1 Pain , Dalamagka Maria.
Pain acts as a protective mechanism of the body, by forcing the person to react so that it is removed from the stimulus. It is im-portant not only for cases where there is marked tissue damage, but also for everyday simple activities. Thus, when a person sits on the hips for a long time, it is possible to damage the tissues due to the inhibition of the skin's blood supply to the places where the skin is compressed by body weight. When the skin starts to ache because of ischemia, the person completely unconsciously changes position. However, when the sensation of pain is lost, as is the case with spinal cord injury, the person cannot feel the pain and thus does not change position. This condition leads to ulcers in the area where the pressure is applied very quickly.
2 Improvement of the Strategy in Food Safety, through the Research Action, the Huacana, Michoacán. , Avila Serrato Salatiel
The creation of new mechanisms of social participatory action, constitutes the reformulation of the community organization, cor-responding to the transversal axes from the local to the inclusion and adaptation of globalizing parameters.That is why, through the research-action methodology, new reorganization alternatives are implemented in the microregion of Huacana, Michoacan; to include new gears of reorganization of production and food education, resulting in the increase in the use of the region's own foods to the usual diet.
3 Food Education in Times of COVID-19 , Agustina Larra
Junk food, low on nutrients and nutritional properties, bear-ing monotonous colors, with excessive amounts of sugar. These are, among others, the characteristics of the food that children are closer to.
4 500 Million People have a Food Allergy , Xavier Román.
Our metabolism, lifestyle, new nutritional habits or other envi-ronmental factors affect our body by producing changes that cause us to react with an allergy or intolerance when consuming certain foods.
5 Efficacy of Ketogenic Diet in Seizure Reduction in Epileptic Patients-A Review , Aamina Sabir, Hafiz Muhammad Ubaid Tayyib,  Faran Khan.
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked seizures of varying frequencies and intensity. Several pharma-cological treatments had been used previously for its treatment. However ketogenic diet has gained importance as non-pharmaco-logical therapy to epilepsy in recent years. This review aims to discuss the efficacy of ketogenic diet in epilepsy. Key words used for search include “ketogenic diet”, “epilepsy”, “childhood epilepsy” and “ketogenic diet side effects”. Studies conclude that ketogenic diet is an effective remedy in seizure reduction. It comprises of very high fat, low protein and very low carbohydrates. Seizure reduction is due to decrease in the amount of reactive oxygen species which is a result of high ketone bodies and low glucose levels achieved by the use ketogenic diet, hence improving the condition of epileptic patients. It has proven efficacy in patients with epilepsy resistance to pharmacological treatment. In children it has positive or no impact on cognition, mood and behavior of children along with its antiepileptic properties. However further researches must be carried out to highlight the impact of ketogenic diet on cognition and mood of children. As ketogenic diet is high in fats, its long-term use may alter the lipid profile of patients. Moreover, gastrointestinal disturbances, insulin resistance has also been observed. Studies also show that there still need of clinical trials and researches in adult epileptic patients.
6 Association between Nutrition Knowledge on Diabetes and Dietary Practice of People Living with Diabetes Mellitus in Nandi County , Kimutai Sagam Caleb.
Diabetes mellitus is growing fast the world is witnessing. The incidence of alarming concern health care providers is rapidly rising. The main burden of this disease will fall on all developing countries. The number of diabetic patients will reach 300 million by the end of 2025 it is known through the estimation mostly developing countries will have such dramatic and significant impacts. Methodology: The quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study design was used with convenient sampling (n = 200). There was a relatively good knowledge (76.16%) among patients on dietary recommendations in management of type 2 DM. Older patients had lower level of education on recommended dietary practices. Consequently, knowledge on need to carry candy as a first aid when one is hypoglycemic was low. In addition, knowledge on the need for patients with type 2 DM to keep the times one consume their meals (meal timings) as well as consume snacks in between main meals in order to reduce incidences of hypoglycemia was low. Level of formal education of patients with type 2 DM influenced strongly the assimilation of information provided by healthcare providers. Age was also strongly associated with how much a patient was able to grasp information and remember. Continuous education on recommended dietary prac-tices was noted as important. Compliance to recommended dietary practices was 59.6%. Unlike the level of knowledge which was influenced by various demographic characteristics like age and level of formal education, compliance was not influenced by any of the assessed demographic factors. While the level of knowledge was high at 76.2%, this was found not to directly translate to compliance to recommended dietary practices in management of type 2 DM. Compliance to recommended practices was not influenced by level of knowledge on recommended dietary practices in man-agement of type 2 DM. Support by those related/living with the patients was reported as one of the strong facilitator towards compliance. Management of type 2 DM was reported to be resource intense; financially and time wise. It was therefore some-times difficult for patients to balance all aspects of recommendations.
7 Suggestions on Food and Lifestyle for Fighting Corona Virus by Boosting Immunity - A Holistic Approach , Aparna Kuna, Prabhat Kumar Mandal.
The world is going through a most critical threat now due to the Corona Virus Disease, 2019 (COVID 19). Here is the summery of the preventive holistic approach for boosting immunity and fight the disease better from inside. Here we propose following sugges-tions for reducing the chances of infection or to reduce the severity if infected: Take protein rich foods (Meat chicken, fish, eggs, milk and milk products any kind of pulses, beans and nuts) daily. Take any available fruits daily, especially citrus fruits (gooseberry, lemon, sweet lime, orange, pineapple), apple, pomegran-ate, banana etc. Take herbs and spices (turmeric, ginger, garlic, cardamom, cinnamon, tulasi) especially black jeera (Kalonji), is very effec-tive for Corona. Fruits and herbs can be taken as raw, juice, extract or dry as available. If not available take supplements, Vitamin-C, E (Evion), B Complex (Becosules, Cobadex CZS), Zincovit etc. Eat more vegetables, especially salads (tomato, cucumber, carrot, capsicum, radish, onion), honey, avoid smoking and Alco-hol. Daily Exercise, Yoga, Pranayam (Bhrastika, Anulom-Vilom, Kapalbhati) Meditation, Chanting (Mahamrityunjay Mantra) will improve immunity. Walk in sunlight and fresh air (in Terrace or Balcony during lockdown) daily morning and evening is very helpful for im-munity. Relax, take enough Rest and Sleep that will boost immunity. Take only essential updates, too much informations in social media may cause anxiety. Drink more tea (Chinese Doctors reported very good effect of tea on the corona patients), more water (warm), enough coconut water and citrus juice if infected.10. Finally, don't panic, fear and anxiety reduces immunity, be mentally strong and positive, pray with Full faith or rely on Na-ture to boost immunity and fight Corona.
8 Self-Defense: A Practical Approach to Combatting COVID-19 , Salam A Ibrahim, Rabin Gyawali, Hafize Fidan.
In order to elucidate the importance of the immune system with regard to the spread, diagnosis, and treatment of the novel COV-ID-19, this paper aims to emphasize the need for a more holistic approach to understand and treat the COVID-19. We have provided an overview of why high quality nutrition is important for the immune system to function properly. To do this, we have summarized the current evidence available from information being reported by the health authorities and studies in human subjects, to support this opinion. Though the available data in the literature is relatively scarce, we also offer our own informed opinions on the role of human microbiota (probiotics) in creating a natural immunological defense system for combating COVID-19. We thus hope that this paper will help to inspire scientists from other fields such as nutrition immunology to be involved in order to provide consumers with a more global approach to fighting this epidemic. If we want to eliminate the threat of this novel coronavirus pneumonia, we must practically address this issue itself.
9 A Mini-Review on an Association between Nutrition and Mucosal Immunity in the Midst of the COVID-19 Pandemic , Kyoka Matsubayashi, Minami Yoshiike,Yuji Aoki.
In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, which the World Health Organization officially declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020, we write a mini-review on an association between nutrition and mucosal immunity. The human immunity consists of non-specific innate immunity recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns and subsequent adaptive immunity specific for the target an-tigens. The immune system of the intestine as mucosal immunity must have functions to defend against constant threat of invading pathogens while suppressing immune responses to harmless dietary antigens and commensal bacteria. Nutrition seems to have a major role in non-heritable influences on the innate and adaptive immunity. It has been demonstrated in humans that some nutrients including β-glucan have the potential to boost the mucosal immunity to viral infections. Conversely, it is conceivable that continuing supplementation of (large-dose) β-glucans or lipopolysaccharides can suppress the innate immunity by stimulating regulatory T cells. For now, the impact of nutrition on human immunity should neither be overestimated nor be underestimated.
10 Whole-Genome Sequencing of Lactobacillus fermentum and its Application as Probiotic in Poultry Feed , Rafia Sameen, Shakira Ghazanfar.
Aviculture is the efficient animal production system and good source of animal protein worldwide. Poultry gastrointestinal tract houses certain microbial communities with bacteria being dominant above all. These bacteria produce beneficial products and result in non-pathogenic immune response providing nutrition and protection for animals. Antibiotic treatment causes reduction of benefi-cial bacterial population in intestine which can be controlled by probiotic supplements. Probiotics play their role to control intestinal pathogens by competing for adhesion sites and nutrients, producing anti-bacterial substances. Lactic acid bacteria could be a good probiotic for animal use among which Lactobacillus fermentum is major heterofermentative specie found to have probiotic potential and can be used in supplements for animal feed. Its probiotic potential was well studied by its tolerance to inhibitory substances like bile and salt, its antimicrobial activity and evaluation by supplementing it in poultry feed. To identify probiotic properties of Lactobacillus fermentum, its whole-genome was sequenced and analysed. Whole genome sequencing is a DNA sequencing technol-ogy that has revolutionized genomic research. Whole genome is sequenced, assembled and annotated using bioinformatics tool and then analyzed. Galaxy is one of most commonly used genome analysis tool that provides data analysis support through framework, to give simple interfaces to certain powerful tools and automatically manage computational details. Following to evaluation of pro-biotic potential through certain parameters and whole genome sequencing, antimicrobial resistance can also be evaluated to make a decision about safety of L. fermentum use as probiotic in poultry feed. Administration of L. fermentum to poultry showed beneficial effects on their growth.
11 Lactic Acid Bacteria: Promising Role against Coronaviruses , Mahnoor Nadeem, Aimen Saleem, Hamza Ali, Allah Nawaz Khan, Shakira Ghazanfar.
Gram-positive, nonpathogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered to be promising candidates for the development of novel, safe production and delivery systems of heterologous proteins. LABs have diverse beneficial applications for human welfare. LAB plays an important role in the industry for the synthesis of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, or other useful products in food industry. Certain Lactobacilli can induce an increase in the cellular or humoral systemic immune response, it acts as a vehicle to insert gene to produce required protein of interest. Many of the researcher find out the best possible way to utilize the beneficiaries of lactic role to combat recent coronavirus pandemic lactic acid bacteria concerning COVID-19. New recombinant strains and vectors continue to be constructed and described in detail what can lead in the near future to standardization of LAB vectors in vaccine production. The development of new LAB recombinant strains and vectors continue to be constructed and described in detail what can lead in the near future to standardization of LAB vectors in vaccine production for COVID-19.
12 Impact of Covid-19 on Agriculture and Food Supply , Shiamala Devi Ramaiya.
The Covid-19 continues to wreak havoc on many countries and create a lot of changes in people's everyday lives all over the world. As the Covid-19 pandemic is raging across the world, the broader economic crisis is also emerging and creating major challenges to food security and nutrition. Many of the affected countries have implemented a regional lockout policy. This strategy enforced a plethora of Covid-19 security measures such as movement control, supermarket, restaurant and market closure, quarantines and sup-ply chain and trade disruption which greatly impacted agricultural production, food supply and demand.
13 The Relationship between Nutritional Status, Sleep Quality and Depression in Shift Workers , Merve Kiran, Perim Fatma Türker.
Shift work expands globally and it has become necessary to increase productivity and provide continuously service in various sectors like industry. It has been identified as an important risk factor in the etiology of metabolic disorders and chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of sleep quality and depression with nutritional status of shift workers. A total of 170 male rotating shift workers of an industrial organization aged between 20 - 55 years participated in this study. A questionnaire which consisted of demographic and lifestyle characteristics was used. Weight, height, waist and neck circumferences (WC and NC) of participants were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were also calculated. Body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sleep quality was assessed by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), while anxiety and depression were estimated through Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire. The average age of participants was 40.1 ± 6.87 years. Among the 170 shift workers, 44.7% of them were pre-obese, and 35.3% were obese. As BMI increased, the percentages of poor sleep quality increased. There were positive correlations between PSQI score and WC, WHtR and body fat mass, and a negative correlation between total body water, which were found to be statistically significant. There was no relationship between depression and BMI, WC, WHtR and body fat mass. Participants with depressive symptoms had significantly higher prevalence of risk based on NC. HAD-D score was inversely correlated with fat free mass. This study showed that pre-obesity and obesity is common in shift workers. The previously reported relationship between obesity and poor sleep quality is supported. Sleep quality get worse as WC, WHtR and body fat mass increase, while total body water decrease. Decrease in fat free mass is associated with the development of depressive symptoms. These associations need to be verified in large studies. Based on the results, appropriate strategies including both employer and worker should be performed to reduce the detrimental health outcomes associated with shift work.
14 The Effect of Storage Conditions on Physicochemical, Microbial and Textural Properties of UHT-Processed Cheese , Mahmoud Ibrahim El-Sayed, Sameh Awad, Amel Ahmed Ibrahim.
This study investigated the effect of storage condition (time and temperature) on physicochemical, textural and microbial properties of UHT-Processed cheese. The UHT-processed cheese was stored in controlled incubators at 4, 18, 32 and 37°C (the study plan used the recommended temperature (4°C), the average of temperature in winter and springer (18°C), in summer (32°C) and in Upper Egypt in some year months (37°C)) and at room temperature (20 - 25°C in months of September – December) for 120 days. The results showed that there was no significant (P ≥ 0.05) changes were observed in the protein %, fat %, dry matter (DM %), and pH values of UHT-processed cheese during storage for 120 days at 4 and 18°C. On the other side, protein % and fat % were significant (P ≤ 0.05) increased during storage at 32°C, 37°C, while, the weight and pH values were decreased. On room temperatures, the fat% and DM% were increased by the end of storage (at day 120), while the protein% and pH values were not changed. The hardness, gumminess and chewiness were increased during storage at all temperatures, while the adhesiveness values were decreased. Springiness was not changed at 4 and 18°C, but it was increased at other storage temperature. Concerning the cohesiveness values, there was no significant (P ≥ 0.05) changes were observed except with sample stored at 37°C. No microorganisms were found in all processed cheese samples stored at different temperatures. These results confirmed that the best temperature to storage UHT- processed cheese is at 4°C followed by 18°C.
15 Presence of Mycotoxins and Heavy Metals in Organic Commercial Cereal-Based Foods Sold in Faisalabad Market , Yasir Abbas Shah, Muhammad Afzaal,Umar Farooq.
Epidemiological data indicates that mycotoxins and heavy metals can be harmful when ingested by humans and animals. The present study was conducted to report the presence of mycotoxins and heavy metals in organic commercial cereal-based products, available in the Faisalabad market. Forty-four samples of organic cereals products including wheat, barley, rice, oat and maize were examined for the presence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins), heavy metals (Pb, Cd) and trace elements (Cu, Zn, Ni). Results were induced and compared to the recommended levels. 23 (52.2%) of the collected samples were detected with the presence of aflatoxins in higher concentrations then allowed as according to the limits set by EU legislation for the presence of AFs. Wheat, oat, rice, barley and maize showed 61, 60, 54, 50 and 33% of the samples respectively contaminated with aflatoxins. 5 (11%) and 3 (6%) of the samples surpassed the allowed limit for Pb and Cd respectively. Trace elements were detected in higher amounts in some of the evaluated samples. Results of the present work specify the need of continuous monitoring of raw material and processed products regardless of them being organically grown or not, in order to minimize the risk of contamination in cereal-based foods.
16 Development and Evaluation of an Infusion of Red Tea (Camellia sinensis) with Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius) Enriched with β-Glucans for the Control Glycemia in Diabetic Persons , Adriana Beatriz Di Iorio, Crista Castillo, Luis David Naranjo, Raul Espinal, Donald Francisco Molina, Ludovic Boully, Ana Carolina Arévalo, Jose Miguel Chinchilla, Poliana Deyse Gurak.
An infusion of red tea with blackberries enriched with β-glucans for glycemic control in diabetic subjects was developed and evaluated by virtue of a high percentage of people using plant extracts as traditional medicine to meet their primary health care needs. A completely randomized block design was used to evaluate concentrations of red tea with dehydrated blackberry (50/50 and 75/25), temperatures (75 and 95°C) and infusion times (2 and 5 minutes) for preparation of beverage with higher content of total polyphenols. The selected treatment was evaluated in 30 diabetics for 28 days, who underwent anthropometric measures (weight, height, waist-hip circumference and blood pressure), biometric (glucose and cholesterol) and performed and food intake was analyzed through a 24-hour reminder. Results: The treatment with higher content of polyphenols was obtained with 75/25 red tea with blackberry, 95ºC and infusion for 5 minutes. Tea intake was associated with reductions in anthropometric measures of Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist-to-Hip Index (WHI). It was possible to extract greater content of total polyphenols with longer infusion temperature and time. There was a greater reduction in BMI at ages 45 - 65 years, glucose levels at ages 45 - 65 and > 65 years, total cholesterol levels at ages 45 - 65 years and diabetic patients had a normal distribution of dietary intake macronutrients.
17 Maccabi Integrated Care 3600 - A Holistic, Multidisciplinary Care Model for Complex Patient , Irony A, Abu Hussain H, Nigel Y, Landau T, Asch N.
