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Indexed Journal

1 COVID-19: An Overview about the Disease Etiology and its Prevention , Nayab Mustansar and Rizwan Rafi
Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people. Common signs of infection include respi-ratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath and breathing difficulties [2]. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumo-nia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and even death [3].Detailed investigations found that SARS-CoV was transmitted from civet cats to humans and MERS-CoV from dromedary camels to humans. Several known coronaviruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans [1-3].This article is based on the overview regarding the disease etiology and its prevention to educate the mass population.
2 Recommendation for Compassionate Use of One or More of the Three Medications for Covid-19 Patients on the Verge of Dying , Tapan K Chaudhuri, Tushar K Chowdhury, Tandra R Chaudhuri, Taposh K Chowdhury and Bulu R Chowdhury
At the rate the COVID-19 patients are dying - like one death every 10 minutes in some country - there is an urgency to invoke compassionate treatment for dying COVID-19 patients with one or more of the following three modalities without waiting for going through rules, regulations or red tape (fast-track treatment)
3 A Comparative Study on Photocatalytic Activity of ZnO, ZnS and ZnO-ZnS Composite , Basant Kumar Menariya
A comparative study was made on photocatalytic activity of ZnO, ZnS and their composite. A simple mechanochemical method was used for preparation of composite. The photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO-ZnS composite was compared with pure ZnO and ZnS. The effect of various parameters such as pH, dye concentration, semiconductor amount and light intensity was observed. The opti-mum conditions for this degradation were obtained as: Rose Bengal = 7.0 × 10-6M, pH = 7.5, amount of composite = 0.08g and light intensity = 60.0 mWcm-2. It was found that coupled chalcogenide ZnO-ZnS show better photocatalytic activity as compared with ZnO and ZnS alone for the degradation of rose Bengal in the presence of visible light.
4 Histological Changes in Lung Induced by Single Intratracheal Instillation on Bleomycin in Wistar Rats , Ramesh Verma1, Poonam Mehta, Vishvesh Dalal, Manish V Patel, Parnav Buch, Pratyush Patankar and Suresh Balakrishnan
The present study examined the histological changes in lung tissue induced by single intratracheal instillation on bleomycin in Wi-star rats. Animals were treated with bleomycin at the dose of 6.5 U/kg body weight via., single intra-tracheal instillation. Histopatho-logical abnormalities in lungs were assessed on day 21 using hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson’s trichrome staining. Single intra-tracheal instillation of bleomycin led to the extensive deposition of collagen in peribronchial and perialveolar region, which obliterated the alveolar spaces. Severe lung alveolitis and injury, which was manifested with interalveolar inflammation, thickening alveolar wall, bronchial erosion, and large fibrotic area inconsistently. The results of the present study speculate that inflammation is the forerunner of fibrosis induced by single intra-tracheal instillation of bleomycin.
5 The Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis , Gejalakshmi S and Harikrishnan N
An array of recently published manuscript globally have proposed the stages of different pathogenic pathways in multiple sclero-sis. These research were focused on both biopsy and autopsy. Based the review data on clinical, imaging and cerebrospinal fluid sug-gest that most of the cases were disseminated encephalomyelitis rather than MS pathogenesis. Cognitive impairment is a common and disabling feature of multiple sclerosis. It may contribute to withdrawal from work than physical disability. The article delivers the importance for early diagnosis and management of disabilities in MS, before it develops an irreversible entry.
6 Drug Addiction and their Management: An Overview , Anuradha Sharma and Amar Chaudhary
Drug addiction could be a term that means compulsive physiological want for use of a habit-forming substance, which is charac-terized by tolerance and well-defined physiological symptoms upon withdrawal. In this communication, the author has compiled all the drugs used for addiction, various tests for determination of addiction and their management
7 History, Symptoms and Preventive Measures of Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19): Mini Review , Mohd Asif Khan and Deeksha Sahai
In 1968, term ‘coronavirus’ was first coined. It shows crown-like morphology when observed under electron microscope. CoVs are summarized into four genera such as Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus. Betacoronavi-rus was further classified into four lineages A, B, C and D. Total 06 species of human coronaviruses have been discovered including OC43, 229E, NL63, HKU1, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. A novel (new) coronavirus is recently discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan city of China. The coronavirus belongs to family- Coronaviridae; largest family in Nidovirales order. Chinese authority declared it as a novel coronavirus (nCoV-19). MERS-CoV was detected in camel serum- being almost identical to human coronaviruses. Bats have been a natural reservoir of coronaviruses lineages and thought as ancestor for all coronavirus lineages. In India, 9 deaths have been reported till 24 March 2020. The Print reports that with current rate India can see 30000 COVID-19 deaths by May, as no hospital bed by June. It concludes that its clinical signs and symptoms are almost similar to pneumonia. It indicates to researchers to work on genetic configuration (genome) of coronavirus to develop more specific vaccine to save life of society and world.
8 Nicotinamide, Folic Acid and Derivatives as Potent Inhibitors of Inflammatory Factors against Novel Corona Virus Infection , Hemanth Kumar Manikyam and Sunil K Joshi
A novel coronavirus designated as SARS-CoV-2 in February 2020 by World Health organization (WHO) was identified as main cause of SARS like pneumonia cases in Wuhan city in Hubei Prov-ince of China at the end of 2019. This been recently declared as Global Pandemic by WHO. There is a global emergency to identi-fy potential drugs to treat the SARS-CoV-2. Currently, there is no specific treatment against the new virus. There is an emergency to identifying potential antiviral agents to combat the disease is urgently needed. An effective and quick approach is to test exist-ing antiviral drugs against COVID-19. Patients affected with Novel coronavirus had shown severe respiratory inflammatory burst which includes sever cytokine and lymphocyte over responses. Particularly interleukins swarm like IL8, IL2, IL6 and other inflam-matory triggering factors.
9 Antimicrobial Activity of Ciprofloxacin-Loaded Softisan-154 Lipid Microparticles: Physicochemical Evaluation and In Vitro Activity , Momoh A Mumuni, Nafiu Aminu, Frankline C Kenechukwu, Agboke A Ayodeji, Adedokun M Oluseun, Oyeniyi Y James, Parom K Stephen, Obajuluwa A Funke, Usman Muhammad, Darlington Youngson, Tochimen K Michel, Omeje C Ernest and Emmanuel C Ibezim
The objective of this work was to prepare and investigate in vitro ciprofloxacin (CPX)-loaded solid lipid microparticles (SLM) against some selected micro-organisms for improved activity. Lipid matrix consisting of Softisan®-154 and Phospholipon® 90H was used to prepare SLMs loaded with CPX. The thermal properties of polymers and the SLMs were determined by a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), particles size and the pH change of CPX-loaded SLMs were evaluated. The encapsulation efficiency (EE), load-ing capacity (LC) and in vitro release of CPX from the SLMs were evaluated. The antimicrobial activities of the SLM against selected organisms were determined. Characterizations showed that lipid matrix generated imperfect microstructure that accommodated CPX in a concentration-dependent manner. The EE and LC% were 89.2 and 33%, respectively. Maximum CPX release of > 80% was obtained in batch A3. The antimicrobial activity of the formulation against the tested organisms was comparably higher in batch C (49.10 ± 2.10) against S. aureus and (33.10 ± 0.21 mm) against S. typhii as compared to the reference sample. This result suggests the capability of the SLMs to modify the release of the drug and improve its activities against the microorganisms.
10 Transition Metal Complexes of Schiff Base Ligand Derived from Trimethoprim with Cyclohexanone: Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial and Computational Studies , Hussaini Garba, Jamila Bashir Yakasai, Ibrahim Waziri and Ibraheem O Bisiriyu
In this study, Metal (II) Complexes of Mn (II), Fe (III), Co (II) and Ni (II) with Schiff base ligand derived from Trimethoprim and Cyclohexanone were synthesized and characterized using various physic-chemical techniques such as: solubility, conductivity, melt-ing point determination, UV/Vis and Fourier transform infrared, 1H-NMR and elemental analysis. On the basis of these character-izations, a six coordinated octahedral geometry has been proposed for all the complexes. The Schiff base ligand and its complexes were screened for their antimicrobial activity against some pathogenic microbial isolate and compared with the parent drug. The antimicrobial activity results showed the following trend: metal complexes > Schiff base ligands > Parent drugs. This suggests poten-tial antimicrobials agents with broad spectrum activity. Computational studies further revealed that M-Cl bond is responsible for the trend in antimicrobial properties among the complexes
11 Forecasting Future of Manufacturing Systems Driven by Artificial Intelligence: Recent Progress and Future Directions , Bahman Zohuri and Farhang Mossavar Rahmani
The start of a new decade brings a new wave of technological change and unprecedented opportunities that will generate massive amounts of data at the level of Big Data (BD), spawn new threats and transform the way we do business. Dealing with such enormous data structurally or unstructured-wise and process it in real-time requires a new innovative technology such as Artificial Intelligence (AI). Today, AI is capable of learning from its experience through the element of its Machine Learning (ML) in conjunction with the Deep Learning (DL) component and using them to adjust to new input and perform human-like performance, or at least to comple-ment and enhance human abilities. Because of this capability, it encompasses every aspect of the enterprise in the years to come. That is why we believe AI, Automation, and Analytics are central to the success of the enterprise and encompass critical business areas, including data, business processes, the workforce, and risk and reputation
12 Artificial Intelligence Versus Human Intelligence: A New Technological Race , Bahman Zohuri and Farhang Mossavar Rahmani
Today, artificial intelligence (AI) is capable of learning from its experience through the element of its Machine Learning (ML) in conjunction with Deep Learning (DL) component and using them to adjust to new input and perform human-like performance, or at least to complement and enhance human abilities. Because of this capability, it pervades every aspect of the enterprise in the years to come. That is why we believe AI, Automation, and Analytics are central to the success of the enterprise and encompass critical business areas, including data, business processes, the workforce, and risk and reputation.The vision for AI should be guided by innovative thinking - with the long-term objective of enhanced or new, business strategies, and models. The generation of computers known as Quantum Computer (QC) with a quantized technical approach processing unit is opening a new door toward the next generation of AI, which we have introduced to as Super Artificial Intelligence (SAI). Thus, the trend certainly is there, and although these generations of SAI and QC are supposedly are making our life easy to deal with in this fast paste technically growth, yet they are in a serious race with their inventors known as Human. One other adverse effect of AI on humans with it thrive toward SAI is increasing human depression, and some details are presented here in this article as well
13 An Observational Study of DM Complications and their Clinical Outcomes , Doragolla Bhargavi, Gundlapally Prashanthi, Snigda Reddy Pingili and Udayarani
Aim: The purpose of the study is to examine the complications, their associated clinical characteristics and health related quality of life in DM patients Objectives: To evaluate and analyse the clinical outcomes of dabetes mellitus complications. 1. To identify the prevalence of DM complications. 2. To identify about complication percentage (%) in type-1 and type-2 DM. 3. To determine HRQL of patients with diabetes mellitus complications. Methodology: A prospective observational study was carried out at Departments of in and out patients at Gandhi hospital and BBR hospital, for a period of 6 months (July 2017 to December 2017). All the patients who are diagnosed with DM complications were included in this study. Patients between ages of 18 - 90 yrs were considered. Patients with comorbidities of DM were excluded in the study. Results: During the study period, a total of 400 cases of suspected Diabetes complications were recorded from July 2017 to Decem-ber 2017. The total of 400 cases was analyzed, among them the prevalence % was found to be more in Diabetic nephropathy (33%), in which prevalence rate in males was found to be (71.96%) than females (28.03%). According to the age wise distribution, maximum patients belonged to age group 40-60 years. The occurrence of DM complications was identified more in Type-2 DM patients (273) than in Type-1 DM patients (127). Conclusion: The suspected complication cases were analyzed, among them type 2 DM is more predominant than type 1. In type 2 Males are at more risk than females in nephropathy and in males are at more risk than females in DKA. So, 40-60 age group were highly affected with complications. Clinical outcome measures of GRBS levels was found to be more in patients with GRBS levels of 200 - 300 (42.5%), FBS levels was found to be more in patients with FBS levels of 120 - 130 (39.5%), HbA1C levels was found to be more in patients with HbA1C levels of 7.5 - 8.0 (39.5%), BP levels was found to be more in patients with BP levels of stage 2 (46%), lipid levels was found to be more in patients with lipid levels of 50 - 100 (55%).  
14 Intravenous High-Dose and Supplementation of Vitamin C Can Effectively Prevent and Treat COVID-19? , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn1, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn and Utoomporn Sittisingh
Coronaviruses and influenza viruses, the pandemic viruses can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) contrib-uting to lethally acute lung injuries (ALI) and death. Activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2 (nfe2)-related factor 2 (nrf2), a major regulator of antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven cytoprotective protein expression plays an critical role in pre-venting cells and tissues from oxidative-stress-induced injury. Both viral and bacterial infections can contribute to cytokine storm that results in increased oxidative stress. Vitamin C is beneficial to critical care management due to its important component of the cellular antioxidant system. High-dose vita-min C has been clinically used for several decades. Intravenous high dose of vitamin C may be applicable to COVID-19 since the prevention and management of oxidative stress could be ad-ministered by large dose of antioxidant. By eating a variety of food, particularly fruits and vegetables, individuals can easily achieve 100 to 200 mg of vitamin C that is proved to be ad-equate to optimize cell and tissue levels for the reduction of the risks of chronic diseases. One medium-size orange contains 70 - 80 mg of vitamin C, one cup (around 100 grams) of broccoli contains 90 mg of vitamin C, and one large red guava contains approximately 120 mg of vitamin C. At least 200 mg of daily vi-tamin C supplementation is effective in improving the duration and severity of the common cold, both in children and adults. Nevertheless, the “prophylactic” dose of vitamin C for disease prevention is controversial.
15 Development and Validation of Visible Spectrophotometric Methods for the Analysis of Etravirine: Application to Tablet Dosage Forms , Murali Dadi1, Indra Sen Singh1 and G Purna Chandra Rao
The present study describes the development and validation of two simple, sensitive, accurate, precise and economical spec-trophotometric methods for the estimation of Etravirine (ETR) in bulk and its tablet dosage forms. These methods have developed based on the diazotization of ETR followed by coupling with alkaline β-naphthol (Method-A) and p-nitro aniline in alkaline medium (Method-B). These methods show a linear relation between absorbance and concentration of ETR in the ranges of 5 - 30 μg/mL (M-A) and 2.5 - 15 μg/mL(M-B) respectively. The Molar absorptive for present methods are 3.685 x 103 (M-A) and 5.614 x 104 (M-B) and LOD, LOQ values are 0.656 μg/mL, 1.990 μg/mL (M-A) and 0.191 μg/mL, 0.578 μg/mL (M-B) respectively. The common excipients in the drug did not interfere in the estimation process and the developed methods are successfully applied to tablet dosage forms of ETR.
16 Molecular Docking Studies; 1,3 Thiazines Derivatives , Khan Sana, Singh Gurdeep and Sainy Jitendra
ome novel derivatives of 1,3-thiazine have been synthesized by the condensation of 2-hydroxy-3-nitro5-chlorochalcones with thiourea and phenylthiourea in ethanol containing aqueous KOH solution. The synthesized ten 1,3 thiazine derivatives were subject-ed to molecular docking studies against E.coli Glucosamine-6 P Synthase in Complex with Fructose-6 P (PDB ID-4 AMV) and Crystal structure of Peptide deformylase from Staphylococcus aureus Complex with Actinonin (PDB ID-1Q1Y) usingMolegro Virtual Docker software. All synthesized compound have been screened for in-vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activities by agar plate techniques. The results indicated that all the synthesized 1,3 thiazine derivatives shows considerable antimicrobial activities on gram negative (E. coli) bacteria This study suggested that 1,3-thiazine derivatives possess more antimicrobial activities on gram negative (E. coli) bacteria than gram positive bacteria (S.aureus).
17 A Case Report on Colistin Induced Myasthenia Gravis , Pulimi Divya Priyanka, Vithya Alhas, Farhan1 and Manoharan, Shankar Prasad, Shobha Rani R H
A 60-year-old Male got admitted to Surgical ward of tertiary care hospital with the complaints of wound debarment on left leg and left thigh abscess since two months and foul smell from 15 days associated with complaints of pain in both lower limbs. He is a known case of Type II DM from 10 years, HTN since one year, CLD, CKD from one and half year and on hemodialysis with oral medications. After adequate preoperative work up, the patient was taken for surgery with high risk and underwent skin grafting and withstood the surgery. The patient culture reported growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and on first day IV Colistin 1 Million Units TID, IV Clindamycin 600 mg BD and IV Meropenem 1 gm TID were prescribed. The patient developed Myasthenia gravis and Neurologist confirmed it as Colistin induced and the same was stopped on 13th day. Neostigmine 2.5 mg BD was prescribed and extubated. He was treated with other antibiotics and supportive treatment. Patient improved symptomatically after the withdrawal of Colistin and discharged in a stable condition with multivitamins, Anti-Hypertensives and Anti-Diabetic medications.
18 A Minireview on Pandemic Novel COVID-19 , V Anilkumar
Human history is observing a very strange time fighting an invisible enemy, the novel COVID-19 coronavirus. initially observed in the Wuhan province of China, now vastly spreading around the world. The Pandemic which COVID-19 has made on the Globe needs no depiction. The virus has been accounted for to be affecting the lungs and related respiratory tracts promoting harm of the alveoli. It has been accounted the respiratory sickness is the prevailing Clinical indication of COVID-19. This review article discussed for an easily understanding of the causes, different type of Human viruses regarded of Coronavirus, clinical diagnosis of RT-PCR, Primary prevention and control of the virus. Therefore, this review article main theme is focusing on more research work to be carried out to provide more reliable and valid effect to control and mange public emergency in both acute and chronic conditions of coronavirus.
