1 The VAT Technique" Teaching Oral Prophylaxis , Ajay Kakar
Teaching a patient oral prophylaxis may seem like an innocuous exercise but it is a most critical aspect in clinical dentistry. It is hardly given the importance it deserves. The purpose of this issue is to highlight its importance and present an effective technique for the same.
2 The Association of Trace Elements and Vitamins with Lichen Planus: Review Article , Maryam Baghizadeh Fini
Lichen planus is a continual mucocutaneous inflammatory disorder of multifactor nature with numerous clinical symptoms. Nu-merous researchers attribute a key role in disease development to disruptions in the immune system. Appropriate doses of micronu-trients are essential for the immune system to perform effectively. Micronutrient deficiency suppresses immunity by influencing the innate immune system, responses to T-cell mediated and adaptive antibody, resulting in disruption of the balanced host response. Since these trace elements and vitamins have an important role in the immune system and oral lichen planus has a significant rela-tionship with the disturbances in the immune system, the importance of these elements should be considered for each patient. Just several articles examined the hematological anomalies and nutritional imbalances in OLP patients. In this study, all required informa-tion about trace elements and vitamins in OLP patients is obtained.
3 Coronavirus-A Review Article , Maharshi Malakar
A strain of coronavirus. The new virus has been named SARS-CoV-2 and the disease it causes, Covid-19. The WHO has declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The disease was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan, China and has since spread globally, resulting in the 2019-20 coronavirus pandemic. Common symptoms include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Muscle pain, sputum production and sore throat are less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some progress to severe pneumonia and multi-organ failure. At present it is now a great concern
4 Treating Infant Population Fracture Mandible by Prof. Katpar’s Innovative Splint technique: Reported from Pakistan , Shahjahan Katpar, Maria Shabbir, Muhtada Ahmed, Jawad Safdar, Shoaib Ayub and Muneer Zardari
Introduction: Mandibular fractures occur relatively less frequent in infantile population as compared to adults, due to elasticity of bone, protected anatomical structures and infrequent exposures to road traffic accidents etc. The treatment procedures involved for such cases is different from those of adults, due to concerns regarding growth, developing Dentition and early healing.Case Report: Here we discuss case of 8 months old female infant patient presented with fracture of anterior mandible following fall from stairs. The fractured jaw was reduced at theatre without any impression taking and cast formation procedure for acrylic splint and we avoiding using resorbable bone plates. Instead, we used Compound impression material cake piece which is a muco-com-pressive, thermoplastic material, used as a substitute for an acrylic splint. This was secured with silk suture and rubber tube pieces, replacing circum-mandibular stainless steel wire with silk following manual closed reduction of fracture, under general anesthesia.Results: The clinical application of this technique results in timely and adequate reduction of fracture in pediatric population which was confirmed on post-operative radiographs and clinical follow-up visits of patient and their family reviews.Conclusion: The article provides an innovative, pioneer, non-invasive surgical procedure to treat infantile mandibular fracture cases by “Prof. Katpar’s DUHS splinting technique” within early days of trauma, avoiding costly resorbable bone plates, acrylic splints and early reduction
5 Promotion of Oral Health Care in Infants - A Preventive Strategy to Reduce the Burden of Early Childhood Caries , Subhathira Rajasekaran, Sham S Bhat, Vidya Bhat, Sundeep Hegde K, Neha Thilak and Minu Mumtaz
Infant oral health care is the foundation on which a life time of preventive education and dental care can be built in order to help acquire optimal oral health in a child. The purpose of an infant oral health program is to improve access to oral health care and to provide counseling and anticipatory guidance in oral hygiene for children aged 6 months to 5 years. The first step of infant oral health care is the preventive oral health behavior of parents since they would influence their children’s behavior in adapting to the preven-tive oral health practices as they grow along. Early dental interventions present an opportunity to educate parents about the medical, dental and cost benefits of preventive care which is effective in reducing early childhood caries. A comprehensive infant oral care program includes risk assessments at regularly scheduled dental visits, preventive treatments such as fluoride varnishes or sealants, parental education on the correct methods to clean the baby's mouth and establishment of dental home and use of anticipatory guid-ance. The present article highlights the important guidelines of infant oral health care
6 Delivery Systems of Local Anesthetics in Dentistry: An Update , Neha Thilak, Sundeep Hegde K, Sham S Bhat, Vidya Bhat, Subhathira Rajasekaran and Minu Mumtaz OV
Effective delivery of local anesthesia is one of the most important aspects of dentistry. Obtaining adequate pain control will re-sult in minimum discomfort of the patient during dental procedures, at the same time it helps the dentist to render the treatment effectively. Even though the modern dental syringes which is the most common method of local anesthesia administration were introduced many years ago, different modifications in delivering local anesthetics have evolved over time. These innovations have lead to decreased pain during administration of local anesthesia and also reduced side effects. This article discusses about different advancements in the delivery systems of local anesthesia.
7 Protocols during COVID-19 Outbreak- A Maxillofacial Surgeon’s Perspective , Sundaram Rajaram, Gauthami Sundar and Rajaram RS
The lightening pace of spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has made the whole world come to a standstill. The rising numbers of the people affected with this viral infection, despite adhering to the proper preventive measure guidelines has evoked a global sensation. The abundance of Corona virus (SARS-CoV2), the causative virus, in the nasal and salivary secretions in the infected has got serious and obvious relationship to the dental professionals. It becomes the moral responsibility of the Maxillofacial Surgeon to identify such patients who are infected, and avoidance of the spread of the infection. Thus, participating in the efforts to curb the spread of overwhelming infection and safeguarding the unaffected public who seek dental attention. This article aims to highlight the protocols to be followed in treating patients in an outbreak of COVID-19 virus from the Oral and Maxil-lofacial Surgeon’s point of view. Clinical Relevance: The 62-year-old ENT specialist Liang Wudong died on Saturday morning, 25th January 2020 as reported by the Chinese Global Times website. Liang’s death highlighted the pressure faced by medical staff in the state as social media was flooded with posts showing exhausted workers struggling to cope [1].Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons need to be aware and prepared for tackling any impending infectious disease challenge as might be the case in the current outbreak of SARS-Cov2 transmission and its associated Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that can be life-threatening to susceptible patients
8 Mouth Breathing-Its Consequences, Diagnosis, Treatment , Sukhdeep Singh, Neha Awasthi and Taru Gupta
The mouth breather is a patient with multiple conditions and therefore requires comprehensive and multidisciplinary clinical look to early detect this syndrome, minimizing its deleterious effects. A pediatric dentist may be one of the first healthcare profes-sionals to come in contact with a patient who exhibits mouth breathing and thus it is important to have a sound knowledge to per-form correct diagnosis and effective treatment. A review of current data on the skeletofacial, dental and gingival changes that occur in mouth breathing individuals is given, with the intention of raising the awareness of dental professionals towards the special needs of these patients
9 Ameloblastoma: Case Report , Isaque Toledo Zimmermann and Milena Bortolotto Felippe Silva
Ameloblastomas are rare odontogenic tumors of the jaws, more frequently found in mandible. Etiology, clinical and histological behavior, and various modality of treatment have been extensively discussed. Conservative treatment sometimes associated with additional procedures has been used as a good option for many treatments of this tumor. The present article has for objective describe a case of ameloblastoma of jaw treated by conservative methods where jaw fracture occurred as a complication of this initial therapeutics
10 Gingival Depigmentation , Ibrahim Mohamed Mahgoub Eldowi
Background 24 years old male complaining from gingival hyperpigmentation. Gingival hyperpigmentation is a common aesthetic concern in patients with a gummy smile Aim of the Case Study Using a diode laser with 980nm wavelength with fiber tip size 300 μm can give very good aesthetic results. Why diode laser for this case? After examination, this hyperpigmentation was due to higher secretion of Melanin pigments beyond the normal level and because of his gummy smile, it was very obvious when he speak or smile. Diode 980 nm wavelength is highly absorbed by pigments, like melanin.
11 Surgical Treatment of Impacted Tooth Associated with a Big Odontoma: Piezosurgery Approach , Cardarelli Angelo, Michele Grechi and Arun K Garg
The aim of this study is to describe a clinical case about a young patient, 13 years old, that he has a big odontoma in the right site of the mandible associated with an impacted tooth. So, it was described a piezo surgery approach in order to obtain a conservative approach.
12 Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Siebert’s Class II Case and Pier Abutments - Case Report , Swati Pustake, Kanchan Bagul, Sachin Chaware, and Preetha Negi
Replacement of teeth with periodontally compromised abutment is a challenge. A tough choice of aesthetics over function is often made by the operator for the satisfaction of the patient. The modified concepts of fixed partial dentures allow one to choose longevity of the prosthesis by not compromising on the aesthetic factors. Ridge defect often leads to a convenient treatment option of removable partial dentures which will not be preferred by the patient. Andrews bridge a fixed removable type of prosthesis is perfect solution for this situation. In long span multiple missing cases Nonrigid connectors have been recommended to reduce the forces as they provide a stress-breaking effect. In this case report, there are two opportunities that allow us to incorporate the modified fixed partial denture technique. Andrews bridge in the lower anterior segment to mask the ridge loss and the posterior long span FPD with a tenon mortise attachment. These two attachments used in this case not only prolongs the life of already compromised anterior teeth but also allows the posterior abutment to remain healthy throughout in long span fixed partial dentures
13 Psychological Effects of Orthognathic Surgery , Shalini Parihar and Sudhanshu
Orthognathic surgery refers to a group of corrective bone operations that involve movement of the jawbones completely or in parts.Orthognathic surgery is indicated when there are severe dentofacial deformities that cannot be managed by orthodontic treatment alone, especially in adulthood, when the natural growth forces have ceased. Dentofacial deformities are described as deformities that affect primarily the jaws and dentition
14 Hyaluronic Acid: Intraoral Application , Albert- López MJ, Pallarés-Serrano Al and Javier A Bardají
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a polysaccharide present in the connective tissue of many organisms. It has high molecular weight, is biocompatible and is found in various body fluids such as: synovial fluid, serum, saliva, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), etc. This component has numerous physiological and structural characteristics such as volume maintenance and improvement of tissue resistance, cellular and extracellular interactions, interactions with growth factors, regulation of osmotic pressure, tissue lubrication, bactericidal, fungistatic effects, anti-edematous and osteoconductive. The results that have been obtained show that it is a natural component that can provide numerous advantages. For all these reasons, hyaluronic acid (HA) is used in different fields of medicine is studied and recently, it was also introduced in the dental field for aesthetic purposes in perioral areas. Although it is not so well documented, it has been observed that it is intraoral application can bring many benefits. The aim of this systematic review aimed to collect the applications at the intraoral level that hyaluronic acid (HA) can have in different dental procedures.
15 Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of Maxilla - A Rare Case Report in Adult , Mahesh KP and Karthikeya Patil
Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) includes a wide array of lesions with varying central and peripheral nervous system having differentiating potential. It is their insidious clinical symptoms, varying locations and rarity, the accurate diagnosis of peripheral PNETs poses a challenge for clinicians. PNETs has diagnostically characteristic immunophenotypical and genetic features that distinguish them from other small round cell tumors. We recently got to treat a patient with maxillary swelling on the left side of the face, its clinical course, histopathology with immunohistochemistry correlation of this rare entity PNET is discussed.
16 Corona Virus Disease - 2019 (COVID-19) - Planning for Emergency Dental Practice and Dental Education , Fazal Ghani
The substantial knowledge of virology related to the epidemiologic characteristics, clinical spectrum, and treatment has made it possible for the dental healthcare personnel, to continue working safely by implementing efficient strategies to prevent, control and stop the spread of COVID-19. Despite this, the current COVID-19 outbreak necessitates we must be constantly aware of infectious threats that may challenge our infection control regimen in the dental settings, our preparedness for the provision of dental health care services and dental teaching and education. The infection prevention and control strategies to be adopted must have an evidence base and should follow the recommendations from the local and international centers for disease control and infection prevention and control according to the epidemic situation. The current epidemic outbreak emphasizes the need for improving the infection prevention and control strategies in the dental settings, adoption of alternative learning strategies for students and the need for further research on the ways for responding to such future contagious diseases
17 Die and Die Materials - An Overview , Sunny Sharma, Lucky Jindal, Abhishek Kumar, Kumar Gaurav, Rudhra Munshi, Anukriti
Dentists are often faced with sectioning and soldering implant supported superstructures and long span tooth supported fixed partial dentures. These steps increase chair time, procedural cost and decrease clinical efficiency. One way to decrease the number of clinical steps is by improving the accuracy of working cast/die system. A cast die system captures the necessary information so that it can be transported to the laboratory
18 An Overview on Gingival Depigmentation Procedures : Case Series and Follow up , Tanusha Sharma, Charu Agrawal and Mishal Shah
The gingival complex plays an important role in the overall esthetics of a smile . Melanin, which is a brown pigment, is the most common natural pigment that contributes to endogenous pigmentation of the gingiva. For depigmentation of gingiva many treatment modalities have been reported like Scraping, Bur Abrasion, Partial Thickness Flap, Cryotherapy, Electrosurgery and Laser. The present article describes five cases of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation - Scraping, Bur Abrasion, Partial Thickness Flap, Electrocautery and Laser Technique. The purpose of the article is to discuss and compare the different techniques employed for depigmentation.
19 Prevalence of Odontogenic-Related Maxillary Sinus Pathologies in an United States Dental School Population , Yueh Ju Hsiao, Shang Lun (Allen) Liu, Jie Yang, Randolph R Resnik and Jon B Suzuki
Objectives: Odontogenic-related maxillary sinus pathologies are identified in cone beam computerized tomography taken for maxillary sinus augmentation and dental implant therapies. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of odontogenicrelated maxillary sinus pathologies among a dental school population. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and twenty-one patients were retrospectively evaluated for odontogenic-related maxillary sinus pathologies using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Age, gender, ethnicity, and dentition status were evaluated to determine potential relationships of the presence of odontogenic-related sinus pathologies. Results: Among 534 CBCT scans, 331 scans presented without sinus pathology bilaterally and 203 scans presented with sinus pathologies in one or both sinuses. 79 scans presented with odontogenic-related maxillary sinus pathologies. The most frequent observations were mucosal thickening. The tooth most frequently associated with pathologic findings were first molars followed by second molars. The findings were higher in males than females (p = 0.006). Age and ethnicity was not a significant factor (p = 0.10, p = 0.05). Dentition status showed root canals (34.65%) were the most commonly associated with pathology. Conclusion: The prevalence of odontogenic-related maxillary sinus pathology was found in 36% of sinuses. Identification and management of odontogenic pathologies are essential to minimize complications. CBCT is highly recommended as a diagnostic tool prior to lateral wall maxillary sinus augmentation surgery and implant placement. Management of odontogenic-related maxillary sinus pathologies need to be tailored to individual patients and involves varying combinations of medical and dental management
20 Coping with the Corona Crisis-Mental Status and Beyond , Aditya Jayan and Gaurav
“Life” as Atharva Veda describes is not merely a sequence of events from birth to death, but also a culmination of various emotions, feelings and frames of mind where it ushers from the cuddling arms of the parents to the burning arms to the funeral pyre! “Lockdown” on the other hand if interpreted aptly is not an act of being imprisoned but a longer period of discipline and an act towards the Nation. Its a test of mindset wherein we are getting to serve our nation without actually doing anything being back at home! Its a persistence of the mindset that we will not go back to normal, normal never was! Our pre-corona existence was not normal other than we normalized greed, inequality, exhaustion, depletion, extraction, disconnection, confusion, rage, hoarding, hate and luck.
21 Maximum Mouth Opening among Saudi Arabian Adults , Fahad Alshammari, Njoud AlSaheel, Najd Alhamzah, Ra’ed Salma and Ahmed Alshammari
Background: The mouth opening range is one of the major characteristics features that different one person from the other. Literature has shown that the maximal mouth opening range varies among different people, ages and regions. On average, a person should be able to fit 3 fingers in an opened mouth. However, differences exist. Aim: To set a reference measurement for maximal mouth opening in Saudi Arabian adult population. Methods: The study was conducted on patients attending dental clinics in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The maximum mouth opening (MMO) was recorded for adult patients using a ruler. The patients were requested to open their mouth at maximum level and the length between the maxillary central incisor edge and the mandibular central incisor edge in the same side of the mouth was measured. Correlation of the mouth opening with age was determined using a Spearman correlation matrix. Besides, Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests were used for comparing the continuous variables. Conclusion: The conclusion obtained from the findings is that the males mean maximal mouth opening of an adult was significantly higher than females in Saudi. A negative correlation suggesting that mouth opening decreases with age. Results: The maximal mouth opening mean ± SD of the participants was 50.1 ± 6.3 mm. Mean ± SD maximal mouth opening for males (52.5 ± 6.3 mm) was statistically significantly higher than females (47.8 ± 5.3 mm) (p < 0.05). Spearman’s test between maximal mouth opening and age showed a negative correlation of p > 0.05. No statistically significant difference was found between the mean ± SD maximal mouth opening and age groups (p > 0.05).
22 Digital Age Estimation Using Orthopatomograms in Indian Population: A Comparative Study , Ramakant Gupta, Swati Gupta and Manju Gupta
Introduction: Orthopantomographs are non- destructive tool for age estimation by indirectly measuring the rate of secondary dentine deposition. Cameriere.,et al. introduced one such Europeanpopulation based method and modified by researchers for Indian population; but their applicability is yet to be assessed. Aim and Objective: To assess the applicability of Cameriere’s method and its modification by Jeevan.,et al. Bebshet.,et al. for mandibular canines and Sexena, Jeevan.,et al,Juneja.,et al. for maxillary canines in an Indian population in Faridabad district of Haryana by evaluating the pulp/tooth ratio in canines on right side using digital orthopantomographs. Materials and Methods: Digital orthopantomographs of 60 patients (30 males, 30 females, 16- 72 years) were selected by simple random sampling. Pulp and tooth areas were measured and their ratio was computed using computer software. Age was calculated using the Cameriere’s method and its modification by Jeevan.,et al,Bebshet.,et al,Sexena, Juneja.,et al.Mean absolute error (MAE) for each method was calculated for each method. Conclusion: Jeevan’s formula revealed least MAE and slightly more percentage of cases with errors < ± 10 years i.e. acceptable’’ age estimates than others, therefore, itis more applicable for Indian population. Results: The present study showed no recognisable difference in dental age assessed by all the methods. Overestimation of age with MAE <± 10 years was found in Indian population using all the methodsConclusion: Jeevan’s formula revealed least MAE and slightly more percentage of cases with errors < ± 10 years i.e. acceptable’’ age estimates than others, therefore, itis more applicable for Indian population.
23 COVID-19 Impact on Dentists in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Qualitative Study , Zerina Hadzic
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused economic and health consequences in many countries around the world. Some occupations, including dentists, were highlighted as the most endangered due to aerosols and the possibility of spreading the COVID-19 virus during the incubation period. It is well-known that aerosol generated in dental procedures with a large number of droplets, provoking that the standard protective measures in daily clinical work may not be effective enough to prevent the spread of COVID-19, especially when patients are in the incubation period or unaware that they are infected. The aim of the study is to check the attitude and possible fear and concern related to the COVID-19 pandemic among dentists in Bosnia and Herzegovina who are employed in the public and private health sector.
24 Non-Surgical Management of Unusually Large Chronic Recurrent Periapical Abscess and an Insight on Periapical Radiolucencies , Swati Gupta, Ramakant Gupta and Manju Gupta
Recurrent inflammatory periapical lesions are commonly encountered oral pathologies. The usual cause of these periapical lesions is endodontic in nature and can be easily treated by endodontic treatment. They exhibit wide biologic behaviors and their presentation as recurrent pus discharging ulcers can lead to patient’s apprehension and even be cause for clinician’s anxiety. This is because many non-endodontic causes may also lead to periapical lesions. A thorough knowledge about them therefore, is crucial for clinicians not only to properly diagnose and manage such cases, but is also important to safeguard themselves from patient’s evil intentions of making easy money by claiming refund. The present case is one such example where unusually large chronic recurrent periapical abscess was managed with non- surgical endodontic treatment. With this case report, authors intend to discuss the different periapical radiolucencies and explain scientific guidelines for their adequate diagnosis and management.
25 Sorption and Solubility of Nanofilled Composite Resins in Mouthwashes with Different pH , Shaqran Hamid Alabbadi, Meshal Abdullah Bagari, Ibrahim Mohamed Hamouda and Khalid Talal Abdullah Aboalshamat
Objectives: The aim of this study was test the effect of mouthwashes with different pH on sorption and solubility of nano-filled composite resin restorative materials. Materials and Methods: 56 cylindrical specimens were prepared from 2 types of nanofilled composite resins, 28 specimens from each material. Specimens of each type of composite were randomly divided into four groups (n = 7). 7 specimens were used as a control group immersed in distilled water. The other 3 groups were stored in the following mouth washes (Avohex, Listerine and Parodontax) for seven days. Specimens were dried in desiccator to a constant weight before immersion. The immersion media were changed daily for 7 days, waived in air and weighted to calculate the amount of sorption. Specimens were dried again and reweighted to calculate the amount of solubility. Sorption and solubility tests were made using electronic balance. Results: Both composite resins showed varying degrees of water sorption and solubility in all storage media. SDI ice composite resin showed higher water sorption in Listerine and lower in Avohex mouth washes. SDI Ice nanohybrid composite resin showed higher solubility in Avohex mouth wash and lower solubility in distilled water. Charisma nanohybrid composite resin showed higher water sorption in Avohex mouth wash and lower in distilled water. Listerine and Parodontax mouthwashes showed intermediate comparable values. Charisma nanohybrid composite resin showed higher solubility in distilled water and lower in Listerine mouthwash. Listerine and Parodontax mouth washes had intermediate effects of sorption and solubility on both types of composite resins. Conclusion: All tested nanofilled composite resins showed varying degrees of water sorption and solubility in all storage media. SDI ice composite resin showed higher water sorption in Listerine and higher solubility in Avohex mouthwashes. It exhibited lower sorption in Avohex mouth wash and lower solubility in distilled water. Charisma nanohybrid composite resin composite resin showed higher water sorption in Avohex and higher solubility in distilled water. It demonstrated lower sorption in distilled water and lower solubility in Avohex mouth wash.
26 Vitamin D: Another Protection Barrier for the Dentist in Times of SARS-CoV-2 , Diego Fernando López, Valentina Rios Borrás and David Alejandro Rivera
The knowledge about vitamin D role in human physiology is highly relevant in Dentistry, particularly considering the current world health emergency (pandemia) of the disease known as COVID-19, caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. The deficiency of some nutrients including vitamins and hormone precursors is a factor predisposing to disease and susceptibility to infections of the respiratory tract. Additionally, in orthodontics, vitamin D is able to increase dental movement and in Implant Dentistry improves osseointegration. The aim of the present review is to provide information regarding COVID-19 and vitamin D role in the immune system and respiratory system, useful for the dental staff to help patients and themselves to take preventive actions to mitigate the consequences of COVID-19 pandemia in near future
27 Dentistry x Covid-19 = Uncertainty? , Meenakshi Ray
In October 2015, 218 villagers were asked to submit blood samples in Jinning county, China. The villages were adjacent to caves, which were home to a variety of Coronavirus-carrying bats. The blood samples were tested to find that nearly 3% carried antibodies against SARS-like coronavirus. Bat-to-human transmission of the coronaviruses was then brought to light for the first time ever.
28 A Conceptual Evolved Model of Dental Practice - The Ideologies of an Inter-disciplinary Team (IDT) , Monu Survashe and Anita Merani
The present study explores the ideologies of an interdisciplinary team for better patient centered healthcare outcomes. The principles studied in the literature review were used to formulate a conceptual design of IDT. A conceptual design was then planned for cessation of tobacco smoking among diabetic patients by the dentist and the physician who specializes as a certified health coach, to reduce the burden of the underlying systemic issues along with the dental treatment.
29 Changing Scenario of Dentistry with COVID-19-An Overview , Ashima Trivedi and Ashwani Kumar Trivedi
Corona virus disease 2019 which proved to be a global pandemic has a noticeable impact on the field of dentistry. This is an overview of the changing scenario of dentistry with Covid-19 and the possible protocols which the Dental health care professional (DHCP) needs to follow for protection and safety in future. It covers all the changes and guidelines for dentists to continue with the dental practise. Also, the impact of novel corona virus has lead to a fear in public and professionals which may be noticed as a markable decline in dental treatments.
30 Relationship between Inflammation-Related Markers in Peri-Implant Crevicular Fluid and Clinical Parameters in Partially Edentulous Saudi Arabian Diabetic Subjects , Shaden Aljabr, Mansoor Assery, Sami Shafik, Naghshbandi Jafar, Nasser Al-Daghri, Osama Amer and Khalid Al-Hezaimi
Introduction: A high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and dental caries in Saudi Arabian population is overwhelmingly reported. The aim of the study was to assess the following: 1) clinical findings of PD, BOP, and amount of keratinized tissue present around dental implant and 2) PICF levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 in diabetic and non-diabetic partially edentulous Saudi Arabian subjects. Materials and Methods: Total of 32 partially edentulous subjects, 16 diabetic and 16 non-diabetic, were included in the study. PICF samples were taken from peri-implant sulcus using paper point and PCR essays for IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 was performed. Clinical parameters of peri-implant PD, BOP and amount of keratinized tissue were recorded. Conclusion: PD, BOP and PICF IL-6 levels were found to be significantly higher in Saudi Arabian diabetic subjects compared to Saudi non-diabetic subjects. Also, a positive relation found between deep PD and four inflammatory markers which are IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Results: Diabetic subjects had more significant BOP than non-diabetic counterparts (p-<0.001). No significant difference was found between diabetic and non-diabetic patients in the amount of keratinized tissue (P < 0.765). A significant high level of IL-6 in diabetic subjects when compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.033). No significant difference between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects in the serum level of IL-1α (P < 0.121), IL-1β (P < 0.171) and IL-8 (P < 0.223). A positive correlation between increased serum level of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 with increased PD was determined.
31 3D Printing: Towards the Future of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery , Marwa G Noureldin and Noha Y Dessoky
This descriptive review focuses on the advanced revolution of the 3D printing technology in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS). This technology is now trending and growing popular throughout the different aspects of the specialty to include oral and maxillofacial diagnosis, treatment planning, surgical interventions and novel tissue engineering. Moreover, it has an interesting prospect in education and training of dental students.
32 Dentistry in the Post COVID-19 World- Are We Prepared? , Vrushali Abhyankar, Gabriela Fernandes, Vinay Jain and Paul Luepke
Background: Covid-19 pandemic has affected dental profession tremendously and has placed dentists and dental professionals in the very high exposure risk jobs. Practicing dentistry requires the provider to be in close proximity of the patients and their oral cavity. Many dental procedures tend to generate aerosols owing to the use of an air rotor or highspeed handpiece. The impact of Covid-19 on dentistry, like all other professions is ever evolving and newer guidelines are published almost every day. The authors also examine the ethical, psychological and financial implications of this pandemic to the dental professionals as well as patients. The important role of organized dentistry is highlighted in facilitating change to adapt to the new norm and implement the safer practice guidelines. Conclusion: The authors conclude that significant changes need to be undertaken to protect patients, dental professionals, auxiliary personnel.
33 Low-Level-Laser-Therapy after Third Molar Removal in a Patient Affected by Osteogenesis Imperfecta , Chiara Moreschi and Stefano Bianchi
LLLT is used in oral surgery to reduce the discomfort of the patients after surgical procedures, such as pain, swelling and trismus. We showed in our case report the use of LLLT as for the reduction of post-operative discomfort as to prevent osteonecrosis of the jaws, since our patient was affected with osteogenesis imperfecta. The patient did not have any complications after surgery and after a one year follow-up she did not show any radiological or clinical sign of osteonecrosis of the jaws
34 Utility of Sodium Tetradecyl Sulphate for the Management of Oral Venous Malformation , Krishna Kishor, Shiv Kishor, Heera, Hiralal Ash, Kumar Arunesh and Sudarsan Sen
Venous malformation are one of the most common lesions of oral cavity. The lesion may be congenital malformation in neonates or arteriovenous malformation in adults. Various surgical and medical managements are possible for vascular lesions which includes surgical excision, laser therapy, cryotherapy, selective embolization, intralesional sclerosing agents, beta blocker and steroid therapy. In this current study we assessed the efficacy of intra lesioned injection of sclerosing agent i.e. 3% sodium tetra decyl sulphate in oral lesions of venous malformation. Sclerotherapy with 3% sodium tetra decyl sulphate is an effective agent in treating benign oral lesion of vascular malformation and provides alternatives to surgical method.
35 Synergistic Effects of Cordycepin and Genistein on Preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 Cells with Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Jiaxuan Lu, Xin Luo and Xiting Li
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activation disturbs bone homeostasis and plays an important role in osteolytic bone diseases development. Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine), a natural structural analog of adenosine, possess multiple pharmacological activities and exerts osteoprotective effect. Genistein can be used as protectors or synergists of adenosine drugs. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the combination of cordycepin (Cor) and genistein (Gen) regulates proliferation, migration and differentiation of preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells in a tunicamycin (TM)-induced acute ER stress model. Cell viability were assessed using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and osteoblast migration were evaluated by transwell chamber assay. The differentiation was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining assay. qRT-PCR assay was performed to confirm the establishment of ER stress model and to measure the mRNA level of key molecules involved in osteogenic differentiation. Exposure to the combination of 10μM cordycepin and 10μM genistein had no cytotoxicity in MC3T3-E1 cells, but increased the number of proliferative cells after pretreatment with 2 μg/ml TM. Analogously, ER stress-induced suppression on MC3T3-E1 cells migration was restored to control levels by the administration of cordycepin and genistein combination. Cordycepin and genistein combination significantly up-regulated ALP activity of MC3T3-E1 cells in TM-induced ER stress model. The qRT-PCR data demonstrated that the combined treatment effectively accelerated osteogenic differentiation by enhancing the mRNA level of differentiation markers including collagen type I, ALP, BSP and OPN. These results reveal that the co-administration of cordycepin and genistein exerts synergistic osteoprotective effects and has the potential to serve as a host risk reduction strategy for osteolytic bone diseases associated with ER stress activation.
36 Studying the Correlation between CBCT Linear Measurement and Actual Measurement during Surgery in Implant Candidates , Mehrdad Panjnoush, Yadollah Shayesteh, Elham Romoozi and Maryam Johari
Background: One of the main uses of CBCT is the design of implant therapies, and linear calculations in these therapies are important in quantifying bone (height and width). However, previous researches have all been conducted on dry skulls and no research has been performed in patients' clinical conditions. Aim of the Study: The aim of this research was to determine the correlation between CBCT linear measurements and actual measurements during surgery in patients undergoing implant surgery. Materials and Methods: In diagnostic research, 54 patients were selected for implant treatment in the premolars and the distance of the mental foramen to the apex of the ridge was measured using a caliper during surgery. The same calculations were repeated in CBCT images with Romex is software by two observers at two 2-week intervals. The difference in bone height calculations in CBCT images and actual measurements during surgery were analyzed by repeated values and ANOVA. Results: The difference in absolute value of bone height in CBCT images (second observer) and its actual values was 0.811 ± 0.54, 0.894 ± 0.67 between the first observer and its actual values,0.871 ± 0.63 between the first observer in the next 2 weeks later and the actual values,0.804 ± 0.57 between second observer in 2 weeks later and its actual values. The mean difference of bone height observations by 2 observers in 2 weeks from its actual values was equal to 0.0 ± 828.89 mm. No significant differences were observed between the absolute magnitude values of bone height measurements in CBCT images and their actual values at the time of surgery after exposure. Conclusion: Given the limited bone height difference in CBCT images from its actual values, this imaging modality appears to be a useful and accurate tool for estimating bone height in implant surgery in clinical settings.
37 Intraoperative Anatomical Surface Marking and Cone Beam Computerized Tomography for Assessment of the Hamulus in Palatoplasty by Younger Cleft Surgeons , Bergonzani M, Uy V, Zeinalddin M and Lotha B
Understanding the surface anatomy markers for the hamulus in palate surgery is often a useful pointer to the position of the hook of hamulus during cleft palate surgery. This innovative idea is of particular use in Veau 1 and 2 where only medial incisions are used. Younger cleft surgeons feel more comfortable when they are able to clearly see palate structures during careful dissection. Using the intraoperative method of marking out the position of the hamulus makes the whole process of identifying the hook of hamulus a lot simpler. Drawing a vertical line from the mid tuberosity which intersects a horizontal from the level of the posterior spine, the hamulus which lies a few mm below and medial to the intersection, can easily be found. We divide each region into clockwise zones 1, 2, 3, 4 and found the position to be consistent in zone 4, slightly medial and below the intersection of the two lines. This finding was also noted on cone beam CT images of adult and pediatric palates.
38 Efficacy of Garlic in Conjunction with Pentoxifylline in the Management of Oral Submucous Fibrosis - A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study , Leelakshi, Vathsala Naik and Gaurav
Introduction and Objectives: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic, progressive, and irreversible disease of the oral mucosa. Though numerous modalities have been tried but all are palliative and have no curative value. Pentoxifylline possessing vasorelaxive and antifibrotic properties believed to potentiate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and immune modulating properties of garlic. So, the present a cross-sectional pilot studywas undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of Garlic in conjunction with pentoxifylline in the management of OSMF. Methods: The study consisted of 10 OSMF patients. Pentoxifylline (400 mg) was administered thrice daily along with garlic pearls, 2 pearls; thrice daily. Drugs were administered systemically after food for a duration of 2 months. Patients were evaluated every 15 days for the assessment of clinical parameters, i.e. Burning sensation, reduction in mouth opening, tongue protrusion and cheek flexibility. Pre and post treatment study parameters were measured and compared. The improvement was assessed at the end of the study. Results: All the patients were males with the mean age of 26.04 years. Patients exhibited a mean reduction of 95.68% in burning sensation and an increment of 5.37 mm in mouth opening. The cheek flexibility and tongue protrusion also showed significant improvements in the study groups. All the patients showed significant (p > 0.001) improvement in SOD levels following treatment. Conclusion: Overall assessment of the all clinico-biochemical parameters showed a significant improvement. Thus, choice of such therapy is beneficial, affordable, easily available and most importantly a non-invasive treatment modality for OSMF
39 Mandibular Fractures and their Radiographic Diagnosis , Latika Bachani Chopra, Ashok Lingappa, Monika Singh and Anshul
When a patient who has sustained facial trauma is brought to our clinic, the question of bony involvement arises in our mind. The accurate diagnosis of fractures depends upon a thorough clinical examination followed by appropriate radiographic diagnosis. Hence, it would be wise to say that clinical and radiographic examination go hand in hand for the diagnosis of fractures.
40 Future of Dentistry due to COVID-19 , Yesh Sharma
As we all know since a few months, we are facing the same dilemma or fear of COVID-19. The whole world is suffering from this viral infection, and according to the WHO, this virus hold a large number of family of other viruses too. Every sector whether medical, dental, sports, business or industries all are affected by this COVID-19. Still the count of getting infected is increasing day by day, many people lost their lives at early stage of their life or at late stage of their life.
41 Role of Xp-Endo Finisher Agitation File with the Use of EDTA and Chitosan, on Smear Layer Removal by SEM and the Use of Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry to Quantify the Concentration of Calcium Ions: An In Vitro Study , Marwan (Mohammad Shafik) Ashour Seyaj, Salsabyl Mohamed Ibrahim and Shaimaa Ismail Gawdat
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the XP-endo Finisher file on smear layer removal in straight root canals after biomechanical instrumentation in comparison to two different chelating solutions (EDTA and Chitosan) by scanning electron microscope and to quantify the concentration of calcium ions on surface of root dentin by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry with flame (AASF).
42 Legal Validity of Criminal Identification from the Comparative Analysis of Bitemarks , Joana Mancellos, Maria Inês Guimarães and Joaquim Gonçalves
Human bitemarks are normally associated with violent crimes, and when recorded, they can be the basis for the constitution of forensic evidence in a legal context. The recording and the comparative analysis of these marks, allied with data on the suspects, enable the elaboration of forensic reports that lead to the exclusion or non- exclusion of suspects, and they also contribute to the unfolding of a criminal proceeding in which the court is responsible for issuing a sentence to a defendant. The legal validity of the comparative analysis of bitemarks in human identification is a widely discussed topic in the scientific community. The numerous publications on this subject reveal different opinions regarding its contribution in crime situations and whether or not it is legally valid. The objective of this literature review is to determine the legal significance of bitemarks in the identification of criminals, considering the methods used to study bitemarks and the reliability of their results.
43 CBCT Localization of Impacted Maxillary Canines - Case Study , Al-Kiyumi H, Shetty K, Al-Senaidi A, Zeinalddin M and Viswapurna PS
Impacted maxillary canines are commonly encountered in orthodontics. The permanent maxillary canine is the second most frequent impacted tooth after the third molar. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is as an effective method to localize and evaluate the exact position of the maxillary impacted canines. In this case report, Initial conventional radiographs were taken. CBCT was performed to localize the actual position of the impacted
44 Saliva: In Relation to COVID19 , Manal Abdalla Eltahir
COVID19, as it designated by WHO, infection outbreak is constitute a real disaster worldwide, from December 2019 to April 2020, the number of affected individuals is more than the million victims. This short review aimed to gather information in the form of answering important questions in the context of Saliva in relation to COVID19 Which is caused by SARS-CoV2, as an emergent infection with limited information about. These questions are: is saliva just an environment facilitates the viral transmission?, How the saliva gets infected with corona virus? what is the actual role of the ACE2 receptors express in the oral cavity in the context of the pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease? What is the life span of the virus in saliva? and What is the role of antiviral components of saliva in combating of the coronavirus?
45 Extra Corporeal Fixation of Cranial Bone Fracture , Sundaram Rajaram, Manjunath NM, J Joseph Arnold and Gauthami Sundar
Fracture of the frontal bone, although form a low percentage of Maxillofacial cases, carries significant risk for the patient, regardless of the type of injury. Usual methods of stabilizing fragments in cranial bone fracture include the use of threads, wires, plates, titanium clamps. This article presents and discusses a case of cranial bone fracture and subsequent management of the same. The uniqueness of this article lies in the new approach to facilitate the fixation of the fractured bone fragments extra corporeally. Thus, this article aims in describing a technique that is safe and simple for the operator and patient. The fixation was very rigid and aesthetic results were attained.
46 Clinical and Radiological Retrospective Multicenter Analysis on 864 Implants with more than 10 Years Follow-up , Giuliano Garlini, Salvatore D’amato, Valeria Chierichetti, Luca Levrini, Clelia Di Serio and Marco Redemagni
The use of dental implants is a widely accepted treatment modality for fully and partially edentulous patients. The beginning of the year 2000 brought the development of moderately rough implant surfaces and macro-designs that are nowadays considered to represent the gold standard for implant treatment. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to present long-term data more than 10 years, on survival rate, marginal bone level changes and peri-implant soft tissue healthy status of 709 patients with 864 dental implants in fully and partially edentulous cases.
47 Educational Needs of Dental Laser as Perceived by Dental Graduates: A Survey of Knowledge and Skill Requirements , Faisal Hameed, Irfan Al, Waheed Gul Shaikh, Laraib Mazhar, Nabeel Hafeez, Muhammad Aqeel Aslam and Faizan Abdul Hussain Lakhdir
To assess the educational level and knowledge of the use of laser in Dentistry among the undergraduate and postgraduate students, fresh dental Surgeons and the consultants of different colleges in Karachi.Descriptive, Cross-sectional study was carried out at different dental colleges of Karachi using a self-administered pretested questionnaire from January 2018 to December 2018. The questionnaire consists of 2 parts. First part is about dental laser education and the second one is about the knowledge of dental laser applications. The second part is sub-sectioned to 6 sections. Each section consists of several items related to the uses of laser in 5 different dental specialties in addition to a section in laser protection. The analysis was performed by scoring 2 for a correct response, 0 for don’t know response and -2 for an incorrect response. Students’ knowledge scores will be calculated and transferred to a scale ranged between 2 and -2. Score of > 1 considered as sufficient knowledge, while score of <1 will be considered as insufficient knowledge.
48 A Case of Sinonasal Lymphoepithelial Carcinoma Presenting as a Palatal Swelling , Nikolaos Kolomvos, Dionysios Kyrmizakis, Evangelia Piperi and Evanthia Chrysomali 
Lymphoepithelial carcinoma is a rare type of undifferentiated carcinoma, characterized by atypical epithelial cells surrounded by a reactive lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. We report a case of sinonasal lymphoepithelial carcinoma arising in the left maxillary sinus in an 80-year-old Caucasian male patient. The lesion had invaded the adjacent lateral wall of the nasal cavity appearing on the palate as a painful swelling. There was no evidence of tumor involvement from the nasopharynx and larynx assessment and no swollen cervical lymph nodes were noticed on the head and neck imaging examination. An incisional biopsy from the oral cavity, as well as an endoscopic biopsy of the neighboring nasal mass were performed. The histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis of both specimens showed identical features and a common diagnosis of sinonasal lymphoepithelial carcinoma was rendered. In conclusion, oral swellings located on the palate may be associated with maxillary sinus malignancies. Thus, the clinician should include in the differential diagnosis not only primary oral carcinomas, but also malignant neoplasms arising from neighboring anatomic sites.
49 Role of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in Potentially Malignant and Malignant Lesions of Head and Neck , Paramita Ingle, Basavaraj Bhagawati and Meenal Jethlia
The sixth most common cancer diagnosed worldwide are head and neck cancer (HNC). In 2008, 633,000 new cases were diagnosed out of which 355,000 cases resulted in mortality. Early detection of precancerous lesions remains a challenge to clinicians. In 1983, evidence of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection was identified in a subset of oropharyngeal carcinomas (OPC). Thus, confirming HPV as a causative agent in HNC. HPV is now recognized as an important risk factor for the development of oropharyngeal cancers, and results of previous studies have demonstrated epidemiological and molecular evidence of the presence of the HPV genome in pre-malignant oral lesions in SCC tissues, especially of the subtypes of HPV-16 and -18. There is close to no evidence linking HPV to carcinoma. However, this review focuses on the role of HPV in oral oncology and to comment on the HPV DNA reported frequencies potentially malignant oral lesions
50 Clinical Comparison of Treatments for Dentine Sensitivity from Non-carious Cervical Lesions , Karen Pintado-Palomino, Bruna Neves de Freitas, Larisse Eduardo Adami, Mariana Montanhini de Lima, Takami Hirono Hotta, Wilson Matsumoto, Cesar Bataglion and Camila Tirapelli
This study compared the effectiveness of in-office and at home treatments for cervical dentine sensitivity (CDS) from non-carious cervical lesions.Sixty participants with CDS were selected and randomly allocated into six groups of treatment: LA: gallium aluminium arsenide laser and LP: laser-placebo (4 in-office sessions); RMGI: resin-modified glass-ionomer and ARC: adhesive resin cement (in-office single session); DD: stannous fluoride desensitizing dentifrice and RD: regular dentifrice (30 days at home-use). CDS was assessed with the visual analogue scale at pre-treatment, immediately after treatment and at 1, 2 weeks, 1 and 2 months after the end of treatment. Data were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests (p < 0.05).
