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Acta Scientific Paediatrics

Journal Papers (16) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Trans-thoracic Aortic Peak Velocity Variation for Goal Directed Fluid and Hemodynamic Therapy in Children and Postoperative Outcome: A Multicentric Randomized Controlled Trial: Editorial , Claudine Kumba
A multicentric randomized controlled trial (RCT) is in preparation. This RCT has the primary objective to determine the impact of trans-thoracic aortic peak velocity variation in goal directed fluid and hemodynamic therapy (GDFHT) on postoperative morbidity in children in major surgery. This Editorial highlights essential points of this RCT in preparation.
2 Introducing the One-Pot-Amine-Thiol-Ene Reaction to Develop Redox Responsive Nanocarriers for its Potential Use in Anticancer Drug Release , Sayan Basak
The aim to protect the healthy cells remains one of the prime challenges while designing an anticancer drug and its delivery pathway. With the advent of advanced nanocarriers coupled with stimuli-responsive polymer frameworks, the drug-loaded matrix can efficiently deliver the drug with a negligible impact on the healthy cells. The reinforced linkages (ionic and covalent) between the drug molecule and the polymer help in an enhanced encapsu-lation, thereby minimizing the faulty delivery and increasing the overall efficacy of the process. Furthermore, the integration of stimuli-responsive properties tunes the material to exhibit more precise functionalities, such as reputing of the polymer network at the desired location when excited with a specific stimulus, harmo-nizes the process to deliver drug molecules very precisely
3 The Morbidity of Anaemia in Children with Colostomies. A Cohort-Based Study , Peter Mwika, Francis Osawa, James Ndung’u and Timothy Jumbi
Introduction: Anaemia is a contributor to significant morbidity in children with colostomies. The causes of anaemia maybe be multi-factorial the effect of which may impact on the growth and nutritional aspects of the child while ultimately delaying definitive surgery. To quantify the morbidity of anaemia in children with colostomies, we sought to objectively identify the association between the presence of colonic stomas and the levels of haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume in a cohort of children managed in a tertiary hospital in Kenya.Materials and Methods: A descriptive cohort study carried out in Kenyatta National hospital between 2015 and 2017 which recruited 40 patients in total. Blood samples were collected for haemoglobin and mean corpuscular volume levels as markers for anaemia. For comparison similar samples were collected from a pool of patients matched for age and sex with umbilical and inguinal hernia to serve as controls. Data was analysed and presented based on the hematologic indices above.Results: There were 22 (55%) cases who met the definition of anaemia based on a haemoglobin cut off values compared to 13 (32.5%) controls. Both the mean haemoglobin level and mean MCV were significantly lower in the children with colostomies.Conclusion: Colostomies are associated with anaemia in children. Identification and correction of anaemic states through screening, haematinics and colostomy care may mitigate the morbidity associated with anaemia.
4 Hyperkinetic Syndrome in Adolescent with HIV-Infection , Borysova TP, Badogina LP, Allahverdieva ZS and Samsonenko SV
A clinical case of a rare manifestation of HIV encephalopathy in a teenager in the form of generalized hyperkinesis is described. Differential diagnosis with acute rheumatic fever, systemic connective tissue disease, demyelinating diseases, tumors of the central nervous system, Wilson-Konovalov disease is presented.
5 Acid-Base Disturbances: A Key Concept to Prevent Life-Threatening State of Sick Children , Mir Mohammad Yusuf
Essentially all sick children, can lead to acid-base disturbances. Therefore, acid-base disorders need to be anticipated in all critically ill pediatric patients. Monitoring of the acid-base status will allow the early recognition of derangements and the prevention of what could become a life-threatening state. Acidosis is the most common acid-base derangement in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), with metabolic acidosis pH of < 7.2 potentially indicating a more severe course and worse outcome. Further assessment of the type of acidosis and the presence of a mixed acid-base disorder requires measurement of pCO2, serum bicarbonate and calculation of the anion gap. The most commonly encountered causes of metabolic acidosis in the PICU are sepsis, renal insufficiency and DKA, while Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) and Severe Status Asthmaticus are the usual suspects in respiratory acidosis. Alkalosis, on the other hand, is less common in the PICU. Fluid status derangements and, especially, gastric fluid depletion are the usual underlying causes of metabolic alkalosis, whereas rapid respiration secondary to lung diseases, excessive mechanical ventilation, or central nervous system diseases are the common causes of respiratory alkalosis. In the PICU, identification of acid-base derangements is followed by timely stabilization of the patient irrespective of the underlying cause. Depending on the severity of the derangement and the patient’s response to the stabilizing interventions, the underlying cause might also need to be aggressively sought and emergently reversed. Identification of the underlying cause(s) of the acid-base disorder at hand may be the final step in the management of these patients, but plays an important role both in the prevention of worsening of the derangement and other complications as well as in the determination of the patient’s overall prognosis.
