta, Wilson Matsumoto, Cesar Bataglion and Camila Tirapelli
This study compared the effectiveness of in-office and at home treatments for cervical dentine sensitivity (CDS) from non-carious cervical lesions.Sixty participants with CDS were selected and randomly allocated into six groups of treatment: LA: gallium aluminium arsenide laser and LP: laser-placebo (4 in-office sessions); RMGI: resin-modified glass-ionomer and ARC: adhesive resin cement (in-office single session); DD: stannous fluoride desensitizing dentifrice and RD: regular dentifrice (30 days at home-use). CDS was assessed with the visual analogue scale at pre-treatment, immediately after treatment and at 1, 2 weeks, 1 and 2 months after the end of treatment. Data were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests (p < 0.05).
51 Effects of Sugar Crystals on Cerebrum , Subham Kumari
Aim behind writing this article is to give powerful impact on the peoples mentality. Sugar is the generic name conferred to sweet tasting, a soluble carbohydrate.
52 Treatments for Paresthesias after Orthognathic Surgery: Literature Review , José Victor Marconato, Luis Eduardo Genaro and Paloma Fernandes
Orthognathic surgery is a procedure of choice for the treatment of skeletal deformities; however, it is common to observe a change in sensitivity called paresthesia, in cases where the nerves are injured. For the patient's sensitivity to return, it is necessary to perform treatments such as the use of low-power laser, acupuncture and drug treatment. This work sought to identify these treatments and describe them, in order to guide the clinical management of dental surgeons.
53 Comparing the Anxiety Level between Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome Patients and Others , Sara Pourshahidi, Hooman Ebrahimi and Zahra Pourabdollah
Myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS) is the most common temporomandibular disorder and a psychophysiologic disease that primarily involves the muscles of mastication and can cause pain, mouth opening limitation, mandibular deviation during mouth opening and closing and tenderness of one or more masticatory muscles or tendons. Among various ideas about the etiologic factors of MPDS, two main reasons are occlusal disorders and mental health problem. More researches recently, focus on mental health problem as the main and initial factor of MPDS. Anxiety is one of the most fundamental psychological problem that exists in almost all societies, it increases muscle’s tonisity and thus leads to pain. Considering the high prevalence of anxiety in patients suffering from this syndrome, this study is to investigate anxiety intensity in these patients and compare that with two control groups. The first control group were 30 patients who referred to dental school because of any problems except MPDS, and the second one included 30 Shiraz citizens. All three groups were informed about the procedure of the study and then completed Spielberger Anxiety Intensity Questionnaire, that had been validated before. Then a psychologist checked and graded the questionnaires. Using spss v.15 we analyzed the data with ANCOVA and Chi-Square tests. This study demonstrated that the MPDS patients had more anxiety than the common people of the society. The significant point in our study was the comparison of anxiety level in MPDS patients with the other patients that referred to dental school with a reason other than MPDS which revealed no significant statistically difference. According to this result, we can say that the high anxiety level in MPDS patients may be not related to the disease and can be due to the situation they share with others who refer to dental school, so the anxiety may be the result of their disease and not the cause.
54 To Investigate the Influence of Conventional and Non-Conventional Drill on Implant Stability During Bone Bed Preparation- A Systematic Review , Rachel Quadros
There are multiple surgical techniques proposed for implant bone bed preparation to enhance the stability of implants. However, there is no adequate amount of scientific evidence to support the association between the surgical techniques and implant stability.This systematic review aims to investigate the influence of laser/piezoelectric or conventional drill on its surgical outcome during bone bed preparationThe studies included were from January 2007 to December 2017 An electronic search was done of PubMed, Google Scholar, Institutional Library and manual search of various journals. The inclusion criteria composed of all randomized control trials and observational studies evaluating the implant stability after bone bed preparation conventionally or using a piezo electric system or laser. All studies selected were in ENGLISH language only and included in vitro and in vivo studies conducted in animals.