51 Effects of Sugar Crystals on Cerebrum , Subham Kumari
Aim behind writing this article is to give powerful impact on the peoples mentality. Sugar is the generic name conferred to sweet tasting, a soluble carbohydrate.
52 Treatments for Paresthesias after Orthognathic Surgery: Literature Review , José Victor Marconato, Luis Eduardo Genaro and Paloma Fernandes
Orthognathic surgery is a procedure of choice for the treatment of skeletal deformities; however, it is common to observe a change in sensitivity called paresthesia, in cases where the nerves are injured. For the patient's sensitivity to return, it is necessary to perform treatments such as the use of low-power laser, acupuncture and drug treatment. This work sought to identify these treatments and describe them, in order to guide the clinical management of dental surgeons.
53 Comparing the Anxiety Level between Myofascial Pain Dysfunction Syndrome Patients and Others , Sara Pourshahidi, Hooman Ebrahimi and Zahra Pourabdollah
Myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS) is the most common temporomandibular disorder and a psychophysiologic disease that primarily involves the muscles of mastication and can cause pain, mouth opening limitation, mandibular deviation during mouth opening and closing and tenderness of one or more masticatory muscles or tendons. Among various ideas about the etiologic factors of MPDS, two main reasons are occlusal disorders and mental health problem. More researches recently, focus on mental health problem as the main and initial factor of MPDS. Anxiety is one of the most fundamental psychological problem that exists in almost all societies, it increases muscle’s tonisity and thus leads to pain. Considering the high prevalence of anxiety in patients suffering from this syndrome, this study is to investigate anxiety intensity in these patients and compare that with two control groups. The first control group were 30 patients who referred to dental school because of any problems except MPDS, and the second one included 30 Shiraz citizens. All three groups were informed about the procedure of the study and then completed Spielberger Anxiety Intensity Questionnaire, that had been validated before. Then a psychologist checked and graded the questionnaires. Using spss v.15 we analyzed the data with ANCOVA and Chi-Square tests. This study demonstrated that the MPDS patients had more anxiety than the common people of the society. The significant point in our study was the comparison of anxiety level in MPDS patients with the other patients that referred to dental school with a reason other than MPDS which revealed no significant statistically difference. According to this result, we can say that the high anxiety level in MPDS patients may be not related to the disease and can be due to the situation they share with others who refer to dental school, so the anxiety may be the result of their disease and not the cause.
54 To Investigate the Influence of Conventional and Non-Conventional Drill on Implant Stability During Bone Bed Preparation- A Systematic Review , Rachel Quadros
There are multiple surgical techniques proposed for implant bone bed preparation to enhance the stability of implants. However, there is no adequate amount of scientific evidence to support the association between the surgical techniques and implant stability.This systematic review aims to investigate the influence of laser/piezoelectric or conventional drill on its surgical outcome during bone bed preparationThe studies included were from January 2007 to December 2017 An electronic search was done of PubMed, Google Scholar, Institutional Library and manual search of various journals. The inclusion criteria composed of all randomized control trials and observational studies evaluating the implant stability after bone bed preparation conventionally or using a piezo electric system or laser. All studies selected were in ENGLISH language only and included in vitro and in vivo studies conducted in animals.
55 Properties Affecting the Fracture Resistance of All Acrylic Resin in All-on-4® Technique - An In Vitro Study , N Chandra Sekhar, Paladugu Lakshmi Sandhya, Kollipara Soujanya, Kothuri Naga Ravalika and Jagadeesh Konchada
All-on-4® concept has seen much success mainly due to its immediate loading quality. A temporary fixed hybrid usually made of all acrylic resin is given for 6 months which is later replaced by a definitive prosthesis. This temporary prosthesis is supported by only four implants and strength of the complete unit depends on the strength of denture base which plays a major role in final outcome. This study is designed to evaluate different commercially available all acrylic resin denture materials with better flexural strength, impact strength and water sorption properties.Investigation of the impact strength, flexural strength and water sorption of three denture base materials, namely, Trevalon HI, Brecrystal and Ivocap plus. A total of 90 samples were prepared from these materials. Universal testing machine and Izod impact tester was used for flexural strength and impact strength and for evaluating water sorption, the specimens were stored in a desiccator at 37ºC for 23 hours and the samples are weighed using a balance
56 Contracted Endodontic Cavity in a Severely Calcified Anterior Tooth Using Guided Endodontics Technique: Case Report , Alessandra Rosa de Sá, José Flávio Gabrich Giovannini, Henrique Trindade de Magalhães, Victor Couto Figueiredo, Tiago Braga and Rodrigo Rodrigues Amaral
Pulp canal obliteration (PCO) is characterized by the deposition of calcified tissue within the root canal space, which may partially or totally involve the canal. The endodontic treatment of calcified teeth is considered a challenging task depending on the severity of pulp obliteration. Recently, guided endodontics has become an alternative approach for those cases. This case report describes the use of guided endodontic access for the maxillary left lateral incisor of a 73-year-old male patient that required restorative treatment. The tooth had an extensive coronary fracture and demanded endodontic treatment for prosthetic purposes. Periapical radiography showed that pulp obliteration was severe at the cervical and middle thirds of the root. A cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was requested in order to assess the level of obliteration. A three-dimensional (3D) template was planned with the CBCT's images along with intraoral scanning. A prototyped guide for guided endodontic access was performed, and the dental procedures were concluded safely. Guided endodontic access was paramount to overcome the pulp obliteration and ensured the endodontic treatment, and prosthetic rehabilitation could be performed.
57 Role of Sesame Oil Pulling in the Management of Oral Submucous Fibrosis: A Pilot Study , Shriya Khaira, Priyanka Verma and Sunita Gupta
Oral Submucous Fibrosis is a progressive, premalignant condition for which multiple treatment modalities have been tried with partial success rate. Oil pulling is a newer treatment modality which involves swishing of oil in the mouth. Sesame oil has been used as it possesses antioxidative properties which prevent free radical injury to oral tissues.To find a holistic, cost effective and permanent treatment approach with no side effects: Twenty clinically and histopathologically diagnosed subjects of oral sub mucous fibrosis were treated by oil pulling procedure for 6 months. All subjects were instructed to perform oil pulling with sesame oil for 15-20 minutes every morning. The parameters recorded on day 0 and at the end of 6 months were mouth opening, tongue protrusion, VAS scale, cheek flexibility and gingival index. Intra group comparison were made using wilcoxon signed rank test.
58 Emerging Trends in Healthcare-A Path to the Future , Gokul Venkateshwar, Ekta Keswani and Sumeet Shinde
The last few months has compelled us look at healthcare through the prism of the Covid 19 pandemic, the path of trajectory of the contagion points to the surge of the pandemic leading to a huge public health crisis. Despite the lockdowns imposed by several Governments across the world, the pandemic shows no signs of abating, with the daily fluctuating graph being a point of vexatious debate. The adamant virus has managed to leave its footprints everywhere leading to an enormous challenge being thrown on our healthcare system, traditionally entrenched in combating diseases prevalent in our society. Though in recent years in the last decade or so the virus crisis has manifested as SARS, H1N1, Swine flu, the current zenith of Covid 19 has surpassed the viruses prevalence hitherto known to the world in a short span of time. The pandemic has ravaged societies across the countries and created economic and social imbalances affecting all strata of the society in developed and developing nations as well. This pandemic is no longer confined to the boundaries of any nation, its prevalence today is across continents, threatening to upend humanity. Today we stand at the edge of a precipice, staring at a crisis at a time when our civilization is trying to achieve its pinnacle. The impact of health on our socio economic structure, is undeniable and we no longer can push it under a carpet and ignore it anymore.
59 Role of HPV in Oral Cancer , Smitha T
Oral cancer is one of the major health issues in India. The traditional risk factors or oral cancer include pan chewing, tobacco and alcohol use. However, Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 is now being implicated causing oral cancer. Until recent times, the research on oral cancer has focused on factors like genetics, evolving lifestyle and environmental factors such as pollution. The possible etiological role of HPV16 and 18 in oral oncogenesis needs to be addressed. Additionally, there are many aspects of HPV in causation of oral cancer that still needs to be understood and addressed. The following chapter focuses on types and role of HPV, its pathogenesis within the oral cavity, and prognosis in case of HPV-positive cancer cases. The chapter also includes an update on the diagnostic tests, with highlight on various specific biomarkers, and the treatments developed to contain the HPV-positive cancer cases. Current research areas and future perspectives have been covered in this chapter which can be taken up to advance the research on HPVpositive oral cancer.
60 Occupational Hazards in Dentistry , Abhirami
Dental care has been revolutionized due to information explosion and technical advances, as a result of these advances quality care can be provided to the population but while doing so, dentist and their teams exposed to a number of hazards peculiar to this profession leading to various ailments specific to the profession that develop and intensify with years.
61 Changing Trends in Dental Practice during the Pandemic , Rishi Bhimani
COVID-19 pandemic has crippled and incapacitated the entire world in the past 6 months. With its array of symptoms and degree of severity, most countries-imposed lockdown time and again to prevent the spread of infection.
62 Infra Orbital Ethmoid (Haller) Cells: A Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Study in a Population of Iran , Maryam Johari, Elham Romoozi, Hemmat Gholinia Ahangar and Ehsan Moudi
The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of Haller cells in a population of Iran using Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) to further identify it as a predisposing factor for sinusitis.
63 Role of Dentists in the National Emergency COVID , Ojas Kumar Singh, Subham Kumari, Puja Kumari, Mausmi Singh, Shweta Singh and Anirban Roy
In this article my aim is to, summarize the effective collection of the host factors co-operated and indicating zonal pathways activated during human novel coronavirus infection, and its whole biomolecular relation, get evoking on Human CoV-infection with inducing stress response, autophagy, apoptosis, and innate immunity
64 Advanced Diagnostic Aids in Detection of Potentially Premalignant Oral Epithelial Lesions - A Review   , Jayanta Saikia, Balaji Pachipulusu, Poornima Govindaraju and Bhagyashree M Nair  
Oral cancer is one of the most mutilating disease afflicting mankind. Precancerous lesions, conditions and early stage oral cancer cannot be adequately identified by visual inspection alone and may be easily overlooked and neglected. Differentiation between early stage cancer, precancerous lesions and benign lesions is often difficult because of the similar appearance of the lesions. Surgical biopsy is a gold standard for diagnosis, but this needs professional services, which are impractical at times. Alternative screening methods which are non-invasive, easily performed and highly accurate are the norms for any test to accept as an alternative for histopathology  
65 Clinical Outcomes of Neutral Zone Techniques Employment in Maxillofacial Prostheses , Masmoudi Karim, Chabbi K, Adouani A, Ayadi M and Jamila J
Prosthetic rehabilitation for patients undergoing substantial maxillary surgery is challenging. Certainly, implantology is the best option for improving prosthesis’s support, retention, and stability. Nevertheless, the neutral zone technique can also be considered an equally effective approach patients complaining about unstable maxillofacial reconstructions, particularly when implant therapy is not feasible.
66 Are we Fortified for Prevention and Control of Epidemic Outbreaks like COVID 19 in Schools of India: A Cross-sectional Knowledge Awareness and Perception Survey on Education and Training Professionals in India (KAPEI-1) , Ramakant Gupta, Swati Gupta and Manju Gupta
Schools teachers, being the intellectual resource, can aid in controlling epidemics like COVID 19. To serve the purpose school teachers themselves need to be aware of such emergencies.
67 Validation of the Distance between Upper Canine Gingival Margin Zenith to Ipsilateral Lower Canine Gingival Margin Zenith as Method for Determination of the Occlusal Vertical Dimension , Cristian Abad-Coronel and Rubén Arindia
The vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO) is one of the most important parameters to consider for diagnosis and treatment planning in a prosthetic rehabilitation. Various methods to determine it have been proposed throughout the scientific literature, without establishing a universally accepted method. Various factors, such as the differences in the biotype and phenotypic characteristics of the patients in certain populations, could generate variations in the measurements obtained.
68 Effect of Platelet Rich Plasma on Alveolar Osteitis and Bone Healing Following Surgical Extraction of Teeth , Ismail Ahmed, Syed Ghazanfar Hassan, Parveen Memon, Emaan Fatima Qureshi, Muhammad Maarij Hassaan Qureshi, Salman Shams and Mahwish Memon
To determine the efficacy of platelet rich plasma on bone healing of alveolar socket and alveolar osteitis prevention following surgical extraction of teeth compared to normal healing.
69 The Quintessence of Keratinized Gingiva in the Periodontal and Peri Implant Realm: Conventional Knacks Revisited. Case Reports , Sumit Munjal, Seema Munjal and D S Mehta
Gingiva, with its unique texture and coral pink color, is the most delicate tissue in the oral cavity and the first essential component of the periodontium. Keratinized Gingiva is presumed desirable because it influences the outcome of all the periodontal treatments. The connective tissue grafts were used in varying situations in the present report, the goal being to re-evaluate the predictability of traditional skills of augmentation in the peri-implant and periodontal domain. It’s high time the traditional knowledge and today’s innovative biomaterials forge a definite science wherein a regeneration of ravaged soft tissues is irrefutable.
70 Different Approach to Transverse Palatal Expansion: MARPE (Miniscrew Assisted Rapid Expander) Over RME (Rapid Maxillary Expander) , Aisha Ali Riyamy, Thuraiya Al Rashdi, Karthik Shetty, Mohammad Zeinalddin and P S Viswapurna
Maxillary deficiency is among the huge culprits in orthodontic patients seeking treatment. Multiple treatment modalities are there to tackle this problem. The most common treatment approaches are rapid maxillary expansion (RME) and miniscrew/surgical assisted rapid palatal expansion (MARPE/SARPE). In this article we reviewed two different approaches of treatment, side effects of RME and also the non-surgical mini screw assisted expansion in both older and younger patients. The stability of expansion, skeletal and dentoalveolar effects in both treatment approaches were reviewed.
71 Combating COVID-19: A Dentist Perspective , Pranjali V Bawankar, Abhay P Kolte and Rajashri A Kolte
The current scenario in the world is awfully perilous and insecure because of the world pandemic of COVID- 19.Healthcare workers (HCW) are frontline warriors for prevention and treatment of Coronavirus affected patients. Face-to-face communication and consistent exposure to body fluids such as blood and saliva predispose dental care workers at serious risk for 2019-nCoV infection. As demonstrated by the recent coronavirus outbreak, information is not enough. During dental practice, blood and saliva can be scattered and aerosol production is common. Accordingly, dental practice can be an impending risk for dental staff, and there is a high risk of cross-infection. This article deals with all information collected to date on the virus, in accordance with the guidelines of international health care institutions and provides a comprehensive protocol for managing possible exposure to patients or those suspected of having coronavirus.
72 Attachments in Cast Partial Denture: A Case Report , Swapnita Vaity, Omkar Shetty, Gaurang Mistry and Manali Mehta
Retention of prosthesis is one of the key factors in the success of the prosthesis. Apart from retention, one of the major concerns in removable partial dentures has been stress transfer on the remaining tissue; particularly in distal extension cases. The use of attachment gained momentum in around late 1950s after considerable efforts by Steiger and Boilet. The need for extra retention and improved esthetics, lead to the development of intra-coronal and extra-coronal attachments. Attachment is a mechanical device for fixation, retention, and stabilization of prosthesis. The criteria that help in the selection of the attachments are location, function, retention, space and cost factors. The article presents a case report on attachment in cast partial denture.
73 Transfloral Acupuncture - A New Combination of Ear Acupuncture and Floral Essences to Improve the Energy of Patients , Andreas Wirz-Ridolfi
In any patient the extension of the actual electromagnetic field is decisive for his state of health as well as for the effectiveness of any therapeutic measure. With the innovative method of Transfloral Acupuncture it is possible to improve the energetic level of patients considerably within seconds. Most foci (which are obstacles for diagnosis and treatment) are dental foci. Teeth, even if they don't yet need treatment by a dentist, can present a focus causing a considerable loss of energy for the patient. This loss of energy reduces his capability to react to treatment as well as his immune system. According to the research of Prof. Frank Bahr and Dr. Heike-Dorit Schmid every tooth is in resonance to a flower essence, (Bach, Californian flower essences or Australian Bush flowers). By means of the Vascular Autonomous Signal (VAS) and the Bahr detector (a combination of a 3-Volt hammer and a black and white hammer) all teeth are controlled and the corresponding flower essence is chosen. A drop of the floral essence is given orally and another drop is placed on the ear lobe of the patient at the place of the tooth found to be a focus. Now a permanent needle is inserted through the floral essence into the ear lobe
74 Knowledge and Attitude of Parents towards Avulsed Permanent Tooth of their Children and its Emergency Management at RAK College of Dental Sciences Clinic , Sally Kamal El Din Mohamed, Dana Abdullah, Suzan Omar, Huda Abutayyem, Tamer El-Marsafawy and Rania Hamed Ghanem
Traumatic injuries to dentoalveolar tissues are considered the most serious oral health problem amongst children and adolescents Epidemiological studies revealed that children from 8 to 12 years often suffer a dental injury. It may vary from minor tooth fracture to extensive dentoalveolar damage that involves the supporting structures and avulsion. Avulsion is defined as total dislodgment of the tooth from its socket. It represents about 16% of all traumatic dentoalveolar injuries (TDI). Central incisor is the most affected tooth due to their labial projection which make them more susceptible to facial trauma.
75 Endodontic Management of Trauma-induced External Root Resorption Following Orthodontic Treatment by Placement of Biodentine: A Case Report , Reza Sayyad Soufdoost, Ali Jamali Ghomi, Hossein Labbaf and Homeira Ansari Lari
External root resorption is considered as a frequent complication of orthodontic tooth movement, particularly, in a tooth with the history of trauma and resorption. Advances in dental material science not only have increased demand from the patients for saving their teeth, also have enabled clinicians to treat the complicated cases. Previously most of the teeth with severe external root resorption were scheduled to extraction due to poor prognosis of conventional endodontic treatment. This case report presents successful nonsurgical endodontic management of a trauma-induced perforating external root resorption with Biodentine which had been progressing rapidly after applying orthodontic forces. 24 months follow-up revealed arrest of root resorption, and advanced healing of the lesion
76 Intraosseous Odontoma Erupted: Diagnosis and Treatment , Estefanía Raquel Fernández, González María M, Barrios Evelin E and Krupp Sebastián
Odontoma is the most frequent benign odontogenic tumor in the oral cavity, especially in the anterior sector of the maxilla, with a greater predominance in men in a 1.5: 1 ratio, diagnosed between the first and second decades of life. It is a pathology where the dental tissues are normal, but its structure is disorganized. Regarding the etiology, it is related to trauma, morpho differentiation, genetic disorders and Malassez remains. They are of limited growth, asymptomatic and are responsible for the bone retention of permanent teeth. The therapeutic treatment of choice is surgical excision and they generally do not recur. The following report presents a 28-year-old male patient who attended the Dental Clinic Service of the Faculty of Dentistry of the National University of the Northeast for cosmetic reasons and upper lip discomfort when speaking. The clinical, radiographic and histopathological study confirmed the presence of a complex odontoma erupted above the dental piece 5.4 still present in the oral cavity. It was successfully removed without postoperative complications. This clinical case is of great diagnostic interest compared to other pathologies with similar characteristics. The success of the treatment was the result of a correct clinical, radiographic and histopathological diagnosis
77 Porcelain Laminate Veneers-Current State of the Art in Aesthetic Dentistry , Ajit Jankar, Suresh Kamble, Sachin Chaware, Shruti Botwe, Suraj Sonawane and Madhavi Galale
Porcelain laminate veneers have been proved to be durable and an aesthetic treatment modality in dental clinics. Dental porcelain has become the most widely used material for the construction of crowns in dentistry because of its excellent esthetic properties and its ability to duplicate the appearance of natural tooth structure. It is a conservative and non-invasive technique treating aesthetic and functional problems in the anterior teeth. Nowadays, innumerable variety of dental ceramics are available for fabricating laminate veneers. It is imperative for clinicians to know and understand the composition and properties of these materials to choose the appropriate option according to clinical situations
78 Rehabilitation of Patient with Immediate Cast Partial Denture Using Patient’s Natural Maxillary Anterior Teeth , Priyanka Tiwari, Rajesh Sethuraman and JR Patel
In dental practice immediate denture is commonly used before extracting all the remaining teeth. There are many advantages of using this denture such as esthetics, speech, occlusion, maintaining the facial height, muscle tone and tongue size. Maxillary anterior teeth as patient’s natural teeth are used due to improving the self-esteem, esthetics, smile and confidence of a patient. Also as natural teeth retain their hue and strength for sufficient period of time. Removable partial denture can be used but Cast partial denture is a better option as it provides better fit and hygiene and it is an alternative to the patient who are not willing to get fixed prosthesis done or in whom FDP is not indicated. Hence Immediate cast partial denture is the choice of treatment in such cases. In this case patient’s natural maxillary teeth is used to form immediate cast partial denture, together with replacement of missing teeth in maxillary and mandibular arches.
79 Suitable Materials for Indirect Posterior Partial Restorations , Sarra Nasri, Yosra Gassara, Dalenda Hadyaoui, Zohra Nouira, Belhassan Harzallah and Mounir Cherif
Indirect posterior partial restorations may offer a viable and cost-effective treatment option for the restoration of extensively decayed teeth. An increasing variety of restoration materials are available on the market nowadays, which makes the material choice a difficult decision. In this article, the most important criteria of selection are presented to guide the dentist in the selection of the restoration material.
80 Telescopic Overdenture for Partially Edentulous Patients: A Case Report , Surbhi Jain
M.M. Devan stated, “It is more important to preserve what already exists than to replace what is missing" has always set a gold standard and has never been disapproved. In clinical situations with remaining partial dentition, various treatment options are available to the prosthodontists out of which overdentures have always been considered as a superior treatment modality. Preventive prosthodontics has always been advantageous in maintaining the propioreception and preventing residual ridge resorption, which forms the basis of preventive prosthodontics. This clinical report describes the prosthodontic rehabilitation of a patient with a mandibular telescopic overdenture for added advantages like better retention, stability, support and psychological benefits of the patient
81 Pharmacological Management of Orthodontic Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis , Basel Mofti, Moataz ElShehaby, Mona A Montasser and David Bearn
The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of various pharmacological interventions on pain experienced by patients undergoing orthodontic therapy
82 Sport Activities, Oral and Dental Health. A Mutual Relationship , Panagiotis Ntovas, Nikolaos Loumprinis, Panagiotis Maniatakos, Vakou Dimitra and Christos Rahiotis
To review the relationship between sport activities, oral and dental health.A literature search was carried out through the Medline database (PubMed) and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Register. A subject-specific search strategy was conducted since the August of 2018 using the following keywords: sport drinks, energy drinks, sports oral health, mouthguard, oral anabolic Steroid, oral trauma, dental trauma, Barodontalgia, Odontecrexis, Sport Maxillofacial Injuries, Athletic injuries and Sports Medicine
83 Comparative Evaluation of 3 Caries Risk Assessment Tools for Children with Early Childhood Caries , Nessa Mary John and Latha Anandakrishna
Caries risk assessment is the determination of the likelihood of the incidence of new carious lesions. Individualized risk assessment of an infant or toddler will help both the health care provider and parent/caregiver to identify the factors associated with early childhood caries, so that a preventive plan can be developed.To compare three different caries risk assessment tools, Caries-risk Assessment Tool (CAT), Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) and Cariogram® for children with/without Early Childhood Caries (ECC).
84 A Comparative Evaluation of Cement Application Methods on Marginal Discrepancies and Retention of Cement Retained Implant Restorations: An In Vitro Study , Swati Jain, Preeti Satheesh and Malathi Dayalan
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retention values and marginal adaptation of implant- supported metal crowns using four different cementation techniques.Eighty implant abutment complex (IAC) and metal crowns with defect free and smooth marginal surface were used in the study. Each IAC was composed of a 5.5 mm high titanium abutment screwed onto a 10mm long stainless steel implant analog with 25 Ncm torque according to manufacturer’s instructions. The specimens were divided into four groups (groups A-D, twenty specimens per group) according to the cementation technique employed. In Group A, cement was evenly placed over the entire interior marginal surface (IMS) of the crown. In Group B, cement was evenly placed only on the occlusal surface of the crown. In Group C, cement was evenly applied on all the axial walls of interior surface of crown excluding occlusal surface In Group D resin abutment replica technique was used. Zinc phosphate cement (DPI, Harvard) was used for all cementation procedures according to manufacturer’s instructions. All specimens were subjected to 1000 thermal cycles between 5ËšC and 55ËšC with a dwell time of 10 seconds in a thermocycling device.
85 The Foundational Basis of Aesthetic Cleft Lip Surgery for Cleft Surgery Trainees: A Retrospective, Observational Study of Early Post-Operative Results in Bilateral Cleft Lip Surgery Using Some Anthropometric Nuances , Lotha B and Zeinalddin M
The bilateral cleft lip deformity is often a challenging surgery for younger cleft trainees because of the associated nasal deformities. Done with care, using Mulliken’s five principles of symmetry, muscle continuity, philtral size and shape, median tubercle formation using labial elements, and alar cartilage positioning, one is able to achieve satisfactory results over time. These pillars remain the constant for younger cleft trainees. Anthropometric measurements form the basis of functional aesthetic bilateral cleft lip repair. Success of bilateral cleft lip surgery involves correct anthropometric measurements and the five principles
86 Challenges and Implications for Dental Professionals during Novel Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) , Tanusha Sharma
The outbreak of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has influenced every aspect of human life. Medical professionals, especially dentist are at a very high risk of getting infected. Because of close contact with infected patients dental professionals can easily be infected. Due to the characteristics of the hospital settings, the positioning of clinician and patient the risk of cross infection is high. For dental clinics and hospitals which are under the containment zone affected with COVID-19, major infection control protocols are highly recommended. This article focuses on the challenges and implications for a dental professionals during novel Corona virus disease (COVID-19). Dental practitioners need to be aware and prepared for tackling corona disease.
87 Corona Virus (COVID-19) Impact on Patient Environment in Dental Practice , Ossama A AlKhatib, Samar MF Saati, Muhanad O AlKhatib, Delia O Alkhatib and Alaa A Albasher
The environmental circumstances create further risk factors that affect severity and duration of oral and periodontal diseases; Corona Virus (COVID-19) makes trouble changing of immune defenses which result in damage the tissue cells at several vital areas of the human body, and may convert the mechanism and symptoms of patient diseases. Till now Corona viral pandemic has been changing the patient social lifestyle and affected dental clinical practice, and becomes more critical for infection control against all infectious diseases that should be managed before starting treatment of bacterial periodontal disease and other dental problems. Many new requirements become in need to extend our educational understanding about how these infectious viral or bacterial diseases will contaminate people and are transferring from person to person, especially in dental clinic during practice on patient, and how much to drew attention for additional protective procedures to the patient who still has been looking for a new different managements. So that our concepts should be changed to correspond to all new patient required demands after corona virus pandemic
88 Binder’s Syndrome: The Need of an Ortho-Surgical Approach , Priti Shukla, Amit Nagar and Rachit Thakral
Despite the frequent presence of all characteristic orofacial features and profound dental malocclusions there is very little to be found in the literature of maxillofacial surgeons to diagnose a case of Binder syndrome or also known as maxillo-nasal dysplasia or maxillo-nasal dysostosis. Nordenram., et al. recommended to delay any definitive orthodontic treatment in individuals with this syndrome up to the time when growth has ceased. For severe cases they also advise for grafting in the nasal area along with Le-Fort I and II osteotomy. Thus, in such cases the orthodontic treatment should go hand in hand with the surgical team hence opting for an ortho-surgical approach. The aim of the orthodontist in the post-surgical phase should be improvement of facial beauty, relieve crowding of the arches and their co-ordination and to obtain a Class I molar relationship.
89 Frontal Sinus as Tool in Identification , Anushri Tiwari
Identification of the dead is important in mass disasters, road traffic accidents, criminal investigations as well as accidents involving fire. The most common identification techniques are: fingerprinting, dental comparison, and DNA profiling. This review aims at delving into the use of frontal sinus as an aid in the identification process.
90 Irrigants: A Game Changer in Root Canal Treatment , Yesh Sharma
One of the principal goals of root canal treatment is the cleaning of entire root canal system through removal of pulpal debris, smear layer and smear plugs. Instrumentation alone is not sufficient to remove pulpal debris and smear layer thoroughly. Irrigation of root canal system in between instrumentation is mandatory to completely debride and clean the root canal.
91 Skeletal Anchorage System [Miniplates] - An Orthodontic Perspective - A Review , Amit Bhardwaj, Ashish Kumar Sharma, Kratika Mishra and Rahul Jeswani
In the orthodontic world paradigms have started to shift since the invention of mini-plates in the anchorage armamentarium. Miniplates as bone-borne anchor unit have enabled us with management of wider discrepancies than those with tooth-borne anchor unit by conventional biomechanics. Miniplate enables clinicians for having good control over tooth movement and anchorage control in three dimension that is sagittal, vertical and transverse plane. This present literature review will explain about how the skeletal anchorage system is versatile with usage of miniplates for the correction of malocclusion, emphasising on orthodontic and orthopedic movements within three dimensions. Management of impacted teeth and adult orthodontics along with periodontal conditions is also explained in this review.
92 Skeletal Anchorage System [Miniplates] - An Orthodontic Perspective - A Review , Amit Bhardwaj, Ashish Kumar Sharma, Kratika Mishra and Rahul Jeswani
In the orthodontic world paradigms have started to shift since the invention of mini-plates in the anchorage armamentarium. Miniplates as bone-borne anchor unit have enabled us with management of wider discrepancies than those with tooth-borne anchor unit by conventional biomechanics. Miniplate enables clinicians for having good control over tooth movement and anchorage control in three dimension that is sagittal, vertical and transverse plane. This present literature review will explain about how the skeletal anchorage system is versatile with usage of miniplates for the correction of malocclusion, emphasising on orthodontic and orthopedic movements within three dimensions. Management of impacted teeth and adult orthodontics along with periodontal conditions is also explained in this review.
93 Candida Species Around Dental Implants in Saudi Arabian Diabetic Patients , Rehab M Alhossaini, Mansour K Assery, Sami Shafik and Khalid Al-Hezaimi
Reports confirm high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and dental caries associated with early tooth loss often replaced by dental implants in the Saudi Arabian society. This study aims to (1) assess clinical periodontal parameters of probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP) and amount of keratinized tissues (KT) around dental implants and (2) identify and type the fungal colonization present in the peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) in diabetic and non-diabetic Saudi nationals.
94 Correlation between Periodontal Disease and Oral Health Related Quality of Life , Sadia Rashid, Sana Zafar, Ayma Syed, Danish Javed, Nadia Junaid, Muhammad Umair Dastgir Bhatti and Muhammad Rizwan
The objective of the study was to assess the correlation between periodontal disease and oral health related quality of life amongst study sample. It was a case control study including 632 individuals screened by calibrated examiners at Department of Oral Diagnosis, Dental Hospital, Sialkot, Pakistan. Oral examination was carried out by two calibrated examiners to measure the periodontal disease i.e. (CAL more than 2 mm, BOP more than 6 sites and PPD more than 4 mm). Three hundred and sixteen (316) were participants with periodontal disease (case group) and 316 were participants without periodontal disease (control group). A back translated Urdu version of the standardized validated oral health impact profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire was used to quantifying the impact on quality of life in both groups. Approximately 63.0% participants in case group had trouble in pronouncing words due to periodontal disease and only 9.0% in control group reported this issue. 83% participants had painful itching in mouth in the case group and 13% in control group. Majority (81.5%) of the participants in case group were uncomfortable in eating food and 72.9% felt tense due to periodontal disease. 69.7% participants in case group were found irritable with other people as compared to only 5% in control group.
95 Dentistry and Artificial Intelligence , Rashmi J Kurup, Amandeep Sodhi and Sangeetha R
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a technology which is quickly advancing and has captivated the minds of researchers across the globe. The adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) in healthcare is developing while profoundly changing the face of healthcare delivery. AI is being employed in a horde of settings including hospitals, clinical laboratories and research facilities. From data processing and finding relevant information to using neural networks for diagnosis and to the introduction of augmented reality and virtual reality in dental education, its inception has witnessed some of the exceptional achievements in dentistry. The key applications involve diagnosis and treatment recommendations, patient engagement and adherence, and administrative activities. Thus, this circumstance demands every dentist to get acquainted with this technology as the future of dentistry is adjoining the execution of its applications. The need for proper documentation of the patient’s information, quick and dependable treatment protocols through robotics in the field of surgery has encouraged the utilization of these software technologies in assisting the dentist to diagnose and treat the patients productively. However, this technological advancement is still in the phases of outset and this article is an endeavor to highlight the role of artificial intelligence in dentistry.
96 Conscious Sedation in Pediatric Dentistry: One Step forward , Siji Elizabeth, Bhawna G Saraf, Neha Sheoran, Pramodh Thomas John, Disha Kapil and Megha Chawla
Early childhood are usually associated with dental pain and anxiety among pediatric patients that is often carried into adulthood. Dental treatment of these patients are often challenging and also require adequate cooperation. Such patients can be managed using pharmacological methods. A thorough knowledge of the basic agents used for sedation is necessary. This article thus has reviewed on basic pharmacological agents used in the procedural sedation in children briefing its pharmacological properties.
97 Rounding Up the Usual Suspects in Orthognathic Surgery: Improving the Learning Curve for Clinical Fellowship Trainees by Following Some Nuances to Prevent Technical Errors and Maladjustments during Surgery First Orthognathic Surgery , Lotha B, Fattal A and Zeinalddin M
Surgery first orthognathic surgery is one of the most fascinating advances in orthognathic surgery and involves a teamwork between craniofacial orthodontists and craniofacial plastic surgeons. One of the most rewarding aspects is the shortened treatment time as well as dramatic and immediate facial profile improvement before the follow up orthodontic treatment. However, the surgery is fraught with challenges for younger surgeons if finer technical steps are not followed accurately. The 3 D simulation is best done with craniofacial orthodontists who can help plan the post op orthodontic movements after the surgery. As a result of observing certain nuances, the procedure can be performed comfortably and symmetry achieved by a well-executed plan by the orthodontistsurgeon team to the immense benefit of the patients with facial asymmetry.
98 Oral Squamous Papilloma: A Case Report , Gautami Kaimal, Shivaprasad, S Savita and Benita Maria Regi
Oral squamous papilloma is a benign proliferation of the stratified squamous epithelium, which results in a papillary or verrucous exophytic mass induced by human papilloma virus (HPV). Most of the oral mucosal lesions are often asymptomatic and have less progression. Tongue, soft palate, and uvula are common sites for occurrence. Surgical excision of the lesion was done and was sent for histopathological analyses that confirmed the diagnosis
99 Four Year Follow Up of Immediate Provizionalization of Osseointegrated Dental Implant in Patient with Rheumatoid Polyarthritis , Rym Masmoudi, Hela Jegham, Hend Ouertani and Mohamed Bassem Khattech
Successful osseointegration and long term maintenance of endoosseous dental implant are influenced by implant to bone interface requiring continual bone remodeling. Many factors can influence bone remodeling and lead to osseointegration failure. Rheumatoid polyarthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by bone damage. Anti-rheumatic drugs such as Methotrexate and Glycocorticoid have deleterious effects on bone metabolism and turnover.
100 Graphical Trends and Machine Learning Forecast of COVID19 Around the Globe , Keshav Kumar, PG Naveen Kumar, Dharmendra Kumar, Mausam Kumar, Vaishali and Kunal Krishn
An epidemic disease is contagious and have the capability of spreading into entire nation if timely adequate measures are not taken to curb the epidemic. Coronavirus outbreak from Wuhan in South China is engulfing approximately entire world within nearly four month of time span. Till date nearly 10 lakh people are infected and around 50 thousand died due to this disease around the world. In this article we are going to represent the graphical trends of infected cases around the WHO six zone, calculation of Basic Reproduction Number, Using Machine Learning tried to find out the near future scenario
101 Professional Perception on Criminal Identification through Bitemarks in Portugal , Joana Mancellos, Maria Inês Guimarães and Joaquim Gonçalves
This study is aimed at examining the judgment of Portuguese criminal justice professionals on the importance of bitemarks for human identification in a crime context. It describes the results of a survey published in the Google Forms platform, in which 65 individuals took part. We were able to conclude that, in general, the respondents agree that bitemarks are important for human identification and should be used frequently in legal settings. The results obtained in this study suggest that those who’ve worked in crimes involving bitemarks attach more importance to the forensic analysis of these injuries than those who don’t have experience in these cases.
102 Interceptive Orthodontics in an Adult Patient: A Case Report , Trudee Hoyte, Anne Kowlessar, Visha Ramroop and David Bearn
This report describes a case of a 44year old Indo-Trinidadian woman who presented with impacted canines. On examination the patient was found to have retained upper right and left primary canines. A panoramic x-ray was taken which showed fully developed permanent canines and primary canines whose roots showed no sign of resorption. The patient also presented with dental anxiety and hence was an irregular attender. The presenting complaint was attempted eruption of upper left permanent canine and thus the patient requested removal of the upper primary canines and she would accept the resulting alignment. The upper left primary canine was removed, and the root was found to be intact with no resorption of the primary canine was evident. The permanent canine after 3 months showed some active eruption into the arch, although at review after 4 years it remained not fully erupted. Interceptive extraction of primary canines in an adult may allow spontaneous/active eruption of impacted permanent canines.
103 A Comparative Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Saline, Chlorhexidine and Ozone Irrigating Solutions on Microorganisms in the Root Canal - An In Vivo Study , Alan Winston David, Sarvepalli Venkata Satish, Sudhir Dole, Suresh Kumar Kovvuru and Basavana Gowda
To evaluate the effectiveness of normal saline, 2% Chlorhexidine solution and Ozone oil on microorganisms in the root canal.This study was carried out on 45 patients, out of which 60 anterior fractured teeth were selected which are asymptomatic, non-vital and necrotic in nature. Teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 20 each depending upon the type of irrigants used i.e. Saline, Chlorhexidine and Ozone. After access opening, two microbial samples were taken from each tooth: a) Pre- irrigation i.e. sample after pulp extirpation and before irrigation, b) Post-irrigation i.e. sample after irrigation, which were stored in sterile containers and immediately transferred to microbiological laboratory for incubation aerobically at 37°C for 24 hours. Then, the samples were streaked on blood agar culture media and incubated for 48 hours. After 48 hours, the colony forming units were counted using a colony counter. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxson signed rank test and MannWhitney test
104 Impact of Digital Photography and Conventional Method on the Accuracy of Shade Matching in the Esthetic Zone (In Vivo Study) , Rawan Ferroukhi, Omaima S El Dein El-Mahallawi and Ahmed Naguib M Hussien
Accuracy of shade matching using conventional shade guides is a concern because color perception is highly subjective. Also, entirely relying on the digital method for shade selection can result in a deviation of color interpretation which may have an impact on the device’s repeatability and accuracy.To evaluate digital photography’s accuracy in improving shade matching compared to conventional methods (visual shade guide and spectrophotometer).
105 Causes of Permanant Teeth Extraction in Relation to Age: A Study from Qassim Region, KSA , Bashayer Mohmmad AlMutiry and Manal Abdalla Eltahir
This Cross sectional study was conducted in Qassim University female dental clinics, with the objectives to determine the causes of tooth extraction in relation to age group, as well as the commonest tooth for the extraction, according to the exclusion criteria 181 female subjects were included in the study, the results was, the highest age group found in 30- 39 (34.8%) The major cause for teeth extractions, is Caries (73%) in young age group followed by periodontal diseases (16%,) as the patients getting elder, while prosthodontics (10.5%) is the least reason for extractions. The most common tooth for extraction is the left first lower molars (8.3%) due to caries. As a causative agent
106 Linear IgA Disease - A Rare Sub Epithelial Disorder: A Current Appraisal , Shamimul Hasan
Linear IgA disease is a non hereditary, autoimmune sub epidermal bullous disease, characterized by the presence of linear deposition of IgA auto antibodies along the basement membrane zone. The disease has a bimodal occurrence, manifesting in both children and adults. The cause is usually obscure in childhood, although, adult onset cases are primarily due to drugs (vancomycin), malignancies and infections. Skin and several mucous membrane involvement usually occur, and oral lesions are rarely seen in the disease. Dapsone forms the mainstay of treatment along with corticosteroids.
107 Clinical and Microbiological Evaluation of Caries Removal Using Brix 3000 Gel, Polymer Bur and Laser Technique in Primary Molars: An In Vivo Study , Jaya AR, Kalyani M Choudhar and Vinaychandra R
Newer techniques of Brix 3000 gel, Polymer bur and laser irradiation of dentinal caries removal are minimally invasive methods and should be more frequently employed in Pediatric Dentistry. To evaluate three different techniques of caries excavation in primary teeth in terms of efficacy, efficiency, fear and anxiety experienced during the procedure.Sample of 30 children aged 5 to 9 years were equally divided into 3 groups –Brix 3000 Gel group (Group 1), Polymer bur group (Group 2), Laser group (Group 3).Microbiological investigation was used to determine efficacy. Time was recorded to determine efficiency and Wong-Baker Faces Pain Scale (WBFPS) was used to assess the pain experienced.
108 Dental Management of a Child with Neuroblastoma Undergoing Chemotherapy - A Case Report , Niranjana CN, Sahana Mahesh, Neha Gupta, Sreedevi Jayakrishnan and Megha Sanganeria
Neuroblastoma is a extremely rare developmental neoplasm arising from the embryonic sympathoadrenal lineage of the neural crest which affects young children whose prognosis becomes poor and poor as the age advances. Neuroblastoma arise as tumor from the tissues of the sympathetic nervous system, typically in the adrenal medulla or paraspinal ganglia, and thus can present as mass lesions in the neck, chest, abdomen, or pelvis. The clinical presentation is highly variable, ranging from a mass that causes no symptoms to a primary tumor that causes critical illness possibly resulting from local invasion, widely disseminated disease, or both. There is no standard dental treatment protocol for the management of neuroblastoma due to its poor survival rate and rarity. However, any dental treatment may follow a preventive and restorative protocol. Surgical procedures should be performed under supervision as it may trigger metastasis and further complications. This paper is a case report on a 4-year-old child who is suffering from stage 4 neuroblastoma- a malignant round cell tumor, which has a survival rate of 20%.