6 Implementation of an Awareness Program and Lifestyle Intervention on Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome among Adolescent Schoolgirls in In , Valarmathi Selvaraj, Jain Vanitha, Fabiola M Dhanraj, Prema Sekar and Anitha Rajendra Babu
Authors share their experiences from a research on polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) risk among adolescent schoolgirls in a South Indian state. One hundred and twenty school going adolescent girls from a government funded school in Southern India were assessed for PCOS risk, among which 40 had PCOS risk (moderate risk 36, high risk 4). These 40 were grouped in to either experimental or control which 20 each. Experimental group received awareness program and lifestyle modifications (yoga and exercise) by the researcher in coordination with the schoolteachers at the school premises. Pretest knowledge assessment showed, 16 (80%) in the experimental and 15 (75%) on the control group had ‘moderate’ knowledge. Post intervention, 15 (75%) had adequate knowledge in the experimental group and 9 (45%) in the control group. Knowledge score during pretest was mean 11.30; SD 4.91, t = 5.27; p = 0.000 in the experimental group, and 11.25; SD = 4.44, t = 2.85; p = 00.01 in the control group. Knowledge score of post-test was 11.30; SD 4.91; t = 5.27; p = 0.000 in the experimental and the mean 14.35; S.D 4.44; t = 2.85; p = 0.01 in the control group. Attitude score during pretest was 51.80; SD = 11.12, t = 0.01; p = 0.000 in the experimental and 53.45 SD = 5.91; t = 2.99; p = 00.01) in the control group. Attitude score during posttest was mean 53.45; SD = 5.91, t = 2.99; p = 0.1 in the experimental group and 53.45 SD = 5.91; t = 2.99; p = 00.01 in the control group. Improvements in knowledge and attitude score demonstrates the feasibility of lifestyle intervention targeted at adolescent girls, with PCOS risk, in school premises
7 Typologies of Preponderant Mindset among Single Parents of Children with ADHD , Jocelyn B Hipona
Background and Objective: There are only few researches that tackle about the parenting style of single parents and their coping mechanism in response to their emotional stress in raising a child with ADHD. The purpose of this study is to explore the livid experiences, parenting style and coping mechanism of single parents in raising a child with ADHD. This study will provide an appropriate support from the healthcare providers to minimize their emotional stress and also to raise advocacy for single parents who are exceptional in caring for their child with this kind of disruptive behavior.Methods: A qualitative research approach was utilized to describe lived experiences of single parents rearing children with ADHD and give them meaning. This study utilized apurposive sampling and collected the data in primary schools in the Philippines, which offer special education and support for children with special conditions. A total of 4 single parents participated in this study that nurtures a clinically diagnosed ADHD child. A self-made 12 items questionnaires validated by experts was applied in this research to explore the experiences of single parents raising a child with ADHD, their strength and weakness and coping skills.Results: Ideas were extracted through interview and the results revealed three different aspects in the care of these children. In cool and warm analyses, different factors show significant part in handling and caring for children. The study proved that being a single parent requires many functions and abilities. The result of this study captured the mindsets and perceptions of parents caring for children with ADHD.Conclusion: Single parents who were involved in caring for their children that is clinically diagnosed with ADHD often have a positive outlook in their status and accepted the fact that their child is suffering from this disorder. They are also working hard to sustain the needs of their children. They were able to ascertain that a child with behavioral disorder does not make a difference in disciplining a normal child. It is essential to teach the parents to set firm limits and give consequences to their child’s actions and not to be treated like a special child.
8 Offering Hydroxychloroquine Prophylaxis to High Risk Corona Warriors: Ongoing Debate , Roosy Aulakh1 and CS Gautam.
Undoubtedly, it is high time to take up the COVID-19 challenge and act aptly and promptly to prevent the exponential spread of the highly transmissible novel corona virus worldwide to encounter this ongoing deadly healthcare crisis. SARS-CoV2 virus has been demonstrated to have high transmissibility with humans worldwide being clueless on how to manage its spread.