55 Properties Affecting the Fracture Resistance of All Acrylic Resin in All-on-4® Technique - An In Vitro Study , N Chandra Sekhar, Paladugu Lakshmi Sandhya, Kollipara Soujanya, Kothuri Naga Ravalika and Jagadeesh Konchada
All-on-4® concept has seen much success mainly due to its immediate loading quality. A temporary fixed hybrid usually made of all acrylic resin is given for 6 months which is later replaced by a definitive prosthesis. This temporary prosthesis is supported by only four implants and strength of the complete unit depends on the strength of denture base which plays a major role in final outcome. This study is designed to evaluate different commercially available all acrylic resin denture materials with better flexural strength, impact strength and water sorption properties.Investigation of the impact strength, flexural strength and water sorption of three denture base materials, namely, Trevalon HI, Brecrystal and Ivocap plus. A total of 90 samples were prepared from these materials. Universal testing machine and Izod impact tester was used for flexural strength and impact strength and for evaluating water sorption, the specimens were stored in a desiccator at 37ºC for 23 hours and the samples are weighed using a balance
56 Contracted Endodontic Cavity in a Severely Calcified Anterior Tooth Using Guided Endodontics Technique: Case Report , Alessandra Rosa de Sá, José Flávio Gabrich Giovannini, Henrique Trindade de Magalhães, Victor Couto Figueiredo, Tiago Braga and Rodrigo Rodrigues Amaral
Pulp canal obliteration (PCO) is characterized by the deposition of calcified tissue within the root canal space, which may partially or totally involve the canal. The endodontic treatment of calcified teeth is considered a challenging task depending on the severity of pulp obliteration. Recently, guided endodontics has become an alternative approach for those cases. This case report describes the use of guided endodontic access for the maxillary left lateral incisor of a 73-year-old male patient that required restorative treatment. The tooth had an extensive coronary fracture and demanded endodontic treatment for prosthetic purposes. Periapical radiography showed that pulp obliteration was severe at the cervical and middle thirds of the root. A cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was requested in order to assess the level of obliteration. A three-dimensional (3D) template was planned with the CBCT's images along with intraoral scanning. A prototyped guide for guided endodontic access was performed, and the dental procedures were concluded safely. Guided endodontic access was paramount to overcome the pulp obliteration and ensured the endodontic treatment, and prosthetic rehabilitation could be performed.
57 Role of Sesame Oil Pulling in the Management of Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Pilot Study , Shriya Khaira, Priyanka Verma and Sunita Gupta
Oral Submucous Fibrosis is a progressive, premalignant condition for which multiple treatment modalities have been tried with partial success rate. Oil pulling is a newer treatment modality which involves swishing of oil in the mouth. Sesame oil has been used as it possesses antioxidative properties which prevent free radical injury to oral tissues.To find a holistic, cost effective and permanent treatment approach with no side effects: Twenty clinically and histopathologically diagnosed subjects of oral sub mucous fibrosis were treated by oil pulling procedure for 6 months. All subjects were instructed to perform oil pulling with sesame oil for 15-20 minutes every morning. The parameters recorded on day 0 and at the end of 6 months were mouth opening, tongue protrusion, VAS scale, cheek flexibility and gingival index. Intra group comparison were made using wilcoxon signed rank test.
58 Emerging Trends in Healthcare-A Path to the Future , Gokul Venkateshwar, Ekta Keswani and Sumeet Shinde
The last few months has compelled us look at healthcare through the prism of the Covid 19 pandemic, the path of trajectory of the contagion points to the surge of the pandemic leading to a huge public health crisis. Despite the lockdowns imposed by several Governments across the world, the pandemic shows no signs of abating, with the daily fluctuating graph being a point of vexatious debate. The adamant virus has managed to leave its footprints everywhere leading to an enormous challenge being thrown on our healthcare system, traditionally entrenched in combating diseases prevalent in our society. Though in recent years in the last decade or so the virus crisis has manifested as SARS, H1N1, Swine flu, the current zenith of Covid 19 has surpassed the viruses prevalence hitherto known to the world in a short span of time. The pandemic has ravaged societies across the countries and created economic and social imbalances affecting all strata of the society in developed and developing nations as well. This pandemic is no longer confined to the boundaries of any nation, its prevalence today is across continents, threatening to upend humanity. Today we stand at the edge of a precipice, staring at a crisis at a time when our civilization is trying to achieve its pinnacle. The impact of health on our socio economic structure, is undeniable and we no longer can push it under a carpet and ignore it anymore.
