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Acta Scientific Dental Sciences

Journal Papers (39) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 The VAT Technique" Teaching Oral Prophylaxis , Ajay Kakar
Teaching a patient oral prophylaxis may seem like an innocuous exercise but it is a most critical aspect in clinical dentistry. It is hardly given the importance it deserves. The purpose of this issue is to highlight its importance and present an effective technique for the same.
2 The Association of Trace Elements and Vitamins with Lichen Planus: Review Article , Maryam Baghizadeh Fini
Lichen planus is a continual mucocutaneous inflammatory disorder of multifactor nature with numerous clinical symptoms. Nu-merous researchers attribute a key role in disease development to disruptions in the immune system. Appropriate doses of micronu-trients are essential for the immune system to perform effectively. Micronutrient deficiency suppresses immunity by influencing the innate immune system, responses to T-cell mediated and adaptive antibody, resulting in disruption of the balanced host response. Since these trace elements and vitamins have an important role in the immune system and oral lichen planus has a significant rela-tionship with the disturbances in the immune system, the importance of these elements should be considered for each patient. Just several articles examined the hematological anomalies and nutritional imbalances in OLP patients. In this study, all required informa-tion about trace elements and vitamins in OLP patients is obtained.
3 Coronavirus-A Review Article , Maharshi Malakar
A strain of coronavirus. The new virus has been named SARS-CoV-2 and the disease it causes, Covid-19. The WHO has declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The disease was first identified in 2019 in Wuhan, China and has since spread globally, resulting in the 2019-20 coronavirus pandemic. Common symptoms include fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Muscle pain, sputum production and sore throat are less common. While the majority of cases result in mild symptoms, some progress to severe pneumonia and multi-organ failure. At present it is now a great concern
4 Treating Infant Population Fracture Mandible by Prof. Katpar’s Innovative Splint technique: Reported from Pakistan , Shahjahan Katpar, Maria Shabbir, Muhtada Ahmed, Jawad Safdar, Shoaib Ayub and Muneer Zardari
Introduction: Mandibular fractures occur relatively less frequent in infantile population as compared to adults, due to elasticity of bone, protected anatomical structures and infrequent exposures to road traffic accidents etc. The treatment procedures involved for such cases is different from those of adults, due to concerns regarding growth, developing Dentition and early healing.Case Report: Here we discuss case of 8 months old female infant patient presented with fracture of anterior mandible following fall from stairs. The fractured jaw was reduced at theatre without any impression taking and cast formation procedure for acrylic splint and we avoiding using resorbable bone plates. Instead, we used Compound impression material cake piece which is a muco-com-pressive, thermoplastic material, used as a substitute for an acrylic splint. This was secured with silk suture and rubber tube pieces, replacing circum-mandibular stainless steel wire with silk following manual closed reduction of fracture, under general anesthesia.Results: The clinical application of this technique results in timely and adequate reduction of fracture in pediatric population which was confirmed on post-operative radiographs and clinical follow-up visits of patient and their family reviews.Conclusion: The article provides an innovative, pioneer, non-invasive surgical procedure to treat infantile mandibular fracture cases by “Prof. Katpar’s DUHS splinting technique” within early days of trauma, avoiding costly resorbable bone plates, acrylic splints and early reduction
5 Promotion of Oral Health Care in Infants - A Preventive Strategy to Reduce the Burden of Early Childhood Caries , Subhathira Rajasekaran, Sham S Bhat, Vidya Bhat, Sundeep Hegde K, Neha Thilak and Minu Mumtaz
Infant oral health care is the foundation on which a life time of preventive education and dental care can be built in order to help acquire optimal oral health in a child. The purpose of an infant oral health program is to improve access to oral health care and to provide counseling and anticipatory guidance in oral hygiene for children aged 6 months to 5 years. The first step of infant oral health care is the preventive oral health behavior of parents since they would influence their children’s behavior in adapting to the preven-tive oral health practices as they grow along. Early dental interventions present an opportunity to educate parents about the medical, dental and cost benefits of preventive care which is effective in reducing early childhood caries. A comprehensive infant oral care program includes risk assessments at regularly scheduled dental visits, preventive treatments such as fluoride varnishes or sealants, parental education on the correct methods to clean the baby's mouth and establishment of dental home and use of anticipatory guid-ance. The present article highlights the important guidelines of infant oral health care
6 Delivery Systems of Local Anesthetics in Dentistry: An Update , Neha Thilak, Sundeep Hegde K, Sham S Bhat, Vidya Bhat, Subhathira Rajasekaran and Minu Mumtaz OV
Effective delivery of local anesthesia is one of the most important aspects of dentistry. Obtaining adequate pain control will re-sult in minimum discomfort of the patient during dental procedures, at the same time it helps the dentist to render the treatment effectively. Even though the modern dental syringes which is the most common method of local anesthesia administration were introduced many years ago, different modifications in delivering local anesthetics have evolved over time. These innovations have lead to decreased pain during administration of local anesthesia and also reduced side effects. This article discusses about different advancements in the delivery systems of local anesthesia.