While massive efforts are invested in chronic populations the outcomes are only partly satisfactory. The management and control of multiple chronic conditions requires comprehensive solutions. Maccabi Health Care Services, 2nd HMO in Israel, developed a multi-dimensional solution for complex patients that combines a conceptual, technological and treatment model. In this paper we present Integration 3600 - Maccabi Integrated Care (MIC) program. Using quasi-experimental methods we compare the effects of the MIC 3600on complex patients recruited in 2019 to similar patients in MHS registry. Potential cohort is derived from a matrix including the following parameters: age 50+, chronic diseases, multiple/high risk drugs, cognitive decline, function level, socioeconomic status (SES) and annual expenditure. Potential target population include about 19,000 patients scoring 5 - 10 in complexity score. MIC patients are recruited by primary physician. Control patients are matched through propensity score based on based on sex, age and complexity score. Outcomes of MIC vs. control were assessed comparing the following 6-months outcomes to the corresponding pre-entrance period for each MIC patient: care providers visits and average monthly costs.Results: The analysis included 241 matched pairs (MIC vs. control) of complex patients. Comparing the MIC patients' visits to care providers to matched control group prior and following the intervention we found the average number of visits to nurse, social worker and nutritionist increased significantly while among matched control patients the average number of visits to primary physician and nurse decreased significantly. Finally, we found a 20% decrease in overall monthly costs in MIC patients compared to a 8% decrease in control patients with hospitalization cost being the main contributor to this cost reduction (-54% in MIC vs. 2% in control, p < 0.05). MIC 3600 is a viable, sustainable and practical program. Our findings show that the implementation of the integrated model results in more visits to multidisciplinary care providers and that the program is cost saving. Furthermore, the initiative is transferable. This model or alike should be implemented in almost any community care setting with the dominance of primary care physicians.
18 Tips of Daily Healthy Food and Nutrition Intake During COVID-19 City Lockdown and Self-Quarantine , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn, Utoomporn Sittisingh
Maintaining a healthy immune diet during the COVID-19 pan-demic, strict city lockdown, or self-quarantine is causing much changes in individuals’ daily lives around the globe
19 Intervention by Post for Reducing the Chronic Use of High Doses of Proton Pump Inhibitors , Elena Valverde Bilbao, Amaia Mendizabal Olaizola, Guillermo Delgado Alvarado, Itxaso Idoiaga Hoyos, Daniel Hernández Amunarriz
Objectives: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the drugs most commonly prescribed in our setting. The objective of the intervention was to assess whether a letter sent by post is more effective in achieving a reduction/cessation of long-term high-doses of PPI use than usual practice. Methods: This was a randomised intervention study, with before-and-after outcome measures and a control group, in patients who had an active prescription for PPIs at high doses for at least 6 months. The intervention consisted of sending patients an informative letter by post, in which their doctor invited them to seek an appointment for a medication review. Control group patients did not receive such a letter, and they were treated as usual. The main outcome variable was the number of active prescriptions of each PPI dose (high dose/standard dose/treatment cessation) at 6 months after the intervention. Results: Six months after the intervention, 8% of control group patients and 16.4% of intervention group patients were not on any PPIs. Additionally, among those with active prescriptions for PPIs, 6% of controls and 20% of intervention group patients had reduced their intake to the standard dose. Overall, cessation/reduction in the intervention group was higher than in the control group, 36.4% vs 14%, the difference being significant (22.4%; 95% CI: 14.1 to 30.7). Conclusion: Sending a letter by post to patients who had been on high-dose PPI therapy for at least 6 months was found to be more effective for treatment cessation and/or dose reduction than usual practice
20 Salt- An Overview , Aparna Nagendra, Namratha Pramod, Seema Mukund
Pythagoras stated “Salt is born of the purest parents - “The Sun and the Sea”. Salt always takes the small but significant role in our diet. In this paper, we have mainly aimed on salt and its consumption. As it is the single common ingredient used across all cuisines in the world from ancient times and one the major element in the diet which plays a crucial role on health. It is generally called as ‘Com-mon Salt’ and also widely used in the processing technology and preservation of foods. Due to urbanization and globalization, there has been a change in the eating pattern of the population, and adequate nutrition is essential for a healthy life. But, health effects are related to sodium which is linked with increased consumption of salt and it is one of the most important determinants of high blood pressure, cardiovascular risk and other diseases worldwide. This calls for creating awareness and educating the population regard-ing the daily salt consumption and also the hidden salt in various preserved foods. Encouraging on healthy eating pattern is the main criteria. An attempt was also made to introduce our readers to the different kinds of salts available in the shelves of supermarket.
21 Local Food and Beverages as a Tool for Regional Tourism Development: Case Study , Iveta Hamarneh
The aim of the paper is to introduce and evaluate the Ústí nad Labem region for food tourism. The Region belongs to the less visited areas in the Czech Republic although Region offers suitable conditions for tourism development. We can assume that the interest in local food in frame of food tourism in the Region can subsequently increase overall visitation of Ústín ad Labem Region. Methods which were used for completing the paper included literature review, content analysis of documents and case study.
22 Dietary and Life Habits of Obesity and Brown Rice Eaters among Genmai Evidence for Nutritional Kenko Innovation (GENKI) Study I and II , Masahito Takahashi1, Shaw Watanabe, Azusa Hirakawa, Shoich Mizuno
The relationship between diet and health is a field that requires more research in an ultra-aging society. A questionnaire survey was conducted, to compare groups of brown rice and natural foods eaters, with residential population to clarify the relationship between the brown rice eaters and obese people. The total number of respondents was 7183. The odds ratio to be obesity was 1.67 among white rice eaters, while it was 0.48 among brown rice eaters. The consumption of food items as side dishes showed a characteristic trend among white rice eaters, while it was 0.48 among brawn rice eaters. Brown rice eaters consumed significantly more carrots, green yellow vegetables, burdock, lotus roots, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, yam, sesame, salty plum pickles (umeboshi), peanut, chestnut, mushrooms, dried mushrooms (shiitake), sea weed (nori, konbu), red bean (azuki), and soy milk. They did not consume meat and fish, but soy protein and other plant protein substituted to meat and fish. The polished white rice eaters of obesity group preferentially consumed sweet bread, broccoli, bell pepper, eggplant, banana, grapefruit, red meat fish like tuna, beaf, cow and pig meat, egg, dairy products, sugar, and mayonnaise. They also consumed coffee and soft drinks, chocolate, cakes, ice cream and jelly.Brown rice contains many functional ingredients that have various effects on physiological functions, such as innate immunity, recognition, etc., so these should be effective in aging and post corona society.
23 Emerging Landscape in the Management of Covid 19. Role of Pidotimod , Pradyut Waghray,  Kunal Waghray
The burden of Covid 19 is increasing all over the world. Pidoti-mod, an Immunomodulator had been used in COPD patients to prevent the exacerbations of COPD and also in the prevention of Recurrent respiratory tract infections both in adults and children successfully.
24 Developing the Human Factor in an Integrated Health Organization , Maria Luz Jauregui García, Maria Luisa Merino Hernández, Arantxa Urruzola Lizarribar, Nagore Lora Laca, Iobat Jiménez Jauregui, Francisco Serna Rodríguez
This article describes a formative and participatory understanding with the aim of fostering a relational culture that facilitates the transition to a patient-centered care model by improving communication. It consists in transmitting the advances of neuroscience and technology related to unit professionals through a common communication code that highlights the importance of the human factor. In addition, the values of the organization are worked, based on professionals, through collaborative work in each UAP.It analyses ns results of the intervention, highlighting do that professionals manifest as very positive the being able to share values in the way of understanding human relationships. They also show that the project has allowed us to generate discussion and reflection on how to communicate.Working these values from the perspective of professionals acts as a facilitator to feel the culture of the organization as their own.Participants can improve their personal relationship as this intervention encourages the sharing of beliefs and willgo in a relaxed environment.
25 Ready-to-Cook Fish Steaks from Catla Fish with High Nutritional Value and Longer Shelf Life , Priyam Sharma, Bibha Chetia Borah
The demand for fish is very high in the NE Region of India, where 95-100% of populations of the constituent states are fish eaters. As domestic production is not sufficient to meet the demand of people, the gap between demand and production is met by importing from other states and neighboring countries. However the preservation and transportation process exercised for the import, always leaves a question mark regarding quality of the product. Processing of raw fish to make it pan-ready is often not convenient for consumers particularly for the urban population. The present communication deals with development of a protocol for ‘ready-to-cook’ steak from Catla (Catla catla) with good nutritional quality and longer shelf life to meet consumers’ demand. The present communication includes quality evaluation of Catla fish steaks treated with different antimicrobial agents viz., dry salt (T1), vinegar (T2), salt + turmeric (T3), salt+ turmeric+ vinegar (T4), vacuum packed and stored for a period of 21 days at -18°C at definite interval of days and assessment of its economic viability for commercial application. Out of the treatments, T4 was the best treatment in view of the highest average crude protein content (20.11%), ash content (0.189%), acceptability (8.94), taste value (8.94), flavor (8.44) and texture value (8.81) with zero microbial load up to 21 days of storage. The results indicate a viable protocol for entrepreneurship development through commercial production of ‘ready-to-cook’ fish steaks from Catla with high nutritional quality and long shelf life up to 21 days of storage.
26 ACTA 2 Mutations and Risk of Premature Myocardial Infarction , Fatemeh Hajibabaie, Mohammad Hossein Modarressi, Masoumeh Sadeghi, Laleh Shariati
Premature myocardial infarction (MI) is characterized by high re-infarction rates, the occurrence of severe heart fail-ure and therefore significant cardiovascular long-term mortality at a young age. Previous studies demonstrated that one of the most important risk factors in younger patients is family history and genetic factors. This research was launched to assess the association of ACTA 2 genetic variations with premature MI.Materials and Methods: Out of eighty unrelated patients with premature MI referred to health center, patients with autosomal dominant premature MI were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, diabetes and smoking. Genomic DNA was extracted from the whole peripheral blood. Eight exons and intron/exon boundaries of the ACTA2 gene were amplified, and all the amplicons were subject to Sanger sequencing. Results: According to thecriteria, 16 patients were included in our research. No mutations were found in ACTA2 gene in our pro-bands.
27 Perspective on Childhood Eating Habits among Rural and Urban Children in Saudi Arabia , Nawal A Alissa
This discussion will be addressing the perspective about Child-hood Eating Habits among Rural and Urban Children in Saudi Ara-bia, it has been discovered that healthy eating habits in children is becoming more difficult to achieve for mothers due to the more changing times and busy working schedule for modern mothers.
28 Nutrition and Anaemia in Women in Reference to Odisha , Puspanjali Mishra
Anaemia is a condition in which the number of red blood cells or their oxygen-carrying capacity is insufficient to meet physiolog-ic needs, which vary with age, sex, attitude, smoking and pregnan-cy status, if any Today anaemia is a big health problem of many people as it causes mortality.
29 Intake of Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Creatine Monohydrate and Green Tea in a Milk Matrix and Variations in Body Composition in Human Volunteers , C Ramón de Cangas Morán, C Aldo Hernández Monzón, Karina Torres Escandón, Purificación López Sela, Ignacio Brime Casanueva, Karel Torres Miranda, Pedro López Díaz, C Andrés Llavona Fernández, Jose Ramón Bahamonde Nava, Fernando Rojo Fernández
Overweight and obesity are increasingly frequent in the world. This fact has a high cost for health and excess body fat increases the risk of chronic and cardiovascular diseases. Proper dietary guidelines along with an active life can promote the maintenance of a healthy weight. It is also possible that some functional foods may serve as a fast. Conjugated linoleic acid is a well-studied substance, and in different studies it has been suggested that it can help to modify the body composition, so it could avoid that it is interesting to include it, only in the company of other substances such as creatine monohydrate or green tea, which have also suggested certain effects on body composition, in certain food matrices for specific functional foods to help reduce the percentage of body fat.
30 Why are we a Sensitive Population to COVID-19? , Maldonado-Vega M, Farias-Serratos F
For many years, the Mexican population has modified their eat-ing habits and lifestyle. Modernization favored spectacular things with electrification, the introduction of television in each home, the intubation and distribution of drinking water, introduction in various hygiene and health measures, national vaccination in-creased the longevity of the Mexican population, we went from 65 years to 75 years olds in the 70's, and currently we reach an av-erage longevity of 80 years of age
31 Gluten Linked to Autoimmune Disease, Bowel Diseases and More , Sara Kittaneh
You may be wondering how something so mainstream could be harmful to your gut. Wouldn’t we all be sick? Well, unfortunately, it has become mainstream to have a chronic illness such as heart disease, cancer, or an autoimmune disease and the rates are rising. Gluten has been linked to more than 55 diseases and an estimated 99% of people who have either celiac or non-celiac gluten sensitiv-ity are never diagnosed.
32 Iron-Containing Heme Homeostasis: Critically Impacts on Pulmonary Physiological and Pathological Processes and Balance between Health and Disease , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn, Utoomporn Sittisingh
Proteins, the building blocks of life are the major source of nutrients. Digested proteins release amino acids to the body for cellular energy generation. In addition to amino acids, proteins also provide metal, particularly iron that is most abundant in the human body. One adult human body requires approximately 3 - 4 grams of iron. Heme and non-heme iron are two forms found in dietary iron
33 Role of Immunity Boosting Nutritional Foods and COVID-19 , Mishra P, Mohapatra AK,Maharana S
“Health is wealth”. Keeping oneself healthy is one of the concerns today. Depending on the climate, regions, places many people eat their local foods and keep themselves fit. Some do yoga and exercise along with the food. But it has been seen that a balanced nutritional diet is the main cause of the keeping a person fit. Depending on the diseases proper foods are advised. Today WHO has declared the CoVID-19 cases as pandemic. The whole world is panic now. In this situation making your immunity through your daily available food is one of the important issues. Of course side by side breathing exercise is advised. In this report, Nutrition related issues in relations to immunity to avoid infection of COVID -19 is discussed, besides maintaining social distancing among people, use of mask and repeated hand washing.
34 Nanomaterials in Food Processing and Packaging, its Toxicity and Food Labeling , Amra Bratovcic
Over the past few decades, nanotechnology has increasingly been considered to be attractive technology that has revolutionized the food sector. Nanomaterials, unlike conventional microscale materials, having novel characteristics can improve sensory quality of foods by imparting novel texture, colour, appearance, processability and stability during shelf life. The physicochemical charac-teristics of a nanomaterial are important as they can affect the outcome of the risk assessment. This paper provides an overview of the application of nanotechnology in the field of food processing and packaging. In addition, this paper also discussed toxic effects of nanomaterials and food labeling. The results of this paper shows that today there is a divided opinion on the use of nanotechnology in food processing and packaging because on the one hand there are the results of the study which reveal that the majority of consumers prefer the use of nanotechnology-based solutions, while on the other hand there is immense public concern regarding the toxicity and environmental effect of these nanoparticles.
35 Sensory Characteristics of Three Different Levels of Turmeric Powder on Beef Stick Product , Wannee Tangkham
The objective of this study was to evaluate sensory characteristics of a beef stick product with three levels of turmeric powder (TP). Specifically, these three levels of TP include: 1) 0% TP; 2) 1% TP and 3) 2% TP. Each treatment was evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. Fifty-eight untrained participants evaluated the beef stick product for acceptability of appearance, color, texture, flavor, taste, and overall liking. With respect to overall liking, beef stick product with 1% TP was the most desirable with a score of 7.13, fol-low by the control treatment (6.84) and 2% TP was least desirable with a score of 6.81. Additionally, beef stick product with added turmeric received positive participant ratings with respect to acceptability and purchase intent with and without health claims. Therefore, adding TP to a beef stick product might be a marketable alternative to original beef stick product.
36 The Analysis of Health Expenditure as a Determinant of Economic Growth in 37 High Income Countries , Özlem Özsoy, Metin Gürler
Labour force, which is one of the main factors of production function with capital input in traditional economic growth theory, has got an important effect on a country’s economic growth. So a productive labour force is crucial for an economy. An in-crease in health expenditure improves good health care to the citizens. Since people who were provided by good health care feel themselves more productive, the increasing productivity in labour force and working hours cause an economic growth hence en-hancement in income (Gross Domestic Product, GDP) and income per capita (IPC) in a country incessantly. Also higher IPC means better access to the health services which were supplied by public and private sectors in a country. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the share of health expenditure in GDP (HEXP) and IPC data and vice versa for 37 High Income Countries (HIC). Methods:Cross-section data (CSD) analysis and panel data (PD) analysis consisting of random and fixed effects estimations were used in the study to investigate the relationship between HEXP and IPC for selected country group. Results: According to the random effects model (RAM) and fixed effects model (FEM) with PD analysis and CSD analysis in the study, HEXP is found as one of the determinants of IPC and IPC as a main determinant of HEXP in 37 HIC. Granger causality test is also ap-plied to test the direction of causality between HEXP and IPC for HIC and Turkey. It is obviously seen that IPC Granger causes HEXP increase whereas we can’t reject HEXP doesn’t cause IPC hypothesis according to Granger test statistics for PD. There is also no proven correlation between two variables for CSD analysis. Conclusion: In the study after the analysis of 37 HIC together it is found that IPC promotes HEXP not at once but in a time period. In the manuscript our results show that economic growth Granger causes HEXP increase and HEXP does not Granger cause IPC for PD. For CSD there is no relationship between HEXP and IPC. The case of IPC not increasing to a high income level from middle income stuck on a threshold is called in literature as "Middle Income Trap (MIT)". So guiding how HIC jumped from middle class to high income class is important for the emerging countries (EC) to avoid the "MIT". EC should increase HEXP to improve labour force productivity, which will cause a rapid economic growth as developed countries have done in past.
37 Ketogenic Diet Modifies the Expression of MicroRNAs Linked to Migraine , Roberto Cannataro, Maria Cristina Caroleo, Antonio Siniscalchi, Luca Gallelli, Giovambattista De Sarro, Erika Cione
Epidemiological studies have emphasized the relationship between migraine and obesity also pointing out its prevalence in the female sex. The mechanisms promoting pain migraine in obese subjects prone to this neurological disorder is multifactorial, among these the overproduction of soluble mediators favoring neural inflammation, psychological and behavioral risk factors. The ketogenic diet (KD) is a well-recognized as a therapeutic option for refractory pediatric epilepsy and a promising prophylactic treatment for episodic and chronic migraine in the adult. Performing a pilot study on the capability of KD to modulate a plethora of 800 microRNAs (miRs), a group of female obese subjects, 6 of 18 self-reported a reduction of the frequency and the intensity of migraine-pain attacks. Therefore, we check for miRs linked to migraines. The effects of KD seem to be mediated by specific serum hsa-miR-590-5p, hsa-miR-660-3p modulation
38 Sericin Peptide Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis Via Mitochondrial Function Modulation , Na Ryung Choi, Hyeon Tae Kang, Seung Min Lee, Yeon-Lim Suh, Hyukjin Kwon, Jaekyu Noh, Sang Bong Ahn, Dae Won Jun
Sericin is a component of cocoons. Studies have shown that sericin improves metabolic disease in animal model. However, it is not yet known whether sericin is effective in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Twenty C57BL/6N mice were divided into control and sericin treated group. High fat diet was fed to mice for 10 weeks. From 11th to 21st week sericin and distilled water were administered assigned groups via oral gavage. Body weight and liver to body weight ratio was assessed. AST, ALT, triglyceride, cho-lesterol and blood glucose levels were measured. qRT-PCR, Electro-microscopy, and Free fatty acid induced lipotoxicity assay were performed. Mitochondrial membrane potential was checked. As a result, there were no differences in body weight and diet intake in two groups. However, liver weight and liver/body weight ratio were significantly decreased in sericin group than in control group. Both the degree of hepatic steatosis and inflammation were lower in sericin group than the control group. NAFLD activity score were also decreased in treatment group. Serum ALT, AST, and triglyceride levels as well as area under receiver operating characteristics of oral glucose tolerance test were significantly decreased in sericin group. Hepatic mRNA expressions of TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6 mRNA were decreased in sericin group. Electron microscopy findings showed restoration of abnormal mitochondria with sericin treatment. Lipotoxicity induced HepG2 cell death was significantly attenuated in palmitic acid and sericin co-treated cells. Sericin also prevented palmitic acid induced mitochondrial depolarization. In conclusion, Sericin peptide treatment attenuated non-alcoholic steatohepati-tis via mitochondrial function modulation.