109 Natural Antimicrobial Agents for the Prevention of Dental Caries: A Review , AKM Shafiul Kadir, Md Mahfuzur Rahman, Farhana Faruque, Tilottoma Mohona and Jannatun Naim Nipun
Among various oral and dental problems, dental caries is one of the most common problems. There are certain factors which initiate dental caries formation. Oral microorganisms are one of them specifically Streptococcus mutans. Streptococcus mutans is an encapsulated gram- positive coccus which is and produces acid responsible for tooth decay. There are various treatment and prevention methods which are tested on dental caries but medicinal plants are found to be beneficial from ancient times. The current review focuses on different medicinal plants which can be used for the prevention of dental caries caused by Streptococcus mutans.
110 Exploring the Role of Platelet Derived Concentrates in Accelerated Orthodontics - A Narrative Review , Gayatri Ganesh and Thulika Tripathi
One of the major goals in the field of clinical research is the hastening of the regenerative process by waning the duration of the wound healing. Platelets play a crucial role in these procedures, as they act as reservoirs of cytokines and growth factors. Orthodontic tooth movement largely involves bone remodeling comprising of alternate cycles of bone resorption and deposition. The past decades have witnessed various attempts to accelerate the rate of this movement by various techniques leading to a decrease in the treatment time, a highly desired outcome by the patient as well as the orthodontist. The following review attempts to summarize existing literature concerning the application of platelet derived concentrates in dentistry and their potential role in orthodontics. The most commonly used platelet derived concentrates i.e. Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP), Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) and the Platelet rich Fibrin (PRF) have been described and compared to aid in future opportunities of clinical research.
111 Tele-Dentistry-Best Option during Covid-19 Crisis , Bharat Joshi
Covid-19 crisis has done lot of damage both psychologically and mentally. It becomes difficult to visit any dentist or medical faculty because of exposure risk and death chances. But dental problems are independent of any natural calamity or pandemic.
112 Comparative Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of Cinnamon zylanicum (True Cinnamon) and Azadirachta indica (Neem) Herbal Extracts Versus Calcium Hydroxide Intracanal Medication against Enterococcus faecalis in Single Rooted Premolars Teeth: A Randomized In Vitro Study , Hisham (El-sayed Abo Elenein) El-sayed, Hany Samy Sadek and Marwa Mahmoud Bedier
This Comparative Randomized in-vitro study was conducted to compare the antibacterial effect of two different herbal extracts: Cinnamon zylanicum (True Cinnamon) and Azadiracta Indica (Neem) versus Calcium Hydroxide (Ca (OH)2 ) as an intracanal medication against Enterococcus Faecalis (E. faecalis) in single-rooted premolars teeth.
113 COVID19: Growing Rage and New Appearing Challenges for Upcoming Dentistry , Mayank Singhal, Manoj Goyal and Pratibha Kaushik
The corona virus (COVID-19) has summoned health care professionals and it has evoked different types of reactions all around the world. Although routine general dental procedures have been suspended in countries influenced by COVID-19 disease, the requirement for assembled high priority care given by health care professionals with personal protective equipment takes precedence. With all the ignition of details available online, it becomes hard to bracket authentic guidance, this article is primarily based on the facts associated with precautions and preventions measures to be taken by dental health care professionals.
114 A Literature-Based Discussion of Root Canal Treatment of Teeth with Developmental Anomalies , Mohammed A Alobaid
To review the literature pertaining to root canal management in different types of tooth abnormalities.An electronic search was conducted through databases PubMed and Google Scholar for different dental anomalies. Also, classical textbooks on dental anatomy, endodontics, and oral biology were searched. The search terms were: dental anomalies, root canal treatment in tooth anomaly, classification of tooth anomalies, gemination, fusion, dilacerations, and other different types of anomalies.
115 Machine Learning in Multidimensional Biomarker Design: A Milestone in Precision Medicine - A Systematic Review , Raajasiri Iyengar and Gaurav
With the emerging era of precision medicine and high-throughput sequencing technologies, huge amount of ‘omics’ data has been gathered. Data interpretation remains a challenge due to the large and evolving magnitude of the dataset [3]. Precision medicine not only includes targeted therapeutics, but also necessitates ‘precision diagnostics’. Rational design of multidimensional biomarkers is the keystone of precision diagnostics, wherein multiple biomarkers are cumulatively assessed using computational techniques to yield specific patterns [1]. Patterns thus obtained are analyzed with Machine learning algorithms to arrive at a diagnosis that is both reliable and accurate
116 Factors Affecting Patient Satisfaction in Fixed Orthodontic Patients. A Questionnaire Study , Monika Mahajan
The objective of present study was to assess factors contributing to patient satisfaction after orthodontic treatment as patient satisfaction is important for ensuring patients adherence in orthodontic treatment. This study also aims at exploring any difference gender wise in perception of the satisfaction with orthodontic treatment through a questionnaire.A total of 45 patients who had completed their fixed orthodontic treatment in the Department of Orthodontics, were selected. The number of female patients were 30 and male patients were 15 with the age of the patients from 12 to 28 years. At the end of the fixed orthodontic treatment i.e. after debonding a questionnaire to assess patients satisfaction with orthodontic care was given to the patient. The questionnaire had 65 questions which were placed under 7 subgroups. The patient had to answer as yes or no to the questions.
117 Crestal Maxillary Sinus Lift with Rotating Instruments and Different Grafting Materials: Results at 4 Years Follow Up , Giuliano Garlini, Michele Perelli, Alessandro Fasano, Lorenzo Daniele and Marco Redemagni
The maxillary sinus lift with lateral approach has always been one of the most complex procedures in terms of post-operative morbidity. For this reason efforts have been made to introduce less invasive methods. The use of osteotomes has been considered a good alternative. The main problem is linked to the perception of the patient, who considers this method particularly annoying to bear because of the percussion. To overcome this, methods with a crestal approach with rotating instruments are increasingly being disseminated.
118 A Rare Genetic Disorder in Modern Ages - Goldenhar Syndrome , Shalini Subramanyam and Peeyush Shivhare
Goldenhar syndrome (GS) also known as oculoauriculovertebral dysplasia is a relatively common developmental disorder characterized by craniofacial anomalies in association with ocular, auricular, vertebral, cardiac, renal, central nervous system and maxillofacial defects. This condition was first described in 1952 by the Swiss ophthalmologist, Maurice Goldenhar. The incidence of this condition varies from 1 in 3,500 to 1 in 5,600 live births. Goldenhar syndrome needs to a multidisciplinary approach regarding craniofacial and cardiologic associations. We are presenting a case of 19 yr old male who was diagnosed with Goldenhar syndrome
119 Prosthetic Management of a Patient with Anhidrotic Ectodermal Dysplasia: Clinical Case Report , Nidal Elmoutawakkil, Khadija Kaoun and Samira Bellemkhannate
The anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia gathers a set of diversified pathologies characterized by the triad anhidrosis, hypotrichosis, anodontia (hypodontia); the management of young patients with this condition often requires a multidisciplinary approach within the scope of prevention, pediatric and prosthodontic dentistry.The following case describes the clinical steps of a prosthodontic rehabilitation of a 9 years-old patient affected by anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia, complete dentures were made using a 3D conceived and printed Fox plan. Conclusion: The prosthetic rehabilitation of these young patients will not only restore all the manducatory functions but also their psychomotor apparatus affected by the aesthetic repercussions of the ectodermal dysplasia.
120 PRF from the Perspective of a Daily Practitioner: Where are the Limits? , Andreas Van Orten and Hakan Bilhan
Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is being used in dentistry as an over physiological concentrate of autologous growth factors capable of stimulating tissue regeneration and being increasingly more popular in private practice. Since about 20 years platelet concentrates are being used in oral and maxillofacial surgery. With various modifications, mainly concerning the presence or absence of leukocytes and their concentration, as well as the presence and consistency of the fibrin matrix, the scope of application has continuously expanded.
121 Overview of Various Angled Abutments Commercially Available: A Review , Kothuri Naga Ravalika, Rahat Aisha Yasmeen, N Chandra Sekhar, Kollipara Soujanya and Valliammai Rajendran
The utilization of implant‑supported crowns and bridges has become a well‑established and preferred approach in treating com‑ pletely and partially edentulous states. An ideal implant position is requisite for obtaining good esthetic results and correct emer‑ gence of screw access hole. Commonly, due to insufficient bone volume, implant will be placed in available bone which leads to unfa‑ vorably placed implants. Once placed, such implants are restored by giving a cement‑retained prosthesis to avoid labial/buccal screw access holes witch are esthetically unpleasing. In such a scenario, a graftless solution would be using an angulated screw channel technology which tilts the prosthetic screw access hole emergence in a desirable direction that is more esthetic and acceptable. Angu‑ lated abutment system is unique and exclusive and are designed through computer‑aided design and computer‑aided manufacturing technologies. This system rectifies angulation issues with millimetric precision with full freedom of movement. This review article presents an overview of various types of angulated abutments commercially available. It highlights the features and angulation provi‑ sion of various commercially available angulated abutments.
122 Class II Malocclusion Management of an Adult Patient Using PowerScope® 2 Class II Corrector - A Clinical Case Report , Ravindranath MJ1  and Little Mahendra
The role of functional jaw orthopedics plays a vital role in treating the skeletal malocclusion, timely planned and well-executed treatment results in attain an excellent functional occlusion and craniofacial harmony. This article presents a case report of an adult patient diagnosed with Angles Class II malocclusion with an increased overjet of 9 mm and overbite of 5 mm with incompetent lip relationship. Whereas the skeletal base was an Orthognathic maxilla and Retrognathic mandible. The patient was treated in two phases where the first phase consists of a leveling and alignment of the teeth and the second phase with PowerScope 2 Class II corrector device for mandibular advancement to achieve the skeletal discrepancy. The overall treatment duration took 18 months. The success in orthodontic treatment depends on patient compliance particularly in correcting skeletal malocclusions. There is always a constant search for a simple appliance in the treatment of these type of malocclusions. PowerScope 2 Class II corrector is a promising appliance that is relatively simple to install and easy to maintain by patients this directly helps the orthodontist in maintaining patient compliance to achieve the predicted treatment outcome.
123 Accidental Dislodgement of Separated Instrument in the Maxillary Sinus: A Unusual Case , Avisha Agrawal, Pratima Shenoi, Rajesh Kubde, Snehal Sonarkar, Gautam Badole, Vandana Kokane, Ankita Ramteke and Purabi Edbor
Root canal therapy consists of a cascade of scientifically-based technical procedures. Failure to follow the standard protocols and lack of knowledge can lead to a number of iatrogenic accidents which are collectively called “endodontic mishaps”. One of the most frequently encountered endodontic mishap is a separation of the endodontic instrument. Heroic attempts to remove separated instrument may lead to dislodgment of instrument in the periapical area. At times such instrument get dislodged in the maxillary sinus when treating upper maxillary molars and canines. Separated instrument in maxillary sinus, irrespective of their origin or nature, act as foreign body and Such objects should normally be removed at the earliest in order to minimize the likelihood of maxillary sinus complications. Studies have shown that some of the objects can cause chronic sinusitis because of the invasion of the sinus by highly virulent bacteria, while some remains asymptomatic. It is an uncommon finding to observe, an asymptomatic dental endodontic instrument in a position so close to the maxillary sinus without any oro-antral fistula formation and/or sinusitis attacks. This paper presents the case of a separated endodontic instrument which was pushed inadvertently in the maxillary sinus of a 41-year-old female patient
124 The Perceived Oral Health Status, Practices, Knowledge and Periodontal Status of Pregnant Women in a Maternity Hospital in Trinidad , Reisha Rafeek, Visha Ramsaroop, Ramaa Balkaran, Anne Kowlessar, Arlana Bissoon, Christine Royer and Risa Yuk Low
The aim of this study is to report the oral health status, practices, knowledge and periodontal status of pregnant women in a maternity hospital in Trinidad.A convenience sample of pregnant women who attended a maternity hospital was recruited. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire which included frequency and reason for dental attendance, perceived oral health status and oral health knowledge and practices. Oral health examinations took place at the University of the West Indies (UWI), School of Dentistry including the Basic Periodontal Examination (BPE). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 24.0 in which descriptive analysis and Chi-square tests were performed.
125 Cephalometric Evaluation of Main Airway Dimensions in Subjects with Different Growth Patterns and their Relation to Patients’ Ages and Genders , Rabaa Mahmoud Aboubakr, Nabeela Hassan Almalki, Sohir Shehata Kamel, Salah Awad Alanazi, Saleh Hassan Alqhtani4, Abdullah Ali Almulhim4 and Osama Mesfer Alkhathami
Airway shape and dimensions has been attracted attention during the past few decades, this is can be attributed to the relationship between upper airway configuration and sleep-disordered breathing as well as its relation to craniofacial morphology in general.This study was conducted to 1. Compare the pharyngeal dimensions of subjects with different vertical growth patterns. 2. Assess the impact of modifying variables like age, and gender on airway dimensions.Data collection was based on both cephalometric radiographs and patients’ files analysis. Radiographs were grouped according to patients’ ages, genders, and vertical growth pattern. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken using a standardized technique. SN-MP angle used to divide the sample into hypodivergent, noromodivergent, hyperdivergent growth patterns with values of < 26°, 26-38°, and >38° respectively as proposed by Isaacson., et al. The upper and lower pharyngeal airways width measured by using McNamara’s airway analysis.
126 Robots and Archwire Bending, a Better Solution? Literature Review , Assim Anas Assim Alsalam, Rashid Mohammad Iqbal and Huda Abutayyem
Orthodontic appliance is the basis of the orthodontic treatment and making it more accurate and efficient would improve the general orthodontic treatment and change the standards of oral health.The point of this research was to differentiate between the conventional wire bending in fixed orthodontic appliances and the automated robot made wire. Additionally, to see if robot wire bending is dominating and has favored results over ordinary wire bending.
127 Apical Surgery: New Concepts , Younes Kalakhy
Apical surgery is a technique developed for the surgical treatment of apical lesions of pulpal origin, some authors speak of surgical endodontics or endodontic surgery. The surgical protocol consists of the surgical approach of the periapical region, tissue debridement and removal of granulation or cystic tissue and then proceed to the resection of the root apex and finish by filling the apex with a material ensuring apical hermeticity, we speak of retrograde filling. His technique has seen a lot of improvement especially with a new generation of materials such as MTA (Mineral trioxide aggregate) and bioceramics as well as the advent of piezosurgery and the operating microscope In this paper , we will focus on the definition, indications, contraindications as well as the principle and the surgical protocol.
128 Inflammatory Dentigerous Cyst in Mandible in a 10 Year Old Male Child - A Case Report and Review of Literature , Madhu Verma and Jyoti Mittal
Dentigerous cyst is the most commonly found among odontogenic cysts. Regarding its origin, it may be developmental or inflammatory. The inflammatory dentigerous cyst occurs only in mixed dentition patient and too with less frequency. The cyst is mostly seen as a unilocular radiolucency that encloses permanent teeth buds which can be displaced at times. Treatment of inflammatory dentigerous cyst in children is aimed to save as many developing permanent teeth as possible. This article presents a case of uncomplicated behavior of a huge mandibular dentigerous cyst in a 10-year-old boy after marsuplisation. Long-term follow-up examination showed complete bony healing and spontaneous eruption of permanent teeth even if they were badly dislocated.
129 A Cephalometric Study of FH-SN Angle in Different Sagittal Skeletal Patterns among Patients Seeking Orthodontic Treatment , Rajan Singh, Avinash Chaudhary, Basanta K Shrestha, Deependra Prasad Sarraf and Pankaj Shah
Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane and Sella-Nasion (SN) plane are commonly used reference planes in orthodontic cephalometry. Any variation in this angulation from its accepted 7 degree can affect the cephalometric diagnosis. The objective of the study was to determine an average FH-SN angle among patients seeking orthodontic treatment.One hundred lateral cephalograms were obtained from the records of patients who came for orthodontic treatment in Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedic Unit. Cephalometric tracing was done on acetate tracing paper of 0.004 inch thick using 3H pencil of 0.5 mm. Mean and standard deviation of FH-SN angle of the samples was calculated. One way analysis of variance and independent-samples t-test were used for assessing the relationship between dependent and independent variables at P-value of 0.05.
130 OMFS Residency and Silver-Linings Amidst the Darkness of a Pandemic , Jiean Joseph Heifetz-Li, Ross Miller, Allen F Fielding and Samer Abdelsamie
The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly altered the inherent ways we conduct ourselves and interact. The way that human beings work and play has changed across the globe. The virus has ravaged economies and healthcare systems, leaving no aspect of patient care untouched. As oral and maxillofacial surgeons and residents, our unique position in the hospital setting puts us at the interface of dentistry and medicine, and as a result, we have witnessed this virus’ devastating effects firsthand. While maintaining a positive outlook during this trying time is difficult, we have learned that there are silver linings in the darkness of a pandemic
131 Resin-Modified Glass Ionomer Varnish Versus Acidulated Phosphorus Fluoride Gel in Prevention of White Spot Lesions During Comprehensive Orthodontic Treatment (Split Mouth Randomized Clinical Trial) (A Comparative Study) , Mohamed Zidan, Fouad Aly ElSharaby and Eman Mohie El-Din El-Sayed
Although fluoride varnish has been investigated and recommended by many studies for the prevention of white spot lesion, its effective use over the course of 3 months from a single application is not considered enough especially when it is compared to newly proposed material. These materials such as resin-modified glass ionomer have not been studied enough throughout literature to evaluate their real effect
132 Current Diagnostic Methods in the Detection of Oral Cancer- An Update , Sunitha HM, Amandeep Sodhi and Vathsala Naik
Oral cancer is the 6th most common cancer in the world with significant morbidity and mortality which is frequently associated with local lymph node metastasis. As the prevalence of the disease is increasing and the survival rate has remained low for decades, it is essential to diagnose the disease at an early stage. Early diagnosis of the disease significantly increases the probability of the cure of oral squamous cell carcinoma with minimal impairment and deformity of the associated structures. Various methods in the diagnosis of Oral cancer are visualization methods, vital staining which includes - Toluidine Blue, Lugol’s iodine, Methylene blue, laboratory based diagnostics- Biopsy, salivary biomarkers, Light based diagnostic tools, salivary biomarkers, advanced imaging modalities. This article reviews the conventional and latest diagnostic methods which aids in not only early detection but also in accurate treatment planning of oral cancer
133 Hospital Dentistry: Dentist's Performance in the Pediatric Sector , Alexandre Ramos Braga
Hospital Dentistry is a dental specialty that aims to perform oral care and procedures in the hospital environment. Child hospitalization is considered a traumatic experience that leads the child to different feelings, such as anguish, anxiety and fear. The child will have to deal with different and noisy environments, lights, constant routine procedures, exposing him to great stress. The dentist's role in this context becomes very important, being part of the multidisciplinary team. The dentist, in the condition of examining children in a hospital environment, verifies the real need and the best opportunity to intervene in the oral cavity in order to maintain their healthy clinical condition as a whole. General health may be at risk if oral health is compromised, which can interfere with the recovery process. Treatment should include all dental specialties, considering a patient's clinical condition. The patient can be submitted to emergency procedures in the case of trauma and preventive procedures when the systemic condition worsens or is not affected by hospital infection
134 Fixed Functional Appliances in Orthodontics- A Literature Review , Sachin Katole, Prafull Parchake and Sheetal Jankare
Class II malocclusion is one of the frequently discussed malocclusion in Orthodontic literature. However, its correction becomes crucial part of treatment planning depending upon the etiology of malocclusion, age of the patient and also patient cooperation. Fixed functional appliances has been widely used in orthodontic practice for correction of Class II malocclusion. In spite of wide popularity, fixed functional appliances has its own advantages and disadvantages. Current literature review provides detailed information about fixed functional appliances and its use in orthodontics.
135 Zinc Oxide Eugenol as an Obturation Material in Primary Dentition , J John Shibin, Prathima GS and Suganya M
Maintaining the deciduous teeth in a functional state until its shedding time is the main aim of Pediatric Dentistry. Primary tooth is the best and natural space maintainer which helps to maintain the arch integrity, arch length and guides the permanent tooth eruption. If the deciduous teeth are damaged irreversibly it can be managed by root canal therapy which was first advocated in 1932 in order to serve its function till exfoliation. One of the key factors for the success of pulp therapy is selecting a suitable obturation material. Even though various obturation materials are existing in practice, Zinc Oxide Eugenol (ZOE) remains as the Gold standard material. This review article presents an overview of Zinc Oxide Eugenol as an obturating material.
136 Covid 19 - A New Normal for Dentistry during Pandemic , Aparajita Singh, Shubham Gupta, Ruchi Gopal and Pratik Surana
The corona virus disease also known as COVID-19, is a viral infection that first reported in Wuhan, China in last month of 2019, which rapidly involve the most of countries in world. Covid-19 infection transmitted through droplet, when a person is in close contact with Covid-19 positive person. Since dental professionals has an unique operatory environment which involve close examination of oral cavity and aerosol generation during the clinical procedures, the risk of Covid-19 transmission from an infected patient is very high. Present article provides the insight of Covid-19 infection and precautions and considerations to the practice dentistry in this pandemic.
137 Comparative Evaluation of the Changes in Surface Topography and Crystallization of Gutta Percha Cones by Four Chemical Solutions: An SEM Study , Arun Kurian Varghese, SV Satish, Krishna Rao Kilaru, Ashwini M Patil and Basvana Gowda
The aim of the study was to observe the surface topography and crystallization of GP cones by aloe vera, glutaraldehyde, sodium hypochlorite and propolis - using a Scanning electron microscope (SEM).Seventy GP points of size 80 and 2% taper were divided into five groups depending on the type of chemical agents used for disinfection.
138 Effectiveness of Clobetasol Propionate in the Treatment of Oral Lichen Planus - A Systematic Review , Meena Jethlia, Paramita Ingle and Sujata Manwate
Lichen planus is an inflammatory disease affecting skin and oral mucosa with a typical Wickham’s white striae and keratotic cap. Clobetasol propionate is a corticosteroid used for minimizing pain and discomfort associated with the disease.Search strategy was framed and relevant articles were identified through titles, abstract and full text read in PubMed and Google scholar published between 1st January 2000 and 31st October 2019. Other language articles were translated as required. Only randomized controlled trial, clinical studies using Clobetasol propionate in any form and dosage and assessing its effectiveness in oral lichen planus were included. Case reports and series, reviews, editorials, conference proceeding were excluded.
139 Healing of Periapical Lesions with Conventional Root Canal Treatment: A Case Report , Nayantara Sud
Infected pulp tissue is the major cause of periapical lesions, a majority of which are granulomas, radicular cysts or abscess. These lesions can only be diagnosed histologically. Root canal treatment or non surgical endodontic treatment is the treatment of choice in these cases without surgical intervention. Healing after the non surgical treatment takes place in about one year. In non surgical treatment emphasis is laid on thorough debridement, disinfection of the root canal system and obturation of canals. There are higher rate of healing in the anterior segment as compared to the posterior segment. The periapical index (PAI) is widely used measure to know the status of the periapical tissues. Thus, conventional endodontic therapy in combination with calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament contributed effectively in healing of periapical lesions in these cases.
140 Ability of Sodium Hypochlorite to Clean Dentinal Tubules by Manual or Sonic Activation at Varying Temperature: A Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopic Study , Avisha Agrawal
To compare Ability of Sodium Hypochlorite to clean dentinal tubules by manual or sonic activation at varying temperature: A Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopic Study.The primary aim of endodontic treatment is to eliminate the microorganism within the root canal system and prevent recontamination. According to Weine, untreated and unfilled lateral canals can retain enough irritants in a protected sanctuary high enough to cause endodontic treatment failure. To achieve the complete cleaning and disinfection, sodium hypochlorite is used as a potent irrigating solution. Studies have been reported that preheating sodium hypochlorite enhances its tissue solubility and disinfection properties. Cavitation and acoustic streaming of the irrigant contribute to the biological chemical activity for maximum effectiveness Many studies have been reported that has studied the effectiveness of sonic instrument on the cleanliness of the canal with sodium hypochlorite. A literature search did not identify any studies evaluating the penetration depth of preheated sodium hypochlorite using sonic instrument by confocal laser electron microscopy
141 Odontogenic Keratocyst Mimicking Odontogenic Dentigerous Cyst. A Laborious Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge , Mahamadou Konate, Mounia El Bouhairi and Ihsane Benyahya
Odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a developmental cyst of jaw which arises from odontogenic epithelium. OKCs has been considered to be cystic neoplasms and called keratocystic odontogenic tumors in WHO classification in 2005. Although reclassified as cysts by WHO at 2017, OKCs are characterized by clinically aggressive behavior and high risk of recurrence. Clinical and radiological features are not specific and can mimic other lesions of jaw as dentigerous cyst. This tumor is also a developmental cyst but is less aggressive and not recurring. The management differs depending on the nature of the cyst. This paper presents OKC case mimicking dentigerous cyst, also the histopathological characteristics specific to odontogenic keratocyst as well as the adapted management.
142 Slow Dentistry in Post Coronavirus 19 Era: Clinical Practice, Education and Well-being , Nurcan Buduneli, Fusun Ozer, Saynur Vardar-Sengul, Zeynep Burcin Gonen, Figen Cizmeci Senel, Aylin Baysan6 and Sema S Hakki
This review aims to critically evaluate the guidelines with respect to slow dentistry in clinical practice, education and well-being for staff and students in the post COVID-19 era.According to the data released on 14 October, cases of COVID-19 have been spotted in 215 different countries, with 38,688,225 total cases, 1,095,492 deaths and 29,035,243 recoveries. Since presence of asymptomatic infected cases is an unfortunate reality with COVID-19 and creating aerosols is a common occurrence in dentistry, the risk of cross-infection is high for patients and healthcare providers during dental procedures.
143 Why Need Periodontal Dressing (What All Options Available) , Shubhankar Kumar Singh and Deepak Chopra
Periodontal pack is a surgical dressing used to cover surgical site to prevent from any infections. Periodontal dressings, also known as periodontal packs, provide similar benefits when applied after periodontal surgical procedures. Still there are many controversies whether to pack or not pack. We have available pack in Eugenol, Non Eugenol, light cure and others. In this article we see why we need perio pack and all options available.
144 Treatment of the Anterior Crossbite in Mixed Dentition: Case Reports , Mohanad Alsaadi
Anterior crossbite is a malocclusion which may resulted in many complications which can be avoided by early diagnosis and intervention with fixed or removable appliances. This study aimed to presenting different results of treating anterior crossbite during mixed dentition in different age of three attended children by using removable acrylic appliance with bite plan and to summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the other non- selected methods in this study. Clinical examination of children aged 8-10 who attended with chief complaint of crowding and esthetically displeasure showed one or two permanent maxillary incisors position behind the permanent lower incisors in each case. After clinical and radiographical examination, removable acrylic appliances with bite plans were selected to treat the three cases. Treatment periods were 6-8 weeks according to the cases severity. The selected appliance had been discussed in comparison with the non-selected methods. The first step to treat the anterior crossbite is to know the indications of each treatment methods in order to apply the suitable one for each case
145 Peri-implantitis Seeded by Permanent Cement - A Case Report from Karachi, Pakistan , Munis Mukhtar, Zehra Tariq and Maaz Asaad
Peri-implantitis is a chronic complication affecting the soft and hard tissues surrounding the dental implant. The prevalence of peri-implantitis ranges from 21% on implant-level, and 34% on patient-level. Several treatment methods have been proposed that are aimed at arresting the disease and potentially regenerating bone defects related to it. Here, we report the case of a patient presented with cement induced peri-implantitis of moderate severity with thin, mobile soft tissue and a probing depth of 6mm two years post-implant placement. A radiographic assessment revealed bone resorption of about 40% of the length of the implant. Mechanical and Chemical debridement, followed by hard and soft tissue grafting, was employed as a treatment modality for the successful resolution of peri-implantitis.
146 Prevalence of Dental and Oral Diseases in People Living with HIV, A Systematic Review , Sheehama J, Mwadinohamba I and Lukolo L
This systemic review, of the prevalence of dental and oral manifestations in people living with HIV, was conducted from articles based on studies in various countries that aimed to establish the characteristics and prevalence of individual oral manifestations.The electronic retrieval systems and databases that were searched for relevant articles were PubMed and Google Scholar. A total of 41,237 articles were found on these sites, of which only 5 were included in the review. The five articles were selected based on the criteria of: articles published in English; studies carried out between January 2005 to November 2019 (recent data of less than 15 years); articles discussing only the prevalence of dental and oral diseases in people living with HIV. Exclusion criteria included articles that were more than 15 years old, that were focused on newly infected patients and articles that included other systemic diseases –such as Diabetes Mellitus- that could adversely affect oral health.
147 An Update of Oral Therapies Used for Children and Adolescent of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Recommended Prosthodontic Guidelines , Sachin Chaware, Surekha Dubey Godbole and Vrushali Thakare
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the most prevalent Neurodevelopmental condition of unknown etiology. The integration of sensory difficulties with ASD affects the day to day routine activities and shows much dependence on parents or caretakers of ASD children and adolescents. The most significant oral sensory challenge is the imperfect development of speech followed by atypical feeding behavior. Currently, speech therapy is the central therapy used for speech errors, followed by Oral placement therapy, Nonspeech oral motor therapy, and audio digital therapies. However, all oral therapies have advantages and limitations, due amount of time required and nature of the disorder. The present review evaluated the current status of oral therapies and recommended prosthodontic based guidelines based upon the oral sensory-motor pattern associated with ASD subjects.
148 A Recommendation of PHTALOX® Mouthwash for Preventing Infection and Progression of COVID-19 , Paulo Sérgio da Silva Santos, Bernardo da Fonseca Orcina, Lucas Marques da Costa Alves, Rodrigo Cardoso de Oliveira, Mariana Schutzer Ragghianti Zangrando and Fabiano Vieira Vilhena
The mouth has a significant role when it comes to the transmission process of SARS - CoV-2. This happens due to the spread of small droplets which makes the oral and oropharynx mucosa easy targets for the virus
149 Crestal Sinus Lift Using Osseodensification Burs: Clinical Cases , Cardarelli Angelo and Arun K Garg
The purpose of this work is to present an alternative technique to normal sinus lift in the upper jaw with minimal invasive approach in order to reduce biological costs using the osseodensification mode. Infact following this technique is possible at the same time place the implant with high primary stability and increase the vertical bone height with and without bone graft. Compared to the traditional technique like lateral sinus lift or crestal approach with manual osteotomes, this procedure is less invasive and more predictable and precise
150 Inflammatory Pathology of the Oral Cavity: Relevance in Oral Oncogenesis , Teresa Sequeira, Gonçalo Sousa, Eurico Monteiro and Augusta Silveira
Oral cancer is considered to be a growing public health problem and within head and neck cancer pathology, it is the most common. It is the 6th most common cancer in the world, corresponding to approximately 3% of all cancers. Despite the dedication and investment in this pathology, the advances in diagnosis strategies and the development of early intervention programs and treatments, aimed to be more targeted, more effective and less aggressive, the global survival rate after 5 years has remained worldwide at approximately 50% over the last three decades. The evaluation of Quality of Life stands out in this context as a key indicator, along with survival. We aim to review oral cancer etiology and discuss inflammation role in oral oncogenesis, considering its potential to modulate and amplify the impact of known risk factors. Additionally, we point out inflammation as predictive of poor prognosis in patients with oral cancer or at risk of developing it. Articles were collected from the PubMed, Bon, Elsevier, Science Direct databases, considering mainly the last 5 years of publication (2015 to 2020). The indexing terms used were “oral oncology and risk factors”, “oral oncology and epidemiology” and “inflammation and oncogenesis”. The role of the immune system and inflammation in the initiation, promotion and progression of oncologic pathology of the oral cavity has deserved maximum attention from the scientific community. It is clear that the presence of pro-inflammatory factors associated with immunosuppression are closely related to oral oncogenesis and poor prognosis. The chronic inflammation can contribute to modulate and amplify risk factors actions.
151 Ceramic Implantology: Boon or Bane in Implant Dentistry? , Arpit Sikri, SV Singh, Jyotsana Sikri and Ruben Lobo
Implants have been a gold standard treatment protocol for prosthetic rehabilitation in dental practices. Titanium and its alloys have ruled dental implantology since its initiation, harking back to the 1960s. As far as the clinical practice is concerned, many patients worry about the materials being exposed to their oral cavity and the effect this can have on their general wellbeing
152 Comparative Evaluation of Apical Transportation and Centering Ability of 4 NITI Rotary Systems with Different Metallurgy in Severely Curved Root Canals , Ehab Abdel Hamid
The aim of the present study was to compare apical transportation and centering ability of one curve (OC) system with other heat treated NiTi rotary systems; Protaper next (PTN), Hyflex EDM (HFEDM) and 2shape (TS), using CBCT scanning.Forty mesiobuccal canals of mandibular molars with an angle of curvature ranging from (25°- 40°) were divided equally according to file system used in canal preparation into 4 groups of 10 samples each: PTN group; HFEDM group, TS group and OC group. Samples were scanned using CBCT scanner before and after preparation to evaluate root canal transportation and centering ratio at 2, 3, 4 and 5 mm from the apex. The significance level was set at P ≤ 0.05.
153 Assessment of Alcohol and Other Habits Among Young Adults Attending Diagnostic Camp in Budhanilkantha Municipality Area, Kathmandu Nepal - A Descriptive Study , Roy S, Ranjan P, Dhakal S, Pramod Kumar Yadav, Yadav K and Bansal A
An observational study was conducted in Budhanilkantha area, Kathmandu to determine the status of oral hygiene of individuals during diagnostic camp.A total 360 subjects between 18-50 years of age range were selected for the study. It consisted of demographic detail that includes age, gender, residence, religion and other deleterious habits. Data samples were analyzed by descriptive statistics like mean and percentage with the use of using spss software version 16
154 Black Stains in Children and its Correlation to Dental Caries , Ibrahim H El-Kalla and Hanaa Mahmoud Shalan
This study assessed the prevalence of black stain on teeth of Egyptian school-children and determine the possible correlation with dental caries.Six primary schools were included. About 1615 children of 4 - 12 years were clinically examined for the presence of black stain (BS) and recorded according to Koch criteria. DMFT and dft were assessed in children using WHO criteria. Data were statistically analyzed using student t test and spearman correlation test.
155 Distribution of Gingival Biotypes of Anterior Teeth in Egyptian Adults with Skeletal Class II and Skeletal Class III Jaw Relations and Different Vertical Facial Patterns: A Cross-Sectional Study , Ahmed Magdy Sabrah, Amany Hassan Abd El Ghany and Fady Fahim
Studying the distribution of gingival biotypes and evaluation of width of keratinized gingiva of anterior teeth in Egyptian adults with skeletal class II and skeletal class III jaw relations and different vertical facial patterns.This cross-sectional study included 182 Egyptian orthodontic patients with skeletal class II and skeletal class III pattern (74 males, 108 females) who applied for orthodontic treatment in faculty of Dentistry, Cairo University starting from November 2018 October 2019. They were included in the study based on Wits appraisal measured on lateral cephalometric radiograph taken as a routine record before orthodontic treatment. They were further divided into six subgroups based on vertical facial pattern according to facial axis angle. Gingival biotypes for the anterior teeth have been classified either thick biotype or thin biotype using probe transparency method. Width of keratinized gingiva has been measured for each anterior tooth using digital caliper.
156 Treatment of Endodontic-Periodontal Lesions - Three Clinical Cases , Valbona Disha, Nilena Nasi Eriksen and Erda Qorri
Endodontic-Periodontal lesions are clinical findings that presents both diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. Knowing the etiology is very important in determining the proper treatment protocol and the long term success.The purpose of this report is to present three clinical cases with endodontic-periodontal lesions treated only with endodontic treatment.The study presents three clinical cases with periodontal bifurcation lesions. Treatment included metapex placed in the root canals for 1 week, followed by canal sealing with guta-percha and cement. The patients were followed up 12 months to 3 years.
157 Breaking Bad News - A Neglected Aspect in Dentistry: A Brief Review , Dr. Nevica Baruah and Dr. Anisha Yaji
An effective communication between the doctor and patient is heart and art of medicine. Though the art of diagnosing is taught in medical and dental schools the art of effective communication still needs to be worked on. With dentist being a primary contact point for diagnosing oral cancer cases, the diagnosis can alter the life of patient as well as their families. Unfortunately the dental practitioners are least exposed to situations where in they have to communicate the bad news to the patient. This review aims at shedding light on different aspects of breaking bad news to the patients in a dental set up
158 Halitosis: Causes and its Management , Umma Zainab
Halitosis or oral malodor or bad breath is a prevalent condition which presents itself commonly in routine dental practice. It is a common problem that affects all ages and also has a psychosocial impact on the patients causing many of them distress, anxiety and embarrassment. The condition can be physiological or pathological with a number of underlying factors, with many a time multiple factors contributing to the issue. This article reflects on the multifactorial etiology of the condition and its management briefly
159 Menopause and its Effects on Oral Cavity , Mahnoor Ejaz Chaudry, Rizwana Muhammad Hanif, Maham Liaqat, Urooj Aftab and Sabeen Masood
The purpose of the study was to evaluate and analyse the effects of menopause on the oral cavity.A description based cross-sectional online survey.It was carried from august, 2020 to September, 2020.A total of 104 patients have participated in this study. Patients were asked their age and when did they reach menopause. It was further divided to evaluate the knowledge, awareness, practices, and behaviour pattern associated with oral hygiene and symptoms of menopause.
160 Oral Mucositis, a Side Effect of Hematological Malignancies Treatment , Boris Aurer
Oral mucositis is painful inflammation of oral mucosa and one of the most common side effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hematopoietic stem cells transplantation. As the damaged mucosa is very painful, it causes problems in oral intake of food and beverages. Oral mucositis significantly impairs patients’ quality of life and may affect the outcome of hematological malignancy treatment. This paper presents a review of published data on the pathogenesis, clinical picture, complications, and therapy and prevention of oral mucositis in patients treated for hematological malignancies. The most significant factor for the development of oral mucositis is the type and intensity of antineoplastic therapy and use of agents that damage oral mucosa. Best prophylaxis is implementation of professional oral hygiene measures and motivation of patients to maintain good individual oral hygiene and avoid harmful habits which damage oral mucosa, such as alcohol and smoking, at least during antineoplastic therapy
161 Assessment of Stress Distribution Using Equator Attachment Design in Mandibular Implant-retained Overdentures in Comparison with Ball and Socket Attachment Design: 3D Finite Element Analysis , Mahmoud Samir, Hamdi Abo Alfotouh and Mostafa Helmy
To accomplish a comparative study between two types of attachment Equator and Ball/Socket in mandibular implant supported overdenture by using finite element analysis and assessment of stress distribution on the bone, implant. overdenture, mucosa and attachment.Three-dimensional models simulated a clinical situation where an edentulous mandible was restored by two different treatment options using implant overdentures. The overdentures were supported by two implants placed at the approximate canine region using Ball/Socket and Equator attachments. The load was applied of value of 50,100,200 N with angle of vertical 90° then the oblique load with angel 45°
162 Alternative Medicine in Dentistry: A Holistic Approach - A Review , Sunbul Tabrez, Neelkant Patil, Shobhit Kaswan and Lalita Chandna
Alternative medicine is a group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices and products that are not considered part of conventional medicine. It includes the use of dietary supplements, megadose vitamins, herbal preparations, special teas, massage therapy, magnet therapy and spiritual healing. They have lesser side effects and are also cost effective as compared to traditional medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified 150 systems of alternative medicine, out of which the most practiced ones are Ayurveda, Homeopathy, Naturopathy, Unani, Magneto therapy, Aroma therapy, Yoga, Massage therapy, etc. The alternative medical systems involve Western culture (Homeopathy and Naturopathy) and Non-Western culture (Ayurveda and Chinese medicine). We know that stress is a major causative factor for various psychosomatic disorders and oral diseases which can be prevented by holistic approaches. Many oral mucosal lesions like aphthous stomatitis, lichen planus, OSMF, leukoplakia, radiation mucositis have yielded great results for healing by the use of plant extracts. Even though the treatments are usually of longer durations, are unconventional and often lack errors in reasoning, but have yielded positive effects on various individuals. This paper emphasizes on the use of alternative medicine in dentistry
163 Using A Mouthwash Containing Propolis, Clove Oil and Chlorhexidine to Improve the Caries Risk of High-risk Patients: Randomized Clinical Trial , Moataz Gamal Konsouh, Mohammad Adel Ezzat Khairy and Maha Abdelsalam Elbaz
This study was conducted to determine the effect of using mouthwash of propolis, clove oil and chlorhexidine versus chlorhexidine mouthwash on the risk assessment of patients with high caries risk.In the control group; significant decrease in the caries risk percentage resulted after 6 months (48.8 ± 7.3) for the once daily application frequency. The same resulted for twice daily application frequency, significant decrease after 6 months (45.8 ± 5.6). In the test group, significant decrease after 6 Months (49.7 ± 6.7) for the once daily application frequency. The same resulted for twice daily, significant decrease after 6 months (46.3 ± 6.0).A total of 64 patients were assigned in this study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups according to type of mouthwash (A) where group A1 patients used Chlorhexidine mouthwash as control group while group A2 patients used Chlorhexidine with propolis and clove oil mouthwash as test group with 32 patients in each group. Each group was further divided into two groups according to application frequency (T) where T1 represents patients using the mouthwash once daily for one week every month for 6 months and T2 where patients used the mouthwash twice daily for one week every month for 6 months. Cariogram assessment was performed for each patient at baseline, 3 months and 6 months to obtain the caries risk percentage for each patient at the different time intervals.
