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1 COVID-19: An Overview about the Disease Etiology and its Prevention , Nayab Mustansar and Rizwan Rafi
Coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people. Common signs of infection include respi-ratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath and breathing difficulties [2]. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumo-nia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and even death [3].Detailed investigations found that SARS-CoV was transmitted from civet cats to humans and MERS-CoV from dromedary camels to humans. Several known coronaviruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans [1-3].This article is based on the overview regarding the disease etiology and its prevention to educate the mass population.
2 Recommendation for Compassionate Use of One or More of the Three Medications for Covid-19 Patients on the Verge of Dying , Tapan K Chaudhuri, Tushar K Chowdhury, Tandra R Chaudhuri, Taposh K Chowdhury and Bulu R Chowdhury
At the rate the COVID-19 patients are dying - like one death every 10 minutes in some country - there is an urgency to invoke compassionate treatment for dying COVID-19 patients with one or more of the following three modalities without waiting for going through rules, regulations or red tape (fast-track treatment)
3 A Comparative Study on Photocatalytic Activity of ZnO, ZnS and ZnO-ZnS Composite , Basant Kumar Menariya
A comparative study was made on photocatalytic activity of ZnO, ZnS and their composite. A simple mechanochemical method was used for preparation of composite. The photocatalytic efficiency of ZnO-ZnS composite was compared with pure ZnO and ZnS. The effect of various parameters such as pH, dye concentration, semiconductor amount and light intensity was observed. The opti-mum conditions for this degradation were obtained as: Rose Bengal = 7.0 × 10-6M, pH = 7.5, amount of composite = 0.08g and light intensity = 60.0 mWcm-2. It was found that coupled chalcogenide ZnO-ZnS show better photocatalytic activity as compared with ZnO and ZnS alone for the degradation of rose Bengal in the presence of visible light.
4 Histological Changes in Lung Induced by Single Intratracheal Instillation on Bleomycin in Wistar Rats , Ramesh Verma1, Poonam Mehta, Vishvesh Dalal, Manish V Patel, Parnav Buch, Pratyush Patankar and Suresh Balakrishnan
The present study examined the histological changes in lung tissue induced by single intratracheal instillation on bleomycin in Wi-star rats. Animals were treated with bleomycin at the dose of 6.5 U/kg body weight via., single intra-tracheal instillation. Histopatho-logical abnormalities in lungs were assessed on day 21 using hematoxylin and eosin staining and Masson’s trichrome staining. Single intra-tracheal instillation of bleomycin led to the extensive deposition of collagen in peribronchial and perialveolar region, which obliterated the alveolar spaces. Severe lung alveolitis and injury, which was manifested with interalveolar inflammation, thickening alveolar wall, bronchial erosion, and large fibrotic area inconsistently. The results of the present study speculate that inflammation is the forerunner of fibrosis induced by single intra-tracheal instillation of bleomycin.
5 The Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis , Gejalakshmi S and Harikrishnan N
An array of recently published manuscript globally have proposed the stages of different pathogenic pathways in multiple sclero-sis. These research were focused on both biopsy and autopsy. Based the review data on clinical, imaging and cerebrospinal fluid sug-gest that most of the cases were disseminated encephalomyelitis rather than MS pathogenesis. Cognitive impairment is a common and disabling feature of multiple sclerosis. It may contribute to withdrawal from work than physical disability. The article delivers the importance for early diagnosis and management of disabilities in MS, before it develops an irreversible entry.
6 Drug Addiction and their Management: An Overview , Anuradha Sharma and Amar Chaudhary
Drug addiction could be a term that means compulsive physiological want for use of a habit-forming substance, which is charac-terized by tolerance and well-defined physiological symptoms upon withdrawal. In this communication, the author has compiled all the drugs used for addiction, various tests for determination of addiction and their management
7 History, Symptoms and Preventive Measures of Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19): Mini Review , Mohd Asif Khan and Deeksha Sahai
In 1968, term ‘coronavirus’ was first coined. It shows crown-like morphology when observed under electron microscope. CoVs are summarized into four genera such as Alphacoronavirus, Betacoronavirus, Gammacoronavirus and Deltacoronavirus. Betacoronavi-rus was further classified into four lineages A, B, C and D. Total 06 species of human coronaviruses have been discovered including OC43, 229E, NL63, HKU1, SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. A novel (new) coronavirus is recently discovered in December 2019 in Wuhan city of China. The coronavirus belongs to family- Coronaviridae; largest family in Nidovirales order. Chinese authority declared it as a novel coronavirus (nCoV-19). MERS-CoV was detected in camel serum- being almost identical to human coronaviruses. Bats have been a natural reservoir of coronaviruses lineages and thought as ancestor for all coronavirus lineages. In India, 9 deaths have been reported till 24 March 2020. The Print reports that with current rate India can see 30000 COVID-19 deaths by May, as no hospital bed by June. It concludes that its clinical signs and symptoms are almost similar to pneumonia. It indicates to researchers to work on genetic configuration (genome) of coronavirus to develop more specific vaccine to save life of society and world.
8 Nicotinamide, Folic Acid and Derivatives as Potent Inhibitors of Inflammatory Factors against Novel Corona Virus Infection , Hemanth Kumar Manikyam and Sunil K Joshi
A novel coronavirus designated as SARS-CoV-2 in February 2020 by World Health organization (WHO) was identified as main cause of SARS like pneumonia cases in Wuhan city in Hubei Prov-ince of China at the end of 2019. This been recently declared as Global Pandemic by WHO. There is a global emergency to identi-fy potential drugs to treat the SARS-CoV-2. Currently, there is no specific treatment against the new virus. There is an emergency to identifying potential antiviral agents to combat the disease is urgently needed. An effective and quick approach is to test exist-ing antiviral drugs against COVID-19. Patients affected with Novel coronavirus had shown severe respiratory inflammatory burst which includes sever cytokine and lymphocyte over responses. Particularly interleukins swarm like IL8, IL2, IL6 and other inflam-matory triggering factors.
9 Antimicrobial Activity of Ciprofloxacin-Loaded Softisan-154 Lipid Microparticles: Physicochemical Evaluation and In Vitro Activity , Momoh A Mumuni, Nafiu Aminu, Frankline C Kenechukwu, Agboke A Ayodeji, Adedokun M Oluseun, Oyeniyi Y James, Parom K Stephen, Obajuluwa A Funke, Usman Muhammad, Darlington Youngson, Tochimen K Michel, Omeje C Ernest and Emmanuel C Ibezim
The objective of this work was to prepare and investigate in vitro ciprofloxacin (CPX)-loaded solid lipid microparticles (SLM) against some selected micro-organisms for improved activity. Lipid matrix consisting of Softisan®-154 and Phospholipon® 90H was used to prepare SLMs loaded with CPX. The thermal properties of polymers and the SLMs were determined by a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), particles size and the pH change of CPX-loaded SLMs were evaluated. The encapsulation efficiency (EE), load-ing capacity (LC) and in vitro release of CPX from the SLMs were evaluated. The antimicrobial activities of the SLM against selected organisms were determined. Characterizations showed that lipid matrix generated imperfect microstructure that accommodated CPX in a concentration-dependent manner. The EE and LC% were 89.2 and 33%, respectively. Maximum CPX release of > 80% was obtained in batch A3. The antimicrobial activity of the formulation against the tested organisms was comparably higher in batch C (49.10 ± 2.10) against S. aureus and (33.10 ± 0.21 mm) against S. typhii as compared to the reference sample. This result suggests the capability of the SLMs to modify the release of the drug and improve its activities against the microorganisms.
10 Transition Metal Complexes of Schiff Base Ligand Derived from Trimethoprim with Cyclohexanone: Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial and Computational Studies , Hussaini Garba, Jamila Bashir Yakasai, Ibrahim Waziri and Ibraheem O Bisiriyu
In this study, Metal (II) Complexes of Mn (II), Fe (III), Co (II) and Ni (II) with Schiff base ligand derived from Trimethoprim and Cyclohexanone were synthesized and characterized using various physic-chemical techniques such as: solubility, conductivity, melt-ing point determination, UV/Vis and Fourier transform infrared, 1H-NMR and elemental analysis. On the basis of these character-izations, a six coordinated octahedral geometry has been proposed for all the complexes. The Schiff base ligand and its complexes were screened for their antimicrobial activity against some pathogenic microbial isolate and compared with the parent drug. The antimicrobial activity results showed the following trend: metal complexes > Schiff base ligands > Parent drugs. This suggests poten-tial antimicrobials agents with broad spectrum activity. Computational studies further revealed that M-Cl bond is responsible for the trend in antimicrobial properties among the complexes
11 Forecasting Future of Manufacturing Systems Driven by Artificial Intelligence: Recent Progress and Future Directions , Bahman Zohuri and Farhang Mossavar Rahmani
The start of a new decade brings a new wave of technological change and unprecedented opportunities that will generate massive amounts of data at the level of Big Data (BD), spawn new threats and transform the way we do business. Dealing with such enormous data structurally or unstructured-wise and process it in real-time requires a new innovative technology such as Artificial Intelligence (AI). Today, AI is capable of learning from its experience through the element of its Machine Learning (ML) in conjunction with the Deep Learning (DL) component and using them to adjust to new input and perform human-like performance, or at least to comple-ment and enhance human abilities. Because of this capability, it encompasses every aspect of the enterprise in the years to come. That is why we believe AI, Automation, and Analytics are central to the success of the enterprise and encompass critical business areas, including data, business processes, the workforce, and risk and reputation
12 Artificial Intelligence Versus Human Intelligence: A New Technological Race , Bahman Zohuri and Farhang Mossavar Rahmani
Today, artificial intelligence (AI) is capable of learning from its experience through the element of its Machine Learning (ML) in conjunction with Deep Learning (DL) component and using them to adjust to new input and perform human-like performance, or at least to complement and enhance human abilities. Because of this capability, it pervades every aspect of the enterprise in the years to come. That is why we believe AI, Automation, and Analytics are central to the success of the enterprise and encompass critical business areas, including data, business processes, the workforce, and risk and reputation.The vision for AI should be guided by innovative thinking - with the long-term objective of enhanced or new, business strategies, and models. The generation of computers known as Quantum Computer (QC) with a quantized technical approach processing unit is opening a new door toward the next generation of AI, which we have introduced to as Super Artificial Intelligence (SAI). Thus, the trend certainly is there, and although these generations of SAI and QC are supposedly are making our life easy to deal with in this fast paste technically growth, yet they are in a serious race with their inventors known as Human. One other adverse effect of AI on humans with it thrive toward SAI is increasing human depression, and some details are presented here in this article as well
13 An Observational Study of DM Complications and their Clinical Outcomes , Doragolla Bhargavi, Gundlapally Prashanthi, Snigda Reddy Pingili and Udayarani
Aim: The purpose of the study is to examine the complications, their associated clinical characteristics and health related quality of life in DM patients Objectives: To evaluate and analyse the clinical outcomes of dabetes mellitus complications. 1. To identify the prevalence of DM complications. 2. To identify about complication percentage (%) in type-1 and type-2 DM. 3. To determine HRQL of patients with diabetes mellitus complications. Methodology: A prospective observational study was carried out at Departments of in and out patients at Gandhi hospital and BBR hospital, for a period of 6 months (July 2017 to December 2017). All the patients who are diagnosed with DM complications were included in this study. Patients between ages of 18 - 90 yrs were considered. Patients with comorbidities of DM were excluded in the study. Results: During the study period, a total of 400 cases of suspected Diabetes complications were recorded from July 2017 to Decem-ber 2017. The total of 400 cases was analyzed, among them the prevalence % was found to be more in Diabetic nephropathy (33%), in which prevalence rate in males was found to be (71.96%) than females (28.03%). According to the age wise distribution, maximum patients belonged to age group 40-60 years. The occurrence of DM complications was identified more in Type-2 DM patients (273) than in Type-1 DM patients (127). Conclusion: The suspected complication cases were analyzed, among them type 2 DM is more predominant than type 1. In type 2 Males are at more risk than females in nephropathy and in males are at more risk than females in DKA. So, 40-60 age group were highly affected with complications. Clinical outcome measures of GRBS levels was found to be more in patients with GRBS levels of 200 - 300 (42.5%), FBS levels was found to be more in patients with FBS levels of 120 - 130 (39.5%), HbA1C levels was found to be more in patients with HbA1C levels of 7.5 - 8.0 (39.5%), BP levels was found to be more in patients with BP levels of stage 2 (46%), lipid levels was found to be more in patients with lipid levels of 50 - 100 (55%).  
14 Intravenous High-Dose and Supplementation of Vitamin C Can Effectively Prevent and Treat COVID-19? , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn1, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn and Utoomporn Sittisingh
Coronaviruses and influenza viruses, the pandemic viruses can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) contrib-uting to lethally acute lung injuries (ALI) and death. Activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2 (nfe2)-related factor 2 (nrf2), a major regulator of antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven cytoprotective protein expression plays an critical role in pre-venting cells and tissues from oxidative-stress-induced injury. Both viral and bacterial infections can contribute to cytokine storm that results in increased oxidative stress. Vitamin C is beneficial to critical care management due to its important component of the cellular antioxidant system. High-dose vita-min C has been clinically used for several decades. Intravenous high dose of vitamin C may be applicable to COVID-19 since the prevention and management of oxidative stress could be ad-ministered by large dose of antioxidant. By eating a variety of food, particularly fruits and vegetables, individuals can easily achieve 100 to 200 mg of vitamin C that is proved to be ad-equate to optimize cell and tissue levels for the reduction of the risks of chronic diseases. One medium-size orange contains 70 - 80 mg of vitamin C, one cup (around 100 grams) of broccoli contains 90 mg of vitamin C, and one large red guava contains approximately 120 mg of vitamin C. At least 200 mg of daily vi-tamin C supplementation is effective in improving the duration and severity of the common cold, both in children and adults. Nevertheless, the “prophylactic” dose of vitamin C for disease prevention is controversial.
15 Development and Validation of Visible Spectrophotometric Methods for the Analysis of Etravirine: Application to Tablet Dosage Forms , Murali Dadi1, Indra Sen Singh1 and G Purna Chandra Rao
The present study describes the development and validation of two simple, sensitive, accurate, precise and economical spec-trophotometric methods for the estimation of Etravirine (ETR) in bulk and its tablet dosage forms. These methods have developed based on the diazotization of ETR followed by coupling with alkaline β-naphthol (Method-A) and p-nitro aniline in alkaline medium (Method-B). These methods show a linear relation between absorbance and concentration of ETR in the ranges of 5 - 30 μg/mL (M-A) and 2.5 - 15 μg/mL(M-B) respectively. The Molar absorptive for present methods are 3.685 x 103 (M-A) and 5.614 x 104 (M-B) and LOD, LOQ values are 0.656 μg/mL, 1.990 μg/mL (M-A) and 0.191 μg/mL, 0.578 μg/mL (M-B) respectively. The common excipients in the drug did not interfere in the estimation process and the developed methods are successfully applied to tablet dosage forms of ETR.
16 Molecular Docking Studies; 1,3 Thiazines Derivatives , Khan Sana, Singh Gurdeep and Sainy Jitendra
ome novel derivatives of 1,3-thiazine have been synthesized by the condensation of 2-hydroxy-3-nitro5-chlorochalcones with thiourea and phenylthiourea in ethanol containing aqueous KOH solution. The synthesized ten 1,3 thiazine derivatives were subject-ed to molecular docking studies against E.coli Glucosamine-6 P Synthase in Complex with Fructose-6 P (PDB ID-4 AMV) and Crystal structure of Peptide deformylase from Staphylococcus aureus Complex with Actinonin (PDB ID-1Q1Y) usingMolegro Virtual Docker software. All synthesized compound have been screened for in-vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activities by agar plate techniques. The results indicated that all the synthesized 1,3 thiazine derivatives shows considerable antimicrobial activities on gram negative (E. coli) bacteria This study suggested that 1,3-thiazine derivatives possess more antimicrobial activities on gram negative (E. coli) bacteria than gram positive bacteria (S.aureus).
17 A Case Report on Colistin Induced Myasthenia Gravis , Pulimi Divya Priyanka, Vithya Alhas, Farhan1 and Manoharan, Shankar Prasad, Shobha Rani R H
A 60-year-old Male got admitted to Surgical ward of tertiary care hospital with the complaints of wound debarment on left leg and left thigh abscess since two months and foul smell from 15 days associated with complaints of pain in both lower limbs. He is a known case of Type II DM from 10 years, HTN since one year, CLD, CKD from one and half year and on hemodialysis with oral medications. After adequate preoperative work up, the patient was taken for surgery with high risk and underwent skin grafting and withstood the surgery. The patient culture reported growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and on first day IV Colistin 1 Million Units TID, IV Clindamycin 600 mg BD and IV Meropenem 1 gm TID were prescribed. The patient developed Myasthenia gravis and Neurologist confirmed it as Colistin induced and the same was stopped on 13th day. Neostigmine 2.5 mg BD was prescribed and extubated. He was treated with other antibiotics and supportive treatment. Patient improved symptomatically after the withdrawal of Colistin and discharged in a stable condition with multivitamins, Anti-Hypertensives and Anti-Diabetic medications.
18 A Minireview on Pandemic Novel COVID-19 , V Anilkumar
Human history is observing a very strange time fighting an invisible enemy, the novel COVID-19 coronavirus. initially observed in the Wuhan province of China, now vastly spreading around the world. The Pandemic which COVID-19 has made on the Globe needs no depiction. The virus has been accounted for to be affecting the lungs and related respiratory tracts promoting harm of the alveoli. It has been accounted the respiratory sickness is the prevailing Clinical indication of COVID-19. This review article discussed for an easily understanding of the causes, different type of Human viruses regarded of Coronavirus, clinical diagnosis of RT-PCR, Primary prevention and control of the virus. Therefore, this review article main theme is focusing on more research work to be carried out to provide more reliable and valid effect to control and mange public emergency in both acute and chronic conditions of coronavirus.
19 Cosmetics and Beauty Products Review , Heyam Saad Ali
The word “Cosmetics” is known to human race since ages. At the same time, desire to look good and attractive for every individual also can be identified as the psychological need having been given the upper place in hierarchy for ages. However, it will be relevant to understand the exact meaning of the word „cosmetic‟ from various sources at the outset.
20 A Comprehensive Review in Parenteral Formulations , Heyam Saad Ali
Parenteral Formulations are sterile, pyrogen-free, administered by injection through skin layers. This review highlights all the as-pects regarding parenteral products advantages, disadvantages, routes of administration, additives, preparation, types of containers and quality control tests for evaluation.
21 Formulation and Evalution of Telmisartan Solid Dispersion of Encapsulation Using Different Polymer , Kabita Banik and K Yashasree
The aim of the present study was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of a poorly water soluble drug, telmisartan by solid dispersion technique. The objective of the study is to prepare telmisartan solid dispersion and encapsulation using different polymers to achieve the enhanced solubility and to determine the Kinetic Modeling of Drug Release and Stability studies. Telmisartan has PH dependent solubility. Due to this reason only the % release for the prepared solid dispersions was higher in PH 4.5 acetate buffer when compared with other mediums. Based on mathematical data revealed from models, it was concluded that the release data was best fitted with First order kinetics. Stability studies showed that there were no significant changes in physical and chemical properties of capsule of formulation after 3 months.
22 An Assessment of Quality of Life of Hypertensive Patients Visiting a Hospital in Warri, Nigeria , Rita O Akonoghrere, Ogheneovo C Aghoja1, Omobamidele B Betiku, Zipporah E Adje and Azuka C Oparah
Purpose: Health related quality of life is a multi-dimensional concept that includes domains related to the physical, mental, emotional and social functioning. It evaluates both the positive and negative aspect of life. This can be evaluated using various instruments so as to know areas to improve therapy. This study was done to assess the quality of life of a group of hypertensive patients, and to determine predictors of their quality of life. Method: This was a descriptive cross- sectional study designed to assess the quality of life of hypertensive patients. The sf-12 questionnaire was used to assess Quality of Life in ambulatory patients. Data was obtained from patients visiting two facilities in Delta state, Nigeria. Results: The total sample size used was 122 respondents of which 72 were males (58.5%). The mean Physical Component Summary (PCS) of quality of life was 47 ± 7.5; while the mean Mental Component Summary (MCS) of quality of life was 46.7 ± 9.2. The mean systolic blood pressure was 139.6mmHg ± 19.1 while the mean diastolic blood pressure was 82.8mmHg ± 13.3. The Beta value obtained from all the analysis were > 0.05, hence there were no significant predictors of quality of life. Conclusion: Quality of life was generally low and below the Norm of 50% according to the US standard. The physical component scale however was the most affected. Neither the clinical status nor the socio-demographics of the patients were predictors of their quality of life.
23 Antioxidant Potential of Vernonia occephala , Usman M, Aliyu AB, Momoh MA and Faruq UZ
In this study, antioxidant activities of ethanolic extracts, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and chloroform fraction of Vernonia oocephalawere evaluated using DPPH free radical scavenging assay, total phenolic contents, reducing power assay and total antioxidant capac-ity. The free radical scavenging activity expressed as percentage antioxidant activity was highest in ethyl acetate fraction of (EC50 = 20.0 ± 0.005 μg/ml). The total phenolic content was highest in ethyl acetate fraction (106.0 ± 0.003 mg/g GAE). Also, the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest total antioxidant capacity (100 mg g-1 ascorbic acid equivalent). The chloroform fraction exhibited the highest reducing power at all concentrations. There is no significant difference between the standard and the sample (P ≤ 0.05). The results of this study have shown that Vernonia oocephala contains antioxidant chemical substances and therefore can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants for medicinal uses.
24 Coronavirus Disease Pandemia 2019: Growth of Epidemic Dangers , VO Shapovalova, SI Zbrozhek, EV Suprun, VV Shapovalov and VV Shapovalov
The article is devoted to the problem of the emergence in 2019 of diseases caused by the new coronavirus (“coronavirus disease 2019”), which have already gone down in history as an emergency of international importance. The most common clinical mani-festation of a new infection is pneumonia, and in a significant proportion of patients - respiratory distress syndrome. A virological, epidemiological and clinical study of severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome and the outbreak of acute respiratory diseasein 2019-2020 was compared in Wuhan (Hubei, People's Republic of China, China). Analysis of the scientific literature data on the coronavirus disease pandemic 2019 based on the systematization, synthesis and comparison of documentary data regarding: historical aspects of the study of coronaviruses; severe acute respiratory syndrome; Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome; SARS-CoV-2 virus disease COVID-19; comparative characteristics of SARS/MERS/COVID-19. When conducting the study, we used the current legislative, regulatory and instructive documents, Internet resources. They used regulatory, documentary, bib-liographic, comparative and graphical methods of analysis. The article presents the results of a comparison of the virological, epide-miological and clinical studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome and the outbreak of acute respiratory disease in 2019-2020 years in Wuhan (Hubei, People's Republic of China, China). Established that the etiological agent of COVID-19 is coronavirus, phylogenetically close to the causative agent of SARS (SARS-related human CoV virus) and related corona-viruses isolated from bats (SARS-related bat CoV viruses). The data obtained are the basis for the need to continue further research and reviews of the coronavirus pandemic in the direction of finding methods for effective treatment of patients with this pathology.
25 In Depth Investigation of Quantitative Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques of Paroxetine in Different Matrices: A Review , Satchitkrishna Radharapu, Dhara Patel and Dhananjay Meshram
Analytical method helps in ensuring the safety and efficacy of drugs in different matrices by determining the quantity and quality of Drug. A detailed extensive literature survey is one of the most essential requirements for all focused research activities. Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). It is used to treat several diseases including major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Sincere effort has been made in the present review to collate all the relevant literature published in various pharmaceutical journals for determination of Paroxetine in different matrices both individually and in combination with other drugs. In this article main emphasis is given on the various techniques which are used for the estimation of the Paroxetine from various Pharmaceutical dosage forms or in biological matrices. The review highlights the basic as well as advanced techniques performed for estimating Paroxetine. Among different methods, HPLC and UV-Visible spectrophotometry are the most widely used techniques applied by the researchers. Detailed validation parameters are also given for the methods, which helps the researchers to select an analytical technique based on the information sought.
26 Loading sd-rxRNAi into Tumors: Are We Getting Close with TGF-β1 Targeting? , Ashok K Singh, Aakansha Singh
Adoptive cell therapies (ACT) that redirect T cells to specifically target cancer using genetically engineered T cell receptor or chimeric antigen receptor T cells are emerging forms of immunotherapy. Natural killer (NK) cells serve as a crucial first line of defense against tumors and can be activated rapidly to target and kill tumor cells without prior sensitization. NK cells are winning candidates for use in ACT because matching to a specific patient is not required. Thus, making an off-the-shelf NK therapy product could be possible.
27 Development and Evaluation of Herbal Cream of Berberis aristate for its Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity , Megha Tiwari, Mohd Neyaz Ahsan, Pradeep K Sharma, Anzarul Haque, Sanjar Alam
In the present study, an attempt was made to formulate and evaluate herbal cream of Berberis aristate (B. aristata) for the management of Psoriasis. The study is intended to be carried out because of low cost, lesser or no side effects of herbal formulations and its potent action than the allopathic medication. They therefore provide a viable alternative for psoriasis management. The drug was evaluated on the basis of U.V, FT-IR, and DSC study. The herbal cream formulations were prepared by emulsion based method. The prepared cream was evaluated on the basis of viscosity, spreadability, grittiness, and in-vitro drug release. With altering the ratio of base different release patterns of the drug were observed. With an increase in the base ratio, there was increase in drug release of formulation (F1), while further increase in the base ratio leads to initial burst release but as the time proceeds the release of the drug got decreased due to increase in grittiness and viscosity of the formulation (F2). Also decrease in the base ratio leads to decrease in the drug release of formulation F3. The FT-IR and DSC analysis indicates that there was no interaction between drug and excipients. The in vitro drug release kinetics study depict that drug release mechanism follows Fickian diffusion. The optimized F1 formulation which shows satisfactory in vitro release was tested for anti bacterial and anti fungal property. The zone of inhibition was found to be 24.66 ± 1.14 and 20.45 ± 1.26 for bacteria and fungi respectively at 250 ppm.
28 Novel COVID-19 Pandemic Scenario: A Review of the Current Literature , Anilkumar V, Murali Krishna, Sangeeta Kumari, Kalyani
The Pandemic which COVID-19 has made on the Globe needs no depiction. The disease caused by SARS-COV-2 presents flu-like symptoms which can be become serious in high-risk individuals. In this review article we provide an overview of the symptoms, treatment, diagnostic tools, drugs usages, vaccine trials options for Novel COVID-19. We carried out a systematic literature search using the main online databases like Google scholar, PUBMED, Medscape daily News by using keywords like COVID-19, corona virus. We included different publications from last six months data which focused clinical features and treatment. We found entry mechanism of virus into the body, Hand hygiene is key factor to prevent contamination, wear gloves in specified situations. The amin symptoms of COVID-19 are cough, fever, fatigue, slight dyspnea etc. RT-PCR, LAMP, ELISA is used as an analytical instrument utilizing Nasal swab, tracheal suction or bronchoalveolar lavage tests. The primary treatment being used to treat the infection are antibiotics, antiviral drugs like chloroquine. Therefore this review article main theme is focusing on many treatments have been proposed, self quarantine, isolation is the main medication that seems, by all accounts to be powerful in decreasing virus rate specifically designed randomized clinical trials are excepted to determine the most appropriate evidence-based treatment methodology more research work to be carried out to provide more reliable and valid effect to control and mange public emergency in both acute and chronic conditions of coronavirus.
29 Virtual Screening, Molecular Docking, and ADME/T Analysis of Natural Product Library against Cell Invasion Protein SipB from Salmonella enterica serotype typhi: In Silico Analysis , Aminu Ibrahim Danyaya, Abhishek Kumar Verma, Avinash, Binta Sunusi Shuaibu, Umar Adamu Hamza, Najib Lawan Yahaya, Usman Rabi'u Bello, Zaharaddeen Umar Na'abba, Abubakar Dabo Dalhat.
Background: The most dangerous issue in the healthcare arises is outbreak of the antibiotic-resistant bacteria worldwide. The randomness of Salmonella infections rely on its serotypes and the immune response of the host. Children up to age of 5 years and patients of older age are prone to the salmonella infections.The virulence genes of Salmonella encodes five different groups of Cell invasion proteins (CIPs), including Sip A, B, C, D and E. Upon contact with the target cell, SipB undergo ‘type III’ export from the bacterial cytoplasm and translocate into the cell membrane. Caspase-1 activity is essential for the cytotoxicity, and it has been proven that binding of SipB to caspase-1 induces macrophage apoptosis, so functional inhibition of caspase-1 blocks macrophage cytotoxicity. Methods:This study is to determine the components of the natural origin compounds (NOCs) have an anti-bacterial effect (ABE) and capable to prevent the humans from bacterial infection Salmonella enterica serotype typhi. This Salmonellais using the most reliable method is suitable for molecular docking. We used to find out the interaction study between the molecules and the protein. In our study based on the inhibitor of Cell Invasion Protein SipB from Salmonella. We performed In Silico method forscreening of all the natural compounds against Cell Invasion Protein SipB inhibition. Results and Discussion: The results we obtained from molecular docking shown that among 2228 molecules of natural origin from natural product compounds library (20200427-L1400) was retrieved in SDF format from Inhibitor Expert (Selleckchem.com). Fifteenmolecules are the best compounds observed through molecular docking and hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding with interaction are proposed as the novel inhibitors against the Cell Invasion Protein SipB from Salmonella.We demonstrate using SwissADME online server tools and DruLito that all fifteen natural molecules has better “drug-likeness and does not violate any Lipinski, Ghose, Veber, Egan or Muegge rules. Conclusion:Importantly, all fifteen natural compounds are more potent in treatment of against Cell Invasion Protein SipB in Salmonella typhi but needs further experimental research. Keywords: Salmonella enterica; Serotype typhi; Cell Invasion Protein SipB; Natural Product Library; Molecular Docking
30 Natural Compounds against the Main Protease (Mpro) SARS-CoV-2 through In Silico Approach , Abhishek Kumar Verma, Mayadhar Barik
Currently, coronaviruses are contagious pathogens and primarily responsible for respiratory and intestinal infections (RIIs). Research on progress to develop antiviral agents (AVAs) against these coronavirus. Researcher had been demonstrated that the main protease (Mpro) protein may represents an effective drug target (EDT) [1]. The novel Corona-virus (n-CoV), recently called as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The need of the hour is required progress on research into drugs to treat this infection. SARS-CoV-2 remains essential in several research laboratories among the both (national and international).
31 Tetraazamacrocyclic Ligands and their Zinc(II) Complexes: Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities , Saswata Rabi, Sabina Yasmin, Foni Bushon Biswas, Rahul Das, Debashis Palit, Tapashi Ghosh Roy.