19 Cosmetics and Beauty Products Review , Heyam Saad Ali
The word “Cosmetics” is known to human race since ages. At the same time, desire to look good and attractive for every individual also can be identified as the psychological need having been given the upper place in hierarchy for ages. However, it will be relevant to understand the exact meaning of the word „cosmetic‟ from various sources at the outset.
20 A Comprehensive Review in Parenteral Formulations , Heyam Saad Ali
Parenteral Formulations are sterile, pyrogen-free, administered by injection through skin layers. This review highlights all the as-pects regarding parenteral products advantages, disadvantages, routes of administration, additives, preparation, types of containers and quality control tests for evaluation.
21 Formulation and Evalution of Telmisartan Solid Dispersion of Encapsulation Using Different Polymer , Kabita Banik and K Yashasree
The aim of the present study was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of a poorly water soluble drug, telmisartan by solid dispersion technique. The objective of the study is to prepare telmisartan solid dispersion and encapsulation using different polymers to achieve the enhanced solubility and to determine the Kinetic Modeling of Drug Release and Stability studies. Telmisartan has PH dependent solubility. Due to this reason only the % release for the prepared solid dispersions was higher in PH 4.5 acetate buffer when compared with other mediums. Based on mathematical data revealed from models, it was concluded that the release data was best fitted with First order kinetics. Stability studies showed that there were no significant changes in physical and chemical properties of capsule of formulation after 3 months.
22 An Assessment of Quality of Life of Hypertensive Patients Visiting a Hospital in Warri, Nigeria , Rita O Akonoghrere, Ogheneovo C Aghoja1, Omobamidele B Betiku, Zipporah E Adje and Azuka C Oparah
Purpose: Health related quality of life is a multi-dimensional concept that includes domains related to the physical, mental, emotional and social functioning. It evaluates both the positive and negative aspect of life. This can be evaluated using various instruments so as to know areas to improve therapy. This study was done to assess the quality of life of a group of hypertensive patients, and to determine predictors of their quality of life. Method: This was a descriptive cross- sectional study designed to assess the quality of life of hypertensive patients. The sf-12 questionnaire was used to assess Quality of Life in ambulatory patients. Data was obtained from patients visiting two facilities in Delta state, Nigeria. Results: The total sample size used was 122 respondents of which 72 were males (58.5%). The mean Physical Component Summary (PCS) of quality of life was 47 ± 7.5; while the mean Mental Component Summary (MCS) of quality of life was 46.7 ± 9.2. The mean systolic blood pressure was 139.6mmHg ± 19.1 while the mean diastolic blood pressure was 82.8mmHg ± 13.3. The Beta value obtained from all the analysis were > 0.05, hence there were no significant predictors of quality of life. Conclusion: Quality of life was generally low and below the Norm of 50% according to the US standard. The physical component scale however was the most affected. Neither the clinical status nor the socio-demographics of the patients were predictors of their quality of life.
23 Antioxidant Potential of Vernonia occephala , Usman M, Aliyu AB, Momoh MA and Faruq UZ
In this study, antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and chloroform fraction of Vernonia oocephalawere evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging assay, total phenolic contents, reducing power assay and total antioxidant capac-ity. The free radical scavenging activity expressed as percentage antioxidant activity was highest in ethyl acetate fraction of (EC50 = 20.0 ± 0.005 μg/ml). The total phenolic content was highest in ethyl acetate fraction (106.0 ± 0.003 mg/g GAE). Also, the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest total antioxidant capacity (100 mg g-1 ascorbic acid equivalent). The chloroform fraction exhibited the highest reducing power at all concentrations. There is no significant difference between the standard and the sample (P ≤ 0.05). The results of this study have shown that Vernonia oocephala contains antioxidant chemical substances and therefore can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants for medicinal uses.
24 Coronavirus Disease Pandemia 2019: Growth of Epidemic Dangers , VO Shapovalova, SI Zbrozhek, EV Suprun, VV Shapovalov and VV Shapovalov
The article is devoted to the problem of the emergence in 2019 of diseases caused by the new coronavirus (“coronavirus disease 2019”), which have already gone down in history as an emergency of international importance. The most common clinical mani-festation of a new infection is pneumonia, and in a significant proportion of patients - respiratory distress syndrome. A virological, epidemiological and clinical study of severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome and the outbreak of acute respiratory diseasein 2019-2020 was compared in Wuhan (Hubei, People's Republic of China, China). Analysis of the scientific literature data on the coronavirus disease pandemic 2019 based on the systematization, synthesis and comparison of documentary data regarding: historical aspects of the study of coronaviruses; severe acute respiratory syndrome; Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome; SARS-CoV-2 virus disease COVID-19; comparative characteristics of SARS/MERS/COVID-19. When conducting the study, we used the current legislative, regulatory and instructive documents, Internet resources. They used regulatory, documentary, bib-liographic, comparative and graphical methods of analysis. The article presents the results of a comparison of the virological, epide-miological and clinical studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome and the outbreak of acute respiratory disease in 2019-2020 years in Wuhan (Hubei, People's Republic of China, China). Established that the etiological agent of COVID-19 is coronavirus, phylogenetically close to the causative agent of SARS (SARS-related human CoV virus) and related corona-viruses isolated from bats (SARS-related bat CoV viruses). The data obtained are the basis for the need to continue further research and reviews of the coronavirus pandemic in the direction of finding methods for effective treatment of patients with this pathology.
25 In Depth Investigation of Quantitative Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques of Paroxetine in Different Matrices: A Review , Satchitkrishna Radharapu, Dhara Patel and Dhananjay Meshram
Analytical method helps in ensuring the safety and efficacy of drugs in different matrices by determining the quantity and quality of Drug. A detailed extensive literature survey is one of the most essential requirements for all focused research activities. Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It is used to treat several diseases including major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Sincere effort has been made in the present review to collate all the relevant literature published in various pharmaceutical journals for determination of Paroxetine in different matrices both individually and in combination with other drugs. In this article main emphasis is given on the various techniques which are used for the estimation of the Paroxetine from various Pharmaceutical dosage forms or in biological matrices. The review highlights the basic as well as advanced techniques performed for estimating Paroxetine. Among different methods, HPLC and UV-Visible spectrophotometry are the most widely used techniques applied by the researchers. Detailed validation parameters are also given for the methods, which helps the researchers to select an analytical technique based on the information sought.
26 Loading sd-rxRNAi into Tumors: Are We Getting Close with TGF-β1 Targeting? , Ashok K Singh, Aakansha Singh
Adoptive cell therapies (ACT) that redirect T cells to specifically target cancer using genetically engineered T cell receptor or chimeric antigen receptor T cells are emerging forms of immunotherapy. Natural killer (NK) cells serve as a crucial first line of defense against tumors and can be activated rapidly to target and kill tumor cells without prior sensitization. NK cells are winning candidates for use in ACT because matching to a specific patient is not required. Thus, making an off-the-shelf NK therapy product could be possible.
27 Development and Evaluation of Herbal Cream of Berberis aristate for its Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity , Megha Tiwari, Mohd Neyaz Ahsan, Pradeep K Sharma, Anzarul Haque, Sanjar Alam
In the present study, an attempt was made to formulate and evaluate herbal cream of Berberis aristate (B. aristata) for the management of Psoriasis. The study is intended to be carried out because of low cost, lesser or no side effects of herbal formulations and its potent action than the allopathic medication. They therefore provide a viable alternative for psoriasis management. The drug was evaluated on the basis of U.V, FT-IR, and DSC study. The herbal cream formulations were prepared by emulsion based method. The prepared cream was evaluated on the basis of viscosity, spreadability, grittiness, and in-vitro drug release. With altering the ratio of base different release patterns of the drug were observed. With an increase in the base ratio, there was increase in drug release of formulation (F1), while further increase in the base ratio leads to initial burst release but as the time proceeds the release of the drug got decreased due to increase in grittiness and viscosity of the formulation (F2). Also decrease in the base ratio leads to decrease in the drug release of formulation F3. The FT-IR and DSC analysis indicates that there was no interaction between drug and excipients. The in vitro drug release kinetics study depict that drug release mechanism follows Fickian diffusion. The optimized F1 formulation which shows satisfactory in vitro release was tested for anti bacterial and anti fungal property. The zone of inhibition was found to be 24.66 ± 1.14 and 20.45 ± 1.26 for bacteria and fungi respectively at 250 ppm.
28 Novel COVID-19 Pandemic Scenario: A Review of the Current Literature , Anilkumar V, Murali Krishna, Sangeeta Kumari, Kalyani
The Pandemic which COVID-19 has made on the Globe needs no depiction. The disease caused by SARS-COV-2 presents flu-like symptoms which can be become serious in high-risk individuals. In this review article we provide an overview of the symptoms, treatment, diagnostic tools, drugs usages, vaccine trials options for Novel COVID-19. We carried out a systematic literature search using the main online databases like Google scholar, PUBMED, Medscape daily News by using keywords like COVID-19, corona virus. We included different publications from last six months data which focused clinical features and treatment. We found entry mechanism of virus into the body, Hand hygiene is key factor to prevent contamination, wear gloves in specified situations. The amin symptoms of COVID-19 are cough, fever, fatigue, slight dyspnea etc. RT-PCR, LAMP, ELISA is used as an analytical instrument utilizing Nasal swab, tracheal suction or bronchoalveolar lavage tests. The primary treatment being used to treat the infection are antibiotics, antiviral drugs like chloroquine. Therefore this review article main theme is focusing on many treatments have been proposed, self quarantine, isolation is the main medication that seems, by all accounts to be powerful in decreasing virus rate specifically designed randomized clinical trials are excepted to determine the most appropriate evidence-based treatment methodology more research work to be carried out to provide more reliable and valid effect to control and mange public emergency in both acute and chronic conditions of coronavirus.
29 Virtual Screening, Molecular Docking, and ADME/T Analysis of Natural Product Library against Cell Invasion Protein SipB from Salmonella enterica serotype typhi: In Silico Analysis , Aminu Ibrahim Danyaya, Abhishek Kumar Verma, Avinash, Binta Sunusi Shuaibu, Umar Adamu Hamza, Najib Lawan Yahaya, Usman Rabi'u Bello, Zaharaddeen Umar Na'abba, Abubakar Dabo Dalhat.
Background: The most dangerous issue in the healthcare arises is outbreak of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria worldwide. The randomness of Salmonella infections rely on its serotypes and the immune response of the host. Children up to age of 5 years and patients of older age are prone to the salmonella infections.The virulence genes of Salmonella encodes five different groups of Cell invasion proteins (CIPs), including Sip A, B, C, D and E. Upon contact with the target cell, SipB undergo ‘type III’ export from the bacterial cytoplasm and translocate into the cell membrane. Caspase-1 activity is essential for the cytotoxicity, and it has been proven that binding of SipB to caspase-1 induces macrophage apoptosis, so functional inhibition of caspase-1 blocks macrophage cytotoxicity. Methods:This study is to determine the components of the natural origin compounds (NOCs) have an anti-bacterial effect (ABE) and capable to prevent the humans from bacterial infection Salmonella enterica serotype typhi. This Salmonellais using the most reliable method is suitable for molecular docking. We used to find out the interaction study between the molecules and the protein. In our study based on the inhibitor of Cell Invasion Protein SipB from Salmonella. We performed In Silico method forscreening of all the natural compounds against Cell Invasion Protein SipB inhibition. Results and Discussion: The results we obtained from molecular docking shown that among 2228 molecules of natural origin from natural product compounds library (20200427-L1400) was retrieved in SDF format from Inhibitor Expert (Selleckchem.com). Fifteenmolecules are the best compounds observed through molecular docking and hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding with interaction are proposed as the novel inhibitors against the Cell Invasion Protein SipB from Salmonella.We demonstrate using SwissADME online server tools and DruLito that all fifteen natural molecules has better “drug-likeness and does not violate any Lipinski, Ghose, Veber, Egan or Muegge rules. Conclusion:Importantly, all fifteen natural compounds are more potent in treatment of against Cell Invasion Protein SipB in Salmonella typhi but needs further experimental research. Keywords: Salmonella enterica; Serotype typhi; Cell Invasion Protein SipB; Natural Product Library; Molecular Docking
30 Natural Compounds against the Main Protease (Mpro) SARS-CoV-2 through In Silico Approach , Abhishek Kumar Verma, Mayadhar Barik
Currently, coronaviruses are contagious pathogens and primarily responsible for respiratory and intestinal infections (RIIs). Research on progress to develop antiviral agents (AVAs) against these coronavirus. Researcher had been demonstrated that the main protease (Mpro) protein may represents an effective drug target (EDT) [1]. The novel Corona-virus (n-CoV), recently called as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The need of the hour is required progress on research into drugs to treat this infection. SARS-CoV-2 remains essential in several research laboratories among the both (national and international).
31 Tetraazamacrocyclic Ligands and their Zinc(II) Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities , Saswata Rabi, Sabina Yasmin, Foni Bushon Biswas, Rahul Das, Debashis Palit, Tapashi Ghosh Roy.
The hexamethyl tetraazamacrocyclic ligand salt, Me6[14]diene. 2HClO4(L.2HClO4) has been synthesized by the condensation of ethylenediamine and acetone in the presence of HClO4, then two isomeric ligands tet-a and tet-b have been isolated from its reduced form. These ligands produced bimetallic and monometallic nitratozinc(II) complexes with Zn(NO3)2.6H2O. The nitratozinc(II) complexes, [(ZnL)2(NO3)](ClO4)3, [Zn(tet-a)(NO3)2] and [Zn(tet-b)(NO3)2] underwent axial addition and substitution reactions with KX (X= SCN, NO2, I or Br) in proper ratio to produce twelve new corresponding monometallic six coordinated octahedral complexes. The newly prepared complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, IR, UV-Vis, and 1H-NMR spectroscopic, magnetic and molar conductivity data. Antibacterial activities of the ligands and complexes against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria have been investigated. Keywords: Macrocyclic Ligands; Zinc(II) Complexes; Axial Addition and Substitution; Spectroscopic Studies; Antibacterial Activities
32 Is India Ready to Face “Live with Virus” Phase? A Nationwide Review and a Study on COVID-19 Transmission in Tamil Nadu , Aby Paul, Joel Joby Joseph, Stelvin Sebastian, Sanjo Saijan, Jeeva Joseph, Jobin Kunjumon Vilapurathu
2019 Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19) has terrified the world and a community lockdown was the early measure that can be done to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in the countries. We did a nationwide comparison by considering the data from three time intervals of lockdown in the India (March 24th, April 14th and May 3rd of 2020). Kerala’s COVID-19 status has improved in the subsequent phases of lockdown. The state reported only 3.36% and 1.16% to the total cumulative cases of the nation in the subsequent lockdown phases. The decreased Test: Case ratio of Maharashtra in the subsequent phases of lockdown indicates the thread of community spread in the state or inadequate number of test performed. The impact of population density in spread of COVID19 in the Tamil Nadu was assessed and districts with high population density had higher incidence of cases. The number of fresh cases reported in the State from April 1 to April 15, 2020 was studied and about 100%-67% of total new cases reported on these days were associated with the socio-cultural event. The cumulative cases reported in the state had crossed the median forecasted cumulative case by April 20, 2020.The cumulative cases in Tamil Nadu is approaching the upper confidence limit which is a result of a community spread in the state. We conclude that only with the achievement of decreased number and diameter of COVID19 hot spots along with measures to implement social distancing, India would be ready face the “live with virus” phase. Keywords: COVID-19; India; Tamil Nadu; Lock Down
33 Physiological and Ethological Effects of Sativex, A Cannabis-based Medicine, Examined on Ants as Models , Marie-Claire Cammaerts, Roger Cammaerts
Sativex is a cannabis-based medicine chiefly used for treating persons suffering from multiple sclerosis.One of the qualities expected for this drug is pain easing. Using ants as models, we found that this medicine reduces theirtactile perception (which is linked to pain perception), but also that it negatively affects their orientation ability, social relationships, cognition, learning and memory. It leads to no habituation, but to no adaptation, andtosome dependence. Sativex becomes less efficient 8 hours after weaning, its effect completely vanishing in 12 - 14 hours. The small amount of ethanol contained in Sativex only somewhat decreases pain perception and memory, and do not lead to dependence. The observation of adverse effects on ants used as a model should warn practitioners that attention should be paid to persons treated with Sativex, i.e. by monitoring their behavior, social relationships, cognition, memory, and by watching for mental and orientation impairments which may present a danger when risky activities are concerned. Keywords: Cognition; Dependence; Memory; Multiple Sclerosis; Myrmicasabuleti;Social Relationship
34 Extraction of Chromium(III) from Urine and Water Samples Using Divalent Beta-diketonates Ligands and Determination with Reversed-Phase HPLC , David TanyalaTakuwa
Abstract  Chromium is an element of interest due to its physiological properties in different oxidation states. Chromium (III) is believed to be beneficial in curbing effects of sugar diabetes in the body, and at the same time, chromium (VI) is carcinogenic. A lot of research has been conducted in an effort to conduct speciation to identify the Cr oxidation state available in a sample. Several methods have been used but with challenges. In this study, acetylacetonates and its derivatives was used to extract Cr(III) in urine and fresh water samples. It was observed that smaller ligands of acetylacetonate metal chelates gave high linear range, which decreased with increase in the size of the ligand. Cr(AA)3, Cr(DPM)3 and Cr(DBM)3 gave linear range of 1 - 10000gn/ml, 1 - 1000 ng/mL and 1000 ng/mL respectively. The highest detection limit was observed when determining Cr(DBM)3, which had benzene rings (0.84 ng/mL) as compared to the smaller ligand metal complex Cr(AA)3 with 1.20 ng/mL. The use of ligand with benzene ring (DBM) further allowed for resolution of other metal complexes during the extraction of Cr(III), which avoided challenges of interferences. The method developed was applied successfully in real urine and fresh water samples using DBM as a chelating agent and obtained Cr(III) in the ranges 0.86 - 7.18 ng/mL and 5.94 - 8.99 ng/mL respectively. The percentage recovery was in the range 96 - 99% for fresh water and 99.8 - 105% for urine samples. Keywords: Metal Chelates; Acetylacetonate;Dibenzoylmethane; Dipivaloylmethane; Chromium(III); High Performance Liquid Chromatography
35 Early Diagnosis, Prophylaxis, Pathophysiology and Current Research On COVID-19 , Naresh Daithankar, Shailee Tiwari
Abstract  In December 2019, the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in China spread worldwide, becoming an emergency of major international concern. The SARS-CoV-2 infection causes a severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Human-to-human transmission via droplets, contaminated hands or surfaces has been described, with incubation times of 2-14 days. This paper reviews the literature on all available information about the diagnosis, prophylaxis, pathophysiology and Current research on COVID-19. Current research on COVID-19 including antimalarial drugs (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine), antiviral drugs (Ribavirin, remdesivir), antibodies, vaccines and convalescent plasma transfusion, are discussed in this article. Keywords: COVID-19; Pandemic; Diagnosis; Prophylaxis; Current Research; Remdesivir
36 Hepatic Rupture Complicating HELLP Syndrome and Pre-existent Antiphospholipid Syndrome with Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis , Chinmayi Patkar-Kattimani, Riddhi Rathod, Dinesh Sagtani, Prasad Kattimani
Abstract  Antiphospholipid syndrome is associated with HELLP (Haemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes and Low Platelets) syndrome as a continuum of thrombotic microangiopathies. Subcapsular liver haematoma is a rare presentation of HELLP syndrome. A 38-year-old woman at 33 weeks gestation presented with HELLP syndrome complicated by acute hepatic rupture. She had background history of antiphospholipid syndrome with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Postoperative course was complicated by hepatic failure, sepsis and haemodynamic instability which was managed successfully. Anaesthetists need to be aware of serious complications like haemorrhage, thrombosis and multi-organ failure when presented with HELLP syndrome and antiphosholipid syndrome. Keywords: HELLP Syndrome; Antiphospholipid Syndrome; Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis; Subcapsular Liver Haematoma; Hepatic Rupture
37 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Medication Therapy Management among Hospital Pharmacists in Delta State, Nigeria , Akonoghrere Rita, Aghoja Ogheneovo, Adje David, Ogbonna Brian, Oparah Azuka, Nwachukwu Angel
Abstract Medication Therapy Management (MTM) service provided by pharmacists aims at optimizing drug therapy and improving therapeutic outcomes for patients. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of MTM among hospital pharmacists in Delta State Nigeria. The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive survey. Overall, 115 copies of a validated 20 item questionnaire were distributed to hospital pharmacists in major towns in Delta state. Verbal consent was obtained from the respondents prior to administering the questionnaire. The filled questionnaires were collected, sorted and analysed. A total of 100 pharmacists participated in the study, of which 52 were females. The response rate was 86.96%; 94% of the respondents had a good knowledge of MTM. Most of the respondents felt that MTM encourages collaboration and cooperation between pharmacists and other health care professionals (95%), while 97% were willing to promote MTM in their hospital pharmacies. A total of 89 respondents use MTM tools to communicate and collaborate with other health care professionals to achieve optimal treatment outcomes. In conclusion, majority of the pharmacists had good knowledge of MTM, were willing to promote MTM and a few have started providing the service. Keywords: Pharmacy Practice; Hospital Pharmacists’ Services; Nigeria, Medication Therapy Management; Medication Reconciliation; Pharmaceutical Care
38 Pharmacological Treatments and Development of SARS-CoV-2 , Abhishek Kumar Verma
Currently, the FDA for the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia has approved no drugs or therapeutics vaccines. Some pharmacological treatment has gained emergency use authorization from FDA based on preliminary data displaying a faster time to recovery of hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 infection. In this editorial, different pharmacological treatment that have been adopted for the management and treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia.
