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Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences

Journal Papers (46) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 COVID-19: An Overview about the Disease Etiology and its Prevention , Nayab Mustansar and Rizwan Rafi
Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people. Common signs of infection include respi-ratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath and breathing difficulties [2]. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumo-nia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and even death [3].Detailed investigations found that SARS-CoV was transmitted from civet cats to humans and MERS-CoV from dromedary camels to humans. Several known coronaviruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans [1-3].This article is based on the overview regarding the disease etiology and its prevention to educate the mass population.
2 Recommendation for Compassionate Use of One or More of the Three Medications for Covid-19 Patients on the Verge of Dying , Tapan K Chaudhuri, Tushar K Chowdhury, Tandra R Chaudhuri, Taposh K Chowdhury and Bulu R Chowdhury
At the rate the COVID-19 patients are dying - like one death every 10 minutes in some country - there is an urgency to invoke compassionate treatment for dying COVID-19 patients with one or more of the following three modalities without waiting for going through rules, regulations or red tape (fast-track treatment)
3 A Comparative Study on Photocatalytic Activity of ZnO, ZnS and ZnO-ZnS Composite , Basant Kumar Menariya
A comparative study was made on photocatalytic activity of ZnO, ZnS and their composite. A simple mechanochemical method was used for preparation of composite. The photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO-ZnS composite was compared with pure ZnO and ZnS. The effect of various parameters such as pH, dye concentration, semiconductor amount and light intensity was observed. The opti-mum conditions for this degradation were obtained as: Rose Bengal = 7.0 × 10-6M, pH = 7.5, amount of composite = 0.08g and light intensity = 60.0 mWcm-2. It was found that coupled chalcogenide ZnO-ZnS show better photocatalytic activity as compared with ZnO and ZnS alone for the degradation of rose Bengal in the presence of visible light.
4 Histological Changes in Lung Induced by Single Intratracheal Instillation on Bleomycin in Wistar Rats , Ramesh Verma1, Poonam Mehta, Vishvesh Dalal, Manish V Patel, Parnav Buch, Pratyush Patankar and Suresh Balakrishnan
The present study examined the histological changes in lung tissue induced by single intratracheal instillation on bleomycin in Wi-star rats. Animals were treated with bleomycin at the dose of 6.5 U/kg body weight via., single intra-tracheal instillation. Histopatho-logical abnormalities in lungs were assessed on day 21 using hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson’s trichrome staining. Single intra-tracheal instillation of bleomycin led to the extensive deposition of collagen in peribronchial and perialveolar region, which obliterated the alveolar spaces. Severe lung alveolitis and injury, which was manifested with interalveolar inflammation, thickening alveolar wall, bronchial erosion, and large fibrotic area inconsistently. The results of the present study speculate that inflammation is the forerunner of fibrosis induced by single intra-tracheal instillation of bleomycin.
5 The Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis , Gejalakshmi S and Harikrishnan N
An array of recently published manuscript globally have proposed the stages of different pathogenic pathways in multiple sclero-sis. These research were focused on both biopsy and autopsy. Based the review data on clinical, imaging and cerebrospinal fluid sug-gest that most of the cases were disseminated encephalomyelitis rather than MS pathogenesis. Cognitive impairment is a common and disabling feature of multiple sclerosis. It may contribute to withdrawal from work than physical disability. The article delivers the importance for early diagnosis and management of disabilities in MS, before it develops an irreversible entry.
6 Drug Addiction and their Management: An Overview , Anuradha Sharma and Amar Chaudhary
Drug addiction could be a term that means compulsive physiological want for use of a habit-forming substance, which is charac-terized by tolerance and well-defined physiological symptoms upon withdrawal. In this communication, the author has compiled all the drugs used for addiction, various tests for determination of addiction and their management
7 History, Symptoms and Preventive Measures of Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19): Mini Review , Mohd Asif Khan and Deeksha Sahai
In 1968, term ‘coronavirus’ was first coined. It shows crown-like morphology when observed under electron microscope. CoVs are summarized into four genera such as Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus. Betacoronavi-rus was further classified into four lineages A, B, C and D. Total 06 species of human coronaviruses have been discovered including OC43, 229E, NL63, HKU1, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. A novel (new) coronavirus is recently discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan city of China. The coronavirus belongs to family- Coronaviridae; largest family in Nidovirales order. Chinese authority declared it as a novel coronavirus (nCoV-19). MERS-CoV was detected in camel serum- being almost identical to human coronaviruses. Bats have been a natural reservoir of coronaviruses lineages and thought as ancestor for all coronavirus lineages. In India, 9 deaths have been reported till 24 March 2020. The Print reports that with current rate India can see 30000 COVID-19 deaths by May, as no hospital bed by June. It concludes that its clinical signs and symptoms are almost similar to pneumonia. It indicates to researchers to work on genetic configuration (genome) of coronavirus to develop more specific vaccine to save life of society and world.
8 Nicotinamide, Folic Acid and Derivatives as Potent Inhibitors of Inflammatory Factors against Novel Corona Virus Infection , Hemanth Kumar Manikyam and Sunil K Joshi
A novel coronavirus designated as SARS-CoV-2 in February 2020 by World Health organization (WHO) was identified as main cause of SARS like pneumonia cases in Wuhan city in Hubei Prov-ince of China at the end of 2019. This been recently declared as Global Pandemic by WHO. There is a global emergency to identi-fy potential drugs to treat the SARS-CoV-2. Currently, there is no specific treatment against the new virus. There is an emergency to identifying potential antiviral agents to combat the disease is urgently needed. An effective and quick approach is to test exist-ing antiviral drugs against COVID-19. Patients affected with Novel coronavirus had shown severe respiratory inflammatory burst which includes sever cytokine and lymphocyte over responses. Particularly interleukins swarm like IL8, IL2, IL6 and other inflam-matory triggering factors.