59 Role of HPV in Oral Cancer , Smitha T
Oral cancer is one of the major health issues in India. The traditional risk factors or oral cancer include pan chewing, tobacco and alcohol use. However, Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 is now being implicated causing oral cancer. Until recent times, the research on oral cancer has focused on factors like genetics, evolving lifestyle and environmental factors such as pollution. The possible etiological role of HPV16 and 18 in oral oncogenesis needs to be addressed. Additionally, there are many aspects of HPV in causation of oral cancer that still needs to be understood and addressed. The following chapter focuses on types and role of HPV, its pathogenesis within the oral cavity, and prognosis in case of HPV-positive cancer cases. The chapter also includes an update on the diagnostic tests, with highlight on various specific biomarkers, and the treatments developed to contain the HPV-positive cancer cases. Current research areas and future perspectives have been covered in this chapter which can be taken up to advance the research on HPVpositive oral cancer.
60 Occupational Hazards in Dentistry , Abhirami
Dental care has been revolutionized due to information explosion and technical advances, as a result of these advances quality care can be provided to the population but while doing so, dentist and their teams exposed to a number of hazards peculiar to this profession leading to various ailments specific to the profession that develop and intensify with years.
61 Changing Trends in Dental Practice during the Pandemic , Rishi Bhimani
COVID-19 pandemic has crippled and incapacitated the entire world in the past 6 months. With its array of symptoms and degree of severity, most countries-imposed lockdown time and again to prevent the spread of infection.
62 Infra Orbital Ethmoid (Haller) Cells: A Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Study in a Population of Iran , Maryam Johari, Elham Romoozi, Hemmat Gholinia Ahangar and Ehsan Moudi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Haller cells in a population of Iran using Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to further identify it as a predisposing factor for sinusitis.
63 Role of Dentists in the National Emergency COVID , Ojas Kumar Singh, Subham Kumari, Puja Kumari, Mausmi Singh, Shweta Singh and Anirban Roy
In this article my aim is to, summarize the effective collection of the host factors co-operated and indicating zonal pathways activated during human novel coronavirus infection, and its whole biomolecular relation, get evoking on Human CoV-infection with inducing stress response, autophagy, apoptosis, and innate immunity
64 Advanced Diagnostic Aids in Detection of Potentially Premalignant Oral Epithelial Lesions - A Review   , Jayanta Saikia, Balaji Pachipulusu, Poornima Govindaraju and Bhagyashree M Nair  
Oral cancer is one of the most mutilating disease afflicting mankind. Precancerous lesions, conditions and early stage oral cancer cannot be adequately identified by visual inspection alone and may be easily overlooked and neglected. Differentiation between early stage cancer, precancerous lesions and benign lesions is often difficult because of the similar appearance of the lesions. Surgical biopsy is a gold standard for diagnosis, but this needs professional services, which are impractical at times. Alternative screening methods which are non-invasive, easily performed and highly accurate are the norms for any test to accept as an alternative for histopathology  
65 Clinical Outcomes of Neutral Zone Techniques Employment in Maxillofacial Prostheses , Masmoudi Karim, Chabbi K, Adouani A, Ayadi M and Jamila J
Prosthetic rehabilitation for patients undergoing substantial maxillary surgery is challenging. Certainly, implantology is the best option for improving prosthesis’s support, retention, and stability. Nevertheless, the neutral zone technique can also be considered an equally effective approach patients complaining about unstable maxillofacial reconstructions, particularly when implant therapy is not feasible.
66 Are we Fortified for Prevention and Control of Epidemic Outbreaks like COVID 19 in Schools of India: A Cross-sectional Knowledge Awareness and Perception Survey on Education and Training Professionals in India (KAPEI-1) , Ramakant Gupta, Swati Gupta and Manju Gupta
Schools teachers, being the intellectual resource, can aid in controlling epidemics like COVID 19. To serve the purpose school teachers themselves need to be aware of such emergencies.
67 Validation of the Distance between Upper Canine Gingival Margin Zenith to Ipsilateral Lower Canine Gingival Margin Zenith as Method for Determination of the Occlusal Vertical Dimension , Cristian Abad-Coronel and Rubén Arindia
The vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) is one of the most important parameters to consider for diagnosis and treatment planning in a prosthetic rehabilitation. Various methods to determine it have been proposed throughout the scientific literature, without establishing a universally accepted method. Various factors, such as the differences in the biotype and phenotypic characteristics of the patients in certain populations, could generate variations in the measurements obtained.
