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1 Nature has its Own Ways!!! , S Jeevananda Reddy
People around the world are currently facing three “viruses”, namely global warming, Covid-19 and pollution costing trillions of dollars with the lopsided policies of governments and internation-al agencies affecting billions of people around the world
2 Construction of Farmland Solar Radiation DB Using GIS to Solve the Problem of Abandoned Cultivated Land and Select Cultivated Crops for AI , Atsushi Shiota, Thongchart Kerdphol and Yasunori Mitani
In Japan, abandoned cultivated lands have increased due to labor shortages caused by aging, low productivity, lack of farmland recipients, and poor land conditions. The increase of abandoned agriculture land causes problems such as a decline in the multifunctionality of agriculture, the occurrence of pests, birds, and animals. For this reason, the Japanese government has enacted legislation considering the measures to reduce or prevent the abandoned agricultural land. As a result, the area of abandoned agriculture lands was 423,000 ha in 2015, and the rate of increase has slowed.On the other hand, there is RUE (Radiation Use Efficiency) as a numerical value, representing the relationship between the amount of crop production and the amount of solar radiation. RUE is obtained by dividing the dry matter production amount by the accumulated light reception amount during the same period, and it is known that the dry matter production amount increases as the accumulated light reception amount increases, although there is a difference depending on the crop. Our research team has constructed a solar radiation simulation system using GIS (Geographic Information System) and DSM (Digital Surface Model) considering the shadow of buildings and trees. As a result, it has become possible to support the selection of a place, where the amount of solar radiation falling on the solar power generation system can be efficiently obtained, and to understand how much solar radiation can be obtained when the solar power generation system is installed. In addition, it has been incorporated with the weather conditions into this simulation system. Finally, a solar radiation simulation considering the weather conditions is successfully built.Based on these circumstances, this research focuses on the amount of solar radiation falling on farmland, and constructs a farm-land solar radiation DB in consideration of the shadow of buildings and trees and weather conditions for each farmland. The purpose of this research is to visualize farmlands that can receive a large amount of solar radiation and to establish a mechanism to support prioritization during the selecting abandoned agriculture lands and supporting the reuse of abandoned agriculture lands. In addition, the farmland solar radiation DB is designed to build an farmland DB that can manage items such as precipitation, temperature and soil in addition to solar radiation, assuming a mechanism to be able to propose crops grown using AI(Artificial Intelligence) in the future
3 Efficacy of Compatibility between Endophytic Biocontrol Agents and Abiotic Agents as Fungicides Alternatives for Controlling Root Rot of Grapevine , El-Sayed Hussein Ziedan, Moataza Mahmoud Saad, Mohamed Abd-El-All El-Naggar, Khames Ahmed Hemida, Magdy Gad El-Rab El Samman and Mostafa Helmy Mostafa
Root rot of grapevine an epidemic disease causing by several soil borne fungi recorded high loss plant growth of productivity. Nine endophytic biocontrol fungal and bacterial isolates of Trichoderma spp, Bacillus spp and Pseudomonasfluorescens were tested against growth of aggressive fungal isolates causing root rot of grapevine i.e. Fusarium spp. and Botryodiplodia theobromae. Results showed that the best antagonistic endophytic isolates were Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis. Trichoderma harzianum isolate sig-nificantly reduced mycelial linear growth and conidial sporulation of fungi tested as well as over lapping growth of fungi tested. In addition, Bacillus subtilis recorded high zone inhibition toward all pathogenic fungi tested than another bacterial isolates in this study. Some promising essential oils, organic, antioxidants acids and their combinations were tested on growth of endophytic biocontrol agents of Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis. Results obtained indicated that sorbic acid followed by propionic acid were the least effect on mycelial linear growth and conidial sporulation of Trichoderma harzianum. In addition, sorbic acid, propionic acid (0.1%), black seed oil (4.0%) and their combination had no effect negatively on Bacillus subtilis growth. In greenhouse experiment soil drench by propionic + sorbic acids, propionic acid + sorbic acid + T. harzianum + B. subtilis were the best and significantly treat-ments its completely suppress (100%) root rot disease percentage and disease severity on shoots and roots of grapevine plants fol-lowed by T. harzianum as individual or combination with B. subtilis were increased morphological characters of grapevine plant i.e. length, fresh and dry weight of and root size. So, combined soil treatment by propionic acid + sorbic acid or propionic acid + sorbic acid + T. harzianum + B. subtilis as the safe fungicide alternatives for management root rot disease of grapevine
4 The Harmony of the Physical Vacuum , Anatolii Pavlenko
This paper is a summary of ideas and methods related to protection of people from the negative impact of electronic technology. While conducting research, the author intended to clearly define the prevailing negative impact of torsion fields in comparison with electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic fields warm the tissues of a person using all sorts of gadgets, while torsion fields provide influence at the gene level. Much attention is paid to the technology of protection from torsion fields. For a more complete under-standing of the problem of protecting the population from the negative influence of torsion fields, the authors considered the concept of the “fabric of the universe” developed by several authors, which enabled representing the processes occurring in Physical Vacuum in a more distinct way. The fact that virtual particles have their own subconscious nature, which differs from ours that was predicted by N. Tesla, has been confirmed
5 First Report of Cophinforma atrovirens and Trichoderma ghanense Associated with Inflorescence Dieback of Cashew and Soil in Nigeria , Dele Omoyele Adeniyi, David Adedayo Animasaun, Olusola Thomas Oduoye and Ramar Krishnamurthy
Cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L.) is a plant of great economic value not only to growers but other players in the val-ue chain. The crop is mostly cultivated for the nut and can thrive in many agro-ecologies of Nigeria. A case study survey of major cashew plantations and soils of major growing areas in North Central, Nigeria comprising of Oro (Kwara State) and Ejule (Kogi States) showed typical symptom of dieback on cashew panicles re-corded in around 35% and 45% of established cashew trees in the plantations respectively. This disease situation typically referred to as inflorescence dieback of cashew in Nigeria, and this also oc-cur on cashew seedlings both in the nursery and newly established fields. This disease condition and incidence has earlier been as-sociated with Lasiodiplodia species, while the isolated fungi from the soil have priorly been classify as Trichoderma harzianum. The molecular study in this situation depicts the organisms as Cophin-forma atrovirens and Trichoderma ghanense respectively in which very close morphological resemblances were observed
6 Historical Perspectives of Agricultural Extension and Research- Extension-Farmers Linkage in Ethiopia , Solomon Yokamo
Country profile • Ethiopia is a landlocked country in the Eastern parts of Africa (horn of Africa). • It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, South Su-dan to the west and Sudan to the northwest. • Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world and the second- most populous nation on the African continent with a total area of 1,100,000 square kilometres (420,000 sq mi) and with the population size of > 110 million.Figure 1: AEZ of Ethiopia based on Global 16 classification system.Country profile The nation is a land of natural contrasts, with its vast fertile west, its forests, and numerous rivers, and the world's hottest set-tlement of Dallol in its north.
7 Botanical, Geographical, Herbicidal Aspects of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) , Barbara Sawicka, Piotr PszczóÅ‚kowski, Piotr BarbaÅ› and Bernadetta Bienia
The botanical, geographical and herbicidal aspect of the species of the genus Melissa is presented. These species, especially Melissaofficinalis, have been assigned a number of biological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, antiviral, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and flatulence inhibiting, inhibiting germination and weed growth. The traditional pharmacological properties of lemon balm herb can be associated with the presence of bioactive phytochemicals such as terpenoids, alcohols, rosmarinic acid and phenolic antioxidants. A rich source of bioactive substances, of various Melissa species, can be considered as a promising candidate for the development of nutra-pharmaceuticals and bioherbicides. This review covers the botanical, geographical, nutritional, phytochemical and traditional medical aspects as well as the numerous biological activities of some commonly available Melissa sp. to prove their potential use in the food processing industry, the nutra-pharmaceutical and cosmetics-nutraceutical industry.
8 Estimation of Exserohilum turcicum Efficiency in Quality Protein Maize Crosses: Component of Resistance , Saket Kumar, Rajeev Pratap Singh and Rajesh Singh
NCLB is a seasonal maize crop disease which affected maize leaf under humid environment but in some cases QPM hybrid showed resistance to this disease. Author was selected 5 QPM and 6 non QPM inbred line from the screening and developed 30 crosses of QPM hybrid. These crosses were showing in two different environments (Irrigated and Rain-fed) along with two checks (Malviya Makka Hybrid 2 and local hybrid). After days to 50% tasseling NCLB observation was performed. QPM hybrid crosses showed better growth and development but checks infected to NCLB at 50% tasseling and silking which provide less amount of food supplements due to losses major amount of chlorophyll content
9 Outbreak of Novel Corona Virus in India: Lethal Pandemic , Ankita Awasthi and Sangeeta Avasthi
According to World Health Organization virus diseases still to emerge and represent a significant issue to public health. In De-cember 2019, a pneumonia outbreak was reported in Wuhan, China. This outbreak was traced to a completely unique strain of coronavirus. COVID-19 is a communicable disease caused by a newly discovered corona virus. This new virus seems to be very contagious and has quickly spread globally. As of April 03, 2020, there have been a minimum of 52,869 confirmed death and quite 10,10,066 confirmed cases within the corona virus pandemic. Lockdown, curfews, massive airport screening, quarantines and social distancing became the norms across the world. At an equiv-alent time, scientists round the world work tirelessly and knowl-edge about the transmission mechanism, the clinical spectrum of disease, new diagnostics and prevention and therapeutic strate-gies are rapidly developing
10 Improving the Durability of Agricultural Machinery Parts by Applying Antifriction Coatings , Yakov Nemyrovskyi, Ihor Shepelenko and Olha Medvedieva
An analysis of the literature showed that the problem of increasing the durability of the friction parts of agricultural machinery (AGM) can be successfully solved by applying antifriction coatings on their surface. The analysis of the existing anti-friction coating application schemes showed that the most simple, resource-saving and environmentally friendly is the method of finishing anti-friction non-abrasive treatment (FANT). The possibility and feasibility of using FANT with respect to AGM friction units have been proved. To achieve higher performance properties of parts with anti-friction coatings, combined processing using FANT and deform-ing broaching is proposed. Using cylinder liners as an example, it is proved that the use of the proposed technology improves the working capacity and durability of rubbing parts of AGM, thereby increasing the life of tribo-joints of mobile AGM and can be recom-mended both in the manufacture and in the restoration of friction parts of mobile agricultural machines.
11 The Super Cyclonic Storm Amphan Inflicts Massive Damage to Coastal Aquaculture in Bangladesh , Shoaibe Hossain Talukder Shefat
The monstrous cyclone Amphan, formed in the Bay of Bengal was the strongest tropical cyclone affecting the Ganges delta after Sidr in 2007 that caused severe damage in India and Bangladesh in May 2020. It was also the first tropical cyclone in the North Indian Ocean in 2020. Originating from a low-pressure area in Colombo, Sri Lanka on 13 May 2020, Amphan reached its maximum intensity on 18 May that sustained for 4-minutes with a wind speed of 240 - 260 km/h (150 - 160 mph), and a minimum central barometric pressure (925 mbar) (Figure 1). However, the intensity gradually weakened by continuous and combined dry air and wind shear ef-fects and reached a residuum level on 21 May. During this period, Amphan caused severe destruction of more than US$13 billion in India and Bangladesh.
12 Chemical Variation of Essential Oils from Peels of Citrus kinokuni Tanaka, C. reticulata ‘Dahongpao’, and C. reticulata ‘Zhang Shuensis , Ting-Li Han, Inam Ullah, Jian Wang
The chemicals in essential oils from peels of three varieties of Citrus reticulata Blanco like C. kinokuni Tanaka (K), C. reticulata ‘Dahongpao’ (D) and C. reticulata ‘zhang shuensis’ (Z) were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID), respectively. A total of 97 compounds were quantified in which 80 components were identified and 17 unknown components were detected. The quantitation results of D and Z were profoundly different from previous studies due to the different treatment to peels. The different oil-types from K, D, and Z were high in β-myrcene, p-cymene, limonene, γ-terpinene, α-terpineol, thymol, (E, E)-α-farnesene, spathulenol and isospathulenol. The chemicals’ fluctuation in oils of D and Z was more pronounced than that of K. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed the peel of K, D and Z could be classified as three kinds according to their chemical changeability, respectively, consisting with the usage of these peels in Chinese medicine. Lastly, the oils’ chemotypes of K, D, Z and other cultivars were analyzed, showing that the % variation of six characteristic components including limonene, γ-terpinene, methyl N-methylanthranilate, linalool, (E, E)-α-farnesene, and thymol, played an important role in discriminating oil-types from varieties of C. reticulata.
13 Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Soil Profile, Growth Physiology and Antioxidant Activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni , Shashi Kant Shukla, S Krithika, Shraddha Shukla and Anupam Dikshit
The present study was performed with the main objective of investigation of enhancement in the growth and antioxidant activity of Stevia rebaudiana, Bertoni, a medicinal plant and chief source of stevioside, natural sweetener. The whole experiment was followed by macro and micronutrients analysis of used soil for pot experiment. In the analysed concentration ratio; potassium was greater than and phosphorous. So, there was a need to dissolve these nutrients into the usable form; Paenibacillus polymyxa was selected due to having these characteristics. The results, observed in 0, 10 and 20 days, showed that in comparison to control, inoculation with ex-perimented soil bacterium, considerably increased root and shoot length as well as no and size of leaves in plant. The positive impact of the performed experiments was obtained after 10 and 20 days respectively. Furthermore, antioxidant efficacy of S. rebaudiana was done using DPPH method which confirms the plant to be free radical scavenger. The conclusion of the experiment showed the efficacy of P. polymyxa on escalation of Stevia.
14 Effect of Yield and Quality on Olive and Olive Oil in Olive Orchards Located at Different Altitudes , Ayça Akça Uçkun and Uygun Aksoy
Olive trees can be grown in marginal areas and adapt to different climatic and soil conditions which is easier to grow than other plants. It has positive effect of olive oil for human health. Therefore, olive cultivation is increasing day by day with the modern of olive techniques and it is preferred to grow by farmers thanks to the positive effects of olive oil and olive. The study was carried out in Ayvalik olive fields in which have different altitudes, in order to examine the current status of olive cultivation in Manisa/Ahmetli area, to soil and leaf analyzes and nutritional status and to determine the suitable harvest periods on high altitude and low altitude in terms of olive and olive oil quality. The current status (age, education, land positions) of the olive farmers were determined by survey in the Manisa/Ahmetli area. Fruit samples were harvested during 4 different periods (10 October, 13 November, 23 November and 5 December). In fruit samples: fruit weight (g), maturity index, color (CIE L*, a*, b*), dry matter (%) were determined. Oil samples, free fatty acidity and fatty acid composition were determined on high altitude and low altitude.In conclusion soil and leaf analyzes indicated that there were nutrient deficiencies and recommendations were made about olive cultivation in olive farmers. The suitable harvest periods were determined of high altitude and low altitude in terms of olive and olive oil quality. In this research, suggestions were given about olive cultivation and it is provided to shed light on future studies
15 Precious Supply Chain Management of Onion (Allium cepa L) by Examining the Production, Quality Expansion and Market Analysis for Food Safety , Sidhartha Kar
Onion is an important and indispensable vegetable in kitchen as condiment and vegetable which captures an extensive internal as well as external market. The green leaves matured and immature bulbs are eaten raw or used in preparation of vegetables. It is used as salad and cooked in various ways, in all curries fries boiled or scorched onion. It is also used in processed form e.g. flakes, powder, paste, pickles and some seasoning foods. It is valued much on account of its characteristics pungency which is due to presence of sul-phur compound (Ally propyl disulphide). It possesses some important medicinal properties. The organic onion is flourishing mainly due to consumer choice. The organic onion is much preferred than traditionally grown. It makes an increase in varieties and selection of onion in retail, supermarket and restaurant. The market plays an important role in determining the pattern as well as the pace of diversification in favor of high-value crops like onion. An increase in production is of little value unless there is a good marketing system.Keeping the above view a research analysis on “Precious supply chain management of onion (Allium cepa l) by examining the pro-duction, quality expansion and market analysis for food safety” was carried out and found among two zones selected such as eastern coastal plateau zone and mid central table land zone, Mid central table land zone found most suitable for onion farming and fulfilling all most all farming requirements. Effect of organic nutrient and botanical pesticides on onion applied, the best onion varieties re-sponse to vermi compost (50%) that is 2 t/ha + NPK (50:50:50) 50 Kg each/ha was remarkable and best organic treatment. Effect of cultivation of different onion varieties found best results with onion variety Agri found Dark Red which has got best results in concern to growth and yield. Effect of integrated weed management on weed density, Dry matter weight of weeds and weed control efficiency found best results with weed control treatment one hand weeding at 20 Days After Transplanting + Ridge and furrow making (6” X 6”) length X breadth in onion variety N-53. Market survey found best results with variation within experimental period of time analysis found Bhubaneswar has lowest varia-tions of onion price from wholesale to retail sell price. And also experimental State have best control over onion price hike during the market research and experiment year that is survey results from year 2013 - 2017. Supply chain management models analyses it is concluded that onion SCM developed after survey that is a new model from research to different marketing channel partner involvement and then grass root label point coverage’s prepared and samples are tested in field found best results.E-Onion marketing and digitalization found a new and best technology to reduce marketing costs and examined during experi-ment founds best response among primary, secondary and tertiary stock holders.Among different onion farming treatments integrated organic onion production technology found best economic results in com-parison to conventional onion farming technology that is C:B = 1.97 (Cost Benefit ratio) and net returns are best with organic onion production technology that is Rs. 1,95,802/- (Rs/ha).
16 Soil Organic Fertilization in Long-Term Low-Input Cropping System and its Effect on the Bread Making Flour Properties Determined by Albumen-Protein Complex , Nankova Margarita, Doneva Sonya, Iliya Iliev and Stefan Krustev
The results of the study on the quality of flour of 20 wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in a long-term low-input crop-ping system of Haplic Chernozems are reported. The cultivars were developed at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, General Toshevo. They were sown on two soil nutrition regimes: 1. Control - natural soil fertility and 2. Organic fertilization with ExcellOrga, produced in France. In addition to these variants we used a humine preparation Plantagra for pre-sowing seed treatment of sowing material (150 ml/100 kg seeds).Main soil organic fertilization with ExcellOrga especially in combination with seed material treatment (SMT) positively influenced on the sedimentation values and bread volume. The average value in this variant is 42.55 ml with increasing over control variant with 3.65%. The highest and relatively stable by variants were the sedimentation values of cultivar Pchelina (51.25 ml), followed by culti-vars Kiara (50.25 ml) and Galateya (46.75 ml). The bread volume in this condition exceeded the control with 3.75%. The maximum value in the trail was reached from cv. Bojana - 795 ml.Organic fertilization lead to increasing a wet gluten content according to the control with 2.60%. The cultivates Kiara and Bojana has a leader position according to the value of this index - 23.35% and 23.25% respectively. A tendency was established for decreas-ing of values of wet gluten content in variants with SMT. However, an exception to the tendency the genotypes specificity is strongly expressed - cultivars Pchelina, Kosara and Kiara reacted positively to the SMT.Flour stability is subject to highly expressed dynamics of values according to the genotype. Cultivars Enola and Katarjina were distinguished with maximum average values - 3.88 and 3.80. Soil organic fertilization increased values of this index according to the control variant with 4.60%. Valorimetric values were negatively influenced by soil organic fertilization and especially with combina-tion with SMT.We established also highly expressed correlations between yields (grain and protein) with chemical composition of grain, physical grain properties, rheological properties of flour and bread making qualities
17 The Development of Analytical Methodologies and Advances in Plant Physiology, Measurable Amounts of Elements in Nutrients Contribution and Carbon Assimilation by Five Grain Legumes, Bambara Groundnut; Groundnut, Cowpeas, Blackgram and Mungbeans Planted in Mpumalanga province, South Africa during 2011/2012 Season , MD Lengwati
A field experiment was carried out in the 2011/2012 summer cropping season at the Lowveld Research Station, Nelspruit (Bom-bela), in Mpumalanga province, where five grain legumes planted under field conditions during the planting season 2011 replicated four times as randomized complete block design (RCBD). The grain legume species cultivars for discussion were Bambara-groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) (cv. Brianbeck MB 51), Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) ( cv. JL 24), Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) (cv. Pan 311), Blackgram (Vigna mungo) (Local market seed), and Mungbean (Vigna radiata) (cv. VC 1973A).Recent consideration of essential and other (non-essential and toxic) nutrient elements in crops, both macro- and micro-elements - can cause nutrient imbalances, reduction in growth and yield losses. Beneficial “elements”, they are not required by all plants but can promote plant growth and may be essential for several plant species. Recently, nutrient content is expressed as element content in dry matter (DM) percentages in DM for macro-elements, in DM for micro-elements (also known as ppm= pars pro million, 1 mg per 106 kg). Average concentration ranges of essential nutrient elements in crops, Oxygen (45), Carbon (45), Hydrogen (6), Sulphur (0.1 - 0.4), Chlorine (0.2 - 2.0), Na (Sodium) (0.01 - 10), Silicon (0.2 - 2.0), Manganese (0.1 - 0.4), Calcium (0.2 - 1.0), Potassium (0.2 - 6.0), Phosphorus (0.01 - 0.7), Nitrogen (0.1 - 6.0) and Concentration range percentages in DM Macro-elements Cobalt (0.02). Carbon (C) is ranked along N and P as mineral nutrients that are needed the most by plants for their growth and development. For C3 plants such as grain legumes, C is acquired through the process of photosynthesis and these C compounds play a significant role in the growth and development of C3 plants. However, the disproportionate alteration of the microbial C and N contents led to a distinct decrease of the C:N ratio for mung-bean residues at flowering but no change in the groundnut and Bambara-groundnut treatments. This suggests that the changes in microbial C:N ratio are mainly caused by the ‘recoverable’ residue inputs.Basically, the composition of the C isotopes is compared to that in the air to reveal water-use efficiency of the test plant species during its growth period. Calculated as δ13C, the water-use efficiency provides information on the ability of C3 plants to balance the process of acquiring carbon through the process of photosynthesis in relation to the water that get lost in the process. With regards to grain legumes such as cowpea, Bambara-groundnut, groundnut, mung-bean and black gram, quality residues include that which have a C/N ratio that is < 24 g g-1. There is a need to select crops particular that cultivated by smallholder farmers which can tolerate drought because South Africa has had high temperatures, and evapotranspiration coupled with reduced and scanty rainfall.The implications of future increases in atmospheric CO2 for the productivity of indeterminate C3 crops grown in rain-fed subsis-tence agricultural systems in the semi-arid tropics are stress resistance, therefore JL 24 cultivar in the study at Nelspruit, under field conditions manage to have shoot C content of 45% as best performer legume species planted. Plants also affect the residue turnover by excreting easily available organic C and N compounds which can interact directly with the microbial biomass and affect its size, ac-tivity, turnover rate or physiological status. However, following this concept, N will be set free from the microbial biomass as microbial residues, the relation between the parameters is difficult to prove because data concerning the residue quality are only available for the ‘recoverable’ residues and not for the rhizo-deposits.
18 Preparation of Moringa Capsules , Mohammed Shoeib Ahmer
Moringa oleifera, native to India, grows in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. It is also known as ‘horseradish tree’. It can be grown in both dry and mild ice conditions and hence widely cultivated across the world. With its high nutritive values, each fragment of the Moringa is suitable for nutritional or busi-ness purposes. Leaves have ample amount of minerals, vitamins and other essential plant chemicals. Extraction of leaves helps to reduce malnutrition, supplement milk in mothers. Moringa also acts as agent against oxidation, cancer, diabetes, bacterial and mi-crobial properties. Moringa oleifera seed, acts as a inborn clotting agent which is used in water treatment. For business purpose Mo-ringa is used a cure for diabetes and cancer. It is known as “Miracle tree” as Moringa has medicinal, commercial, nutritional and phar-macological properties.
19 The Techniques of Hydroponic System , Anbarasu Mariyappillai, Gurusamy Arumugam and V B Raghavendran
Hydroponics is soilless cultures where plants are created using a mineral enhancement for without soil. It redesigns genuine root limits, deftly water, agreeable oxygen and enhancements to the plant while giving physical, substance and natural assistance to the plant. When orchestrating a hydroponic nursery or home nursery, ought to pick a suitable space and techniques. Hydroponics systems are requested as open and shut methods. A hydroponic system implies the procedure for applying supplement answer for the plant roots. The hydroponics ended up being logically notable in a short period of time and this strategy lead to begin indoor and outdoor hydroponic planting rapidly.
20 A Dual Approach for Model Construction of Two-Dimensional Horizontal Flow   , Tinh Ton That, The Hung Nguyen and Dong Anh Nguyen
The two-dimensional horizontal flow model in the classical integration approach is integrated from the three-dimensional Na-vier-Stokes system of equations. Using the classical theory, the integral is taken directly from the bed to the free water surfaces. Consequently, the effects between the channel bed and free water surface, in the process of integration, was disappeared. However, with the proposed dual-process approach, the integral can be performed locally several times. The receiving equations thus allow to contain many physical phenomena which may be lost in the classical integral process. As a result, the derived model based on the proposed dual approach will be more complex and accurate than the classical one. In this paper, the authors perform twice integrals. The improved two-dimensional horizontal flow model was received from the dual approach which allows the calculation of flow pa-rameters, which, having the unusual phenomena in the channel as solid objects, liquids containing other added ingredients, external forces, reversals, and so on. Moreover, it provides flexible parameter adjustment based on the experimental data
21 The Arsenal of Morphological and Physiological Mechanisms Adopted by Barley (Hordeum vulgare. L) to Face Salt Stress Damage , Zied Hammami, Nawel Ahmed, Nejia Ben Hmida, Soumaya Tounsi, Sawsen Ayadi and Youssef Trifa
The success of programmes improving barley performance under abiotic stress must go through an understanding of mecha-nisms developed by the plant to counteract this stress. Our study fits into this framework. It aims to evaluate six barley genotypes from the MENA region, treated with two salinity levels: 1.2 and 14 dS/m. Three genotypes are salt-tolerant, and three are sensitive. They were grown under a controlled environment and in 40L PVC tubes using sand and perlite as substrate. The evaluation was based on 15 morpho-physiological parameters related to water, ion content, temperature, and chlorophyll fluorescence.The results confirm the existence of genetic variability for salt tolerance. Two Tunisian landraces ‘Suihli’ and ‘Ardhaoui’ and Oma-nis landraces ‘Batini 100/1B’ were not affected. Conversely, ‘ICARDA20’ and ‘Barley Mednine’ appeared to be sensitive to salt stress with a maximum reduction of 35% for improved genotype ‘Konous’. Results also show that salt tolerance in barley cannot be exclusively attributed to a single mechanism. All studied parameters significantly (p < 0.001) contributed to it. However, Stepwise regression revealed that plant water status expected by RWC is the key for salinity tolerance as well as a positive effect of K+ content, Fm/Fv, and leaf Temperature on proper water status. The results highlight the effeteness of one visual trait, the salinity damage index (DI), to estimate barley tolerance. Indeed, a strong correlation was observed between DI and the biomass reduction (P < 0.001, r2 = 0.96). In addition, correlation analyses showed that all parameters were inversely correlated with the DI.
22 Response of Carnation (Dianthus chinensis x barbatus) to Different Levels of Foliar Spraying of Amino Acid and Chemical Fertilizers , Yasser Ismail El-Nashar and Fatma El-Zahara Hussein El-Tony
The objective of this investigation was to measure the growth and flower response of carnation plants to the application of vari-ous levels (0, 2, 4 g.l-1) of amino acid (Terra-Sorb and Triamin) and chemical fertilization (Turo-fort and Nami), three times during the growing period, as a possible program for the production of quality plants through fertilization. Carnations (Dianthus chinensisx barbatus) were pot-grown in an unheated green-net greenhouse. The results showed that plants sprayed with fertilizer solutions showed a significant increase in the growth parameters. The results also showed that the treatments stimulated the flowering pa-rameters (number of inflorescences per plant, inflorescences diameter, flowering date, and inflorescences dry mass) and increased the number, diameter, and dry mass of inflorescences per plant, when compared to the untreated plants (control). The a, b, and total chlorophyll (a+b), carotenoid and anthocyanin content, gas exchange measurements and leaf mineral content (P, N, K, and Total car-bohydrates) were significantly increased compared to the control, as a result of the application of different levels of the chemical fo-liar fertilizer spraying solutions (Turo-fort and Nami). Carnations plants with foliar fertilizer solution application had higher leaf gas exchange (stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E), photosynthetic rate (PN) and plant intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci)).
23 Influence of Foliar Application of Sulfur at Various Stages on Yield and Oil Content of Olive (Olea eurapaea L.) , Zari Said, Yasir Ali, Mehboob Alam, Naveed Ahmad and Azmat Ali Awan
The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of foliar application of sulfur at various stages on yield and oil con-tent of olive (Olea europaea L.) during the year 2018. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with two factors having split plot arrange-ment and treatments were replicated three times. Factor A was time of foliar application (pre-blooming, fruit set, after 20 days of fruit set) allotted to main plots and factor B foliar spray of Sulfur concentrations (0, 500, 1000, 1500 ppm) were allotted to sub plots. Results showed that maximum number of fruits panicle-1 (5.33), number of fruits plant-1 (5235.6), minimum fruit drop (55.11%), maximum fruit length (2.79 cm), fruit diameter (2.32 cm), fruit volume (5.35 ml), single fruit fresh weight (7.33g), fruit dry weight (2.04g), fruit pulp (83.34%) and minimum fruit stone (21.44%), maximum yield plant-1 (21.72 kg), yield hectare-1 (17.73 tons) and oil content (12.62%) were observed in plants treated with 1500 ppm sulfur foliar application. In conclusion better yield of olive is on 1500 ppm should be applied at pre-blooming stage while for maximum oil contents same concentration of sulfur should be applied at fruit set stage.
24 Pharmacological Approaches to Investigate the Potential Herbal Medicine (Decoction) in Treating COVID-19 , Reshma Kumari and Sanjay Kumar
Since December 2019, COVID-19 infection is spreading rapidly throughout worldwide. Every virus has a unique structure, behavior and infectious agent to create infections. The ayurvedic herbal medicine that seem to work for other viral infections should be tested against COVID-19. Qingfei Paidu decoction, Shuanghuanglian oral liquid (SHL), Mahuang Gancao Ganjiang Decoction (MGGD) and licorice are remedies that officials in China have recommended against COVID-19. Simultaneously, an Ayush Ministry advisory suggested that drinking decoction (ginger, turmeric, tulsi leaves) as ‘home remedies’ to boost immune system against Covid-19 in India. Likewise, Barleria lupulina leaves decoction is also one of the potential candidates which may be helpful for the treatment of COVID-19
25 Genetic Variability Assessment of Tossa Jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) Genotypes Using Morpho-Agronomic Traits , Arju Miah, Nihar Ranjan Saha, AKM Shahadat Hossain, Md Younus Ali and Amit Kumar Basunia
Forty accessions with three check varieties of tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) were characterized on the basis of morpho-ag-ronomic traits in genetic variability at Jute Agriculture Experiment Station, Manikganj during kharif season in 2016. The accessions were characterized for twenty-two morpho-agronomic attributes as per Corchorus descriptor in order to select superior genotypes for the genetic improvement of jute. Considerable ranges of variability were observed in stem colour, petiole colour, stipule colour, plant technical height, base diameter, dry fibre weight and dry stick weight. Considering the major yield contributing characters ac-cession no. 1039, 1115, 1124, 1234 and1245 performed better in most of the cases than the control varieties O-9897 O-3820 and BJRI Tossa Pat-4 (O-72).
26 Effect of the Use of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza for Plant Growth Promotion on Morpho-physiological Properties of Antirrhinum majus L. Under Salinity Stress , Fatma El-Zahara Hussein El-tony
The impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation with mixed water irrigation on the vegetative and flowering growth, leaf mineral content, and chlorophyll (Chl) content of Antirrhinum majus L. (snapdragon) plants was studied through two seasons under two irrigation water sources. Five irrigation water treatments were applied as follows: T1 as a control (100% desalinized (DW)), T2 (75% DW + 25% well water, WW), T3 (50% DW + 50% WW), T4 (25% DW + 75% WW), and T5 (100% WW). The imposed salt stress conditions (T5) significantly reduced all vegetative and flowering growth, leaf mineral content (P, Na, K, Cl, and Ca), and chlorophyll content of the plants compared to those of the non-salted plants (T1). Inoculated snapdragon with AM fungi exhibited significantly higher values for most vegetative growth characters, flowering date, and spike length than those of non-mycorrhizal plants. With regard to interaction effects, the highest value of proline content of the leaves was detected with 100% WW (T5) and AM fungi treatments, which improved the salt stress tolerance compared to other treatments. Inoculated snapdragon plants with AM fungi showed both improved vegetative and flowering growth, mostly under salt stress conditions. With (T3) under mycorrhizal treatment, snapdragon plants showed the best results with earlier flowering dates, greater number of spikes, and longer spike length
27 Investigation of the Complex Influence of High- and Low-Molecular Glutenins and Crude Protein on the Quality of Bread Wheat (T. aestivum L.) , Sonya Doneva, Margarita Nankova and Stefan Krustev
The relation between high- (HMW) and low-molecular (LMW) glutenins with the quality indicators - sedimentation value, valorimetric value and bread loaf of a collection of Bulgarian wheat varieties was studied.A total of about 63% of the sedimentation value, 44% of the valorimetric value and 39% of the bread loaf was controlled by the two groups of glutenins and the crude protein. The high-and low-molecular weight glutenins had an almost equal share in controlling the sedimentation value and the valorimetric value. The LMW glutenins had a significantly higher share in controlling bread loaf than that of HMW glutenins. The participation of individual glutenin loci in quality control was not one-sided. It was mainly determined by genetic diversity and by the linking with the quality of the individual glutenin subunits.The relative contribution of crude protein to the control of quality indicators during the various harvest years was highly variable, but its optimum quantity was a necessary condition for showing the positive effect of glutenin subunits on the quality of the wheat varieties.
28 Food Supply Chain Disruptions and Resilience Under the Stress of COVID-19: Evidence from Nepal , Saugat Khanal, Padam Bahadur Poudel, Jeevan Lamichhane and Alagathurai Ajanthan
The food supply chain is a complex web with a number of stakeholders. Though the stocks of cereal at present are at satisfactory level, its stock in future is going to be depleted resulting from the disruptions in the food supply chain. Supply of agric-inputs has been severely affected. Developing countries and low income countries are most vulnerable to the impact of disruptions in the supply chain. Secondary sources of information are used for studying the food supply disruptions and resilience. Supply chain resilience has drained the curiosity of local to multinational companies and policymakers in remodeling the chain. As per the alarming projections to leave the long-term negative consequences, the importance of food availability has further risen. Consumer’s anticipation of future food crises has created panic and chaos in the food market; affecting the demand-supply chain. Transportation and public restrictions including transnational boundaries lockdown have created inconvenience to producers and distributors. With numerous noted obstacles from farm to firm, unemployment and poverty among low and middle class have been particularly hard hit. In this regard there is a need for behavioral change of the consumer, diversification of the supply chain and consumption of the local food.
29 Advanced Yield Trial of Early Seeding, Higher Yield and Low Temperature Tolerant Breeding Lines of White Jute , Arju Miah, Nihar Ranjan Saha, Amit Kumar Basunia, AKM Shahadat Hossain and Md Younus Ali
The experiment was carried out at four regional stations (Rangpur, Chandina, Faridpur and Kishoreganj) and JAES, Manikganj to develop breeding lines with better performance in respect of seeding time and growth. Significant differences were observed among the treatments for plant population, plant height, base diameter and fibre weight at Manikganj, plant height and fibre weight at Rangpur and Chandina station. Pooled mean over stations revealed that the tested strains C-2234 (4.37 t/ha), C-2236 (4.12 t/ha) and C-2281 (3.87 t/ha)out yielded both the check varieties BJRI Deshi Pat-5 (3.68 t/ha) and CC-45 (3.57 t/ha) in terms of fiber.
30 Characterization of Deshi Jute (Corchorus capsularis) Germplasm Collected from Different Sources , Arju Miah, Nihar Ranjan Saha, Md. Jahangir Alam, Md. Younus Ali and Amit Kumar Basunia
Forty accessions of white jute germplasm collected from different sources were characterized at JAES, Manikganj during kharif season in 2015. The accessions were characterized for twenty morpho-agronomic attributes as per Corchorus descriptor in order to select superior genotypes for the genetic improvement of jute. Considerable ranges of variability were observed in stem colour, petiole colour, stipule colour, plant technical height, base diameter, dry fiber weight and dry stick weight. Based on major yield contributing characters accessions 4869, 4621, 3394, 2199, 2839, 1478, 1777, 1923 and 2675 performed better in most of the cases than the control variety CVL-1 and CVE-3.
31 Response of Three Soybean Genotypes to Lima Bean Pod Borer (Etiella zinckenella) Infestation Using Some Bio and Chemical Insecticides , Eman I Abdel-Wahab, S M Tarek, Marwa Kh A Mohamed and Soheir F Abd El-Rahman
The present investigation was carried out at Giza Agricultural Experiments and Research Station, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza, Egypt during the two successive seasons 2018 and 2019 to evaluate three soybean genotypes (Giza 35, Crawford and DR10l) to infestation with lima bean pod borer using four bio and chemical insecticides (Diple-2x 6.4% DF, Biover10 % WP, Suncide Agri-pest and Lannate 25% WP) for increasing seed yield and net return. The treatments were four insecticides (Diple-2x 6.4% DF, Biover10 % WP, Suncide Agri-pest and Lannate 25% WP) beside water as control and three soybean genotypes (Giza 35, Crawford and DR10l). Split-plot distributions in a randomized complete block design with three replications were used. Insecticide sources were randomly assigned to main plots and soybean genotypes were allocated in subplots. The results showed that the bacterial insecticide Diple-2x 6.4% DF recorded lower pod infestation and seed damage than the other insecticides. Soybean genotype DR10l had lower pod infestation and seed damage, meanwhile the reverse was true for soybean genotype Crawford. Soybean variety Giza 35 recorded higher most yield traits than the soybean genotypes Crawford and DR10l. Soybean genotypes x insecticide sources interaction was significant for pod infestation, seed damage, seed yield per plant, 100-seed weight, seed yield per ha, and HI in both seasons. Spraying of the bacterial insecticide Diple-2x 6.4% DF in the flowering stage of soybean variety Giza 35 enhanced its tolerance to lima bean pod borer infestation with higher seed yield and net return than the other treatments.
32 Post Pandemic World Scenario and the Road to Food Sustainability , Himanshu Yadav
A century ago, when the world was fighting it’s Great war, which they didn’t know was going to be either the greatest or the first, a flu was spreading. Millions of lives were lost in that decade. Argu-ably, it was the decade which saw most deaths due to anthropo-genic and natural reasons combined. The virus killed 50 million people, while the war killed 38 million. On one frontier, masks were being used to protect self from Mustard gas and on the other, masks were used to prevent infection. The world, specially Europe was in a turmoil. The origin of the flu is still debated but it certainly did not originate in Spain.
33 Study of Physico-Chemical Status for Augmentation of Kamvari River Flow and Restoration of Water Quality in Bhiwandi City (MS)   , Snehal S Donde
Kamvari river was once a huge commercial navigation port, is now a diminishing perennial river of total 34 Km length flowing pol-luted through the Bhiwandi city, Kalyan Taluka, Maharashtra. Researcher being a Jalnayak recognized by Government of Maharashtra has taken initiative to revive and rejuvenate the river Kamvari along with other water bodies to restore its historic glory. The aim is to make all water bodies pollution free. Thus, origin to confluence of river course was located with Google Earth app and remote sensing images and documented for first time the origin in Depoli and Lamaj village and confluence in Thane creek, ultimately drain-ing in Arabian sea. The investigation of point and non-point sources of pollution, showed the establishment of most of the Textile Units, Slaughter houses and Tabelas in blue line area of river and direct release of untreated effluents from these sources along with untreated sewage water in the river. Water samples of river and other water bodies across Bhiwandi city was collected from multiple sites with intercept method, were subjected to Physico-chemical parameters tests. Almost status of all parameters in every sample was against the permissible limits and indicated percolation and mixing of creak water in ground water, among other factors. Re-spondents response during social assessment was very crucial to understand the rising pollution issues and risk to human health.Low capacity Sewage Treatment Plants (28%), no or non- functional Effluents Treatment Plants (ETP) in textile units, solid waste disposal in water bodies, power-looms without toilets need immediate action. An integrated approach working model has been rec-ommended to the administrative authorities in Bhiwandi region and District Collector office to work in tandem for revival of water bodies with appropriate restoration plans.
34 Advantage of Agrivoltaics Across the Food-Energy-Water Connection , JM Makavana, SV Kalaiya, PM Chauhan and MS Dulawat
Agricultural crop production, Food and energy security need not be competing objectives. In fact, taking a holistic, integrated approach to food-energy-water decision making can increase resil-iency of both food, water harvesting and energy methods.
35 Fresh, Tiny, Crunchy, Green, Healthy… So Many Words Come to My Mind to Describe these Small Leafy Vegetables: Microgreens , Soniyo Yomichan
My lockdown days were boring like everyone’s. Since I travelled from UAE to Kerala, I was asked to stay in quarantine for 14 days initially, then later on more 14 days, a total of 28 days. I seriously didn’t want to waste those days. So, I thought gardening would be a better option and started planting my favorite table roses. The print media and broadcast media these days discuss how the whole economy is suffering from COVID-19. During these days the green leafy veggies, which are inevitable in our daily diet may not be easily available, as most of the markets are closed. I myself re-discovered those ingredients, which are far better than those veg-gies we buy from markets. Which can been grown in our kitchen, that neither require land nor fertilizers
36 Interplanting Soybean with Three Species of Orchard Trees Under Two Soybean Plant Distributions in Sandy Soils , Mohamed AF Selim, Yaser AA Hefny and Mostafa AM Ebrahim
A two-year study was carried out at El-Kassaseen Agricultural Research Station, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Ismailia government, Egypt, during 2018 and 2019 summer seasons to evaluate the optimum interplanting system of soybean with orange, mandarin and mango for achieving high productivity of crops, land usage, and profitability under sandy soil conditions. Ten treat-ments were the combinations of three orchards trees (mango, orange and mandarin) and two soybean plant distributions with the same plant density (one row/ridge and two rows/ridge) in a strip plot design with three replications were taken. The rhizosphere of mandarin trees had higher soil CO2 and organic carbon (OC), meanwhile the reverse was true for mango trees under interplanting conditions. Wide soybean plant distribution increased fruit yield per ha by 10.23 and 10.06% for orange trees and by 7.49 and 6.29% for mandarin trees in the first and second seasons, respectively than the narrow one as a result of increased soil CO2 and OC, mean-while, all the studied traits of mango trees were not affected. On the other hand, interplanting soybean with mandarin trees recorded higher light intensity at the middle of soybean plant, the number of branches and pods per plant, as well as seed yields per plant and per ha than the other interplanting systems soybean + orange and soybean + mango in both seasons. Also, wide soybean plant dis-tribution gave higher all the studied soybean traits (except plant height) than the narrow one in both seasons. Moreover, soybean of wide plant distribution in soybean + mandarin system gave higher all the studied soybean traits (except plant height) compared with the other treatments in both seasons. Land equivalent ratio (LER) and land equivalent coefficient (LEC) values for intercrops were much greater than 1.00 and 0.25, respectively, indicating the advantage of the interplanting system than solid culture of the studied orchards. Growing four ridges of soybean variety Giza 22 (one row per ridge at distance 25 cm between hills) between mango trees cultivar Naomy is more profitable for Egyptian farmers followed by growing four ridges of the same soybean variety (two soybean rows per ridge at distance 50 cm between hills) with mandarin trees (Fremont cultivar).
37 Evaluation of Some Faba Bean Genotypes Under Natural Infection with Chocolate Spot and Rust Diseases , Marwa Kh A Mohamed and AM El-Bakery
A two year study was conducted at Sakha Agricultural Research Station, Kafr EL-Sheikh Governorate during 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 seasons. The objective of this study was to evaluate productivity of fifteen faba bean genotypes under natural infections with chocolate spot and rust diseases. Faba bean genotypes (Giza 40, Atona, Giza 3, Sakha 1, Misr 1, Santamora, Misr 3, Giza 843, Sakha 3, Sakha 4, Nubaria 1, L 1, L 2, L 3 and L 4) were randomly distributed in a randomized complete block design with three rep-licates. The results showed that faba bean genotypes Santamora, L2, Giza 843, Sakha 4, and Sakha 3 showed higher resistance to rust and chocolate spot diseases. This was positively reflected on seed yield in both seasons. However, the reverse was true for Giza 40 and Atona genotypes. A significant positive correlation was obtained between flowering or maturity date and each of rust and chocolate spot diseases. There is a highly negative correlation between days to 50% flowering or maturity date and each of number of pods per plant, seed weight per plant and seed yield per ha. There is a negative correlation between rust or chocolate spot disease and each of number of pods per plant, seed weight per plant and seed yield per ha. Conversely, there is a positive correlation between number of pods per plant and each of seed weight per plant and seed yield per ha. This study indicated that Santamora, L2, Giza 843, Sakha 4, and Sakha 3 genotypes could be grown to tolerate rust and chocolate spot diseases coincided with high productivity under Sakha region conditions.
38 Farmers’ Knowledge and Perception on Major Insect Pests of Rice and their Integrated Management in Gorkha, Nepal , Sudip Neupane, Resham Bahadur Thapa and Radhika Regmi.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the major staple crop of Nepal. Various insect pests cause high yield loss in field and storage condition. The study was carried in September-October 2018 to assess farmer’s knowledge and perception on major insect pests of rice and their integrated management in Gorkha, Nepal. Respondents were selected randomly from among the study area. 120 samples were taken from 750 sampling population. Household survey was used to collect information by using a semi-structured questionnaire. The collected data were processed and analyzed by using MS-Excel and SPSS. The study revealed that rice gundhi bug, yellow stem borer and grasshopper were the major rice field pest while rice weevil and rice Angoumois moth was the major storage pest of rice in the study area. Biological practices were the least adopted practice. Use of resistant variety, use of well decomposed fertilizer, crop rotation, adjustment of planting date were the least adopted cultural practices while use of traps, rouging and clipping were the least adopted mechanical practice. All of the respondents were found to use chemical method without using all the protective wearing and safety measures. Only, few respondents had the knowledge of IPM and attended training on IPM
39 Socio-Economic Factors of Cooperative Farmer’s and their Food Intake in Yewa North Local Government Area of Ogun State , Oluwasanya OP, Nwankwo FO, Aladegoroye OR and Ojewande AA
The study analysed effect of socio-economic characteristics of cooperative farmers’ on their food intake in Yewa North Local Gov-ernment Area, Ogun State with a view to providing policy information toward enhancing the nutritional status of Nigeria. Hunger and malnutrition in developing countries like Nigeria requires the improvement of goals to lower the rate of frequently malnourished individual. There is problem of food and nutrition security in the world today. The data was collected through multistage sampling to obtain useful data from 112 households. It was revealed that 76.8% of the household farmers had average income below N30,000 per month. The household farmer’s expenditure was N4,961.24 and per capital average expenditure was N925.605. This showed that poverty level is very critical and needs urgent attention in the study area. On this note, it was recommended that appropriate, attainable and practicable programme should be done to alleviate poverty and enhance income among rural farmers and that there should be a redistribution of income to favour low income earner so as to benefit the identified poor and likewise be extended to all Nigerians most especially food insecure and vulnerable individual.
40 Effects of Gamma Radiation and Electron Beam on Samples of the Food-green Peanuts, Organic Peanuts, and Eco-labelling Green Peanuts Industry Artificially Inoculate with Aspergillus flavus , Gisele Ferreira de Souza and Jair Ribeiro dos Santos Junior
The purpose of this research was to assess the effects of Gamma Radiation as well as Electron Beam on samples of Brazil nuts that are contaminated with Aspergillus flavus under temperatures of 30uC and a humidity of 93%. The process taked place in fifteen days of incubation where aflatoxins and mycobation are analyzed. The samples was further grouped into three groups namely, control, group 1 and group 2 which receive radiation of 0, 5 and 10 kGy dosage of electron beam (EB) and gamma radiation (GR). Some sam-ples of not inoculated were illuminated with a similar dosage to evaluate the sensors. The results indicated that 0.80 of the samples had an average water capacity. Illumination or irradiation of gamma radiation and electron beam at a dosage of 5 and 10 kGy were able to eliminate the A. flavus fungi in the samples of Brazil nuts. Analyzes of aflatoxin indicated that electron beam doses of 5 and 10 kGy lowers aflatoxins levels by 53.32 and 65.66%, respectively. Moreover, this same dosage of gamma radiation lowered the levels of toxins by 70.61 and 84.15%, respectively, as compared to the control group. Sensory assessment showed that texture and smell or the illuminated samples of Brazil nuts were acceptable
41 Assessment of Soil Microbes and Enzyme Activities in the Degraded Soils Adjacent to Industries and Mines and its Relation with Heavy Metal Contaminants , K Laxminarayana, Sulekha Pradhan, M Madhumita Das and M Nedunchezhiyan
A study was undertaken to assess the microbial diversity and enzyme activities and their relationship with soil properties in the soils adjacent to chromium, iron and coal mining areas of Jajpur, Keonjhar and Jharsuguda districts and adjacent to industrial areas as well as ash ponds of thermal power plant and aluminium refinery of Angul, Koraput, Rayagada, Jagatsinghpur, Sundargarh, Bhadrak, Balasore, Mayurbhanj, Cuttack, and Ganjam districts of Odisha, India. The effluents from the mines are discharged to nearby arable lands and water bodies causing acid mine drainage. The soils of the study area are strongly acidic to slightly alkaline in reaction (pH 4.23 - 7.85), non saline, and having very low to high organic carbon (0.15 - 1.88%), low to medium in available ni-trogen (N), low to high in available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). The soils contain toxic levels of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and relatively higher status of available zinc (Zn). Highest available Fe (240.8 mg kg-1) was observed in the soils adjacent to sugar factory of Ganjam district, Mn in the soils of coal mining areas of Jharsuguda (146.0 mg kg-1), highest Cr (178.4 mg kg-1) and Ni (12.4 mg kg-1) in the soils of chromium mining areas of Jajpur and highest Pb (18.9 mg kg-1) in the bauxite mining areas of Koraput district of Odisha. However, highest available Cu (9.02 mg kg-1) and Zn (6.36 mg kg-1) contents were recorded adjacent to Rourkela steel plant areas of Sundargarh district. Toxicity of heavy metals in the soils of Jagatsinghpur district led to very low biological activities in terms of dehydrogenase (0.186 μg TPF hr-1g-1), fluorescein diacetate (0.152 μg g-1 hr-1) and alkaline phosphatase (9.68 μg PNP g-1 hr-1). The study emphasized that toxic levels of heavy metals in these mining and industrial areas and consequently their uptake in to the plant system is very much harmful to the livestock and human beings and there is an urgent need to advocate the people in these areas to adopt proper remedial measures so as to minimize the levels of these elements in the soil-plant-animal-human chain.
42 Impacts of Climate Change on Communal Livestock Production: Experiences in Chiredzi District , Nhara RB, Halimani TE and Masunda B
The study sought to find and measure climate change impacts on livestock production in Chiredzi district. Purposive sampling was done on 6 selected wards. Primary data on perceived climate change impacts was collected using a pretested questionnaire and 150 households were sampled. Secondary data on climatic records were collected from meteorological department. Climate data was used to establish climatic patterns. Empirical Ricardian regression model and descriptive statistics were used to measure climate change impacts on livestock. Increase in temperatures and decrease in rainfall events were highlighted by 98% and 84% of the farmers, respectively. In relation to forage and water availability 92% and 93% perceived a decrease respectively. Respondents perceived an increase in incidence of climate influenced diseases to include Heart water in goats, Foot and Mouth disease in cattle and Newcastle disease in poultry. Ricardian model concluded that climate change has an economic impact on livestock production at P < 0.05. In conclusion, climate change had an impact on livestock production in Chiredzi district as perceived by farmers. Proper livestock adaptation and mitigation strategies to reduce climate change vulnerability are required.
43 Impact of COVID 19 on Agriculture Globally , Sudhir Pradhan
Corona viruses are a family of viruses which are zoonotic, means they are transmitted between animals and people, if they come in contact.Investigation showed that SARS-COV was transmitted from civet cats to human and MERS-COV from dromedary camels to hu-mans. COVID means CO=Corona, VI=Viruses, and D=Disease. The impact of COVID-19 on the agriculture is devastating, complex and varied across diverse segments that form the agricultural value chain. This impact will reverberate across the larger economy and will linger longer than few months.
44 Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in Butwal Sub-metropolitan City, Nepal , Pooja Bhusal, Kopila Bashyal, Rishav Pandit and Bikash Adhikari
Urbanization and land use affect the quantity and characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste in a fast-growing municipality. Man-agement of increasing amounts of solid waste has become a major challenge in many cities in developing countries. The present study was conducted for analysis of MSW in Butwal Sub-Metropolitan City. For quantitative analysis per capita waste generation was calculated by using digital weighing machine and for qualitative analysis, waste is categorized into mainly eight category i.e. Organic, Paper and paper product, Rubber and Leather, Plastic, Metals, Textile, Glass, and Others. Stratified random survey was conducted in three sub areas: Rural, semi-urban and core urban city using standard questionnaire and KII for qualitative analysis and to know about present status of waste management in Butwal. The per capita waste generation rate of Butwal Sub-metropolitan city is found to be 244.33 g/day. The quantity of waste generation is found to be 47.56 tons/day and 17359.4 tons/year which include wastes from household, commercial and institutional sector. The overall composition of solid waste is made up of 54% organic, 17% paper and paper products, 15% plastic, 5% glass, 2% metal, 1% rubber and leather, 1% textiles and 5% others. After the study the composition of organic waste was found dominant among household, institutional and commercial areas.