9 Antimicrobial Activity of Ciprofloxacin-Loaded Softisan-154 Lipid Microparticles: Physicochemical Evaluation and In Vitro Activity , Momoh A Mumuni, Nafiu Aminu, Frankline C Kenechukwu, Agboke A Ayodeji, Adedokun M Oluseun, Oyeniyi Y James, Parom K Stephen, Obajuluwa A Funke, Usman Muhammad, Darlington Youngson, Tochimen K Michel, Omeje C Ernest and Emmanuel C Ibezim
The objective of this work was to prepare and investigate in vitro ciprofloxacin (CPX)-loaded solid lipid microparticles (SLM) against some selected micro-organisms for improved activity. Lipid matrix consisting of Softisan®-154 and Phospholipon® 90H was used to prepare SLMs loaded with CPX. The thermal properties of polymers and the SLMs were determined by a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), particles size and the pH change of CPX-loaded SLMs were evaluated. The encapsulation efficiency (EE), load-ing capacity (LC) and in vitro release of CPX from the SLMs were evaluated. The antimicrobial activities of the SLM against selected organisms were determined. Characterizations showed that lipid matrix generated imperfect microstructure that accommodated CPX in a concentration-dependent manner. The EE and LC% were 89.2 and 33%, respectively. Maximum CPX release of > 80% was obtained in batch A3. The antimicrobial activity of the formulation against the tested organisms was comparably higher in batch C (49.10 ± 2.10) against S. aureus and (33.10 ± 0.21 mm) against S. typhii as compared to the reference sample. This result suggests the capability of the SLMs to modify the release of the drug and improve its activities against the microorganisms.
10 Transition Metal Complexes of Schiff Base Ligand Derived from Trimethoprim with Cyclohexanone: Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial and Computational Studies , Hussaini Garba, Jamila Bashir Yakasai, Ibrahim Waziri and Ibraheem O Bisiriyu
In this study, Metal (II) Complexes of Mn (II), Fe (III), Co (II) and Ni (II) with Schiff base ligand derived from Trimethoprim and Cyclohexanone were synthesized and characterized using various physic-chemical techniques such as: solubility, conductivity, melt-ing point determination, UV/Vis and Fourier transform infrared, 1H-NMR and elemental analysis. On the basis of these character-izations, a six coordinated octahedral geometry has been proposed for all the complexes. The Schiff base ligand and its complexes were screened for their antimicrobial activity against some pathogenic microbial isolate and compared with the parent drug. The antimicrobial activity results showed the following trend: metal complexes > Schiff base ligands > Parent drugs. This suggests poten-tial antimicrobials agents with broad spectrum activity. Computational studies further revealed that M-Cl bond is responsible for the trend in antimicrobial properties among the complexes
11 Forecasting Future of Manufacturing Systems Driven by Artificial Intelligence: Recent Progress and Future Directions , Bahman Zohuri and Farhang Mossavar Rahmani
The start of a new decade brings a new wave of technological change and unprecedented opportunities that will generate massive amounts of data at the level of Big Data (BD), spawn new threats and transform the way we do business. Dealing with such enormous data structurally or unstructured-wise and process it in real-time requires a new innovative technology such as Artificial Intelligence (AI). Today, AI is capable of learning from its experience through the element of its Machine Learning (ML) in conjunction with the Deep Learning (DL) component and using them to adjust to new input and perform human-like performance, or at least to comple-ment and enhance human abilities. Because of this capability, it encompasses every aspect of the enterprise in the years to come. That is why we believe AI, Automation, and Analytics are central to the success of the enterprise and encompass critical business areas, including data, business processes, the workforce, and risk and reputation
12 Artificial Intelligence Versus Human Intelligence: A New Technological Race , Bahman Zohuri and Farhang Mossavar Rahmani
Today, artificial intelligence (AI) is capable of learning from its experience through the element of its Machine Learning (ML) in conjunction with Deep Learning (DL) component and using them to adjust to new input and perform human-like performance, or at least to complement and enhance human abilities. Because of this capability, it pervades every aspect of the enterprise in the years to come. That is why we believe AI, Automation, and Analytics are central to the success of the enterprise and encompass critical business areas, including data, business processes, the workforce, and risk and reputation.The vision for AI should be guided by innovative thinking - with the long-term objective of enhanced or new, business strategies, and models. The generation of computers known as Quantum Computer (QC) with a quantized technical approach processing unit is opening a new door toward the next generation of AI, which we have introduced to as Super Artificial Intelligence (SAI). Thus, the trend certainly is there, and although these generations of SAI and QC are supposedly are making our life easy to deal with in this fast paste technically growth, yet they are in a serious race with their inventors known as Human. One other adverse effect of AI on humans with it thrive toward SAI is increasing human depression, and some details are presented here in this article as well
13 An Observational Study of DM Complications and their Clinical Outcomes , Doragolla Bhargavi, Gundlapally Prashanthi, Snigda Reddy Pingili and Udayarani
Aim: The purpose of the study is to examine the complications, their associated clinical characteristics and health related quality of life in DM patients Objectives: To evaluate and analyse the clinical outcomes of dabetes mellitus complications. 1. To identify the prevalence of DM complications. 2. To identify about complication percentage (%) in type-1 and type-2 DM. 3. To determine HRQL of patients with diabetes mellitus complications. Methodology: A prospective observational study was carried out at Departments of in and out patients at Gandhi hospital and BBR hospital, for a period of 6 months (July 2017 to December 2017). All the patients who are diagnosed with DM complications were included in this study. Patients between ages of 18 - 90 yrs were considered. Patients with comorbidities of DM were excluded in the study. Results: During the study period, a total of 400 cases of suspected Diabetes complications were recorded from July 2017 to Decem-ber 2017. The total of 400 cases was analyzed, among them the prevalence % was found to be more in Diabetic nephropathy (33%), in which prevalence rate in males was found to be (71.96%) than females (28.03%). According to the age wise distribution, maximum patients belonged to age group 40-60 years. The occurrence of DM complications was identified more in Type-2 DM patients (273) than in Type-1 DM patients (127). Conclusion: The suspected complication cases were analyzed, among them type 2 DM is more predominant than type 1. In type 2 Males are at more risk than females in nephropathy and in males are at more risk than females in DKA. So, 40-60 age group were highly affected with complications. Clinical outcome measures of GRBS levels was found to be more in patients with GRBS levels of 200 - 300 (42.5%), FBS levels was found to be more in patients with FBS levels of 120 - 130 (39.5%), HbA1C levels was found to be more in patients with HbA1C levels of 7.5 - 8.0 (39.5%), BP levels was found to be more in patients with BP levels of stage 2 (46%), lipid levels was found to be more in patients with lipid levels of 50 - 100 (55%).  