39 The Cost-Effectiveness of Treatments in Non-Cirrhotic Saudi Arabian Patients with Genotype 1 and Genotype 4 Chronic Hepatitis C , Mohammad Alowairdhi, Varun Vaidya, Eric Sahloff, Cindy Puffer  
Abstract Objectives: (1) To estimate the total costs of hepatitis C treatment choices recommended by the Saudi Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and Transplantation (SASLT) based on data from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA), (2) To develop and operationalize the decision tree model and calculate the base case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), (3) To perform one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses testing the underlying assumptions in the decision tree model. Method: A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed on a hypothetical cohort comparing different chronic hepatitis C treatment strategies from the (SFDA)’s perspective over a three-month period using a decision tree model. Data for this study were obtained retrospectively from the (SFDA) and published literature. Costs were measured in United States Dollars (USD). Life-years gained (Ly) were the outcomes measured in this study. Since the SASLT guidelines differ between genotype 1 and genotype 4, There were two separate decision tree models and analyses for each genotype cohort at a willingness to pay (WTP) of $65,000. Result and Discussion: In genotype 1 base case analysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness comparison between the interventions showed that both Elbasvir/Grazoprevir and Paritaprevir/Ritonavir/Ombitasvir plus Dasabuvir with Ribavirin (3D+RBV) dominated Sofosbuvir with Simeprevir and Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir. Against 3D+RBV, the ICER was $33,796/Ly for each additional cure. In genotype 4 base case analysis, Paritaprevir/Ritonavir/Ombitasvir with Ribavirin (2D+RBV) dominated Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir and Sofosbuvir plus Simeprevir. The interventions compared in genotype 1 are competitive and cost effective in exception of Sofosbuvir with Simeprevir while 2D+RBV is highly recommended in genotype 4. Interventions in both genotypes will be dominated by Sofosbuvir low-priced generics. Keywords: Hepatitis C; Genotype 1; Genotype 4
40 Identification of Heat Shock Protein70 in Setaria digitata and its Evaluation as Diagnostic Marker for Lymphatic Filariasis , Jayakumar, Sony Peter, Sarath Babu K
Abstract Heat shock protein70 associated with lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been identified from a cattle filarial parasite Setaria digitata. A heat shock protein was detected in different life stages of Setaria digitata when exposed to an elevated temperature of 44°C. A combination of ATP-agarose column chromatography and electro-elution was used for its purification from adult female extract. On closer examination, it migrated as a single band at 62 kDa on 10% SDS-PAGE. These observations suggest a plausible biological connection of ScHSP70 with the disease and its strong immunogenic nature. ScHSP70 showed antigenic cross-reactivity with IgG class of antibody in different categories of filarial sera. However, when IgG subclasses were tested, IgG4 showed high specificity and sensitivity with symptomatic microfilaraemic sera. Keywords: ATP-Agarose; Filarial Parasite; Heat Shock Proteins; Setaria digitata; W. bancrofti; SDS-PAGE
41 Hyphenated Techniques, an Important Tool for Force Degradation Study , Rushikesh Shirgaonkar, Aniket Lomate, Sachin A Pishawikar
Abstract The pharma market is getting flooded with many new drug formulations as well as fixed dose combination formulations in which different API are there. Each of this is going to contain different types of impurities as well as they are bound to undergo process of degradation by different mechanisms leading to formation of degradation products. All of these are going to be present as impurities. Though the impurities will be within limit in accordance to regulatory authorities, still in case of disease like diabetes and hyper tension the patient is going to be on medicine for rest of his life hence bound to get over exposure to these. Some of which may cause adverse effects like cytotoxic and genotoxic. Hence indeed there is need for identification. In previous era it was ok with regulatory authorities if components in formulation were 99% pure. But know they are insisting on identification of that remaining 1%. Though there is challenge in front of analytical chemists, use of sophisticated instruments for analysis of impurities has increased and has made task little easier. Scientist are working towards discovering different types of methods whereby accurate results can be obtained. Hyphenated techniques have received tremendous attention as it is been seen as the principal means to solve complex analytical problems. The combined power of separation techniques like chromatography in combination with spectroscopic techniques has been predominantly used over the years for both quantitative and qualitative analysis of unknown compounds. The hyphenated techniques have provided analytical chemist a tool to come over the challenge associated with impurity profiling and determination of safety and efficacy of API. Among all hyphenated techniques, the most exploited techniques for impurity profiling of drugs are Liquid Chromatography (LC)-Mass Spectroscopy (MS), LC-NMR, LC-NMR-MS, GC-MS and LC-MS. This reveals the need and scope of impurity profiling of drugs in pharmaceutical research. Keywords: Liquid Chromatography (LC); Mass Spectroscopy (MS); Hyphenated Techniques; Force Degradation
42 Evaluation of Drug Dose Calculation Ability of Nursing Students: An Interventional Study , Basant Kumar Karn, Deependra Prasad Sarraf, Erina Shrestha
Abstract The objective of the study was to evaluate the drug dose calculation ability of nursing students. A pre-post interventional study was conducted among 99 undergraduate nursing students studying in 2nd year, 3rd year and 4th year. Pre-test was conducted using a self-administered 20-item questionnaire on drug dose calculation test followed by a 30 minute lecture on the methods of drug dose calculation. Post-test was conducted using the same questionnaire after a washout period of six weeks. Mean score, standard deviation, frequency and percentage were calculated. Student’s t-test, one way ANOVA and McNemar Test were used for statistical analysis using SPSS version 11.5. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Pre-test and post-test mean score (± Standard deviation) were 10.59 ± 3.00 and 15.36 ± 2.46 respectively. There was 45.04% increase in mean score in the post-test after the intervention and it was statistically significant (P-value < 0.05). None of students scored more than 90% of mastery level in the pretest and 42 students (42.4%) scored more than 90% of mastery level in the post-test. The mean score was highest for third year students and lowest for 2nd year students in both pre-test and post-test; however, it was statistically not significant (P-value>0.05). Drug dose calculation ability of the students was poor in the pre-test and it significantly improved after the intervention. The study findings highlight the need for regular continuing mathematical and drug dose calculation practice among the students. Keywords: Calculation; Drug; Dose; Nursing; Students
43 Association of Occupational Stress for Health Care Professionals and Incidence of COVID-19. Is there an Increased Risk? , Mohamed AR, Eslam MS, Sara AR, Nagwa AS
The objective of the present review is to investigate if there could be a correlation and/or association of occupational stress of health care workers (HCWs) leading to an increase in the risk and/or incidence of COVID-19 due to many reasons including suppression of immunity function. Correlation between stress, CNS and immunity The central nervous system, endocrine system, and immune system are complicated combination of systems correlated and interacted with one another, and thus, disturbing the sensitive interactivity among these systems might dysregulate the immune response due to triggering of stressful life events and generation of negative emotions [1]. It is important to know that what is known by an allostatic load is mainly caused by a stressor which is an external stimulus or an event that exceeds an individual’s perceived ability to withstand and tolerate either emotionally or physically [2].
44 Impact of Media and Protocol on SARS-CoV-2: Statistical Analysis , Ibrahim Zakariyya Musa, Shamsuddeen Ahmad Sabo, Abhishek Kumar Verma, Mayadhar Barik
Abstract The current global pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 is a great challenge to the man, the virus has affected over 7 million people globally as of 12th June 2020. Also Nowadays, Media has become an essential part of human life. This research entails finding out how these two are going that is how media is affecting the current pandemic and also to find the role media plays in controlling the situation or helping the public to overcome the current situations. Reliability analysis was used to measure how reliable the questions carried in the research are, descriptive statistics were used to find out which among the subgroups of media is inflicting fear in the mind of public and correlation analysis was used to find how the variables are related using the collected data obtained through research questionnaire. The results obtained shows that public media (Television, Radio and Newspaper) are doing their best in making people less afraid by broadcasting positive news, whereas, social media (Facebook, Twitter and Instagram) platforms are contributing in making people very afraid due to the habit of a share as you received. Keywords: Media; Protocol; SARS-CoV-2; Reliability Analysis; Cronbach’s Alpha; Correlation Analysis; ANOVA
45 Development and Validation of Zero and First Order Derivative Area Under Curve Spectrophotometric Methods for Pyrazinamide in Bulk Material and Pharmaceutical Formulation. , SS Chalikwar, MB Narode, PS Jain, SB Shinde, SV Kakulade
Abstract Introduction: The aim of this work is to establish a novel, simple, precise and sensitive UV-AUC spectrophotometry method for estimation of Pyrazinamide from bulk and in-Pharmaceutical formulation and validate it according ICH guidelines. Pyrazinamide is used for the treatment of tuberculosis. Methods and Methodology: Pyrazinamide was estimated by four simple UV-Spectrophotometric methods using double beam UV- Spectrophotometer (UV-2450, Shimadzu). A stock standard solution was prepared by dissolving 10 mg of Pyrazinamide in to 100 mL volumetric flask then volume was made by methanol up to the mark, the obtaining concentration was 100µg/mL. After suitable dilutions, it scans in the UV-visible range 200 - 400 nm. For Method A and Method B zero-order spectrum and area under curve (AUC) recorded at 268 nm and 259.40 - 273.20 nm respectively. While for Method C and for Method D first-order derivative the amplitude and area under curve (AUC) recorded at 279nm and 277.20 - 282.60 nm respectively. For linearity study, series of dilutions were prepared from stock solutions. Results: In Method A, B, C and Method D, Pyrazinamide followed linearity in the concentration range of 2 - 12 μg/mL with (r2 > 0.999). The % recovery was found to be in the range of 98 - 102%. Furthermore, the precision of methods were calculated in terms of % RSD less than 2 showed, methods are precise. The developed methods was validate according to ICH guidelines. Conclusion: The developed methods are simple, rugged, robust and economical. The illustrated methods can routinely be used for determination of Pyrazinamide in bulk and in Pharmaceutical formulation. Keywords: Area Under Curve Spectrophotometry; Derivative-Spectrophotometry; Pyrazinamide
46 Cancer Energy Metabolism , Daniel Gandia
Cancer is a disease with dominant genetic traits that continuously evolves during the whole tumor lifecycle. This evolution is present at the different biological organization levels meaning molecular-cell and tissue-related ones. The process comports one of the highest medical challenges and disease complexities, metastases, that if not correctly treated, the patient presents a clinical deterioration that can lead to a clinical starvation condition.
47 Here is Synopsis on- "Single Women" , Manjeet Singh
asten your belts and be engrossed in this beautiful journey with Single Women.Single women are epitome of beauty, strength, dare and wis-dom, voicing out their thoughts, fighting for theirs and others rights.“Single Women” is the story of ‘Rozanne, Samaira and the most Unforgettable, Brutal - “Stallone”.Rozanne and Samaira are best friends, brought up in a middle class family. Rozanne was bold and level headed, whereas Samaira on the other hand was docile one. They were neighbours and class-mates from convent. Being ‘The Women’ they faced in numerous problems but out-shone in an exemplary way.
48 Phytochemical and In-Vitro Evaluation of Anti-oxidant Activity of Mansoa alliacea Leaves , SK Ameenabee, A Lakshmana Rao, P Suguna Rani, T Sandhya4, N Teja, G Ashu, V Bhavya Naga Vani, CH Purna Durganjali, N Pavani
Mansoa alliacea Lam. (Family: Bignoniaceae) is a native plant from Amazonian basin in South America. Plant derivatives are used as an anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antiseptic and anti-bacterial. The study was aimed to determine the pharmacognostic and phy-tochemicals present in Mansoa alliacea. Micro and Organoleptic characteristics of fresh and dried leaf samples had been examined. Physicochemical chemical variables have been done by using WHO suggested variables, preliminary phytochemical of leaf sample had been performed to identify the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and phenols, and quinones using the ethanolic extract of the leaves of M. alliacea
49 Progression of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Associated with Pulmonary Tuberculosis Sequelae in a 60 Year Old Hypertensive Patient: A Multifactorial Case Report with Literature Review , Nuthalapati Poojith, Kiran Kumar Rathinam, Sarvesh Sabarathinam
Here we discuss a 60year old patient with pulmonary tuberculosis sequelae followed by uncontrolled diabetes mellitus with complicated conditions. Insulin resistance is one of the main factors which plays a significant role in glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism. Non-adherent to medication and insulin resistance are the primary factors are the causes of diabetes complication such as microvascular and macrovascular complications. Glycated haemoglobin plays a significant role in the identification of drug sensi-tivity and determination of insulin insufficiency. This case describes the multifactorial complications due to uncontrolled diabetes; the need for screening for HbA1c is recommended in the high-risk group.
50 Design and Evaluation of Oral Based Site Specific Targeting of Oxaliplatin to Colorectal Cancer , J Josephine Leno Jenita, Mahesh AR, Wilson B, Reddy Prasad
The present study is to achieve colon-specific targeted delivery of oxaliplatin for the treatment of colon cancer and also to assess the use of Guar Gum, Locust Bean Gum, Chitosan alone and also with combination of Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) in the form of a compression-coating on oxaliplatin core tablet. Methods:The core tablet of 20 mg of Oxaliplatin was coated with various proportions of Guar Gum (GG), Locust Bean Gum (LBG), Chitosan (CS) and HPMC K-100 as a compression coating material. The effects of these polysaccharides, its level and the coat thickness were evaluated. All the batches were subjected for its potential in colon-specific drug delivery by conducting drug release studies in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. The amount of oxaliplatin released from the compressed coated tablets at different time intervals was estimated by a UV Spectroscopy method. Results:From the experimental studies the tablets coated with above mentioned coating materials alone with combination of polysaccharides have showed sustained drug release in the colonic environment. In vitro drug release studies was known to follow super case transport- II. Conclusion:This study indicated that the use of polysaccharides that are biodegraded by colonic microflora could result in comparatively safer and more effective delivery of drugs to the colon and also a new means to achieve colon-specific drug delivery. This study also revealed that this approach prevents the oxaliplatin drug release in the upper gastrointestinal environment.