45 Potential Use of Angiosperm353 to Help Bio-prospectors Differentiate between Members of the Genus Attalea , Jonathan Daniel Hulse
The family of palm trees, Arecaceae, provides to the incredible biological diversity in the tropics, and currently includes 181 gen-era and over 2600 species. Of these 2600 plus species, only a portion of these species have been molecular characterized because many of these species had little or no economic value to Americans and Europeans, so they have simply not been a priority to bio-prospectors, until now. The advancement of Angiosperm353® a biotechnology kit, can differentiate the inner workings of this vast plant family, and minute details can finally be resolved. In particular, there have been discrepancies between the species of the genera Attalea, which include agriculturally and economically important members, that share similar morphology, which are hard to differ-entiate morphologically. Every member of this genus have not been molecularly characterized at this point in time, and this manu-script proposes the use of Angiosperm353® to help resolve the inner workings of this enormous plant family, to help bio-prospectors correctly identify members of this genus.
46 An Analysis of the Relation between Garbage Pickers and Women's Health Risk   , M Pires, GF Souza and JS Junior
The waste influences women's health. The quantity of waste is influencing the quality of the environment. The different coopera-tives produce different types and amounts of garbage, virus, bacteria and fungi that affect the quality of life. Several protections must be used, such as masks, gloves, and boots. Solid waste is a common health problem. The analysis of different health problems is essen-tial to verify the consequences of its inadequate management and final disposition. This paper analyses three different cooperatives about the prevalence of various diseases. The risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was associated with sex and smoking, verifying that it is higher in smokers. Finally, the consequences of the inadequate management and final disposition can reflect on the health of the population.
47 Assessment of Postharvest Supply Chain Loss of Banana and Tomato in Asella Town , Yonas Tega Gebeyehu, Tesfaye Mekuriyaw and Yidersail Hune
Postharvest loss is quantitative and qualitative food loss in the postharvest system which is a serious problem in Ethiopia. Fruit ripening is a complex process that dramatically changes in colour, texture, flavour, and chemical compositions. Tomato fruit ripening happens after harvest this ripening processes and storage temperature can severely affect the final product. Banana is a climacteric fruit with poor storage characteristics as it presents a high respiration rate after harvest and ethylene production, which make it highly perishable and prone to postharvest losses. This study was conducted in Arsi zone, Asella town. The objective of this research was to assess the postharvest supply chain loss of banana and tomato, Study the extent of loss in the supply chain (from wholesaler to consumer), put suggestive solutions to reduce such postharvest loss of banana and tomato. Asella town was selected purposely to study due it is known as major marketing activity in the region. In this study, the survey was conducted with about 102 respondents to assess for such fruit losses. The result revealed with 18.2% and 11.82% loss of banana and tomato postharvest supply chain re-spectively. Transportation, loading and unloading and storage condition were the main factors in postharvest supply chain loss of banana and tomato and storage condition is identified as the key issue for product loss.
48 COVID-19 Lockdown Time and Horticulture Therapy   , Sumit Nadeem
As we the whole world is suffering the deadly disease affecting people worldwide. No age specification, area, culture or anything everyone is getting infected with this pandemic disease Covid-19.Ages ago when some other pandemics attacked on world were Spanish influenza, malaria, chicken pox or others. At that time people also lost their lives and their love ones the whole families becomes a part of soil.
49 Selenium Content in Soil and Wheat Grain in Bulgaria , Stefan Krustev, Violina Angelova, Penka Zaprjanova, Margarita Nankova and Krasimir Ivanov.
Selenium (Se) is an essential but highly toxic element. Its organic compounds play an important role in biochemistry and nutrition of the cells. Shortage or surplus of this element leads to the occurrence of socially significant diseases. Se concentrations in different regions of the world and its levels in different foods vary widely. Bulgaria does not appear in the World Atlas of Se, and the scarcity of data about the neighboring countries shows serious lack of Se, causing concern about human health in the region. As a result of the present study, data on the status of selenium in soils and wheat from 60 points from the main grain-producing regions of Bulgaria. The results show that there is a significant deficiency of selenium in the soil and especially in the grain of wheat, which is a major source of selenium and its entry into the human body for our geographical areas through the bread.
50 Experimental Measurement of Creep Deformations of an Unsaturated Silty Soil with Matric Suction , Tomoyoshi Nishimura and Masafumi Matsumoto
Geotechnical engineers often encourage geological disaster in ground related to saturated soil and unsaturated soil. Landslide, settlement and slope failure related to creep phenomena are typical problems in geotechnical practices. Creep behavior of saturated soils can explain including time-dependent on effective stress of saturated soil by Terzaghi effective stress theory. Some papers al-ready published to apply the practice problems related soft ground settlements. Landslide in unsaturated conditions was induced by changing of matric suction as one stress of unsaturated soil stress variables, and some experimental researchers have reported inter-esting test results and effectively models for unsaturated soil creeping deformations. This study conducted out unsaturated soil creep test, which suction controlling has a low range with two lateral confining pressures using revised unsaturated triaxial compression apparatus. Solving the practical problems regard to unsaturated soils consider the properties of unsaturated soil that are subjected to creep before occurrence instability of natural slope. Excess pore-water pressures were measured and evaluated matric suction in unsaturated creep test using pressure membrane technique that creep stress increased step by step till unsaturated soil was failure. Comparison failure condition obtained from conventional triaxial compression test under undrained condition and mean effective principal stresses against creep stress. It was found out mean effective principal stress reached to failure line. In addition, soil-water characteristic curve was investigated in order to interpret hydro-mechanical properties and relationship between unconfined com-pressive strength and matric suction was obviously useful that shear resistance of unsaturated soil depend on matric suction.
51 Fruit Flies in Citrus Fruits with Special Reference to Chinese Citrus Fly, Bactrocera minax (Enderlin) (Diptera: Tephritidae): Status and Management Options in Nepal , Janjit Adhikari, Ashmita Karki and Bhola Gautam
Fruit fly is one of the serious pest of Citrus. Among 16 species of fruit fly reported in Nepal, 6 species of fruit flies were found in citrus fruits. According to pest surveys done in Dhankuta and Sindhuli, the species found are: Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae), Ori-ental fruit fly (B. dorsalis), Peach fruit fly (B. zonata), B. tau, B. scutellaris and Dacus longicornis. Chinese fruit fly, B. minax (Enderlein) (Diptera: Tephritidae) has created devastation in the sweet orange orchards in eastern hills of Nepal and the infestation rate have been found up to 100%. Unlike other Bactrocera species, B. minax is univoltine and oligophagous and adult flies becomes active from April to July. The two highly attractive para-pheromones, Cue lure and Methyl Eugenol used for many Bactrocera species are not at-tractive for this species. For B. minax, food based lure i.e. protein baits are used. Maintaining field sanitation by proper disposal of infested fruits, winter/summer ploughing, visual cue lures such as colored sticky spheres, mass trapping by using para-pheromones and food based lures, foliar insecticidal spray are the pest management strategies adopted in China, Bhutan, Sikkim and Nepal. Area Wide control program has been launched using technologies: monitoring, Great Fruit Fly Bait (Protein Hydrolysate 25%+0.1% Ab-amectin) developed by Ecoman Biotech, China, trapping and field sanitation in the year 2018 which has proved successful in control of B. minax in the sweet orange orchards of Sindhuli.
52 Empowerment of SC/ST Communities Through Watershed Activities in Rayalaseema Region , PVRM Reddy, B Janardha Reddy and BV Ramana Kumar
Semi-arid regions like Rayalaseema of Andhra Pradesh were adopted by programmes like Integrated Watershed Management Program in order to improve productivity and livelihoods especially marginalized sections such as SC/STs. These are poor, asset less, socially depressed, and economically backward. With this aim, IWMP provided financial assistance to improve their lives by engaging them through farm-based and non-farm based activities under the components of Natural Resources Management, Productivity Sup-port Improvements and Livelihoods for the period 2017-2020. To evaluate their performance and improvement, the study carried out a detailed field-based study with extensive field surveys; in-depth interviews focused group discussions, case studies and also collected secondary data for effective analysis. The results can be seen in the target-based activities of financial assistance and works provided to develop their land and livelihoods. This further led them to move towards sustainable development in all spheres of life especially, their self-esteem and social imagery.
53 Comparison Between Value of Indian Major Carps and Air Breathing Carps in Open Inland Fishery Sector , Swapna Ghosh and Pratik Majumdar
In India, 75% population are live in rural area and agriculture fish farming are major occupation of them who are live in village. The total fish production of 10.07 million metric tonnes in India presently has nearly 65% contribution from the inland sector and nearly the same from culture fisheries. Actually Fish constitutes a major source of protein in our diet. Fish apart from being important in human diet, its fatty acid are currently under intense scientific investigation because of numerous health benefits attributed by them. The amount of protein in fish muscle is usually somewhere between 15-20%, but values lower as 15% or as high as 28% are occasionally met with in some species. IMC are demandable and easily acceptable for consumers, it can fulfil population demand for their nutritional value in everyday life and air breathing fish are not easily available and acceptable by all classes of consumer. Among IMC Rohu (Labeo rohita) achieve the 1st position as it can fulfil population demand for their nutritional value at a lower cost for the above reasons. Even induced breeding become more popular in IMC where as the anthropogenic activity is tough for air breathing fishes. Their seeds collected from the natural environment, but due to exposure of chemicals in land and water the population be-come enough less day to day. So we have to save them from the list of endangered species for their nutritious value as compare to protein and lipid.
54 Phytoremediation Potential of Castor Bean ( Ricinus Communis L.) , Violina Angelova and Mariana Perifanova Nemska
The goal of this research was to investigate the potential use of Ricinus communis L. (castor oil plant) for the remediation of metal-polluted sites. This field study was performed in industrially polluted soils that contain high concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd situated at different distances (0.1, 2.0 and 15.0 km) from the source of pollution – KCM (Non-Ferrous Metal Works) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The amount of heavy metals in different part of castor oil plant (roots, stems, leaves, capsule, seeds) and oils was determined by ICP. The castor oil plant is tolerant to heavy metals. Bioaccumulation factor and translocation factor values were greater than one, which suggests that heavy metals accumulate efficiently in the shoots. The presence of low levels of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as high levels of monounsaturated acids result in the production of a high quality biodiesel. The castor bean is a plant that can be used simultaneously for phytoextraction of heavy metals from soils and as biofuel. It can be grown on soils heavily con-taminated with heavy metals, which are not suitable for the cultivation of food crops.
55 An Application of Markov Chain Model to Study on Trade Direction of Export of FCV Tobacco from India   , Yogesh HC and SK Srivastava
Tobacco is one of the important commercial crops of India and also called as “golden leaf ”. It provides employment directly and indirectly to 38 millions of people. Indian tobacco is exported to over 119 countries across the globe. During 2015-16, India’s un-manufactured tobacco (FCV and non-FCV) exports accounted for about 86 per cent of total exports of tobacco and tobacco products in terms of quantity and 71 per cent in terms of value in rupees. Out of the total Indian unmanufactured tobacco exports, FCV tobacco exports constituted 72 per cent in terms of quantity and 81% in terms of value. FCV tobacco exports were in the order of 1,51,670 Metric tons valued ₹ 3,495.81 crores ($ 531.48 million) against 1,49,700 Metric tons valued at ₹ 3,201.71 crores ($ 486.73 mil-lion) during the same period last year showing an increase of 1 per cent and 9 per cent in terms of quantity and value, respectively. Therefore, the present study has been conducted with reference to FCV tobacco; to examine the pattern of export destination of FCV (Flue-cured virginia) tobacco. To achieve this, annual export data on region-wise for the period 2010-11 to 2015-16 has been used and analysed by using the first order Markov chain approach. The study reveals that West Europe followed by Africa and North and South America are the best and loyal importer of unmanufactured tobacco from India. Also, it is suggested that India should not only depend on these trade partners only but also diversify its exports to other regions too.
56 Philosophy in the Design of River Training Works , The Hung Nguyen
The stabilization of river system is crucial in socio-economic development, especially in agricultural development, for example irrigation water withdrawal, flood drainage to reduce the impacts of flooding on crop production, etc.
57 Stability and Scrutiny Using (Ammi): Model of Bread Wheat Over the Years in Cold Arid Harsh Conditions of Kargil and Zanaskar (Ladakh)- India , Mushtaq Ahmad1, Faizan Ahmad1, Ejaz Ahmad Dar, Rizwan Rashid, Shahnowaz Ahmad, MH Khan, Rohie Hassan and NR Sofi
Field experiments were carried out using 20 genotypes for 3 consecutive years (2017-2019) under two randomly completed conditions (Zanaskar Kargil or irrigation rainfall) to identify high-grain infarct-able wheat genotypes obtained by a single parameter. RBD with three copies in each environment. Combination testing of variation showed significant differences for the GE (genotype-environment) cardinal. The results of AMMI (additive main effect and multiplicative interaction) show that the first two AMMI (AMMI 1 - AMMI 2) are symbolic (P < 0.01). It became clear that the division of whole squares was a major source of environmental impact variability, followed by interplay and genetic type effect. The GE cardinal genotype is three times greater than the effect, indicating the presence of different environmental groups. The AMMI Invisibility Value (ASV) lost the G12, G18, G13, G14 and G11 genotypes, respectively. Differentiation to SE is not a physical selection criterion because most incomplete genotypes do not provide the best yield performance and, therefore, grain yield and ASV can be considered simultaneously in a single parameter-free index. Depending on the rainfall and irrigation conditions, the G1 and G18 genes and the High Grain Genome Type Selection Index (GSI) were matched to the results of the biplot observation.
58 The Role of Indigenous Knowledge and Livelihood to Adapt to Floods in Sustainable Development in Mekong Delta, Vietnam (A Case Study in An Giang Province) , Pham Xuan Phu and Ngo Thuy Bao Tran
This research was carried out to explore the role of the appropriateness of farmer’s indigenous knowledge and their adaptive capacity to floods in An Giang province. KAP (Knowledge-Attitude-Practice), PRA (KIP and focus group discussion) and household survey have been applied to collect data. The results showed that indigenous knowledge plays an important role in adapting to changes in the environment. The Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) in different Zone (upper zone, middle zone, and lower zone) was decreasingly based on major components as social networks, knowledge and skills, natural resources, finance and incomes, livelihood strategies, natural disaster and climate variability. The research also suggested some solutions to conserve the valuable indigenous knowledge in adapting the change of climate of local people.
59 Effect of Larval Parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes on Chilo partellus Under Laboratory Conditions , Zulnorain Sajid, Muhammad Ammar Latif, Muhammad Abdul Basit, Muhammad Usman, Wasim Javaid, Bilal Jafar, Hafiza Sehrish Bashir and Rashid Ameen
Maize is third most important crop of Pakistan that attacked by many insect pests, among all these Chilo partellusis a notorious pest of crop. Chilo partellus is caused huge economic losses of crops in Pakistan. An experimental study was conducted in insect Bio Control Lab at the Department of Entomology, PMAS UAAR during 2018 to check the effect of Cotesia flavipes on Chilo partellus under control conditions. Adult duration of Cotesia sp. was 41.46 hours. Rate of parasitism was 76 percent in 4th instar larvae of C. partellus. Mean number of pupae per larvae were 41-46 pupae per larvae. The mean pupal duration of Cotesia sp. was 8 days. Rate of parasitism was 73 percent in 3rd instar larvae of C. partellus. From each parasitized larvae the mean adult emergence was 28 adults per larvae. The mean pupal duration of Cotesia sp. was 9 days.
60 Breeding Approaches for Climate Resilience in Maize (Zea mays L.): An Overview , Anurag Tripathi, Rahul Kumar, Suresh Yadav, Jeet ram Choudhary, Mukesh Choudhary and H C Lohithaswa
Climate change impacts agriculture in numerous ways including rising average temperatures, rainfall, changes in pests and dis-eases, rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide, ozone concentrations at ground level and changes in the nutritional quality of certain foods. Therefore, achieving global food security for rising global population under limited arable land is a major challenge in the twenty-first century. Maize plays an ever more vital role in the growth of global grains. Maize being a C4 plant has a high yield po-tential as witnessed from highest compound annual growth rate over last decade. However, in many countries maize production has been plateaued due to full exploitation of hybrid and manufacturing technologies. Therefore, maize ideotypes with favourable traits architecture need to be developed for increased stress resistance and higher yield under changing climate. In maize abiotic stress such as drought leads to delay in silking that result in an increase in the anthesis-silking interval, which is a major cause of yield losses. Acidic soils also conflict with maize production (Zea mays L.) resulting in yield losses of up to 69%. In this review, we have discussed the current challenges and different breeding approaches for sustainable maize production under changing climate i.e. climate resilience. With the advent of recent advances in omics approaches including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, great opportunity exists for development of elite climate resilient maize cultivars
61 Scientific and Technical Scientific and Technical Progress and Innovation in Agriculture Grass and Innovation in Agriculture , Ikram Abdullaev
Scientific and technological progress in agriculture is a system-atic progressive process of improving the means of production, technology and organization based on the widespread use of the achievements of science and technology.
62 Economic Growth and Expansion of the Agricultural Frontier, Case Study: Ecuador (1985 - 2015) , Rafael Reyes, Wilman-Santiago Ochoa-Moreno, Luis Rojas Ojeda, Elisa Toledo and Viviana Torres
In this research, the relationship between the agricultural frontier and production for Ecuador in the period 1985 - 2015 is ana-lyzed. It begins with a review of the existing literature, then, econometric models of autoregressive vectors and error correction are used. The results show that as production rises, an increase in the agricultural frontier is generated; results that are consistent when additional covariates are added. Among the main results, it is observed that the autoregressive vector model demonstrates that the variables (production and agricultural frontier) have a long-term equilibrium relationship. Also, the error correction model indicates that as the gross domestic product increases, the agricultural frontier expands. In conclusion, the results are coherent with each oth-er and reinforce the idea that the Ecuadorian economy in the period of the analysis is still tied to dependence on livestock products.
63 Linseed (Linnum usitatissimum L.) - An Oilseed Crop with Potential to be Used in Many Ways: Review Article , Anand Paul Bunga and Pragnya Reddy Patlolla
Linseed is an important, yet underutilised oilseed crop of the world. It can be used as food and feed, as raw material for pharma-ceuticals, industrial use, textile industries etc. It is an excellent source of omega 3 fatty acid and can be used as a substitute for non-fish eaters. The fatty acid composition is comparable to that of soybean. Apart from oil, it also contains good amount of proteins and secondary metabolites. The nutritional value of the linseed can be further improved by research in various fields like plant breeding, agronomy, food science etc. More knowledge is needed on how the quality of the oil is affected by various biotic and abiotic factors. New ways should be brought up to include linseed in our daily diet.
64 Is Plant Nitrogen Depletion Really Linked to the Biosynthesis of Carbon-Rich Defense-Related Compounds in Organic Products? , Simona Fabroni and Paolo Rapisarda
Previous studies speculated on the existence of an inverse re-lationship between the available nitrogen and the accumulation of defense-related secondary metabolites in plants [1], as a con-sequence of C:N ratio unbalance. According to this hypothesis, the lower nitrogen contents of organically grown plants lead to a shift from the N-containing compounds to the production of carbon-rich defense-related phenylpropanoids. It has been also suggested that this behavior is putatively linked to the increased resilience to pest attacks and damage exerted by organic plants [2-4]. Re-cent research [5] showed that long-term organic fields have been associated with no consistent difference in nitrogen and carbon content, nor in C:N ratio, between the organic and conventional produces. In parallel, pest attacks were preferentially settled on conventional plants respect to organic ones. Organic management reduced insect population but no evidence about plant nutrient unbalance was directly linked with. The study demonstrated that organic soil management promoted salicylic acid build-up, which resulted in discouraging plant–insect interactions. Indeed, salicylic acid accumulation was not associated with lower nitrogen content of organic plants but it depended on alterations in soil microbial communities associated with long-term organic management. The study showed that over-presence of specific microbial groups in-duced plant resistance to pest attacks. By this way, it can be pos-tulated that organic practices promotes plant resistance through derived changes in soil microflora.
65 Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectrum of “Sweet Shrub” Stevia , LK Rajkhowa, R Mahanta, A Hazarika1, J Saikia and GD Baruah
Laser Induced Fluorescence spectrum of acetone extract of stevia has been excited with the help of a blue diode laser (415 nm, 10 mW) and recorded on a mini spectrometer. The spectrum exhibits three prominent bands at 444, 474 and 503 nm along with the well known chlorophyll bands at 685 nm and 730 nm.
66 Effect of Wheat Plant Distribution, Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilizer Levels on Wheat-sugar Beet Association , Ahmed M Sheha, Amr S Shams and Mohamed M Lamlom
A two-season field experiment was conducted at Gemmeiza Research Station, Egypt, during 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 to study the effect of some wheat plant distribution systems (2, 3 and 4 rows), three N fertilizer levels (80, 100, 120 kg N fed-1) and three K fer-tilizer levels (24, 48, 72 kg K fed-1) on the productivity of both crops and farmers benefit. Sugar beet was planted on both sides of the bed (120 cm width), wheat was planted in all intercropping treatments at 25% of sole culture seed rate. A split-split plot design with three replications was used. Wheat plant distribution allocated to the main plots, N fertilizer arranged in the sub-plots and K fertilizer is presented in the sub-sub plots. Wheat plant height and spike length recorded the highest values by wheat planting in 2 rows fol-lowed by in 3 and 4 rows was showed the lost values in both seasons. Simultaneously; the other characters of wheat i.e. spike grains wt., 1000-grain wt., no. of grains spike-1, no. of spikes m-2, grain yield fed-1 and straw yield ton fed-1 recorded the highest values with 4 wheat rows in both seasons. All studied characters of wheat were increased by increasing N fertilizer levels from 80 to 100 up to 120 kg N fed-1 in both seasons. Most wheat characters were decreased by increasing K fertilizer levels from 24 to 48 up to 72 kg K fed-1in both seasons. Most of the wheat characters were significantly influenced by the different interaction under study in both seasons. Sugar beet yield and its components as well as sugar% recorded the highest values when wheat was planted in 2 rows. Increasing N fertilizer levels increased all studied characters in both seasons. All sugar beet characters were recorded the highest values by using 48 kg K fed-1 followed by 72 and 24 kg K fed-1 in both seasons. Most sugar beet characters were significantly affected by the different interactions between factors under study in both seasons. The best land equivalent ratio (LER) and Land Equivalent Coefficient (LEC) achieved the highest values with treatment included 2 wheat rows with 120 kg N and 24 or 48 kg K fed-1. Simultaneously, Aggressivity (A), wheat was the dominant crop and sugar beet was dominated in both seasons. The treatment of wheat planting in 4 rows with 120 kg N fed-1 and 24 kg K fed-1 recorded the highest values for both total income and net return in both seasons
67 Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding , Kannan CS Warrier
More than 10 million different species of animals, plants, fungi and other micro-organisms inhabit the Earth. They and the habi-tats in which they live represent the world's biological diversity. It has been recorded that humans use about 40,000 species of plants and animals for food, shelter, clothing and medicinal needs. For-ests are the most diverse ecosystems on land, because they hold the vast majority of the world's terrestrial species. Priceless bio-diversity is threatened by deforestation, forest fragmentation and degradation, hunting and the arrival of invasive species from other habitats. We are losing the invaluable treasure at an alarming rate that, it has been estimated that, within the next 10 years, one out of every four known species may have been wiped off the planet. It has also been estimated that to meet the innumerable demands that humans make on nature each year, we may require about more than an additional half of Earth. That is about 1.6 earths to satisfy our greeds!
68 Evaluation of Herbicidal Potential of Selected Mycoherbicidal Strain against a Noxious Weed Cassia otusifolia L , Ajay Kumar Singh and Akhilesh Kumar Pandey
The management of weeds by chemical herbicides creating adverse effect on human and animal health so there is urgent need for alternative weed control option to save environment by an environmental friendly and sustainable options. Bioactive compound of fungi is great source for the development of new herbicide and its offer an ecofriendly alternative to control weeds. Here We have evaluated mycoherbicidal activity of cell free culture broth (CFCF) of selected strains against Cassia obtusifolia. Phytotoxic contents of natural metabolites present in CFCF of Curvularia lunata (FGCCW#33), Phoma herbarum (FGCCW#07), Myrothecium roridum(FGCCW#03) and Fusarium roseum (FGCCW#61) against Cassia obtusifolia were evaluated by seedling bioassays. In preliminary bioassay, the CFCF of FGCCW#03 of 28 days old were shown maximum phytotoxic effect on seedling of Cassia obtusifolia at 100% concentration. The symptoms were observed as browning and necrosis of weeds. With effective formulation and cheap mass produc-tion of this mycoherbicidal strains can possibly use as mycoherbicide for control of Cassia obtusifolia in future.
69 Alternaria Blight of Tomato: A Review of Disease and Pathogen Management Approaches , Surbhi Garg, Data Ram Kumar, Suresh Yadav, Mohit Kumar and Jagdish Yadav.
Taxonomically, genus Alternaria comes under Deuteromycetes phylum which includes different saprophytic and endophytic spe-cies. It is famous due to its notoriously destructive pathogens. It majorly affects various plant families e.g. Cucurbitaceae, Cruci-feraceae and Solanaceae which are agriculturally important crops possess high nutritional and economical values. The crops suffer from various bacterial, viral, fungal and nematode diseases. Among the above mentioned diseases, early leaf spot disease caused by pathogen Alternaria solani is one of the most devastating diseases resulting in loss upto 78%. Most of the species of Alternaria lacking in teleomorphic stage whereas few species have teleomorphs in their disease cycle. Alternaria being necrotrophic it leads to severe damage to plant and its produce. Besides the involvement of toxins in pathogenesis or invasion, few genes or gene products also have major effect on pathogenicity. In the present review, we described in detail about efficiency of plant and herbal extract, bio control agents, cow by products and fungicides against A. solani, that not only effective in managing the disease but also economic and ecofriendly.
70 Diallel Studies and Heritability Estimates Using Hayman's Approach in Ocimum spp.   , Smita Singh
Diallel analysis of Hayman was performed removing reciprocal in basil, the experimental material consisted of morphological diverse genotypes and their 21 direct crosses i.e. F1 populations. The traits days-to-flowering (50%), plant height (cm), no of branch-es/plant, inflorescence length (cm), fresh herb yield (g)/plant, oil content (%), oil yield (g)/plant, days-to-maturity, methyl-chavicol content (%), linalool content (%), citral content (%), eugenol content (%) explored additive type of gene effects. t2 for all the charac-ters are non-significance so its indicate validity of the hypothesis postulated by Hayman. Regression line for days-to-flowering (50%), days-to-maturity were below the origin showing the presence of over-dominance while for branches/plant, ocimene content, linalool content, camphor content and methyl-chavicol it was above the origin suggesting the presence of partial-dominance. Regression line for plant height, inflorescence length, fresh herb yield, oil content and oil yield were through the origin indicating the presence of complete-dominance. Narrow sense heritability estimates 2∧h(ns)% ranged from 7.9% (lowest) for inflorescence length to 59% (highest) for oil content. Genetic advance over mean ranged from 0.54 (days-to-maturity) to 53.11 (branches/plant)
71 Dwarfing Responses of Leonotis leonurus (L.) R.Br. Lamiaceae Using Foliar Growth Regulator Applications to Induce Compactness in Flowering Potted Plants , Khanyisa Boyce, Charles P Laubscher and Mack A Moyo
The insatiable demand for novel floral forms in the ornamental horticulture industry continues to drive the search for such plant species, particularly in biodiversity-rich regions such as South Africa. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Cycocel®, a plant growth retardant, in manipulating growth and compactness in Leonotisleonurus, a plant with potential high or-namental value in the potted flower industry. Application of Cycocel®, especially at a concentration of 4 mg/L significantly reduced both height and plant width of L. leonurus plants growing in a soilless hydro culture system. In addition, application of the growth retardant had a significant influence on increasing the shoot proliferation in L. leonurus plants. The number of new shoots produced in week 6 of the 8-week growing period was about threefold higher compared to the control. The reduction in height and width observed in the present study may be due to the interference with key enzymes involved in the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway. Overall, application of Cycocel® had the desired effect in controlling growth parameters in L. leonurus plants, thereby improving com-pactness and enhancing its commercial value in the flowering potted plant market.
72 Assessment of Essential Metals in Selected Fish Feeds and Cultivated Fish Species in Bangladesh and their Impacts on Human Body , Biraj Saha, Md Abdul Mottalib and ANM Al-razee
Cultivated fishes are major protein and microelement sources for all sorts of people in Bangladesh due to its availability and af-fordability. Essential metals are persistent in the environment and are subject to bioaccumulation in the food chain. Fish is at the top of the aquatic food chain and normal metabolism of fish may accumulate large amounts of different essential metals from water, food or sediment. This study was carried out to determine essential metal concentrations in the flesh of some cultivated fish species and commercial fish feeds available in Bangladesh. The essential metal concentration in fish and consumed fish feed were assessed by Inductive Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) with significant variation (P < 0.05). The concentration (mg/kg - dry weight) of Fe, Cu, Zn, Na, K, and Ca were observed 23.33 - 63.3, 12.80 - 20.62, 10.00 - 26.25, 214.2 - 367.68, 285.71 - 485.71, 256.89 - 432.65 in selected commercial fish feeds whereas those were found 33.33 - 80.83, 14.00 - 31.80, 20.60 - 49.25, 250.98 - 500.78, 400.76 - 587.32, 408.16 - 857.14 in cultivated fish species. All analyzed metal concentrations were within the acceptable of World Health Organization (WHO, 2004), Food and Agricultural organization (FAO, 2004), European Union (EU, 2010) and US Envi-ronmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 2011) and Total Hazardous Quotient (THQs) value of all the selected metals were lower than 1, which suggesting no remarkable non - carcinogenic health hazards for adult population
73 Agriculture during Pandemic , Lirola Keri
The year 2020 since its inception has started with a situation different from normal. The outbreak of the epidemic in several countries simultaneously led to the creation of the pandemic de-clared worldwide by the WHO itself. This change came unexpect-edly. At the center of world attention was health. The social and economic life of mankind around the world changed suddenly. The prolongation of the pandemic created the belief that isolation was no longer a solution but a choice of the moment. For all sectors to be revitalized and continue their activity they had to adapt to new conditions of physical distancing. But some activities much needed for basic needs could not be accomplished in this form. One of them is also agricultural and livestock activity. The supply of consumers with agricultural and livestock products and products had to continue normally, especially in this period when the de-mand would be higher due to two factors; first, people had enough time to consume food at home, and; second, the closure of restau-rants, bars and hotels. An additional supply had to respond to the increase in demand. But if the pandemic increased demand, the same cannot be said for supply. Not only is the supply of such prod-ucts, as of any other product, limited in the short term, but also because exchanges of goods and products between countries were temporarily suspended. For net exporting countries supply could not have a significant difference from demand. For net importing countries traders had to find other resources to meet demand. Such places where demand remained undiscovered turned their eyes away from domestic production. This situation was presented as a golden opportunity for local producers who had to guarantee the sale of their agricultural and livestock products.
74 Sustainable Agriculture through Food Security , Sharon Idahosa
Though, much progress has been made towards food security in the past decades. But overtime, the food security challenges faced has become rather too alarming and in years to come, many of the world’s population will be subjected to extreme poverty, hunger, malnutrition and even deaths.It is expedient that the issue of food security is tackled as the world’s population is expected to climb to 8.5 billion in 2025. The need to improve agricultural productivity to facilitate a sustainable agriculture, thereby improving food security is very key. This module explains sustainable agriculture to a large extent, food security challenges, as well as food security measures, giving a direct guide on how sustainable farming can boost the food production systems in Nigeria.
75 Standardized Methods were Established to Measure Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in the Various Land-Use System of Planting Legumes Under Field Conditions Calculations of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Accumulation When One Land-Use Type is Converted to Another Crop Rotation , Makkies David Lengwati
Nitrogen fixation potential and residual effects of selected grain legumes in a South African soil with the back-up of nitrogen economy of pulse crop production in the Nelspruit/Mbombela Lowveld area was studied. Rhizobium - legume symbiosis and nitrogen fixation under severe conditions and in an arid climate and using kraal manure as a fertilizer in growing vegetables in the home garden were also observations for nitrogen supply to plant growth. Measuring plant-associated nitrogen fixation in agricultural systems has a potential precision of the δ15N natural abundance method in field estimates of nitrogen fixation by crop and pasture legumes in South Africa thus provided influence of mycorrhizal associations on foliar δ15N values of legume and non-legume shrubs and trees in the fynbos of South Africa, Western Cape province with implications for esti-mating N2 fixation using the 15N natural abundance method
76 Characterization and Distribution of Potyvirus Species Infecting Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) in Burkina Faso , Fidèle Tiendrébéogo, Ezechiel B Tibiri, Koussao Somé, James Bouma Neya and Nicolas Barro
Virus species belonging to the genus Potyvirus are the most common viruses infecting sweet potato crop. Among these viruses, Sweet potato Feathery Mottle Virus (SPFMV) is the most damaging and widespread in the world. To assess the potyvirus disease on sweet potato in Burkina Faso, a total of 300 samples were collected from the nine largest sweet potato producing regions. Samples were analyzed using RT-PCR and products were Sequenced. Bioinformatic analyzes were performed to know the strains of the virus-es. The results revealed that SPFMV is the main Potyvirus infecting sweet potato in Burkina Faso with a prevalence of about 28.33%. A total of seven isolates of SPFMV were successfully sequenced and used for phylogenetic analyzes. These isolates have shown 99% nucleotide identity with the phylogroup A-II (SPFMV-O), and some of them had 95% nucleotide identity with phylogroup B (SPFMV-RC). This study showed that SPFMV is the main Potyvirus-infecting sweet potato in Burkina Faso
77 Reducing Global Hunger Way Forward , Sachin Regmi
Global population already hit 7.7 billion mark; another million-feeding mouth are being added every 14 months in average. This aggressive population growth doesn’t seem to slowing anytime sooner. More population has high demand for consumption of natural resources, but the real concern is, can our earth be able to withstand this population pressure? Clear indication on steadily increasing income elasticity of demand for food is indicating to-wards the verge of catastrophic failure of human civilization as earth hospitality may not remain the same. To amply feed the glob-al population we need to expand our framework on current agri-culture practices and food distribution network. Poverty, food se-curity and food safety are major challenges to address. Agriculture innovation and technology adaptation are our vital tools for the change. These must be supported by modernization prescribed on scientific ground. The increasing demand for adequate and safer food can be addressed by smart agriculture, green revolution and sustainable agriculture aided by mechanization. To ensure food for all advanced tools like biotechnology and agrigenomics can also be used
78 Effect of Foliar Application of Salicylic Acid in Marigold , Samir Poudel and Nisha Subedi
Marigold (Tagetes patula) is one of the popular annual, herbaceous, attractive flowers. Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic phytohor-mone and is found in plants with roles in plant growth and development, photosynthesis, transpiration, ion uptake and transport. This research was conducted to assess the effects of foliar application of salicylic acid on growth and yield of marigold from July 2019 to November 2019. The research was conducted in the horticulture field of IAAS, Lamjung Campus, Nepal under Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications and six treatments viz. (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500) ppm of salicylic acid. The marigold flowers were harvested when the outer petals unfold nearly perpendicular to the stem. Parameters like plant height, plant width, days to flowering, number of flower diameter and total yield were observed and analyzed using SPSS. Greater plant height was found on treatment 500 ppm which is statistically on par with 400 ppm and 300 ppm and lowest at 0 ppm. Similarly, plant width is greater in 500 ppm while the lowest in 0ppm. Days to flowering were lower in 500 ppm which is statistically similar with 400 ppm, 300 ppm and 200 ppm and higher in 0 ppm. Best results were found in 500 ppm with the number of flowers, the diameter of the flower, and flower yield. Thus, results revealed that increasing the concentration of salicylic acid increases the production of marigold.
79 Postharvest Quality of Sein Ta Lone Mango (Mangifera indica L.) as Affected by Different Wrapping Materials and Storage Temperature , Phyu Phyu Lei Yi, Than Than Soe and Khin Thida Myint.
The experiment was conducted to assess the postharvest quality and storage life of Sein Ta Lone mango affected by wrapping materials and storage temperature. It was carried out at the Laboratory of Department of Horticulture, Yezin Agricultural University during the mango harvest season of May 2018. Treatments were laid out in factorial arrangement, randomized complete block design with four replications. Factor A was the storage at controlled temperature (13 ÌŠC) and at room temperature (35 - 38 ÌŠC) and factor B was wrapping materials of white net sack, white fruit wrapping paper and without wrapping (control). Sein Ta Lone mangoes were collected from Myanadi mango orchard, Department of Agriculture, Myittha Township, Mandalay Region. The data on physiological weight loss (%), color index, fruit firmness (kgcm-2), total soluble solid (TSS%), total titratable acidity (TTA%), respiration rate (mg CO2 kg-1h-1), ethylene production rate (μl kg-1h-1) and shelf-life (days) were collected at two days intervals throughout the experiment. Control fruits stored at 13 ÌŠC significantly showed the longer shelf-life (14 days) than those under room temperature (7 days). The fruits wrapped with paper showed the longest shelf life of 16 days at 13 ÌŠC while the fruits wrapped with net sack maintained the lon-gest shelf-life of 8 days at room temperature. The ethylene production and respiration rates of Sein Ta Lone mango under 13 ÌŠC were considerably lower than those of the fruits under room temperature but not significantly different among the treatments. The mini-mum respiration and ethylene production rate of unwrapped mangoes were 10.84 CO2 mg kg-1h-1 and 0.07ul kg-1h-1, respectively. The color value rapidly increased in all treatments stored at room temperature at 4 days after storage. However, the color development of the fruits stored at 13 ÌŠC gradually increased with lower value than that of those under room temperature. There were no significant differences in TTA% and TSS% among the treatments at respective temperatures. The results from this study revealed that net sack wrapping should be used at room temperature to protect injury and paper wrapping should be used in low temperature storage of 13 ÌŠC to absorb moisture and maintain fruit quality.
80 Covid 19 and the Impact on the Hydroponic Market , Aashray Mody.
It is projected that the global COVID-19 pandemic effect on the hydroponics market will generate revenues of USD 17 billion with a CAGR of about 11.5% from 2020 to 2024 (forecast period). The study outlines the strengths, opportunities, threats and potential business risks and provides an extensive summary of the influence of COVID-19 on the global market situation. Hydroponics refers to an agricultural process, such as a mineral nutrient and a water so-lution, used to grow plants in a soil-free medium. In a particular climate, crops have historically been cultivated, but in hydropon-ics, they are cultivated in a controlled setting. Hydroponics uses two methods, a solid medium crop and a solution crop, to grow crops.
81 Thematic Study on Machine Farm Ponds with Farm Bund-Integrated Watershed Management Programme – Ananthapuramu , PVRM Reddy, B Janardha Reddy, BV Ramana Kumar, R Jhansi Rani and Pullanna Vidyapogu.
The meaning of Farm pond is small tank or reservoir like constructions, are constructed for the purpose of storing the surface runoff, generated from the catchment area. The farm ponds are the water harvesting structures, solve several purposes of farm needs such as supply of water for irrigation, cattle feed, fish production etc. Farm Ponds are shielding the vagaries of drought and help the farmers to keep their farm activity and provide ability to store water during an occasional rain and use the same to feed water to crops during the dry spells. All these have been evidenced in Ananthapuramu district through watershed intervention.
82 Intercropping Cowpea with Some Yellow Maize Hybrids Under Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates , Amr S Shams and Mohamed M Lamlom.
Field trial was carried out at Sids Agricultural Research Station, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Beni-Sweif governorate (Lat. 29o 12' N, Long. 31o 01'E, 32 m a.s.l.), Egypt, during 2017 and 2018 summer seasons to study the interaction between three nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates (100, 120 and 140 Kg N fed-1) and three yellow maize hybrids (SC 176, TWC 353 and TWC 360) on maize-cowpea association. Treatments were randomly assigned in a split-plot design with three replications. The main plots were devoted to N fertilizer rates. However, the sub-plots were allocated to hybrids of yellow maize. Sole culture plots of both maize and cowpea were included in each replicate for competitive relationships and economic evaluation essays. The highest values of maize grain yield (22.86 and 23.00 ard fed-1) were recorded for yellow maize hybrid SC 176 when the combination received 140 kg N fed-1 whereas the lowest values were recorded for yellow maize hybrid TWC 353 when the combination received 100 kg N fed-1 while the highest values cowpea fresh forage yield (18.75 and 15.59 ton fed-1) were recorded for cowpea intercropped with yellow maize hybrid SC 176 when the combination received 140 kg N fed-1 whereas the lowest values were recorded for cowpea intercropped with yellow maize hybrid TWC 360 when the combination received 100 kg N fed-1 in first and second seasons, respectively. The aggressivity value of maize was positive for all treatments indicating that maize was dominant component whereas the aggressivity value of cowpea was negative for all treatments indicating that cowpea was dominated component in the present study. Results also revealed that intercropping cow-pea cv. Cream7 with yellow maize hybrid SC 176 under rate of 140 kg N fed-1 for the combination resulted in maximum values of LER estimated to 1.61 and 1.62, gross income of LE 16,598 and 15,717 and net return of LE 8,301 and 7,420 in first and second seasons, respectively. The study recommends the importance of selecting maize variety (the over-story crop), as short hybrid with less leaf area index, which is preferred to provide a better chance for the growth of cowpea (the under-story crop) when planting cowpea with 100% of its sole culture on the other side of maize rows sown at 100% of its density in sole culture in order to achieve the maximum land equivalent ratio, less competition between both crops, and largest income and net return for farmer.
83 Arsenic Mitigation by Natural Resources , Ashok Kumar Jha, Sourav Majumder and Yogesh Chandra Gupta.
This paper deals with the eco-friendly and low cost recent techniques of removal of arsenic from aqueous medium keeping in mind the health hazards of arsenic contamination.Arsenic contamination in ground water of the Gangetic plain in Holocene newer alluvial due to arsenic bearing chemicals has become a matter of grave concern. As a result researches on arsenic mitigation using natural resources are going on in different parts of the world. Natural resources e.g. bentonite mineral of Rajmahal hills and aquatic plants have been utilized for removal of arsenic from aqueous medium. Aquatic plants remove arsenic through their roots and leaves known as phytoremediation and dried biomass is also useful for removal of arsenic known as bio-remediation. The presence of unsaturated carboxylic acid, hemicellulose and amino groups present on the surface of the biomass bind arsenic on the surface but bentonite mineral removes arsenic by adsorption and ion exchange both due to the presence of unsatisfied charges on the surface. Percentage removal of arsenic with varying time by bentonites and aquatic plants have been calculated and experimental data have been used to explain the nature of adsorption
84 Effect of Tillage and Nutrient Management on Economics and Soil Status by Maize + Pigeon Pea Intercropping System , Pradeep Kumar, Mritunjay Kumar, Santosh Kumar Singh, Gharsiram and Satish Bhutekar.
A field experiment was carried out during the summer (kharif) seasons of 2019-20 at research farm field in TCA, Dholi, under Dr. RPCAU, Pusa, Samastipur (Bihar). The experiment was laid out in split plot design with 4 main plot treatment viz., T 1: Permanent bed (PB), T 2: Zero tillage (ZT), T 3: Fresh bed (FB) and T 4: Conventional tillage and 3 sub-plot treatment viz., N 1: 100% Recom-mended dose of fertilizer (RDF), N 2: 120% Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) and N 3: 80% Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) witch were replicated thrice. Considering the overall impact of conservation agriculture practices, growing maize+pigeon pea intercropping under PB, crop recorded higher maize equivalent yield (130.7 q/ha) at par with ZT (120.7 q/ha) over the FB (112.1 q/ha) and CT (108.4 q/ha) while, 120% RDF application recorded (127.7 q/ha) over the 100% RDF (117.7 q/ha) and 80% RDF (108.6 q/ha) application under nutrient management. The gross return, net return and B:C ratio from maize+pigeon pea intercropping ob-tained significantly higher under PB (244839, 189239 and 3.4) compared to FB (210514, 153665 and 2.7) and CT (203320, 147070 and 2.6) while under nutrient management, the gross return, net return and B:C ratio recorded higher with 120% RDF application (239028, 181223 and 3.1) compared to 80% RDF (204076, 150031 and 2.8). the soil physico-chemical properties viz., bulk density, pH, EC, organic carbon, available N, P and K were also favourably influenced by PB and ZT practices but it’s were not significantly affected by nutrient management practices. Appropriate tillage practices and nutrient management are some of the reasons behind the increasing economics or net returns of crop. Therefore, the study was conducted to identify the appropriate tillage practices and suitable nutrient management in new immersing maize + pigeonpea intercropping system in an alternative conventional farming.
85 A Review on Rice False Smut, it’s Distribution, Identification and Management Practices , Bhanu Dangi, Saugat Khanal and Shubekshya Shah.
Rice (Oryza sativa) is the major source of food security for most of the population in the world. False smut is recently emerging as a major Rice disease which was previously considered to have a negligible impact. An ascomycetes fungus, Villosiclava virens is the pathogen that causes the False Smut disease of rice. It is found in two different stages sexual and asexual and both spores can infect the spikelet and lead to the formation of smut ball of rice grain. The disease has been reported from all across the world after being reported for the first time in Tamil Nadu by Cooke in 1878. Rice False Smut has been reported to cause 40% of the yield losses and this disease can be controlled with the proper management practices and the control approaches. The disease is found to have linked with the higher nitrogen usages and the occurrence of heavy rainfall during Reproductive stage. Preventive approaches include crop rotation, optimum nitrogen usages, selection of the resistant variety, scheduling of the crop plantation to avoid raining during sensitive stages and field preparation. While control of the disease could be done with different methods, application of fungicides Triûoxystrobin 25%+ Tebuconazole 50% and Propiconazole 25 EC in vitro and in vivo condition showed 100% inhibition to growth of fungal mycelium being the most effective chemical among other contemporary fungicides. Among the different fungicides tested azoxystrobin (18.2%) SC showed better efficacy at 0.1 per cent and enhanced the paddy yield under field condition. The study done by Raji 2016 shows significant control of the False smut using the extract of garlic, turmeric, lantana and Bael, whereas plant oils of lemon grass and cinnamon have completely inhibited the growth of U. virens. Andargie., et al. (2017) reported Antennariella placitaea bio-control agent to be effective against rice false smut (Ustilaginoidea virens) both in vitro and in vivo condition. This review aims to educate about the disease and its effective management strategies.
86 The Space Weather Related to the M7+ Seismic Activity Recorded on a Global Scale between 28 January and 25 March 2020 , Valentino Straser, Gabriele Cataldi and Daniele Cataldi.
This research aims to discuss the variation of solar activity and in particular the proton density connected to seismic events of magnitude greater than 7. Between January 28, 2020 and March 25, 2020, our planet was shaken by three M7+ earthquakes (January 28, 2020 in Jamaica with magnitude of M7.7; February 13, 2020 in Russia with magnitude of M7.0 and, again in Russia, on March 25, 2020 with magnitude of M7.5) and provided the opportunity to carry out the research. The changes in the ionic density of the solar wind that preceded the global seismic sequence occurred after major increases in the proton density of the solar wind. In this regard, the authors analyzed space weather to verify the existence of a correspondence between solar activity and the three M7+ seismic events. The data showed a close relationship between the two variables, in a temporal sense and from a qualitative point of view. The time intervals between the proton density increase and the main tremors were 28 hours, 12 hours, and 112 hours, respectively.
87 Application of Bentonite Mineral in Removal of Heavy Metals , Ashok Kumar Jha.
Bentonite deposits are widely distributed in different parts of the world associated with volcanic rocks and tuffaceous sediments of Miocene and Oligocene age. Other important minerals are illite, kaolinite and vermiculite. Bentonite mineral is smectite group of minerals having a montmorillonite unit which consists of two tet-rahedral silica sheets and one octahedral sheet [1-3]. These come under clay minerals abundant in Rajasthan and Jharkhand. A vast deposit of bentonite occurs in a place Wyoming in U.S.A, Montmo-rillon in France, Japan and some countries of the world. So, this bentonite has been named after its place known as Wyoming ben-tonite and montmorillonite has gained its name after its discovery locality at Montmorillon 70 Km NNW of Limoges, France. Natural bentonite is 98% montmorillonite giving positive stain test with benzidine solution [4-6]. Owing to low cost and abundance in na-ture, a new vistas of research on bentonites has been opened up with a view to remove heavy metals and toxic elements from aque-ous medium. Clay minerals have residual charges on the surface due to partial substitution of tetrahedral Si4+ by Al3+ or Al3+ or Fe3+ by Fe2+ or Mg2+. Thus, substitution of tetravalent cations by triva-lent cations leaves deficit charge on the surface of the clay. Main constituents of clay minerals are SiO2, Al2O3 along with Na2O, K2O, CaO and MgO [7]. Characterization of bentonites are done by XRD, FTIR, SEM, TGA, DSC and physico chemical tests. Bentonites of dif-ferent colour and grade of Rajmahal hills of Jharkhand have been used commercially for various industrial purposes. High swell-ing power, plastic properties, adsorption potential and cation ex-change capacity of bentonite have made it a low cost adsorbent of Cr, Cd, As, F and organic dyes.
88 Agriculture, Biodiversity and Technological Innovations , Tiziana Sirangelo.
The loss of biodiversity is a complex problem affecting both the environmental and economic field, because the natural capital pro-vides essential resources for industry and agriculture.
89 Animal Identification , Subhranil Mustafi.
As per the Livestock Census of 2019, current goat population in India is about 148 million and that of pigs are 9.06 million in India. They are identified using physical tagging, stenciling, tat-tooing, branding, etc. that can easily be manipulated extravagantly creating opportunities for poachers and middle men to poach the animals for their bones, meat, etc. and illegal transfer across inter-national borders. However, to prevent this, a unique, non-invasive, non-manipulative method of identification based on behavioral patterns must be incorporated, also termed as biometrics. Such unique character trait or ‘fingerprints’ become a mandate in the process of unique animal identification. Several character traits have been examined and investigated to develop the unique identi-fication and has later been proved that irises of goats and auricular vein pattern of pigs have been found to be the most feasible one in such identification.
90 Foxnut (Euryale ferox Salisb.): A Health Promising Fruit , Saima Tehseen, Fatima Sarfraz, Sidra-tul-Muntaha, Naila Ateeq, Faiza Ashfaq1, Iqra Yasmin and Tayyaba Mehmood.
Foxnut (Euryale ferox Salisb.) commonly known as makhana is a flowering plant with gigantic and floating leaves. Foxnut is a high-ly-valued aquatic crop due to its high amount of carbohydrate, protein, ash, crude fiber, minerals and phytochemical content. Foxnut plant species can take part remarkably towards the betterment of human health, fight against hunger and providing traditional medicinal effects. Owing to their powerful medicinal properties, foxnut pops are used against many human disorders that affect the respiratory, circulatory, gastrointestinal, excretory and reproductive system. It is used as an important source of natural antioxidants with antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic potential and used as food additives. The amino acids arginine and methionine are the cre-atine precursors that are necessary for beautiful skin nails and hairs. Creatine obtained from arginine and methionine plays a crucial part for healthy skin. It is used as a functional food for the treatment of diabetes and the alleviation of its complications. Euryale ferox Salisb seed reduces hyperglycemia that could be triggered by the release of insulin from the remnant. It contains low sodium and high potassium, which reduces blood pressure and contains very low levels of monosaturated fat that prevent blood sugar from rising. It has all the nutritional and potential health benefits necessary to be regarded as a super food.
91 The World Agriculture and Technology , Wesley Machado
World agriculture is evolving every moment. This evolution has accompanied the technologies inserted in rural areas. The tech-nologies help the producer to achieve high productivity in his ag-ricultural fields. In some places, the technology is still remote and there has been no evolution, following the large producing centers. Thus, agriculture in these places is still incipient or has primitive agriculture
92 Influence of Heat and Water Stress Around Meiosis on Pollen Quality in Two Pollen Parents of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Used in Control Hybridization in Sri Lanka , KGAPK Amarasinghe, CS Ranasinghe, DC Abeysinghe and AAFLK Perera
Climate resilient and high yielding Dwarf x Tall hybrids is the main strategy to meet increasing demand of coconut in a changing climate where sexual reproduction is susceptible to heat and drought stress (HTDS). Fruit set failures are mainly attributed to high sensitivity of pollen and ovules to stress, particularly around meiosis, in many crops. This study focused to assess the influence of heat (monthly mean Tmax > 330C) and water stress (monthly rainfall < 90 mm) around meiosis on the quality of pollen in San Ramon (SR) and Sri Lanka Tall (SLT) cultivars that used in controlled hybridization. We measured carbohydrates, germination (PG%) and tube length (PTL) in pollen developed under heat and/or drought stress and unstressed (control) around meiosis (final four months prior to flower opening).San Ramon showed significantly higher PG% and PTL (43%, 517 μm respectively) compared to that of SLT (37%, 481 μm respec-tively) cultivar. Unstressed male flowers had significantly higher PG%, PTL and starch compared to flowers in stress at any stage around meiosis. The cumulative rainfall, number of dry days (rainfall < 3 mm/day), total number of heat stress days (Tmax < 330C) and average maximum temperature during the period around meiosis had merge impact on pollen starch (R2 = 0.96), total soluble sugar (TSS) (R2 = 0.71), pollen germination (PG%) (R2 = 0.61) and pollen tube length (PTL) (R2 = 0.89). The study concluded that heat and/or water stress around meiosis is very critical for pollen quality in two tested cultivars of coconut. This information will be of great importance to manipulate the pollination strategy to minimize stress-affected fruit set failures under controlled pollination.