39 Effect of Using Different Plant Milk as Alternative Milk in Rice Pudding , EL-Sisy TT, Jehan B Ali
The aim of study was to produce healthy rice pudding by replacement of cow milk with plant milk as alternative milk and study their effect on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties. Plant milk was produced from black eyes-bean, chick-peas, white lima-bean, oats, rice, soya-bean, yellow corn and cow milk served as control. Protein ranged between 1.7 to 6.02% and the white lima beans had the highest protein value (6.02%). Rice pudding of cow milk the highest value of ash (0.79%) and the lowest value was yellow corn (0.04). Fat % ranged from 0.20 to 3.32% and rice pudding of cow milk the highest fat% (3.32%). Carbohydrate increased with the grains and rice pudding of rice milk the highest carbohydrate values (68.83%). Viscosity of rice pudding of Rice milk were the highest between rice pudding samples and were the best in organoleptic properties. Data also indicated that as a result of pH and acidity of different prepared milk samples and pudding samples. Microbiological analysis of milk samples and rice pudding from plant milk were determined. Viscosity was higher for the rice pudding (16800Cp/s) with low acidity (0.05%) than other samples. Differences in sensory attributes were associated with different rice pudding from plant milk and cow milk. Rice pudding of chick peas milk obtained the least score (16.50) for body and texture whereas rice pudding of cow milk, rice pudding of oats milk, rice pudding of yellow corn milk and black eyed beans received the highest score (19.50, 19.0, 19.0 and18.83 respectively). Sensorial, rice pudding of yellow corn and rice pudding of rice milk is more acceptability than other treatment after the rice pudding of cow milk control. Thus we recommend to use the plant milk in rice pudding especially, rice pudding of rice milk and rice pudding of Yellow corn milk to give the consumer a new nutraceutical product with prebiotic substances for milk allergy, sensitivity children and plant people.
40 Additives: Regulation in Colombia and Risks in the Salt of the Child Population , Angela Maria Wilches Flórez, Francy Sandoval Barbosa, Angie Catalina Ramos Geraldine, Casas Ortega
In Colombia, there is little information regarding the serious health problems that children face as they are subjected to the consumption of food products from the family basket and school support, which have multiple additives harmful to their long-term health. In addition, the regulation of the food industry ineffective. For this reason, three additives commonly found in food in the family basket and easily accessible to the child population were studied: tartrazine, aspartame and monosodium glutamate, in aspects such as their consumption, their effects and their regulation according to Colombian legislation. From this, it seeks to provide a bioethical perspective of the facts mentioned above by analyzing the decrees and policies that govern Colombian companies and how this could directly affect the child population.
41 Pharmaceutical Industry Report , Gisele Ferreira De Souza
For decades now, pharmaceuticals have been developed and de-signed to be stable as possible to avoid degradation before reach-ing their eventual recipient. The next 10 - 15 years could be an era of great progress and growth. In this period, we have the tech-nological, financial and human resources to raise living standards across the world. Good policies that support investment and inno-vation can further reduce poverty and hunger, make fast-growing cities economically vibrant and socially inclusive, and restore and protect the world’s natural environments.
42 Therapeutics of Red Golden Threads- Saffron , Anjana Agarwal
Red golden threads of saffron are divine delight when sub-merged in milk and added in different cuisine of the world. The ra-diance of its distinct colour and aroma calls for complete refresh-ment, richness and rejuvenation. It symbolizes the royalty and auspiciousness when put on the forehead as kesar tilak. Saffron word comes from the French word “Safran” meaning yellow or red gold. Saffron is obtained as the stigma of the mauve coloured flow-er of Crocus sativus. It is mainly cultivated in Iran, India and Greece. Can you imagine yield of saffron? Over 70,000 flowers yield only 500g of saffron threads .
43 The Impact of Nutrition Education of Parents on Food Choices of Their Children , Pınar Göbel, Aydan Ercan, Sinem Bayram
This study aimed to determine whether periodically healthy nutrition educations given to parents effect their nutritional knowledge and healthy food choices of all family. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 20 parents and their 25 children in a preschool. Parents of children aged be-tween 1 and 6 who agreed to participate in the study were included in the study. Parents were given a total of 180 minutes of educa-tion on healthy nutrition in 3 sessions, each of which took around 60 minutes. Food choices and WHO BMI z scores of children were compared before and after education. Results: The effect of all three educations on the BMI of the children was revealed that while children with normal BMI was 8% in the first education, it was 28% at the end of the third education. The comparison of the food consumption records of the children showed that the intake of many nutrients including protein, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acid, vitamin C, calcium, and iron increased significantly after education. On the other hand, particularly white bread consumption of parents was found to decrease after educa-tion sessions, while their vegetable and fruit-herbal tea consumption increased. The effect of the education on eating behavior was evident in males. Conclusion: After the nutrition education, parents were found to make healthy choices for their children even though they did not apply adequately for their own food choices. It is important to provide nutrition education to families with preschoolar children.
44 Nutrient Assessment and Potential Renal Load of Solutes in Infant Powder Formulas Available on the Honduran Market , Adriana Beatriz Di Iorio, Erika Yomalli Mera Cruz, Aquileo Daniel González De León Gómez,Adriana Hernandez Santana
TInfant formulas (FIP) are food products that have been modified to partially or totally satisfy the physiological needs of the baby, manufactured under the rules of the Alimentarius Codex. Objective: To evaluate whether the FIP available in the Honduran market comply with the international regulations European Soci-ety for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGAN) and the European Technical Regulation (RTS), regarding the potential renal load of solutes (CRPS) and the content of vitamins, minerals and proteins. Methods: The sample was 39 FIP, descriptive statistics was used, a review of the nutritional labeling was performed and the CRPS of each FIP was estimated. Statistical correlation was established between minerals, proteins and CRPS using the SPSS 25.0 program. Results: 55% of FIP come from Mexico, the estimated CRPS is correlated with their protein content; FIP CRPS for > 1 year was 237.28 mOsm/L and 130.36 mOsm/L on average. A higher caloric and micronutrient concentration was observed in FIP for premature in-fants. In all FIP, the macronutrient content was in accordance with the recommendations of ESPGAN and RTS.   Conclusion: FIPs of 0 - 12 months do not comply with the CRPS recommendation for the age of 0 - 6 months. The fat-soluble vitamins were located in the minimum limits established by the RTS. 5% of the FIP evaluated contained trans fatty acids and for over a year were above the maximum limit established for vitamin B3.
45 Perception Why the Prefecture has a Longer Life Expectancy Among Japanese Students , Tatsuya Koyama
One reason to study life expectancy may be to determine desirable health behaviours. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clarify which Japanese prefectures university students recognise as having the longest lifespans and why. In June 2020, a self-ad-ministered questionnaire was completed by 32 first-year college students (3 males and 29 females) at a registered dietician train-ing school in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. In order to determine the students’ perceptions, the following question was asked: "What prefecture do you think has the longest life expectancy?" The reasons were limited to dietary habits due to the characteristics of the department, and answers were written out freely. Additionally, the questionnaire included: "Why do you think that prefecture has the longest life expectancy? Please write the reasons, including dietary habits." Nagano was most frequently chosen by the students as the prefecture with the longest life expectancy (n = 24; 75%). The extracted words were "vegetable" (mentioned 28 times), "in-take" (21 times), "salt" (14 times), "fruit" (10 times), "reduced salt" (4 times), "nutrient" (4 times), and "miso soup" (4 times). Most students thought that desirable dietary habits included more vegetable intake and less salt.
46 Nutrition and Quarantine , Vinayaka AM
The unexpected appearance of Coronavirus disease (COV-ID-19) in Wuhan, China and its overall speedy transmission has made all of the humankind in the holds of a dangerous hands of pandemic, the last era of pandemic was observed with the Spanish Flu in 1918. Health care workers and general wellbeing authorities around the world, trying very hard to fight COVID-19 to spare lives and forestall further cases. Albeit some pharmacological investi-gations and even immunization preliminaries are in progress, the COVID-19 pandemic presents us with deficient information and stretches the restrictions of preeminent suppository.
47 Chemical and Mineral Composition of Biscuit Produced from Wheat and Bambara Groundnut Flour , Adegbanke OR, Osundahunsi OF, Enujiugha VN
NThe aim of this study was to determine the potential of bambara groundnut, an under utilised legume for use both as flour and protein isolate in biscuit production. Sixteen response surface methodology (RSM) runs were evaluated from combination of wheat flour (WF), bambara groundnut flour (BF) and bambara protein isolate (BPI). Based on the crude protein and functional properties these ratios were selected WF: BF (85.0:15.0%, 76.2:23.8% and 52.5:47.5%) and labeled as WBF1, WBF2, WBF3, respectively with WF: BPI (85.0:15.0%, 76.2:23.8% and 52.5:47.5%) as WBPI1, WBPI2 and WBPI3 for blends of wheat flour and bambara protein isolate respectively. The proximate and mineral composition of the composite flour blends and biscuits were determined. Data were analysed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significance at P < 0.05. The wheat-bambara groundnut flour, wheat-bambara groundnut protein isolate and biscuits contained (g/100g) moisture (9.43-9.63), (1.64-3.59), (6.70-7.60), (4.00-5.70), to-tal ash (0.79-1.76), (2.83-3.37), (1.00-170), (2.50-2.80) and crude protein, wheat-bambara groundnut flour (14.41-21.67), wheat-bambara groundnut protein isolate (32.42-61.10) and biscuits (15.30-20.10) (26.20-46.20) g/100g were recorded respectively. The carbohydrate content for wheat-bambara flour (62.47-66.75) g/100g, wheat-bambara protein isolate flour (31.56-61.21) g/100g and biscuits (63.10-67.00), (40.50-5750) g/100g. The mineral composition (mg/100g): sodium ranged from (442.06 to 960.36) for wheat-bambara composite flour, biscuit (3.12-4.77) and calcium ranged from (94.33-494.88) for wheat-bambara composite flour, biscuit (2.08-3.82) respectively. Among the trace metals, copper ranged between for wheat-bambara composite flour (14.80-35.11), biscuit (0.04-0.06) and manganese ranged between for wheat-bambara composite flour (8.00-26.03), biscuit (0.21-0.31) were high in the composite flour and low in the biscuit samples. Lead was not detected in both the flour samples and the biscuit. The calculated mineral ratios Na/K of the composite flour was (0.24-0.41) and biscuits (0.58- 0.92) respectively. Ca/P ratio for wheat-bambara composite flour (1.07-2.42) and biscuit (2.00- 2.47). The Ca/P ratios in the composite flour and biscuits samples were greater than recommendation of > 1.0, this will help to increase the absorption of calcium on the small intestine.It could be concluded that, the study remarkably developed flour and biscuit with high contents of crude protein, calcium, and phosphorus.
48 Physico-Chemical Analysis of Honey Produced in Bako-Tibe District, Western Showa Zone, Oromia Region, Western Ethiopia , Million Chimdessa; Desalegn Begna,
Honey production is a long-standing practice in the rural communities of Ethiopia in general and Oromia regional state in particu-lar. However, there is scanty information with regards to the quality of the honey produced in the most parts of Oromia. The study was conducted to assess the Physico-Chemical Analysis of honey produced around Bako Tibe district, western Showa, Ethiopia. A total of 13 fresh honey samples each weighing 50 gram were randomly collected from three agro-ecologies of the district. The collected honey samples were analyzed in the laboratory for their physico-chemical parameters. The average results indicated that 19.81%, 4.23, 21.43meq, 0.11 % for moisture, pH, free acidity and ash, respectively. According to this analysis, the results of all the samples fall within acceptable ranges for the national and international standards. This study investigated and availed the honey quality results of study area and ascertained all the values concur with local and international requisites. Owing to lack of testing facility, the informa-tion on the honey safety aspects still remain blurred, requiring further investigations
49 Effects of Yogurt Supplementation and Exercise on Body Composition during Lactation , Alexis Sharkey, Lauren San Diego, Tiffany Fuller, Roberta Claro da Silva, Salam A Ibrahim, Heather L Colleran
Breastfeeding reduces long-term maternal pregnancy weight retention but also results in high bone turnover. Dairy intake and exercise have bone-protective effects in pre-menopausal women during weight loss. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of yogurt supplementation and exercise on body composition and bone mineral density in lactating women 8 - 20 weeks postpartum. At 8-wks postpartum, women were randomized into an intervention group [IG, n = 6 that received yogurt supplementa-tion (≥ 3d/wk, 6oz each day) and exercise (3 d/wk, 45 min/d, ≥ 10,000 steps/d)] or a control group (CG, n = 2, no dietary or exercise intervention) for 12-wks. Dual x-ray absorptiometry measured body composition (weight, fat mass, lean body mass) and bone min-eral density. A submaximal treadmill test predicted VO2 max. Three-day dietary records were collected using Nutrition Data System for Research software. Due to COVID-19, results are reported without comparisons between groups. IG body composition and bone changes were similar to previous studies. Dietary intake did not differ between groups and both groups met the Recommended Di-etary Allowance for carbohydrates and protein (g) intake. IG compliance for 3 d/wk of yogurt consumption and exercise was 97% and 90%, respectively. The study provided preliminary data on dairy intake and exercise on body composition during lactation
50 Assessment of Nutrition Status of School-Going Children of Age 8 - 16 Years: District Lahore - Pakistan , Hira Akram, Safa Akram, Sajid Khan Tahir, Ahmad Ali
Nutrition status is the general conditioning of the body while nutrition assessment is a systematic process of verifying and inter-preting data to make decisions about the nature and cause of nutrition-related problems. The present study was conducted to assess the nutrition status of school-going children age 8 - 16 years in Lahore city, Pakistan. The study aim was to identify the children who were at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional assessment was carried out among both genders male and female. It was a cross-sectional survey and the sample size was two hundred (200). Randomly, male and female students were selected. A questionnaire was designed to collect data. An interview technique was used to fill the questionnaire. Questions were related to demographic data, anthropometric data, frequency of meals consumption and food frequency data. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Data were presented in tables (percentages) and pie charts. The present study result showed that most children have normal body mass index percentile. Children were consuming eggs, wheat flat bread without oil (Chapatti) and milk on a daily basis. Mostly children were taking breakfast, lunch and dinner on a daily basis. Most of them were not taking bedtime snacks. Few children were consuming miscellaneous and fast foods. So, based on the results it was concluded that the majority of school-going children have healthy eating habits and good nutritional status
51 Multisectoral Nutrition Implementation in Burkina Faso: Organization, Collaboration and Support of Contributing Sectors at Regional Level , Dieudonné Diasso, Maimouna Halidou Doudou, Aly Savadogo
Among other aspects of nutrition capacities, the state of human, material, financial resources and technical structures’ organiza-tion in Burkina-Faso are not exhaustive nor assessed to date. The objective of this evaluation study was to analyze the various capaci-ties of the contributing key sectors in nutrition of the Regional Directorates, and to identify gaps and challenges for their support to a successful implementation of the national nutrition plan. Tools and resources proposed by the Framework for Nutrition Capacity, recently developed by the United Nations Network for Scaling Up Nutrition was used with an adapted analytical framework. The methodology consisted on documentary reviews, data collection and analysis from evaluation surveys. Nearly 96% of Regional Direc-torates, in all key sectors, highlighted the unavailability of adequate skills to support the expansion of nutrition services. Only 17.6% of the Regional Directorates have nutrition training plan, against 79.7%. A certain number of external factors, which hindered the effective implementation of activities, was underlined by 60.8% of the technical structures, and the existence of an internal dialogue on nutrition within the Directorate is only effective in 23% of cases. The results show a strong involvement of the Regional Director-ates in the Regional Food Security Councils, and moderate for the Regional Social Protection Units and low or even non-existent for the Regional Nutrition Consultation Councils. In a national context where dialogue and synergy between the different coordination bodies and stakeholders at the central level remain problematic, it is more necessary to reinforce nutrition regional dialogue around the governorate, in order to successfully scale up multisectoral interventions in the country.
52 Effectual Gold Nanoprobe Sensor for Screening Cow Milk Adulteration in Goat Milk , Jose Manuel Llopis Ortiz, Dimitra Panagiotis Houhoula, Efstathia Tsakali, Sophie Pytel
Different methods of detection have been used to detect milk adulteration, but in recent years the use of nanomaterials has demonstrated to be an interesting tool in this field, because of their interesting optical properties. A gold nanoparticle (AuNP) probe strategy for testing milk authenticity was developed, which relies on the colorimetric differentiation of a particular DNA sequence, due to the differential aggregation profiles exhibited by the AuNPs in the presence or absence of specific target hybridization. Gold nanoparticles were conjugated with thiolated oligonucleotides which specifically amplify a 271 bp fragment of cow mitochondrial DNA. In the presence of a complementary target preventing aggregation of the AuNPs when acid was added, the reaction mixtures retained the original pink coloration of the colloidal particles, whereas they turned purple in the opposite event. Negative and goat reaction mixtures showed a purplish coloured solution with a peak at ≥570nm, while samples containing bovine DNA have an absorbance closer to the characteristic peak of the AuNPs at 520-525 nm. Presence of bovine milk even at traces levels was detected, achieving a level of detection comparable with PCR + Electrophoresis. The use of AuNPs for the colorimetric detection of DNA targets from undeclared species in milk products provides an inexpensive and easy-toperform alternative to common molecular assays. However, the tested oligonucleotides only proved to be effective under very concrete conditions, due to their low specificity. The technology described here can be further developed and more specific oligonucleotides are advised to be tested. Even though, this method offers the possibility to accommodate for detection of many cases of adulteration and fraudulent practices in different food matrices.