51 Suspected Relationship between Pure Sodium and Bone Marrow Failures , Alok Thakur
Despite better healthcare infrastructure, food quality and environment incidence of haematological cancer in developed countries like Canada and the United States is more prevalent than developing countries like India. Pure sodium table salt appears to be one of the major causes of bone marrow failures leading to haematological cancer. Natural salt contains a large number of trace elements most of which have been identified as essential for the body by FDA that help in maintaining electrolyte balances and DNA health. The study has been substantiated through observations of haematological cancer among urban and rural Indian populations.
52 Study of the Antiviral Activity of Propolis Phenolic Fraction , Oleg S Shpychak, Payal Chauhan
The antiviral activity of the propolis phenolic fraction of (PPF) against influenza virus, adenovirus and coronavirus and vesicular stomatitis virus was studied. As a result of the performed study the maximum tolerated concentration (MTC) of cell culture of human or animal origin was determined, which was 1.0% for the lot of PPF No 1 and 0.5% for the lot of PPF No 2. An aqueous solution of PPF (lot No 1) decreased coronavirus hemagglutinin titer by 4 - 8 times, thus indicating the prospects of using the drug against coronavirus infections.
53 Evaluation of In-Vitro and In-Vivo Anticoagulant Activity of Orange Peel Extract , Tera Sandhya, Pasumarthy Sree Mahalakshmi
It is a common and necessary procedure that assist avert loss of life yet from slight damages by means of creating clumps or clots in an effort to discontinue bleeding from an injured or damaged vessel. The results acquired from this exploration advocate that the medicinal plant, Orange peel, possesses the capability to inhibit the aggregation of platelets: The extract of the plant peel inhibited the effect of thrombin on the artificial substrate (i.e. chromogenix), and subsequent too inhibited rat aggregation of platelets pro-voked with ADP, thrombin, and epinephrine. The anti-aggregation of Platelet effectiveness was seen mostly in the extract of the semi-polar solvent extract highest dose indicating the highest effect. The capability of the extract to inhibit the arachidonic acid provoked aggregation of Platelet signify its potential to be developed into an excellent pharmacological anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory medicament.
54 Strategic Therapies with Epigenetic Drugs: A Review , Daniela Maria Capuano, Rosanna Cipolla, Roberto Verna
With recent advances in DNA sequencing (high-throughput analysis), researchers have been able to examine epigenetic changes across the whole genome, and recent studies have shown that epigenetics play a central role in many types of diseases. Epigenetic variations have been found in various pathologies and their involvement in the cancerous transformation has been demonstrated. Given that epigenetic dysregulation is potentially reversible and given that many diseases have an epigenetic etiology, the research-ers hypothesized that inhibition epigenetic changes may have therapeutic potential. This is what has encouraged the development of new pharmacological opportunities that can be defined with the term “epigenetic therapy”.A number of epigenetic drugs have already been approved or are currently undergoing clinical trials. This paper is a review of the literature to illustrate the therapeutic potential of these drugs and evaluate their clinical application.
55 Emergency Approval of Favipiravir for Covid19 Infection in India , Subhrojyoti Bhowmick, Suddha Chatterjee, Sanket Bandyopadhyay, Soumyo Sarathi Ganguly, Debarati Kundu, Sujit KarPurkayastha
Novel Coronavirus or COVID-19 pandemic was first reported in Wuhan City, China in December 2019. According to WHO database the spread of infection has resulted in over 30 million infected people and over 943000 deaths worldwide till 19th September, 2020. Till date, unavailability of vaccines and specific antiviral drugs is a cause of grave concern. Worldwide,the search for the specific an-tiviral medication is underway. The Drug controller General of India (DCGI) has recently approved Favipiravir for emergency usage in mild to moderate Covid19 Indian patients. Favipiravir, an old antiviral drug marketed under the brand name Avigan by Fujifilm Toyama Chemical Co. Ltd, Japan, originally produced for Ebola Virus Disease has shown affirmative results in the treatment of CO-VID-19 across the globe. This article is an updated literature review conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of the drug Favipi-ravir (FPV) in general and in the treatment of COVID-19 across the globe. An extensive search was performed using keywords such as Favipiravir and SARSCoV-2 in platforms like Google Scholar and PubMed for the time period of 1st June 2000 to 31st July 2020. Common adverse effects of the drug include increased Liver enzymes and hyperuricaemia. Trials reported from Japan and Russia has proved the efficacy and safety of Favipiravir in Covid19 although published data from an Indian clinical trial is awaited. It appears to be a promising drug considering its oral formulation and safety profile, however, efficacy data from Indian patients are still awaited to recommend its wide spread usage.
56 Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant and Antiarthritic Activity of Aqueous Extracts of Gmelina arborea Flowers , Ayushi Rajput, Sourabh Jain, Karunakar Shukla
The plant Gmelina arborea (G. arborea) has been traditionally used in India for several medicinal purposes like anthelmintic, diuretic, antibacterial, antioxidant and antidiabetic. The aim of the present study was to evaluate qualitative phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and antiarthritic activities of aqueous extracts of G. arborea flowers. Qualitative analysis of various phytochemical con-stituents was determined by the well-known test protocol available in the literature. The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide scavenging assay using standard protocols. The in vitro antiarthritic potential of extracts was evaluated in terms of its inhibition of protein denaturation and membrane stabilization method. Freund’s adjuvant arthritis model in Wistar rats was used to study the in vivo antiarthritic activity. Phytochemical analysis revealed the pres-ence of alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, flavonoids, tannins. The inhibitory concentration 50% values are 85.43 and 107.59 μg/ml for DPPH radical scavenging assay and superoxide scavenging assay, respectively. The plant extracts exhibited dose dependent inhibition of protein denaturation and also protected the RBC cells by stabilizing the membranes. G. arborea flowers extracts (100 and 200 mg/kg) was given orally to arthritic rats induced with complete freund’s adjuvant and changes in paw diameter, joint diameter, arthritic score and body weight were determined. Indomethacin was taken as standard. Rats treated with extracts displayed marked reduc-tion in paw diameter, joint diameter and arthritic score along with substantial enhancement in body weight. The antiarthritic effects of these plant extracts may attribute either due to its inhibition of protein denaturation or stabilizing the membranes from the free radical attack which are generated due to the immunological and inflammatory reactions observed in most of the arthritic conditions.
57 Pathogenesis, Epidemiology, and Clinical Features among SARS-CoV-2 and Associated Diseases: An Editorial , Abhishek Kumar Verma1, Abhishek Dadhich, Anisha Choudhary, Prakhar Bhardwaj
A new human coronavirus virus emerged in Wuhan, the city of China in December 2019 named novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, this coronavirus becomes a pandemic and affects most of the countries worldwide. Presently (as of 3 June 2020) 6287771 confirmed cases and 379941 deaths have been reported globally according to WHO data [1]. The clinical syndrome of coronavirus associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection; is categorized by respira-tory illness ranging from upper respiratory tract from the common cold to fatal pneumonia and severe acute respiratory distress syn-drome (ARDS)
58 Evaluation of Anti-Bacterial Activity of Mansoa alliaceae Leaves , Veenam Bhavya Naga Vani, Nayudu Teja,Tera Sandhya
The Mansoa alliaceae leaves contain many medical applications. The plant leaves contain anti-inflammatory activity, anti-oxidant activity, anti-arthritic activity, anti-rheumatic activity, anti-septic activity, anti-fungal activity and anti-bacterial activity. The present study was aimed to determine the anti-bacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Mansoa alliaceae leaves.
59 Formulation and Characterization of Albumin/Glycine Microspheres as Oral Delivery System for Resveratrol , Kwame G Yeboah, Aladin Siddig
Resveratrol has been reported to have beneficial effect against many diseases and has multi-spectrum therapeutic appli-cations. However, oral delivery in its free form has short biological half-life with the consequent reduced bioavailability of only one percent. As such, the search continues for a polymer matrix that will be ideal for the protection of the drug and other compounds associated with food system from the conditions encountered in the gastrointestinal tract and to increase therapeutic efficiency. Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this project therefore, was to evaluate the novel strategy of using albumin and glycine copo-lymer system to prepare microspheres capable of protecting the Resveratrol and meeting the sustained release specifications for increased bioavailability. Method: Microspheres containing Resveratrol were prepared using BSA, Glycine and a mixture of BSA/Glycine polymer matrices. The comparative physicochemical characteristics such as particle sizes, zeta potential, drug release, and residual concentration of glutaraldehyde after the crosslinking process for six formulations were evaluated.Results: The study showed that all the physicochemical characteristics of the selected BSA/Glycine microspheres were ideal for de-livery of the resveratrol drug by the oral route. The drug substance was protected at extremely high temperature and oxygen stress. In addition, the residual glutaraldehyde concentrations were below the levels reported to be toxic for peroral delivery. Secondary, a novel means of neutralizing any excess glutaraldehyde by the use of sodium bisulfite was successful incorporated into the formula-tion. Conclusion: It was concluded from the results of the study that BSA/Glycine copolymers can be used to produce microspheres with the required specifications for the oral delivery of bioactive compounds such as resveratrol.
60 A Cross Sectional Observational Study on Prescribing Patterns of Drugs in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital , Roja Rani K, Susmitha Bhaskar Yerramasetty, Prasanth Munaswamy
The prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease are enormously increasingly world wide due to gradual rise in hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases. As kidney is a major eliminating organ, its function decreases in CKD resulting in accumulation of drugs which leads to toxic effects. Use of poly pharmacy in co- morbid conditions results in drug - drug interactions and adverse effects which may cause serious and long term illness and decrease quality of life of patient. The aim is to assess the prescribing patterns of drugs in chronic kidney patients in a tertiary care teaching hospital.Objectives are to assess the prescribing drug doses in CKD patients. To identify the risk factors in CKD. To predict the GFR by using Modified diet in renal failure formulae. To evaluate the comor-bidities involved in CKD. To determine the number of drugs prescribed belong WHO essential list. To analyse the drug interactions involved in prescriptions. To assess the prescribing patterns of prescribers in CKD patients. To determine the usage of drugs by using WHO prescribing indicators.A prospective observational study carried out in Sri Venkateswara Ramnarayan Ruia Government Gen-eral Hospital (SVRRGGH) during December 2016 to March 2017(6 months). A total of 125 patients diagnosed with CKD are included in study. Patients who are not willing, below 18 years, special population including pregnant, lactating women were excluded from study. Predesigned proforma was used to collect data.Total of 125 patients were included in study, men constituted 68% of total population. Most effected age group was 51-60 years. Hypertension was major risk factor 48.20% observed in study population. Most of patients are in stage 4, 35.20%. 1163 drugs were prescribed to 125 patients. Percentage of drugs prescribed from WHO EDL was 62.90%. Prevalence of polypharmacy was very high in patients with CKD. Medication prescribing patterns suggest a high number of medications used in CKD patients with increased possibility of drug interactions. Continuous medical education of physicians and collaboration with clinical pharmacist is an important issue for quality improvement regarding renally impaired patients.
61 Study on Management Practices and Constraints of Village Chicken Production in Damot Sore District in Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia , Alemu Ayano, Saliman Aliye, Haben Fesseha
A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Damot Sore district of Wolaita Zone to assess the major constraints and health management activities. A total of 384 households were selected randomly and assessed using a structured questionnaire survey. Ac-cordingly, 90.62% of respondents use the backyard poultry production system and 9.38% semi-intensive. Most of the respondents (47.92%) have completed elementary school followed by college and university (20.83%). From those households, 56.25% pur-chased their chicken from government and private hatchery. Regarding the feeding activities, about 28.12% of chicken were scaven-gers whereas 44.80% were scavenging with the supplementary feed, and only 9.37% processed or purchased feed which contains a high nutritional value and 17.71% were homemade feed. About 2/3 of chicken owners provide supplementary feed for their chickens and 93.75% of the respondent has market access. The other 6.25% has no access to the market and sold on holidays or festivals. Only 27.08% of the respondents vaccinate their chickens and only 38.54% use traditional and modern drugs for deworming. Newcastle (22.92%) vaccine is the most frequently used vaccine in the area. Most respondents (89.58%) did not get the extension service from the health center and 93.75% of them didn’t get the training about production to improve breeding and increase the sector. The major constraints of chicken production in the study area were disease (34.38%), predators such as cats, dog, rat, and wild birds (18.75%), and lack training on the poultry management practices (17.71%). Thus, practical based and continuous training should be given to the owner on the construction of improved housing, proper feeding activities, and control of diseases and predators.
62 The Association between Congenital Heart Disease in Infants and Preeclampsia , Samah Alasrawi, Mohammad Nour Alesrawi, Ahmad Al Esrawi
Preeclampsia and Congenital heart disease shared angiogenic pathways in both conditions. There is evidence of an-giogenic imbalance in women carrying fetuses with major congenital heart defects and in fetuses terminated because of these de-fects. Either way, the data suggested that excessive antiangiogenesis early in pregnancy may play a role in the origin of at least some congenital heart defects.Objective of the Study: Mini review of 3 international studies about the association between Congenital Heart Disease in infants and Preeclampsia.Studies: We reviewed 3 studies from Denmark, Nigeria and Canada all chord studies, some of them collected the pregnant women and others collected the infants. Results: All studies confirm the association between the Congenital Heart Disease in infants and Preeclampsia.Conclusion: The absolute prevalence of congenital heart defects was higher for infants of women with preeclampsia than those without it. So, it is important to do the screening fetal heart scan for the women who had preeclampsia and after birth Echo for their newborns.
63 Isolation of Antibiotic Producing Bacteria from Lake Soil , Nayudu Teja, Ooha Deepika Gummadi, Boppudi Pujitha
Microorganisms are present in almost all places on the earth. They are very important in the maintenance of life on the earth. Due the difference in the activities of different microbes, they influence life in different ways.
64 Evaluation of Depressant Activity on Mansoa alliacea on Rats , Nayudu Teja, Ooha Deepika Gummadi, Bolla Valli Devi, Naidu Pavani
Depression is a serious medical illness that aggravates the negative feelings of a person that causes changes in their behaviour and thinking process. It is characterised by persistently low mood and/or loss of interest in daily activities. It leads to variety of emotional and physical problems can decrease a person ability to function at work and home. The major hypothesis of depression was primarily demonstrated 30 years ago in which it is stated that the prominent symptoms of depression are caused due to the functional defi-ciency of the brain monoaminergic transmitter’s norepinephrine (NE), 5-HT and/or dopamine (DA). Depression affects much more than moods. There are a few most common physical symptoms of depression:• Increased body pains, which is seen mostly in two out of three people with depression.• Severe fatigue.• Lack of interest in sex.• Loss of appetite.• Insomnia, lack of deep sleep or oversleeping.
65 Search for Natural Alkaloids as SARS-CoV-2 Proteas and RdRp Inhibitors: A Docking-Based Study , Abhrajit Bag, Arijit Bag
To find an immediately applicable drug for the treatment of COVID-19 positive patients, a plausible life cycle of this virus is pro-posed from the analysis of a few case reports. Based on this proposal and symptomatic similarities, a few common drug-molecules are tested as a protease inhibitor and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 virus using COVID-19 Docking Server. It is observed that anisotine and vasicoline of Justicia adhatoda and Pemirolast are very good inhibitors. As all these three compounds are market available drugs, an immediate clinical trial is plausible which may lead to the golden success against the pres-ent pandemic. We prescribed different drugs for different purposes and stages of viral infection.
66 Complementary Pharmacological Treatment and Therapeutic Prospects for COVID-19 , Daphne Foust, Shazia Tabassum Hakim, Joseph Angel de Soto
The COVID-19 outbreak has led to a world-wide pandemic that has infected over two million people and caused over one hundred thousand deaths. The virus first discovered in Wuhan China in Dec. 2019, seems to have originated either in the United States or the Guangdong province as early as September 2019. Infection by SARs-CoV-2 virus can lead to pneumonia and adult respi-ratory distress syndrome (ARDS) which is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality for this disease. Objective: This review focuses on the mechanism of action of a representative sampling of some of the most promising pharmaco-logical approaches to treating COVID-19 based pneumonia and the related cytokine storm. Results: The current medications showing promise either focus in interfering with the viral life cycle or interfering with the cytokine storm that leads from pneumonia to ARDs. Conclusion: Developingtherapeutics interfering with the viral lifecycle, modulating the cytokine storm and protecting the end or-gans show promise in significantly reducing the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19.
67 Prioritizing Water-Demanding Situation, Climate Change in Covid19 , Debraj Mukhopadhyay,Dattatreya Mukherjee
Hand washing on regular basis is strongly recommended to combat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which requires ac-cess to adequate, secure, and affordable water in addition to that required for making food, hydration, and normal sanitation. Uni-versal and equitable access to water, sanitation, and hygiene is a major public health issue and the focus of Sustainable Develop-ment Goal 6. However, over 50% of the global population lacks connectivity to necessary sanitation, and 75% of households in low-income and middle-income countries are not able to wash with soap and water.
68 Evaluation and Improvement of Multiple-choice Questions in the Doctor of Pharmacy Program , Abdulkareem M Albekairy, Nabil Khalidi, Wesam W Ismail, Rami T Bustami, Esra’a I Khader, Abdulmalik M Alkatheri, Amjad M Qandil
To evaluate the quality of the current multiple choice questions (MCQ) in our bank, and to review the appropriateness of the student assessment processes by faculty in this Doctor of Pharmacy program. Also to identify barriers to the reduction of item writing flaws (IWF).Methods: Faculty, in teams of two, reviewed 7620 MCQs of the question bank. Two more follow up reviews were then performed to further understand the reasons behind the MCQ IWF: (1) 2185 randomly selected MCQ were monitored for timely submission (which is one week before the exam), and (2) the deleted MCQ post exam administration among the randomly selected 2875 MCQ. In both projects, the level of cognition was also investigated. Results: IWF in 7620 were conservatively assessed at 29.5%. IWF increased as the number of instructors in a given course increased. Late submission of questions in the studied sample of 2185 MCQs was at 22%. That has gotten worse as the years progressed year 1 to year 3 implicating pharmacy practice joint faculty more than others. MCQ deletion from the 2875 random sample was 4.6% across all levels of cognition. Negative correlation was found between the number of teaching faculty and percent of flawless MCQs.Discussion: To reduce IWF, all processes of assessment must be monitored, and appropriate interventions instituted through educa-tion to faculty, review of MCQs prior to processing, engaging faculty in the improvement process. Full time college-based dedicated faculty tends to create an environment of cooperation between all faculty which in turn reduces weaknesses in the assessment pro-cesses.