93 Facing the Challenge of Water Scarcity for Mediterranean Agriculture , Manuela Moreira da Silva
The Mediterranean is under a severe climate change scenario and suffering an increasing anthropogenic pressure, mainly in coastal zones, due to urbanization, agriculture and tourism. The depletion of surface water and groundwater resources is a com-mon reality. Water scarcity is increasing and water should be man-aged attending to the food needs, but also to the protection of the habitats and biodiversity. The aquifers have an important role for freshwater storage and water transmission, but some of them are contaminated with nitrates from intensive agriculture. In several coastal areas, groundwater over-pumping for irrigation is promot-ing saline intrusion phenomena.
94 Processing of Nungu (Ice Apple) into Milk Shake   , Mittapally Kishore Reddy
Now a days many cool drinks avail in market with different names can help us to hydrate our body during Summer which is harm-ful practice as these products are filled with different chemicals, pesticides etc.Nungu (Ice apple) can hydrate our body and can supplement healthy nutrients to our diet.Processing of the fruit makes it stay fresh for long time with the same nutrient content and flavour and processing can make the product attractive to the children and easy way of consuming the same nutrients
95 Soil Treatment Using Biopolymers , S Smitha and K Rangaswamy
In the present day sustainability has become the latest trend and environment-friendly and economic feasible solution to any prob-lem is gaining popularity in all realms. Soil is a major component responsible for the functioning of the ecosystem as it houses abun-dant organic components, nutrients and even acts as a habitat for many living organisms. It is also the medium of plant growth. From the engineering point of view, soil acts as a base for load dissipation either through the foundation or as a subgrade under the pave-ment. But in some areas, the soil doesn’t satisfy the strength or sta-bility criteria required for use as an engineering material. It might be too weak having a low bearing capacity and shear strength, it might be prone to wind or water erosion, it might have too low or too high permeability and compressibility or it might even be prone to liquefaction under dynamic loads. Such a situation de-mands and calls for soil stabilization and ground improvement.
96 Modelling for Forecasting of Monsoon Rains in Areas Affected by Farmers Suicides , Anand M Sharan
This research work is to come up with a rainfall model for monsoon rains in India. The goal is to forecast the rainfall amount about 7 months in advance. This advance forecasting is to help farmers in making decisions to plant crop based on the availability of water in the next season. This forecast is for helping hydro power generators and city water suppliers also. The methods selected are based on the past 32 year rainfall history where four methods are used to determine the rainfall amount. These methods are: The Time Series method, the Root Mean Square method, The Fast Fourier Transform method, and the Artificial Neural Network method. A forecasting model is considered valid if it falls within 19% of the actual rainfall amount. The number 19% is used by Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) to define a normal rainfall based on long term average.
97 COVID-19 Pandemic and Lockdown: Effects on Agricultural Activities and Value Chains in the Six States of South-western Nigeria , Janet T Ojediran, Ayodeji F Ajayi, Gbenga E Fanifosi, Rasheed G Adeola, Olajide A Ajao, Samuel A Babarinde, Akhigbe T Maryanne, Muritala D Shittu, Olaolu E Dawodu and Taiwo K Ojediran
COVID 19 pandemic and lockdown have dealt a blow at various spheres of human life. The impact transcends the health to agri-culture and many other sectors. A multidisciplinary team of experts in agriculture including crop, livestock, economics and exten-sion drew out a questionnaire with areas of impact, mitigation and constraints imposed by COVID-19 and accompanied lockdown. The survey was administered online to farmers in South-west, Nigeria. A total of 1319 farmers responded 340 from Oyo, 289 from Osun, 231 from Ekiti, 212 from Ogun, 185 from Ondo and only 62 from Lagos State respectively. Obtained data for this study were analyzed using descriptive statistics, including frequency count, percentage, mean and standard deviation. The study revealed that COVID 19 pandemic and lockdown had a devastating impact on Agriculture activities and the value chain. Most of the respondents were at their active and productive age (44 years)
98 Comparative Economics and Evaluation of Constrains of Chickpea Production in Rajasthan with Reference to Gangour Variety   , Keshav Kumar, Vikram Yogi, Shubham Arya and Mukesh Godara
The Comparative Economics of the chickpea production in Rajasthan with reference to the Gangour variety was evaluated in this study. The evaluation was based on a household survey of Bengal gram grower in 4 villages of Bikaner District of Rajasthan. The es-timated cost of cultivation was ₹32068.10, Net Income ₹44599.90 in case of the Gangour variety while cost of cultivation ₹30535.43, Net Income ₹15494.07 was in case of local cultivar. The gross income from the Gangour variety was greater than local variety that is ₹76668 and ₹46029.50 per hectare, respectively because of higher yield and low cost of production of former as compared to latter one and their yield was of 17.70q and 10.65q, respectively and the cost of production was ₹1811.75and ₹2867.18 respectively. The Output- Input Ratio for the Gangour variety was 2.39 and for local variety was1.51. Cultivation of Gangour variety are profitable than local varieties. The survey revealed that improved chickpea variety showed distinctly superior performance over local cultivars but it also have some constrains viz., chickpea growers were not getting satisfactory price of their produce in both Gangour and local variety grower. The another problem faced by chickpea grower is, require more water with reference to Gangour and problem of labour with reference to local variety.
99 Back to Past; Organic Agriculture   , Muhammad Adnan and Muhammad Zohaib Anjum
National economy significantly depended on agriculture sector [1]. Organic farming is a crop production system in which farmer avoided all synthetic farm inputs but depends on biological, agro-nomic and mechanical methods like the utilization of crop resi-dues, off-farm organic waste, mineral grade rock additives, animal manures, biological system of nutrient mobilization and plant protection; which enhance and promote biological cycles, biodi-versity, and agro-ecosystem health [2]. Organic agriculture evolves thousand years ago. The ancient farmer’s starts their crop culti-vation along the belts of rivers by using many natural resources [3]. Furthermore, modern era of organic agriculture emerged in 1924 in Germany.
100 Evaluation of the Phytoremediation Ability of Amaranthus cruentus, Brassica oleracea var. capitata and Helianthus annus in Metal Contaminated Soil , I. R. Hassan, AA Manga and R Abdullahi
Artisanal mining for Gold in Zamfara state of Nigeria led to massive contamination of the environment with lead (Pb) leading to poisoning and death. The approach for the clean-up involves excavation of the soil and dumping it somewhere which is a temporary solution that is equal to postponement of the reckoning day. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of some plants as a cheaper solution to this problem. The treatments consisted of three plant species (Amaranthus cruentus, Brassica oleracea var. capitata and Helianthus annus) factorially combined with four soils (the top soils of Regular Agricultural soil from BUK, Lead (Pb) contaminated soil from Zamfara, Soil from Sheka area peri-urban garden along the banks of Salanta stream contaminated with tannery effluents from Sharada Industrial Estate and BUK soil artificially polluted with a standard addition of Nitrate salts of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni at the rate of 200 mg/kg for Pb and Cr, and 40 mg/kg for Ni and Cd), all laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and replicated three times. Results have shown that Amaranth emerged as the plant with the highest accumulation of metal in its tissue. Across the three plant species, Pb is the most highly accumulated metal and Ni is the least concentrated. The Bioconcentra-tion Factor (BCF) index >2 was recorded for Cr, Mn, and Cd in the tissue of Amaranth. The Translocation Factor index >1 was recorded for Mn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn. Cabbage had relatively high BCF index for some metals, meaning it can sequester Cd, Cr, Mn and Pb. The TF index >1was recorded for all of the metals. The implication of this is that Cabbage had the ability to translocate all the tested met-als. Sunflower has also accumulated a good amount of the various heavy metals. BCF index >2 was recorded with Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Pb. But the TF index >1 was seen across all the metals. Soil from Zamfara was observed to produce plants with significantly higher Pb in the shoot, while differences in metal content in the shoot tissue among plant species was not significant.
101 Soil Health: Key to Success , Mike Orzolek
Success in vegetable crop production has focused on crop plant health for the last fifty years. However, in the last five years soil health has emerged as a critical factor in determining vegetable crop yields and quality. Soil which demonstrates biological health has the continued capacity of soil to function as a living ecosystem that beneficially sustains plants, animals, and humans. Viewing soil as a living ecosystem that has 'health' reflects a fundamental shift in the way we think about soil. Soil isn't an inert growing medium that needs to be filled up with water and nutrients for plants to grow from. Rather, soil must be biologically healthy, teeming with large and small organisms that live together in a dynamic, complex web of relationships. Farm crops and animals were at one time a major part of this unique 'cycle of life’, however today that may not be true on major acres farmed.
102 Effect of Tillage Methods on Soil Properties and the Yield of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) , Suleiman AA, Yit Arn Teh, Ella FA and Ejeanobi
Tillage methods as a soil management practice improves crop quality and yield. An experiment was conducted in the 2019 dry season-farming, to evaluate the effect of tillage methods on soil properties and the yield of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in the department of Agricultural science education, student demonstration farm; of the Federal College of Education (Technical), Umunze, Anambra State. Nigeria. The experiment consisted of three tillage methods (Ridge, Flat and Bed) with three replicates in a (3 × 1) fac-torial experiment. Tillage effects of plots under the flat (F) method performed significantly (p < 0.05), with a total number of 40friuts. The Flat (F) tillage method equally produced the highest mean fruit size of (18cm) as compared to bed (B) and the ridge (R) tillage method. Consequently, watermelon fruits under the bed (B) method of tillage had the highest mean fruit weight of (6.2kg), which was significantly different from mean weight obtained under the flat (F) and the ridge (R) methods of tillage. Planting on the flat (F) produced significantly higher number of fruits and size compared to planting on the bed and ridge. Therefore, both the flat and the bed methods of tillage has the potential for watermelon production in terms of number of fruits, fruit size and weight respectively in the study area.
103 Entrepreneurship Possibility on Goat Farming in India , Subhranil Mustafi, Pritam Ghosh, Sanket Dan, Kaushik Mukherjee, Kunal Roy and Satyendra Nath Mandal
The aim of this study is to focus on the entrepreneurship possibilities in the livestock sector (particularly Goat) in India. After studying the market, the authors discovered that there is a lack of a unique, tamper-proof and reliable identification system. Due to this, the animal insurance has drastically reduced to around 25-30% of the original claimed value. As a result, the authors have developed an image-based identification system based on iris pattern of goats to generate a unique biometric tag to each individual without hurting it. After the invention of unique trait of the species, the authors moved on to commercialise it. The Primary Market Research has been conducted and market segments have been identified. The goat breeding farms, processors and animal husband-ries are the systematic market segments identified respectively. Eventually, the authors calculated the total addressable market and predicted that on charging Rs 100 per biometric tag, a total of 1.16Billion INR can be generated by selecting Goat population in west Bengal as beachhead market i.e., 11.6 million. The quantification can be visualized as, the average cost of each goat would be: Rs 10000-12000, where 2-3 out of 10 goats distributed, are stolen and misinterpreted during verification. Thus, out of 11.6 million goats, more than 2.5-3million goats get misinterpreted resulting in loss of Rs 12000*2.5m = 30 Billion INR pan India. Our technology shall help to curb the loss completely. Low insurance claim, poaching, un-accounted international transfers of goats can easily be eradicated using this biometric technology
104 Effect of Foliar Application of Moringa Leaf Extract (MLE) on Growth and Yield of Gossypium hirsutum   , Madiha Nisar, Muhammad Nasir, Shahid Saleem, Muhammad Umar Iqbal and Tabinda Athar
Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) is rich in nutrients having ascorbate, amino acids, minerals, zeatin, antioxidants, vitamins, iron, calcium, potassium, and numerous other compounds that have the potential of growth enhancement. An experiment was con-ducted in Rahim Yar Khan in 2019 during the cotton cropping season to study the effects of MLE on cotton crop. The growing site was properly prepared by using appropriate cultivation practices. A recommended dose of chemical fertilizers NPK 150:50:50 was applied with an interval of 15 days. Moringa leaf extract was made by using 3 kg healthy moringa leaves and was sprayed on the crop in 3 replications and 3 treatments i.e., MLE + NPK (T1), NPK (T2) and Control (T3) where no MLE and NPK was applied. The experi-ment was conducted by following Randomized Complete Block Design and separate blocks were used for each treatment. The data was collected before each application of (MLE) and maximum yield was observed in the treatment having MLE extract and NPK. The results showed that application of MLE significantly increased the yield of cotton and therefore, it can be used as an organic fertilizer for maximizing cotton yield.
105 Artificial Intelligence in Agriculture , Archana Chougule
Artificial intelligence (AI) has wide application in all sectors including agriculture. There are many challenges with traditional methods of agricultural tasks. Due to climate changes and defor-estation, agricultural production has had an adverse impact and farming has become more challenging. Artificial intelligence is a promising technique which can help farmers to overcome such challenges and increase gross production.
106 Towards Greater Sustainability in The Sundarbans , Gargi De
The remote geographical location of the Sundarbans with its proximity to the sea, complex river system - crisscrossing of tidal streams, channels and creeks, renders it extremely vulnerable to natural calamities like sporadic floods and cyclonic storms. This results in intrusion of saline water causing frequent damage to crops; insufficient sweet water resources necessary for drinking pur-pose, pisciculture, fisheries; occasional floods and cyclonic hazards causing loss of life and property – habitats of people are washed away by floods every year. Added to this is the highly onerous task of monitoring the huge length of embankments, lack of proper drainage facilities, inadequate electricity supply and lack of adequate communication facilities.The problems enumerated above need to be addressed on an urgent basis for greater resilience, ecological viability and sustain-ability in the Sunderbans, overcoming the obstacles faced due to the changing climatic scenario. Radical solutions to these problems may be achieved by taking the following measures: Construction of closure dams across the main estuaries and interconnecting them by strong dykes encircling the entire western Sundarbans; the electricity problem may be solved by generating electricity by utilisa-tion of unconventional energy (renewable energy) sources like wind, tides, solar energy etc. Eco tourism to be encouraged and devel-oped, as this would ultimately benefit the local people economically. The adherence to precepts necessary for maintaining ecological balance will obviously engender environmental equilibrium. A deep water international port may be constructed in the vicinity of the Sundarbans, considering the fact that the Kolkata Port and Haldia Port are facing huge siltation problem. This will automatically foster the growth of allied industries centring around these ports and give a boost to the economy.Detailed discussion regarding an overall development of The Sunderbans is given below.
107 Mechanism of Sugar Signaling in Plants   , Stephen K, Beena R, Manju RV, Viji MM and Roy Stepehn
Plants produce a wide range of sugars that are involved in growth and developmental processes. To coordinate and integrate all these processes plants have developed specific mechanisms. A complex network of metabolic and hormone signaling pathways is present in plants that are intimately linked to diverse sugar responses. One of the mechanisms that has been found to modulate actively with other systems is the ‘sugar signaling mechanism’. In order to integrate these changes in the different processes and en-vironmental conditions, plants have developed a mechanism to sense these ‘sugar signals’. While hormonal signals are generated at micro-molar concentrations, sugar signals are generated at milli-molar concentrations. The sugar signals modulate gene expression by acting on various kinases and phosphatases. Sugar signals are generated through metabolic processes such as relative concen-trations of carbohydrates and other nutrients, through the action of specific enzymes or through various sensors and transporters that are present in the nucleus, cytosol or on the surface of certain organelles.After detection of sugars by sensors, the information is passed on through signal transduction and amplifying cascades, resulting in appropriate responses. Signaling cascades ultimately lead to gene regulation. Sugars regulate gene expression by translating nutrient status to modulate growth and development with available carbohydrate content.
108 Characterization of Bacillus weihenstephanensis AGII: A Psychrotolerant Bacteria Isolated from Rhizosphere of Medicinal Plant Gentiana kurroo Royle , Neha Gautam, Pankaj Sharma, JC Rana and Mohar Singh
The beneficial bacteria present in the area around the plant roots. These are termed as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR). These bacteria are useful to enhance plant growth and curb plant diseases. The objectives of the present study were to iso-late, identify and characterize PGPR traits in psychrotolerant bacteria native to rhizosphere of a threatened high valued medicinal plant Gentiana kurroo Royle. In total 10 bacterial isolates were isolated, out of which isolate AGII showed maximum antagonism against tested phytopathogens. Therefore, isolate AGII was selected further to study in vitro growth promoting attributes and for phylogenetic identification. Bacterial isolate AGII was identified as Bacillus weihenstephanensis by 16SrRNA gene sequence and has been registered in NCBI under the accession number MF593886. Plant growth promoting traits of this isolate were studied by per-forming following assays viz., Phosphate solubilization, Ammonia Production, HCN production, Protease production. The isolated bacterial strain was studied for its inhibitory potential against deadly plant pathogens by using a dual culture in vitro assay. In the present investigation, Bacillus weihenstephanensis MF593886 was tested against deadly plant pathogens viz., Alternaria solani MTCC 2101, Botrytis cinerea MTCC 2350, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 7677, Rhizoctonia solani MTCC 4633, Colletotrichum gloeosporioidesMTCC 9664 and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum MTCC 8785. It is capable to produce siderophore, HCN, ammonia, proteases and has a po-tential to solubilize phosphates. The present study proposes the potential of Bacillus weihenstephanensis as a PGPR in the context of cold agro-ecosystems.
109 A (Not) New Way to Cope with the Diseases , Giovana Beger
The rising world population is getting agriculture even more intensive, with the use of fertilizers and products to pests and disease control. Due to the vast global information with the Internet, even more, people are looking for healthy products, more specifically organic fruits and vegetables. A problem present in the production is the occurrence of diseases in the field and post-harvest, getting production losses to the farmer and the seller. The most used way to cope with the diseases is the usage of chemical fungicides, since copper- and sulfur-based formulations until the novel synthetic compounds. These cannot be used on organic farms.
110 Effect of Different Chemicals on Eliminating the Dormancy Period of Freshly Harvested Seed Potatoes , Muhammad Junaid Zaghum, Ali Zohaib, Muhammad Nouman Khalid, Ghulam Muhy Ud Deen, Armaghan Ahmad and Syed Sajid Hussain Zaidi
A study was conducted to investigate the response of freshly harvested seed potatoes treated with Sugar (C12H22O11), Gibberellic Acid (C19H22O6), Thiourea (CH4N2S), and Ethanol (C2H5OH) to find out which chemical treatment has more effectiveness for the elimination of dormancy period. Freshly harvested seed potatoes were collected from Plant Virology Section Research Area, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad. Solanum tuberosum is a perennial because it is commercially propagated from tuber. In seed potato the normal dormancy period is 7-19 weeks. Results shows that treatment of 300g sugar powder in 600ml water eliminates the dormancy within 12-16 days at open light condition. Treatment with 600g sugar powder in 600ml water breaks the dormancy within 17-18 days at open light. Treatment with 300g sugar powder dry coating on wet surface of tuber eliminate the dormancy within 18-24 days at dark condition. Treatment with 1% TU and 1g GA3 in 1000ml solution can eliminate the dormancy within 18 days at open light and dark conditions. 250ml solution of EtOH can eliminate the dormancy period within 24-26 days at open light and semi dark condition. The application of dormancy breaking chemicals such as sugar, gibberellic acid, thiourea and ethanol induces metabolic changes that lead to dormancy elimination and also from those occurring when dormancy is eliminate naturally. The present study exposed that under open light condition treatment of 300g sugar powder in 600ml water solution gave best results of tubers sprouting as compared to other treatments.
111 Preparation and Quality Evaluation of Low-fat Mayonnaise by Using Hydrocolloid Gums and Olive Oil , Aaysha Ihsan, Hamda Javed and Muhammad Umar Javed
Commercial mayonnaise contains 70-80% oil that becomes the reason of many health problems. This study was conducted by keeping in view the most recent trend and its problems. The principal objective of this research was to establish stable mayonnaise with low fat by using hydrocolloid gums (xanthan gum, corn starch) as a fat replacer with olive oil which are also cost effective. So due to health and economic concerns, the formulation of healthier versions of mayonnaise are developing that have low fat with same stability and price like their counterparts. It is also important to properly choose the concentration of your food gum in terms of the consistency of LF mayonnaise, which can result in an elastic gum if you add too much gum. If you add too little gum and the whole water is not bound permanently then, the mayonnaise can appear as a fluffy, airy mass. Treatments T2 (0.50% XG), T3 (0.75% XG), T4 (1% CS) and T7 (XG:CS) showed the better results as compare to traditional full-fat mayonnaise in terms of physical and sensory characteristics. With the increased level of hydrocolloid, calorie contents decreased but high level of gum can also affect overall acceptability of low-fat mayonnaise. This research has significant effect in industrial/commercial level.
112 Molecular Regulation in Seed Development Influencing the Fiber Growth in Gossypium hirsutum L. , Muhammad Junaid Zaghum, Muhammad Nouman Khalid, Muhammad Zia ul Haq, Muhammad Tashfeen Gul, Ifrah Amjad and Muhammad Irfan
Cotton crop is mostly cultivated for fiber production, source of livestock meal and seed oil. The oil of cottonseed used as edible oil around the World after colza and soybean oil and ranked 3rd Worldwide. The quality of cottonseed mainly dependent on protein, oil content, minerals and seed composition. Therefore, However, it is necessary to keeping the acceptable oil content quality. The nutritional value and industrial usage of cottonseed is influences with formation of fatty acids in seed. There is still much unidentified physiological processes and genetic structures that enforce the levels of these metabolites in cottonseed. The expression of homoeologous genes is inappropriate when the epigenetics and intergenomic differences are induced by the genomic association of A and D progenitor in allotetraploid cotton. Signaling factors associated with cell growth, adaptation and development controls the expression of RNA during transcription. Transcriptional factor of MYB-domain encoded by degraded homologous mRNAs during mediation of miRNA that are utilized for fiber development and leaf initiation. From last many decades, scientists work on enhancement of seed and fiber quality. The main nutritional function of cottonseed is oil content and very extensive studies are ongoing on this value-added aspect. Major advancement is taken to increasing the quantitative amount of fatty acid accumulation, which is yet needed to strengthen the requirement and increases the demand of oilseeds. The main objective of this study is to understand the physiologically perspective of seed development and oil content accumulation. To understand the fiber biology to interpret the molecular events which activate or suppress the initiation of fibers from epidermis cells. Because of large genomic size, presence of low-density genetic map and restrictions in cotton transformation.
113 Management of Pink Bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) Using Mating Disruption Pheromone (PB Rope L) in Cotton , Roop Singh Meena, Pardeep Kumar, Bharat Lal Meena and Bhagwan Singh Meena
The efficacy of mating disruption pheromone (PB Rope L) was evaluated against pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) to monitoring pheromone traps catches as well as by sampling of bolls to record larval population and damage levels in cotton fields during Kharif 2016 and 2017, in north zone of India. This experiment was conducted in large plot in 10.0 ha and 4.0 ha area reserved as control. The main field T1 and T2 divided into two subplots T1A and T1B, T2C and T2D of equal size. In each of the subplots, six quadrates approximately 10x10 meter in the center at equal distance were marked. The treated fields were compared with control fields, three to four insecticides sprays in T1A and T1B, whereas 6 spray in T2C and 9 sprays were applied in T2D. The dispensers reduced pink bollworm catches in pheromone trap and reduced larval population and crop damage. Results showed that moth catches were highly suppressed in the treated fields by installation of the dispensers @ 685 PB Rope L at 50 days after crop sowing. Damage percentage was significantly reduced in treated fields as compared to control fields; Significant difference was observed in average seed cotton yield/ha. This study recommends the use of single application of pheromone dispenser at 50 days after crop sowing. These Rope were sufficient to maintain the moth catches and percent green boll infestation at the lowest level as compared to untreated field.
114 Needs of Agriculture Development for Sustainable Living Communities   , Salah Arafa
Agriculture Development is well recognized as the core for Global Sustainable Development. Its importance and influence on Food Security, Health, Environmental Security, and National Security is well researched and established.
115 Nanofertilizers in Agriculture   , Kaila Tara Meghana, MD Wahiduzzaman and Golla Vamsi  
Global population is rapidly increasing and is predicted to reach 9.6 billion by 2050 and the limited resources tend to push the sector forward demanding the development of a highly efficient agriculture thus allowing reduction of worldwide poverty and hunger [1]. To meet the food demands of this growing population the agriculture sector is being pressurized to assure food security. Hence chemical fertilizers are being considered as an inevitable source of plant nutrition for improving the crop production. This lead to a notion in farmers that using higher quantities of chemical fertilizers gains higher crop yields.   However, only less than half of the amount of applied fertilizers will be utilized by the crop whereas the remaining amount of fertilizer which is intended to be taken up by plant may get lost through leaching, become fixed in soil or contribute to water pollution which is even worse. According to recent statistical reports it has been observed that the key macronutrient elements Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium applied to the soil are lost at a rate of 40-70%, 80-90% and 50-90%, respectively, thus causing a considerable loss of applied resources [2]. Additionally, farmers tend to apply fertilizers repeatedly in order to achieve yields at desired levels, this overdose of chemicals counter acts and lead to decreased soil fertility and increased salt concentrations thereby causing future crop losses. Furthermore, irregular use of fertilizers without control on nutrient release patterns causes deterioration of product quality. Therefore, developing slow or controlled release fertilizers plays a crucial role not only in enhancing the crop production, productivity and quality, but also helps towards upgradation of sustainability in agricultural production. Given the unique properties of nanomaterilas such as high surface-to-volume ratio, controlled-release kinetics of nutrients to the targeted sites and sorption capacity, nanotechnology has a high importance for designing and using of new fertilizers. Nanofertilizers are nutrients encapsulated/coated with different types of nanomaterials for the control and slow delivery of one or more nutrients in order to satisfy the imperative nutrient requirements of plants [3]. These “smart fertilizers” are now being regarded as a promising alternative, to an extent that they are to be considered as preferred form of fertilizers over the conventional ones in several cases.
116 Regeneration of Sugarcane genotypes Under Different Level of Sodium Chloride Salt , Kuasha Mahmud, Nadira Islam, Asish Kumar Ghose, Md Abdul Azim, Md Rashedur Rahman Rajib and Md Jahirul Islam
The effects of Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different Sodium Chloride salt (NaCl) concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mM) containing 2, 4-D (3 mg/l) along with green coconut water (10%) on explants (leaf sheath) of four sugar-cane genotypes were aimed for their callus formation ability and production of embryogenic callus. Besides, regeneration potential-ity of sugarcane genotypes including shooting and rooting ability under different levels of NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mM) was evaluated. MS medium supplemented with 50 mM NaCl produced the highest callus (83.33%) in Isd 16 variety followed by BSRI Akh 41 (83%) and Mutant CC 37 M5 produced the lowest (66.66%)). But no callus was produced supplemented with 300 mM NaCl in all genotype. The highest shoot and root regeneration (91% and 92%) were obtained from MS medium fortified with 50 mM NaCl containing shooting media combination BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) 2 mg/l + KN (Kinetin) 1 mg/l and rooting media NAA (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid) 5 mg/l respectively in BSRI Akh 41. On the other hand, little or no shoot and root were initiated from Isd 16, CC37 M5 and BSRI Akh 42 under above mentioned shooting and rooting media. Callus, shoot and root as well as regeneration ability of plant is highly correlated with callus, shoot and root formation. Significant differences were observed for callus, shoot and root regeneration capacity among all the four genotypes. It revealed that callus, shoot and root regeneration performance ability was decreased by increasing of NaCl concentration levels.
117 Research on the Effect of the Wall Materials of Microcapsules on the Heat Storage Process of the Phase Change Material in Microcapsules , Kuanbing Caozhu, Xiujun Yang and Changfa Ji
The wall materials of the microcapsules affect the heat storage process of the phase change material in microcapsules with a plate. In this paper, Fluent CFD software is used and solidification/melting model is chosen to carry out the simulation of the heat storage process of the phase change material in microcapsules under the condition of four different wall materials of microcapsules. The physical model of the phase change microcapsules with equal spacing in combination with a plate is established and the liquid vol-ume fraction and average temperature of the phase change material in microcapsules with time are analyzed. It can be concluded that when the phase change material is pure paraffin and its initial temperature is 324.15K, through the comparison of the liquid volume fraction of the phase change material in the process of phase change and the calculation of the heat storage capacity of phase change, it is concluded that when the wall material of microcapsules is urea formaldehyde resin, the amount of heat absorbed by the phase change material in the process of phase change is the most enormous, which is 7891.60901J. Thus, the urea formaldehyde resin is chosen as the most suitable wall material of microcapsule.
118 Outcrossing Characteristics and Yield Potentiality of Restorer Line of Rice , Md Nur Alam Siddique, MA Khaleque Mian and Umakanta Sarker
The present experiment was undertaken to study the statistical and genetic parameters, correlation coefficient, path coefficient of ten characters of restorer lines in rice and multivariate analysis of 18 characters of restorer lines in rice. Characters wise summaries were given below. Mean sum of square for anther length, anther breadth, pollen diameter, % pollen sterility, duration of anthesis, number of panicles per hill, days to maturity, number of filled spikelet per panicle, % spikelet sterility and grain yield per hill were highly significant due to genotypes in restorer line indicating wide range of variability among the restorer line for this traits. Low environmental effect and additive gene action were found in all these traits because σ2g and σ2p and the GCV and PCV were close to each other. Heritability, GA and GAPM was found high and moderate; all the traits indicate these traits will be effective for selection. High heritability, low GA and GAPM showed that both additive and environment influence of anther breadth, spikelet sterility percent and pollen diameter. Anther length showed significant positive correlation with anther breadth and significant negative correlation with duration of anthesis, number of filled spikelets per panicle and grain yield per hill both genotypic and phenotypic level and only significant positive genotypic correlation with pollen diameter and % pollen sterility. Anther breadth showed significant positive genotypic and phenotypic correlation with % pollen sterility and significant negative genotypic and phenotypic correlation with duration of anthesis and significant positive genotypic correlation with pollen diameter. Pollen diameter showed significant positive genotypic cor-relation with days to maturity and significant negative genotypic correlation with % pollen sterility, duration of anthesis, number of panicles per hill, spikelet sterility percent and grain yield per hill. % Pollen sterility showed significant positive σ2g and σ2p correla-tion with number of panicles per hill and significant negative σ2p correlation with duration of anthesis. Duration of anthesis showed significant positive σ2g and σ2p correlation with days to maturity. Number of panicles per hill showed significant positive genotypic and phenotypic correlation with grain yield per hill and significant positive genotypic correlation with spikelet sterility percent. In case of genotypic correlation days to maturity showed positive correlation with number of filled spikelets per panicle and spikelet sterility percent, and showed positive phenotypic correlation with spikelet sterility percent. Number of filled spikelets per panicle showed significant positive genotypic and phenotypic correlation with spikelet sterility percent and grain yield per hill. Significant positive genotypic correlation was observed in between spikelet sterility percent and grain yield per hill. High positive direct effect on grain yield per hill was observed in case of number of filled spikelets per panicle and number of panicle per hill and similar lower effect in case of duration of anthesis, anther breadth and pollen diameter. I observed days to maturity, anther length and % spikelet sterility had a direct negative effect on grain yield. Number of filled spikelets per panicle and number of panicles per hill was found as a main yield contribution character of the restorer line of rice because those characters have considerable σ2g, σ2p, GCV and PCV and others character.
119 Rainfall Amount Forecast for the Year 2021 for Marathawada, India , Anand M Sharan
This work discusses issues such as planting of crops based on availability of water. From literature survey it is determined that Marathawada has had severe water shortages,In this work, the rainfall amount is predicted based on, four methods which are (a) the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method, (b) the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method, (c) the Time Series method, and (d) the Root Mean Square (RMS) method. The predicted value is the average of four values obtained by these different methods. The average value this year will be slightly less than the aver-age of last 32 years
120 Genetic Diversity and Population Structure Among an Assorted Group of Genotypes Pertinent to Reproductive Stage Drought Stress in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) , Annamalai Anandan, Anumalla Mahender, Rameswar Prasad Sah, Shafina Haque, Sharat Kumar Pradhan, Pritesh Sundar Roy, Onkar Nath Singh and Jauhar Ali*
Water availability is one of the significant challenges in the present climate change scenario in rice cultivation. Consequently, the identification of suitable rice genotypes for drought tolerance through phenotypic and genotypic approaches has become indispens-able in rice research. In the present experiment, 76 rice accessions were evaluated for their morphological and yield attributed traits under drought stress at the reproductive stage for two years. The same set of genotypes was genotyped by using 36 SSR markers. The biplot graph has grouped the genotypes into two groups based on grain yield and spikelet sterility. Molecular genetic diversity (MGD) estimated the average number of the allele was 2.66 per locus and PIC of 0.67. Among the total 96 alleles, seven unique alleles and 18 rare alleles were found across 76 rice genotypes, and an expected heterozygosity or gene diversity ranged from 0.576 (RM237) to 0.01 (RM25368) with an average of 0.267. Further, STRUCTURE analysis of these genotypes were grouped into two sub-populations (at K=2) with a membership percentage of 56.7% in Pop1, and 43.3% in Pop2 and their fixation index (FST) values of subpopula-tions were 0.496 and 0.021 for Pop1 and Pop2, respectively. AMOVA results revealed that 3.6% of the total variation was identified among the populations and 96.4% was within the population. The genetic similarity estimation among 76 accessions varied from 0.0282 to 0.9679. The phenotypic and genotypic evaluation results revealed significant differences between the landraces and im-proved varieties for reproductive stage drought tolerance. Drought stress at the reproductive stage caused the significant reduction in plant height, grain yield, ear-bearing tillers per plant, total dry matter production, grain weight and increase in the percentage of spikelet sterility. Three drought-tolerant genotypes were identified viz., Jonha 349, Dhalasaita and N TeHao. Among the ten markers that showed a high level of allelic diversity, three viz., RM215, RM271, RM306, and RM237 were promising. Therefore, the identified donors and markers would be promising information for marker-assisted breeding for reproductive stage drought tolerant in rice.
121 Report on the Status of Ponds, It’s Liming and Fertilization Practices for Fish Production in Fish Super Zone, Rupandehi, Nepal , Min Bahadur Thapa Saru, Om Prakash Singh, Santosh Kandel, Sandeep Lamichhane and Puja Thapa
This survey was conducted to analyze the status of pond fertilization and liming on the fish super zone of Rupandehi, Nepal in 2020. It was conducted in four rural municipalities of Rupandehi namely Siyari, Mayadevi, Gaidahawa, and Sudhhodhan. Altogether, 80 randomly selected households of fish farmers, 20 from each site in the study area were surveyed with the help of semi-structured questionnaires. The data collected was encoded and then tabulated and analyzed using MS- Excel 2013 and SPSS 25 software. To accomplish the study objectives, descriptive statistics, chi-square, and t-test were used. Respondent farmers were categorized into small (n = 47) and large farmers (n = 33) based on average pond size. The average pond size was 0.69 ha. About 31.25 percent of respondents were newly involved in fish farming occupation i.e. less than 5 years of experience. About 66.3 percent of the fish farmers had received training on pond fertilization, liming, and fish production. The majority of respondent fish farmers i.e. 95 percent used farm yard manure (FYM) as a major source of organic fertilizer for pond fertilization. The average amount of FYM use was 3928.81 kg per ha (1.56 times a year). Similarly, other organic fertilizers used were oil cake, poultry manure, and goat manure with average use of 92.08, 115.91, and 170.91 kg per ha with frequency use of 2.25, 0.26, and 0.71 times a year respectively. Similarly, the average amount of urea use was 47.19 kg per ha (7.95 times a year) and that of di ammonium phosphate (DAP) use was 47.12 kg per ha (8.66 times a year). The average amount of lime used was 564.62 kg per ha (1.43 times a year). The majority of households i.e. 88.8 percent believed that pond fertilization and liming is useful however only 22.5 percent of fish farmers knew about inorganic fertilizers and their constituents. The major problem faced by fish farmers during fish production was the timely unavailability of lime and fertili-zers. Following unavailability of quality fish seeds and feed, water shortage, the incidence of diseases and pests and market problems were other prime ones.
122 Restoration of Soil and Environment Through Modern Tools of Biotechnology   , Jyoti Prakash Sahoo, Ambika Prasad Mishra and Kailash Chandra Samal
Microorganisms have been extensively evaluated in several bio-logical based products made available to farmers for applications in agricultural development. These conventional developments in biotechnology, primarily designed to increase agricultural produc-tivity and reducing synthetic chemical inputs, have gained inter-est as techniques for enhancing and preserving the status of soil health. In contrast to the concept of modern biotechnology, which involves deliberate manipulation of genes from different species to produce transgenic organisms using recombinant DNA or direct nucleic acid injection. In this context, plant phenotype character-istics have historically been selected, whereas significant benefi-cial interactions between plants and microbes that influence soil health have been ignored during selection of elite crop variety. The concept of soil biotechnology was described as the manipulation of soil microorganisms and the analysis of their metabolic pro-cesses to maximize the productivity of crop by Lynch in the year 1983.
123 Screening of Local, Improved and Hybrid Rice Genotypes Against Leaf Blast Disease (Pyricularia Oryzae) At Bangaun, Lamahi, Dang, Nepal , Surakshya Bohora, Sagar Karki, Basistha Acharya and Suman Bohara
Rice blast disease can be prevented by spraying chemicals, by a reduction in the use of excessive nitrogenous fertilizers, and by adopting biocontrol methods. The use of host resistance varieties to P. oryzae is reasonable and the most economical alternative and environmentally favorable way to control rice blast disease. The objective of this study was to assess the level of resistance on differ-ent rice genotypes at the seedling stage against blast disease in field conditions at Bangaun, Lamahi, Dang, Nepal. Locally available, improved, and hybrid rice genotypes were screened at the seedling stage against rice blast disease (Pyricularia oryzae) at Bangaun, Lamahi, Dang, Nepal in the summer season.
124 Morphological Characterization and Genetic Diversity Analysis of wild Musa Collections from Garo Hills, Meghalaya by SPAR approach   , Anju Hajong, Sohini Deb, Pronomi M Sangma, CP Suresh and Satyawada Rama Rao
North east India is a major biodiversity hotspot as it is bestowed with various natural resources. Meghalaya, in particular is known to house many horticultural crops, out of which, the great diversity of Musa sp is highly significant. In the present study, 21 genotypes of Musa sp. were collected from five distcits of Garo Hills of Meghalaya, India and were analyzed to understand their morphologi-cal and genetic variation. The intra-specific relationship prevalent among them was also evaluated. Some important morphological parameters were selected to understand the variation present in the collected genotypes. Further, three single primer based DNA markers viz. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) and Directed Amplifications of Mini-satellite DNA (DAMD) were chosen for the diversity analysis. A total of 33 primers (17 RAPD, 10 ISSR, 6 DAMD) were selected, which yielded 207 DNA amplicons. High level of polymorphism was observed among the genotypes. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values of the markers were similar, ranging from 0.34-0.39. The resolving power (Rp) and marker index (MI) in case of both ISSR and DAMD were found to be similar (~6.9 and 2.4 respectively). High level of genetic diversity values were observed in the population genetic parameters, with a significant Gene flow estimates (Nm>1) of 1.7494, high Nm (1.7494) and Gst (0.2223) values. Nei's gene diversity (h) and Shannon's information index (I) values varied between 0.1998-0.2976 and 0.2981-0.4391 respectively, further establishing the high variation among the genotypes. Analysis of molecular variations (AMOVA) also revealed high level of genetic variation within the populations (97%). The dendrogram and the principal component analysis (PCoA) generated based on the Single Primer Amplification Reaction (SPAR) data revealed high intermixing of the wild Musa genotypes
125 Influence of Telfairia mosaic virus on Growth, Yield and Phytonutrients of Amaranthus viridis L. , Mofunanya AAJ, Ogar V B, Udosen I R and Owolabi A T
Amaranthus viridis is a vegetable crop of the Nigerian people with great economic and medicinal potentials. A study was con-ducted to investigate effect of Telfairia mosaic virus on growth, yield and phytonutrients of Amaranthus viridis. Seeds of A. viridis were obtained, sown and on germination inoculated with TeMV, effect on growth and yield assessed at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks after inoculation (WAI), minerals and vitamins analyzed at 8 WAI. Results revealed that TeMV decreased growth and yield of A. viridis by 58.8% (leaf area), shoot height (59.0%), number of primary shoot (51.5%), number of leaves produced (60.5%), leaf fresh weight (65.7%) and leaf dry weight (54.9%) at 12 WAI. Decrease in shoot fresh weight was 30.2%, root dry weight (22.4%). At 4 WAI, rela-tive growth rate suffered reduction of 33.3%, net assimilation rate 40.2% while leaf area ratio had a decrease of 42.1% at 12 WAI. The virus caused reduction in copper, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc and sodium, effect on potassium, and manganese was not significant. Decrease in leaf Cu was 91.0%, stem (90.5%) and root (90.1%). The virus engendered drastic reduction in thiamine, pyridoxine, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, niacin, pantothenic acid, folate, α-tocopherol and riboflavin. Thiamine had reduction of 62.0% (leaf), 52.0% (stem), and 40.7% (root). The presence of medicinal nutrients in all plant parts affirmed A. viridis whole plant usage in traditional medical practice. Reduction in economic and medicinal potentials confirmed negative impact of TeMV on A. viridis neces-sitating its control.
126 Phenolic Acid and Flavonoid Patterns in Twelve Sechium edule Varieties , Jyothi Ramesh Jain, Shiragambi Hanumantgowda Manohar, Tapas Kumar Roy and Kumudini Belur Satyan
Fruit pulp of twelve Sechium edule Indian accessions were analyzed for phenolic acid and flavonoid constituents. The quantitative evaluation was performed using liquid chromatography mass spectrophotometer method, which showed significant differences in the composition of phenolic acids and flavonoids among accessions. Vanillic acid was the predominant phenolic acid in most of the accessions ranging from 269.28 to 4080.82 μg/g. High amounts of vanillic acid in accession SEC-11 (4080.82 ± 130.92 μg/g) and SEC-06 (1825.46 ± 24.54 μg/g), protocatechuic acid (1736.59 ± 94.90 μg/g) in SEC-09 and syringic acid (1676.97 ± 70.35 μg/g) in SEC-20 was detected respectively. The highest amount of flavonoid present was catechin in the accessions SEC-36 (75.83 ± 4.37 μg/g) followed by SEC-20 (19.43 ± 0.64 μg/g). Data were analyzed using principal component analysis method and the obtained scoring plot showed that all nine accessions had formed one cluster. Discrimination of metabolic profiles of different S. edule accessions us-ing principal component analysis showed that accessions grouping was consistent with the LC-MS results obtained. This method of estimation of metabolites can be successfully employed enabling genetic grouping of S. edule accessions in an effective manner for breeding studies.
127 Indigenous Knowledge Management vs Adam’s Knowledge Management , D Prabha
Indigenous knowledge is local knowledge that social capital of the poor people, exploring and demonstrating their life. It is unique, traditional, local knowledge that exists within and is de-veloped around the specific conditions of people indigenous to a particular geographic area in a particular period [1]. Indigenous knowledge is the consequence of practical knowledge and it con-tinually influenced by internal creativity and experimentation. It is found to be socially attractive, economically profitable, sustain-ability and involves minimum risk to rural farmers and producers.Besides, indigenous knowledge systems provide a frame for refer-ence in strengthening agricultural extension programmes. There-fore identifying, documenting and incorporating indigenous tech-nical knowledge in agriculture is essential to achieve sustainable agricultural development.
128 Proximate and Phyto-chemical Composition of Some Indigenous Fruits and Nut (Seeds) from Abia State, Nigeria , Okwulehie Ikechukwu Cyriacus and Ukasoanya Chidiadi Gideon
The chemical composition and antimicrobial evaluation of three tropical seeds African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla(BENTH), African bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis var gabonensis (Baill), and African walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum (Hutch and Dalziel), were investigated. Raw and cooked portions of each of the seeds of the P. macrophylla, I. gabonensis var gabonensis and T. conophorum, were used for the instigation. The parameters considered were proximate composition, mineral content, phytochemical determination. Results obtained showed that the composition varied significantly between the raw and cooked seeds. Generally, the moisture, Protein, Fat, Fibre Ash and Carbohydrate composition of the raw seeds were higher than those obtained from the cooked seeds. Protein content was higher in T. conophorum (28.59 ± 0.10 raw and 24.09 ± 0.10 cooked), followed by that of P. macrophylla (22.46 ± 0.10, raw and 20.54 ± 0.10 cooked) the least was in I. gabonensis var gabonensis (13.59 ± 0.10, raw and 11.20 ± 0.17, cooked). I. gabonensis var gabonensis contained more fats (51.53 ± 0.19 for raw and 46.45 ± 0.13 for, cooked) than P. macrophylla (43.06 ±0.09, for raw and 41.90 ± 0.05 for, cooked). T. conophorum had less fat of 38.55 ± 0.09 for raw and 31.89 ± 0.17 for, cooked. Similarly, I. gabonensis var gabonensis contained more Carbohydrates (24.15 ± 0.10 for raw and 32.54 ± 0.37 for, cooked) than T. conophorum andP. macrophylla with 11.81 ± 0.33 for raw and 26.87 ± 1.48 for cooked, 18.74 ± 0.31 for raw and 24.16 ± 0.19 for cooked, respectively. The phytochemicals considered in the investigation were, Alkaloids, Flaonoids, Tannins, Saponins, Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), Phytates and oxalates. The composition of these chemicals took the same trend as with the Nutritional contents. The raw seeds containedsignificantly more of the chemicals than the cooked portions. Raw T. conophorum had more Alkaloids (1.57 ± 0.07) than P. macro-phylla (1.33 ± 0.02) and I. gabonensis var gabonensis (1.19 ± 0.03). Their cooked portions contained 0.35 ± 0.03, 0.40 ± 0.03 and 0.27 ± 0.01, respectively. The tren applied to Flavonoids. T. conophorum had more Flavonoids 1.07 ± 0.04 (raw), 0.25 ± 0.03 (cooked), P.macrophylla (0.99 ± 0.41, raw) 0.25 ± 0.01(cooked) and I. gabonensis var gabonensis (0.85 ± 0.03 raw), 0.21 ± 0.02(cooked). Tannins content for raw P. macrophylla and raw T. conophorum is the same (0.67 ± 0.01) and higher than that of I. gabonensis var gabonensis(0.51 ± 0.03), T. conophorum while the values for their cooked portions were 0.21 ± 0.02(P. macrophylla) 0.15 ± 0.02 (T. conopho-rum) and 0.13 ± 0.01 (I. gabonensis var gabonensis). The values for saponins were 0.43 ± 0.01 and 0.11 ± 0.01, 0.31 ± 0.02 and 0.07 ± 0.01, 17 ± 0.01and0.04 ± 0.01 for raw and cooked P. macrophylla, T. conophorum and I. gabonensis var gabonensis respectively.RawP. macrophylla hadvery significantly high content of HCN (14.02 ± 0.18) followed by T. conophorum (9.33 ± 0.01) and (5.69 ± 0.29) I. gabonensis var gabonensis. Cooked I. gabonensis var gabonensis had least HCN (1.31 ± 0.07 (followed by T. conophorum (2.21 ± 0.22) Phytate and oxalate contents of raw and cooked P. macrophylla were 0.61 ± 0.03 and 0.17 ± 0.01 and 0.45 ± 0.02 and 0.13 ± 0.02respectively. For I. gabonensis var gabonensis 0.35 ± 0.02 and 0.11 ± 0.01, 0.43 ± 0.01 and 0.10 ± 0.01 respectively and T. conophorum, 0.50 ± 0.03and 0.12 ± 0.01and 0.51 ± 0.02 and 0.13 ± 0.01 respectively
129 Influence of Growing Media on Vegetative, Floral and Bulb Parameters of Crown Lily (Fritillaria Imperialis L.) , Reyaz Ahmad Bhat, ZA Bhat, Sadaf Rafiq, IT Nazki, FU Khan, Neelofar, ZA Rather, Nasir Masoodi, Qazi Altaf and Rauoof Ahmad Rather
An experiment entitled “Standardization of Growing Media for Pot Culture of Crown Lily (Fritillaria imperialis L.)’’ was carried out at the Floricultural experimental field SKUAST-K during the year 2017-18. The investigation involved 11 treatment combinations (T1= Soil/control, T2=Soil + Sand 1:1, T3 = Soil + Sand 2:1, T4 = Soil +Sand +FYM 1:1:1, T5 = Soil + Sand + FYM 1:1:2, T6 = Soil +Sand + Vermicompost1:1:1, T7 = Soil + Sand + Vermicompost 1:1:2, T8 = Soil +Sand + Sheep manure 1:1:1, T9 = Soil + Sand + Sheep manure 1:1:2, T10 = Soil + Sand + Forest litter 1:1:1 and T11 = Soil +Sand + Forest litter 1:1:2) laid out in triplicate Completely Randomized De-sign (CRD). The results of the study revealed that the treatment T11 (Soil +Sand + Forest litter 1:1:2) significantly improved vegetative, floral and yield attributes of crown lily. Maximum plant height(73.47 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (63.33), floret length (5.87 cm), weight of main bulb (149.25 g), number of bulblets per bulb (2.00) was recorded in treatment T11 (Soil +Sand + Forest litter 1:1:2) while as the minimum plant height (61.00 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (50), floret length (4.33 cm), weight of main bulb (141. g), number of bulblets bulb-1 (1.00) was recorded in treatment T1 (control/Soil).
130 Development of a Novel In-vitro Protocol for Micro propagation of Tomato Male Sterile Line (Shalimar FMS-1) of Kashmir Valley India , Syed Mazahir Hussain, Khursheed Hussain, Ajaz Ahmad Malik, Amjad M. Hussaini, Syeda Farwah, Majid Rashid and Rauoof Ahmad Rather
The present study aimed to develop a novel, efficient and cost effective protocol for in-vitro micro propagation of tomato male sterile line and consisted of two experiments viz., Standardization of protocol for sterilizing the explants for in vitro micro propaga-tion of tomato male sterile line (Shalimar FMS-1) and development of protocol for in vitro shoot and root regeneration in tomato male sterile line in a single medium. Among various sterilization treatments, sodium hypochlorite (1.0%) for 45 seconds showed the high-est survival percentage of explants (100% for hypocotyl and 91.66% for single node cutting) and minimum contamination (16.17% for hypocotyl and 17.22% in case of single node cutting). Among twenty-seven modified MS media treatment combinations, the treat-ment combination T-14 (MS medium supplemented with calcium D pantothenate 2 mg l-1 + calcium chloride 440 mg l-1 + gibberillic acid 0.4 mg l-1) resulted in maximum root and shoot regeneration, recorded maximum shoot and root length. The protocol developed is therefore proposed for micropropagation of tomato male sterile line Shalimar FMS-1 from the tomato explants in a single modified MS medium overcoming the requirement of two MS media, one for root regeneration and the other for shoot regeneration thus sav-ing more than 50% of the time and media required for microplant regeneration This protocol overcomes the inefficient, expansive, time consuming and cumbersome nature of already available protocols which require two media (rooting and shooting media) while this proposed protocol ensures complete root and shoot regeneration from an explant (single node cutting/ hypocotyl) in a single modified MS medium
131 Assessment of Growth and Yield Performance of Different Rice Genotypes at Baniyani (Kachankawal-6), Jhapa , Purnima Puri, Santosh Marahatta, Basanta Khanal and Rakshya Poudel
The performance and productivity of rice crop is influenced by the genotype of the crop which is also location specific. A field experiment was conducted to recognize the suitable rice genotypes in terms of yield and performance at Baniyani, Jhapa. The experi-ment was carried out in RCBD design with three replication and eight treatments (genotypes). Two genotypes were used as check: Hardinath-1 for yield and earliness while Chaite-5 for quality whereas remaining six were pipeline genotypes namely: IR16L1636, IR98846-2-1-4-3, IR16L1831, IR15L1544, 1R16L1411 and IR-10N-118. There were 24 experimental units each of 9 m2. Various data including Plant height (cm), Number of tiller (/m2), Effective tiller (/m2), Panicle length(cm), Number of grain per panicle, Sterility (%), Thousand grain weight (gm), Seed length (cm), Seed diameter (cm), Grain yield (kg), Straw yield (kg), Harvest index (%), Num-ber of borer and smut infestation (/m2) and all results were significant at all parameters except for number of tiller at vegetative growth, panicle length (cm) and sterility (%). Earliness was observed in Hardinath-1, plant height was high in IR16L1831, number of tiller was found more in Chaite-5, number of effective tiller was high in IR98846-2-1-4-3, panicle length was observed long in IR-10N-118, number of grain per panicle was more in Chaite-5, sterility was also high in Chaite-5, thousand grain weight of IR16L1831 was high, seed length was found high in IR16L1831 while seed diameter of IR16L1636 was more. Likewise, grain yield of Hardi-nath-1 was high, straw yield was high in IR16L1831, biological yield high in IR98846-2-1-4-3 and harvest index high in Hardinath-1.
132 The Importance of Determining the Soil Moisture Reserve , Cojocaru Olesea
Calculation of the dynamics of soil moisture is used in hydro-logical models to calculate the inflow of water into the channel network, in hydrophysical models to take into account the physical processes of moisture movement and evaporation, as well as in ag-rometeorological models to obtain information on the processes of moisture and desiccation of the soil of an agricultural field
133 Challenges Related to the Conversion to Ecological Agriculture of Agricultural Households , Cojocaru Olesea
Farmers who apply traditional practices can grow different crops in a dense system, mixed on the same piece of land that changes crop randomly. Several animals can be kept, such as chick-ens, pigs, cattle, sheep, which scatter manure in their feeding plac-es, thus providing small amounts of plant fertilizers, and the use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides is very low. Usually, for these farmers, the land area is small. Crops may be enough to feed the family, and some may be sold for current income. These farmers al-ready carry out certain practices of organic farming, relying on the farm’s own resources, cultivating different crops simultaneously and raising animals. However, there are practices that clearly dis-tinguish these households from organic farms.