The hexamethyl tetraazamacrocyclic ligand salt, Me6[14]diene. 2HClO4(L.2HClO4) has been synthesized by the condensation of ethylenediamine and acetone in the presence of HClO4, then two isomeric ligands tet-a and tet-b have been isolated from its reduced form. These ligands produced bimetallic and monometallic nitratozinc(II) complexes with Zn(NO3)2.6H2O. The nitratozinc(II) complexes, [(ZnL)2(NO3)](ClO4)3, [Zn(tet-a)(NO3)2] and [Zn(tet-b)(NO3)2] underwent axial addition and substitution reactions with KX (X= SCN, NO2, I or Br) in proper ratio to produce twelve new corresponding monometallic six coordinated octahedral complexes. The newly prepared complexes have been characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, IR, UV-Vis, and 1H-NMR spectroscopic, magnetic and molar conductivity data. Antibacterial activities of the ligands and complexes against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria have been investigated. Keywords: Macrocyclic Ligands; Zinc(II) Complexes; Axial Addition and Substitution; Spectroscopic Studies; Antibacterial Activities
32 Is India Ready to Face “Live with Virus” Phase? A Nationwide Review and a Study on COVID-19 Transmission in Tamil Nadu , Aby Paul, Joel Joby Joseph, Stelvin Sebastian, Sanjo Saijan, Jeeva Joseph, Jobin Kunjumon Vilapurathu
2019 Novel Corona Virus (COVID-19) has terrified the world and a community lockdown was the early measure that can be done to prevent the spread of COVID-19 in the countries. We did a nationwide comparison by considering the data from three time intervals of lockdown in the India (March 24th, April 14th and May 3rd of 2020). Kerala’s COVID-19 status has improved in the subsequent phases of lockdown. The state reported only 3.36% and 1.16% to the total cumulative cases of the nation in the subsequent lockdown phases. The decreased Test: Case ratio of Maharashtra in the subsequent phases of lockdown indicates the thread of community spread in the state or inadequate number of test performed. The impact of population density in spread of COVID19 in the Tamil Nadu was assessed and districts with high population density had higher incidence of cases. The number of fresh cases reported in the State from April 1 to April 15, 2020 was studied and about 100%-67% of total new cases reported on these days were associated with the socio-cultural event. The cumulative cases reported in the state had crossed the median forecasted cumulative case by April 20, 2020.The cumulative cases in Tamil Nadu is approaching the upper confidence limit which is a result of a community spread in the state. We conclude that only with the achievement of decreased number and diameter of COVID19 hot spots along with measures to implement social distancing, India would be ready face the “live with virus” phase. Keywords: COVID-19; India; Tamil Nadu; Lock Down
33 Physiological and Ethological Effects of Sativex, A Cannabis-based Medicine, Examined on Ants as Models , Marie-Claire Cammaerts, Roger Cammaerts
Sativex is a cannabis-based medicine chiefly used for treating persons suffering from multiple sclerosis.One of the qualities expected for this drug is pain easing. Using ants as models, we found that this medicine reduces theirtactile perception (which is linked to pain perception), but also that it negatively affects their orientation ability, social relationships, cognition, learning and memory. It leads to no habituation, but to no adaptation, andtosome dependence. Sativex becomes less efficient 8 hours after weaning, its effect completely vanishing in 12 - 14 hours. The small amount of ethanol contained in Sativex only somewhat decreases pain perception and memory, and do not lead to dependence. The observation of adverse effects on ants used as a model should warn practitioners that attention should be paid to persons treated with Sativex, i.e. by monitoring their behavior, social relationships, cognition, memory, and by watching for mental and orientation impairments which may present a danger when risky activities are concerned. Keywords: Cognition; Dependence; Memory; Multiple Sclerosis; Myrmicasabuleti;Social Relationship
34 Extraction of Chromium(III) from Urine and Water Samples Using Divalent Beta-diketonates Ligands and Determination with Reversed-Phase HPLC , David TanyalaTakuwa
Abstract  Chromium is an element of interest due to its physiological properties in different oxidation states. Chromium (III) is believed to be beneficial in curbing effects of sugar diabetes in the body, and at the same time, chromium (VI) is carcinogenic. A lot of research has been conducted in an effort to conduct speciation to identify the Cr oxidation state available in a sample. Several methods have been used but with challenges. In this study, acetylacetonates and its derivatives was used to extract Cr(III) in urine and fresh water samples. It was observed that smaller ligands of acetylacetonate metal chelates gave high linear range, which decreased with increase in the size of the ligand. Cr(AA)3, Cr(DPM)3 and Cr(DBM)3 gave linear range of 1 - 10000gn/ml, 1 - 1000 ng/mL and 1000 ng/mL respectively. The highest detection limit was observed when determining Cr(DBM)3, which had benzene rings (0.84 ng/mL) as compared to the smaller ligand metal complex Cr(AA)3 with 1.20 ng/mL. The use of ligand with benzene ring (DBM) further allowed for resolution of other metal complexes during the extraction of Cr(III), which avoided challenges of interferences. The method developed was applied successfully in real urine and fresh water samples using DBM as a chelating agent and obtained Cr(III) in the ranges 0.86 - 7.18 ng/mL and 5.94 - 8.99 ng/mL respectively. The percentage recovery was in the range 96 - 99% for fresh water and 99.8 - 105% for urine samples. Keywords: Metal Chelates; Acetylacetonate;Dibenzoylmethane; Dipivaloylmethane; Chromium(III); High Performance Liquid Chromatography
35 Early Diagnosis, Prophylaxis, Pathophysiology and Current Research On COVID-19 , Naresh Daithankar, Shailee Tiwari
Abstract  In December 2019, the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in China spread worldwide, becoming an emergency of major international concern. The SARS-CoV-2 infection causes a severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Human-to-human transmission via droplets, contaminated hands or surfaces has been described, with incubation times of 2-14 days. This paper reviews the literature on all available information about the diagnosis, prophylaxis, pathophysiology and Current research on COVID-19. Current research on COVID-19 including antimalarial drugs (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine), antiviral drugs (Ribavirin, remdesivir), antibodies, vaccines and convalescent plasma transfusion, are discussed in this article. Keywords: COVID-19; Pandemic; Diagnosis; Prophylaxis; Current Research; Remdesivir
36 Hepatic Rupture Complicating HELLP Syndrome and Pre-existent Antiphospholipid Syndrome with Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis , Chinmayi Patkar-Kattimani, Riddhi Rathod, Dinesh Sagtani, Prasad Kattimani
Abstract  Antiphospholipid syndrome is associated with HELLP (Haemolysis, Elevated Liver enzymes and Low Platelets) syndrome as a continuum of thrombotic microangiopathies. Subcapsular liver haematoma is a rare presentation of HELLP syndrome. A 38-year-old woman at 33 weeks gestation presented with HELLP syndrome complicated by acute hepatic rupture. She had background history of antiphospholipid syndrome with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Postoperative course was complicated by hepatic failure, sepsis and haemodynamic instability which was managed successfully. Anaesthetists need to be aware of serious complications like haemorrhage, thrombosis and multi-organ failure when presented with HELLP syndrome and antiphosholipid syndrome. Keywords: HELLP Syndrome; Antiphospholipid Syndrome; Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis; Subcapsular Liver Haematoma; Hepatic Rupture
37 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Medication Therapy Management among Hospital Pharmacists in Delta State, Nigeria , Akonoghrere Rita, Aghoja Ogheneovo, Adje David, Ogbonna Brian, Oparah Azuka, Nwachukwu Angel
Abstract Medication Therapy Management (MTM) service provided by pharmacists aims at optimizing drug therapy and improving therapeutic outcomes for patients. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of MTM among hospital pharmacists in Delta State Nigeria. The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive survey. Overall, 115 copies of a validated 20 item questionnaire were distributed to hospital pharmacists in major towns in Delta state. Verbal consent was obtained from the respondents prior to administering the questionnaire. The filled questionnaires were collected, sorted and analysed. A total of 100 pharmacists participated in the study, of which 52 were females. The response rate was 86.96%; 94% of the respondents had a good knowledge of MTM. Most of the respondents felt that MTM encourages collaboration and cooperation between pharmacists and other health care professionals (95%), while 97% were willing to promote MTM in their hospital pharmacies. A total of 89 respondents use MTM tools to communicate and collaborate with other health care professionals to achieve optimal treatment outcomes. In conclusion, majority of the pharmacists had good knowledge of MTM, were willing to promote MTM and a few have started providing the service. Keywords: Pharmacy Practice; Hospital Pharmacists’ Services; Nigeria, Medication Therapy Management; Medication Reconciliation; Pharmaceutical Care
38 Pharmacological Treatments and Development of SARS-CoV-2 , Abhishek Kumar Verma
Currently, the FDA for the treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia has approved no drugs or therapeutics vaccines. Some pharmacological treatment has gained emergency use authorization from FDA based on preliminary data displaying a faster time to recovery of hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 infection. In this editorial, different pharmacological treatment that have been adopted for the management and treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia.
39 The Cost-Effectiveness of Treatments in Non-Cirrhotic Saudi Arabian Patients with Genotype 1 and Genotype 4 Chronic Hepatitis C , Mohammad Alowairdhi, Varun Vaidya, Eric Sahloff, Cindy Puffer  
Abstract Objectives: (1) To estimate the total costs of hepatitis C treatment choices recommended by the Saudi Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and Transplantation (SASLT) based on data from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA), (2) To develop and operationalize the decision tree model and calculate the base case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), (3) To perform one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses testing the underlying assumptions in the decision tree model. Method: A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed on a hypothetical cohort comparing different chronic hepatitis C treatment strategies from the (SFDA)’s perspective over a three-month period using a decision tree model. Data for this study were obtained retrospectively from the (SFDA) and published literature. Costs were measured in United States Dollars (USD). Life-years gained (Ly) were the outcomes measured in this study. Since the SASLT guidelines differ between genotype 1 and genotype 4, There were two separate decision tree models and analyses for each genotype cohort at a willingness to pay (WTP) of $65,000. Result and Discussion: In genotype 1 base case analysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness comparison between the interventions showed that both Elbasvir/Grazoprevir and Paritaprevir/Ritonavir/Ombitasvir plus Dasabuvir with Ribavirin (3D+RBV) dominated Sofosbuvir with Simeprevir and Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir. Against 3D+RBV, the ICER was $33,796/Ly for each additional cure. In genotype 4 base case analysis, Paritaprevir/Ritonavir/Ombitasvir with Ribavirin (2D+RBV) dominated Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir and Sofosbuvir plus Simeprevir. The interventions compared in genotype 1 are competitive and cost effective in exception of Sofosbuvir with Simeprevir while 2D+RBV is highly recommended in genotype 4. Interventions in both genotypes will be dominated by Sofosbuvir low-priced generics. Keywords: Hepatitis C; Genotype 1; Genotype 4
40 Identification of Heat Shock Protein70 in Setaria digitata and its Evaluation as Diagnostic Marker for Lymphatic Filariasis , Jayakumar, Sony Peter, Sarath Babu K
Abstract Heat shock protein70 associated with lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been identified from a cattle filarial parasite Setaria digitata. A heat shock protein was detected in different life stages of Setaria digitata when exposed to an elevated temperature of 44°C. A combination of ATP-agarose column chromatography and electro-elution was used for its purification from adult female extract. On closer examination, it migrated as a single band at 62 kDa on 10% SDS-PAGE. These observations suggest a plausible biological connection of ScHSP70 with the disease and its strong immunogenic nature. ScHSP70 showed antigenic cross-reactivity with IgG class of antibody in different categories of filarial sera. However, when IgG subclasses were tested, IgG4 showed high specificity and sensitivity with symptomatic microfilaraemic sera. Keywords: ATP-Agarose; Filarial Parasite; Heat Shock Proteins; Setaria digitata; W. bancrofti; SDS-PAGE
41 Hyphenated Techniques, an Important Tool for Force Degradation Study , Rushikesh Shirgaonkar, Aniket Lomate, Sachin A Pishawikar
Abstract The pharma market is getting flooded with many new drug formulations as well as fixed dose combination formulations in which different API are there. Each of this is going to contain different types of impurities as well as they are bound to undergo process of degradation by different mechanisms leading to formation of degradation products. All of these are going to be present as impurities. Though the impurities will be within limit in accordance to regulatory authorities, still in case of disease like diabetes and hyper tension the patient is going to be on medicine for rest of his life hence bound to get over exposure to these. Some of which may cause adverse effects like cytotoxic and genotoxic. Hence indeed there is need for identification. In previous era it was ok with regulatory authorities if components in formulation were 99% pure. But know they are insisting on identification of that remaining 1%. Though there is challenge in front of analytical chemists, use of sophisticated instruments for analysis of impurities has increased and has made task little easier. Scientist are working towards discovering different types of methods whereby accurate results can be obtained. Hyphenated techniques have received tremendous attention as it is been seen as the principal means to solve complex analytical problems. The combined power of separation techniques like chromatography in combination with spectroscopic techniques has been predominantly used over the years for both quantitative and qualitative analysis of unknown compounds. The hyphenated techniques have provided analytical chemist a tool to come over the challenge associated with impurity profiling and determination of safety and efficacy of API. Among all hyphenated techniques, the most exploited techniques for impurity profiling of drugs are Liquid Chromatography (LC)-Mass Spectroscopy (MS), LC-NMR, LC-NMR-MS, GC-MS and LC-MS. This reveals the need and scope of impurity profiling of drugs in pharmaceutical research. Keywords: Liquid Chromatography (LC); Mass Spectroscopy (MS); Hyphenated Techniques; Force Degradation
42 Evaluation of Drug Dose Calculation Ability of Nursing Students: An Interventional Study , Basant Kumar Karn, Deependra Prasad Sarraf, Erina Shrestha
Abstract The objective of the study was to evaluate the drug dose calculation ability of nursing students. A pre-post interventional study was conducted among 99 undergraduate nursing students studying in 2nd year, 3rd year and 4th year. Pre-test was conducted using a self-administered 20-item questionnaire on drug dose calculation test followed by a 30 minute lecture on the methods of drug dose calculation. Post-test was conducted using the same questionnaire after a washout period of six weeks. Mean score, standard deviation, frequency and percentage were calculated. Student’s t-test, one way ANOVA and McNemar Test were used for statistical analysis using SPSS version 11.5. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Pre-test and post-test mean score (± Standard deviation) were 10.59 ± 3.00 and 15.36 ± 2.46 respectively. There was 45.04% increase in mean score in the post-test after the intervention and it was statistically significant (P-value < 0.05). None of students scored more than 90% of mastery level in the pretest and 42 students (42.4%) scored more than 90% of mastery level in the post-test. The mean score was highest for third year students and lowest for 2nd year students in both pre-test and post-test; however, it was statistically not significant (P-value>0.05). Drug dose calculation ability of the students was poor in the pre-test and it significantly improved after the intervention. The study findings highlight the need for regular continuing mathematical and drug dose calculation practice among the students. Keywords: Calculation; Drug; Dose; Nursing; Students
43 Association of Occupational Stress for Health Care Professionals and Incidence of COVID-19. Is there an Increased Risk? , Mohamed AR, Eslam MS, Sara AR, Nagwa AS
The objective of the present review is to investigate if there could be a correlation and/or association of occupational stress of health care workers (HCWs) leading to an increase in the risk and/or incidence of COVID-19 due to many reasons including suppression of immunity function. Correlation between stress, CNS and immunity The central nervous system, endocrine system, and immune system are complicated combination of systems correlated and interacted with one another, and thus, disturbing the sensitive interactivity among these systems might dysregulate the immune response due to triggering of stressful life events and generation of negative emotions [1]. It is important to know that what is known by an allostatic load is mainly caused by a stressor which is an external stimulus or an event that exceeds an individual’s perceived ability to withstand and tolerate either emotionally or physically [2].
44 Impact of Media and Protocol on SARS-CoV-2: Statistical Analysis , Ibrahim Zakariyya Musa, Shamsuddeen Ahmad Sabo, Abhishek Kumar Verma, Mayadhar Barik
Abstract The current global pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 is a great challenge to the man, the virus has affected over 7 million people globally as of 12th June 2020. Also Nowadays, Media has become an essential part of human life. This research entails finding out how these two are going that is how media is affecting the current pandemic and also to find the role media plays in controlling the situation or helping the public to overcome the current situations. Reliability analysis was used to measure how reliable the questions carried in the research are, descriptive statistics were used to find out which among the subgroups of media is inflicting fear in the mind of public and correlation analysis was used to find how the variables are related using the collected data obtained through research questionnaire. The results obtained shows that public media (Television, Radio and Newspaper) are doing their best in making people less afraid by broadcasting positive news, whereas, social media (Facebook, Twitter and Instagram) platforms are contributing in making people very afraid due to the habit of a share as you received. Keywords: Media; Protocol; SARS-CoV-2; Reliability Analysis; Cronbach’s Alpha; Correlation Analysis; ANOVA
45 Development and Validation of Zero and First Order Derivative Area Under Curve Spectrophotometric Methods for Pyrazinamide in Bulk Material and Pharmaceutical Formulation. , SS Chalikwar, MB Narode, PS Jain, SB Shinde, SV Kakulade
Abstract Introduction: The aim of this work is to establish a novel, simple, precise and sensitive UV-AUC spectrophotometry method for estimation of Pyrazinamide from bulk and in-Pharmaceutical formulation and validate it according ICH guidelines. Pyrazinamide is used for the treatment of tuberculosis. Methods and Methodology: Pyrazinamide was estimated by four simple UV-Spectrophotometric methods using double beam UV- Spectrophotometer (UV-2450, Shimadzu). A stock standard solution was prepared by dissolving 10 mg of Pyrazinamide in to 100 mL volumetric flask then volume was made by methanol up to the mark, the obtaining concentration was 100µg/mL. After suitable dilutions, it scans in the UV-visible range 200 - 400 nm. For Method A and Method B zero-order spectrum and area under curve (AUC) recorded at 268 nm and 259.40 - 273.20 nm respectively. While for Method C and for Method D first-order derivative the amplitude and area under curve (AUC) recorded at 279nm and 277.20 - 282.60 nm respectively. For linearity study, series of dilutions were prepared from stock solutions. Results: In Method A, B, C and Method D, Pyrazinamide followed linearity in the concentration range of 2 - 12 μg/mL with (r2 > 0.999). The % recovery was found to be in the range of 98 - 102%. Furthermore, the precision of methods were calculated in terms of % RSD less than 2 showed, methods are precise. The developed methods was validate according to ICH guidelines. Conclusion: The developed methods are simple, rugged, robust and economical. The illustrated methods can routinely be used for determination of Pyrazinamide in bulk and in Pharmaceutical formulation. Keywords: Area Under Curve Spectrophotometry; Derivative-Spectrophotometry; Pyrazinamide
46 Cancer Energy Metabolism , Daniel Gandia
Cancer is a disease with dominant genetic traits that continuously evolves during the whole tumor lifecycle. This evolution is present at the different biological organization levels meaning molecular-cell and tissue-related ones. The process comports one of the highest medical challenges and disease complexities, metastases, that if not correctly treated, the patient presents a clinical deterioration that can lead to a clinical starvation condition.
47 Here is Synopsis on- "Single Women" , Manjeet Singh
asten your belts and be engrossed in this beautiful journey with Single Women.Single women are epitome of beauty, strength, dare and wis-dom, voicing out their thoughts, fighting for theirs and others rights.“Single Women” is the story of ‘Rozanne, Samaira and the most Unforgettable, Brutal - “Stallone”.Rozanne and Samaira are best friends, brought up in a middle class family. Rozanne was bold and level headed, whereas Samaira on the other hand was docile one. They were neighbours and class-mates from convent. Being ‘The Women’ they faced in numerous problems but out-shone in an exemplary way.
48 Phytochemical and In-Vitro Evaluation of Anti-oxidant Activity of Mansoa alliacea Leaves , SK Ameenabee, A Lakshmana Rao, P Suguna Rani, T Sandhya4, N Teja, G Ashu, V Bhavya Naga Vani, CH Purna Durganjali, N Pavani
Mansoa alliacea Lam. (Family: Bignoniaceae) is a native plant from Amazonian basin in South America. Plant derivatives are used as an anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, antiseptic and anti-bacterial. The study was aimed to determine the pharmacognostic and phy-tochemicals present in Mansoa alliacea. Micro and Organoleptic characteristics of fresh and dried leaf samples had been examined. Physicochemical chemical variables have been done by using WHO suggested variables, preliminary phytochemical of leaf sample had been performed to identify the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and phenols, and quinones using the ethanolic extract of the leaves of M. alliacea
49 Progression of Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus Associated with Pulmonary Tuberculosis Sequelae in a 60 Year Old Hypertensive Patient: A Multifactorial Case Report with Literature Review , Nuthalapati Poojith, Kiran Kumar Rathinam, Sarvesh Sabarathinam
Here we discuss a 60year old patient with pulmonary tuberculosis sequelae followed by uncontrolled diabetes mellitus with complicated conditions. Insulin resistance is one of the main factors which plays a significant role in glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism. Non-adherent to medication and insulin resistance are the primary factors are the causes of diabetes complication such as microvascular and macrovascular complications. Glycated haemoglobin plays a significant role in the identification of drug sensi-tivity and determination of insulin insufficiency. This case describes the multifactorial complications due to uncontrolled diabetes; the need for screening for HbA1c is recommended in the high-risk group.
50 Design and Evaluation of Oral Based Site Specific Targeting of Oxaliplatin to Colorectal Cancer , J Josephine Leno Jenita, Mahesh AR, Wilson B, Reddy Prasad
The present study is to achieve colon-specific targeted delivery of oxaliplatin for the treatment of colon cancer and also to assess the use of Guar Gum, Locust Bean Gum, Chitosan alone and also with combination of Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) in the form of a compression-coating on oxaliplatin core tablet. Methods:The core tablet of 20 mg of Oxaliplatin was coated with various proportions of Guar Gum (GG), Locust Bean Gum (LBG), Chitosan (CS) and HPMC K-100 as a compression coating material. The effects of these polysaccharides, its level and the coat thickness were evaluated. All the batches were subjected for its potential in colon-specific drug delivery by conducting drug release studies in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. The amount of oxaliplatin released from the compressed coated tablets at different time intervals was estimated by a UV Spectroscopy method. Results:From the experimental studies the tablets coated with above mentioned coating materials alone with combination of polysaccharides have showed sustained drug release in the colonic environment. In vitro drug release studies was known to follow super case transport- II. Conclusion:This study indicated that the use of polysaccharides that are biodegraded by colonic microflora could result in comparatively safer and more effective delivery of drugs to the colon and also a new means to achieve colon-specific drug delivery. This study also revealed that this approach prevents the oxaliplatin drug release in the upper gastrointestinal environment.
51 Suspected Relationship between Pure Sodium and Bone Marrow Failures , Alok Thakur
Despite better healthcare infrastructure, food quality and environment incidence of haematological cancer in developed countries like Canada and the United States is more prevalent than developing countries like India. Pure sodium table salt appears to be one of the major causes of bone marrow failures leading to haematological cancer. Natural salt contains a large number of trace elements most of which have been identified as essential for the body by FDA that help in maintaining electrolyte balances and DNA health. The study has been substantiated through observations of haematological cancer among urban and rural Indian populations.
52 Study of the Antiviral Activity of Propolis Phenolic Fraction , Oleg S Shpychak, Payal Chauhan
The antiviral activity of the propolis phenolic fraction of (PPF) against influenza virus, adenovirus and coronavirus and vesicular stomatitis virus was studied. As a result of the performed study the maximum tolerated concentration (MTC) of cell culture of human or animal origin was determined, which was 1.0% for the lot of PPF No 1 and 0.5% for the lot of PPF No 2. An aqueous solution of PPF (lot No 1) decreased coronavirus hemagglutinin titer by 4 - 8 times, thus indicating the prospects of using the drug against coronavirus infections.
53 Evaluation of In-Vitro and In-Vivo Anticoagulant Activity of Orange Peel Extract , Tera Sandhya, Pasumarthy Sree Mahalakshmi
It is a common and necessary procedure that assist avert loss of life yet from slight damages by means of creating clumps or clots in an effort to discontinue bleeding from an injured or damaged vessel. The results acquired from this exploration advocate that the medicinal plant, Orange peel, possesses the capability to inhibit the aggregation of platelets: The extract of the plant peel inhibited the effect of thrombin on the artificial substrate (i.e. chromogenix), and subsequent too inhibited rat aggregation of platelets pro-voked with ADP, thrombin, and epinephrine. The anti-aggregation of Platelet effectiveness was seen mostly in the extract of the semi-polar solvent extract highest dose indicating the highest effect. The capability of the extract to inhibit the arachidonic acid provoked aggregation of Platelet signify its potential to be developed into an excellent pharmacological anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory medicament.
54 Strategic Therapies with Epigenetic Drugs: A Review , Daniela Maria Capuano, Rosanna Cipolla, Roberto Verna
With recent advances in DNA sequencing (high-throughput analysis), researchers have been able to examine epigenetic changes across the whole genome, and recent studies have shown that epigenetics play a central role in many types of diseases. Epigenetic variations have been found in various pathologies and their involvement in the cancerous transformation has been demonstrated. Given that epigenetic dysregulation is potentially reversible and given that many diseases have an epigenetic etiology, the research-ers hypothesized that inhibition epigenetic changes may have therapeutic potential. This is what has encouraged the development of new pharmacological opportunities that can be defined with the term “epigenetic therapy”.A number of epigenetic drugs have already been approved or are currently undergoing clinical trials. This paper is a review of the literature to illustrate the therapeutic potential of these drugs and evaluate their clinical application.
55 Emergency Approval of Favipiravir for Covid19 Infection in India , Subhrojyoti Bhowmick, Suddha Chatterjee, Sanket Bandyopadhyay, Soumyo Sarathi Ganguly, Debarati Kundu, Sujit KarPurkayastha
Novel Coronavirus or COVID-19 pandemic was first reported in Wuhan City, China in December 2019. According to WHO database the spread of infection has resulted in over 30 million infected people and over 943000 deaths worldwide till 19th September, 2020. Till date, unavailability of vaccines and specific antiviral drugs is a cause of grave concern. Worldwide,the search for the specific an-tiviral medication is underway. The Drug controller General of India (DCGI) has recently approved Favipiravir for emergency usage in mild to moderate Covid19 Indian patients. Favipiravir, an old antiviral drug marketed under the brand name Avigan by Fujifilm Toyama Chemical Co. Ltd, Japan, originally produced for Ebola Virus Disease has shown affirmative results in the treatment of CO-VID-19 across the globe. This article is an updated literature review conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of the drug Favipi-ravir (FPV) in general and in the treatment of COVID-19 across the globe. An extensive search was performed using keywords such as Favipiravir and SARSCoV-2 in platforms like Google Scholar and PubMed for the time period of 1st June 2000 to 31st July 2020. Common adverse effects of the drug include increased Liver enzymes and hyperuricaemia. Trials reported from Japan and Russia has proved the efficacy and safety of Favipiravir in Covid19 although published data from an Indian clinical trial is awaited. It appears to be a promising drug considering its oral formulation and safety profile, however, efficacy data from Indian patients are still awaited to recommend its wide spread usage.
56 Phytochemical Analysis, Antioxidant and Antiarthritic Activity of Aqueous Extracts of Gmelina arborea Flowers , Ayushi Rajput, Sourabh Jain, Karunakar Shukla
The plant Gmelina arborea (G. arborea) has been traditionally used in India for several medicinal purposes like anthelmintic, diuretic, antibacterial, antioxidant and antidiabetic. The aim of the present study was to evaluate qualitative phytochemical analysis, antioxidant and antiarthritic activities of aqueous extracts of G. arborea flowers. Qualitative analysis of various phytochemical con-stituents was determined by the well-known test protocol available in the literature. The in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide scavenging assay using standard protocols. The in vitro antiarthritic potential of extracts was evaluated in terms of its inhibition of protein denaturation and membrane stabilization method. Freund’s adjuvant arthritis model in Wistar rats was used to study the in vivo antiarthritic activity. Phytochemical analysis revealed the pres-ence of alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, flavonoids, tannins. The inhibitory concentration 50% values are 85.43 and 107.59 μg/ml for DPPH radical scavenging assay and superoxide scavenging assay, respectively. The plant extracts exhibited dose dependent inhibition of protein denaturation and also protected the RBC cells by stabilizing the membranes. G. arborea flowers extracts (100 and 200 mg/kg) was given orally to arthritic rats induced with complete freund’s adjuvant and changes in paw diameter, joint diameter, arthritic score and body weight were determined. Indomethacin was taken as standard. Rats treated with extracts displayed marked reduc-tion in paw diameter, joint diameter and arthritic score along with substantial enhancement in body weight. The antiarthritic effects of these plant extracts may attribute either due to its inhibition of protein denaturation or stabilizing the membranes from the free radical attack which are generated due to the immunological and inflammatory reactions observed in most of the arthritic conditions.
57 Pathogenesis, Epidemiology, and Clinical Features among SARS-CoV-2 and Associated Diseases: An Editorial , Abhishek Kumar Verma1, Abhishek Dadhich, Anisha Choudhary, Prakhar Bhardwaj
A new human coronavirus virus emerged in Wuhan, the city of China in December 2019 named novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Currently, this coronavirus becomes a pandemic and affects most of the countries worldwide. Presently (as of 3 June 2020) 6287771 confirmed cases and 379941 deaths have been reported globally according to WHO data [1]. The clinical syndrome of coronavirus associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection; is categorized by respira-tory illness ranging from upper respiratory tract from the common cold to fatal pneumonia and severe acute respiratory distress syn-drome (ARDS)
58 Evaluation of Anti-Bacterial Activity of Mansoa alliaceae Leaves , Veenam Bhavya Naga Vani, Nayudu Teja,Tera Sandhya
The Mansoa alliaceae leaves contain many medical applications. The plant leaves contain anti-inflammatory activity, anti-oxidant activity, anti-arthritic activity, anti-rheumatic activity, anti-septic activity, anti-fungal activity and anti-bacterial activity. The present study was aimed to determine the anti-bacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Mansoa alliaceae leaves.
59 Formulation and Characterization of Albumin/Glycine Microspheres as Oral Delivery System for Resveratrol , Kwame G Yeboah, Aladin Siddig
Resveratrol has been reported to have beneficial effect against many diseases and has multi-spectrum therapeutic appli-cations. However, oral delivery in its free form has short biological half-life with the consequent reduced bioavailability of only one percent. As such, the search continues for a polymer matrix that will be ideal for the protection of the drug and other compounds associated with food system from the conditions encountered in the gastrointestinal tract and to increase therapeutic efficiency. Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this project therefore, was to evaluate the novel strategy of using albumin and glycine copo-lymer system to prepare microspheres capable of protecting the Resveratrol and meeting the sustained release specifications for increased bioavailability. Method: Microspheres containing Resveratrol were prepared using BSA, Glycine and a mixture of BSA/Glycine polymer matrices. The comparative physicochemical characteristics such as particle sizes, zeta potential, drug release, and residual concentration of glutaraldehyde after the crosslinking process for six formulations were evaluated.Results: The study showed that all the physicochemical characteristics of the selected BSA/Glycine microspheres were ideal for de-livery of the resveratrol drug by the oral route. The drug substance was protected at extremely high temperature and oxygen stress. In addition, the residual glutaraldehyde concentrations were below the levels reported to be toxic for peroral delivery. Secondary, a novel means of neutralizing any excess glutaraldehyde by the use of sodium bisulfite was successful incorporated into the formula-tion. Conclusion: It was concluded from the results of the study that BSA/Glycine copolymers can be used to produce microspheres with the required specifications for the oral delivery of bioactive compounds such as resveratrol.
60 A Cross Sectional Observational Study on Prescribing Patterns of Drugs in Chronic Kidney Disease Patients in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital , Roja Rani K, Susmitha Bhaskar Yerramasetty, Prasanth Munaswamy
The prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease are enormously increasingly world wide due to gradual rise in hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases. As kidney is a major eliminating organ, its function decreases in CKD resulting in accumulation of drugs which leads to toxic effects. Use of poly pharmacy in co- morbid conditions results in drug - drug interactions and adverse effects which may cause serious and long term illness and decrease quality of life of patient. The aim is to assess the prescribing patterns of drugs in chronic kidney patients in a tertiary care teaching hospital.Objectives are to assess the prescribing drug doses in CKD patients. To identify the risk factors in CKD. To predict the GFR by using Modified diet in renal failure formulae. To evaluate the comor-bidities involved in CKD. To determine the number of drugs prescribed belong WHO essential list. To analyse the drug interactions involved in prescriptions. To assess the prescribing patterns of prescribers in CKD patients. To determine the usage of drugs by using WHO prescribing indicators.A prospective observational study carried out in Sri Venkateswara Ramnarayan Ruia Government Gen-eral Hospital (SVRRGGH) during December 2016 to March 2017(6 months). A total of 125 patients diagnosed with CKD are included in study. Patients who are not willing, below 18 years, special population including pregnant, lactating women were excluded from study. Predesigned proforma was used to collect data.Total of 125 patients were included in study, men constituted 68% of total population. Most effected age group was 51-60 years. Hypertension was major risk factor 48.20% observed in study population. Most of patients are in stage 4, 35.20%. 1163 drugs were prescribed to 125 patients. Percentage of drugs prescribed from WHO EDL was 62.90%. Prevalence of polypharmacy was very high in patients with CKD. Medication prescribing patterns suggest a high number of medications used in CKD patients with increased possibility of drug interactions. Continuous medical education of physicians and collaboration with clinical pharmacist is an important issue for quality improvement regarding renally impaired patients.
61 Study on Management Practices and Constraints of Village Chicken Production in Damot Sore District in Wolaita Zone, Ethiopia , Alemu Ayano, Saliman Aliye, Haben Fesseha
A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Damot Sore district of Wolaita Zone to assess the major constraints and health management activities. A total of 384 households were selected randomly and assessed using a structured questionnaire survey. Ac-cordingly, 90.62% of respondents use the backyard poultry production system and 9.38% semi-intensive. Most of the respondents (47.92%) have completed elementary school followed by college and university (20.83%). From those households, 56.25% pur-chased their chicken from government and private hatchery. Regarding the feeding activities, about 28.12% of chicken were scaven-gers whereas 44.80% were scavenging with the supplementary feed, and only 9.37% processed or purchased feed which contains a high nutritional value and 17.71% were homemade feed. About 2/3 of chicken owners provide supplementary feed for their chickens and 93.75% of the respondent has market access. The other 6.25% has no access to the market and sold on holidays or festivals. Only 27.08% of the respondents vaccinate their chickens and only 38.54% use traditional and modern drugs for deworming. Newcastle (22.92%) vaccine is the most frequently used vaccine in the area. Most respondents (89.58%) did not get the extension service from the health center and 93.75% of them didn’t get the training about production to improve breeding and increase the sector. The major constraints of chicken production in the study area were disease (34.38%), predators such as cats, dog, rat, and wild birds (18.75%), and lack training on the poultry management practices (17.71%). Thus, practical based and continuous training should be given to the owner on the construction of improved housing, proper feeding activities, and control of diseases and predators.
62 The Association between Congenital Heart Disease in Infants and Preeclampsia , Samah Alasrawi, Mohammad Nour Alesrawi, Ahmad Al Esrawi
Preeclampsia and Congenital heart disease shared angiogenic pathways in both conditions. There is evidence of an-giogenic imbalance in women carrying fetuses with major congenital heart defects and in fetuses terminated because of these de-fects. Either way, the data suggested that excessive antiangiogenesis early in pregnancy may play a role in the origin of at least some congenital heart defects.Objective of the Study: Mini review of 3 international studies about the association between Congenital Heart Disease in infants and Preeclampsia.Studies: We reviewed 3 studies from Denmark, Nigeria and Canada all chord studies, some of them collected the pregnant women and others collected the infants. Results: All studies confirm the association between the Congenital Heart Disease in infants and Preeclampsia.Conclusion: The absolute prevalence of congenital heart defects was higher for infants of women with preeclampsia than those without it. So, it is important to do the screening fetal heart scan for the women who had preeclampsia and after birth Echo for their newborns.
63 Isolation of Antibiotic Producing Bacteria from Lake Soil , Nayudu Teja, Ooha Deepika Gummadi, Boppudi Pujitha
Microorganisms are present in almost all places on the earth. They are very important in the maintenance of life on the earth. Due the difference in the activities of different microbes, they influence life in different ways.
64 Evaluation of Depressant Activity on Mansoa alliacea on Rats , Nayudu Teja, Ooha Deepika Gummadi, Bolla Valli Devi, Naidu Pavani
Depression is a serious medical illness that aggravates the negative feelings of a person that causes changes in their behaviour and thinking process. It is characterised by persistently low mood and/or loss of interest in daily activities. It leads to variety of emotional and physical problems can decrease a person ability to function at work and home. The major hypothesis of depression was primarily demonstrated 30 years ago in which it is stated that the prominent symptoms of depression are caused due to the functional defi-ciency of the brain monoaminergic transmitter’s norepinephrine (NE), 5-HT and/or dopamine (DA). Depression affects much more than moods. There are a few most common physical symptoms of depression:• Increased body pains, which is seen mostly in two out of three people with depression.• Severe fatigue.• Lack of interest in sex.• Loss of appetite.• Insomnia, lack of deep sleep or oversleeping.
65 Search for Natural Alkaloids as SARS-CoV-2 Proteas and RdRp Inhibitors: A Docking-Based Study , Abhrajit Bag, Arijit Bag
To find an immediately applicable drug for the treatment of COVID-19 positive patients, a plausible life cycle of this virus is pro-posed from the analysis of a few case reports. Based on this proposal and symptomatic similarities, a few common drug-molecules are tested as a protease inhibitor and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 virus using COVID-19 Docking Server. It is observed that anisotine and vasicoline of Justicia adhatoda and Pemirolast are very good inhibitors. As all these three compounds are market available drugs, an immediate clinical trial is plausible which may lead to the golden success against the pres-ent pandemic. We prescribed different drugs for different purposes and stages of viral infection.