164 Bone Necrosis After Pulp Treatment of Temporary Molar with Calcium Hydroxide: In Vivo Confirmation , Cristina Cardoso-Silva, Maria Llanes and Elena Barbería
Calcium hydroxide has been used for a variety of purposes in dentistry including pulpotomy of temporary molars. Several studies examining inflammatory response to its use generally demonstrated a mild inflammatory reaction. However, it may cause adverse reactions damaging bone and soft tissues either by direct contact after poor implementation or after ion diffusion. The severity and extent of the lesion depends on the quantity and concentration used, as well as on the time of contact. The following report describes a case of bone necrosis after a pulpotomy with calcium hydroxide in a temporary molar. Pathological analysis confirmed de diagnosis
165 Dental Calculus – Mere Ash Heap or Still A Mystery: A Review of Literature on Etiologic Significance of Dental Calculus , Swati Gupta, Ramakant Gupta and Manju Gupta
Chronic inflammatory periodontal diseases i.e., gingivitis and periodontitis are one of the most common afflictions faced by the human beings. They are considered to be infectious in nature having polymicrobial etiology. Dental plaque, which is a pool of these disease causing microorganisms has been the focus of researchers for the long time, and is considered to be the primary etiologic agent in disease etiopathogenesis. However, dental calculus which is a mineralized product of this plaque remains ignored and is considered merely as an ash heap of minor significance in etiopathogenesis of disease. Even though, there literature evidences of presence of intact and viable bacteria within the non- mineralized channels and islands in supragingival calculus from various studies. However, viability of bacteria in dental calculus and their role in disease pathogenesis still remained obscure. Therefore, this review intends to collate all the available literature and present the studies related to etiologic significance of dental calculus and investigation of the viability of bacteria in dental calculus along with their identification at one place and provide a way forward towards better understanding on etiopathogenesis and treatment of periodontal diseases
166 Comparison of Postoperative Pain after Root Canal Instrumentation Using M-Pro and ProTaper Next in Molars with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial , Mohammed Essam Othman, Randa Mohammed Elboghdadi2 and Shaimaa Ismail Gawdat
The aim of the present study was to clinically compare the postoperative pain after root canal preparation using M-pro rotary system and ProTaper Next rotary system in molars with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis.A total of 50 patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis were included in the study. After clinical and radiographic examination, patients were assigned randomly into two groups (n = 25). In (Group A), root canals were instrumented with M-Pro rotary files. In (Group B), root canals were instrumented with ProTaper Next rotary files. All teeth were treated in a single visit. Pain was recorded by the Numerical Rating Scale preoperatively and at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours postoperatively. Placebo tablets were given to the patients to be taken in the case of mild pain and an analgesic was prescribed in case of an emergency. All demographic data, pain scores and number of analgesics tablets taken were collected from the patients. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test
167 A Comparative Study of Biocompatibility and Marginal Adaptability of MTA, Biodentine, and Glass Ionomer Cement as Root -End Filling Materials (Comparative In-Vitro Study) , Mohammed Awadd Ali, Maged M Negm and Heba AEl-Asfouri
The aim of the present study was to compare the in vitro biological behavior and marginal adaptability of MTA, Biodentine and glass-ionomer cement as retrograde filling materials.The biocompatibility test was made on fibroblast cells regarding cell viability. The cells were exposed to the extracts of the materials of 1, 5 and 7 days to measure cell viability using MTT assay. Regarding marginal adaptability twenty-four singlerooted teeth were resected 3 mm from the apex. Root-end cavities were then prepared using a fissure bur and filled with one of the following materials Glass ionomer cement (GIC), Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and a bioactive cement Biodentine. The roots were then sectioned longitudinally. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to determine area of gaps and adaptation of the root-end filling materials with the dentin
168 Monomorphic Adenoma: A Diagnosis or a Misnomer? A Review of Literature on Terminologies, Features and Differential Diagnosis of Basal Cell Adenoma , Swati Gupta, Ramakant Gupta and Manju Gupta
Basal cell adenoma, previously was termed by few authors as Monomorphic adenoma. The term “Monomorphic adenoma” was originally proposed for any benign epithelial salivary gland tumour other than benign mixed tumors. Monomorphic adenoma included tumours such as Warthins tumour, basal cell adenoma and canalicular adenoma. However, in the new 2005 WHO classification of salivary gland tumours the term “monomorphic adenoma” is not included and basal cell adenoma is considered as a separate entity. This paper intends to discuss the controversies regarding the terminology and classification of monomorphic adenoma along with diagnosis and differentiation of basal cell adenoma from other tumours
169 The Efficacy of Medical Consultation to Improve Oral Health Outcomes in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease , Gail Cherry-Peppers, Andrea D Jackson, Cheryl Fryer, Candice Mitchell, Xinbin Gu, Dana C Jackson, Robert Gamble, Albert Cheek, Gillian Robinson- Warner, Meirong Liu, Romella Rodgers, Floydstyne Williams, Courtney Ford, Gretchen Peppers, Lee Goodloe, John Atere, Thomas Savage and Phillip Woods
Sickle Cell Disease is a complex genetic disorder resulting from the presence of a mutated form of hemo-globin. Morbidity, frequency of crisis, degree of anemia, and organ systems involved vary considerably per patient. Dental health professionals and other specialists commonly request comprehensive medical consultations prior to performing complex periodontal, endodontic, and surgical procedures. It is of great benefit to have a very detailed medical consultation and history of treatment in order to have successful dental outcomes and minimize post-treatment dental complications. This review is to raise awareness about the impact of oral diseases in patients with sickle cell disease and to emphasize the importance of full medical disclosure and a well-documented medical status report which can guide treatment planning and greatly improve the course of dental treatment.
170 Evaluation of the Effect of Enlargement of the Apical One Third by Protaper Universal Rotary Files System on Elimination of Enterococcus faecalis and Surface Irregularities in Single Canaled Premolars (A Comparative In-Vitro Study) , Mohammed Yasien Taher Alagha, Maged Mohamed Negm and Shaimaa Ismail Gawdat
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of enlargement of the apical one third of root canals; by using F4 in comparison to F3 Protaper files; on the amount of Enterococcus Faecalis and surface irregularities in the apical third.24 freshly extracted human single canalled premolars were obtained. The root lengths were standardized to 15 ± 1 mm. The root canals were instrumented up to #20 K-file till the apical constriction for standardization. Following root canal preparation and sterilization, all root canals were completely filled with 30µ E. faecalis suspension and incubated at 37°C for one week with refreshment every 48 hours. All teeth were sampled after bacterial injection and before instrumentation for examination of bacterial presence inside the canals. For the apical one third assessment, Scanning Electron Microscope "SEM" was used to examine the surface irregularities.The results concerning bacterial reduction revealed that Group II (F4), showed a significantly higher E. faecalis reduction than Group I (F3) (P = 0.025). However, none of the preparation sizes rendered a bacterial free root canal system. Topographic surface analysis revealed that group II (F4) had significantly lower surface irregularities in comparison to group I (F3) (P = 0.036).
171 5MO as Alternative to MTA in Endodontic Treatments , Helen Rushdi Ayoubi
Five mineral oxides (5MO) is a new dental material, its color is white, developed as alternative to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) which generally used to treat endodontic accidents and complications. It was developed by Doctor Maisour Ala Rachi in Syria at Faculty of Dentistry, Damascus University, where this material came as the result of a research, according to which Dr. Maisour Ala Rachi attained a doctorate degree PhD in (2007), this research was supervised by Professor Doctor Mohammad Salem Rekab, where Dr. Maisour Ala Rachi made a comparison between MTA and local gray portland cement (GPC) (Syrian Company, Tar-tous, Syria), and he found that the two materials have similar prop-erties through histological, radiographical, and clinical criteria.
172 The Authentic Inbred Sheath - “The Immunoglobulin" , Santhi Gorle, Srikanth Adusumilli, Rukmini Jyothirmayee Jakati, Rani Ponnaganti, Sahithi Valluripalli and Sanjeev V Jakati
Humans have developed a highly specialized defense mechanism system due to continuous stimulation by foreign material from the environment. Immunoglobulins are unique structures in the body which is synthesized by plasma cells and, to some extent, by lymphocytes. They have a significant role in recognizing and protecting the body against foreign material, either present freely in the body fluids or attached to cell surfaces. Besides the plasma, immunoglobulins may be identified in other body fluids or tissues such as urine, spinal fluid, milk, saliva, tears, lymph nodes, and spleen.
173 Substance P (SP) Increases the Adhesion of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) To Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) Through Upregulating Adhesion Molecules; Implication for Metastasis , Moustafa Elhousiny, Kate Miller, Anura Ariyawadana and Alan Nimmo
Interaction of cancer cells with endothelial cells plays an important role in metastasis. Our study hypothesised that SP might play a role in the early onset adhesion of OSCC to HUVEC cells lines via upregulating the adhesion molecule expression.
174 Cosmetic Dentistry with Ceramic Veneers Revisited , Maninder Hundal
An ideal aesthetic treatment plan should be minimally invasive, preserving as much of the natural tooth structure as possible. The ceramic veneers have achieved great success since their introduction nearly three decades ago as they fulfil the above criteria very well. Continuous evolution of materials, laboratory techniques and clinical procedures have made the ceramic laminate veneers a re-liable modern technique. Veneers are mainly fabricated from conventional low fusing feldspathic porcelain. Two popular methods for fabrication of porcelain veneers are the platinum foil technique and the refractory die technique.
175 Analysis of Malocclusion and its Characteristics in the Referred Free State Orthodontic Patients , Mandla Dominic Nyakale
Planning and provision of orthodontic services may require some baseline epidemiological data with regards to the distribution of malocclusion and its severity within a given population.
176 Radicular Cyst with Associated Extramedullary Hematopoiesis: A Previously Undescribed Phenomenon. Literature Review and Report of a Case , Toferer Astrid, Truschnegg Astrid, Beham-Schmid Christine and Beham Alfred
The aim of this paper is to present the first case of a radicular cyst, with associated extramedullary hematopoiesis in a 57- year- old male patient. Prompted by this unique finding, we reviewed the existing literature systematically to identify extramed.A review of the evidence was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar. The following key words were applied: “extramedullary hematopoiesis” OR “extramedullary haematopoiesis” AND “maxillofacial”, OR “jaw”, OR “sinonasal tract”, OR “paranasal sinus”, OR “sinus”.
177 Assessment of Mandibular and Dental Arch Profiles in Subjects with Mandibular Third Molar Impaction , Asha V, Kim Upadhyay and Sow Bhagya Lakshmi
To determine the normal size of the mandible and the difference of the dental arch length and the total teeth size space that is important for prevention of mandibular third molar impaction.
178 Influence of Periapical Pathosis Upon Postoperative Pain Following Primary Root Canal Treatment in a Single Session Approach , Mostafa I Negm
This clinical study examined the influence of periapical pathosis of pulpal origin upon postoperative pain following root canal treatment in a single session approach in comparison to those with irreversible pulpal diseases and healthy periodontium
179 Prevalence of Tobacco Among Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) of North India: KAP Study , Saundarya P, Taufique Answer, Henna Mir, Sushila Sah, Supriya Naren and Sayani Roy
Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry has been rapidly expanding in India over the last 10 years. While em-ployment in the business process outsourcing (BPO) sector has meant that young adults are reaching their career milestones and financial goals much earlier than before, surveys show that Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) employees face steady challenges at work that can be chronically stressful. the present study aims to highlight the ill effect of tobacco and its uses by BPO workers.
180 Intimate Partner Violence Prevention: Moral, Legal and Healthcare Algorithms , Joana Braamcamp de Mancellos
“Gender inequality” and “gender-based violence” are paradigms that one hope would be extinct by the 21st Century, two cultural concepts that our society tries to disguise as dated, but that still exist in the form of intimate partner violence in developed countries. In this literature review, intimate partner violence is described as a serious public health issue with high occurrence rates across the world, which requires an urgent implementation of protection and prevention measures.The extensive study of contents resulting from a search with the terms “intimate partner violence”, “domestic violence”, “preven-tion”, “violence against women”, “abuse”, “IPV” and “crime” allowed to gather information on preventive measures and integrate updated statistics of the World Health Organization (WHO) and of the Portuguese Association for Victim Support (APAV).The measures of protection and prevention of this type of crimes demand a change of moral and legal behaviours around the globe, as well as the implementation of algorithms of functional performance that can be applied by health professionals at patient-directed services. In this literature review, we will present the “RESPECT”, “AVDR” and “HELP” algorithms.
181 Leave no Tooth Behind - A Retreatment Case Report , Reaba Rebecca Thomas, Aby John, Shashi Rashmi Acharya and Archit Kedia
In a dental practice, it is becoming increasingly common to have endodontic cases which are seen to fail. The spike in the number of endodontic treatments carried out has consequently led to the increase in the number of failures seen and complications in their management. Endodontic retreatment is favored over dental extraction due to the desire to preserve the tooth and prevent adverse consequences in terms of functional and psychological effects that the loss of a tooth would have on a patient. This article showcases a clinical case that required endodontic retreatment to combat any complications that could arise and lead ultimately to the extrac-tion of the tooth. Considering that the tooth in question has a special importance with a physiognomic role, we resorted to its end-odontic retreatment and we have covered it with a porcelain fused to metal crown.
182 Current Situation of Oral Diseases Among Police Officers and Soldiers of Nam Dinh Provincial Public Security Department in Vietnam, in 2019-2020: Examination, Diagnosis and Intervention with Some Biomedical Techniques , Nguyen Huu Ban, Dao Anh Son, Vu Manh Tuan and Nguyen Thi Thuy Hanh
Describe the current state of oral disease and evaluate results of examination, diagnosis and some interventions with biomedical techniques among police officers and soldiers of Nam Dinh provincial public security department in Viet Nam, in 2019-2020.Description of cross section and vertical track intervention was performed with 843 officers and soldiers of Nam Dinh provincial public security department. The purpose of 3 regions was selected and each region was randomly selected 2 units. In each unit was selected, all police officers and soldiers of each unit were sampled. Information was collected by questionnaires, through direct questioning and clinical examination. Some biomedical techniques such as techniques of imaging diagnostics, techniques of oral imaging, digital photography, application of information technology, artificial intelligence to support examination, diagnosis and some oral disease interventions.
183 Estimation of Serum Copper Levels in Oral Submucous Fibrosis Patients: A Quantitative Study , Bhavna Tyagi, Deepak Bhargava, Ritika Sharma, Vidyadevi Chandarvarkar1 and Pradeep Sundersan
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is documented as a potentially malignant disorder with a 7.6% malignant transformation rate. Various trace elements such as, copper, zinc, and iron are getting much attention in the early recognition of cancer and poten-tially malignant disorders including OSMF.To evaluate the levels of copper in the OSMF patients’ blood serum and compare with healthy individuals.
184 Evaluation of P53 in the Expression of Odontogenic Keratocysts , M Bousserouit and S Chbicheb
The odontogenic keratocyst also called epidermoid cyst, was first described by Philipsen in 1956; it develops at the expense of remnants of the odontogenic epithelium included in the maxillae. It is characterized by a large keratinization of its squamous border, aggressive growth and a strong propensity for recidivism. After the root cyst and the follicular cyst, the odontogenic keratocyst is the most common cyst of the maxillae.The odontogenic keratocyst has been a widely studied patholo-gy with a continually changing nomenclature of a "primordial cyst" to "odontogenic keratocyst". The aggressive nature of this unique jaw pathology has kept it in the limelight since its discovery with documented cases of cortical erosion, soft tissue involvement and extension in the skull base, orbit and infratemporal fossa. It's been a topic of debate for a long time, if the cysts could be as aggressive as this pathological entity.
185 Updated Protocols in Immediate Post Extraction Implants , Valeria Azzolini, Pier Paolo Scaperrotta, Angelo Li Pizzi and Jose María Aguado Gil
NowadaysImmediate Implants represent a widely spread and predictable treatment option; but, different protocols have been proposed along the years and it is still debated which of them could lead to better results.The objective of our study is to analyze the updated guidelines to follow when placing immediate implants and to discuss the esthetic and functional results obtained. We will investigate the surgical and the prosthetic protocols individually and combined each other taking into account the follow up period and the survival rate.
186 Mini-implants for Gummy Smile Management: A Case Report , Meriam Nasfi, Hiba Gmati, Mounira Rtibi, Abdelatif Boughzela and Anissa Zinelabidine
In this case report, treatment of skeletal Class I malocclusion with a convex profile showing a gummy smile with incisive diastema was described.Intrusion of the upper incisors using mini-screw implants as an orthodontic anchorage was our treatment of choice. The patient’s smile was also improved using periodontal procedures.An adequate overbite and overjet, as well as a satisfactory maxillary gingival exposure in the smile were obtained at the end of the treatment.The aim of this paper was to highlight the importance of mini-implants for incisors intrusion and gummy smile correction in the anterior area. In order to intrude and procline the retroclined extruded incisors, both upper anterior mini-implants (1.2 x 8.0 mm) and elastic chains were utilized. Mini-implants can successfully be used as orthodontic anchorage for anterior teeth intrusion.
187 A Journey from 3D to 4D in Orthodontics – A Review Article , Mamta Phogat and Tulika Tripathi
Orthodontic records are one of the main milestones in orthodontic therapy. Records are essential not only for diagnosis and treat-ment planning but also for follow-up of the case, communicating with colleagues, and evalu¬ating the treatment outcomes. Various 3D techniques such as such as Computerized Tomography (CT), Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT), Micro Computerized Tomography (MCT), 3D laser scanning, structured light technique, stereophotogrammetry or 3D surface imaging systems (3dMD), 3D facial morphometry (3DFM), Tuned Aperture Computed Tomography (TACT), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has cre-ated the potential for comprehensive facial evaluation. Recently, with the emergence of 4D a new dimension (motion) has been added to the imaging filed which has enabled capturing of dynamic facial movements. However, more elaborative and interdisciplinary research work needs to be done to explore the scope of 4D techniques. Therefore, the aim of this study is to review advances in 3D and 4d imaging with in the field of orthodontics.
188 Effect of Intracanal Cryotherapy on Postoperative Pain in Molar Teeth with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis and Apical Periodontitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial , Magy Essam Elaskary, Abeer Marzouk and Alaa ELBaz
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cryotherapy using cold saline irrigation as a final irrigant on postop-erative pain in molar teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis and apical periodontitis.A total of 30 patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis and apical periodontitis in their mandibular first molars, were included in the study. After completion of biomechanical preparation using Mpro Rotary system in a single visit and irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite for cleaning and shaping. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups (n = 15). In( group A), final irrigation was done using 15 ml cold saline (2.5°C) for 6 mins at three successive times. The solution was stored in refrigerator until use and then its temperature was checked using digital thermometer. In( group B), final irrigation was done using 15 ml room temperature saline for 6 mins. In both groups irrigation procedures were done using 27-gauge side-vented needle fit to a 5ml dispos-able plastic syringe placed 2-3 mm away from apex without binding. Pain was recorded postoperatively after 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours by Numerical Rating Scale (NRS). Patients were given an analgesic (Ibuprofen 200 mg) in case of severe pain. All demographic data. NRS scores and number of analgesics taken were collected from the patients and statistically analyzed by chi-square test and Mann-whitney U test.
189 Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of Salivary Glands – A Duplet of Cases , Shalini Subramanyam, Peeyush Shivhare and Amit Ashok Basannavar
Adenoid cystic carcinoma is regarded as a rare malignant neoplasm of the salivary gland. The clinical as well as pathological features of this neoplasm include slow growth, perineural invasion and the potential for local recurrence. The total incidence rate is about 2 – 4% of head and neck tumors. It involves palate most commonly among the minor salivary glands, and parotid and subman-dibular salivary glands among the majors. Here, we describe two cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma involving the parotid salivary gland and the palate regions.
190 Life After Covid-19 Changes in Normal Functioning of Dental Colleges , Joshi Bharat
Covid-19 has almost transformed the life of all the dentists. While private practioners are facing the problem of normal pa-tient OPD in their respective clinics, Dental colleges are facing lot of challenges like normal educational pattern. Now there is a need for separate screening of normal patient because of fear of Cov-id-19 Dental education is suffering because the complete strength of students is missing. They have a fear of contacting the infection from suspected patient.
191 Double and Triple Images in the Panoramic Technique: An Experimental Approach , Ameni Chebbi, Manel Gharbi, Imen Chaabani, Olfa Zaghdene and Touhami Ben Alaya
Panoramic radiograph is a simple technique that is generally used in all dental specialties. In addition to the formation of real images, ghost images may also form into the panoramic radiograph, and prevent an appropriate diagnosis. The objective of this experimental study was to show the patterns leading to the formation of panoramic radiograph ghost images caused by metal objects placed in different regions of the skull model and to present some clinical illustrations showing the formation of multiple images of a single object. These phenomena may lead to difficulties in radiographic interpretation if they are not properly understood.
192 Effect of Using Anterior Bite Plane in the Treatment of Growing Orthodontic Patients with Deep Overbite Malocclusion: A Systematic Review , Dina Essrar, Mona Salah Fayed, Amr Mohamed Ali Abouelezz, Fady Hussein Fahim, Mohamed Abd El-Ghafour, Mohamed El Koussy and Mostafa El Dawlatly
Correction of deep bite is one of the primary objectives of orthodontic treatment. Different treatment modalities could be used including anterior bite plane (ABP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ABP on treatment of deep overbite in growing patients.
193 Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Mandibular Premolars Obturated with Different Sealers an In-Vitro Study , Salma Abdo
This study was design to compare the in vitro effects of different root canal sealers on the fracture resistance of endodonti‑cally treated teeth.
194 Dental Fluorosis: The Impact on Young Adults’ Lives and Treatment Options , Seghir Arwa
Dental fluorosis is a cosmetic condition characterized by hypo mineralization of tooth enamel caused by ingestion of excessive fluo-ride during enamel formation. It generally appears as various degrees of tooth discoloration during growth. The severity of dental fluorosis depends on the dose administrated or ingested, age and the duration of the exposure. The most common form of fluorosis is characterized by small opaque white spots scattered over the tooth covering less than 25% of the surface. The severe form however is characterized by brown stains giving teeth a corroded-looking appearance where the discoloration is widespread. The purpose of this article is to study the impact of dental fluorosis on the psychological development of young individuals in addition to possible treatment plans
195 Oral Health Status and Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Students Attending Public Secondary Schools, in Georgetown , Zoe Perreira, Maritza O Perez2 and Carlos Bruzon
Oral health is essential to general health and wellbeing. Fostering good oral health behaviour is fundamental to the prevention of oral diseases. Adopting healthy practices at an early age can lead to improved dental health that is more sustainable in the future. In Guyana, very little information is available on the oral health status of adolescence.
196 The Efficacy of Lugol’s Iodine Solution in Detecting Dysplasia and Carcinoma in Situ Around Oral Cancerous and Precancerous Lesion and its Impact on the Marginal Clearance: A Comparative Study , Abhishek Kumar Singh, Krishna Kishor, Dayashankara Rao JK, Rahul Kashyap, Pradeep Das and Heera
Despite good prospect of early diagnosis small developing lesions often go unrecognised. 60% of le-sions are well advanced by the time of discovery. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of Lugol’s Iodine in detecting the presence of Dysplasia or Carcinoma in situ at the margins of oral cancerous and precancerous lesions. And to evaluate the difference in resected margins between Lugol’s stained and unstained lesions.
197 Localization of Basicranium Midline by Submentovertex Projection for the Evaluation of Condylar Asymmetry Using Craniostat Ear Rods and Foramen Spinosum as Reference , Shikha Khare, Karthikeya Patil and Mahima VG
Craniofacial asymmetry is rarely appreciable and is often unnoticed, but it is often a cause of major diagnostic difficulties in orthodontics. Currently, no clear universally accepted method exists for the evaluation of craniofacial asymmetries therefore differ-ent methods are utilised to determine midline and evaluate asymmetry. This study was conducted to compare the reliability and va-lidity of two different methods for cranial midline localization through cephalometric analysis of mandibular condylar asymmetries.
198 Coronoidectomy in Management of Post Traumatic Zygomatico-Coronoid Ankylosis - A Case Report , Himanshu Soni, Manoj Bhaskar, Joseph Lijo, Arjun Shenoy and Yash
Zygomatico-coronoid ankylosis refers to fibrous or bony fusion between zygomatic arch and coronoid process of mandible which results from inadequate or delayed treatment caused by fractures of upper and lower facial fractures due to RTA, personal violence, sports injury and gunshots injury. ZCA is unprecedented kind of extra-articular ankylosis. We report a case of posttraumatic facial injury in 40year old male with untreated left midface fracture resulting in trismus at initial presentation. Radiographic evaluation shows mass of heterotrophic bone formation due to untreated left midface and lower face fracture resulting in bony fusion between zygomatic arch and coronoid process. Coronoidectomy was accomplished with an intraoral approach under general anesthesia fol-lowed by aggressive physiotherapy. Immediate and late postoperatively it produced good functional and esthetic outcome
199 Soft tissue Cephalometric norms for Orthognathic Surgery in Nepalese Adults , Joshi Sandhya, Baliga Mohan and Philip Pramod
Normative cephalometric data based on one population group does not represent all other groups. Therefore, accu-rate and comprehensive set of soft tissue cephalometric reference parameters are required for particular population seeking surgical procedures. The purpose of this study was to establish normative values of soft tissue profiles in Nepalese adults, to compare the data obtained with those of caucasian adults using Cephalometric for orthognathic surgery (COGS) analysis (Legan - Burstone); also to identify possible sex differences between Nepalese young men and women.
200 A Comparison between the Antibacterial Activity of Propolis and Ginseng Extracts on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia Isolated from Patients with Chronic Periodontitis , Heba A Shawky and Walid A Lotfy
The antimicrobial activity of ginseng extract was investigated in-vitro against 24 clinical isolates of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia. To our knowledge, there is a lack of researches on the evaluation of the antimicrobial effectiveness of ginseng extract on periodontopathic bacteria. We also compared the in-vitro antibacterial action of ginseng extract to that of propolis extract by agar diffusion method. The MIC values of ginseng extract against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermediawere 512 and 1024μg/ml, respectively. While the MIC obtained for propolis extract were 256 and 512μg/ml against Porphyromonas gingivalisand Prevotella intermedia,respectively. Moreover, the statistical analysis for the effect of ginseng and propolis extracts on Porphy-romonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia using student paired t-test revealed a significant difference between the two groups (p< 0.001). However, the anti-Porphyromonas gingivalis and anti-Prevotella intermedia mean activities of ginseng extract were lower than that of propolis extract by 1.32 and 0.17 AU, respectively. The results of the current study support the usage of ginseng extract as an adjuvant to periodontal therapy after proper in-vivo studies are performed.
201 Efficacy of PARASORB Cone® for Prevention of Local Bleeding after Oral Surgery in Patients Treated Chronically with Anticoagulants (Dihydroxycoumarin Derivatives) , Damian Dudek, Arkadiusz BadziÅ„ski, Jacek Karpe, Oliwia Warmusz and Edyta Reichman-Warmusz
Anticoagulant therapy with dihydroxycoumarin derivatives is often related to local bleeding in oral surgery. Accord-ingly, the purpose of this study was to determine whether PARASORB Cone® formulation enables oral surgery without discontinua-tion ofanticoagulant therapy.35 patients with various cardiacdisorders underwent 66 tooth and rootextractions without discontinu-ation ofanticoagulant treatment. The control group was composed of 30 patients with cardiac disorders in whom anticoagulant therapy was discontinued before tooth extractions. PARASORB® Cone Formulation was used topically with single sutures and com-pression. Sutures were removed after 7 days following tooth extraction. The visual assessment of bleeding and wound healing was performed on Days 2, 3 and 7 of follow-up
202 Ectodermal Dysplasia: Report of a Case in Trinidad , Trudee Hoyte, Anne Kowlessar, Kevin Henry, Adilah Mahabir, Tichard Manwah and Anil Ali
Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a rare heterogenous group of inherited disorders involving ectodermal structures like the skin, nails, hair, teeth and eccrine glands. The most common syndromes are the hypohydrotic ED and hidrotic ED. This is a case of a 3 year old Afro-Trinidadian female, who presented extra orally with sparse fine scalp hair and eyebrows, soft and dry skin, eczema, a saddle nose, thick everted and protuberant lips. Intra oral findings included hypodontia, dry mucous membranes and conically shaped teeth. The patient was first seen by a paediatric dentist with a presenting complaint of missing teeth and was referred to a dermatologist and an orthodontist.
203 Ameloblastoma of the Anterior Mandible - A Case Report , Anitha Krishnan Pandarathodiyil, Narendra Prakash Rai and Sukumaran Anil
Ameloblastoma is a neoplasm originating from the odontogenic epithelium. The tumor is considered benign despite its locally invasive nature. The pathogenesis of ameloblastoma involves the origin of the tumor from one of the following sources: remnants of dental lamina or remnants of the Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath, basal cells of the oral mucosa, developing enamel organ, and epithelial lining of an odontogenic cyst. It can exhibit different clinico-radiographic presentations such as conventional, unicystic and peripheral. Ameloblastomas occur most predominantly in the posterior mandible, in the molar-ascending ramus area, and are quite uncommon in the anterior jaws. Third to seventh decade is the usual age range for the occurrence of ameloblastomas with no gender predilection. A case of ameloblastoma which occurred in the anterior mandible of a 24-year-old female patient is presented. The clinico-pathological features, diagnostic criteria, and management of the case are discussed. The case is important because of its unusual presentation in the anterior region of the mandible and the diagnostic challenge it posed during the initial investigation.
204 Biocompatibility of Dental Implant: Revised , Nagy Abdulsamee, Ahmed Elkhadem and Passant Nagi
A dental implant is a good example of the integrated framework of science and technology in multiple disciplines, including surface chemistry and physics, biomechanics, from macro-scale to nano-scale manufacturing technologies and surface engineering, among different dental materials and their effective applications. There are important features for dental implant systems, like all other dental materials and products, since the surface of dental implants is directly in contact with vital hard/soft tissue and is sub-ject to both chemical and mechanical bio-environments. Such appliances should include, at the very least, biological compatibility, mechanical compatibility and morphological compatibility with the important tissues surrounding it. Most of the dentists know well biological compatibility but overlook mechanical compatibility, and morphological compatibility. Therefore, this review throws a deliberate sight on these points.
205 Pyogenic Granuloma - A Simple Treatment Approach with Sclerotherapy , Shalini Subramanyam and Peeyush Shivhare
Pyogenic granuloma (PG) is a benign exophytic vascular tumor, which is actually a reactive inflammatory mass of blood vessels with few fibroblasts within the mucosa or skin, was first reported by Hullihen in 1844. Variety of treatment options such as surgical excision, laser treatment, electrodessication, chemical cautery, cryosurgery, intral-esional steroid injection etc. are available, but many a times, recurrence has also been reported.Sclerotherapy is defined as the “targeted elimination of small vessels, varicose veins and vascular anomalies by the injection of a “sclerosant”. It offers an alternative to conventional methods like surgery, lasers, radio frequency ablation and electrodesiccation procedure with success and less chance of recurrences.Herein, we present a case of 22 years old female with a clinical diagnosis of PG, treated with intralesional 0.2 ml of 3% sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS). The lesion healed completely at the patient’s 3rd visit and recurrence was not reported till the patient was followed up for one year.
206 Evaluation of Setting Time and Solubility of Bio-ceramic Sealer Before and After Mixing with Prednisolone Powder: A Comparative In Vitro Study , Amany Ibrahiem Ahmed Mohamed, Hebatallah Mohammed El Far Fatma Mohamed Saeed and Nehal Lotfy Abou Raya
The aim of this study was to evaluate, setting time and solubility of Sure-Seal Root Bio-Ceramic sealer before and after mixing with Prednisolone powder.Setting time test: sixteen Plaster of Paris molds (eight molds for each group) were soaked in distilled water for 24 hours then filled with the non-modified and modified sealer after addition of previously ground prednisolone powder to sealer and obtaining a homogenous mix. Setting time was calculated by using the Gilmore needle till the time that the needle probe fail to make indentation on the sealer’s surface. Solubility test: Fourteen split Teflon molds (Seven molds for each group) were filled with non-modified and modified sealer as we mentioned before. Molds were placed between two pieces of wet cloth and two-glass slabs then kept in an incubator. Solubility was calculated as a percentage of mass loss at 24 hours, 7, 14, 28 days to determine the effect of time on the material solubility
207 Effect of M-pro Versus ProTaper Next Rotary Instrumentation Systems on Apically Extruded Debris in Single Canals (A Comparative In Vitro Study) , Nourhan Ezzat Mohammed Morgan1, Alaa AL Din Diab and Hany Samy Sadek
The purpose of this study aimed to evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris after canal preparation using M-Pro (CM) and ProTaper Next rotary system files.Forty extracted human, single-rooted mandibular premolars were divided into two groups (n=20) in each group. The root canal instrumented by G1 ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer, Baillagues, Switzerland) and G2 M-Pro (CM) (Guangdong, shanghai, China) according to the manufactures' instructions. Distal water was used as the irrigant. The apically extruded debris was collected in preweighted glass vials. The vials were stored in an incubator for 5 days. The vials were weighed to obtain the final dry weight of the extruded debris. The amount of apically extruded debris was calculated from the difference between the weights of the glass vials with dried debris and prewighted of the empty glass vial. The data were statistically analyses
208 Hereditary Benign Migratory Glossitis in a Young Child: A Case Report , Akhilesh Sharma, Shweta Chaubey and Priya Subramaniam
To present a rare case of hereditary benign migratory glossitis.The clinical presentation of the lesion may mimic other mucosal conditions, allergic reactions, deficiency states. A four year old child presented with pain in teeth and well circumscribed irregular areas of denudation on dorsal surface of tongue. Thorough history revealed similar asymptomatic condition in tongue of father and sibling of child. Other oral con-ditions were ruled out and diagnosed as hereditary benign migratory glossitis.
209 Estimation of Salivary Immunoglobulin A and Total Salivary Protein in Patients with Recurrent Aphthous Ulcer , Reshma Ramachandran and Anuradha Pai
Recurrent aphthous ulceration is amongst the not uncommon ulcerative, inflammatory, oral mucosal conditions whose precise etiopathogenesis remain obscure. Several local and systemic factors have been postulated as the possible predisposing agents for RAS. The presence of immune factors at the site locally, have been seen to play a pivotal role in fortification in counteraction to oral diseases.
210 Botox A Injection Compared with Modified Lip Repositioning Surgery in the Treatment of Adult Patients with Gummy Smile Due to Hypermobile Upper Lip , Zainab Abdel-Rhman Mohammed, Mohammed Abd Al-Alim Bushnak, Manal Yahia Foda and Dalia El Boghdady
Smile esthetics is one of the most important factors affecting facial attractiveness, Gummy smile is recognized by the American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) as a deformity in smile and mucogingival condition that affects the area around the teeth. Which may be related to gingival, skeletal, dental, muscular cause or combinations among the possible causes. The most im-portant esthetic goal in orthodontics is to achieve a balanced smile which can be best described as an appropriate positioning of teeth and gingival scaffold within the dynamic display zone.
211 The Upper and Lower Pharyngeal Airway Widths in Different Sagittal and Vertical Craniofacial Patterns Among a Sample of Sudanese Adults , Alaa M Abdalla and Amal H Abuaffan
This study is aimed at producing norms for the Pharyngeal airway space in subjects with skeletal Class 1 and normal vertical relation and at the unveiling of constrictions related to skeletal morphology.The study sample consisted of 106 healthy untreated subjects (male=35 and female=71), ages ranging from 17 to 25 years old. The subjects were grouped according to ANB angle and their vertical relation. The cephalometric films were traced manually and analyzed using Mc Namara analysis of Upper and Lower pharyngeal airway spaces (UPA and LPA). Norms were obtained and the sizes of UPA and LPA compared in different sagittal and vertical relations.
212 Human Immune Response to COVID-19 Infection and Potential Role of Chloroquine Family of Drugs: A Review , Sunita Singh, Chandrashekharaiah PS, Vishal Paul, Santosh Kodgire, Shivbachan Kushwaha, Debanjan Sanyal and Santanu Dasgupta
In December 2019, COVID-19 disease outbreak started from Wuhan, China. World is still, witnessing a massive morbidity and mortality due to the pandemic caused by novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This newly discovered virus enters inside and infect the body cells through the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. The S1 protein of SARS-CoV-2 binds to the ACE2 receptor which results in endocytosis and transfer of virus into endosomes of body cells. Entry of SARS-CoV-2 results in activation of the innate immune responses first followed by the adaptive immune responses. The effective host immune responses are crucial to control and prevent the viral infections. However, the excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and decrease in the number of T-lymphocytes are the major reasons associated with severity of COVID-19. Therefore, anti-inflammatory drugs such as Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) may play a crucial role to control and prevent the progression of disease by immunomodulation. The treatment responses of COVID-19 patients to these drugs have been found positive in some cases and clinical studies are underway for evaluating these drugs for the same. Moreover, regulatory bodies such as Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) have recommended usage these drugs in emer-gency and chronic situation to treat critically ill COVID-19 patients under doctor’s supervision. The national task force (NTF) set up by Indian Council of Medical Research, has recommended high risk individuals to take HCQ for prophylaxis. This review summarizes human immune response and various aspects of CQ and HCQ with special reference to COVID-19.
213 Helicobacter pylori Treatment , Abdulaziz Radhi S ALjohni, Bassam A Aljohny, Sultan Saud Alahmad, Abdulaziz M Hakami, Omar Alfaroq and NA Al-Tayyar
H. pylori the Helicobacter genus, is found in over 80% of cases of gastric cancer in developed and emerging nations. H. pylori is gram-negative and is responsible for gastroduodenal diseases as the recognized major human bacterial pathogen. It will remain in the stomach for life until acquired and colonized. Acute and chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and lymphoid tissue tumor combined with mucosa are found in a limited population of carriers (MALTA). In certain instances, H. The pylori infection is absolutely asymptomatic or has signs that are nearly imperceptible. H. pylori are different depending on the form of media, blunted/rounded ends in gastric biopsy specimens, but in fresh culture on agar medium they are rod-like and spiral shape when coccoid is on prolonged culture.Infection therapy depends on a mixture of antimicrobial agents and antisecretory agents, and the bactericidal activity of anti-microbial agents includes an elevation of gastric pH by antisecretory agents. Alternatively, although the mechanism of action is not yet apparent, to enhance eradication of H, phytomedicines and probiotics have been used H. pylori. The effect of antimicrobials and antisecretory agents is not only based on their pharmacological action, but also on their pharmacokinetic properties. Several anti-microbial agents have been used for H, including amoxicillin, clarithromycin, levofloxacin, metronidazole, tetracycline, rifabutin and compounds containing bismuth H. pylori
214 Resins for CAD/CAM Dentures , K Chandrasekharan Nair, Pradeep C Dathan and T Mohankumar
Dentures fabricated by computer aided designing and manufac-turing (CAD/CAM) process has a history of nearly three decades. Introduction of CAD/CAM marks a great departure from the con-ventional processing.
215 Efficacy of Endodontic Irrigation Activation Systems on Enterococcus Faecalis Colonizing the Dentinal Tubules Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope: An In-Virto Study , Ameena Khaled Bagunaid, Saied M Abdelazziz, Somaia Abdulatif3and Fatma Abo Naeem
To assess the efficacy of two irrigation activation system with the Syringe needle irrigation on the percentage of viable Entero-coccus faecalis colonizing the dentinal tubules of single-rooted teeth.Fifty-one single-rooted human teeth were selected, instrumented using Fanta AF Blue S4 and Hyflex EDM up to size 40, autoclaved, and then inoculated with E. faecalis. The samples were randomly assigned into three main groups (n = 15), all were used to the method of irrigant activation. Group, I (EDDY tips), Group, II (XP-endo Finisher), Group, III (Syringe needle irrigation), and six teeth were used as a positive control. irrigation was done with 5.25% of NaOCl in all the samples. The teeth were split longitudinally with Isomet saw and examined with Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) to visualize the percentage of dead bacteria at dif-ferent depths in the dentinal tubules at different canal locations.
216 What do Nigerian Dentists Know About Nanodentistry? , Enabulele JE, Sede MA and Udoye CI
The potentials of nanotechnology in the field of dentistry are enormous. This study evaluated the level of awareness and knowledge of a population of Nigerian dentists about nanodentistry.This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of a population of Nigerian dentists. The study assessed the level of awareness regarding 6 different areas of dentistry where nanotechnology has been utilized and also assessed the knowledge of nanodentistry among the respondents.
217 Osteonecrosis of Jaw as an Oral Manifestation of COVID-19: A Case Report , Gaurav Gupta, DK Gupta, Priyanka Gupta and Neelja Gupta
Various oral manifestations have been reported in patients with COVID-19. However, there is still a question about whether these lesions are due to coronavirus infection or secondary manifestations resulting from the patient’s systemic condition. Oral conditions in a patient diagnosed with COVID-19. COVID-19 has emerged as a challenge to the clinicians worldwide. Since the outbreak in De-cember 2019, COVID-19 has affected > 08,00,00,000 worldwide till December 2020. The most common symptoms are pyrexia and dry cough and in few cases breathing difficulties, dyssomnia and altered taste sensation. Present understanding among researchers shows that coronavirus enters human cells via the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The prevalence of clinical manifestations is still unidentified, the range of COVID-19 manifestations on the oral cavity has been seen in various forms. The cur-rent case series aims to report a rare finding of bone and soft tissue defect in maxilla as a possible sequelae of C0VID-19 infection.
218 A Novel Reconstruction of a Large Mandibular Cystic Defect by Bone Graft Substitute , Radhika Shashank Tayshetye, Nitin Bhola, Anendd Jadhav and Chirag Patil
Odontogenic cysts are the most common lesions in the oral and maxillofacial region. The commonly chosen treatment approach for it is enucleation and extraction of the involved tooth, if required. To decrease infections and for spontaneous bone regeneration, various bone grafts are increasingly investigated for filling the defect. Autogenous bone graft being the gold standard has its various shortcomings which lead to the search for allogenous, xenografts and alloplasts. Surgical grade calcium sulfate is considered a con-venient, safe and readily available bone graft substitute with consistently successful results. This uniqueness of Calcium Sulphate has increased its purpose in the void filling. The purpose of this paper is to present a case of a large Dentigerous Cyst (D.C.) which was successfully managed by antibiotic impregnated Calcium Sulphate as a Bone Graft Substitutes in post cystectomy defect and exhibit its spontaneous bone regeneration radiographically
219 Prospective Study on Anatomical Variation of Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity in CT Scans and Literature Review , Shilpa Prabhu, Amal Faisal Al Abdulla and Magdy Ramadan Abdulmaaboud
To estimate anatomic variation of paranasal sinus in Bahrain population and to compare their prevalence in different studies.It is a prospective study of 100 ct scans of paranasal sinus with no significant sinus pathology. We deter-mined prevalence of variations of paranasal sinuses and compared it with other studies.Our study showed similar results in anatomic variation to that found in the literature with some differences in parameters like most common type of keros classification and type of uncinated process.
220 Evaluation of Oral Health Knowledge Among Type II Diabetes Mellitus Patients and the Effect of Phase I Periodontal Therapy on Glycemic Status of the Individuals , Sheela Kumar Gujjari, Rishika Battula, Kunchok Dolma and Sindhu Gujjari
Periodontal disease and diabetes share a bidirectional relationship and inflammation plays a pivotal role in both. Dia-betes causes various complications and periodontal disease has been established as the 6th complication. Integration of qualitative research into intervention studies is becoming popular as the qualitative research can be used to understand the people’s belief, experiences, attitudes, behaviours and interactions thereby enhancing the understanding of the research query. Thus, this study involved a mixed research which helped to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice among diabetics and used an intervention to assess the glycemic control which not only treated the patients but helped in motivating and educating them on the importance of oral hygiene and glycemic control.