68 Effect of Platelet Rich Plasma on Alveolar Osteitis and Bone Healing Following Surgical Extraction of Teeth , Ismail Ahmed, Syed Ghazanfar Hassan, Parveen Memon, Emaan Fatima Qureshi, Muhammad Maarij Hassaan Qureshi, Salman Shams and Mahwish Memon
To determine the efficacy of platelet rich plasma on bone healing of alveolar socket and alveolar osteitis prevention following surgical extraction of teeth compared to normal healing.
69 The Quintessence of Keratinized Gingiva in the Periodontal and Peri Implant Realm: Conventional Knacks Revisited. Case Reports , Sumit Munjal, Seema Munjal and D S Mehta
Gingiva, with its unique texture and coral pink color, is the most delicate tissue in the oral cavity and the first essential component of the periodontium. Keratinized Gingiva is presumed desirable because it influences the outcome of all the periodontal treatments. The connective tissue grafts were used in varying situations in the present report, the goal being to re-evaluate the predictability of traditional skills of augmentation in the peri-implant and periodontal domain. It’s high time the traditional knowledge and today’s innovative biomaterials forge a definite science wherein a regeneration of ravaged soft tissues is irrefutable.
70 Different Approach to Transverse Palatal Expansion: MARPE (Miniscrew Assisted Rapid Expander) Over RME (Rapid Maxillary Expander) , Aisha Ali Riyamy, Thuraiya Al Rashdi, Karthik Shetty, Mohammad Zeinalddin and P S Viswapurna
Maxillary deficiency is among the huge culprits in orthodontic patients seeking treatment. Multiple treatment modalities are there to tackle this problem. The most common treatment approaches are rapid maxillary expansion (RME) and miniscrew/surgical assisted rapid palatal expansion (MARPE/SARPE). In this article we reviewed two different approaches of treatment, side effects of RME and also the non-surgical mini screw assisted expansion in both older and younger patients. The stability of expansion, skeletal and dentoalveolar effects in both treatment approaches were reviewed.
71 Combating COVID-19: A Dentist Perspective , Pranjali V Bawankar, Abhay P Kolte and Rajashri A Kolte
The current scenario in the world is awfully perilous and insecure because of the world pandemic of COVID- 19.Healthcare workers (HCW) are frontline warriors for prevention and treatment of Coronavirus affected patients. Face-to-face communication and consistent exposure to body fluids such as blood and saliva predispose dental care workers at serious risk for 2019-nCoV infection. As demonstrated by the recent coronavirus outbreak, information is not enough. During dental practice, blood and saliva can be scattered and aerosol production is common. Accordingly, dental practice can be an impending risk for dental staff, and there is a high risk of cross-infection. This article deals with all information collected to date on the virus, in accordance with the guidelines of international health care institutions and provides a comprehensive protocol for managing possible exposure to patients or those suspected of having coronavirus.
72 Attachments in Cast Partial Denture: A Case Report , Swapnita Vaity, Omkar Shetty, Gaurang Mistry and Manali Mehta
Retention of prosthesis is one of the key factors in the success of the prosthesis. Apart from retention, one of the major concerns in removable partial dentures has been stress transfer on the remaining tissue; particularly in distal extension cases. The use of attachment gained momentum in around late 1950s after considerable efforts by Steiger and Boilet. The need for extra retention and improved esthetics, lead to the development of intra-coronal and extra-coronal attachments. Attachment is a mechanical device for fixation, retention, and stabilization of prosthesis. The criteria that help in the selection of the attachments are location, function, retention, space and cost factors. The article presents a case report on attachment in cast partial denture.