66 Complementary Pharmacological Treatment and Therapeutic Prospects for COVID-19 , Daphne Foust, Shazia Tabassum Hakim, Joseph Angel de Soto
The COVID-19 outbreak has led to a world-wide pandemic that has infected over two million people and caused over one hundred thousand deaths. The virus first discovered in Wuhan China in Dec. 2019, seems to have originated either in the United States or the Guangdong province as early as September 2019. Infection by SARs-CoV-2 virus can lead to pneumonia and adult respi-ratory distress syndrome (ARDS) which is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality for this disease. Objective: This review focuses on the mechanism of action of a representative sampling of some of the most promising pharmaco-logical approaches to treating COVID-19 based pneumonia and the related cytokine storm. Results: The current medications showing promise either focus in interfering with the viral life cycle or interfering with the cytokine storm that leads from pneumonia to ARDs. Conclusion: Developingtherapeutics interfering with the viral lifecycle, modulating the cytokine storm and protecting the end or-gans show promise in significantly reducing the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19.
67 Prioritizing Water-Demanding Situation, Climate Change in Covid19 , Debraj Mukhopadhyay,Dattatreya Mukherjee
Hand washing on regular basis is strongly recommended to combat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which requires ac-cess to adequate, secure, and affordable water in addition to that required for making food, hydration, and normal sanitation. Uni-versal and equitable access to water, sanitation, and hygiene is a major public health issue and the focus of Sustainable Develop-ment Goal 6. However, over 50% of the global population lacks connectivity to necessary sanitation, and 75% of households in low-income and middle-income countries are not able to wash with soap and water.
68 Evaluation and Improvement of Multiple-choice Questions in the Doctor of Pharmacy Program , Abdulkareem M Albekairy, Nabil Khalidi, Wesam W Ismail, Rami T Bustami, Esra’a I Khader, Abdulmalik M Alkatheri, Amjad M Qandil
To evaluate the quality of the current multiple choice questions (MCQ) in our bank, and to review the appropriateness of the student assessment processes by faculty in this Doctor of Pharmacy program. Also to identify barriers to the reduction of item writing flaws (IWF).Methods: Faculty, in teams of two, reviewed 7620 MCQs of the question bank. Two more follow up reviews were then performed to further understand the reasons behind the MCQ IWF: (1) 2185 randomly selected MCQ were monitored for timely submission (which is one week before the exam), and (2) the deleted MCQ post exam administration among the randomly selected 2875 MCQ. In both projects, the level of cognition was also investigated. Results: IWF in 7620 were conservatively assessed at 29.5%. IWF increased as the number of instructors in a given course increased. Late submission of questions in the studied sample of 2185 MCQs was at 22%. That has gotten worse as the years progressed year 1 to year 3 implicating pharmacy practice joint faculty more than others. MCQ deletion from the 2875 random sample was 4.6% across all levels of cognition. Negative correlation was found between the number of teaching faculty and percent of flawless MCQs.Discussion: To reduce IWF, all processes of assessment must be monitored, and appropriate interventions instituted through educa-tion to faculty, review of MCQs prior to processing, engaging faculty in the improvement process. Full time college-based dedicated faculty tends to create an environment of cooperation between all faculty which in turn reduces weaknesses in the assessment pro-cesses.
69 The Significant and Profound Impacts of Protein Subcellular Localization Prediction (Short Communication) , Kuo-Chen Chou
The first paper introducing the protein subcellular location pre-diction was in 2005 [1]. It has stimulated a series of followed-up publications [2-10], particularly for those proteins with multiple location sites [11-18], as well as the eight master pieces of papers from the then Chairman of Nobel Prize Committee Sture Forsen.
70 The Significant and Profound Impacts of Low-Frequency Internal Motions (Phonons) in Biomacromolecules (Short Communication) , Kuo-Chen Chou
The first paper introducing the low-frequency internal motions or phonons was proposed in 1977 [1]. It has stimulated a series of follow-up papers in this very interesting field (see, e.g. [2-16], as well as the eight master pieces of papers from the then Chairman of Nobel Prize Committee Sture Forsen [2,17-23].It is indeed very significant by introducing the concept of low-frequency internal motions (phonons) for studying biomacromol-ecules and it is indeed very profound by doing the same.
71 Phytochemical Composition and Pharmacological Potential of Adhatoda zeylanica Medic. Syn. A. vasica L. Nees , Harsukh Chharang, Lakha Ram, Ashok K Kakodia,Raaz K Maheshwari
Innumerable natural products with inherent potential biological activity procured from plants have played a significant role in im-proving the human health since the dawn of civilisation. As more than 50% of modern clinical drugs originate from natural products. Therefore, based on latter, the approach to new drug discovery and its development in the pharmaceutical industry has emerged significantly. A. vasica is a good source of pyrroloquinoline alkaloids such as vasicine, vasicol, adhatodine, vasicinone, vasicinol, va-sicinolone etc. which are the chief constituents of different extracts of the plant. These compounds have shown many biological and pharmacological activities viz. anti-malarial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-bacterial, anti-cancer etc. Further, Ad-hatoda leaves have been used extensively in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery, tuberculosis, skin diseases, vomiting and leprosy etc. Herbal medicine is still the mainstay of about 75-80% of the world population, mainly in the developing countries, for primary health care because of better cultural acceptability, better compatibility with the human body and lesser side effects. However, the last few years have seen a major increase in their use in the developed world. As far as contemporary drugs are concerned they must be further characterized after their pharmacological screening by studying the pharmacokinetic and phar-macodynamic properties, including toxicity. Therefore, the present communication enumerate the phytochemical composition and pharmacological potential of A. vasica.
72 Understanding the Barriers to Prescribing Buprenorphine in Massachusetts , Phuong Duong, Francis Melaragni, Carly Levy3
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other U.S. government agencies have reported over 2 million Americans currently suffer from opioid use disorder. Assisting those with opioid use disorder is a national problem that needs more attention and commitment. One approach that shows promise is the use of medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for those with opioid use disorder. Objectives:This study focused on the barriers that limit the number of prescribers of buprenorphine in Massachusetts. Design and Participants: The researchers sent two questionnaires, made follow-up phone calls as appropriate, and sent emails to the 1300 providers in Massachusetts who were publicly available in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA) website and who have waivers to prescribe buprenorphine. Measures and Results: Among the prescribers, payment and pharmacy issues were significant barriers faced by prescribers (OR 14.441; 95% CI 3.660 - 56.981). Among the non-prescribers, significant barriers were low demand (OR 0.305; 95% CI 0.096 - 0.965) and insufficient knowledge (OR 0.117; 95% CI 0.032 - 0.429). Conclusion: There have been many changes in the landscape of opioid epidemic in the past 13 years since the 2005 study of Walley., et al. However, many barriers still exist and need to be removed to improve the current opioid epidemic, and this includes the limited number of prescribers and thus limited access to the medication assisted treatment buprenorphine.
73 The Study of Health’s Personnel View on Implementation of the Family Nursing Plan , Soltani Fahimeh,Sahbaeiroy Faezeh
Family nurses play an important role in promoting the health of families. According to the focus on increasing the health promotion by nurses, their role as health determinants is complicated and the knowledge and experience of several disci-plines in promoting health is concealed in the performance of nursing in families.Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive research in four selected hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences. For this purpose 600 nurses, physicians and administrators were selected and using simple random sampling method. Data collection tool was a two-part questionnaire including demographic information and health personnel’s view on family nursing design then validity and reliability of the questionnaire were done. The data were analyzed by SPSS 24 software.Results: The results showed that the majority of the research samples were in the three groups of physicians (97.9%), nurses (94.8%), and managers and heads of hospitals (100%) agreed with family nurse’s plan.Conclusion: Considering the multiple responsibilities of the family nurse, this plan should be implemented.
74 Dysglycemic Effect and Misuse Prevalence of Fluoroquinolones in ICU Diabetic Patients , Rasha Ashmawy, Jayda M Ahmed, Ingie A E El Chennawi, George N Anis3, Logine A El Shaarawy, Poula Azziz, Aly El-halfawy, Abdelrhman Agamy, Amr Y Bargal, Maged E Ahmed, Nayera H Fouda, Ahmed R Farag
Quinolones are one of the most favourable antimicrobial class for the treatment of various infectious diseases. Their side effects and toxicity profile have been established years ago. Multiple studies reported dysglycemic events occurring in diabetic patients admitted to the ICU taking fluoroquinolones. The aim of this study is to determine if there is indeed a relation between fluo-roquinolones and dysglycemia. Methods and Materials: A retrospective observational study targeting the ICU patients who were administered levofloxacin, cipro-floxacin, and moxifloxacin. This study was performed during the period from April 2019 to September 2019 (6 months) in 5 different hospitals in Alexandria, Egypt. 350 patients’ ICU files were chosen randomly, then a total of 68 diabetic ICU admitted patients receiv-ing broad-spectrum fluoroquinolones for more than 2 days were included in the study. Results: From 68 patients who recruited in our study, 15 patients take fluoroquinolone with no need and they suffer from change in their blood glucose level without any additional benefit. The most misused fluoroquinolone was Levofloxacin, as 73.3% of patients with main diagnosis non-infectious treated with Levofloxacin, and 20% among them suffered from decreased blood glucose level where 13.3 % had significant increase of their blood sugar level. Conclusion: Dysglycemia caused by fluoroquinolones is an important issue of clinical significance and must be addressed and man-aged. Dysglycemia occurs by varying degrees and differ between different agents of fluoroquinolones. The effect is more pronounced in diabetics and patients with renal impairment which warrant attention and immediate management. Fluoroquinolone misuse is also another important issue to be addressed as it contributes to increased antimicrobial resistance and exposes the patients to unnecessary side effects some of which might need immediate intervention. Further investigations related to fluoroquinolones pre-scribing and monitoring is needed to get a better understanding of this existing problem.
75 Hydroxychloroquine or Remdesivir to Treat COVID-19 Patients , Debraj Mukhopadhyay
A novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was spread in the world like a pandemic, in late December 2019. There were challenges for treat-ment interventions as well as types of medicines. Despite there is no specific therapy strategy for COVID-19, studies have identified Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and Remdesivir as the most widely used medicine worldwide [1-3]. So, this letter was written to syn-thesize the evidence and outcomes of the medicines for COVID-19 patients.Gautret., et al. assessed the effect of HCQ and azithromycin on 26 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 symptoms and the results were compared with a control group. For all, one died, three were admitted to the intensive care unit, and one discontinued treat-ment.
76 Effect of Biodegradable Polymer on the Release Pattern of Levothyroxine Sodium Implant , Anil Giri, Suraiya Nazneen, Nim Bahadur Dangi
The use of biodegradable polymers as drug carriers increases the drug entrapment efficiency and contributes to the sustained release action of the formulation. The purpose of this study was to prepare and evaluate a sustained release Gelatin-Sodium Alginate biodegradable polymeric implant containing Levothyroxine Sodium as a model drug. Heating and congealing methods were used for the preparation of implants in various ratios of Gelatin and Sodium Alginate (70:30, 80:20 and 90:10 % w/w). The prepared implants were exposed to formaldehyde for different time periods, (6hrs, 12hrs and 24hrs) for hardening. The formulated implants were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, presence of free formaldehyde, and in vitro release studies. The interactions between the drug and polymer, good surface integrity, and compatibility have been studied using SEM and DSC. The implant formulated with 80:20 % w/w Gelatin-Sodium Alginate ratio and hardened for 24 hours were found to produce the maximum sustained action for 30 days, and none of the implants contained formaldehyde. The effects of four different excipients with 80:20 ratio were also studied on drug loading efficiency and drug release profile. The drug loading efficiency and drug release were found to be significantly in-fluenced by the addition of different excipients (Stearic Acid > GMS > PEG > Drug only > Cetyl) and variation in hardening times. The results of the in-vitro dissolution study were fitted to different kinetic models to evaluate the kinetic data. The kinetic release data were determined by finding the best fit of the release data to these models. Implants were found to follow both the Higuchi model and Korsmeyer-Peppas model of kinetics with the variation in polymer ratio. Therefore, drug release from the implants implies that a combination of diffusion and erosion contributes to the control of drug release.
77 A Cross Sectional Study on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Pertaining to Self-medication Among Adults of 25 - 45 Years of Mevalurkuppam Panchayat , Prathibha KM, Nivya Manimozhiyan, Padma Priya M, Padmanaban A
Self-medication means the use of medical products by individuals to treat self-recognized disorders or symptoms or intermit-tent or continuous use of medications prescribed by physician for chronic or recurring disease or symptoms, the main source be-ing over the counter. Existing literature on self-medication reveals that it is a fairly common practice in the economically deprived communities. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the frequency and study the knowledge, attitude and practices of self-medication among the adults of 25 - 40 years of age of Mevalurkuppam Panchayat. A validated and structured questionnaire was administrated to the 161 study participants by a face to face interview. Based on the calculated scores, the prevalence of self-medication and proportions of various factors contributing to self-medication were identified. The mean age of the study partici-pants was 33.98 ± 5.819 years. The number of males and females who participated in the study were 69 (42.3%) and 92 (56.4%), respectively. In the present study, there was very high prevalence of self-medication with almost the entire population practicing some form of self-medication (98.8%). The analysis revealed that prevalence and frequency of self-medication was higher in males than females. While the participants practiced self-medication mostly for aches and pains (63.4%) and fever(62.4%), the reasons for self-medication among the study participants were cost saving (58%), convenience (42%) and lack of trust in doctor (8%). About 97% of the participants procured drugs from community pharmacies while 3% took from the previous left over prescriptions. It was observed that 49.7% of the study participants who practiced self-medication never experienced an adverse reaction, while 12.3% of them experienced adverse reactions. In the present study, 30.5% of people who practiced self-medication experienced vomiting as adverse effect followed by nausea (27.1%), rash (25.4%), vaginal thrush (22%) and diarrhea (20.3%). Lack of awareness about the harmful effects of self-medication among adults of Mevalurkuppam Panchayat and the contributing factors was uncovered. The results of the study highlight the urgent and impending need to plan and execute health awareness and education programs in Mev-alurkuppam Panchayat and in general, globally. It is important to have base-line data about the drug using population of a geographic area, so that future interventions or policies can be effectively planned.
78 Depression Accelerates Tumor Cell Proliferation Via Regulating Serotonin/miR-144 Axis in NSCLC Mice , Guangquan Xu, Yongchao Li, Ruidong Zhu, Pengcheng Song, Youlei Wei, Tian Liang, Tianze Zhang
Non-small cell lung cancer is known as a malignant tumor with low survival rate and poor prognosis. Depression affects various diseases. However, the effect of depression on the progression of NSCLC remains unclear. In our current study, chronic mild stress (CMS) mice was used as depression animal model. Depression prompted the tumor progression in vivo analysis, including increasing tumor indexes and reducing survival rate. Serotonin secretion was observed to be remarkable elevation in both serum and tumor tissue, which was positively related with tumor progression. In vitro assays, serotonin promoted the proliferation of A549 cells. Ad-ditionally, we observed that miR-144 expression was significantly downregulated in serotonin stimulated group. Further loss-of- and gain-of-function assays verified that miR-144 was the downstream factor of serotonin underlying the condition of CMS. Taken to-gether, our research indicated that CMS-induced serotonin secretion accelerates NSCLC proliferation via inhibiting miR-144 expres-sion, suggesting the potential therapeutic direction in NSCLC patients
79 Long Acting Bronchodilatators in COPD. Drug Selection by Means of the SOJA Method , Robert Janknegt, Esther Metting, Johan Kooistra, Richard Dekhuijzen
The increasing number of direct acting anticoagulant drugs [DOACs] makes it almost impossible to have sufficient knowledge of each individual medicine and device, especially for general practitioners.Reducing the number of medicines different DOACs, based on rational criteria, allows physicians and pharmacists to build experi-ence with a more limited set of medicines and to optimise patient information.Methods: In this study DOACs are compared by means of the SOJA method.The following selection criteria were applied: approved indications, available formulations, variability of the AUC, drug interactions, clinical efficacy, side effects, dosage frequency and documentation.Results: Limited differences in scores were found between apixaban, dabigratran and rivaroxaban. Edoxaban showed a lower score, mostly because of its more limited clinical evidence and documentation. The ranking between the top 3 depends mostly on the as-signed weight to the individual selection criteria. Acquisition cost was not taken into account, because this varies with time. In practice acquisition cost is of course an important selection criterion, especially because there are very limited differences between the medicines from a clinical perspective. Exclusion of this criterion also makes this comparison more internationally applicable.Conclusion:All DOACs are suitable for formulary inclusion, followed by a selection of the most suitable for a DOAC in individual patients, based on patient characteristics.
80 Direct Oral Anticoagulants: Drug Selection by Means of the SOJA Method , Robert Janknegt, Roel Van Kampen, Niels Boone, Renée Vossen
Direct acting anticoagulant drugs [DOACs], consisting of apixa-ban, dabigatran, edoxaban and rivaroxaban have been available for various indications for 3year [edoxaban] up to over a decade [dabi-gatran and rivaroxaban]. These medicines have shown good clini-cal efficacy and are usually well tolerated compared to vitamin K antagonists or low molecular weight heparins. Because none of the DOACs is available as a generic formulation, their relatively high price is a disadvantage compared to vitamin K antagonists. The regional formulary committee in the South of Limburg, the Netherlands has requested to define selection criteria in order to make a rational selection of DOACs. The present article is the result of this request.
81 Direct Oral Anticoagulants: Drug Selection by Means of the SOJA Method , Robert Janknegt, Roel Van Kampen, Niels Boone, Renée Vossen
Direct acting anticoagulant drugs [DOACs], consisting of apixa-ban, dabigatran, edoxaban and rivaroxaban have been available for various indications for 3year [edoxaban] up to over a decade [dabi-gatran and rivaroxaban]. These medicines have shown good clini-cal efficacy and are usually well tolerated compared to vitamin K antagonists or low molecular weight heparins. Because none of the DOACs is available as a generic formulation, their relatively high price is a disadvantage compared to vitamin K antagonists. The regional formulary committee in the South of Limburg, the Netherlands has requested to define selection criteria in order to make a rational selection of DOACs. The present article is the result of this request.
82 Direct Oral Anticoagulants: Drug Selection by Means of the SOJA Method , Robert Janknegt, Esther Metting, Johan Kooistra, Richard Dekhuijzen
We are grateful for the useful comments and information following our request for a check on scientific correctness and completeness of the manuscript from the manufacturers of the DOACs: Bayer, BMS/Pfizer, Boehringer Ingelheim and Daiichi Sankyo. The score is based on the opinions of the authors and does not necessarily reflect the opinions of these companies.
83 Combination of Pycnogenol and Melatonin Reduce PC-3 and HT29 Cell Migration: Comparison to the Actions of Cisplatin , Ali Taghizadehghalehjoughi, Sidika Genc2, Yesim Yeni, David R Wallace, Ahmet Hacimuftuoglu, Zeynep Cakir
Prostate and colorectal cancer are among the most common malignant tumors. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of melatonin (MLT) and pycnogenol (PYG) combination on PC-3 and HT-29 cancer lines and to address the question of where or not MLT increases PYG antitumor effect in the PC-3 and HT-29 cancer lines. The combination of 100 μg/ml PYG + 40 μg/ml MLT reduced cell viability in both HT-29 and PC-3 cells (66 and 65%, respectively). Results from the TAC, TOS and LDH assays were correlated to our MTT results. In addition, the cellular migration test showed that the wound line was widened in the combination groups starting at 72 hours compared to the other groups. Cisplatin has routinely used as an anticancer agent, but because of side effects, usage is limitation. The combination of 40 μg/ml MLT with PYG increased the extent of antitumor effects compared to Cisplatin and reduced the cell viability effectively than Cisplatin. The combination of MLT + PYG shows promise to be a new anticancer agent for the treat-ment of HT-29 and PC-3 patients or adjuvant for the reduction of the side effects of chemotherapeutics.
84 Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Teaching Program on Knowledge and Attitude Regarding Smartphone Separation Anxiety among Students , Poonam Kumari Yadav, Anil Kumar Yadav, Avinash Chaudhary,Pankaj Shah
The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of computer assisted teaching program on knowledge and attitude regarding smartphone separation anxiety among selected degree college students.Conclusion:This study suggested that computer assisted teaching program is an effective instructional method in improving the knowledge and attitude of degree students regarding smartphone separation anxiety. A pre-experimental one group pre-test and post-test design was used. 50 degree students were selected as sample by convenient sampling method. Structured knowledge questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitude on Likert scale. Pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio-demographic characteristics. Paired t-test was used to test difference in mean knowledge and attitude. Chi-square test was used to find association between socio-demographic variables with pre-test knowledge and attitude.
85 Cancer Disease Models , Daniel Gandia
Independently from tumor stages and treatment modalities, Cancer cures are nowadays common in Medical Oncology.A plethora of different advanced tumor types can be tackled with chemotherapy and with the new design emerging medicines.Anecdotal is George Bernard Shaw play (1909) “The Doctor ́s Dilemma” which makes this author someone related to a seer. An actor says: “there is at bottom only one genuine scientific treat-ment for all diseases, and that is to stimulate the phagocytes”. Re-ally, Immuno-oncology was born at that moment!Cancer has several common biological features, such as the self- sufficiency in growth signals and its insensitivity to these signals, limitless replicative potential, sustained angiogenesis, apoptosis and immunologic evasion, and finally its paradigm, metastases.
86 Nature of Wriggling Action of the Filarial Parasite Setatia digitata , Jayakumar K, Dhanya N V, Sony Peter, Sree Padma Priya S
Setariadigitata, a cattle filarial parasite, is always in constant motion called the wriggling movement. It is known to take up oxygen even in presence of cyanide. One of the partial reduction products of oxygen formed in the parasite is H202, generated by the parasite specific quinol oxidase called alternative oxidase. The wriggling movement as well as the activity of the parasite specific quinol oxi-dase and formation of H202 was found to be SHAM sensitive. The wriggling movement was also found to be inhibited by iodoacetate a specific inhibitor of SH groups, showing the involvement of SH groups movement of the parasite. Under in vitro conditions H202 was found to increase the wriggling movement of the parasite and the increase was found to be reversed in presence of added catalase. These findings definitely suggest that the wriggling movement of S. digitata is associated with the reduction of oxygen. The process appears to be maintained by the hemoglobin, GSH/GSSG system and the SHAM sensitive quinol oxidase activity.
87 Partial Purification of Superoxide Dismutase and Antigenicity Nature in Setaria digitata, A Filarial Parasite , Jayakumar K, Dhanya NV, Sony Peter
Setaria digitata is a filarial worm of the cattle used as a model system for anti- filarial drug screening, due to its similarity to the human filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi. Since filarial Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a good biochemical target for anti filarial drug development, a study has been undertaken for the biochemical characterization of SOD from S. digitata.Superoxide dismutase activity was measured in different stages of growth of filarial parasites (human and cattle). The activity was almost undetected or very low in micro filarial stage but in adult worms, the enzyme activity was high. The enzyme was character-ized to be a Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Most of the enzyme activity was associated with a detergent extractable fraction of adult (Setaria) parasite. The enzyme was also detected in the in vitro released products of adult worms. The superoxide dismutase activity was completely inhibited with IgG antibody from chronic filarial patients in contrast to IgG from normal people. Filarial patients par-ticularly have high IgG antibody levels to purified enzyme. However, individuals from non-filarial regions of Trivandrum, Kerala, sero-negative for superoxide dismutase antibodies. Antibody response to superoxide dismutase could thus be used for filarial diagnosis.
88 Epilepsy and its Management - A Brief Review , K Sravanthi, M Kesava Krishna, K Bhavani, A Sireesha, AVD Sai Mani Kumar
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder which is characterized by sudden episodes of disturbances in sensory, loss of consciousness, that is associated with abnormal electrical impulses in the brain, which requires typically two unprovoked seizures. The incidence of a first unprovoked seizure was 61 per 100,000 compared to the incidence of epilepsy of 44 per 100,000. The International League against Epilepsy (ILAE) has proposed two major schemes for the classification of Seizures and Epilepsies: The International Clas-sification of Epileptic Seizures and the International Classification of the Epilepsies and Epilepsy Syndromes. A seizure results when a sudden imbalance occurs between the excitatory and inhibitory forces within the network of cortical neurons. The management of Epilepsy can be done with appropriate selection of Antiepileptic Drug based on type of seizure and its frequency.
89 Analytical Techniques for the Determination of Rilpivirine – A Review , Yenda Manishankar, Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna
Rilpivirine is an Anti-viral drug. Rilpivirine acts by inhibiting the replication of HIV – 1 by binding in a non – competitive manner directly to reverse transcriptase enzyme. In the present paper the authors have presented a review of various analytical methods published so far in the literature for the quantification of Rilpivirine in pharmaceutical preparations as well as biological samples.
90 Development of a Bio analytical Assay for the Determination of Rupatadine in Human Plasma and its Clinical Applications , Sara AS, Mohamed Raslan, Eslam MS, Nagwa A Sabri
Rupatadine is an antihistaminic drug that is used for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, chronic idiopathic urticarial, additionally, it can be used as safe and effective alternative to loratadine. Aim:Development of bio-analytical method for rapid quantification of rupatadine in human plasma and its clinical application in bioequivalence study of generic and reference products of rupatadine 10mg film coated tablet. Methods: Extracted rupatadine was chromatographed with mobile phase of methanol: 0.5% formic acid 80:20 v/v at flow rate 0.5ml/min, ESI positive mode, and m/z 416282.1, 383337 for rupatadine and loratadine as internal standard respectively. The bioequivalence study was conducted in a crossover design invovlving 24 volunteers and pharmacokinetic parameters AUC 0-t, AUC 0-inf,Cmax, and Tmax were used for assessment of bioequivalence of the two products. Results:The average recovery of rupatadine from human plasma was 87.567%, limit of quantitation was 0.01ng/ml, and the cor-relation coefficient (r2) obtained was 0.9997. Statistical analysis for the pharmacokinetic parameters using ANOVA test showed a non- significant difference between generic and reference products included in the study. Conclusion:The developed bioanalytical LC/MS/MS method is simple, sensitive, precise, accurate and valid for rupatadine quanti-fication in human plasma and is suitable for application in pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies and therapeutic monitoring of rupatadine in management of allergic disease to ensure effective therapeutic drug levels and avoid potential undesired adverse events. Results of bioavailability study showed that both generic and reference products are bioequivalent and both products can be considered interchangeable in medical practice.
91 Hypothesis on Cadaveric Urinary Bladder Transplantation in a Radical Cystectomy, An Alternative Option of Ileal Conduit , Dattatreya Mukherjee
In Radical Cystectomy the urinary bladder is fully resected and in ileal conduit the ureter is joined with a ileal part and drained outside the abdominal wall. It’s a technique of urinary diversion. This procedure has many adverse effects and its also tough for the patients to drain the urine through abdominal wall. So my hypothesis is to use a cadaveric bladder as a transplantation. Now the challenge will arise how to control urge of urination. For that artificial urinary bladder sphincter can be used with the neural regenerations procedure which is under research work. WNT/Beta pathway and Tissue genetic techniques have shown the peripheral neural regeneration. Keywords: Radical Cystectomy; Urinary Bladder; Ileal Conduit
92 Therapeutic Strategies for Novel Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19): A Comprehensive Review , Nan Zhang, Xiangying Xin, Deqiao Wu, Yan Zhang*, Hui Chen, Nannan Feng, Junwei Zhang, Yifan Zhu, Zhenzhong Zhang, and Xia Xu
Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors among women worldwide. Since the 1970s, the incidence of breast cancer has always been the highest in women with tumors. Its incidence has shown an upward trend. Clinical medication for breast cancer has also been updated owing to social progress and development, particularly in the current mobile data networks. The mobile data network evolved from the 1G to the 5G era. Upon consulting literature, combined with the current understanding of the clinical application of breast cancer, the developmental changes and prospects of the clinical application of breast cancer in the 5G era were summarized. This review focused on the development of breast cancer from the 1G to 5G era. Beginning from the advent of the era of the efficacy of the 1G era, represented by the introduction of paclitaxel and doxorubicin, to changes in docetaxel and epirubicin, with the arrival of the transitional era represented by chemical structure. With the advancement of science and technology, we entered the targeted era, represented by nano-preparations such as albumin paclitaxel and liposomal adriamycin. Currently, we are utilizing multi-drug combination therapy. Keywords: Breast Cancer; Clinical Medication; 5G Era
93 Investigations of Tracelement Effects in Biological Applications Using Photon Induced (EDXRF), Proton Induced (PIXE) and Synchrotron Induced (EXAFS) X-Ray Spectrometry , Daisy Joseph
Enzymes of trace elements are an important part of certain biological and chemical reactions. They work in harmony with proteins and often with certain other co enzymes. They attract substrate molecules and enable their conversion to a specific end product. Some trace elements are involved in redox reactions. Modern day diet, comprising of refined foods is a cause of concern, as it may not have a sufficient amount of these trace elements. Dietary supplements may be required to combat this shortage. The present paper therefore discusses trace elements, and its effects in unraveling biological problems and challenges. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of these trace elements is essential and significant for disease control and for maintaining optimal health. Keywords: Enzymes; EDXRF; Proton Induced (PIXE); Synchrotron Induced (EXAFS)
94 Therapeutic Strategies for Novel Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19): A Comprehensive Review , Manoj Gadewar*, Mohd Kafeel and Dharmender
A newly emerged Human Coronavirus (HCoV) was reported in month of Dec 19 in Wuhan city of China (COVID-19). Due to high virulence ability and resistance of corona virus, several studies were carried out to screen existing drugs like antiviral, anti-malarial and anti-tubercular as potential targets for the treatment of disease. Therefore, its essential to develop an effective treatment strategy to control the virus spread and prevent the disease. In this review Here, we have reported the novel approaches and strategies that were used to treat and prevent COVID infection. Although it seems that antiviral drugs, antiprotozoal, antibacterial drug, an antimalarial drug, and immunosuppressive drug are effective in improving clinical manifestation, there is no definite treatment protocol. Lymphocytopenia, excessive inflammation, and cytokine storm followed by acute respiratory distress syndrome are still unresolved issues that making the disease more severe. Various herbal drugs derived from Indian traditional medicines, Chinese herbals medicine/traditional Chinese medicine (CHM/TCM) were used to prevent the progression of disease. Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; World Health Organization (WHO)
95 The Effects of COVID-19 on Native Americans , Phyllis M Weaver*
There is a disproportionate number of COVID-19 cases among Native Americans, including exposures, hospitalizations, and deaths. Due to substandard healthcare, housing, and poverty, American Indians and Alaska Natives have a higher number of pre-existing high-risk conditions to make them more susceptible to the coronavirus. Research shows the reason why and how improvements are necessary for collecting and reporting demographic data. Keywords: COVID-19; DNA; RNA; Housing
96 A Review on Curcumin and its Medicinal Properties , Amrita Kumari1,2*, Manpreet Kaur2 and Suman Sharma2
Turmeric is a herbal plant (Curcuma longa) of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae) that has been used traditionally for many years in Asia for medicinal, edible, and other purposes. The medicinal properties of turmeric could be allocated to the presence of active components called curcuminoids. Curcumin (60%-70%), demethoxycurcumin (DMC-20%-30%), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC- 10%-15%) are collectively known as curcuminoids. Many studies conducted in vitro and in vivo in both animals and human beings have recommended that curcumin has strong antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antimutagenic, antidiabetic antimicrobial, and many more beneficial properties. Presence of important structural elements: the β-diketone structure, the hydroxyl group at the ortho position in the benzene ring, and methoxy groups are highly responsible for the antioxidant activity of curcumin. Presence of important structural elements: the β-diketone structure, the hydroxyl group at the ortho position in the benzene ring and methoxy groups are highly responsible for the antioxidant activity of curcumin. Curcumin hinders the activity of growth factor receptors. The anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin are refereed via its impact on cytokines, lipid mediators, eicosanoids, and proteolytic enzymes. Curcumin increases the antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and heme oxygenase-1. These antioxidant activities decrease the level of lipid peroxidation, so reducing the oxidative damage in the tissues. These measures act as the basis for many of their pharmacological and therapeutic properties. Keywords: Curcumin; Curcuma longa; Free Radicals; Curcuminoids; Anti-oxidant; Anti-obesity; Anti-cancer
97 Effect of Plant Extract on Cytomorphological Alteration in Alternaria solani , Surbhi Mehta* and Kanika Sharma
The present study is based on the evaluation of antifungal potential of plant extract against plant pathogenic fungi. Eucalyptus globulous Labill. Leaf extract was prepared by reflux method. Petroleum ether extract was assayed for estimation of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Fungicidal Concentration.MIC and MFC was done by two fold serial dilution method against Alternaria solani. Various cytomorphological changes like mycelia width, conidial size, condiophore structure etc. after the treatment with the extract concentrations. 0.019mg/ml to 10mg/ml of Petroleum ether extract was assayed and MIC was found to be 2.5 mg/ml for Alternaria solani and MFC for this fungus was observed at 5 mg/ml. Mycelium width of Alternaria solani increased up to 69.52% at 1.25 mg/ml concentration of the extract and conidia size of the Alternaria solani was reduced up to 72.17% at 1.25mg/ml (sub MIC) concentration of the petroleum ether extract. The inhibition of conidia and mycelia formation was observed at MIC of the extract i.e. 2.5mg/ml. Scanning electron microscopic study was also showed the changes in Alternaria solani structure so it can be concluded that Plant extracts naturally and significantly inhibit the conidial size and mycelia growth hence could be a safer alternative to chemical fungicides to control plant diseases. Keywords: Reflux Method; MIC; MFC; Cytomorphological Changes; Chemical Fungicide
98 Crystal Engineering: A Brief for the Beginners , Partha Pratim Bag1* and Sumit Popat Mane2
Crystals are formed by aggregation of molecules in solution. This phenomenon encourages several questions. Among them few are, how do these aggregations happen to form crystals? Why do the same molecules adopt more than one crystal structure? Why does solvent occupy some crystal structures? How does crystal structure can be designed with specified coordination of molecules and/or ions with a specified property? What are the relationships between crystal structures and properties, for molecular crystals? At present several queries are being resolved by the crystal engineering community; a larger community constructed by organic, inorganic, and physical chemists, crystallographers, and solid-state scientists. This article provides a brief idea to provide a basic introduction to crystal engineering and this fascinating and important subject that has moved from the fringes into the mainstream of chemistry. Keywords: Chemistry; Crystals; X-ray
99 Formulation Development and Characterization of Levocabastine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Suspension , Debashish Ghose1*, Ch Niranjan Patra2, Suryakanta Swain3 and Bikash Ranjan Jena4
Background: In the present study, an attempt was made to develop and evaluate the ophthalmic suspension containing levocabastine hydrochloride. Objective: The current research objective's rationale was to develop and assess ophthalmic suspension containing antihistamine to improve corneal penetration with corneal tissues and obtain therapeutic efficiency. Recently, ophthalmic drug delivery has become the modern pharmaceutical design standards and intensive research for achieving better drug product effectiveness, reliability, and safety. Topical medication by ocular drug delivery will continue to account for the largest share (up to 90%). Methods: The prepared ophthalmic suspension had a minimum concentration of preservative preparation in appropriate packaging material. FTIR and UV spectrum of API was found as per specification. The individual IR spectra of the pure drug and the combination spectra of the drugs and other excipients indicated no interaction between API and other excipients than the infrared spectrum of the pure drug as all available group frequencies were present. Results: The pH of all formulations was satisfactory in the range of 6.0-8.0; thus, there would be no irritation to the patient upon administration of the formulation. The particle size analysis revealed that the particles were in range, and all the formulations showed ideal surface morphology. All the formulations showed osmolality within the range, i.e., 250-500 mOsm/kg. Conclusion: Finally it was confirmed that formulations of antihistamine ophthalmic suspension remained more stable at ambient temperature (25°C) and relative humidity (40%) as compared to other stability conditions as per ICH guidelines. Keywords: Corneal Penetration; FTIR; Osmolality; Ambient Temperature; Relative Humidity
100 Management Protocols Deviation of COVID-19 in Diabetic Patients. Is it Applicable? , Sara AR1, Eslam M Shehata1, Mohamed Raslan1,2 and Nagwa A Sabri2*
Background: Corona virus 2019 (COVID-19) disease is a globally infectious disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 that is emerging and rapidly spreading. Diabetes is considered as one of the main contributing factors of high morbidity and mortality rates globally, where, uncontrolled diabetes is associated with macro- and micro-vascular complications affecting patient’s health wellbeing and survival. Concerning therapeutic protocols and treatment, several selected repurposed drugs are used in the management of COVID-19 infection as there is no approved effective vaccine till the moment, therefore, concerns might raise about potential drug interactions between drugs used in management of both COVID-19 and diabetes. Results: About 42.3% of COVID-19 mortalities were diabetic patients, death rates were significantly higher in hospitalized type 2 diabetic patients than non-diabetic ones and were more susceptible to acute respiratory distress syndrome and other life threatening complications. Most antiviral agents are CYP450 inhibitors or inducers or CYP450 substrates, thus, drug interactions might occur with CYP450 substrates as thiazolidinediones, sulfonylureas, and short-acting secretagogues used in the management of diabetes. Besides, chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine cause hypoglycemia and prolonged QTc which should be taken in consideration upon management of diabetic COVID-19 patients. Conclusion: Diabetic patients are more susceptible to severity and incidence of COVID-19, antidiabetic agents may interact with antiviral drugs and other therapeutic agents used in management of COVID-19, thus, caution should be taken in consideration upon selection of drug treatment to avoid undesirable potential adverse events or lack of therapeutic efficacy. Keywords: COVID-19; Diabetic Patients; Drug Interactions; CYP3A4; Chloroquine; Hydroxychloroquine
101 Wide Spread Use of Monoclonal Antibody would have Prevented Massive Death Rate from Covid-19 Infection , Tapan K Chaudhuri* and Richard Hoffler
 If the use of Monoclonal Antibody (MoAb) to COVID-19 saved the life of the President of the United States and several other people in his circle, then why are we not using the same therapy for everybody else. If we aggressively motivate to start the use of MoAb to COVID-19 infection, we can prevent a lot of deaths. It’s a magic bullet, it’s a cure.