7 Protocols during COVID-19 Outbreak- A Maxillofacial Surgeon’s Perspective , Sundaram Rajaram, Gauthami Sundar and Rajaram RS
The lightening pace of spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) has made the whole world come to a standstill. The rising numbers of the people affected with this viral infection, despite adhering to the proper preventive measure guidelines has evoked a global sensation. The abundance of Corona virus (SARS-CoV2), the causative virus, in the nasal and salivary secretions in the infected has got serious and obvious relationship to the dental professionals. It becomes the moral responsibility of the Maxillofacial Surgeon to identify such patients who are infected, and avoidance of the spread of the infection. Thus, participating in the efforts to curb the spread of overwhelming infection and safeguarding the unaffected public who seek dental attention. This article aims to highlight the protocols to be followed in treating patients in an outbreak of COVID-19 virus from the Oral and Maxil-lofacial Surgeon’s point of view. Clinical Relevance: The 62-year-old ENT specialist Liang Wudong died on Saturday morning, 25th January 2020 as reported by the Chinese Global Times website. Liang’s death highlighted the pressure faced by medical staff in the state as social media was flooded with posts showing exhausted workers struggling to cope [1].Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons need to be aware and prepared for tackling any impending infectious disease challenge as might be the case in the current outbreak of SARS-Cov2 transmission and its associated Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) that can be life-threatening to susceptible patients
8 Mouth Breathing-Its Consequences, Diagnosis, Treatment , Sukhdeep Singh, Neha Awasthi and Taru Gupta
The mouth breather is a patient with multiple conditions and therefore requires comprehensive and multidisciplinary clinical look to early detect this syndrome, minimizing its deleterious effects. A pediatric dentist may be one of the first healthcare profes-sionals to come in contact with a patient who exhibits mouth breathing and thus it is important to have a sound knowledge to per-form correct diagnosis and effective treatment. A review of current data on the skeletofacial, dental and gingival changes that occur in mouth breathing individuals is given, with the intention of raising the awareness of dental professionals towards the special needs of these patients
9 Ameloblastoma: Case Report , Isaque Toledo Zimmermann and Milena Bortolotto Felippe Silva
Ameloblastomas are rare odontogenic tumors of the jaws, more frequently found in mandible. Etiology, clinical and histological behavior, and various modality of treatment have been extensively discussed. Conservative treatment sometimes associated with additional procedures has been used as a good option for many treatments of this tumor. The present article has for objective describe a case of ameloblastoma of jaw treated by conservative methods where jaw fracture occurred as a complication of this initial therapeutics
10 Gingival Depigmentation , Ibrahim Mohamed Mahgoub Eldowi
Background 24 years old male complaining from gingival hyperpigmentation. Gingival hyperpigmentation is a common aesthetic concern in patients with a gummy smile Aim of the Case Study Using a diode laser with 980nm wavelength with fiber tip size 300 μm can give very good aesthetic results. Why diode laser for this case? After examination, this hyperpigmentation was due to higher secretion of Melanin pigments beyond the normal level and because of his gummy smile, it was very obvious when he speak or smile. Diode 980 nm wavelength is highly absorbed by pigments, like melanin.
11 Surgical Treatment of Impacted Tooth Associated with a Big Odontoma: Piezosurgery Approach , Cardarelli Angelo, Michele Grechi and Arun K Garg
The aim of this study is to describe a clinical case about a young patient, 13 years old, that he has a big odontoma in the right site of the mandible associated with an impacted tooth. So, it was described a piezo surgery approach in order to obtain a conservative approach.