134 Reserves of Productive Moisture in Soils of Republic of Moldova , Cojocaru Olesea
The main sources of water entering the soil are precipitation, condensation of vaporous water from the atmosphere and ground-water. It is known that not all the amount of atmospheric precipita-tion gets into the soil. Liquid precipitation can drain off as a result of surface runoff. The amount of their losses depends on many fac-tors, the most important of which are: the angle of inclination of the surface, the intensity and amount of incoming precipitation, the physical properties of the soil, as well as the degree of projec-tive soil coverage by plants. The redistribution of solid precipita-tion over the territory is also rather uneven due to wind transport, the snow-holding capacity of plants and various kinds of barriers.
135 Terrace Gardening , Praneetha Gupta Komuravelli
Growing of fruits, flowers and vegetables in the terraces or balconies is known as terrace gardening
136 Overview of Economic Development of Africa , Stephen Awuah Baffour
Everyone makes or has ambitions, But only few will succeed, the rest get caught in the gab of intentions and action. Africa is a great continent with lots of prospect. Africa is one of the richest continent in terms of agriculture, minerals and culture but remains the poorest continent. Most Africans don’t accept that real battle grounds is in the mind.
137 Information Filtering and Organisation in Social Microblogging Sites , Soumi Dutta
Online social microblogging sites, such as Twitter (https://twitter.com), Tumblr (http://www.tumblr.com), and Sina Weibo (https://weibo.com) are very popular platforms for information exchange on the Web today. These micro blogging sites have be-come trendy communication tools, enabling rapid information ex-change. Vast amounts of information are generated on these sites every day through economic, academic and social activities. This crowd-sourced information can be utilised for diverse applica-tions, ranging from market analysis, fraud detection, detection of spammers and spam posts, characterization or grouping of user according to their behavior, extraction of important news and customer retention to production control and science explora-tion. Data extracted from microblogs are increasingly being used to build real-time search and recommender systems, and services which mine and summarize public reactions to events. Side by side with the diverse applications, microblogging sites also bring in sev-eral challenges in utilizing the crowd-sourced data, notably need for filtering out malicious content posted by spammers and need for organizing the plethora of information.
138 On-farm Rice Straw Burning: Its Prevention and Solution , Sourav Ghosal, Srabani Ghosal, Jyoti Ranjan Rath and MK Ghosal
On-farm burning of rice straw is at present an increasing concern in India where, rice is cultivated widely and the staple food for almost all people of the country. Rice straw is therefore considered to be a sustainable bio-resource as it is available and generated adequately because of the cultivation of the crop twice in a year in major parts of India. Farmers are forced to use combines to com-plete the harvesting work of the crop within a short period due to the shortage of labour, unpredicted rainfall and natural disaster frequently occurring during the period of crop harvesting. No other option lies with the farmers but to burn the loose straw, gener-ated after combine harvesting, for preparing their fields ready for performing the sowing operation of the next crop. This practice re-sults into the emission of greenhouse gases, causing adverse effects on the environment and becomes a major concern for the whole country. Hence this paper discusses the suitable technologies for utilization of dumped loose straw in the field, in an environmentally sustainable manner and thus preventing the practice of on-farm burning
139 Manihot esculenta (Crantz)’ Diversity Management by Peaysants in Pissa and Damara’s Districts in the Central African Republic (A Comparative Approach) , Gougodo De Mon-Zoni Julie Léancy, Kosh-Komba E, Bombo-Yongo, Zaman M, Touckia GI, Zinga I, Semballa S, Mololi A, Batawila K and Akpagana K
Understanding knowledge and know-how of peasants’ producers is important for the conducting efficient programs of agricul-tural development and appropriate research. The aim of this study is to analyze strategies of managing the diversity of cassavas by peasants through a comparative approach in the scale of the two districts that are characteristics of agroclimatic zones in the for-est and in the savannah. An inquiry done with 420 peasants who are producers in 30 villages respectively in these district allowed censing Thirty-six (36) varieties among which 05 elites cultivated in the two districts. The various names given to the cultivars is linked to sociocultural facts, to introducers, to advantages obtained through cultivating manioc, to their origins, to the vegetative cycle and to the tastes. Highly significant differences have been observed in the number of cultivars in the two districts and vary from 2 to 13 per village (an average of 6) in the area of study. Variation between households is weak, from 1 to 3 cultivars (an average 2). The two districts have registered loss in cultivars. The number of cultivars that disappeared varies from 0 to 7 (an average of 3) per village. The rate of the diversity’s loss has an average of 18.42% and varies between 0% to 75%, according to the villages. This loss of diversity is mainly due to the cultivars’ agronomic characteristics (long vegetative cycle, 34%) and to the introduction of new varieties (25%). Managing this culture is still traditional in the area of study, though many efforts have been done by institutions and spread and research services in the distribution of cuttings in areas where they are cultivated. The perception of associating cultures in the area of study is considered as a means of managing the cultivable space out crops and not that of managing the soil’s fertility. Constraints of production (all over 8) can be reduced by using healthy cultivars and following technical advice. The study reveals the existence of an important diversity. Samples of collected cultivars gives 29 local accessions and 07 ameliorated varieties.
140 Modern Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Production Potentiality through a Sorts of Management Practice , Atik Ahmed, Md Masud Rana Parvej, Md Hafiz All Amin, Alok Kumar Paul and Md Asaduzzaman Khan
The purpose of the research is to evaluate the production performance of transplanted modern rice using organic manure and inorganic fertilizer with water management. The research activity was completed by following Two (2) factors split plot design (SPD) with three replications. The treatments were factor A: two irrigations (I1= Continuous flooding; I2= Alternate wetting and drying) arranged in the main plots, whereas factor B: 8 different doses of fertilizer + manure (T0: Control, T1: 100% N100P15K45S20Zn2, T2: 50% NPKSZn +5-ton cowdung/ha, T3: 70% NPKSZn + 3-ton cowdung/ha, T4: 50% NPKSZn + 5-ton compost/ha, T5: 70% NPKSZn +3-ton compost/ha, T6: 50% NPKSZn + 3.5-ton poultry manure/ha and T7: 70% NPKSZn + 2.1-ton poultry manure/ha) settled in the sub-plots. The finding of the research revealed that the irrigation practices had not any significant effect but different doses of fertilizer and manure had significant outcomes on rice production. The highest numbers of effective tillers/hill (9.13), plant height (119.79 cm), panicle length (27.96 cm), 1000 grain wt. (21.67g), grain yield (5.12 t/ha) and straw yield (10.1 t/ha) were found from (50% NPKSZn plus 5-ton cowdung/ha), (70% NPKSZn plus 3-ton cowdung/ha), (70% NPKSZn plus 3-ton compost/ha), (50% NPKSZn plus 5-ton compost/ha), (70% NPKSZn plus 2.1-ton poultry manure/ha) and (100% N100P15K45S20Zn2), respectively. The grain yield percent increase (38.3%) was recorded from (70% NPKSZn plus 2.1-ton poultry manure/ha). The grain yield was higher because of organic +inorganic fertilizers as compared to chemical fertilizer. Moreover, the combined result of irrigation with fertilizer and manure was significantly influenced in yield. The highest grain yields (5.78 t/ha) were recorded from (Alternate wetting and drying with 70% NPKSZn plus 2.1-ton poultry manure/ha). The transplanted rice grain and straw nutrient concentrations were significantly affected by the application of fertilizer and manure. Finally, it can be recommended (70% NPKSZn plus 2.1-ton poultry manure/ha) for effective production of modern transplanted rice cultivation.
141 Effect of Some Rhizobium Strains on Fenugreek Growth and Biological Control of Sclerotinia Stem Rot of Fenugreek Caused by Sclerotinia trifoliorum , Hemissi Imen, Hachana Amira, Sonia Mejri and Arfaoui Hanen
Fenugreek is an annual leguminous crop grown for hay and grains in Tunisia. It is also considered as a valuable rotation crop with cereals. Sclerotinia rot was observed in production fields since 2010. The aim of this work is to study the antagonistic activity of different Rhizobium strains against Sclerotinia trifoliorum in dual culture in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. Among the 32 strains tested, 26 isolates had effective control on Sclerotinia trifoliorumin vitro. In order to study the biological control mechanisms, the Rhizobium strains ability to produce volatile compounds and to solubilize phosphate were investigated. The results showed that 18 strains were able to solubilize phosphorus and 19 strains produced volatile compounds. In pot trials, the percentage of fenugreek plants inoculated with different rhizobia showed significant reduce sclerotinia stem rot symptoms compared to the uninoculated plants. Among these rhizobiums, the strain Soli proved efficient against the pathogen in vitro and in pot experiments. The results promise the use of rhizobia for protection of fenugreek against Sclerotinia trifoliorum.
142 Climate-smart Agriculture: A Response to Climate Change , Mehrdad Niknami
Climate change is one of the biggest challenges to human be-ings. Agriculture is climate-dependent and it definitely affects climate change; therefore, the activities of rural residents such as farmers and those who are active in agribusinesses interact with climate change. Climate change affects various productive, eco-nomic, social, environmental, and human aspects; for example, in-crease in greenhouse gas emissions, changes in the usual precipi-tation patterns and their improper distribution, and temperature fluctuations.
143 Mycoremediation by Oyster Mushroom   , Nidhi Akkin
Oyster mushroom is the Pleurotus species, which is a well-known fungus that can be used in bioremediation of the soil con-taminated by pesticides and heavy metals in ecosystem. Cultiva-tion of this mushroom is an age-old practice. Though the biological remediation properties were known from a very long time, as long as the period of world war one, but only a little was done to com-mercialize it or incorporate it in our daily lives. The absorption po-tential of Pleurotus species is still to be known to the fullest extent.
144 Plant Growth Promoting and Biocontrol Potential of Pseudomonas sp. Strains on Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Plant , Mounika Nagabhairava, Ali Shaik Zulfikar, Sandhya Vardharajula and Sai Shiva Krishna Prasad Vurukonda
Extensive studies on the use of biocontrol agents (BCA’s) to control diseases caused by plant pathogenic microorganism, to re-duce the over usage of chemical inputs and to minimize broad use of fungicides, which leads to resistance in plant pathogens. In sustainable agriculture, plant growth promoting (PGP), and BCA’s have emerged as eco-friendly alternatives to most of the chemical pesticides. In the present study, six Pseudomonas spp. strains were screened for various PGP traits viz., Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA), Phosphate solubilization, siderophore activity, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production and furthermore the strains were characterized for in vitro antifungal activity against various plant pathogenic fungi, drought, and temperature tolerance. The strains P21-ABF and P22-DSK has shown effective PGP traits and antagonistic activity against Rhizoctoniasolani and Fusariumoxysporum. The most pro-spective strains P21-ABF and P22-DSK were selected to perform in planta biocontrol studies on sorghum seeds. The most prospec-tive strain P21-ABF upon molecular characterization was identified as Pseudomonasaeruginosa.
145 Seasonality and Production of Poultry Meat in Owerri Urban South-Eastern Nigeria , Akagha NU, Onyegbule UO, Nwaiche CB, Azuike PA and Okeke RN
The study examined seasonality and poultry meat production in Owerri urban, South eastern Nigeria. Therefore the study focused on effects of seasons on production of poultry meat. Quasi experimental research design was employed in the study. Data on rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and birds sold (meat produced) was collected for a period of 16 years (2004-2019). Results shows, that poultry meat production revealed a weak correlation with temperature and relative humidity (-0.74 and-0.62) respectively and an R-square of 64.7% which shows higher production of poultry meat in the rainy seasons. The trend analysis revealed variability in poultry meat production across the seasons of the year for the span under study (2004-2019). In conclusion, seasons of the year have effects on production of poultry meat in the study area within the period under investigation. It is recommended that farmer’s should adequately feed their birds and maintain good sanitation/hygiene for improved production.
146 Soil and Plant Nutrient Status as Influenced by Phosphorus Biofertilizers in Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.)   , Prasanth B, Hemalatha S, Prabhakara Reddy G and Nagamadhuri K V
A field trial entitled “Evaluation of biofertilizers for phosphorus economy in sweet corn (Zea mays L.)” was executed during kharif, 2018 on sandy loam soils of S.V. Agricultural College, Tirupati campus of Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University. The experiment was structured in a randomized block design with ten treatments and three replications. The different experimental treatments con-sists different phosphorus management practices. Phosphorus levels failed to exert significant influence on nitrogen and potassium content of sweet corn. The higher post-harvest soil available nitrogen and phosphorus status was noticed with 100% recommended dose of phosphorus (RDP) + Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (AM) @ 12.5 kg ha-1 + Phosphorus Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) @ 5 kg ha-1 (T4). Higher post-harvest soil available potassium was registered with 100% RDP + AM @ 12.5 kg ha-1 (T2). Application of 50% RDP + PSB @ 5 kg ha-1 (T8) resulted in lower post - harvest soil nitrogen and phosphorus, in comparison with the remaining treatments tested. Higher partial factor productivity of phosphorus (Pfp) was recorded with 50% RDP + AM @ 12.5 kg ha-1 + PSB @ 5 kg ha-1 (T10). Con-siderably lower partial factor productivity of phosphorus was registered with 100% RDP (T1).
147 Vertical Distribution of Soils Fertility of Sagarpali and Chitbadagaon Village of Ballia District, Uttar Pradesh , Rahul Kumar, Ashok Kumar Singh and Anil Kumar Singh
An investigation was carried out for Characterization of soils of Sagarpali and Chitbadagaon village of Ballia District (U.P.). Depth wise soil samples were collected from two selected villageviz. Sagarpali and Chitbadagaon. From both Sagarpali and Chitbadagaon pedons soil sample were collected from 0 - 20, 20 - 41, 41 - 61, 61 - 81, 81 - 101, 101 - 127, 127 - 152 and 152 - 177 cm depths and in this respect a soil profile was opened in each village. Standard method was followed for analysis of physico-chemical parameter of soil. Results revealed that pH of soil found to be slightly acid to slightly alkaline where EC was in normal range. Bulk density of soil found be 1.40 - 1.54 Mg m-³ and water holding capacity 36.89 - 47.79%. Organic carbon content varied from 0.13 - 0.71%. The soil was slightly moderately calcareous (0.36 - 2.34 CaCO3%). Available N, P, K, and S content in soil varied from 106.62 - 304 kg ha-1, 6.81 - 11.10 mgkg-1, 240.8 - 403.2. kg ha-1 and 4.32 - 8.35 mgkg-1 respectively. The texture of soil was found to be clayey to clay loamy
148 Neo-liberalism and Structural Adjustment Programs: Effects of Institutional Reforms on Agriculture Based Economy in Ethiopia , Wuletaw Mekuria
Neo-liberalism is a set of market oriented policy. Structural adjustment program is development thinking of neo-liberalism em-barked upon the global economic disaster put into operation in Africa and Ethiopia as well. In 1991, structural adjustment program was adopted in Ethiopia ten years later from other Sub-Saharan African countries. Despite several policies were established and put into practice, the program could not continue after 1995. The objective of the study was to explore the effects of structural adjustment program and neo-liberalism on political economy of Ethiopia. The study was at national level. Secondary data were col-lected from various empirical and theoretical literatures such as policy briefs and study findings. Qualitative methods were used for analysis. The review results revealed that mixed economy had been implemented in Ethiopia since 1991. On wards 2000, an interventionist economic model was took place and changed to democratic developmental state in 2007. The structural adjustment program and neo-liberalism reforms resulted for establishing of diverse national policies, strategies, plans, programs and projects. Currently, Ethiopia is undergoing various development interventions applied at different sectors. Therefore, this paper highlighted on debates and arguments on development institutions that Ethiopia put into practice several programs. However, it was not without limitations, gaps and overlaps for which the government could not give due attention for evaluating programs and projects for its sustainability. Hence, institutional reforms should be revised or changed after critically evaluated in consultation of academia, policy makers, researchers and professionals.
149 Farming: Back to Basics   , Prasanth Bendalam
India is renowned worldwide for its prosperous agrarian econ-omy during the pre-colonial period. The era of post-independence changed this buoyant milieu into a crisis by immoderate execution of green revolution technologies that are characterized by pletho-ric cost burdens and environmental degradation. Prior to the green revolution, Indian farmer’s aboriginal experience and knowledge succoured the country’s food security without much altering the environment. At the present moment, ensuring food security for the escalating populace appears to be a huge challenge with de-clining land area and productivity. While a core solution to these problems, alternative farming methods such as organic farming, natural farming, and biodynamic farming came into the picture.
150 Factors Affecting Adoption of Good Agricultural Practice of Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) Orchard in Jhapa, Nepal , Basanta Khanal, Jaya Prakash Dutta and Purnima Puri
The study was conducted to determine adoption of good agricultural practices of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) orchard and fac-tors affecting its adoption. Seventy rubber growing farmers were selected by using simple random sampling technique. Data were collected with pre tested semi structured interview schedule during month of April, 2020. Chi-square test, Pearson coefficient of correlation and Independent t-test were used to analyze the data. Findings of the study revealed that out of eight management prac-tice; Basin size (87.1%) was highly adopted while Chemical fertilizer application (22.9%) was least adopted. About 60% of rubber farmers had high adoption level and remaining 40% had low adoption level for good agricultural practice. Among selected factors; farm size (at 1% level), training (at 1% level) and frequency of contact with extension worker (at 5% level) had significant associa-tion with adoption level of good agricultural practices of rubber. Similarly adoption level of good agricultural practices was found to be significant with income (at 1% level) and productivity (at 1% level). Farmers with high adoption level had yearly income of 5.59 lakhs/ha and latex productivity of 3.04 Mt/ha while farmers with lower adoption level had yearly income of 2.13 lakh/ ha and latex productivity of 1.23 Mt/ha. Poor technical knowledge, price fluctuation in combination with high cost of input is limiting adoption of good agricultural practices.
151 Using Natural Language Processing to Translate Plain Text into Pythonic Syntax in Kannada   , Vinay Rao, Sanjana GB, Sundar Guntnur, Navya Priya N, Sanjana Reddy and Pavan KR
Digital evolution has made various services and products available at everyone’s fingertips and made human lives easier. It has become necessary for individuals with a passion to be a part of this digital evolution to learn how to write code, which is the basic literacy of the digital age. But writing code has become a privilege for students with prior knowledge of English. In the context of the evolving field of Agri-tech, individuals and companies are making large strides towards digitising various dif-ferent aspects of Agriculture. AI is being used actively to solve various problems in the agricultural space. The basic expected literacy here as well, is the ability to write code with the default understanding of English. Rural areas where one of the mainstream occupa-tion for a large part of the population is Agriculture, English language may not be their primary language of choice for written and verbal communications.
152 Status of Invasive Alien Plant Species (IAPS) in Shreenagar Hill of Tansen, Palpa, Nepal , Toyanath Belbase and Sunil Ghimire
The non-native plant species which invade and displace native plants causing damage to environment, biodiversity, economy and health called invasive plants. Their status was studied in Shreenagar hill of Tansen, Palpa. Field visit and sampling of size 1m x 1m was done in 120 plots by systematic random sampling method. Asteraceae family and Ageratina adenophora species were found to be most dominant with more effect on disturbed area. The invasion was more in highly disturbed areas. All Invasive Alien Species (IAPs) were dicotyledons and most of them (8 out of 9) were herbs. Till now, there is no more impact of IAPs on total plant species richness due to their recent entry but threatening to be epidemic in future. So, there is urgent need of controlling them to prevent from further spread.
153 Inter-Related Hydrologic Threats to Australia’s Agricultural Potential , Charles R Lawrence
For the dry Australian continent agricultural activity is concentrated in the more humid perimeter. In these areas in particular, land clearing and agricultural development has initiated higher infiltration and groundwater recharge, reflected in the emergence of land degradation problems of salinization of low-lying landscape and acidification of soils. The accelerated use of groundwater for ir-rigation has brought concerns about the sustainability of that resource along with changed composition of groundwater derived from nitrate leaching from the soil, which restricts its use for drinking and contaminates streams. Each of these problems is worsening and contributing to reduced agricultural production and the potential availability of the groundwater resource. All these problems are induced by the common factor of changes in the groundwater hydrology. Recommendations are made on the need for integration of research, monitoring and management.
154 Urban Farming: A Necessity or a Hobby for Few , Yash Agarwal
Agriculture/Farming has historically proved to be a major fac-tor which guided the evolution of human civilization. Right after the beginning of agriculture revolution 12,000 years ago which came after the human cognitive revolution, the settlement patterns and food habits of humans changed drastically. People started liv-ing in large numbers practicing agriculture and thus the first villag-es came into being. The oldest civilizations like that of Indus valley are known to be agriculture based harnessing the fertile lands near the banks of river Indus.
155 Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) - An Exploration of Hygro waste for Textile Applications , Madhu Sharan and Sumi Haldar
Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera.) an aquatic perennial plant cultivated widely from Kashmir to Kanyakumari. This species is a national flower of India and Vietnam. Due to the huge economic importance of flower, the cultivators cut the flower with the little length of the petioles leaving the rest entire as a “waste”. The Petiole is a part between the flower and underground rhizome of the lotus plant. Petiole contains two types of xylem cells: tracheids and vessels. Several individual precious lotus fibers are orderly assembled in tracheids and vessels in the form of “Helix”. There was no source of the Lotus fibers in India. So, the research was planned to explore this hygro- waste for textile use which includes right from the base to find out the availability of wetlands near and around Vadodara region of Gujarat, contacting the peoples associated with lotus cultivation, extraction of fibers, spinning of the yarn and prepara-tion of handloom fabric. Results indicated feasibility for its use in textiles because all fibers cannot be a textile fiber it should have a good length, excellent strength, moisture absorbency and cohesiveness to convert into yarn and woven fabric. Testing of all essential properties of the fibers shows its feasibility for the application in textiles. Small scale industry can be developed by providing train-ing regarding the extraction process of fiber, spinning and weaving which will assist the skill development and income generation to the rural communities and as well value-added products can be developed which can cater the market. Raw material to end product consists of no use of chemicals which saves the mother earth.
156 Use of Toxic Wastewater in Agricultural Fields… Common Practice in Developing Countries , Safeerul Islam Hashmi
Rapid increase and industrial revolution in the whole world have led to the depletion of freshwater resources available to man-kind in the recent past. The issue of water scarcity is increasing with the passage of time. Many regions of the world are facing serious medical problems because of unavailability of freshwa-ter. Crop’s cultivation requires handsome amount of water and unavailability of water in these regions is now causing threats to mankind. This increased the interests of science to identify and research various novel methods and techniques which play their role in the achievement of sustainable development, accelerated growth and yield of agricultural crops because agricultural sector was one of the largest consumers of freshwater in previous times.
157 Study of Statistical Analysis of Indices Based Rainfall Trends in Haridwar District of Uttarakhand, India , Avadhesh Kumar Koshal and Anamika Jain
The Haridwar belong to Western Himalayan Region with geographical coordinates are 29.948 deg latitude, 78.160 deg longitude. The trend analysis of rainfall pattern in Haridwar is studied through time series analysis of rainfall for a long period of 20 years. The Kharif crops production is dependent on this rainfall. The average annual rainfall of region during 1999-2018 is 1051mm. and south west monsoon rainfall 925.9 mm observed.. The annual rainfall in year 2007 showing the highest positive rainfall anomaly (2.31) while the other years show rainfall below normal with 2009 Showing the lowest negative rainfall deviation (-2.03). and the South west (1999 to 2018) rainfall of Haridwar District in year 2018 showing the highest positive rainfall anomaly (2.15) while the other years show rainfall below normal with 2009 Showing the lowest negative rainfall deviation (-2.05). The R2 value -1.408 means that only -140.8 percent variations is observed in twenty years. The maximum South west rainfall recoded 1564 mm in year 2008 and lowest rainfall recoded 439 mm in year 2001. The annual rainfall highest SIAP value 2.31 is observed in year 2007 whereas highest negative value -2.03 is observed in year 2009. The South-west rainfall highest SIAP value 2.15 observed in year 2018 whereas lowest SIAP value -2.05 observed in year 2009. On the basis, the future forecast of rainfall for a period of ten years from 2019 to 2030 has been observed a negative trend for the coming years. In future, expected annual rainfall may be more in year 2030 observed 1024.9 mm in the district.
158 Landfill Leachate Management Using Modelling   , Kamde Shivanand, Ghosh PK and Gupta MK
Most landfills are unengineered in the country; therefore it is difficult to manage municipal solid waste, with respect to collec-tion, transportation, disposal, composting and leachate treatment. This paper attempted to focus on various leachate modelling being used in leachate management to control over various characteristics found in leachate generated. Some important models, studied here are HELP model, LPI, water Balance model (wBm), Deterministic Multiple Linear Reservoir model (DMLRm), Stochas-tic Multiple Linear Reservoir model (SMLRm), Leachate Generate (LG) prototype model. In this paper experimental analytical and mathematic model have also been considered. Most of the models performed under certain conditions and bounded to limits. The results of modelling studies showed that they provided specific value of specific parameters which is not viable. A prototype leachate generated model which is based on layer theory, using Gomutra as a simulator was found to be effective, economic, ease to manage. The results revealed that the effects of Gomutra to control pH value, temperature, moisture content ratio of BOD/COD, C/N ratio and other minerals was found to be positive; which would helpful to prevent contamination of surface water and enhances, soil condi-tions growth of plants successfully.
159 Genome Editing Technology in Plant Breeding: A Review   , Rashmi Regmi, Bishnu Bhusal, Pritika Neupane, Kushal Bhattarai, Binju Maharjan, Suprava Acharya, Bigyan KC, Rishav Pandit, Ram Prashad Mainali and Mukti Ram Poudel
AGlobal population growth is demanding for more food production in the future. The selection of the plant for cropping has led to the loss of valuable genotypes. Genome-editing technology is the recent advances in plant breeding which allows the insertion, dele-tion or substitution of the specific loci in the target host cell. Among the homologous recombination (HR) technology, transcription activation-like effector nuclease (TALEN), zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR); the most popular these days is CRISPR/Cas. Here, we review the methods of genome-editing, their applications, potentials, and the regulatory issues related to genetically modified organisms
160 Selection for Improving Field Resistance to Capsicum Chlorosis Virus and Yield-related Traits Using Selection Indices in Peanut Breeding , Jetsada Authrapun, Udomsak Lertsuchatavanich and Dingming Kang
Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) is a pathogen causing a severe disease in peanut. Therefore, the aim of this study was to select peanut genotypes for improving field resistance to CaCV disease and yield using two selection indices, including a multitrait index based on factor analysis and ideotype-design (FAI-BLUP index) and a multi-trait stability index (MTSI). The 121 genotypes were evaluated under natural infection at the disease hotspots in Thailand from 2017 to 2018, totalling three environments. The experi-mental design was a randomized complete block with two replications. The 11 traits related to disease resistance and yields such as percentage of disease incidence (DisInc), the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC), pod yield (PY), harvest index (HI), number of pod per plant (PdPt), pod weight per plant (PWPt), seed weight per plant (SWPt), shelling percentage (SH), hundred seed weight (100SW), seed length (SdLgth) and seed width (SdWdth) were collected and used for simultaneous selection. After the selection con-sidering a selection intensity of 15%, the selection differentials and selection gains obtained by the FAI-BLUP and MTSI indices were positive for almost yield-related traits except for SH and negative for DisInc and AUDPC, which want to be increased and decreased, respectively, indicating that these selection indices provide desirable genetic gains for all traits simultaneously. The genotypes se-lected by the two selection indices had a good performance for both disease resistance and yield characters. The FAI-BLUP and MTSI indices are efficient method for multi-trait selection and can be used as a tool in selecting promising genotypes based on several targeted traits in plant breeding programs
161 Quality Perception in Higher Education - Using SERVQUAL Methodology , Iara Margolis and Bernardo Providência
Understanding the student’s perception in higher education goes far beyond student retention. Factors such as satisfaction, mo-tivation and irritability points help not only in a more convergent service planning between the institution’s efforts in the face of student expectation, but also in better learning. The perceived quality is difficult to measure and subjective. This work aims to under-stand the perceived quality of the student and analyze the SERQUAL model for its application in higher education. The 5 dimensions of the model were correlated with academic pillars and the sub-items of each dimension were expanded, according to previous stud-ies. The research was conducted with 15% of the universe of students from a higher education course, which represents 69 students, from a private institution. The results were validated in a focus group of 5 students using tools such as the Ishikawa diagram and the Interrelationship Diagram. As a result of the application it was diagnosed that students have a higher expectation than the service offered, which results in a perceived negative quality. Points such as ‘parking’ and ‘operational service’, which are not essential char-acteristics of the educational service, directly impact on the perception of quality and consequently on the student’s satisfaction. As a main result it was noticed that the method points out the problems that most bother the students. They tend to analyze the whole and camouflage items in the face of these stressful stimuli. The method proved to be an ally in the detection of problems of perceived-feltquality, but that requires beyond thedetermination of the data to understand the root cause of the results
162 Cropping Intensity, its Determinants and Farmer’s Income with Special Reference to the Brahmaputra Valley in Northeast India   , Jayanta Saud
With inelastic supply of land for cultivation, and high and growing population pressure on cultivable land in a country like India, it is desirable that the cultivable land is as intensively used as possible. This is truer for eastern part of the country where average hold-ing size of farm has fallen below one hectare. Though this part of the country is naturally endowed with fertile soil and abundance surface and sub-surface water usable for cultivable round the year, the raising a second crop is often believed to be constraint by the traditional practice of open grazing of village cattle in fields after the harvest of the main paddy crop. As this believe is not founded on any systematic study, the authors set out to investigate whether open grazing significantly limit cropping intensity of farms. A field study was carried out covering 225 farms selected through a multi-stage sampling framework from 12 villages covered in three geographically dispersed parts of the Brahmaputra Valley in Northeast India in 2020. Econometric techniques used for analysis of data included instrumental variable method to deal with some endogeneity problem confronted. Results confirm that the open grazing is indeed a limiting factor in intensive mutilation of cultivable land in the study area. As the problem arises from seasonal open access nature of post harvest agricultural field, the problem needs to be addressed under the common property right regime framework. The policy options aligned with the works of Hardin and Ostrom have been explored. Hardin’s line suggests strict enforcement of the property rights of individual farmers over their holdings in the post-harvest season also. However, such enforcement will require erection of fencing which may be costly not only in terms of physical and financial resources but also in terms of social cost of pre-venting free grazing. As per Ostrom’s approach the village community should get together to set up norms of cooperation so that the grazing space limited to facilitate double cropping of the rest of the cultivable land. Given the socioeconomic realities in the study are, the second approach appears to be more feasible. Key-words: cropping intensity, irrigation, free grazing, endogeneity.JEL Classification: O13, Q15, Q12.
163 Genetic Diversity Analysis of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) at Bilaspur Plain Region of Chhattisgarh , Pallavi Manhar, Roshan Parihar, NK Choure, AP Agrawal and Dhanendra Kumar
The present investigation was carried out with 60 genotypes including 4 checks (KIRAN, DEEPIKA, PADMINI, and INDIRA ALSI) and 56 entries. The experiment was laid down in medium black soil under rainfed conditions during rabi season with statistical de-sign, Augmented Block Design comprising 07 blocks, each block consists of 8 genotypes with 4 checks total of 12 plots. The linseed was classified into 5 clusters. Cluster I was the largest, containing of 18 genotypes followed by cluster IV comprising 17 genotypes, cluster V with 13 genotypes, cluster II comprising 7 genotypes, while cluster III with 5 genotypes.The highest intra cluster distance was recorded for cluster III (2123.64) (46.08), followed by cluster V (1640.66) (40.50), cluster II (1572.96) (36.66), cluster IV (1539.42) (39.23), while the lowest intra cluster distance was observed for cluster I (1411.20) (37.56). highest inter-cluster distance was recorded between cluster II and III, followed by clusters III and V, cluster III and IV, cluster I and II, cluster I and V, cluster I and III, cluster II and IV, cluster I and IV, cluster II and V, while the lowest inter cluster distance was observed between cluster IV and V. Genotypes in cluster I demonstrate largest genetic diversity within the cluster be comparable to the geno-types be the member of other clusters. Thus, hybridization can be taken among all these genotypes to getting useful in F2 generations for the yield and yield contributing characters.
164 A Spotlight on the Life of Professor Raifa A. Hassanein (1946-2021) , Hanan Ahmed Hashem
Dr. Raifa Hassanein was born on July 15, 1946, in El-Menofia city, Egypt. She received a BSc degree in Botany from the Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University in 1967 followed by M.Sc. in 1972 with a thesis titled “Physiological Studies on Plant Growth Regula-tors Exuded from Certain Weeds” and Ph.D. in 1977 with a thesis titled “Effect of Certain Growth Regulators on Plant Growth and Metabolism”, both were under the supervision of Professor Hassan Anwar Foda, the godfather of plant growth regulators’ research in Egypt.
165 Role of Medicinal Plant in Human Health Perspective   , Smruti Sohani
Medicinal plants have been used in healthcare since ancient time. Medicinal plants play dynamic roles in their promotion disease prevention and use fit into all prevailing prevention strategies. There are even more studies and applications of herbal medicine in the treatment of diseases. Medicinal plants are a significant source of molecules with medicinal properties of the nature of phyto-chemical constituents, medicinal plants are valuable for treating human diseases and play an important role in healing. Natural and unique medicinal plants are used to treat various diseases and illnesses as well as produce wealth. The use of plants in the treatment of various human disorders is mentioned in Ayurveda and other Indian literature. Medicinal plants are a precious asset in the fight toward serious diseases all over the world. The present study focuses on the knowledge and awareness on uses of medicinal plants and the scientific investigation to confirm their medicinal values i.e. the role, contributions and usefulness of medicinal plants in at-tempting the diseases of public health importance.
166 N2 Fixation of Grain Legumes Leading to Beneficial Effect on the Succeeding Maize Crop , David Lengwati
In large parts of sub-Saharan Africa, smallholder yields have remained low and declining, and food security is very low. The decline in yield is due to the loss of soil organic matter (SOM), as farmers generally collect all plant matter as animal feed or cooking fuel. Other factors include unavailability of arable land, inherently low soil fertility, insect pests and diseases, and climate change. In addi-tion to wind and water erosion, much of the land degradation is caused by overgrazing, deforestation and intensive cropping. Accord-ing to researchers, fertilizer use in Sub-Saharan Africa is low (NPK at 8.8 kg). This situation is similar in South Africa. For millennia, humans have utilized legumes as a source of food, animal fodder, traditional medicine, shelter, fuel etc. Legumes such as Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.), have that special ability to meet more than half of their N requirements through the biological nitrogen fixing-process.
167 Seed Treatment: A Strong Crop Management Strategy during Covid-19 Pandemic , Sangita Sahni
The on-going health crisis due to COVID19 pandemic has affected all walks of life including agriculture. The ongoing second wave of COVID19 has made the situation further miserable. Although a slo-gan “everything can wait except agriculture” is prevailing but the on-goingpandemic and lockdown has affected the agriculture to a large extent. A plethora of report indicates the interruption of agricultural activities due to non-availability of migrant labour, disruption in sup-ply chain, financial crisis etc
168 Diverse Tree Mulberry Geometry and Cultural Practices Adopted by the Farmer’s and its Optimization , Megharaja, Harishkumar J, Chaithra KC, Likhithgowda M and Manjunatha HB
Currently, due to climate change, the paucity of water, and labor, farmers are navigating from bush system of mulberry cultivation to tree plantation regardless of standard and scientific recommendations. Keeping this transit in view, a systematic field visit based study was performed with personal interaction to explore knowledge level, skill, and scientific awareness of the farmers who were undertaking tree mulberry plantation and cultivation practices. Unexpectedly, while different spacing method ranging from 8' x 3' to 10' x 14' has been followed by the farmers, about 62.86% of farmers were adopted 10' x 10' spacing for tree plantation. Height of the stump and branches, and a number of branches per plant in the first year and ensuing years were also varying among farmers, which explicit remarkable diversity in it. Additionally, the number of disease free layings of silkworm brushed as against quantum of leaves available in the tree mulberry garden also differs. Notably, as opined by the farmers, the quality and yield of cocoons produced using the leaves of tree plantation were comparatively better than the mulberry leaves harvested from the bush type of plantation despite diverse tree mulberry geometry and cultivation practices are in vogue. Considering these limitations, we have established a tree mulberry plantation with optimized plant geometry and evaluated its suitability. However, a systematic research is still offered to evolve appropriate technology for the long term and large scale tree mulberry cultivation with assured quality and sustained leaf and cocoon production
169 Morpho-biometric and Cytogenetic analysis of Clone-selected Mulberry Cultivars (Morus Spp.)   , Ravi Kumara R, HL Ramesh and HB Manjunatha
Genetic variation is uncommon in mulberry (Morus spp.) cultivars due to its asexual propagation and shows the considerable phenotypic plasticity to adopt different agro-climatic conditions. These open an ample scope for the selection of superior clones for better leaf yield and quality. To uncover this cryptic feature, we have selected clonally evolved mulberry cultivars TG-1, Anantha, and Vishala and compared them with their putative mother plants M-5, RFS-135, and S-1635 respectively. Interestingly, significant variations are obvious in all clonally evolved mulberry cultivars with their respective putative mother plants. Comparatively, the plant height, the number of branches, leaf yield, and survival percentage were higher in TG-1, Anantha, and Vishala over M-5, RFS-135, and S-1635 cultivars respectively. Furthermore, altered anatomical structures - thick cuticle, fewer and smaller stomata in TG-1, Anantha, and Vishala leaves are positively correlated with moisture conservation and drought adaptation. Besides, clonally evolved mulberry cultivars had significantly higher leaf moisture, soluble protein, and sugar contents. The cytological evidence shows that RFS-135 and Anantha have 2n=2x=28 (Diploids), M-5 and TG-1 also exhibit 2n=2x=28; but Vishala and S-1635 possess 2n=3x=42 (Triploids). We hypothesize that discrete morphological, anatomical, and biochemical variations in clonally evolved mulberry cultivars compared to their putative mother plants are due to no gain or loss in chromosomal complements, rather to repetitive DNA sequence or related epigenetic modifications.
170 Physiological Interactions of Phaseolus vulgaris L. with Telfairia Mosaic Virus , AAJ Mofunanya, EA Effa, BA Ngele, FA Akomaye and AO Damian
The study was conducted to investigate the physiological outcome of interactions of Phaseolus vulgaris L.with Telfairia mosaic virus (TeMV). Seeds of P. vulgaris used in this study were obtained from a farm where the plants were monitored on the field for virus symptoms expression. The seeds were sown, on germination inoculated with the virus at the two leaf stage and allowed to stay for symptom expression. Relative water content, leaf nitrogen content, photosynthetic pigments and enzymes activities were determined at different stages of growth to quantify host virus interactions physiologically.Due to virus infection, some physiological parameters like photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids), relative water content (RWC), leaf nitrogen content were drastically reduced while all enzymes activity increased significantly. Interaction of P. vulgaris with TeMVled to decreased in RWC and leaf nitrogen content. Percentage decreased in RWC of 40.1% at 12 weeks after inoculation (WAI)and 57.6% for leaf nitrogen at 2 WAI was found. Telfairia mosaic virus interaction caused reduction in leaf chlorophyll a content of 53.6%, chlorophyll b (32.9%), chlorophyll a + b (46.6%), ratio of chlorophyll a/b (30.8%) and carotenoids (50.0%). The virus interactions engendered increase in the activities of peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PdH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGdH) enzymes of 57.0%, 64.9%, 90.4%, 99.1% respectively at 8 WAI.Interactions brought about changes in host physiology with variations in quantity of physiological components affecting whole plant functioning
171 Strengthen the Partnership Between Alternative Agriculture and Alternative Medicine , Minami K
Both agriculture and medicine, which concern themselves with healthy life, have their “alternative” versions. Just as people work-ing in healthcare are unfamiliar with the term alternative agricul-ture, those involved in agriculture find the term alternative medi-cine to be novel.
172 Linkages Between Climate Change, Migration, Environment and Sustainable Development , Pham Xuan Phu
Climate change has become a major concern for the people community in the world. Climate change does have consequence in terms of human migration and mobility and its impact can be expected to increase in the future. However, environmental change will affect migration present and in the future specifically through its influence economic, social, environmental and political drives in condition of context climate change which themselves affect the linkages between climate change, migration, environment and sus-tainable development in the context of conditional climate change in the future
173 Benefits and Harms of Wastewater in Agriculture   , Marcelo F Pompelli
The distribution of water on the Earth’s surface is extremely uneven. Only 3% of the water on the surface is fresh; the remaining 97% resides in the ocean. Of freshwater, 69% resides in glaciers, 30% underground and less than 1% is located in lakes, rivers and swamps. Looked the another way, only one percent of the water on the Earth’s surface is usable by humans, and 99% of the usable quantity is situated underground.
174 A Dual Approach to Model Some Basic Equations in Fluid Mechanics , The-Hung Nguyen
In current, the basic equations in fluid flow or solute transport as one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional horizontal (2DH), two-dimensional vertical (2DV), three-dimensional (3D) flow were established by the classic average method, do not generalize by means of dual approach [1,2,4-7]. Therefore, in this paper, a dual approach is applied to construct some basic equations (1D, 2DH, 2DV) in fluid flow and solute transport [4-7].
175 Role of Feeding Regime to Improve the Fish Production , Mohamed Fathy Aid Abdel-Aziz
The feeding regime has a great rule in success of aquaculture projects. The optimum level of feeding rate (FR) with the optimum feeding frequencies (FF) at the optimum feeding time (FT) result in saving the feed offered, reducing the feed uneaten, preventing the health problems of overfeeding and maintaining the water quality as long as possible hence reducing the water exchange and saving the energy of water pumps.
176 Nature has its Own Ways!!! , S Jeevananda Reddy
People around the world are currently facing three “viruses”, namely global warming, Covid-19 and pollution costing trillions of dollars with the lopsided policies of governments and internation-al agencies affecting billions of people around the world
177 Construction of Farmland Solar Radiation DB Using GIS to Solve the Problem of Abandoned Cultivated Land and Select Cultivated Crops for AI , Atsushi Shiota, Thongchart Kerdphol and Yasunori Mitani
In Japan, abandoned cultivated lands have increased due to labor shortages caused by aging, low productivity, lack of farmland recipients, and poor land conditions. The increase of abandoned agriculture land causes problems such as a decline in the multifunctionality of agriculture, the occurrence of pests, birds, and animals. For this reason, the Japanese government has enacted legislation considering the measures to reduce or prevent the abandoned agricultural land. As a result, the area of abandoned agriculture lands was 423,000 ha in 2015, and the rate of increase has slowed.On the other hand, there is RUE (Radiation Use Efficiency) as a numerical value, representing the relationship between the amount of crop production and the amount of solar radiation. RUE is obtained by dividing the dry matter production amount by the accumulated light reception amount during the same period, and it is known that the dry matter production amount increases as the accumulated light reception amount increases, although there is a difference depending on the crop. Our research team has constructed a solar radiation simulation system using GIS (Geographic Information System) and DSM (Digital Surface Model) considering the shadow of buildings and trees. As a result, it has become possible to support the selection of a place, where the amount of solar radiation falling on the solar power generation system can be efficiently obtained, and to understand how much solar radiation can be obtained when the solar power generation system is installed. In addition, it has been incorporated with the weather conditions into this simulation system. Finally, a solar radiation simulation considering the weather conditions is successfully built.Based on these circumstances, this research focuses on the amount of solar radiation falling on farmland, and constructs a farm-land solar radiation DB in consideration of the shadow of buildings and trees and weather conditions for each farmland. The purpose of this research is to visualize farmlands that can receive a large amount of solar radiation and to establish a mechanism to support prioritization during the selecting abandoned agriculture lands and supporting the reuse of abandoned agriculture lands. In addition, the farmland solar radiation DB is designed to build an farmland DB that can manage items such as precipitation, temperature and soil in addition to solar radiation, assuming a mechanism to be able to propose crops grown using AI(Artificial Intelligence) in the future
178 Efficacy of Compatibility between Endophytic Biocontrol Agents and Abiotic Agents as Fungicides Alternatives for Controlling Root Rot of Grapevine , El-Sayed Hussein Ziedan, Moataza Mahmoud Saad, Mohamed Abd-El-All El-Naggar, Khames Ahmed Hemida, Magdy Gad El-Rab El Samman and Mostafa Helmy Mostafa
Root rot of grapevine an epidemic disease causing by several soil borne fungi recorded high loss plant growth of productivity. Nine endophytic biocontrol fungal and bacterial isolates of Trichoderma spp, Bacillus spp and Pseudomonasfluorescens were tested against growth of aggressive fungal isolates causing root rot of grapevine i.e. Fusarium spp. and Botryodiplodia theobromae. Results showed that the best antagonistic endophytic isolates were Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis. Trichoderma harzianum isolate sig-nificantly reduced mycelial linear growth and conidial sporulation of fungi tested as well as over lapping growth of fungi tested. In addition, Bacillus subtilis recorded high zone inhibition toward all pathogenic fungi tested than another bacterial isolates in this study. Some promising essential oils, organic, antioxidants acids and their combinations were tested on growth of endophytic biocontrol agents of Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis. Results obtained indicated that sorbic acid followed by propionic acid were the least effect on mycelial linear growth and conidial sporulation of Trichoderma harzianum. In addition, sorbic acid, propionic acid (0.1%), black seed oil (4.0%) and their combination had no effect negatively on Bacillus subtilis growth. In greenhouse experiment soil drench by propionic + sorbic acids, propionic acid + sorbic acid + T. harzianum + B. subtilis were the best and significantly treat-ments its completely suppress (100%) root rot disease percentage and disease severity on shoots and roots of grapevine plants fol-lowed by T. harzianum as individual or combination with B. subtilis were increased morphological characters of grapevine plant i.e. length, fresh and dry weight of and root size. So, combined soil treatment by propionic acid + sorbic acid or propionic acid + sorbic acid + T. harzianum + B. subtilis as the safe fungicide alternatives for management root rot disease of grapevine
179 The Harmony of the Physical Vacuum , Anatolii Pavlenko
This paper is a summary of ideas and methods related to protection of people from the negative impact of electronic technology. While conducting research, the author intended to clearly define the prevailing negative impact of torsion fields in comparison with electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic fields warm the tissues of a person using all sorts of gadgets, while torsion fields provide influence at the gene level. Much attention is paid to the technology of protection from torsion fields. For a more complete under-standing of the problem of protecting the population from the negative influence of torsion fields, the authors considered the concept of the “fabric of the universe” developed by several authors, which enabled representing the processes occurring in Physical Vacuum in a more distinct way. The fact that virtual particles have their own subconscious nature, which differs from ours that was predicted by N. Tesla, has been confirmed
180 First Report of Cophinforma atrovirens and Trichoderma ghanense Associated with Inflorescence Dieback of Cashew and Soil in Nigeria , Dele Omoyele Adeniyi, David Adedayo Animasaun, Olusola Thomas Oduoye and Ramar Krishnamurthy
Cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L.) is a plant of great economic value not only to growers but other players in the val-ue chain. The crop is mostly cultivated for the nut and can thrive in many agro-ecologies of Nigeria. A case study survey of major cashew plantations and soils of major growing areas in North Central, Nigeria comprising of Oro (Kwara State) and Ejule (Kogi States) showed typical symptom of dieback on cashew panicles re-corded in around 35% and 45% of established cashew trees in the plantations respectively. This disease situation typically referred to as inflorescence dieback of cashew in Nigeria, and this also oc-cur on cashew seedlings both in the nursery and newly established fields. This disease condition and incidence has earlier been as-sociated with Lasiodiplodia species, while the isolated fungi from the soil have priorly been classify as Trichoderma harzianum. The molecular study in this situation depicts the organisms as Cophin-forma atrovirens and Trichoderma ghanense respectively in which very close morphological resemblances were observed
181 Historical Perspectives of Agricultural Extension and Research- Extension-Farmers Linkage in Ethiopia , Solomon Yokamo
Country profile • Ethiopia is a landlocked country in the Eastern parts of Africa (horn of Africa). • It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, Somalia to the east, Kenya to the south, South Su-dan to the west and Sudan to the northwest. • Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world and the second- most populous nation on the African continent with a total area of 1,100,000 square kilometres (420,000 sq mi) and with the population size of > 110 million.Figure 1: AEZ of Ethiopia based on Global 16 classification system.Country profile The nation is a land of natural contrasts, with its vast fertile west, its forests, and numerous rivers, and the world's hottest set-tlement of Dallol in its north.
182 Botanical, Geographical, Herbicidal Aspects of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) , Barbara Sawicka, Piotr PszczóÅ‚kowski, Piotr BarbaÅ› and Bernadetta Bienia
The botanical, geographical and herbicidal aspect of the species of the genus Melissa is presented. These species, especially Melissaofficinalis, have been assigned a number of biological activities, such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antitumor, antiviral, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, and flatulence inhibiting, inhibiting germination and weed growth. The traditional pharmacological properties of lemon balm herb can be associated with the presence of bioactive phytochemicals such as terpenoids, alcohols, rosmarinic acid and phenolic antioxidants. A rich source of bioactive substances, of various Melissa species, can be considered as a promising candidate for the development of nutra-pharmaceuticals and bioherbicides. This review covers the botanical, geographical, nutritional, phytochemical and traditional medical aspects as well as the numerous biological activities of some commonly available Melissa sp. to prove their potential use in the food processing industry, the nutra-pharmaceutical and cosmetics-nutraceutical industry.
183 Estimation of Exserohilum turcicum Efficiency in Quality Protein Maize Crosses: Component of Resistance , Saket Kumar, Rajeev Pratap Singh and Rajesh Singh
NCLB is a seasonal maize crop disease which affected maize leaf under humid environment but in some cases QPM hybrid showed resistance to this disease. Author was selected 5 QPM and 6 non QPM inbred line from the screening and developed 30 crosses of QPM hybrid. These crosses were showing in two different environments (Irrigated and Rain-fed) along with two checks (Malviya Makka Hybrid 2 and local hybrid). After days to 50% tasseling NCLB observation was performed. QPM hybrid crosses showed better growth and development but checks infected to NCLB at 50% tasseling and silking which provide less amount of food supplements due to losses major amount of chlorophyll content
184 Outbreak of Novel Corona Virus in India: Lethal Pandemic , Ankita Awasthi and Sangeeta Avasthi
According to World Health Organization virus diseases still to emerge and represent a significant issue to public health. In De-cember 2019, a pneumonia outbreak was reported in Wuhan, China. This outbreak was traced to a completely unique strain of coronavirus. COVID-19 is a communicable disease caused by a newly discovered corona virus. This new virus seems to be very contagious and has quickly spread globally. As of April 03, 2020, there have been a minimum of 52,869 confirmed death and quite 10,10,066 confirmed cases within the corona virus pandemic. Lockdown, curfews, massive airport screening, quarantines and social distancing became the norms across the world. At an equiv-alent time, scientists round the world work tirelessly and knowl-edge about the transmission mechanism, the clinical spectrum of disease, new diagnostics and prevention and therapeutic strate-gies are rapidly developing
185 Improving the Durability of Agricultural Machinery Parts by Applying Antifriction Coatings , Yakov Nemyrovskyi, Ihor Shepelenko and Olha Medvedieva
An analysis of the literature showed that the problem of increasing the durability of the friction parts of agricultural machinery (AGM) can be successfully solved by applying antifriction coatings on their surface. The analysis of the existing anti-friction coating application schemes showed that the most simple, resource-saving and environmentally friendly is the method of finishing anti-friction non-abrasive treatment (FANT). The possibility and feasibility of using FANT with respect to AGM friction units have been proved. To achieve higher performance properties of parts with anti-friction coatings, combined processing using FANT and deform-ing broaching is proposed. Using cylinder liners as an example, it is proved that the use of the proposed technology improves the working capacity and durability of rubbing parts of AGM, thereby increasing the life of tribo-joints of mobile AGM and can be recom-mended both in the manufacture and in the restoration of friction parts of mobile agricultural machines.
186 The Super Cyclonic Storm Amphan Inflicts Massive Damage to Coastal Aquaculture in Bangladesh , Shoaibe Hossain Talukder Shefat
The monstrous cyclone Amphan, formed in the Bay of Bengal was the strongest tropical cyclone affecting the Ganges delta after Sidr in 2007 that caused severe damage in India and Bangladesh in May 2020. It was also the first tropical cyclone in the North Indian Ocean in 2020. Originating from a low-pressure area in Colombo, Sri Lanka on 13 May 2020, Amphan reached its maximum intensity on 18 May that sustained for 4-minutes with a wind speed of 240 - 260 km/h (150 - 160 mph), and a minimum central barometric pressure (925 mbar) (Figure 1). However, the intensity gradually weakened by continuous and combined dry air and wind shear ef-fects and reached a residuum level on 21 May. During this period, Amphan caused severe destruction of more than US$13 billion in India and Bangladesh.
187 Chemical Variation of Essential Oils from Peels of Citrus kinokuni Tanaka, C. reticulata ‘Dahongpao’, and C. reticulata ‘Zhang Shuensis , Ting-Li Han, Inam Ullah, Jian Wang
The chemicals in essential oils from peels of three varieties of Citrus reticulata Blanco like C. kinokuni Tanaka (K), C. reticulata ‘Dahongpao’ (D) and C. reticulata ‘zhang shuensis’ (Z) were investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID), respectively. A total of 97 compounds were quantified in which 80 components were identified and 17 unknown components were detected. The quantitation results of D and Z were profoundly different from previous studies due to the different treatment to peels. The different oil-types from K, D, and Z were high in β-myrcene, p-cymene, limonene, γ-terpinene, α-terpineol, thymol, (E, E)-α-farnesene, spathulenol and isospathulenol. The chemicals’ fluctuation in oils of D and Z was more pronounced than that of K. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed the peel of K, D and Z could be classified as three kinds according to their chemical changeability, respectively, consisting with the usage of these peels in Chinese medicine. Lastly, the oils’ chemotypes of K, D, Z and other cultivars were analyzed, showing that the % variation of six characteristic components including limonene, γ-terpinene, methyl N-methylanthranilate, linalool, (E, E)-α-farnesene, and thymol, played an important role in discriminating oil-types from varieties of C. reticulata.