102 Green Synthesis of Copper Nanoparticles Using Syzygium cumini (Leaf, Seed, Pulp) Extracts and their Applications , Anmol Srivastava, Gyaneshwar Patel and Shekhar Agnihotri
The use of copper nanoparticles is having a huge attention of researchers from different fields due to its catalytic, optical, photonic, electric and antimicrobial activities. The biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles using plant extract is environment friendly, non-toxic and economical. Therefore, the present study aims to provide method of green synthesis of copper nanoparticles using Syzygium cumini extracts (Leaf, seed, and pulp) its antimicrobial activity and their effect on seed germination. So, to achieve green synthesis of copper nanoparticles, 5 mM of copper sulphate pentahydrate (CuSO4.5H2O) solution (50ml) was taken and 1 ml of plant extract was mixed, the color of the solution changed from light blue to dark brown thus, confirming the formation of copper nanoparticles, kinetics of the reaction was studied with the help of UV- visible spectrophotometer at 568 nm, these nanoparticles were characterized by FE-SEM. The antimicrobial activity of copper nanoparticles was tested on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. This antimicrobial activity was profound against Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis, however mild antibacterial activity was observed in the case of Escherichia coli. According to this study, Syzygium cumini (Leaf, seed, and pulp) extracts can be successfully used to make copper nanoparticles having significant antibacterial property.
103 Ustukhuddus (Lavandula stoechas L.): A Boon for the Management of Neuropsychiatric Disorders in Perspective of Unani Medicine-A Review , Mohd Afsahul Kalam, Zaffar Husain, Abdul Haseeb, Safia Husain, Kausar Shah and Basharat Saleem
104 A Review on Analytical Techniques for the Quantification of Dolutegravir - An Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitor , Thotakura Sai Pavan, Naresh Panigrahi and Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna
Dolutegravir is a novel integrase stand transfer inhibitor active against human immunodeficiency virus. Dolutegravir is an integrase strand transfer inhibitor which preferentially blocks the strand transfer step of integration of the viral genome into the host cell's DNA mediated by the viral integrase enzyme. The authors have reviewed the analytical methods developed for the estimation of Dolutegravir in pharmaceutical dosage forms and in biological samples in the present paper. Keywords: Dolutegravir; Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitor; DNA
105 Side Nack Drinking Water Pet Plastic Bottle   , Akshay Dubey
Chikungunya fever, a re-emerging viral disease affecting both old and new world countries is caused by Chikungunya virus, an RNA virus belonging to Alphaviridae. Although mortality is less but the suffering from the disease is too much, even it may continue for several months. Thus, a drastic treatment protocol should be followed to contain the suffering from the disease. However, there is no specific antiviral drug, and supportive treatment strategy in acute, post-acute, and chronic phases are quite different. It is also special in pregnancy and new born. Even with all these elaborate plans, the treatment outcome is often dismal and human suffering continues. There is some treatment prospect of this disease in alternative medicine, which can be combined with the treatment plan of conventional medicine without any deleterious effect. Thus, this integrated approach may help to restrain the enormous suffering of the patients from the disease, at least with greater relief to the patient. Along with the treatment part a review of the biology and epidemiology of the virus is also included. Keywords: Chikungunya Fever; Conventional Treatment; Alternative Medicine; Chikungunya Virus Epidemiology
106 mRNA Technology- Once a Rejected Idea is Now Becoming the Winner in the COVID-19 Vaccine Combat   , Saikat Bala
India has the world’s largest population that has limited access to clean drinking water. So the new drinking water plastic bottle design will help to the consumer to Easy to drink, Easy to fill, Lighter Packaging, Designing for Recycling, Consumers Attracted to Portable, Easy to Handle Packaging, Health-Conscious Decisions, Attractive design. Keywords: Side Nack; Plastic Bottle
107 mRNA Technology- Once a Rejected Idea is Now Becoming the Winner in the COVID-19 Vaccine Combat , Saikat Bala
Moderna” and “Pfizer” are the most discussing companies in the present world in terms of the vaccination campaign against COVID-19. The gigantic 171 years old Pfizer and only 10 years old Moderna are racing forward in the hopes of making history, saving the world, and billions of dollars but in many ways, these two companies share a same commonality. Both of them are developing their vaccines with the help of a genetic technology, called messenger RNA (mRNA) technology, an ingenious technology within the natural substance that directs protein production in cells throughout the body.
108 The Use of Probiotics and its Impact in Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile Infections (CDI) in Adult and Pediatric Patients: An Appraisal , Raja Chakraverty
Diarrhoea is one of the common reported adverse reaction of antibiotic use. Probiotics are living microorganisms, which may prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) by the normalization of an unbalanced gastrointestinal flora.
109 Reference Intervals of Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in the Blood Spot by Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Use in a Newly Established Extended Newborn Screening Program in the Fars Province South West of Iran   , Jamal Golbahar, Elaha Paknyat and Azar Jahandideh
Objective: Determine reference intervals for amino acids and acylcarnitines in blood spot of newborns from Fars province south west of Iran for further use in diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. Methods: One thousand Healthy neonates 1-5 days of age were included in this study. The reference intervals for amino acids, acylcarnitines in newborn dried blood spots using MS/MS conducted in 1000 healthy neonates from Fars Province, cities and villages from South West of Iran were determined based on the 1 and 99 percentiles of 1000 samples. Results: Thirty-eight analytes that allow the diagnosis of more than 40 inherited metabolic disorders were tested. The LC-MS/MS method for analysis of amino acids and acylcarnitines was validated that to be linear and precise. The reference intervals were determined for amino acids and acylcarnitines that are used in the further newborn screening tests in the Fars region. Conclusion: The study has contributed to present the usual concentration levels of amino acids, acylcarnitines that could be used as reference for newborn metabolic screening program in south west of Iran for the first time in the region. Keywords: Neonatal Screenings; Inborn Errors; Amino Acids; Acylcarnitines; Reference Intervals
110 Novel Nanocarrier based Drug Delivery Systems for Cancer Therapy , Om Prakash Ranjan
Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Despite efforts to alleviate risk factors in recent decades, the incidence of cancer is continuing to increase [1]. As cancer cells grow faster than healthy ones, fast-growing cells are the main targets of chemotherapeutics. The limitations of conventional chemotherapy have led to the development of nanocarrier-based drug delivery systems which target drugs to specific sites [2]. Nanocarriers can improve drug efficacy and selectivity through enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effects in tumor cells. Among the nanocarriers, liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, and micelles have received the most attention. So far, numerous nanoparticle-based chemotherapeutics are clinically approved whilst others are in the advanced stages of clinical development [3]. Depending on the sorts and applications of nanocarriers, there are a few steps to convert ordinary nanocarriers into novel and particular. First, nanocarriers face many biological barriers, including cleansing by the reticuloendothelial system (RES) on the way to the targeted site. PEGylation is a unique technique to avoid this cleansing process and it help nanocarriers to escape the RES. Second, nanocarriers can be functionalized to identify the cancer cells precisely out of healthy ones. The surface of cancer cells over expresses some proteins. Nanocarriers are modified with ligands matching the over expressed proteins. The ligands of nanocarriers identify the cells with the receptor proteins
111 A Pharmacognostic and Pharmacological Review on Chrysophyllum cainito L. , Rokeya Sultana, Deeksha Rai, Sandhya Vasanth and Mohammed Gulzar Ahmed
Chrysophyllum cainito L. which belongs to the family Sapotaceae is a tree which grows in tropical region. It is an ornamental tree, which bears fruits. Star apple, cainito and caimito are the different names given to Chrysophyllum cainito which depends on where it is present. Traditionally it is used as an herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetics. The fruits and leaves of Chrysophyllum cainito are a good source of polyphenolic compounds. The fruits are used in the preparation of dessert which is served chilled. Leaf infusions are been used in treatment of diabetes and articular rheumatism. The fruit exhibits antioxidant properties due to the presence of polyphenols. Various other phytoconstituents present are alkaloids, glycosides, triterpenoids and sterols. Pectin is present in the extracts and fractions of the pulp, as a result it is widely used in many food and pharmaceutical industries as a gelling agent and polyphenolic compounds such as catechin, epicatechin, gallocatechin and gallic acid are found in the leaves of plant. Studies have discovered different pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial and anti-viral Keywords: Chrysophyllum cainito; Star apple; Polyphenols; Antioxidant Activity; Antidiabetic Activity
112 Comparative Study on Ondansetron with Granisetron in the Prevention of Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Subjects Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Under General Anesthesia , Pervez Taneja, Yogesh Bansal and Anil Ohri
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy leads to post-operative nausea and vomiting. This is cured by using antagonist of 5 HT-3 receptors present on enterochromaffin cells or vagus nerves terminals. It is of interest to compare the efficacy of ondansetron and granisetron in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. 40 patients of age between 18-58 years were selected, and divided into two groups where group A (n = 20) includes the patients administered with ondansetron (4mg) and group B (n = 20) includes the patients administered with granisetron (3mg). Patients were observed at a time interval of 0h, 1h, 2h, 6h, 12h and 24h postoperatively and the incidence of nausea, retching or vomiting and post operative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was measured using the visual analogue score (VAS). 10-30% (P = 0.05) of total post-operative patients were found with PONV in an initial 2h. As per VAS, 20-30% (P = 0.05) and 10-15% (P = 0.05) of post-operative patients in group A and B has an incidence of nausea, vomiting and PONV in initial 2h. respectively. After 24 hours, 60% (P = 0.05) of patients in group A and 70% (P = 0.05) in group B were free from emesis. Thus, the incidence of vomiting (20%) as compared to nausea (15%) and PONV (20%) are less in subjects who have received granisetron. Data showed that granisetron is a better antinausea drug. Keywords: Ondansetron; Granisetron; Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy; PONV
113 Effects of Spirulina platensis on the Immune Status, Inflammatory and Oxidative Markers of HIV Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Cameroon , Vicky Jocelyne Ama Moor, Constant Anatole Pieme, Jan René Nkeck, Prosper Cabral Biapa Nya, Georges Ikomey Mondinde, Falmata Amazia, Charles Kouanfack, Marie Claire Okomo Assoumou and Jeanne Ngogang
Background: Spirulina platensis is traditionally used as a food supplement with a potential strengthening of the immune system, inhibition of the replication of some viruses, and lipid-lowering effect. The aim of this study was to determine its effect on the inflammatory, immunological, and oxidative status of HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: We performed a study on 62 HIV patients on ART (Tenofovir-Lamivudine-Efavirenz) divided into 2 groups. Group I, supplemented with 10 grams of Spirulina platensis daily, and group II only ART. Participants were paired on ART duration and followed-up for 6 months from December 2015 to June 2016 at the HIV care unit of the Yaounde Central Hospital and the Cité-Verte Hospital, Yaounde. Each group was sampled for CD4-count, viral load, serum levels of interleukins 6 and 8, TNFα and oxidative markers (malondialdehyde, FRAP, catalase, total peroxides, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione) at the beginning (T0) and the end of the trial (T1). Ethical clearance was obtained from the Cameroon National Ethics Committee for Human Health and Research (Ref 2016/01/699/CE/CNERSH/SP). Statistical analysis was performed using the software SPSS 21.0. The threshold of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Mean ages of participants were 35 ± 8 and 37 ± 7 respectively for group I and II. We observed a significant decrease in viral load in patients receiving spirulina comparing at T0 and T1 (p = 0.001), not observed for participants in group II (p > 0.05). CD4-counts were unchanged. There was a significant reduction of TNFα levels in group 1. The levels of pro-oxidative markers were significantly reduced in group 1 while increased in the other group. Antioxidant levels significantly increased in both groups. Conclusion: Daily supplementation of Spirulina platensis could improve the immune status of HIV patients on ART, and decrease inflammatory and pro-oxidant levels. Keywords: Spirulina platensis; HIV; Antioxidant; Anti-inflammatory; Immunomodulation
114 A Review on Analytical Techniques for the assay of Apixaban , Maanikonda Bala Krishna and Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna
Apixaban is an anticoagulant, or blood thinner. It makes your blood flow through your veins more easily. This means your blood will be less likely to make a dangerous blood clot. Apixaban is a selective, reversible, direct inhibitor of factor Xa indicated to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation. The present review article summarises the analytical methods so far developed for the estimation of Apixaban. Keywords: Apixaban; Analytical Methods; Factor Xa
115 Potential Role of Community Pharmacists in Pharmacovigilance: The Effectiveness of an Educational Intervention in Greater Cairo Province in Egypt , Mohamed A Elhawary, Rehab Mehriz, Moataz E Mohamed, Edrees Helmy, Hadir Rostom, Mohamed Solayman and Nagwa A Sabri
Background: Pharmacovigilance (PV) is a potential tool to avoid and minimize adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Community pharmacists play a pivotal role in detecting and reporting ADRs. As the pharmacovigilance is still new in Egypt, It is crucial to understand the current status among Egyptian community pharmacists towards ADRs reporting and PV side by side with assessing the efficacy of an education intervention aimed to improve their PV knowledge, attitudes and practices before initiating any national educational programs. Results: A total number of 792 community pharmacists participated with an overall response rate of 78.18%. The majority (63.89% and 70.96%) of the participating community pharmacists had inadequate prior knowledge concerning of the definitions of PV and ADRs, respectively. The educational intervention was found to be an effective tool as the median (interquartile range [Q1 – Q3]) for knowledge score was increased from 4 [3-5] to 7 [7-7] after the session was introduced (p-value < 0.001). Despite the overall positive attitude, only two pharmacists (0.25%) declared that they had previously reported an ADR. The main reason for underreporting was stated as (77.02%) of the participants do not know about the existence of Egyptian Pharmaceutical vigilance Center and ARDs reporting process. Conclusion: Egyptian community pharmacists require more education and awareness on PV to enhance their knowledge and promote ADRs reporting. The positive attitude on ADRs and PV confined by the community pharmacists would further improve the outcome of these educational interventions. Keywords: Pharmacovigilance (PV), Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs), Safety Monitoring, Educational Intervention, Knowledge and Egyptian Pharmaceutical vigilance Center (EPVC).
116 Age and Gender in Relation to Colorectal Cancer in Najef Province: A Histopathological Study , Homady MH, Juma ASM, Ubeid MH, Salih TS and Al-Jubori MM
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 2nd most common cancer in females and the 3rd most common cancer in males [1]. This disease is the most common malignancy in men with 75 years of age and over. It has been concluded that over one million people develop CRC annually, where the disease specific mortality rate being in the developed world [2]
117 Molecular Characterisation of Bacterial endophytes from the Medicinal Plant Diplorhynchus condylocarpon , Ntobeko Dube and Idah Sithole-Niang
AbstractEndophytes are microbes found within live plant tissues and are known to be reservoirs of bioactive compounds that promote plant growth and antimicrobial activity. This makes them important, but are understudied. In this study endophytes from Diplorhync-hus condylocarpon plant were characterized at molecular level and their potential to produce bioactive compounds with antimicrobi-al activity was explored. DNA extraction was carried out on twenty-four endophytes isolated from leaves and twigs of Diplorhynchus condylocarpon. To confirm the nature of these endophytes at kingdom level the 16S rRNA gene was amplified using the Polymerase chain reaction and all indicated to be prokaryotes in nature. Nine 16S rRNA amplicons out of twenty-four were sequenced and spe-cies were identified as Izhakiella capsodis, Escherichia fergusonii, Shigella dysenteriae, Xernorhabdus szentirmaii, Providencia rettgeri, Dickeya zeae and Escherichia albertii. Agar well diffusion was used to test for antimicrobial activity of twenty-four endophytes. All twenty-four endophytes exhibited antimicrobial activity against E. coli and S. aureus, with wide range of zones ranging from 19 to 65 mm. Using KEGG database it was discovered that sequenced species have potential to produce antibiotics such as fosfomycin and streptomycin. Secondary agar well diffusion was done to compare potency of endophytes extracts with ampicillin, a known antibiotic. Endophytic extracts were observed to be more effective than ampicillin with highest zones of inhibition for extracts and ampicillin as 54 and 36 respectively. In conclusion this study showed that endophytes from Diplorhynchus condylocarpon are reservoirs of bioac-tive compounds with antimicrobial effect. Also, that the 16S rRNA gene can be used to identify species.Keywords:Diplorhynchus condylocarpon; Endophytes; Molecular Characterization; Bioactive Compounds; Antimicrobial Assay; 16S rRNA
118 Importance of Medicinal Plants , Hisham Ali Salem Ali
There is no existence of life without plants. Plants are the essential foundation of medicine. Some important drugs that are still in use today are derived from traditional medicinal herbs. The hunt for new medicines has engaged ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology-a new route as an important source of knowledge, which led toward different sources and classes of compounds. Nowadays, studies on structure-activity relationships, and their impact on the design of novel drugs have rendered them one of the utmost valuable and thus significant accomplishments of pharmacochemistry, an advance constituent in the group of pharmaceutical sciences. In this paper, we have discussed the historical importance of medicinal plants, geographical importance throughout the world, some important historical observations of medicinal plants, and leading drugs of plant origin which are still being used to treat various ailments, with or without any structural modifications. Solid evidences can be cited in favor of herbs being used for the treatment of diseases and for restoring and fortifying body systems in ancient systems of medicine such as Ayurvedic, Unani, and Chinese traditional medicine. The innately desired purpose of the use of herbs was to obtain a positive interaction with body chemistry.
119 p-di-pyrrole Benzene Derivatives - A New Class of Highly Active HIV-1 CA Inhibitors , Nilanjana Biswas Sangita Ghosh and Arijit Bag
AbstractBackground: In spite of so many FDA approved HIV drugs, HIV infections and deaths are increasing across the glob.Thus, HIV re-search is still important and challenging. Finding of low cost highly effective mutation resistant HIV drug is the prime destination of HIV researchers. Small organic molecules may be cost effective if they provide desired drug activities in this regards.Objective: Finding of small organic molecules with high HIV drug potency is the main target of present research. SinceHIV-1 capsid assembly inhibitors (CA) are mutation resistant, we focused on finding of inhibitors of this class.Methods: Few randomly selected small organic molecules are tested as HIV-1 CA inhibitors through molecular dockingusing Dock-ing Server. Only effective compounds are used for further calculations to predict IC50, CC50, LogP. For these cal-culations, Density Functional theory (DFT), Quantum Computation Methodology (QCM), Relative IC50 methodology (RICM) and group contribution methodology for LogP calculation are used.Results: HIV-1 CA inhibitory capacity of p-di-pyrrole benzene and its derivatives are found very good from the dockingmethods. It is observed that, among three compounds which are promising, o-ethyl p-di-pyrrole benzene has the highest inhibition constant as an HIV-1 CA inhibitor. Quantum computations of IC50, CC50 and LogP also supported the docking results. o-ethyl p-di-pyrrole benzene shows desirable activity as HIV-1 CA inhibitor.Conclusion: Since o-ethyl p-di-pyrrole benzene is a small organic molecule it would be easily synthesizable and cost-effective. Thus, it may be a very good HIV drug. To exaggerate its prospect we have also studied and reported different important properties of these compounds like IC50, CC50, LogP, etc., which are required before pre-clinical trials. These results are also in favor of o-ethyl p-di-pyrrole benzene to be a drug in practice.Keywords: HIV-1 Capsid A Inhibitor; IC50; CC50; LogP; DFT; p-di-Pyrrole Benzene
120 Development of a Novel Method for Determination of Risperidone in Pharmaceutical Products and its Quality Control Application , Mohamed Raslan, Sara AS, Eslam MS and Nagwa A Sabri
Background:Risperidone is an antipsychotic drug that is selective to dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors and used in the management of schizophrenia, and bipolar mania. Aim: The work objective was to establish a specific, accurate, and sensitive analytical method for the quantification of risperidone in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The method will be used as a quality control tool for testing pre-market and post-market distribution of risperidone products, ensuring that the dosage forms are fulfilling the required labeled amount of the drug. Methods: Evaluation of risperidone in commercial pharmaceutical products administered in hospitals, community pharmacies, and other health care facilities by the development of a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method to add a validated sensitive and selective method to literature methods. Results: The method showed specificity, sensitivity, and selectivity, and linearity (R2>0.999) within concentration range of 0.2 to 6 μg/mL for dissolution medium USP (0.1N HCl), and 0.1 to 3.4 μg/mL for dissolution medium pH1.2, 4.5, and 6.8. Accuracy percentage within 98 - 102%, and precision percentage below 2%. The mean recovery of assayed tablets is 100.113%. In addition, dissolution results meet the required 80% dissolution limit within 10 minutes.Conclusion: The developed analytical technique is fully validated and applicable for use in the quantitative analysis of risperidone.Keywords: Risperidone; Analytical Method; Schizophrenia; Bipolar Mania; Pharmacopeia; Dissolution; Validation
121 A Pharmacological Study of Gastric Antiulcer Activity of the Leaf Extracts of Murraya koenigii , Dibyajyoti Deka, Mangala Lahkar, Indrani Devi Sarma, Dhriti KR Brahma and Tirtha Chaliha
Murraya koenigii Linn (MKL) is a native plant of India, Sri Lanka and other countries from South Asia. It has been used by the people of this region as a traditional cure in various ailments including gastric ulcer. Antiulcer activity of aqueous extracts of fresh leaves of MKL at the doses of 200 mg and 400 mg per kg were tested among different groups of Wistar rats of either sex in the experi-mental models of ulcer induction by pyloric ligation and by cold and restraint stress and compared with a standard drug ranitidine. The present study demonstrated the antiulcer activity of aqueous extract of leaves of MKL in animal models of pyloric ligation and cold restraint induced gastric ulcers. The acute toxicity study by the administration of doses of MKL upto 2000 mg/kg in the above for a period of 14 days did not show any serious toxicity. The available evidence of antiulcer activity provides satisfactory evidence further scientific studies using advanced methods for testing its usefulness in human. The ulcer protection in ranitidine group was 64.12%; in groups treated MKL in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, it was 45.2% and 50.07%, respectively. Keywords:Murraya koenigii Linn.; Gastric Ulcer; Antiulcer Activity
122 Steps to Improved Regulatory Documentation   , Bradley Hayden
123 Role of Pharmacology Education for Physiotherapists , Mohd Mazhar and Charu Chhabra
Physiotherapy has core association with human anatomy and movement and maximizing physical endurance, promotes improvement in one’s valued of life and movement potential in the horizon of promotion, prophylactic, cure and management, habilitation and rehabilitation. Over time, the Physical Therapy Profession has seen dramatic change and physiotherapists now deal with not just orthopedic conditions such as fractures, osteoarthritis and joint problems but physiotherapy has been shown to be of a lot of importance for neurologically ill patients, post cerebrovascular accidents, in various cardiopulmonary conditions and spots injuries. Moreover, physiotherapy has become an integral part when it comes to rehabilitation and caters to all types of population, be it pediatric, adolescents, pregnant women and geriatric patients.