73 Transfloral Acupuncture - A New Combination of Ear Acupuncture and Floral Essences to Improve the Energy of Patients , Andreas Wirz-Ridolfi
In any patient the extension of the actual electromagnetic field is decisive for his state of health as well as for the effectiveness of any therapeutic measure. With the innovative method of Transfloral Acupuncture it is possible to improve the energetic level of patients considerably within seconds. Most foci (which are obstacles for diagnosis and treatment) are dental foci. Teeth, even if they don't yet need treatment by a dentist, can present a focus causing a considerable loss of energy for the patient. This loss of energy reduces his capability to react to treatment as well as his immune system. According to the research of Prof. Frank Bahr and Dr. Heike-Dorit Schmid every tooth is in resonance to a flower essence, (Bach, Californian flower essences or Australian Bush flowers). By means of the Vascular Autonomous Signal (VAS) and the Bahr detector (a combination of a 3-Volt hammer and a black and white hammer) all teeth are controlled and the corresponding flower essence is chosen. A drop of the floral essence is given orally and another drop is placed on the ear lobe of the patient at the place of the tooth found to be a focus. Now a permanent needle is inserted through the floral essence into the ear lobe
74 Knowledge and Attitude of Parents towards Avulsed Permanent Tooth of their Children and its Emergency Management at RAK College of Dental Sciences Clinic , Sally Kamal El Din Mohamed, Dana Abdullah, Suzan Omar, Huda Abutayyem, Tamer El-Marsafawy and Rania Hamed Ghanem
Traumatic injuries to dentoalveolar tissues are considered the most serious oral health problem amongst children and adolescents Epidemiological studies revealed that children from 8 to 12 years often suffer a dental injury. It may vary from minor tooth fracture to extensive dentoalveolar damage that involves the supporting structures and avulsion. Avulsion is defined as total dislodgment of the tooth from its socket. It represents about 16% of all traumatic dentoalveolar injuries (TDI). Central incisor is the most affected tooth due to their labial projection which make them more susceptible to facial trauma.
75 Endodontic Management of Trauma-induced External Root Resorption Following Orthodontic Treatment by Placement of Biodentine: A Case Report , Reza Sayyad Soufdoost, Ali Jamali Ghomi, Hossein Labbaf and Homeira Ansari Lari
External root resorption is considered as a frequent complication of orthodontic tooth movement, particularly, in a tooth with the history of trauma and resorption. Advances in dental material science not only have increased demand from the patients for saving their teeth, also have enabled clinicians to treat the complicated cases. Previously most of the teeth with severe external root resorption were scheduled to extraction due to poor prognosis of conventional endodontic treatment. This case report presents successful nonsurgical endodontic management of a trauma-induced perforating external root resorption with Biodentine which had been progressing rapidly after applying orthodontic forces. 24 months follow-up revealed arrest of root resorption, and advanced healing of the lesion
76 Intraosseous Odontoma Erupted: Diagnosis and Treatment , Estefanía Raquel Fernández, González María M, Barrios Evelin E and Krupp Sebastián
Odontoma is the most frequent benign odontogenic tumor in the oral cavity, especially in the anterior sector of the maxilla, with a greater predominance in men in a 1.5: 1 ratio, diagnosed between the first and second decades of life. It is a pathology where the dental tissues are normal, but its structure is disorganized. Regarding the etiology, it is related to trauma, morpho differentiation, genetic disorders and Malassez remains. They are of limited growth, asymptomatic and are responsible for the bone retention of permanent teeth. The therapeutic treatment of choice is surgical excision and they generally do not recur. The following report presents a 28-year-old male patient who attended the Dental Clinic Service of the Faculty of Dentistry of the National University of the Northeast for cosmetic reasons and upper lip discomfort when speaking. The clinical, radiographic and histopathological study confirmed the presence of a complex odontoma erupted above the dental piece 5.4 still present in the oral cavity. It was successfully removed without postoperative complications. This clinical case is of great diagnostic interest compared to other pathologies with similar characteristics. The success of the treatment was the result of a correct clinical, radiographic and histopathological diagnosis
77 Porcelain Laminate Veneers-Current State of the Art in Aesthetic Dentistry , Ajit Jankar, Suresh Kamble, Sachin Chaware, Shruti Botwe, Suraj Sonawane and Madhavi Galale
Porcelain laminate veneers have been proved to be durable and an aesthetic treatment modality in dental clinics. Dental porcelain has become the most widely used material for the construction of crowns in dentistry because of its excellent esthetic properties and its ability to duplicate the appearance of natural tooth structure. It is a conservative and non-invasive technique treating aesthetic and functional problems in the anterior teeth. Nowadays, innumerable variety of dental ceramics are available for fabricating laminate veneers. It is imperative for clinicians to know and understand the composition and properties of these materials to choose the appropriate option according to clinical situations
78 Rehabilitation of Patient with Immediate Cast Partial Denture Using Patient’s Natural Maxillary Anterior Teeth , Priyanka Tiwari, Rajesh Sethuraman and JR Patel
In dental practice immediate denture is commonly used before extracting all the remaining teeth. There are many advantages of using this denture such as esthetics, speech, occlusion, maintaining the facial height, muscle tone and tongue size. Maxillary anterior teeth as patient’s natural teeth are used due to improving the self-esteem, esthetics, smile and confidence of a patient. Also as natural teeth retain their hue and strength for sufficient period of time. Removable partial denture can be used but Cast partial denture is a better option as it provides better fit and hygiene and it is an alternative to the patient who are not willing to get fixed prosthesis done or in whom FDP is not indicated. Hence Immediate cast partial denture is the choice of treatment in such cases. In this case patient’s natural maxillary teeth is used to form immediate cast partial denture, together with replacement of missing teeth in maxillary and mandibular arches.