221 Evaluation of Regenerative Periodontal Therapy in Intrabony Defects with Single Flap Approach Using Bovine Xenograft in Smokers and Non-smokers , Dalli Bharath Simha Reddy, Rupasree Gundala, Kankipati Amrutha, Nemakal Sumana, Ch Susmitha SS and Sravani Bontu
Periodontal disease is the most prevalent disease across the world. It is an inflammatory disease involving progres-sive and episodic loss of the periodontal attachment apparatus with tissue destruction consequentially arising out of host response against bacterial antigens as well as irritants leads to loss of alveolar bone and supporting the teeth. Chronic periodontitis causes various types of bony defects, among them intra-bony defect is most common. There are two primary treatment modalities for treat-ing periodontitis and associated changes, including non-surgical and surgical periodontal therapy.
222 Clinical Evaluation of Efficacy of 1.2% Atorvastatin Loaded in PRF with Collagen as a Barrier Membrane in Alveolar Ridge Preservation after Mandibular Molar Extraction , Kankipati Amrutha, Rupasree Gundala, YSHS Chakravarthy Reddy, Dalli Bharath Simha Reddy, Putta Sri Krishna Chaitanya and Patcha Harika
Extraction of teeth accounts for loss in height and width of the tooth dependent alveolar process, which results in a significant structural and dimensional changes leading to the atrophy of the residual ridge. Most of the resorption occurs during the first 3 months of healing, although dimensional changes can be observed up to 1 year after tooth extraction. Therefore, regenerative or other surgical intervention appear to arrest the bone resorptive process, to restore the alveolar process thus preserving the natu-ral contours and preparing the anatomical surroundings for the suggested prosthesis.To evaluate and compare the efficacy of 1.2% Atorvastatin loaded in PRF with collagen as a barrier membrane in alveolar ridge preservation versus controls after mandibular molar extraction, by measuring the following clinical parameters like relative coronal level of gingiva, mucogingival junction, crest of socket, socket depth, socket width at the most coronal level and to evaluate bone density changes radiographically by QDSR (Quantitative Digital Subtraction Radiography) technique in 1.2% Atorvas-tatin group and controls.
223 Attitude and Awareness about Radiation Protection among Dental Surgeons in Jaipur City: A Questionnaire Based Study , Kanica Sharma, Neelkant Patil, Shobhit Kaswan, Lalita Chandna, Sunbul Tabrez and Dinesh Kumar
Dental radiology represents the most frequent diagnostic radiological investigation performed in almost every age groups.The aim of this study was to determine the level of awareness regarding radiation protection among the dental practitioners in Jaipur city.This questionnaire study was carried out among 100 dental surgeons in Jaipur city. A multiple-choice re-sponse type of questionnaire was designed with close - ended questions with a maximum choice of 3 responses.This questionnaire study highlights important parameters that must be taken into consideration to reduce radiation exposure and also show the level of awareness and concern of dental practitioners of Jaipur regarding hazards and protection.
224 Evaluation of the Effect of Final Rinse with Chitosan Nanoparticles and EDTA on the Push-out Bond Strength of Resin-based and Bioceramic-based Root Canal Sealers (A Comparative In Vitro Study) , Anan Medhat Mohamed, Angie Galal Ghoneim and Nehal Nabil Roshdy
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs), CNPs/EDTA (1:1) and EDTA as final irrigants on the push-out bond strength of different root canal sealers.Thirty extracted human, single-rooted mandibular premolars were decoronated and prepared using ProTaper Next rotary system with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) irrigation. The specimens were randomly distributed into three groups ac-cording to the final irrigation protocol; Group 1: 0.2% CNPs, Group 2: 0.2% CNPs/17% EDTA (1:1), and Group 3: 17% EDTA. A stan-dardized volume of 5 ml of each chelating solution was used for 3 min. Each group was further divided into two subgroups based on the root canal sealer used for obturation; AH Plus resin sealer and Sure-Seal Root bioceramic sealer. For assessment of the push-out bond strength, roots were sectioned horizontally to obtain 2 mm-thick discs from the coronal, middle and apical thirds, then discs were subjected to a compressive load via the universal testing machine followed by assessment of the failure pattern using stereo-microscope.
225 MALDI (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation): Imaging Modality for Tumour Diagnosis , Akshara Lenin, Prajakta Suresh Kundekar, Kumar Sougata, K yeswanth Sunny and Gaurav
MALDI or Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation has emerged as a powerful, versatile imaging modality that has since its advent created ripples in the scientific community. The major reason for its success is the ability of this system to criti-cally analyze, study the macromolecules and detect their presence in thousands of samples simultaneously. Moreover, because of its soft ionization techniques, it is now possible to study the biomolecules which would have previously decomposed due to inappropri-ate ionization skills. It is also the first of its kind to bring the world of mass spectrometry and the world of histology under the same banner creating a modality that is currently transforming the way we have understood the world of bioinformatics. Now it is possible to study a broad spectrum of analytes in unprecedented detail most of which until a few years ago had been completely unknown to the scientific communities.
226 The Advantages of Saliva Sampling Method for Diagnosis of COVID 19 , Amera K Alkaisi and Salma B Abdo
Several tests for many persons have to be conducted in order to control the pandemic and prevent the possibility of transmission of (Covid -19) to health care workers and other patients. The main aim of this study was to detect the importance of saliva sample for early diagnosis of Corona virus 2019 (COVID-19). Saliva sample considered as an alternative for diagnosis of COVID-19 as salivary gland found to express surface receptor angiotensin converting enzyme II, (ACE2) a receptor that plays a key role within the entry of SARS Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) into the cell. The sample can be self-collected from the entrance of the oral cavity easily, in a way the risk of virus transmission to healthcare personnel can be minimized avoiding the use of protective equipment. There are several ways for collection of saliva, such as spitting out, directly from salivary duct gland and collection with sponge- like device. The analysis of Saliva can be used to detect oral cancer, dental caries, periodontal diseases, diabetes, breast cancer, and lung cancer. The saliva polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test demonstrated high sensitivity comparable performance to the current standard naso-pharyngeal and throat swabs. In addition, saliva could be used for monitoring viral clearance, as it contains the highest live COVID-19 viruses and viral load during the first week.
227 Surgical Reintervention in the Chin in a Patient with a Silicone Chin Implant - A Case Report , João Luiz Carlini, Kendy Lipski and Silmara Regina Teodorovitz Roeder
The use of biomaterials may be an option for the treatment mainly of chin deficiencies. One of the most used materials is silicone prostheses. However, some problems with this material were observed, mainly the bone resorption by compression of the muscu-lature, generating intense resorption, as detected in this described clinical case, where fracture of the jaw could occur. Prosthesis removal, chin osteotomy and reconstruction with an allogeneic graft were performed.
228 Activating Sleeping Brain Cells- A Paradigm Shift in Dentistry , Aishwarya P R Kumar, Ameena Kamal and Gaurav
Neural stem cells (NSC) produce neurons and surrounding glial cells in the brain. The neurons and the glial cells can be regenerated with the further understanding of the mechanism of neural crest cells. Molecules that form a complex called STRIPAK (Striatin Interacting Phosphatase and Kinase) like Mob4 (Monopolar spindle-one binder family member 4), Cka (Connector of kinase to AP1) and PP2A (Protein Phosphatase 2A/Microtubular star, Mts) that promote reactivation in NSCs.
229 Challenging Issues in Development and Integration of Modern Kinematics with Components and Images Obtained from Different Sources in Biomechanical Applications , Yevsey Gutman, Nadejda Krasnorutskaya and Gary Gutman
In spite of the existing and successful development of CAD/CAM methods for mechanical applications, the ability to model the motion of biomechanical systems still presents many challenges. The reason for those challenges is in complexity of the nature of components to be used for the projects, specifically based on the origin of the parts: where are they coming from. Depending on the biomechanical application it could be as many as three different sources for the parts to be included in to the “assembled” system. They are: (1) “standard” parts which can be designed using the conventional CAD system, (2) parts which can be obtained only through the process of surface scanning; and (3) components which are the product of CT scanning with volumetric property. An Advanced method is discussed here which can deal in case of biomechanical systems to address the weaknesses of the Standard Ap-proach in use for purely mechanical systems.
230 A Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Herbal Mouthrinse (P. granatum and S. persica) with Chlorhexidine Mouthrinse on Inhibition of Plaque and Gingivitis , Anamika and Amrinder Singh Tuli
In the past 40 years, Chlorhexidine has been extensively studied and used for plaque control in dentistry. It is a bisbigu-anide and is considered as a gold standard antiplaque agent due to its prolonged substantivity. It has a limited use period due to its known side effects such as extrinsic stains and alterations in taste sensation. On the other hand, mouthwashes made from the herbal and plant sources containing natural occurring active ingredients provide a gentle, harmless and a trustworthy option. P. granatum and S. persica are such plant products that are known to have antiplaque effects. Moreover, their use also overcomes the side effects caused by the chlorhexidine.
231 A New Microscope to Tiny Tumours - A Systematic Review , Kumar Sougata, Prerana G and and Gaurav
The authenticity and expertise of various imaging systems have been usually restricted as most of these imaging systems cannot visualize minute tumours. This is the reason certain cancers such as ovarian cancers and breast cancers are only diagnosed in their terminal stages. Moreover, despite landmark advances in varied areas of diagnostic imaging the detection and screening for most of these tumours remain poor. As the world is constantly being woven in the cocoon of technology it thereby be-comes imperative to develop and come up with better diagnostic modalities than the ones available to us. Also, with the global cancer burden constantly on the rise, various new imaging modalities come up as new waves in the field of radiology.Aim of the Study: To assess the significance of imaging systems in the diagnosis of small-sized tumours.
232 Role of Corticobasal Implants in the Rehabilitation of Dentoalveolar Trauma , Ashish Chakranarayan and Priya Jeyaraj
Management of dentoalveolar trauma often poses a unique challenge in terms of a need to replace both dental and bony hard tissues. In cases with loss of bone along with tooth the crestal implant-based management is often delayed due to insuf-ficient bone. Corticobasal implants offers a comprehensive management for such conditions. Three cases of dentoalveolar trauma were managed and rehabilitated successfully at our centre using cor-ticobasal implants. No adjunctive bone reconstructive or regenerative procedure, such as bone grafting or distraction were carried out to facilitate implant placement.
233 Salivary Proteomics and Transcriptomics: An Evidence-based Systematic Review , Shivangi Pandey, Kuntalika Sarkar, Kumar Sougata and Gaurav
Proteins are considered to be the building blocks of our bodies and they are known to harbor a vast array of informa-tion, the spectrum of which ranges from the knowledge of physical or pathological conditions to provide us with a pool of biomarkers. Saliva at the same time forms an indispensable part of the oral cavity and with recent researches, it is known to be a huge source of these proteins. As biochemical and molecular technologies are developing each day the gradual intersection of the above two men-tioned sources (saliva and proteins) becomes an inevitable pool of knowledge which if carefully studied could throw open future doors of non-invasive diagnostic procedures encompassing multitudes of systemic and metabolic diseases. In this literature review, we have tried and explained the two important biomarkers present in saliva namely proteomes and transcriptomes, and how these are eventually co-related and could serve us to understand the bigger picture of quick and efficient diagnosis.
234 Artificial Intelligence in the Field of Oral Medicine - A Systematic Review , Kumar Sougata, Ayushi Bhargava and Gaurav
With the entire world weaving the cocoon of Robotics and Artificial Intelligence (AI) it’s hard to exempt the field of dentistry from the effects of this powerful tool. From venturing into cases involving vital structures to now being associated with the effects of ever going technology dentistry has evolved leaps and bounds. From minimizing harm to the patient to predicting the dental schedule of a teenager, algorithms and softwares are built to do it all
235 “Trail” in Cancers - Time to Curb the Crab: A Meta-Analysis Research , Ayushi Bhargava and Gaurav
TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand) is the one of the recently developed method for curing cancer. The method demonstrates modified lipid nanoparticles which attaches to TRAIL and E selectin all of which coats the WBCs. The designed nature of modified leukocytes is cytotoxic and shows homology to TNF leading to targeted death of cancerous cells without harming normal healthy cells of one’s body. These modified leukocytes designed using body’s own defenses track down and induces apoptosis of absconding cancer cells. This approach shows large potential for patients with metastatic cancer as TRAIL coated leukocytes occur innate. Since current therapies have lot of disadvantages with it, which allows TRAIL therapy to be investi-gated at a large scale
236 COVID-19, An Eye Opening Pandemic - A Mini Review , Peeyush Shivhare, Shalini Subramanyam and Prapulla Sridhara Murthy
Corona virus disease (Covid-19) is an infectious disease of newly discovered Corona virus variant towards the end of the year 2019. It quickly infected thousands and millions of people all over world, spreading widely like a wildfire. By the end of January 2020, World Health organization declared the outbreak as global health emergency and later in March 2020, they announced COVID-19 as a global Pandemic. The uniqueness of Covid -19 was how little was known about the disease. Hence, it was a battle for many research-ers, scientists, doctors, dentists, governments and the masses to understand the ongoing Pandemic situation. Although predomi-nantly COVID-19 affects lungs, it did have manifestations on other parts of the human body. Here in this mini literature review, we tried to shed some light on basic aspects of COVID-19 along with oral manifestations, pathophysiology from the dental aspect along with recent advances in Vaccine and the ongoing clinical trials. We encourage active participation of Dentists in promoting the aware-ness and preventing the spread of covid -19 by understanding and equipping themselves with recent updates on this very disease.
237 Metagenomics: Rejuvenating Oral Medicine: Concepts Recultured- A Meta-Analysis Research , Shivangi Pandey, Shailaja Kushwaha, Pallab Roy and Gaurav
Metagenomics is the study of genetic material which has been directly taken from environmental samples. It is also known as environmental genomics, ecogenomics or community genomics. The initial molecular work in this field was done by Nor-man R. Pace and colleagues, they used PCR to explore the diversity of ribosomal RNA sequences. The knowledge that was gathered from these explorative studies led Pace to propose the idea of cloning DNA directly from environmental samples in the early 1985. Metagenomics as said can be a powerful tool to view the microbial world and its hidden diversity of microscopic life. Metagenom-ics offers immense potential to understand the entire world of living creatures around us. Since DNA sequencing shows a fall, when compared to metagenomics, which now allows microbial ecology to be investigated at a much larger scale and detail than before.
238 Geometric Analysis of Mesio-buccal Root Canals of Mandibular Molars Prepared by (M-pro), FlexMaster and RaCe File systems: An In Vitro Study , Mahmoud Bahaa Eldin Mohammad Gouda, Reem Ahmed Lutfy and Shaimaa Ismail Gawdat
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare 3 file systems; M-Pro, FlexMaster and RaCe in preparing moderately severe curved mesiobuccal canals of human mandibular molars regarding: transportation of the canal, the centering ability and change of radius of canal curvature, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanning. A total of fifty-one mesiobuccal root canals of extracted human mandibular first and second molars with the angle of curvature ranging 20-35 ͦ (according to Schneider) were collected and divided into three equal groups. After access cavi-ties preparation and working length determination, distal roots with the respective part of the crowns of all samples were sectioned at the furcation level and discarded. Samples were mounted in acrylic resin molds and then CBCT scanning was done pre and post instrumentation using the same scanning parameters. Root canal preparation was done according to the manufacturers' instructions of each NiTi system. The pre and post-images were superimposed using a fusion module of OnDemand 3D App software to measure the dentin thickness at root canal levels (2, 3, 5 and 8 mm from the tooth apex). Canal transportation and centering ability were re-corded according to formula introduced by Gambill., et al. while the change in the radius of canal curvature was recorded following Estrela., et al. Data was tabulated and statistically analyzed.
239 Pattern of Mandibular Third Molar Impaction in North-Central Nigeria: Panoramic Radiographic Assessment , Seidu Adebayo Bello and Nathan Ukuoghene Ikimi
The third molar is the most common tooth in the mouth that fails to erupt partially or completely into its functional position and this could be because of an impediment on the eruption path. Management of impacted third molar is usually by a surgical procedure extraction and successful treatment is enhanced with the aid of a radiograph which is either the periapical x-ray or the panoramic radiograph. This study reports on a large population of patients, using the panoramic radiograph to evaluate and compare with the periapical radiograph the various pattern of the impacted mandibular third molar presented in north central Nigeria.A retrospective examination of digital panoramic radiographs obtained from patients who had surgical extractions of impacted mandibular molars between March 2016 to April 2020. The data obtained were analysed using the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Chi-square test was done to determine statistical significance which was set as P < 0.05.There were 366 (55.8%) male and 289 (44.1%) females, with an age range of 16 to 70years and a mean age of 34 ± 12.5 years. Impaction was found on one side of the mandible in 30.3% and on both sides of the mandible in 69.5% of the patients and the most common type of impaction according to Winter’s classification was mesioangular impaction and found more common among males in this study at 43.4%.Our results here gave better clarity with the use of the panoramic radiographs and therefore strongly recommends the orthopan-tomogram (OPG) before any mandibular 3rd molar extraction is done.
240 Labial Type Dens in Dente: A Rare Case Report , Manisha D Yadav, Bhakti Patil Soman and Deepa Das
Dens Invaginatus, also known as dens in dente a rare developmental anomaly affecting human dentition. It arises as a result of invagination into the surface of tooth crown or root before calcification has occurred. Most commonly affected teeth are permanent maxillary lateral incisors and is usually seen on the palatal aspect. In the present case report it was, rare to be seen on the labial as-pect of maxillary central incisor. This anomaly may increase the risk of pulp disease and can potentially complicate treatment due to its aberrant anatomy thus, posing a diagnostic challenge. Radiography plays a vital role in diagnosing such developmental anomaly. Compared to conventional radiograph Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) plays an invaluable role in the diagnosis of the ex-tent dens invaginatus and in appropriate treatment planning. This case report highlights the role of CBCT in the diagnosis of various types of dens in dente.
241 Unusual Clinical Presentation of Oral Leukoplakia: Case Report and Review of Literature , Lavanya Pasalkar, Shrutika Sonawane, Vikram Khare, Pallavi Channe
Oral cancer is the most commonly seen malignancy in Indian males and leukoplakia is the commonest of all precancerous lesions which can transfer into oral carcinoma. The estimated global prevalence of oral leukoplakia is 2.60% with 0.13 to 34% malignant transformation rate. It has been proved that clinical type, grade of dysplasia and age are associated risk factors with malignant transformation. A 38 yrs male patient found to have a tiny solitary well defined white plaque like lesion on buccal mu-cosa hardly 2 mm x 3 mm which was unnoticed by the patient till then. Surface of the lesion was raised, rough and wrinkled. It was non-scrapable. Patient had tobacco and gutka chewing habit with cigarette smoking since 5 years. Though the size of lesion was too small considering all the factors provisional diagnosis of homogeneous leukoplakia was given. An immediate excisional biopsy was performed. Histopathological examination revealed oral leukoplakia with moderate dysplasia. Dysplastic changes could have been a major risk factor for malignant transformation. Early diagnosis and excision of lesion ensured good prognosis.
242 Acceptance and Attitudes toward Covid-19 Vaccines among Health Practitioners in Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali) a Cross-Sectional Study , Preety Gupta, Rajesh Kumar Gupta, Shivani Gupta and Sumit Garg
Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) made the headlines after its initial breakout in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Virus by genome, lethal naturally, strongly contagious by character succeeded in making a brand new chapter in everyone’s life during a very short span making it a deadly disease. Its widespread has raised many concerns for global health particularly healthcare providers. Vaccines are effective interventions which will reduce the high burden of diseases globally. However, public health authorities face problem of hesitancy of individuals for vaccine. With the supply of COVID-19 vaccines, little information is offered on the general public acceptability and attitudes towards the COVID-19 vaccines. This study is aimed to analyze the acceptability of COVID-19 vac-cines and its predictors additionally to the attitudes towards these vaccines among public in tricity.
243 Can we Predict Molar-Incisor-Hypomineralisation from Hypomineralised Primary Dentition?: A Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis , Wafa Hammami and Soumaya Touzi
Molar-incisor-hypomineralisation (MIH) is a widespread lesion in the world. It usually occurs in the last stage of mi-neralisation of second primary molars; for this reason, a predictive relationship was assessed by several authors.The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate whether the occurrence of hypomineralised de-ciduous molars can predict molar-incisor-hypomineralisation lesions in children’s permanent teeth.A broad search in MedLine, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, Ebscohost, Google scholar, Science direct and OpenGrey databases were conducted using all terms related to the subject. Manual search on grey literature was also per-formed. Relevant papers published in English since 2010 were identified after a review of their titles, abstracts and full text reading
244 Autogenous Demineralized Dentin Matrix Graft for Socket Preservation , Mahadeepa Kar, Ashish Gupta, N Srinath, Umashankar DN, Mahesh Kumar and Ankita Dahiya
The study aims to evaluate the efficacy of autogenous tooth as bone graft material in the extraction socket and also to assess the potential use of the material as an alternative for autologous bone and other graft materials.30 patients requiring extraction of bilateral mandibular third molars were included. It was a split-mouth technique; one side was taken up as the control group and the other side as the study group. Postoperative pain and bone healing were assessed at 3 and 6 months follow-ups post-operatively.The intensity of pain was higher in 24 hours as compared to 7 days in the study and control group but it was statistically not significant (p > 0.05). The intensity of swelling was higher in 24 hours as compared to 7 days in the study group which was sta-tistically significant (p < 0.05). In the study group, it was 127.97 and 120.5 was in the control group. The study group was higher as compared to the control group and it was statistically significant (p < 0.05)
245 The Use of Bite Raisers in Orthodontic Treatment - A Review of Literature , Gurkeerat Singh, Harshita Gupta, Anu Rathi, Deepali Bisht, Varun Goyal, Raj Kumar Singh and Sonali Dhawan
Patients undergoing orthodontic treatment often require temporary bite raisers primarily for disocclusion of the dentition and unob-structed tooth movement. Depending upon the type of malocclusion and the desired treatment result, a variety of bite raisers can be fabricated. They improve dental and facial balance as well as gives relief from temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) symptoms. This article reviews the different bite raisers currently used in day-to-day practice along with their biomechanics involved and in deciding their position, duration, thickness and material used
246 Evaluation and Compare Effectiveness and Durability of ICON Resin Infiltration and Acidulated Phosphorus Fluoride in Treatment of Post-Orthodontic White Spot Lesions , Mohamed Said Ibrahim, HalaMunir2, Fady Hussein and Dalia El Boghdady
Randomized clinical trial was conducted to evaluate of the effectiveness and durability of Icon resin infiltration compared to acidulated phosphorus fluoride in management of white spot lesions. Eighteen patients with an age range of 12 - 25 years which included both males and females were enrolled in this study. The scoring criteria according to the lightness scale were graded from 0 to 100. Patient satisfaction score was recorded using a visual analogue scale from 0 to 100 according to patient's own evaluation for each quadrant before, after intervention and after 3 months follow up. A significant improvement of WSL esthetics was found im-mediately after Icon resin application by 18.2% and 18.8% in both upper and lower arches respectively. However, after three months follow up it was significantly reduced to 15% in the upper and 17.2% in the lower arches. A slight improvement in esthetics of white spot lesions was found immediately after APF application by 7.2% in both upper and lower arches while, after three months follow up period it significantly improved from 7.2% to 10% Patient satisfaction scores revealed that before application, there was dissatisfac-tion among the patients of the perception of their teeth. However, greater satisfaction scores were found immediately after Icon resin and APF application and after 3 months follow up. This results suggest that Both Icon resin and acidulated phosphorus fluoride gel improved esthetics of white spot lesions
247 Elderly Oral and Dental Health , Adnan Ćatović
The aging of peoples is a worldwide phenomenon. Older people are considered to be people aged 65 and over, although according to many authors and professions this is a relative term, because it is a much more important biological criterion than the calendar criterion in determining age.
248 Conscious Sedation in Dentistry - A Review of Commonly Used Drugs , Nasser F Al Qahtani1, Ahad F Al Qahtani2, Modi F Al Qahtani3, Majedah F Al Qahtani4 and Ganesh Rajendran
The main concern of the dentist and the preference of the patients are to have minimal pain or painless dentistry. Both children and adult’s express anxiety, pain and distress during the dental treatment, hence its natural to dentist to follow the methods to relieve the above. The conscious sedation provides more comfort and helps in more comfortable and less painful dental procedures. Here we have discussed the various drugs used to achieve conscious sedation in dentistry.
249 Oral Health and Anthropometric Profile in Pediatric Ages: Systematic Review , Cristina Cardoso Silva and Beatriz Santa Carvalhinho
The present work checked the way food intake, and the type of food are related to oral health and body mass index (BMI), body weight, height, and body composition.A systematic review of 48 scientific research articles was carried out, including articles from several countries on all continents, seeking to specify the relationship between oral health and anthropometric profile in children, from 1 month to 18 years, attending public and private schools, coming from families with different socio-economic and regional insertions.
250 Sub-Pontic Osseous Hyperplasia: A Case Report , Khaled Waleed Sadig and Mohammed Ahmed Al Attas
Soft tissue impingement, faulty oral hygiene measures, and faulty long span bridges especially mandibu-lar implant supported fixed partial dentures can create trauma under the pontic area, functional occlusal stresses and hyperactivity of the muscles forming a bony hyperplasia beneath the pontic area. The objectives of this case report were to present the Sub-pontic osseous hyperplasia clinical case history, explain different treatment methods, and review the literature regarding sub-pontic osse-ous hyperplasia condition
251 Coronavirus Disease 2019 Biological Risk and Clinical Care Protocol in Dentistry: A Systematic Review , Marcelo Salmazo Castro, Ana Virginia Santana Sampaio Castilho, Lucas José de Azevedo-Silva, Lorrayne Farias dos Santos, Eliel Soares Orenha and Silvia Helena de Carvalho Sales-Peres
This systematic review aimed to investigate the COVID-19 biological risk based in knowledge, attitudes and perception of dentists during COVID-19 pandemic and to establish a clinical protocol based on the literature. The protocol was conducted in accordance to PRISMA Statementand registered on International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42020200258). PubMed, Embase and SciELO were systematically searched, using the key terms “coronavirus infections” AND “dentists”. Four articles were selected for qualitative and ten for quantitative analysis. The overall studies reported characteristics of dentists (n = 12,913) who completed survey questionnaires: male (n = 6,690; 51.8%); knowledge: transmission route (n = 1,892; 14.65%), use of personal protective equipment (PPE) (n = 2,418; 18.7%) and signs and symptoms (n = 1,489; 11.5%); attitudes: urgency treatment (n = 2,633; 20.4%), handwashing (n = 5,548; 43%), reducing patients in waiting room (n = 3,020; 23.4%), and use of masks (n = 4,068; 31.5%); and perception: infection risk (n = 2,387; 18.5%). The clinical protocol includes procedures before appointments, correct handling of the operative area, and use of correct PPE. The primary COVID-19 biological risks are infectivity and horizontal transmission. The clinical care protocol in dentistry should be adopted by all dentists to reduce biological risk. Thus, dentists may play an important role in the prevention and interruption of SARS-CoV-2 transmission chain.
252 Does Hamulotomy Affects Hearing Range? A Prospective Clinical Study , Pradeep Kumar Das, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Jingade krishnojirao dayashankara rao, Alok Bhatnagar, Prachi Singh and Aparajita
To determine the actual need of hamulotomy during palatoplasty is beneficial or detrimental with respect to intra-operative and post-operative complications and also to assess the effect on hearing and the incidence of post-operative palatal fistula.30 patients of cleft palate deformities requiring primary cleft palate repair were randomly divided into 2 groups; Group A, Palatoplasty with hamulotomy and Group B, Palatoplasty without hamulotomy. All patients were subjected to Oto-scopic and Audiometric examinations; pre-operatively, 1st month and 6th month post-operatively.
253 Single Centre Study On Application Of Pedicled And Local Flaps For Cheek Mucosal Defects , Nadimul Hoda, Vasantha Dhara, Rajani BC, KS Sabitha, Jayesh Nathani and Subhabrata Ghosh
To evaluate the utility of locoregional flaps for the reconstruction of buccal mucosa defects in the Indian population. A retrospec-tive study of 302 patients and their records was done, who underwent reconstruction of buccal mucosa with locoregional flaps from January 2016 - 2017. Buccal fat pad, nasolabial flap, masseter flap, forehead flap, PMMC flap were used for reconstruction and evalu-ated. Due to their reliable vascularity, ease of harvesting the flap, and minimal postoperative morbidities, locoregional flaps are ideal options to reconstruct buccal mucosa defects of all dimensions. These are valuable in resource constrained, high volume centres especially in patients with poor performance and low socio economic strata.
254 Accuracy of Segmented Versus Full Arch Three Dimensionally Printed Transfer Tray for Orthodontic Indirect Bonding , Mariam Alaa El-Sebaay, Khaled Hazem Attia, Amr Ragab El Bialy and Mai Hamdi Aboul Fotouh
This study is done to investigate the accuracy of two novel digitally printed transfer trays (full arch and segmented) thus the problems of conventional indirect bonding technique is overcome. This accuracy is measured in terms of accuracy of transferring brackets.Patients with mild to moderate crowding, requiring orthodontic treatment with full set of permanent teeth including se-cond molars, will be selected for this study (7 in each group). 98 brackets for Full Arch Tray and 98 for Segment Arch Tray will be used with standardization of bracket type and bonding material both groups. Indirect bonding technique of Silverman (1972) will be used to treat patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. The modification that will be done is digital bracket placement using bracket pla-cement module of 3 Shape Ortho planner Software (3Shape Company- Copenhagen, Denmark) and fabrication of segmented digital bracket transfer tray using bracket transfer module of same software instead of manual bracket placement directly on study model and vacuum transfer tray. For control group patients, all patients of this group will follow same steps of indirect bonding procedure as treatment group patients but the full arch tray will be replaced by segmented one. Position of brackets on pre and post-operative scans will be compared. To measure the accuracy of bracket transfer, 3 Shape Ortho planner software (Bracket Placement Module) will be used.
255 The Relevance of Polishing Acrylic Dentures - An Overview , Lakshmi Ajithan S, Pradeep Dathan, Ambadi Jayakumar, Chandrathara T K, Shahin Ismail, Dhanya P Nampoothiri and K Chandrasekharan Nair
Denture polishing is an inevitable process in the fabrication of dentures. Dentures in the unpolished state can result in plaque accu-mulation which may lead to various problems ranging from staining to patient discomfort. Often it is not practiced with due diligence, in spite of recognizing the importance of the process. The main reason can be the laborious nature of the techniques employed for denture polishing. In this context this article provides an overview about the importance of polishing a denture and how it can be carried out systematically.
256 Change in the Attitude and Expectations of Dental Students Regarding Aging by Introduction of a Geriatric Education Program: A Mixed Method Study , Pragati Kaurani, Ajay Gupta and Bhavya Nigam
India’s growing aging population poses greater challenges for the dental clinicians. Undergraduate dental education programs must include geriatric dental education to train students to meet these challenges. Dental colleges in India, currently do not provide a formal geriatric dental education. Introduction of a structured educational intervention can bring about a change in the attitudes and expectations of students regarding the aging, which in turn has been known to affect the treatment rendered. Aims: To evaluate the change in the attitude and expectations of the undergraduate dental students when introduced to a specially developed Geriatric Education Program (GEP) ii. To qualitatively analyse the students’ perceptions and experience about the intro-duced GEP in their curriculum.
257 The Impact of COVID-19 on the Environment. Short Review , Nagy Abdulsamee, Ahmed Elkhadem and Passant Nagi
The COVID-19 disease has recently spread as a global pandemic, posing serious threats to mankind. The World Health Organiza-tion (WHO) has issued guidelines to assist countries in reducing the spread of the virus to the general public, including the use of masks, hand hygiene, social distancing, and the shutdown of all kinds of public transportation. These circumstances resulted in a significant drop in global economic activity, but there were also indirect environmental benefits such as improved global air quality and reduced water pollution. Because there are no clinically proven drugs or vaccines for COVID-19, face masks are currently part of a comprehensive package of prevention and control measures that can limit its spread. Face masks are typically made of non-renewable petroleum-based poly-mers that are non-biodegradable, dangerous to the environment and cause health problems. This review demonstrates the extensive use of the face mask and how it affects human health and the marine ecosystem positively as well as negatively. It has become a great challenge for the government sectors to impose strict regulations for the proper disposal of the masks as medical waste by the public to minimize their negative effects. Neglecting the seriousness of this issue may lead to the release of large tonnes of micro-plastics to the landfill as well as to the marine environment where mostly end-up and thereby affecting their fauna and flora population vastly
258 Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome: Literature Review and Report of Two Clinical Cases , Juliane Maria Iagnes Prestes and João Luiz Carlini
The Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome, also known as Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome, is characterized by the triad of multiple basal cell carcino-mas, keratocystic odontogenic tumors, and skeletal abnormalities. However, due to its variable expressiveness, other manifestations may occur, making diagnosis difficult. In this article, we aim to recall the signs and symptoms that can be identified in the bearer of this syndrome by reviewing the literature, alerting the health professional, and discussing their diagnostic process, illustrating it with two clinical cases from the Federal University of Paraná (UFPR). It was also intended to indicate its adequate treatment, since the management of this condition requires the monitoring of a multidisciplinary team in the long term, due to the involvement of multiple systems, the high rate of recurrence of the lesions, and the late appearance of carcinomas.
259 Accuracy of 3DPrinted Windowed Bracket-Positioning Guide Versus Thermoformed Transfer Tray for Orthodontic Indirect Bonding: A Randomized Clinical Trial , Amany El-tantawy, Amr Abouelezz, Amr Ragab El-Beialy and Mai Hamdi Aboul Fotouh
To compare the digital 3d printed window transfer tray and the conventional thermoformed tray regarding the accuracy of transferring the attachments.A randomized clinical trial was performed the two different bonding techniques, 144 attachments were recruited in this study. In the control group, the orthodontic attachments were bonded to working models and scanned with an intraoral scanner to make STL file of the working model. The transfer tray was then fabricated in order to transfer the orthodontic attachments in to the patient’s mouth. While in the intervention group, the teeth were scanned with the same intraoral scanner to produce the digital model on which the virtual attachments are placed using the OrthoAnalyzer software. The tray was designed and printed with win-dows opened gingivally. The attachments were fitted into their positions through the windows of the tray. Then intraoral scanning for both groups was done to obtain STL models after bonding. Superimposition of the pre and post STL models was done using 3Shape OrthoAnalyzer software to measure the angular deviations (tip, torque and rotation).
260 The Effect of Desensitizing Agents on Open Dentine Tubules- An , Baruch Nurit and Zilberman Uri
Dentin sensitivity can be treated by blocking the exposed dentinal tubules or by interrupting neural response for pain stimuli.To analyze in vitro the plugging effect of open dentin tubules by three desensitizing tooth pastes and a desensitizing agent.V shaped cavities were made on the buccal surface of 18 extracted premolars. On each group of 3 premolars each, the exposed dentine was brushed with water (control), 3 desensitizing tooth pastes (Oral B-gum and enamel repair, Sensodyne-dual care, Colgate-sensitive pro-relief ), a parodont expert toothpaste (Meridol) and a desensitizing agent (Riva Star desensitizing agent) twice a day for 30 seconds, for 10 days. Two days after the last brushing, the dentin surface was analyzed with SEM to observe the effect of the agents on dentine tubules. Using the Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer (EDS) program the ion content of the dentine surface (%WC) was examined, in order to analyze the effect of toothpaste ingredients on the dentine.Results: Tooth-brushing with water, Meridol and Sensodyne dual-care left the dentine tubules open with no plugging. Colgate-sen-sitive pro-relief toothpaste caused plugging of 40% of the tubules, while Oral B gum and enamel repair applied a plugging material on 100% of the tubules. Riva Star covered the dentin with amorphic material. The ion content of the dentin surface after using Oral B showed apposition of zinc, tin and titanium, Colgate showed apposition of zinc and Riva Star showed apposition of fluorine, alumi-num, silver, iodine and tellurium on the dentin.
261 Prevalence of Dental Caries and Gingivitis among 6 - 12 Year Old Children in Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala, India - A Cross-Sectional Study , Neethu Suresh, V Raman Kutty, KR Thankappan, K Nanda Kumar, P Sankara Sarma and Aravind A Vijayan
The major oral diseases seen in children are dental caries and gingivitis. Our study aimed to find the prevalence of dental carries and gingivitis among 6 - 12-year-old children in Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India.It was a cross sectional study conducted among 465, 6 - 12-year-old children.The prevalence of dental caries in deciduous teeth of the children was 52.25% (47.71 - 56.78%) and that in permanent teeth of the children was 37.2% (32.90 - 41.67%). The prevalence of mild gingivitis among children was 73.11% (69.09 - 77.15%) and that of moderate gingivitis was 24.9% (21.17 - 29.03%). Severe gingivitis was prevalent in 0.86% (0.23 - 2.18%) of children.
262 Teacher’s Perspectives on Development of Oral Health Education Intervention (OHEI) for 6 - 12 Year Children in Thiruvananthapuram District, Kerala - A Qualitative Study , Neethu Suresh, V Raman Kutty, KR Thankappan, K Nanda Kumar, P Sankara Sarma and Aravind A Vijayan
For the successful planning, development and implementation of any oral health education (OHE) intervention for children we need inputs from parents, teachers, basic ideas regarding oral health related knowledge, attitude and practices of the children. The most appropriate time to provide OHE to children is 6 - 12 years, because it is the time of mixed dentition; first perma-nent tooth erupt by the age of six years. Children with poorer oral health status are more likely to experience dental pain and miss many hours of school due to oral pain and related problems. Our study aimed to find out teachers’ perspectives on development of Oral Health Education Intervention (OHEI) for 6 - 12-year old children.
263 Evaluation of the Effect of Root Canal Preparation by TF and M-Pro on Postoperative Pain after Single Visit Endodontic Treatment: A Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial Therapeutic Study , Ahmad Abdul Aziz Al Morad, Nehal Nabil Roshdy and Alaa El Baz
The aim of the present study was to clinically compare the incidence and intensity of postoperative pain after mechanically preparing the root canal using the Twisted file (TF) with an adaptive motion and M-Pro system in a continuous rotary motion in mandibular premolar teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpits.
264 Bone Decalcification for Histological Examination of Biopsy Specimen , Nurul Inaas Mahamad Apandi, Nor Hasilah Mokhtar, Anitha Krishnan Pandarathodiyil and Anand Ramanathan
The process of bone decalcification involves removal of calcium salt and minerals from bone tissue completely, following adequate fixation. Within a diagnostic center, it is a gold standard procedure used for histopathological examination of biopsied specimens especially for those containing hard tissue. This technical note serves to provide an overview and brief description of the techniques used in the process of decalcification
265 Van Der Woude Syndrome: Report of a Case , Krutarth Kshirsagar, Anendd Jadhav, Rajanikanth Kambala and Nitin Bhola
Van der Woude Syndrome (VWS) is a genetic disorder caused by a dominant mutant gene on an autosome which is associated with lower lip pits and clefts of the lip and/or cleft palate. Considerable heterogeneity regarding expression of the disorder constitutes a rare developmental malformation as congenital pits of the lower lip. Commonly associated characteristic features with lip pits are submucosal palatal clefts, velopharyngeal insufficiency and genitourinary or cardiovascular anomalies. The association of congenital pits with clefts is observed in about 50% of cases. They are usually located on either side of the midline of the vermilion portion of the lower lip, symmetrically and bilaterally. They may also present as unilaterally, medially or bilaterally asymmetrical structures. Surgical excision is the best-choice of treatment for lip pits. As the presence of salivary tissue in any residual tract increases the pos-sibility of cyst formation, excision of lip pits is crucial in ensuring proper removal of the entire tract. In the present case scenario fistula repair was done using tongue flap and surgical excision of lip pits was performed using wedge incision. The purpose of the current case report is acquiring adequate knowledge about proper evaluation and treatment along with genetic counselling which will provide a proper guide for management of such cases
266 Evaluation and Compare Chairside Time and Accuracy of Indirect Bonding of Orthodontic Attachments Using Double Versus Single Transfer Tray (Split Mouth Design): A Randomized Controlled Trial , Mohamed Essam Mohamed, Fatma Abdou Abd El Sayed, Hoda Mohamed Abdul Aziz and Mai Hamdy Aboul Fotouh
Comparing the difference between two types of indirect bonding trays (single sheet versus double sheets) regarding chairside time and accuracy of transferring orthodontic attachments in all 3 planes of space using 3D scanning and superimposition.A randomized controlled trial (split mouth design) compared between the single versus double transfer trays tech-niques was performed, 6 patients with fully erupted full set of permanent teeth were recruited in this study. 84 attachments were bonded to the maxillary teeth from central to second molar for both groups. After placement of the attachments on the working model using water soluble glue regarding the vertical and horizontal reference lines, the model was sprayed with titanium dioxide powder then scanned with intraoral scanner and preoperative STL file was saved. The single and double transfer trays were fabricated, one on each half of the working model then the trays were divided, trimmed and prepared for bonding procedure. The attachments were transferred to the patient’s dentition using the two techniques, then the patient’s dentition with attachments were scanned with the same intraoral scanner and post- transfer STL file was saved. The chairside time for each group was measured using stopwatch. By using the Geomagic qualify version 12, the two STL files were superimposed and the deviations were detected for 7 values, 4 linear measurements (total linear, mesio-distal, occluso-gingival and bucco-lingual) and 3 angular measurements (tip, torque and rotation). The attachments failure rates were recorded immediately. A visual analog scale was given to each subject to measure their satisfac-tion towards the both used indirect bonding techniques.
267 Evaluation of Remineralization Potential of ACTIVA Bioactive Restorative Material Versus Resin Modified Glass Ionomer in Restoration of Premolars: In Vitro Study , Sally Mohamed Mosallam, Randa Abdel-Gawad, Fatma El- Shehaby and Marwa Elchaghaby
This study aims to evaluate the remineralization potential of ACTIVA Bioactive restorative material compared to light-cured resin-reinforced glass ionomer restorative.A standardized Class V cavity was prepared in forty-two extracted sound human premolars. The mineral content of the teeth was measured before and after demineralization, then the demineralized teeth were left as a negative control (Group I) or restored with either ACTIVATM Bioactive restorative material (Group II) or light-cured resin-reinforced glass ionomer restorative (Group III). The teeth were stored in artificial saliva for 23h and 1h in lactic acid solution at 37 ÌŠC to simulate the oral envi-ronment and the acid challenges occurring intraorally. The mineral content was evaluated using energy dispersive x-ray and scanning electron microscope (EDX/SEM) in each group after 24h, 1 month later and after three months.