124 A Review on Analytical methods: Levetiracetam , Malla Krishna Prasad and Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna
Levetiracetam is a second-generation anti-epileptic drug which belongs to pyrrolidone family with wide spectrum of action. In 1999 Levetiracetam was approved by US Food and Drug Administration as a broad spectrum antiepileptic drug. Levetiracetam is different from other older antiepileptic drugs in its structure with hydrophilic groups. The present review summarizes the analytical techniques used for the analysis of Levetiracetam. Keywords: Levetiracetam; Antiepileptic Drug; Spectrophotometry; HPLC; LC-MS
125 Captopril: An Overview of Discovery, Develop and Post-marketing Surveillance as an Effective Anti-hypertensive Drug , Babiker M Elhaj, Farah Hamad Farah and Heyam Saad Ali
Captopril, the first angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor was discovered through random screening of 2,000 chemical structures, by E. R. Squibb and Sons Pharmaceuticals. Then patented and developed 1980, to the marketed product Capoten. At a daily dose of 400-1000 mg, the drug showed significant anti-hypertensive activity in patients through enhancing plasma rennin activity, decreasing aldosterone in plasma and elimination of ACE activity. Dose was decreased to 50-150 mg/day after drug resistance was recognized in first 200 patients treated with captopril at the initial dose. Captopril pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics parameters were established through continuous clinical trials in human subjects. Initial post-marketing study found it safe and effective for treatment of mild hypertension and early cardiac failure. However, recent studies reveal different adverse events in hypertensive patients treated with captopril. Keywords: Captopril; Hypertension; Angiotensin-converting Enzyme (ACE)
126 Assessment of Knowledge and Attitude of Pharmacy Students on Safe and Quality Use of Vaccination: A Cross Sectional Study , Jibin Xavier, Jobin George, Rijinas EK, Jaseem EK, Muhammad Shahir NA and Juny Sebastian
Introduction: Immunization is the ability of the human body to tolerate the presence of indigenous materials to the body and to eliminate the foreign particles from the body. To get a good immunity after vaccination, we need to take precautions on safe and quality use of vaccines. Objective: To assess the knowledge and attitude of pharmacy students on safe and quality use of vaccines. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study conducted for a period of 6 months at JSS College of Pharmacy, Mysuru. Data was collected using a validated questionnaire. Collected data was assessed using unpaired T test ANOV A. Result: Out of 502 students enrolled for the study, 84.46% of them had adequate knowledge on safe and quality use of vaccines. The mean knowledge score of the study population was 12.29 ± 3.95. There was a statistically significant difference in the knowledge score of study population belong to categories such as Indian and other nationals (p 0.03), urban and rural place of origin (p 0.001) and students of different courses (p 0.001).The lowest mean attitude score was observed among the category of study population belonged to nationalities other than India (1.42 ± 0.54). Conclusion: Study suggest the need of educating the students on safe and quality use of vaccines, preferably topic can be added in the curriculum so that more attention will be given to this important topic. Keywords: Safe and Quality Use of Vaccines; Knowledge and Attitude; Cross Sectional Study; Pharmacy Students
127 Solubility Enhancement of Azithromycin by Solid Dispersion Technique Using Mannitol and β-Cyclodextrin , Veer Patel, Rakesh Patel, Hetansh Shah, Shyam Purohit, Mayur Pawar and Abuzar Pathan
Background: Azithromycin is a poorly water soluble drug having low solubility. Dissolution is the rate-limiting step in absorption of such drugs. Therefore, solubility of such drugs need to be enhanced in order to have a stable and effective dosage form having greater bioavailability. Solid dispersion technique is one of the effective methods to enhance the solubility of poorly soluble drugs. Aim and Objectives: The present study aimed at enhancing the solubility of biopharmaceutical classification system Class II Drug, i.e. Azithromycin using Mannitol and β-Cyclodextrin as a carrier. Method: Solid dispersions of Azithromycin with Mannitol and β-Cyclodextrin were prepared by Melting, Kneading and Solvent Evaporation method. The solubility of these prepared dispersions was evaluated. Results: Solubility of prepared dispersions of Azithromycin were reported in µg/mL. The solubility of solid dispersion which was prepared using the Drug: Mannitol mixture in 1:4 ratio was found to be maximum, i.e. reported solubility of 7.8 µg/mL. The solubility of solid dispersion which was prepared using Drug: β-Cyclodextrin mixture in 1:1.5 ratio was found to be maximum, i.e. reported solubility of 9.52 µg/mL. The solubility of those dispersions that were prepared using Melting and Kneading Method were found to be maximum. Conclusion: Drug having less aqueous solubility can have an enhanced rate of dissolution by using solid dispersion technique. Keywords: Azithromycin; Solubility; Solid Dispersion; BCS (Biopharmaceutical Classification System); Absorbance
128 A Newly Developed Wearable Chest Strap for Measuring Pulmonary Ventilation During Exercise , G Harel, R Reuveni, M Segel, O Inbar, G Dubnov-Raz and M Scheinowitz
Pulmonary ventilation (VE) is a fundamental physiological parameter making it possible to assess exercise intensity by measuring ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) during exercise stress test. Present wearable training devices do not measure VE, hence, measuring VAT during exercise testing is currently performed exclusively in the laboratory by using Cardio-Pulmonary Exercise Test (CPET) which is a costly and cumbersome equipment. This paper describes a new, wearable chest strap developed to measure pulmonary ventilation (VE) equivalent in the field. The chest strap consists of a stretch sensor measuring the breathing frequency (BF) and the relative tidal volume (VT, driven by thorax expansion), a vertical accelerometer for canceling running impacts and a heart rate monitor. The sampled data is streamed via Bluetooth link to an external computing device such as smart phone/watch or a PC where signal processing algorithms in time and frequency domains are used to filter the sampled signals and calculate the VE equivalent being the product of BF x VT. Healthy young adults (n = 20) age 20-35 wearing the chest strap performed maximal incremental running test (using CPET) to compare between the two methods; VE measured by CPET and VE equivalent measured by the chest strap. After correcting motion artifacts the correlation between the two VE curves was very high (r = 0.94) proving the chest strap can accurately measure pulmonary attributes (BF, relative VT, and VE equivalent), during running exercise Conclusion: The newly developed wearable chest strap measures pulmonary ventilation equivalent with high accuracy, which makes it suitable serve as a personal training device during running activity. Keywords: Accelerometer; Breathing Frequency; CPET; FFT; Frequency-domain Analysis; Strain; Tidal Volume; Pulmonary Ventilation; Wearable
129 Synergistic Compositions of Traditional Medicine (SIDDHA) against Perilous +ssRNA Coronavirus a Future Alternative Medicine - A Mini Review , King Solomon Ebenezer, Chidambaram Tamilselvan, Rekha Manivanan, Sundaram Ravikumar and Pandi Boomi
Siddha medicinal system is an admirable ancient symbol of Tamil culture and used from time immemorial in India which is originated in Tamil Nadu and invented from Dravidian culture by the Siddhars (Tamil sages). Globally, siddha drugs are considered to be an important alternative to modern allopathic drugs, also the siddha product and research is very popular for the drug discovery process. The siddha medicinal system is well versed in treating diseases, even incurable by the allopathic practitioners, but their mode of action remained a mystery all these years resulting in their unpopularity in the modern world. The recent alarming rise of novel deadly viral infections in the society demands novel drugs for treatment and made the researchers looking into the alternative therapies. Hence, recently many researchers are forthcoming in evaluating the antiviral activity of the siddha drugs using modern scientific approaches. In context to this, this mini review summarizes the synergistic compositions of siddha drugs and their efficacy against pathogenic single strand positive sense RNA coronavirus disease. Keywords: Corona Virus; Siddha; Drugs; Traditional Medicine; Alternative Medicine
130 Solid Lipid Nanoparticles of Cyclosporine for the Treatment of Skin Disease , Ramila Prajapati, Dhavalkumar Patel and Jayvadan Patel
Abstract Cyclosporine is one of the shows potential drugs and employ for the treatment of variety of skin diseases like Psoriasis. However, High blood pressure, Swollen or inflamed gums, and other common side effects are tremors, restlessness, stomach upset, nausea, cramps, diarrhea, headache limit its clinical applications. The reported work pivot on the preparation of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) using cyclosporine drug, for the enhancement of their penetration efficacy in the skin. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of the drug by the using of many type of lipids, like palmitic acid, glyceryl behenat, cetyl palmitate and glyceryl monostearate. Prepared SLN was validated regarding particle size, zeta potential, percentage entrapment efficiency (EE). In-vitro dermatokinetics and drug efficacy evaluated respectively by tape stripping method and using HaCaT cell lines. The particle size of nanoformulation was ranging less than 350 nm and the morphology is showing spherical. HaCaT cell lines were used for the in-vitro study that showed higher uptake and efficacy with decrease cell viability for SLNs. Keywords: Cyclosporine; Fatty Acids; SLN; HaCaT Cell Line
131 Organizational and Legal Aspects of the Use of Marketing Analysis of Multivitamin Complexes for Pharmaceutical Provision of Health Diseases Among Combatants , Andriy Gudzenko, Valeriy Shapovalov, Viktoriya Shapovalova and Valentyn Shapovalov
The article presents the results of the study of the multivitamin complexes for the pharmaceutical provision of health disorders among combatants in Ukraine. In the conditions of military conflict, combatants experience various health problems and require complex pharmacotherapy and pharmaceutical provision. In that medicines of various clinical and pharmacological groups, including vitamins are widely used. The goal of the study was to conduct analysis on the organizational and legal aspects of multivitamin complexes for the pharmaceutical provision of combatants on the example of the pharmaceutical market of Ukraine in the period of 2015-2020. The organizational and legal study conducted was based on using of normative and legal, documentary, regulatory, forensic and pharmaceutical, and marketing analysis methods. Discussed the range of multivitamin complexes by trade names, composition of active substances, manufacturers, pharmaceutical forms, registration data, and parameters of the control regime. In conclusion, proved that the multivitamin complexes are highly available for pharmacotherapy and pharmaceutical provision of combatants
132 A Brief Review of Homogeneous Differential Equations , Dragan Obradovic, Lakshmi Narayan Mishra and Vishnu Narayan Mishra
Homogeneous linear differential equations are further subclasses whose solution space is a linear subspace, i.e. the sum of any solution set or their product is also a solution. The coefficients of an unknown function and its derivatives in a linear differential equation can be (known) functions of independent variables. If these coefficients are constants then a constant coefficient of linear differential equation is spoken. Keywords: Differential Equations, Homogeneous Differential Equations, Differential Equation with Separated Variables, Differential Equation of the First Degree of Homogeneity
133 Analysis on the Current Situation of Classified Management of Drug Shortages: Case China , Bing Fang, Hui Chen, Xiaohe Li, Jianhong Yang and Zhen Chen
Drug shortage is a worldwide problem, it will not only have a serious impact on the treatment of patients, but also increase the work and financial burden of the health care system and health care providers. Various countries and regions have established different prevention and mitigation measures. China's central and local governments have introduced a series of measures to strengthen the management of drug shortage, but the effect is not ideal. Due to the different nature of the shortage of drugs, the management methods should be different, so we should comprehensively consider the various attributes of the shortage of drugs, establish a classification method to manage the shortage of drugs, so as to improve the efficiency of the existing measures, and supplement and improve the inadequate. There are some limitations in the current classification management system of shortage drugs in China. The classification index cannot comprehensively summarize the attributes of shortage drugs, and the judgment standard of each index is fuzzy. Based on the current situation of shortage drugs in China and the existing research experience at home and abroad, this paper puts forward that the elements of classification management of shortage drugs in China are clinical importance, the availability of alternative drugs and the impact of shortage, and describes the judgment criteria of each index in detail. Keywords: Drug Product Shortage; Substitutable Therapy; Policy Advice; Comparative Study
134 Halting the Pandemic - Vaccine and Vaccination a Realistic Path Forward , Bahman Zohuri and Elise Ooi
The fight against the pandemic is not going well-but not for the reasons many people with political ideologies believe. A pandemic occurs when each infected person on the average infects more than one other person. It stops when each infected person infects less than one person. The end of a pandemic does not imply that the disease disappears-only that there are small local outbreaks and no large outbreaks. One starts with three observations about this pandemic. Recent worldwide COVID-19 pandemic, for example, has put tremendous pressure on pharmaceuticals scientists to be in quest of new drugs and vaccine to treat such deadly disease, and at this point, nobody knows what price tag has been estimated to develop such a vaccine by multi-drug companies involved with research and development of the drug. With recent growth in technology of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and its sub-component such as Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL), dealing with epidemic of COVID-19 pandemic in a global form and overwhelming of data and consequently information and thus our knowledge of having power to deal with this devasting disease is way beyond our own human brain intelligence comprehension to process, thus we need to relay on AI, ML and DL innovative technology to handle all the aspects of such measure with a proper counter-measure. Moreover, the integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) with its components of Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL) is changing and enhances the discovery of a drug that deals with COVID-19. AI, ML, and DL, along with other technologies such as Nanotechnology, are anticipated to make the quest or search for new pharmaceuticals by fat out much quicker, more cost-effective and cheaper as well. Keywords: Pandemic; COVID-19; Vaccine and Vaccination Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Drug Delivery and Administration; Drug Distribution
135 Improving Fairness of Health Technology Assessment Frameworks , J Sharma, J Bunders, T Zuiderent-Jerak and B Regeer
HTA frameworks have traditionally focused on the elusive quest for an equal measure to rationally distribute and reimburse health technologies. HTA therefore has proven itself important by allowing decision makers to be equipped with logics for the decision, at the same time allowing stakeholders including citizens to appreciate the limitation of decision to ‘provide’ or ‘not to provide’ a service/intervention. This has had impact on budgeting and financing of decisions. However, a flip side of this focus on distribution using ‘one-sided rationality’ makes other rationalities, including those that are value-derived but directly affect health outcomes come either at the end of the process of appraisal or largely left to the policy implementation phase. Those rationalities that do not ‘fit-into’ the equal-distribution based criteria tend to be undervalued in HTA methodologies. In this commentary, we investigate the extent to which selected HTA organizations around the world, apply the key constituent components of an HTA to the process, and use the analysis to propose enhanced set of components that could make HTA process more comprehensive. Multi Decision Criteria Analysis could address this central challenge in common HTA methods, to allow various partial rationalities to be combined into a more comprehensive HTA decision by making HTA process more dynamic and inclusive. Keywords: Health Technology Assessment (HTA); Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA); Framework
136 The Disproportionate Impact of COVID-19 on Various Communities in the United States: A Data Analytics Perspective , Siamak Zadeh, Saloni Jain and Meenakshi Rajgopal
Pandemics and infectious diseases are supposed to be equitable as they indiscriminately affect and impact everyone globally – rich, poor, men, women, powerful, or disenfranchised. However, a preliminary data analysis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) indicates that this pandemic has exacerbated the disparity among various demographics and communities as it appears that it has widened the socioeconomic inequities globally, and notably in the United States. In this paper, we analyze the data collected from March of 2020 through December 2020 to examine the impact of this pandemic among various communities. It is observed that COVID-19 has disproportionately impacted and increased the health inequities among various communities of color and other racial and ethnic minorities in the United States. The percentage of new cases, as well as the death rates, are much higher for these communities versus the rest of the population. Keywords: Data Analytics; Coronavirus (COVID-19); Pandemic; Health Inequities; Racial Disparities
137 Origin of Infections: Five Independent Pathways   , Alen J Salerian
Origin of Infections: Five Independent Pathways
138 Formulation, Characterization and Evaluation of the Transdermal Drug Delivery System of the Antiretroviral Drugs for the Treatment of HIV/AIDS , Gupta Ravikant, Bharadwaj Anjana, Jain Alok Pal, Yadav Akash and Gupta Shailesh
In the current study ethosome transdermal patches were formulation and characterized for various parameters and evaluation were performed. On the basis of the study concluded that TF7 formulation was shows intended results and shows high entrapment efficiency and drug release kinetics shows higuchi model. Experimental work already published in the JETIR journal [7,8] here shows the extended study for drug excipient interaction study, permeation study, in-vivo and stability study, and optimization and skin irritation study. Results show there is no sign of the skin irritation and formulation is stable. Keywords: Stability Study; Skin Irritation Study; In-vivo Study
139 Phytochemical Analysis and Antimicrobial Activity of Punica granatum L. and Zingiber officinales L. Plant Extracts against Microbes Causing Food Poison , Shweta J Sabannavar
Food poisoning brings illness and side effects to human beings, to prevent pathogen related infections people use chemical preservatives. These chemical substances have a negative effect on human health because of such concerns we need to find very effective, safer and natural alternative preservatives. In the present study phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activities of Punica granatum L. and Zingiber officinale L. was evaluated. Plant extract have been used to control food poisoning pathogen and preservation. Qualitative preliminary phytochemical screening of P. granatum peel extracts and ginger were assessed by standard methods. The results revealed that activity of secondary metabolites in ethanol and acetone is higher than chloroform and petroleum ether. The antimicrobial activity of pomegranate and Ginger was analyzed against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger using disc and well diffusion methods. The ethanol and acetone extract of the two plants were prepared and results revealed that concentration of extract effect the activity of microorganism and P. granatum showed high antimicrobial activity than ginger. These plants extracts can be used as a natural preservative to control food poisoning, fungicides and used as a food preservative. It can be used as healthy molecules in diet chart. The natural selection of preservatives decreases the rate of human health hazards and acquisition of microbial resistant. Keywords: Antimicrobial Activity; Disc Diffusion; Well Diffusion; Phytochemical Screening; Preservative
140 Determination of Donepezil in Human Plasma and its Clinical Applications , Mohamed Raslan, Sara AR, Eslam MS and Nagwa A Sabri
Background: Alzheimer’s disease is a common form of memory loss of high incidence in geriatric populations. Donepezil is a medication known to improve the cognitive functions, perception, and behavior. Aim: Development of a bio-analytical method for rapid quantification of donepezil in biological fluids and its application in pharmacokinetics and bioavailability studies, clinical trials, and monitor its therapeutic levels to help attaining effective clinical results in management of Alzheimer’s disease. Methods: Donepezil was extracted from plasma samples and chromatographed with eluting solvent consisting of 0.1% formic acid: acetonitrile: methanol (20:40:40) v/v/v at flow rate of 0.52ml/min, ESI positive mode, and m/z 380.3 → 91, 290.2 → 115 for donepezil and desbenzyl donepezil as internal standard respectively. As an application of the validated developed bioanalytical method, a comparative bioavailability study of donepezil 10 mg film coated tablets generic product versus reference product was conducted in a crossover design involving 24 volunteers. The criteria used to assess bioequivalence of the two products were AUC 0-72, Cmax, and Tmax. Results: The average recovery of donepezil from human plasma was 86.251% with limit of quantitation of 0.1ng/ml and the correlation coefficient (r2) obtained was 0.9999, moreover, statistical analysis (ANOVA) of the measured parameters showed that there was no significance between the two products. Conclusion: The developed bioanalytical LC/MS/MS method was valid for donepezil quantification in human plasma and is suitable for application in pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic monitoring of donepezil in management of Alzheimer’s disease to ensure effective therapeutic drug levels and avoid potential undesired adverse events. Keywords: Donepezil; Alzheimer’s Disease; Dementia; LC/MS/MS; Validation; Liquid-liquid Extraction
141 Chemo-metric Assisted UV-Spectrophotometric Methods for the Simultaneous Estimation of Brimonidine Tartrate and Timolol Maleate , Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna and Yenda Manishankar
Two Chemo-metric assisted UV-spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the simultaneous determination of Timolol maleate and Brimonidine tartrate in ophthalmic dosage forms. Timolol is a beta blocker used for the patients suffering from ocular hypertension and glaucoma and Brimonidine tartrate is a an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonist. Simultaneous equation method and absorbance ratio method were proposed for the simultaneous determination of Timolol maleate and Brimonidine tartrate in ophthalmic preparations. The two methods were validated and were found to be linear over 1 - 60 μg/mL for Timolol maleate and 1 - 40 μg/mL for Brimonidine tartrate. The two proposed methods find application in the quality control of pharmaceuticals. Keywords: Timolol Maleate; Brimonidine Tartrate; Spectrophotometry; Simultaneous Equation Method; Q-Analysis; Validation
142 A Systematic Review on the Analytical Techniques for the Quantification of Verapamil   , Bangaru Divya and Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna
Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker. Verapamil is used for the treatment of high blood pressure and for the control of angina. In the present paper the authors have reviewed the analytical methods published in the literature for the estimation of Verapamil in pharmaceutical formulations and in biological samples. Keywords: Verapamil; Calcium Channel Blocker; Analytical Techniques
143 A Systematic Review on the Analytical Techniques for the Quantification of Valacyclovir   , Chodimella Sahitya Bharathi and Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna
Valacyclovir is used for the treatment of viral infections caused by Herpes simplex viruses which include shingles, chickenpox and genital herpes. Valacyclovir converts rapidly into acyclovir after its oral administration and there by inhibits the viral DNA replication. In the present paper the authors have reviewed the analytical methods already published till now in the literature for the estimation of Valacyclovir in pharmaceutical formulations and in biological s. Keywords: Valacyclovir; Drug; DNA
144 Investigation of Protective Effects of Graviola (Annona muricata) Plant against Disinfectants Used in Different PHs in Covid-19 Process , Sidika Genc, Yesim Yeni, Ahmet HacımüftüoÄŸlu and Ali Taghizadehghalehjoughi
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a major threat to global health. The rapid spread of the epidemic around the world has caused it to become a global pandemic. Disinfection is one of the best practice measures used to eradicate viral/bacterial pathogens in homes and community settings and reduces the spread of infection. However, it has been shown in studies that the long-term use of degenerate agents with different pH values triggers the development of itching, rash, urticaria and even allergic rhinitis. Graviola (Annona muricata) and its fruits, leaves, stems and roots are known to be rich in flavonoids and isoquinoline alkaloids. It has been used for thousands of years to treat many diseases from arthritis to liver problems. It is also used to treat a wide variety of human diseases such as inflammation, rheumatism, diabetes, hypertension, insomnia, parasitic infections and cancer. The aim of this study is to prevent toxicity that develops against different pH changes with the use of Graviola plant. For this reason, Human Fibroblast cell line was grown under the conditions specified by the manufacturer and inoculated into 96 well plates and culture medium with different pH (5 - 6 - 7 - 8) was prepared and different doses of Graviola (20-40-80-160 µgr/ml) were prepared. It is planned to eliminate the toxicity caused by using it for 24 hours. At the end of the study, cell viability was determined by performing MTT analysis and LDH and GR. According to the results of our study, cell viability increased from %71 to 132 compared to positive control at pH 5. The vitality that decreased to %79 at 6 pH increased to 132 as a result of the application of the highest concentration of Graviola (160 µgr/ml). While it increased from % 71 to %74 at pH 7, the damage received by fibroblast cells at pH 8 was determined to be high (viability rate %50) and by removing this toxicity, it was observed that the vitality was increased up to %75. Considering the results obtained, Graviola is recommended to be used at doses of 80 and 160 µgr/ml, as it has a protective effect. The LDH and GR results show correlation with MTT. Keywords: Graviola; Covid 19; pH; MTT; LDH
145 Face Mask - A Mandatory Preventive Medical Treatment for Covid-19, Not a Political Toy, Nor an Individual Choice   , Tapan K Chaudhuri and Richard Hoffler
Wearing a face mask should be a mandated preventive medical treatment tool for Covid-19 infection just like it is in case of Tuberculosis or any other contagious respiratory infectious diseases such as Flu, Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Whooping cough, Legionnaire’s disease etc.
146 Amitriptyline: Physiological and Ethological Effects of a Largely Used Antidepressant Evaluated on Ants as Biological Models , Marie-Claire Cammaerts and David Cammaerts
The impact of the largely used ATC antidepressant drug amitriptyline on several ethological and physiological traits was examined on ants used as biological models. This drug appeared to affect the ants’ food intake, general activity, locomotion, orientation ability, tactile perception, social interactions, cognitive abilities, as well as learning and memory skills. The ants slowly adapted themselves to the effect of amitriptyline on their locomotion, and became slightly habituated to the effect of the drug on their tactile perception. They developed no dependence on amitriptyline consumption though being at the limit of a significant threshold. After weaning, the effect of the drug slowly linearly decreased, becoming statistically lower than the initial level after about 15 hours and no longer differing from the control level after 36 hours. The effect rather rapidly decreased during the last 6 hours after weaning. Such a decrease accounted for the non dependence on the drug consumption. A large individual variability was observed for some of the examined traits. Though being safer than other antidepressants (among others, the IMAOs), the consumption of amitriptyline may cause health problems. Patients should consume it by taking widely spaced doses, and should be monitored as for their food intake, social interactions, cognition, memory, and habituation to the positive effect of amitriptyline. Keywords: Cognitive Ability; Memory; Myrmica sabuleti; Redomex®; Social Interactions
147 Comparison and Recent Updates of LBA and LC-MS/MS Methods for Bio-analysis of Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies , Ashutosh Saxena, Archita Patel and Priti Mehta
The use of monoclonal antibodies is increasing in treatment of various autoimmune diseases, and hence knowledge about bioanalytical methods for the same is a need of the hour. Ligand binding assays (LBAs) have been traditionally used in the bioanalysis of mAbs due to its specificity and ease of sample preparation. Although they are still considered as a gold standard, technological advancement in LC-MS configuration has led to its widespread utilization as a bioanalytical tool. Further, LC-MS/MS has led to the development of more accurate and specific methods with respect to multi-component matrices. The present review encompasses discussion and comparative assessment of the method development strategies, validation parameters, merits and demerits of LBA and LC-MS techniques used for bioanalysis of mAbs. Recent advancements such as 2D-LC-MS/MS and future prospects of hybrid LBA-LC-MS approach are also included. The technologies and analytical strategies presented here will undoubtedly help readers in selection of methods for bioanalysis of novel biological entities (NBE) or biosimilars for preclinical and clinical studies in drug development. Keywords: LBA; LC-MS/MS; Monoclonal Antibody; Bio-analytical Methods
148 Bacterial Feeding Nematodes Use for Nitrogen Mineralization and Plant Production   , Tabassum Ara Khanum and Nasir Mehmood
An experiment was conducted to determine the ability of nematodes that they contribute to maintaining adequate levels of plantavailable N in farming systems relying on organic sources of fertility. Four types of treatments with combination of control applied into soil (tomato pots) which have tomato seedlings. The laboratory cultured nematodes were inoculated into soil containing pregerminated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants and C: N ratio in soil was observed. The present study provides the direct role of microbial feeding nematodes in enhancing soil nitrogen. Nitrogen enhancement rates was calculated by TKN method (Total Kjeldhal Nitrogen). Different treatments had differed in the amount of nitrogen fixed in the soil, Pak Nema-1 treated pot showed higher amount of nitrogen as compared to other treatments. Pak Nema 1 (Oscheius A. n. sp.) significantly (P < 0.001) increased the nitrogen level in soil as compared to Pak Nema-3 and Pak Nema-4. Pak Nema-2 is also significantly increased the nitrogen level. Root length, shoot length and number of forks significantly (P < 0.01) increased in Pak Nema-1 while only shoot length is significantly increased in Pak Nema-2 as compared to Pak Nema-3 and Pak Nema-4. Keywords: Bio-fertilizer; Nematode; Oscheius; Nitrogen Mineralization; Plant Production
149 Editorial Note , Daisy Joseph
Dr Daisy Joseph on behalf of the Acta Scientific Pharmaceutical Sciences would like to present this issue of the journal. Though an expert in EDXRF, PIXE, XANES, HHXRF, I have great exposure to all fields. I take this opportunity in saying that this journal is popular in all academic forums. Average download per article is increasing and on an average there are 50 downloads per paper. All these are promising signs.
150 Area of Interest and Expertise , Gurusamy Mariappan
 I am constantly involving in the research of development of new reactions that complement existing methods for the preparation of biologically active molecules. My research has mainly focused on synthesis and biological screening of anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, CNS depressant, hypnotic and sedative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, antifungal and anti-viral agents etc. This interest has been especially directed towards anti-cancer pharmaceutical products because cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounted for 7.6 million deaths and projected to continue to rise to over 13.1 million in 2030 as per WHO Cancer Fact sheet No 297, January 2013. To control the mortality of Cancer in developing countries, the discovery and development of new treatment is urgently needed due to problem with currently available treatment such as toxicities and drug resistance. Our research involves the synthesis and examination of structure-activity relationships on cancer drug targets such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-TK and RAS etc., and the exploration of synthetic methodologies to prepare novel anti-cancer analogs. Moreover, the QSAR studies are also done to correlate the pharmacophore with anti-cancer activity. Recently the research is also focused to develop a safe drug candidate which will act against cancer stem cells.
151 Physiological and Ethological Impacts of the Antidepressant Escitalopram Studied on Ants as Models , Marie-Claire Cammaerts
Humans’ consumption of antidepressants is nowadays increasing. One of the most used for treating severe depressions is escitalopram, an inhibitor of the serotonin recapture, and being so, even if efficient, it may have harmful side effects. Using ants as models, we studied the effect of escitalopram on 13 physiological and ethological traits, the potential adaptation to these effects, the dependence on escitalopram consumption, and the loss of the effect of the drug after weaning. We found that escitalopram impacted the ants’ food consumption, general activity, orientation ability, tactile perception, social relationships, cognition, learning and memory. The ants did not adapt themselves to the impact escitalopram and did not develop dependence on this drug consumption. Young ants seemed to be more affected than the old ones by escitalopram consumption. After weaning, the effect of escitalopram first remained intact during 6 hours, and then slowly decreased in about 30 hours, what accounted for the no dependence on this drug consumption. Most of our results agree with effects observed in humans and with the dosage advised to patients (a dose of 10 mg every 24 hours). A few side effects seen in ants have not (or not yet) been observed in humans and should be thus examined (e.g. effect on social relationships, learning and memory). Habituation to the positive effect of escitalopram, impossible to study on ants, should be checked in humans since in case of its occurrence, humans will increase their drug consumption and therefore the impact of the side effects. Keywords: Cognition; Food Intake; Learning; Memory; Myrmica sabuleti
152 From Mechanisms to Clinical Trials: Maslinic Acid, a Promising Modern Anti-inflammatory Drug? , Jiahui Liu, Let Yu and Hua Li
Chronic inflammation plays an essential role in various severe diseases and has become a main cause of death. Anti-inflammation medications for prevention and treatment of inflammation-related diseases are urgent. Maslinic Acid (MA), a pentacyclic triterpene abundant in olives, has been on our plates for years, but its anti-inflammatory mechanism has been clarified clearly until the last five years. Subsequently, the anti-inflammatory effect of MA for inflammation-related diseases was verified in pre-clinical and clinical studies. The MA studies reported in PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Baidu Scholar, CNKI, Science Direct, Springer and Wiley databases or registered in clinical trial management platforms were searched with the following key terms: maslinic acid, inflammation, inflammatory disease, pharmacological activity. This review from the perspective of medicine combed the anti-inflammation molecular mechanisms of MA and assessed the recent clinical trials, revealing the potential therapeutic use of Maslinic Acid as a new drug for the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation-related diseases. These results should encourage more pre-clinical and clinical studies with stringent design and more strong evidence to accelerate the drug development MA. Keywords: Maslinic Acid; Chronic Inflammation; NF-κB
153 Green Chemistry: A New Trend in the Chemical Synthesis to Prevent Our Earth   , Shailee Tiwari and Aakansha Brahmpurkar
Organic chemistry has played a vital role in the development of diverse molecules which are used in medicines, agrochemicals and polymers. These molecules are synthesized in industries who adopt a process of synthesis which is cost effective; no attention is paid towards release of harmful chemicals. But since last decades special emphasis has been made towards green synthesis which circumvents the above problem. It emphasis on the different tolls of green chemistry like phase transfer catalysis, biocatalysts, aqueous phase reactions, organic synthesis in solid state, microwave assisted synthesis, ultrasound assisted synthesis. It also provides a detailed literature review on green synthesis. The different tools of green chemistry used in synthesis of different molecules are discussed in detail. Keywords: Green Chemistry; Biocatalysts; Phase Transfer Catalysis; Microwave Assisted
154 Impact of Pharmaceutical Care Services in Health Related Outcomes among Children with Thalassemia , Almana Rodrigues, Jitha Y, Merlin Susan Paul, Sajja Prabhatha Lakshmi, Juny Sebastian and Mandyam Dhati Ravi
Background: Thalassemia is a rare disease that pose significant morbidity among the affected individuals due to various reasons such as drug related problems (DRPs), poor knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of thalassemia disease and its treatments. These unresolved problems lead to poor medication adherence and there by compromise in quality of life among the thalassemia patients specially children. The current study was conducted to assess the impact of pharmaceutical care services in health related outcomes among Thalassemia patients. Methods: This was a randomized controlled study conducted at Hematology Clinic, JSS Hospital Mysuru. Eligible subjects were enrolled after taking informed consent randomized to test and control groups. Study participants medical records were assessed for actual or potential DRPs, KAP on thalassemia, HRQoL and medication adherence during the first visit (V1). Standardized education by clinical pharmacist was provided to the test group participants during all the study visits (V2 and V3) while control group participants received a validated information leaflet during first visit (V1) and no further interventions in subsequent visits (V2 and V2). At the end of the study, study participants of both the groups were reassessed for DRPs, KAP, HRQoL and medication adherence. Results: A total of 48 subjects were consented for the study. The study could significantly decrease the DRPs of the study population in the test group. Also, KAP (p 0.001), HRQoL (p 0.001) and medication adherence (p 0.001) of the test group was significantly improved when compared to the control group study population. Conclusion: Practicing clinical pharmacists can significantly influence the health related outcomes children with thalassemia by providing different pharmaceutical cares services and individual education to the children and their LAR. Keywords: HRQoL; KAP; Medication Adherence; PedsQL; Pharmacist’s Education; Thalassemia Patients
155 Qualitative Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Evaluation on Moringa oleifera Lam. Leaf , VE Ida Christi, M Khadar Bhatcha, K Suganthi and N I Blesson Sha Fogarty
The plant Moringa oleifera Lam. is a small tree otherwise called as horseradish tree or drumstick tree which is one of the pan-tropical species. It is a most useful plant with highly nutritional value and medicinal properties. This current study is planning to evaluate the pharmacognostical and phytochemical properties of Moringa oleifera Lam leaves. Here the pharmacognostical parameter like Macroscopic, Microscopic nature like cellular structure of the leaf and leaf constant characters were evaluated. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was done by using standard procedure. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts of the acetone, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous solvents give the positive report for the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrates, proteins tannins and phytosterol. The column chromatography is used to isolate the phytoconstituents in the methanol extract. A white crystalline compound is isolated in the ratio of petroleum ether: chloroform (60:40, 40:60, 20:80) and it was taken for the structural elucidation and subjected to UV-VIS,IR, NMR and Mass spectral studies. It shows the fraction contains pentadecan-1-ol. It may be a precursor or intermediate for the biogenesis for some other compound. Antimicrobial activity of methanol and aqueous extracts of the leaf was screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus niger Candida albicans. Both extracts shows antibacterial and fungal activity towards these organisms but it was more in alcohol extract. We finally conclude that this study provides Pharmacognostical, Physiochemical and Phytochemical details of the Moringa oleifera leaves which are useful for the researchers in laying down standardization and pharmacopoeia parameters. Keywords: Moringa oleifera; Phytochemical; Antimicrobial; Standardization; Pharmacognostical
156 COVID-19: The Present Psychological Health and its Possible Outburst as Socio-economic Destabilization , Debashish Ghose, Suryakanta Swain, Bikash Ranjan Jena, Sanjeeb Kumar Sahoo
The current Covid-19 produced vital psychological and social effects on the population. Research has highlighted the impact on the most exposed groups' psychological well-being, including kids, university students, and health officials; they are further likely to produce post-traumatic anxiety dysfunction, stress, distress, and other signs of anxiety. The social way and the safeguard actions have affected people's association and their understanding of compassion toward others. From this prospect, telepsychology and technological devices assume important roles in decreasing the pandemic's negative effects. These tools present benefits that could improve patients' psychological treatment online, such as the possibility to meet from home or the workplace, saving money and time, and maintaining the relationship between therapists and patients.   Keywords: Covid-19; Telepsychology; Post-traumatic Anxiety
157 Assessment of Attitude towards Substance Abuse among Community in Kebele 08, Harar Town, Eastern Ethiopia   , Selam Bogale and Teshome Sosengo
Background: The problem of social drugs utilization is an emerging and serious problem in the world. According to 2017 United Nation world drug report, around 29.5 million drug abusers were exposed to serious illnesses and 11.4 million deaths were related to drug abuse. Objective: To assess attitude toward substance abuse abuse among the community of kebele 08 community, Shenkor Woreda, Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia from December 10, 2020 to February 01, 2021. Methodology: Community based cross-sectional study using a pre-tested structured self-administered questionnaire was conducted from December10, 2020 to February 01, 2021. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 379 respondents from kebele 08, Shenkor worede, Harar town, Eastern Ethiopia residents. The data collection was done using a self-administered structured questionnaire and the data was entered and analyzed by using statistical package for social science version 24. The result is presented in tables. Result: Out of the totalcommunity members invited to fill the questionnaire, the 379 respondents participated in the study with a response rate of 94.5%. The 55.7% and 44.3% respondents were male and female respectively. The 74.4% of the study participants replied that health education is important regarding prevention of substance abuse. The 43.8% of the study respondents believe that boys who smoke have more friends than those do not smoke. The 77% reported that it is difficult to stop once someone started smoking. The 63.3% of respondents oppose practice of Khat chewing. The 28.8% of the respondents replied that they will try to practice drinking alcohol, khat or cigarette at any time in the future. The respondents reported that they think the one who smokes Cigarette as the one who lacks confidence 25.1% as a loser (23%), stupid (16.9%) and sophisticated (16.6%). Conclusion: Majority of the participants have negative attitude toward those who abuse substance especially toward those who smoke cigarette. In the current study majority of the respondents believes that health education is important for prevention of substances abuse.   Keywords: Alcohol; Attitude; Cigarette; Khat; Substance Abuse
158 Science Diplomacy: A Platform to Think Beyond the Boundaries , Asma Ansari
Recently, I attended ASM-AAAS-TWAS Regional Course for Science Diplomacy from 16 - 19 March 2021. This regional course on science diplomacy motivate me to write and express my views and the things which I learn during the course to the readers. Science diplomacy is basically a platform for scientific collaborations among nations to think beyond the boundaries and to address common problems faced by neighboring countries in order to build constructive international partnerships to resolve the common issues. As all of we know that science is a process of pursuing answers, while diplomacy is a process for dialogue and among countries and their citizens. There are three recognized aspects of science diplomacy:
159 A Review on the Analytical Techniques for the Quantification of Etoricoxib , Boddepalli Amar Srikar and Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna
Etoricoxib is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which belongs to an oxicam class. It belongs to second-generation COX-2 inhibitors. Etoricoxib is insoluble in water and readily soluble in alkaline aqueous solutions. In the present paper the authors have reviewed the analytical methods already published till now in the literature for the estimation of Etoricoxib in pharmaceutical formulations and in biological samples. Keywords: Etoricoxib; Fluids; Molecular Weight
160 A Study of Hydrogels , Shailee V Tiwari* and Shruti V Dabhade
Hydrogels are hydrophilic, crosslinked polymeric structures that can swell in water and can maintain its structure by physical or chemical crosslinking of polymer chain. They are 90% water and permeable to drugs for delivery and encourage controlled delivery. Due to their physicochemical properties and preparation methods hydrogels are applied in large scale engineering and biomedical applications, regenerative medicine. In this article, different types of hydrogels are studied, followed by their preparation methods, classification, physicochemical properties, different characterizations, and their current trends and applications in various fields such as cell culture, clinical surgery, tissue engineering, biosensing, medication delivery and release are discussed. Keywords: Hydrogels; Applications; Directed Drug Delivery; Drug Discharge
161 A Comprehensive Review of Flemingia strobilifera (LAM.) , Devlekar Shital, Khale Anubha and Rawal Jignyasha
The traditional systems of medicine plays a significant role in our health care system for the betterment of manhood. Flemingia strobilifera (Lam.) is used as herb in Ayurvedic medicine since ancient time. Flemingia strobilifera (Palas) belongs to the family Fa-baceae, grown wildly in many parts of India. The plant is used highly by the countryside and ethnic people in curing various disor-ders. Flemingia strobilifera has an effective natural origin that has a tremendous future for research. The novelty and applicability of Flemingia strobilifera are hidden. Such things can be removed through modern research. The present article describes various traditional and medicinal utility of the plant and an attempt was made to gather information about the chemical composition of the plant or its species and/or its constituents.Keywords:Flemingia strobilifera; Traditional Uses; Medicinal Uses; Phytochemistry
162 ApoE-Knockout Mice: What are New Achievements of this Model of Atherosclerosis? , Lorkowska–Zawicka B and JawieÅ„ J
Liposomes are nanocarriers comprised of lipid bilayers encap-sulating an aqueous core. The ability of liposomes to encapsulate a wide variety of diagnostic and therapeutic agents has led to sig-nificant interest in utilizing liposomes as nanocarriers for ther-anostic applications [1]. Liposomes are spherical vesicles formed from lipid bilayers. Because of their unique structure, liposomes can entrap hydrophobic agents within the lipid bilayers and encap-sulate hydrophilic agents inside the center aqueous compartment, which protects the agents from degradation. The inherent advan-tages of liposomes, such as high agent-loading efficiency, high sta-bility in biological environments, controllable release kinetics, and biocompatibility, provide liposomes with better pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of theranostic agents than many other car-riers in clinical studies [2]. A liposome can be obtained with the ACE2 receptor on the surface [3]. The SARS-CoV-2 virus binds to the liposome and fuses with it instead of attacking host cells. The liposome can contain: 1. nothing - SARS-CoV-2 is sequestered in-side and hence neutralized, 2. methylating agent, e.g. DMSO [4], 3. ribonuclease (RNAse) - neutralizes viral RNA, 4. antisense RNA or DNA strand.