188 Effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Soil Profile, Growth Physiology and Antioxidant Activity of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni , Shashi Kant Shukla, S Krithika, Shraddha Shukla and Anupam Dikshit
The present study was performed with the main objective of investigation of enhancement in the growth and antioxidant activity of Stevia rebaudiana, Bertoni, a medicinal plant and chief source of stevioside, natural sweetener. The whole experiment was followed by macro and micronutrients analysis of used soil for pot experiment. In the analysed concentration ratio; potassium was greater than and phosphorous. So, there was a need to dissolve these nutrients into the usable form; Paenibacillus polymyxa was selected due to having these characteristics. The results, observed in 0, 10 and 20 days, showed that in comparison to control, inoculation with ex-perimented soil bacterium, considerably increased root and shoot length as well as no and size of leaves in plant. The positive impact of the performed experiments was obtained after 10 and 20 days respectively. Furthermore, antioxidant efficacy of S. rebaudiana was done using DPPH method which confirms the plant to be free radical scavenger. The conclusion of the experiment showed the efficacy of P. polymyxa on escalation of Stevia.
189 Effect of Yield and Quality on Olive and Olive Oil in Olive Orchards Located at Different Altitudes , Ayça Akça Uçkun and Uygun Aksoy
Olive trees can be grown in marginal areas and adapt to different climatic and soil conditions which is easier to grow than other plants. It has positive effect of olive oil for human health. Therefore, olive cultivation is increasing day by day with the modern of olive techniques and it is preferred to grow by farmers thanks to the positive effects of olive oil and olive. The study was carried out in Ayvalik olive fields in which have different altitudes, in order to examine the current status of olive cultivation in Manisa/Ahmetli area, to soil and leaf analyzes and nutritional status and to determine the suitable harvest periods on high altitude and low altitude in terms of olive and olive oil quality. The current status (age, education, land positions) of the olive farmers were determined by survey in the Manisa/Ahmetli area. Fruit samples were harvested during 4 different periods (10 October, 13 November, 23 November and 5 December). In fruit samples: fruit weight (g), maturity index, color (CIE L*, a*, b*), dry matter (%) were determined. Oil samples, free fatty acidity and fatty acid composition were determined on high altitude and low altitude.In conclusion soil and leaf analyzes indicated that there were nutrient deficiencies and recommendations were made about olive cultivation in olive farmers. The suitable harvest periods were determined of high altitude and low altitude in terms of olive and olive oil quality. In this research, suggestions were given about olive cultivation and it is provided to shed light on future studies
190 Precious Supply Chain Management of Onion (Allium cepa L) by Examining the Production, Quality Expansion and Market Analysis for Food Safety , Sidhartha Kar
Onion is an important and indispensable vegetable in kitchen as condiment and vegetable which captures an extensive internal as well as external market. The green leaves matured and immature bulbs are eaten raw or used in preparation of vegetables. It is used as salad and cooked in various ways, in all curries fries boiled or scorched onion. It is also used in processed form e.g. flakes, powder, paste, pickles and some seasoning foods. It is valued much on account of its characteristics pungency which is due to presence of sul-phur compound (Ally propyl disulphide). It possesses some important medicinal properties. The organic onion is flourishing mainly due to consumer choice. The organic onion is much preferred than traditionally grown. It makes an increase in varieties and selection of onion in retail, supermarket and restaurant. The market plays an important role in determining the pattern as well as the pace of diversification in favor of high-value crops like onion. An increase in production is of little value unless there is a good marketing system.Keeping the above view a research analysis on “Precious supply chain management of onion (Allium cepa l) by examining the pro-duction, quality expansion and market analysis for food safety” was carried out and found among two zones selected such as eastern coastal plateau zone and mid central table land zone, Mid central table land zone found most suitable for onion farming and fulfilling all most all farming requirements. Effect of organic nutrient and botanical pesticides on onion applied, the best onion varieties re-sponse to vermi compost (50%) that is 2 t/ha + NPK (50:50:50) 50 Kg each/ha was remarkable and best organic treatment. Effect of cultivation of different onion varieties found best results with onion variety Agri found Dark Red which has got best results in concern to growth and yield. Effect of integrated weed management on weed density, Dry matter weight of weeds and weed control efficiency found best results with weed control treatment one hand weeding at 20 Days After Transplanting + Ridge and furrow making (6” X 6”) length X breadth in onion variety N-53. Market survey found best results with variation within experimental period of time analysis found Bhubaneswar has lowest varia-tions of onion price from wholesale to retail sell price. And also experimental State have best control over onion price hike during the market research and experiment year that is survey results from year 2013 - 2017. Supply chain management models analyses it is concluded that onion SCM developed after survey that is a new model from research to different marketing channel partner involvement and then grass root label point coverage’s prepared and samples are tested in field found best results.E-Onion marketing and digitalization found a new and best technology to reduce marketing costs and examined during experi-ment founds best response among primary, secondary and tertiary stock holders.Among different onion farming treatments integrated organic onion production technology found best economic results in com-parison to conventional onion farming technology that is C:B = 1.97 (Cost Benefit ratio) and net returns are best with organic onion production technology that is Rs. 1,95,802/- (Rs/ha).
191 Soil Organic Fertilization in Long-Term Low-Input Cropping System and its Effect on the Bread Making Flour Properties Determined by Albumen-Protein Complex , Nankova Margarita, Doneva Sonya, Iliya Iliev and Stefan Krustev
The results of the study on the quality of flour of 20 wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in a long-term low-input crop-ping system of Haplic Chernozems are reported. The cultivars were developed at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute, General Toshevo. They were sown on two soil nutrition regimes: 1. Control - natural soil fertility and 2. Organic fertilization with ExcellOrga, produced in France. In addition to these variants we used a humine preparation Plantagra for pre-sowing seed treatment of sowing material (150 ml/100 kg seeds).Main soil organic fertilization with ExcellOrga especially in combination with seed material treatment (SMT) positively influenced on the sedimentation values and bread volume. The average value in this variant is 42.55 ml with increasing over control variant with 3.65%. The highest and relatively stable by variants were the sedimentation values of cultivar Pchelina (51.25 ml), followed by culti-vars Kiara (50.25 ml) and Galateya (46.75 ml). The bread volume in this condition exceeded the control with 3.75%. The maximum value in the trail was reached from cv. Bojana - 795 ml.Organic fertilization lead to increasing a wet gluten content according to the control with 2.60%. The cultivates Kiara and Bojana has a leader position according to the value of this index - 23.35% and 23.25% respectively. A tendency was established for decreas-ing of values of wet gluten content in variants with SMT. However, an exception to the tendency the genotypes specificity is strongly expressed - cultivars Pchelina, Kosara and Kiara reacted positively to the SMT.Flour stability is subject to highly expressed dynamics of values according to the genotype. Cultivars Enola and Katarjina were distinguished with maximum average values - 3.88 and 3.80. Soil organic fertilization increased values of this index according to the control variant with 4.60%. Valorimetric values were negatively influenced by soil organic fertilization and especially with combina-tion with SMT.We established also highly expressed correlations between yields (grain and protein) with chemical composition of grain, physical grain properties, rheological properties of flour and bread making qualities
192 The Development of Analytical Methodologies and Advances in Plant Physiology, Measurable Amounts of Elements in Nutrients Contribution and Carbon Assimilation by Five Grain Legumes, Bambara Groundnut; Groundnut, Cowpeas, Blackgram and Mungbeans Planted in Mpumalanga province, South Africa during 2011/2012 Season , MD Lengwati
A field experiment was carried out in the 2011/2012 summer cropping season at the Lowveld Research Station, Nelspruit (Bom-bela), in Mpumalanga province, where five grain legumes planted under field conditions during the planting season 2011 replicated four times as randomized complete block design (RCBD). The grain legume species cultivars for discussion were Bambara-groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) (cv. Brianbeck MB 51), Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) ( cv. JL 24), Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) (cv. Pan 311), Blackgram (Vigna mungo) (Local market seed), and Mungbean (Vigna radiata) (cv. VC 1973A).Recent consideration of essential and other (non-essential and toxic) nutrient elements in crops, both macro- and micro-elements - can cause nutrient imbalances, reduction in growth and yield losses. Beneficial “elements”, they are not required by all plants but can promote plant growth and may be essential for several plant species. Recently, nutrient content is expressed as element content in dry matter (DM) percentages in DM for macro-elements, in DM for micro-elements (also known as ppm= pars pro million, 1 mg per 106 kg). Average concentration ranges of essential nutrient elements in crops, Oxygen (45), Carbon (45), Hydrogen (6), Sulphur (0.1 - 0.4), Chlorine (0.2 - 2.0), Na (Sodium) (0.01 - 10), Silicon (0.2 - 2.0), Manganese (0.1 - 0.4), Calcium (0.2 - 1.0), Potassium (0.2 - 6.0), Phosphorus (0.01 - 0.7), Nitrogen (0.1 - 6.0) and Concentration range percentages in DM Macro-elements Cobalt (0.02). Carbon (C) is ranked along N and P as mineral nutrients that are needed the most by plants for their growth and development. For C3 plants such as grain legumes, C is acquired through the process of photosynthesis and these C compounds play a significant role in the growth and development of C3 plants. However, the disproportionate alteration of the microbial C and N contents led to a distinct decrease of the C:N ratio for mung-bean residues at flowering but no change in the groundnut and Bambara-groundnut treatments. This suggests that the changes in microbial C:N ratio are mainly caused by the ‘recoverable’ residue inputs.Basically, the composition of the C isotopes is compared to that in the air to reveal water-use efficiency of the test plant species during its growth period. Calculated as δ13C, the water-use efficiency provides information on the ability of C3 plants to balance the process of acquiring carbon through the process of photosynthesis in relation to the water that get lost in the process. With regards to grain legumes such as cowpea, Bambara-groundnut, groundnut, mung-bean and black gram, quality residues include that which have a C/N ratio that is < 24 g g-1. There is a need to select crops particular that cultivated by smallholder farmers which can tolerate drought because South Africa has had high temperatures, and evapotranspiration coupled with reduced and scanty rainfall.The implications of future increases in atmospheric CO2 for the productivity of indeterminate C3 crops grown in rain-fed subsis-tence agricultural systems in the semi-arid tropics are stress resistance, therefore JL 24 cultivar in the study at Nelspruit, under field conditions manage to have shoot C content of 45% as best performer legume species planted. Plants also affect the residue turnover by excreting easily available organic C and N compounds which can interact directly with the microbial biomass and affect its size, ac-tivity, turnover rate or physiological status. However, following this concept, N will be set free from the microbial biomass as microbial residues, the relation between the parameters is difficult to prove because data concerning the residue quality are only available for the ‘recoverable’ residues and not for the rhizo-deposits.
193 Preparation of Moringa Capsules , Mohammed Shoeib Ahmer
Moringa oleifera, native to India, grows in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. It is also known as ‘horseradish tree’. It can be grown in both dry and mild ice conditions and hence widely cultivated across the world. With its high nutritive values, each fragment of the Moringa is suitable for nutritional or busi-ness purposes. Leaves have ample amount of minerals, vitamins and other essential plant chemicals. Extraction of leaves helps to reduce malnutrition, supplement milk in mothers. Moringa also acts as agent against oxidation, cancer, diabetes, bacterial and mi-crobial properties. Moringa oleifera seed, acts as a inborn clotting agent which is used in water treatment. For business purpose Mo-ringa is used a cure for diabetes and cancer. It is known as “Miracle tree” as Moringa has medicinal, commercial, nutritional and phar-macological properties.
194 The Techniques of Hydroponic System , Anbarasu Mariyappillai, Gurusamy Arumugam and V B Raghavendran
Hydroponics is soilless cultures where plants are created using a mineral enhancement for without soil. It redesigns genuine root limits, deftly water, agreeable oxygen and enhancements to the plant while giving physical, substance and natural assistance to the plant. When orchestrating a hydroponic nursery or home nursery, ought to pick a suitable space and techniques. Hydroponics systems are requested as open and shut methods. A hydroponic system implies the procedure for applying supplement answer for the plant roots. The hydroponics ended up being logically notable in a short period of time and this strategy lead to begin indoor and outdoor hydroponic planting rapidly.
195 A Dual Approach for Model Construction of Two-Dimensional Horizontal Flow   , Tinh Ton That, The Hung Nguyen and Dong Anh Nguyen
The two-dimensional horizontal flow model in the classical integration approach is integrated from the three-dimensional Na-vier-Stokes system of equations. Using the classical theory, the integral is taken directly from the bed to the free water surfaces. Consequently, the effects between the channel bed and free water surface, in the process of integration, was disappeared. However, with the proposed dual-process approach, the integral can be performed locally several times. The receiving equations thus allow to contain many physical phenomena which may be lost in the classical integral process. As a result, the derived model based on the proposed dual approach will be more complex and accurate than the classical one. In this paper, the authors perform twice integrals. The improved two-dimensional horizontal flow model was received from the dual approach which allows the calculation of flow pa-rameters, which, having the unusual phenomena in the channel as solid objects, liquids containing other added ingredients, external forces, reversals, and so on. Moreover, it provides flexible parameter adjustment based on the experimental data
196 The Arsenal of Morphological and Physiological Mechanisms Adopted by Barley (Hordeum vulgare. L) to Face Salt Stress Damage , Zied Hammami, Nawel Ahmed, Nejia Ben Hmida, Soumaya Tounsi, Sawsen Ayadi and Youssef Trifa
The success of programmes improving barley performance under abiotic stress must go through an understanding of mecha-nisms developed by the plant to counteract this stress. Our study fits into this framework. It aims to evaluate six barley genotypes from the MENA region, treated with two salinity levels: 1.2 and 14 dS/m. Three genotypes are salt-tolerant, and three are sensitive. They were grown under a controlled environment and in 40L PVC tubes using sand and perlite as substrate. The evaluation was based on 15 morpho-physiological parameters related to water, ion content, temperature, and chlorophyll fluorescence.The results confirm the existence of genetic variability for salt tolerance. Two Tunisian landraces ‘Suihli’ and ‘Ardhaoui’ and Oma-nis landraces ‘Batini 100/1B’ were not affected. Conversely, ‘ICARDA20’ and ‘Barley Mednine’ appeared to be sensitive to salt stress with a maximum reduction of 35% for improved genotype ‘Konous’. Results also show that salt tolerance in barley cannot be exclusively attributed to a single mechanism. All studied parameters significantly (p < 0.001) contributed to it. However, Stepwise regression revealed that plant water status expected by RWC is the key for salinity tolerance as well as a positive effect of K+ content, Fm/Fv, and leaf Temperature on proper water status. The results highlight the effeteness of one visual trait, the salinity damage index (DI), to estimate barley tolerance. Indeed, a strong correlation was observed between DI and the biomass reduction (P < 0.001, r2 = 0.96). In addition, correlation analyses showed that all parameters were inversely correlated with the DI.
197 Response of Carnation (Dianthus chinensis x barbatus) to Different Levels of Foliar Spraying of Amino Acid and Chemical Fertilizers , Yasser Ismail El-Nashar and Fatma El-Zahara Hussein El-Tony
The objective of this investigation was to measure the growth and flower response of carnation plants to the application of vari-ous levels (0, 2, 4 g.l-1) of amino acid (Terra-Sorb and Triamin) and chemical fertilization (Turo-fort and Nami), three times during the growing period, as a possible program for the production of quality plants through fertilization. Carnations (Dianthus chinensisx barbatus) were pot-grown in an unheated green-net greenhouse. The results showed that plants sprayed with fertilizer solutions showed a significant increase in the growth parameters. The results also showed that the treatments stimulated the flowering pa-rameters (number of inflorescences per plant, inflorescences diameter, flowering date, and inflorescences dry mass) and increased the number, diameter, and dry mass of inflorescences per plant, when compared to the untreated plants (control). The a, b, and total chlorophyll (a+b), carotenoid and anthocyanin content, gas exchange measurements and leaf mineral content (P, N, K, and Total car-bohydrates) were significantly increased compared to the control, as a result of the application of different levels of the chemical fo-liar fertilizer spraying solutions (Turo-fort and Nami). Carnations plants with foliar fertilizer solution application had higher leaf gas exchange (stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E), photosynthetic rate (PN) and plant intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci)).
198 Influence of Foliar Application of Sulfur at Various Stages on Yield and Oil Content of Olive (Olea eurapaea L.) , Zari Said, Yasir Ali, Mehboob Alam, Naveed Ahmad and Azmat Ali Awan
The present study was conducted to investigate the influence of foliar application of sulfur at various stages on yield and oil con-tent of olive (Olea europaea L.) during the year 2018. The experiment was laid out in RCBD with two factors having split plot arrange-ment and treatments were replicated three times. Factor A was time of foliar application (pre-blooming, fruit set, after 20 days of fruit set) allotted to main plots and factor B foliar spray of Sulfur concentrations (0, 500, 1000, 1500 ppm) were allotted to sub plots. Results showed that maximum number of fruits panicle-1 (5.33), number of fruits plant-1 (5235.6), minimum fruit drop (55.11%), maximum fruit length (2.79 cm), fruit diameter (2.32 cm), fruit volume (5.35 ml), single fruit fresh weight (7.33g), fruit dry weight (2.04g), fruit pulp (83.34%) and minimum fruit stone (21.44%), maximum yield plant-1 (21.72 kg), yield hectare-1 (17.73 tons) and oil content (12.62%) were observed in plants treated with 1500 ppm sulfur foliar application. In conclusion better yield of olive is on 1500 ppm should be applied at pre-blooming stage while for maximum oil contents same concentration of sulfur should be applied at fruit set stage.
199 Pharmacological Approaches to Investigate the Potential Herbal Medicine (Decoction) in Treating COVID-19 , Reshma Kumari and Sanjay Kumar
Since December 2019, COVID-19 infection is spreading rapidly throughout worldwide. Every virus has a unique structure, behavior and infectious agent to create infections. The ayurvedic herbal medicine that seem to work for other viral infections should be tested against COVID-19. Qingfei Paidu decoction, Shuanghuanglian oral liquid (SHL), Mahuang Gancao Ganjiang Decoction (MGGD) and licorice are remedies that officials in China have recommended against COVID-19. Simultaneously, an Ayush Ministry advisory suggested that drinking decoction (ginger, turmeric, tulsi leaves) as ‘home remedies’ to boost immune system against Covid-19 in India. Likewise, Barleria lupulina leaves decoction is also one of the potential candidates which may be helpful for the treatment of COVID-19
200 Genetic Variability Assessment of Tossa Jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) Genotypes Using Morpho-Agronomic Traits , Arju Miah, Nihar Ranjan Saha, AKM Shahadat Hossain, Md Younus Ali and Amit Kumar Basunia
Forty accessions with three check varieties of tossa jute (Corchorus olitorius L.) were characterized on the basis of morpho-ag-ronomic traits in genetic variability at Jute Agriculture Experiment Station, Manikganj during kharif season in 2016. The accessions were characterized for twenty-two morpho-agronomic attributes as per Corchorus descriptor in order to select superior genotypes for the genetic improvement of jute. Considerable ranges of variability were observed in stem colour, petiole colour, stipule colour, plant technical height, base diameter, dry fibre weight and dry stick weight. Considering the major yield contributing characters ac-cession no. 1039, 1115, 1124, 1234 and1245 performed better in most of the cases than the control varieties O-9897 O-3820 and BJRI Tossa Pat-4 (O-72).
201 Effect of the Use of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza for Plant Growth Promotion on Morpho-physiological Properties of Antirrhinum majus L. Under Salinity Stress , Fatma El-Zahara Hussein El-tony
The impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation with mixed water irrigation on the vegetative and flowering growth, leaf mineral content, and chlorophyll (Chl) content of Antirrhinum majus L. (snapdragon) plants was studied through two seasons under two irrigation water sources. Five irrigation water treatments were applied as follows: T1 as a control (100% desalinized (DW)), T2 (75% DW + 25% well water, WW), T3 (50% DW + 50% WW), T4 (25% DW + 75% WW), and T5 (100% WW). The imposed salt stress conditions (T5) significantly reduced all vegetative and flowering growth, leaf mineral content (P, Na, K, Cl, and Ca), and chlorophyll content of the plants compared to those of the non-salted plants (T1). Inoculated snapdragon with AM fungi exhibited significantly higher values for most vegetative growth characters, flowering date, and spike length than those of non-mycorrhizal plants. With regard to interaction effects, the highest value of proline content of the leaves was detected with 100% WW (T5) and AM fungi treatments, which improved the salt stress tolerance compared to other treatments. Inoculated snapdragon plants with AM fungi showed both improved vegetative and flowering growth, mostly under salt stress conditions. With (T3) under mycorrhizal treatment, snapdragon plants showed the best results with earlier flowering dates, greater number of spikes, and longer spike length
202 Investigation of the Complex Influence of High- and Low-Molecular Glutenins and Crude Protein on the Quality of Bread Wheat (T. aestivum L.) , Sonya Doneva, Margarita Nankova and Stefan Krustev
The relation between high- (HMW) and low-molecular (LMW) glutenins with the quality indicators - sedimentation value, valorimetric value and bread loaf of a collection of Bulgarian wheat varieties was studied.A total of about 63% of the sedimentation value, 44% of the valorimetric value and 39% of the bread loaf was controlled by the two groups of glutenins and the crude protein. The high-and low-molecular weight glutenins had an almost equal share in controlling the sedimentation value and the valorimetric value. The LMW glutenins had a significantly higher share in controlling bread loaf than that of HMW glutenins. The participation of individual glutenin loci in quality control was not one-sided. It was mainly determined by genetic diversity and by the linking with the quality of the individual glutenin subunits.The relative contribution of crude protein to the control of quality indicators during the various harvest years was highly variable, but its optimum quantity was a necessary condition for showing the positive effect of glutenin subunits on the quality of the wheat varieties.
203 Food Supply Chain Disruptions and Resilience Under the Stress of COVID-19: Evidence from Nepal , Saugat Khanal, Padam Bahadur Poudel, Jeevan Lamichhane and Alagathurai Ajanthan
The food supply chain is a complex web with a number of stakeholders. Though the stocks of cereal at present are at satisfactory level, its stock in future is going to be depleted resulting from the disruptions in the food supply chain. Supply of agric-inputs has been severely affected. Developing countries and low income countries are most vulnerable to the impact of disruptions in the supply chain. Secondary sources of information are used for studying the food supply disruptions and resilience. Supply chain resilience has drained the curiosity of local to multinational companies and policymakers in remodeling the chain. As per the alarming projections to leave the long-term negative consequences, the importance of food availability has further risen. Consumer’s anticipation of future food crises has created panic and chaos in the food market; affecting the demand-supply chain. Transportation and public restrictions including transnational boundaries lockdown have created inconvenience to producers and distributors. With numerous noted obstacles from farm to firm, unemployment and poverty among low and middle class have been particularly hard hit. In this regard there is a need for behavioral change of the consumer, diversification of the supply chain and consumption of the local food.
204 Advanced Yield Trial of Early Seeding, Higher Yield and Low Temperature Tolerant Breeding Lines of White Jute , Arju Miah, Nihar Ranjan Saha, Amit Kumar Basunia, AKM Shahadat Hossain and Md Younus Ali
The experiment was carried out at four regional stations (Rangpur, Chandina, Faridpur and Kishoreganj) and JAES, Manikganj to develop breeding lines with better performance in respect of seeding time and growth. Significant differences were observed among the treatments for plant population, plant height, base diameter and fibre weight at Manikganj, plant height and fibre weight at Rangpur and Chandina station. Pooled mean over stations revealed that the tested strains C-2234 (4.37 t/ha), C-2236 (4.12 t/ha) and C-2281 (3.87 t/ha)out yielded both the check varieties BJRI Deshi Pat-5 (3.68 t/ha) and CC-45 (3.57 t/ha) in terms of fiber.
205 Characterization of Deshi Jute (Corchorus capsularis) Germplasm Collected from Different Sources , Arju Miah, Nihar Ranjan Saha, Md. Jahangir Alam, Md. Younus Ali and Amit Kumar Basunia
Forty accessions of white jute germplasm collected from different sources were characterized at JAES, Manikganj during kharif season in 2015. The accessions were characterized for twenty morpho-agronomic attributes as per Corchorus descriptor in order to select superior genotypes for the genetic improvement of jute. Considerable ranges of variability were observed in stem colour, petiole colour, stipule colour, plant technical height, base diameter, dry fiber weight and dry stick weight. Based on major yield contributing characters accessions 4869, 4621, 3394, 2199, 2839, 1478, 1777, 1923 and 2675 performed better in most of the cases than the control variety CVL-1 and CVE-3.
206 Response of Three Soybean Genotypes to Lima Bean Pod Borer (Etiella zinckenella) Infestation Using Some Bio and Chemical Insecticides , Eman I Abdel-Wahab, S M Tarek, Marwa Kh A Mohamed and Soheir F Abd El-Rahman
The present investigation was carried out at Giza Agricultural Experiments and Research Station, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza, Egypt during the two successive seasons 2018 and 2019 to evaluate three soybean genotypes (Giza 35, Crawford and DR10l) to infestation with lima bean pod borer using four bio and chemical insecticides (Diple-2x 6.4% DF, Biover10 % WP, Suncide Agri-pest and Lannate 25% WP) for increasing seed yield and net return. The treatments were four insecticides (Diple-2x 6.4% DF, Biover10 % WP, Suncide Agri-pest and Lannate 25% WP) beside water as control and three soybean genotypes (Giza 35, Crawford and DR10l). Split-plot distributions in a randomized complete block design with three replications were used. Insecticide sources were randomly assigned to main plots and soybean genotypes were allocated in subplots. The results showed that the bacterial insecticide Diple-2x 6.4% DF recorded lower pod infestation and seed damage than the other insecticides. Soybean genotype DR10l had lower pod infestation and seed damage, meanwhile the reverse was true for soybean genotype Crawford. Soybean variety Giza 35 recorded higher most yield traits than the soybean genotypes Crawford and DR10l. Soybean genotypes x insecticide sources interaction was significant for pod infestation, seed damage, seed yield per plant, 100-seed weight, seed yield per ha, and HI in both seasons. Spraying of the bacterial insecticide Diple-2x 6.4% DF in the flowering stage of soybean variety Giza 35 enhanced its tolerance to lima bean pod borer infestation with higher seed yield and net return than the other treatments.
207 Post Pandemic World Scenario and the Road to Food Sustainability , Himanshu Yadav
A century ago, when the world was fighting it’s Great war, which they didn’t know was going to be either the greatest or the first, a flu was spreading. Millions of lives were lost in that decade. Argu-ably, it was the decade which saw most deaths due to anthropo-genic and natural reasons combined. The virus killed 50 million people, while the war killed 38 million. On one frontier, masks were being used to protect self from Mustard gas and on the other, masks were used to prevent infection. The world, specially Europe was in a turmoil. The origin of the flu is still debated but it certainly did not originate in Spain.
208 Study of Physico-Chemical Status for Augmentation of Kamvari River Flow and Restoration of Water Quality in Bhiwandi City (MS)   , Snehal S Donde
Kamvari river was once a huge commercial navigation port, is now a diminishing perennial river of total 34 Km length flowing pol-luted through the Bhiwandi city, Kalyan Taluka, Maharashtra. Researcher being a Jalnayak recognized by Government of Maharashtra has taken initiative to revive and rejuvenate the river Kamvari along with other water bodies to restore its historic glory. The aim is to make all water bodies pollution free. Thus, origin to confluence of river course was located with Google Earth app and remote sensing images and documented for first time the origin in Depoli and Lamaj village and confluence in Thane creek, ultimately drain-ing in Arabian sea. The investigation of point and non-point sources of pollution, showed the establishment of most of the Textile Units, Slaughter houses and Tabelas in blue line area of river and direct release of untreated effluents from these sources along with untreated sewage water in the river. Water samples of river and other water bodies across Bhiwandi city was collected from multiple sites with intercept method, were subjected to Physico-chemical parameters tests. Almost status of all parameters in every sample was against the permissible limits and indicated percolation and mixing of creak water in ground water, among other factors. Re-spondents response during social assessment was very crucial to understand the rising pollution issues and risk to human health.Low capacity Sewage Treatment Plants (28%), no or non- functional Effluents Treatment Plants (ETP) in textile units, solid waste disposal in water bodies, power-looms without toilets need immediate action. An integrated approach working model has been rec-ommended to the administrative authorities in Bhiwandi region and District Collector office to work in tandem for revival of water bodies with appropriate restoration plans.
209 Advantage of Agrivoltaics Across the Food-Energy-Water Connection , JM Makavana, SV Kalaiya, PM Chauhan and MS Dulawat
Agricultural crop production, Food and energy security need not be competing objectives. In fact, taking a holistic, integrated approach to food-energy-water decision making can increase resil-iency of both food, water harvesting and energy methods.
210 Fresh, Tiny, Crunchy, Green, Healthy… So Many Words Come to My Mind to Describe these Small Leafy Vegetables: Microgreens , Soniyo Yomichan
My lockdown days were boring like everyone’s. Since I travelled from UAE to Kerala, I was asked to stay in quarantine for 14 days initially, then later on more 14 days, a total of 28 days. I seriously didn’t want to waste those days. So, I thought gardening would be a better option and started planting my favorite table roses. The print media and broadcast media these days discuss how the whole economy is suffering from COVID-19. During these days the green leafy veggies, which are inevitable in our daily diet may not be easily available, as most of the markets are closed. I myself re-discovered those ingredients, which are far better than those veg-gies we buy from markets. Which can been grown in our kitchen, that neither require land nor fertilizers
211 Interplanting Soybean with Three Species of Orchard Trees Under Two Soybean Plant Distributions in Sandy Soils , Mohamed AF Selim, Yaser AA Hefny and Mostafa AM Ebrahim
A two-year study was carried out at El-Kassaseen Agricultural Research Station, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Ismailia government, Egypt, during 2018 and 2019 summer seasons to evaluate the optimum interplanting system of soybean with orange, mandarin and mango for achieving high productivity of crops, land usage, and profitability under sandy soil conditions. Ten treat-ments were the combinations of three orchards trees (mango, orange and mandarin) and two soybean plant distributions with the same plant density (one row/ridge and two rows/ridge) in a strip plot design with three replications were taken. The rhizosphere of mandarin trees had higher soil CO2 and organic carbon (OC), meanwhile the reverse was true for mango trees under interplanting conditions. Wide soybean plant distribution increased fruit yield per ha by 10.23 and 10.06% for orange trees and by 7.49 and 6.29% for mandarin trees in the first and second seasons, respectively than the narrow one as a result of increased soil CO2 and OC, mean-while, all the studied traits of mango trees were not affected. On the other hand, interplanting soybean with mandarin trees recorded higher light intensity at the middle of soybean plant, the number of branches and pods per plant, as well as seed yields per plant and per ha than the other interplanting systems soybean + orange and soybean + mango in both seasons. Also, wide soybean plant dis-tribution gave higher all the studied soybean traits (except plant height) than the narrow one in both seasons. Moreover, soybean of wide plant distribution in soybean + mandarin system gave higher all the studied soybean traits (except plant height) compared with the other treatments in both seasons. Land equivalent ratio (LER) and land equivalent coefficient (LEC) values for intercrops were much greater than 1.00 and 0.25, respectively, indicating the advantage of the interplanting system than solid culture of the studied orchards. Growing four ridges of soybean variety Giza 22 (one row per ridge at distance 25 cm between hills) between mango trees cultivar Naomy is more profitable for Egyptian farmers followed by growing four ridges of the same soybean variety (two soybean rows per ridge at distance 50 cm between hills) with mandarin trees (Fremont cultivar).
212 Evaluation of Some Faba Bean Genotypes Under Natural Infection with Chocolate Spot and Rust Diseases , Marwa Kh A Mohamed and AM El-Bakery
A two year study was conducted at Sakha Agricultural Research Station, Kafr EL-Sheikh Governorate during 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 seasons. The objective of this study was to evaluate productivity of fifteen faba bean genotypes under natural infections with chocolate spot and rust diseases. Faba bean genotypes (Giza 40, Atona, Giza 3, Sakha 1, Misr 1, Santamora, Misr 3, Giza 843, Sakha 3, Sakha 4, Nubaria 1, L 1, L 2, L 3 and L 4) were randomly distributed in a randomized complete block design with three rep-licates. The results showed that faba bean genotypes Santamora, L2, Giza 843, Sakha 4, and Sakha 3 showed higher resistance to rust and chocolate spot diseases. This was positively reflected on seed yield in both seasons. However, the reverse was true for Giza 40 and Atona genotypes. A significant positive correlation was obtained between flowering or maturity date and each of rust and chocolate spot diseases. There is a highly negative correlation between days to 50% flowering or maturity date and each of number of pods per plant, seed weight per plant and seed yield per ha. There is a negative correlation between rust or chocolate spot disease and each of number of pods per plant, seed weight per plant and seed yield per ha. Conversely, there is a positive correlation between number of pods per plant and each of seed weight per plant and seed yield per ha. This study indicated that Santamora, L2, Giza 843, Sakha 4, and Sakha 3 genotypes could be grown to tolerate rust and chocolate spot diseases coincided with high productivity under Sakha region conditions.
213 Farmers’ Knowledge and Perception on Major Insect Pests of Rice and their Integrated Management in Gorkha, Nepal , Sudip Neupane, Resham Bahadur Thapa and Radhika Regmi.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the major staple crop of Nepal. Various insect pests cause high yield loss in field and storage condition. The study was carried in September-October 2018 to assess farmer’s knowledge and perception on major insect pests of rice and their integrated management in Gorkha, Nepal. Respondents were selected randomly from among the study area. 120 samples were taken from 750 sampling population. Household survey was used to collect information by using a semi-structured questionnaire. The collected data were processed and analyzed by using MS-Excel and SPSS. The study revealed that rice gundhi bug, yellow stem borer and grasshopper were the major rice field pest while rice weevil and rice Angoumois moth was the major storage pest of rice in the study area. Biological practices were the least adopted practice. Use of resistant variety, use of well decomposed fertilizer, crop rotation, adjustment of planting date were the least adopted cultural practices while use of traps, rouging and clipping were the least adopted mechanical practice. All of the respondents were found to use chemical method without using all the protective wearing and safety measures. Only, few respondents had the knowledge of IPM and attended training on IPM
214 Socio-Economic Factors of Cooperative Farmer’s and their Food Intake in Yewa North Local Government Area of Ogun State , Oluwasanya OP, Nwankwo FO, Aladegoroye OR and Ojewande AA
The study analysed effect of socio-economic characteristics of cooperative farmers’ on their food intake in Yewa North Local Gov-ernment Area, Ogun State with a view to providing policy information toward enhancing the nutritional status of Nigeria. Hunger and malnutrition in developing countries like Nigeria requires the improvement of goals to lower the rate of frequently malnourished individual. There is problem of food and nutrition security in the world today. The data was collected through multistage sampling to obtain useful data from 112 households. It was revealed that 76.8% of the household farmers had average income below N30,000 per month. The household farmer’s expenditure was N4,961.24 and per capital average expenditure was N925.605. This showed that poverty level is very critical and needs urgent attention in the study area. On this note, it was recommended that appropriate, attainable and practicable programme should be done to alleviate poverty and enhance income among rural farmers and that there should be a redistribution of income to favour low income earner so as to benefit the identified poor and likewise be extended to all Nigerians most especially food insecure and vulnerable individual.
215 Effects of Gamma Radiation and Electron Beam on Samples of the Food-green Peanuts, Organic Peanuts, and Eco-labelling Green Peanuts Industry Artificially Inoculate with Aspergillus flavus , Gisele Ferreira de Souza and Jair Ribeiro dos Santos Junior
The purpose of this research was to assess the effects of Gamma Radiation as well as Electron Beam on samples of Brazil nuts that are contaminated with Aspergillus flavus under temperatures of 30uC and a humidity of 93%. The process taked place in fifteen days of incubation where aflatoxins and mycobation are analyzed. The samples was further grouped into three groups namely, control, group 1 and group 2 which receive radiation of 0, 5 and 10 kGy dosage of electron beam (EB) and gamma radiation (GR). Some sam-ples of not inoculated were illuminated with a similar dosage to evaluate the sensors. The results indicated that 0.80 of the samples had an average water capacity. Illumination or irradiation of gamma radiation and electron beam at a dosage of 5 and 10 kGy were able to eliminate the A. flavus fungi in the samples of Brazil nuts. Analyzes of aflatoxin indicated that electron beam doses of 5 and 10 kGy lowers aflatoxins levels by 53.32 and 65.66%, respectively. Moreover, this same dosage of gamma radiation lowered the levels of toxins by 70.61 and 84.15%, respectively, as compared to the control group. Sensory assessment showed that texture and smell or the illuminated samples of Brazil nuts were acceptable
216 Assessment of Soil Microbes and Enzyme Activities in the Degraded Soils Adjacent to Industries and Mines and its Relation with Heavy Metal Contaminants , K Laxminarayana, Sulekha Pradhan, M Madhumita Das and M Nedunchezhiyan
A study was undertaken to assess the microbial diversity and enzyme activities and their relationship with soil properties in the soils adjacent to chromium, iron and coal mining areas of Jajpur, Keonjhar and Jharsuguda districts and adjacent to industrial areas as well as ash ponds of thermal power plant and aluminium refinery of Angul, Koraput, Rayagada, Jagatsinghpur, Sundargarh, Bhadrak, Balasore, Mayurbhanj, Cuttack, and Ganjam districts of Odisha, India. The effluents from the mines are discharged to nearby arable lands and water bodies causing acid mine drainage. The soils of the study area are strongly acidic to slightly alkaline in reaction (pH 4.23 - 7.85), non saline, and having very low to high organic carbon (0.15 - 1.88%), low to medium in available ni-trogen (N), low to high in available phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). The soils contain toxic levels of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and relatively higher status of available zinc (Zn). Highest available Fe (240.8 mg kg-1) was observed in the soils adjacent to sugar factory of Ganjam district, Mn in the soils of coal mining areas of Jharsuguda (146.0 mg kg-1), highest Cr (178.4 mg kg-1) and Ni (12.4 mg kg-1) in the soils of chromium mining areas of Jajpur and highest Pb (18.9 mg kg-1) in the bauxite mining areas of Koraput district of Odisha. However, highest available Cu (9.02 mg kg-1) and Zn (6.36 mg kg-1) contents were recorded adjacent to Rourkela steel plant areas of Sundargarh district. Toxicity of heavy metals in the soils of Jagatsinghpur district led to very low biological activities in terms of dehydrogenase (0.186 μg TPF hr-1g-1), fluorescein diacetate (0.152 μg g-1 hr-1) and alkaline phosphatase (9.68 μg PNP g-1 hr-1). The study emphasized that toxic levels of heavy metals in these mining and industrial areas and consequently their uptake in to the plant system is very much harmful to the livestock and human beings and there is an urgent need to advocate the people in these areas to adopt proper remedial measures so as to minimize the levels of these elements in the soil-plant-animal-human chain.
217 Impacts of Climate Change on Communal Livestock Production: Experiences in Chiredzi District , Nhara RB, Halimani TE and Masunda B
The study sought to find and measure climate change impacts on livestock production in Chiredzi district. Purposive sampling was done on 6 selected wards. Primary data on perceived climate change impacts was collected using a pretested questionnaire and 150 households were sampled. Secondary data on climatic records were collected from meteorological department. Climate data was used to establish climatic patterns. Empirical Ricardian regression model and descriptive statistics were used to measure climate change impacts on livestock. Increase in temperatures and decrease in rainfall events were highlighted by 98% and 84% of the farmers, respectively. In relation to forage and water availability 92% and 93% perceived a decrease respectively. Respondents perceived an increase in incidence of climate influenced diseases to include Heart water in goats, Foot and Mouth disease in cattle and Newcastle disease in poultry. Ricardian model concluded that climate change has an economic impact on livestock production at P < 0.05. In conclusion, climate change had an impact on livestock production in Chiredzi district as perceived by farmers. Proper livestock adaptation and mitigation strategies to reduce climate change vulnerability are required.
218 Impact of COVID 19 on Agriculture Globally , Sudhir Pradhan
Corona viruses are a family of viruses which are zoonotic, means they are transmitted between animals and people, if they come in contact.Investigation showed that SARS-COV was transmitted from civet cats to human and MERS-COV from dromedary camels to hu-mans. COVID means CO=Corona, VI=Viruses, and D=Disease. The impact of COVID-19 on the agriculture is devastating, complex and varied across diverse segments that form the agricultural value chain. This impact will reverberate across the larger economy and will linger longer than few months.
219 Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in Butwal Sub-metropolitan City, Nepal , Pooja Bhusal, Kopila Bashyal, Rishav Pandit and Bikash Adhikari
Urbanization and land use affect the quantity and characteristics of Municipal Solid Waste in a fast-growing municipality. Man-agement of increasing amounts of solid waste has become a major challenge in many cities in developing countries. The present study was conducted for analysis of MSW in Butwal Sub-Metropolitan City. For quantitative analysis per capita waste generation was calculated by using digital weighing machine and for qualitative analysis, waste is categorized into mainly eight category i.e. Organic, Paper and paper product, Rubber and Leather, Plastic, Metals, Textile, Glass, and Others. Stratified random survey was conducted in three sub areas: Rural, semi-urban and core urban city using standard questionnaire and KII for qualitative analysis and to know about present status of waste management in Butwal. The per capita waste generation rate of Butwal Sub-metropolitan city is found to be 244.33 g/day. The quantity of waste generation is found to be 47.56 tons/day and 17359.4 tons/year which include wastes from household, commercial and institutional sector. The overall composition of solid waste is made up of 54% organic, 17% paper and paper products, 15% plastic, 5% glass, 2% metal, 1% rubber and leather, 1% textiles and 5% others. After the study the composition of organic waste was found dominant among household, institutional and commercial areas.
220 Potential Use of Angiosperm353 to Help Bio-prospectors Differentiate between Members of the Genus Attalea , Jonathan Daniel Hulse
The family of palm trees, Arecaceae, provides to the incredible biological diversity in the tropics, and currently includes 181 gen-era and over 2600 species. Of these 2600 plus species, only a portion of these species have been molecular characterized because many of these species had little or no economic value to Americans and Europeans, so they have simply not been a priority to bio-prospectors, until now. The advancement of Angiosperm353® a biotechnology kit, can differentiate the inner workings of this vast plant family, and minute details can finally be resolved. In particular, there have been discrepancies between the species of the genera Attalea, which include agriculturally and economically important members, that share similar morphology, which are hard to differ-entiate morphologically. Every member of this genus have not been molecularly characterized at this point in time, and this manu-script proposes the use of Angiosperm353® to help resolve the inner workings of this enormous plant family, to help bio-prospectors correctly identify members of this genus.
221 An Analysis of the Relation between Garbage Pickers and Women's Health Risk   , M Pires, GF Souza and JS Junior
The waste influences women's health. The quantity of waste is influencing the quality of the environment. The different coopera-tives produce different types and amounts of garbage, virus, bacteria and fungi that affect the quality of life. Several protections must be used, such as masks, gloves, and boots. Solid waste is a common health problem. The analysis of different health problems is essen-tial to verify the consequences of its inadequate management and final disposition. This paper analyses three different cooperatives about the prevalence of various diseases. The risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was associated with sex and smoking, verifying that it is higher in smokers. Finally, the consequences of the inadequate management and final disposition can reflect on the health of the population.
222 Assessment of Postharvest Supply Chain Loss of Banana and Tomato in Asella Town , Yonas Tega Gebeyehu, Tesfaye Mekuriyaw and Yidersail Hune
Postharvest loss is quantitative and qualitative food loss in the postharvest system which is a serious problem in Ethiopia. Fruit ripening is a complex process that dramatically changes in colour, texture, flavour, and chemical compositions. Tomato fruit ripening happens after harvest this ripening processes and storage temperature can severely affect the final product. Banana is a climacteric fruit with poor storage characteristics as it presents a high respiration rate after harvest and ethylene production, which make it highly perishable and prone to postharvest losses. This study was conducted in Arsi zone, Asella town. The objective of this research was to assess the postharvest supply chain loss of banana and tomato, Study the extent of loss in the supply chain (from wholesaler to consumer), put suggestive solutions to reduce such postharvest loss of banana and tomato. Asella town was selected purposely to study due it is known as major marketing activity in the region. In this study, the survey was conducted with about 102 respondents to assess for such fruit losses. The result revealed with 18.2% and 11.82% loss of banana and tomato postharvest supply chain re-spectively. Transportation, loading and unloading and storage condition were the main factors in postharvest supply chain loss of banana and tomato and storage condition is identified as the key issue for product loss.
223 COVID-19 Lockdown Time and Horticulture Therapy   , Sumit Nadeem
As we the whole world is suffering the deadly disease affecting people worldwide. No age specification, area, culture or anything everyone is getting infected with this pandemic disease Covid-19.Ages ago when some other pandemics attacked on world were Spanish influenza, malaria, chicken pox or others. At that time people also lost their lives and their love ones the whole families becomes a part of soil.
224 Selenium Content in Soil and Wheat Grain in Bulgaria , Stefan Krustev, Violina Angelova, Penka Zaprjanova, Margarita Nankova and Krasimir Ivanov.
Selenium (Se) is an essential but highly toxic element. Its organic compounds play an important role in biochemistry and nutrition of the cells. Shortage or surplus of this element leads to the occurrence of socially significant diseases. Se concentrations in different regions of the world and its levels in different foods vary widely. Bulgaria does not appear in the World Atlas of Se, and the scarcity of data about the neighboring countries shows serious lack of Se, causing concern about human health in the region. As a result of the present study, data on the status of selenium in soils and wheat from 60 points from the main grain-producing regions of Bulgaria. The results show that there is a significant deficiency of selenium in the soil and especially in the grain of wheat, which is a major source of selenium and its entry into the human body for our geographical areas through the bread.
225 Experimental Measurement of Creep Deformations of an Unsaturated Silty Soil with Matric Suction , Tomoyoshi Nishimura and Masafumi Matsumoto
Geotechnical engineers often encourage geological disaster in ground related to saturated soil and unsaturated soil. Landslide, settlement and slope failure related to creep phenomena are typical problems in geotechnical practices. Creep behavior of saturated soils can explain including time-dependent on effective stress of saturated soil by Terzaghi effective stress theory. Some papers al-ready published to apply the practice problems related soft ground settlements. Landslide in unsaturated conditions was induced by changing of matric suction as one stress of unsaturated soil stress variables, and some experimental researchers have reported inter-esting test results and effectively models for unsaturated soil creeping deformations. This study conducted out unsaturated soil creep test, which suction controlling has a low range with two lateral confining pressures using revised unsaturated triaxial compression apparatus. Solving the practical problems regard to unsaturated soils consider the properties of unsaturated soil that are subjected to creep before occurrence instability of natural slope. Excess pore-water pressures were measured and evaluated matric suction in unsaturated creep test using pressure membrane technique that creep stress increased step by step till unsaturated soil was failure. Comparison failure condition obtained from conventional triaxial compression test under undrained condition and mean effective principal stresses against creep stress. It was found out mean effective principal stress reached to failure line. In addition, soil-water characteristic curve was investigated in order to interpret hydro-mechanical properties and relationship between unconfined com-pressive strength and matric suction was obviously useful that shear resistance of unsaturated soil depend on matric suction.
226 Fruit Flies in Citrus Fruits with Special Reference to Chinese Citrus Fly, Bactrocera minax (Enderlin) (Diptera: Tephritidae): Status and Management Options in Nepal , Janjit Adhikari, Ashmita Karki and Bhola Gautam
Fruit fly is one of the serious pest of Citrus. Among 16 species of fruit fly reported in Nepal, 6 species of fruit flies were found in citrus fruits. According to pest surveys done in Dhankuta and Sindhuli, the species found are: Melon fly (Bactrocera cucurbitae), Ori-ental fruit fly (B. dorsalis), Peach fruit fly (B. zonata), B. tau, B. scutellaris and Dacus longicornis. Chinese fruit fly, B. minax (Enderlein) (Diptera: Tephritidae) has created devastation in the sweet orange orchards in eastern hills of Nepal and the infestation rate have been found up to 100%. Unlike other Bactrocera species, B. minax is univoltine and oligophagous and adult flies becomes active from April to July. The two highly attractive para-pheromones, Cue lure and Methyl Eugenol used for many Bactrocera species are not at-tractive for this species. For B. minax, food based lure i.e. protein baits are used. Maintaining field sanitation by proper disposal of infested fruits, winter/summer ploughing, visual cue lures such as colored sticky spheres, mass trapping by using para-pheromones and food based lures, foliar insecticidal spray are the pest management strategies adopted in China, Bhutan, Sikkim and Nepal. Area Wide control program has been launched using technologies: monitoring, Great Fruit Fly Bait (Protein Hydrolysate 25%+0.1% Ab-amectin) developed by Ecoman Biotech, China, trapping and field sanitation in the year 2018 which has proved successful in control of B. minax in the sweet orange orchards of Sindhuli.
227 Empowerment of SC/ST Communities Through Watershed Activities in Rayalaseema Region , PVRM Reddy, B Janardha Reddy and BV Ramana Kumar
Semi-arid regions like Rayalaseema of Andhra Pradesh were adopted by programmes like Integrated Watershed Management Program in order to improve productivity and livelihoods especially marginalized sections such as SC/STs. These are poor, asset less, socially depressed, and economically backward. With this aim, IWMP provided financial assistance to improve their lives by engaging them through farm-based and non-farm based activities under the components of Natural Resources Management, Productivity Sup-port Improvements and Livelihoods for the period 2017-2020. To evaluate their performance and improvement, the study carried out a detailed field-based study with extensive field surveys; in-depth interviews focused group discussions, case studies and also collected secondary data for effective analysis. The results can be seen in the target-based activities of financial assistance and works provided to develop their land and livelihoods. This further led them to move towards sustainable development in all spheres of life especially, their self-esteem and social imagery.
228 Comparison Between Value of Indian Major Carps and Air Breathing Carps in Open Inland Fishery Sector , Swapna Ghosh and Pratik Majumdar
In India, 75% population are live in rural area and agriculture fish farming are major occupation of them who are live in village. The total fish production of 10.07 million metric tonnes in India presently has nearly 65% contribution from the inland sector and nearly the same from culture fisheries. Actually Fish constitutes a major source of protein in our diet. Fish apart from being important in human diet, its fatty acid are currently under intense scientific investigation because of numerous health benefits attributed by them. The amount of protein in fish muscle is usually somewhere between 15-20%, but values lower as 15% or as high as 28% are occasionally met with in some species. IMC are demandable and easily acceptable for consumers, it can fulfil population demand for their nutritional value in everyday life and air breathing fish are not easily available and acceptable by all classes of consumer. Among IMC Rohu (Labeo rohita) achieve the 1st position as it can fulfil population demand for their nutritional value at a lower cost for the above reasons. Even induced breeding become more popular in IMC where as the anthropogenic activity is tough for air breathing fishes. Their seeds collected from the natural environment, but due to exposure of chemicals in land and water the population be-come enough less day to day. So we have to save them from the list of endangered species for their nutritious value as compare to protein and lipid.
229 Phytoremediation Potential of Castor Bean ( Ricinus Communis L.) , Violina Angelova and Mariana Perifanova Nemska
The goal of this research was to investigate the potential use of Ricinus communis L. (castor oil plant) for the remediation of metal-polluted sites. This field study was performed in industrially polluted soils that contain high concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd situated at different distances (0.1, 2.0 and 15.0 km) from the source of pollution – KCM (Non-Ferrous Metal Works) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The amount of heavy metals in different part of castor oil plant (roots, stems, leaves, capsule, seeds) and oils was determined by ICP. The castor oil plant is tolerant to heavy metals. Bioaccumulation factor and translocation factor values were greater than one, which suggests that heavy metals accumulate efficiently in the shoots. The presence of low levels of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids as well as high levels of monounsaturated acids result in the production of a high quality biodiesel. The castor bean is a plant that can be used simultaneously for phytoextraction of heavy metals from soils and as biofuel. It can be grown on soils heavily con-taminated with heavy metals, which are not suitable for the cultivation of food crops.
230 An Application of Markov Chain Model to Study on Trade Direction of Export of FCV Tobacco from India   , Yogesh HC and SK Srivastava
Tobacco is one of the important commercial crops of India and also called as “golden leaf ”. It provides employment directly and indirectly to 38 millions of people. Indian tobacco is exported to over 119 countries across the globe. During 2015-16, India’s un-manufactured tobacco (FCV and non-FCV) exports accounted for about 86 per cent of total exports of tobacco and tobacco products in terms of quantity and 71 per cent in terms of value in rupees. Out of the total Indian unmanufactured tobacco exports, FCV tobacco exports constituted 72 per cent in terms of quantity and 81% in terms of value. FCV tobacco exports were in the order of 1,51,670 Metric tons valued ₹ 3,495.81 crores ($ 531.48 million) against 1,49,700 Metric tons valued at ₹ 3,201.71 crores ($ 486.73 mil-lion) during the same period last year showing an increase of 1 per cent and 9 per cent in terms of quantity and value, respectively. Therefore, the present study has been conducted with reference to FCV tobacco; to examine the pattern of export destination of FCV (Flue-cured virginia) tobacco. To achieve this, annual export data on region-wise for the period 2010-11 to 2015-16 has been used and analysed by using the first order Markov chain approach. The study reveals that West Europe followed by Africa and North and South America are the best and loyal importer of unmanufactured tobacco from India. Also, it is suggested that India should not only depend on these trade partners only but also diversify its exports to other regions too.