14 Intravenous High-Dose and Supplementation of Vitamin C Can Effectively Prevent and Treat COVID-19? , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn1, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn and Utoomporn Sittisingh
Coronaviruses and influenza viruses, the pandemic viruses can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) contrib-uting to lethally acute lung injuries (ALI) and death. Activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2 (nfe2)-related factor 2 (nrf2), a major regulator of antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven cytoprotective protein expression plays an critical role in pre-venting cells and tissues from oxidative-stress-induced injury. Both viral and bacterial infections can contribute to cytokine storm that results in increased oxidative stress. Vitamin C is beneficial to critical care management due to its important component of the cellular antioxidant system. High-dose vita-min C has been clinically used for several decades. Intravenous high dose of vitamin C may be applicable to COVID-19 since the prevention and management of oxidative stress could be ad-ministered by large dose of antioxidant. By eating a variety of food, particularly fruits and vegetables, individuals can easily achieve 100 to 200 mg of vitamin C that is proved to be ad-equate to optimize cell and tissue levels for the reduction of the risks of chronic diseases. One medium-size orange contains 70 - 80 mg of vitamin C, one cup (around 100 grams) of broccoli contains 90 mg of vitamin C, and one large red guava contains approximately 120 mg of vitamin C. At least 200 mg of daily vi-tamin C supplementation is effective in improving the duration and severity of the common cold, both in children and adults. Nevertheless, the “prophylactic” dose of vitamin C for disease prevention is controversial.
15 Development and Validation of Visible Spectrophotometric Methods for the Analysis of Etravirine: Application to Tablet Dosage Forms , Murali Dadi1, Indra Sen Singh1 and G Purna Chandra Rao
The present study describes the development and validation of two simple, sensitive, accurate, precise and economical spec-trophotometric methods for the estimation of Etravirine (ETR) in bulk and its tablet dosage forms. These methods have developed based on the diazotization of ETR followed by coupling with alkaline β-naphthol (Method-A) and p-nitro aniline in alkaline medium (Method-B). These methods show a linear relation between absorbance and concentration of ETR in the ranges of 5 - 30 μg/mL (M-A) and 2.5 - 15 μg/mL(M-B) respectively. The Molar absorptive for present methods are 3.685 x 103 (M-A) and 5.614 x 104 (M-B) and LOD, LOQ values are 0.656 μg/mL, 1.990 μg/mL (M-A) and 0.191 μg/mL, 0.578 μg/mL (M-B) respectively. The common excipients in the drug did not interfere in the estimation process and the developed methods are successfully applied to tablet dosage forms of ETR.
16 Molecular Docking Studies; 1,3 Thiazines Derivatives , Khan Sana, Singh Gurdeep and Sainy Jitendra
ome novel derivatives of 1,3-thiazine have been synthesized by the condensation of 2-hydroxy-3-nitro5-chlorochalcones with thiourea and phenylthiourea in ethanol containing aqueous KOH solution. The synthesized ten 1,3 thiazine derivatives were subject-ed to molecular docking studies against E.coli Glucosamine-6 P Synthase in Complex with Fructose-6 P (PDB ID-4 AMV) and Crystal structure of Peptide deformylase from Staphylococcus aureus Complex with Actinonin (PDB ID-1Q1Y) usingMolegro Virtual Docker software. All synthesized compound have been screened for in-vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activities by agar plate techniques. The results indicated that all the synthesized 1,3 thiazine derivatives shows considerable antimicrobial activities on gram negative (E. coli) bacteria This study suggested that 1,3-thiazine derivatives possess more antimicrobial activities on gram negative (E. coli) bacteria than gram positive bacteria (S.aureus).
17 A Case Report on Colistin Induced Myasthenia Gravis , Pulimi Divya Priyanka, Vithya Alhas, Farhan1 and Manoharan, Shankar Prasad, Shobha Rani R H
A 60-year-old Male got admitted to Surgical ward of tertiary care hospital with the complaints of wound debarment on left leg and left thigh abscess since two months and foul smell from 15 days associated with complaints of pain in both lower limbs. He is a known case of Type II DM from 10 years, HTN since one year, CLD, CKD from one and half year and on hemodialysis with oral medications. After adequate preoperative work up, the patient was taken for surgery with high risk and underwent skin grafting and withstood the surgery. The patient culture reported growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and on first day IV Colistin 1 Million Units TID, IV Clindamycin 600 mg BD and IV Meropenem 1 gm TID were prescribed. The patient developed Myasthenia gravis and Neurologist confirmed it as Colistin induced and the same was stopped on 13th day. Neostigmine 2.5 mg BD was prescribed and extubated. He was treated with other antibiotics and supportive treatment. Patient improved symptomatically after the withdrawal of Colistin and discharged in a stable condition with multivitamins, Anti-Hypertensives and Anti-Diabetic medications.
18 A Minireview on Pandemic Novel COVID-19 , V Anilkumar
Human history is observing a very strange time fighting an invisible enemy, the novel COVID-19 coronavirus. initially observed in the Wuhan province of China, now vastly spreading around the world. The Pandemic which COVID-19 has made on the Globe needs no depiction. The virus has been accounted for to be affecting the lungs and related respiratory tracts promoting harm of the alveoli. It has been accounted the respiratory sickness is the prevailing Clinical indication of COVID-19. This review article discussed for an easily understanding of the causes, different type of Human viruses regarded of Coronavirus, clinical diagnosis of RT-PCR, Primary prevention and control of the virus. Therefore, this review article main theme is focusing on more research work to be carried out to provide more reliable and valid effect to control and mange public emergency in both acute and chronic conditions of coronavirus.
19 Cosmetics and Beauty Products Review , Heyam Saad Ali
The word “Cosmetics” is known to human race since ages. At the same time, desire to look good and attractive for every individual also can be identified as the psychological need having been given the upper place in hierarchy for ages. However, it will be relevant to understand the exact meaning of the word „cosmetic‟ from various sources at the outset.
20 A Comprehensive Review in Parenteral Formulations , Heyam Saad Ali
Parenteral Formulations are sterile, pyrogen-free, administered by injection through skin layers. This review highlights all the as-pects regarding parenteral products advantages, disadvantages, routes of administration, additives, preparation, types of containers and quality control tests for evaluation.