12 Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Siebert’s Class II Case and Pier Abutments - Case Report , Swati Pustake, Kanchan Bagul, Sachin Chaware, and Preetha Negi
Replacement of teeth with periodontally compromised abutment is a challenge. A tough choice of aesthetics over function is often made by the operator for the satisfaction of the patient. The modified concepts of fixed partial dentures allow one to choose longevity of the prosthesis by not compromising on the aesthetic factors. Ridge defect often leads to a convenient treatment option of removable partial dentures which will not be preferred by the patient. Andrews bridge a fixed removable type of prosthesis is perfect solution for this situation. In long span multiple missing cases Nonrigid connectors have been recommended to reduce the forces as they provide a stress-breaking effect. In this case report, there are two opportunities that allow us to incorporate the modified fixed partial denture technique. Andrews bridge in the lower anterior segment to mask the ridge loss and the posterior long span FPD with a tenon mortise attachment. These two attachments used in this case not only prolongs the life of already compromised anterior teeth but also allows the posterior abutment to remain healthy throughout in long span fixed partial dentures
13 Psychological Effects of Orthognathic Surgery , Shalini Parihar and Sudhanshu
Orthognathic surgery refers to a group of corrective bone operations that involve movement of the jawbones completely or in parts.Orthognathic surgery is indicated when there are severe dentofacial deformities that cannot be managed by orthodontic treatment alone, especially in adulthood, when the natural growth forces have ceased. Dentofacial deformities are described as deformities that affect primarily the jaws and dentition
14 Hyaluronic Acid: Intraoral Application , Albert- López MJ, Pallarés-Serrano Al and Javier A Bardají
Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a polysaccharide present in the connective tissue of many organisms. It has high molecular weight, is biocompatible and is found in various body fluids such as: synovial fluid, serum, saliva, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), etc. This component has numerous physiological and structural characteristics such as volume maintenance and improvement of tissue resistance, cellular and extracellular interactions, interactions with growth factors, regulation of osmotic pressure, tissue lubrication, bactericidal, fungistatic effects, anti-edematous and osteoconductive. The results that have been obtained show that it is a natural component that can provide numerous advantages. For all these reasons, hyaluronic acid (HA) is used in different fields of medicine is studied and recently, it was also introduced in the dental field for aesthetic purposes in perioral areas. Although it is not so well documented, it has been observed that it is intraoral application can bring many benefits. The aim of this systematic review aimed to collect the applications at the intraoral level that hyaluronic acid (HA) can have in different dental procedures.
15 Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of Maxilla - A Rare Case Report in Adult , Mahesh KP and Karthikeya Patil
Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) includes a wide array of lesions with varying central and peripheral nervous system having differentiating potential. It is their insidious clinical symptoms, varying locations and rarity, the accurate diagnosis of peripheral PNETs poses a challenge for clinicians. PNETs has diagnostically characteristic immunophenotypical and genetic features that distinguish them from other small round cell tumors. We recently got to treat a patient with maxillary swelling on the left side of the face, its clinical course, histopathology with immunohistochemistry correlation of this rare entity PNET is discussed.
16 Corona Virus Disease - 2019 (COVID-19) - Planning for Emergency Dental Practice and Dental Education , Fazal Ghani
The substantial knowledge of virology related to the epidemiologic characteristics, clinical spectrum, and treatment has made it possible for the dental healthcare personnel, to continue working safely by implementing efficient strategies to prevent, control and stop the spread of COVID-19. Despite this, the current COVID-19 outbreak necessitates we must be constantly aware of infectious threats that may challenge our infection control regimen in the dental settings, our preparedness for the provision of dental health care services and dental teaching and education. The infection prevention and control strategies to be adopted must have an evidence base and should follow the recommendations from the local and international centers for disease control and infection prevention and control according to the epidemic situation. The current epidemic outbreak emphasizes the need for improving the infection prevention and control strategies in the dental settings, adoption of alternative learning strategies for students and the need for further research on the ways for responding to such future contagious diseases
17 Die and Die Materials - An Overview , Sunny Sharma, Lucky Jindal, Abhishek Kumar, Kumar Gaurav, Rudhra Munshi, Anukriti
Dentists are often faced with sectioning and soldering implant supported superstructures and long span tooth supported fixed partial dentures. These steps increase chair time, procedural cost and decrease clinical efficiency. One way to decrease the number of clinical steps is by improving the accuracy of working cast/die system. A cast die system captures the necessary information so that it can be transported to the laboratory
18 An Overview on Gingival Depigmentation Procedures : Case Series and Follow up , Tanusha Sharma, Charu Agrawal and Mishal Shah
The gingival complex plays an important role in the overall esthetics of a smile . Melanin, which is a brown pigment, is the most common natural pigment that contributes to endogenous pigmentation of the gingiva. For depigmentation of gingiva many treatment modalities have been reported like Scraping, Bur Abrasion, Partial Thickness Flap, Cryotherapy, Electrosurgery and Laser. The present article describes five cases of gingival melanin hyperpigmentation - Scraping, Bur Abrasion, Partial Thickness Flap, Electrocautery and Laser Technique. The purpose of the article is to discuss and compare the different techniques employed for depigmentation.