53 Malnutrition Trends in School Children of Madinah Al Munawarrah-A Cross-Sectional study , Atta UR Rehman Khan, Meshal Al Malki
Malnutrition is considered a major challenge in the area of public health nutrition. But recently the clear footprints have been spotted by researchers at remarkable magnitude even in the developing as well as developed countries. National studies to predict Malnutrition prevalence in Saudi Arabia are lacking. To date no study has been conducted to find out prevalence of Malnutri-tion in the 2nd holiest city of Muslims Al Madinah Al Munawarrah located on western part of Saudi Arabia. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Malnutrition in school children of Madinah Al Munawarrah-Saudi Arabia.Methods: Participants were healthy school boys and girls aged 05 - 18 years. It was a cross-sectional stratified study. Total sample size was 6000 consisting of 3000 boys and 3000 girls Twenty (20) schools were selected with random stratification with the help of Ministry of education. Data were collected during April - December 2017. Height and weight of children were measured to calculate percentiles for BMI-for-age and -sex according to the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts. Acute Malnutrition was defined as BMI-for-age/sex < 5th % tile.Results: Acute malnutrition: The overall children who were suffering from Acute Malnutrition were 19% (n = 755). Prevalence in boys was 24% (n = 529) and in girls was 13% (n = 226).For boys: The presence of Acute Malnutrition in Category-I (5 - 8 years) was 25% (n = 8), category-II (9 - 13 years) was 23% (n = 149) and Category-III (14 - 18 years) was 24% (n = 372).For girls: The prevalence in Category-I (5 - 8 years) was 41% (n = 45), category-II (9 - 13 years) was 13% (n = 79) and Category-III (14 - 18 years) was 10% (n = 102).Conclusion: Malnutrition in school children in Al Madinah Al Munawarrah prevails as high as in few under developed countries. Integrated Intervention and prevention programs in primary through high school should focus at all school-aged children especially primary school students. Ministry of education and Ministry of health have a key role. Dietitians and public health nutrition care workers are potential key role players to effectively address this issue.
54 In Vitro Antioxidant Activity, Spectrophotometric Determination of Caffeine, Total Phenol and Flavonoid Contents in Traditional Omani Qahwa in Comparison with Green and Black Tea , Maryam F Hasan, Wed S Aldaraji, Dhanalakshmi UM, Shah A Khan, M Ali
The aim of the present work was to quantify caffeine and total phenolic content and to evaluate the antioxidant activity in com-mercially available black tea, green tea, Turkish coffee and traditional Omani qahwa. Aqueous extracts of tea and coffee samples prepared by decoction were subjected to the phytochemical screening test for phenols and caffeine. Caffeine in the samples was quantified with the help of a linear regression equation obtained from the standard plot. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the tea and coffee were estimated colorimetrically. Antioxidant activity of the samples was investigated by DPPH (1, 1 diphenyl picrylhy-drazyl) free radical assay and phosphomolybdenum methods. All the test extracts showed the presence of phenolic compounds and caffeine. The results indicated a variation in caffeine content, phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity between the two extracts and among same extracts with different brand names. In general, Mumtaz black tea was found to contain the high-est caffeine (24.44 mg/g) and phenolic content (8.27 mg/g of GAE). It also showed the highest total antioxidant activity (10.46 mg/g of ascorbic acid equivalent) but surprisingly its flavonoid content and antioxidant activity by DPPH method was lower than other samples. Tea was found to be richer in phenols and caffeine but Omani qahwa showed better antioxidant activity. It can be concluded that phenolic content and the antioxidant activities depend on the origin, brands and additives of these beverages that may lead to variation in the content and bioactivity.
55 Beta-Adrenergic Agonists: Effects on Growth and Characteristics of Meat and Livestock Production , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn, Utoomporn Sittisingh,
Number of multinucleated cellular units or muscle fibers is fixed at birth. Increasing muscle hypertrophy has been a primary focus of investigators. Beta-adrenergic agonists increase muscle mass by increasing the ratio of protein to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), while steroidal implants increase muscle mass by increas-ing accumulation of DNA in muscle. Beta-adrenergic agonists and steroidal implants have similar physiologic responses of muscle hypertrophy, but have different mechanisms of action to achieve muscle growth. Beta-adrenergic agonists suppress adipose accre-tion in livestock species. Cattle has more than 99% of beta-2 ad-renergic receptor in the skeletal muscle and has more than 90% of beta-2 adrenergic receptor in adipose tissue, whereas pig has 73% of beta-1, 20% of beta-2 and 7% of beta-3 adrenergic receptors.
56 Preparation and Quality Evaluation of Yogurt by Incorporation with Moringa oleifera Leaves Powder , Sanjaya Karki, Saugat Prajapati, Susma Bhattarai,
Moringa oleifera leaves is fill with a pack of nutrients therefore, this study was carried out in order to enrich the nutritional value of traditional yoghurt. The powdered leaves of Moringa oleifera were analyzed for moisture content, vitamin C, protein, ash and fat content and the result was found to be 7.34 ± 0.04%, 17.24 ± 0.10 mg/100g, 25.89 ± 1.42%, 9.67 ± 0.40% and 2.1 ± 0.2% respectively and mesh size was 140 μm. From the sensory analysis the product having 0.5% Moringa oleifera leaves powder incorporated yoghurt was chosen for further analysis as it showed comparable result with control yoghurt. The chemical analysis of moringa incorporated yoghurt showed that fat, lactose, protein, total solid, acidity, calcium and pH were 2.9 ± 0.11%, 3.71 ± 0.02, 4.51 ± 0.09%, 22.18 ± 0.19%, 0.82 ± 0.02, 356.83 ± 10.19 (mg/100g) and 4.3 ± 0.02 whereas that of control yoghurt were found to be 2.76 ± 0.07%, 3.86 ± 0.03, 3.7 ± 0.4%, 19.90 ± 0.28%, 0.69 ± 0.01, 244.67 ± 10.19 (mg/100g) and 4.5 ± 0.01 respectively. The fresh yoghurt was found to contain no any coliform, yeast and mold count. Setting time and syneresis for moringa leaves incorporated yoghurt (0.5%) i.e. sample A was found 270 minutes and 34.05 ± 1.30%, respectively whereas setting time for control sample i.e. Sample E was 300 minutes and syneresis was 22.43 ± 2.12%. Acidity was continuously observed in the interval of 30 minutes till the yoghurt sets which showed rapid increase in acidity in Moringa oleifera incorporated yoghurt than that of control yo-ghurt. Acidity rose from 0.69 to 1.14 in control yoghurt and for Moringa oleifera incorporated yoghurt it rose from 0.82 to 1.40 during 12 days storage period. The total plate count of the yoghurt decreased during the storage period of 12 days from 1.20 × 109 cfu/ml to 1.1 × 103 cfu/ml for Sample A and from 1.76 × 109 cfu/ml to 4.4 × 103 cfu/ml for Sample E i.e. control yoghurt.
57 Knowing the Role of Supplementary Nutrition and Growth Monitoring from the Beneficiaries of Selected Anganwadi Centers in Rural Wardha, Maharashtra , Samarpita Dutta1,Abhishek V Raut,
Launched in 1975 by the Government of India, the ICDS scheme is currently the most important scheme in the field of child health and development and care of women throughout their critical stages in life. With four decades of implementation of this scheme, it is imperative to take stock of this flagship programme from its basic level of implementation in the country. The present study was thus conducted to determine the facilities available at selected Anganwadi centers and find out the concerns and performance of the Anganwadi Workers through observation, review of records and interviews.The study was conducted in 2 phases over a period of 3 months, in 15 Anganwadi Centers of the field practice area of a Rural Health Training Centre in Wardha district, Maharashtra. The 1st phase consisted of facility survey using pre-designed checklist while the 2nd phase consisted of in-depth interviews with the respective Anganwadi Workers.Facility survey revealed lack of storage, kitchen and toilet facilities in 5, 2 and 6 centers respectively. Hot Cooked Food was being served at 11 of the 15 centers. Peoples’ concern regarding quality of take home recipes, immunization days and improper utilization of learning material emerged as important issues compromising health promotion and pre-school education activities during the in-depth interviews.Bottlenecks identified through key functionaries of the scheme at community level would enable the administration take up coor-dinated steps to make it locally acceptable and reliable towards a fruitful impact in the nation.
58 The Relationship between Allergic Pollinosis and Low Salivary Levels of Secretory IgA in Adults , Tetsuro Yamamoto, T Enomoto, Akira Tsuda, Hisayoshi Okamura, T Honda, Shaw Watanabe, Hideyo Yamaguchi
Secretary IgA is a key element of intestinal immunity. Low levels of secretory IgA (SIgA) and development of allergy in infants were often reported, but it is not in adults. Saliva and serum were simultaneously analyzed from 20 adult patients with Cedar pollino-sis aged 22 - 53 years and 22 non-allergic control adults aged 25 - 65 years. The mean salivary level of SIgA for JCP patients was sig-nificantly lower than the value for control subjects. Median, 25th - 75th percentile was 11.5 UA/ml, 4.05, 23.1, respectively in pollinosis group and < 0.34 UA/ml in control group. Low levels of salivary SIgA in adults was associated with increased allergic manifestations.
59 Systematic Review - Nutrition in the Elderly , Alba Child, J Gerardo Villa, Pilar S Collado
This systematic review aims to compile the concept of aging, which entails it and the nutritional recommendations that have been addressed in recent years as a preventive measure for the best functional management and better quality of life of these people. Data Sources: Systematic searches were conducted in the PubMed, Medline and SPORTDiscus databases and manual searches were made in the reference lists of the selected articles.Study Selection: The selected cohort studies were those that examined the concept and effects of the aging process, as well as the effects of physical activity and especially nutrition in this older population. Data Extraction: Data was extracted independently. Data Synthesis: Thirty articles were included in which the subject of aging, physical activity and/or nutrition was discussed. Conclusion: Older adults are an extremely heterogeneous group, as a result, the assessment of nutritional risk requires careful and centralized individualization, considering physiological changes and possible disease, as well as psychosocial, economic and environ-mental factors that influence nutritional status, being the basic objectives of maintaining the functional independence and quality of life of these people.
60 Association of Physical Activity with Obesity Trends in School Children of Madinah Al Munawarrah-A Cross-Sectional Study , Atta UR Rehman Khan, Meshal Al Malki
Obesity is one of the three gravest threats to human health globally. There was no study on association of obesity with physical activity of children of the 2nd holiest city of Muslims Al Madinah Al Munawarrah which is located on North West of Saudi Arabia. Objectives: This study aimed to • Evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children.• To study association of physical activity and obesity.Methods: Participants were healthy school boys and girls aged 5 - 18 years. Study design was cross-sectional. A total of 6000 school children, consisting of 3000 boys and 3000 girls from twenty (20) schools were enrolled. School selection was done by random strati-fication with the help of Ministry of education. Data were collected between April - December 2017. Height and weight of children were measured to calculate percentiles for BMI-for-age and -sex according to the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts, Overweight and obesity was defined as BMI-for-age/sex ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentile respectively.Results: The overall prevalence of obesity was 14.7% (n = 588). Obesity Prevalence in boys was 16% (n = 347) and in girls was 14% (n = 241). The overall prevalence of overweight was 15.4% (n = 616). The Prevalence in boys was 16% (n = 366) and in girls was 14% (n = 250). There was negative correlation between Physical activity and Body Mass Index. This relationship is also highly significant. (P -Value < .0005) Conclusions: Overweight and obesity in school children in Al Madinah Al Munawarrah is similar to global prevalence. Physical ac-tivity is a major risk factor for obesity in school children. Physical activity programs should be seriously implemented at education levels in every school of AlMadinah Al Munawarah to control this epidemic with coordination of Ministry of education and Ministry of health.
61 A Neurocommunication Model between the Brain and Liver Regarding Glucose Production and Secretion in Early Morning Using GH-Method: Math-Physical Medicine (No. 324) , Gerald C Hsu
This article address the author’s hypothesis on the neurocommunication model existing between the brain and liver regarding production and glucose secretion in the early morning. This is based on the observation of the difference between glucose at wake up moment in the morning for the fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and glucose at the first bite of breakfast for the glucose at 0-minute or “open glucose” of postprandial plasma glucose (PPG). All of the eight identified glucoses of breakfast PPG are higher than the eight glucoses at time of wake up by a difference of an average of 8 mg/dL.The value difference using Method B of CGM sensor glucoses during the COVID-19 period offers the most accurate picture and credible glucose difference of 8 mg/dL between his FPG at wake-up moment and PPG at the first bite of breakfast. The author believes that the brain senses when a person wakes up due to different kinds of stimuli from many sources, including eye, environment and even internal organs, which will alert the body to be in “active” mode requiring “energy” through glucose. Even though the person has not eaten anything or is not actively moving, the brain issues a marching order to the liver to produce or re-lease glucose for the body to use in the forthcoming day. This hypothesis can currently explain why his glucose of eating his breakfast is ~8 mg/dL higher than his FPG at wakeup.
62 Nutrients Analysis of Diplazium esculentum: Underutilized Wild Wetland Pteridophytes Ensure Food and Nutritional Security , Sanjay Mohan Gupta, Basant Ballabh, Pradeep Kumar Yadav, Ankur Agarwal, Madhu Bala
Food and nutrition (hidden hunger) for rapidly growing global populations (expected to increase 10 billion by 2050) are major concern of public health issue in most of the global developing countries. One way to tackle these problems is through the inter-vention of local traditional less-explored high-value food crops as dietary supplements for ensuring food and nutritional security. The Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw (also called as ‘Vegetable fern’ or ‘Liguna’; fam. Athyriaceae) is an underutilized wild wetland pteridophytes occurring commonly throughout world, from sea level to 2,300m. The young frond and rhizomes of D. esculentumare generally used as green vegetables during the monsoon season, which are reported to possess notable nutritional and medici-nal properties. This research article highlights the detailed nutritive phytochemical (primary and secondary metabolites, essential mineral content, dietary fibres, calorific value etc) profiling of young fronds of D. esculentum. Our results suggest that D. esculentumfronds contains rich amounts of protein (52.3%), carbohydrate (28.2%), antioxidants (Vitamin C etc) and exceptionally high contents of important minerals (Ca, Fe, Na), dietary fibre (17.44%) with good calorific energy value (324 Kcal/100 gm). The overall results suggest that, the young fronds of D. esculentum contains rich source of phyto-nutrients that may be commercially utilized for the development of healthcare value added products as a sustainable solution to the health and nutritional security.
63 Bromelain and Amylase Assisted Extraction of Cucurbita pepo Seed Oil Enriched with Phytosterol , Nguyen Thi Minh Tu, Kieu Thi Hoang Yen, Tran Huong Nga, Le Tat Thanh, Dang Thi Thu
Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds’ hydrolysis condition was investigated in order to achieve oil containing high content of phy-tosterol by using enzyme bromelain and amylase. For this purpose, hydrolysis conditions of bromelain and amylase including ratio of C. pepo to water, ratio of concentration of the enzyme bromelain/amylase to substance, temperature, pH, hydrolysis time were investigated. Bromelain hydrolysis of C. pepo seeds with 1.75% enzyme at 55oC for 7hrs at pH of 7 gave 27.83% oil and 1909.95 mg phytosterol in 100 g oil. For amylase hydrolysis these figures were 0.9%; 50oC; 5.5 hrs and 7, respectively; and the oil yield was 14.02% with 2245.03 mg phytosterol in 100 g oil.Although oil yield by using enzyme bromelain (27.83%) and enzyme amylase (14.02%) was lower than that by using solvent and ultrasonic methods (26.57% to 42.74%), phytosterol content inversely was as 2 to 3 times as higher (631.41 - 772.78 to 19909.95 - 2245.03 mg/100g oil). Fourteen compounds were found in phytosterol mixture obtained by amylase hydrolysis, among them three important e.g. campesterol, stigmasterol, β - sitosterol accounted for315.460, 120.111 and 189.987 mg/100g oil respectively.
64 Vaginal Birth After Caesarean Section - Experience in Shree Birendra Hospital , Ratna A Khatri, Arju Chand, Sumana Thapa,Shailaza Khadka
The rate of primary caesarean section (CS) is on the rising trend. Vaginal birth after CS (VBAC) can be an alternative to reduce this rate of CS worldwide. Antenatal examination and intrapartum monitoring are the most important factors for VBAC. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of VBAC at SBH in selected cases. To analyze the maternal and fetal out-come of VBAC and repeat CS cases. Methodology:It is a cross-sectional institute-based study carried out in Shree Birendra hospital, a tertiary level Nepalese Army Hos-pital, from March 2019 to March 2020. The study population included cases with one previous caesarean section fulfilling the inclu-sion criteria of Royal College of Obstetrician and Gynaecology (RCOG) for VBAC. After counseling for VBAC, the data were estimated of those who were willing for VBAC and those who refused. Trial of labor was given to the patients accepted for VBAC. Feto-maternal outcome were analyzed of VBAC and of repeat CS.Results: There were total of 108 cases of previous LSCS reported at ANC OPD, among them 23 cases were excluded from the study as they were not meeting the RCOG inclusion criteria, 85 cases were enrolled in the study. Out of 85 cases, 75 (88.23%) refused to undergo VBAC, only 10 cases (11.76%) accepted to undergo trial of labor. Out of 10 cases, 5 (50%) had successful VBAC. The sample size was too small to come to any conclusion, still it is observed that women who had an emergency cesarean section in their first delivery had lower VBAC success particularly those with failed induction. No maternal and neonatal mortality observed. Conclusion: Vaginal Birth after Caesarean section is relatively safe, provided it is conducted in carefully selected cases and under constant supervision. Spontaneous onset of labor, good Bishop score and average sized baby were good predictors of successful VBAC.