69 The Significant and Profound Impacts of Protein Subcellular Localization Prediction (Short Communication) , Kuo-Chen Chou
The first paper introducing the protein subcellular location pre-diction was in 2005 [1]. It has stimulated a series of followed-up publications [2-10], particularly for those proteins with multiple location sites [11-18], as well as the eight master pieces of papers from the then Chairman of Nobel Prize Committee Sture Forsen.
70 The Significant and Profound Impacts of Low-Frequency Internal Motions (Phonons) in Biomacromolecules (Short Communication) , Kuo-Chen Chou
The first paper introducing the low-frequency internal motions or phonons was proposed in 1977 [1]. It has stimulated a series of follow-up papers in this very interesting field (see, e.g. [2-16], as well as the eight master pieces of papers from the then Chairman of Nobel Prize Committee Sture Forsen [2,17-23].It is indeed very significant by introducing the concept of low-frequency internal motions (phonons) for studying biomacromol-ecules and it is indeed very profound by doing the same.
71 Phytochemical Composition and Pharmacological Potential of Adhatoda zeylanica Medic. Syn. A. vasica L. Nees , Harsukh Chharang, Lakha Ram, Ashok K Kakodia,Raaz K Maheshwari
Innumerable natural products with inherent potential biological activity procured from plants have played a significant role in im-proving the human health since the dawn of civilisation. As more than 50% of modern clinical drugs originate from natural products. Therefore, based on latter, the approach to new drug discovery and its development in the pharmaceutical industry has emerged significantly. A. vasica is a good source of pyrroloquinoline alkaloids such as vasicine, vasicol, adhatodine, vasicinone, vasicinol, va-sicinolone etc. which are the chief constituents of different extracts of the plant. These compounds have shown many biological and pharmacological activities viz. anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer etc. Further, Ad-hatoda leaves have been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, tuberculosis, skin diseases, vomiting and leprosy etc. Herbal medicine is still the mainstay of about 75-80% of the world population, mainly in the developing countries, for primary health care because of better cultural acceptability, better compatibility with the human body and lesser side effects. However, the last few years have seen a major increase in their use in the developed world. As far as contemporary drugs are concerned they must be further characterized after their pharmacological screening by studying the pharmacokinetic and phar-macodynamic properties, including toxicity. Therefore, the present communication enumerate the phytochemical composition and pharmacological potential of A. vasica.
72 Understanding the Barriers to Prescribing Buprenorphine in Massachusetts , Phuong Duong, Francis Melaragni, Carly Levy3
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other U.S. government agencies have reported over 2 million Americans currently suffer from opioid use disorder. Assisting those with opioid use disorder is a national problem that needs more attention and commitment. One approach that shows promise is the use of medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for those with opioid use disorder. Objectives:This study focused on the barriers that limit the number of prescribers of buprenorphine in Massachusetts. Design and Participants: The researchers sent two questionnaires, made follow-up phone calls as appropriate, and sent emails to the 1300 providers in Massachusetts who were publicly available in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA) website and who have waivers to prescribe buprenorphine. Measures and Results: Among the prescribers, payment and pharmacy issues were significant barriers faced by prescribers (OR 14.441; 95% CI 3.660 - 56.981). Among the non-prescribers, significant barriers were low demand (OR 0.305; 95% CI 0.096 - 0.965) and insufficient knowledge (OR 0.117; 95% CI 0.032 - 0.429). Conclusion: There have been many changes in the landscape of opioid epidemic in the past 13 years since the 2005 study of Walley., et al. However, many barriers still exist and need to be removed to improve the current opioid epidemic, and this includes the limited number of prescribers and thus limited access to the medication assisted treatment buprenorphine.
73 The Study of Health’s Personnel View on Implementation of the Family Nursing Plan , Soltani Fahimeh,Sahbaeiroy Faezeh
Family nurses play an important role in promoting the health of families. According to the focus on increasing the health promotion by nurses, their role as health determinants is complicated and the knowledge and experience of several disci-plines in promoting health is concealed in the performance of nursing in families.Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive research in four selected hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences. For this purpose 600 nurses, physicians and administrators were selected and using simple random sampling method. Data collection tool was a two-part questionnaire including demographic information and health personnel’s view on family nursing design then validity and reliability of the questionnaire were done. The data were analyzed by SPSS 24 software.Results: The results showed that the majority of the research samples were in the three groups of physicians (97.9%), nurses (94.8%), and managers and heads of hospitals (100%) agreed with family nurse’s plan.Conclusion: Considering the multiple responsibilities of the family nurse, this plan should be implemented.
74 Dysglycemic Effect and Misuse Prevalence of Fluoroquinolones in ICU Diabetic Patients , Rasha Ashmawy, Jayda M Ahmed, Ingie A E El Chennawi, George N Anis3, Logine A El Shaarawy, Poula Azziz, Aly El-halfawy, Abdelrhman Agamy, Amr Y Bargal, Maged E Ahmed, Nayera H Fouda, Ahmed R Farag
Quinolones are one of the most favourable antimicrobial class for the treatment of various infectious diseases. Their side effects and toxicity profile have been established years ago. Multiple studies reported dysglycemic events occurring in diabetic patients admitted to the ICU taking fluoroquinolones. The aim of this study is to determine if there is indeed a relation between fluo-roquinolones and dysglycemia. Methods and Materials: A retrospective observational study targeting the ICU patients who were administered levofloxacin, cipro-floxacin, and moxifloxacin. This study was performed during the period from April 2019 to September 2019 (6 months) in 5 different hospitals in Alexandria, Egypt. 350 patients’ ICU files were chosen randomly, then a total of 68 diabetic ICU admitted patients receiv-ing broad-spectrum fluoroquinolones for more than 2 days were included in the study. Results: From 68 patients who recruited in our study, 15 patients take fluoroquinolone with no need and they suffer from change in their blood glucose level without any additional benefit. The most misused fluoroquinolone was Levofloxacin, as 73.3% of patients with main diagnosis non-infectious treated with Levofloxacin, and 20% among them suffered from decreased blood glucose level where 13.3 % had significant increase of their blood sugar level. Conclusion: Dysglycemia caused by fluoroquinolones is an important issue of clinical significance and must be addressed and man-aged. Dysglycemia occurs by varying degrees and differ between different agents of fluoroquinolones. The effect is more pronounced in diabetics and patients with renal impairment which warrant attention and immediate management. Fluoroquinolone misuse is also another important issue to be addressed as it contributes to increased antimicrobial resistance and exposes the patients to unnecessary side effects some of which might need immediate intervention. Further investigations related to fluoroquinolones pre-scribing and monitoring is needed to get a better understanding of this existing problem.
75 Hydroxychloroquine or Remdesivir to Treat COVID-19 Patients , Debraj Mukhopadhyay
A novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was spread in the world like a pandemic, in late December 2019. There were challenges for treat-ment interventions as well as types of medicines. Despite there is no specific therapy strategy for COVID-19, studies have identified Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and Remdesivir as the most widely used medicine worldwide [1-3]. So, this letter was written to syn-thesize the evidence and outcomes of the medicines for COVID-19 patients.Gautret., et al. assessed the effect of HCQ and azithromycin on 26 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 symptoms and the results were compared with a control group. For all, one died, three were admitted to the intensive care unit, and one discontinued treat-ment.
76 Effect of Biodegradable Polymer on the Release Pattern of Levothyroxine Sodium Implant , Anil Giri, Suraiya Nazneen, Nim Bahadur Dangi
The use of biodegradable polymers as drug carriers increases the drug entrapment efficiency and contributes to the sustained release action of the formulation. The purpose of this study was to prepare and evaluate a sustained release Gelatin-Sodium Alginate biodegradable polymeric implant containing Levothyroxine Sodium as a model drug. Heating and congealing methods were used for the preparation of implants in various ratios of Gelatin and Sodium Alginate (70:30, 80:20 and 90:10 % w/w). The prepared implants were exposed to formaldehyde for different time periods, (6hrs, 12hrs and 24hrs) for hardening. The formulated implants were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, presence of free formaldehyde, and in vitro release studies. The interactions between the drug and polymer, good surface integrity, and compatibility have been studied using SEM and DSC. The implant formulated with 80:20 % w/w Gelatin-Sodium Alginate ratio and hardened for 24 hours were found to produce the maximum sustained action for 30 days, and none of the implants contained formaldehyde. The effects of four different excipients with 80:20 ratio were also studied on drug loading efficiency and drug release profile. The drug loading efficiency and drug release were found to be significantly in-fluenced by the addition of different excipients (Stearic Acid > GMS > PEG > Drug only > Cetyl) and variation in hardening times. The results of the in-vitro dissolution study were fitted to different kinetic models to evaluate the kinetic data. The kinetic release data were determined by finding the best fit of the release data to these models. Implants were found to follow both the Higuchi model and Korsmeyer-Peppas model of kinetics with the variation in polymer ratio. Therefore, drug release from the implants implies that a combination of diffusion and erosion contributes to the control of drug release.
77 A Cross Sectional Study on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Pertaining to Self-medication Among Adults of 25 - 45 Years of Mevalurkuppam Panchayat , Prathibha KM, Nivya Manimozhiyan, Padma Priya M, Padmanaban A
Self-medication means the use of medical products by individuals to treat self-recognized disorders or symptoms or intermit-tent or continuous use of medications prescribed by physician for chronic or recurring disease or symptoms, the main source be-ing over the counter. Existing literature on self-medication reveals that it is a fairly common practice in the economically deprived communities. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the frequency and study the knowledge, attitude and practices of self-medication among the adults of 25 - 40 years of age of Mevalurkuppam Panchayat. A validated and structured questionnaire was administrated to the 161 study participants by a face to face interview. Based on the calculated scores, the prevalence of self-medication and proportions of various factors contributing to self-medication were identified. The mean age of the study partici-pants was 33.98 ± 5.819 years. The number of males and females who participated in the study were 69 (42.3%) and 92 (56.4%), respectively. In the present study, there was very high prevalence of self-medication with almost the entire population practicing some form of self-medication (98.8%). The analysis revealed that prevalence and frequency of self-medication was higher in males than females. While the participants practiced self-medication mostly for aches and pains (63.4%) and fever(62.4%), the reasons for self-medication among the study participants were cost saving (58%), convenience (42%) and lack of trust in doctor (8%). About 97% of the participants procured drugs from community pharmacies while 3% took from the previous left over prescriptions. It was observed that 49.7% of the study participants who practiced self-medication never experienced an adverse reaction, while 12.3% of them experienced adverse reactions. In the present study, 30.5% of people who practiced self-medication experienced vomiting as adverse effect followed by nausea (27.1%), rash (25.4%), vaginal thrush (22%) and diarrhea (20.3%). Lack of awareness about the harmful effects of self-medication among adults of Mevalurkuppam Panchayat and the contributing factors was uncovered. The results of the study highlight the urgent and impending need to plan and execute health awareness and education programs in Mev-alurkuppam Panchayat and in general, globally. It is important to have base-line data about the drug using population of a geographic area, so that future interventions or policies can be effectively planned.
78 Depression Accelerates Tumor Cell Proliferation Via Regulating Serotonin/miR-144 Axis in NSCLC Mice , Guangquan Xu, Yongchao Li, Ruidong Zhu, Pengcheng Song, Youlei Wei, Tian Liang, Tianze Zhang
Non-small cell lung cancer is known as a malignant tumor with low survival rate and poor prognosis. Depression affects various diseases. However, the effect of depression on the progression of NSCLC remains unclear. In our current study, chronic mild stress (CMS) mice was used as depression animal model. Depression prompted the tumor progression in vivo analysis, including increasing tumor indexes and reducing survival rate. Serotonin secretion was observed to be remarkable elevation in both serum and tumor tissue, which was positively related with tumor progression. In vitro assays, serotonin promoted the proliferation of A549 cells. Ad-ditionally, we observed that miR-144 expression was significantly downregulated in serotonin stimulated group. Further loss-of- and gain-of-function assays verified that miR-144 was the downstream factor of serotonin underlying the condition of CMS. Taken to-gether, our research indicated that CMS-induced serotonin secretion accelerates NSCLC proliferation via inhibiting miR-144 expres-sion, suggesting the potential therapeutic direction in NSCLC patients
79 Long Acting Bronchodilatators in COPD. Drug Selection by Means of the SOJA Method , Robert Janknegt, Esther Metting, Johan Kooistra, Richard Dekhuijzen
The increasing number of direct acting anticoagulant drugs [DOACs] makes it almost impossible to have sufficient knowledge of each individual medicine and device, especially for general practitioners.Reducing the number of medicines different DOACs, based on rational criteria, allows physicians and pharmacists to build experi-ence with a more limited set of medicines and to optimise patient information.Methods: In this study DOACs are compared by means of the SOJA method.The following selection criteria were applied: approved indications, available formulations, variability of the AUC, drug interactions, clinical efficacy, side effects, dosage frequency and documentation.Results: Limited differences in scores were found between apixaban, dabigratran and rivaroxaban. Edoxaban showed a lower score, mostly because of its more limited clinical evidence and documentation. The ranking between the top 3 depends mostly on the as-signed weight to the individual selection criteria. Acquisition cost was not taken into account, because this varies with time. In practice acquisition cost is of course an important selection criterion, especially because there are very limited differences between the medicines from a clinical perspective. Exclusion of this criterion also makes this comparison more internationally applicable.Conclusion:All DOACs are suitable for formulary inclusion, followed by a selection of the most suitable for a DOAC in individual patients, based on patient characteristics.
80 Direct Oral Anticoagulants: Drug Selection by Means of the SOJA Method , Robert Janknegt, Roel Van Kampen, Niels Boone, Renée Vossen
Direct acting anticoagulant drugs [DOACs], consisting of apixa-ban, dabigatran, edoxaban and rivaroxaban have been available for various indications for 3year [edoxaban] up to over a decade [dabi-gatran and rivaroxaban]. These medicines have shown good clini-cal efficacy and are usually well tolerated compared to vitamin K antagonists or low molecular weight heparins. Because none of the DOACs is available as a generic formulation, their relatively high price is a disadvantage compared to vitamin K antagonists. The regional formulary committee in the South of Limburg, the Netherlands has requested to define selection criteria in order to make a rational selection of DOACs. The present article is the result of this request.
81 Direct Oral Anticoagulants: Drug Selection by Means of the SOJA Method , Robert Janknegt, Roel Van Kampen, Niels Boone, Renée Vossen
Direct acting anticoagulant drugs [DOACs], consisting of apixa-ban, dabigatran, edoxaban and rivaroxaban have been available for various indications for 3year [edoxaban] up to over a decade [dabi-gatran and rivaroxaban]. These medicines have shown good clini-cal efficacy and are usually well tolerated compared to vitamin K antagonists or low molecular weight heparins. Because none of the DOACs is available as a generic formulation, their relatively high price is a disadvantage compared to vitamin K antagonists. The regional formulary committee in the South of Limburg, the Netherlands has requested to define selection criteria in order to make a rational selection of DOACs. The present article is the result of this request.
82 Direct Oral Anticoagulants: Drug Selection by Means of the SOJA Method , Robert Janknegt, Esther Metting, Johan Kooistra, Richard Dekhuijzen
We are grateful for the useful comments and information following our request for a check on scientific correctness and completeness of the manuscript from the manufacturers of the DOACs: Bayer, BMS/Pfizer, Boehringer Ingelheim and Daiichi Sankyo. The score is based on the opinions of the authors and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of these companies.
83 Combination of Pycnogenol and Melatonin Reduce PC-3 and HT29 Cell Migration: Comparison to the Actions of Cisplatin , Ali Taghizadehghalehjoughi, Sidika Genc2, Yesim Yeni, David R Wallace, Ahmet Hacimuftuoglu, Zeynep Cakir
Prostate and colorectal cancer are among the most common malignant tumors. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of melatonin (MLT) and pycnogenol (PYG) combination on PC-3 and HT-29 cancer lines and to address the question of where or not MLT increases PYG antitumor effect in the PC-3 and HT-29 cancer lines. The combination of 100 μg/ml PYG + 40 μg/ml MLT reduced cell viability in both HT-29 and PC-3 cells (66 and 65%, respectively). Results from the TAC, TOS and LDH assays were correlated to our MTT results. In addition, the cellular migration test showed that the wound line was widened in the combination groups starting at 72 hours compared to the other groups. Cisplatin has routinely used as an anticancer agent, but because of side effects, usage is limitation. The combination of 40 μg/ml MLT with PYG increased the extent of antitumor effects compared to Cisplatin and reduced the cell viability effectively than Cisplatin. The combination of MLT + PYG shows promise to be a new anticancer agent for the treat-ment of HT-29 and PC-3 patients or adjuvant for the reduction of the side effects of chemotherapeutics.
84 Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Teaching Program on Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Smartphone Separation Anxiety among Students , Poonam Kumari Yadav, Anil Kumar Yadav, Avinash Chaudhary,Pankaj Shah
The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of computer assisted teaching program on knowledge and attitude regarding smartphone separation anxiety among selected degree college students.Conclusion:This study suggested that computer assisted teaching program is an effective instructional method in improving the knowledge and attitude of degree students regarding smartphone separation anxiety. A pre-experimental one group pre-test and post-test design was used. 50 degree students were selected as sample by convenient sampling method. Structured knowledge questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitude on Likert scale. Pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics. Paired t-test was used to test difference in mean knowledge and attitude. Chi-square test was used to find association between socio-demographic variables with pre-test knowledge and attitude.