19 Prevalence of Odontogenic-Related Maxillary Sinus Pathologies in an United States Dental School Population , Yueh Ju Hsiao, Shang Lun (Allen) Liu, Jie Yang, Randolph R Resnik and Jon B Suzuki
Objectives: Odontogenic-related maxillary sinus pathologies are identified in cone beam computerized tomography taken for maxillary sinus augmentation and dental implant therapies. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of odontogenicrelated maxillary sinus pathologies among a dental school population. Materials and Methods: Eight hundred and twenty-one patients were retrospectively evaluated for odontogenic-related maxillary sinus pathologies using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Age, gender, ethnicity, and dentition status were evaluated to determine potential relationships of the presence of odontogenic-related sinus pathologies. Results: Among 534 CBCT scans, 331 scans presented without sinus pathology bilaterally and 203 scans presented with sinus pathologies in one or both sinuses. 79 scans presented with odontogenic-related maxillary sinus pathologies. The most frequent observations were mucosal thickening. The tooth most frequently associated with pathologic findings were first molars followed by second molars. The findings were higher in males than females (p = 0.006). Age and ethnicity was not a significant factor (p = 0.10, p = 0.05). Dentition status showed root canals (34.65%) were the most commonly associated with pathology. Conclusion: The prevalence of odontogenic-related maxillary sinus pathology was found in 36% of sinuses. Identification and management of odontogenic pathologies are essential to minimize complications. CBCT is highly recommended as a diagnostic tool prior to lateral wall maxillary sinus augmentation surgery and implant placement. Management of odontogenic-related maxillary sinus pathologies need to be tailored to individual patients and involves varying combinations of medical and dental management
20 Coping with the Corona Crisis-Mental Status and Beyond , Aditya Jayan and Gaurav
“Life” as Atharva Veda describes is not merely a sequence of events from birth to death, but also a culmination of various emotions, feelings and frames of mind where it ushers from the cuddling arms of the parents to the burning arms to the funeral pyre! “Lockdown” on the other hand if interpreted aptly is not an act of being imprisoned but a longer period of discipline and an act towards the Nation. Its a test of mindset wherein we are getting to serve our nation without actually doing anything being back at home! Its a persistence of the mindset that we will not go back to normal, normal never was! Our pre-corona existence was not normal other than we normalized greed, inequality, exhaustion, depletion, extraction, disconnection, confusion, rage, hoarding, hate and luck.
21 Maximum Mouth Opening among Saudi Arabian Adults , Fahad Alshammari, Njoud AlSaheel, Najd Alhamzah, Ra’ed Salma and Ahmed Alshammari
Background: The mouth opening range is one of the major characteristics features that different one person from the other. Literature has shown that the maximal mouth opening range varies among different people, ages and regions. On average, a person should be able to fit 3 fingers in an opened mouth. However, differences exist. Aim: To set a reference measurement for maximal mouth opening in Saudi Arabian adult population. Methods: The study was conducted on patients attending dental clinics in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The maximum mouth opening (MMO) was recorded for adult patients using a ruler. The patients were requested to open their mouth at maximum level and the length between the maxillary central incisor edge and the mandibular central incisor edge in the same side of the mouth was measured. Correlation of the mouth opening with age was determined using a Spearman correlation matrix. Besides, Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests were used for comparing the continuous variables. Conclusion: The conclusion obtained from the findings is that the males mean maximal mouth opening of an adult was significantly higher than females in Saudi. A negative correlation suggesting that mouth opening decreases with age. Results: The maximal mouth opening mean ± SD of the participants was 50.1 ± 6.3 mm. Mean ± SD maximal mouth opening for males (52.5 ± 6.3 mm) was statistically significantly higher than females (47.8 ± 5.3 mm) (p < 0.05). Spearman’s test between maximal mouth opening and age showed a negative correlation of p > 0.05. No statistically significant difference was found between the mean ± SD maximal mouth opening and age groups (p > 0.05).