231 Philosophy in the Design of River Training Works , The Hung Nguyen
The stabilization of river system is crucial in socio-economic development, especially in agricultural development, for example irrigation water withdrawal, flood drainage to reduce the impacts of flooding on crop production, etc.
232 Stability and Scrutiny Using (Ammi): Model of Bread Wheat Over the Years in Cold Arid Harsh Conditions of Kargil and Zanaskar (Ladakh)- India , Mushtaq Ahmad1, Faizan Ahmad1, Ejaz Ahmad Dar, Rizwan Rashid, Shahnowaz Ahmad, MH Khan, Rohie Hassan and NR Sofi
Field experiments were carried out using 20 genotypes for 3 consecutive years (2017-2019) under two randomly completed conditions (Zanaskar Kargil or irrigation rainfall) to identify high-grain infarct-able wheat genotypes obtained by a single parameter. RBD with three copies in each environment. Combination testing of variation showed significant differences for the GE (genotype-environment) cardinal. The results of AMMI (additive main effect and multiplicative interaction) show that the first two AMMI (AMMI 1 - AMMI 2) are symbolic (P < 0.01). It became clear that the division of whole squares was a major source of environmental impact variability, followed by interplay and genetic type effect. The GE cardinal genotype is three times greater than the effect, indicating the presence of different environmental groups. The AMMI Invisibility Value (ASV) lost the G12, G18, G13, G14 and G11 genotypes, respectively. Differentiation to SE is not a physical selection criterion because most incomplete genotypes do not provide the best yield performance and, therefore, grain yield and ASV can be considered simultaneously in a single parameter-free index. Depending on the rainfall and irrigation conditions, the G1 and G18 genes and the High Grain Genome Type Selection Index (GSI) were matched to the results of the biplot observation.
233 The Role of Indigenous Knowledge and Livelihood to Adapt to Floods in Sustainable Development in Mekong Delta, Vietnam (A Case Study in An Giang Province) , Pham Xuan Phu and Ngo Thuy Bao Tran
This research was carried out to explore the role of the appropriateness of farmer’s indigenous knowledge and their adaptive capacity to floods in An Giang province. KAP (Knowledge-Attitude-Practice), PRA (KIP and focus group discussion) and household survey have been applied to collect data. The results showed that indigenous knowledge plays an important role in adapting to changes in the environment. The Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) in different Zone (upper zone, middle zone, and lower zone) was decreasingly based on major components as social networks, knowledge and skills, natural resources, finance and incomes, livelihood strategies, natural disaster and climate variability. The research also suggested some solutions to conserve the valuable indigenous knowledge in adapting the change of climate of local people.
234 Effect of Larval Parasitoid, Cotesia flavipes on Chilo partellus Under Laboratory Conditions , Zulnorain Sajid, Muhammad Ammar Latif, Muhammad Abdul Basit, Muhammad Usman, Wasim Javaid, Bilal Jafar, Hafiza Sehrish Bashir and Rashid Ameen
Maize is third most important crop of Pakistan that attacked by many insect pests, among all these Chilo partellusis a notorious pest of crop. Chilo partellus is caused huge economic losses of crops in Pakistan. An experimental study was conducted in insect Bio Control Lab at the Department of Entomology, PMAS UAAR during 2018 to check the effect of Cotesia flavipes on Chilo partellus under control conditions. Adult duration of Cotesia sp. was 41.46 hours. Rate of parasitism was 76 percent in 4th instar larvae of C. partellus. Mean number of pupae per larvae were 41-46 pupae per larvae. The mean pupal duration of Cotesia sp. was 8 days. Rate of parasitism was 73 percent in 3rd instar larvae of C. partellus. From each parasitized larvae the mean adult emergence was 28 adults per larvae. The mean pupal duration of Cotesia sp. was 9 days.
235 Breeding Approaches for Climate Resilience in Maize (Zea mays L.): An Overview , Anurag Tripathi, Rahul Kumar, Suresh Yadav, Jeet ram Choudhary, Mukesh Choudhary and H C Lohithaswa
Climate change impacts agriculture in numerous ways including rising average temperatures, rainfall, changes in pests and dis-eases, rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide, ozone concentrations at ground level and changes in the nutritional quality of certain foods. Therefore, achieving global food security for rising global population under limited arable land is a major challenge in the twenty-first century. Maize plays an ever more vital role in the growth of global grains. Maize being a C4 plant has a high yield po-tential as witnessed from highest compound annual growth rate over last decade. However, in many countries maize production has been plateaued due to full exploitation of hybrid and manufacturing technologies. Therefore, maize ideotypes with favourable traits architecture need to be developed for increased stress resistance and higher yield under changing climate. In maize abiotic stress such as drought leads to delay in silking that result in an increase in the anthesis-silking interval, which is a major cause of yield losses. Acidic soils also conflict with maize production (Zea mays L.) resulting in yield losses of up to 69%. In this review, we have discussed the current challenges and different breeding approaches for sustainable maize production under changing climate i.e. climate resilience. With the advent of recent advances in omics approaches including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, great opportunity exists for development of elite climate resilient maize cultivars
236 Scientific and Technical Scientific and Technical Progress and Innovation in Agriculture Grass and Innovation in Agriculture , Ikram Abdullaev
Scientific and technological progress in agriculture is a system-atic progressive process of improving the means of production, technology and organization based on the widespread use of the achievements of science and technology.
237 Economic Growth and Expansion of the Agricultural Frontier, Case Study: Ecuador (1985 - 2015) , Rafael Reyes, Wilman-Santiago Ochoa-Moreno, Luis Rojas Ojeda, Elisa Toledo and Viviana Torres
In this research, the relationship between the agricultural frontier and production for Ecuador in the period 1985 - 2015 is ana-lyzed. It begins with a review of the existing literature, then, econometric models of autoregressive vectors and error correction are used. The results show that as production rises, an increase in the agricultural frontier is generated; results that are consistent when additional covariates are added. Among the main results, it is observed that the autoregressive vector model demonstrates that the variables (production and agricultural frontier) have a long-term equilibrium relationship. Also, the error correction model indicates that as the gross domestic product increases, the agricultural frontier expands. In conclusion, the results are coherent with each oth-er and reinforce the idea that the Ecuadorian economy in the period of the analysis is still tied to dependence on livestock products.
238 Linseed (Linnum usitatissimum L.) - An Oilseed Crop with Potential to be Used in Many Ways: Review Article , Anand Paul Bunga and Pragnya Reddy Patlolla
Linseed is an important, yet underutilised oilseed crop of the world. It can be used as food and feed, as raw material for pharma-ceuticals, industrial use, textile industries etc. It is an excellent source of omega 3 fatty acid and can be used as a substitute for non-fish eaters. The fatty acid composition is comparable to that of soybean. Apart from oil, it also contains good amount of proteins and secondary metabolites. The nutritional value of the linseed can be further improved by research in various fields like plant breeding, agronomy, food science etc. More knowledge is needed on how the quality of the oil is affected by various biotic and abiotic factors. New ways should be brought up to include linseed in our daily diet.
239 Is Plant Nitrogen Depletion Really Linked to the Biosynthesis of Carbon-Rich Defense-Related Compounds in Organic Products? , Simona Fabroni and Paolo Rapisarda
Previous studies speculated on the existence of an inverse re-lationship between the available nitrogen and the accumulation of defense-related secondary metabolites in plants [1], as a con-sequence of C:N ratio unbalance. According to this hypothesis, the lower nitrogen contents of organically grown plants lead to a shift from the N-containing compounds to the production of carbon-rich defense-related phenylpropanoids. It has been also suggested that this behavior is putatively linked to the increased resilience to pest attacks and damage exerted by organic plants [2-4]. Re-cent research [5] showed that long-term organic fields have been associated with no consistent difference in nitrogen and carbon content, nor in C:N ratio, between the organic and conventional produces. In parallel, pest attacks were preferentially settled on conventional plants respect to organic ones. Organic management reduced insect population but no evidence about plant nutrient unbalance was directly linked with. The study demonstrated that organic soil management promoted salicylic acid build-up, which resulted in discouraging plant–insect interactions. Indeed, salicylic acid accumulation was not associated with lower nitrogen content of organic plants but it depended on alterations in soil microbial communities associated with long-term organic management. The study showed that over-presence of specific microbial groups in-duced plant resistance to pest attacks. By this way, it can be pos-tulated that organic practices promotes plant resistance through derived changes in soil microflora.
240 Laser Induced Fluorescence Spectrum of “Sweet Shrub” Stevia , LK Rajkhowa, R Mahanta, A Hazarika1, J Saikia and GD Baruah
Laser Induced Fluorescence spectrum of acetone extract of stevia has been excited with the help of a blue diode laser (415 nm, 10 mW) and recorded on a mini spectrometer. The spectrum exhibits three prominent bands at 444, 474 and 503 nm along with the well known chlorophyll bands at 685 nm and 730 nm.
241 Effect of Wheat Plant Distribution, Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilizer Levels on Wheat-sugar Beet Association , Ahmed M Sheha, Amr S Shams and Mohamed M Lamlom
A two-season field experiment was conducted at Gemmeiza Research Station, Egypt, during 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 to study the effect of some wheat plant distribution systems (2, 3 and 4 rows), three N fertilizer levels (80, 100, 120 kg N fed-1) and three K fer-tilizer levels (24, 48, 72 kg K fed-1) on the productivity of both crops and farmers benefit. Sugar beet was planted on both sides of the bed (120 cm width), wheat was planted in all intercropping treatments at 25% of sole culture seed rate. A split-split plot design with three replications was used. Wheat plant distribution allocated to the main plots, N fertilizer arranged in the sub-plots and K fertilizer is presented in the sub-sub plots. Wheat plant height and spike length recorded the highest values by wheat planting in 2 rows fol-lowed by in 3 and 4 rows was showed the lost values in both seasons. Simultaneously; the other characters of wheat i.e. spike grains wt., 1000-grain wt., no. of grains spike-1, no. of spikes m-2, grain yield fed-1 and straw yield ton fed-1 recorded the highest values with 4 wheat rows in both seasons. All studied characters of wheat were increased by increasing N fertilizer levels from 80 to 100 up to 120 kg N fed-1 in both seasons. Most wheat characters were decreased by increasing K fertilizer levels from 24 to 48 up to 72 kg K fed-1in both seasons. Most of the wheat characters were significantly influenced by the different interaction under study in both seasons. Sugar beet yield and its components as well as sugar% recorded the highest values when wheat was planted in 2 rows. Increasing N fertilizer levels increased all studied characters in both seasons. All sugar beet characters were recorded the highest values by using 48 kg K fed-1 followed by 72 and 24 kg K fed-1 in both seasons. Most sugar beet characters were significantly affected by the different interactions between factors under study in both seasons. The best land equivalent ratio (LER) and Land Equivalent Coefficient (LEC) achieved the highest values with treatment included 2 wheat rows with 120 kg N and 24 or 48 kg K fed-1. Simultaneously, Aggressivity (A), wheat was the dominant crop and sugar beet was dominated in both seasons. The treatment of wheat planting in 4 rows with 120 kg N fed-1 and 24 kg K fed-1 recorded the highest values for both total income and net return in both seasons
242 Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding , Kannan CS Warrier
More than 10 million different species of animals, plants, fungi and other micro-organisms inhabit the Earth. They and the habi-tats in which they live represent the world's biological diversity. It has been recorded that humans use about 40,000 species of plants and animals for food, shelter, clothing and medicinal needs. For-ests are the most diverse ecosystems on land, because they hold the vast majority of the world's terrestrial species. Priceless bio-diversity is threatened by deforestation, forest fragmentation and degradation, hunting and the arrival of invasive species from other habitats. We are losing the invaluable treasure at an alarming rate that, it has been estimated that, within the next 10 years, one out of every four known species may have been wiped off the planet. It has also been estimated that to meet the innumerable demands that humans make on nature each year, we may require about more than an additional half of Earth. That is about 1.6 earths to satisfy our greeds!
243 Evaluation of Herbicidal Potential of Selected Mycoherbicidal Strain against a Noxious Weed Cassia otusifolia L , Ajay Kumar Singh and Akhilesh Kumar Pandey
The management of weeds by chemical herbicides creating adverse effect on human and animal health so there is urgent need for alternative weed control option to save environment by an environmental friendly and sustainable options. Bioactive compound of fungi is great source for the development of new herbicide and its offer an ecofriendly alternative to control weeds. Here We have evaluated mycoherbicidal activity of cell free culture broth (CFCF) of selected strains against Cassia obtusifolia. Phytotoxic contents of natural metabolites present in CFCF of Curvularia lunata (FGCCW#33), Phoma herbarum (FGCCW#07), Myrothecium roridum(FGCCW#03) and Fusarium roseum (FGCCW#61) against Cassia obtusifolia were evaluated by seedling bioassays. In preliminary bioassay, the CFCF of FGCCW#03 of 28 days old were shown maximum phytotoxic effect on seedling of Cassia obtusifolia at 100% concentration. The symptoms were observed as browning and necrosis of weeds. With effective formulation and cheap mass produc-tion of this mycoherbicidal strains can possibly use as mycoherbicide for control of Cassia obtusifolia in future.
244 Alternaria Blight of Tomato: A Review of Disease and Pathogen Management Approaches , Surbhi Garg, Data Ram Kumar, Suresh Yadav, Mohit Kumar and Jagdish Yadav.
Taxonomically, genus Alternaria comes under Deuteromycetes phylum which includes different saprophytic and endophytic spe-cies. It is famous due to its notoriously destructive pathogens. It majorly affects various plant families e.g. Cucurbitaceae, Cruci-feraceae and Solanaceae which are agriculturally important crops possess high nutritional and economical values. The crops suffer from various bacterial, viral, fungal and nematode diseases. Among the above mentioned diseases, early leaf spot disease caused by pathogen Alternaria solani is one of the most devastating diseases resulting in loss upto 78%. Most of the species of Alternaria lacking in teleomorphic stage whereas few species have teleomorphs in their disease cycle. Alternaria being necrotrophic it leads to severe damage to plant and its produce. Besides the involvement of toxins in pathogenesis or invasion, few genes or gene products also have major effect on pathogenicity. In the present review, we described in detail about efficiency of plant and herbal extract, bio control agents, cow by products and fungicides against A. solani, that not only effective in managing the disease but also economic and ecofriendly.
245 Diallel Studies and Heritability Estimates Using Hayman's Approach in Ocimum spp.   , Smita Singh
Diallel analysis of Hayman was performed removing reciprocal in basil, the experimental material consisted of morphological diverse genotypes and their 21 direct crosses i.e. F1 populations. The traits days-to-flowering (50%), plant height (cm), no of branch-es/plant, inflorescence length (cm), fresh herb yield (g)/plant, oil content (%), oil yield (g)/plant, days-to-maturity, methyl-chavicol content (%), linalool content (%), citral content (%), eugenol content (%) explored additive type of gene effects. t2 for all the charac-ters are non-significance so its indicate validity of the hypothesis postulated by Hayman. Regression line for days-to-flowering (50%), days-to-maturity were below the origin showing the presence of over-dominance while for branches/plant, ocimene content, linalool content, camphor content and methyl-chavicol it was above the origin suggesting the presence of partial-dominance. Regression line for plant height, inflorescence length, fresh herb yield, oil content and oil yield were through the origin indicating the presence of complete-dominance. Narrow sense heritability estimates 2∧h(ns)% ranged from 7.9% (lowest) for inflorescence length to 59% (highest) for oil content. Genetic advance over mean ranged from 0.54 (days-to-maturity) to 53.11 (branches/plant)
246 Dwarfing Responses of Leonotis leonurus (L.) R.Br. Lamiaceae Using Foliar Growth Regulator Applications to Induce Compactness in Flowering Potted Plants , Khanyisa Boyce, Charles P Laubscher and Mack A Moyo
The insatiable demand for novel floral forms in the ornamental horticulture industry continues to drive the search for such plant species, particularly in biodiversity-rich regions such as South Africa. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Cycocel®, a plant growth retardant, in manipulating growth and compactness in Leonotisleonurus, a plant with potential high or-namental value in the potted flower industry. Application of Cycocel®, especially at a concentration of 4 mg/L significantly reduced both height and plant width of L. leonurus plants growing in a soilless hydro culture system. In addition, application of the growth retardant had a significant influence on increasing the shoot proliferation in L. leonurus plants. The number of new shoots produced in week 6 of the 8-week growing period was about threefold higher compared to the control. The reduction in height and width observed in the present study may be due to the interference with key enzymes involved in the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway. Overall, application of Cycocel® had the desired effect in controlling growth parameters in L. leonurus plants, thereby improving com-pactness and enhancing its commercial value in the flowering potted plant market.
247 Assessment of Essential Metals in Selected Fish Feeds and Cultivated Fish Species in Bangladesh and their Impacts on Human Body , Biraj Saha, Md Abdul Mottalib and ANM Al-razee
Cultivated fishes are major protein and microelement sources for all sorts of people in Bangladesh due to its availability and af-fordability. Essential metals are persistent in the environment and are subject to bioaccumulation in the food chain. Fish is at the top of the aquatic food chain and normal metabolism of fish may accumulate large amounts of different essential metals from water, food or sediment. This study was carried out to determine essential metal concentrations in the flesh of some cultivated fish species and commercial fish feeds available in Bangladesh. The essential metal concentration in fish and consumed fish feed were assessed by Inductive Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) with significant variation (P < 0.05). The concentration (mg/kg - dry weight) of Fe, Cu, Zn, Na, K, and Ca were observed 23.33 - 63.3, 12.80 - 20.62, 10.00 - 26.25, 214.2 - 367.68, 285.71 - 485.71, 256.89 - 432.65 in selected commercial fish feeds whereas those were found 33.33 - 80.83, 14.00 - 31.80, 20.60 - 49.25, 250.98 - 500.78, 400.76 - 587.32, 408.16 - 857.14 in cultivated fish species. All analyzed metal concentrations were within the acceptable of World Health Organization (WHO, 2004), Food and Agricultural organization (FAO, 2004), European Union (EU, 2010) and US Envi-ronmental Protection Agency (USEPA, 2011) and Total Hazardous Quotient (THQs) value of all the selected metals were lower than 1, which suggesting no remarkable non - carcinogenic health hazards for adult population
248 Agriculture during Pandemic , Lirola Keri
The year 2020 since its inception has started with a situation different from normal. The outbreak of the epidemic in several countries simultaneously led to the creation of the pandemic de-clared worldwide by the WHO itself. This change came unexpect-edly. At the center of world attention was health. The social and economic life of mankind around the world changed suddenly. The prolongation of the pandemic created the belief that isolation was no longer a solution but a choice of the moment. For all sectors to be revitalized and continue their activity they had to adapt to new conditions of physical distancing. But some activities much needed for basic needs could not be accomplished in this form. One of them is also agricultural and livestock activity. The supply of consumers with agricultural and livestock products and products had to continue normally, especially in this period when the de-mand would be higher due to two factors; first, people had enough time to consume food at home, and; second, the closure of restau-rants, bars and hotels. An additional supply had to respond to the increase in demand. But if the pandemic increased demand, the same cannot be said for supply. Not only is the supply of such prod-ucts, as of any other product, limited in the short term, but also because exchanges of goods and products between countries were temporarily suspended. For net exporting countries supply could not have a significant difference from demand. For net importing countries traders had to find other resources to meet demand. Such places where demand remained undiscovered turned their eyes away from domestic production. This situation was presented as a golden opportunity for local producers who had to guarantee the sale of their agricultural and livestock products.
249 Sustainable Agriculture through Food Security , Sharon Idahosa
Though, much progress has been made towards food security in the past decades. But overtime, the food security challenges faced has become rather too alarming and in years to come, many of the world’s population will be subjected to extreme poverty, hunger, malnutrition and even deaths.It is expedient that the issue of food security is tackled as the world’s population is expected to climb to 8.5 billion in 2025. The need to improve agricultural productivity to facilitate a sustainable agriculture, thereby improving food security is very key. This module explains sustainable agriculture to a large extent, food security challenges, as well as food security measures, giving a direct guide on how sustainable farming can boost the food production systems in Nigeria.
250 Standardized Methods were Established to Measure Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in the Various Land-Use System of Planting Legumes Under Field Conditions Calculations of Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation Accumulation When One Land-Use Type is Converted to Another Crop Rotation , Makkies David Lengwati
Nitrogen fixation potential and residual effects of selected grain legumes in a South African soil with the back-up of nitrogen economy of pulse crop production in the Nelspruit/Mbombela Lowveld area was studied. Rhizobium - legume symbiosis and nitrogen fixation under severe conditions and in an arid climate and using kraal manure as a fertilizer in growing vegetables in the home garden were also observations for nitrogen supply to plant growth. Measuring plant-associated nitrogen fixation in agricultural systems has a potential precision of the δ15N natural abundance method in field estimates of nitrogen fixation by crop and pasture legumes in South Africa thus provided influence of mycorrhizal associations on foliar δ15N values of legume and non-legume shrubs and trees in the fynbos of South Africa, Western Cape province with implications for esti-mating N2 fixation using the 15N natural abundance method
251 Characterization and Distribution of Potyvirus Species Infecting Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) in Burkina Faso , Fidèle Tiendrébéogo, Ezechiel B Tibiri, Koussao Somé, James Bouma Neya and Nicolas Barro
Virus species belonging to the genus Potyvirus are the most common viruses infecting sweet potato crop. Among these viruses, Sweet potato Feathery Mottle Virus (SPFMV) is the most damaging and widespread in the world. To assess the potyvirus disease on sweet potato in Burkina Faso, a total of 300 samples were collected from the nine largest sweet potato producing regions. Samples were analyzed using RT-PCR and products were Sequenced. Bioinformatic analyzes were performed to know the strains of the virus-es. The results revealed that SPFMV is the main Potyvirus infecting sweet potato in Burkina Faso with a prevalence of about 28.33%. A total of seven isolates of SPFMV were successfully sequenced and used for phylogenetic analyzes. These isolates have shown 99% nucleotide identity with the phylogroup A-II (SPFMV-O), and some of them had 95% nucleotide identity with phylogroup B (SPFMV-RC). This study showed that SPFMV is the main Potyvirus-infecting sweet potato in Burkina Faso
252 Reducing Global Hunger Way Forward , Sachin Regmi
Global population already hit 7.7 billion mark; another million-feeding mouth are being added every 14 months in average. This aggressive population growth doesn’t seem to slowing anytime sooner. More population has high demand for consumption of natural resources, but the real concern is, can our earth be able to withstand this population pressure? Clear indication on steadily increasing income elasticity of demand for food is indicating to-wards the verge of catastrophic failure of human civilization as earth hospitality may not remain the same. To amply feed the glob-al population we need to expand our framework on current agri-culture practices and food distribution network. Poverty, food se-curity and food safety are major challenges to address. Agriculture innovation and technology adaptation are our vital tools for the change. These must be supported by modernization prescribed on scientific ground. The increasing demand for adequate and safer food can be addressed by smart agriculture, green revolution and sustainable agriculture aided by mechanization. To ensure food for all advanced tools like biotechnology and agrigenomics can also be used
253 Effect of Foliar Application of Salicylic Acid in Marigold , Samir Poudel and Nisha Subedi
Marigold (Tagetes patula) is one of the popular annual, herbaceous, attractive flowers. Salicylic acid (SA) is a phenolic phytohor-mone and is found in plants with roles in plant growth and development, photosynthesis, transpiration, ion uptake and transport. This research was conducted to assess the effects of foliar application of salicylic acid on growth and yield of marigold from July 2019 to November 2019. The research was conducted in the horticulture field of IAAS, Lamjung Campus, Nepal under Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications and six treatments viz. (0, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500) ppm of salicylic acid. The marigold flowers were harvested when the outer petals unfold nearly perpendicular to the stem. Parameters like plant height, plant width, days to flowering, number of flower diameter and total yield were observed and analyzed using SPSS. Greater plant height was found on treatment 500 ppm which is statistically on par with 400 ppm and 300 ppm and lowest at 0 ppm. Similarly, plant width is greater in 500 ppm while the lowest in 0ppm. Days to flowering were lower in 500 ppm which is statistically similar with 400 ppm, 300 ppm and 200 ppm and higher in 0 ppm. Best results were found in 500 ppm with the number of flowers, the diameter of the flower, and flower yield. Thus, results revealed that increasing the concentration of salicylic acid increases the production of marigold.
254 Postharvest Quality of Sein Ta Lone Mango (Mangifera indica L.) as Affected by Different Wrapping Materials and Storage Temperature , Phyu Phyu Lei Yi, Than Than Soe and Khin Thida Myint.
The experiment was conducted to assess the postharvest quality and storage life of Sein Ta Lone mango affected by wrapping materials and storage temperature. It was carried out at the Laboratory of Department of Horticulture, Yezin Agricultural University during the mango harvest season of May 2018. Treatments were laid out in factorial arrangement, randomized complete block design with four replications. Factor A was the storage at controlled temperature (13 ÌŠC) and at room temperature (35 - 38 ÌŠC) and factor B was wrapping materials of white net sack, white fruit wrapping paper and without wrapping (control). Sein Ta Lone mangoes were collected from Myanadi mango orchard, Department of Agriculture, Myittha Township, Mandalay Region. The data on physiological weight loss (%), color index, fruit firmness (kgcm-2), total soluble solid (TSS%), total titratable acidity (TTA%), respiration rate (mg CO2 kg-1h-1), ethylene production rate (μl kg-1h-1) and shelf-life (days) were collected at two days intervals throughout the experiment. Control fruits stored at 13 ÌŠC significantly showed the longer shelf-life (14 days) than those under room temperature (7 days). The fruits wrapped with paper showed the longest shelf life of 16 days at 13 ÌŠC while the fruits wrapped with net sack maintained the lon-gest shelf-life of 8 days at room temperature. The ethylene production and respiration rates of Sein Ta Lone mango under 13 ÌŠC were considerably lower than those of the fruits under room temperature but not significantly different among the treatments. The mini-mum respiration and ethylene production rate of unwrapped mangoes were 10.84 CO2 mg kg-1h-1 and 0.07ul kg-1h-1, respectively. The color value rapidly increased in all treatments stored at room temperature at 4 days after storage. However, the color development of the fruits stored at 13 ÌŠC gradually increased with lower value than that of those under room temperature. There were no significant differences in TTA% and TSS% among the treatments at respective temperatures. The results from this study revealed that net sack wrapping should be used at room temperature to protect injury and paper wrapping should be used in low temperature storage of 13 ÌŠC to absorb moisture and maintain fruit quality.
255 Covid 19 and the Impact on the Hydroponic Market , Aashray Mody.
It is projected that the global COVID-19 pandemic effect on the hydroponics market will generate revenues of USD 17 billion with a CAGR of about 11.5% from 2020 to 2024 (forecast period). The study outlines the strengths, opportunities, threats and potential business risks and provides an extensive summary of the influence of COVID-19 on the global market situation. Hydroponics refers to an agricultural process, such as a mineral nutrient and a water so-lution, used to grow plants in a soil-free medium. In a particular climate, crops have historically been cultivated, but in hydropon-ics, they are cultivated in a controlled setting. Hydroponics uses two methods, a solid medium crop and a solution crop, to grow crops.
256 Thematic Study on Machine Farm Ponds with Farm Bund-Integrated Watershed Management Programme – Ananthapuramu , PVRM Reddy, B Janardha Reddy, BV Ramana Kumar, R Jhansi Rani and Pullanna Vidyapogu.
The meaning of Farm pond is small tank or reservoir like constructions, are constructed for the purpose of storing the surface runoff, generated from the catchment area. The farm ponds are the water harvesting structures, solve several purposes of farm needs such as supply of water for irrigation, cattle feed, fish production etc. Farm Ponds are shielding the vagaries of drought and help the farmers to keep their farm activity and provide ability to store water during an occasional rain and use the same to feed water to crops during the dry spells. All these have been evidenced in Ananthapuramu district through watershed intervention.
257 Intercropping Cowpea with Some Yellow Maize Hybrids Under Different Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates , Amr S Shams and Mohamed M Lamlom.
Field trial was carried out at Sids Agricultural Research Station, Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Beni-Sweif governorate (Lat. 29o 12' N, Long. 31o 01'E, 32 m a.s.l.), Egypt, during 2017 and 2018 summer seasons to study the interaction between three nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates (100, 120 and 140 Kg N fed-1) and three yellow maize hybrids (SC 176, TWC 353 and TWC 360) on maize-cowpea association. Treatments were randomly assigned in a split-plot design with three replications. The main plots were devoted to N fertilizer rates. However, the sub-plots were allocated to hybrids of yellow maize. Sole culture plots of both maize and cowpea were included in each replicate for competitive relationships and economic evaluation essays. The highest values of maize grain yield (22.86 and 23.00 ard fed-1) were recorded for yellow maize hybrid SC 176 when the combination received 140 kg N fed-1 whereas the lowest values were recorded for yellow maize hybrid TWC 353 when the combination received 100 kg N fed-1 while the highest values cowpea fresh forage yield (18.75 and 15.59 ton fed-1) were recorded for cowpea intercropped with yellow maize hybrid SC 176 when the combination received 140 kg N fed-1 whereas the lowest values were recorded for cowpea intercropped with yellow maize hybrid TWC 360 when the combination received 100 kg N fed-1 in first and second seasons, respectively. The aggressivity value of maize was positive for all treatments indicating that maize was dominant component whereas the aggressivity value of cowpea was negative for all treatments indicating that cowpea was dominated component in the present study. Results also revealed that intercropping cow-pea cv. Cream7 with yellow maize hybrid SC 176 under rate of 140 kg N fed-1 for the combination resulted in maximum values of LER estimated to 1.61 and 1.62, gross income of LE 16,598 and 15,717 and net return of LE 8,301 and 7,420 in first and second seasons, respectively. The study recommends the importance of selecting maize variety (the over-story crop), as short hybrid with less leaf area index, which is preferred to provide a better chance for the growth of cowpea (the under-story crop) when planting cowpea with 100% of its sole culture on the other side of maize rows sown at 100% of its density in sole culture in order to achieve the maximum land equivalent ratio, less competition between both crops, and largest income and net return for farmer.
258 Arsenic Mitigation by Natural Resources , Ashok Kumar Jha, Sourav Majumder and Yogesh Chandra Gupta.
This paper deals with the eco-friendly and low cost recent techniques of removal of arsenic from aqueous medium keeping in mind the health hazards of arsenic contamination.Arsenic contamination in ground water of the Gangetic plain in Holocene newer alluvial due to arsenic bearing chemicals has become a matter of grave concern. As a result researches on arsenic mitigation using natural resources are going on in different parts of the world. Natural resources e.g. bentonite mineral of Rajmahal hills and aquatic plants have been utilized for removal of arsenic from aqueous medium. Aquatic plants remove arsenic through their roots and leaves known as phytoremediation and dried biomass is also useful for removal of arsenic known as bio-remediation. The presence of unsaturated carboxylic acid, hemicellulose and amino groups present on the surface of the biomass bind arsenic on the surface but bentonite mineral removes arsenic by adsorption and ion exchange both due to the presence of unsatisfied charges on the surface. Percentage removal of arsenic with varying time by bentonites and aquatic plants have been calculated and experimental data have been used to explain the nature of adsorption
259 Effect of Tillage and Nutrient Management on Economics and Soil Status by Maize + Pigeon Pea Intercropping System , Pradeep Kumar, Mritunjay Kumar, Santosh Kumar Singh, Gharsiram and Satish Bhutekar.
A field experiment was carried out during the summer (kharif) seasons of 2019-20 at research farm field in TCA, Dholi, under Dr. RPCAU, Pusa, Samastipur (Bihar). The experiment was laid out in split plot design with 4 main plot treatment viz., T 1: Permanent bed (PB), T 2: Zero tillage (ZT), T 3: Fresh bed (FB) and T 4: Conventional tillage and 3 sub-plot treatment viz., N 1: 100% Recom-mended dose of fertilizer (RDF), N 2: 120% Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) and N 3: 80% Recommended dose of fertilizer (RDF) witch were replicated thrice. Considering the overall impact of conservation agriculture practices, growing maize+pigeon pea intercropping under PB, crop recorded higher maize equivalent yield (130.7 q/ha) at par with ZT (120.7 q/ha) over the FB (112.1 q/ha) and CT (108.4 q/ha) while, 120% RDF application recorded (127.7 q/ha) over the 100% RDF (117.7 q/ha) and 80% RDF (108.6 q/ha) application under nutrient management. The gross return, net return and B:C ratio from maize+pigeon pea intercropping ob-tained significantly higher under PB (244839, 189239 and 3.4) compared to FB (210514, 153665 and 2.7) and CT (203320, 147070 and 2.6) while under nutrient management, the gross return, net return and B:C ratio recorded higher with 120% RDF application (239028, 181223 and 3.1) compared to 80% RDF (204076, 150031 and 2.8). the soil physico-chemical properties viz., bulk density, pH, EC, organic carbon, available N, P and K were also favourably influenced by PB and ZT practices but it’s were not significantly affected by nutrient management practices. Appropriate tillage practices and nutrient management are some of the reasons behind the increasing economics or net returns of crop. Therefore, the study was conducted to identify the appropriate tillage practices and suitable nutrient management in new immersing maize + pigeonpea intercropping system in an alternative conventional farming.
260 A Review on Rice False Smut, it’s Distribution, Identification and Management Practices , Bhanu Dangi, Saugat Khanal and Shubekshya Shah.
Rice (Oryza sativa) is the major source of food security for most of the population in the world. False smut is recently emerging as a major Rice disease which was previously considered to have a negligible impact. An ascomycetes fungus, Villosiclava virens is the pathogen that causes the False Smut disease of rice. It is found in two different stages sexual and asexual and both spores can infect the spikelet and lead to the formation of smut ball of rice grain. The disease has been reported from all across the world after being reported for the first time in Tamil Nadu by Cooke in 1878. Rice False Smut has been reported to cause 40% of the yield losses and this disease can be controlled with the proper management practices and the control approaches. The disease is found to have linked with the higher nitrogen usages and the occurrence of heavy rainfall during Reproductive stage. Preventive approaches include crop rotation, optimum nitrogen usages, selection of the resistant variety, scheduling of the crop plantation to avoid raining during sensitive stages and field preparation. While control of the disease could be done with different methods, application of fungicides Triûoxystrobin 25%+ Tebuconazole 50% and Propiconazole 25 EC in vitro and in vivo condition showed 100% inhibition to growth of fungal mycelium being the most effective chemical among other contemporary fungicides. Among the different fungicides tested azoxystrobin (18.2%) SC showed better efficacy at 0.1 per cent and enhanced the paddy yield under field condition. The study done by Raji 2016 shows significant control of the False smut using the extract of garlic, turmeric, lantana and Bael, whereas plant oils of lemon grass and cinnamon have completely inhibited the growth of U. virens. Andargie., et al. (2017) reported Antennariella placitaea bio-control agent to be effective against rice false smut (Ustilaginoidea virens) both in vitro and in vivo condition. This review aims to educate about the disease and its effective management strategies.
261 The Space Weather Related to the M7+ Seismic Activity Recorded on a Global Scale between 28 January and 25 March 2020 , Valentino Straser, Gabriele Cataldi and Daniele Cataldi.
This research aims to discuss the variation of solar activity and in particular the proton density connected to seismic events of magnitude greater than 7. Between January 28, 2020 and March 25, 2020, our planet was shaken by three M7+ earthquakes (January 28, 2020 in Jamaica with magnitude of M7.7; February 13, 2020 in Russia with magnitude of M7.0 and, again in Russia, on March 25, 2020 with magnitude of M7.5) and provided the opportunity to carry out the research. The changes in the ionic density of the solar wind that preceded the global seismic sequence occurred after major increases in the proton density of the solar wind. In this regard, the authors analyzed space weather to verify the existence of a correspondence between solar activity and the three M7+ seismic events. The data showed a close relationship between the two variables, in a temporal sense and from a qualitative point of view. The time intervals between the proton density increase and the main tremors were 28 hours, 12 hours, and 112 hours, respectively.
262 Application of Bentonite Mineral in Removal of Heavy Metals , Ashok Kumar Jha.
Bentonite deposits are widely distributed in different parts of the world associated with volcanic rocks and tuffaceous sediments of Miocene and Oligocene age. Other important minerals are illite, kaolinite and vermiculite. Bentonite mineral is smectite group of minerals having a montmorillonite unit which consists of two tet-rahedral silica sheets and one octahedral sheet [1-3]. These come under clay minerals abundant in Rajasthan and Jharkhand. A vast deposit of bentonite occurs in a place Wyoming in U.S.A, Montmo-rillon in France, Japan and some countries of the world. So, this bentonite has been named after its place known as Wyoming ben-tonite and montmorillonite has gained its name after its discovery locality at Montmorillon 70 Km NNW of Limoges, France. Natural bentonite is 98% montmorillonite giving positive stain test with benzidine solution [4-6]. Owing to low cost and abundance in na-ture, a new vistas of research on bentonites has been opened up with a view to remove heavy metals and toxic elements from aque-ous medium. Clay minerals have residual charges on the surface due to partial substitution of tetrahedral Si4+ by Al3+ or Al3+ or Fe3+ by Fe2+ or Mg2+. Thus, substitution of tetravalent cations by triva-lent cations leaves deficit charge on the surface of the clay. Main constituents of clay minerals are SiO2, Al2O3 along with Na2O, K2O, CaO and MgO [7]. Characterization of bentonites are done by XRD, FTIR, SEM, TGA, DSC and physico chemical tests. Bentonites of dif-ferent colour and grade of Rajmahal hills of Jharkhand have been used commercially for various industrial purposes. High swell-ing power, plastic properties, adsorption potential and cation ex-change capacity of bentonite have made it a low cost adsorbent of Cr, Cd, As, F and organic dyes.
263 Agriculture, Biodiversity and Technological Innovations , Tiziana Sirangelo.
The loss of biodiversity is a complex problem affecting both the environmental and economic field, because the natural capital pro-vides essential resources for industry and agriculture.
264 Animal Identification , Subhranil Mustafi.
As per the Livestock Census of 2019, current goat population in India is about 148 million and that of pigs are 9.06 million in India. They are identified using physical tagging, stenciling, tat-tooing, branding, etc. that can easily be manipulated extravagantly creating opportunities for poachers and middle men to poach the animals for their bones, meat, etc. and illegal transfer across inter-national borders. However, to prevent this, a unique, non-invasive, non-manipulative method of identification based on behavioral patterns must be incorporated, also termed as biometrics. Such unique character trait or ‘fingerprints’ become a mandate in the process of unique animal identification. Several character traits have been examined and investigated to develop the unique identi-fication and has later been proved that irises of goats and auricular vein pattern of pigs have been found to be the most feasible one in such identification.
265 Foxnut (Euryale ferox Salisb.): A Health Promising Fruit , Saima Tehseen, Fatima Sarfraz, Sidra-tul-Muntaha, Naila Ateeq, Faiza Ashfaq1, Iqra Yasmin and Tayyaba Mehmood.
Foxnut (Euryale ferox Salisb.) commonly known as makhana is a flowering plant with gigantic and floating leaves. Foxnut is a high-ly-valued aquatic crop due to its high amount of carbohydrate, protein, ash, crude fiber, minerals and phytochemical content. Foxnut plant species can take part remarkably towards the betterment of human health, fight against hunger and providing traditional medicinal effects. Owing to their powerful medicinal properties, foxnut pops are used against many human disorders that affect the respiratory, circulatory, gastrointestinal, excretory and reproductive system. It is used as an important source of natural antioxidants with antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic potential and used as food additives. The amino acids arginine and methionine are the cre-atine precursors that are necessary for beautiful skin nails and hairs. Creatine obtained from arginine and methionine plays a crucial part for healthy skin. It is used as a functional food for the treatment of diabetes and the alleviation of its complications. Euryale ferox Salisb seed reduces hyperglycemia that could be triggered by the release of insulin from the remnant. It contains low sodium and high potassium, which reduces blood pressure and contains very low levels of monosaturated fat that prevent blood sugar from rising. It has all the nutritional and potential health benefits necessary to be regarded as a super food.
266 The World Agriculture and Technology , Wesley Machado
World agriculture is evolving every moment. This evolution has accompanied the technologies inserted in rural areas. The tech-nologies help the producer to achieve high productivity in his ag-ricultural fields. In some places, the technology is still remote and there has been no evolution, following the large producing centers. Thus, agriculture in these places is still incipient or has primitive agriculture
267 Influence of Heat and Water Stress Around Meiosis on Pollen Quality in Two Pollen Parents of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Used in Control Hybridization in Sri Lanka , KGAPK Amarasinghe, CS Ranasinghe, DC Abeysinghe and AAFLK Perera
Climate resilient and high yielding Dwarf x Tall hybrids is the main strategy to meet increasing demand of coconut in a changing climate where sexual reproduction is susceptible to heat and drought stress (HTDS). Fruit set failures are mainly attributed to high sensitivity of pollen and ovules to stress, particularly around meiosis, in many crops. This study focused to assess the influence of heat (monthly mean Tmax > 330C) and water stress (monthly rainfall < 90 mm) around meiosis on the quality of pollen in San Ramon (SR) and Sri Lanka Tall (SLT) cultivars that used in controlled hybridization. We measured carbohydrates, germination (PG%) and tube length (PTL) in pollen developed under heat and/or drought stress and unstressed (control) around meiosis (final four months prior to flower opening).San Ramon showed significantly higher PG% and PTL (43%, 517 μm respectively) compared to that of SLT (37%, 481 μm respec-tively) cultivar. Unstressed male flowers had significantly higher PG%, PTL and starch compared to flowers in stress at any stage around meiosis. The cumulative rainfall, number of dry days (rainfall < 3 mm/day), total number of heat stress days (Tmax < 330C) and average maximum temperature during the period around meiosis had merge impact on pollen starch (R2 = 0.96), total soluble sugar (TSS) (R2 = 0.71), pollen germination (PG%) (R2 = 0.61) and pollen tube length (PTL) (R2 = 0.89). The study concluded that heat and/or water stress around meiosis is very critical for pollen quality in two tested cultivars of coconut. This information will be of great importance to manipulate the pollination strategy to minimize stress-affected fruit set failures under controlled pollination.
268 Facing the Challenge of Water Scarcity for Mediterranean Agriculture , Manuela Moreira da Silva
The Mediterranean is under a severe climate change scenario and suffering an increasing anthropogenic pressure, mainly in coastal zones, due to urbanization, agriculture and tourism. The depletion of surface water and groundwater resources is a com-mon reality. Water scarcity is increasing and water should be man-aged attending to the food needs, but also to the protection of the habitats and biodiversity. The aquifers have an important role for freshwater storage and water transmission, but some of them are contaminated with nitrates from intensive agriculture. In several coastal areas, groundwater over-pumping for irrigation is promot-ing saline intrusion phenomena.
269 Processing of Nungu (Ice Apple) into Milk Shake   , Mittapally Kishore Reddy
Now a days many cool drinks avail in market with different names can help us to hydrate our body during Summer which is harm-ful practice as these products are filled with different chemicals, pesticides etc.Nungu (Ice apple) can hydrate our body and can supplement healthy nutrients to our diet.Processing of the fruit makes it stay fresh for long time with the same nutrient content and flavour and processing can make the product attractive to the children and easy way of consuming the same nutrients
270 Soil Treatment Using Biopolymers , S Smitha and K Rangaswamy
In the present day sustainability has become the latest trend and environment-friendly and economic feasible solution to any prob-lem is gaining popularity in all realms. Soil is a major component responsible for the functioning of the ecosystem as it houses abun-dant organic components, nutrients and even acts as a habitat for many living organisms. It is also the medium of plant growth. From the engineering point of view, soil acts as a base for load dissipation either through the foundation or as a subgrade under the pave-ment. But in some areas, the soil doesn’t satisfy the strength or sta-bility criteria required for use as an engineering material. It might be too weak having a low bearing capacity and shear strength, it might be prone to wind or water erosion, it might have too low or too high permeability and compressibility or it might even be prone to liquefaction under dynamic loads. Such a situation de-mands and calls for soil stabilization and ground improvement.
271 Modelling for Forecasting of Monsoon Rains in Areas Affected by Farmers Suicides , Anand M Sharan
This research work is to come up with a rainfall model for monsoon rains in India. The goal is to forecast the rainfall amount about 7 months in advance. This advance forecasting is to help farmers in making decisions to plant crop based on the availability of water in the next season. This forecast is for helping hydro power generators and city water suppliers also. The methods selected are based on the past 32 year rainfall history where four methods are used to determine the rainfall amount. These methods are: The Time Series method, the Root Mean Square method, The Fast Fourier Transform method, and the Artificial Neural Network method. A forecasting model is considered valid if it falls within 19% of the actual rainfall amount. The number 19% is used by Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) to define a normal rainfall based on long term average.
272 COVID-19 Pandemic and Lockdown: Effects on Agricultural Activities and Value Chains in the Six States of South-western Nigeria , Janet T Ojediran, Ayodeji F Ajayi, Gbenga E Fanifosi, Rasheed G Adeola, Olajide A Ajao, Samuel A Babarinde, Akhigbe T Maryanne, Muritala D Shittu, Olaolu E Dawodu and Taiwo K Ojediran
COVID 19 pandemic and lockdown have dealt a blow at various spheres of human life. The impact transcends the health to agri-culture and many other sectors. A multidisciplinary team of experts in agriculture including crop, livestock, economics and exten-sion drew out a questionnaire with areas of impact, mitigation and constraints imposed by COVID-19 and accompanied lockdown. The survey was administered online to farmers in South-west, Nigeria. A total of 1319 farmers responded 340 from Oyo, 289 from Osun, 231 from Ekiti, 212 from Ogun, 185 from Ondo and only 62 from Lagos State respectively. Obtained data for this study were analyzed using descriptive statistics, including frequency count, percentage, mean and standard deviation. The study revealed that COVID 19 pandemic and lockdown had a devastating impact on Agriculture activities and the value chain. Most of the respondents were at their active and productive age (44 years)
273 Comparative Economics and Evaluation of Constrains of Chickpea Production in Rajasthan with Reference to Gangour Variety   , Keshav Kumar, Vikram Yogi, Shubham Arya and Mukesh Godara
The Comparative Economics of the chickpea production in Rajasthan with reference to the Gangour variety was evaluated in this study. The evaluation was based on a household survey of Bengal gram grower in 4 villages of Bikaner District of Rajasthan. The es-timated cost of cultivation was ₹32068.10, Net Income ₹44599.90 in case of the Gangour variety while cost of cultivation ₹30535.43, Net Income ₹15494.07 was in case of local cultivar. The gross income from the Gangour variety was greater than local variety that is ₹76668 and ₹46029.50 per hectare, respectively because of higher yield and low cost of production of former as compared to latter one and their yield was of 17.70q and 10.65q, respectively and the cost of production was ₹1811.75and ₹2867.18 respectively. The Output- Input Ratio for the Gangour variety was 2.39 and for local variety was1.51. Cultivation of Gangour variety are profitable than local varieties. The survey revealed that improved chickpea variety showed distinctly superior performance over local cultivars but it also have some constrains viz., chickpea growers were not getting satisfactory price of their produce in both Gangour and local variety grower. The another problem faced by chickpea grower is, require more water with reference to Gangour and problem of labour with reference to local variety.
274 Back to Past; Organic Agriculture   , Muhammad Adnan and Muhammad Zohaib Anjum
National economy significantly depended on agriculture sector [1]. Organic farming is a crop production system in which farmer avoided all synthetic farm inputs but depends on biological, agro-nomic and mechanical methods like the utilization of crop resi-dues, off-farm organic waste, mineral grade rock additives, animal manures, biological system of nutrient mobilization and plant protection; which enhance and promote biological cycles, biodi-versity, and agro-ecosystem health [2]. Organic agriculture evolves thousand years ago. The ancient farmer’s starts their crop culti-vation along the belts of rivers by using many natural resources [3]. Furthermore, modern era of organic agriculture emerged in 1924 in Germany.
275 Evaluation of the Phytoremediation Ability of Amaranthus cruentus, Brassica oleracea var. capitata and Helianthus annus in Metal Contaminated Soil , I. R. Hassan, AA Manga and R Abdullahi
Artisanal mining for Gold in Zamfara state of Nigeria led to massive contamination of the environment with lead (Pb) leading to poisoning and death. The approach for the clean-up involves excavation of the soil and dumping it somewhere which is a temporary solution that is equal to postponement of the reckoning day. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phytoremediation potential of some plants as a cheaper solution to this problem. The treatments consisted of three plant species (Amaranthus cruentus, Brassica oleracea var. capitata and Helianthus annus) factorially combined with four soils (the top soils of Regular Agricultural soil from BUK, Lead (Pb) contaminated soil from Zamfara, Soil from Sheka area peri-urban garden along the banks of Salanta stream contaminated with tannery effluents from Sharada Industrial Estate and BUK soil artificially polluted with a standard addition of Nitrate salts of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni at the rate of 200 mg/kg for Pb and Cr, and 40 mg/kg for Ni and Cd), all laid out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) and replicated three times. Results have shown that Amaranth emerged as the plant with the highest accumulation of metal in its tissue. Across the three plant species, Pb is the most highly accumulated metal and Ni is the least concentrated. The Bioconcentra-tion Factor (BCF) index >2 was recorded for Cr, Mn, and Cd in the tissue of Amaranth. The Translocation Factor index >1 was recorded for Mn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn. Cabbage had relatively high BCF index for some metals, meaning it can sequester Cd, Cr, Mn and Pb. The TF index >1was recorded for all of the metals. The implication of this is that Cabbage had the ability to translocate all the tested met-als. Sunflower has also accumulated a good amount of the various heavy metals. BCF index >2 was recorded with Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn and Pb. But the TF index >1 was seen across all the metals. Soil from Zamfara was observed to produce plants with significantly higher Pb in the shoot, while differences in metal content in the shoot tissue among plant species was not significant.
276 Soil Health: Key to Success , Mike Orzolek
Success in vegetable crop production has focused on crop plant health for the last fifty years. However, in the last five years soil health has emerged as a critical factor in determining vegetable crop yields and quality. Soil which demonstrates biological health has the continued capacity of soil to function as a living ecosystem that beneficially sustains plants, animals, and humans. Viewing soil as a living ecosystem that has 'health' reflects a fundamental shift in the way we think about soil. Soil isn't an inert growing medium that needs to be filled up with water and nutrients for plants to grow from. Rather, soil must be biologically healthy, teeming with large and small organisms that live together in a dynamic, complex web of relationships. Farm crops and animals were at one time a major part of this unique 'cycle of life’, however today that may not be true on major acres farmed.
277 Effect of Tillage Methods on Soil Properties and the Yield of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) , Suleiman AA, Yit Arn Teh, Ella FA and Ejeanobi
Tillage methods as a soil management practice improves crop quality and yield. An experiment was conducted in the 2019 dry season-farming, to evaluate the effect of tillage methods on soil properties and the yield of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in the department of Agricultural science education, student demonstration farm; of the Federal College of Education (Technical), Umunze, Anambra State. Nigeria. The experiment consisted of three tillage methods (Ridge, Flat and Bed) with three replicates in a (3 × 1) fac-torial experiment. Tillage effects of plots under the flat (F) method performed significantly (p < 0.05), with a total number of 40friuts. The Flat (F) tillage method equally produced the highest mean fruit size of (18cm) as compared to bed (B) and the ridge (R) tillage method. Consequently, watermelon fruits under the bed (B) method of tillage had the highest mean fruit weight of (6.2kg), which was significantly different from mean weight obtained under the flat (F) and the ridge (R) methods of tillage. Planting on the flat (F) produced significantly higher number of fruits and size compared to planting on the bed and ridge. Therefore, both the flat and the bed methods of tillage has the potential for watermelon production in terms of number of fruits, fruit size and weight respectively in the study area.
278 Entrepreneurship Possibility on Goat Farming in India , Subhranil Mustafi, Pritam Ghosh, Sanket Dan, Kaushik Mukherjee, Kunal Roy and Satyendra Nath Mandal
The aim of this study is to focus on the entrepreneurship possibilities in the livestock sector (particularly Goat) in India. After studying the market, the authors discovered that there is a lack of a unique, tamper-proof and reliable identification system. Due to this, the animal insurance has drastically reduced to around 25-30% of the original claimed value. As a result, the authors have developed an image-based identification system based on iris pattern of goats to generate a unique biometric tag to each individual without hurting it. After the invention of unique trait of the species, the authors moved on to commercialise it. The Primary Market Research has been conducted and market segments have been identified. The goat breeding farms, processors and animal husband-ries are the systematic market segments identified respectively. Eventually, the authors calculated the total addressable market and predicted that on charging Rs 100 per biometric tag, a total of 1.16Billion INR can be generated by selecting Goat population in west Bengal as beachhead market i.e., 11.6 million. The quantification can be visualized as, the average cost of each goat would be: Rs 10000-12000, where 2-3 out of 10 goats distributed, are stolen and misinterpreted during verification. Thus, out of 11.6 million goats, more than 2.5-3million goats get misinterpreted resulting in loss of Rs 12000*2.5m = 30 Billion INR pan India. Our technology shall help to curb the loss completely. Low insurance claim, poaching, un-accounted international transfers of goats can easily be eradicated using this biometric technology
279 Effect of Foliar Application of Moringa Leaf Extract (MLE) on Growth and Yield of Gossypium hirsutum   , Madiha Nisar, Muhammad Nasir, Shahid Saleem, Muhammad Umar Iqbal and Tabinda Athar
Moringa oleifera leaf extract (MLE) is rich in nutrients having ascorbate, amino acids, minerals, zeatin, antioxidants, vitamins, iron, calcium, potassium, and numerous other compounds that have the potential of growth enhancement. An experiment was con-ducted in Rahim Yar Khan in 2019 during the cotton cropping season to study the effects of MLE on cotton crop. The growing site was properly prepared by using appropriate cultivation practices. A recommended dose of chemical fertilizers NPK 150:50:50 was applied with an interval of 15 days. Moringa leaf extract was made by using 3 kg healthy moringa leaves and was sprayed on the crop in 3 replications and 3 treatments i.e., MLE + NPK (T1), NPK (T2) and Control (T3) where no MLE and NPK was applied. The experi-ment was conducted by following Randomized Complete Block Design and separate blocks were used for each treatment. The data was collected before each application of (MLE) and maximum yield was observed in the treatment having MLE extract and NPK. The results showed that application of MLE significantly increased the yield of cotton and therefore, it can be used as an organic fertilizer for maximizing cotton yield.