79 Suitable Materials for Indirect Posterior Partial Restorations , Sarra Nasri, Yosra Gassara, Dalenda Hadyaoui, Zohra Nouira, Belhassan Harzallah and Mounir Cherif
Indirect posterior partial restorations may offer a viable and cost-effective treatment option for the restoration of extensively decayed teeth. An increasing variety of restoration materials are available on the market nowadays, which makes the material choice a difficult decision. In this article, the most important criteria of selection are presented to guide the dentist in the selection of the restoration material.
80 Telescopic Overdenture for Partially Edentulous Patients: A Case Report , Surbhi Jain
M.M. Devan stated, “It is more important to preserve what already exists than to replace what is missing" has always set a gold standard and has never been disapproved. In clinical situations with remaining partial dentition, various treatment options are available to the prosthodontists out of which overdentures have always been considered as a superior treatment modality. Preventive prosthodontics has always been advantageous in maintaining the propioreception and preventing residual ridge resorption, which forms the basis of preventive prosthodontics. This clinical report describes the prosthodontic rehabilitation of a patient with a mandibular telescopic overdenture for added advantages like better retention, stability, support and psychological benefits of the patient
81 Pharmacological Management of Orthodontic Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis , Basel Mofti, Moataz ElShehaby, Mona A Montasser and David Bearn
The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of various pharmacological interventions on pain experienced by patients undergoing orthodontic therapy
82 Sport Activities, Oral and Dental Health. A Mutual Relationship , Panagiotis Ntovas, Nikolaos Loumprinis, Panagiotis Maniatakos, Vakou Dimitra and Christos Rahiotis
To review the relationship between sport activities, oral and dental health.A literature search was carried out through the Medline database (PubMed) and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register. A subject-specific search strategy was conducted since the August of 2018 using the following keywords: sport drinks, energy drinks, sports oral health, mouthguard, oral anabolic Steroid, oral trauma, dental trauma, Barodontalgia, Odontecrexis, Sport Maxillofacial Injuries, Athletic injuries and Sports Medicine
83 Comparative Evaluation of 3 Caries Risk Assessment Tools for Children with Early Childhood Caries , Nessa Mary John and Latha Anandakrishna
Caries risk assessment is the determination of the likelihood of the incidence of new carious lesions. Individualized risk assessment of an infant or toddler will help both the health care provider and parent/caregiver to identify the factors associated with early childhood caries, so that a preventive plan can be developed.To compare three different caries risk assessment tools, Caries-risk Assessment Tool (CAT), Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) and Cariogram® for children with/without Early Childhood Caries (ECC).