85 Cancer Disease Models , Daniel Gandia
Independently from tumor stages and treatment modalities, Cancer cures are nowadays common in Medical Oncology.A plethora of different advanced tumor types can be tackled with chemotherapy and with the new design emerging medicines.Anecdotal is George Bernard Shaw play (1909) “The Doctor ́s Dilemma” which makes this author someone related to a seer. An actor says: “there is at bottom only one genuine scientific treat-ment for all diseases, and that is to stimulate the phagocytes”. Re-ally, Immuno-oncology was born at that moment!Cancer has several common biological features, such as the self- sufficiency in growth signals and its insensitivity to these signals, limitless replicative potential, sustained angiogenesis, apoptosis and immunologic evasion, and finally its paradigm, metastases.
86 Nature of Wriggling Action of the Filarial Parasite Setatia digitata , Jayakumar K, Dhanya N V, Sony Peter, Sree Padma Priya S
Setariadigitata, a cattle filarial parasite, is always in constant motion called the wriggling movement. It is known to take up oxygen even in presence of cyanide. One of the partial reduction products of oxygen formed in the parasite is H202, generated by the parasite specific quinol oxidase called alternative oxidase. The wriggling movement as well as the activity of the parasite specific quinol oxi-dase and formation of H202 was found to be SHAM sensitive. The wriggling movement was also found to be inhibited by iodoacetate a specific inhibitor of SH groups, showing the involvement of SH groups movement of the parasite. Under in vitro conditions H202 was found to increase the wriggling movement of the parasite and the increase was found to be reversed in presence of added catalase. These findings definitely suggest that the wriggling movement of S. digitata is associated with the reduction of oxygen. The process appears to be maintained by the hemoglobin, GSH/GSSG system and the SHAM sensitive quinol oxidase activity.
87 Partial Purification of Superoxide Dismutase and Antigenicity Nature in Setaria digitata, A Filarial Parasite , Jayakumar K, Dhanya NV, Sony Peter
Setaria digitata is a filarial worm of the cattle used as a model system for anti- filarial drug screening, due to its similarity to the human filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. Since filarial Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a good biochemical target for anti filarial drug development, a study has been undertaken for the biochemical characterization of SOD from S. digitata.Superoxide dismutase activity was measured in different stages of growth of filarial parasites (human and cattle). The activity was almost undetected or very low in micro filarial stage but in adult worms, the enzyme activity was high. The enzyme was character-ized to be a Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Most of the enzyme activity was associated with a detergent extractable fraction of adult (Setaria) parasite. The enzyme was also detected in the in vitro released products of adult worms. The superoxide dismutase activity was completely inhibited with IgG antibody from chronic filarial patients in contrast to IgG from normal people. Filarial patients par-ticularly have high IgG antibody levels to purified enzyme. However, individuals from non-filarial regions of Trivandrum, Kerala, sero-negative for superoxide dismutase antibodies. Antibody response to superoxide dismutase could thus be used for filarial diagnosis.
88 Epilepsy and its Management - A Brief Review , K Sravanthi, M Kesava Krishna, K Bhavani, A Sireesha, AVD Sai Mani Kumar
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which is characterized by sudden episodes of disturbances in sensory, loss of consciousness, that is associated with abnormal electrical impulses in the brain, which requires typically two unprovoked seizures. The incidence of a first unprovoked seizure was 61 per 100,000 compared to the incidence of epilepsy of 44 per 100,000. The International League against Epilepsy (ILAE) has proposed two major schemes for the classification of Seizures and Epilepsies: The International Clas-sification of Epileptic Seizures and the International Classification of the Epilepsies and Epilepsy Syndromes. A seizure results when a sudden imbalance occurs between the excitatory and inhibitory forces within the network of cortical neurons. The management of Epilepsy can be done with appropriate selection of Antiepileptic Drug based on type of seizure and its frequency.
89 Analytical Techniques for the Determination of Rilpivirine – A Review , Yenda Manishankar, Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna
Rilpivirine is an Anti-viral drug. Rilpivirine acts by inhibiting the replication of HIV – 1 by binding in a non – competitive manner directly to reverse transcriptase enzyme. In the present paper the authors have presented a review of various analytical methods published so far in the literature for the quantification of Rilpivirine in pharmaceutical preparations as well as biological samples.
90 Development of a Bio analytical Assay for the Determination of Rupatadine in Human Plasma and its Clinical Applications , Sara AS, Mohamed Raslan, Eslam MS, Nagwa A Sabri
Rupatadine is an antihistaminic drug that is used for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, chronic idiopathic urticarial, additionally, it can be used as safe and effective alternative to loratadine. Aim:Development of bio-analytical method for rapid quantification of rupatadine in human plasma and its clinical application in bioequivalence study of generic and reference products of rupatadine 10mg film coated tablet. Methods: Extracted rupatadine was chromatographed with mobile phase of methanol: 0.5% formic acid 80:20 v/v at flow rate 0.5ml/min, ESI positive mode, and m/z 416282.1, 383337 for rupatadine and loratadine as internal standard respectively. The bioequivalence study was conducted in a crossover design invovlving 24 volunteers and pharmacokinetic parameters AUC 0-t, AUC 0-inf,Cmax, and Tmax were used for assessment of bioequivalence of the two products. Results:The average recovery of rupatadine from human plasma was 87.567%, limit of quantitation was 0.01ng/ml, and the cor-relation coefficient (r2) obtained was 0.9997. Statistical analysis for the pharmacokinetic parameters using ANOVA test showed a non- significant difference between generic and reference products included in the study. Conclusion:The developed bioanalytical LC/MS/MS method is simple, sensitive, precise, accurate and valid for rupatadine quanti-fication in human plasma and is suitable for application in pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies and therapeutic monitoring of rupatadine in management of allergic disease to ensure effective therapeutic drug levels and avoid potential undesired adverse events. Results of bioavailability study showed that both generic and reference products are bioequivalent and both products can be considered interchangeable in medical practice.
91 Hypothesis on Cadaveric Urinary Bladder Transplantation in a Radical Cystectomy, An Alternative Option of Ileal Conduit , Dattatreya Mukherjee
In Radical Cystectomy the urinary bladder is fully resected and in ileal conduit the ureter is joined with a ileal part and drained outside the abdominal wall. It’s a technique of urinary diversion. This procedure has many adverse effects and its also tough for the patients to drain the urine through abdominal wall. So my hypothesis is to use a cadaveric bladder as a transplantation. Now the challenge will arise how to control urge of urination. For that artificial urinary bladder sphincter can be used with the neural regenerations procedure which is under research work. WNT/Beta pathway and Tissue genetic techniques have shown the peripheral neural regeneration. Keywords: Radical Cystectomy; Urinary Bladder; Ileal Conduit
92 Therapeutic Strategies for Novel Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19): A Comprehensive Review , Nan Zhang, Xiangying Xin, Deqiao Wu, Yan Zhang*, Hui Chen, Nannan Feng, Junwei Zhang, Yifan Zhu, Zhenzhong Zhang, and Xia Xu
Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors among women worldwide. Since the 1970s, the incidence of breast cancer has always been the highest in women with tumors. Its incidence has shown an upward trend. Clinical medication for breast cancer has also been updated owing to social progress and development, particularly in the current mobile data networks. The mobile data network evolved from the 1G to the 5G era. Upon consulting literature, combined with the current understanding of the clinical application of breast cancer, the developmental changes and prospects of the clinical application of breast cancer in the 5G era were summarized. This review focused on the development of breast cancer from the 1G to 5G era. Beginning from the advent of the era of the efficacy of the 1G era, represented by the introduction of paclitaxel and doxorubicin, to changes in docetaxel and epirubicin, with the arrival of the transitional era represented by chemical structure. With the advancement of science and technology, we entered the targeted era, represented by nano-preparations such as albumin paclitaxel and liposomal adriamycin. Currently, we are utilizing multi-drug combination therapy. Keywords: Breast Cancer; Clinical Medication; 5G Era
93 Investigations of Tracelement Effects in Biological Applications Using Photon Induced (EDXRF), Proton Induced (PIXE) and Synchrotron Induced (EXAFS) X-Ray Spectrometry , Daisy Joseph
Enzymes of trace elements are an important part of certain biological and chemical reactions. They work in harmony with proteins and often with certain other co enzymes. They attract substrate molecules and enable their conversion to a specific end product. Some trace elements are involved in redox reactions. Modern day diet, comprising of refined foods is a cause of concern, as it may not have a sufficient amount of these trace elements. Dietary supplements may be required to combat this shortage. The present paper therefore discusses trace elements, and its effects in unraveling biological problems and challenges. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of these trace elements is essential and significant for disease control and for maintaining optimal health. Keywords: Enzymes; EDXRF; Proton Induced (PIXE); Synchrotron Induced (EXAFS)
94 Therapeutic Strategies for Novel Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19): A Comprehensive Review , Manoj Gadewar*, Mohd Kafeel and Dharmender
A newly emerged Human Coronavirus (HCoV) was reported in month of Dec 19 in Wuhan city of China (COVID-19). Due to high virulence ability and resistance of corona virus, several studies were carried out to screen existing drugs like antiviral, anti-malarial and anti-tubercular as potential targets for the treatment of disease. Therefore, its essential to develop an effective treatment strategy to control the virus spread and prevent the disease. In this review Here, we have reported the novel approaches and strategies that were used to treat and prevent COVID infection. Although it seems that antiviral drugs, antiprotozoal, antibacterial drug, an antimalarial drug, and immunosuppressive drug are effective in improving clinical manifestation, there is no definite treatment protocol. Lymphocytopenia, excessive inflammation, and cytokine storm followed by acute respiratory distress syndrome are still unresolved issues that making the disease more severe. Various herbal drugs derived from Indian traditional medicines, Chinese herbals medicine/traditional Chinese medicine (CHM/TCM) were used to prevent the progression of disease. Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; World Health Organization (WHO)
95 The Effects of COVID-19 on Native Americans , Phyllis M Weaver*
There is a disproportionate number of COVID-19 cases among Native Americans, including exposures, hospitalizations, and deaths. Due to substandard healthcare, housing, and poverty, American Indians and Alaska Natives have a higher number of pre-existing high-risk conditions to make them more susceptible to the coronavirus. Research shows the reason why and how improvements are necessary for collecting and reporting demographic data. Keywords: COVID-19; DNA; RNA; Housing
96 A Review on Curcumin and its Medicinal Properties , Amrita Kumari1,2*, Manpreet Kaur2 and Suman Sharma2
Turmeric is a herbal plant (Curcuma longa) of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) that has been used traditionally for many years in Asia for medicinal, edible, and other purposes. The medicinal properties of turmeric could be allocated to the presence of active components called curcuminoids. Curcumin (60%-70%), demethoxycurcumin (DMC-20%-30%), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC- 10%-15%) are collectively known as curcuminoids. Many studies conducted in vitro and in vivo in both animals and human beings have recommended that curcumin has strong antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antimutagenic, antidiabetic antimicrobial, and many more beneficial properties. Presence of important structural elements: the β-diketone structure, the hydroxyl group at the ortho position in the benzene ring, and methoxy groups are highly responsible for the antioxidant activity of curcumin. Presence of important structural elements: the β-diketone structure, the hydroxyl group at the ortho position in the benzene ring and methoxy groups are highly responsible for the antioxidant activity of curcumin. Curcumin hinders the activity of growth factor receptors. The anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin are refereed via its impact on cytokines, lipid mediators, eicosanoids, and proteolytic enzymes. Curcumin increases the antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and heme oxygenase-1. These antioxidant activities decrease the level of lipid peroxidation, so reducing the oxidative damage in the tissues. These measures act as the basis for many of their pharmacological and therapeutic properties. Keywords: Curcumin; Curcuma longa; Free Radicals; Curcuminoids; Anti-oxidant; Anti-obesity; Anti-cancer
97 Effect of Plant Extract on Cytomorphological Alteration in Alternaria solani , Surbhi Mehta* and Kanika Sharma
The present study is based on the evaluation of antifungal potential of plant extract against plant pathogenic fungi. Eucalyptus globulous Labill. Leaf extract was prepared by reflux method. Petroleum ether extract was assayed for estimation of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration.MIC and MFC was done by two fold serial dilution method against Alternaria solani. Various cytomorphological changes like mycelia width, conidial size, condiophore structure etc. after the treatment with the extract concentrations. 0.019mg/ml to 10mg/ml of Petroleum ether extract was assayed and MIC was found to be 2.5 mg/ml for Alternaria solani and MFC for this fungus was observed at 5 mg/ml. Mycelium width of Alternaria solani increased up to 69.52% at 1.25 mg/ml concentration of the extract and conidia size of the Alternaria solani was reduced up to 72.17% at 1.25mg/ml (sub MIC) concentration of the petroleum ether extract. The inhibition of conidia and mycelia formation was observed at MIC of the extract i.e. 2.5mg/ml. Scanning electron microscopic study was also showed the changes in Alternaria solani structure so it can be concluded that Plant extracts naturally and significantly inhibit the conidial size and mycelia growth hence could be a safer alternative to chemical fungicides to control plant diseases. Keywords: Reflux Method; MIC; MFC; Cytomorphological Changes; Chemical Fungicide
98 Crystal Engineering: A Brief for the Beginners , Partha Pratim Bag1* and Sumit Popat Mane2
Crystals are formed by aggregation of molecules in solution. This phenomenon encourages several questions. Among them few are, how do these aggregations happen to form crystals? Why do the same molecules adopt more than one crystal structure? Why does solvent occupy some crystal structures? How does crystal structure can be designed with specified coordination of molecules and/or ions with a specified property? What are the relationships between crystal structures and properties, for molecular crystals? At present several queries are being resolved by the crystal engineering community; a larger community constructed by organic, inorganic, and physical chemists, crystallographers, and solid-state scientists. This article provides a brief idea to provide a basic introduction to crystal engineering and this fascinating and important subject that has moved from the fringes into the mainstream of chemistry. Keywords: Chemistry; Crystals; X-ray
99 Formulation Development and Characterization of Levocabastine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Suspension , Debashish Ghose1*, Ch Niranjan Patra2, Suryakanta Swain3 and Bikash Ranjan Jena4
Background: In the present study, an attempt was made to develop and evaluate the ophthalmic suspension containing levocabastine hydrochloride. Objective: The current research objective's rationale was to develop and assess ophthalmic suspension containing antihistamine to improve corneal penetration with corneal tissues and obtain therapeutic efficiency. Recently, ophthalmic drug delivery has become the modern pharmaceutical design standards and intensive research for achieving better drug product effectiveness, reliability, and safety. Topical medication by ocular drug delivery will continue to account for the largest share (up to 90%). Methods: The prepared ophthalmic suspension had a minimum concentration of preservative preparation in appropriate packaging material. FTIR and UV spectrum of API was found as per specification. The individual IR spectra of the pure drug and the combination spectra of the drugs and other excipients indicated no interaction between API and other excipients than the infrared spectrum of the pure drug as all available group frequencies were present. Results: The pH of all formulations was satisfactory in the range of 6.0-8.0; thus, there would be no irritation to the patient upon administration of the formulation. The particle size analysis revealed that the particles were in range, and all the formulations showed ideal surface morphology. All the formulations showed osmolality within the range, i.e., 250-500 mOsm/kg. Conclusion: Finally it was confirmed that formulations of antihistamine ophthalmic suspension remained more stable at ambient temperature (25°C) and relative humidity (40%) as compared to other stability conditions as per ICH guidelines. Keywords: Corneal Penetration; FTIR; Osmolality; Ambient Temperature; Relative Humidity
100 Management Protocols Deviation of COVID-19 in Diabetic Patients. Is it Applicable? , Sara AR1, Eslam M Shehata1, Mohamed Raslan1,2 and Nagwa A Sabri2*
Background: Corona virus 2019 (COVID-19) disease is a globally infectious disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 that is emerging and rapidly spreading. Diabetes is considered as one of the main contributing factors of high morbidity and mortality rates globally, where, uncontrolled diabetes is associated with macro- and micro-vascular complications affecting patient’s health wellbeing and survival. Concerning therapeutic protocols and treatment, several selected repurposed drugs are used in the management of COVID-19 infection as there is no approved effective vaccine till the moment, therefore, concerns might raise about potential drug interactions between drugs used in management of both COVID-19 and diabetes. Results: About 42.3% of COVID-19 mortalities were diabetic patients, death rates were significantly higher in hospitalized type 2 diabetic patients than non-diabetic ones and were more susceptible to acute respiratory distress syndrome and other life threatening complications. Most antiviral agents are CYP450 inhibitors or inducers or CYP450 substrates, thus, drug interactions might occur with CYP450 substrates as thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas, and short-acting secretagogues used in the management of diabetes. Besides, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine cause hypoglycemia and prolonged QTc which should be taken in consideration upon management of diabetic COVID-19 patients. Conclusion: Diabetic patients are more susceptible to severity and incidence of COVID-19, antidiabetic agents may interact with antiviral drugs and other therapeutic agents used in management of COVID-19, thus, caution should be taken in consideration upon selection of drug treatment to avoid undesirable potential adverse events or lack of therapeutic efficacy. Keywords: COVID-19; Diabetic Patients; Drug Interactions; CYP3A4; Chloroquine; Hydroxychloroquine
101 Wide Spread Use of Monoclonal Antibody would have Prevented Massive Death Rate from Covid-19 Infection , Tapan K Chaudhuri* and Richard Hoffler
 If the use of Monoclonal Antibody (MoAb) to COVID-19 saved the life of the President of the United States and several other people in his circle, then why are we not using the same therapy for everybody else. If we aggressively motivate to start the use of MoAb to COVID-19 infection, we can prevent a lot of deaths. It’s a magic bullet, it’s a cure.