21 Formulation and Evalution of Telmisartan Solid Dispersion of Encapsulation Using Different Polymer , Kabita Banik and K Yashasree
The aim of the present study was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of a poorly water soluble drug, telmisartan by solid dispersion technique. The objective of the study is to prepare telmisartan solid dispersion and encapsulation using different polymers to achieve the enhanced solubility and to determine the Kinetic Modeling of Drug Release and Stability studies. Telmisartan has PH dependent solubility. Due to this reason only the % release for the prepared solid dispersions was higher in PH 4.5 acetate buffer when compared with other mediums. Based on mathematical data revealed from models, it was concluded that the release data was best fitted with First order kinetics. Stability studies showed that there were no significant changes in physical and chemical properties of capsule of formulation after 3 months.
22 An Assessment of Quality of Life of Hypertensive Patients Visiting a Hospital in Warri, Nigeria , Rita O Akonoghrere, Ogheneovo C Aghoja1, Omobamidele B Betiku, Zipporah E Adje and Azuka C Oparah
Purpose: Health related quality of life is a multi-dimensional concept that includes domains related to the physical, mental, emotional and social functioning. It evaluates both the positive and negative aspect of life. This can be evaluated using various instruments so as to know areas to improve therapy. This study was done to assess the quality of life of a group of hypertensive patients, and to determine predictors of their quality of life. Method: This was a descriptive cross- sectional study designed to assess the quality of life of hypertensive patients. The sf-12 questionnaire was used to assess Quality of Life in ambulatory patients. Data was obtained from patients visiting two facilities in Delta state, Nigeria. Results: The total sample size used was 122 respondents of which 72 were males (58.5%). The mean Physical Component Summary (PCS) of quality of life was 47 ± 7.5; while the mean Mental Component Summary (MCS) of quality of life was 46.7 ± 9.2. The mean systolic blood pressure was 139.6mmHg ± 19.1 while the mean diastolic blood pressure was 82.8mmHg ± 13.3. The Beta value obtained from all the analysis were > 0.05, hence there were no significant predictors of quality of life. Conclusion: Quality of life was generally low and below the Norm of 50% according to the US standard. The physical component scale however was the most affected. Neither the clinical status nor the socio-demographics of the patients were predictors of their quality of life.
23 Antioxidant Potential of Vernonia occephala , Usman M, Aliyu AB, Momoh MA and Faruq UZ
In this study, antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and chloroform fraction of Vernonia oocephalawere evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging assay, total phenolic contents, reducing power assay and total antioxidant capac-ity. The free radical scavenging activity expressed as percentage antioxidant activity was highest in ethyl acetate fraction of (EC50 = 20.0 ± 0.005 μg/ml). The total phenolic content was highest in ethyl acetate fraction (106.0 ± 0.003 mg/g GAE). Also, the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest total antioxidant capacity (100 mg g-1 ascorbic acid equivalent). The chloroform fraction exhibited the highest reducing power at all concentrations. There is no significant difference between the standard and the sample (P ≤ 0.05). The results of this study have shown that Vernonia oocephala contains antioxidant chemical substances and therefore can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants for medicinal uses.
24 Coronavirus Disease Pandemia 2019: Growth of Epidemic Dangers , VO Shapovalova, SI Zbrozhek, EV Suprun, VV Shapovalov and VV Shapovalov
The article is devoted to the problem of the emergence in 2019 of diseases caused by the new coronavirus (“coronavirus disease 2019”), which have already gone down in history as an emergency of international importance. The most common clinical mani-festation of a new infection is pneumonia, and in a significant proportion of patients - respiratory distress syndrome. A virological, epidemiological and clinical study of severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome and the outbreak of acute respiratory diseasein 2019-2020 was compared in Wuhan (Hubei, People's Republic of China, China). Analysis of the scientific literature data on the coronavirus disease pandemic 2019 based on the systematization, synthesis and comparison of documentary data regarding: historical aspects of the study of coronaviruses; severe acute respiratory syndrome; Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome; SARS-CoV-2 virus disease COVID-19; comparative characteristics of SARS/MERS/COVID-19. When conducting the study, we used the current legislative, regulatory and instructive documents, Internet resources. They used regulatory, documentary, bib-liographic, comparative and graphical methods of analysis. The article presents the results of a comparison of the virological, epide-miological and clinical studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome and the outbreak of acute respiratory disease in 2019-2020 years in Wuhan (Hubei, People's Republic of China, China). Established that the etiological agent of COVID-19 is coronavirus, phylogenetically close to the causative agent of SARS (SARS-related human CoV virus) and related corona-viruses isolated from bats (SARS-related bat CoV viruses). The data obtained are the basis for the need to continue further research and reviews of the coronavirus pandemic in the direction of finding methods for effective treatment of patients with this pathology.
25 In Depth Investigation of Quantitative Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques of Paroxetine in Different Matrices: A Review , Satchitkrishna Radharapu, Dhara Patel and Dhananjay Meshram
Analytical method helps in ensuring the safety and efficacy of drugs in different matrices by determining the quantity and quality of Drug. A detailed extensive literature survey is one of the most essential requirements for all focused research activities. Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It is used to treat several diseases including major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Sincere effort has been made in the present review to collate all the relevant literature published in various pharmaceutical journals for determination of Paroxetine in different matrices both individually and in combination with other drugs. In this article main emphasis is given on the various techniques which are used for the estimation of the Paroxetine from various Pharmaceutical dosage forms or in biological matrices. The review highlights the basic as well as advanced techniques performed for estimating Paroxetine. Among different methods, HPLC and UV-Visible spectrophotometry are the most widely used techniques applied by the researchers. Detailed validation parameters are also given for the methods, which helps the researchers to select an analytical technique based on the information sought.
26 Loading sd-rxRNAi into Tumors: Are We Getting Close with TGF-β1 Targeting? , Ashok K Singh, Aakansha Singh
Adoptive cell therapies (ACT) that redirect T cells to specifically target cancer using genetically engineered T cell receptor or chimeric antigen receptor T cells are emerging forms of immunotherapy. Natural killer (NK) cells serve as a crucial first line of defense against tumors and can be activated rapidly to target and kill tumor cells without prior sensitization. NK cells are winning candidates for use in ACT because matching to a specific patient is not required. Thus, making an off-the-shelf NK therapy product could be possible.