65 Comparative Study on Antioxidant Activity and Microbial Loads of Dried Tomatoes Treated with Local Spices (Aframomum danielli and Syzygium aromaticum) , Mapamile AD, Osunbade OA*, Ani CP, Oyewo IO
The worldwide usage of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cannot be underestimated therefore, spoilage and postharvest losses must be controlled through processing and preservation. Two spices (Aframomum danielli and Syzygium aromaticum) aqueous ex-tract were separately formulated into 5 and 10% concentrations. The aqueous extract preparations were used to pre-treat tomatoes (var. UTC) prior to drying. Two drying methods (sun drying and oven drying at 60oC) were employed to effect drying. Dried tomato samples treated with 0% spice served as control for dried samples treated with 5 and 10% spice concentrations. The activity of each spice used was evaluated and compared based on their concentrations in terms of ascorbic acid, total carotenoid, lycopene and total viable and fungal count using standard methods. The results of antioxidants revealed that ascorbic acid and lycopene value were reduced in sun-dried samples when treated with varying concentrations of A. danielli and S. aromaticum compared to the control sample. However, in spice-treated oven-dried samples when compared to the control sample, the ascorbic acid values were better retained with increasing concentrations of spice from 5 to 10% concentrations. The values of total carotenoid were best retained in sun dried samples treated with 5% concentrations of S. aromaticum and 5% concentrations of A. danielli in oven dried sample. There were also considerable reductions in the values of both total viable and fungal count of spice-treated dried tomato samples over the control samples. Evidently, the findings revealed the effectiveness of A. danielli to exact a more preservative effect in oven dried sample better than S. aromaticum. This was evident in its better antioxidant retention ability as well as reduction in total viable and fungi count of the oven dried samples treated with both spices.
66 Analysis of Non-Scheduled Consultations in Patients with Digestive Neoplasms , Matilde Bolaños Naranjo, Victoria Aviñó Tarazona, Francisco Javier Jiménez Ruiz, Juan Bayo Calero
Non-scheduled consultation is very frequent among patients with cancer, creating alterations and delays in pro-grammed visits. We describe the incidence of non-scheduled consultations in patients with digestive cancer in our hospital.Methods: Descriptive, prospective, non-interventional study. In a six-month period (May - December 2017), non-scheduled visits were chronologically recorded in the medical oncology consultation of digestive tumours of Hospital Juan Ramón Jiménez de Huelva. We performed a descriptive analysis of the variables collected through the statistical program G-STAT v.2.0.Results: Patients with colon or rectal cancer generated most consultations (68,63%), followed by pancreatic (9,15%) and gastric (5,23%). Most patients had metastatic or advanced stage cancer (59,87%) and were under palliative or symptomatic treatment (58,82%). The most frequent reason for consultation was clinical symptoms (47,05%), followed by information demand (18,30%).Conclusion: Non-scheduled consultations in cancer patients are frequent; they cause interference in scheduled consultations and not always resolved satisfactorily. We propose several measures to reduce the number of non-scheduled consultation in oncology.
67 Development of a Baby Food Pureed with Probiotic Microorganisms for an Infant from 6 to 12 Months , Cardona MA, López BE,Restrepo M
The infant population and more specifically infants between 6 to 12 months are the most vulnerable to suffering from diseases that jeopardize the immune conditions of their developing organism. To counteract this, this research aimed to: develop a functional food baby pureed for an infant aged 6 to 12 months, using a probiotic strain, where the probiotic strain studied was Bacillus coagu-lans. The methodology involved the preparation of 3 flavors of baby food pureed such as: ahuyama, carrot and figs, which B. coagulanswere added as a functional component. A three-month shelf-life study was determined and evaluated, in which a count was made in the CFU of B. coagulans and its permanence in baby food pureed during this time. It was found that the adequate counting technique is vital for the detection of the microorganism and that carbohydrate content favors its permanence. It was concluded that baby food pureed could have a functional effect seen from the count of B. coagulans and from the study of shelf life as follows: ahuyama up to 90 days, carrot 30 days.
68 Lipedema and Nutrition: What’s the Link? , Cannataro Roberto, Erika Cione,
Lipedema is a dysfunction of the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), it is characteristic of women, although it is reported in rare cases also in men, it was described for the first time in 1940, with a better characterization in 1951, although this is often still con-fused with classic obesity. It affects the lower and upper limbs, the buttocks, usually sparing the feet and trunk. It is classified into 5 levels, according to the area of the body affected by the dysfunction. The tissues are nodular to the touch and this, among other things, suggests an inflammatory phenomenon. The treatments concern surgery (bariatric and liposuction), compression garments, physiotherapy. The nutritional approach often has little or no efficacy, probably because the adipose tissue is inflamed, therefore not very responsive if the inflammation itself is not managed. An approach that is having an interesting response is the ketogenic diet (a nutritional approach that provides for a carbohydrate intake of less than 30g per day), in previous work we have demonstrated the marked anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action of this nutritional approach, which could prove effective in assist the treatment of lipedema.
69 Healthy Eating Vs Dietary Supplements and the Fight against COVID- 19 Pandemic , Louay Labban
The novel coronavirus or COVID 19 has caused many changes in the daily lives of people around the globe since it first started in China in early 2020. This virus has caused a death toll reaching around 1 million. This number was due to its complications which can be attributed to lower immunity. It’s been known for a long time that immunity is closely related to nutritional status which can affect the prevalence of infections and their severity. The in-dividuals who follow unhealthy dietary systems are at a greater risk these infections. On the other hand, these infections can cause nutrients deficiencies affecting the individuals’ nutritional status. Therefore, people should focus on their diets during the ongoing Corona virus pandemic especially those with underlying diseases which make the situation worse.
70 Vitamin D Deficiency, Biology and its Functions , Afrozul Haq, Nuzhat Ahsan
Vitamin D deficiency is a major global, public health problem and is prevalent among all ages and ethnic groups. Neverthe-less, it is preventable cost-effectively, if proper public health in-terventions are implemented. Only a handful of expensive foods contain vitamin D and it is difficulty to change people’s attitude and lifestyles. Therefore, an inexpensive supplements and food-fornication programs have been recommended. More than 80% of the requirement vitamin D should generate from our skin, but sun avoidance behaviors prevent this. The combination of lifestyle and environmental issues, decreased exposures to sunlight have led to vitamin D insufficiency. This affects approximately, 50% of the global population and estimated 1.5 billion people worldwide have vitamin D deficiency [1]. Sunlight remains the primary source of vitamin D3 that is synthesis in dermal tissues in humans and in animals
71 Health Issues Related to Fat Consumption and Choice of Diet as Remedy , Anjan Borah
Rapid urbanization and changes in lifestyle has changed food habits towards processed foods. However processed foods are hav-ing associated risk factors. Most of the processed foods like French fries, potato chips, Snacks, breakfast cereals (ready to eat), cook-ies, roasted almond, crackers and related products are reported to have Acrylamides reported to be a neurotoxicant and probably a week human carcinogen. A processed food that contains partially hydrogenated oil (PHOs) as a shortening is the richest source of Trans Fatty Acid (TFA). TFA (isomers of the octadecenoic acids) significantly increase risk of heart disease and may drive insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes
72 Life Style, Nutritional Habits, Body Composition and Respiratory Capacity as Fundamental Aspects of Risk Evaluation in Professional Divers , Maria Concetta D’Ovidio, Daniela Pigini1, Maria Rosaria Marchetti, Paola Melis1, Lucio Bertini, Massimo Spalletta, Tiziana Paola Baccolo, Giovanna Tranfo, Enrico Marchetti
Exposure to hyperbaric atmospheres is an occupational risk for workers. The diver needs a good physical/mental performance, control of physical activity and nutrition. In this work the objective is to assess physical status of professional diver of Italian National Fire Department.The study was conducted on 71 male divers of the National Fire Department subjected to annual medical examination. We utilized a questionnaire regarding work habits and lifestyles, bioimpedance and spirometric analysis.Results of the questionnaire indicate that more than one half of workers practice a correct lifestyle and has varied and balanced consumption of food; 25 - 30% professional divers show a higher BMI respect to the ideal BMI value.These results will be used to create a database on the different physiological parameters of these workers and to define the varia-tions during the immersion phase
73 Eating Quickly is Associated with Ultrasound-Diagnosed Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Japanese Adults , Koichiro Irie, Tetsuji Azuma, Takatoshi Yonenaga, Minako Hada, Kazutoshi Watanabe, Fumiko Deguchi, Akihiro Obora, Takao Kojima,Takaaki Tomofuji
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major global health problem. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between eating quickly and NAFLD in Japanese adults. A total of 8556 participants underwent a health checkup. Abdominal ultrasonography was applied to diagnose NAFLD, and information on eating speed was obtained using a self-ad-ministrated questionnaire. Of the study participants, 2570 (30.0%) had ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD. The participants who reported eating quickly had a higher prevalence of NAFLD when compared to those who did not report eating quickly. The presence of NAFLD was significantly associated with male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 3.163, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.800 - 3.573), age ≥ 65 years (OR = 1.426, 95%CI = 1.076 - 1.889), high body mass index (≥ 25 kg/m2; OR = 9.615, 95%CI = 8.511 - 10.863), hypertension (OR = 1.659, 95%CI = 1.424 - 1.931), high hemoglobin A1c values (≥ 6.5%; OR = 4.096, 95%CI = 3.080 - 5.446), the presence of regular exercise habits (OR = 0.605, 95%CI = 0.522 - 0.701), and eating quickly (OR = 1.146, 95%CI = 1.023 - 1.283) after adjusting for confounding factors. These results indicated that lifestyle factors, including eating quickly, is positively associated with NAFLD in Japanese adults independently of overweight and obesity.
74 Trade of Medicinal Plants and Herbal Products with Teratogenic Potential and their Consumption during Pregnancy , Yvis Silva De Castro, Juliana Silva Pereira Santos, Stela Bersan Faustino, Cristhian Gomes Cardeal Martos, Gabriel Bastos Teixeira, Aline Oliveira da Conceição
The indiscriminate use and market of medicinal plants and herbal products is a reality in Brazil. Despite the preventive measures that already regulate this use, they do not reach all the communities. Therefore, investigations on the use of medicinal plants or herb-al medicines in pregnancy are of fundamental need to help in the establishment of pharmacovigilance norms. The objective of this study was to investigate the sale of medicinal plants and herbal medicines in the city of Ilhéus, Bahia and the consumption of plants by women served in the municipal maternity ward. A qualitative and descriptive study was carried out, through field research, using a semi-structured questionnaire that addressed socioeconomic and ethnobotanical aspects. Herbalists and sellers in the local market were also interviewed about the presence of medicinal plants and herbal products with teratogenic potential in their establishments. In total, 19 individuals were invited to participate in the research, six sellers of medicinal plants and 13 women who gave birth in the local maternity ward. The results showed that medicinal plants with teratogenic potential are easily marketed in the municipality of Ilhéus. However, no teratogenic effects related to medicinal plants or previous high consumption of medicinal plants were men-tioned. Despite the low evidence of harmful effects in this study, the fact that the plants are being sold freely in the local market shows the need of pharmacovigilance and education in natural products for professionals in local public health.
75 Metabolic Obesity , Isabel Cristina Bento, Heather D Balentine
Obesity is a worldwide pandemic, with high prevalence. In the United States, at least 35% of men and 40% of women are obese [1]. In Brazil, the latest Survey of Surveillance of Risk and Protec-tion Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey [2], from the Ministry of Health found that the frequency of obese adults has been increasing, from 11.8% in 2006 to 20.3% in 2019, is similar for men and women in 2019.
76 Association of Consumption Frequency of Meals Consisting of Grain Dishes, Fish and Meat Dishes, and Vegetables Dishes with Satisfaction with Diet and Health Status Among Japanese People , Tatsuya Koyama
Objective:To examine the association of the consumption frequency of well-balanced meals (comprising grain dishes, fish and meat dishes, and vegetable dishes) with satisfaction with the diet and health status. Methods: In December 2019, a self-administered questionnaire survey on lifestyle was conducted for 295 local civil servants in a town of Aomori, Japan. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regressions were performed to compare satisfaction with the diet and health status among three groups (every day [daily], four to five days a week [frequently], three days or less in a week [occasionally]) based on the frequency of intake of well-balanced meals .Results: Compared with participants who consumed well-balanced meals daily, participants who consumed well-balanced meals occasionally were less satisfied with the diet after adjustment for sex, age, smoking and drinking habits (odds ratio 0.28, 95% con-fidence interval: 0.09, 0.85). The association persisted after adjustment for BMI, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Com-pared with participants who consumed well-balanced meals daily, participants who consumed well-balanced meal occasionally had a higher risk of subjective health and dyslipidemia adjustment for sex, age, current smoking and drinking habits. These significant associations disappeared after adjustment for BMI.Conclusion: The frequency of intake of well-balanced meals was associated with the degree of satisfaction of the diet.
77 Conversion of Khadrwai Dates from Khulal to Tamar through Various Practices , Rehman Ali, Umber Shehzadi, Amara Rasheed, Maryam Bibi, Anam Zafar
Dates have been an important basic food for several cultures all over the world and they are still consumed widely over thousands of year. The aim of our study was to protect khadrwai dates from monsoon season and minimize post-harvest losses. For this pur-pose, some bunches were wrapped with polythene plastic sheet, some covered in sacks and others remained open on date palm. Date samples were collected during Khalal, Rutab and Tamar stage by weekly intervals. Chemical and physical characteristics were deter-mined using published procedures. Result showed firmness was more in polythene plastic dates about 4.733, 4.46 and 1.6 during every stage and other conditions have less firmness. Brix % gradually increases during all stages. At full ripening stage, brix % was near about 30 - 40%. Color changes during ripening from light yellow at Khalal to golden brown at Rutab stage and then converted to dark brown color at Tamar stage. Moisture content was decrease with the passage of time. At Tamar stage, moisture content was about 15 % which was beneficial for long term storage. The highest losses on date palm were observed in sack dates due to shrinkage of size and bitter taste. Monsoon season less effected on opened date palm. Polythene plastic condition is best for maximum produc-tion and minimum losses on date palm.
78 Using of Natural Remedies for Patients Recovered from COVID-19 , Poonam Maurya, Neelesh Kumar Maurya
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported a global public health concern by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to its pandemic. Typical human coronavirus NL63 (alpha coro-navirus), 229E (alpha coronavirus), OC43 (beta coronavirus), and HKU1 (beta coronavirus) cause widespread coldness [1]. Corona-virus Cases: the risk of death of a novel coronavirus was reported to be approximately 2% at the WHO press conference on 29 Janu-ary 2020 [2]. Globally, 22,812,491 recorded cases of COVID-19, including 795,132 fatalities, were announced to the WHO at 2:09 p.m. CEST, 22 August 2020
79 Effect of Nutrition Education Videos on Mothers’ Knowledge, and Practices on Complementary Feeding of Children 6 - 23 Months in Ruaraka Sub-county, Nairobi City County , Robinson Nyaribo Mochoni, Judith Kimiywe
Background:Children aged 6-23 months are most exposed to malnutrition because complementary feeding is done poorly in this stage of children’s growth. Efforts have been put forth to improve child nutrition but there are still significant gaps in complementary feeding. Low information on complementary feeding among mothers has been the main contributor. This study aimed to establish the effect of video use on nutrition education to improve mothers’ knowledge and practices on complementary feeding. The study was conducted in Ruaraka sub-county, Nairobi City County, Kenya. Methodology: Post intervention cross-sectional analytical design with control was adopted with 198 mothers with children 6-23 months who sought health services from selected health facilities. The study involved an intervention group that watched the short nutrition video clips on complementary feeding and a control group which did not watch the videos from a different locality but shared similar characteristics with intervention group.Results: Most households, control (83.6%) and intervention (92.4%) groups were headed by males. The majority of mothers were married (86.4%) and Housewives (67.7%) with a mean age of 25.3 years. They were Christians (97.1%), lactating (95.2%) and had attained primary school education as highest level (46.7%). The majority, 41.1% had no specific allocation of income for purchase of food. There was a significantly higher proportion of mothers in the intervention (100%) than in the control (51.3%) who had the cor-rect knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding (P = 0.041). A significant difference was also noted in the minimum dietary diversity score with 3.73% in control and 5.19% in intervention group with majority from intervention (95.5%) feeding their children from the four food groups as opposed to control group (30.0%) with a significant difference P = 0.006. There was also a significant difference in knowledge mean score between the intervention and control with P = 0.001. A significantly higher proportion of mothers from inter-vention (100%) had good knowledge of the age of initiating complementary feeding as compared to the control group (96.3%) with P = 0.021. In terms of practice, a significant difference was found between the control and intervention on complementary feeding of children 6-23 months (P = 0.021).Conclusion:The use of audio-visual tools has been found to be effective in passing messages. Since the video clips’ messages are eas-ily understood, interpreted due to the use of the local language, Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health knowledge is easily gained by the hearers. Better practices shown in the intervention group indicates gained knowledge.
80 Mind Genomics: Accelerating and Scaling Our Understanding of the Everyday Mind and its Prospects for Efforts in Nutrition , Sophia Davidov, Ariola Harizi, Glenn Zemel, Alex Hutchinson,Howard R Moskowitz
We present the newly emerging science of Mind Genomics, which studies the way we make decisions in everyday life. Mind Ge-nomics defines a topic, creates four relevant questions, creates four answers to each question, for a total of 16 elements. The subject evaluates a unique set of 24 vignettes, combinations of 2-4 elements, at most one answer to each question, rating the vignette on a scale. The scale may judge amount of (e.g., perceived fullness, liking, etc.), or may require the subject to choose an emotion. Each subject tests a different set of combinations. All combinations are created by experimental design, ensuring statistical independence. The analysis of the results reveals how each answer or element ‘drives’ the rating. A measure of response time, collected at the same time, shows the degree of psychological engagement. Finally, Mind Genomics reveals new-to-the-world mind-sets of people, with different ways of looking at the topic. Mind Genomics finishes with a personal viewpoint identifier, new people to be assigned to a mind-set. We finish with the vision of scaling the process, to understand the algebra of the mind for the world of foods and nutrition, and to correlate the mind-sets with exogenous behavior, both economics-oriented and health-related, respectively.