22 Digital Age Estimation Using Orthopatomograms in Indian Population: A Comparative Study , Ramakant Gupta, Swati Gupta and Manju Gupta
Introduction: Orthopantomographs are non- destructive tool for age estimation by indirectly measuring the rate of secondary dentine deposition. Cameriere.,et al. introduced one such Europeanpopulation based method and modified by researchers for Indian population; but their applicability is yet to be assessed. Aim and Objective: To assess the applicability of Cameriere’s method and its modification by Jeevan.,et al. Bebshet.,et al. for mandibular canines and Sexena, Jeevan.,et al,Juneja.,et al. for maxillary canines in an Indian population in Faridabad district of Haryana by evaluating the pulp/tooth ratio in canines on right side using digital orthopantomographs. Materials and Methods: Digital orthopantomographs of 60 patients (30 males, 30 females, 16- 72 years) were selected by simple random sampling. Pulp and tooth areas were measured and their ratio was computed using computer software. Age was calculated using the Cameriere’s method and its modification by Jeevan.,et al,Bebshet.,et al,Sexena, Juneja.,et al.Mean absolute error (MAE) for each method was calculated for each method. Conclusion: Jeevan’s formula revealed least MAE and slightly more percentage of cases with errors < ± 10 years i.e. acceptable’’ age estimates than others, therefore, itis more applicable for Indian population. Results: The present study showed no recognisable difference in dental age assessed by all the methods. Overestimation of age with MAE <± 10 years was found in Indian population using all the methodsConclusion: Jeevan’s formula revealed least MAE and slightly more percentage of cases with errors < ± 10 years i.e. acceptable’’ age estimates than others, therefore, itis more applicable for Indian population.
23 COVID-19 Impact on Dentists in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Qualitative Study , Zerina Hadzic
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused economic and health consequences in many countries around the world. Some occupations, including dentists, were highlighted as the most endangered due to aerosols and the possibility of spreading the COVID-19 virus during the incubation period. It is well-known that aerosol generated in dental procedures with a large number of droplets, provoking that the standard protective measures in daily clinical work may not be effective enough to prevent the spread of COVID-19, especially when patients are in the incubation period or unaware that they are infected. The aim of the study is to check the attitude and possible fear and concern related to the COVID-19 pandemic among dentists in Bosnia and Herzegovina who are employed in the public and private health sector.
24 Non-Surgical Management of Unusually Large Chronic Recurrent Periapical Abscess and an Insight on Periapical Radiolucencies , Swati Gupta, Ramakant Gupta and Manju Gupta
Recurrent inflammatory periapical lesions are commonly encountered oral pathologies. The usual cause of these periapical lesions is endodontic in nature and can be easily treated by endodontic treatment. They exhibit wide biologic behaviors and their presentation as recurrent pus discharging ulcers can lead to patient’s apprehension and even be cause for clinician’s anxiety. This is because many non-endodontic causes may also lead to periapical lesions. A thorough knowledge about them therefore, is crucial for clinicians not only to properly diagnose and manage such cases, but is also important to safeguard themselves from patient’s evil intentions of making easy money by claiming refund. The present case is one such example where unusually large chronic recurrent periapical abscess was managed with non- surgical endodontic treatment. With this case report, authors intend to discuss the different periapical radiolucencies and explain scientific guidelines for their adequate diagnosis and management.
25 Sorption and Solubility of Nanofilled Composite Resins in Mouthwashes with Different pH , Shaqran Hamid Alabbadi, Meshal Abdullah Bagari, Ibrahim Mohamed Hamouda and Khalid Talal Abdullah Aboalshamat
Objectives: The aim of this study was test the effect of mouthwashes with different pH on sorption and solubility of nano-filled composite resin restorative materials. Materials and Methods: 56 cylindrical specimens were prepared from 2 types of nanofilled composite resins, 28 specimens from each material. Specimens of each type of composite were randomly divided into four groups (n = 7). 7 specimens were used as a control group immersed in distilled water. The other 3 groups were stored in the following mouth washes (Avohex, Listerine and Parodontax) for seven days. Specimens were dried in desiccator to a constant weight before immersion. The immersion media were changed daily for 7 days, waived in air and weighted to calculate the amount of sorption. Specimens were dried again and reweighted to calculate the amount of solubility. Sorption and solubility tests were made using electronic balance. Results: Both composite resins showed varying degrees of water sorption and solubility in all storage media. SDI ice composite resin showed higher water sorption in Listerine and lower in Avohex mouth washes. SDI Ice nanohybrid composite resin showed higher solubility in Avohex mouth wash and lower solubility in distilled water. Charisma nanohybrid composite resin showed higher water sorption in Avohex mouth wash and lower in distilled water. Listerine and Parodontax mouthwashes showed intermediate comparable values. Charisma nanohybrid composite resin showed higher solubility in distilled water and lower in Listerine mouthwash. Listerine and Parodontax mouth washes had intermediate effects of sorption and solubility on both types of composite resins. Conclusion: All tested nanofilled composite resins showed varying degrees of water sorption and solubility in all storage media. SDI ice composite resin showed higher water sorption in Listerine and higher solubility in Avohex mouthwashes. It exhibited lower sorption in Avohex mouth wash and lower solubility in distilled water. Charisma nanohybrid composite resin composite resin showed higher water sorption in Avohex and higher solubility in distilled water. It demonstrated lower sorption in distilled water and lower solubility in Avohex mouth wash.