9 Age and Gender Based Self-Reported Impact of Disclosure of HIV/AIDS Diagnosis from Adolescents Receiving Care at University Teaching Hospital, Uyo, South-South Nigeria , Dixon-Umo OT,Ikpeme EE and Ekpenyong EE.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection still contributes significantly to adolescent mortality in sub-Saharan Africa but many infected children are surviving into adolescence and adulthood. Infected adolescents need to know their status for their proper self-care and prevention of transmission. Studies on effects of disclosure from adolescents’ perspectives are few. This study sought for the self-reported impact on disclosed adolescents.
10 Presentation, Management and Pathogenesis of the SARS-CoV-2 in Children , Sam Hassan.
Background: The current pandemic due to the novel coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2) (Figure 1) that caused COVID-19 infection is the most prevalent challenge for mankind since the World War II. This is a review article about up-to-date studies of this global signifi-cant pandemic. Methods and Results: Review of current and related researches published online in English language about SARS-CoV-2 particularly in children. For the purpose of the journal citation the references reduced from 119 reviewed articles to 49 references, hence some of the references will be referred to within the text. Until now June 2020, the confirmed cases of infection globally exceeding 8.5 mil-lion cases with a mortality rate just above 6%. The confirmed reported cases are not representing the tangible scale of the pandemic due to insufficient testing programs, asymptomatic cases and false negatives following upper respiratory swabs only. The pandemic started with an epicenter in Wuhan city in China and moved like a tsunami to a second epicenter in Europe particularly Italy and Spain before it landed in the United States and the UK and lastly emerged in South America and Africa. Both adults and children are at risk of the disease however the course of the infection is milder in children. Spread of the infection may happen from any infected individual to others. Death were reported more in adults particularly the elderly and patients with preexisted comorbidities. This article is a review of the current studies focusing on the nature of the virus, immunopathology, clinical presentation in children and shading light on management and control. Conclusion: Children are less likely to show sever SARS-CoV-2 infection with lower mortality rate than adults, most likely due to their immune system. Possible causes are the molecular receptors used by the virus for host cell entry, the crossed immunity against common corona viruses and other causes need more studies. Children show milder, different or asymptomatic course, hence the number may be under-estimated. The overall consequences of the COVID-19 on children is yet to be understood especially in relation to pregnancy, new-born babies, educations, welfare and future. The post COVID-19 complications such as, psychological and mental impacts, respiratory complications and post-viral sequela yet to be identified.
11 Different Designs of Feeding Aids for Cleft Palatal Defects , Anshul Chugh, Divya Dahiya, Harleen, Sunita, Anamika and Amit Dahiya
Cleft lip and palate is a congenital anomaly resulting in functional, esthetic and psychological disharmony of the patient. In infants, parents face a major problem in feeding them because of oro-nasal communication prior to any surgical intervention. In this article, various designs of passive feeding plates have been described to meet the nutritional demands of the infants. In young children, active feeding plates help in improving functioning along with the naso alveolar moulding.
12 The Neuroautonomic Regulation Dynamic in Children with Recurrent Upper Respiratory Tract Infection and Decreased Myocardial Functional Reserve after New Rehabilitation Program , Leonid Ovcharenko, Denis Sheludko, Andrii Vertehel, Igor Samokhin, Tetiana Andrienko and Oleksandr Kryazhev
The results of rehabilitation program 1 month use in 30 schoolchildren aged 6 - 9 years with recurrent upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and a decreased myocardial functional reserve were analyzed. We studied the dynamics of changes of the initial vegetative tone (IVT) status and the indicator of activity regulatory systems (AIRS), as well as the concentration levels of neurotrans-mitters in the blood serum (substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and final stable metabolites of NO (FSM NO)). The data were obtained that in children after the rehabilitation program, significant differences were found in the improvement of the IVT and AIRS indicators, as well as in the dynamics of changes in the concentration of neurotransmitters in blood serum. Convincing data were obtained that, when positive dynamics were obtained in changes in the serum concentration of neurotransmitters, positive shifts were noted in the indicators of IVT and AIRS in primary school children. The result of the rehabilitation program was a positive trend in the indicators obtained after the Ruffier test.