27 Development and Evaluation of Herbal Cream of Berberis aristate for its Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity , Megha Tiwari, Mohd Neyaz Ahsan, Pradeep K Sharma, Anzarul Haque, Sanjar Alam
In the present study, an attempt was made to formulate and evaluate herbal cream of Berberis aristate (B. aristata) for the management of Psoriasis. The study is intended to be carried out because of low cost, lesser or no side effects of herbal formulations and its potent action than the allopathic medication. They therefore provide a viable alternative for psoriasis management. The drug was evaluated on the basis of U.V, FT-IR, and DSC study. The herbal cream formulations were prepared by emulsion based method. The prepared cream was evaluated on the basis of viscosity, spreadability, grittiness, and in-vitro drug release. With altering the ratio of base different release patterns of the drug were observed. With an increase in the base ratio, there was increase in drug release of formulation (F1), while further increase in the base ratio leads to initial burst release but as the time proceeds the release of the drug got decreased due to increase in grittiness and viscosity of the formulation (F2). Also decrease in the base ratio leads to decrease in the drug release of formulation F3. The FT-IR and DSC analysis indicates that there was no interaction between drug and excipients. The in vitro drug release kinetics study depict that drug release mechanism follows Fickian diffusion. The optimized F1 formulation which shows satisfactory in vitro release was tested for anti bacterial and anti fungal property. The zone of inhibition was found to be 24.66 ± 1.14 and 20.45 ± 1.26 for bacteria and fungi respectively at 250 ppm.
28 Novel COVID-19 Pandemic Scenario: A Review of the Current Literature , Anilkumar V, Murali Krishna, Sangeeta Kumari, Kalyani
The Pandemic which COVID-19 has made on the Globe needs no depiction. The disease caused by SARS-COV-2 presents flu-like symptoms which can be become serious in high-risk individuals. In this review article we provide an overview of the symptoms, treatment, diagnostic tools, drugs usages, vaccine trials options for Novel COVID-19. We carried out a systematic literature search using the main online databases like Google scholar, PUBMED, Medscape daily News by using keywords like COVID-19, corona virus. We included different publications from last six months data which focused clinical features and treatment. We found entry mechanism of virus into the body, Hand hygiene is key factor to prevent contamination, wear gloves in specified situations. The amin symptoms of COVID-19 are cough, fever, fatigue, slight dyspnea etc. RT-PCR, LAMP, ELISA is used as an analytical instrument utilizing Nasal swab, tracheal suction or bronchoalveolar lavage tests. The primary treatment being used to treat the infection are antibiotics, antiviral drugs like chloroquine. Therefore this review article main theme is focusing on many treatments have been proposed, self quarantine, isolation is the main medication that seems, by all accounts to be powerful in decreasing virus rate specifically designed randomized clinical trials are excepted to determine the most appropriate evidence-based treatment methodology more research work to be carried out to provide more reliable and valid effect to control and mange public emergency in both acute and chronic conditions of coronavirus.
29 Virtual Screening, Molecular Docking, and ADME/T Analysis of Natural Product Library against Cell Invasion Protein SipB from Salmonella enterica serotype typhi: In Silico Analysis , Aminu Ibrahim Danyaya, Abhishek Kumar Verma, Avinash, Binta Sunusi Shuaibu, Umar Adamu Hamza, Najib Lawan Yahaya, Usman Rabi'u Bello, Zaharaddeen Umar Na'abba, Abubakar Dabo Dalhat.
Background: The most dangerous issue in the healthcare arises is outbreak of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria worldwide. The randomness of Salmonella infections rely on its serotypes and the immune response of the host. Children up to age of 5 years and patients of older age are prone to the salmonella infections.The virulence genes of Salmonella encodes five different groups of Cell invasion proteins (CIPs), including Sip A, B, C, D and E. Upon contact with the target cell, SipB undergo ‘type III’ export from the bacterial cytoplasm and translocate into the cell membrane. Caspase-1 activity is essential for the cytotoxicity, and it has been proven that binding of SipB to caspase-1 induces macrophage apoptosis, so functional inhibition of caspase-1 blocks macrophage cytotoxicity. Methods:This study is to determine the components of the natural origin compounds (NOCs) have an anti-bacterial effect (ABE) and capable to prevent the humans from bacterial infection Salmonella enterica serotype typhi. This Salmonellais using the most reliable method is suitable for molecular docking. We used to find out the interaction study between the molecules and the protein. In our study based on the inhibitor of Cell Invasion Protein SipB from Salmonella. We performed In Silico method forscreening of all the natural compounds against Cell Invasion Protein SipB inhibition. Results and Discussion: The results we obtained from molecular docking shown that among 2228 molecules of natural origin from natural product compounds library (20200427-L1400) was retrieved in SDF format from Inhibitor Expert (Selleckchem.com). Fifteenmolecules are the best compounds observed through molecular docking and hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding with interaction are proposed as the novel inhibitors against the Cell Invasion Protein SipB from Salmonella.We demonstrate using SwissADME online server tools and DruLito that all fifteen natural molecules has better “drug-likeness and does not violate any Lipinski, Ghose, Veber, Egan or Muegge rules. Conclusion:Importantly, all fifteen natural compounds are more potent in treatment of against Cell Invasion Protein SipB in Salmonella typhi but needs further experimental research. Keywords: Salmonella enterica; Serotype typhi; Cell Invasion Protein SipB; Natural Product Library; Molecular Docking
30 Natural Compounds against the Main Protease (Mpro) SARS-CoV-2 through In Silico Approach , Abhishek Kumar Verma, Mayadhar Barik
Currently, coronaviruses are contagious pathogens and primarily responsible for respiratory and intestinal infections (RIIs). Research on progress to develop antiviral agents (AVAs) against these coronavirus. Researcher had been demonstrated that the main protease (Mpro) protein may represents an effective drug target (EDT) [1]. The novel Corona-virus (n-CoV), recently called as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The need of the hour is required progress on research into drugs to treat this infection. SARS-CoV-2 remains essential in several research laboratories among the both (national and international).
31 Tetraazamacrocyclic Ligands and their Zinc(II) Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities , Saswata Rabi, Sabina Yasmin, Foni Bushon Biswas, Rahul Das, Debashis Palit, Tapashi Ghosh Roy.