26 Vitamin D: Another Protection Barrier for the Dentist in Times of SARS-CoV-2 , Diego Fernando López, Valentina Rios Borrás and David Alejandro Rivera
The knowledge about vitamin D role in human physiology is highly relevant in Dentistry, particularly considering the current world health emergency (pandemia) of the disease known as COVID-19, caused by the virus SARS-CoV-2. The deficiency of some nutrients including vitamins and hormone precursors is a factor predisposing to disease and susceptibility to infections of the respiratory tract. Additionally, in orthodontics, vitamin D is able to increase dental movement and in Implant Dentistry improves osseointegration. The aim of the present review is to provide information regarding COVID-19 and vitamin D role in the immune system and respiratory system, useful for the dental staff to help patients and themselves to take preventive actions to mitigate the consequences of COVID-19 pandemia in near future
27 Dentistry x Covid-19 = Uncertainty? , Meenakshi Ray
In October 2015, 218 villagers were asked to submit blood samples in Jinning county, China. The villages were adjacent to caves, which were home to a variety of Coronavirus-carrying bats. The blood samples were tested to find that nearly 3% carried antibodies against SARS-like coronavirus. Bat-to-human transmission of the coronaviruses was then brought to light for the first time ever.
28 A Conceptual Evolved Model of Dental Practice - The Ideologies of an Inter-disciplinary Team (IDT) , Monu Survashe and Anita Merani
The present study explores the ideologies of an interdisciplinary team for better patient centered healthcare outcomes. The principles studied in the literature review were used to formulate a conceptual design of IDT. A conceptual design was then planned for cessation of tobacco smoking among diabetic patients by the dentist and the physician who specializes as a certified health coach, to reduce the burden of the underlying systemic issues along with the dental treatment.
29 Changing Scenario of Dentistry with COVID-19-An Overview , Ashima Trivedi and Ashwani Kumar Trivedi
Corona virus disease 2019 which proved to be a global pandemic has a noticeable impact on the field of dentistry. This is an overview of the changing scenario of dentistry with Covid-19 and the possible protocols which the Dental health care professional (DHCP) needs to follow for protection and safety in future. It covers all the changes and guidelines for dentists to continue with the dental practise. Also, the impact of novel corona virus has lead to a fear in public and professionals which may be noticed as a markable decline in dental treatments.
30 Relationship between Inflammation-Related Markers in Peri-Implant Crevicular Fluid and Clinical Parameters in Partially Edentulous Saudi Arabian Diabetic Subjects , Shaden Aljabr, Mansoor Assery, Sami Shafik, Naghshbandi Jafar, Nasser Al-Daghri, Osama Amer and Khalid Al-Hezaimi
Introduction: A high prevalence of diabetes mellitus and dental caries in Saudi Arabian population is overwhelmingly reported. The aim of the study was to assess the following: 1) clinical findings of PD, BOP, and amount of keratinized tissue present around dental implant and 2) PICF levels of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 in diabetic and non-diabetic partially edentulous Saudi Arabian subjects. Materials and Methods: Total of 32 partially edentulous subjects, 16 diabetic and 16 non-diabetic, were included in the study. PICF samples were taken from peri-implant sulcus using paper point and PCR essays for IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 was performed. Clinical parameters of peri-implant PD, BOP and amount of keratinized tissue were recorded. Conclusion: PD, BOP and PICF IL-6 levels were found to be significantly higher in Saudi Arabian diabetic subjects compared to Saudi non-diabetic subjects. Also, a positive relation found between deep PD and four inflammatory markers which are IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. Results: Diabetic subjects had more significant BOP than non-diabetic counterparts (p-<0.001). No significant difference was found between diabetic and non-diabetic patients in the amount of keratinized tissue (P < 0.765). A significant high level of IL-6 in diabetic subjects when compared to healthy subjects (P < 0.033). No significant difference between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects in the serum level of IL-1α (P < 0.121), IL-1β (P < 0.171) and IL-8 (P < 0.223). A positive correlation between increased serum level of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 with increased PD was determined.