81 Effects of High Protein/Low Carbohydrate Rationed Formulated Diet on Glycemic Tolerance and Control, Body Weight and Organ Histomorphometry in Experimental Diabetic Rats , Magnus Michael Chukwudike Anyakudo, David Opeyemi Adeniji
Metabolic response to carbohydrate and protein ingestion plays an important role in health and disease states. This experimental-ly-controlled designed nutritional study aimed to determine the effects of a high protein/low carbohydrate rationed formulated (HP/LC) diet on body weight, organs (kidneys, liver, heart, lungs, spleen and testes) histomorphometry, glycemic tolerance and control in experimental diabetic and healthy rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats randomly categorized into four groups (n = 6, each): Healthy control group (HC), Healthy treated group (HT), Diabetic control group (DC) and Diabetic treated group (DT) were used for this study which lasted eight weeks. The animals were fed according to the experimental design with water ad libitum. Diabetes was inducted with freshly prepared alloxan monohydrate solution (150 mg/kg bwt, intraperitoneally). Body weights and fasting blood sugar con-centrations were measured twice weekly while oral glucose tolerance test was conducted on the last day of the study after which, the organs were extracted for weight assessment and histomorphometric analysis. In this study, the high-protein/low-carbohydrate rationed formulated diet caused significant reduction in mean body weight gain both in treated diabetic (DT: 22.6%; P = .001) and healthy (HT: 5.8%; P = .007) rats compared with their respective controls which recorded significant (P < .05) increase in body weight gain (DC: 12.4%; HC: 11.2%). In DT and HT rats, glycemic tolerance and control improved significantly (DT > HT) while no visible lesions or distortion in organs histoarchitecture observed. In conclusion, high-protein/low-carbohydrate rationed formulated diet reduced body weight gain with improved glycemic tolerance and control without pathologic consequences on organs histoarchi-tecture in experimental diabetic and healthy rats.
82 Cancer Nutrition: Prevention and Treatment! , Raquel M Fernandes
Cancer is ranked in the ranking of the most kill-killing diseases in the world. Scientifically it is a disease classified as a genetic mu-tation, which can be caused by several factors (physical, chemical or biological). According to INCA, it is estimated that in 2018 there were 18 million new cases with 9.6 million deaths, the most fre-quent being lung cancer, breast cancer, colon and rectal cancer and prostate cancer.
83 Evaluation of Bacteriological Quality in Artisanal Juices Issued at Carabobo University. Faculty of Health Sciences. Bable Core , Noja Izzeddin, Arencibia R Angely, Barreto G Martha, Luís F Medina
Foodborne diseases, most of which are of microbial origin, have a global impact as a major cause of morbidity and mortality; in this way the intake of contaminated food has become one of the most important ways to adapt gastrointestinal diseases. The objec-tive of this work was to evaluate the bacteriological quality in artisanal juices of expended in the schools of Bioanalysis, Biomedical Sciences and Basic Area at the Faculty of Health Sciences of the Universidad de Carabobo headquarters Bárbula, in May 2015. The study was within the limits of descriptive, non-experimental and field research, as a total of 30 samples of artisanal fruit juices were collected and analyzed, which is evaluated at different times. For the analysis of juices, the quantification of total and heat-resistant coliform bacteria and the identification of bacteria such as Escherichia coli andSalmonella spp were performed. Of the 30 samples studied 60% had total coliforms, 33% had heat resistant bacteria, and the total samples did not identify the presence of Escherichia coli or Salmonella spp. Thus concluding that the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the arts juices of frequent consumption in the schools Bioanalysis, Biomedical Sciences and Basic Area of the Faculty of Health Sciences, suggests that the health quality of these actually poses a risk to the health of consumers since feedings cannot contain microorganisms.
84 Study on Parasitic Load in Local Goats Reared in Three Different Systems of Rearing , Mahadev Lamani, SB Prasanna, Mahadevappa D Gouri, Suma N4and Shankarappa Bhajantri
An experiment to study the effect of three systems of rearing on the parasitic load and welfare of growing goat kids were studied. The 3 months study was conducted on local osmanabadi crossbred goats at Niharika Sheep and Goat Farm, Sira, Tumkur district, Karnataka, India. Thirty weaned local goat kids (3 months) were randomly allocated into three treatment groups with ten kids in each viz., T1 (Intensive-in housed and fed all time), T2 (Semi intensive- browse for 5 - 6 hours during day time, housed and fed rest of time)and T3 (Extensive rearing- browse throughout the day 6 - 8 hours and no feed supplementation). The animals in T1 groupwere confined to the shed both during day and night.The average parasitic load at the beginning of the trial was 180 ± 38.15, 205 ± 36.86 and 185 ± 33.37 in T1, T2 and T3, respectively. At the end of experimental trial, parasitic load was 1320 ± 35.12, 1985 ± 75.3 and 2235 ± 91.91 eggs per gram in T1, T2 and T3 respec-tively. This study indicates to design a suitable deworming program to control helminths more often in extensive system while for protozoans like coccidiosis in intensive system of rearing.
85 Influence of Varying Salinity and Different Protein Sources on the Water Quality Changes During the Rearing of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) , P Pravallika, D Ravindrakumar Reddy, A Chnadrashekar Rao3, Prasanna Kumar, Shyam Prasad Mamidala
A study was conducted for 63 days to study the influence of varying salinity (0, 10, 15, 25 ppt) and different protein sources on the water quality changes during the rearing of Pacific white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The shrimp diet was prepared at three protein level (25%, 30% and 35%) by mixing all the ingredients in required proportions into pellets by the replacement of fish meal with Cottonseed meal, (CSM), sunflower meal (SF), Acetes indicus (AI) meal, Mysid meal (MM). Shrimps were fed with the diets thrice a daily at a satiation level. Water quality parameters such as pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), total alkalinity and total hardness was analysed weekly intervals. In the study, the water pH ranged between 8.2 to 8.3, 8.2 to 8.3, 8.3 to 8.4 and 8.4 to 8.5 for 0, 5, 15, and 25 ppt, respectively. While the temperature and dissolved oxygen ranged between 29.5 to 31.7°C and 5.66 and 7.81 mg l-1,respectively in all the treatments. Moreover, the total alkalinity varied between 214 to 155 mg l-1, 315 to 229 mg l-1 and 625 to 535 mg l-1 and 725 to 645 mg l-1 at 0, 5, 15 and 25 ppt, respectively. Similarly, the total hardness of water ranged between 238 to 191 mg l-1, 322 to 240 mg l-1, 675 to 601mg l-1 and 777 to 700 mg l-1 at 0, 10 15 and 25 ppt, respectively irrespective of varying protein sources in the diets. In conclusion, the study revealed the feasibility of L. vannamei up to 25 ppt salinity as the water quality parameters are within the suitable ranges irrespective of varying dietary protein sources and growth.
86 Trends in Orange Juice Consumption and Nutrient Adequacy in Adults 2003-2016s , Nicklas TA1* O’Neil CE, Saab R, Fulgoni VL III
No studies have looked at trends in nutrient intakes, orange juice (OJ) consumption and nutrient adequacy in adults overtime. Methods: The purpose of this study was to examine secular trends in nutrient intakes, OJ consumption, and nutrient adequacy in adults 19 plus years participating in the 2003-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results: Approximately 13% of the total sample consumed OJ with a mean intake of 39.5 g/d (76.2 KJ [0.89% of total energy intake]). Amounts of all 100% fruit juices consumed decreased and whole fruit intake increased from 2003-2016. Intake of total energy, total carbohydrates, added sugars decreased. Intakes of folate, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamin C decreased and intakes of niacin and vita-min B6 increased. Intakes of iron, sodium, and zinc decreased and intake of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus increased. Percent-age of adults below the EAR decreased for ten nutrients (i.e. folate, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamins B6, and D, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorous and zinc) and the percent above the AI increased for two nutrients (i.e. dietary fiber and sodium) across the deciles of OJ consumption. OJ, other 100% fruit juices, fruits, breads/rolls/tortillas, and ready-to-eat cereals were major food sources of many nutrients that were consumed at levels below recommendations. IntroductionConclusion: There were changes in intake and nutrient adequacy among adults overtime which varied by OJ consumption. Food pat-terns varied among consumers and non-consumers suggesting that studies looking at the consumption versus non-consumption of foods need to look at food patterns within the context of the total diet.
87 Study of the Influence of Ultrasound in the Process of Osmotic Drying of Melon , Radjabov Mansur Farkhodovich, Kurambaev Sherzod Raimberganovich, Saparov Makhmud Kadamovich, Khakimova Bakhor Bakhtiyarovna, Rakhmanova Mukhabbat Ismailovna and Abdullaeva Gulnoza Ulugbek Qizi
Due to the deterioration of the ecological and social situation the creation of production technologies is of particular importance canned products providing maximum preservation of native biologically active substances of raw materials, and also using biologi-cal processes. It is necessary develop technologies for the production of functional products, where additives are biologically active substances, derived from various parts of fruits and vegetables. At present, there is an awareness of the importance of changing the structure of nutrition, and the demand for products with preventive and medicinal properties is increasing. Vegetables and fruits contain natural antioxidants, vitamins, biologically active and mineral substances, i.e. are one of the raw materials for this kind of products.
88 Productivity Enhancement of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) by Integrated Nutrient Management Under Salt Affected Soils , Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Ahmad Khan, Raza Ullah Khan, Muhammad Arshad Ullah, Muhammad Asad Hameed, Huma Aziz1
Excessive and imbalanced use of expensive chemical fertilizers may pose devastating effect on soil fertility and sustainable pro-ductivity. Bio-organic amendments improve soil fertility and sustainable crop productivity. The application of integrated nutrient management (INM) bio-organic amendments couple with chemical fertilizers is one of the promising strategy that not only enhances crop productivity on sustainable basis but also reduces the use of chemical fertilizers. Therefore a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the productivity enhancement of wheat by combined application of Biofertilizer and chemical fertilizers including Zinc Sulphate and Boric Acid on growth and nutrient concentration of wheat variety (Faisalabad 2008) directly sown in a saline sodic soil (ECe=4.92 dSm-1, pH=8.22 and SAR=16.15 dSm-1) at Soil Salinity Research Institute (SRRI) Farm, Pindi Bhattian during Rabi 2019-20. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The crop was harvested at maturity, data on tillering, plant height, number of grains spike-1, 1000- grain weight, straw and wheat grain yields were recorded. N, P, K, Zn and B concentration in grain and straw were estimated using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Wheat productivity was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased by INM. Wheat grain yield was the maximum (4.76 tha-1) at the application of 120 kg N, 90 kg P 60 kg K, 5 kg Zn and 1kg B ha-1 along with Biozote and it was registered 35% more than Farmer practice. This study confirms that INM has tremendous potential of plant nutrients supply for productivity enhancement of Wheat on sustainable basis.
89 Determination and Comparison of Non-essential and Essential Elements in Different Species of Fish Available in Omani Markets by Using Inductively Coupled Plasma-optical Emission Spectrometry , Issa Al-Amri, Isam Kadim1, Abdulaziz AlKindi1, Ahmed Al-Harrasi1, Khadija Al-Hosni1, Aiysha Al-Kiymi1, Anwar Al-Amri1, Muzna Al-Salehi1, Fazal Mabood1, Ahmed Hamaed1, Saud M Al Jufaili3, Samera Khalaf2 and Mohamed Al-Omairi
In this study an ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry) was used to investigate the concentration levels of both essential and non-essential elements in 70 edible portion of fish samples representing 11 different species of fish collected from Omani markets. Sample preparation via microwave digestion were analyzed, using ICP-OES for seven non-essential elements [Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), lead (Ph), titanium (Ti), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg)] and seven essential elements [iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), selenium (Se), and magnesium (Mg)]. A comparison of the results for the concentration of Cd, Ni, Pb, Ti, Cu and Fe elements between the species of fish showed that there was significant (P < 0.05) difference in concentrations. Tissue samples from Seriola dumerili and Xiphias gladius tissues contained significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of Cd, while Lutjanus argentimaculatus and Parastromateus niger samples had significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of Ni than those from other fish species. The levels Pb found in the tissues of Merluccius bilinearis, and Lethrinus nebulosus fish were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than other fish species. Further, Lethrinus nebulosus and seriola dumerili tissue samples contained sig-nificantly (P < 0.05) higher concentrations of Ti. The concentrations of Ni and Pb were found higher than the maximum permissible limits in certain fish species samples for human consumption. The results indicated that the edible portion contained significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of Cu in Seriola dumerili species and Fe elements in Ocyurus chrysurus and Pagellus affinis than other fish spe-cies. This study concluded that Cd, Ni, Pb, Ti, Cu and Fe elements were species-dependent.
90 General Anesthetics , Dalamagka Maria
General anesthetics are administered to approximately 50 mil-lion patients each year in the United States. Anesthetic vapors and gases are also widely used in dentists’ offices, veterinary clinics, and laboratories for animal research. All the volatile anesthetics that are currently used are halogenated compounds destructive to the ozone layer. These halogenated anesthetics could have poten-tial significant impact on global warming. The widely used anes-thetic gas nitrous oxide is a known greenhouse gas as well as an important ozone-depleting gas. These anesthetic gases and vapors are primarily eliminated through exhalation without being metab-olized in the body, and most anesthesia systems transfer these gases as waste directly and unchanged into the atmosphere. Little consideration has been given to the ecotoxicological properties of gaseous general anesthetics. Our estimation using the most recent consumption data indicates that the anesthetic use of nitrous ox-ide contributes 3.0% of the total emissions in the United States. Studies suggest that the influence of halogenated anesthetics on global warming will be of increasing relative importance given the decreasing level of chlorofluorocarbons globally. Despite these nonnegligible pollutant effects of the anesthetics, no data on the production or emission of these gases and vapors are publicly available. Since Fox.
91 Physical Fitness Comparison of Trained and Untrained Industrial Emergency Brigades , Esteban Oñate, Elías Apud
Emergencies can occur at any time and may reach unpredictable magnitudes. Unfortunately, in many companies, emergency brigades are often organized with people who perform work of sedentary nature and they are not prepared to face sporadic tasks of high physical demands.The objective of this study was to compare the physical fitness of workers with different degree of training. They worked for the same company, but in different industrial plants. In one of them they had a physical training program, guided 3 times per week during working hours by a physical educator; In the other plant there was no facilities for training.Age, stature, body mass, body fat and aerobic capacity were evaluated with conventional methods in 57 physically trained and 21 untrained workers. Results showed that aerobic capacity was 20.8% higher in the trained brigade. Body fat content was significantly higher in the un-trained brigade. A further analysis showed that according to Chilean standards for emergency brigades, 58% of the untrained brigade members do not reach the recommended level, while only 19% of the trained workers are below the reference level.As conclusion, the results only confirmed the importance of physical training to improve working capacity and this is particularly important for workers who perform light activities and in isolated occasions have to face high and dangerous demands. Therefore, the main recommendation is to stimulate training within working hours as part of the preparation of the brigade members.
92 Prevalence of Geriatric Malnutrition in Long Term Care Center in Riyadh/Saudi Arabia: A Cross Sectional Study , Maha Al Turki, Noura Al Sibaie, Hind Al Otaibi, Ghadeer Al Ammari, Raghad Al Otaibi
Older adults are more vulnerable to malnutrition and multiple nutritional deficiencies due to several age-related physiological and functional changes. The prevalence of malnutrition among institutionalized elderly is estimated to be between 30%–60%; therefore, accurate nutritional assessment is important for both effective diagnosis and intervention of comprehensive treatment plans for older people.Objective: To assess the nutritional status of institutionalized elderly female in Riyadh city, and to explore the association between their nutritional statuses and other determinants such as their mobility status and mood of feeding.Method: Cross-sectional study of 38 females aged 60 years and over who currently resident at the Social Welfare Home for Elderly Females in Riyadh/ Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric/biochemical data, medications, and length of residency were retrieved form medi-cal records of the resident. Nutritional status was assessed using Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool. Results: More than 94% of the residents were malnourished or at risk of developing malnutrition. Twenty one percent of the resi-dent were underweight (BMI below 18.5 kg/m2) and 60% of them were categorized as overweight/obese (BMI above 25 kg/m2). Significantly greater percentage of malnourished residents were dependent for mobility (p < 0.001) or require assistant during feed-ing (p = 0.023). Physical dependency was an independent predictor of the nutritional status among our sample (β=2.375; SE 0.800; p = 0.006).Conclusion: According to several nutritional assessment methods, the majority of institutionalized elderly females at the Social Welfare Home for Elderly Females in Riyadh were malnourished or at risk of developing malnutrition. This study underlines the as-sociation between nutritional status and physical dependencies among this age group. Strategies for effective nutritional care should be implemented for institutionalized older adults to treat and prevent the malnutrition and to improve the quality of life for them.
93 Resveratrol Nanoemulsion; A Promising regulator of TGFB1and TFF-3 Genes Expression in DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats , Riham A Mahmoud, Mohamed S Naser Eldin, Ali A Ali, Mohammed A Hussein
Immunosuppressants or anti-inflammatory drugs was used in treatment of bowel disease. The aim of the present article was to evaluate the intestinal anti-inflammatory properties activity of resveratrol nanoemulsion (RENE) against ulcerative colitis induced by DSS in rats.Results: RENE was prepared with size of 49.5 ± 0.05 nm and zeta potential of +15.75 with the observed shapes of nanoparticle was spherical. Also, RENE (39.75 mg/kg b.w.) was administered orally to DSS-induced colitic rats for 21 days.RENE (100 μM) significantly reduces in vitro the release of TGFB1 in the extracellular matrix of in human intestinal colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line and human colon carcinoma cell line HT29. The daily oral administration of the RENE at a concentration of 39.75 mg/kg body weight for 21 days to rats ameliorated the histological damage, body weight, DAI score, colon length and sever-ity of DSS- induced colitis, and improved the compromised oxidative status of the colon. However, only the rats treated with RENE showed a significant reduction in the levels of different pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF- α and MPO) and nitric oxide in comparison with the DSS control group. Moreover, RENE significantly decreases the gene expression of TGFB1 and IL-4 as well as significantly increases the gene expression of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) in comparison with the DSS control group. AbbreviationsConclusion: The results clearly suggest that RENE displayed intestinal anti-inflammatory properties in the DSS model of colitis in rats, which were improved by functionalization with the TGFB1, IL-4 and TFF3 gene expression.