163 ApoE-Knockout Mice: What are New Achievements of this Model of Atherosclerosis? , Lorkowska–Zawicka B and JawieÅ„ J
Due to apolipoprotein E - knockout mouse model of athroclerosis several new questions about atherogenesis have been recently answered. This review mainly focuses on two types of cells: one „atypical” for atherogenesis: neutrophils and one „typical”: macro-phages.New studies suggest important roles for NETs (Neutrophilextracellular traps). Smooth muscle cells in plaque can recruit neutro-phils, which undergo NETosis. NET-derived histone H4 is able to cause the lysis of smooth muscle cells. All may result in rupture of plaque.Neutrophils are recruited by GM-CSF to the ischemic placeand there they can develop proteolysis. It was also shown that neutro-phil depletion can reduce the size of myocardial infarction. Neutrophils can cause the healing after myocardial infarction, They do it by releasing neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). Thus neutrophil contribute to the development of M2 macrophages.Recent studies showed that hyperlipidemia-triggered neutrophilia may induce early stages of atherogenesis. Clinical studies have previously showed a correlation between neutrophil and the risk for events. Hypercholesterolemia induces G-CSF, the very important cytokine in granulopoiesis. G-CSF decreases bone marrow CXCL12 levels, reducing the clearance of aged neutrophils. On the other hand, hypercholesterolemia increases CXCL1 levels. This unables neutrophil mobilization via CXCR2. To sum up, hyperlipidemia disturbs cytokine system controlling neutrophil homeostasis, increasing peripheral neutrophil counts.Atherosclerosis is characterized by an imbalance between pro-resolving and pro-inflammatory mediators, such as leukotrienes, leading to defective resolution of inflammation, tissue injury and damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP)-mediated inflamma-tion. The ratio of pro-resolving lipid mediators to leukotrienes is low in advanced vs early atherosclerotic plaques, and a low resolvin D1 (RvD1): leukotriene B4 ratio in saliva can predict carotid intimal thickness in humans. Similarly in mice, the advanced atheroscle-rotic lesions are deficient in pro-resolving lipid mediators.Since 1992 the mouse has become a new model for atherogenesis - namely apolipoprotein E - knockout (ApoE-KO) mice were developed. It is the only murine model that develops lesions on chow diet. It was said that apoE - knockout mice model has changed the face of atherogenesis [1]. Currently, thanks to ApoE-KO several questions about atherosclerosis was answered. Following review will mainly focus on two types of cells: one „atypical”: neutrophils and one „typical”: macrophages [2].Keywords:ApoE-KO; Atherosclerosis; Neutrophils
164 Control Over Peptide Based Nanostructures for Biomedical Applications , Goutam Ghosh
 Programming the supramolecular polymerization of building blocks in aqueous medium is a prerequisite to create tunable and well-ordered nanomaterials with multiple functionalities for potential applications in biomedical field. The most sophisticated structures in Nature are often obtained by highly ordered and controlled self-assembly of molecular units in all dimensions, in which the interplay between various weak non-covalent interactions, including hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, hydrophobic interactions, and van der Waals interactions play a key role. The exploration of bioinspired assemblies not only allows for mimicking the structures of living systems, but it also leads to functions for applications in different fields that benefit mankind. In the past decades, efforts to understand thermodynamically controlled self-assembly of artificial small molecules have produced a large library of candidates for various biomedical and materials-based applications. More recent investigations, however, have shown that kinetically favored metastable species can also exist in competition with the thermodynamic product, which strongly influences the outcome of the self-assembly process and, ultimately, the nanoscale morphology. Control over the dimensions of self-assembled nanostructures by different processing methodologies has important implications for the performance of functional devices. In order to furnish functional synthetic supramolecular biomaterials, it is now unexceptional to combine self-assembling building blocks with molecules possessing coveted functional property, such as selective recognition of a cell surface receptor, antigenicity or enzymatic activity. A recent bias in supramolecular chemistry has focused on examining the interactions between nanomaterials and biological systems that rely on the size and shape of nanostructures. However, it remains challenging to program the self-assembly of building blocks into nanostructures with specific size and shape. Among all the renowned building blocks, peptides are especially desirable candidates for biomaterials applications because of their unique facets such as: a) they are built on naturally occurring amino acids that are biocompatible and biodegradable; b) they can be synthesized using versatile and cost-effective methods; c) they are highly responsive to the environmental conditions; d) based on the amino acid sequence, they self-assemble into a wide variety of nano- and mesoscopic structures such as micelles, vesicles, fibrils, nanosheets, ribbons and nanotubes as well as numerous secondary structures such as β- sheet, α-helix, coiled coils, etc. Generally, self-assembly of peptides follows a spontaneous thermodynamic pathway based on the synergistic effect of different intermolecular non-covalent interactions. The energy landscape of the finally organized nanostructures not only builds upon the fine adjustment of weak non-covalent interactions but can also be regulated by tuning of external variables such as pH, temperature, counterions, concentration, solvent, and thermo-, redox-, photo-responses. Fine tuning of selected experimental parameters allows the isolation of metastable self-assembled structures and ultimately controls the kinetics of the transformation into the thermodynamic product. Kinetic control of peptide assembly is necessary not only for gaining insights into the mechanistic pathways, but also to create dynamic materials. Currently, these harmonizable nanostructures have gained rigorous attention due to their wide variety of applications in biomedicine such as for drug-delivery, tissue engineering, antimicrobial coating and bioinspired nanotechnology (hybrid materials for optoelectronics, nanocatalysis, biosensing etc).
165 Effect of Processing of Horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum) on the Glycemic Index Value of Normal and Diabetic Subjects , Luna Dutta Baruah and Asha Arya
Horse gram (Macrotyloma uniflorum, earlier Dolichos biflorus. L) is an underutilized legumes which has the potential to be used as a low glycemic index (GI) food due to their slow rate of starch digestion. It is reported as an excellent source of protein, dietary fibre, micronutrients, phytochemicals with low fat content and relatively high antinutrient factors. Processing of pulses helps in reducing the antinutritional content thereby increasing the availability of nutrients and digestibility of pulses. Hence, this study was conducted to determine the effect of soaking, roasting, and germination of horsegram in different product forms and its impact on the blood glucose and glycemic index of normal and diabetic subjects. Blood glucose response and glycemic index was recorded by using standard methods. Results indicated that horse gram sprouts (germinated) was found to have significantly low glycemic index value in both normal and diabetic subjects (60.59 ± 3.66 and 12.49 ± 0.58, respectively), than horse gram curry (soaking) (66.8 ± 3.58 and 26.83 ± 1.02, respectively) and horse gram paratha (roasting) (84.12 ± 1.95 and 51.49 ± 0.73, respectively), in both normal and diabetic subjects, respectively. Germinated horse gram as well as horse gram curry (soaking) exhibited glycemic index value less than 30 in diabetic subjects as compared to normal subjects, hence horsegram may be incorporated in the diet and recommended for the dietary management of diabetes, thereby addressing nutrition security in terms of non communicable diseases. Keywords: Horse Gram; Underutilized Legume; Glycemic Index; Diabetic Diet
166 Biocompatible Antidermatophytic Scaffolds (TfG-Nf) for Controlled and Impressive Management of Topical Tinea Diseases , Shashi Kiran Misra, Himanshu Pandey, Kamla Pathak and Sandip Patil
Purpose: The rationale behind this study was to develop graphene based tolnaftate conjugate (Tf G) and embed it within scaffolds composed of biocompatible Eudragit polymers for controlled and impressive antitinea activity. Methods: Developed Tf G conjugate was entrenched in 20% w/v polymeric solution (ERL100/ERS100) and nonwoven scaffolds through E-spin (electrospinning) technology were fabricated. Assorted analytical techniques i.e. FESEM, FTIR, XRD and DSC were employed to characterize and assessment of scaffolds. Sessile drop and Dialysis bag methods were utilized for the determination of their hydrophilicity and drug release behavior. In vitro fungal study was performed on enormously virulent strains of tinea infections i.e. zoophilic Microsporum fulvum and anthropophilic Trichophyton rubrum. Animal study was performed on Trichophyton rubrum diseased Swiss albino mice for seven days. Results: High payload of Tf on G was perceived by the virtue of extensive surface area of G and process of physisorption. Surface morphology analyzed that TfG-Nf were nano-dimensional (90-120 nm), uniform, defect-free and possessing numerous pores. Tremendous swelling capacity and pronounced hydrophilicity were obtained that gratified crucial benchmarks for scaffolds to alleviate tinea infections. In vitro drug release data interpreted controlled diffusion of drug for 8 hrs. Microdilution assay exhibited remarked eradication (99.356%) of viable cells of T. rubrum after 96 hrs. Animal study on infected Swiss albino mice exposed better antitinea activity of TfG-Nf amid new growth of hair at infected site. Conclusion: Fabricated TfG-Nf exhibited superior in vitro and in vivo action than Tf- Nf scaffolds and offered promising topical drug delivery approach to mitigate superficial bugs and heal up at infected regions. Findings also endorse newer biomedical application of graphene in designing wound dressings (bandages/scaffolds) materials. Keywords: Tolnaftate; Graphene; Nano-dimensional; Scaffolds; Tinea Disease; Eudragit; Trichophyton rubrum
167 Prescriptive Analytics for Airline Price Optimization Driven by Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, and Excel Spread Sheet Algorithms , Miriam O’Callaghan, Dineshkumar K Balasubramanian, Farahnaz Behgounia, Neha Shukla, Priyansha Jayaswal and Bahman Zohuri
Airline industry worldwide, has reported significant losses as demand for air travel declined due to COVID 19 pandemic. In 2021, the situation seems to have improved a little and therefore airlines are expecting demand to increase. This is the time when airlines can restore their economic viability. For airlines to be profitable again, they need to maximize their profits while optimizing prices and charging the best price for each airline ticket. Pricing decisions can be highly time consuming and cumbersome since each day, you might need to adjust these prices depending upon the demand. Most of the times, demand cannot be accurately determined. Another challenge for profit maximization is cost estimation. Certain costs cannot be predicted, and cost is an important component of profit equation. Considering all the pricing challenges and current situation, we have created two models for airlines. Model 1 can be used by airlines in situation where they do not have cost estimates. This model can be used in both uniform and variable demand situations. Model 2 on the other hand, is recommended to be used when the airline can estimate its costs. Both these models optimize prices, provide recommendations on best prices and how much revenue an airline can earn at each price point. With Artificial Intelligence (AI) and its sub-systems, such as Machine Learning (ML) and Deep Learning (DL), this article of short review, is taking advantages of integration and augmentation of AI, ML and DL, by writing a simple Python algorithm to be able to predict certain cost of operation and considering for airline price optimization analytics. Using two proposed models in this research, airlines can still manage their profitability. This article was induced based on a class project at Golden Gate University under supervision of Prof. B. Zohuri and team of students named in above as participants and collaborators in this project.   Keyword: Airlines; Cost Effective; Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Price Optimization; Data Analytics and Predictive; Common Separated Value (CSV) Data
168 Progress in the Development of Potential Therapeutics and Vaccines against COVID-19 Pandemic , Abhishek Kumar Yadav, Shubham Kumar and Vikramdeep Monga
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19 or coronavirus disease 2019 and the same has been declared as a global pandemic by WHO which marked the third introduction of a virulent coronavirus into human society. This is a highly pathogenic human coronavirus in which pneumonia of unknown origin was identified in China in December 2019 and is a threat to human life worldwide. Considerable efforts have been made for developing effective and safe drugs and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. The current situation and progress in the development of various therapeutic candidates including vaccines in preclinical and clinical studies have been described in the manuscript. Until now, many people have been infected with this lethal virus, and a lot of people have died from this COVID-19 virus. This viral disease spreads by coming in contact with an infected person. Understanding of SARS-CoV-2 is growing in relation to its epidemiology, virology, and clinical management strategies. Till date, very few drugs or vaccines have been developed or approved for the treatment of this deadly disease of COVID-19 and many candidates are under the clinical development pipeline. Apart from the fact that our knowledge has risen well beyond the two precedents of coronavirus, there is still a wide loophole in the successful exploration of the therapeutic strategies and management of the outbreak of this virus. Moreover, successful integration of the outcomes from different in vivo evaluation and in silico studies including vaccine development strategies could be a great tool in the discovery of safe and effective treatment strategies. Although, vaccines have shown tremendous potential to combat the current pandemic situation but a vaccine candidate(s) effective in discrete phases of the pandemic is highly desirable. Currently, more than 250 vaccine candidates are under preclinical and clinical developmental pipeline, but there are stringent challenges that need to be addressed especially the unknowns about the disease. This review summarizes the various therapeutic targets and strategies for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection including the status of various small molecules as well as potential vaccine candidates under clinical development. Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus; Vaccines; Clinical Trials; Repurposing; Diagnostics
169 Impact of Applied Protective Measures of COVID-19 on Public Health , Sara AR, Mohamed Raslan, Eslam M Shehata and Nagwa A Sabri
Background: COVID-19 is one of the emerged pandemic that threaten the globe. Aim: The aim of the study is to Perform a literature search to investigate possible protective measures which impact on public health and its positive and negative effects during covid-19 pandemic. Methods: Internet search in scientific publications and collecting data regarding different protective measures like facemask use, wearing gloves, social distancing, forehead temperature measurement by IR thermometer. Besides, we will highlight the negative effects of smart phone, and social media, and their impact on covid-19 spreading. Discussion and Conclusion: Several reviews indicated that face mask contributes to some extent in reduction of viral infection spreading. Maintaining a distance of 1.5 meter between individuals could limit the infection outspread and breaking the chain of covid-19. Medical gloves provide a barrier between healthcare professionals and potential risks like patients’ biological specimens. Unlike pediatric use, non-contact IR temperature measurement devices evidences indicated that they are not accurate in adults and may give a false negative results, due to vasoconstriction of blood flow to the foreheads and excessive sweating and so can be misleading. Smartphone use, and social media can lead to a negative health impacts like brain activity alterations, besides their significant influence on the rise of panic and fear associated with the outbreak of COVID-19. Face shields can be used in conjunction with other protective measures like face masks to provide more protection. Throat gargling could be beneficial in reducing viral load but needs more investigation. Herbs, and healthy diet including fruits and vegetables, and homemade food can contribute in prevention of covid-19 infection. Yoga practice can be a complementary measure for those at risk of covid-19 infection. Breathing exercise did not prove any evidence to help people with a dry cough or mild covid-19 infection. Several covid-19 vaccines are now gained exceptional approval for use and showed good and wide range of efficacy. Keywords: COVID-19; Face Mask; Social Distancing; Medical Gloves; Public Health
170 Nature's Way of Protection: Innate Resistance to Malaria   , Ernst Hempelmann
The malaria parasite has co-evolved with its human host. This has had a profound effect on the genetic variability in host response to malaria. This review will focus on RBC modifications, such as sickle cell, thalassemia’s, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and ovalocytosis frequent in persons living in endemic malaria settings. Keywords: Malaria; Hemoglobin; Sickle Cell
171 Synthesis, Characterization and Application of Norm Encapsulated Zinc Phthalocyanine Nanoparticles as Photo Dynamic Therapeutic Agents , Tarun Mohan, Hemant Kumar, L. Krishna Bharat and Indrajit Roy
Nanosized organically modified silica (NORM) particles are promising platforms for encapsulating/conjugating active agents for petitions in bioimaging, light activated therapies and drug delivery. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an encouraging and significant therapeutic technique in which light is used to activate photosensitizer molecules, that further reacts with molecular oxygen to produce highly reactive and cytotoxic singlet oxygen. Localized PDT can lead to selective killing of malicious cancer cells. Herein, we have synthesized zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) encapsulated NORM particles (ZnPc/NORM), in which ZnPc acts as the photosensitizer and NORM particles act as a carrier and also stabilizer of ZnPc. Further characterization of nanoparticles has been done by various techniques to study the morphology, structure and optical properties. ABMDMA dye was used to evaluate the photodynamic property of ZnPc/NORM particles. These nanoparticles have great potential for being a PDT agent as these nanoparticles significantly generate singlet oxygen on irradiation with laser light, along with some hyperthermia (rise in temperature). In vitro studies have been carried out using adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial (A549) cells to study the anticancer PDT efficacy of ZnPc/NORM. Keywords: NORM; Zinc Phthalocyanine; Photodynamic Therapy; Hyperthermia; Cell Viability Assay
172 SGLT-2 Inhibitors: Drug Selection by Means of the System of Objectified Judgement Analysis Method , Robert Janknegt, Mark Reinders and Rutger Bianchi
Objectives: The increasing number of antidiabetic drugs makes it almost impossible to have sufficient knowledge of each individual medicine and device, especially for general practitioners. Reducing the number of different antidiabetics based on rational criteria, allows physicians and pharmacists to build experience with a more limited set of medicines and to optimise patient information. Methods: In this study SGLTs are compared by means of the SOJA method. The following selection criteria were applied: ease of use, available dosage forms, clinical efficacy, documented effects on clinical endpoints, safety, tolerability, drug interactions and documentation. Results: Some differences in scores were found between canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin and ertugliflozin. Ertugliflozin showed the lowest score, mostly because of its more limited clinical evidence and documentation. Empagliflozin and dapagliflozin showed the highest scores. These medicines are well documented concerning clinical endpoints, including heart failure and safety. Acquisition cost was not taken into account, because this varies with time. In practice acquisition cost is of course an important selection criterion, especially because there are no major differences between the medicines from a clinical perspective. Exclusion of this criterion also makes this comparison more internationally applicable. Conclusions: Empagliflozin and dapagliflozin showed the highest scores, mainly because of their documented effects on clinically relevant endpoints and safety. Keywords: Dapagliflozin; Empagliflozin; SOJA Method
173 Forskolin - A Natural Root Extract of Coleus forskohlii , Balaram Ghosh, Manas Chakraborty and Arindam Chakraborty
Novel drug delivery system is one of the novel approach towards the drug delivery system. Through this, the limitations of traditional drug delivery systems has been addresses. Limited studies have shown that the extract of Coleus forskohlii may helps in weight management. Some randomized double blind placebo- controlled study shows that the effects of the Coleus forskohlii extract with supplementations will be one of the key markers of different metabolic parameters of overweight and obesity. Countries like Africa, UAE, Brazil, coleus forskohlii used as a medicine whereas in India the root tubers of coleus forskohlii plant has been prepared and eaten as a seasoning food and in some part of India it is used a traditional Ayurvedic medicine. There are some chemical studies also indicates that the alcoholic extract of Coleus barbatus root tubes generated in the isolation of labdane diterpene forskolin (Coleonol), which has a great impact in the research of the roles of enzyme adenylate cyclase and cyclic- AMP in human cellular physiology. Diseases like hypertension, asthma, glaucoma as well as some of the certain cancers we can use this compound eventually. Coleus forskohlii root extract used in different drug development studies for proper and better bioavailability which serving superior patients’ compliance. So, this review gives a glimpse of studies of this traditional herb in human welfare. Keywords: Coleus forskohlii; Forskolin; Placebo Controlled, Bioavailability, Anti-obesity, Coleonol
174 Gul-i-Aftabparast (Helianthus annuus L.): An Under Exposed, Useful Flower of Unani Medicine Having Nutraceutical and Medicinal Properties , Mohd Afsahul Kalam, Afreen Habeeb, Arshia Noor, Iqra Rifat, Abdul Haseeb and Shafiqur Rahman
Gul-e-Aftabparst (Helianthus annuus) is used as food and medicine worldwide. It is cultivated basically for its seeds, which give the world’s second most important source of edible oil. It is a source of various chemical constituents which are used for the treatment of many fatal or life threatening diseases. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrates, phenolics, flavanoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins, phytosterols, steroids, triterpenoids and fixed oils in the plant. In Unani System of Medicine its flowers are used medicinally, especially for brain and cardiac disorders. It possessed many pharmacological effects include anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-ulcer, central nervous system effects, hepatoprotective, and cardio-protective effects. This review highlights the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of Helianthus annuus and its medicinal uses in the light of Unani Medicine. Keywords: Azaryun; Helianthus annuus; Angina; Cardio-protective
175 Analytical Techniques for the Assay of Valganciclovir - A Review , Borra Yeswanth Kumar and Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna
Valganciclovir is an anti-viral drug used for the treatment of Cytomegaloviral infection in patients with HIV/AIDS and also for the treatment after the organ transplantation and it suppress the infection on long term use instead of curing the infection. In the present paper the authors have reviewed the analytical methods already published till now in the literature for the estimation of Valganciclovir in pharmaceutical formulations and in biological samples. Keywords: Valganciclovir; Analytical Techniques
176 A Comprehensive Review of Phytochemicals and Medicinal Use of Moringa oleifera   , Devlekar Shital, Khale Anubha and Rawal Jignyasha
Piracetam is a cyclic analogue of γ-amino butyric acid which is an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Piracetam is used as a nootropic agent. Much of research work has been done on Piracetam regarding the synthesis, pharmacology, mechanism of actions etc. but in the present article the authors have focused only on the analytical techniques so far published for the estimation of Piracetam in biological fluids as well as pharmaceutical formulations in the literature and these analytical methods were thoroughly reviewed in a systematic manner by considering the analytical instruments used by different authors and some of the validation parameters. Keywords: Piracetam; Alzheimer's Disease; Myoclonus
177 Design, Synthesis and Antimicrobial Activities Evaluation of 1, 3 Thiazine Derivatives   , Khan Sana, Singh Gurdeep and GN Darwhekar
Moringa oleifera is a plant Lam, also known as the horseradish tree, is a tropical tree that has been naturalised in Afghanistan, Florida, and East to West Africa. M. oleifera is well-known traditionally for its significant medicinal properties, in addition to its excellent nutritional value in different parts of the world. Many conventional folklore reports of the therapeutic uses of morphological sections of M. oleifera for different illnesses such as cardiac complaints, fevers, inflammation, stomach conditions, headaches, asthma, intestinal complaints, and rheumatism have been substantiated by scientific studies over the last few decades. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, antihypertensive, antioxidant, and anti-tumor properties are among the many pharmacological properties of M. oleifera. This Plant also contains a number of phytochemicals, some of which are of particular importance due to their medicinal potential. The M. oleifera is said to have beneficial properties in any aspect of the plant, contributing to its several and usefulness as a medicinal plant. This study would include an up-to-date compilation of published research data on M. oleifera in terms of medicinal properties, phytochemical composition, and recent developments in pharmacognosy. This plant's different sections contain a profile of essential minerals, well as protein, vitamins, carotene, amino acids, and various phenolics. Zeatin, quercetin, caffeoylquinic acid, and kaempferol are all found in abundance in the Moringa plant. Aside from its powerful water purifying properties, it also has a high nutritional value. The detailed phytochemical composition, medical applications, and pharmacological properties of various sections of this multipurpose tree are the subject of this study.   Keywords: Moringa oleifera; Medicinal Uses; Phytochemicals; Pharmacological Properties
178 Clinical Pharmacy Interventions in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: A Review , Annette Mariam Mathew and Juny Sebastian
Background: Clinical pharmacy is considered as the essential part of healthcare team in a hospital setting providing pharmaceutical care services to ensure the rational drug use. The outcome of clinical pharmacy intervention is the improvement of treatment effectiveness by providing alternative suggestions on the drug related problems and medication errors. Methods: Extensive literature search was performed using various search engines. The identified articles were screened and segregated based on the inclusion criteria of studies on clinical pharmacy intervention in pediatric intensive care unit to prepare the review article. Results: Clinical pharmacist’s involvement ensures in assessing, recommending and prevention of any event involving drug therapy that potentially interfere with health outcomes. Various studies shows that dose alteration and pharmacokinetic recommendation are the most common interventions made by clinical pharmacists. There are certain factors that can induce the occurrence of drug related problems (DRPs) including polypharmacy, disease comorbidities, and long hospitalization and transferred admissions. Studies found the incidence rate of 5.5 interventions per patient in pediatric intensive care units (PICU) that has significant impact on the health outcome. Specific consideration should be given to special population including pediatrics who are more likely to develop DRPs as pharmacodynamics and kinetic behaviors of drugs in this population differ from adults. Conclusion: The identified contributing factors for DRPs in PICU are polypharmacy, long duration of hospital stay and comorbidities. As a part of the health care team, clinical pharmacist can review the treatment charts on daily basis to identify and suggest appropriate recommendations on identification of any DRPs or medication errors. These interventions can significantly improve the clinical and economical outcomes of patients admitted in PICUs. Keywords: Clinical Pharmacy Intervention; Drug Related Problems; Medication Error; Pediatrics
179 Hematological and Biochemical and Reflections in Some Selected Districts of Tamil Nadu that are Endemic for Fluorosis , V Amalan Stanley, Murugan S, Ajeeth Kumar K and Rajni A
Endemic fluorosis has been a continuing public health concern in many countries worldwide. In spite of the ill effects of fluorosis especially among the growing children it has not been given much emphasis in reality and policy level efforts stop by merely providing alternative drinking water and that too not continued for long and without any concern on the quality of the water. In order to understand the current prevalence of endemic fluorosis in select districts of Tamil Nadu and to create awareness among the policy makers and also the victims a surveillance study was envisaged and executed. Based on the spot screening a heterogeneous group of children and adults from three districts of the Tamil Nadu state, vis-à-vis Dharmapuri, Karur and Dindigul, aged between 12 and 40 years were sampled for spot urine and blood samples. A total of 108 individuals were involved in the screening and study. The study shows that the presence of fluoride in the urine is higher among adults than the children, especially at higher concentrations of above 2 ppm. The range of plasma fluoride is less than 0.1 ppm to above 0.6 ppm. Adults have more plasma fluoride at the lowest concentration of less than 0.1 ppm, implying that remaining is being excreted. There is no correlation between the haemoglobin levels and the plasma and urinary fluoride levels. The levels of calcium among the tested subjects of both children and adult remain normal, implying that there is no calcium deficiency that could facilitate more fluoride binding in the mineralized tissues such as bones and teeth. With regard to the Alkaline phosphatase analysis the data explicitly show that there is higher levels of ALP among children. Correlation could not be made between the Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, TSH levels and the incidence of fluorosis. It is concluded that hydrofluorosis as a public health concern is still persistent in these areas and therefore there is an urgent need to provide safe drinking water in those affected areas of endemic fluorosis. Keywords: Endemic Fluorosis; Health Concern; Alkaline Phosphatase; Calcium
180 Can Artificially Designed Protein Combat Cancer? , Bivas Nag, Kanagavalli Mathivathanan, Debraj Mukhopadhyay and Dattatreya Mukherjee
Cell invokes a plethora of mechanisms to maintain its genomic integrity. When replication and transcription occur on the same strand, to lessen their collision probability, a genome-wide bias prevails in gene distribution, so that, Replication and Transcription happen co-directionally [1,2]. But still, when such collisions take place, DDR components transiently remove RNAP from the template, to make room for the replication machinery to slide past the disputed region. Many factors help in the prevention of such collisions Gre proteins, Fob1 in Replication Fork Barrier site, FACT (chromatin remodeling), RECQL5 helicase, etc. [3].