31 3D Printing: Towards the Future of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery , Marwa G Noureldin and Noha Y Dessoky
This descriptive review focuses on the advanced revolution of the 3D printing technology in the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS). This technology is now trending and growing popular throughout the different aspects of the specialty to include oral and maxillofacial diagnosis, treatment planning, surgical interventions and novel tissue engineering. Moreover, it has an interesting prospect in education and training of dental students.
32 Dentistry in the Post COVID-19 World- Are We Prepared? , Vrushali Abhyankar, Gabriela Fernandes, Vinay Jain and Paul Luepke
Background: Covid-19 pandemic has affected dental profession tremendously and has placed dentists and dental professionals in the very high exposure risk jobs. Practicing dentistry requires the provider to be in close proximity of the patients and their oral cavity. Many dental procedures tend to generate aerosols owing to the use of an air rotor or highspeed handpiece. The impact of Covid-19 on dentistry, like all other professions is ever evolving and newer guidelines are published almost every day. The authors also examine the ethical, psychological and financial implications of this pandemic to the dental professionals as well as patients. The important role of organized dentistry is highlighted in facilitating change to adapt to the new norm and implement the safer practice guidelines. Conclusion: The authors conclude that significant changes need to be undertaken to protect patients, dental professionals, auxiliary personnel.
33 Low-Level-Laser-Therapy after Third Molar Removal in a Patient Affected by Osteogenesis Imperfecta , Chiara Moreschi and Stefano Bianchi
LLLT is used in oral surgery to reduce the discomfort of the patients after surgical procedures, such as pain, swelling and trismus. We showed in our case report the use of LLLT as for the reduction of post-operative discomfort as to prevent osteonecrosis of the jaws, since our patient was affected with osteogenesis imperfecta. The patient did not have any complications after surgery and after a one year follow-up she did not show any radiological or clinical sign of osteonecrosis of the jaws
34 Utility of Sodium Tetradecyl Sulphate for the Management of Oral Venous Malformation , Krishna Kishor, Shiv Kishor, Heera, Hiralal Ash, Kumar Arunesh and Sudarsan Sen
Venous malformation are one of the most common lesions of oral cavity. The lesion may be congenital malformation in neonates or arteriovenous malformation in adults. Various surgical and medical managements are possible for vascular lesions which includes surgical excision, laser therapy, cryotherapy, selective embolization, intralesional sclerosing agents, beta blocker and steroid therapy. In this current study we assessed the efficacy of intra lesioned injection of sclerosing agent i.e. 3% sodium tetra decyl sulphate in oral lesions of venous malformation. Sclerotherapy with 3% sodium tetra decyl sulphate is an effective agent in treating benign oral lesion of vascular malformation and provides alternatives to surgical method.
35 Synergistic Effects of Cordycepin and Genistein on Preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 Cells with Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress , Jiaxuan Lu, Xin Luo and Xiting Li
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activation disturbs bone homeostasis and plays an important role in osteolytic bone diseases development. Cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine), a natural structural analog of adenosine, possess multiple pharmacological activities and exerts osteoprotective effect. Genistein can be used as protectors or synergists of adenosine drugs. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the combination of cordycepin (Cor) and genistein (Gen) regulates proliferation, migration and differentiation of preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells in a tunicamycin (TM)-induced acute ER stress model. Cell viability were assessed using cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and osteoblast migration were evaluated by transwell chamber assay. The differentiation was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining assay. qRT-PCR assay was performed to confirm the establishment of ER stress model and to measure the mRNA level of key molecules involved in osteogenic differentiation. Exposure to the combination of 10μM cordycepin and 10μM genistein had no cytotoxicity in MC3T3-E1 cells, but increased the number of proliferative cells after pretreatment with 2 μg/ml TM. Analogously, ER stress-induced suppression on MC3T3-E1 cells migration was restored to control levels by the administration of cordycepin and genistein combination. Cordycepin and genistein combination significantly up-regulated ALP activity of MC3T3-E1 cells in TM-induced ER stress model. The qRT-PCR data demonstrated that the combined treatment effectively accelerated osteogenic differentiation by enhancing the mRNA level of differentiation markers including collagen type I, ALP, BSP and OPN. These results reveal that the co-administration of cordycepin and genistein exerts synergistic osteoprotective effects and has the potential to serve as a host risk reduction strategy for osteolytic bone diseases associated with ER stress activation.