The hexamethyl tetraazamacrocyclic ligand salt, Me6[14]diene. 2HClO4(L.2HClO4) has been synthesized by the condensation of ethylenediamine and acetone in the presence of HClO4, then two isomeric ligands tet-a and tet-b have been isolated from its reduced form. These ligands produced bimetallic and monometallic nitratozinc(II) complexes with Zn(NO3)2.6H2O. The nitratozinc(II) complexes, [(ZnL)2(NO3)](ClO4)3, [Zn(tet-a)(NO3)2] and [Zn(tet-b)(NO3)2] underwent axial addition and substitution reactions with KX (X= SCN, NO2, I or Br) in proper ratio to produce twelve new corresponding monometallic six coordinated octahedral complexes. The newly prepared complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, IR, UV-Vis, and 1H-NMR spectroscopic, magnetic and molar conductivity data. Antibacterial activities of the ligands and complexes against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria have been investigated. Keywords: Macrocyclic Ligands; Zinc(II) Complexes; Axial Addition and Substitution; Spectroscopic Studies; Antibacterial Activities
32 Is India Ready to Face “Live with Virus” Phase? A Nationwide Review and a Study on COVID-19 Transmission in Tamil Nadu , Aby Paul, Joel Joby Joseph, Stelvin Sebastian, Sanjo Saijan, Jeeva Joseph, Jobin Kunjumon Vilapurathu
2019 Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19) has terrified the world and a community lockdown was the early measure that can be done to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in the countries. We did a nationwide comparison by considering the data from three time intervals of lockdown in the India (March 24th, April 14th and May 3rd of 2020). Kerala’s COVID-19 status has improved in the subsequent phases of lockdown. The state reported only 3.36% and 1.16% to the total cumulative cases of the nation in the subsequent lockdown phases. The decreased Test: Case ratio of Maharashtra in the subsequent phases of lockdown indicates the thread of community spread in the state or inadequate number of test performed. The impact of population density in spread of COVID19 in the Tamil Nadu was assessed and districts with high population density had higher incidence of cases. The number of fresh cases reported in the State from April 1 to April 15, 2020 was studied and about 100%-67% of total new cases reported on these days were associated with the socio-cultural event. The cumulative cases reported in the state had crossed the median forecasted cumulative case by April 20, 2020.The cumulative cases in Tamil Nadu is approaching the upper confidence limit which is a result of a community spread in the state. We conclude that only with the achievement of decreased number and diameter of COVID19 hot spots along with measures to implement social distancing, India would be ready face the “live with virus” phase. Keywords: COVID-19; India; Tamil Nadu; Lock Down
33 Physiological and Ethological Effects of Sativex, A Cannabis-based Medicine, Examined on Ants as Models , Marie-Claire Cammaerts, Roger Cammaerts
Sativex is a cannabis-based medicine chiefly used for treating persons suffering from multiple sclerosis.One of the qualities expected for this drug is pain easing. Using ants as models, we found that this medicine reduces theirtactile perception (which is linked to pain perception), but also that it negatively affects their orientation ability, social relationships, cognition, learning and memory. It leads to no habituation, but to no adaptation, andtosome dependence. Sativex becomes less efficient 8 hours after weaning, its effect completely vanishing in 12 - 14 hours. The small amount of ethanol contained in Sativex only somewhat decreases pain perception and memory, and do not lead to dependence. The observation of adverse effects on ants used as a model should warn practitioners that attention should be paid to persons treated with Sativex, i.e. by monitoring their behavior, social relationships, cognition, memory, and by watching for mental and orientation impairments which may present a danger when risky activities are concerned. Keywords: Cognition; Dependence; Memory; Multiple Sclerosis; Myrmicasabuleti;Social Relationship
34 Extraction of Chromium(III) from Urine and Water Samples Using Divalent Beta-diketonates Ligands and Determination with Reversed-Phase HPLC , David TanyalaTakuwa
Abstract  Chromium is an element of interest due to its physiological properties in different oxidation states. Chromium (III) is believed to be beneficial in curbing effects of sugar diabetes in the body, and at the same time, chromium (VI) is carcinogenic. A lot of research has been conducted in an effort to conduct speciation to identify the Cr oxidation state available in a sample. Several methods have been used but with challenges. In this study, acetylacetonates and its derivatives was used to extract Cr(III) in urine and fresh water samples. It was observed that smaller ligands of acetylacetonate metal chelates gave high linear range, which decreased with increase in the size of the ligand. Cr(AA)3, Cr(DPM)3 and Cr(DBM)3 gave linear range of 1 - 10000gn/ml, 1 - 1000 ng/mL and 1000 ng/mL respectively. The highest detection limit was observed when determining Cr(DBM)3, which had benzene rings (0.84 ng/mL) as compared to the smaller ligand metal complex Cr(AA)3 with 1.20 ng/mL. The use of ligand with benzene ring (DBM) further allowed for resolution of other metal complexes during the extraction of Cr(III), which avoided challenges of interferences. The method developed was applied successfully in real urine and fresh water samples using DBM as a chelating agent and obtained Cr(III) in the ranges 0.86 - 7.18 ng/mL and 5.94 - 8.99 ng/mL respectively. The percentage recovery was in the range 96 - 99% for fresh water and 99.8 - 105% for urine samples. Keywords: Metal Chelates; Acetylacetonate;Dibenzoylmethane; Dipivaloylmethane; Chromium(III); High Performance Liquid Chromatography
35 Early Diagnosis, Prophylaxis, Pathophysiology and Current Research On COVID-19 , Naresh Daithankar, Shailee Tiwari
Abstract  In December 2019, the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in China spread worldwide, becoming an emergency of major international concern. The SARS-CoV-2 infection causes a severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Human-to-human transmission via droplets, contaminated hands or surfaces has been described, with incubation times of 2-14 days. This paper reviews the literature on all available information about the diagnosis, prophylaxis, pathophysiology and Current research on COVID-19. Current research on COVID-19 including antimalarial drugs (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine), antiviral drugs (Ribavirin, remdesivir), antibodies, vaccines and convalescent plasma transfusion, are discussed in this article. Keywords: COVID-19; Pandemic; Diagnosis; Prophylaxis; Current Research; Remdesivir
36 Hepatic Rupture Complicating HELLP Syndrome and Pre-existent Antiphospholipid Syndrome with Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis , Chinmayi Patkar-Kattimani, Riddhi Rathod, Dinesh Sagtani, Prasad Kattimani