94 Nutrition and SMART Goals , Flavia Luzia Bender
The article Nutrition and SMART Goals is a mini-review that shows how SMART goals can help improve the effectiveness of nutritional treatment. Nowadays people, especially young people, have difficulty adhering to treatment because they are anxious to have the so-called “ideal body” and SMART goals have the function of demonstrating that a behavioral change does not occur quickly, but needs a lot of focus and determination.The increasing search for a standard body is increasingly pre-sent in people’s lives today. Achieving an ideal body has become the dream of many men and women, especially young people. But to what extent the search for the “ideal” body can be harmful, lea-ding to the development of a series of eating disorders such as bin-ge eating, bulimia or anorexia [1].Self-acceptance is a great challenge nowadays, due to the great advent of social networks, which has been valuing the image even more. Several studies show that adolescents are very influenced by the standard of beauty imposed by the media, developing various eating and psychological disorders, and may even reach suicide cases.
95 Nutritional Status of Diet Soft Drinks Consumption Among Chilean School Children , Ximena Rodríguez Palleres, Gabriella Di Capua Ramírez, Álvaro Toledo San Martín
The childhood obesity is a public health problem whose main causes are the consumption of processed foods and junk food with a decrease in physical activity.Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the existence of associations between nutritional status and the consumption of diet soft drinks in school children in Santiago, Chile. Methods: Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 157 school children of both sexes from 6 to 9 years of age of the Renca mu-nicipality, Santiago, Chile. To determine the nutritional status, weight, height and waist circumference were evaluated. To describe the consumption of diet soft drinks, a survey prepared for this study was applied. Results: 57.97% of school children are overweight and obese according to BMI. Regarding abdominal obesity, 53.51% presented this condition according to waist circumference. 64.34% consume diet soft drinks at least one glass a day. Compared to the children who never drink diet soft drinks, the risk of obesity was higher in those who drank 1 glass a day of diet soft drinks (Odds ratio (OR): 1.02 [(IC) 95%: 0.45-2.32]), and who consumed 2 or more glasses a day of diet soft drinks (Odds ratio (OR): 1.52 [(IC) 95%: 0.74-3.2] p = 0.258). The risk of abdominal obesity in school children who consumed 1 glass (Odds ratio (OR): 1.3 [(IC) 95%: 0.58-2.98]) or 2 glasses a day of diet soft drinks (Odds ratio (OR): 1.1 [(IC) 95%: 0.57-2.4] p = 0.6726) was also higher.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of excess malnutrition accompanied by a significant percentage of children who drink diet soft drinks daily. School children who drink diet soft drinks every day are at increased risk of obesity.
96 Schooling Effect in Economic Growth: Benchmarking Turkey vs High Income Countries , Metin Gurler, Ozlem Ozsoy
In modern economic growth theory, human capital is not only an important source in the growth of economy but also has got a significant effect on productivity. According to the analysis of the results based on random effects estimation with panel and cross-section data in the study, mean years of schooling is found as a determinant of the economic growth via health improvement achiev-ing a productive labour force in High Income Countries. Data for mean years of schooling was obtained from United Nations Devel-opment Programme (UNDP) Human Development Reports and Barro-Lee Educational Attainment Dataset whereas for income per capita from the World Bank for the 12 periods in 1995-2014 for 37 High Income Countries and Turkey. Since mean years of schooling in Turkey has been found less than the High-Income Countries’ values, she should increase mean schooling years to reach a healthy well-being level to get a productivity progress causing a rapid economic growth as advanced countries. In the study we analysed Turkey vs 37 High Income Countries. Turkey who is also an emerging economy has a risk to rise to an upper income level as some other middle income countries have. The case is called in literature as "Middle Income Trap". So bench-marking Turkey (the 17th greatest economy in the world) vs High Income Countries is important to show guidelines avoiding the Middle Income Trap. Granger causality test is also applied to test the direction of causality between mean years of schooling (MYS) with national in-come per capita (IPC) and vice versa, and it is seen that mean years of schooling (MYS) Granger causes economic (income per capita) growth (IPC) for panel data. For cross-section data analysis there is no proved correlation between mean years of schooling (MYS) and economic growth (IPC) and vice versa.
97 Integrated Goat Fish Farming as Source of Low Cost Nutrition Security for Small Farmers , Bibha Chetia Borah, Sonmoina Bhuyan, Biswajyoti Bordoloi
As per the 20th livestock census (2019), the population of goat in India is 148.88 million, which is 10.14% higher than the same in the 19th livestock Census, 2012 and around 27.8% of the total livestock population of the country. The increase in livestock popula-tion is always associated with the problem of waste disposal and its possible impact on the environment. Integration of fish farming with livestock husbandry is a viable option, where the livestock waste is recycled for production of fish. The present study encom-passes integrated farming of goat and fish by recycling goat manure, a rich source of N (2.7%), P (1.7%) and K (2.9%) and protein (17.3%), for enhancing fish production in pond. The average range of production of goat dung was 106.2 gm - 176.4gm/goat/night for animal weighing 10.5 - 17.5 kg under open grazing system. It was found that application of goat dung @ 10,000 kg/Ha/year in split doses is the most viable proposition. Calculated per Ha production of fish @ 3879.4 kg (T2), 3430.8 kg (T3), 3358.9 kg (T1) and 2061.8 kg (C) indicated the comparative efficiency of goat dung application for small scale sustainable fish farming with low external input.
98 Determinants of Food and Nutrition Security in Côte d'Ivoire: Case of Abobo Baoulea Sub-district of the Ivorian Political Capital in West Africa , Yoboue N’da Mireille, Assa Rebecca Rachel, N’guessan Anon Franck-Donald, Kouakou Egnon KV
In Côte d'Ivoire, the food and nutritional situation of households has weakened in recent decades according to the ministries of agriculture and health. Experts propose increased monitoring of the situation to avoid a food crisis, capable of disrupting the socio-economic stability of the country. In order to contribute to this strategy, a study was carried out. The study aims to analyze the level of food and nutritional security of the populations of Abobo-Baoulé, in the district of Abidjan, in Côte d'Ivoire. Thisstudy is a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical that involved a sample of 300 households and 453 children under 5 years old.The results reveal rates of 23.70% medium food security, 26.30% low food security, 24% very low food security and low dietary diversity. In addition, the children present a poor nutritional state with rates of 5.1% of acute malnutrition, 12.40% of chronic mal-nutrition and 3.7% of overweight.These results show that food and nutrition security in the country has not changed, compared to previous work and still remains precarious. This could be justified by inadequacies in the search for the causes, and in the implementation of interventions with households.To this end, it would be necessary to revise the causal analysis of the food situation and target the most vulnerable households, in order to reduce malnutrition in Abobo-Baoulé’s locality.
99 Epigenetic and Metabolic Alterations that Interfere in Human Development and Predispose the Manifestation of Obesity and Other Metabolic Disorders: A Systematic Review , Linda Carla Moraes Lima1, Angela Civalsci Cubaski, Mirian Ueda Yamaguchi, Marcelo Picinin Bernuci
Recent studies have demonstrated the multifactorial characteristics of the development of metabolic disorders that have shown the necessity for new research in the area, with the objective of unravelling the factors that could possibly influence critical stages of human development, altering a patient’s metabolic programming. This study aims to identify the main elements that endorse the biological incorporation of these events on an intrauterine environment or on the first years of life, assessing the potential epigen-etic, endocrinological and metabolic mechanisms responsible for this process. The goal of this analysis is to state which main factors allow broader studies to develop specific intervention models for the prevention of metabolic disorders, particularly obesity. This systematic review was based on the PRISMA-E 2012(Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and registered on PROSPERO (Nº CRD42020197344). The research and selection of the articles occurred in June-July 2020 and used the United States National Library of Medicine PubMed – Medline and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, and clinical trials that focused on the analysis of influencing factors on metabolic programming were collected. In this study, we discuss how these elements are capable of influencing critical periods of human development and its potential consequences for the affected individuals, with the objective of identifying possible targets for future interventions. Sixty-two articles were identified and included in this systematic review. Among the selected articles, twelve were directly related to epigenetics, fourteen were related to obesity, sixteen were nutrition related and twelve were focused on diabetes. The data revised showed that stress, excessive weight and maternal malnutrition are potential fetal metabolism modifiers that result in disorders that can predispose to child obesity. It was also demonstrated that gestational diabetes and dyslipidemia are conditions that can influence the fetus’ levels of adiposity and that epigenetics can directly alter fetal programming, resulting in significant metabolic alterations, including the predisposition to weight disorders in the child. In conclusion, epigenesis presented itself as an important way for biological incorporation of the heritability of metabolic diseases, through the methylation and deacetylation pathways, becoming an important factor in future studies focusing on possible interventions for the prevention of these disorders.
100 Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Fermented Young Muskmelon (Cucumis melon Linn) , Norng Chakriya, Dizon I Erlinda, Elegado B Francisco, Huon Thavrak, Ang Vichheka, Ly Sokheng, Prom Kimheang, Rith Sokuncharya, Masataka Uchino Chay Chim
Fermentation has been used since ancient times as an easy method of vegetables’ preservation, which also maintains and im-proves the nutritional and sensory properties of the final products. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involved in fermentation are gen-erally recognized as safe. Lactic acid bacteria are a group of Gram positive, non-respiring, non- spore forming, cocci or rod, which produce lactic acid as the major end product of the fermentation of carbohydrate. This study isolated LAB from naturally-fermenting young muskmelon (Cucumis melon Linn)in 10% brine solution at pre-determined time intervals using the standard pour plating technique. A total of 18 isolates were chosen and purified by streak plating on MRS agar medium and incubated at 37 ÌŠC for 24-48h. Physiological and biochemical characterization of the isolates were carried out. Fermentation of carbohydrates was determined us-ing the API 50 CHL System. Results of the study revealed that out of the three (3) strains of selected LAB strains; one strain was iden-tified as Lactobacillus brevis while thetwo strains are Pediococcus pentosaceus. These LABS are potential inoculants for commercial production of fermented fruits and vegetables.
101 Eating Out of Home and Risk for Obesity: An Overview , Rotondo G, Cazzaniga E, Palestini P
Despite Mediterranean dietary pattern has become a healthy eating standard, even Mediterranean countries such as Italy, show a progressive disaffection from this diet in parallel to the increasing trend in prevalence of body overweight and obesity and correlate pathologies. The causes that led to the explosion of the body overweight and obesity phenomenon and the differences in the prevalence of this condition among various social groups, are cultural and economic as well as biological and epidemiological. In developed countries out-of-home eating, defined as the consumption of foods and beverages out of home, has received increas-ing attention among cultural and behavioral factors linked to obesity. Indeed, with the rapid development of economy, diet habits have undergone great changes. An increasingly number of people, especially in urban settings, is eating out of home not only for working people during their lunch break, but also at dinnertime. Studies showed that a very high dietary energy content of both full service and fast-food restau-rant meals is a widespread phenomenon and that there is a positive relationship between the consumption of food away from home and weight gain. This has garnered considerable attention from public health experts in formulating national policies and programs designed to curb the growing trends in obesity. USA, Canada and Australia, proposed calorie-labeling policy that required chain restaurants to post the calorie content of items on menus. In Europe, there is not such a policy yet. Unfortunately, many studies show that menu restaurant calories and nutritionallabeling mandatory policies did not have achieved the set goals in guiding consumers throughout restaurant menu to choose healthier dishes in terms of less calories and nutrients composition.
102 Can We Solve the Problem of Global Syndemic? Mediterranean Diet as a Potential Solution , Anka Trajkovska Petkoska
Healthy diets and sustainable food systems, in general, are among the key players to achieve sustainable planet and welfare of all people, and at the same time, to be in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, UN 2015). These food systems offer not only a way towards ending the hunger, but also enable healthier nations and less environmental pollution. A good representative of a sustainable food system and a healthy diet is the Mediterranean diet that is affordable and transferable even in the regions far from the Mediterranean basin. Mediterranean diet could be a solution to overcome the global syndemic, which is becoming an emerging problem for the whole planet. This study proposes Mediterranean Diet as an example of a healthy and sustainable diet that could be introduced to children and young generations from early stages of their lives for the welfare and better human health and socio-economic status, as well as a way to reduce the impact of food production on the climate change.
103 Determinants on Household Food Security Among Indigenous Population of Nagaland, India , Aatish Kumar Sahu, Sanjoy Das, Lakshmidhar Hatai
Food being a primary subject of concern for social development as well a vital indicator of well being of citizens in a state, it is more important when ‘last mile food security’ is given due priority. In developing major economy like India, tribal population across the country act as the last mile and it is ought to be studied with better methodologies. The current study conducted during the early part of the year 2017 delves into the food security indicators and identifying the factors responsible for food (in) security of Chakhesang and Pochury tribes of Phek district of Nagaland. In this regard, a household survey comprising of 80 households, was conducted in Phek district of Nagaland during early 2017. Based on multistage random sampling, two rural development blocks namely Kikruma and Pfutsero block were sampled from the district and four villages were sampled as second stage. Using the relevant parameters observed from the survey, the components of food (in)security developed for the study region [1]and household Food Security Index (FSIP) was computed and further descripted and statistically analyzed. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the odds of status of household food security given villages, categories of family size, pri-mary occupation, income level, possessions of agronomic crops, vegetables and fruits and livestock. It was observed from the study that the distance of regular markets, family size and livestock possession of the families played a critical role in food security of a household in the region.
104 Nutritional and Biochemical Composition of Amla (Emblica officinalis) and its Therapeutic Impact: A Review , Ali Ikram, Waseem Khalid, Maryam Aziz, Muhammad Adnan Arif, Ravi Prakash Jha, Muhammad Zubair Khalid, Chasheen Fizza, Muhammad Zarnoor Mehmood, Muhammad Haseeb, Muhammad Abdul Rahim, Sadia Naeem, Fatima Sultana
From ancient times, plants played a vital role in the development of mankind and was an exceptional source of natural medicine. The difficulty of the production of chemical medications, their side effects on safety, and the expense of rebellion have led research-ers worldwide to concentrate on therapeutic plant science. Pakistan has a large collection of various plant species, with around 5,000 plants claiming to have important medicinal values. The papers published in recent decades on medicinal plants relate to the function of various plant bioactive composites commonly used in the cure of numerous human diseases. Bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, and several other components are reported to have been verified to have various medicinal activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, radiological, antitisinous, hepatoprotective, immune-modulatory, hypolipidemic and several other actions. The drug also has anti-cancer, antidepressant, antidiabetic, injury healing, antiulcerogenic, and so on. The present review article sums up the phytochemical components and pharmacology of the Em-blica officinalis plant and its traditional application. Amla phyto-chemicals, including ellagic acid, emblicanine A, emblacani B, Gallic acid, phyllantine, quercetin and phyllantidine were found to have various biological activities such as antioxidants, antimicrobials, antiinlammative, antidiabetic, anti-radiation protection, chemopreventive and healing of wounds.
105 Effectively Managing the Co-ingestion of Dietary Supplements and Prescription Drugs , Jacquelyn C Pence, Keith R Martin, Richard J Bloomer
According to recent surveys, over half of American adults take at least one dietary supplement (DS), with usage increasing with age. Healthcare providers should be aware of which DS products their patients are taking in order to best manage their overall care. While DS can be used to complement and enhance the actions of traditional medicine, they may be contraindicated when taken con-comitant with prescribed medications. Herein, example DS-drug interactions associated with common conditions are discussed, as well as two hypothetical applications of DS.
106 Foodomics; Principles, Challenges, and Applications - A Promising Tool for Food Analysis , Ayda Ghahary;Rambod Abiri;
Human nutrition is a multifaceted, complex, and broad scien-tific field, demonstrating how food components, ingredients and flavors present required nourishment for the life-sustaining [34]. Since the dawn of civilization, food and nutrition components have been obligated to maintain human life by releasing energy [11]. However, over the decades, human nutrition has been widely con-sidered as a promising resource to treat and/or prevent diseases [21]. Recently, the application of modern research in nutrition and food science has been shifted from classical technologies and equipment to advance analytical methodologies [4]. To achieve the mentioned goal, a new discipline, namely called foodomics, was introduced as the global strategy through using the application of advanced omics in the food science domain [17].
107 Science/Education Portraits VII: Statistical Methods Used in 1081 Papers Published in Year 2020 Across 12 Life Science Journals Under BioMed Central , Kyle D Kim; Shaun CH Chua;Maurice HT Ling;
Statistics is an integral part of biology and is required for all undergraduate life science curriculum. However, are biology students trained in statistical skills required in the field? Despite studies listing various commonly statistical methods used in specialised branches of life sciences; such as, immunology and tropical biology; there is a lack of study on the common statistical methods used in life science in general. Here, we examine 1081 articles across 12 life sciences journals under BioMed Central, published in 2020, to elucidate the common statistical methods used in current life science research, as a basis to recommend an updated syllabus to all institutions that educate biologists. 72.7% of the examined articles contains identifiable statistical methods and a total of 2431 instances were identified. Our findings show that the first 3 out of 15 categories of methods; parametric comparison of means (25.38% of instances), correlation/regression (18.88%), and post-hoc test (10.32%); accounts for 54.59% of the instances. In terms of individual methods, the top 8 methods account for 52.04% of the instances – (a) t-test (13.00%), (b) ANOVA (12.26%), (c) un-specified (likely to be Pearson’s correlation) and Pearson’s correlation (9.79%), (d) Benjamini and Hochberg’s False Discovery Rate (FDR) (4.77%), (e) Tukey's HSD (4.36%), (f) Kruskal-Wallis Test (2.96%), (g) Mann-Whitney U Test (2.80%), and (h) Chi Square Test (2.10%). These findings may have an impact on future curriculum design.
108 The Emergence of COVID-19: Is it a Proof of Historical Nutritional Neglect? , Atta Ur Rehman Khan; Abdul Qadir Habshi, Ali Subei, Rubina Tariq, Kiran Khan and Al Madinah Al Munawarah
It is strange for many but I have to quote Shakespeare for a soft reminder to ourselves, what Nutrition entails in the lives of human which stands true since times of Aristotle. Marching against nature and siding with “Artificialism” is hallmark of today. One classical example is of natural orange extracts which are used everywhere from cosmetics to paints but for our diet only remains the artificial orange flavors. Where the nature is and where it must be, I quote.‘This fortress built by Nature for herself against infection and hand of war’ (The Tragedy of King Richard II, Act II, Scene I, lines 43 and 44, William Shakespeare).