84 A Comparative Evaluation of Cement Application Methods on Marginal Discrepancies and Retention of Cement Retained Implant Restorations: An In Vitro Study , Swati Jain, Preeti Satheesh and Malathi Dayalan
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retention values and marginal adaptation of implant- supported metal crowns using four different cementation techniques.Eighty implant abutment complex (IAC) and metal crowns with defect free and smooth marginal surface were used in the study. Each IAC was composed of a 5.5 mm high titanium abutment screwed onto a 10mm long stainless steel implant analog with 25 Ncm torque according to manufacturer’s instructions. The specimens were divided into four groups (groups A-D, twenty specimens per group) according to the cementation technique employed. In Group A, cement was evenly placed over the entire interior marginal surface (IMS) of the crown. In Group B, cement was evenly placed only on the occlusal surface of the crown. In Group C, cement was evenly applied on all the axial walls of interior surface of crown excluding occlusal surface In Group D resin abutment replica technique was used. Zinc phosphate cement (DPI, Harvard) was used for all cementation procedures according to manufacturer’s instructions. All specimens were subjected to 1000 thermal cycles between 5˚C and 55˚C with a dwell time of 10 seconds in a thermocycling device.
85 The Foundational Basis of Aesthetic Cleft Lip Surgery for Cleft Surgery Trainees: A Retrospective, Observational Study of Early Post-Operative Results in Bilateral Cleft Lip Surgery Using Some Anthropometric Nuances , Lotha B and Zeinalddin M
The bilateral cleft lip deformity is often a challenging surgery for younger cleft trainees because of the associated nasal deformities. Done with care, using Mulliken’s five principles of symmetry, muscle continuity, philtral size and shape, median tubercle formation using labial elements, and alar cartilage positioning, one is able to achieve satisfactory results over time. These pillars remain the constant for younger cleft trainees. Anthropometric measurements form the basis of functional aesthetic bilateral cleft lip repair. Success of bilateral cleft lip surgery involves correct anthropometric measurements and the five principles
86 Challenges and Implications for Dental Professionals during Novel Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) , Tanusha Sharma
The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has influenced every aspect of human life. Medical professionals, especially dentist are at a very high risk of getting infected. Because of close contact with infected patients dental professionals can easily be infected. Due to the characteristics of the hospital settings, the positioning of clinician and patient the risk of cross infection is high. For dental clinics and hospitals which are under the containment zone affected with COVID-19, major infection control protocols are highly recommended. This article focuses on the challenges and implications for a dental professionals during novel Corona virus disease (COVID-19). Dental practitioners need to be aware and prepared for tackling corona disease.
87 Corona Virus (COVID-19) Impact on Patient Environment in Dental Practice , Ossama A AlKhatib, Samar MF Saati, Muhanad O AlKhatib, Delia O Alkhatib and Alaa A Albasher
The environmental circumstances create further risk factors that affect severity and duration of oral and periodontal diseases; Corona Virus (COVID-19) makes trouble changing of immune defenses which result in damage the tissue cells at several vital areas of the human body, and may convert the mechanism and symptoms of patient diseases. Till now Corona viral pandemic has been changing the patient social lifestyle and affected dental clinical practice, and becomes more critical for infection control against all infectious diseases that should be managed before starting treatment of bacterial periodontal disease and other dental problems. Many new requirements become in need to extend our educational understanding about how these infectious viral or bacterial diseases will contaminate people and are transferring from person to person, especially in dental clinic during practice on patient, and how much to drew attention for additional protective procedures to the patient who still has been looking for a new different managements. So that our concepts should be changed to correspond to all new patient required demands after corona virus pandemic
88 Binder’s Syndrome: The Need of an Ortho-Surgical Approach , Priti Shukla, Amit Nagar and Rachit Thakral
Despite the frequent presence of all characteristic orofacial features and profound dental malocclusions there is very little to be found in the literature of maxillofacial surgeons to diagnose a case of Binder syndrome or also known as maxillo-nasal dysplasia or maxillo-nasal dysostosis. Nordenram., et al. recommended to delay any definitive orthodontic treatment in individuals with this syndrome up to the time when growth has ceased. For severe cases they also advise for grafting in the nasal area along with Le-Fort I and II osteotomy. Thus, in such cases the orthodontic treatment should go hand in hand with the surgical team hence opting for an ortho-surgical approach. The aim of the orthodontist in the post-surgical phase should be improvement of facial beauty, relieve crowding of the arches and their co-ordination and to obtain a Class I molar relationship.
89 Frontal Sinus as Tool in Identification , Anushri Tiwari
Identification of the dead is important in mass disasters, road traffic accidents, criminal investigations as well as accidents involving fire. The most common identification techniques are: fingerprinting, dental comparison, and DNA profiling. This review aims at delving into the use of frontal sinus as an aid in the identification process.