13 Arsenic Effects in Cardiovascular Diseases of People Living in Contaminated Areas of Chile , Isabel Pizarro Veas, Domingo Roman-Silva and Carlos Solar Barrios
The concentration levels of As in the Chilean II Region of Antofagasta produces non cancer health outcomes such as cardiovascular diseases and in last term heart attack. On this study, the determination of total As content and main inorganic and organoarsenic species found in three heart tissues (auricle, mammary artery and fat) and the saphene vein of people living in the Chilean II Region, suffering coronary thrombosis has been carried out. Comparison with similar tissues of patients from other non-contaminated areas has been undertaken. The auricle and in less extend the saphene vein support the higher As concentration (mean values of 7.7 and 2.5 μg g-1, respectively), being As(III) the predominant species. Methylation towards MMA and DMA is not a favoured mechanism. The presence of high total As and high As(III) species content in the auricle and saphene vein of more contaminated people, the damage found in the saphene vein tissue and the global characteristics of the people under study in which the As stigmas are present in all of them, suggests that As could be involved in the cardiovascular diseases.
14 Recurrent Empyema in a Healthy 7 Year Old Boy , Gihad Alsaeed, Mohammed Mahmoud Elbarrawy, Mohamed Alsaeed, IbrahimAlsaeed.
Parapneumonic effusion and subsequent empyema are known complications of bacterial pneumonia. It is seen in approximately 2 to 12 percent of children with pneumonia and up to 28 percent of those requiring hospitalization as pneumonia [1,2]. Recurrent empyema is recurrence of empyema after its apparent healing. The incidence of recurrent empyema in children is 8.9% of empyema cases. Possible causes of recurrent empyema are recurrent pneumonia, chest surgery, immunodeficiency and chronic lung diseases. Surgical treatment of empyema is preferred by many experts more than conservative treatment alone. Recurrent empyema often needs surgical interventions to treat the cause and complications to achieve complete recovery [1,2]. We present a case of recurrent empyema in a previously healthy 7-year-old boy who had no underlying etiology inspite of extensive investigation and who recov-ered completely without open thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS).
15 Risperidone Overdose with Acute Dystonia in Children - A Case Report , Rashmi Patil, Megha P, Chikkanarasa Reddy PS, Kalpana, Niharika Shetty and Sarala Sabapathy.
Prescription of atypical antipsychotics has been on increasing trend in adults and adolescents. The prescription of atypical anti-psychotics to children is very common in developed countries. However, increased trend of atypical antipsychotics in use has also been paralleled by geometric progression in the incidence of intentional and non-intentional overdose. Although, the incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms were associated with lower therapeutic risperidone. In this juxtapose we present a case report findings of risperidone overdose presenting with acute dystonia at lower dosage. Since an overdose is commonly leads to neurological and car-diovascular involvement in children and also serial electrocardial monitoring is warranted. The treatment of risperidone overdose is mainly consists of gastric lavage, supportive therapy etc. Extrapyramidal symptoms associated secondary to risperidone overdose, readily responds to anticholinergics. In Indian context, a very few case fatalities were reported.
16 The Relationship between Cigarette Smoking with Risk Taking Behaviour in Adolescents Ages 11 - 18 at a Public High School in Las Piñas City Using the CRAFFT Screening Tool , Ma Kariza V Pabelonio, Elynn L Go and Lorela L Cortez-Dy.
Background: Risk taking, to some extent, is a part of the development of an adolescent. Trying new things or experimentation are behaviours used to discover their independence as well as their identity. But some risk taking behaviours are health compromising and should be recognized early. The CRAFFT screening tool was developed to measure these behaviours to be able to gauge a level of surveillance for a child. Objective: To determine the relationship between cigarette smoking with risk taking behaviour in adolescents ages 11 - 18 at a pub-lic high school in Las Piñas City using the CRAFFT screening tool. Method: A cross-sectional study design. Purposive sampling of 615 students from an anonymous public high school in Las Piñas was done. Subjects were asked their age, sex and year level and answered a questionnaire called the CRAFFT screening tool to measure risk-taking behaviour. Z-test was used to test the proportions of the variables. Chi-square was used to test the association of smoking in the risk taking behaviour of cigarette smokers versus non-cigarette smokers. Results: Participants were a total of 615. 36.1 percent of the sample population were grade 7 students, predominated by males at 56.7 percent, mostly between 15 - 16 years old at 35 percent. 111 out of 615 were found out to be cigarette smokers and is prevalent in grade 10. In relationship of smoking with risk taking behavior, for all grade levels and for both males and females, smoking is asso-ciated with risk taking behavior. As for the age, smoking is associated with risk taking behavior in adolescents’ ages 13 - 16, however, there is no association with risk taking behavior for ages 11 - 12 and 17 - 18. Conclusion: Smoking has an association with risk taking behaviour determined by the CRAFFT questionnaire. This excludes smok-ers at the age of 11 - 12 and 17 - 18 wherein smoking had no association with risk taking behaviour.