280 Artificial Intelligence in Agriculture , Archana Chougule
Artificial intelligence (AI) has wide application in all sectors including agriculture. There are many challenges with traditional methods of agricultural tasks. Due to climate changes and defor-estation, agricultural production has had an adverse impact and farming has become more challenging. Artificial intelligence is a promising technique which can help farmers to overcome such challenges and increase gross production.
281 Towards Greater Sustainability in The Sundarbans , Gargi De
The remote geographical location of the Sundarbans with its proximity to the sea, complex river system - crisscrossing of tidal streams, channels and creeks, renders it extremely vulnerable to natural calamities like sporadic floods and cyclonic storms. This results in intrusion of saline water causing frequent damage to crops; insufficient sweet water resources necessary for drinking pur-pose, pisciculture, fisheries; occasional floods and cyclonic hazards causing loss of life and property – habitats of people are washed away by floods every year. Added to this is the highly onerous task of monitoring the huge length of embankments, lack of proper drainage facilities, inadequate electricity supply and lack of adequate communication facilities.The problems enumerated above need to be addressed on an urgent basis for greater resilience, ecological viability and sustain-ability in the Sunderbans, overcoming the obstacles faced due to the changing climatic scenario. Radical solutions to these problems may be achieved by taking the following measures: Construction of closure dams across the main estuaries and interconnecting them by strong dykes encircling the entire western Sundarbans; the electricity problem may be solved by generating electricity by utilisa-tion of unconventional energy (renewable energy) sources like wind, tides, solar energy etc. Eco tourism to be encouraged and devel-oped, as this would ultimately benefit the local people economically. The adherence to precepts necessary for maintaining ecological balance will obviously engender environmental equilibrium. A deep water international port may be constructed in the vicinity of the Sundarbans, considering the fact that the Kolkata Port and Haldia Port are facing huge siltation problem. This will automatically foster the growth of allied industries centring around these ports and give a boost to the economy.Detailed discussion regarding an overall development of The Sunderbans is given below.
282 Mechanism of Sugar Signaling in Plants   , Stephen K, Beena R, Manju RV, Viji MM and Roy Stepehn
Plants produce a wide range of sugars that are involved in growth and developmental processes. To coordinate and integrate all these processes plants have developed specific mechanisms. A complex network of metabolic and hormone signaling pathways is present in plants that are intimately linked to diverse sugar responses. One of the mechanisms that has been found to modulate actively with other systems is the ‘sugar signaling mechanism’. In order to integrate these changes in the different processes and en-vironmental conditions, plants have developed a mechanism to sense these ‘sugar signals’. While hormonal signals are generated at micro-molar concentrations, sugar signals are generated at milli-molar concentrations. The sugar signals modulate gene expression by acting on various kinases and phosphatases. Sugar signals are generated through metabolic processes such as relative concen-trations of carbohydrates and other nutrients, through the action of specific enzymes or through various sensors and transporters that are present in the nucleus, cytosol or on the surface of certain organelles.After detection of sugars by sensors, the information is passed on through signal transduction and amplifying cascades, resulting in appropriate responses. Signaling cascades ultimately lead to gene regulation. Sugars regulate gene expression by translating nutrient status to modulate growth and development with available carbohydrate content.
283 Characterization of Bacillus weihenstephanensis AGII: A Psychrotolerant Bacteria Isolated from Rhizosphere of Medicinal Plant Gentiana kurroo Royle , Neha Gautam, Pankaj Sharma, JC Rana and Mohar Singh
The beneficial bacteria present in the area around the plant roots. These are termed as Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR). These bacteria are useful to enhance plant growth and curb plant diseases. The objectives of the present study were to iso-late, identify and characterize PGPR traits in psychrotolerant bacteria native to rhizosphere of a threatened high valued medicinal plant Gentiana kurroo Royle. In total 10 bacterial isolates were isolated, out of which isolate AGII showed maximum antagonism against tested phytopathogens. Therefore, isolate AGII was selected further to study in vitro growth promoting attributes and for phylogenetic identification. Bacterial isolate AGII was identified as Bacillus weihenstephanensis by 16SrRNA gene sequence and has been registered in NCBI under the accession number MF593886. Plant growth promoting traits of this isolate were studied by per-forming following assays viz., Phosphate solubilization, Ammonia Production, HCN production, Protease production. The isolated bacterial strain was studied for its inhibitory potential against deadly plant pathogens by using a dual culture in vitro assay. In the present investigation, Bacillus weihenstephanensis MF593886 was tested against deadly plant pathogens viz., Alternaria solani MTCC 2101, Botrytis cinerea MTCC 2350, Fusarium oxysporum MTCC 7677, Rhizoctonia solani MTCC 4633, Colletotrichum gloeosporioidesMTCC 9664 and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum MTCC 8785. It is capable to produce siderophore, HCN, ammonia, proteases and has a po-tential to solubilize phosphates. The present study proposes the potential of Bacillus weihenstephanensis as a PGPR in the context of cold agro-ecosystems.
284 A (Not) New Way to Cope with the Diseases , Giovana Beger
The rising world population is getting agriculture even more intensive, with the use of fertilizers and products to pests and disease control. Due to the vast global information with the Internet, even more, people are looking for healthy products, more specifically organic fruits and vegetables. A problem present in the production is the occurrence of diseases in the field and post-harvest, getting production losses to the farmer and the seller. The most used way to cope with the diseases is the usage of chemical fungicides, since copper- and sulfur-based formulations until the novel synthetic compounds. These cannot be used on organic farms.
285 Effect of Different Chemicals on Eliminating the Dormancy Period of Freshly Harvested Seed Potatoes , Muhammad Junaid Zaghum, Ali Zohaib, Muhammad Nouman Khalid, Ghulam Muhy Ud Deen, Armaghan Ahmad and Syed Sajid Hussain Zaidi
A study was conducted to investigate the response of freshly harvested seed potatoes treated with Sugar (C12H22O11), Gibberellic Acid (C19H22O6), Thiourea (CH4N2S), and Ethanol (C2H5OH) to find out which chemical treatment has more effectiveness for the elimination of dormancy period. Freshly harvested seed potatoes were collected from Plant Virology Section Research Area, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad. Solanum tuberosum is a perennial because it is commercially propagated from tuber. In seed potato the normal dormancy period is 7-19 weeks. Results shows that treatment of 300g sugar powder in 600ml water eliminates the dormancy within 12-16 days at open light condition. Treatment with 600g sugar powder in 600ml water breaks the dormancy within 17-18 days at open light. Treatment with 300g sugar powder dry coating on wet surface of tuber eliminate the dormancy within 18-24 days at dark condition. Treatment with 1% TU and 1g GA3 in 1000ml solution can eliminate the dormancy within 18 days at open light and dark conditions. 250ml solution of EtOH can eliminate the dormancy period within 24-26 days at open light and semi dark condition. The application of dormancy breaking chemicals such as sugar, gibberellic acid, thiourea and ethanol induces metabolic changes that lead to dormancy elimination and also from those occurring when dormancy is eliminate naturally. The present study exposed that under open light condition treatment of 300g sugar powder in 600ml water solution gave best results of tubers sprouting as compared to other treatments.
286 Preparation and Quality Evaluation of Low-fat Mayonnaise by Using Hydrocolloid Gums and Olive Oil , Aaysha Ihsan, Hamda Javed and Muhammad Umar Javed
Commercial mayonnaise contains 70-80% oil that becomes the reason of many health problems. This study was conducted by keeping in view the most recent trend and its problems. The principal objective of this research was to establish stable mayonnaise with low fat by using hydrocolloid gums (xanthan gum, corn starch) as a fat replacer with olive oil which are also cost effective. So due to health and economic concerns, the formulation of healthier versions of mayonnaise are developing that have low fat with same stability and price like their counterparts. It is also important to properly choose the concentration of your food gum in terms of the consistency of LF mayonnaise, which can result in an elastic gum if you add too much gum. If you add too little gum and the whole water is not bound permanently then, the mayonnaise can appear as a fluffy, airy mass. Treatments T2 (0.50% XG), T3 (0.75% XG), T4 (1% CS) and T7 (XG:CS) showed the better results as compare to traditional full-fat mayonnaise in terms of physical and sensory characteristics. With the increased level of hydrocolloid, calorie contents decreased but high level of gum can also affect overall acceptability of low-fat mayonnaise. This research has significant effect in industrial/commercial level.
287 Molecular Regulation in Seed Development Influencing the Fiber Growth in Gossypium hirsutum L. , Muhammad Junaid Zaghum, Muhammad Nouman Khalid, Muhammad Zia ul Haq, Muhammad Tashfeen Gul, Ifrah Amjad and Muhammad Irfan
Cotton crop is mostly cultivated for fiber production, source of livestock meal and seed oil. The oil of cottonseed used as edible oil around the World after colza and soybean oil and ranked 3rd Worldwide. The quality of cottonseed mainly dependent on protein, oil content, minerals and seed composition. Therefore, However, it is necessary to keeping the acceptable oil content quality. The nutritional value and industrial usage of cottonseed is influences with formation of fatty acids in seed. There is still much unidentified physiological processes and genetic structures that enforce the levels of these metabolites in cottonseed. The expression of homoeologous genes is inappropriate when the epigenetics and intergenomic differences are induced by the genomic association of A and D progenitor in allotetraploid cotton. Signaling factors associated with cell growth, adaptation and development controls the expression of RNA during transcription. Transcriptional factor of MYB-domain encoded by degraded homologous mRNAs during mediation of miRNA that are utilized for fiber development and leaf initiation. From last many decades, scientists work on enhancement of seed and fiber quality. The main nutritional function of cottonseed is oil content and very extensive studies are ongoing on this value-added aspect. Major advancement is taken to increasing the quantitative amount of fatty acid accumulation, which is yet needed to strengthen the requirement and increases the demand of oilseeds. The main objective of this study is to understand the physiologically perspective of seed development and oil content accumulation. To understand the fiber biology to interpret the molecular events which activate or suppress the initiation of fibers from epidermis cells. Because of large genomic size, presence of low-density genetic map and restrictions in cotton transformation.
288 Management of Pink Bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) Using Mating Disruption Pheromone (PB Rope L) in Cotton , Roop Singh Meena, Pardeep Kumar, Bharat Lal Meena and Bhagwan Singh Meena
The efficacy of mating disruption pheromone (PB Rope L) was evaluated against pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) to monitoring pheromone traps catches as well as by sampling of bolls to record larval population and damage levels in cotton fields during Kharif 2016 and 2017, in north zone of India. This experiment was conducted in large plot in 10.0 ha and 4.0 ha area reserved as control. The main field T1 and T2 divided into two subplots T1A and T1B, T2C and T2D of equal size. In each of the subplots, six quadrates approximately 10x10 meter in the center at equal distance were marked. The treated fields were compared with control fields, three to four insecticides sprays in T1A and T1B, whereas 6 spray in T2C and 9 sprays were applied in T2D. The dispensers reduced pink bollworm catches in pheromone trap and reduced larval population and crop damage. Results showed that moth catches were highly suppressed in the treated fields by installation of the dispensers @ 685 PB Rope L at 50 days after crop sowing. Damage percentage was significantly reduced in treated fields as compared to control fields; Significant difference was observed in average seed cotton yield/ha. This study recommends the use of single application of pheromone dispenser at 50 days after crop sowing. These Rope were sufficient to maintain the moth catches and percent green boll infestation at the lowest level as compared to untreated field.
289 Needs of Agriculture Development for Sustainable Living Communities   , Salah Arafa
Agriculture Development is well recognized as the core for Global Sustainable Development. Its importance and influence on Food Security, Health, Environmental Security, and National Security is well researched and established.
290 Nanofertilizers in Agriculture   , Kaila Tara Meghana, MD Wahiduzzaman and Golla Vamsi  
Global population is rapidly increasing and is predicted to reach 9.6 billion by 2050 and the limited resources tend to push the sector forward demanding the development of a highly efficient agriculture thus allowing reduction of worldwide poverty and hunger [1]. To meet the food demands of this growing population the agriculture sector is being pressurized to assure food security. Hence chemical fertilizers are being considered as an inevitable source of plant nutrition for improving the crop production. This lead to a notion in farmers that using higher quantities of chemical fertilizers gains higher crop yields.   However, only less than half of the amount of applied fertilizers will be utilized by the crop whereas the remaining amount of fertilizer which is intended to be taken up by plant may get lost through leaching, become fixed in soil or contribute to water pollution which is even worse. According to recent statistical reports it has been observed that the key macronutrient elements Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium applied to the soil are lost at a rate of 40-70%, 80-90% and 50-90%, respectively, thus causing a considerable loss of applied resources [2]. Additionally, farmers tend to apply fertilizers repeatedly in order to achieve yields at desired levels, this overdose of chemicals counter acts and lead to decreased soil fertility and increased salt concentrations thereby causing future crop losses. Furthermore, irregular use of fertilizers without control on nutrient release patterns causes deterioration of product quality. Therefore, developing slow or controlled release fertilizers plays a crucial role not only in enhancing the crop production, productivity and quality, but also helps towards upgradation of sustainability in agricultural production. Given the unique properties of nanomaterilas such as high surface-to-volume ratio, controlled-release kinetics of nutrients to the targeted sites and sorption capacity, nanotechnology has a high importance for designing and using of new fertilizers. Nanofertilizers are nutrients encapsulated/coated with different types of nanomaterials for the control and slow delivery of one or more nutrients in order to satisfy the imperative nutrient requirements of plants [3]. These “smart fertilizers” are now being regarded as a promising alternative, to an extent that they are to be considered as preferred form of fertilizers over the conventional ones in several cases.
291 Regeneration of Sugarcane genotypes Under Different Level of Sodium Chloride Salt , Kuasha Mahmud, Nadira Islam, Asish Kumar Ghose, Md Abdul Azim, Md Rashedur Rahman Rajib and Md Jahirul Islam
The effects of Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with different Sodium Chloride salt (NaCl) concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mM) containing 2, 4-D (3 mg/l) along with green coconut water (10%) on explants (leaf sheath) of four sugar-cane genotypes were aimed for their callus formation ability and production of embryogenic callus. Besides, regeneration potential-ity of sugarcane genotypes including shooting and rooting ability under different levels of NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 mM) was evaluated. MS medium supplemented with 50 mM NaCl produced the highest callus (83.33%) in Isd 16 variety followed by BSRI Akh 41 (83%) and Mutant CC 37 M5 produced the lowest (66.66%)). But no callus was produced supplemented with 300 mM NaCl in all genotype. The highest shoot and root regeneration (91% and 92%) were obtained from MS medium fortified with 50 mM NaCl containing shooting media combination BAP (6-Benzylaminopurine) 2 mg/l + KN (Kinetin) 1 mg/l and rooting media NAA (1-Naphthaleneacetic acid) 5 mg/l respectively in BSRI Akh 41. On the other hand, little or no shoot and root were initiated from Isd 16, CC37 M5 and BSRI Akh 42 under above mentioned shooting and rooting media. Callus, shoot and root as well as regeneration ability of plant is highly correlated with callus, shoot and root formation. Significant differences were observed for callus, shoot and root regeneration capacity among all the four genotypes. It revealed that callus, shoot and root regeneration performance ability was decreased by increasing of NaCl concentration levels.
292 Research on the Effect of the Wall Materials of Microcapsules on the Heat Storage Process of the Phase Change Material in Microcapsules , Kuanbing Caozhu, Xiujun Yang and Changfa Ji
The wall materials of the microcapsules affect the heat storage process of the phase change material in microcapsules with a plate. In this paper, Fluent CFD software is used and solidification/melting model is chosen to carry out the simulation of the heat storage process of the phase change material in microcapsules under the condition of four different wall materials of microcapsules. The physical model of the phase change microcapsules with equal spacing in combination with a plate is established and the liquid vol-ume fraction and average temperature of the phase change material in microcapsules with time are analyzed. It can be concluded that when the phase change material is pure paraffin and its initial temperature is 324.15K, through the comparison of the liquid volume fraction of the phase change material in the process of phase change and the calculation of the heat storage capacity of phase change, it is concluded that when the wall material of microcapsules is urea formaldehyde resin, the amount of heat absorbed by the phase change material in the process of phase change is the most enormous, which is 7891.60901J. Thus, the urea formaldehyde resin is chosen as the most suitable wall material of microcapsule.
293 Outcrossing Characteristics and Yield Potentiality of Restorer Line of Rice , Md Nur Alam Siddique, MA Khaleque Mian and Umakanta Sarker
The present experiment was undertaken to study the statistical and genetic parameters, correlation coefficient, path coefficient of ten characters of restorer lines in rice and multivariate analysis of 18 characters of restorer lines in rice. Characters wise summaries were given below. Mean sum of square for anther length, anther breadth, pollen diameter, % pollen sterility, duration of anthesis, number of panicles per hill, days to maturity, number of filled spikelet per panicle, % spikelet sterility and grain yield per hill were highly significant due to genotypes in restorer line indicating wide range of variability among the restorer line for this traits. Low environmental effect and additive gene action were found in all these traits because σ2g and σ2p and the GCV and PCV were close to each other. Heritability, GA and GAPM was found high and moderate; all the traits indicate these traits will be effective for selection. High heritability, low GA and GAPM showed that both additive and environment influence of anther breadth, spikelet sterility percent and pollen diameter. Anther length showed significant positive correlation with anther breadth and significant negative correlation with duration of anthesis, number of filled spikelets per panicle and grain yield per hill both genotypic and phenotypic level and only significant positive genotypic correlation with pollen diameter and % pollen sterility. Anther breadth showed significant positive genotypic and phenotypic correlation with % pollen sterility and significant negative genotypic and phenotypic correlation with duration of anthesis and significant positive genotypic correlation with pollen diameter. Pollen diameter showed significant positive genotypic cor-relation with days to maturity and significant negative genotypic correlation with % pollen sterility, duration of anthesis, number of panicles per hill, spikelet sterility percent and grain yield per hill. % Pollen sterility showed significant positive σ2g and σ2p correla-tion with number of panicles per hill and significant negative σ2p correlation with duration of anthesis. Duration of anthesis showed significant positive σ2g and σ2p correlation with days to maturity. Number of panicles per hill showed significant positive genotypic and phenotypic correlation with grain yield per hill and significant positive genotypic correlation with spikelet sterility percent. In case of genotypic correlation days to maturity showed positive correlation with number of filled spikelets per panicle and spikelet sterility percent, and showed positive phenotypic correlation with spikelet sterility percent. Number of filled spikelets per panicle showed significant positive genotypic and phenotypic correlation with spikelet sterility percent and grain yield per hill. Significant positive genotypic correlation was observed in between spikelet sterility percent and grain yield per hill. High positive direct effect on grain yield per hill was observed in case of number of filled spikelets per panicle and number of panicle per hill and similar lower effect in case of duration of anthesis, anther breadth and pollen diameter. I observed days to maturity, anther length and % spikelet sterility had a direct negative effect on grain yield. Number of filled spikelets per panicle and number of panicles per hill was found as a main yield contribution character of the restorer line of rice because those characters have considerable σ2g, σ2p, GCV and PCV and others character.
294 Rainfall Amount Forecast for the Year 2021 for Marathawada, India , Anand M Sharan
This work discusses issues such as planting of crops based on availability of water. From literature survey it is determined that Marathawada has had severe water shortages,In this work, the rainfall amount is predicted based on, four methods which are (a) the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method, (b) the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method, (c) the Time Series method, and (d) the Root Mean Square (RMS) method. The predicted value is the average of four values obtained by these different methods. The average value this year will be slightly less than the aver-age of last 32 years
295 Genetic Diversity and Population Structure Among an Assorted Group of Genotypes Pertinent to Reproductive Stage Drought Stress in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) , Annamalai Anandan, Anumalla Mahender, Rameswar Prasad Sah, Shafina Haque, Sharat Kumar Pradhan, Pritesh Sundar Roy, Onkar Nath Singh and Jauhar Ali*
Water availability is one of the significant challenges in the present climate change scenario in rice cultivation. Consequently, the identification of suitable rice genotypes for drought tolerance through phenotypic and genotypic approaches has become indispens-able in rice research. In the present experiment, 76 rice accessions were evaluated for their morphological and yield attributed traits under drought stress at the reproductive stage for two years. The same set of genotypes was genotyped by using 36 SSR markers. The biplot graph has grouped the genotypes into two groups based on grain yield and spikelet sterility. Molecular genetic diversity (MGD) estimated the average number of the allele was 2.66 per locus and PIC of 0.67. Among the total 96 alleles, seven unique alleles and 18 rare alleles were found across 76 rice genotypes, and an expected heterozygosity or gene diversity ranged from 0.576 (RM237) to 0.01 (RM25368) with an average of 0.267. Further, STRUCTURE analysis of these genotypes were grouped into two sub-populations (at K=2) with a membership percentage of 56.7% in Pop1, and 43.3% in Pop2 and their fixation index (FST) values of subpopula-tions were 0.496 and 0.021 for Pop1 and Pop2, respectively. AMOVA results revealed that 3.6% of the total variation was identified among the populations and 96.4% was within the population. The genetic similarity estimation among 76 accessions varied from 0.0282 to 0.9679. The phenotypic and genotypic evaluation results revealed significant differences between the landraces and im-proved varieties for reproductive stage drought tolerance. Drought stress at the reproductive stage caused the significant reduction in plant height, grain yield, ear-bearing tillers per plant, total dry matter production, grain weight and increase in the percentage of spikelet sterility. Three drought-tolerant genotypes were identified viz., Jonha 349, Dhalasaita and N TeHao. Among the ten markers that showed a high level of allelic diversity, three viz., RM215, RM271, RM306, and RM237 were promising. Therefore, the identified donors and markers would be promising information for marker-assisted breeding for reproductive stage drought tolerant in rice.
296 Report on the Status of Ponds, It’s Liming and Fertilization Practices for Fish Production in Fish Super Zone, Rupandehi, Nepal , Min Bahadur Thapa Saru, Om Prakash Singh, Santosh Kandel, Sandeep Lamichhane and Puja Thapa
This survey was conducted to analyze the status of pond fertilization and liming on the fish super zone of Rupandehi, Nepal in 2020. It was conducted in four rural municipalities of Rupandehi namely Siyari, Mayadevi, Gaidahawa, and Sudhhodhan. Altogether, 80 randomly selected households of fish farmers, 20 from each site in the study area were surveyed with the help of semi-structured questionnaires. The data collected was encoded and then tabulated and analyzed using MS- Excel 2013 and SPSS 25 software. To accomplish the study objectives, descriptive statistics, chi-square, and t-test were used. Respondent farmers were categorized into small (n = 47) and large farmers (n = 33) based on average pond size. The average pond size was 0.69 ha. About 31.25 percent of respondents were newly involved in fish farming occupation i.e. less than 5 years of experience. About 66.3 percent of the fish farmers had received training on pond fertilization, liming, and fish production. The majority of respondent fish farmers i.e. 95 percent used farm yard manure (FYM) as a major source of organic fertilizer for pond fertilization. The average amount of FYM use was 3928.81 kg per ha (1.56 times a year). Similarly, other organic fertilizers used were oil cake, poultry manure, and goat manure with average use of 92.08, 115.91, and 170.91 kg per ha with frequency use of 2.25, 0.26, and 0.71 times a year respectively. Similarly, the average amount of urea use was 47.19 kg per ha (7.95 times a year) and that of di ammonium phosphate (DAP) use was 47.12 kg per ha (8.66 times a year). The average amount of lime used was 564.62 kg per ha (1.43 times a year). The majority of households i.e. 88.8 percent believed that pond fertilization and liming is useful however only 22.5 percent of fish farmers knew about inorganic fertilizers and their constituents. The major problem faced by fish farmers during fish production was the timely unavailability of lime and fertili-zers. Following unavailability of quality fish seeds and feed, water shortage, the incidence of diseases and pests and market problems were other prime ones.
297 Restoration of Soil and Environment Through Modern Tools of Biotechnology   , Jyoti Prakash Sahoo, Ambika Prasad Mishra and Kailash Chandra Samal
Microorganisms have been extensively evaluated in several bio-logical based products made available to farmers for applications in agricultural development. These conventional developments in biotechnology, primarily designed to increase agricultural produc-tivity and reducing synthetic chemical inputs, have gained inter-est as techniques for enhancing and preserving the status of soil health. In contrast to the concept of modern biotechnology, which involves deliberate manipulation of genes from different species to produce transgenic organisms using recombinant DNA or direct nucleic acid injection. In this context, plant phenotype character-istics have historically been selected, whereas significant benefi-cial interactions between plants and microbes that influence soil health have been ignored during selection of elite crop variety. The concept of soil biotechnology was described as the manipulation of soil microorganisms and the analysis of their metabolic pro-cesses to maximize the productivity of crop by Lynch in the year 1983.
298 Screening of Local, Improved and Hybrid Rice Genotypes Against Leaf Blast Disease (Pyricularia Oryzae) At Bangaun, Lamahi, Dang, Nepal , Surakshya Bohora, Sagar Karki, Basistha Acharya and Suman Bohara
Rice blast disease can be prevented by spraying chemicals, by a reduction in the use of excessive nitrogenous fertilizers, and by adopting biocontrol methods. The use of host resistance varieties to P. oryzae is reasonable and the most economical alternative and environmentally favorable way to control rice blast disease. The objective of this study was to assess the level of resistance on differ-ent rice genotypes at the seedling stage against blast disease in field conditions at Bangaun, Lamahi, Dang, Nepal. Locally available, improved, and hybrid rice genotypes were screened at the seedling stage against rice blast disease (Pyricularia oryzae) at Bangaun, Lamahi, Dang, Nepal in the summer season.
299 Morphological Characterization and Genetic Diversity Analysis of wild Musa Collections from Garo Hills, Meghalaya by SPAR approach   , Anju Hajong, Sohini Deb, Pronomi M Sangma, CP Suresh and Satyawada Rama Rao
North east India is a major biodiversity hotspot as it is bestowed with various natural resources. Meghalaya, in particular is known to house many horticultural crops, out of which, the great diversity of Musa sp is highly significant. In the present study, 21 genotypes of Musa sp. were collected from five distcits of Garo Hills of Meghalaya, India and were analyzed to understand their morphologi-cal and genetic variation. The intra-specific relationship prevalent among them was also evaluated. Some important morphological parameters were selected to understand the variation present in the collected genotypes. Further, three single primer based DNA markers viz. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR) and Directed Amplifications of Mini-satellite DNA (DAMD) were chosen for the diversity analysis. A total of 33 primers (17 RAPD, 10 ISSR, 6 DAMD) were selected, which yielded 207 DNA amplicons. High level of polymorphism was observed among the genotypes. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values of the markers were similar, ranging from 0.34-0.39. The resolving power (Rp) and marker index (MI) in case of both ISSR and DAMD were found to be similar (~6.9 and 2.4 respectively). High level of genetic diversity values were observed in the population genetic parameters, with a significant Gene flow estimates (Nm>1) of 1.7494, high Nm (1.7494) and Gst (0.2223) values. Nei's gene diversity (h) and Shannon's information index (I) values varied between 0.1998-0.2976 and 0.2981-0.4391 respectively, further establishing the high variation among the genotypes. Analysis of molecular variations (AMOVA) also revealed high level of genetic variation within the populations (97%). The dendrogram and the principal component analysis (PCoA) generated based on the Single Primer Amplification Reaction (SPAR) data revealed high intermixing of the wild Musa genotypes
300 Influence of Telfairia mosaic virus on Growth, Yield and Phytonutrients of Amaranthus viridis L. , Mofunanya AAJ, Ogar V B, Udosen I R and Owolabi A T
Amaranthus viridis is a vegetable crop of the Nigerian people with great economic and medicinal potentials. A study was con-ducted to investigate effect of Telfairia mosaic virus on growth, yield and phytonutrients of Amaranthus viridis. Seeds of A. viridis were obtained, sown and on germination inoculated with TeMV, effect on growth and yield assessed at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks after inoculation (WAI), minerals and vitamins analyzed at 8 WAI. Results revealed that TeMV decreased growth and yield of A. viridis by 58.8% (leaf area), shoot height (59.0%), number of primary shoot (51.5%), number of leaves produced (60.5%), leaf fresh weight (65.7%) and leaf dry weight (54.9%) at 12 WAI. Decrease in shoot fresh weight was 30.2%, root dry weight (22.4%). At 4 WAI, rela-tive growth rate suffered reduction of 33.3%, net assimilation rate 40.2% while leaf area ratio had a decrease of 42.1% at 12 WAI. The virus caused reduction in copper, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc and sodium, effect on potassium, and manganese was not significant. Decrease in leaf Cu was 91.0%, stem (90.5%) and root (90.1%). The virus engendered drastic reduction in thiamine, pyridoxine, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, niacin, pantothenic acid, folate, α-tocopherol and riboflavin. Thiamine had reduction of 62.0% (leaf), 52.0% (stem), and 40.7% (root). The presence of medicinal nutrients in all plant parts affirmed A. viridis whole plant usage in traditional medical practice. Reduction in economic and medicinal potentials confirmed negative impact of TeMV on A. viridis neces-sitating its control.
301 Phenolic Acid and Flavonoid Patterns in Twelve Sechium edule Varieties , Jyothi Ramesh Jain, Shiragambi Hanumantgowda Manohar, Tapas Kumar Roy and Kumudini Belur Satyan
Fruit pulp of twelve Sechium edule Indian accessions were analyzed for phenolic acid and flavonoid constituents. The quantitative evaluation was performed using liquid chromatography mass spectrophotometer method, which showed significant differences in the composition of phenolic acids and flavonoids among accessions. Vanillic acid was the predominant phenolic acid in most of the accessions ranging from 269.28 to 4080.82 μg/g. High amounts of vanillic acid in accession SEC-11 (4080.82 ± 130.92 μg/g) and SEC-06 (1825.46 ± 24.54 μg/g), protocatechuic acid (1736.59 ± 94.90 μg/g) in SEC-09 and syringic acid (1676.97 ± 70.35 μg/g) in SEC-20 was detected respectively. The highest amount of flavonoid present was catechin in the accessions SEC-36 (75.83 ± 4.37 μg/g) followed by SEC-20 (19.43 ± 0.64 μg/g). Data were analyzed using principal component analysis method and the obtained scoring plot showed that all nine accessions had formed one cluster. Discrimination of metabolic profiles of different S. edule accessions us-ing principal component analysis showed that accessions grouping was consistent with the LC-MS results obtained. This method of estimation of metabolites can be successfully employed enabling genetic grouping of S. edule accessions in an effective manner for breeding studies.
302 Indigenous Knowledge Management vs Adam’s Knowledge Management , D Prabha
Indigenous knowledge is local knowledge that social capital of the poor people, exploring and demonstrating their life. It is unique, traditional, local knowledge that exists within and is de-veloped around the specific conditions of people indigenous to a particular geographic area in a particular period [1]. Indigenous knowledge is the consequence of practical knowledge and it con-tinually influenced by internal creativity and experimentation. It is found to be socially attractive, economically profitable, sustain-ability and involves minimum risk to rural farmers and producers.Besides, indigenous knowledge systems provide a frame for refer-ence in strengthening agricultural extension programmes. There-fore identifying, documenting and incorporating indigenous tech-nical knowledge in agriculture is essential to achieve sustainable agricultural development.
303 Proximate and Phyto-chemical Composition of Some Indigenous Fruits and Nut (Seeds) from Abia State, Nigeria , Okwulehie Ikechukwu Cyriacus and Ukasoanya Chidiadi Gideon
The chemical composition and antimicrobial evaluation of three tropical seeds African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla(BENTH), African bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis var gabonensis (Baill), and African walnut (Tetracarpidium conophorum (Hutch and Dalziel), were investigated. Raw and cooked portions of each of the seeds of the P. macrophylla, I. gabonensis var gabonensis and T. conophorum, were used for the instigation. The parameters considered were proximate composition, mineral content, phytochemical determination. Results obtained showed that the composition varied significantly between the raw and cooked seeds. Generally, the moisture, Protein, Fat, Fibre Ash and Carbohydrate composition of the raw seeds were higher than those obtained from the cooked seeds. Protein content was higher in T. conophorum (28.59 ± 0.10 raw and 24.09 ± 0.10 cooked), followed by that of P. macrophylla (22.46 ± 0.10, raw and 20.54 ± 0.10 cooked) the least was in I. gabonensis var gabonensis (13.59 ± 0.10, raw and 11.20 ± 0.17, cooked). I. gabonensis var gabonensis contained more fats (51.53 ± 0.19 for raw and 46.45 ± 0.13 for, cooked) than P. macrophylla (43.06 ±0.09, for raw and 41.90 ± 0.05 for, cooked). T. conophorum had less fat of 38.55 ± 0.09 for raw and 31.89 ± 0.17 for, cooked. Similarly, I. gabonensis var gabonensis contained more Carbohydrates (24.15 ± 0.10 for raw and 32.54 ± 0.37 for, cooked) than T. conophorum andP. macrophylla with 11.81 ± 0.33 for raw and 26.87 ± 1.48 for cooked, 18.74 ± 0.31 for raw and 24.16 ± 0.19 for cooked, respectively. The phytochemicals considered in the investigation were, Alkaloids, Flaonoids, Tannins, Saponins, Hydrogen cyanide (HCN), Phytates and oxalates. The composition of these chemicals took the same trend as with the Nutritional contents. The raw seeds containedsignificantly more of the chemicals than the cooked portions. Raw T. conophorum had more Alkaloids (1.57 ± 0.07) than P. macro-phylla (1.33 ± 0.02) and I. gabonensis var gabonensis (1.19 ± 0.03). Their cooked portions contained 0.35 ± 0.03, 0.40 ± 0.03 and 0.27 ± 0.01, respectively. The tren applied to Flavonoids. T. conophorum had more Flavonoids 1.07 ± 0.04 (raw), 0.25 ± 0.03 (cooked), P.macrophylla (0.99 ± 0.41, raw) 0.25 ± 0.01(cooked) and I. gabonensis var gabonensis (0.85 ± 0.03 raw), 0.21 ± 0.02(cooked). Tannins content for raw P. macrophylla and raw T. conophorum is the same (0.67 ± 0.01) and higher than that of I. gabonensis var gabonensis(0.51 ± 0.03), T. conophorum while the values for their cooked portions were 0.21 ± 0.02(P. macrophylla) 0.15 ± 0.02 (T. conopho-rum) and 0.13 ± 0.01 (I. gabonensis var gabonensis). The values for saponins were 0.43 ± 0.01 and 0.11 ± 0.01, 0.31 ± 0.02 and 0.07 ± 0.01, 17 ± 0.01and0.04 ± 0.01 for raw and cooked P. macrophylla, T. conophorum and I. gabonensis var gabonensis respectively.RawP. macrophylla hadvery significantly high content of HCN (14.02 ± 0.18) followed by T. conophorum (9.33 ± 0.01) and (5.69 ± 0.29) I. gabonensis var gabonensis. Cooked I. gabonensis var gabonensis had least HCN (1.31 ± 0.07 (followed by T. conophorum (2.21 ± 0.22) Phytate and oxalate contents of raw and cooked P. macrophylla were 0.61 ± 0.03 and 0.17 ± 0.01 and 0.45 ± 0.02 and 0.13 ± 0.02respectively. For I. gabonensis var gabonensis 0.35 ± 0.02 and 0.11 ± 0.01, 0.43 ± 0.01 and 0.10 ± 0.01 respectively and T. conophorum, 0.50 ± 0.03and 0.12 ± 0.01and 0.51 ± 0.02 and 0.13 ± 0.01 respectively
304 Influence of Growing Media on Vegetative, Floral and Bulb Parameters of Crown Lily (Fritillaria Imperialis L.) , Reyaz Ahmad Bhat, ZA Bhat, Sadaf Rafiq, IT Nazki, FU Khan, Neelofar, ZA Rather, Nasir Masoodi, Qazi Altaf and Rauoof Ahmad Rather
An experiment entitled “Standardization of Growing Media for Pot Culture of Crown Lily (Fritillaria imperialis L.)’’ was carried out at the Floricultural experimental field SKUAST-K during the year 2017-18. The investigation involved 11 treatment combinations (T1= Soil/control, T2=Soil + Sand 1:1, T3 = Soil + Sand 2:1, T4 = Soil +Sand +FYM 1:1:1, T5 = Soil + Sand + FYM 1:1:2, T6 = Soil +Sand + Vermicompost1:1:1, T7 = Soil + Sand + Vermicompost 1:1:2, T8 = Soil +Sand + Sheep manure 1:1:1, T9 = Soil + Sand + Sheep manure 1:1:2, T10 = Soil + Sand + Forest litter 1:1:1 and T11 = Soil +Sand + Forest litter 1:1:2) laid out in triplicate Completely Randomized De-sign (CRD). The results of the study revealed that the treatment T11 (Soil +Sand + Forest litter 1:1:2) significantly improved vegetative, floral and yield attributes of crown lily. Maximum plant height(73.47 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (63.33), floret length (5.87 cm), weight of main bulb (149.25 g), number of bulblets per bulb (2.00) was recorded in treatment T11 (Soil +Sand + Forest litter 1:1:2) while as the minimum plant height (61.00 cm), number of leaves plant-1 (50), floret length (4.33 cm), weight of main bulb (141. g), number of bulblets bulb-1 (1.00) was recorded in treatment T1 (control/Soil).
305 Development of a Novel In-vitro Protocol for Micro propagation of Tomato Male Sterile Line (Shalimar FMS-1) of Kashmir Valley India , Syed Mazahir Hussain, Khursheed Hussain, Ajaz Ahmad Malik, Amjad M. Hussaini, Syeda Farwah, Majid Rashid and Rauoof Ahmad Rather
The present study aimed to develop a novel, efficient and cost effective protocol for in-vitro micro propagation of tomato male sterile line and consisted of two experiments viz., Standardization of protocol for sterilizing the explants for in vitro micro propaga-tion of tomato male sterile line (Shalimar FMS-1) and development of protocol for in vitro shoot and root regeneration in tomato male sterile line in a single medium. Among various sterilization treatments, sodium hypochlorite (1.0%) for 45 seconds showed the high-est survival percentage of explants (100% for hypocotyl and 91.66% for single node cutting) and minimum contamination (16.17% for hypocotyl and 17.22% in case of single node cutting). Among twenty-seven modified MS media treatment combinations, the treat-ment combination T-14 (MS medium supplemented with calcium D pantothenate 2 mg l-1 + calcium chloride 440 mg l-1 + gibberillic acid 0.4 mg l-1) resulted in maximum root and shoot regeneration, recorded maximum shoot and root length. The protocol developed is therefore proposed for micropropagation of tomato male sterile line Shalimar FMS-1 from the tomato explants in a single modified MS medium overcoming the requirement of two MS media, one for root regeneration and the other for shoot regeneration thus sav-ing more than 50% of the time and media required for microplant regeneration This protocol overcomes the inefficient, expansive, time consuming and cumbersome nature of already available protocols which require two media (rooting and shooting media) while this proposed protocol ensures complete root and shoot regeneration from an explant (single node cutting/ hypocotyl) in a single modified MS medium
306 Assessment of Growth and Yield Performance of Different Rice Genotypes at Baniyani (Kachankawal-6), Jhapa , Purnima Puri, Santosh Marahatta, Basanta Khanal and Rakshya Poudel
The performance and productivity of rice crop is influenced by the genotype of the crop which is also location specific. A field experiment was conducted to recognize the suitable rice genotypes in terms of yield and performance at Baniyani, Jhapa. The experi-ment was carried out in RCBD design with three replication and eight treatments (genotypes). Two genotypes were used as check: Hardinath-1 for yield and earliness while Chaite-5 for quality whereas remaining six were pipeline genotypes namely: IR16L1636, IR98846-2-1-4-3, IR16L1831, IR15L1544, 1R16L1411 and IR-10N-118. There were 24 experimental units each of 9 m2. Various data including Plant height (cm), Number of tiller (/m2), Effective tiller (/m2), Panicle length(cm), Number of grain per panicle, Sterility (%), Thousand grain weight (gm), Seed length (cm), Seed diameter (cm), Grain yield (kg), Straw yield (kg), Harvest index (%), Num-ber of borer and smut infestation (/m2) and all results were significant at all parameters except for number of tiller at vegetative growth, panicle length (cm) and sterility (%). Earliness was observed in Hardinath-1, plant height was high in IR16L1831, number of tiller was found more in Chaite-5, number of effective tiller was high in IR98846-2-1-4-3, panicle length was observed long in IR-10N-118, number of grain per panicle was more in Chaite-5, sterility was also high in Chaite-5, thousand grain weight of IR16L1831 was high, seed length was found high in IR16L1831 while seed diameter of IR16L1636 was more. Likewise, grain yield of Hardi-nath-1 was high, straw yield was high in IR16L1831, biological yield high in IR98846-2-1-4-3 and harvest index high in Hardinath-1.
307 The Importance of Determining the Soil Moisture Reserve , Cojocaru Olesea
Calculation of the dynamics of soil moisture is used in hydro-logical models to calculate the inflow of water into the channel network, in hydrophysical models to take into account the physical processes of moisture movement and evaporation, as well as in ag-rometeorological models to obtain information on the processes of moisture and desiccation of the soil of an agricultural field
308 Challenges Related to the Conversion to Ecological Agriculture of Agricultural Households , Cojocaru Olesea
Farmers who apply traditional practices can grow different crops in a dense system, mixed on the same piece of land that changes crop randomly. Several animals can be kept, such as chick-ens, pigs, cattle, sheep, which scatter manure in their feeding plac-es, thus providing small amounts of plant fertilizers, and the use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides is very low. Usually, for these farmers, the land area is small. Crops may be enough to feed the family, and some may be sold for current income. These farmers al-ready carry out certain practices of organic farming, relying on the farm’s own resources, cultivating different crops simultaneously and raising animals. However, there are practices that clearly dis-tinguish these households from organic farms.
309 Reserves of Productive Moisture in Soils of Republic of Moldova , Cojocaru Olesea
The main sources of water entering the soil are precipitation, condensation of vaporous water from the atmosphere and ground-water. It is known that not all the amount of atmospheric precipita-tion gets into the soil. Liquid precipitation can drain off as a result of surface runoff. The amount of their losses depends on many fac-tors, the most important of which are: the angle of inclination of the surface, the intensity and amount of incoming precipitation, the physical properties of the soil, as well as the degree of projec-tive soil coverage by plants. The redistribution of solid precipita-tion over the territory is also rather uneven due to wind transport, the snow-holding capacity of plants and various kinds of barriers.
310 Terrace Gardening , Praneetha Gupta Komuravelli
Growing of fruits, flowers and vegetables in the terraces or balconies is known as terrace gardening
311 Overview of Economic Development of Africa , Stephen Awuah Baffour
Everyone makes or has ambitions, But only few will succeed, the rest get caught in the gab of intentions and action. Africa is a great continent with lots of prospect. Africa is one of the richest continent in terms of agriculture, minerals and culture but remains the poorest continent. Most Africans don’t accept that real battle grounds is in the mind.
312 Information Filtering and Organisation in Social Microblogging Sites , Soumi Dutta
Online social microblogging sites, such as Twitter (https://twitter.com), Tumblr (http://www.tumblr.com), and Sina Weibo (https://weibo.com) are very popular platforms for information exchange on the Web today. These micro blogging sites have be-come trendy communication tools, enabling rapid information ex-change. Vast amounts of information are generated on these sites every day through economic, academic and social activities. This crowd-sourced information can be utilised for diverse applica-tions, ranging from market analysis, fraud detection, detection of spammers and spam posts, characterization or grouping of user according to their behavior, extraction of important news and customer retention to production control and science explora-tion. Data extracted from microblogs are increasingly being used to build real-time search and recommender systems, and services which mine and summarize public reactions to events. Side by side with the diverse applications, microblogging sites also bring in sev-eral challenges in utilizing the crowd-sourced data, notably need for filtering out malicious content posted by spammers and need for organizing the plethora of information.
313 On-farm Rice Straw Burning: Its Prevention and Solution , Sourav Ghosal, Srabani Ghosal, Jyoti Ranjan Rath and MK Ghosal
On-farm burning of rice straw is at present an increasing concern in India where, rice is cultivated widely and the staple food for almost all people of the country. Rice straw is therefore considered to be a sustainable bio-resource as it is available and generated adequately because of the cultivation of the crop twice in a year in major parts of India. Farmers are forced to use combines to com-plete the harvesting work of the crop within a short period due to the shortage of labour, unpredicted rainfall and natural disaster frequently occurring during the period of crop harvesting. No other option lies with the farmers but to burn the loose straw, gener-ated after combine harvesting, for preparing their fields ready for performing the sowing operation of the next crop. This practice re-sults into the emission of greenhouse gases, causing adverse effects on the environment and becomes a major concern for the whole country. Hence this paper discusses the suitable technologies for utilization of dumped loose straw in the field, in an environmentally sustainable manner and thus preventing the practice of on-farm burning
314 Manihot esculenta (Crantz)’ Diversity Management by Peaysants in Pissa and Damara’s Districts in the Central African Republic (A Comparative Approach) , Gougodo De Mon-Zoni Julie Léancy, Kosh-Komba E, Bombo-Yongo, Zaman M, Touckia GI, Zinga I, Semballa S, Mololi A, Batawila K and Akpagana K
Understanding knowledge and know-how of peasants’ producers is important for the conducting efficient programs of agricul-tural development and appropriate research. The aim of this study is to analyze strategies of managing the diversity of cassavas by peasants through a comparative approach in the scale of the two districts that are characteristics of agroclimatic zones in the for-est and in the savannah. An inquiry done with 420 peasants who are producers in 30 villages respectively in these district allowed censing Thirty-six (36) varieties among which 05 elites cultivated in the two districts. The various names given to the cultivars is linked to sociocultural facts, to introducers, to advantages obtained through cultivating manioc, to their origins, to the vegetative cycle and to the tastes. Highly significant differences have been observed in the number of cultivars in the two districts and vary from 2 to 13 per village (an average of 6) in the area of study. Variation between households is weak, from 1 to 3 cultivars (an average 2). The two districts have registered loss in cultivars. The number of cultivars that disappeared varies from 0 to 7 (an average of 3) per village. The rate of the diversity’s loss has an average of 18.42% and varies between 0% to 75%, according to the villages. This loss of diversity is mainly due to the cultivars’ agronomic characteristics (long vegetative cycle, 34%) and to the introduction of new varieties (25%). Managing this culture is still traditional in the area of study, though many efforts have been done by institutions and spread and research services in the distribution of cuttings in areas where they are cultivated. The perception of associating cultures in the area of study is considered as a means of managing the cultivable space out crops and not that of managing the soil’s fertility. Constraints of production (all over 8) can be reduced by using healthy cultivars and following technical advice. The study reveals the existence of an important diversity. Samples of collected cultivars gives 29 local accessions and 07 ameliorated varieties.
315 Modern Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Production Potentiality through a Sorts of Management Practice , Atik Ahmed, Md Masud Rana Parvej, Md Hafiz All Amin, Alok Kumar Paul and Md Asaduzzaman Khan
The purpose of the research is to evaluate the production performance of transplanted modern rice using organic manure and inorganic fertilizer with water management. The research activity was completed by following Two (2) factors split plot design (SPD) with three replications. The treatments were factor A: two irrigations (I1= Continuous flooding; I2= Alternate wetting and drying) arranged in the main plots, whereas factor B: 8 different doses of fertilizer + manure (T0: Control, T1: 100% N100P15K45S20Zn2, T2: 50% NPKSZn +5-ton cowdung/ha, T3: 70% NPKSZn + 3-ton cowdung/ha, T4: 50% NPKSZn + 5-ton compost/ha, T5: 70% NPKSZn +3-ton compost/ha, T6: 50% NPKSZn + 3.5-ton poultry manure/ha and T7: 70% NPKSZn + 2.1-ton poultry manure/ha) settled in the sub-plots. The finding of the research revealed that the irrigation practices had not any significant effect but different doses of fertilizer and manure had significant outcomes on rice production. The highest numbers of effective tillers/hill (9.13), plant height (119.79 cm), panicle length (27.96 cm), 1000 grain wt. (21.67g), grain yield (5.12 t/ha) and straw yield (10.1 t/ha) were found from (50% NPKSZn plus 5-ton cowdung/ha), (70% NPKSZn plus 3-ton cowdung/ha), (70% NPKSZn plus 3-ton compost/ha), (50% NPKSZn plus 5-ton compost/ha), (70% NPKSZn plus 2.1-ton poultry manure/ha) and (100% N100P15K45S20Zn2), respectively. The grain yield percent increase (38.3%) was recorded from (70% NPKSZn plus 2.1-ton poultry manure/ha). The grain yield was higher because of organic +inorganic fertilizers as compared to chemical fertilizer. Moreover, the combined result of irrigation with fertilizer and manure was significantly influenced in yield. The highest grain yields (5.78 t/ha) were recorded from (Alternate wetting and drying with 70% NPKSZn plus 2.1-ton poultry manure/ha). The transplanted rice grain and straw nutrient concentrations were significantly affected by the application of fertilizer and manure. Finally, it can be recommended (70% NPKSZn plus 2.1-ton poultry manure/ha) for effective production of modern transplanted rice cultivation.
316 Effect of Some Rhizobium Strains on Fenugreek Growth and Biological Control of Sclerotinia Stem Rot of Fenugreek Caused by Sclerotinia trifoliorum , Hemissi Imen, Hachana Amira, Sonia Mejri and Arfaoui Hanen
Fenugreek is an annual leguminous crop grown for hay and grains in Tunisia. It is also considered as a valuable rotation crop with cereals. Sclerotinia rot was observed in production fields since 2010. The aim of this work is to study the antagonistic activity of different Rhizobium strains against Sclerotinia trifoliorum in dual culture in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. Among the 32 strains tested, 26 isolates had effective control on Sclerotinia trifoliorumin vitro. In order to study the biological control mechanisms, the Rhizobium strains ability to produce volatile compounds and to solubilize phosphate were investigated. The results showed that 18 strains were able to solubilize phosphorus and 19 strains produced volatile compounds. In pot trials, the percentage of fenugreek plants inoculated with different rhizobia showed significant reduce sclerotinia stem rot symptoms compared to the uninoculated plants. Among these rhizobiums, the strain Soli proved efficient against the pathogen in vitro and in pot experiments. The results promise the use of rhizobia for protection of fenugreek against Sclerotinia trifoliorum.
317 Climate-smart Agriculture: A Response to Climate Change , Mehrdad Niknami
Climate change is one of the biggest challenges to human be-ings. Agriculture is climate-dependent and it definitely affects climate change; therefore, the activities of rural residents such as farmers and those who are active in agribusinesses interact with climate change. Climate change affects various productive, eco-nomic, social, environmental, and human aspects; for example, in-crease in greenhouse gas emissions, changes in the usual precipi-tation patterns and their improper distribution, and temperature fluctuations.
318 Mycoremediation by Oyster Mushroom   , Nidhi Akkin
Oyster mushroom is the Pleurotus species, which is a well-known fungus that can be used in bioremediation of the soil con-taminated by pesticides and heavy metals in ecosystem. Cultiva-tion of this mushroom is an age-old practice. Though the biological remediation properties were known from a very long time, as long as the period of world war one, but only a little was done to com-mercialize it or incorporate it in our daily lives. The absorption po-tential of Pleurotus species is still to be known to the fullest extent.
319 Plant Growth Promoting and Biocontrol Potential of Pseudomonas sp. Strains on Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Plant , Mounika Nagabhairava, Ali Shaik Zulfikar, Sandhya Vardharajula and Sai Shiva Krishna Prasad Vurukonda
Extensive studies on the use of biocontrol agents (BCA’s) to control diseases caused by plant pathogenic microorganism, to re-duce the over usage of chemical inputs and to minimize broad use of fungicides, which leads to resistance in plant pathogens. In sustainable agriculture, plant growth promoting (PGP), and BCA’s have emerged as eco-friendly alternatives to most of the chemical pesticides. In the present study, six Pseudomonas spp. strains were screened for various PGP traits viz., Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA), Phosphate solubilization, siderophore activity, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production and furthermore the strains were characterized for in vitro antifungal activity against various plant pathogenic fungi, drought, and temperature tolerance. The strains P21-ABF and P22-DSK has shown effective PGP traits and antagonistic activity against Rhizoctoniasolani and Fusariumoxysporum. The most pro-spective strains P21-ABF and P22-DSK were selected to perform in planta biocontrol studies on sorghum seeds. The most prospec-tive strain P21-ABF upon molecular characterization was identified as Pseudomonasaeruginosa.