102 Green Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles Using Syzygium cumini (Leaf, Seed, Pulp) Extracts and their Applications , Anmol Srivastava, Gyaneshwar Patel and Shekhar Agnihotri
The use of copper nanoparticles is having a huge attention of researchers from different fields due to its catalytic, optical, photonic, electric and antimicrobial activities. The biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles using plant extract is environment friendly, non-toxic and economical. Therefore, the present study aims to provide method of green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Syzygium cumini extracts (Leaf, seed, and pulp) its antimicrobial activity and their effect on seed germination. So, to achieve green synthesis of copper nanoparticles, 5 mM of copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) solution (50ml) was taken and 1 ml of plant extract was mixed, the color of the solution changed from light blue to dark brown thus, confirming the formation of copper nanoparticles, kinetics of the reaction was studied with the help of UV- visible spectrophotometer at 568 nm, these nanoparticles were characterized by FE-SEM. The antimicrobial activity of copper nanoparticles was tested on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. This antimicrobial activity was profound against Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis, however mild antibacterial activity was observed in the case of Escherichia coli. According to this study, Syzygium cumini (Leaf, seed, and pulp) extracts can be successfully used to make copper nanoparticles having significant antibacterial property.
103 Ustukhuddus (Lavandula stoechas L.): A Boon for the Management of Neuropsychiatric Disorders in Perspective of Unani Medicine-A Review , Mohd Afsahul Kalam, Zaffar Husain, Abdul Haseeb, Safia Husain, Kausar Shah and Basharat Saleem
104 A Review on Analytical Techniques for the Quantification of Dolutegravir - An Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitor , Thotakura Sai Pavan, Naresh Panigrahi and Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna
Dolutegravir is a novel integrase stand transfer inhibitor active against human immunodeficiency virus. Dolutegravir is an integrase strand transfer inhibitor which preferentially blocks the strand transfer step of integration of the viral genome into the host cell's DNA mediated by the viral integrase enzyme. The authors have reviewed the analytical methods developed for the estimation of Dolutegravir in pharmaceutical dosage forms and in biological samples in the present paper. Keywords: Dolutegravir; Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitor; DNA
105 Side Nack Drinking Water Pet Plastic Bottle   , Akshay Dubey
Chikungunya fever, a re-emerging viral disease affecting both old and new world countries is caused by Chikungunya virus, an RNA virus belonging to Alphaviridae. Although mortality is less but the suffering from the disease is too much, even it may continue for several months. Thus, a drastic treatment protocol should be followed to contain the suffering from the disease. However, there is no specific antiviral drug, and supportive treatment strategy in acute, post-acute, and chronic phases are quite different. It is also special in pregnancy and new born. Even with all these elaborate plans, the treatment outcome is often dismal and human suffering continues. There is some treatment prospect of this disease in alternative medicine, which can be combined with the treatment plan of conventional medicine without any deleterious effect. Thus, this integrated approach may help to restrain the enormous suffering of the patients from the disease, at least with greater relief to the patient. Along with the treatment part a review of the biology and epidemiology of the virus is also included. Keywords: Chikungunya Fever; Conventional Treatment; Alternative Medicine; Chikungunya Virus Epidemiology
106 mRNA Technology- Once a Rejected Idea is Now Becoming the Winner in the COVID-19 Vaccine Combat   , Saikat Bala
India has the world’s largest population that has limited access to clean drinking water. So the new drinking water plastic bottle design will help to the consumer to Easy to drink, Easy to fill, Lighter Packaging, Designing for Recycling, Consumers Attracted to Portable, Easy to Handle Packaging, Health-Conscious Decisions, Attractive design. Keywords: Side Nack; Plastic Bottle
107 mRNA Technology- Once a Rejected Idea is Now Becoming the Winner in the COVID-19 Vaccine Combat , Saikat Bala
Moderna” and “Pfizer” are the most discussing companies in the present world in terms of the vaccination campaign against COVID-19. The gigantic 171 years old Pfizer and only 10 years old Moderna are racing forward in the hopes of making history, saving the world, and billions of dollars but in many ways, these two companies share a same commonality. Both of them are developing their vaccines with the help of a genetic technology, called messenger RNA (mRNA) technology, an ingenious technology within the natural substance that directs protein production in cells throughout the body.
108 The Use of Probiotics and its Impact in Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile Infections (CDI) in Adult and Pediatric Patients: An Appraisal , Raja Chakraverty
Diarrhoea is one of the common reported adverse reaction of antibiotic use. Probiotics are living microorganisms, which may prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) by the normalization of an unbalanced gastrointestinal flora.
109 Reference Intervals of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in the Blood Spot by Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Use in a Newly Established Extended Newborn Screening Program in the Fars Province South West of Iran   , Jamal Golbahar, Elaha Paknyat and Azar Jahandideh
Objective: Determine reference intervals for amino acids and acylcarnitines in blood spot of newborns from Fars province south west of Iran for further use in diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. Methods: One thousand Healthy neonates 1-5 days of age were included in this study. The reference intervals for amino acids, acylcarnitines in newborn dried blood spots using MS/MS conducted in 1000 healthy neonates from Fars Province, cities and villages from South West of Iran were determined based on the 1 and 99 percentiles of 1000 samples. Results: Thirty-eight analytes that allow the diagnosis of more than 40 inherited metabolic disorders were tested. The LC-MS/MS method for analysis of amino acids and acylcarnitines was validated that to be linear and precise. The reference intervals were determined for amino acids and acylcarnitines that are used in the further newborn screening tests in the Fars region. Conclusion: The study has contributed to present the usual concentration levels of amino acids, acylcarnitines that could be used as reference for newborn metabolic screening program in south west of Iran for the first time in the region. Keywords: Neonatal Screenings; Inborn Errors; Amino Acids; Acylcarnitines; Reference Intervals
110 Novel Nanocarrier based Drug Delivery Systems for Cancer Therapy , Om Prakash Ranjan
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Despite efforts to alleviate risk factors in recent decades, the incidence of cancer is continuing to increase [1]. As cancer cells grow faster than healthy ones, fast-growing cells are the main targets of chemotherapeutics. The limitations of conventional chemotherapy have led to the development of nanocarrier-based drug delivery systems which target drugs to specific sites [2]. Nanocarriers can improve drug efficacy and selectivity through enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effects in tumor cells. Among the nanocarriers, liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, and micelles have received the most attention. So far, numerous nanoparticle-based chemotherapeutics are clinically approved whilst others are in the advanced stages of clinical development [3]. Depending on the sorts and applications of nanocarriers, there are a few steps to convert ordinary nanocarriers into novel and particular. First, nanocarriers face many biological barriers, including cleansing by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) on the way to the targeted site. PEGylation is a unique technique to avoid this cleansing process and it help nanocarriers to escape the RES. Second, nanocarriers can be functionalized to identify the cancer cells precisely out of healthy ones. The surface of cancer cells over expresses some proteins. Nanocarriers are modified with ligands matching the over expressed proteins. The ligands of nanocarriers identify the cells with the receptor proteins
111 A Pharmacognostic and Pharmacological Review on Chrysophyllum cainito L. , Rokeya Sultana, Deeksha Rai, Sandhya Vasanth and Mohammed Gulzar Ahmed
Chrysophyllum cainito L. which belongs to the family Sapotaceae is a tree which grows in tropical region. It is an ornamental tree, which bears fruits. Star apple, cainito and caimito are the different names given to Chrysophyllum cainito which depends on where it is present. Traditionally it is used as an herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetics. The fruits and leaves of Chrysophyllum cainito are a good source of polyphenolic compounds. The fruits are used in the preparation of dessert which is served chilled. Leaf infusions are been used in treatment of diabetes and articular rheumatism. The fruit exhibits antioxidant properties due to the presence of polyphenols. Various other phytoconstituents present are alkaloids, glycosides, triterpenoids and sterols. Pectin is present in the extracts and fractions of the pulp, as a result it is widely used in many food and pharmaceutical industries as a gelling agent and polyphenolic compounds such as catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin and gallic acid are found in the leaves of plant. Studies have discovered different pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial and anti-viral Keywords: Chrysophyllum cainito; Star apple; Polyphenols; Antioxidant Activity; Antidiabetic Activity
112 Comparative Study on Ondansetron with Granisetron in the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Subjects Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Under General Anesthesia , Pervez Taneja, Yogesh Bansal and Anil Ohri
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy leads to post-operative nausea and vomiting. This is cured by using antagonist of 5 HT-3 receptors present on enterochromaffin cells or vagus nerves terminals. It is of interest to compare the efficacy of ondansetron and granisetron in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. 40 patients of age between 18-58 years were selected, and divided into two groups where group A (n = 20) includes the patients administered with ondansetron (4mg) and group B (n = 20) includes the patients administered with granisetron (3mg). Patients were observed at a time interval of 0h, 1h, 2h, 6h, 12h and 24h postoperatively and the incidence of nausea, retching or vomiting and post operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was measured using the visual analogue score (VAS). 10-30% (P = 0.05) of total post-operative patients were found with PONV in an initial 2h. As per VAS, 20-30% (P = 0.05) and 10-15% (P = 0.05) of post-operative patients in group A and B has an incidence of nausea, vomiting and PONV in initial 2h. respectively. After 24 hours, 60% (P = 0.05) of patients in group A and 70% (P = 0.05) in group B were free from emesis. Thus, the incidence of vomiting (20%) as compared to nausea (15%) and PONV (20%) are less in subjects who have received granisetron. Data showed that granisetron is a better antinausea drug. Keywords: Ondansetron; Granisetron; Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy; PONV
113 Effects of Spirulina platensis on the Immune Status, Inflammatory and Oxidative Markers of HIV Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Cameroon , Vicky Jocelyne Ama Moor, Constant Anatole Pieme, Jan René Nkeck, Prosper Cabral Biapa Nya, Georges Ikomey Mondinde, Falmata Amazia, Charles Kouanfack, Marie Claire Okomo Assoumou and Jeanne Ngogang
Background: Spirulina platensis is traditionally used as a food supplement with a potential strengthening of the immune system, inhibition of the replication of some viruses, and lipid-lowering effect. The aim of this study was to determine its effect on the inflammatory, immunological, and oxidative status of HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: We performed a study on 62 HIV patients on ART (Tenofovir-Lamivudine-Efavirenz) divided into 2 groups. Group I, supplemented with 10 grams of Spirulina platensis daily, and group II only ART. Participants were paired on ART duration and followed-up for 6 months from December 2015 to June 2016 at the HIV care unit of the Yaounde Central Hospital and the Cité-Verte Hospital, Yaounde. Each group was sampled for CD4-count, viral load, serum levels of interleukins 6 and 8, TNFα and oxidative markers (malondialdehyde, FRAP, catalase, total peroxides, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione) at the beginning (T0) and the end of the trial (T1). Ethical clearance was obtained from the Cameroon National Ethics Committee for Human Health and Research (Ref 2016/01/699/CE/CNERSH/SP). Statistical analysis was performed using the software SPSS 21.0. The threshold of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Mean ages of participants were 35 ± 8 and 37 ± 7 respectively for group I and II. We observed a significant decrease in viral load in patients receiving spirulina comparing at T0 and T1 (p = 0.001), not observed for participants in group II (p > 0.05). CD4-counts were unchanged. There was a significant reduction of TNFα levels in group 1. The levels of pro-oxidative markers were significantly reduced in group 1 while increased in the other group. Antioxidant levels significantly increased in both groups. Conclusion: Daily supplementation of Spirulina platensis could improve the immune status of HIV patients on ART, and decrease inflammatory and pro-oxidant levels. Keywords: Spirulina platensis; HIV; Antioxidant; Anti-inflammatory; Immunomodulation
114 A Review on Analytical Techniques for the assay of Apixaban , Maanikonda Bala Krishna and Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna
Apixaban is an anticoagulant, or blood thinner. It makes your blood flow through your veins more easily. This means your blood will be less likely to make a dangerous blood clot. Apixaban is a selective, reversible, direct inhibitor of factor Xa indicated to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. The present review article summarises the analytical methods so far developed for the estimation of Apixaban. Keywords: Apixaban; Analytical Methods; Factor Xa
115 Potential Role of Community Pharmacists in Pharmacovigilance: The Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention in Greater Cairo Province in Egypt , Mohamed A Elhawary, Rehab Mehriz, Moataz E Mohamed, Edrees Helmy, Hadir Rostom, Mohamed Solayman and Nagwa A Sabri
Background: Pharmacovigilance (PV) is a potential tool to avoid and minimize adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Community pharmacists play a pivotal role in detecting and reporting ADRs. As the pharmacovigilance is still new in Egypt, It is crucial to understand the current status among Egyptian community pharmacists towards ADRs reporting and PV side by side with assessing the efficacy of an education intervention aimed to improve their PV knowledge, attitudes and practices before initiating any national educational programs. Results: A total number of 792 community pharmacists participated with an overall response rate of 78.18%. The majority (63.89% and 70.96%) of the participating community pharmacists had inadequate prior knowledge concerning of the definitions of PV and ADRs, respectively. The educational intervention was found to be an effective tool as the median (interquartile range [Q1 – Q3]) for knowledge score was increased from 4 [3-5] to 7 [7-7] after the session was introduced (p-value < 0.001). Despite the overall positive attitude, only two pharmacists (0.25%) declared that they had previously reported an ADR. The main reason for underreporting was stated as (77.02%) of the participants do not know about the existence of Egyptian Pharmaceutical vigilance Center and ARDs reporting process. Conclusion: Egyptian community pharmacists require more education and awareness on PV to enhance their knowledge and promote ADRs reporting. The positive attitude on ADRs and PV confined by the community pharmacists would further improve the outcome of these educational interventions. Keywords: Pharmacovigilance (PV), Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs), Safety Monitoring, Educational Intervention, Knowledge and Egyptian Pharmaceutical vigilance Center (EPVC).
116 Age and Gender in Relation to Colorectal Cancer in Najef Province: A Histopathological Study , Homady MH, Juma ASM, Ubeid MH, Salih TS and Al-Jubori MM
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 2nd most common cancer in females and the 3rd most common cancer in males [1]. This disease is the most common malignancy in men with 75 years of age and over. It has been concluded that over one million people develop CRC annually, where the disease specific mortality rate being in the developed world [2]
117 Molecular Characterisation of Bacterial endophytes from the Medicinal Plant Diplorhynchus condylocarpon , Ntobeko Dube and Idah Sithole-Niang
AbstractEndophytes are microbes found within live plant tissues and are known to be reservoirs of bioactive compounds that promote plant growth and antimicrobial activity. This makes them important, but are understudied. In this study endophytes from Diplorhync-hus condylocarpon plant were characterized at molecular level and their potential to produce bioactive compounds with antimicrobi-al activity was explored. DNA extraction was carried out on twenty-four endophytes isolated from leaves and twigs of Diplorhynchus condylocarpon. To confirm the nature of these endophytes at kingdom level the 16S rRNA gene was amplified using the Polymerase chain reaction and all indicated to be prokaryotes in nature. Nine 16S rRNA amplicons out of twenty-four were sequenced and spe-cies were identified as Izhakiella capsodis, Escherichia fergusonii, Shigella dysenteriae, Xernorhabdus szentirmaii, Providencia rettgeri, Dickeya zeae and Escherichia albertii. Agar well diffusion was used to test for antimicrobial activity of twenty-four endophytes. All twenty-four endophytes exhibited antimicrobial activity against E. coli and S. aureus, with wide range of zones ranging from 19 to 65 mm. Using KEGG database it was discovered that sequenced species have potential to produce antibiotics such as fosfomycin and streptomycin. Secondary agar well diffusion was done to compare potency of endophytes extracts with ampicillin, a known antibiotic. Endophytic extracts were observed to be more effective than ampicillin with highest zones of inhibition for extracts and ampicillin as 54 and 36 respectively. In conclusion this study showed that endophytes from Diplorhynchus condylocarpon are reservoirs of bioac-tive compounds with antimicrobial effect. Also, that the 16S rRNA gene can be used to identify species.Keywords:Diplorhynchus condylocarpon; Endophytes; Molecular Characterization; Bioactive Compounds; Antimicrobial Assay; 16S rRNA
118 Importance of Medicinal Plants , Hisham Ali Salem Ali
There is no existence of life without plants. Plants are the essential foundation of medicine. Some important drugs that are still in use today are derived from traditional medicinal herbs. The hunt for new medicines has engaged ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology-a new route as an important source of knowledge, which led toward different sources and classes of compounds. Nowadays, studies on structure-activity relationships, and their impact on the design of novel drugs have rendered them one of the utmost valuable and thus significant accomplishments of pharmacochemistry, an advance constituent in the group of pharmaceutical sciences. In this paper, we have discussed the historical importance of medicinal plants, geographical importance throughout the world, some important historical observations of medicinal plants, and leading drugs of plant origin which are still being used to treat various ailments, with or without any structural modifications. Solid evidences can be cited in favor of herbs being used for the treatment of diseases and for restoring and fortifying body systems in ancient systems of medicine such as Ayurvedic, Unani, and Chinese traditional medicine. The innately desired purpose of the use of herbs was to obtain a positive interaction with body chemistry.