Abstract  Antiphospholipid syndrome is associated with HELLP (Haemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes and Low Platelets) syndrome as a continuum of thrombotic microangiopathies. Subcapsular liver haematoma is a rare presentation of HELLP syndrome. A 38-year-old woman at 33 weeks gestation presented with HELLP syndrome complicated by acute hepatic rupture. She had background history of antiphospholipid syndrome with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Postoperative course was complicated by hepatic failure, sepsis and haemodynamic instability which was managed successfully. Anaesthetists need to be aware of serious complications like haemorrhage, thrombosis and multi-organ failure when presented with HELLP syndrome and antiphosholipid syndrome. Keywords: HELLP Syndrome; Antiphospholipid Syndrome; Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis; Subcapsular Liver Haematoma; Hepatic Rupture
37 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Medication Therapy Management among Hospital Pharmacists in Delta State, Nigeria , Akonoghrere Rita, Aghoja Ogheneovo, Adje David, Ogbonna Brian, Oparah Azuka, Nwachukwu Angel
Abstract Medication Therapy Management (MTM) service provided by pharmacists aims at optimizing drug therapy and improving therapeutic outcomes for patients. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of MTM among hospital pharmacists in Delta State Nigeria. The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive survey. Overall, 115 copies of a validated 20 item questionnaire were distributed to hospital pharmacists in major towns in Delta state. Verbal consent was obtained from the respondents prior to administering the questionnaire. The filled questionnaires were collected, sorted and analysed. A total of 100 pharmacists participated in the study, of which 52 were females. The response rate was 86.96%; 94% of the respondents had a good knowledge of MTM. Most of the respondents felt that MTM encourages collaboration and cooperation between pharmacists and other health care professionals (95%), while 97% were willing to promote MTM in their hospital pharmacies. A total of 89 respondents use MTM tools to communicate and collaborate with other health care professionals to achieve optimal treatment outcomes. In conclusion, majority of the pharmacists had good knowledge of MTM, were willing to promote MTM and a few have started providing the service. Keywords: Pharmacy Practice; Hospital Pharmacists’ Services; Nigeria, Medication Therapy Management; Medication Reconciliation; Pharmaceutical Care
38 Pharmacological Treatments and Development of SARS-CoV-2 , Abhishek Kumar Verma
Currently, the FDA for the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia has approved no drugs or therapeutics vaccines. Some pharmacological treatment has gained emergency use authorization from FDA based on preliminary data displaying a faster time to recovery of hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 infection. In this editorial, different pharmacological treatment that have been adopted for the management and treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia.
39 The Cost-Effectiveness of Treatments in Non-Cirrhotic Saudi Arabian Patients with Genotype 1 and Genotype 4 Chronic Hepatitis C , Mohammad Alowairdhi, Varun Vaidya, Eric Sahloff, Cindy Puffer  
Abstract Objectives: (1) To estimate the total costs of hepatitis C treatment choices recommended by the Saudi Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and Transplantation (SASLT) based on data from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA), (2) To develop and operationalize the decision tree model and calculate the base case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), (3) To perform one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses testing the underlying assumptions in the decision tree model. Method: A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed on a hypothetical cohort comparing different chronic hepatitis C treatment strategies from the (SFDA)’s perspective over a three-month period using a decision tree model. Data for this study were obtained retrospectively from the (SFDA) and published literature. Costs were measured in United States Dollars (USD). Life-years gained (Ly) were the outcomes measured in this study. Since the SASLT guidelines differ between genotype 1 and genotype 4, There were two separate decision tree models and analyses for each genotype cohort at a willingness to pay (WTP) of $65,000. Result and Discussion: In genotype 1 base case analysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness comparison between the interventions showed that both Elbasvir/Grazoprevir and Paritaprevir/Ritonavir/Ombitasvir plus Dasabuvir with Ribavirin (3D+RBV) dominated Sofosbuvir with Simeprevir and Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir. Against 3D+RBV, the ICER was $33,796/Ly for each additional cure. In genotype 4 base case analysis, Paritaprevir/Ritonavir/Ombitasvir with Ribavirin (2D+RBV) dominated Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir and Sofosbuvir plus Simeprevir. The interventions compared in genotype 1 are competitive and cost effective in exception of Sofosbuvir with Simeprevir while 2D+RBV is highly recommended in genotype 4. Interventions in both genotypes will be dominated by Sofosbuvir low-priced generics. Keywords: Hepatitis C; Genotype 1; Genotype 4
40 Identification of Heat Shock Protein70 in Setaria digitata and its Evaluation as Diagnostic Marker for Lymphatic Filariasis , Jayakumar, Sony Peter, Sarath Babu K
Abstract Heat shock protein70 associated with lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been identified from a cattle filarial parasite Setaria digitata. A heat shock protein was detected in different life stages of Setaria digitata when exposed to an elevated temperature of 44°C. A combination of ATP-agarose column chromatography and electro-elution was used for its purification from adult female extract. On closer examination, it migrated as a single band at 62 kDa on 10% SDS-PAGE. These observations suggest a plausible biological connection of ScHSP70 with the disease and its strong immunogenic nature. ScHSP70 showed antigenic cross-reactivity with IgG class of antibody in different categories of filarial sera. However, when IgG subclasses were tested, IgG4 showed high specificity and sensitivity with symptomatic microfilaraemic sera. Keywords: ATP-Agarose; Filarial Parasite; Heat Shock Proteins; Setaria digitata; W. bancrofti; SDS-PAGE
41 Hyphenated Techniques, an Important Tool for Force Degradation Study , Rushikesh Shirgaonkar, Aniket Lomate, Sachin A Pishawikar
Abstract The pharma market is getting flooded with many new drug formulations as well as fixed dose combination formulations in which different API are there. Each of this is going to contain different types of impurities as well as they are bound to undergo process of degradation by different mechanisms leading to formation of degradation products. All of these are going to be present as impurities. Though the impurities will be within limit in accordance to regulatory authorities, still in case of disease like diabetes and hyper tension the patient is going to be on medicine for rest of his life hence bound to get over exposure to these. Some of which may cause adverse effects like cytotoxic and genotoxic. Hence indeed there is need for identification. In previous era it was ok with regulatory authorities if components in formulation were 99% pure. But know they are insisting on identification of that remaining 1%. Though there is challenge in front of analytical chemists, use of sophisticated instruments for analysis of impurities has increased and has made task little easier. Scientist are working towards discovering different types of methods whereby accurate results can be obtained. Hyphenated techniques have received tremendous attention as it is been seen as the principal means to solve complex analytical problems. The combined power of separation techniques like chromatography in combination with spectroscopic techniques has been predominantly used over the years for both quantitative and qualitative analysis of unknown compounds. The hyphenated techniques have provided analytical chemist a tool to come over the challenge associated with impurity profiling and determination of safety and efficacy of API. Among all hyphenated techniques, the most exploited techniques for impurity profiling of drugs are Liquid Chromatography (LC)-Mass Spectroscopy (MS), LC-NMR, LC-NMR-MS, GC-MS and LC-MS. This reveals the need and scope of impurity profiling of drugs in pharmaceutical research. Keywords: Liquid Chromatography (LC); Mass Spectroscopy (MS); Hyphenated Techniques; Force Degradation