181 Comparing the Effect of Bovine Albumin and Autologous Sera in Culture Medium (EmbryoCul-MHRM) in the Presence of Zn Supplementation on the Number of Embryos Produced by IVF in Mice , Mahdi Hadi, Fatemeh Ouroujzadeh, Mahnaz Azarnia and Ghadireh Mirabolghasemi
Background: IVF techniques are developing as an effective treatment for the treatment of infertile couples. Accordingly, the present study designed to examine the effect of autologous serum and bovine serum albumin in the presence of zinc supplementation on the number of embryos produced. Methods: 3 male and 1 female NMRI were used for the extraction of oocyte and sperm. Capacitate sperms were added to drops containing oocytes. The resulting compound was incubated for 4 - 6 hours in order to fertilization. Group design was performed in six groups: 1-control group, 2-control group + Zn (Zinc), 3-control group + AS (Autologous Serum), 4- AS + Zn, 5- AS (BSA free) and 6- free serum group with three replications in each group. After 24 and 48 hours, the 2 and 4 cells embryos were counted. Data were analyzed by ANOVA1. The difference between results in diverse groups was considered at P ≤ 0.05 level. Results: The data from the experimental groups showed the percentage of embryos in the group containing AS was lower than the control group and the Zn group. The Zn group moreover had more embryos than the control group, but this increase was not significant. And according to the results, the presence of BSA is essential in the culture medium. Conclusion: According to the results, it seems necessary to use of BSA in cultures, but its combination with AS is unrecommended. It is also advisable to use zinc supplements to increase the number of embryos in the culture medium. Keywords: Autologous Serum; Bovine Serum Albumin; Zinc Supplement; IVF
182 A Pharmacological Study of Gastric Antiulcer Activity of the Leaf Extracts of Moringa oleifera Linn , Dibyajyoti Deka, Mangala Lahkar, Himadri Sekhar Dasgupta, Dhriti KR Brahma and Tirtha Chaliha
Moringa oleifera Linn., a fast growing, drought resistant tree, is widely grown in Indian subcontinent and South Asia. The leaves of this tree have immense nutritional value. It is conventionally used by the people of the region as a traditional cure of many ailments including gastric ulcer. Diverge groups of Wistar rats belonging to different sexes were treated with pyloric ligation and by cold and restraint stress for induction of ulcer experimentally. The induced animals were treated with aqueous extracts of fresh leaves of Moringa oleifera (MOL) in the doses of 200 mg and 400 mg per kg as anti-ulcer cure and were compared with standard anti-ulcer drug Ranitidine. The study revealed the antiulcer activity of aqueous extract of leaves of MOL in animal models of pyloric ligation and cold restraint induced gastric ulcers. The ulcer protection in ranitidine group was 64.12% against the groups treated with MOL in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg was 45.2% and 50.07%, respectively. The acute toxicity study by the administration of doses of MOL up to 2000 mg/kg in the above for a period of 14 days did not show any acute toxicity. The satisfactory evidence of antiulcer activity of MOL extract suggests the necessity of further advanced scientific study for testing its usefulness in human. Keywords: Moringa oleifera Linn.; Gastric Ulcer; Antiulcer Activity
183 A 3D Engineered Scaffold Enhanced the Growth and Differentiation of Spermatogonial Stem Cells , Masoud Ghorbani, Mohammad Reza Nourani, Hanieh Alizadeh and Vahabodin Goodarzi
Background: Spermatogenesis is the process that spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) differentiate to spermatozoa in the testis seminiferous tubules. Effective in vitro differentiation of SSCs to sperm can be a promising sign for reconstruction of spermatogenesis disorders. This research was designed to evaluate the effect of a 3D nanofibrous scaffold on culture and differentiation of mouse SSCs. Materials and Methods: In this research, using electrospinning technique, a nanofibrous polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold incorporated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was fabricated. The nanofibrous PCL/MWCNTs were assessed using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier‐transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results: Then, the SSCs were seeded on the PCL/MWCNTs scaffolds and they had high survival rate and differentiated to subsequent cell lines. Also, molecular result demonstrated that the SSCs on the 3D scaffold overexpressed the C‐kit and SYCP3 proteins. Conclusion: Finally, this research showed the synergistic effects of 3D scaffolds on proliferation and differentiation of SSCs. Keywords: PCL; MWCNTs; Scaffold; Spermatogonial Stem Cells (SSCs); Spermatogenesis
184 Development and Validation of a New Reverse Phase Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Assay of Tilorone , Yenda Manishankar and Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna
A new RP-HPLC method has been proposed for the assay of Tilorone in API and its tablet dosage forms. Tilorone is an anti-viral immune stimulating medication. It can be used for the treatment of viral hepatitis A, B, C, urogenital tract and respiratory infections. It stimulates the formation of α-, β-, γ-interferons and produces interferon intestinal epithelial cells, neutrophils, T-lymphocytes and hepatocytes in the body. A mobile phase composition consisting of tetra butyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate and acetonitrile was chosen for the chromatographic study on isocratic mode. C8 Agilent column has been used for the chromatographic elution of Tilorone and the HPLC system was monitored at 264 nm with flow rate 0.5 mL/min. Tilorone has shown linearity over the concentration range 0.05-40 µg/mL and the regression equation was y = 428331x + 24602 with correlation coefficient 0.9999. The LOD and LOQ are found to be 0.0138 and 0.0429 µg/mL respectively. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. The proposed RP-HPLC method was found to be precise, accurate, and robust for the quantification of Tilorone in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Keywords: RP-HPLC; Tilorone; Acetonitrile; ICH Guidelines
185 Management of Severe COVID-19 with Immunomodulators. Efficacy and Safety Issues , Dalia Ashraf, Manar Salem, Norhan Abd El Mohsen, Radwa El Borolossy and Nagwa A Sabri
The coronavirus disease 2019 (severe acute respiratory syndrome) named as (COVID-19) is a viral replication syndrome accompanied by a host inflammatory response. The cytokine storm and viral escape of cellular immune responses are crucial factors in the aetiology, clinical manifestations, and outcomes of disease. As the illness develops to its later stages, systemic pro-inflammatory cytokines and biomarkers increase, and this correlates with a lower probability of survival. Immune modulators may be able to suppress cytokines and therefore alleviate the cytokine storm. In this review, we will explore the possible function and safety of these medications in the treatment of severe COVID-19, as well as their influence on survival and clinical symptoms. Keywords: Immunomodulatory; COVID; Clinical Response; Side Effects; Mode of Action
186 Safety and Efficacy of Methylcobalamin in the Treatment of Peripheral Nerve Injuries and Diabetic Neuropathies - A Systematic Review , Suresh Vyloppilli, Annamali Thangavelu, Sankar Vinod Vichattu, Shermil Sayd and Sarfras Raseel
Background: Recovery of nerve injuries sprouts a complex recovery mechanism in the human body. Although unclear, the pathogenesis for peripheral neuropathy is multifactorial and is attributed to factors like herpes zoster or HIV infection, malignancies, diabetes, etc. Recently, the effect of high doses of methylcobalamin has been proved in both in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. We aim to review high doses of methylcobalamin have any impact on neural regeneration. Method: We conducted a systematic review of English literature in PubMed and related papers published over the internet. Results and Conclusion: From the data obtained from the literature is compared, it can be concluded that methylcobalamin plays an essential role in the human body, whose deficiency, combined with other factors, will cause neurological symptoms and decreased peripheral nerve repair. When given in mild doses for the long term, no adverse effects have yet been reported, and those which were reported rarely were managed in the treatment period itself. Along with providing good results in the long term, it sits significantly better than other conventional methods for the management of neuropathies and associated neuropathic pain. Keywords: Methycobalamine; Diabetic Neuropathy; Peripheral Nerve Injuries; Cyanocobalamine
187 Post Covid-19 Pandemic Driving Gun Violence and Mass Shooting Rise Nationwide (A Short Review) , Bahman Zohuri
With post covid-19 pandemic and gradual relief from shelter in place order, which is in process of being lifted, we see tremendous rise in mass shooting and gun violence nationwide and cross all the states. Sales of handguns and assault weapon market is in ascending demand. Purchasing bolts now is a rare market commodities and purchase prices has been doubled and tripled in recent months drive by post pandemic event taking place. With new laws in state like Texas that now is allowing their citizen to carry their guns in plane seen and visible without any permit license and background check is a dilemma and adding sault to injury as well. Most police chiefs cross the cities within nation are complaining about sale of ghost guns that are crossing their boundary of their cities, where they have no control over the identity of their owners of these types of guns. In addition, with rise of cryptocurrency and digital currency as trading tool, purchase of ghost guns and assault weapons are becoming much easier consequently as well. Keywords: Post Pandemic; Covid-19; Cryptocurrency; Digital Currency; Gun Violence; Assault Weapons; Homicides
188 Chromium(III) Complexes of a Tetraazamacrocyclic Ligand: Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Investigation , Md Ashraful Alam, Pradip Paul, Ratul Kumar Shil, Avijit Chakraborty, Saswata Rabi and Tapashi Ghosh Roy
Biologically important macrocyclic compounds are getting a mentionable position in the research world due to their exhaustive applications in different sectors. On the other hand, chromium(III) is playing an analytical role by maturing the transition metal photochemistry and a biological role as an essential element for usual human body metabolism. Considering these facts, we carried out some studies on a number of chromium(III) complexes of an isomeric macrocrocyclic ligand and reported herein. Thus, two isomeric ligands, tet-a and tet-b were produced by the reduction of hexamethyl tetraazacyclotetradecadiene diperchlorate, Me6[14]diene.2HClO4. Reaction of tet-b with chromium(III) chloride yielded cis-[Cr(tet-b)Cl2]Cl which on substitution reaction afforded cis-[Cr(tet-b)(NCS)2](SCN), cis-[Cr(tet-b)(acac)](ClO4)2, cis-[Cr(tet-b)(ox)](ClO4) and cis-[Cr(tet-b)Br2]Br respectively. Axial substitution reactions on cis-[Cr(tet-b)Cl2]Cl with KI, NaNO2 and KNO3 in methanol furnished six coordinated greenish blue cis-[Cr(tet-b)I2]I and reddish violet trans-[Cr(tet-b)(NO2)2](NO2) and trans-[Cr(tet-b)(NO3)2](NO3) respectively. The complex, cis-[Cr(tet-b)Cl2]Cl on reaction with NaOH followed by the addition of HClO4 and NaClO4 in aqueous solution produced trans-[Cr(tet-b)(ClO4)2](ClO4). In all cases, the complexes were of six coordinated octahedral geometry. Different analytical and spectroscopic techniques were used for the characterization of the complexes. Antibacterial activities of the concerned ligand and complexes have been studied against four selected bacteria. Keywords: Tetraazamacrocyclic Ligand; Chromium(III) Complexes; Spectral Studies; Antibacterial Activities
189 Potential Non-toxic Indian Medicinal Plants may Use as a Traditional Medicine to Treat Covid-19 and Opportunistic Fungal Infections , King Solomon Ebenezer, Tamilselvan Chidambaram, Rekha Manivanan, Venkatadri Babu, Abarna Punniyamoorthy and Mangaiyarkarasi Palanisamy
The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus virus (SARS CoV2) pandemic, which originated in Wuhan, China and spread to all countries, has had a huge impact on the global human population. As a result of environmental conditions and human immunity-based infection, virus strains have recently changed and formed a virulent new strain that affects people. Scientists are having difficulty controlling the changed virulence strain in terms of vaccine production. In ancient times, medicinal plant extracts were used directly for sickness suppression and eradication. As a result, this mode is appropriate for eradicating coronavirus from the human body. India is the wealthiest country in the world, particularly in terms of medicinal plants. Some medicinal plants have great potential secondary metabolites for combating viral and fungal diseases while also being nontoxic. With a high rate of success, therapeutic plant items have recently become popular in the fight against the threatening COVID-19 disease. Under these circumstances, finding a medicine for a lethal disease is vital in order to lower death rates and save human lives. Gymnema sylvestre has shown promising action against viruses and fungi, therefore it may be examined further in the drug development process. Keywords: Coronavirus; LD50; Non-toxic; Medicinal Plant; Viral Infections; Immunity; Mucormycosis
190 Pre and Post Column Derivatization of Amino Acid - A Systematic Review of HPLC , CH Prudhviraju, J Swaminathan, K Sri Nataraj and B Rajasekhar
Derivatization is a technique that converts a compound into products of similar chemical structure, a derivative. Sensitivity enhancement and selectivity can be achieved by deviantization. Derivatization is required to alter retention characteristics, increase response to various detection techniques and provide selective response for analytes in complex matrices. Sensitivity enhancement became very important for the analysis and determination of peptide hormones, their metabolites and fragments, trace constituents and amino acids existing in very little quantity in biological and clinical samples. Amino acids in various foods may occur as free amino acids, or in the form of peptides, proteins or bonded in non-peptide polymers. The nutrition value or enhancement of flavour, aroma, taste or appearance in wine and fruits juices is mainly due to presence of free amino acids. The main contribution of this work lies in descriptive study of amino acid analysis by pre-column and post-column derivatization. Derivatization enables the analyst to analyse a wide variety of compounds by HPLC, GC, LC-MS and GC-MS that were less volatile and unstable for these techniques. This study shall help analyst to gain knowledge on pre-and post-column derivatization. Both the methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. Amino acid analysis plays a crucial role in fields like food science, clinical diagnostics and pharmaceutical product research. In general analytical derivatization is for two main reasons first is for permit analysis of compounds with inadequate volatility (or) stability. Second one is for improve chromatographic behaviour or detectability. Keywords: HPLC; GC; LC-MS; GC-MS; Derivatization and PCD
191 Tamoxifen for Five Years? , Xu Chen
Tamoxifen is an effective anti-cancer drug in breast cancer treatment. However, very few women could do the complete 5-year treatment due to the side effects of the medication. The irregular bleeding, osteoporosis, and hormonal imbalance symptoms always cut the time short. Since every woman is different in body weight, genetic compose, reproductive history, and personal habits, the treatment with tamoxifen should also be different. Moreover, since estrogen has the similar positive effects as Vitamin K2 in bone formation; tamoxifen, as a estrogen blocker, should be used with proper vitamin K2 supplement, to which, current medical world has not paid enough attention. Keywords: Tamoxifen; Vitamin K2; Breast Cancer
192 Application of Quality by Design Approach to Develop Novel Optimized Self-emulsifying Drug Delivery System of Ezetimibe for Treatment of Poorly Water-soluble Antilipidemic Drug to Enhance its Bioavailability by Using D-optimal Mixture Design , Mukesh S Patel, Alpesh D Patel and Mayur Patel
The purpose of the research aimed to develop and optimize a novel dosage form of the self-emulsifying drug delivery systems of the Ezetimibe using quality by design (QbD) to enhancing its solubility. We performed solubility and emulsification tests to select a suitable initial risk assessment facilitated the selection of Capmul PG-8 (oil), Kolliphor RH40 (surfactant), Transcutol P (co-surfactant) as Critical Material Attributes (CQA) for the formulation of SEDDS. A d-optimal mixture design use to optimize the concentration of components used in the SEDDS formulation to achieve excellent physicochemical characteristics. Sixteen distinct formulations were prepared and assessed to check the model fit. It earmarked the patient-centric quality target product profile and CQAs. QbD resulted in a powerful and economical technique for improving the bioavailability of the medication, as confirmed by the portrayal investigations of the optimized batch. It saw a great arrangement among anticipated and exploratory qualities for mean droplet size, drug content, emulsification time, and percentage of medication delivered in 20 minutes. Optimized SEDDS formulation showed a smaller droplet size of 56.25 nm, PDI 0.230, and zeta potential -13.6 mV. To sum up, we successfully used QbD oriented development of novel Ezetimibe-loaded SEDDS formulation using the d-optimal mixture design to improve the oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. Keywords: Ezetimibe; SEDDS; QbD; d-Optimal Mixture Design; Risk Estimation Matrix
193 Guiding Aspects Translating Nanomedicine , Luiza Ianny de Lima and João Paulo Figueiró Longo
As a prospect for the next years, we believe that nanomedicine could be widely translated to clinical practices based on chemotherapy reduction in toxicity provided by the technology. Oncology patients, who are the core point of all this process, can greatly benefit from adopting nanomedicines. In this way, several conventional chemotherapeutical drugs could be used in their nano-based generic form, with lower related toxicity, providing better results for patients. For this approach, doctors could adopt simple and easy production nanocarriers early to reduce the risks. During this process, new innovations with more complex technical structures could be added as confidence in nanomedicine advances. Keywords: Nanomedicine; Toxicity; Clinical Translation
194 Development and Validation of Highly Selective LC-MS/MS Method for the Simultaneous Estimation of Pioglitazone, Hydroxy Pioglitazone and Glimepiride in in Rat Plasma , Kalyani Lingamaneni and Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna
The rapid, sensitive, selective and precise liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-ESI-MS/MS) for the simultaneous estimation and pharmacokinetic investigation of Pioglitazone, Hydroxy pioglitazone (M-IV), a key metabolite of pioglitazone; and glimepiride in rat plasma has been developed and fully validated. Pioglitazone and Glimepiride exert synergistic effects on blood glucose control, were investigated in rat plasma using Rosiglitazone as internal standards (IS). Solid phase extraction was carried out on 0.32 mL of rat plasma using Strata-X 33 mm polymeric sorbent cartridges, and chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Zorbax SB C18 column (50 mm x 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm) using a mobile phase consisting of an 80:20 (v/v) mixture of acetonitrile and 10mM ammonium formate (pH: 3.0 + 0.05) at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min. To quantify Pioglitazone, Hydroxy pioglitazone, Glimepiride and IS multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions of m/z 357.0 → 134.1, m/z 373.0 → 150.1, m/z 491.2 → 352.2 and m/z 358.3 → 135.2 respectively were performed in positive mode. The total run time was 3.5 min and the elution time was about 2.8 min. The method exhibited good separation of analytes, without interference from endogenous substances. The method has been validated according to the USFDA guidelines for bioanalytical method validation. A linear response was observed over the range of 2 - 4100 ng/mL for Pioglitazone 1 - 1800 ng/mL for hydroxy pioglitazone and 3 - 6400 ng/ml for Glimepiride with satisfactory precision and accuracy. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 2, 1 and 3 ng/Ml for Pioglitazone, hydroxy pioglitazone and Glimepiride respectively. The percent relative error (%RE) of accuracy studies at three quality control levels was in the range of -3.33 to 3.60% for PIO, 0.35 to 0.55% for OH-PIO and -0.83 to 0.53% for GLM at Intra-day and inter-day precision studies respectively. The precision %RSD values were less than 4.01% for PIO, 5.23% for OH-PIO and 1.78% for GLM at overall comparison of both intra-day and inter-day studies. The method was reproducible and sensitive enough to quantitative Pioglitazone, hydroxy pioglitazone and Glimepiride in rat plasma samples of a preclinical pharmacokinetic study. Due to the potential scope of pioglitazone-Glimepiride combination to be therapeutically explored, this method is expected to have significant usefulness in future. Keywords: Pioglitazone; Glimepiride; Hydroxy Pioglitazone; Method Validation; LC-MS/MS; Rat Plasma; Pharmacokinetic Applicability
195 Vitamin E Improves Sperm Quality of Chlamydia trachomatis Infected Mice , Nasrin Kheradmand, Seyed Danial Mohammadi, Negin Nejati, Arash Babaei, Fatemeh Ouroujzadeh and Maryam Rahimi
Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is the most dominant sexually transmitted infection of the male genital tract which impairs semen quality and male fertility. Regarding to high DNA fragmentation of sperm in CT infection, it has been proposed that using the antioxidant agents such as vitamin E may ameliorate semen quality of CT infected patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of vitamin E administration on sperm quality improvement in CT infected mice. Twenty four adult mice were distributed in four groups: control, CT infected, CT infected + vitamin E (100 mg/kgbody weight/day), and vitamin E (100 mg/kgbody weight/day) groups. Five days after infection induction, animals were treated with vitamin E for 3 weeks. Then animals were killed and the testicles were removed for sperm analysis, gene expression and western blot experiments. Furthermore, serum levels of sexual hormones were evaluated. CT infection caused a significant reduction in testes weight, testosterone level, and sperm parameters including number, motility, and vitality. Moreover, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level and expression of p53 were significantly higher in CT infected mice in compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Our results showed that sperm parameters, p53 expression, and sexual hormones levels in CT infected + vitamin E group had no significant difference compared with the control group. Vitamin E can be an effective therapeutic agent to improve sperm parameters in CT infected patients possibly via its antioxidant properties. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis; Sperm Parameters; Vitamin E
196 Does the Use of Piercing Can Harm Health and Lead to Obesity? , Huang Wei Ling
Today the author wants to talk about one thing she never saw in any scientific publications about the possible harmful effects that the use of piercings could cause in the human body. What she will say in this article came from the observation from her daily clinical practice in Brazil. There is some article sin the literature, one of them written by Holbrook in an article entitled Body piercing: complications and prevention of health risks, where the author is saying about some complications related to the physical aspects of when putting piercing inside the body. This complication could be: local or systemic infections (viral hepatitis), bleeding, toxic shock syndromes, and distant infections such as endocarditis and brain abscesses have been reported. Other side effects that the use of piercing could induce is nerve damage, keloid formation and scarring [1].
197 The Role of Zamzam Water in Enhanced Apatite Growth - An In Vitro Study , Suja Mathai
Zamzam water has been scientifically proven to contain very high levels of Calcium and Magnesium, the water positively affects the human body, especially the bones as they absorb the vitamins and benefit from them for better growth. Zamzam water encourages the growth of healthy bones. The effect of Zamzam water for enhanced apatite growth and adhesion strength have been studied in the work by biomimetic method and were analysed using SEM-EDX, ICP-AES and potentiodynamic polarisation studies.   Keywords: Adhesion Strength; Apatite Growth; Biomimetic Method; Healthy Bones; Zamzam Water
198 Drug Delivery Via Lyotropic Liquid Crystals: An Innovative Approach , Anureet Kaur, Lakhvir Kaur, Gurjeet Singh, RK Dhawan and Ayushi Mahajan
The lyotropic liquid crystal are self-assembled mesophases that exhibit the properties of both crystalline solid and isotropic liquids. They can potentially deliver hydrophilic, lipophilic, amphiphilic molecules including proteins and peptides. The unique structure of liquid crystals facilitates the improved drug loading and controlled release of the drug. Liquid crystals are widely explored for topical delivery of drugs because of their strong bio-adhesive property and resemblance to the structure of the biological membrane when applied topically. The biological membrane like structure of LLC improves the skin retention and permeation of the drugs. Lyotropic liquid crystals are mainly classified into three main categories i.e., lamellar, hexagonal and cubic. The structural difference between various types of liquid crystals can be determined by using a number of characterization techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, small angle x-ray diffraction and polarized light microscopy. In this review, we have discussed the classification, preparation and characterization of liquid crystals along with their various therapeutic applications. We have discussed the potential effect of liquid crystals in brain targeting via intranasal route and its applications in targeting various types of tumour cells. Keywords: Lyotropic Liquid Crystals; Cubosomes; Hexosomes; Transdermal Delivery; Brain Targeting; Tumour Targeting
199 Analytical Techniques for the Assay of Tulobuterol - A Review , Bandi Chandini Ruchita and Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri Annapurna
Tulobuterol is a potent bronchodilator and chemically it is 1-(o-chloro phenyl)-2-tert-butyl amino ethanol alpha-((tert-butyl amino) methyl)-o-chloro benzyl alcohol. In comparison to other analogues Tulobuterol has a long acting effect. Various analytical techniques such as gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, spectrophotometry, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry etc. so far developed for the quantification of Tulobuterol in pharmaceutical formulations were reviewed and the significant parameters were highlighted. Keywords: Tulobuterol; Syrup; BREMAX
200 Co-digestion of Hybrid Pennisetum and Peanut Shell After Adding TiO2 Nanoparticles: Focusing on the Synergistic Effects on Methane Production , Hongmei Zhao and Jiang Meng
Anaerobic digestion is a widely accepted method to treat wastes such as peanut shell. The energy and nutrients are simultaneously recovered by this method. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of TiO2 nanoparticles in co-digestion of hybrid Pennisetum and peanut shell under mesophilic conditions. The results demonstrated the methane (CH4) production was improved by adding the TiO2 nanoparticles. The cumulative ga s production is best (up to 11,133.3 mL) by adding 0.15% nano-TiO2 particles. The microbial community analysis showed that Methanobacterium and Methanosarcina were enriched in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles indicating that TiO2 can improve CH4 production by stimulating the growth of methanogens. Keywords: Anaerobic Fermentation; Methane Production; TiO2 Nanoparticles; Hybrid Pennisetum; Peanut Shell
201 An Effective Anticancer Nano-approach for Melanoma and Breast Cancers Using Annona muricate Gold Nanoparticles , Muhammad Imran, Ghaleb Husseini, Nahid Awad, Vinod Paul, Babiker M El-Haj and Heyam Saad Ali
Chemotherapy is preferred for the treatment and management of cancer; however, its efficacy is hindered by the off-target side effects of the currently used synthetic drugs. Thus, anticancer drugs with higher safety and efficacy from renewable resources are needed. Nanostructured particles can enhance the drug specificity for target tissues, thus enhancing their clinical efficacy and safety. The synthesis of Annona muricata gold nanoparticles is reported for enhancing its anti-cancer potential. Green nanoparticles were synthesized through reduction of gold with Annona muricata followed by their extensive characterization through atomic force microscope, UV-spectrophotometer, zetasizer, and FT-R. They were investigated for their anticancer activity against two melanoma and one breast cancer cell line. The nanoparticles were rounded in shape and were monodispersed with 89.34 ± 2.76 nm size and - 22.41 ± 0.27 zeta potential. FT-IR study showed the hydroxyl and carbonyl groups of Annona muricata were involved in the stabilization of nanoparticles. The extract anticancer activity significantly improved against all cancer cells upon loading on the surfaces of the synthesized NPs. The findings suggest that Annona muricata gold nanoparticles can lead to promising therapeutic anticancer results, however, to reveal their anticancer effectiveness at molecular levels, further in vivo studies are required. Keywords: Annona muricata; Gold Nanoparticles; Synthesis; Anticancer Activity
202 Combined Inhibitory Effect of Sulindac an NSAID and Quercetin an Antioxidant on Bleomycin-induced Lung Fibrosis in Rats , Ramesh Verma, Poonam Mehta, Vishvesh Dalal, Manish V Patel and Suresh Balakrishnan
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is the most prevalent chronic lung disease. Studies have suggested that ROS such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical are major mediators of lung inflammatory processes. So, the study was conducted to evaluate the ameliorative effects of quercetin alone and in combination with sulindac on lung injury induced by bleomycin. Oral administration of quercetin (100 mg/kg/day) or sulindac (20 mg/kg/day) for 20 days, attenuated the severity of bleomycin induced lung injury and fibrosis through decreasing the adverse effect of bleomycin on lung hydroxyproline contents and plasma TNF-α levels alike. However, subtle signs of toxicity still prevailed. Nevertheless, it was noticed that combined low doses of quercetin (50 mg/kg/day) and sulindac (10 mg/kg/day) provided more benefits than full separate doses of each compound on the deleterious effects accompanied bleomycin administration. Therefore, it is pertinent to presume that concurrent administration of quercetin and sulindac has synergistic effect. Keywords: Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis; Bleomycin; Quercetin; Sulindac; Hydroxyproline
203 Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Centella asiatica against Streptozocin and High Fat Diet Induced Diabetes and Hyperlipidemia in Rats , Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Centella asiatica against Streptozocin and High Fat Diet Induced Diabetes and Hyperlipidemia in Rats
Mohd Ayyub, Mohammad Mukim, Mohsina F Patwekar, Faheem I Patwekar, Pratishtha Sharma, Rajiv Kukkar, Rakesh Patel and Tarique Mahmood
204 Design and Development of Novel Floating In Situ Gel of Amoxicillin for the Treatment of Peptic Ulcer Disease Caused by Helicobacter pylori , Mukesh S Patel, Alpesh D Patel, Nidhi R Doshi and Govind Vyas
The purpose of this work was to prepare a novel intragastric flotation system for controlled administration of amoxicillin for the treatment of peptic ulcers. By preparing controlled release floating in situ of amoxicillin reduce dosing frequency, better patient compliance, improve bioavailability of drug and minimize side effects. Large doses of amoxicillin (750 -1000 mg) can be easily provided in liquid dosage form, which is difficult to integrate into floating tablets. Natural Polymer-based floating gelation system was prepared by dissolving different concentrations of xanthan gum and guar gum in deionized water, then drug (Amoxicillin) and calcium carbonate were added. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of interactions between drugs and excipients. 32 experimental designs were used for optimization of formulation. The amount of gellan gum (X1) and calcium chloride (X2) were chosen as independent variables. The amount of drug released after 3 hours (Q3) and 6 hours (Q6) and 9 hours (Q9), the viscosity and the floating delay time of the liquid formulation were selected as dependent variables. Floating In-situ gels have been studied for their viscosity, in vitro buoyancy and drug release. The optimized formulation F6 provided sustained in vitro release of drug over an extended period of time up to 12 hrs. The drug release from gel structure follows a zero order release. As per the result and discussion the batch F6 is optimized batch which contain drug release 95.78% up to 12 hr, 67.12% swelling index and show the maximum similarity factor 65.09. FIIR studies showed that there were no interaction between drug and polymer. The stability studies revealed that there were no significant changes in the dependable parameters of the formulation. It is clearly indicates that the optimize formulation were stable for 3 months. In nutshell, we can conclude that the formulated floating in situ gel were successfully formulated for the treatment of the of Peptic Ulcer Disease Caused By Helicobacter pylori. Keywords: In Situ Gel; Amoxicillin; Floating Drug Delivery; Gastric Residence Time; Controlled Delivery
205 Recent Development in Biomaterials Based Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications , Syed Salman Shafqat, Syed Rizwan Shfqat and Syeda Amna Masood
The conventional treatments for skin wounds and burns modalities include the use of autografts, allografts, and xenografts. Although these approaches are working very well in development of defected part of the living organism, but they have their own limitations. For examples, autography faces problem of infection, donor site morbidity and low availability. Similarly, allografts and xenografts suffered from immune incompatibility, highly expensive and face donor shortage. These limitations related to tissue engineering can be resolved by developing tissues in vitro that serve the purpose of skin tissue.
206 Combination of the Leaves of Annona muricata, Launaea taraxacifolia and Tridax procumbens: An Herbal Medicine for the Prevention and Treatment of Hypertension, Atherosclerosis and Cardiovascular Diseases , Betira Mansouratou, Koukoui Omédine, Houngbeme Alban, Seton Santorin, Amagbegnon Jean-Baptiste, Sonounameto Fidèle and Sezan Alphonse
High blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases are the non communicable diseases that cause the most deaths in Africa. They affect the most disadvantaged sections of society who have no other choice but to treat themselves with plants. In the purpose of proposing to the populations an herbal medicine that can help prevent and even treat hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, we have studied the bioactive substances (secondary metabolites, vitamins and minerals) contained in three plants used by traditional healers to treat high blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases. Our results have shown that these plants together contain polyphenols, leucoanthocyanins, anthocyanins, triterpenoids, steroids, reducing compounds, as well as vitamins such as vitamins A, E, C, K1 and minerals like calcium, potassium, iron. These three plants together could constitute a dietary supplement whose regular intake would help prevent or treat high blood pressure, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Keywords: Atherosclerosis; Hypertension; Plants; Prevention; Treatment
207 The Current Landscape of Long-acting Growth Hormone Therapy , Srushti Sodha*
 Growth hormone deficiency is a rare disease characterized by short stature, delay in maturation and growth of children due to poor development of the skeletal tissue. The current market for GHD treatment consists of once daily injections as a replacement therapy to growth hormone. The review commences by summarizing the existing FDA approved formulations, with their indications, challenges and dosage regimen. Furthermore, we have reviewed the progress and challenges associated with the long acting formulations undergoing clinical trials currently. Various research projects have implemented alternative routes of delivery such as pulmonary and transdermal, or used nano-systems for controlled release of hGH, thereby reducing the dosing frequency. Our aim is to shed some light on these approaches, while also evaluating their feasibility of traversing from bench to bedside. In this rapidly transient field, we aim to emphasize this review on the research published during or after 2015. Keywords: Long-acting hGH; PEGylation; Fusion Proteins; Lipidation
208 Development and Validation of a New Stability Indicating Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatographic (RP-UFLC) Method for the Quantification of Luliconazole , Paladugu Venkata Naveen and Seru Ganapaty
Luliconazole is an antifungal agent. A new stability indicating RP-UFLC method has been developed for the estimation of Luliconazole using Shimadzu UFLC system (PDA detector) with Zorbox C8 column (150 mm × 4.60 mm i.d. 5µm particle size) in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage form and validated as per ICH guidelines. A mixture of tetra butyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate and acetonitrile was used for the chromatographic separation with a flow rate of 1 mL/min. and UV detection at 220 nm. Linearity was observed over the concentration range of 0.1-100 μg/mL with linear regression equation y = 89055x - 1545.2 (R2 = 0.9998). Forced degradation studies were performed and Luliconazole was found to be more sensitive towards acidic and oxidation conditions. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 0.0311 and 0.0981. The method was validated and found to be precise, accurate and robust. Keywords: Luliconazole; Forced Degradation Studies; Validation; ICH Guidelines  
209 Tissue Specific Metal Contamination and Consumption Risk Characterisation of Three Marine Fish Species of Visakhapatnam Coast , Srinivasulu A, A Jayasree, GVV Satyanarayana, Daisy Joseph, PVL Narayana, P Yedukondala Rao and ADP Rao
Concentration of various metals, i.e., Arsenic (As), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Cadmium (Cd), Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn) and Selenium (Se) is determined in commonly consumed three marine fish species namely Scomberomorus lineolatus, Lutjanus johni and Arius jella using Hand-held X-ray Ray Fluorescence (HHXRF). From this study, it is observed that, overall, Arius jella found to accumulate higher amounts of all the elements except Fe, whereas Scomberomorus lineolatus exhibited higher concentration of Fe. Further, there is a tissue-specific discrimination among the fish species selected for the present study. Fish liver contains higher metal concentrations followed by gills, and finally the least contents in fish muscle. It is also observed that there is variation among the fish species in addition to the variation of metal concentration among the tissues. The estimated daily intake and hazard quotient are evaluated for all the elements. The hazard quotient for As and Cd are greater indicating that the fishes belonging to this particular area seem to be not safe for human consumption. Keywords: Marine Fish; Heavy Metal; HHXRF; Consumption Risk; Scomberomorus lineolatus; Lutjanus johni; Arius jella
210 Essential Oil Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Lavandula pubescens, Marrubium vulgare and Meriandra bengalensis from Yemen , Omayma A Eldahshan
In Yemen, family Lamiaceae is one of the most important families due to its use in folk medicine and for the commercial production of essential oils. In this study, three Lamiaceae plants; Lavandula pubescens Decne, Marrubium vulgare L. and Meriandra bengalensis (Roxb.) Benth, were chemically investigated by GC/MS as well as their antimicrobial activity was assessed using agar-well diffusion method. The major compounds in Lavandula pubescens oil were carvacrol (54.98%), thymol methyl ether (12.15%) and Z-caryophyllene (4.47%), while those of Marrubium vulgare were Z-caryophyllene (10.95%), octadecanol (10.44%) and α-bisabolene (9.72%). Meriandra bengalensis contained camphor (64.87%) as a major compound with 1,8 cineole (12.16%) and camphene (11.96%). The strongest antimicrobial activity was observed in Lavandula pubescens against Klebsielle pneumoniae (1.95 μL/mL) which is higher than that of gentamycin, Enterobacter cloacae (0.98 μL/mL), and Bacillis subtilis (0.49 μL/mL) that are similar in activity to that of standards (gentamycin and ampicillin). Oils of Marrubium vulgare L. and Meriandra bengalensis exhibited a range of activities between weak and none. Our result concludes that Lavandula pubescens possess pronounced antimicrobial activity against Klebsielle pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillis subtilis giving it a highly medicinal impact value to be further studied in vivo against different types of microbial infectious diseases Keywords: Lamiaceae; Volatile Oil; Antimicrobial Activity
211 Post COVID-19 Syndrome. Incidence, Causes and Management , Farah Hisham, Salma Rafaat Abdel Aziz, Rana Ab El Rahman, Radwa El Borolossy and Nagwa Ali Sabri
Background: The highly infectious and pathogenic novel coronavirus has emerged causing a global pandemic. Covid-19 causes complications that affect a lot of system in the body and may be without known pathophysiology as delirium, musculoskeletal, neurological, gastrointestinal and hematological complications. Methods: A literature search was performed to obtain data regarding incidence, causes, clinical presentation, and how to manage post covid-19 syndrome. Results: Patients need to be rehabilitated to prevent these chronic symptoms. It was reported that 7.5% of individuals has impaired consciousness as a post covid-19 complication. On the other hand, cardiac consequences, musculoskeletal events, and hepatic impairment as a result of prolonged ICU admission may occur. Further complications like thrombotic events, psychological events, neuropathy, and GIT problems as diarrhea are likely to occur. Different anticoagulation therapies betrixaban, rivaroxaban, LMW heparin are used for thrombotic events prophylaxis/management. For pulmonary, cardiac, psychological, and musculoskeletal rehabilitation management different protocols are used. Conclusion: We can conclude that post covid-19 follow-up is necessary for cured patients, as 45% of the discharged patients may require healthcare and social assistance, and 4% may require rehabilitation. Keywords: Post Covid-19 Syndrome; Delirium; GI; Hepatic; Musculoskeletal; Neuropathy
212 Bioactivity and Pharmacological Directed Extraction and Formulation of Bioactive Components from Costus spicatus , S Bhuvaneswari, MG Ragunathan and J Jayanthi
The therapeutic properties of various herbs are well recognized worldwide. The phytochemicals in these herbs exerts various pharmacological activities. The knowledge on the traditional medicine paved the way for the development of Phytopharma industries. More than 6000 herbs and its various parts are been used in traditional as well as modern medicine. Costus spicatus is one among the herb which is been used for its various therapeutic properties. C. spicatus is an erect, succulent, perennial herb, growing up to 2.7 meters height, arising from a horizontal rhizome. This herb is found in tropical region of India and also cultivated for its commercial and medicinal value. A large numbers of chemical constituents were extracted, isolated, formulated and studied on various ailments. It is been observed that the plant possesses activities like anti diabetic, antioxidant, hepato protective astringent, anthelmintic, aphrodisiac, bitter, febrifuge and expectorant, purgative etc.