119 p-di-pyrrole Benzene Derivatives - A New Class of Highly Active HIV-1 CA Inhibitors , Nilanjana Biswas Sangita Ghosh and Arijit Bag
AbstractBackground: In spite of so many FDA approved HIV drugs, HIV infections and deaths are increasing across the glob.Thus, HIV re-search is still important and challenging. Finding of low cost highly effective mutation resistant HIV drug is the prime destination of HIV researchers. Small organic molecules may be cost effective if they provide desired drug activities in this regards.Objective: Finding of small organic molecules with high HIV drug potency is the main target of present research. SinceHIV-1 capsid assembly inhibitors (CA) are mutation resistant, we focused on finding of inhibitors of this class.Methods: Few randomly selected small organic molecules are tested as HIV-1 CA inhibitors through molecular dockingusing Dock-ing Server. Only effective compounds are used for further calculations to predict IC50, CC50, LogP. For these cal-culations, Density Functional theory (DFT), Quantum Computation Methodology (QCM), Relative IC50 methodology (RICM) and group contribution methodology for LogP calculation are used.Results: HIV-1 CA inhibitory capacity of p-di-pyrrole benzene and its derivatives are found very good from the dockingmethods. It is observed that, among three compounds which are promising, o-ethyl p-di-pyrrole benzene has the highest inhibition constant as an HIV-1 CA inhibitor. Quantum computations of IC50, CC50 and LogP also supported the docking results. o-ethyl p-di-pyrrole benzene shows desirable activity as HIV-1 CA inhibitor.Conclusion: Since o-ethyl p-di-pyrrole benzene is a small organic molecule it would be easily synthesizable and cost-effective. Thus, it may be a very good HIV drug. To exaggerate its prospect we have also studied and reported different important properties of these compounds like IC50, CC50, LogP, etc., which are required before pre-clinical trials. These results are also in favor of o-ethyl p-di-pyrrole benzene to be a drug in practice.Keywords: HIV-1 Capsid A Inhibitor; IC50; CC50; LogP; DFT; p-di-Pyrrole Benzene
120 Development of a Novel Method for Determination of Risperidone in Pharmaceutical Products and its Quality Control Application , Mohamed Raslan, Sara AS, Eslam MS and Nagwa A Sabri
Background:Risperidone is an antipsychotic drug that is selective to dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors and used in the management of schizophrenia, and bipolar mania. Aim: The work objective was to establish a specific, accurate, and sensitive analytical method for the quantification of risperidone in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method will be used as a quality control tool for testing pre-market and post-market distribution of risperidone products, ensuring that the dosage forms are fulfilling the required labeled amount of the drug. Methods: Evaluation of risperidone in commercial pharmaceutical products administered in hospitals, community pharmacies, and other health care facilities by the development of a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method to add a validated sensitive and selective method to literature methods. Results: The method showed specificity, sensitivity, and selectivity, and linearity (R2>0.999) within concentration range of 0.2 to 6 μg/mL for dissolution medium USP (0.1N HCl), and 0.1 to 3.4 μg/mL for dissolution medium pH1.2, 4.5, and 6.8. Accuracy percentage within 98 - 102%, and precision percentage below 2%. The mean recovery of assayed tablets is 100.113%. In addition, dissolution results meet the required 80% dissolution limit within 10 minutes.Conclusion: The developed analytical technique is fully validated and applicable for use in the quantitative analysis of risperidone.Keywords: Risperidone; Analytical Method; Schizophrenia; Bipolar Mania; Pharmacopeia; Dissolution; Validation
121 A Pharmacological Study of Gastric Antiulcer Activity of the Leaf Extracts of Murraya koenigii , Dibyajyoti Deka, Mangala Lahkar, Indrani Devi Sarma, Dhriti KR Brahma and Tirtha Chaliha
Murraya koenigii Linn (MKL) is a native plant of India, Sri Lanka and other countries from South Asia. It has been used by the people of this region as a traditional cure in various ailments including gastric ulcer. Antiulcer activity of aqueous extracts of fresh leaves of MKL at the doses of 200 mg and 400 mg per kg were tested among different groups of Wistar rats of either sex in the experi-mental models of ulcer induction by pyloric ligation and by cold and restraint stress and compared with a standard drug ranitidine. The present study demonstrated the antiulcer activity of aqueous extract of leaves of MKL in animal models of pyloric ligation and cold restraint induced gastric ulcers. The acute toxicity study by the administration of doses of MKL upto 2000 mg/kg in the above for a period of 14 days did not show any serious toxicity. The available evidence of antiulcer activity provides satisfactory evidence further scientific studies using advanced methods for testing its usefulness in human. The ulcer protection in ranitidine group was 64.12%; in groups treated MKL in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, it was 45.2% and 50.07%, respectively. Keywords:Murraya koenigii Linn.; Gastric Ulcer; Antiulcer Activity
122 Steps to Improved Regulatory Documentation   , Bradley Hayden
123 Role of Pharmacology Education for Physiotherapists , Mohd Mazhar and Charu Chhabra
Physiotherapy has core association with human anatomy and movement and maximizing physical endurance, promotes improvement in one’s valued of life and movement potential in the horizon of promotion, prophylactic, cure and management, habilitation and rehabilitation. Over time, the Physical Therapy Profession has seen dramatic change and physiotherapists now deal with not just orthopedic conditions such as fractures, osteoarthritis and joint problems but physiotherapy has been shown to be of a lot of importance for neurologically ill patients, post cerebrovascular accidents, in various cardiopulmonary conditions and spots injuries. Moreover, physiotherapy has become an integral part when it comes to rehabilitation and caters to all types of population, be it pediatric, adolescents, pregnant women and geriatric patients.
124 A Review on Analytical methods: Levetiracetam , Malla Krishna Prasad and Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna
Levetiracetam is a second-generation anti-epileptic drug which belongs to pyrrolidone family with wide spectrum of action. In 1999 Levetiracetam was approved by US Food and Drug Administration as a broad spectrum antiepileptic drug. Levetiracetam is different from other older antiepileptic drugs in its structure with hydrophilic groups. The present review summarizes the analytical techniques used for the analysis of Levetiracetam. Keywords: Levetiracetam; Antiepileptic Drug; Spectrophotometry; HPLC; LC-MS
125 Captopril: An Overview of Discovery, Develop and Post-marketing Surveillance as an Effective Anti-hypertensive Drug , Babiker M Elhaj, Farah Hamad Farah and Heyam Saad Ali
Captopril, the first angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor was discovered through random screening of 2,000 chemical structures, by E. R. Squibb and Sons Pharmaceuticals. Then patented and developed 1980, to the marketed product Capoten. At a daily dose of 400-1000 mg, the drug showed significant anti-hypertensive activity in patients through enhancing plasma rennin activity, decreasing aldosterone in plasma and elimination of ACE activity. Dose was decreased to 50-150 mg/day after drug resistance was recognized in first 200 patients treated with captopril at the initial dose. Captopril pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics parameters were established through continuous clinical trials in human subjects. Initial post-marketing study found it safe and effective for treatment of mild hypertension and early cardiac failure. However, recent studies reveal different adverse events in hypertensive patients treated with captopril. Keywords: Captopril; Hypertension; Angiotensin-converting Enzyme (ACE)
126 Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude of Pharmacy Students on Safe and Quality Use of Vaccination: A Cross Sectional Study , Jibin Xavier, Jobin George, Rijinas EK, Jaseem EK, Muhammad Shahir NA and Juny Sebastian
Introduction: Immunization is the ability of the human body to tolerate the presence of indigenous materials to the body and to eliminate the foreign particles from the body. To get a good immunity after vaccination, we need to take precautions on safe and quality use of vaccines. Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude of pharmacy students on safe and quality use of vaccines. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study conducted for a period of 6 months at JSS College of Pharmacy, Mysuru. Data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Collected data was assessed using unpaired T test ANOV A. Result: Out of 502 students enrolled for the study, 84.46% of them had adequate knowledge on safe and quality use of vaccines. The mean knowledge score of the study population was 12.29 ± 3.95. There was a statistically significant difference in the knowledge score of study population belong to categories such as Indian and other nationals (p 0.03), urban and rural place of origin (p 0.001) and students of different courses (p 0.001).The lowest mean attitude score was observed among the category of study population belonged to nationalities other than India (1.42 ± 0.54). Conclusion: Study suggest the need of educating the students on safe and quality use of vaccines, preferably topic can be added in the curriculum so that more attention will be given to this important topic. Keywords: Safe and Quality Use of Vaccines; Knowledge and Attitude; Cross Sectional Study; Pharmacy Students
127 Solubility Enhancement of Azithromycin by Solid Dispersion Technique Using Mannitol and β-Cyclodextrin , Veer Patel, Rakesh Patel, Hetansh Shah, Shyam Purohit, Mayur Pawar and Abuzar Pathan
Background: Azithromycin is a poorly water soluble drug having low solubility. Dissolution is the rate-limiting step in absorption of such drugs. Therefore, solubility of such drugs need to be enhanced in order to have a stable and effective dosage form having greater bioavailability. Solid dispersion technique is one of the effective methods to enhance the solubility of poorly soluble drugs. Aim and Objectives: The present study aimed at enhancing the solubility of biopharmaceutical classification system Class II Drug, i.e. Azithromycin using Mannitol and β-Cyclodextrin as a carrier. Method: Solid dispersions of Azithromycin with Mannitol and β-Cyclodextrin were prepared by Melting, Kneading and Solvent Evaporation method. The solubility of these prepared dispersions was evaluated. Results: Solubility of prepared dispersions of Azithromycin were reported in µg/mL. The solubility of solid dispersion which was prepared using the Drug: Mannitol mixture in 1:4 ratio was found to be maximum, i.e. reported solubility of 7.8 µg/mL. The solubility of solid dispersion which was prepared using Drug: β-Cyclodextrin mixture in 1:1.5 ratio was found to be maximum, i.e. reported solubility of 9.52 µg/mL. The solubility of those dispersions that were prepared using Melting and Kneading Method were found to be maximum. Conclusion: Drug having less aqueous solubility can have an enhanced rate of dissolution by using solid dispersion technique. Keywords: Azithromycin; Solubility; Solid Dispersion; BCS (Biopharmaceutical Classification System); Absorbance
128 A Newly Developed Wearable Chest Strap for Measuring Pulmonary Ventilation During Exercise , G Harel, R Reuveni, M Segel, O Inbar, G Dubnov-Raz and M Scheinowitz
Pulmonary ventilation (VE) is a fundamental physiological parameter making it possible to assess exercise intensity by measuring ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) during exercise stress test. Present wearable training devices do not measure VE, hence, measuring VAT during exercise testing is currently performed exclusively in the laboratory by using Cardio-Pulmonary Exercise Test (CPET) which is a costly and cumbersome equipment. This paper describes a new, wearable chest strap developed to measure pulmonary ventilation (VE) equivalent in the field. The chest strap consists of a stretch sensor measuring the breathing frequency (BF) and the relative tidal volume (VT, driven by thorax expansion), a vertical accelerometer for canceling running impacts and a heart rate monitor. The sampled data is streamed via Bluetooth link to an external computing device such as smart phone/watch or a PC where signal processing algorithms in time and frequency domains are used to filter the sampled signals and calculate the VE equivalent being the product of BF x VT. Healthy young adults (n = 20) age 20-35 wearing the chest strap performed maximal incremental running test (using CPET) to compare between the two methods; VE measured by CPET and VE equivalent measured by the chest strap. After correcting motion artifacts the correlation between the two VE curves was very high (r = 0.94) proving the chest strap can accurately measure pulmonary attributes (BF, relative VT, and VE equivalent), during running exercise Conclusion: The newly developed wearable chest strap measures pulmonary ventilation equivalent with high accuracy, which makes it suitable serve as a personal training device during running activity. Keywords: Accelerometer; Breathing Frequency; CPET; FFT; Frequency-domain Analysis; Strain; Tidal Volume; Pulmonary Ventilation; Wearable
129 Synergistic Compositions of Traditional Medicine (SIDDHA) against Perilous +ssRNA Coronavirus a Future Alternative Medicine - A Mini Review , King Solomon Ebenezer, Chidambaram Tamilselvan, Rekha Manivanan, Sundaram Ravikumar and Pandi Boomi
Siddha medicinal system is an admirable ancient symbol of Tamil culture and used from time immemorial in India which is originated in Tamil Nadu and invented from Dravidian culture by the Siddhars (Tamil sages). Globally, siddha drugs are considered to be an important alternative to modern allopathic drugs, also the siddha product and research is very popular for the drug discovery process. The siddha medicinal system is well versed in treating diseases, even incurable by the allopathic practitioners, but their mode of action remained a mystery all these years resulting in their unpopularity in the modern world. The recent alarming rise of novel deadly viral infections in the society demands novel drugs for treatment and made the researchers looking into the alternative therapies. Hence, recently many researchers are forthcoming in evaluating the antiviral activity of the siddha drugs using modern scientific approaches. In context to this, this mini review summarizes the synergistic compositions of siddha drugs and their efficacy against pathogenic single strand positive sense RNA coronavirus disease. Keywords: Corona Virus; Siddha; Drugs; Traditional Medicine; Alternative Medicine
130 Solid Lipid Nanoparticles of Cyclosporine for the Treatment of Skin Disease , Ramila Prajapati, Dhavalkumar Patel and Jayvadan Patel
Abstract Cyclosporine is one of the shows potential drugs and employ for the treatment of variety of skin diseases like Psoriasis. However, High blood pressure, Swollen or inflamed gums, and other common side effects are tremors, restlessness, stomach upset, nausea, cramps, diarrhea, headache limit its clinical applications. The reported work pivot on the preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) using cyclosporine drug, for the enhancement of their penetration efficacy in the skin. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of the drug by the using of many type of lipids, like palmitic acid, glyceryl behenat, cetyl palmitate and glyceryl monostearate. Prepared SLN was validated regarding particle size, zeta potential, percentage entrapment efficiency (EE). In-vitro dermatokinetics and drug efficacy evaluated respectively by tape stripping method and using HaCaT cell lines. The particle size of nanoformulation was ranging less than 350 nm and the morphology is showing spherical. HaCaT cell lines were used for the in-vitro study that showed higher uptake and efficacy with decrease cell viability for SLNs. Keywords: Cyclosporine; Fatty Acids; SLN; HaCaT Cell Line
131 Organizational and Legal Aspects of the Use of Marketing Analysis of Multivitamin Complexes for Pharmaceutical Provision of Health Diseases Among Combatants , Andriy Gudzenko, Valeriy Shapovalov, Viktoriya Shapovalova and Valentyn Shapovalov
The article presents the results of the study of the multivitamin complexes for the pharmaceutical provision of health disorders among combatants in Ukraine. In the conditions of military conflict, combatants experience various health problems and require complex pharmacotherapy and pharmaceutical provision. In that medicines of various clinical and pharmacological groups, including vitamins are widely used. The goal of the study was to conduct analysis on the organizational and legal aspects of multivitamin complexes for the pharmaceutical provision of combatants on the example of the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine in the period of 2015-2020. The organizational and legal study conducted was based on using of normative and legal, documentary, regulatory, forensic and pharmaceutical, and marketing analysis methods. Discussed the range of multivitamin complexes by trade names, composition of active substances, manufacturers, pharmaceutical forms, registration data, and parameters of the control regime. In conclusion, proved that the multivitamin complexes are highly available for pharmacotherapy and pharmaceutical provision of combatants
132 A Brief Review of Homogeneous Differential Equations , Dragan Obradovic, Lakshmi Narayan Mishra and Vishnu Narayan Mishra
Homogeneous linear differential equations are further subclasses whose solution space is a linear subspace, i.e. the sum of any solution set or their product is also a solution. The coefficients of an unknown function and its derivatives in a linear differential equation can be (known) functions of independent variables. If these coefficients are constants then a constant coefficient of linear differential equation is spoken. Keywords: Differential Equations, Homogeneous Differential Equations, Differential Equation with Separated Variables, Differential Equation of the First Degree of Homogeneity
133 Analysis on the Current Situation of Classified Management of Drug Shortages: Case China , Bing Fang, Hui Chen, Xiaohe Li, Jianhong Yang and Zhen Chen
Drug shortage is a worldwide problem, it will not only have a serious impact on the treatment of patients, but also increase the work and financial burden of the health care system and health care providers. Various countries and regions have established different prevention and mitigation measures. China's central and local governments have introduced a series of measures to strengthen the management of drug shortage, but the effect is not ideal. Due to the different nature of the shortage of drugs, the management methods should be different, so we should comprehensively consider the various attributes of the shortage of drugs, establish a classification method to manage the shortage of drugs, so as to improve the efficiency of the existing measures, and supplement and improve the inadequate. There are some limitations in the current classification management system of shortage drugs in China. The classification index cannot comprehensively summarize the attributes of shortage drugs, and the judgment standard of each index is fuzzy. Based on the current situation of shortage drugs in China and the existing research experience at home and abroad, this paper puts forward that the elements of classification management of shortage drugs in China are clinical importance, the availability of alternative drugs and the impact of shortage, and describes the judgment criteria of each index in detail. Keywords: Drug Product Shortage; Substitutable Therapy; Policy Advice; Comparative Study
134 Halting the Pandemic - Vaccine and Vaccination a Realistic Path Forward , Bahman Zohuri and Elise Ooi
The fight against the pandemic is not going well-but not for the reasons many people with political ideologies believe. A pandemic occurs when each infected person on the average infects more than one other person. It stops when each infected person infects less than one person. The end of a pandemic does not imply that the disease disappears-only that there are small local outbreaks and no large outbreaks. One starts with three observations about this pandemic. Recent worldwide COVID-19 pandemic, for example, has put tremendous pressure on pharmaceuticals scientists to be in quest of new drugs and vaccine to treat such deadly disease, and at this point, nobody knows what price tag has been estimated to develop such a vaccine by multi-drug companies involved with research and development of the drug. With recent growth in technology of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and its sub-component such as Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL), dealing with epidemic of COVID-19 pandemic in a global form and overwhelming of data and consequently information and thus our knowledge of having power to deal with this devasting disease is way beyond our own human brain intelligence comprehension to process, thus we need to relay on AI, ML and DL innovative technology to handle all the aspects of such measure with a proper counter-measure. Moreover, the integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) with its components of Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) is changing and enhances the discovery of a drug that deals with COVID-19. AI, ML, and DL, along with other technologies such as Nanotechnology, are anticipated to make the quest or search for new pharmaceuticals by fat out much quicker, more cost-effective and cheaper as well. Keywords: Pandemic; COVID-19; Vaccine and Vaccination Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Drug Delivery and Administration; Drug Distribution