268 Is there any Need to Visit a Dentist Every Six Months? , Manali Panjwani
You brush your teeth daily (I hope) but even after brushing a layer of deposits known as plaque continues to form on the surface of your tooth. These layers of plaque hardens to form calculus and if calculus stays for longer period of time they tend to cause gum bleeding and gum infection.
269 Weight Loss in Fixed Orthodontic Treatment - A Myth? , Monika Mahajan
The objective of this study is to assess the changes in weight of the patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Further the aim is to examine the relation between gender of the patient and the change in the weight.
270 The Effect of Warm Gutta-Percha Techniques on Viability and Mineralized Tissue Associated Gene’s Transcripts of Human Periodontal-Ligament Mesenchymal Stem-Cells , Nazife TuÄŸba Azmaz, Serife Buket Bozkurt, Sema Sezgin Hakki and Sema Belli,
The purpose of the this study was to assess the effect of continuous wave of condensation (CWCT) and thermoplastic gutta-percha injection (TGI) techniques on the viability and mRNA expressions of mineralized tissue-associated proteins of human peri-odontal-ligament mesenchymal stem-cells (hPDL-MSCs)
271 Comparative Evaluation of Fracture Resistance of Root Dentine of Two MTA based Sealers and a Resin Sealer - An In Vitro Study , Meenu G Singla1 and Usha Tanwar,
To evaluate and compare the ability of two MTA based sealers: MTA Plus and EndoSeal MTA and an epoxy resin based sealer: AH Plus, to enhance the fracture resistance of root canal treated teeth.
272 Craniofacial Distraction Osteogenesis - An Overview and Review of Literature , Ajish George Oommen and Riya Thankam Jose,
Distraction osteogenesis is a reliable method for regeneration of bone deficiency, used in treatment velopharyngeal incompe-tence, and other craniofacial disorders. Extraoral and intraoral devices have been developed to aid in distraction of facial bones. Blood supply preservation, stable fixation and distraction of bones is key to its success. Further study and research need to be under-taken for implementation of distraction osteogenesis in clinical use for various craniofacial deformities
273 The Use of Autogenous Dentin as a Graft in Accelerated Orthodontics Periodontally, Using the Kometa Bio Disposer , Carrasco Gutiérrez Vicente Mtro and Macías Cid Hilda Montserrat
Periodontally Accelerated Orthodontics is a procedure that helps speed up treatment. The Wilcko brothers modify the technique and, in addition to the cuts, place a graft that allows safe orthodontic movements
274 Comprehensive Treatment of a Discolored, Endodontically and Periodontally Compromised Upper Central Incisor through Interdisciplinary Approach: A 2-Year Follow Up , Rishi Bhimani and Avishkar Mokal
Dentistry has evolved leaps and bounds in the past few decades, from simple treatment procedures to more complex, full-mouth life-changing treatment plans. Complex clinical situations necessitate the expertise of various disciplines of dentistry, which must be communicated and co-ordinated, leading to a holistic treatment approach known as Interdisciplinary dentistry.
275 Dental Implant Replacement Followed by Xenogen Bone Graft, Conjunctive Graft and Roll Technique: A Case Report , manda Bandeira de Almeida, Bueno TO, Câmara-Souza MB, Casati MZ, Nociti-Jr FH and Casarin RC
Implant therapy in the anterior maxilla is a challenge for clinicians due tissue deficiencies often caused by various conditions, as well as the higher esthetic demanded by patients. Adequate marginal gingival contour and sufficient keratinized tissue width around the implant-supported prosthesis are essential for the maintenance of peri-implant health and optimal esthetics.
276 Use of Hawley’s Appliance to Prevent Dead Space Formation After Minor Oral Surgery: A Novel Technique , Anmol Agarwal, Gaurav Mittal, Payal Agarwal, Santosh Kumhar  and Neel Gupta
Dead space, or a space remaining in the tissues due to improper closure of surgical wounds, permitting the accumulation of blood or serum underneath the tissues. Although seen commonly after general surgical procedures but is also commonly noticed after minor or major oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures. For example, enucleation of a cyst, excision of the exophytic growths etc. All such procedures requires elevation of a full thickness mucoperiosteal flap leaving behind a large portion of unsupported tissue due to excision of lesion. Such flaps when sutured back tend to develop dead space beneath which in turn can get infected and lead to secondary morbidity
277 The Pandemic through the Eyes of a Dental Intern in Tunisia , Seghir Arwa
The covid-19 pandemic caused by corona virus (SARS-CoV-2 vi-rus), is causing major disruption in the lives of dental professionals across the world especially those located in low/middle income countries
278 Compomers: A Review of Literature , Neelam Mittal and Supriya Gupta
Polyacid-modified composite resins are a class of composite material used in dental repair. Similar to conventional composite materials, compomers also have two distinct phases. These phases are different in form and chemical composition and are mutu-ally insoluble in each other.
279 Odontogenic Keratocyst- Identity Unearthed: A Systematic Review , M S Nishanth, Vishwas L and Gaurav
The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a conundrumatic odontogenic cyst which is developmental in origin, commonly seen in the oral and maxillofacial region has gained traction since last two decades. This cyst is very distinctive because of its high recurrence rates and its aggressive behaviour; it also has characteristic clinical and histopathological features.
280 Esthetic Rehabilitation with Non Conventional Fixed Partial Dentures - A Case Report , Rupandeep Kaur Samra and Dheeraj Gupta
Increased mesiodistal space after loss of an anterior tooth in patients with existing diastema often presents with a dilemma in restoration of teeth in the esthetic zone. In patients with existing anterior diastema, restoration of loss of an anterior tooth can be quite challenging.
281 Level of Knowledge of Covid-19 among Dental Students of the Universidad Católica De Santiago De Guayaquil-Ecuador , Margy A Guerra-Riofrio, Fuad O Huamán-Garaicoa and Karla E Cruz-Moreira
Determine the level of knowledge about COVID-19 among students from Dental School of the Universidad Católica de Santiago de Guayaquil (UCSG) in 2020.
282 Chitosan and Xanthan Membrane in Periosteal Injury in the Calvary of Rats , Fernando Biolcati Chiantia, Antonio Carlos Aloise and Lydia Masako Ferreira
The periosteum is a complex structure composed of an external fibrous layer that confers structural integrity and an internal layer, which has osteogenic and repair potential. When an extensive injury occurs, which does not allow spontaneous repair of the periosteum, there is a difficulty in repairing the wound. With this, there is a search for substitute biomaterials, with reparative capacity.
283 Play Safe-Sports Dentistry a Review , Gurpreet Kaur
As per FDI definition, sports dentistry is branch of dentistry dealing with prevention and treatment of pathologies and injuries of oral cavity and stomatognathic system related to sports practice. The stomatognathic system is anatomical and functional system comprising the teeth, jaws and associated soft tissues, facial muscles and Temporomandibular joint (TMJ). It’s a most recent upcom-ing field in Dentistry
284 Contributions of Low-Level Laser Therapy in the Postoperative Period of Impacted Third Molar Extractions: Integrative Literature Review , Basilio Ana Flávia Pereira, Caixeta Mirelle Estefane Oliveira, Rodrigo Soares de Andrade, Machado Fabrício Campos and Carvalho Thiago de Amorim
The use of low-power laser in oral and maxillofacial surgery has several applications in order to reduce consequences after the extraction of impacted molars, such as trismus, pain and facial edema. The objective of this integrative review was to demonstrate the effectiveness with the use of Low Power Lasers in the postoperative period of patients who underwent extraction of impacted third molars.
285 Diabetomics- A Potential Saliva Based Diabetes Diagnosis , Prerana G, Aishwarya P R Kumar and Gaurav
With 400 million individuals suffering from one of the most prevalent conditions known to mankind diabetes; there still exists an age old invasive diagnostic and self-assessment criteria which is till date considered to be the gold standard. Everyday approximately 0.4 - 2.8 litres of saliva is produced within the oral cavity; which raises a question as to why we cannot use this human serum to diagnose diabetes. The abundance of biomarkers such as genetic material and protein it contains, it is hard to ignore this as a beginning of a new era of using saliva as a potent non-invasive diagnostic tool.
286 Bisphosphonates Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: Systematic Review of the Literature , SM Bouzoubaa, Mahad Chaimae, S Ait Lhaj and I Benyahya
The aim of this review is to assess the route of administration of bisphosphonates (BPs) most likely to generate osteone-crosis of the jaw (ONJ) while determining the profile of patients receiving this type of treatment
287 Comparative Evaluation of the Shear Bond Strength and Debonding Properties of a New Self Etch Adhesive Composite Cement and Self Etching Primer Composite System Used for Orthodontic Bracket bonding - An In Vitro Study , Sameer Ahmad Malik and Laxmikanth SM
Over the last 50 years the bonding of various adhesives to enamel and dentin has developed a niche in nearly all areas of dentistry, including orthodontics. Combining conditioning and priming into a single step improves bonding time and cost-effectiveness to the clinician and Orthodontists use the acid-etch bonding technique to attach brackets to the enamel surface.
288 Welcome to the Profession of Dentistry-A Briefing for I BDS Students , K Chandrasekharan Nair and Pradeep Dathan
Fresh professional college students have many doubts on how to study, how to learn skills and how to interact with others. Most of the doubts are addressed in this article.
289 Coping with Cancer in Patients with Head and Neck Cancers in Iran , Fatemeh Moslemi, Nazanin Rahbanian, Elham Abbaszadeh, Behjat Kalantari and Maryam Alsadat Hashemipour
Many people, having been diagnosed with cancer, experience high levels of inability and frustration while coping with this disease in individual and familial lives. To return to their normal lives, these patients need help to cope with the disease and meet their various needs.
290 What Governs Your Emotions- Let the Hormones Talk: A Questionnaire Study!!! , Pallab Roy, Shailaja Kushwaha, Shivangi Pandey and Gaurav
Emotions are an integral part of life which affect our daily activities. These are strong feelings derived from circum-stances, stress, mood, or relationship with others. Stress, according to Hans Seyle, is defined as non-specific response of the body to any demand for change
291 Is Bone Density a Success Criteria in Dental Implants , Urmi Agrawal, Md Jalaluddin, Doyel Roy and Riddhi Awasthi
In modern era, implant dentistry has become a choice of treatment for restoring the missing teeth. For a successful outcome the treatment procedure requires a series of patient-related and procedure-dependent parameters. The volume of bone available and bone quality plays a vital role in planning the surgical procedure, the type of implant, and in the success of the implant. Osseointegra-tion is predicted by implant stability, which occurs in two levels i.e. primary and secondary stability.
292 Mucormycosis: Black Devious Wanderer , Sindhu Ravindra, Karthik D Yadav, Praveen Kumar Varma, Chritson and Sindhe J Raghunand
The treatment of COVID-19 has burdened the health infrastructure to its limit and beyond. Among the various complications that are seen post COVID, mucormycosis is one of the most dangerous condition seen which has devastating effects on the already immunocompromised patient with a very poor prognosis. It would mean that the patient who might win the war against COVID-19 may lose the battle against mucormycosis. The various organs affected are dependent on the route of transmission of the virus. A well- planned approach with preventive as well as other timely management of the disease process is highly beneficial and should be done to achieve a better prognosis.
293 Prosthodontic Significance of Incisive Papilla - An Overview , Ambadi Jayakumar, Pradeep Dathan, Lakshmi Ajithan, Nikhil S Rajan, Arya Nair R, Gouri Nithin and K Chandrasekharan Nair
Many studies have been conducted to determine the relationship between incisive papilla and maxillary central incisor and measured the papilla incisor distance in dentate subjects to extrapolate this distance as a guide to place maxillary central incisors in complete dentures. So incisive papilla can be recognized as an important landmark in complete denture construction. Other recognised roles of the papilla have also been included in this overview.
294 Geometric Analysis of Curved Canals Prepared by HyFlex EDM Versus HyFlex CM Rotary Nickel Titanium Files: An In-Vitro Study , Mohamed Moftah Mohamed, Shaimaa Ismail Gawdat and Reem A Lutfy
The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate 2 file systems: HyFlex EDM and HyFlex CM in preparing severely curved mesiobuccal canals of human mandibular molars regarding: the centering ability, transportation of the canal and ability to maintain canal radius of curvature, utilizing cone beam computed tomography (CBCT).
295 TOBACCOVID: A Vile in the Society! , Arpit Sikri, Jyotsana Sikri, Amala Nancy S and Ruben Lobo
The use of tobacco, a common “stress-buster” among the youth, results in various bacterial as well as viral infections of the respira-tory tract. This may lead to devastating effects on the lungs. More-over, there has been increase in the ferocity of dreadful diseases like pneumonia and tuberculosis. This was the scenario in the pre-COVID times
296 Bond Failure of 3D Printed Positioning Tray for Fixed Retainers , Raghda Alaa ElDeen, Amr El Dakroury, Fouad El Sharaby, Mai Abou el Fotouh and Amr El Bielay
This study was carried out to evaluate the bond failure when using the 3D printed positioning tray for bonding the fixed mandibular retainers versus the conventional direct bonding technique method.
297 Temporomandibular Joint Disorders- An Overview of Diagnosis and Treatment Options , Tofiq Hakimuddin Bohra, Zainab T Bohra1 and Varun Kunte
Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) Disorders is a lifestyle modulating disorder. Patients having this disorder go through a lot of pain, discomfort and restriction in the joint movement in day to day life
298 Dentigerous Cyst Associated with an Impacted Deciduous Molar: A Rare Case Report , Dr Saumya Paul, Dr Satvik Paul, Dr Bhavna Gupta Saraf, Dr Neha Sheoran, Dr Gauri Kalra and Dr Megha Chawla
A 14-year-old girl was referred to the department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Sudha Rustagi College of Dental Sci-ences and Research, Faridabad with the complaint of pain and swelling in upper right back tooth region since 3 - 4 months. Intraoral clinical examination revealed a firm, diffused, tender buccal swelling in the maxillary posterior region extending from distal to 1st premolar to mesial of 1st molar (measuring 2.0 x 1.5 cm.)
299 Knowledge, Attitude, Practice of Dental Students and Interns about Pediatric Dentistry and their Future Perception , Shivani Singh, Neha Sheoran, Bhavna G Saraf, Priya Mendiratta, Megha Chawla and Ritu Singh
The aim of the study was to assess the Knowledge, Attitude, Practice of Dental Students and Interns about Pediatric Dentistry and their future perception.A total of 220 BDS final year students and interns at Sudha Rustagi College of dental sciences and research, Faridabad answered a questionnaire about Knowledge, Attitude, Practice of Dental Students and Interns about Pediatric Dentistry and their future perception. The questionnaire was given to the students chosen from a random selection. The filled questionnaire was than collected and results were analyzed.
300 Microwave Energy from Fundamental Principles to Applied Dentistry. Review , Nagy Abdulsamee, Passant Nagi and Hager Abdullah
Microwave heating (MH) is quickly gaining popularity as a useful and effective method in a number of fields, including electronics, medicine, dentistry, and science. For better microwave technology application, a thorough understanding of the fundamentals of microwave-matter interactions is required.
301 Granuloma or Oral Epulis: Benign Tumor with Multiple Forms , M Konate, S Haitami, W Anane, A Lachkar and I Benyahya
Oral granuloma is a reactive hyperplasia of connective tissue in response to local irritants. The name granuloma is misnomer since oral granuloma is not associated with clinical or histological signs of granuloma. This term englobes many entities with different clinical and histologic signs. Therefore, its management and follow-up will be different depending on the type of granuloma. This paper describes four different cases of oral granuloma, their clinical appearances and appropriate management.
302 Reconstruction of Surgical Defect in Mandible Using Patient Specific Implant - A Case Report , Shweta Murlidhar Patil, Nitin Bhola, Chinmay Ghavat and Anchal Agarwal
The odontogenic keratocyst (OKC) is a commonly occurring developmental cystic lesion of the jaw with a predilection for males (1.3:1) in the 2nd - 3rd decade [1]. It accounts to approximately 11% of all cysts of jaw and occurs most commonly in the posterior body or ramus of the mandible [2]. It’s destructive nature and propensity for recurrence necessitates aggressive treatment to ensure low recurrence rate [3]. Autogenous bone has been a gold standard for reconstruction. Replacement of mandibular bone has been performed by using free fibula, scapula, iliac crest grafts etc. It is associated with donor site morbidity and difficulty to shape the au-togenous bone in areas with curvature. Patient Specific Implants has revolutionised the reconstruction ladder and is a treatment mo-dality for these arduous cases. In the present case of OKC a segmental resection with disarticulation was performed. PEEK (Polyether Etherketone) implant was used for reconstruction. PEEK has properties similar to bone and it overcomes disadvantages of titanium.
303 Mucormycosis of Maxilla Post Covid-19-An Epidemic in India-Report of a Case , Gokul Venkateshwar, Tanvi Mahale, Veenita Singh and Deepak Khanna
This article presents a case of a 41-year-old, male patient affected with Mucormycosis of the right maxilla following COVID-19 infection. Though Mucormycosis has been reported in the literature the condition has exponentially increased following COVID-19 pandemic due to a plethora of factors
304 Know Covid-19 and Fight it - An Overview on the Pandemic , K Chandrasekharan Nair, Pradeep Dathan and Bheemalingeswara Rao
Covid-19 pandemic has fallen on our society quite unexpectedly. Luckily the virus responsible for the disease was identified but the vaccines could be introduced after almost an year. By this time, the virus transformed into different strains, further complicating the treatment. Dental practice was affected the most because oral cavity harbours the virus in abundance. This overview provides a compilation of information present for the benefit of practising dentists and dental students.
305 Intraoperative Incidents and Complications during Surgical Removal of Impacted and Semi-Impacted Third Molars. A Retrospective Case Study and Review of Literature , Florou E and Kolomvos Nikolaos
Surgical removal of third molars is a common procedure in oral surgery. Complications that may occur are interoperative bleed-ing, displacement of third molar, apex displacement, damage to adjacent teeth, fracture of the alveolar process, maxillary tuberosity or mandible, oroantral communication, nerve injury, tool breakage, burn of soft tissues, emphysema and injury of the temporoman-dibular joint. This article provides a retrospective study of specific cases with interoperative complications and a literature review. 28 cases of patients were involved in the study after the occurrence of complications during the removal of third molars of the upper and lower jaw
306 Prevalence of Accessory Mental Foramen in Indian Population: A Retrospective CBCT Study , Ganga G K, Asha R Iyengar, Seema Patil, Majji Swetha and Deepshikha Rodricks
Accessory mental foramen (AMF), is a relatively rare anatomic variation found in the vicinity of the mental foramen. AMF generally contain branches of major blood vessels and nerves and inadvertent damage to these vital structures passing through AMF during a surgical procedure in the premolar and molar region could result in a plethora of neurovascular com-plications both during surgery and post-surgery.
307 Evaluation of Knowledge and Attitude of Practising Dentists in Oman towards Minimal Intervention (MI) Management of Dental Caries - A National Survey , Thillaikkarasi Viswapurna, Laila AlJadidi, PS Viswapurna and Mohammad Zeinalddin
Dental caries is a pandemic disease that is associated with pain in the advanced stages. It is the most common reason for patient’s seeking dental care. The prevalence of the disease in Oman has been well documented via quantitative studies in the past
308 Implementation of Carrageenan on Burning Mouth Syndrome , Subham Kumari, Nilofar Hossain, Nidhi Kumari, Sunny and Ajay Kumar Bharti
Ongoing (chronic) or recurrent burning in the mouth without an obvious cause. This uneasiness can influence our tongue, gums, in our cheeks, lips, roof of our mouth (palate) or extensive areas around our mouth. This sensation of burning can be severe, when scorch or cauterize your mouth dry mouth is a condition characterized by burning mouth syndrome. This is a persistent Orofacial jerk without any buccal mucosal difficulties or other organic disease. There are many numbers of same name for this such as stoma-todynia, Patients commonly having with burning, pricking, or insensibility over the tongue or another areas in oral mucosa
309 Early Diagnosis and Screening of Oral Cancers , Sundaram Rajaram and Gauthami Sundar
Oral cancer forms an important aspect of cancer and contributes to cancer deaths in a sizeable numbers. More often than less the delay in cancer diagnosis and initiation of treatment lead to deaths. For delay in each unit of time the worse are the consequences of cancer and treatment prognosis. It is therefore important to identify the cancer at the very inception and start the treatment when it can last effectively. This article discusses the new strategies in approaching such oral cancers, namely ‘Early diagnosis’ and ‘Screen-ing’.
310 Covid 19 Vaccine Status Updated in India: A Review , Rajesh Kumar Gupta, Preety Gupta, Shivani Gupta and Sumit Garg
Vaccinations are substances that are acclimated give insusceptibility by animating the get together of antibodies. Vaccination is an interaction by which somebody is made to foster obstruction towards irresistible sicknesses by utilizing an antibody. Despite the fact that the endeavors on COVID-19 antibodies began early, at first in China, Yet, we didn't have a proficient COVID-19 vaccination before September, 2020 this is regularly in light of the fact that a fruitful COVID-19 antibody will require a mindful approval of vi-ability and unfriendly reactivity on the grounds that the objective vaccine populace incorporate vulnerable people beyond 60 years old, especially those with ongoing co-morbid conditions, cutting edge medical care laborers and individuals engaged with basics ventures.
311 Mucormycosis!!! Do We Really Need to Panic? Role of Dentists in Diagnosing and Treating the Condition , Meenu V Pillai
Mucormycosis (phycomycosis, zygomycosis) is an acute opportunistic infection caused by a saprophytic fungus found in soil, bre-ad molds, and decaying fruits and vegetables. Numerous predisposing risk factors are associated with mucormycosis, although most cases have been reported in poorly controlled diabetics or in patients with hematologic malignant conditions.
312 Diagnostic Enigma of Spindle Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity- Review of Literature , Flora Verma, Priyanka Kamra, Deepti Anand and Manisha Dixit
Spindle cell carcinoma is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma which has been reported in oral cavity with different demographic data. Spindle cell carcinoma has been addressed with various terminologies including, “sarcomatoid carcinoma”, “collision tumor”, “pseudocarcinoma” owing to its varied proposed histogenesis. Spindle cell carcinoma is important to understand due to its perplex-ing pathological diagnosis. The “dedifferentiating” epithelial population into spindle cell morphology leads to overlapping features with other sarcomatous tumors. It is essential to evaluate the lesion and attain a proper diagnosis for better treatment and clinical outcomes. Thus, in this review published literature and reported cases has been presented to understand such aggressive lesion with importance of using diagnostic techniques such as immunohistochemistry to understand the pathogenesis.
313 Gender Differences in Smiling: Class III and Class I Malocclusions , Abdallah S Nouh, HM Abdel Majeed and Essam Mohamed Nassef Selim
Smile is asignificant facial expression that affects the apparent facial attractiveness of a person and is used as an ef-ficient mean for societal communication. This study is to evaluate the smile parameter variations between Class I and Class III male and female subjects. It invests the gender-related changes in the soft tissuefor orthodontic diagnostic and proper treatment plans to reach the maximum patient satisfaction
314 The Role of Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Polymer in Dentistry - A Review , Majji Vasavi, Gurram Vijay Kumar, MC Suresh Sajjan, Rama Raju AV, Bheemalingeswararao D and K Chandrasekharan Nair
Evolution of scientific knowledge has brought forth numerous materials in Prosthetic dentistry. Poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) is one such material that finds popular use in Prosthodontics. PEEK is a semi-crystalline linear polycyclic thermoplastic which is expected to substitute many metals in the family of biomaterials. PEEK can find a place in implantology as dental implant, superstruc-ture or implant abutment. PEEK has proven its versatility in a very short span of time and has found a space in prosthetic advance-ments. This article reviews the characteristics of PEEK which are suited for the present and futuristic contexts of the development of dentistry.
315 Oral Microbiome and Health , Ketevan Nanobashvili, Lia Mania and Rusudan IvaniSvili
The human oral cavity is one of the most diverse environments in terms of microbial settlement. The microbiotic environment of the oral cavity includes viruses, fungi, protozoa, archaea, and bacteria. From the listed microorganisms bacterial microflora are present in the largest numbers, namely - Phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, Synergistetesand Tenericutes
316 Displaced Dental Implants into Maxillary Sinus , Pérez Errázuriz Sebastián
The knowledge of maxillary sinus anatomy has converted ex- tremely significant in every sinus surgery. Resorption of the alveo- lar process, sinus pneumatization, bony septa, are some examples that can ́t not go unnoted. The rehabilitation with dental implants has become nowadays a very usual practice. However, there are some factors that we to consider in the posterior ridge.
317 Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) Using Collagen Membrane with Polylactic Acid Frame (PLA): Case Report , Donizete Heliano Oliveira Borges, Talita Soares, Lucas Alves Ferreira, Francisco Jose Corrêa Braga, Felipe Andres Ortiz Poblete, Sergio Charifker Ribeiro Martins and Leandro Lécio de Lima Sousa
Rehabilitation with implants must seek not only functional repair but also strive for an aesthetically satisfying result. Tooth ex- traction results in the natural resorption of original hard tissues, with subsequent retraction of the surrounding soft tissues, and this is the surgeon’s challenge: to restore function and aesthetics in as few steps as possible. A wide range of techniques and biomaterials are available on the market.
318 A Review of Brodie’s Theory and a Reinterpretation of the Muscular Relationship between the Stomatognathic System and Posture , Collin DW da Costa and Timothy DJ da Costa
The muscular-physiology of the stomatognathic-postural system is a studied subject since 1940. Starting from the first consider-ations on the subject made by Dr A.G. Brodie, the authors of this review wanted to deepen the understanding of the connections and function of this complex system, which is made up of different interconnected systems
319 Environmentally Sustainable Dentistry: Assessment of Waste Produced in Undergraduate Removable Prosthodontic Clinics , Riku Koyama, Sunyoung Ma and Andrew Tawse-Smith
Over the recent decades, the society has become more socially and ethically more aware and accountable for climate change and global warming. Much of the current literature agrees that the healthcare system is not sustainable with the growing de- mand that causes environmental strain, and its underlying economics.
320 Evaluation of Knowledge and Attitude towards Prosthodontic Rehabilitation among Mithilanchal Population , Rafi Ahmed, Mahesh Suganna, Roushan Kumar and Shivam Sulok
Dental care has always been an integral part of general wellbeing. Realization and consciousness of the same plays a significant role in determining the dental health of an individual. Miserable oral conditions and loss of teeth including complete loss or partial loss, is nearly the same as to dental death.
321 Management of Radix Entomolaris , Gurinderjit Kaur Sandhu and Sandeep Kaur
Mandibular first molar shows the greatest variation in the morphology in terms of root number as well number of canals. Extra root is located on the distal root either in the lingual direction or the buccal direction, called radix entomolaris or radix paramolaris respectively.
322 The Validity of Retromolar Pad as an Intraoral Landmark in the Fabrication of Complete Dentures - A Short Review , Pradeep Dathan, K Chandrasekharan Nair, Ambadi Jayakumar and Lakshmi Ajithan
Extraoral and intraoral landmarks have been identified to ease the practice of dentistry especially the fabrication of complete den- ture. Determination of the occlusal plane of the complete dentures has always raised an element of doubt to the practitioner.
323 Does Maxillary Sinus have any Influence on the Skeletal Class or Facial Type? , Hiba Gmati, Mariem Nasfi, Mounira Rtibi, Ines Methioub, Anissa El Yemni Zinelabidine and Abdellatif Boughzela
Maxillary sinuses are very important cavities of the face. Their relationship with some teeth allows to suggest that maxillary sinus development may affect skeletal malocclusions and vertical facial types
324 Case Report: Combined Treatment with Home Bleaching and Resin Infiltration in Treating Two Non-Cavited Carious Lesions , G Solinas, G Stellino2, M Lattari, A A Amodeo and AB Giannì
Enamel defects are often qualitative in nature and appear as white spots on the tooth surface. Increasingly, patients are asking for these imperfections to be treated and it is now possible to intervene with minimally invasive methods to restore the aesthetics of these dental elements.
325 Bone-Like Tissue Growth in the Root Canal of an Immature Permanent Avulsed and Replanted Central Incisor , Gali Zisman, Sigalit Blumer and Gisela Berenstein Ajzman
Avulsion is considered one of the most serious dental injuries known. Among the parameters studied with respect to the pulpal healing were development of pulp necrosis, pulp canal obliteration (PCO) and the ingrowth of bone into the root canal
326 Introducing Nora Torque Selection Analysis , Nasir H Alhamlan
Finishing anterior teeth with the proper torque is crucial to achieve optimal occlusion, function, esthetics, and stability. Evaluating the need for additional torque and carefully selecting brackets’ prescription should be performed on a case by case basis and before starting orthodontic treatment. T
327 Assessment of Fracture Resistance in Teeth with Simulated Perforating Internal Root Resorption Cavities Repaired with Biodentine, Retro MTA and Portland Cement (A Comparative In Vitro Study) , Paunceh Samy Soliman, Nehal Nabil Roshdy and Manar Y Fouda
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of perforation repair materials such as Biodentine, Retro MTA and Portland Cement on the fracture resistance of teeth with simulated perforating internal root resorption cavities.
328 Evaluation of Soft Tissue Changes on Lateral Cephalometric X-Ray Associated with Lip Repositioning Surgery and/or Botulinum Toxin Injections in Gummy Smile Cases. Randomized Clinical Study , Noury Adel Saed Abd El Kafe, Bahaa Eldin A Tawfik and Abdalla S Nouh
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the soft tissue changes on the lateral cephalometric x-ray associated with the lip repositioning surgery and/or botulinum toxin injections.
329 Promising a Safe Futuristic Hope to Covid-19 Pandemic through Vaccination - A Review of Different Vaccines , Manisha Saxena, Neel Kant Patil, Mohit Sareen, Manoj Meena and Nitesh Tyagi
The current pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has influenced the world socially and economically. COVID-19 is originated due to a new strain of coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The world is trying to control epidemic by depending on social distancing and hygiene-related measures, along with trial of different drug combination.
330 Is Transition to E-Learning Effective amongst Dental Students during Covid-19 Era?? , Urvi Shah, Dhwani Ranveria, Hiren Patel, Haren Pandya, Hitesh Dewan and Bijal Bhavsar
Dental education has more or less relied upon traditional classroom teaching where a face to face interaction exists amongst educators and students. However, emergence of worldwide pandemic due to covid-19 as declared by WHO in January 2020 has necessitated the need of social distancing. Consequently, all the education institutes have faced a dire situation of conducting the studies online via virtual classrooms, dentistry being no exemption
331 Teledentistry: A Covid-Safe Way to Dentistry!! , Bhawna Saxena
The Covid-19 pandemics has drastically impacted both the pa- tients and the health care system, dental health care system being no exception.
332 Assessment of Maternal Knowledge, Attitude and Practice towards Development of Nursing Caries among Preschool Going Children in Bangladesh , Wafi Ara Faruqui and Nadira Sultana Kakoly
The purpose of the study was to assess the level of maternal knowledge, attitude, and practice towards the development of nursing caries among preschool-going children (2 - 5 years of age) in Bangladesh
333 Retromandibular Approach for Mandibular Sub Condylar Fracture: A Review of Literature , Jimson Samson, Harivighnesh S, Anandh Balasubramanian and Jones Jayabalan
Fracture of mandibular condyle represent 25% to 30% of all mandibular fractures and are thus among the most common facial fractures. There are variable pattern of fracture that may occur anywhere along the line from the sigmoid notch to the mandibular angle. It is often accompanied by fractures in other sites of the mandible. They differ from mandibular body fractures because they are more difficult to diagnose clinically and radiologically
334 Dentoalveolar Surgery and Orthodontics- A Review , Gutierrez C Michelle and Parra V Victor
Dentoalveolar surgical procedures in orthodontic treatment may prove to be an alternative method to reduce treatment time and improve outcome in adolescent and adult patients. This article reviews the clinical surgical practice in orthodontic treatment, indications and biological principles, as well as the limitations and risks of surgical techniques.
335 Fibrous Dysplasia in Maxilla: A Case Report , Gaurav Gupta, DK Gupta, Neelja Gupta and Priyanka Gupta
Fibrous dysplasia is marked by replacement of normal bone by excessively proliferated fibrous connective tissue interspersed with irregular immature bony trabeculae and woven bone and osteoid. Bone development ceases in woven bone stage so matured lamellar bone cannot be formed. It is a congenital dysplastic disease of bone that may occur in a single bone or multiple bones. Here we are presenting a case report of a 36-year-old female with monostotic fibrous dysplasia in maxilla.
336 From Snoring to Happy Sleeping!! , Sonam Sethi, Anmol Kapoor and Amrit Kapoor
Obstructive Sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops and starts. Symptoms include snoring and feeling exhausted even after a full night's sleep. Treatment often includes lifestyle changes, such as weight loss and the use of a breathing assistance device at night, such as a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine. However, due to the bulky design of the CPAP machine and it being an unpleasant experience for the bed partners, the drive for a more compliant design has led to the eXciteOSA machine
337 Anxiety- A Major Cause of Distress during Dental Procedures , Syeda Aafia Fathima
The most horrible feeling in the world is anxiety, which we will not wish even for our enemy. Deterioration of oral health is due to avoidance of treatment because of dental anxiety which is a major problem faced by dentists. To develop a patient-centric treatment plan the dentist along with his/her team should first understand why the patient is anxious? Assessing the level of anxiety of the patient will help the dentist develop empathy towards the patient. In this article, we will be going through the causes, symptoms and effects of dental anxiety and ways to overcome it.
338 Appearance Related Intervention for Smoking Cessation among University Students-Randomized Controlled Trial , Pandya Visha S, Sampath Naganandini, Mahuli Amit V, Yadav Roma, Kapadiya Jahanvi, Singh Satyendra and Pankaj Chaudhary
To assess the efficacy of appearance related smoking intervention as a motivational trigger for smoking cessation among university students.To sensitize the student smokers to quit smoking using the photoaging intervention app and to assess the efficacy of smoking cessation intervention by comparing successful quitting (assessed by Fagerström score) between the intervention and control groups.
339 Effect of Occlusal Reduction on Postoperative Pain After Endodontic Treatment in Teeth with Irreversible pulpitis and Symptomatic Apical Periodontitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial , Marian Shenoda Fathy, Hebatallah Mohamed Maged ELFar and Shaimaa Ismail Gawdat
Evaluation of pain intensity after endodontic instrumentation and obturation after occlusal reduction in mandibular posterior teeth associated with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis and symptomatic apical periodontitis.To assess the effect of occlusal reduction on post-operative pain after endodontic instrumentation and obturation in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis and symptomatic apical periodontitis in mandibular posterior teeth in a random- ized clinical trial
340 Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma: A Clinical Case Report , Anas Al-misurati and Aburwais Aymen
Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma (POF) is popularly known as a soft reactive tissue that develops around the interdental papilla which are regarded as reactive rather than malignant. A 27-year-old woman with gingival overgrowth in the maxillary anterior region is the subject of this case.
341 Maternal Awareness and Knowledge of Proper Oral Health during Pregnancy and Post-Delivery and Caries Transmission to their Children , Gisela Berenstein Ajzman, Myriam Shalom, Offer Erez, Cohen Ornit and Uri Zilberman
Maternal knowledge and awareness may play an essential positive role in the prevention of early childhood caries (ECC) that bears significant risks and even life-threatening infections. Therefore, improving maternal knowledge and practice of oral health during pregnancy may result in lower risks of ECC in toddlers and children
342 Use of Caries Assessment Spectrum Treatment (CAST) Severity Score in an Adult Population , Castro Ana Luiza Sarno, Leal Soraya Coelho, Vianna Maria Isabel Pereira and Mendes Carlos Maurício Cardeal
The Caries Assessment Spectrum Treatment (CAST) severity score has been tested in children, but not yet in adults. The objective of the study is to evaluate the applicability of the CAST severity score in grouping adult citizens according to their caries load.
343 Clinical Audit in Oral Health Care , Shailee Fotedar
Audits are part of the continuous quality improvement process and one of the key elements of clinical governance. Clinical audit includes a detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional for assessing the quality of dental care. It is ‘Measuring and Re-measuring’ against agreed standard for improvement. Clinical audit in oral Health care at present is only sporadic in India. The present review article aims to introduce the concept of clinical audit and it should be conducted on regular basis in oral health care. The various health organisations and associations can play a pivotal role by increasing the awareness among the health professionals about clinical audit.
344 Comparative Analyses of Dense and Porous Chitosan-Xanthan Membranes , Fabio Alessandro Simões, Antonio Carlos Aloise and Lydia Masako Ferreira
Polymeric materials are often used in tissue engineering to foster the growth and/or healing of the most varied types of tissues and organs. To analyze the physicochemical properties of porous chitosan-xanthan membranes
345 How Accurate are Patient Histories? Hepatitis B Knowledge and Prevalence among Dental Patients , Mohamed Yaser Kharma, Baydaa Koussa, Madeha Sadki, Mohamad Almech, Sulaiman Alamari, Jumana Yaseen, Hala Alras and Ahmed Aldwaik
The importance of adequate medical history taking in dentistry is essential and interferes with the patient’s dental treatment. But the validity of such data is often questioned. Trust is the key element among doctor-patient helps to establish solid medical history, achieve better health outcomes and better perceived quality of healthcare services.
346 Assessment of the Radiological Changes Involving Articular Surfaces of Temporomandibular Joints in Patients with Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid Arthritis using Computed Tomography , Edara Naga Priyanka, Nalli Prasanth Kumar1, Sankar Narayana Sarma G, Kusuma Kumari Donepudi, Srinivas Prasad Vijayan, Kolappan R, Anitha Krishnan Pandarathodiyil
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders refer to a complex set of conditions; manifested by pain in the area of the jaws and associated muscles and limitations in their ability to make normal movements like swallowing, mastication, and speech. Arthritis also affects the TMJ.
347 Oral Health Approach to Patients with Dementia , Joana Braamcamp and Ricardo Faria-Almeida
Dementia is a severe public health issue that affects millions of people in the world. The large number of individuals diagnosed with dementia results in the common presence of these patients in a dental medicine environment.
348 Cephalometric Norms for Orthognathic Surgery in Local Andhra Pradesh Population , Manish Pisarla1, Tejaswi Kala, Rajivi Kalpakuri, Ravalika N Kothuri, Jadhav Sachin Kumar and Srikanth Kadavergu
The aim of the present study was to establish hard and soft tissue cephalometric norms for orthognathic surgery (COGS) in Andhra Pradesh population.
349 Bilateral Molars and Premolars Intrusion Using 2 Miniscrews and Acrylic Plate: A Case Report , Amjad Al Taki and Mazen R Sbeih
The skeletal anterior open bite may be treated using mini-screws as a complete anchorage is provided for correction of the open bite through the intrusion of the maxillary molars. The case presented herein used mini-screws along with a specially designed acrylic plate
350 In Vitro Evaluation of the Flexural Strength of Different Temporary Crown Materials, After Thermocycling , Georges El Najjar, Halal R, Daou M and Zebouni E
To study the variation of flexural strength as a function of time during an interval simulating a time span of a year in the mouth and determine whether the mechanical performance of the materials in question remains acceptable.
351 Cytotoxicity and Physicochemical Properties of a Promising Root Canal Sealer with Bioinductive Property , Fabrício Kitazono de Carvalho, Fernanda Vicioni-Marques, Marília Pacífico Lucisano, Bárbara Maria Garbelotti Fortunato1, Patrícia Maria Gatón-Hernández, Paulo Nelson-Filho1, Raquel Assed Bezerra da Silva and Léa Assed Bezerra da Silva
The present study evaluated the physicochemical properties and cytotoxicity of AH Plus®, BioRoot RCS®, Endomethasone N® and Sealapex®. The working and setting time, radiopacity, flow and dimensional change were analyzed. Primary cells of human peripheral lymphocytes and MTT assay were used for cell viability evaluation.
352 Application of the Platelet Rich Fibrin and L-PRF Leucocytes Technique in Long-Standing Periapical and Periodontal Lesion Defects , Quevedo Bisonni M, Sciaini Lewis V, Nuñez Otero M, Rodriguez K and Suárez JM
Long-standing periapical and periodontal lesions present a common biological sequence, progressive resorption and loss of alveolar bone around the affected tooth. In recent years there has been an enormous evolution in the key role that platelets play in tissue regeneration techniques, facilitating, among other actions, the healing of soft tissues and hard tissues thanks to the release of cytokines and growth factors over an extended period of time.
353 COVID-19 and Dentistry: A Review , Ferial Hamed Almokayad
Covid-19 is from family member of coronavirus. COVID-19 has as its etiologic agent the severe acute respiratory syndrome, spreading globally, resulting in the 2019 - 2020 pandemic, as announced by the World Health Organization (WHO). The first cases of the infection were reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and January 2020.
354 Platelet Rich Fibrin in Implant Dentistry: An Update , Priyanka Rathod, Siddhesh Borse, Chetan Kakade and Sachin Chaware
Bone graft materials is used for surgical defect area as a scaffolding material. however, an introduction of platelet rich fibrin has many benefits than bone graft materials. The major advantage of PRF that it is used autogenous blood without external thrombin, therefore there is no immunogenic reaction. The following paper is describing the advance application of PRF either used alone or combination with other graft materials in peri-implant region.
355 Impact of Covid-19 on Oral Health and Vice Versa , Gargi Mukherjee
COVID refers to coronavirus disease 2019. This disease, which has been declared a pandemic spreads from one person to another through droplets when an infected person comes in close contact with a healthy person. The mode of spread through contaminated surfaces is still debatable as there is no clear evidence till date.
356 Communication Skills during the Pandemic Times , K Chandrasekharan Nair, Pradeep Dathan and Bhimalingesvara Rao
Communication skills are essentially to be procured by health professionals along with professional skills. The relevance of communication got enhanced during the pandemic times when patients had limited direct access to the docly describes thetors. The restrictions got compensated by the timely developments that happened in the communication channels. This article briefly describes the basics of communication which are relevant to both medical and dental profession.
357 OSMF: Hearing Forfeiture by Fibrosis , Sreepradha C, Vaishali MR, Maria Priscilla David and Roopashri G
Oral squamous cell carcinoma has been ranked at the sixth position amongst the malignant neoplasms, with primarily the incidence of a precursor/pre-cancer such as oral leukoplakia, oral erythroplakia oral submucous fibrosis. The aetiology of OSMF is multifactorial and embraces local factors as well as systemic factors seen to affect retromolar region, buccal mucosa, followed by palatal fauces and uvula, soft palate, tongue later trailed by the labial mucosa.
358 Periapical Healing Following Bypass of a Separated Instrument in a Mandibular Molar - A Case Report , Shahab Javanmardi, Gurdeep Singh and Talal Al-Nahlawi
When a file fractures during root canal treatment, there are several treatment options available for the clinician. The definitive management should be based on a thorough knowledge of the success rates of each treatment option, balanced against potential risks of removal or file retention, with the availability of needed equipment and skills if the treating dentist. This paper describes a case of separated instrument which was treated by bypassing the separated fragment with one year follow up of the root canal treat- ment.