213 Ethnomedicinal Selected Herbal Plants in the Management of Diabetes: An Updated Review , Jhakeshwar Prasad, Divya Sahu, Trilochan Satapathy, Parag Jain and Deepak Kashyap
Diabetes mellitus has become a global epidemic over the past few decades and is one among the major causes of death worldwide. Although various modern medicines are in the market, herbal medicines have usually maintained worldwide popularity in achieving the primary health care needs of the diabetic population because of the multiple adverse effects related to them. Herbal medicines have a prolonged history of being used as medications and sources of medication for diabetes mellitus. Some of them are enclosed within the modern therapeutic arsenal of medicine, and others are used as complementary therapy or as dietary supplements by patients with diabetes. This present review focused on the herbs, the hypoglycemic actions of which have been supported by three or more clinical studies. According to the clinical studies, Allium sativum, Curcuma Longa, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Stevia rebaudiana have shown hypoglycemic and, in some cases, hypolipidemic activities in diabetic patients. Thus, it seems that physicians can rely on these herbs and advise for the patients to improve management of diabetes. Keywords: Diabetes; Herbal Medicinal Plants; Macroscopic Character; Chemical Constituents; Uses
214 A Review: Biologics in Management of Psoriasis , Anupriya Kapoor, Ajay Kumar, Arpit Katiyar and Shashi Kiran Misra
Biologic drugs also referred to as biologic response modifiers are powerful medications that comprise small fractions of components like sugars, proteins, or DNA. These drugs include a wide variety of products that are derived from all sorts of living sources including mammals, birds, insects, plants, and even micro-organisms. They offer a new era in the treatment of diseases as they possess the capability to change the manner of operation of biological intracellular and cellular actions. The developments in the field of biologics have added new dimensions in the treatment of dermatological issues. They have emerged as appropriate alternatives for conventional therapies especially in instances where they fail to respond to patient's needs. The therapy including the use of biologics based on a treatment approach that involves the interaction with specific underlying components of the immune system. The review article highlights the biologics used in the treatment of psoriasis since it is a worldwide dermatological problem causing significant pathological and psychological complications. Keywords: Biologics; Psoriasis; Adalimumab; Etanercept; Secukinumab; Ixekizumab
215 Intervention of Diet in Psoriasis: A Review , Abdul Haque Bamer, Abdul Samad, Prasad Govindrao Jamkhande, Abid Shaikh, Nadeem Shaikh, Sumayya Fatema and Quadri Mohammad Shoeb
Psoriasis is a chronic disfiguring, Relapsing, inflammatory and proliferative immune mediated skin disease. The correct aetiology is unclear but a mix of genetic, stress and environmental factors is considered as the cause. The disease is associated with anxiety, depression, crohn’s disease cardiovascular disease, obesity and metabolic syndrome. The current research on diet in psoriasis as reason and cure has gained attention with numerous studies correlating it with aetiology and pathogenesis of the disease. In this review, diet considered an important role in psoriasis patients. The main aim of review to discuss the different dietary interventions proposed for the management of psoriasis, the data concerning the same and controversies surrounding them. Low caloric diet has shown to increased severity of psoriasis of skin lesion. Antibodies to gluten may be seen in or else asymptomatic patients of psoriasis and these may advantage from a gluten free diet. Omega-3 fatty acids have revealed a strong evidence to be beneficial in several trials. But, the dose and route of administration is yet to be standardized. The alcohol addiction of patients with psoriasis has led to its worsening. Amongst the vitamins, vitamin D shows the maximum evidence of benefit, while the role of folate and vitamin B12 needs to be explored further. Similar is the case for zinc and selenium. There is evidence of worsen of psoriasis with foods such as eggs, red meat and dairy products and those rich in taurine, but the evidence is too inadequate to advise decrease in intake of these items. Dermatologists must be conscious of this management to help their patients put together the best option for dietary modification. Keywords: Psoriasis; Diet; Dietary Intolerance; Vitamins; Antioxidants
216 Bioavailability, Bioequivalence, and Pharmacokinetics: Clinical Effectiveness in Drug Development , Ghazi M E Hussein, Heyam Saad Ali and Babiker M Elhaj
Bioequivalence has also been referred to as comparative bioavailability. The concept of bioequivalence started gaining an increased attention during the last three decades, after it became evident that some marketed products containing the same amount of drug and marketed in the same dosage form exhibited marked differences between their therapeutic responses. In many instances, different therapeutic responses observed with these products were correlated successfully to dissimilar levels of drug concentration in the plasma, which was caused mainly due to differences in the rate of absorption of drug from these products. It is now very well established that the rate and extent to which an administered drug dose, to cause a systemic effect, must reach systemic circulation first, therefore its bioavailability depends on a number of very important factors. Although, the previous revisions specifies comparison of pharmaceutical equivalents. It is obvious that pharmaceutical alternatives are also included because the comparison here is also between therapeutic drug ingredients as well. Conclusion: Bioavailability testing for all products is economically difficult, and for some drugs such studies may not necessarily be essential. The question of determining bioavailability, however, is of particular interest for drug products which fall into distinct categories. Keywords: Bioequivalence; Bioavailability; Clinical Effectiveness
217 Routes of Antibody Drug Delivery and Challenges , Wenqiang Liu
Antibody drugs have become the most rapidly growing marketed drug products within recent years. During January 1 to November 12, 2021, 11 antibody therapeutics were granted first ap- proval in either the US or EU. And as of November 12, 2021, 18 investigational antibody therapeutics are in regulatory review in either the US or EU. More than 130 antibody drug products have been approved globally until today, of which most are in liquid solutions and ~27% are lyophilized powders. Antibody therapies are usually highly specific to their targets and with better safety profile comparing to traditional small-molecule drugs. However, antibody-based drugs usually have short pharmacokinetic properties (couple days to weeks), low tissue penetration, and stability issues during manufacturing, transport, storage, and formulation which limit their clinical use. T
218 Simultaneous Estimation of Gliflozin Derivatives Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin and Ertugliflozin Using RP-HPLC Methods , Arulselvan Murugesan* and Annapurna Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri
A reliable, simple, precise, stability indicating reverse phase HPLC method was developed to study simultaneous estimation of Gliflozin derivatives like Canagliflozin, Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin and Ertugliflozin. Focus of our study is to quantify the derivatives with freely available non expensive solvent systems within a short period of time. The chromatographic separation obtained by using Inertsil ODS column (25 cm x 46 mm) x 5 μm internal diameter with isocratic flow. The mobile phase TEA: ACN pH (50:50) at a flow rate 1 ml/min. The analytes were detected by using a UV detector at 260 nm. Forced degradation studies for gliflozin derivatives conducted as per the ICH guidelines and the resulting degrades were characterized by its peak area at its retention time as per the proposed method. The system suitability results support the proposed method elutes the analytes with good resolution within 10 min in a repeatable manner.
219 COVID-19: The Origin , Silvere D Zaongo* and Dieudonne Ouattara
In December 2019, cases of the third zoonotic human coronavirus epidemic were reported in China. They triggered the curiosity of local medical officers who-in the absence of evidence showing the presence of typical pathogens-had collected lower respiratory tract samples to conduct a sharp sequencing analysis revealing (in January 2020) the presence of a novel coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2
220 Formulation and Evaluation of Itraconazole Proniosomal Gel for Topical Drug Delivery , B Manasa*, Dr. V Shanmugam and P Prakash
Proniosomes are vesicular systems, in which the vesicles are made up of non-ionic based surfactants, cholesterol and other additives. Semisolid liquid crystal gel (proniosomes) prepared by dissolving the surfactant in a minimal amount of an acceptable solvent, namely ethanol and then hydration with least amount of water to form a gel. Itraconazole is a BCS class-II Triazole anti fungal drug having greater first pass metabolism and lesser bioavailability.
221 A Rare Case of a Huge Retroperitoneal Tuberculous Cystic Mass in an 18 Year Old Ethiopian Female , Dr Nasib Al Shibli*
Retro peritoneal tuberculosis (TB) a typical mycobacterium infection that is difficult to diagnose as it mimics other gastro-intestinal infections. Mis-diagnosing may result in delayed therapy which may lead to further complication. An 18-year-old young female Ethiopian admitted in Prince Mutaib Bin Abdul-Aziz hospital. Her symptoms were prolonged lowgrade fever (more than 2 months) with insidious vague abdominal pain. She doesn’t have previous surgical interference or no clear history of TB.
222 Novel Simplified Analytical Method for Stress Degradation Study of Empagliflozin an Oral Anti-diabetic Agent by RP-HPLC Method , Arulselvan Murugesan* and Annapurna Mukthinuthalapati Mathrusri
The present study involved developing novel, simplified analytical methods for estimating Empagliflozin in API and finished formulation as per the guidelines of ICH. Meanwhile the study focused on conducting forced degradation studies for Empagliflozin to identify the degraded products and its percentage. The applied chromatographic separation method as follows RP-HPLC ZORBAxC18 (250 x 4.6mm, 5μm particle size) with a mobile phase consisting of Acetate buffer: Acetonitrile in a ratio of 60:40% v/v at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with an injection volume of 10μl with 6 minutes run time. The Retention time of Empagliflozin was found to be 2.57 ± 0.05min and detected at 232 nm UV wavelength.
223 A Comprehensive Review: Prevention and Control of SARS Co-V-2 , Pramod Chauhan, Pratima Katiyar*, Kalpana Kushwaha, Shivam Kumar Verma, Amana Parveen1 and Raghvendra Kumar Yadav
Background: Millions of people in the world have been infected by respiratory viral infections (RVIs) especially upper respiratory infections such as pneumonia and deeper pulmonary infections. About 200 recognized respiratory viruses exist on the planet. They are broadly classified into a family of DNA viruses (Adenoviridae) and RNA viruses (Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Picornaviridae, and Coronaviride). Among them, SARS-CoV-2 develops a disease named COVID-19. A big cause of the pandemic situation since 2019 and have a considerable impact on human life. Therefore, the prevention and control of SARS Co-V2 are major aims for researchers. Main Body: The lack of effective vaccination against acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 [SARS-CoV-2] infection has prompted increased efforts in direction of new medicines search. The repurposing of existing drugs has brought great hope for the treatment of pandemic covid-19 such as Ivermectin, an FDA-approved broad-spectrum antiparasitic recently, demonstrated significant antiviral activity in vitro against SARS-CoV-2. Adamantane derivatives have been also reported as antiviral drugs for respiratory viral infections. These drugs are reused in SARS CoV-2 treatment in the early stages for prophylactic purposes. Various stages are involved in virus propagation in a host cell, termed as “virus life cycle”. So, all stages in the virus life cycle are imminent targets for the discovery of new antiviral entities. Conclusion: This review paper summarized all aspects of medicinal approaches and biological approaches to control and management of covid infection
224 Role of Ion Channel Modulator in Diabetes Mellitus , Poonam Singh, Vaibhav Walia and Prabhakar Kumar Verma*
Ion channel playa essential role in glucose induced insulin secretion. Insulin secretion by β cells of pancreas that response to an increase the blood glucose levels in body. It plays an important role to maintain homeostasis of glucose. Glucose stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in β cells of pancreas have explored. Glucose enters in cell membrane then later in metabolic pathway. In this manner the ratio of ATP/ADP (adenosine triphosphate/adenosine di-phosphate) increase cause to closing of ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) channels leading to depolarization of membrane. Depolarization cause to opening of voltage gated sodium channels (Nav) later voltage dependent calcium channels (Cav). Increasing of calcium in intra-cellular membrane cause the insulin exocytosis from insulin containing vesicles. Then electrical activity of β cell of pancreas plays an important role in the GSIS. Furthermore, incretins, some neurotransmitters hormones and growth factors, can modulate the GSIS. In this review we discuss on ion channels and types of ion channel, role of KATP, Nav, Cav and Cl channels in insulin secretion, expression of ion channel, alteration of ion channel in diabetes mellitus disorder, ion channel as a drug target in diabetes mellitus.
225 Liposomal Drug Delivery System - A Concise Review , Sakib M Moinuddin*, Irfan Sajid and Md. Hasanul Arif
Liposomes are microscopic self-assembling unilamellar or multilamellar vesicles made up of phospholipid bilayer. Both the hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs can be attached to the lipid bilayer of liposomes and can show their efficacy in the target cell of the human body. After discovering the liposome by Bangham., et al . and his colleagues, this drug delivery system gained much popularity in every aspect of the pharmaceutical dosage form. Recently, the liposomal drug delivery system has been commercially manufactured and applied in a variety of ailments, including black fungal infection of post-COVID 19, cancer, analgesics, vaccines, and photodynamic therapy, etc. This review tersely described the liposomal formation, classification, characterization, and the overview of marketed drugs.
226 A Comprehensive Review on Skincare Cosmeceuticals  , Krishna Dev, Ajay Kumar Gupta and Shashi Kiran Misra*
Skin care cosmeceuticals such as facewash, moisturizers, mask, sunscreen, exfoliaters etc. are meant for modify, beatify and treat skin imperfactions. These preparations have both therapeutic and cosmetic effects. Amongst, face wash is frequently used preparation that eliminates dirt and oil without drying out the face hence known as cleanser. This review compiles salient features of typi- cally used skin cosmeceuticals, their advantages and therapeutic applications.
227 Magnetism, the Unknown Side of Health , Anna CM Backerra*
Twin physics is a theoretical tool to describe phenomena in a complementary way, based upon results of quantum mechanics, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle and Einstein’s relativity theory. According to this theory, four distinct types of electrons are described. Two of these types are surrounded by a finite magnetic space, having an estimated size of one order larger than that of middle-sized molecules. The magnetic space is not fully determined by the movement of the belonging electron, but has a certain amount of freedom in strength and direction of the magnetic field inside. This gives it the ability to adapt to, and connect with the magnetic spaces of protons and neutrons, forming a magnetic cell around a molecule. To be able to investigate the influence of magnetic cells on human health in general, twin physics is transformed into a simplified version called the twin model. Possible consequences of the specific features of magnetic cells for human health are discussed, with special attention for the corona crisis
228 Formulation and Evaluation of Cyclodextrin Loaded Rivaroxaban Fast Dissolving Tablets , Trinadha Rao M*, Raju M, Swetha K, Jyosna J, Bhargav G, CVS Phanindra, A Swathi Annapurna and Y Srinivasa Rao
The present investigation was undertaken in formulating fast dissolving tablets of the anticoagulant drug Rivaroxaban. Rivaroxaban is an orally bio available oxozolidine derivative and direct inhibitor of coagulation factor Xa with anti coagulant activity upon oral administration rivaroxaban selectivly bind to both free factor Xa bound in the prothrombinase complex. The main objective is to enhance the quick on set of action, convenience and compliance by the elderly and pediatric patients without the problem of swallowing and using water. Rivaroxaban belongs to BCS Class-II with low solubility and high permeability. The solubility of Rivaroxaban is enhanced by complexing with cyclodextrin.
229 n-Covid Drugs and their Relevance in Present Day Scenario , D Narsimhaswamy, Kurra Mohan and Ravi Varala*
This commentary briefly discusses the necessity of utilizing repurposed drugs/vaccines to combat against evil covid-19. As new variants are (such as Omicron) emerging out due to undergoing mutations by virus, urge of developing more efficient drugs is necessary both in terms of efficacy and safety.
230 Green Synthesis of Uracil Derivatives, DNA Binding Study and Docking-based Evaluation of their Anti-cancer and Anti-viral Potencies , Vadivelan Rengasamy, Mohd Suhail* and Arvind Jain
In the last few decades, the world has faced a lot of major diseases such as cancer, AIDS and COVID-19. With the advent of disease, different medicines were also worked on but not every medicine could work against more than one major disease. Thus, the world needs such medicine that could act alone against different diseases with different mechanisms at the same time. In this condition, uracil derivatives also known as nucleoside derivatives came as a ray of hope, and have played an important role to cure many diseases. Hence, new twelve uracil derivatives were synthesized by a highly efficient one-pot inexpensive method successfully. It is fully confirmed that one-pot synthesis not only produces a maximum yield of products but also gives insights into green chemistry due to the reduction in byproducts, waste, energy and cost. Moreover, as per literature data, uracil derivatives (i) bind with DNA in the cancer-curing step, and (ii) interrupt the replication process of the virus during antiviral activity. Hence, DNA binding study was also done experimentally, whose results suggest that the reported compounds bind to DNA through intercalation modes. Only three out of twelve drugs were found to have a greater affinity towards DNA, which were selected for the docking study so that the bind- ing pockets of DNA for the selected drugs, can be evaluated.
231 Rapid Review on Multiple Myeloma; Current Clinical Management , Sepideh Khazeni* and Bahareh Bigdeli
Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy in adults, with 5-year relative survival in approximately 55.6% of patients. MM is a multifactorial disease in terms of diagnosis and treatment. The main challenge with the disease is that MM is characterized by multiple relapses and remissions with shorter remission intervals. Recently, cell therapy has improved remission in patients with relapsed or refractory MM. While avoiding vaccines that contain live viruses, COVID-19 vaccination is highly recommended for patients with MM. Here, we aim to rapidly review the literature and point out the current clinical management of MM.
232 Virtual and on Site Vaccination Clinics of COVID-19. Will it be Applicable? , Sara AR, Mohamed Raslan, Eslam MS and Nagwa A Sabri*
Background: As a result of production and manufacturing of COVID-19 vaccines, mass vaccination and immunization will become critical part in controlling covid-19 spreading. The present vaccination facilities and strategies are not optimized for the most effective clinical and infection control methods. Aim: Highlight the current vaccination approaches and to suggest some proposals to enhance the quality and increase the capacity of vaccination system. Method: The current immunization procedures situation were addressed and proposals of some additional approaches for improving the process and to maintain infection control procedures to the best practices. Conclusion: To acquire immunity in a short amount of time, vulnerable persons should be mass vaccinated. This will bring the COVID-19 epidemic under control, reducing the load on health-care institutions and the requirement for hospitalization dramatically. The suggested changes to the present vaccination system, as well as prior experiences, will assist in providing immunization services while protecting people’s safety
233 Formulation and Evaluation of Floating Drug Delivery System for Oxcarbazepine , Gunasekar Manoharan*, Balaji Nagarajan and Bhargava Gottam
Sustained release tablets of oxcarbazepine that float, erode and diffuse were prepared using various hydrophilic polymers. The buoyancy of the tablets was achieved by incorporation of the gas-generating agent sodium bicarbonate. The effect of various parameters on buoyancy and release profile was investigated. The tablets became buoyant within minutes and floated for more than 12 hours in vitro with good integrity and released more than 90% of the drug. The tablets exhibited prolonged floating properties due to low density polymers and formation of CO 2 by a gas generating material. A zero-order drug release involving swelling and erosion of the system was observed. This study shows that tablet composition and mechanical strength have the greatest influence on the floating properties and sustained drug release. The system was shown to have an excellent floating ability and sustained release characteristics in vitro, irrespective of pH. The floating dosage form was found to be a feasible approach in delivering oxcarbazepine to the upper GIT to maximize drug absorption.
234 Investigations of Heavy Metal Content in Green Crackers by HHXRF , Daisy Joseph*
A no of news was seen about green crackers being unsafe due to presence of heavy metals. In response to this alarming news, A study of checking heavy metal contents in green as well as normal crackers was undertaken and there are some interesting results which will be discussed in this small article.
235 Understanding Interaction of Curcumin and Metal Ions on Electrode Surfaces Using EDXRF , Daisy Joseph*, Krishna Kumar and S Narayan
A chemically modified electrode was developed for determination of metal ions (Cd, Pb, Zn, Co, Hg). The modifier used for the study was Curcumin. Curcumin acts as a complexing agent at the surface of the electrode for preconcentration of metal ions from electrolyte to electrode surface and stripped back to electrolyte during analysis. EDXRF was use to analyze these electrodes and it was concluded that the PCR modified electrode favored effective chelation for lead and mercury.
236 Environmental Dimension of Antimicrobial Resistance , Raja Chakraverty*
Antibiotic resistance and other genes are ubiquitously present in nature. Most of the genes for resistance are encoded and originate in bacteria from the natural environment like beta lac- tamases and fluoroquinolone genes etc. This rapid evolution and concomitant spread of these new antibiotic resistant genes have been enhanced by modern human activity and it effects on the ho- meostasis in environmental milieu.
237 Effect of Covid-19 Vaccines Against Delta Variant. A Review Article , Mohamed Raslan, Eslam MS, Sara AR and Nagwa A Sabri*
Background: Coronavirus Disease-2019 is a novel coronavirus strain that is producing an infection that is quickly spreading over the world. Several waves of the disease occurred and different variants were discovered. Aim: To investigate the potential threat of emerging COVID-19 new delta variants, and their effect on vaccination efficacy, hospitalization rates, and mortality rates. Discussion: Studies indicated covid-19 patients infected with the delta strain were more likely to be hospitalized or seek emergency treatment than those infected with the alpha type. According to the findings, outbreaks of the delta variation among unvaccinated populations may exert a greater pressure on health-care systems than epidemics of the alpha type. Furthermore, it was estimate that the hazard of death related to B.1.1.7 variant infection is 6% greater than with pre-existing variants. Besides, the B.1.1.7 type is not only more contagious than pre-existing covid-19 strains, but it may also cause more severe illness. More research findings indicated that the chances of vaccine infection breakthrough were much higher in delta variant infections compared to alpha strain cases, suggesting that mRNA vaccines were less effective in preventing infection with the delta type. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the delta variation (B.1.617.2) impairs the efficacy of critical therapeutic monoclonal antibodies for COVID-19, raises the absolute risk of death, particularly in the elderly, reduces immunization efficacy, and increases the likelihood of hospitalization.
238 Butyl Cyclohexyl Phthalate (BCHP) Exposure Induces Oxidative Stress on Male Reproductive System , Elif Emine Bilal Duyar, Cinel Koksal Karayildirim*, Melih Dagdeviren, Huseyin Aktug, Nefise Ulku Karabay Yavasoglu and Altug Yavasoglu
Background and Aims: Phthalates member of toxic chemical material have been shown to cause reproductive and developmental toxicity. The study was performed to determine oxidative stress inducing potential in male mice reproductive system of Butyl cyclo hexyl phthalate (BCHP). Methods: Reproductive system toxicity of BCHP was evaluated according to OECD 407 test procedure. Mice were exposed to phthalate at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg doses. After 28-day subacute toxicity test period, it was evaluated the effects of BCHP on antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation activities, sperm morphologies and histopatological parameters. Results: BCHP caused dose-dependent histopathological toxicity in the testes tissues. 28-days subacute toxicity study showed that epididymis weights induced significantly in the 200 and 400 mg/kg BCHP treated groups. The sperm count was reduced and the number of abnormal sperm was increased dose-dependenly. Statistically significant decreases in the SOD activities were determined in 200 and 400 mg/kg groups. Conclusion: The results indicated that the BCHP cause severe damage to testicular tissue and disruption of spermatogenesis and induce oxidative stress. This is the first study in which BCHP has been shown toxicity on male reproductive system.
239 The Insight Prediction of Wound Healing by its Model Study - The Review , Priyanka Patil, Abhinandan Patil* and Atharv Mali
Wound healing is studied since ancient times. The base of wound healing depends upon the type of wound and material used to heal. Drastic changes have taken place in history of material used as dressing materials. The basic science remains the same in healing of wound expect the material which includes carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), gelatin, an elastomer and pectin etc.
240 Perspective on Targeted Protein Degradation strategy by PROTAC Technology , Raghu Vannam*
The targeted protein degradation- proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTAC) technology is an attractive strategy to evaluate the fast biology and changes in a target protein, and its degradation [1]. The PROTAC- a hetero bi functional small molecule, one end contains a ligand of protein of interest (POI) and other end E3 ligase ligand attached through a linker, there by formation of a ter- nary complex resulted in ubiquitination of E3 ligase and ultimately tagging target proteins (POI) that then are recognized by the proteasome for degradation [2].
241 Whole-Genome Analysis of KPC-Producing Klebsiella Pneumoniae Isolates from Hospital Acquired Post-Neurosurgical Meningitis , Mingyue Sun, Weiqiang Xiao and Qingxia Xu
Background: Nosocomial bacterial infections from carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) are associated with high mortality in neurosurgical patients. This study examined the post-neurosurgical meningitis outbreak caused by CRKP of patients with nervous system tumours, and analysed the molecular characteristics of the causative strain. Methods: Neurosurgical cancer patients with meningitis caused by CRKP between 2017-2019 were retrospectively analysed. Identification of strains and antimicrobial susceptibilities was conducted using BD Phoenix-100, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and broth microdilution. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used to identify the subtypes of K. pneumoniae. The genotype correlation, resistance genes and plasmid of isolates were assessed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Results: Isolates were resistant to almost all of the tested antimicrobial agents except polymyxin and tigecycline. The PFGE and MLST revealed all isolates were the same strain - ST11-while WGS phylogenetic analysis indicated they were closely related. The isolates harboured blaKPC-2 and an IncFII-type plasmid; the blaKPC-2 gene had a similar genetic environment across isolates. Conclusions: The results of molecular analysis showed that ST11 and IncFII-type plasmid in CRKP have close correlations and indicate a long-term retrospective genomic study throughout the hospital for KPC-producing K. pneumoniae is necessary.
242 Dietary Protein , Melaku Tafese Awulachew*
Amino acids are the building blocks that make up proteins. There are around 20 distinct amino acids that link in various ways. They’re made by your body to build new proteins like bones and muscle, as well as other substances like enzymes and hormones. Protein is a nutrient that your body requires to create, repair, and function effectively. Protein may be found in a variety of foods, and it’s critical that you receive enough protein in your diet on a daily basis. The amount of protein you require in your diet is determined by your weight, gender, age, and overall health. Eating a variety of foods can help you meet your protein requirements.
243 Comparative Effect of Atorvastatin and Rosuvastatin in cardiovascular Diseased patients , Sravan Kumar*, R Yashaswini, Prashanthi Gundlapally and Sireesha Althapu
Aim: The purpose of the study is to compare the effectiveness of Atorvastatin and Rosuvastatin in cardiovascular disease patients. Objectives: • Comparision of Atorvastatin and Rosuvastatin in cardiovascular patients. • Assessing and managing the cardiovascular disease. • Monitoring the adverse effects, drug interactions, food interactions in cardiovascular disease patients. • Assessing the complications and consequences reported by the patients. • Counselling the cardiovascular patients about their disease and management. • Compare the efficacy of equivalent doses of Rosuvastatin and Atorvastatin in lowering LDL –C levels. • Compare the cost effectiveness of Rosuvastatin and Atorvastatin therapy. Methodology: A prospective observational study was carried out at Departments of in and outpatients at Sai Srinivasa Hospital and Fathima Institute of Medical Sciences, for a period of 6 months (September 2018 to February 2019). All the patients who are diagnosed with cardiac problems were included in this study. Patients between ages of 30 - 70 yrs were considered. Patients with Pregnant, lactating, childrens, Diabetes Mellitus, Thyroid & Other than cardiovascular disease patients were excluded in the study. Results: During the study 80 cases were recorded from SEP 2018 to FEB 2019 Among 80 patients, the incidence of CVD with hyperlipidemia was more at the age of 51-60 years in males. In the Atorvastatin group a decrease of 5.5% in LDL.C levels from that of base line mean LDL-C level was seen. In the Rosuvastatin group a decrease of 14.55% in LDL.C levels from that of base line mean LDL-C levels was seen, the difference in reduction being 9.0%. In the Atorvastatin group there was 1.71% increase of HDL-C levels from that of mean base line HDL-C levels was seen. In the Rosuvastatin group the increase of HDL-C levels was only 0.4% from that of mean base line HDL-C levels. The difference in increase was more in Atorvastatin group, the difference being 1.31%. There was significant decrease in LDL –C level (P < 0.001) in Rosuvastatin group. So, this study shows that Rosuvastatin 10 mg/day is more effective than Atorvastatin 10 mg/day in lowering LDL-C levels in patients with Hypercholesterolemia
244 The Estimation of Acyclovir in Bulk and Tablet Dosage form by Using Specificity and Analytical Method Development , Sudam G Mule*, Narendra G Patre, Ajay D Kshirsagar and Seema B Kharwade
A selective, accurate, HPLC method was developed by this study for the determination of Acyclovir in bulk and tablet dosage form. This method was developed by Thermo Fisher Scientific Software Chromquest Version 4.1 using C18 column in solvents 700 ml of Acetonitrile and 300 ml of buffer pH 3.0 ± 0.10 70:30) HPLC grade were set, C8 (4.6 mm x 1.5 cm, 5 μm) column, flow rate 0.50 ml/min as mobile phase. the mobile phase was pumped, and the sample was detected at 254 nm. For standard Acyclovir the retention time was 5 min. The method was validated for analytical standards such as linearity, accuracy, precision, and robustness. In a wide range of 5-25 (μg/ml) the linearity was observed.
245 Protein Crosslinking Onto Gold Nanoparticles by the Use of Gamma Radiation , Janaína A G Barros*, Jorge G S Batista, Vitor de Moraes Zamarion and Ademar B Lugão
Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) are being investigated for diagnostic and therapeutic nanomedicines considering their low toxicity and stability against oxidation, among other features. AuNP may be administered site-specifically or intravenously for diagnostic imaging by computed tomography or for therapy. Albumin functionalization of AuNP whether linked by chemical or physical processes may provide unique features to the system regarding biopharmaceutical aspects. Recently albumin crosslinking has been studied by radiation induced methods. This work aimed the development of radiation crosslinked bovine serum albumin (BSA) capped AuNP for improved administration of the nanoparticles. For such purpose AuNP were synthesized using 2.5 mM sodium tetrachloroaurate (III) dehydrate and 1.67 mM resveratrol in water. The mixture was allowed to stand for 12 hours. AuNP capping was performed by BSA addition followed by slow addition of ice-cold ethanol to reach 5 mg mL-1 BSA in a 30% (v/v) ethanol solution. The mixture was allowed to rest overnight at ± 4 oC. BSA crosslinking onto AuNP was performed by gamma irradiation at doses of 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 15 kGy. AuNP were synthesized with approximately 38 nm, whereas BSA Capped AuNP presented size ranging from 70 nm up to 200 nm, as revealed by dynamic light scattering. AuNP and BSA capped AuNP morphology was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy using negative staining and revealed protein aggregation onto AuNPs and its surroundings. Irradiation led to no shifts in maximum absorbance for both nanoparticles. Protein crosslinking was confirmed by bityrosine and increased with dose.
246 A Review on Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Carbohydrates Extracted from Bacteria , Shukla Pooja, Meghani Sonali, Patel Charmi, Shah Dhrumi, Rathod Zalak R* and Saraf Meenu S
Carbohydrate analysis is significant for a variety of reasons. To determine the compositions of foods, beverages, and their constituents, qualitative and quantitative analysis is used. Ingredient labels with precise compositional information are ensured via qualitative examination. Quantitative analysis guarantees that added components on ingredient labels are listed in the correct order. Quantitative analysis also ensures that the amounts of specific consumer-interest components, such as -glucan, are correct and that caloric content can be calculated. To authenticate (i.e., detect adulteration of) food ingredients and products, both qualitative and quantitative analyses can be applied. Developing a carbohydrate analysis system that can be utilized across animal species could improve the utility of analytes and the amount of data we can collect on carbohydrate dietary effects. Sugars, fructans, insoluble fibre, and soluble fibre are some nutritionally important groups of carbohydrates that may be useful to evaluate based on quantities present in diets and apparent impacts on animal performance.
247 An Overview on Osteoporosis and Herbal Plants Used for Treatment , Swarnima Pandey* and Sushant Kumar
The development of osteoporosis begins when the bone becomes porous and weaker, due to which the risk of fractures increases, especially in the hips, spinal vertebrae, and some peripheral joints. In this review article, we have compiled the causes, risk factors, and various herbal plants which can be used for the treatment of osteoporosis.
248 Application of Electronic Dispensing Procedures in Community Pharmacy as a Protective Measure Against Prevalence of COVID-19 , Eslam MS, Sara AR, Mohamed Raslan and Nagwa A Sabri*
Background: The existing techniques of community pharmacy dispensing are not optimal for best pharmacy practices and infection control requirements. Community pharmacists have developed a considerable knowledge not only in monitoring and mitigation of COVID-19 but also in meeting other pharmacy-related needs of the community patient population. Aim: To introduce the idea using electronic tools to the greatest possible extent to provide a safe dispensing and counseling of medication to avoid face-to-face communication and with a minimal surface contact between the community pharmacist and patients. Method: The current community pharmacy situation was addressed and a proposed automated dispensing device located in the pharmacy front. Conclusion: The semi-automated technology that may offer entire patient community pharmacy servicing without patient or community pharmacist interaction, hence ensuring a safe work environment for the pharmacist and assisting with patient tracking and quarantine. This will help to reduce the incidence and prevalence rate of COVID -19.
249 Review on - Chili and Its Endophytes and Secondary Metabolites , Shaili J Patel* and Bhavesh Sharma
Chili (Capsicum annuum L.) is common vegetable crop in India, which is grown for both unripe (green) and ripe (red) fruit. Damping-off, wilt, anthracnose, dieback, root rot, bacterial wilt and other diseases all damage chili crop. Damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitz. In nurseries, is major restriction in chili growing, causing 62 percent seedling mortality and 90 percent plant death either as pre-emergence damping off or post-emergence damping off in nursery fields, and is very common issue in fields and greenhouses, where organism kills newly emerging seeps. Chili (Capsicum annuum L.) is common vegetable crop in India, which is grown for both unripe (green) and ripe (red) fruit. Damping-off, wilt, anthracnose, dieback, root rot, bacterial wilt and other diseases all damage chili crop. Damping-off caused by Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitz. In nurseries, is major restriction in chili growing, causing 62 percent seedling mortality and 90 percent plant death either as pre-emergence damping off or post-emergence damping off in nursery fields, and is very common issue in fields and greenhouses, where organism kills newly emerging seeps. In mutualistic symbiosis arrangement, endophytes are plant-colonizing microorganisms. They are present in most habitats, where they promote immune responses, exclude plant pathogens by niche rivalry, and engage in antioxidant activities and phenylpropanoid metabolism, which generates plant defense, structural support, and survival molecules.
250 Assessment of Report and Requisition Form (RRF) Data Quality, in Case of EPSA Bahirdar Branch , Zewdu Tessema* and Zelalem Tilahun
Supply chain facilities including service delivery points should maintain the data quality of their reports and also submit their reports within the specified schedule, especially for program drugs like HIV, TB, malaria, maternal and child health and family planning products. The aim of this case study was assessment of RRF report data quality, in case of EPSA Bahirdar hub. from Jan 20/2021, to Feb 12/2021 used both quantitative for secondary data and qualitative research methods for face-to-face interview by using semistructured questionaries in a single facility based cross-sectional descriptive study design.
251 Assessment of Environment Landscapes Restoration (ELR) in Mining Areas of Tanzania , Pancrace Theonest Shwekelela*
Environmental Landscape Restoration (ELR) activities in mining areas of Tanzania are crucial for ecological restoration and resources conservation. The restoration of mined land in practice is ecosystem reconstruction/the reestablishment of the capability of the land to capture and retain fundamental resources. Mining alters the natural landscape and releases large volumes of wastes that pose serious pollution to the environment, to human health and to agriculture. Mining activities and the wastes of potentially harmful elements and their effect on plants, food chains, and ultimately on human health, is not understood. This leads to climate change, global warming, and loss of biodiversity and food insecurity (SDG 13). When the extraction of mining reserve is over, the altered landscape has to be restored in order to relieve the damaging effects of mining and renovate the landscape environment (SDG 15). Despite the long times-past of mining in Tanzania, no systematic literature research paper has done review on the environmental landscape restoration after mining disturbance. Thus, the aim of this research on post-mining environmental landscape restoration in mining areas of Tanzania is inevitable. This review found that: (i) the application of Social-Ecological Systems Framework (SESF) to the HASHI (“Hifadhi Ardhi Shinyanga” - Shinyanga Soil Conservation programme, 2017) in Tanzania as a case study example on the restoration initiatives. (ii) Integrated Ecosystems assessment in Tanzania (19) Experiences in Ecosystems Management. (iii) Tanzania environmental threats and opportunities assessment [1]. (iv) Uluguru Landscape Management Framework -ULMF [2,3]. (v) Birds of Golden Pride Project area, Nzega District, central Tanzania: an evaluation of recolonization of rehabilitated areas [4]. (vi) Raising voices for blue forests: A chat with Tanzanian “mangrover” Mwita Mangora [5]. (vii) The 5th Scientific Conference on Environmental Sustainability in Tanzania: Man and Biosphere reserves [6]. Thus, from the above published papers (i) – (vii) it is evidenced that ELR is not addressed yet. It is recommended to work on this gap to restore mining ELR in Tanzania.