36 Studying the Correlation between CBCT Linear Measurement and Actual Measurement during Surgery in Implant Candidates , Mehrdad Panjnoush, Yadollah Shayesteh, Elham Romoozi and Maryam Johari
Background: One of the main uses of CBCT is the design of implant therapies, and linear calculations in these therapies are important in quantifying bone (height and width). However, previous researches have all been conducted on dry skulls and no research has been performed in patients' clinical conditions. Aim of the Study: The aim of this research was to determine the correlation between CBCT linear measurements and actual measurements during surgery in patients undergoing implant surgery. Materials and Methods: In diagnostic research, 54 patients were selected for implant treatment in the premolars and the distance of the mental foramen to the apex of the ridge was measured using a caliper during surgery. The same calculations were repeated in CBCT images with Romex is software by two observers at two 2-week intervals. The difference in bone height calculations in CBCT images and actual measurements during surgery were analyzed by repeated values and ANOVA. Results: The difference in absolute value of bone height in CBCT images (second observer) and its actual values was 0.811 ± 0.54, 0.894 ± 0.67 between the first observer and its actual values,0.871 ± 0.63 between the first observer in the next 2 weeks later and the actual values,0.804 ± 0.57 between second observer in 2 weeks later and its actual values. The mean difference of bone height observations by 2 observers in 2 weeks from its actual values was equal to 0.0 ± 828.89 mm. No significant differences were observed between the absolute magnitude values of bone height measurements in CBCT images and their actual values at the time of surgery after exposure. Conclusion: Given the limited bone height difference in CBCT images from its actual values, this imaging modality appears to be a useful and accurate tool for estimating bone height in implant surgery in clinical settings.
37 Intraoperative Anatomical Surface Marking and Cone Beam Computerized Tomography for Assessment of the Hamulus in Palatoplasty by Younger Cleft Surgeons , Bergonzani M, Uy V, Zeinalddin M and Lotha B
Understanding the surface anatomy markers for the hamulus in palate surgery is often a useful pointer to the position of the hook of hamulus during cleft palate surgery. This innovative idea is of particular use in Veau 1 and 2 where only medial incisions are used. Younger cleft surgeons feel more comfortable when they are able to clearly see palate structures during careful dissection. Using the intraoperative method of marking out the position of the hamulus makes the whole process of identifying the hook of hamulus a lot simpler. Drawing a vertical line from the mid tuberosity which intersects a horizontal from the level of the posterior spine, the hamulus which lies a few mm below and medial to the intersection, can easily be found. We divide each region into clockwise zones 1, 2, 3, 4 and found the position to be consistent in zone 4, slightly medial and below the intersection of the two lines. This finding was also noted on cone beam CT images of adult and pediatric palates.
38 Efficacy of Garlic in Conjunction with Pentoxifylline in the Management of Oral Submucous Fibrosis - A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study , Leelakshi, Vathsala Naik and Gaurav
Introduction and Objectives: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic, progressive, and irreversible disease of the oral mucosa. Though numerous modalities have been tried but all are palliative and have no curative value. Pentoxifylline possessing vasorelaxive and antifibrotic properties believed to potentiate the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and immune modulating properties of garlic. So, the present a cross-sectional pilot studywas undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of Garlic in conjunction with pentoxifylline in the management of OSMF. Methods: The study consisted of 10 OSMF patients. Pentoxifylline (400 mg) was administered thrice daily along with garlic pearls, 2 pearls; thrice daily. Drugs were administered systemically after food for a duration of 2 months. Patients were evaluated every 15 days for the assessment of clinical parameters, i.e. Burning sensation, reduction in mouth opening, tongue protrusion and cheek flexibility. Pre and post treatment study parameters were measured and compared. The improvement was assessed at the end of the study. Results: All the patients were males with the mean age of 26.04 years. Patients exhibited a mean reduction of 95.68% in burning sensation and an increment of 5.37 mm in mouth opening. The cheek flexibility and tongue protrusion also showed significant improvements in the study groups. All the patients showed significant (p > 0.001) improvement in SOD levels following treatment. Conclusion: Overall assessment of the all clinico-biochemical parameters showed a significant improvement. Thus, choice of such therapy is beneficial, affordable, easily available and most importantly a non-invasive treatment modality for OSMF
39 Mandibular Fractures and their Radiographic Diagnosis , Latika Bachani Chopra, Ashok Lingappa, Monika Singh and Anshul
When a patient who has sustained facial trauma is brought to our clinic, the question of bony involvement arises in our mind. The accurate diagnosis of fractures depends upon a thorough clinical examination followed by appropriate radiographic diagnosis. Hence, it would be wise to say that clinical and radiographic examination go hand in hand for the diagnosis of fractures.