359 COVID-19 and Periodontal Disease , Nikesh Moolya
Periodontal disease can cause gingival inflammation, bleeding from gums, bad breath, and if left untreated could lead to tooth mobility and tooth loss. The latest findings from the AAP and the CDC and Prevention have estimated that up to half of adults aged 30 years and above in US have some forms of periodontal prob- lems. Since the last few years, numerous trials have shown the existence of a two-way relationships between periodontal disease and systemic conditions. There is also emerging evidence regard- ing interrelationship between COVID-19 and periodontal disease.
360 Prevalence of Impacted Lower Canines and Lower Second Premolars among Dental Students , Emad Hammody Abdulla, Ali Abd Al Kareem Mohammed, Shafaa Abd Al Kadum and Reyad Jafar
Mandibular second premolar came in the third grade after third permanent molars and maxillary permanent canines in frequency of impaction. They are found impacted at different angulation and positions and should be carefully evaluated radio graphically during treatment planning. The incidence of impacted mandibular canines in the mandible is low as that in the maxilla, few sound studies based on large patient samples found.
361 The Potential Relevance of Accelerated Recovery After Surgery Protocol in Reducing Morbidity and Complications After Major Head and Neck Cancer Surgery , Manish Tailor
To review the advantages of enhance recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol in nonhead and neck disciplines and to portray early execution endeavors in significant head and neck surgeries.
362 History of Skin Graft Harvesting- A Mini Review , Sundaram Rajaram and Gauthami Sundar
The skin grafting is an age old surgical reconstruction technique that is still being practiced. It is such a versatile procedure that it still holds a place in the reconstructive ladder forming an important treatment option in the field of reconstruction. The need of the situation has seen a sequence of changes in the skin grafting techniques that has led to the use and invention of varying armamentarium suiting each of them. This article is a mini review of the history of techniques in skin graft harvest and the armamentarium involved
363 Cheiloscopy an Unfolding Tool , Iqra Khilji1, Rosheni Ann Mamen, Avineet Kaur3, Shalika, Harnoor Singh Sandhu and Mehraab Dhillon
Forensic odontology is a branch of forensic sciences which uses the skill of the dentist as well as forensic odontologist to use dental records in personal identification in various legal purposes. This needs various distinctive and less familiar techniques and cheiloscopy technique is one of them. Cheiloscopy is acquired from ancient Roman words cheilos-lips and skopein-study. Thus, cheiloscopy is defined as the study of lip prints. It facilitates the human identification on the bases of lip traces/designs in various legal purposes. It is used as an accessory tool in crime investigation and used in sex determination, racial determination etc. Like finger prints of a human, the lip patterns are also unique and different in every person. The present review highlights on chiloscopy.
364 3D Evaluation of Distalization of Maxillary First Permanent Molar Using Mini Implants: A Finite Element Study , Rajivi Kalpakuri, Manish Pisarla, Tejaswi Kala, Jadhav Sachin Kumar, B Jaya Lakshmi and B Prashanth Kumar
The purpose of the study was to use FEM to analyze three dimensional movements of first permanent molar distalization using mini-implants.The aim of the study was to analyze the FEM model of the maxilla which simulates the three dimensional movements of the first permanent molar after distalization using mini-implants.
365 Dental Treatments in Sports Dentistry - Oral Care of Athlete, Mouthguards and Dental Trauma Management , Sneha Divekar
As more contact sports are played, the chances of dental injuries in sports are increasing by the day. That is why, it is important that the dentist insists that the athletes, esp. those playing contact need to wear mouthguards.
366 Upgradation of Hanau Spring Bow with Digital Inclinometer - A Report , Face bow transfer has been in popular use in clinical prosthodontics and in the treatment planning of orthognathic surgery. Face bows have been subjected to an evolutionary process for bringing in precision and ease of operation. Spring bow stands testimony to such an evolution. Attempts have been made to optimize the precision of Spring bow and this article reports the incorporation of a digital inclinometer for enhancing the precision in the relationship of Spring bow with the Frankfort Horizontal plane.
367 Toothbrush: Knowledge and Practice of Undergraduate Students of Dental Therapy in Enugu, Nigeria , Nathan Ukuoghene Ikimi, Lawrence Igbinosa and Nkereuwem Sunday Etukudoh
The Dental therapist in Nigeria is trained among other things, to carry out prophylactic cleaning of the teeth of patients and to give oral hygiene instructions. This in important for good oral hygiene status of the patient.
368 Champagne Bubble Test: An Authentic Method to Find Hard-to-Find Canals during Root Canal Therapy , Farid A Faruqi, Asaad J Mirza and Rafique Moosa
During an endodontic treatment, a dentist encounters multiple variations in the configuration of the root canal system. This morphologic variation makes many canals very difficult to find and the operating dentist has to take various measures to locate such hard-to-find canals. Champagne bubble test is a method which helps to pinpoint orifice of a hidden canal. This case report describes a similar problem rectified with the help of champagne bubble test.
369 Should a Replanted Avulsed Tooth Undergo Orthodontic Treatment? , Zahida Parveen, Akshata Ajay Shenv , Anand Krishnan, Lisa Elizabeth Jacob and Deivanayagi
Permanent tooth avulsion is the most devastating of all dental injuries, accounting for 1 - 16 percent of all traumatic injuries, with maxillary incisors being the most often affected. This case report documents the treatment and progress of an avulsed permanent right maxillary central incisor and extruded maxillary right lateral incisor undergoing orthodontic treatment. The patient had reported within 1 and half hours following trauma with the tooth stored in dry condition and soil contamination. The prognosis depends on measures taken at the place of the accident or the time frame within which the tooth is reimplanted after avulsion. Appropriate emergency management and treatment strategy are critical for a good prognosis.
370 Emotional Dentistry- The Emotions and Dental Office , Rheia Baijal, Subin Jee Vargis, Kanika Arora and Avneet Kaur
The progression of clinical decision making involves evaluating clinical facts in conjunction with an interaction between the dentist and the patient. Patients come to dental clinic with not only problems in their oral cavity but also certain psychological and emotional concerns. In this article, we have concentrated on emotions which are also important in the interactions between other members of the dental office and patients.
371 Mucormycosis in a Diabetic Patient , Jyotismita Thakuria, Rajendragouda Patil and Udita Singh
Though there have been an outbreak of mucormycosis infection in covid-19 patients, it was prevalent even before the pandemic. When the defense system of the human body is damaged or the concentration of pathogens reach an exceptionally high density, op-portunistic infection such as mucormycosis may emerge.
372 Extraction of Maxillary Teeth Using 4% Articaine with Buccal Infiltration Only in Comparison with 2% Lidocaine Buccal and Palatal Infiltration , Hussam Omer Ahmed Mohamed El-Amin and Elneel Ahmed MohamedAli
Patients with maxillary bilateral extraction were injected using a Dental syringe with a short needle (infiltration) on one side with lidocaine 2% buccally and palatally (control) and on another appointment the other side was injected with 4% articaine on the buccal side only (infiltration) using a Dental syringe with a short needle. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to assess the pain on each side before and during the extraction. Data were recorded and inserted in SPSS for statistical analysis comparing between the VAS scores between the control and articaine injected sites by means of t- test and chi square.
373 Gene Expression of the RANK/RANKL/OPG System on a Three-Dimensional Culture of Human Periodontal Fibroblasts Under Continuous Compression , Andrea Cristina Baptista Coelho de Faria, Antonio Carlos Aloise and Lidya Masako Ferreira
The cultivation of periodontal ligament fibroblasts, associated with the simulation of compression or tension on the cell, enables the analysis of changes in morphology and identification of molecules and protein expression. The system formed by the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK), receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) is directly linked to bone remodeling, in the formation and reabsorption of bone tissue.
374 Diode Laser Biostimulatory Effect on Dental Implant Inserted into Narrows Mandibular Ridges: Clinico-Radiographic Evaluation , Hamdy A Abol-Khair, Mostafa M Hosny, Hisham A Abozeid and Abdel-Fattah M Amer
To evaluate possible effect of simultaneous Laser therapy application on dental implant inserted into narrow alveolar ridges after crestal splitting using a piezoelectric device.
375 Skills Training in Prosthodontics - A Report , Pradeep Dathan, K Chandrasekharan Nair, Bhimalingesvara Rao and Mohan Kumar T
Skills training in Prosthodontics, requires time, teachers and repetitions by the students. When proficiency is achieved, performance of skill becomes automatic. Pandemic has deprived the students from attending practical and clinical classes. Professionally it is a great loss for the present day students. Basics of skill training, effect of the pandemic on skill training, compensatory mechanisms to be adopted and competency based training and assessment are discussed in this report
376 Comparative Evaluation of the Efficacy of Intra-ligamentary Injection of 20 mg Piroxicam Versus 4% Articaine in Management of Endodontic Pain in Patients with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis in Mandibular Molars: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trail , Lobna Mohamed Hassan Elhaddad, Abeer Marzouk and Marwa Mahmoud Bedier
This clinical study was conducted to compare between intra-ligamentary injection of 20 mg Piroxicam and 4% Articaine after in-ferior alveolar nerve block injection in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of mandibular molar teeth treated in a single-visit root canal treatment as regards to their ability to control pain during access cavity preparation,instrumentation and at 6, 12, 24, 48-hrs post-operatively using Numerical Rating Scale (NRS)
377 Impression Making in Dental Implantology , Arpit Sikri and Jyotsana Sikri
Implant is defined as any object or material, such as an allo- plastic substance or other tissue, which is partially or completely inserted or grafted into the body for therapeutic, diagnostic, pros - thetic, or experimental purposes.
378 Validity of Brief Pain Inventory Questionnaire in Describing Trigeminal Neuralgia and Temporomandibular Joint Disorder Patients , K Caroline Sunitha and Arvind Muthukrishnan
Multidimensional pain assessment plays an important role in evaluating diagnosis and treatment. The aim and objectives of the present study is to identify the descriptors for trigeminal neuralgia and temporomandibular joint disorder patients using the brief pain inventory questionnaire and to evaluate its validity and assess the discriminative capacity of the questionnaire in the same patients respectively
379 Analysing Missing Link Between Body Mass Index and Growth Pattern , Jayakrishnan U, Jibin Joy, Nishmitha J and Anil Kumar
Facial type also referred to as facial pattern or facial skeletal pattern is a determinant factor when selecting the most appropriate orthodontic treatment plan. The classification of Siriwat and Jarabak, for example, defines brachyfacials as hypodivergent, mesofacials as neutrals, and dolichofacials as hyperdivergent. Body mass index(BMI) is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of a person. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between BMI and growth pattern, and to assess if this has any clinical application.
380 Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) , Awni farhan Ismael Alani
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an illness caused by a novel coronavirus, which is now called severe acute respira- tory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) previously known as 2019-nCoV), it was first identified in an outbreak of respiratory illness cases in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China.
381 Evolution of Dental Science in Ancient India , K Chandrasekharan Nair, MV Anil Kumar and Pradeep Dathan
The legacy of Dentistry and Medicine can be traced to ancient literature like ‘the Vedas’. Many drugs, predominantly of plant origin,prevention of diseases and maintenance of health can be found in the Vedas and masterly text books of Ayurveda. This article is an attempt to trace the origins of dental science in our ancient context. Master teachers of Ayurveda will find elaborate description in subsequent articles.
382 Prevalence of Impacted Canine Among Adult Orthodontic Patients: A Retrospective Study , Ismail Ibrahim Alhabeebi, Manal Yehia Foda, Eman Mohie El-Din El-Sayed and Mustafa Mohamed El Dawlatly
The current research was to estimate the prevalence of impacted canines among the Egyptian population; the following parameters were included as sex, age, number, position, laterality and associated pathology with impacted Canine.
383 An Unusual Combination of a MB2 Canal in a Maxillary Molar with a C Shaped Configuration and a Reverse S - Shaped External Root Contour Diagnosed with CBCT in a Maxillary Molar - A Case Report , Lakshmi Aravind, Siddharth V Nair, Dilu Davis Chakkalakkal, Lekshmy S Devi and Sreeja Sreedhar
The most predictable factor in endodontic treatment which results in a predictable outcome is if a clinician has any knowledge about the hidden internal anatomy of the root canal systems. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) can act as the “third eye” for clinicians if they suspect any variability in canal configuration. This case report stresses the importance of such a preoperative CBCT evaluation, failure to do so results in a failed root canal treatment. The Palato - mesiobuccal canal of maxillary molars has been rightfully named so due to its close relationship to the palatal canal and can easily be mistaken for an additional palatal canal clinically. This case reports the rare occurrence of a combination of a C-shaped configuration in a Palato-MesioBuccal canal with a fluting of the root in a maxillary molar.
384 One-stage, Full-mouth Sulcular Debridement with FRP 1064 Nd:YAG as Adjunctive to a Full Mouth Initial Periodontal Therapy: A Clinical Case Series Retrospective Study , Beatrijs Deruyter
In an attempt to enhance the treatment outcomes of anti-infective periodontal therapy, the one-stage, full-mouth therapy has been the most logic way of treating chronic adult periodontitis. Still, quadrant scaling and root planing are considered standard treatment with accepted limited results and loss of dental structures. One-stage, full-mouth debridement with FRP 1064nm Nd:YAG in conjunction with ultrasonic scaling can provide a cost-effective alternative procedure for gain in clinical attachment to meet patients’ and clinicians’ expectations. In this limited study in a private practice, clinical attachment levels are compared to what is known as the standard conventional treatment in periodontics. One-stage, full-mouth procedure eliminates cross-contamination.The Thermal laser effect, might play an important role in the significant difference in results between compared to other alternative protocols to treat chronic periodontitis. Simplification of the protocol with FRP 1064nm Nd:YAG leads to a cost-effective procedurewith more predictable results.
385 Arsenic in Ground Water: A Possible Impact on Oral Health , Pritha Pal and Ajanta Halder
Heavy metal toxicity has been playing an important role in the development of cancer. The presence of metals like nickel, arsenic,lead etc. in the soils may turn out to be carcinogenic, by means of their adverse impact on human health. Although arsenic has a therapeutic value in the treatment of certain diseases like promyelocytic leukemia, syphilis, psoriasis, asthma, rheumatism, haemorrhoids,cough and pruritus, its toxicity is a major concern now a days, since it is an established carcinogen.
386 Mothers’ Struggle and Knowledge Towards Feeding a Child with a Cleft Lip and Palate , Amel Eltayeb, Asim Satti and Haithem Elhadi Babiker
The most common problems that cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) patients in Sudan present with are prolonged feeding times and an inadequate nutritional intake. This study was undertaken to investigate Sudanese mothers’ knowledge and experiences of having a child born with CLP as well how mothers receive support from professionals.
387 Bimaxillary Agenesis of Central Incisors Along with Impaction of Canine having Bifid Roots - A Rare Case Report , Harshita Gupta, Gurkeerat Singh, Varun Goyal, Sridhar Kannan, Raj Kumar Singh, Anu Rathi and Ritu Gupta
The occurrence of hypodontia, hyperdontia as well as impaction of teeth in the same individual is a rarely seen condition in dental practice. Thorough clinical and radiographical examination are essential in adequate treatment planning of such patients.
388 Radiographic Assessment of Unerupted Permanent Maxillary Incisors in Pediatric Patients - A Case Series , Anand M, Altaf G and Garg S
A completely or partially unerupted maxillary anterior tooth poses an esthetic, psychological and functional concern, especially in children.To evaluate the etiology, diagnosis and severity of impaction of permanent maxillary incisors in pediatric patients.
389 Assessment of Learning Preferences and Outcomes Among Dental and Allied Health Science Students: A Multi-Institutional Study , Archana Krishna Murthy, Shilpashree KB, Shahina Yasmin and Mumin Rashid
To assess learning preferences and outcomes among dental and allied health science students.The present study was conducted with the objectives and to assess learning preferences using Visual, Aural, Read/Write,and Kinesthetic Questionnaire and to assess students learning outcomes using student’s yearly performance
390 The Effect of Premedication with Curcumin on Post-operative Pain in Single Visit Endodontic Treatment of Acute Pulpitis in Mandibular Molars: A Randomized Controlled Trial , Mohamed Sobhy Abdelnaby, Ghada El Hilaly Eid and Mohamed Ahmed El Nabarawi
The purpose of this triple-blinded (patient, operator, and outcome assessor), 1:1 randomized clinical trial was comparing the effect of a single preoperative dose of Curcumin versus placebo on post-operative pain after single visit root canal treatment for symptomatic irreversible pulpitis in mandibular molars.
391 Minimal Extension for Maximal Results - Review on Minimal Intervention Paediatric Dentistry , Voleti Sri Srujana Aravinda, Chaitanya Ram Kandregula, Malathi Y, Madhavi Krishna M, Nikitha BS and B Malathi Sree
Recent advances in dentistry have transformed approach to the diagnosis and management of dental caries. This article review’s the scientific basis for early diagnosis of dental caries, remineralization of tooth structure and reduction of cariogenic bacteria by using minimally invasive techniques
392 Effect of Using Anterior Bite Plane in the Treatment of Growing Orthodontic Patients with Deep Overbite Malocclusion: A Systematic Review , Maninder Hundal
The continuing pandemic has affected dental healthcare severely leading to clinical, psychological and financial repercussions worldwide with unforeseen consequences on dental professionals, patients and laboratory personnel’s.
393 Comparative Evaluation of Using Cone Beam Computerized Tomography (CBCT) and Conventional Radiography Confirmed with Apex Locator for Working Length Determination in Curved Root Canals (Clinical Study) , Amal Hassan Mohamed, Geraldine Mohamed Ahmed, Ghada Borhan Abou Hussein and Hamdy Adly Youssef
For a successful endodontic treatment, removal of all pulp tissue and bacteria from the root canal is crucial. This cannot be performed without the proper determination of the working length of the canal. The working length of a tooth is between the coronal reference point and the end of the canal where preparation and obturation should stop. Several methods havebeen used for working length determination; tactile method, radiographic method, electronic method and 3D imaging.
394 Utilization of Lasers in Modern Dental Practice , Veenadevi Thonthula, Thulasi Atchi, Krishna Madhukumaran Pillai Sreekaladevi, Shreya Kothari, Hridya Jayaprakash and Divya Sudhakar
LASER is an acronym of Light Amplification by the Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Technological advancements have maximized popularity and access to laser use with increased patient expectations for painless and noninvasive procedures. In recent years, laser has spread their applications from diagnosis to preventive procedures, making them an efficient and valuable tool for dental surgeon in near future. This article summarizes evidence?based published studies on the applications of lasers in current day’s clinical practice in dentistry.
395 Double Layer Socket Preservation Technique Associated with Xenogenous Bone Graft and Polypropylene Membrane: A Case Report , Bruno Santana Freitas, Felipe Andres Ortiz Poblete, Sergio Charifker Ribeiro Martins, Leandro Lécio de Lima Sousa, Andre Hamar Braga and Bruno Goes da Costa Pinto
With the demand for tooth/gum aesthetics in implant-supported rehabilitations, the surgeon, whether an implant specialist or not, increasingly needs to be mindful of proper care for socket preservation following extraction. The paper presented here reports the case of a male patient who manifested dental impairment of the Upper Left First Molar (tooth #26) [in FDI notation]; following tomographic analysis and after reaching a consen- sus with the patient, the decision was made to extract said tooth and preserve the socket for subsequent implant placement. The aim of the case report is to present a clinical case of alveolar ridge preservation through the “Double Layer Socket Preservation” technique, a technique created by Barry Barthee, whereby a xenogenous graft under an xenogenous type III collagen membrane was combined with a polypropylene barrier.
396 Gum Health and Diabetes-relationship Between the Two Conditions , Bharat Joshi
Diabetes mellitus is a common problem in our day to day life. It is very much responsible for body damage. Likewise, oral health is not just limited to oral cavity only. It is associated with systemic health also
397 Dentists’ Perception and Awareness Towards COVID-19 and Infection Control: Cross-sectional Study Among a Sample of Egyptian Dentists , Doaa Adel-Khattab, Amira Mohammad Samy and Robert A Horowitz
Despite the convenience of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), American Dental Association (ADA) and WHO guidelines and recommendations, some dentists and dental assistants may have a lack of knowledge of the requirements of COVID-19 control
398 Skeletal Class III Treated with Double Jaw Surgery: A Case Report , Chaima Attia, Ines Dallel, Ramzi Moatemri, Samir Tobji and Adel Ben Amor
A female patient with severe class III skeletal malocclusion and hypodivergent face was treated with a conventional orthognatic treatment. Our patient had a dental class III canine and molar relationship, an anterior cross bite and a gummy smile.
399 An Audit Evaluating Local Compliance with NICE NG12 Suspected Cancer:Recognition and Referral Pathway at Bridgewater NHS Foundation Trust Community Dental Services , Iffah Zaman and Zara Leighton
Dentists have a responsibility to thoroughly assess the head and neck area for patients during clinical visits regardless of the patients presenting issue. This enables dental practitioners to help identify patients with signs or symptoms that could be caused by cancer.
400 Relationship of Maxillary Incisor Angulation with Upper Lip Strain , Pricillia Priska Sianita
In orthodontic treatment, cephalometric analysis is always carried out to obtain information that can help diagnose cases and develop the best treatment plan that can produce a good dental arrangement, a charming smile and an attractive profile.One of the measurements taken is to determine the angulation of the maxillary incisors because in almost every orthodontic case, the maxillary incisors, which are located in the anterior region, are the main areas where tooth movement occurs.
401 Hand Hygiene ‘A Poem to Remember’ , Anie Mary Paul
Hands hold us throughout the journey of life,Pats the shoulders and cheers in victory,It fights the battle and wipes the tears,It touch the suffering and soothes the pain
402 Myositis Ossificans of Masseter Muscle - A Rare Case Report , N Aravindan, R Sathyanarayanan, Raghu K, Raja Sethupathy Cheeman, Deepika Reddy C and Rohan Singh Chadha
Myositis ossificans traumatica (MOT) is a non-neoplastic, heterotopic bone growth within muscle or fascia that is thought to be caused by acute trauma, but it can also be caused by a variety of other factors.
403 A Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Evaluation of Maxillary Molars Relation to the Floor of Maxillary Sinus , Nagham H Ali and Maisaa KM Ali
Maxillary sinus varies greatly in shape, size, and position between different individuals and in different sides of the same individual. CBCT scan is very important in evaluating maxillary sinus characteristics including the relation between maxillary teeth and the sinus. It has many advantages including decreased scanning time and better resolution.
404 Artificial Intelligence in Dental Medicine , Anita Mehta, Isham Mittal and Anushka Kakkar
Artificial intelligence means machines that perform and function work which are similar to those which are performed by humans. Artificial intelligence initially started after the Second World War and has great scepticism, interest and disinterest
405 COVID?19 Pandemic and Subsequent Demand for E?learning: Insights of Dental Educators’ Perspective , Suzan S Ibrahim, Radwa R Hussein, Yasmine Fouad and Doaa Adel-Khattab
COVID?19 pandemic highlighted the importance of online learning and assessment in higher education system. The aim of the current research was to evaluate staff member’s educational perception towards implementing E?learning teaching and assessment during the COVID?19 era.
406 Mechanical Treatment of Class II Division 1: A Case Report , A Tlig, I Dallel, S Tobji and A Benamor
A study case of Class II division malocclusions represents 27% of the Tunisian population. The chief complains to patient who has previously treated by activator, including maxillary incisors proclamation with an elongated appearance of the face and chewing difficulties.
407 Evaluation of Soft Tissue and Labial Plate of Bone Stability of Immediate Implant in Direct with Socket Shield: A Case Report , Amr Hany Abdullah, Hala Kamal Abdel Gaber and Doaa Adel-Khattab
Implant placement is very common these days, esthetic requirements and expectations of patients and dental implant specialists are increasing to a level where both demand a restoration that mimics the natural appearance of a natural teeth.
408 Excision of Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Reconstruction with Full Thickness Skin Graft: A Case Report and Review of Various Treatment Modalities , Jitendra Kumar, Pankaj Goel, Vineeta Yadav and Arif Merchant
The choice of treatment related to Oral Submucous Fibrosis is still controversial and depends on the stage of the clinical and histological finding.
409 Evaluating the Association of Chronic Periodontitis with Quality and Duration of Sleep in North Indian Population Using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index – A Case Control Study , Varsha Kanjani, Deepak Kanjani, Venkata Sai Teja Mungara, Amba Shree Bharadwaj, Chitra, Chandrashekhar Maggidwar
Sleep is a biological phenomenon, greatly affecting psychological and physical health of an individual. The mechanism behind the association between chronic periodontitis and deprived sleep is still not clear. Deprived or disturbed sleep has said to be associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers, thereby leading to development of chronic periodontal diseases. The present study was conducted to evaluate the association of chronic periodontitis with quality and duration of sleep in North Indian population.
410 Role of objectives in Dental Education - A Review , K Chandrasekharan Nair, Pradeep Dathan, Bheemalingeswara Rao and Mohan Kumar T
Dental education has a profound history both in pre and post independent India. The evolution of dental education has been mainly based traditional practices which were followed in the west.
411 Comparison Between B.O.P.T. Technique and Technique by Horizontal Termination Line. About a Case , Echegaray Yankova Daniel
One of the main complications in tooth-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) is the unsatisfactory aesthetic result due to the apical migration of the gingival margin. The tendency of the gingival margin to migrate apically over time is related to different factors (gingival biotype, prosthetic preparation, invasion of biological width, iatrogeny, etc.).
412 3D Printing: Its Application in Pediatric Dental Practice , Rajib Sikdar, Anisha Bag, Supreet Shirolkar, Khooshbu Gayen, Subir Sarkar and Somen Roychowdhury
hree-dimensional (3D) printing is an additive manufacturing technique that entails depositing many layers of material to make a three-dimensional (3D) object. 3D printers are machines that produce representations of items created with CAD software or scanned with a 3D scanner.
413 Splints in Dentistry- A Contemporary Review , Avinash Gohilot and Shikha Rastogi Gupta
The ultimate goal in successful management of mobile teeth is to restore function and comfort by establishing a stable occlusion that promotes tooth retention and the maintenance of periodontium and temporomandibular joint health. The clinical management of mobile teeth can be a perplexing problem, especially if the underlying causes for that mobility have not been properly diagnosed.
414 Effect of Enamel Deproteinization Using Ficin on Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets , Hamza Gaaloul, Ghassen Kallel, Mahassen Barboura, Salah Mezlini, Leila Chekir-Ghedira, Ines Dallel, Samir Tobji and Adel Ben Amor
To test the effect of ficin as an enamel deproteinizing substance on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets.
415 COVID?19 Pandemic and Subsequent Demand for E?Learning: Insights of Students’ Perspective , Suzan S Ibrahim, Radwa R Hussein, Yasmine Fouad and Doaa Adel-Khattab
COVID?19 pandemic outbreak has restricted the ability to conduct in?person learning which affected medical education. One of the most immediate changes introduced has been the broad cancelling of face?to?face and being replaced by E?learning.
416 Aesthetic Rehabilitation in a Young Boy with Non-Syndromic Oligodontia:2 Year Follow Up. A Case Report , Valentine Rosadi Sinaga
A 10-year-old boy with oligodontia came to the dental practice with the main complaint about facial appearance. He feels insecure about making friends in school, since his friends always ask about how did his teeth become so weird. The boy was diagnosed with nonsyndromic oligodontia, had several deciduous and permanent teeth.
417 Perception of Tunisian Orthodontists, Dentists and Laypersons Towards Altered Smile Esthetics , Meriam Nasfi, H Gmati, M Rtibi, I Medhioub and A Zinelabidine
This study aimed to evaluate how dental practitioners and laypersons differ in their perception of altered smile aesthetics based on viewing images of a digitally manipulated smile.
418 Dental Bridge VS Dental Implant , Manali Panjwani
Dental bridge or dental implant is given when tooth/teeth aremissing or are advised removal as they are not in good condition.During this time dentist advises to go for removal followed by im- plant or bridge.
419 Comparative Evaluation of Different Obturation Techniques in Primary Molars Pulpectomy: A Clinical Study , Hanaa Mahmoud Shalan , Salwa M. Awad  , Ahmed H. Wahba and Hamada Bakr Mohamed
Extensive dental caries in primary dentition, remains a serious problem in pediatric dental practice.To evaluate different obturation techniques of pulpectomized primary molars using pressure syringe (Map System), endodontic plugger and rotary lentulo spiral
420 Lecture Remains to be an Effective Method of Teaching in Dental Education , K Chandrasekharan Nair , Pradeep Dathan , Bheemalingeswara Rao  and Mohan Kumar T
Three components of the curriculum of dental education are: 1. Objectives 2. Teaching learning methods and 3. Assessment (Evaluation). Amongst the teaching methods employed in dental education, lecture method has an unquestionable place and it is very popular with both the students and teachers. Characteristics of lecture and its presentation are given in this article.
421 A Short Review on Electrosurgery in Dentistry , Krishna Madhu Kumaran Pillai Sreekaladevi, Hridya Jayaprakash, Divya Sudhakar , Aishwarya Dham, Radhika Srikhakollu  and Shalini Panchacharam
In electrosurgery, electric current is precisely applied to the soft tissues by electrodes to obtain cutting of tissues. The electric current generated in electrosurgery is also used for incision, excision, hemostasis and coagulation of tissues. The mode of the use of this electric current could be changed for cutting or coagulating soft tissues. This article briefly explains the literature review of ES and its clinical application in dentistry.
422 Extra-Alveolar Temporary Anchorage Devices and Considerations of Adjacent Anatomical Structures-A Review , Sweta Saravanan and Steve Jacob
Extra-alveolar TADs offer the orthodontist elaborate tooth movements like en-masse distalization, expansion, mesialization etc.with an added advantage of preventing root damage. Although these TADs are placed away from roots, they are in close proximity tothe adjacent anatomical structures at the area of placement.
423 A Comparative Analysis of Cutting Electrocautery and Scalpel for Performing Cutaneous Incisions Over the Neck- A Prospective, Randomized, Single Blind Study , Gaurav A Thakare, Nitin Bhola, Anchal Agarwal and Chinmay Ghavat
The aim of the study was to assess the outcome of patients following use of scalpel and Cutting Electrocautery over Neck incisions in patients undergoing Neck Dissection.
424 Interdisciplinary Strategies in Management of Sub-Gingivally Fractured Teeth - A Sync at Various Levels , Vishnusripriya J , Anil Melath  , Subair K and Saicharan G
Sub gingivally fractured tooth requires a precisely planned interdisciplinary management strategies and complete understanding of the lesion. Complicated sub gingivally fractured teeth poses difficulties for the dentists to design efficient treatment plans as they demand interdisciplinary knowledge and approach. A comprehensive understanding of newer techniques, materials and their limitations is essential for achieving more functional and long-lasting anticipated results for the patient with such conditions. This review deals with various conventional treatment approaches and their contemporary modifications in treating a sub-gingivally fractured teeth.
425 Clinical Oral Health , Sruthi Baladevan
Oral health is a core indicator of general health and quality of life . Mouth is the gateway to our body so if we have good oral health, it directly indicates that we have a healthy body. Billions of people are affected by oral diseases which include dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis, oral cancers, HIV, or facial defects and trauma, cleft lip and cleft palate etc. Once the oral health deteriorates it becomes a risk factor for other non-communicable diseases affecting overall health like cardiovascular diseases, diabetes,cancer, chronic respiratory diseases etc.
426 Factors Influencing Marginal Bone Loss Around the Dental Implant: A Focus on GBR, Patient Related Factors and Implant Related Factors , Jinseok Lee, Yong-Gun Kim, Jo-Young Suh and Jae-Mok Lee
Purpose of this study was to investigate the marginal bone loss around the implant conducted by the periodontal department of Kyungpook National University Dental Hospital, and to analyze the effect of the patient related factors, implant related factors and practice of Guided bone regeneration. To determine the amount of marginal bone loss around the dental implant, panoramic radiograph at the three stages were compared: Immediately after secondary implant surgery, 1year and 2year after the application of prosthesis. Among the patient-related factors, male suffered greater marginal bone loss around the implant than female after 2 years of follow up period. GBR performed showed greater marginal resorption after 2 years of follow up. Also external type of implant showed less marginal resorption than internal type of implant.
427 V Appliance- Versatility for Enhanced Applicability , Mithun K Naik, Jayakrishnan U, Sharmila K Shetty, K Nillan Shetty3 and Rohan Rai
In the modern era, where the treatment mechanics are being refined to suit the requirements of the patient and ease of application by the clinician, there is an increasing demand for versatility in the appliance being used. Complexity doesn’t contribute to better patient compliance or help the clinician in carrying out the mechanics with ease. Patients are demanding minimal invasive treatment to correct the malocclusions. There is need for innovations in appliance design to customise it according to the patient needs.
428 Recent Developments and Potential Challenges in Dealing with Internal and External Surfaces of Glass Matrix and Resin Matrix Ceramic Materials. A Literature Review , Alaa Samir El-Ashkar and Omnia Nabil
Glass matrix and resin matrix ceramic materials has gained popularity in recent years, which has increased their clinicaluse. The purpose of this scientific overview is to discuss the impact of existing internal and external surface treatment procedures, as well as their potential consequences.
429 Efficacy of Two Rotary Systems Versus Manual Instrumentation During Retreatment: An In Vitro Study , Brijila Kuriakose and Rahul Maria
The aim of this study is to evaluate the cleaning efficiency of two rotary retreatment instrumentation techniques and Hand instrumentation technique (H file with solvent) in removing obturating material from the root canal walls, during retreatment procedure using scanning electron microscope.
430 A Study on Tray Adhesives Used with Elastomeric Impression Materials and Different Types of Trays , Shruti Sahay , Vahini Reddy and K Chandrasekharan Nair
Tray adhesives used with putty consistency addition Silicone and condensation silicone elastomeric impression materials on different types of trays viz. metallic trays, perforated metallic trays, plastic trays and perforated plastic trays. Comparison of tensile bond strength of two brands of tray adhesives viz. Coltene and Zhermack when used with addition curing and condensation curing putty consistency impression materials.
431 Effect of Continuous and Reciprocating File Motion on Microcrack Formation in Root Canals During Retreatment: A SEM Study , Aishwarya Singh and Rahul Maria
The aim of this study is to compare microcrack formation and propagation in apical one third of root after retreatment, while using two different retreatment files.
432 The Dental CAD/CAM Transition: is it About Knowledge or Material? , Réda Tebbal
This article aims to share solutions for a free first access to the digital dentistry world, while guiding you to knowledge available for free on internet to start now.
433 Autologous Biomaterials and Their Application in Post-Extraction Dental Implants in Areas of High Aesthetic Compromise. A Case Report , Luis Armando, Fernández Chávez, Vicente Carrasco and Gutiérrez de Lara
The placement of post-extraction implants in the aesthetic zone has been a topic of great interest in the field of oral implantology,and even more so when the patient’s teeth can be a source of autogenous bone graft and furthermore, if it is combined with Platelet Rich Fibrin membranes, accelerates the healing process, decreases pain and inflammation.
434 Traumatic Fibrodysplasia Ossificans: Report of Two Clinical Cases , João Luiz Carlini  and Juliane Maria Iagnes Prestes
Myositis ossificans is a non-neoplastic heterotopic bone formation that can affect muscles, tendons, aponeuroses, and fasciae. Its etiology is not fully elucidated yet, but it is believed that there may be a genetic predisposition from an autosomal dominant transmission, with trauma being the main triggering factor of the ossification process.
435 Validity of Modified Kvaal’s Method of Age Estimation in North-Indian Population Using Maxillary Lateral Incisor on Digital Panoramic Radiographs: A Retrospective Study , Nikhil Solanki, Supriya Singh and Shrawan Kumar
Dental age estimation (DAE) is one of the vital aspects in forensic dentistry. After tooth eruption, the size of the pulp cavity decreases constantly with age owing to deposition of secondary dentine. Various methods have been devised for estimating age, but the radiographical methods have the advantage of being non- invasive, easy, and fast
436 Beliefs and Barriers Associated with COVID-19 Vaccination Among the Outpatients Attending the Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital in Visakhapatnam City, Andhra Pradesh , NV Teja Ranganadham, Nagarjuna P, Ajaz Ahmed Dar, Neha Shaktawat  and Rajendra Singh Bhati
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been on healthcare officials' wish lists all around the world. This study aimed to assess the beliefs and barriers associated with the COVID-19 vaccination among the outpatients attending the Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital of Visakhapatnam city, Andhra Pradesh.
437 Vaccine Hesitancy- A Review of Literature , Pratibha Sharma , Chandrashekhar BR and Vivek Bhaskar
Vaccine hesitancy is the refusal by members of the public to take safe and recommended vaccines. This has been recorded since many decades. With each infection that modern medicine tries to eradicate via vaccines, there has been hesitancy from the public in different forms towards getting the said vaccines. However, successful strategies have been adopted to ensure maximum coverage of vaccination thereby facilitating elimination of the particular disease. Today, vaccine hesitancy stands in the way of successful resolu- tion of the COVID- 19 pandemic. This article reviews the history of vaccine hesitancy, some important concepts about hesitancy and strategies that were carried out to overcome them. It is hoped that this article could help healthcare workers better understand vaccine hesitancy and use some of the methods mentioned here in achieving maximum rates of COVID 19 vaccinations.
438 Awareness About Malocclusion Among Rural Adolescents and Young Adult Population - A Questionnaire Study , Aishwarya Sathyanarayanan
Malocclusion is a common phenomenon observed in this generation. Seeking treatment for malocclusion is entirely a independent decision of the individual. The effect caused by it on the daily life of the individual. These effects might seem insignificant individually but when added together cause a cumulative effect on the day to day life. Knowledge regarding the effects of malocclusion is necessary to find the internal motivation needed to seek and pursue orthodontic treatment.
439 Bone Grafts – A Valuable Substitute for Replacing Bony Defects- A Review , Pradeep C Dathan , Deepak Nallaswamy , S Rajeshkumar , Suja Joseph, Shahin Ismail  and K Chandrasekharan Nair
Numerous graft materials are in use of which autografts are considered as a gold standard. Autografts have the uniqueness of having osteogenic, osteoinductive and osteoconductive potential. At the same time, they have well identified disadvantages too which include donor site morbidity, graft availability and the risk of disease transmission.
440 Assessment of Surface Roughness and Color Stability of Glazed Versus Polished Pressed Zirconia Reinforced Lithium Silicate Restorations Under Different pH Oral Media (An In-Vitro Study) , Samar Fathy Fathy El Shihy, Reham Said El Basty and Gihan Abd Elhady El Naggar
Assess the effect of the surface finish protocol of pressed zirconia reinforced lithium silicate ceramics on the surface roughness and color stability under different pH oral media.
441 Huge Sized Pyogenic Granuloma of Palate: A Case Report , Krishna kishor, Anu Singh, Abhishek Kumar Singh and Heera
Pyogenic granuloma is a kind of inflammatory hyperplasia. The word ‘inflammatory hyperplasia’ is described as nodular growth of oral mucosa which contains inflamed fibrous and granulation tissue histopathologically. It is non-neoplastic. It is the most common gingival tumour with high predilection to gingivae. Approximately one-third of the lesion occur ensuing trauma.
442 Marginal Adaptation and Internal Fit of All Ceramic Crowns Fabricated with Pressed Versus Milled Zirconia Reinforced Lithium Silicate (An In-vitro study) , Fahmi Y, Taymour M  and El Naggar G
Evaluate the marginal adaptation and internal fit of Zirconia reinforced Lithium silicate crowns fabricated with heat pressed “Celtra Press” ingots compared to crowns fabricated with milled “Celtra Duo” blocks.
443 Assessment of Tip Surface of Gutta-Percha After Cutting with Various Techniques , Brijila Kuriakose, Rahul Maria, Aishwarya Singh, Neha Dubey and Karthi M
The aim of this study was to analyze the tip surface of gutta-percha after clipping it with various techniques.A total of 45 standardized gutta-percha cone size 25 were used in this study. The gutta-percha cones were divided into three groups of 15 samples each according to the cutting methods. In group I- scissor, Group II- Scalpel blade against glass slab, Group III- Tipsnip were used to cut off the segments. After cutting, the tip surface is examined under stereomicroscope for topographic deformity.
444 Evaluation of Bond Strength to Root Canal Dentine for Ready-Made Glass Fiber Post and Custom-Made Composite Resin Post (An In-vitro study) , Nofal A, Elbasty R and Zaki AA
The aim of this in-vitro study was to evaluate the bond strength of ready-made glass fiber post and custom-made composite resin posts to root canal dentin
445 Evaluation of the Flexural Strength of Cad/Cam Milled Polymethylmethacryateand Rapid Prototype 3d Printed Resin for Long Term Provisional Restorations , Reji Kumar , Jayakrishnakumar S  , Hariharan Ramakrishnan, Vallabh Mahadevan and Azhagarasan NS
To evaluate and compare the flexural strength of CAD/CAM milled PMMA resin and Rapid prototype3D printed resin for long term provisional restorations.Twenty rectangular shaped samples of dimensions 25mm(l) x 2mm (b) x 2mm (h) were prepared for evaluating the flexural strength according to ISO 10477:2018 (Dentistry-polymer-based crown and veneering materials). CAD/CAM milled PMMA resin samples (Group-I; n=10), Rapid prototype 3D printed resin samples (Group-II; n=10), were fabricated and grouped based on the type of material. All the twenty samples were subjected to 3-point bend test using a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 1.0 mm/min until fracture. The flexural strength values were tabulated and statistically analysed using student t- test.
446 Three Different Approaches of Immediate Implant Placement in Esthetic Zone - A Clinical Audit Retrospective Study , Nol Rithy  and Horn Rithvitou
To compare the stability of hard and soft tissue around immediate implant with three different treatment modalities, bone grafting in the jumping distance, collagen sponge, and put nothing
447 Atypical Swallowing, Open Bite and Musculo-Postural Consequences , Timothy DJ da Costa
In this review, the author wants to highlight the possible musculopostural consequences in people who have atypical swallowing. Altered swallowing is often related to dental malocclusion, specifically to open bite. This combination of atypical swallowing with open bite leads to hypotonia of the masticatory muscles, which is confirmed by various authors by EMG examination. This muscular hypotonia has consequences both at the level of the temporomandibular joint and at the postural level. It is common that the individual suffers from specific symptoms that must make the practitioner reflect on the possible cause at the level of the swallowing mechanism.
448 Comparing Healing with Scalpel and Laser in Root End Resection followed by MTA and PRF Placement , Akanksha Bhatt, Sugandha Sati , Advaitha Anand , Anil Dhingra and Ranjita Mehta
The purpose of this case report is to analyze the result of healing with scalpel and laser in root-end resection followed by MTA and PRF placement.