42 Evaluation of Drug Dose Calculation Ability of Nursing Students: An Interventional Study , Basant Kumar Karn, Deependra Prasad Sarraf, Erina Shrestha
Abstract The objective of the study was to evaluate the drug dose calculation ability of nursing students. A pre-post interventional study was conducted among 99 undergraduate nursing students studying in 2nd year, 3rd year and 4th year. Pre-test was conducted using a self-administered 20-item questionnaire on drug dose calculation test followed by a 30 minute lecture on the methods of drug dose calculation. Post-test was conducted using the same questionnaire after a washout period of six weeks. Mean score, standard deviation, frequency and percentage were calculated. Student’s t-test, one way ANOVA and McNemar Test were used for statistical analysis using SPSS version 11.5. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Pre-test and post-test mean score (± Standard deviation) were 10.59 ± 3.00 and 15.36 ± 2.46 respectively. There was 45.04% increase in mean score in the post-test after the intervention and it was statistically significant (P-value < 0.05). None of students scored more than 90% of mastery level in the pretest and 42 students (42.4%) scored more than 90% of mastery level in the post-test. The mean score was highest for third year students and lowest for 2nd year students in both pre-test and post-test; however, it was statistically not significant (P-value>0.05). Drug dose calculation ability of the students was poor in the pre-test and it significantly improved after the intervention. The study findings highlight the need for regular continuing mathematical and drug dose calculation practice among the students. Keywords: Calculation; Drug; Dose; Nursing; Students
43 Association of Occupational Stress for Health Care Professionals and Incidence of COVID-19. Is there an Increased Risk? , Mohamed AR, Eslam MS, Sara AR, Nagwa AS
The objective of the present review is to investigate if there could be a correlation and/or association of occupational stress of health care workers (HCWs) leading to an increase in the risk and/or incidence of COVID-19 due to many reasons including suppression of immunity function. Correlation between stress, CNS and immunity The central nervous system, endocrine system, and immune system are complicated combination of systems correlated and interacted with one another, and thus, disturbing the sensitive interactivity among these systems might dysregulate the immune response due to triggering of stressful life events and generation of negative emotions [1]. It is important to know that what is known by an allostatic load is mainly caused by a stressor which is an external stimulus or an event that exceeds an individual’s perceived ability to withstand and tolerate either emotionally or physically [2].
44 Impact of Media and Protocol on SARS-CoV-2: Statistical Analysis , Ibrahim Zakariyya Musa, Shamsuddeen Ahmad Sabo, Abhishek Kumar Verma, Mayadhar Barik
Abstract The current global pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 is a great challenge to the man, the virus has affected over 7 million people globally as of 12th June 2020. Also Nowadays, Media has become an essential part of human life. This research entails finding out how these two are going that is how media is affecting the current pandemic and also to find the role media plays in controlling the situation or helping the public to overcome the current situations. Reliability analysis was used to measure how reliable the questions carried in the research are, descriptive statistics were used to find out which among the subgroups of media is inflicting fear in the mind of public and correlation analysis was used to find how the variables are related using the collected data obtained through research questionnaire. The results obtained shows that public media (Television, Radio and Newspaper) are doing their best in making people less afraid by broadcasting positive news, whereas, social media (Facebook, Twitter and Instagram) platforms are contributing in making people very afraid due to the habit of a share as you received. Keywords: Media; Protocol; SARS-CoV-2; Reliability Analysis; Cronbach’s Alpha; Correlation Analysis; ANOVA
45 Development and Validation of Zero and First Order Derivative Area Under Curve Spectrophotometric Methods for Pyrazinamide in Bulk Material and Pharmaceutical Formulation. , SS Chalikwar, MB Narode, PS Jain, SB Shinde, SV Kakulade
Abstract Introduction: The aim of this work is to establish a novel, simple, precise and sensitive UV-AUC spectrophotometry method for estimation of Pyrazinamide from bulk and in-Pharmaceutical formulation and validate it according ICH guidelines. Pyrazinamide is used for the treatment of tuberculosis. Methods and Methodology: Pyrazinamide was estimated by four simple UV-Spectrophotometric methods using double beam UV- Spectrophotometer (UV-2450, Shimadzu). A stock standard solution was prepared by dissolving 10 mg of Pyrazinamide in to 100 mL volumetric flask then volume was made by methanol up to the mark, the obtaining concentration was 100µg/mL. After suitable dilutions, it scans in the UV-visible range 200 - 400 nm. For Method A and Method B zero-order spectrum and area under curve (AUC) recorded at 268 nm and 259.40 - 273.20 nm respectively. While for Method C and for Method D first-order derivative the amplitude and area under curve (AUC) recorded at 279nm and 277.20 - 282.60 nm respectively. For linearity study, series of dilutions were prepared from stock solutions. Results: In Method A, B, C and Method D, Pyrazinamide followed linearity in the concentration range of 2 - 12 μg/mL with (r2 > 0.999). The % recovery was found to be in the range of 98 - 102%. Furthermore, the precision of methods were calculated in terms of % RSD less than 2 showed, methods are precise. The developed methods was validate according to ICH guidelines. Conclusion: The developed methods are simple, rugged, robust and economical. The illustrated methods can routinely be used for determination of Pyrazinamide in bulk and in Pharmaceutical formulation. Keywords: Area Under Curve Spectrophotometry; Derivative-Spectrophotometry; Pyrazinamide
46 Cancer Energy Metabolism , Daniel Gandia
Cancer is a disease with dominant genetic traits that continuously evolves during the whole tumor lifecycle. This evolution is present at the different biological organization levels meaning molecular-cell and tissue-related ones. The process comports one of the highest medical challenges and disease complexities, metastases, that if not correctly treated, the patient presents a clinical deterioration that can lead to a clinical starvation condition.