320 Seasonality and Production of Poultry Meat in Owerri Urban South-Eastern Nigeria , Akagha NU, Onyegbule UO, Nwaiche CB, Azuike PA and Okeke RN
The study examined seasonality and poultry meat production in Owerri urban, South eastern Nigeria. Therefore the study focused on effects of seasons on production of poultry meat. Quasi experimental research design was employed in the study. Data on rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and birds sold (meat produced) was collected for a period of 16 years (2004-2019). Results shows, that poultry meat production revealed a weak correlation with temperature and relative humidity (-0.74 and-0.62) respectively and an R-square of 64.7% which shows higher production of poultry meat in the rainy seasons. The trend analysis revealed variability in poultry meat production across the seasons of the year for the span under study (2004-2019). In conclusion, seasons of the year have effects on production of poultry meat in the study area within the period under investigation. It is recommended that farmer’s should adequately feed their birds and maintain good sanitation/hygiene for improved production.
321 Soil and Plant Nutrient Status as Influenced by Phosphorus Biofertilizers in Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.)   , Prasanth B, Hemalatha S, Prabhakara Reddy G and Nagamadhuri K V
A field trial entitled “Evaluation of biofertilizers for phosphorus economy in sweet corn (Zea mays L.)” was executed during kharif, 2018 on sandy loam soils of S.V. Agricultural College, Tirupati campus of Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University. The experiment was structured in a randomized block design with ten treatments and three replications. The different experimental treatments con-sists different phosphorus management practices. Phosphorus levels failed to exert significant influence on nitrogen and potassium content of sweet corn. The higher post-harvest soil available nitrogen and phosphorus status was noticed with 100% recommended dose of phosphorus (RDP) + Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (AM) @ 12.5 kg ha-1 + Phosphorus Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) @ 5 kg ha-1 (T4). Higher post-harvest soil available potassium was registered with 100% RDP + AM @ 12.5 kg ha-1 (T2). Application of 50% RDP + PSB @ 5 kg ha-1 (T8) resulted in lower post - harvest soil nitrogen and phosphorus, in comparison with the remaining treatments tested. Higher partial factor productivity of phosphorus (Pfp) was recorded with 50% RDP + AM @ 12.5 kg ha-1 + PSB @ 5 kg ha-1 (T10). Con-siderably lower partial factor productivity of phosphorus was registered with 100% RDP (T1).
322 Vertical Distribution of Soils Fertility of Sagarpali and Chitbadagaon Village of Ballia District, Uttar Pradesh , Rahul Kumar, Ashok Kumar Singh and Anil Kumar Singh
An investigation was carried out for Characterization of soils of Sagarpali and Chitbadagaon village of Ballia District (U.P.). Depth wise soil samples were collected from two selected villageviz. Sagarpali and Chitbadagaon. From both Sagarpali and Chitbadagaon pedons soil sample were collected from 0 - 20, 20 - 41, 41 - 61, 61 - 81, 81 - 101, 101 - 127, 127 - 152 and 152 - 177 cm depths and in this respect a soil profile was opened in each village. Standard method was followed for analysis of physico-chemical parameter of soil. Results revealed that pH of soil found to be slightly acid to slightly alkaline where EC was in normal range. Bulk density of soil found be 1.40 - 1.54 Mg m-³ and water holding capacity 36.89 - 47.79%. Organic carbon content varied from 0.13 - 0.71%. The soil was slightly moderately calcareous (0.36 - 2.34 CaCO3%). Available N, P, K, and S content in soil varied from 106.62 - 304 kg ha-1, 6.81 - 11.10 mgkg-1, 240.8 - 403.2. kg ha-1 and 4.32 - 8.35 mgkg-1 respectively. The texture of soil was found to be clayey to clay loamy
323 Neo-liberalism and Structural Adjustment Programs: Effects of Institutional Reforms on Agriculture Based Economy in Ethiopia , Wuletaw Mekuria
Neo-liberalism is a set of market oriented policy. Structural adjustment program is development thinking of neo-liberalism em-barked upon the global economic disaster put into operation in Africa and Ethiopia as well. In 1991, structural adjustment program was adopted in Ethiopia ten years later from other Sub-Saharan African countries. Despite several policies were established and put into practice, the program could not continue after 1995. The objective of the study was to explore the effects of structural adjustment program and neo-liberalism on political economy of Ethiopia. The study was at national level. Secondary data were col-lected from various empirical and theoretical literatures such as policy briefs and study findings. Qualitative methods were used for analysis. The review results revealed that mixed economy had been implemented in Ethiopia since 1991. On wards 2000, an interventionist economic model was took place and changed to democratic developmental state in 2007. The structural adjustment program and neo-liberalism reforms resulted for establishing of diverse national policies, strategies, plans, programs and projects. Currently, Ethiopia is undergoing various development interventions applied at different sectors. Therefore, this paper highlighted on debates and arguments on development institutions that Ethiopia put into practice several programs. However, it was not without limitations, gaps and overlaps for which the government could not give due attention for evaluating programs and projects for its sustainability. Hence, institutional reforms should be revised or changed after critically evaluated in consultation of academia, policy makers, researchers and professionals.
324 Farming: Back to Basics   , Prasanth Bendalam
India is renowned worldwide for its prosperous agrarian econ-omy during the pre-colonial period. The era of post-independence changed this buoyant milieu into a crisis by immoderate execution of green revolution technologies that are characterized by pletho-ric cost burdens and environmental degradation. Prior to the green revolution, Indian farmer’s aboriginal experience and knowledge succoured the country’s food security without much altering the environment. At the present moment, ensuring food security for the escalating populace appears to be a huge challenge with de-clining land area and productivity. While a core solution to these problems, alternative farming methods such as organic farming, natural farming, and biodynamic farming came into the picture.
325 Factors Affecting Adoption of Good Agricultural Practice of Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) Orchard in Jhapa, Nepal , Basanta Khanal, Jaya Prakash Dutta and Purnima Puri
The study was conducted to determine adoption of good agricultural practices of rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) orchard and fac-tors affecting its adoption. Seventy rubber growing farmers were selected by using simple random sampling technique. Data were collected with pre tested semi structured interview schedule during month of April, 2020. Chi-square test, Pearson coefficient of correlation and Independent t-test were used to analyze the data. Findings of the study revealed that out of eight management prac-tice; Basin size (87.1%) was highly adopted while Chemical fertilizer application (22.9%) was least adopted. About 60% of rubber farmers had high adoption level and remaining 40% had low adoption level for good agricultural practice. Among selected factors; farm size (at 1% level), training (at 1% level) and frequency of contact with extension worker (at 5% level) had significant associa-tion with adoption level of good agricultural practices of rubber. Similarly adoption level of good agricultural practices was found to be significant with income (at 1% level) and productivity (at 1% level). Farmers with high adoption level had yearly income of 5.59 lakhs/ha and latex productivity of 3.04 Mt/ha while farmers with lower adoption level had yearly income of 2.13 lakh/ ha and latex productivity of 1.23 Mt/ha. Poor technical knowledge, price fluctuation in combination with high cost of input is limiting adoption of good agricultural practices.
326 Using Natural Language Processing to Translate Plain Text into Pythonic Syntax in Kannada   , Vinay Rao, Sanjana GB, Sundar Guntnur, Navya Priya N, Sanjana Reddy and Pavan KR
Digital evolution has made various services and products available at everyone’s fingertips and made human lives easier. It has become necessary for individuals with a passion to be a part of this digital evolution to learn how to write code, which is the basic literacy of the digital age. But writing code has become a privilege for students with prior knowledge of English. In the context of the evolving field of Agri-tech, individuals and companies are making large strides towards digitising various dif-ferent aspects of Agriculture. AI is being used actively to solve various problems in the agricultural space. The basic expected literacy here as well, is the ability to write code with the default understanding of English. Rural areas where one of the mainstream occupa-tion for a large part of the population is Agriculture, English language may not be their primary language of choice for written and verbal communications.
327 Status of Invasive Alien Plant Species (IAPS) in Shreenagar Hill of Tansen, Palpa, Nepal , Toyanath Belbase and Sunil Ghimire
The non-native plant species which invade and displace native plants causing damage to environment, biodiversity, economy and health called invasive plants. Their status was studied in Shreenagar hill of Tansen, Palpa. Field visit and sampling of size 1m x 1m was done in 120 plots by systematic random sampling method. Asteraceae family and Ageratina adenophora species were found to be most dominant with more effect on disturbed area. The invasion was more in highly disturbed areas. All Invasive Alien Species (IAPs) were dicotyledons and most of them (8 out of 9) were herbs. Till now, there is no more impact of IAPs on total plant species richness due to their recent entry but threatening to be epidemic in future. So, there is urgent need of controlling them to prevent from further spread.
328 Inter-Related Hydrologic Threats to Australia’s Agricultural Potential , Charles R Lawrence
For the dry Australian continent agricultural activity is concentrated in the more humid perimeter. In these areas in particular, land clearing and agricultural development has initiated higher infiltration and groundwater recharge, reflected in the emergence of land degradation problems of salinization of low-lying landscape and acidification of soils. The accelerated use of groundwater for ir-rigation has brought concerns about the sustainability of that resource along with changed composition of groundwater derived from nitrate leaching from the soil, which restricts its use for drinking and contaminates streams. Each of these problems is worsening and contributing to reduced agricultural production and the potential availability of the groundwater resource. All these problems are induced by the common factor of changes in the groundwater hydrology. Recommendations are made on the need for integration of research, monitoring and management.
329 Urban Farming: A Necessity or a Hobby for Few , Yash Agarwal
Agriculture/Farming has historically proved to be a major fac-tor which guided the evolution of human civilization. Right after the beginning of agriculture revolution 12,000 years ago which came after the human cognitive revolution, the settlement patterns and food habits of humans changed drastically. People started liv-ing in large numbers practicing agriculture and thus the first villag-es came into being. The oldest civilizations like that of Indus valley are known to be agriculture based harnessing the fertile lands near the banks of river Indus.
330 Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) - An Exploration of Hygro waste for Textile Applications , Madhu Sharan and Sumi Haldar
Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera.) an aquatic perennial plant cultivated widely from Kashmir to Kanyakumari. This species is a national flower of India and Vietnam. Due to the huge economic importance of flower, the cultivators cut the flower with the little length of the petioles leaving the rest entire as a “waste”. The Petiole is a part between the flower and underground rhizome of the lotus plant. Petiole contains two types of xylem cells: tracheids and vessels. Several individual precious lotus fibers are orderly assembled in tracheids and vessels in the form of “Helix”. There was no source of the Lotus fibers in India. So, the research was planned to explore this hygro- waste for textile use which includes right from the base to find out the availability of wetlands near and around Vadodara region of Gujarat, contacting the peoples associated with lotus cultivation, extraction of fibers, spinning of the yarn and prepara-tion of handloom fabric. Results indicated feasibility for its use in textiles because all fibers cannot be a textile fiber it should have a good length, excellent strength, moisture absorbency and cohesiveness to convert into yarn and woven fabric. Testing of all essential properties of the fibers shows its feasibility for the application in textiles. Small scale industry can be developed by providing train-ing regarding the extraction process of fiber, spinning and weaving which will assist the skill development and income generation to the rural communities and as well value-added products can be developed which can cater the market. Raw material to end product consists of no use of chemicals which saves the mother earth.
331 Use of Toxic Wastewater in Agricultural Fields… Common Practice in Developing Countries , Safeerul Islam Hashmi
Rapid increase and industrial revolution in the whole world have led to the depletion of freshwater resources available to man-kind in the recent past. The issue of water scarcity is increasing with the passage of time. Many regions of the world are facing serious medical problems because of unavailability of freshwa-ter. Crop’s cultivation requires handsome amount of water and unavailability of water in these regions is now causing threats to mankind. This increased the interests of science to identify and research various novel methods and techniques which play their role in the achievement of sustainable development, accelerated growth and yield of agricultural crops because agricultural sector was one of the largest consumers of freshwater in previous times.
332 Study of Statistical Analysis of Indices Based Rainfall Trends in Haridwar District of Uttarakhand, India , Avadhesh Kumar Koshal and Anamika Jain
The Haridwar belong to Western Himalayan Region with geographical coordinates are 29.948 deg latitude, 78.160 deg longitude. The trend analysis of rainfall pattern in Haridwar is studied through time series analysis of rainfall for a long period of 20 years. The Kharif crops production is dependent on this rainfall. The average annual rainfall of region during 1999-2018 is 1051mm. and south west monsoon rainfall 925.9 mm observed.. The annual rainfall in year 2007 showing the highest positive rainfall anomaly (2.31) while the other years show rainfall below normal with 2009 Showing the lowest negative rainfall deviation (-2.03). and the South west (1999 to 2018) rainfall of Haridwar District in year 2018 showing the highest positive rainfall anomaly (2.15) while the other years show rainfall below normal with 2009 Showing the lowest negative rainfall deviation (-2.05). The R2 value -1.408 means that only -140.8 percent variations is observed in twenty years. The maximum South west rainfall recoded 1564 mm in year 2008 and lowest rainfall recoded 439 mm in year 2001. The annual rainfall highest SIAP value 2.31 is observed in year 2007 whereas highest negative value -2.03 is observed in year 2009. The South-west rainfall highest SIAP value 2.15 observed in year 2018 whereas lowest SIAP value -2.05 observed in year 2009. On the basis, the future forecast of rainfall for a period of ten years from 2019 to 2030 has been observed a negative trend for the coming years. In future, expected annual rainfall may be more in year 2030 observed 1024.9 mm in the district.
333 Landfill Leachate Management Using Modelling   , Kamde Shivanand, Ghosh PK and Gupta MK
Most landfills are unengineered in the country; therefore it is difficult to manage municipal solid waste, with respect to collec-tion, transportation, disposal, composting and leachate treatment. This paper attempted to focus on various leachate modelling being used in leachate management to control over various characteristics found in leachate generated. Some important models, studied here are HELP model, LPI, water Balance model (wBm), Deterministic Multiple Linear Reservoir model (DMLRm), Stochas-tic Multiple Linear Reservoir model (SMLRm), Leachate Generate (LG) prototype model. In this paper experimental analytical and mathematic model have also been considered. Most of the models performed under certain conditions and bounded to limits. The results of modelling studies showed that they provided specific value of specific parameters which is not viable. A prototype leachate generated model which is based on layer theory, using Gomutra as a simulator was found to be effective, economic, ease to manage. The results revealed that the effects of Gomutra to control pH value, temperature, moisture content ratio of BOD/COD, C/N ratio and other minerals was found to be positive; which would helpful to prevent contamination of surface water and enhances, soil condi-tions growth of plants successfully.
334 Genome Editing Technology in Plant Breeding: A Review   , Rashmi Regmi, Bishnu Bhusal, Pritika Neupane, Kushal Bhattarai, Binju Maharjan, Suprava Acharya, Bigyan KC, Rishav Pandit, Ram Prashad Mainali and Mukti Ram Poudel
AGlobal population growth is demanding for more food production in the future. The selection of the plant for cropping has led to the loss of valuable genotypes. Genome-editing technology is the recent advances in plant breeding which allows the insertion, dele-tion or substitution of the specific loci in the target host cell. Among the homologous recombination (HR) technology, transcription activation-like effector nuclease (TALEN), zinc finger nucleases (ZFN) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR); the most popular these days is CRISPR/Cas. Here, we review the methods of genome-editing, their applications, potentials, and the regulatory issues related to genetically modified organisms
335 Selection for Improving Field Resistance to Capsicum Chlorosis Virus and Yield-related Traits Using Selection Indices in Peanut Breeding , Jetsada Authrapun, Udomsak Lertsuchatavanich and Dingming Kang
Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) is a pathogen causing a severe disease in peanut. Therefore, the aim of this study was to select peanut genotypes for improving field resistance to CaCV disease and yield using two selection indices, including a multitrait index based on factor analysis and ideotype-design (FAI-BLUP index) and a multi-trait stability index (MTSI). The 121 genotypes were evaluated under natural infection at the disease hotspots in Thailand from 2017 to 2018, totalling three environments. The experi-mental design was a randomized complete block with two replications. The 11 traits related to disease resistance and yields such as percentage of disease incidence (DisInc), the area under disease progress curve (AUDPC), pod yield (PY), harvest index (HI), number of pod per plant (PdPt), pod weight per plant (PWPt), seed weight per plant (SWPt), shelling percentage (SH), hundred seed weight (100SW), seed length (SdLgth) and seed width (SdWdth) were collected and used for simultaneous selection. After the selection con-sidering a selection intensity of 15%, the selection differentials and selection gains obtained by the FAI-BLUP and MTSI indices were positive for almost yield-related traits except for SH and negative for DisInc and AUDPC, which want to be increased and decreased, respectively, indicating that these selection indices provide desirable genetic gains for all traits simultaneously. The genotypes se-lected by the two selection indices had a good performance for both disease resistance and yield characters. The FAI-BLUP and MTSI indices are efficient method for multi-trait selection and can be used as a tool in selecting promising genotypes based on several targeted traits in plant breeding programs
336 Quality Perception in Higher Education - Using SERVQUAL Methodology , Iara Margolis and Bernardo Providência
Understanding the student’s perception in higher education goes far beyond student retention. Factors such as satisfaction, mo-tivation and irritability points help not only in a more convergent service planning between the institution’s efforts in the face of student expectation, but also in better learning. The perceived quality is difficult to measure and subjective. This work aims to under-stand the perceived quality of the student and analyze the SERQUAL model for its application in higher education. The 5 dimensions of the model were correlated with academic pillars and the sub-items of each dimension were expanded, according to previous stud-ies. The research was conducted with 15% of the universe of students from a higher education course, which represents 69 students, from a private institution. The results were validated in a focus group of 5 students using tools such as the Ishikawa diagram and the Interrelationship Diagram. As a result of the application it was diagnosed that students have a higher expectation than the service offered, which results in a perceived negative quality. Points such as ‘parking’ and ‘operational service’, which are not essential char-acteristics of the educational service, directly impact on the perception of quality and consequently on the student’s satisfaction. As a main result it was noticed that the method points out the problems that most bother the students. They tend to analyze the whole and camouflage items in the face of these stressful stimuli. The method proved to be an ally in the detection of problems of perceived-feltquality, but that requires beyond thedetermination of the data to understand the root cause of the results
337 Cropping Intensity, its Determinants and Farmer’s Income with Special Reference to the Brahmaputra Valley in Northeast India   , Jayanta Saud
With inelastic supply of land for cultivation, and high and growing population pressure on cultivable land in a country like India, it is desirable that the cultivable land is as intensively used as possible. This is truer for eastern part of the country where average hold-ing size of farm has fallen below one hectare. Though this part of the country is naturally endowed with fertile soil and abundance surface and sub-surface water usable for cultivable round the year, the raising a second crop is often believed to be constraint by the traditional practice of open grazing of village cattle in fields after the harvest of the main paddy crop. As this believe is not founded on any systematic study, the authors set out to investigate whether open grazing significantly limit cropping intensity of farms. A field study was carried out covering 225 farms selected through a multi-stage sampling framework from 12 villages covered in three geographically dispersed parts of the Brahmaputra Valley in Northeast India in 2020. Econometric techniques used for analysis of data included instrumental variable method to deal with some endogeneity problem confronted. Results confirm that the open grazing is indeed a limiting factor in intensive mutilation of cultivable land in the study area. As the problem arises from seasonal open access nature of post harvest agricultural field, the problem needs to be addressed under the common property right regime framework. The policy options aligned with the works of Hardin and Ostrom have been explored. Hardin’s line suggests strict enforcement of the property rights of individual farmers over their holdings in the post-harvest season also. However, such enforcement will require erection of fencing which may be costly not only in terms of physical and financial resources but also in terms of social cost of pre-venting free grazing. As per Ostrom’s approach the village community should get together to set up norms of cooperation so that the grazing space limited to facilitate double cropping of the rest of the cultivable land. Given the socioeconomic realities in the study are, the second approach appears to be more feasible. Key-words: cropping intensity, irrigation, free grazing, endogeneity.JEL Classification: O13, Q15, Q12.
338 Genetic Diversity Analysis of Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) at Bilaspur Plain Region of Chhattisgarh , Pallavi Manhar, Roshan Parihar, NK Choure, AP Agrawal and Dhanendra Kumar
The present investigation was carried out with 60 genotypes including 4 checks (KIRAN, DEEPIKA, PADMINI, and INDIRA ALSI) and 56 entries. The experiment was laid down in medium black soil under rainfed conditions during rabi season with statistical de-sign, Augmented Block Design comprising 07 blocks, each block consists of 8 genotypes with 4 checks total of 12 plots. The linseed was classified into 5 clusters. Cluster I was the largest, containing of 18 genotypes followed by cluster IV comprising 17 genotypes, cluster V with 13 genotypes, cluster II comprising 7 genotypes, while cluster III with 5 genotypes.The highest intra cluster distance was recorded for cluster III (2123.64) (46.08), followed by cluster V (1640.66) (40.50), cluster II (1572.96) (36.66), cluster IV (1539.42) (39.23), while the lowest intra cluster distance was observed for cluster I (1411.20) (37.56). highest inter-cluster distance was recorded between cluster II and III, followed by clusters III and V, cluster III and IV, cluster I and II, cluster I and V, cluster I and III, cluster II and IV, cluster I and IV, cluster II and V, while the lowest inter cluster distance was observed between cluster IV and V. Genotypes in cluster I demonstrate largest genetic diversity within the cluster be comparable to the geno-types be the member of other clusters. Thus, hybridization can be taken among all these genotypes to getting useful in F2 generations for the yield and yield contributing characters.
339 A Spotlight on the Life of Professor Raifa A. Hassanein (1946-2021) , Hanan Ahmed Hashem
Dr. Raifa Hassanein was born on July 15, 1946, in El-Menofia city, Egypt. She received a BSc degree in Botany from the Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University in 1967 followed by M.Sc. in 1972 with a thesis titled “Physiological Studies on Plant Growth Regula-tors Exuded from Certain Weeds” and Ph.D. in 1977 with a thesis titled “Effect of Certain Growth Regulators on Plant Growth and Metabolism”, both were under the supervision of Professor Hassan Anwar Foda, the godfather of plant growth regulators’ research in Egypt.
340 Role of Medicinal Plant in Human Health Perspective   , Smruti Sohani
Medicinal plants have been used in healthcare since ancient time. Medicinal plants play dynamic roles in their promotion disease prevention and use fit into all prevailing prevention strategies. There are even more studies and applications of herbal medicine in the treatment of diseases. Medicinal plants are a significant source of molecules with medicinal properties of the nature of phyto-chemical constituents, medicinal plants are valuable for treating human diseases and play an important role in healing. Natural and unique medicinal plants are used to treat various diseases and illnesses as well as produce wealth. The use of plants in the treatment of various human disorders is mentioned in Ayurveda and other Indian literature. Medicinal plants are a precious asset in the fight toward serious diseases all over the world. The present study focuses on the knowledge and awareness on uses of medicinal plants and the scientific investigation to confirm their medicinal values i.e. the role, contributions and usefulness of medicinal plants in at-tempting the diseases of public health importance.
341 N2 Fixation of Grain Legumes Leading to Beneficial Effect on the Succeeding Maize Crop , David Lengwati
In large parts of sub-Saharan Africa, smallholder yields have remained low and declining, and food security is very low. The decline in yield is due to the loss of soil organic matter (SOM), as farmers generally collect all plant matter as animal feed or cooking fuel. Other factors include unavailability of arable land, inherently low soil fertility, insect pests and diseases, and climate change. In addi-tion to wind and water erosion, much of the land degradation is caused by overgrazing, deforestation and intensive cropping. Accord-ing to researchers, fertilizer use in Sub-Saharan Africa is low (NPK at 8.8 kg). This situation is similar in South Africa. For millennia, humans have utilized legumes as a source of food, animal fodder, traditional medicine, shelter, fuel etc. Legumes such as Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.), have that special ability to meet more than half of their N requirements through the biological nitrogen fixing-process.
342 Seed Treatment: A Strong Crop Management Strategy during Covid-19 Pandemic , Sangita Sahni
The on-going health crisis due to COVID19 pandemic has affected all walks of life including agriculture. The ongoing second wave of COVID19 has made the situation further miserable. Although a slo-gan “everything can wait except agriculture” is prevailing but the on-goingpandemic and lockdown has affected the agriculture to a large extent. A plethora of report indicates the interruption of agricultural activities due to non-availability of migrant labour, disruption in sup-ply chain, financial crisis etc
343 Diverse Tree Mulberry Geometry and Cultural Practices Adopted by the Farmer’s and its Optimization , Megharaja, Harishkumar J, Chaithra KC, Likhithgowda M and Manjunatha HB
Currently, due to climate change, the paucity of water, and labor, farmers are navigating from bush system of mulberry cultivation to tree plantation regardless of standard and scientific recommendations. Keeping this transit in view, a systematic field visit based study was performed with personal interaction to explore knowledge level, skill, and scientific awareness of the farmers who were undertaking tree mulberry plantation and cultivation practices. Unexpectedly, while different spacing method ranging from 8' x 3' to 10' x 14' has been followed by the farmers, about 62.86% of farmers were adopted 10' x 10' spacing for tree plantation. Height of the stump and branches, and a number of branches per plant in the first year and ensuing years were also varying among farmers, which explicit remarkable diversity in it. Additionally, the number of disease free layings of silkworm brushed as against quantum of leaves available in the tree mulberry garden also differs. Notably, as opined by the farmers, the quality and yield of cocoons produced using the leaves of tree plantation were comparatively better than the mulberry leaves harvested from the bush type of plantation despite diverse tree mulberry geometry and cultivation practices are in vogue. Considering these limitations, we have established a tree mulberry plantation with optimized plant geometry and evaluated its suitability. However, a systematic research is still offered to evolve appropriate technology for the long term and large scale tree mulberry cultivation with assured quality and sustained leaf and cocoon production
344 Morpho-biometric and Cytogenetic analysis of Clone-selected Mulberry Cultivars (Morus Spp.)   , Ravi Kumara R, HL Ramesh and HB Manjunatha
Genetic variation is uncommon in mulberry (Morus spp.) cultivars due to its asexual propagation and shows the considerable phenotypic plasticity to adopt different agro-climatic conditions. These open an ample scope for the selection of superior clones for better leaf yield and quality. To uncover this cryptic feature, we have selected clonally evolved mulberry cultivars TG-1, Anantha, and Vishala and compared them with their putative mother plants M-5, RFS-135, and S-1635 respectively. Interestingly, significant variations are obvious in all clonally evolved mulberry cultivars with their respective putative mother plants. Comparatively, the plant height, the number of branches, leaf yield, and survival percentage were higher in TG-1, Anantha, and Vishala over M-5, RFS-135, and S-1635 cultivars respectively. Furthermore, altered anatomical structures - thick cuticle, fewer and smaller stomata in TG-1, Anantha, and Vishala leaves are positively correlated with moisture conservation and drought adaptation. Besides, clonally evolved mulberry cultivars had significantly higher leaf moisture, soluble protein, and sugar contents. The cytological evidence shows that RFS-135 and Anantha have 2n=2x=28 (Diploids), M-5 and TG-1 also exhibit 2n=2x=28; but Vishala and S-1635 possess 2n=3x=42 (Triploids). We hypothesize that discrete morphological, anatomical, and biochemical variations in clonally evolved mulberry cultivars compared to their putative mother plants are due to no gain or loss in chromosomal complements, rather to repetitive DNA sequence or related epigenetic modifications.
345 Physiological Interactions of Phaseolus vulgaris L. with Telfairia Mosaic Virus , AAJ Mofunanya, EA Effa, BA Ngele, FA Akomaye and AO Damian
The study was conducted to investigate the physiological outcome of interactions of Phaseolus vulgaris L.with Telfairia mosaic virus (TeMV). Seeds of P. vulgaris used in this study were obtained from a farm where the plants were monitored on the field for virus symptoms expression. The seeds were sown, on germination inoculated with the virus at the two leaf stage and allowed to stay for symptom expression. Relative water content, leaf nitrogen content, photosynthetic pigments and enzymes activities were determined at different stages of growth to quantify host virus interactions physiologically.Due to virus infection, some physiological parameters like photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids), relative water content (RWC), leaf nitrogen content were drastically reduced while all enzymes activity increased significantly. Interaction of P. vulgaris with TeMVled to decreased in RWC and leaf nitrogen content. Percentage decreased in RWC of 40.1% at 12 weeks after inoculation (WAI)and 57.6% for leaf nitrogen at 2 WAI was found. Telfairia mosaic virus interaction caused reduction in leaf chlorophyll a content of 53.6%, chlorophyll b (32.9%), chlorophyll a + b (46.6%), ratio of chlorophyll a/b (30.8%) and carotenoids (50.0%). The virus interactions engendered increase in the activities of peroxidase (POD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PdH), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGdH) enzymes of 57.0%, 64.9%, 90.4%, 99.1% respectively at 8 WAI.Interactions brought about changes in host physiology with variations in quantity of physiological components affecting whole plant functioning
346 Strengthen the Partnership Between Alternative Agriculture and Alternative Medicine , Minami K
Both agriculture and medicine, which concern themselves with healthy life, have their “alternative” versions. Just as people work-ing in healthcare are unfamiliar with the term alternative agricul-ture, those involved in agriculture find the term alternative medi-cine to be novel.
347 Linkages Between Climate Change, Migration, Environment and Sustainable Development , Pham Xuan Phu
Climate change has become a major concern for the people community in the world. Climate change does have consequence in terms of human migration and mobility and its impact can be expected to increase in the future. However, environmental change will affect migration present and in the future specifically through its influence economic, social, environmental and political drives in condition of context climate change which themselves affect the linkages between climate change, migration, environment and sus-tainable development in the context of conditional climate change in the future
348 Benefits and Harms of Wastewater in Agriculture   , Marcelo F Pompelli
The distribution of water on the Earth’s surface is extremely uneven. Only 3% of the water on the surface is fresh; the remaining 97% resides in the ocean. Of freshwater, 69% resides in glaciers, 30% underground and less than 1% is located in lakes, rivers and swamps. Looked the another way, only one percent of the water on the Earth’s surface is usable by humans, and 99% of the usable quantity is situated underground.
349 A Dual Approach to Model Some Basic Equations in Fluid Mechanics , The-Hung Nguyen
In current, the basic equations in fluid flow or solute transport as one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional horizontal (2DH), two-dimensional vertical (2DV), three-dimensional (3D) flow were established by the classic average method, do not generalize by means of dual approach [1,2,4-7]. Therefore, in this paper, a dual approach is applied to construct some basic equations (1D, 2DH, 2DV) in fluid flow and solute transport [4-7].
350 Role of Feeding Regime to Improve the Fish Production , Mohamed Fathy Aid Abdel-Aziz
The feeding regime has a great rule in success of aquaculture projects. The optimum level of feeding rate (FR) with the optimum feeding frequencies (FF) at the optimum feeding time (FT) result in saving the feed offered, reducing the feed uneaten, preventing the health problems of overfeeding and maintaining the water quality as long as possible hence reducing the water exchange and saving the energy of water pumps.
351 Innovation in Poultry Farming   , Jaime Cuauhtemoc Negrete
Poultry farming is the activity that is responsible for the pro-duction of chickens. The most consumed birds are chickens and hens, of the latter there are various breeds that meet specific needs, for example, light hens produce eggs, for meat consumption are heavy hens and semi-heavy hens that are dual-purpose (meat and egg); Chickens are those birds that are mostly used for meat consumption and is known as broiler chicken and is obtained from heavy chickens
352 Effect of Substrates on the Production of Banana Rejects by the Fragmentation Planting Method (FPM) in Central African Republic   , Touckia Gorgon Igor, Elian Dieubeni Hubert, Yongo Olga Diane, Bobere Jesus Trésor and Kokou Kouami
In the Central African Republic, although its cultivation occupies an important place in the rural economy, plantain production remains insufficient due to the unavailability of good quality plant material. The objective of the present study is to test the effect of substrates on the production of banana offshoots by the Fragments Planting Method (FPM) of the stem by comparing different vari-eties in order to identify the one that responds better to this method. Two local varieties and one variety from the African Center for Banana and Plantain Research (CARBAP) were produced in the nursery. The propagator used is composed of three racks each filled with one or a mixture of substrate that are, sawdust, sand and fine sawdust of white wood, fine sand with a proportion mixed with coffee parchment. The effect of the variety and the substrate on the different parameters of growth of the seedlings was appreciated thanks to the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with two criteria of classification with the Software R version. The results show that the variety Batar of CARBAP, presents a better performance compared to the others. Regarding the substrate, the parchment+sand mix-ture gives more relevant results than the other substrates.
353 Eco-Friendly Behavior Patterns of Rural Consumers , V Vijaya Lakshmi and Deepika J
Society needs to devise mechanisms of caring for the environment sustainability. Every citizen needs to have civic sense to reduce the pollution at individual level. Plastic is one such material which harms environment tremendously because of that many state governments in the country have banned plastic usage. Because of this step, many shop keepers have started charging for the plastic bag to carry the goods be it food, clothing and other sun dries. Hence, consumers started carrying their own shopping bags to super markets which implies that consumers are becoming conscious about environment protection. Not much research is done to under-stand the eco-friendly behavior patterns of rural people. The present study explored the behavior of 105 people from rural areas to understand whether they were conscious about the ill effects of environmental pollution and to assess their eco-friendly behaviour patterns in order to protect the environment. Results revealed that majority of the respondents have exhibited eco consciousness.
354 Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles to Fight the COVID-19 , Mohammad Faizan, Fangyuan Yu, Vishnu D Rajput, Tatiana Minkina and Shamsul Hayat
The pandemic of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic represents an unpredicted health concern and declared as ‘pub-lic-health emergency of international concern” by the World Health Organization on 30 January 2020. The virus that is responsible for COVID-19 is known as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and infected more than 160 million peoples as well as caused approximately 3.4 million deaths worldwide. Recent advancement in nanotechnology plays an important role in diagnosing the drug development programs. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have integrated into prevention of COVID-19. This review covers the use of NPs for the prevention of COVID-19 by several ways. The tools for diagnosis of coronavirus, nano-based vaccines and NPs as a drug delivery agent for the handling of virus infection have also been discussed.
355 Food Security and Nutrition in Period of Covid 19 in Kyrgyz Republic , Matieva Zhanyl and Asanaliev Abdybek
Contribute to solving food security problems by analyzing and monitoring the negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic.
356 Assessment of Indigenous Crop Diversity Threat Status in Benishangul Gumuz Regional State , Melak Agajie and Dereje Mosisa
Ethiopia is endowed with diverse crop genetic resources. Thus, the country is one of the Vavilovian centers of origin and diversity for various crops. The study was aimed to assess the threat level of local crop species in the Benishangul Gumuz regional state where there have been high diversity of crops. Data have been collected through field visit and through interview of the local farm com-munities. The data was collected from 13 districts of the region. From each of the districts two villages were purposively selected. This study reveals, of the 17 crop species local cultivars studied the highest percentage of local cultivar loss is scored by haricot bean (17.86%) followed by maize (14.29%). The least threatened local cultivar scored is 3.75% which is scored by 12 crop species among the total 17 species studied which implies that crop species in the region are under threat of losing land races/farmer varieties through time unless prompt response is taken.
357 Perception of Environmental Movement in Desert of Rajasthan: A Case Study of Churu District, Rajasthan , MM Sheikh and Anju Ojha
All the natural functions of human being such as birth, growth, health and deaths are affected and determined by the natural environment in the same manner as the cases of other organisms but man being most developed and advanced animal, both physi-cally and mentally and hence technologically, is capable of making substantial changes in natural environment so as to make it suit-able for his own living. The role of most primitive biological or physical man in the functions of natural environmental system was fundamentally that at user of environmental resources and thus he played the role of a factor of the environment but as the skill and technology of man developed with cultural development his roles towards natural environment also changed progressively such as from user through modifier and changer to destroyer of the environment. Modern technological man has changed and is changing the environment for his vested interests to such an extent that even the very existence of human beings is threatened. There are a natural ecosystem and human ecological adaptation on the entire globe. But now a days mans is destroying this ecosystem for the name of modernization and development. To stop such type of manmade greed number of environmental movements took place to protect the environment and ecology. The paper describes the environmental movement perceptions among people. Because the environmental movement will began form the bottom to top. In other words, we can say any policy and rules cannot be effectively implements without public involvement.
358 Potassium as an Essential Nutrient for Citrus Plant: A Review , Muhammad Danish Toor, Aqarab Husnain Gondal, Muhammad Shozib Javid, Muhammad Waqas Ashraf, Irfan Hussain, Abu Bakar Ijaz and Dua-e-Zainab
Different types of nutrients are necessary for the growth of plants. These nutrients are the source of food for plants and play an essential role in their development. Furthermore, macronutrients and micronutrients are the two groups in which these nutrients are classified. Macro means “large”, so macronutrients deal with those nutrients that are needed in large amounts. Similarly, Micro means “small”, so micronutrients deal with those nutrients that are required in small quantities. Potassium is fall in the category of macronutrients. It is highly mobile in plants from the individual cell to xylem and phloem tissues. It plays an essential role in fruit crops. Potassium is the most significant nutrient which regulates the value of fruits through its influence on the size of fruit, ap-pearance of the fruit, fruit color, and vitamin contents. Other hands, Citrus fruits are those fruits that comprise enough amount of citric acid. The main Citrus fruits are oranges, lemons, beets, tomatoes, and they all are categorized as acid fruits. The applications of potassium fertilizers are vital for the better production of Citrus plants. This review article focuses on potassium (K), its role, its applications for Citrus plant.
359 Optimization of Drying Conditions to Preserve Gingerol in Ginger , Bilal Hafeez, Husnain Azam, Ijaz Ul Haq, Nida Firdous, Muhammad Muddassir, Haroon Saleem and Muhammad Usman
Ginger is considered a medicinal herb for long years ago due to the presence of various bioactive compounds like gingerol. Gingerol is further categorized as 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol. Ginger is used as spices and in dietary supplements. Ginger rhizome is also used to provide flavor in savory dishes like sweets, biscuits, cakes, curries, and beverages such as ginger wine, ginger beer, and soft drinks. It has antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. Different processing methods are being used which hadan enor-mous effect on the quality of these bioactive components in ginger and drying is one of them. The objective of the study was to find the optimum drying condition in terms of maximum nutrients preserve in ginger. In the first phase, ginger was dried through vari-ous drying techniques i.e., sun drying, oven drying, microwave having different treatments. Extraction was done through the Soxhlet extraction method of dried ginger. After extraction, the equal weight of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, and 10-gingerol was prepared and analyzed on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to check the concentration of gingerols preserve. The obtained data were subjected to statistical analysis to check the significance level. It was concluded that the optimum drying condition was oven drying at 70 °C in which maximum gingerol preserve. The quantity of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol were 2.61mg/g, 2.27mg/g, 2.44mg/g, respectively at optimum drying condition.
360 Integrated Treatment of Pig Production Wastewaters Using Pre-treatment with Biomass Ash and Bioremediation by Microalgae , Catarina Viegas and Margarida Gonçalves
Animal production leads to effluents with high loads of macro and micronutrients, and therefore with a huge potential of water bodies eutrophication. Conventional wastewater treatments are expensive, energy-consuming, release greenhouse gases (GHG), and produce a residual sludge. The use of microalgae for wastewater treatment allows recovery of nutrients (N, P, COD), minimize GHG emissions, and can significantly reduce costs relatively to conventional treatments. Microalgae have been used in the bioremediation of various effluents, such as sewage, manure, brewery, dairy, urban, among others. In this work, piggery effluents were remediated by combining a physico-chemical pre-treatment with biomass ash and biore-mediation with microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella protothecoides and Tetradesmus obliquus). The mixture of piggery effluent with biomass ash was stirred and fractionated by decantation to yield a liquid fraction and a solid precipitate. The fortification of the liquid fraction with olive-oil mill wastewater was also evaluated. Microalgae grown in the pre-treated effluent, in semi-continuous mode reached productivities of 258 and 237 mg L-1day-1 for C. vulgaris and T. obliquus, respectively. Both microalgae reached nutrient removal efficiencies of 100, 100, 90, and 100% for N, P, COD, and BOD5, respectively. The microalgae composition was evaluated in terms of protein, sugar, lipid, fatty acids and ash contents.The produced microalgae biomass was tested as biostimulants for the germination of wheat and watercress seeds with positive results, namely the fortification with C. vulgaris biomass produced an increase of 86% in the germination index of watercress seeds. The solid precipitate was tested as fertilizer for the germination of the same seeds, but the results were not as good as applying the algal biomass.
361 Climate Action , Kannan CS Warrier
From shifting weather patterns that threaten food production, to rising sea levels that increase the risk of catastrophic flooding, the impacts of climate change are global in scope and unprec-edented in scale. And according to the United Nations, without drastic action today, adapting to these impacts in the future, will be more difficult and costly. We know that the Greenhouse gases occur naturally and are essential to support life, by keeping some of the sun’s warmth from reflecting back into space and making Earth livable. However, anthropogenic activities, mainly, deforesta-tion and industrialization have upset the balance.
362 Evaluation of Advance Lines of Bread Wheat for Stripe Rust Resistance , Muzzafar Shaukat, Fatima Khalid, Yesrab Aman, Saqlain Haider, Javeed Iqbal, Javed Iqbal Mirza, Zahid Mahmood and Muhammad Farooq Hussain Munis
Stripe rust has been an important disease of wheat, reducing the yield and quality of grain and forage, and lowering seed vigor, germination and emergence. The disease continues to cause huge yield losses worldwide in susceptible wheat cultivars and poses a major threat to the sustainable production of cereal crops. The Present study was carried out to find stripe rust resistance in 52 advanced lines of bread wheat. Based on phenotypic evaluation at field and glass house, 12 resistant advanced lines of wheat were selected from 52 advanced lines for molecular analysis. Thirteen available SNPs genetic markers were used for the molecular vali-dation of the selected advanced lines of wheat. Line-27 showed stripe rust resistance in the field screening as well as glass house experiments. Molecular analysis also revealed majority of resistant genes against strip rust in the line- 27. Advance Line-27 of bread wheat can be used in breeding programs for creating stripe rust resistant cultivars of wheat.
363 Agrivoltaics for Doubling of Income Through Simultaneous Crop and Energy Production in Same Land , MK Ghosal
Agrivoltaic system is a concept of growing crops and generating PV-based electricity from the same land and time and is one of the future of the land use systems from where both food and energy can be produced. Development of agrivoltaic system is based on dual uses of land for simultaneous crop and energy production. The concept is originated from the same approach of agroforestry in which productivity of the land is increased by following inter-cropping among the trees.
364 Soil Ethics: A New Look at Life on Soil , Katsuyuki Minami
More than 50 years have passed since everything changed. That was in 1969. We humans first saw ourselves in the TV screen of the blue Earth from the Apollo spacecraft, like seeing oneself reflect-ed in the surface of flowing river. After that incident, we humans came to the understanding that we cannot separate ourselves from Earth as a whole. And it seems we humans expanded the subcon-scious awareness that probably Earth is one big living organism in the solar system.Also, 1969 was a creative year when J.E. Lovelock came up with the awareness that Earth
365 Maximizing Crop Yield Potential , Michael D Orzolek  
Crop production in North America has changed in the last 15 years because of new breeding techniques and genetic manipula-tion. But that is not the only change that has helped growers be-come more productive. The use of biological and bio stimulants along with plant growth regulators has enabled growers to plant crops in less than ideal environments and more extreme weather patterns. The use of drones to scout fields and/or apply fungicides or insecticides has helped growers to reduce the cost of pest con-trol, but also the need for labor. With labor to plant and harvest fruit and vegetables becoming increasingly more difficult to find after the Covid Pandemic, research and development on mecha-nization of fruit and vegetable operations has become a national priority with Land Grant Universities and private industry. After 80 years of research, growers finally realize the importance of soil health. What is a healthy soil?
366 Indian Agriculture: Battling COVID-19 , Biman De;
Crises, and the challenges that come with them, may offer up a slew of new opportunities. Agriculture and related industries are critical to the Indian economy. It employs almost half of the work- force and generates approximately one-sixth of national income. It is critical for the nation’s food security and has an impact on the growth of the secondary and tertiary industries via its forward and backward linkages. The success of the agricultural industry has ramifications in many other sectors.
367 Trehalose Production at Different Mediums in Bacillus cereus and Ralstonia eutropha , Cennet Canan Karaderi and Hüseyin Kahraman
Trehalose; It is a non-reducing disaccharide consisting of 2 glucose molecules, which is abundant in nature. This disaccharide is a sugar that serves both as an important storage carbohydrate for living things and as a protector against various environmental stresses (drought, freezing, excessive salt environment, etc.). It can produce many living species, from bacteria to insects and inver- tebrates. The aim of this study was to compare the production of trehalose produced by Bacillus cereus Gr (+) and Ralstonia eutropha Gr (-) in different carbon sources. The highest Trehalose production in NB (Nutrient Broth) medium was found 172,235(U/ml) in Bacillus cereus at 150 rpm. The highest trehalose production in environments containing different carbon sources (1% Glucose, 1% Fructose, 1% Dextrose, 1% Xylose, 1% Maltose, 1% Ramnose, 1% Ribose); It was found 20,794 (U/ml) in B. cereus in PBS + maltose broth and 17,485 (U/ml) in PBS + ribose broth in R. eutropha. The lowest trehalose production was found to be 7,917 (U/ml) in B. cereus in PBS medium. In this study, it was observed that R. eutropha, a good PHB (Polyhydroxy butyrate) producer, and B. cereus, an endospore-forming soil bacterium, were able to produce trehalose in rich and poor, aeration conditions (0, 150 rpm). This study shows that inexpensive and suitable media can be used to produce trehalose, an important metabolite. Many Gr (t) and Gr (-) bacte- rial groups seem to be an important microbial source preferred for trehalose production.
368 Analysis of Variance in Food Preference For Enhanced Captive Rearing of Crocodilus nilotica , John A Ogbodo; Mike T Iwar; and Mohammed Adeyemi
The overall objective of this paper is to determine the alternative food preference of Nile crocodiles towards enhancing their captive rearing for increased populations. The feeding behaviour of four Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus nilotica) comprising of three juveniles (six-month old, each) and one adult (26-month-old) was observed for a period of eight weeks in captivity. Each of the four experimental animals was randomly placed into four separate treatment (plastic) tanks, labelled as: E1, E2, E3 and E4, respectively. The crocodiles were fed with four animal proteins: (a) poultry offal; (b) lizard meat; (c) toad meat; and (d) mixture of diet: a, b, and c. Feeding was done twice per week: morning – the first day; and evening – the second day. The amounts of diets introduced and consumed during treatments were weighed every two hours of experimentation in grammes. Diet and consumption time analy- ses were performed (in mean ± standard deviation) and the outcomes were further subjected to a one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistics. The results show that the diets supplied were consumed at the average total rates of 589.20g±8.29 (lizard meat), 574.50g±16.90 (toad meat) and 434.20±17.17 (poultry offal). There were no significant difference between the treatment effects and the consumption time. This study concludes that poultry intestines are strange to the Nile crocodiles. The study recommends that poultry offal should be used as food supplements for captive rearing of Nile crocodiles for improved productivity and sustainable livelihoods.
369 Bamboo Tissue Culture - Commercial Applications and Environment , Ashish Ranjan
Bamboo is fastest growing multipurpose renewable woody plant on the earth (the highest recorded growth rate is 1m/day which makes 1mm of growth in every 90 seconds). They are high biomass producing perennial plants belonging to the family Poa- ceae.
370 A Study to Assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Mothers Regarding Nutritional Needs and Health of Under- Five Children in Tirupathi , B Ganga Bhavani
A study to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers regarding nutritional needs and health of under- five children in Tirupathi is conducted on 100 mothers in Tirupathi, with the objectives to find out the knowledge, attitude and practices of under- five children’s mothers regarding nutritional needs, growth and development, immunization and nutrition during illness; and the relationship between demographical variable and independent variable.
371 Evaluation of Different Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Varieties for High Yield Production Under Agro-climatic Condition of Hazara Division , Zain Ul Islam; Seemab Ashraf; Haq Nawaz; Hafiz Muhammad Bilal; Aamir Umar; Noor Jameel; Awais Anwar and Shukaib Anwar
The performance of six pea varieties were evaluated at Hazara University Dhodihal, Mansehra KPK, and Pakistan in mid of August. The present studies of Six varieties (Climax, Pasan, Rondo, Meteor, Green feast and Sarsabz 980-1) were evaluated for their plant vegetative and reproductive growth (seed germination, days to 50% flowering, plant height, number of branches per plant, number of pods) and physical properties (pod length, pod weight and seed weight) of the peas. The experimental trial was laid out in ran- domized complete block (RCBD), consisting of 6 treatments (varieties) replicated three times and five selected tagged plants were taken as an experimental unit; the data were collected and analyzed according to standard analytical formula. The results showed the maximum seed germination were found in meteor (90%), the varieties meteor showed that minimum number of days, required to attain 50% flowering, maximum plant height was recorded in climax (92.1cm), maximum number of branches/plant was recorded in meteor (5.4), maximum number of pods was recorded in meteor (14.5), maximum pod weight was recorded in meteor (24.2kg). maximum 100g seed weight was recorded in meteor (19.7g). From research experiments it was concluded that Pea variety Meteor was best showing results for being cultivated in Hazara division.
372 Co-application of Rock Phosphate and Zeolite Can Mitigate Phosphorus Deficiency in Soils , V Girijaveni.
Important plant nutrient next to nitrogen is phosphorus (P). Phosphorus deficiency is widely noticed in soils with low pH or high concentrations of aluminium and iron. It has been found that nearly 30-40% of the cultivated lands in the world is challenged by P deficiency. The extent of P deficiency is found to be high in tropical and subtropical areas. In India, the extent of P deficien- cy is 49.3%. Moreover, P fertilizers are found to be costly as the raw material is imported from other countries. The raw material is rock phosphate, Yet, high grade rock phosphate is required for manufacture of P fertilizers.
373 Hazards and Safe Use of Pesticides in Agricultural Field , Sitesh Chatterjee
Pesticides have an important space in crop protection of agri- cultural sciences. Farming community of our country uses many pesticides to protect their crops and stored product from crop pests like insects, mites, rodents, fungus, bacteria, nematodes, my- coplasmas, weeds etc. Some farmers use it indiscriminately in over doses, under doses without following proper time and schedule as well as choosing wrong pesticides to protect their crops.
374 Detection and Classification of Cotton Leaf Diseases Using Faster R-CNN on Field Condition Images , Rehan Sarwar; Muhammad Aslam; Khaldoon S Khurshid; Tauqir Ahmed; Ana Maria Martinez-Enriquez and Talha Waheed
Disease’s classification of the cotton leaf can increase the cotton yield. Deep learning is emerging as a powerful method in many fields, and much research has been done in Agriculture in real-time detection of cotton leaf diseases. Convolution Neural Networks have played a vital role in plant classification and identification of diseases, but still, work is needed to help farmers and patholo- gists correctly detect and classify diseases. Manual checking of disease crops takes a lot of time and cost, and it is hectic. Besides, the wrong diagnosis entails inaccurate conclusions, treatment, and significant expense. This paper proposes to train a deep learning Faster R-CNN model on cotton crop leaf dataset (CCLDataset) for detecting and classifying diseases on leaves, including both healthy and diseases. Plant Village dataset is the reference in finding the best feature extractor from VGG-16, InceptionV1, and V2. Addition- ally, it is a base model in Faster R-CNN. Transfer learning is performed on CCLDataset when trained on the model Faster R-CNN in- ceptionV2 coco by replacing the output layers of coco with CCLDataset to detect and classify leaf diseases. The experimental results show a mean average precision (mAP) of 87.1%.
375 Can India be the Next Agribusiness Hub? , Siuli Mondal and Siuli Mondal
Indian civilization and agriculture have always been entangled in an intricated web from the old age past to the immediate pres- ent and in the complex future. The presence of agriculture will remain constant, but the structure and dynamics of agriculture will always be a subject of change. There was a time when just growing crops with minimal usage of easily available inputs were enough, but then came the green revolution, which later brought serious threats to the environment, soil health and agriculture itself. These constantly changing dynamics are bringing an immense pool of opportunities for the agribusiness sector. Agriculture is no longer bounded just as the means of primary livelihood to the rural people, but the extends, and the boundaries are being well explored by many intellectuals, businessmen and aspiring entrepreneurs throughout the globe. Additionally, the complex global food chain and the technological interventions have made the process more scalable but competitive. According to a report of FAO, the share of agriculture to the entire global GDP is 4% in 2020 [1], in absolute figures US$ 3.4 trillion [1], which speaks volumes for agriculture as a key economic growth engine. But being a major agriculture country, where does India stand in this aspect? How innovative and modern Indian agriculture is becoming? What are the factors that differentiate most agriculturally developed countries from India? And lastly, Can India improve its shortcomings and challenges and be the next agribusiness hub globally? And, if yes, then how?
376 Possibilities of Using Artificial Intelligence Applications in Land Consolidation Studies: Amasya Province GümüÅŸhacıköy District, Keçiköy Town Application , Filiz Akin and Kadir Ersin Temizel
In this study, the applicability of the fuzzy logic method, which is one of the artificial intelligence methods, in the distribution phase of the land consolidation study was investigated. Fuzzy logic, one of the artificial intelligence methods, has been applied to the "distribution" stage, which is the most important stage of land consolidation studies. Obtained as a result of distribution the values obtained were compared with the result of the distribution based on the interview obtained from the General Directorate of Agricul- tural Reform. When the results are evaluated, the number of parcels, average parcel size, time spent for new distribution, and labor force yielded better results in the fuzzy logic based distribution model. In general, the number of parcels decreases by 40% as a result of land consolidation. In the study, it was stated that the number of parcels decreased by 35.9% in the interview-based distribution model, while this ratio was 38.2% in the fuzzy logic-based distribu- tion model. When both distributions were evaluated in terms of average parcel size, the average parcel size increased by 13.4% in the interview-based distribution, while it was 24% in the fuzzy logic-based distribution model. The reason for the low average parcel sizes in the results is that there are few parcels in the study area. In addition, the time spent for fuzzy logic-based distribution is 53% of the time spent for interview-based distribution.