449 Halitosis- An Underrated Taboo! , Sri Akshaya Keerthi Vadivel, Aishwarya Dham, Radhika Srikhakollu, Vivek Narra, DurgaLakshmi Sakthi and Anitha P
Halitosis/bad breath/oral malodor has become a concern among youngsters and adults in today’s world. The epidemiological research on halitosis is inadequate since it is still a considerable but underrated taboo. Halitosis is still considered an underrated research topic among various researchers. Due to the multi origin nature of halitosis, each individual needs to be treated differently based on the complexity of halitosis. A multidisciplinary team consists of dentist, an ENT specialist, nutritionist, gastroenterologist and clinical psychologist is needed to provide better treatment approaches
450 Fabrication of Interim Obturator After Marsupialization – An Exigent Case Scenario , Divya Doddamani, Basappa Nadig, Saraswathi V Naik and Renuka D Shashidhara
Surgical obturator and interim obturators are fabricated before the surgical intervention in usual scenario to avoid the difficulties faced during impressions in open surgical wound. This case report describes the fabrication of interim obturator in a child patient aged 9-year-old reported with an open wound after marsupialization.
451 Surgical Closure of Oroantral Communication by Buccal Fat Pad Flap , Kalakhy Younes
The accidental opening of the sinus cavity to the oral cavity is not uncommon during tooth extraction, a tumor process, ballistic trauma or any intervention in the posterior maxillary sector, considered a real oral emergency. where the management of closing this breach between the sinus and the oral cavity is necessary in order to avoid the risk of sinusitis with all its complications by passage of germs from the oral cavity to the sinus.
452 Scintigraphy: The Illumination of The Buried , Ayeesha Urooge, Shafiullah Khan, Khizerulla Sharief, Mohammed Saleem and Karthik D Yadav
It is very important to each a conclusive diagnosis to treat or manage the patient with the best possible treatment modalities, how ever a proper diagnosis is always a matter of concern, especially when the disease is highly progressive in nature and therefore needs a dynamic diagnostic assessment to understand the rate of disease progression to hinder the disease process at the earliest time period possible. Nuclear medicine imaging not only provides us with vital information about the structural configuration in static position but also functional information of the area of interest.
453 Shear Bond Strength of Veneering Porcelain to Different Core Materials like Zirconia, Lithium Disilicate and Nickel Chromium Alloy - An Invitro Comparative Study , Hemalatha Konka, K Chandrasekharan Nair, Vahini Reddy and Divya Hegde
To evaluate the shear bond strength of veneering porcelain to zirconia, Lithium disilicate and Nickel chromium alloy cores.Rectangular samples of dimension 9x4x4mm were made in three different core materials viz. Zirconia, Lithium disilicate and Nickel chromium alloy. The bonding surface of the specimens were sandblasted. Feldspathic porcelain (cerinate) was applied on the cores and fired to form a 3mm thick veneer.
454 Oral Health and COVID , Andréa Dolores Correia Miranda Valdivia
In December 2019, a new SARS-CoV-2 virus emerged in Wu-han, China, which has already presented several variants. The world is experiencing a major surge with the omicron vari- ant of SARS-CoV-2. Estimates based on modeling by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) suggest that by 17 January 2022 there were 125 million omicron infections per day worldwide, more than ten times the peak of the delta wave in April 2021, as the proportion of asymptomatic or mild cases has increased compared to previous variants of this virus.
455 The Journey of Platelet Concentrates: An Era of Regeneration in Medicine and Dentistry: A Review , Nimmi Janardhanan, Sayana Nazrine and Shivaprasad BM
Platelets are small cells that circulate in blood playing an important role in managing hemostasis and vascular integrity. Theyare also known to release several growth factors which stimulate tissue regeneration.
456 Prevalence of Myths Related to Oral Surgery Among General Public a Cross-Sectional Study , Dr. Raghu.K, Dr. Sona Priyanka.A, Dr. Sathyanarayanan. R, Dr. Nithin Joseph Jude. B and Dr. Raja Sethupathy Cheeman. S
Myth is a commonly prevailing but fanciful faith, a false belief, a misconception, or a fictitious imaginary understanding of a thing or a person by people which has no applicability to reality. People have strong beliefs and faith in these myths which hinders the promotion of oral health. The main objective of this study was to find the existing myths in oral surgical procedures among the general public thus trying to reduce their numbers.
457 Enamel Micro abrasion: An Effective Method for Improving Esthetics - A Case Series , Akshita Panchal, Kamal Bagda, Kailash Attur, Manjusha Rawtiya, Aditi Patel and Pawan Gurjar
Aesthetics is frequently a prominent concern among young patients with anterior teeth involvement, which can be a problem to the dentist. Patients usually seek dental treatment to improve their smile because of superficial stains and enamel abnormalities.
458 Modern Adhesive Strategies: A Review of Literature , Chauhan Jyoti, de Ataide Ida  and Fernandes Marina
It is known that clinical success or failure of composite restorations rely to great extent on the quality and performance of the bonding system used juncture of teeth and restoration.
459 3D Printing in Dentistry , Deepankar Bhatnagar, Rupinder Matharoo, Rheia Baijal, Naman Mittal and Jubin Babu
3D printing otherwise known as additive manufacturing, rapid prototyping or layered manufacturing is a relatively new, quickly growing and rapidly expanding method of manufacturing that has got numerous applications in healthcare and also in many other fields. Recently, it has become a subject of great interest in planning surgeries.
460 Evaluation of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Punica Granatum, Green Tea, Chitosan and Sodium Hypochlorite Irrigants Against E. faecalis , Sadia Ada, Merlin Ann Joseph, Jayalakshmi KB, Shibani Shetty, Sujatha I, Prasanna Latha Nadig and Manje Gowda
This study aimed to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of various irrigants- Punica granatum 20%, green tea extract 3%, chitosan 2% and sodium hypochlorite 3% against E. faecalis.
461 Efficiency of Audiovisual Distraction Eyewear and Computer Controlled Local Anesthesia Delivery System in Children , Kshitija Kamlakar Bansode, Dimple Padawe, Vilas Takate, Kishor dighe and Gauri Vijaykumar Rathi
The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of audio-visual distraction eyewear and computer-controlled delivery system during extraction procedure.
462 Large Asymptomatic Maxillary Radicular Cysts Simulating Odontogenic Keratocysts or Bone Tumor Lesions: Importance of Radiographic Investigation , Luca Viganò, Pudylyk Diana , Peroni Giona  , Antuono Dalila , Tregambi Federica , Di Felice Silvia  and Cinzia Casu
Radicular cysts are common odontogenic entities, accounting for about 50% of all odontogenic cysts. They are associated with non-vital dental elements in which deep caries or inadequate endodontic treatments allow bacteria to migrate and infect peri-apical areas. Subsequent phlogistic processes trigger embryological epithelial rests potentially present in periodontal ligament,making them proliferate and form a cystic lesion.
463 Assessing the Outcome of Low-Level Laser Therapy on Bone Formation After SABG in Patients with Cleft Palate , Shilpa Dineshan , Maria John Kuriakose  and Pramod Subash
To evaluate if application of Low-level laser therapy at the site of the surgical wound created during Secondary Alveolar Bone Grafting, would alter the rate of bone formation in the cleft alveolus in cleft lip and palate patients.
464 Alzheimer’s Neuropathology and its Possible Association with Periodontal Disease , Joana Braamcamp, Ricardo Faria-Almeida and Ana Cristina Braga
Dementia is a severe public health issue that affects 47 million people in the world. The most common cause of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease, a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder that affects 60% to 80% of all patients diagnosed with dementia.
465 Saliva As a Diagnostic Fluid A Review , Dr. Aameer Parkar, Dr. Chetan Patil, Dr. Ben Joshua, Dr. Snehal Bhalerao, Dr. Vivekanand Panzade, Dr. Arti Kajale and Dr. Sonal Dhumal
Saliva like other body fluids has its own functions and importance in daily life of an organism. Humans can manage without saliva it is not life threatening but it results in variety of difficulties and miseries.
466 Interspecies Communication in Oral Biofilm , Dr Kanika Verma and Shiva Shankar Gummaluri
Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease that results in alveolar bone loss and attachment loss. Plaque biofilm and calculus were the basic culprits that creates the inflammatory state and causes host and microbial interactions within the periodontium.
467 Past, Present and Future of Public Health Dentists - A Cross Sectional Questionnaire Study on Masters of the Subject , Pradeep Onteru, Tejaswi Kala, Nikhil Moutam, Ashok Kumar Kanumuri, Deverashetty Shravya and Harika Chaganti
Although many departments of dentistry have promising careers, public health dentists often find themselves at cross-roads when looking for growth opportunities after post-graduation. This suggest the need to assess the awareness among public health dentists regarding various career prospects in India and also to assess the challenges faced by them in pursuing their opportunities.
468 A Hybrid Overlay Denture Approach Combining Copings with Sleeping Teeth - A Case Report , Anuraj Vijayan , Punit RS Khurana , Anju Aggarwal  and Aditya Chaudhary
The overdenture therapy is a conservative alternative for patients who only have a few important teeth left. Retained abutments significantly improve the denture’s overall retention and stability. In addition to these advantages, the retained teeth benefit from the intact periodontium, which gives positive reinforcement to the underlying bone. The therapy for overdentures can be done with or without attachments.
469 Platelet Concentrates: A Brand Biomaterial in Regenerative Era , Pradnya Dattatraya Kadam, Mala Dixit Baburaj, Bhalchandra Babusaheb Thorat and Sandeep k Pimple
Platelet rich concentrates, an attractive and potent material for regenerations as it has ability to form hydrogel which is suitable for cellular migration and proliferation. The ideal goal of any periodontal surgical therapy is regeneration. Being a completely autologous, relatively simple to prepare, inexpensive and efficient in terms of trapping platelets, platelet concentrates are efficient additive product for regeneration in periodontal therapy.
470 Influence of Two Ceramic Systems on Acetal Resin Clasp Retention , Bahaddin I Emhmed , Hosam E Elarabi  , Fatma K Ahmad  and Abdulsalam EE Ibrahim
The aim of the present study was toassess the effect of full contour zirconia and PMF on the retention of Acetal Resin Maxillary class I Kennedy classification is composed of two typical educational acrylic resin models, with residual teeth stretching from the right first premolar to the left first premolar teeth. Porcelain fused to metal and full zirconia crowns, proximal guiding planes, and buccal undercuts of 0.50 mm were placed on both first premolar teeth of each cast.
471 B Cells in Periodontitis - A Friend or Foe? , Dr. Bhalchandra Bhausaheb Thorat, Dr. Mala Dixit Baburaj, Pradnya Dattatraya Kadam and Sandeep K Pmiple
It is evident that B lymphocytes and Plasma cells superior among cells in periodontitis. Despite the fact that T cells work as the principal regulatory group of cells, B cells seem to have several critical roles in periodontitis.
472 The Effect of Cleft Lip and Cleft Palatal Repair and Unrepair on Nasomaxillary Complex. , Pradeep Subbaiah , Suma S and Jyothikiran H
A total of 36 individuals with cleft lip and palate (eighteen unoperated and eighteen operated) were chosen for the study. The purposive sampling approach is used for sampling. The patients were categorized into two groups, which were then subdivided into three subgroups, with six patients in each. A statistical evaluation was performed via descriptive statistics, including the independent “t” test and ANOVA.
473 Prevalence of Black Triangles in Post Orthodontic Adult Patients - A Retrospective Study , Raksha V, Sri Lakshmi Teja P, Laxmikanth SM, Shendre Shrikant, Raghunandan Chunduri and Ashita Talwar
Black angle (Latin: Angularis Nigra), also known as open gingival embrasures, and colloquially known as "black triangle", is the space or gap seen at the cervical embrasure, below the contact point of some teeth. The gingival black triangle does not only play a role in aesthetic concerns but also may cause plaque accumulation, further worsening periodontal disease, and phonetic problems.
474 Prosthetic Management of Hemimandibulectomy Patient with Guiding Plane and Twin Occlusion Prosthesis , Radhika Beri, Aditya Kapoor, Arpit Sikri and Jyotsana Sikri
The prosthodontic rehabilitation of patients with mandibular defects is very challenging due to the muscle attachments that are present on the mandible.
475 Multiple Congenital Epulis: A Bombshell on the First Cry with Surgical Eviction by Erbium Laser , Shivani Kumari Jamwal, Sana Farista , Neha Pankey and Shanin Farista
Congenital epulis also known as Neumann’s tumor is a benign, rare congenital intraoral tumor that usually affects alveolar mucosa of neonates with a marked female predilection of 10:1 and site predilection for maxillary alveolus by 3:1.
476 Jet Injector - An Approach to Painless Dentistry , Mythlee Chitra S
Pain management is the most common problem a dentist faces when treating a patient. Instilling a positive dental approach is achieved only by properly handling pain.
477 A Comparative Evaluation Of Shear Bond Strength Of Orthodontic Brackets Bonded After Conditioning Of Enamel With 5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite And 10% Papain Gel: An In-Vitro Study , Ferin, Pradeep S, Ravi S and Christin R Jacob
The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of conditioning the enamel surface with 10% papain gel and 5.25% sodium hypochlorite on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets and correlate it with the conventional bonding mechanism utilizing a Universal Testing Machine.
478 Oral Health Care for Special Needs Children: A Review , Pandiyan Ramanandvignesh and Lehl Kaur Gurvanit
Special health care need is the medical management or heath care intervention for an individual with any physical, mental, behavior, cognitive, emotional impairment or any other limiting conditions. These conditions might be congenital or acquired.
479 Autogenous Bone Graft from Mandibular Symphysis as Donor Site , Dr Himanshi Rana, Dr Preeti Sihmar and Dr V Raj Kumar
Patient at certain ages of their life loose tooth due to alveolar bone loss, caused by trauma, tooth extraction or periodontal diseases. The loss of width of alveolar ridge makes difficulty in placement of fixed appliances.
480 Contributions of Sage Charaka to Dentistry - A Review , K Chandrasekharan Nair, MV Anil Kumar and Pradeep Dathan
Sage Charaka is considered as a father figure of the renowned treatment system of Ayurveda. He lived any time between 2nd century BC to 1st century AD. Scholars of Charaka Samhita states that the Sage lived in the northwest India. Charaka Samhita had many commentaries and still remains to be the widely accepted text of Ayurveda amongst students and practitioners.
481 Application of Virtual Surgical Planning and Rapid Prototyping in Maxillofacial Trauma Surgery: A Case Series , Nitish Chandra Gupta, Chitra Chakravarthy, Shivaraj S Wagdargi and Ravi S Patil
Mandibular fractures are one of the most common traumatic injuries which require treatment from oral and maxillofacial surgeon. With the recent advancements in computer aided surgical planning and 3d printing technique have provided new tool for predictable management of maxillofacial trauma and reconstruction.
482 The Visual Funnel: Cone Beam Computed Tomography , Ayeesha Urooge, Shafiullah Khan, Khizerulla Sharief, Manjunath Venkatappa, Bintee Koirala and Karthik D Yadav
With time lapse, imaging modalities has been progressed to 3D imaging from the primitive 2D imaging structure like CBCT in the field of dentistry. CBCT provides us with a 3D image and structural configuration of the disease process which helps us to provide a precise understanding of the borders, degree of disease severity and their progress with their anatomical relations.
483 RVG - First Digital Step in Dentistry , Dr. Sophiya Rajendra Porwal
Dental imaging was introduced in dentistry in 1987 by Dr. Francois Mugnon with his RVG system(Radiovisiography) in Europe by the French company Trophy Radiologie. In the last few years it seems to be one of the newest tools in technology which aims to make the process of dental imaging a lot easier and efficient.
484 A Case Report of Distinctive Entity - Dentinogenic Ghost Cell Tumor , Ayushi P Mangulkar, Prajakta C Khelkar, Bharathi, Kaustubh P Sansare, Sunali Khanna
The Dentinogenic ghost cell tumor (DGCT), a benign neoplasm, causes bone destruction and cortical expansion, despite being locally invasive and associated with a risk of local recurrenc
485 Awareness, Knowledge and Attitude Towards Thalassemia Patients Amongst Dentists of Bhuj City. A Questionnaire-Based Survey , Jubin Thacker ,Bela Dave, Kinjal Savjani, Gunjan Jadav and Anuja Dave
Thalassemia being one of the most common as well as confusing hemoglobinopathies, has its effect on overall health including oral cavity. There are only a handful of articles on knowledge and awareness about thalassemia in dentistry.
486 A Review on Persistent Idiopathic Facial Pain (PIFP) , Shweta Hinduja and Ruchika Sood
PIFP is a chronic pain condition recurring daily for over two hours daily for more than 3 months, in absence of neurological deficits. Pain may be localized, and may eventually spread, further affecting the quality of life of patients. The pathophysiology is not clearly identified and neither is the diagnostic criteria, which has further lead to lack of research on the topic.
487 Day Care General Anaesthesia in Pediatric Dental Practice- A Case Report , Archana Singh  and Priyanka Soni
Caries is the only commonest chronic disease of childhood. The caries is known as infancy caries, if occurred before 71 months of age. The early pulp involvement and gross destruction of the maxillary anterior teeth is seen in rampant caries, leading to reduce mastication efficiency, dysarthria, compromised aesthetics, development of abnormal oral habits, malocclusion and psychological problems. In an uncooperative child, restoration and treatment of such condition becomes a challenge for the pedodontist.
488 Corticosteroids-The Life-Saving Drugs in Chronic Diseases , Dr. Bharani Krishna .T M.D.S, Dr. Mohammad Naffizuddin M.D.S, Dr. K Madhu Kiran Naik M.D.S, Dr. Deepika Vasudevan M.D.S, Dr. Kilaru Naveen Babu, Dr. Kanaka Durga Devi Nelluri, V Sridevi and Chaitanya Krishna.T MS
Corticosteroids are therapeutic drugs used in the management of various diseases. They are vastly used in the field of medicine for treating chronic diseases. Steroids act as drugs of choice when the rest of the drugs failed in the due course of the management of illness
489 Traditional Anti-Inflammatory and Bone Regenerative Herbal Extracts in Orthodontic Patient Care - A Review of the Current Scenario and its Future Needs , Suma S and Chandrashekar BR2, Raghunath N, K Mruthyunjaya and Pradeep S
Orthodontics is a speciality in dentistry dedicated mainly to move the teeth through the bone. The objectives of orthodontic treatment according to Jackson's triad are structural balance, functional efficiency, and aesthetic harmony.
490 Identification and Frequency of Causative Organism in Oral Candidiasis in Early Childhood in Bangladesh , Ayrin Parvin, Dipa Roy, Nur-E-Saud, Abdul Awal, Md Salah Uddin and Ariful Haque
Opportunistic infections may be caused by the part of the normal flora in the oral cavity called Candidiasis. This may happen in different circumstances and might be a matter of serious concern by comprising the host immunity in addition to augmented resistance to antifungal drugs.
491 Analysis of Smile Perception in Laypersons and Orthodontists: A Cross Sectional Comparative Study , Harshit Naik, Kalpesh Patel and Nikunj Patel
Smile aesthetic is a major concern among patients and orthodontists. The aim of the study was to evaluate the perception of different smile attributes amongst laypersons and orthodontists in treated class II malocclusion cases and to analyze the pre- and post-treatment smile in treated class II division I cases in comparison to ideal smile on VSA (Visual Analog Scale).
492 History and Development of Polymeric Denture Base Reinforcement , Ibrahim M Hamouda and Alaa Makki
Continuous developments in the biomaterials science over the last decades contributed to the marked production of new materials and techniques in dentistry. There are four major groups in dental biomaterials such as ceramics, metals, composites and polymers. Polymeric based materials are widely used for dentures construction.
493 Bone Density, Body Composition and Periodontitis in Obese Men Candidates for Bariatric Surgery: Preliminary Study , Silvia Helena de Carvalho Sales Peres, Ana Vírginia Sampaio Castilho, Jacira Alves Caracik de Camargo Andrade, Ana Carolina da Silva Pinto, Eliel Soares Orenha1 and Sergio Setsuo Maeda
This transversal study aimed to evaluate and relate bone mineral density (BMD), body composition and periodontal disease among men. The sample consisted of 22 patients, aged 22 and 48 years, obese with BMI ≥ 40kg/m², candidates for bariatric surgery. Evaluations of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), anthropometric and oral evaluation, gingivitis and periodontitis were performed. Pearson's correlation index was adopted (p < 0.05)
494 Root Canal Irrigants - What Are We Up to! , Radhika Srikhakollu, Vivek Narra, Vaishnavi Ramanan, Srikanth Tatikonda, Aishwarya Dham and Hridya Jayaprakash
The aim of root canal treatment is to eliminate all the vital and necrotic tissues, microbes from root canal system which can be obtained by chemical and mechanical debridement.
495 Comparison of Flexural Strength and Color Stability of three Commercially Available Temporizing Resins - An In vitro Study , Tejaswi Akoju, Paramveer Singh Malik, Laxmi Bojanapally, Anam Chandra Sekar, Ram B Basany and Sandeep Nalla
The purpose of this study was to compare and evaluate the flexural strength and color stability of three commercially available temporizing resins.
496 Effect of Stem Cells and Piezo Corticotomy on Pocket depth and Pain , Samir Abdo, Ahmed elsaid, Nahed Adly, Ahmed Farouk and Yousra Mohamed
In this study we were aiming to determine and evaluate the effect of the stem cells and piezo corticotomy on pocket depth and pain.
497 Detection of JP2 and Non-JP2 Genotype Strains of Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans in Localized Aggressive Periodontitis Patients Among the Egyptian Population , Ibrahim Hammad Ibrahim, Alaa Moustafa Attia, Mohamed Fouad Edrees, Mohamed A. EL-Mokhtar1 and Heba Ali Hammad
JP2 clone of Aggregatibacter actimycetemcomitans has been mainly recovered from adolescents living in northwestern Africa or African descends. A very strong association between this and Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) specifically its localized form was found among adolescents.
498 Assessment of Mother’s Knowledge about Infant Oral Health Care, Oral Health Status and its Impact on Child’s Oral Health: A Cross Sectional Study , Boddupalli Tejasree Kameswari  and Vijay A Trasad
To carry on with any preventive procedures it is advisable to go for the approach ‘known to unknown.’Focusing on Infant Oral Health Care (IOHC) this cross- sectional study aimed at assessing the maternal knowledge regarding infant oral health care, mothers’ oral hygiene and its impact on child’s oral hygiene. The objective is to see if there is any correlation between mothers’ infant oral health knowledge and mothers’ oral hygiene status with child’s oral hygiene status.
499 Knowledge and Awareness About Tooth Impaction among Medical Students Pursuing their Internship in Pondicherry, a Cross-Sectional Study , Raghu K, Nandhana N, Sathyanarayanan , Nithin Joseph Jude and R Sailesh Kumar
Wisdom teeth (third molar) is the last tooth to develop and most prominent tooth to get impacted. During our ancestor’s tough diet habits, their wisdom teeth were able to emerge in ease with adequate spaces in the dental arch. As we evolve to new lifestyle and experience a change, there is no need for these wisdom teeth to erupt in its sequence.
500 Fear of Covid-19 During Dental Treatment and Consequences of Covid-19 Lockdown During Second Wave on Dental Disease Progression in a Population of North Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India , Sonali Jain1, Ayush Razdan Singh and Ashok Kumar Srivastava
The present study aimed to assess anxiety levels and fear of COVID-19 in general population of North Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India, related to dental treatment during the pandemic and to evaluate the transition in the dental disease process due to the lock- down during second covid wave and inability to access the urgent dental services in the vague of SARS CoV-2 pandemic leading to dental conditions being left untreated and eventually developing into severe conditions.
501 A Study on the Effect of Photocatalyst Incorporated Tissue Conditioners in Controlling the Growth of Oral Microorganisms Viz. Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans , Kiran John, K Chandrasekharan Nair, Vahini Reddy and Chiranjeevi Reddy
Tissue conditioners are useful adjuncts to complete dentures and obturators in improving mucosal conditions and retention. These materials degenerate with time and are susceptible to colonization by microorganisms due to changes in the surface roughness. Proliferation of microorganisms is quite common with resilient liners especially the acrylic-based ones.
502 Dentin Hypersensitivity and COVID , V Venugopalan
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) is a contagious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 started as a pandemic in December 2019 which affected the entire human race not only financially but also crumbled the physical and psychological status.
503 Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Traumatic Bone Defect Utilizing Partial Malo Bridge in Esthetic Zone , Lakshya Kumar BDS, MDS, DICOI, FICOI, FPFA, IF Teacher, IPS-JPS International fellow  , Aditi Verma BDS, MDS  , Mayank Singh BDS, MDS , Lanka Mahesh
Prosthetic dentistry involves the replacement of missing and contiguous tissues with artificial substitutes to restore and maintain the oral functions, appearance, and health of the patient. It is a challenging task for the dentist to restore the edentulous areas with ridge defects.
504 The Effect of Congenital Cytomegalovirus on Tooth Development and Mineralization , Fatale Alisa, Leibovitz Haviv Shirley and Zilberman Uri
To analyze dental development and mineralization of teeth from girls affected by congenital CMV
505 Marginal Accuracy of Titanium Framework Using Different Manufacturing Techniques in Fixed Partial Prostheses , Sherif Magdy, Gaber Masoud, Amany Korsel and Waleed Elshahawy
This study aimed to evaluate marginal accuracy of titanium framework using different manufacturing techniques in fixed partial prostheses (Conventional casting, subtractive and additive manufacturing).
506 Invitro Assessment of Herbal Extracts in Periodontics Using Antibacterial, Anti-inflammatory, Immunomodulatory and Antioxidant Activities: An Insight , Liya Anil and KL Vandana
Many bacteria, in particular have unpredictable susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents and their susceptibilities can be measured in vitro to help guide the selection of the most appropriate antimicrobial agent.
507 Screw Retained Prosthesis with Gingival Remodelling-A Key in Anterior Aesthetic Zone , Aditi Verma, Lakshya Kumar, Mayank Singh, Uma Shanker Pal and Lanka Mahesh
Bone resorption following maxillary anterior tooth extraction is common and often compromises gingival tissue levels for the implant restoration. The loss of gingival volume is a major challenge for dental surgeons to plan implant-supported fixed prosthesis in such cases. particularly from an aesthetics perspective.
508 Management of Lingual Jumping Distance during Immediate Implant Placement with Bioactive Alloplast - A Case Report , Heena Ahuja, Anju Aggarwal, Punit RS Khurana and Aditya Chaudhary
Immediate dental implant is one of the most accepted treatment options for the rehabilitation of missing teeth. One drawback of immediate implant, however, is the residual space that remains between the implant and wall of the socket, called the jumping distance, which can lead to bone resorption as well as formation of a bony defect, thus, decreasing the implant stability.
509 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Following Craniomaxillofacial Trauma - A Five Year Retrospective Study. , Priya Jeyaraj
The psychological and psychiatric derangements as well as psychosocial impact that craniomaxillofacial trauma can have upon patients, often goes undetected, ignored and unaddressed. This can adversely affect the mental and physical well-being of the patient, leading to a lifetime of severe debility and incapacitation.
510 Effect of Gutka on Periodontium , Rupma Singh, Ira Gupta, Janardhana Amaranath B.J and Ankita Kulshrestha
In India, gutkha is one of the most popular smokeless tobacco being consumed by people of different socioeconomic groups, because of its less cost and easy availability. Chewing of gutka has a strong impact on oral hygiene and is also a risk factor for peri- odontal disease.
511 Dental Implants in Children - A Review , Pragathi R Bhat, Shreenidhi S Iyer, Vijay A Trasad and Jyosthna G Madhurkar
An edentulous smile might look appealing in an infant but it can be a matter of concern to the parents. With the progression of time, the loss of teeth will negatively affect the child’s ability to chew and may also produce an impact on the self-esteem.
512 Teleodontology as a Tool in the Care of Pediatric Patients: Narrative Review , MTE Beaumont, A Ormeño and R Cabezas
The explosive development of technology allows obtaining information and communication instantly. Telehealth is a tool that has advanced in all its areas, especially in dentistry, where new trends, programs, materials, equipment, and additionally an adapted care model have been developed. Pediatric dentistry finds in teleodontology, multiple uses and benefits in pediatric patients.
513 Parental Satisfaction with Pediatric Posterior Preformed Titanium Coated Stainless Steel Crown and Conventional Stainless-Steel Crown - A Comparative Study , Prasanna Kumar Bhat, Rishika  and Aishwarya N
To compare and evaluate the parental satisfaction of Titanium coated Stainless steel crown and Conventional Stainless-steel crown in primary mandibular molars.
514 Dealing with the Internal and External Surfaces of Zirconia Restorations; between Past and Present Trends. A Review of Literature , Alaa Samir Fathy El-Ashkar and Omnia Nabil
The optimum zirconia bonding protocol have been always a mystery to be solved throughout the past years. The purpose of this review is to go through the innumerable surface treatment methods and protocols concerned with the both internal and external zirconia surface treatment
515 The Use of a Completely Digital Flow in the Fabrication of Single Crown on a Root Resected Molar. A Case Report up 3 Years of Follow-Up , S Granata, JH Schmitz  and A Di Fiore
A 443-y male in good general health with a failing maxillary first molar due to a fractured mesio buccal root was treated with the resection of the root. After placing the interim restoration, tissues were allowed to heal for 6 months. Impressions were made with an intraoral scanner and the double cord retraction technique.
516 "Comparison of Effectiveness of Curcumin and Triamcinolone Acetonide in Treatment of Minor Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis” - A Randomized Controlled Trial , Sikha Poudyal and Anuradha Pai
Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is one of the most common oral mucosal condition and the manifestation of this disease can vary from mild to severe where it can even hinder a person’s ability to ingest foods, and affect their quality of life.
517 Contribution of Digital Tools to the Aesthetic Analysis and Rehabilitation of the Smile in Orthodontics: Case Report , Sana Kanoun, Wiem Ben Amor, Ines Dallel, Samir Tobji and Adel Ben Amor
In the last decades, aesthetics continue to become more relevant in our lives, mostly because of social media. Following the pace, patients are becoming increasingly concerned about the treatment’s result achieved from a cosmetic point of view. They strive to have the best smile possible. Modern orthodontics deals with the traditional dental and skeletal aspects of the malocclusion, which count among the pillars of a successful treatment
518 3D Printing in Dentistry, Akshay Parmar
The notion of 3D printing is sweeping the globe. 3D printing has been heralded as a game-changing manufacturing technique. The possibilities are boundless (Used in aerospace, defence, art and de- sign), with medical and dental advancements looking particularly promising. Traditional dentistry laboratories may go the way of typewriters and film cameras if 3D printing continues to advance at its current rate.
519 Early Childhood Caries: Different Treatment Approaches for One Disease, Divya Jyoti, Jeevendra Nath Shukla, Swati Sagar, Bidyut Seal and Sulekha
Early childhood caries (ECC) is one of the predominant oral health issues in infants and children. It influences the oral health as well as physical, mental and emotional health of the child.
520 Soft Tissue Seal Around Dental Implants and its Maintenance, Shukra Paralkar
Management of peri-implant soft tissues is emerging as a major concern over the past decade. Soft tissue stability is of importance not only for desirable aesthetic results but also in preventing peri- implant diseases.
521 Aerosols in Dentistry: The Coveted Invivible Enemy, Veena Shankar , Pranitha Kakarla , Bintee Koirala , Karthik D Yadav and Anisha Yaji
COVID-19 has brought the world to its knees, with dental specialty has been the worst hit due to the proximity of the patient to the dentist as well as the need for the removal of the mask for the work to be performed.
522 Mucormycosis during Covid 19: A Review Article, Syeda Asiya Butool, Shyam Agrawal, Nitin Kararia and Rachit
Mucormycosis is a fungus that is caused by mucormycetes, a type of mould with environmental contact with its spores. The entry of fungus into the body is through the skin which is injured or cut.
523 Comparison of Cyclic Fatigue of Trunatomy to Protaper Next, Syeda Asiya Butool, Shyam Agrawal, Nitin Kararia and Rachit
The purpose of this study was to compare trunatomy to protaper Next (PTN) in terms of cyclic fatigue resistance
524 Ultrasonography - Visualization by Waves, Ayeesha Urooge , Shafiullah Khan, Khizerulla Sharief, Bintee Koirala and Karthik D Yadav
Ultrasonography is a simple, non-invasive, provides dynamic imaging which helps in diagnosis as well as therapeutic mode of action of the area of interest. Ultrasound device uses a transducer to convert electrical impulses to high-frequency ultrasound waves and the reflected sonic waves is recorded and used for diagnostic purposes.
525 Management Strategies of Isolated Mandibular Fractures Using 3D and 2D Miniplating System with Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation - A Comparative Study, Amith KP, Anuradha M, KSN Siva Bharani, Shubhalakshmi SL and Gautam T
This study is Clinical and radiographic evaluation of 3D miniplate and 2D miniplate fixation in the management of isolated mandibular fractures - A comparative study. 1. Advantages. 2. Treatment outcome. 3. Stability. 4. Comparison of drawbacks of two different plating system in the management of isolated mandibular fractures.
526 Acharya Sushruta - The Patron Saint of Dentistry, K Chandrasekharan Nair , MV Anil Kumar and Pradeep Dathan
India has a rich legacy of surgical treatment and Sushruta Samhita stands testimony to that fact. It is a comprehensive treatise which deals with a multitude of topics ranging from education of health professionals to ethical behavior of clinicians, human anatomy, pathological basis of diseases and elaborate treatment processes.
527 Inferior Alveolar Nerve Lateralization: A Case Report, Joao Carlos Vicente de Barros Junior , Lucas Lima Barros , Lais Amanda Silva Dias, Marcos Flaminio Carlos Junior , Maycon Mascarenhas Bonfim , Claudio Ferreira Noia , Sergio Charifker Ribeiro Martins , Bruno Costa de Sa , Leandro Lecio de Lima Sousa and Tarcio Hiroshi Ishimine Skiba
he implant based prosthetic rehabilitation in the posterior mandible may become a challenging procedure for oc- casionally the practitioner may handle a case in which there is no enough height for the insertion of dental implants due to the short distance between the crest and the alveolar inferior canal due either to the post dental extraction alveolar bone resorption or an up- per position of the inferior alveolar canal.
528 Midline Diastema = Case Series, Sugandha Sati, Advaitha Anand, Ayushi Bangari, Pallabi Sarkar, Aryama Balodi and Anil Dhingra
Midline diastema is a esthetically displeasing for the patient. Direct composite restorations have been the need for the patient for minimally invasive closure of midline diastema. Several benefits of composite restorations are single visit, esthetically pleasing,stable occlusion. This case report describes direct aesthetic midline diastema closure with direct composite technique.
529 PRF in Dentistry-Second Generation Platelet Concentrates: A Review, Dr. Abhishek Kr. Pandey and Dr. Nikita Dwivedi
In the last few decades so many materials introduced in dentistry that can be used in osseous defects and helps in healing of wound. PRF is one of them. Two types platelet concentrates are available: (1) platelet rich plasma (PRP) and (2) platelet rich fibrin (PRF)
530 Nikolsky’s Sign: A Diagnostic Blessing?, Srinivas Prasad Vijayan and Anitha Krishnan Pandarathodiyil
Nikolsky’s sign, a term coined in honour of a renowned Russian dermatologist, is a well-known clinical manifestation that is primarily elicited in the pemphigus group of disorders. Although it is seen in other dermatological conditions like Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS), Epidermolysis Bullosa (EB), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN), it is characteristically associated with and seen in the pemphigus group of diseases, most notably pemphigus vulgaris (PV).
531 The Tubarial Salivary Gland: A Chance Discovery, Anudeeksha SR , Vathsala Naik , Gaurav Sharma and Aman Sodhi
Salivary glands are the important structures that contribute to many of the normal physiologic processes of aerodiges- tive tract.
532 Evaluation of Effect of PRF on Rebound of Soft Tissue in Immediate Placement of Implants-A Randomized Control Study, Kambagouni Chandana, S Rakesh Kumar, CH Siva Krishna, Sirisha Mekala,M Lakshmi Durga and Bangaru Mounika
To evaluate the effect of Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) on rebound of soft tissue in immediate placement of im- plants and revaluate at 3 months, 6months and 9months. Objectives of the study are to clinically evaluate the thickness of soft tissue, to evaluate the implant mobility and to evaluate peri implant radiolucency
533 Indirect Restoration, Ananya Jain, B Rajkumar, Sandeep Dubey and Praveen Singh Samant
Restorations in dentistry are done to repair parts of teeth lost as result of either caries or trauma. An indirect restoration is a restoration that is not done directly into the mouth but prepared outside.
534 Nature’s Natural Antimicrobial Agent “Propolis Nanoparticle”-Mini Review, Seema Deshmukh, Sowmya Srinivas, Sushma Rudraswamy, Nagabhushana Doggalli, Raghavendra Swamy KN and Indira
The period of nanomaterial has an enduring impact in the field of medical care. Its magnificent use in medical science has led to its utilization in dentistry. Microbial biofilms elimination from oral cavity still exists as a great concern in the field of dentistry.
535 Placement of Borders of Metal and Ceramic Copings and their Influence on Aesthetics of Crowns an in vitro study conducted on extracted premolars using spectrophotometer, Pavan TP , K Chandrasekharan Nair , Divya Hegde and Jaykar Shetty
To find out the colour change that occurs in the metal-ceramic and all-ceramic crowns, with full collar, 1 mm and 2 mm cutbacks employed in the substructure, using spectrophotometer.
536 Influence of I-PRF on Implant Stability and Marginal Bone Loss in the Posterior Mandible: A Split-Mouth Randomized Controlled Trial, Rayavarapu Sunil, Manthena Satyanarayana Raju, MC Suresh Sajjan, D Bheemalingeswara Rao, AV Rama Raju and Y Prem Sagar
PRF (Platelet Rich Fibrin) has been postulated to be releasing elevated concentrations of numerous growth factors and positively contribute towards bone healing and implant success. However, there is a dearth of literature on the effect of i-PRF (inject able- Platelet-rich fibrin) on dental implants’ primary and secondary stability and associated marginal bone loss.
537 Artificial Intelligence in Dentistry, Arpit Sikri and Jyotsana Sikri
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is defined as the theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks normally re- quiring human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages.
538 Dental Care and Oral Health Maintenance among Alzheimer’s Disease Patients- A Narrative Review, Dr. Arnavi Gaur, Dr. Vaishali Yadav and Dr. Avantika Katyal
Effective interventions in dental clinical settings are adding years to the lives of a greater number of geriatric patients who have either primary or acquired neurological conditions or diseases. I
539 Effect of Lithium Carbonate on Periodontium: A Case Report, Khushboo Rastogi and Prakash Chandra
Chronic mental illness causes long term side effects not only systemically but orally as well. Several studies are available on the oral reactions caused by ankiolytics, hypnotics and calcium channel blockers. However there is still less known facts on the long term use of lithium carbonate on the periodontium.
540 Transcrestal Sinus Lift Approach Employing Osseodensification Concept: A Case Report, Sergio Charifker Ribeiro Martins , Leandro Lécio de Lima Sousa,Tarcio Hiroshi Ishimine Skiba
The instalation of dental implants in the partially or totally edentulous posterior maxilla may be an endeavoring procedure due to anatomical limitations, especially imposed by the sinus pneumatization. It is not uncommon the need for augmentation and the golden standard procedure is the sinus lift
541 Study on the Dental Caries Prevention Using Traditional Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh, Arup Kumar Saha, Pranab Karmaker, Diti Rani Das, Abu Hena Mostafa Kamal, Ariful Haque, ASM Rafiul Haque and Md Ekramul Haque
Crude rectified spirit extract of fifteen (15) selected medicinal plants under investigations were screened against dental caries forming bacteria from the 24 patients of Rajshahi Medical College Hospital
542 A Fused Supernumerary Tooth Associated with Dilated Odontoma, Maryam Johari, Zahra Sadat Madani and Fateme Aghaee
Supernumerary teeth are denoted as those in addition to the normal number of permanent or deciduous dentitions. They may occur anywhere in the dental arch and lead to many aesthetic and functional problems.
543 Gingival Melanin Pigmentation by Surgical Scalpel and Diode Laser - A Comparative Clinical Study, Sridevi Shetty KS and Eric Mario Shailander A
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness, extent of repigmentation of the gingiva, time taken for the procedure, subject’s response and preferences after surgical scalpel and diode laser as a treatment of gingival hyperpigmentation.
544 An Understanding of Gothic Arch Tracing- A Clinical and Academic Rapid Review, T Ashish, Pratul Kumar Agrawal, Prashant Kumar and Tanaya
An accurate maxillo-mandibular relation is required for the creation of optimum function, esthetics and phonetics in complete denture prosthesis, and later establish the desired occlusion.
545 Managing Congenitally Missing Lateral Incisors: A Case Report, ZAGHDOUD Wadie, KHIARI Firas, JENHANI Molka, BEN AMOR Wiem Cirine, DALLEL Ines, TOBJI Samir and BEN AMOR Adel
Congenitally missing maxillary lateral incisors affects patient self-esteem in a big way since it concerns an esthetic zone. This case report describes a multidisciplinary approach combining orthodontic and surgical treatment replacing the two laterals by implant- supported prostheses.
546 Root Submergence Technique, A Case Series with Follow-Up up to Seven Years, Lanka Mahesh and Meenu Taneja Bhasin
In the era of aesthetic dentistry, the goal is not only to provide a function to our patients but also to preserve the hard and soft tissue anatomy, to have a pleasing prosthesis.
547 Frontal Cephalometry Analysis: A New Proposal for the Diagnosis of Facial Asymmetries, Wilfredo Molina Wills and Vanessa Rodríguez
Forty cases of both sexes with aged between nine and twelve years old were selected and divided into two groups A for asymmetries and B for apparent normality.
548 Human Salivary (Biomarkers) Proteome and Transcriptome: A Boon in Modern Cancer Diagnosis- A Systematic Review, Nitya Jha, Harsita Chhajer, Sree Chandana Shreya Sivalanka and Jhanvi Solanki
Over the last few decades our understanding of the molecular basis of tumour pathology has greatly improved and as science and technology is growing beyond mankind’s yet explored fathoms, it is but imperative for us to utilize these new approaches to try and change the age-old methods of cancer diagnosis.
549 Evaluation of Vertical Root Fractures Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: A Mini Review, Helen Rushdi Ayoubi
There are inadequate data or reviews to confirm the reliability and efficacy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in evalu- ation of vertical root fractures (VRFs).
550 White Attire Favored during Pediatric Patient Visit in Dental Operatory for the First Time: An Observation Study, Jayanti Ghosh
To assess children’s perceptions of dentist’s white attire. Protocol is available in Prospero Database (International Prospective register of Systematic Reviews)