109 Anti Herpesviral Activity of Medicinal Plants Indicated to Treat Oral Diseases , Carlos ED Igidio, Adriana S Santos, Dhierllate F Sousa, Bolívar O Landi and Aline O Conceição
Oral diseases constitute a serial public health problem. Periodontitis, one of the main oral diseases, has bacteria as the most preva-lent agent, although today it is known that there are multiple factors that interfere with the installation and evolution of periodon-tics’ disease. Herpesvirus infections, for example, lead to a drop in local immunity that can consequently lead to the multiplication of pathogenic bacteria and destructive periodontal disease. Within this problem, the importance of treatments of broad spectrum is stressed: bacteria, viruses, and the immune system. In this case, medicinal plants, recognized for their therapeutic action and the presence of a variety of metabolites are candidates for validation of their popular use. In this work we describe the in vitro anti herpesvirus study of four medicinal plants indicated to treat oral disease by a cocoa region community. Plants were collected in the field and ethanolic extracts were obtained from dried leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae), Cajanus cajan (Fabaceae), and Tamarindus indica (Fabaceae). As a herpesvirus model, suid and equid herpesvirus were used. The best activity was seen for C. cajan against suid herpesvirus (96.84% of inhibition) at a concentration of 75μg/mL. However, the results presented here encourage further in vitro and in vivo tests in search of preventive or adjuvant therapies in the treatment of oral disease.
110 Hypoglycemic Potentials and Phenolic Characterization of Aqueous Extract of Senna Podocarpa Leaf , Saliu JA
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a life threatening metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Senna podocarpa is an evergreen glabrous shrub plant whose leaves are used in folklore medicine as poultices for the treatment of wounds, swellings, skin diseases, yawns and diabetes. This study was carried out to determine the effect of Senna podocarpa on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and to analysis the phenolic profiles of the plant. Enzyme inhibitory assay of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas were carried out. In addition, DPPH radical scavenging ability, iron chelating capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP), total phenolic content, and total flavonoid content and HPLC-DAD phenolic analysis of Senna podocarpa were investigated. Tukey test at p < 0.05 was the statistical tool used. The results revealed that the aque-ous extract of Senna podocarpa leaves had inhibitory actions on α-amylase, α-glucosidase and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas. The extract also showed DPPH radical scavenging ability and iron chelating capacity in concentration-related fashion and the ferric reducing antioxidant property (0.49 ± 0.01), total phenolic contents (0.96 ± 0.01) and total flavonoid content (0.56 ± 0.01). Furthermore, HPLC-DAD phenolic analysis shown the occurrence of the chlorogenic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, epicat-echin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol and gallic acid. Nevertheless, chlorogenic acid was the most abundant. The results ob-tained from this study showed that aqueous extract of Senna podocarpa leaf had strong inhibitory action on carbohydrate hydrolyz-ing enzymes and potent antioxidant property which might be feasible mechanistic approach supporting its use for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This hypoglycemic action could be due to the preponderance of phenolics and phenolic acids present in this plant.
111 Hints and Tips for Better Nutrition and Cooking Methods , Edward F Block
In these uncertain times and living under the unspoken rule of large corporations, It is imperative that we as a people begin to take back our own personal destiny. I see the grip that modern marketing has upon the means that people go about getting the things that they need to survive, live, love and laugh! Please have the courage, determination and perseverance to wrest your choic-es from the propaganda that corporations would have you believe and remain subject to.All that I am going to share with you is from the experiences that my body, my emotions and my mind have endured in the face of ongoing difficulties related to finding out about the food choices that are presented to me as a consumer. The reasons for this are simple. My body, my emotions and my mind are affected by what I am able to purchase, prepare and eat as food.
112 “X Factor” of Japanese to Suppress Covid-19 Mortality , Shaw Watanabe, Kazumoto Inuma2, Kota Kikuchi3 and Tetsuro Yamamoto
Japan experiences three waves of COVID-19 pandemic. The National Institute of Infectious Diseases has determined the CO-VID-19 first wave was derived from the Wuhan, and the second wave originated from a COVID-19 variant of the European type. Since October, the third wave causes the pandemic spread. The grim milestone of 100,000 COVID-19 cumulative cases reached at the end of October. On December 26, the cumulative number of PCR positive cases becomes 218,358. Even though, the total case/fatality rate is 1.4% or 2.45 death/100K population. Japan’s death rate from COVID-19 is one of the lowest in the developed coun-tries, despite its high risk aging population [1]. Factors explaining this low death rate are said to include cultural habits, such as bow-ing etiquette and wearing face masks, hand washing with sanitiz-ing equipment, so far [2]. Still, we suspect an essential “X factor” is the strong innate immunity which explain the different mortality among countries.
113 Infants Compensate Energy Intake Fully for Modest Reduction in Energy Density of Formula , SJ Fomon, SE Nelson and EE Ziegler
Infants regulate food intake primarily to satisfy energy needs. Feedings with widely different energy densities (e.g., 54 vs 100 kcal/100 ml) result in different energy intakes in infants <2 months old but not later. It is not known how infants handle smaller dif-ferences in energy density. We used two milk-based formulas that were practically identical in composition except that one (Formula A) was lower in fat content (2.70 g/100 g) and energy density (60.2 kcal/100 g) than the other (Formula B, fat 3.43 g/100 g, 68.9 kcal/100 g). The primary study outcome was weight gain, with amount of formula and other foods consumed the secondary outcome.Normal term infants (N = 76) were enrolled before 9 days of age and assigned randomly to one of the formulas, which were fed during the entire study to age 224 days (exclusively until 140 days of age). Of the 61 infants who completed the study and whose data are re-ported, 31 (14 males, 17 females) were fed A and 30 (16 males, 14 females) were fed B. Weight was measured every 14 days until 56 days and then every 28 days. Food intake was determined by weighing containers. Other foods were permitted after 140 days of age.Results: Between 8 and 224 days of age, infants fed A consumed significantly more formula (155 ± 12 g/kg/d) than infants fed B (137 ± 11 g/kg/d; p < 0.001). On the other hand, total energy intakes were similar: 94.3 ± 5.7 kcal/kg/d with A and 95.6 ± 6.4 kcal/kg/d with B. Between 8 and 56 days, there was no significant difference in energy intake. Intake of other foods after 140 days was similar. There were no feeding-related differences in anthropometric results. We conclude that infants compensate fully for a modest difference in energy density of formula.
114 Role of Mulberry Leaves in Human Nutrition: A Review , Fareed Afzal, Waseem Khalid, Muhammad Naveed Asif, Ayesha Jabeen, Ravi Prakash Jha, Muhammad Zubair Khalid, Chasheen Fizza, Afifa Aziz, Ramish Akram, Aqsa Bashir, Sahar Younas, Farwa Nayyer, Rehan Yasin, Muhammad Zeeshan Ahmad
Diabetes and different cardiovascular diseases are major problems across the globe for the human. Different traditional and modern medicinal techniques are being in use to cure these problems. Use of herbal medicines is one of them. Present review was conducted to determine the effects of mulberry plant powder for the treatment of these diseases. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is impor-tant medicinal plant that contains numerous bioactive compounds including antioxidants i.e. flavonoids, phenolics as well as dietary fiber. Owing to presence of bioactive components, it shows strong effect against maladies like diabetes, cardiovascular disease and viral activities. Mulberry leaf powder is characterized for physicochemical characteristics (moisture content, pH, acidity, TSS, TPC). Moreover, due to high nutrients concentration, mulberry leaves are considered as vital for health.
115 Overcoming Obesogenic Environments: A Qualitative Study Exploring Mechanisms of Healthy Eaters , Sofía Sutherland Borja, Emilio A González Silva, Cinthya Urquidi Bellota, Gabriela Sarrat Gonzalez, Eliana Reyes Soto
To identify mechanisms that enable overcoming obesogenic environments amongst healthy eaters through a Salutogen-esis approach.Methods: Sixteen middle-class Chilean adults (14 females and 2 males) following healthy diets according to the Healthy Eating Index were purposively selected from a primary health care center in urban Santiago. Semi-structured interviews and a grounded theory approach were used to explore ways in which healthy eaters manage their food practices.Interview transcripts were coded through open, axial and selective coding with a constant comparative method. Results: The link between food and health is the main mechanism that promotes healthy diets. Healthy eaters assign importance to the physical and emotional roles of food, and use knowledge, motivation and resource-management skills to manage healthy food practices. A three stage food-related learning processes is proposed. Conclusion: Understanding healthy eating as fundamental to reach a state of well-being and having skills to perform adequate food practices is key for facing obesogenic environments. The health-food link and the Food Learning Triad may serve for nutrition educa-tion interventions.
116 Identification of Ectoparasite and Prevalence Male and Female of Cantang Grouper Fish (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus x Epinephelus lanceolatus) in Aquaculture Paluh Pisang Mas Deli Serdang, North Sumatera Province , Yusni E, D Wulandari and Fuad SP
The identification of ectoparasites with 30 samples of fish was infected male and female of Cantang Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus x epinephelus lanceolatus) in Paluh Pisang Mas Pond, Hamparan Perak District, Deli Serdang Regency, North Sumatra and to determine the prevalence of Cantang Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus x epinephelus lanceolatus) in Paluh Pisang Mas Pond. There are four types of ectoparasites was infected in Cantang Grouper fish in Paluh Pisang Mas Pond, namely Zeylanicobdella sp., Brooklynella hostilis, Caligus sp. and Dactylogyrus sp. The highest prevalence rate was found of Zeylanicobdella sp. with a value of 26.66% in the oral organs and 23.33% in the mucous organs with the category of frequent infections. Brooklynella hostilis with a value of 23.33% with the category of frequent infections. Genus Caligus sp with a value of 10% with the category of frequent infections and genus Dactylogyrus sp. with a value of 16.66% in the category of frequent infections. The Zeylanicobdella sp, was found highest of 20 types, Brooklynella hostilis of 11 in female, and 16 types and 3 types was found in male, but ectoparasite of cligus sp was found highest of 6 types in male and not infected by female. Compare of Dactylogyrus sp was found highest of 5 types in female, and 2 type in male
117 Nursing Diagnoses for the Patient with Werdnig - Hoffman Syndrome in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit , Márcia Gisele Peixoto Kades, Maria Eduarda Silvano de Aquino Freitas, Laurindo Pereira de Souza, Rafael Ayres Romanholo, Cídia Vasconcellos
The objective of this research was to investigate the clinical and epidemiological profile of WHS patients, their diseases and propose the main nursing diagnosis labels. Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, qualitative and quantitative field survey of 02 children who were ad-mitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of the Regional Hospital of Cacoal in the period of October from 2015 to June 2016, with a confirmed medical diagnosis of Werdnig-Hoffman Syndrome (WHS).
118 Seedlessness in Hybrid Fruits is a Low-input Resource for Canning Industry , Satya SS Narina, Kim Cheyyar, Reza Refie2, Ravi Sankar C, Hanumantha Rao GV, Christopher J Catanzaro
So many dual-purpose tropical fruit crops, with both vegetable and fruit use, were unexplored until today to study in-depth about the physiological control of their genomes. These studies would be useful for modern fruit breeding programs aiming 1) seedless hybrid fruits for canning, pulp and food industry 2) dwarf hybrid fruit trees and 3) for improving organic quality of fruit production with pesticide free as well with disease and pest resistance. The mechanism, techniques and various kinds of male-sterility (ms) and their major role in seedless fruit production while connecting ms to the concepts of self-incompatibility, parthenocarpy and poly-embryony were reviewed. The physiological parameters contributing ms, responses and success of ms in different fruit crop's F1 production with seedlessness in their fruits, markers identified for ms and or seedlessness were explained along with manipulating nuclear-mitochondrial gene controlled biochemical pathways at the tissue and cellular level during their flower-bud and fruit devel-opment. The routes for possible success in producing hybrid seedless fruits and benefits in the improvement of available unexplored nutritious fruits of tropical origin were detailed in this chapter.
119 Analysis of Micro and Macro Nutrient Levels in Compost and Vermicompost Fertilizer Formulated from Selected Agro-waste and Comparative Assessment of the Fertilizer Efficiencies , Ebele Rita Emendu, Arinze Jude Chinweuba, Onuorah Chinedu Chibuzor,Nnamdi Benneth Emendu
There is global a demand for organic food due to perceived harmful effects of synthetic and chemical fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides to humans health. Owing to this, biofertilizer was produced from some selected organic waste materials through Conven-tional Compost and Vermicompost methods to determine their macro and micro mineral nutrients, also to ascertain their efficiency in organic farming. The Vermicompost was done with (Eisena fetilda) earthworm in an earthen pot with mixture of samples of farm and poultry droppings in the ratio of 5:1. Results of the compost and vermicompost of all the samples showed that macro mineral nutrients of samples A-C are as follows. Fe (24.00mg/kg-33.41mg/kg), Cu (26.01mg/kg-39.15mg/kg), Zn (4.91mg/kg-11.20mg/kg), Mn (27.50mg/kg-34.71mg/kg) while micro mineral nutrients are Mg (21.51mg/kg-4.19mg/kg), Ca (18.20mg/kg-25.51mg/kg) N (20.00mg/kg-29.41.00mg/kg) K (25.51mg/kg-32.01mg/kg) P (30.80mg/kg-38.51mg/kg). Comparatively Vermicompost had better macro and micro nutrient probably due to the action of Eisenia fetida which promotes mineralization. Vermicompost fertilizer pro-motes growth rate of Scent leave due to nutrient balance in organic manure which affects plant growth and development compared to conventional compost fertilizer. Vermicompost and conventional compost fertilizer samples can be utilized as organic fertilizer in crop production and could be commercialized. They can also be applied in waste management to promote healthy environment.
120 Meat Analogue: A Short Review on Processing Aspects , Soumitra Banerjee; Anushree Rao; Saba Ali Zahid
Animal source proteins have been a part of the human diet since long time back. Consumer preferences are seeing a shift from the conventional meat products to the meat analogues based on plant sources. This shift is due to the growing drive for more sustainable and healthier lifestyles, rising health awareness, environmental impact etc. Meat analogues are meat like materials made from plant sources. They have similar texture, flavour, appearances and other nutritional qualities to that of animal meat. Extrusion technology finds its applications in the making of plant-based meat analogues. This paper is focuses on the need for meat analogues and process technology involved for its production
121 Evaluation of Nutritional and Food Addiction Status of Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Presenting to Ankara Baskent Hospital , Özlem Baran;Perim Fatma Türker
It is known that diabetes is an important health problem worldwide with increasing prevalence over the years. In this context, identifying the nutritional tendencies of individuals with diabetes and determining related factors such as food addiction may posi-tively affect the management of diabetes. This study was carried out to evaluate the daily energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake and food addiction of individuals with and without Type 2 diabetes and to determine the impact of food addiction on the intake of the specified nutrients.Materials and Methods: The study consisted of a total of 128 individuals, including 64 diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes and 64 with no Type 2 diabetes, who were aged between 18 and 65 and presented to BaÅŸkent University Ankara Hospital Endocrinology Depart-ment. A questionnaire was used to collect data about demographic characteristics, disease information, and lifestyle characteristics of the participants. Food addiction status was determined with the "Yale Food Addiction Scale". A 3-day food consumption form was administered to evaluate the daily energy and nutrient intake of the individuals.Findings: A total of 128 individuals, including 92 females (71.9%) and 36 males (28.1%), made up the study sample. Sixty-four of the participants had already been diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. The mean age was 47.23 ± 9.95 years. It was found that 25 (39.1%) of the individuals with Type 2 diabetes had a food addiction but that 39 (60.9%) did not. On the other hand, 19 (29.7%) of the individu-als with no Type 2 diabetes had a food addiction, but 45 (70.3%) did not. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). A comparison of daily average energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intakes of individuals with and without food addiction was made according to their diabetes status. The average daily energy intake of individuals with a diagnosis of food addiction and Type 2 diabetes was found to be statistically significantly higher than those without Type 2 diabetes (p < 0.05).Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference between individuals with and without Type 2 diabetes in terms of food addiction. A significant difference was found between daily energy intakes of individuals with food addiction according to their Type 2 diabetes status.
122 Interaction Effects of Salinity and Ultrasound Pretreatment on the Phytochemical Compounds of Clover Sprouts , Tahany AA Aly;Abdullateef Taiye Mustapha;Lei Zhang;Xiaojie Yu;Abu ElGasim A Yagoub;Haile Ma;Li Chen;Cunshan Zhou
This study investigated the interaction effects of salinity and ultrasound pretreatment on the phytochemical composition and growth of clover sprouts. Clover seeds were pretreated with ultrasound at 20, 28, and 40 kHz for 30 min at 30 °C and soaked for 9 h in deionized water, 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl solution, then sprouted in the dark for 3 days. Clover sprout length significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased with increasing salinity concentration to 2000 ppm NaCl, and increased for the ultrasound pretreated samples, sug-gesting a reduction in the salinity damage to clover sprout growth. The phytochemical compounds in clover sprout were identified by GC/MS/MS analysis. Some phytochemicals detected in the clover sprouts (7,8,3,4-tetramethoxyflavone, 3,7,8,2'-tetramethoxyflavone and docasane, 4-methyl) were not identified in the seeds. The results showed an increase in the methionine in the clover sprout with increasing salinity concentration. In contrast, no significant difference was observed on the methionine with the ultrasound treated samples. The phenolic compound salicylic acid in clover sprouts increased with increasing ultrasound frequency levels. It inhibited the ethylene production and induced salinity tolerance of the clover seedling. A novel mechanism of protecting the sprout tissues from the damage effect of salinity by the ultrasound pretreatment was proposed.
123 Myasthenia Gravis Secondary to Pembrolizumab , Minardi EP
In recent years, the development of anti-cancer target drugs therapy has been increasing significantly. In this context, a new monoclonal antibody group, which inhibits the programmed cell death 1 receptor, has emerged as an effective frontline of treatment of certain neoplasms. Prembrolizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, is a standard option for the treatment of advanced and metastatic malignancies like multiple myeloma. However, clinical research has uncovered diverse, unpredictable and serious im-mune related adverse events that raise concerns regarding its safety. Here, we will describe the case of an oncology patient with a suspected myasthenia gravis after receiving pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks.
124 The Pandemic of the E-Human Movement , Julie Rammal
The evolution and change in movement has strikingly shut down gyms, health clubs, fitness classes, live personal training jobs and more during the pandemic. The massive shift has opened up live streaming and online classes, however we may be soon facing a new body and mind pandemic if we are not aware of the side ef-fects.Many classes, applications, live streaming workouts have ac-commodated the public to stay fit during quarantine however the truth is that nothing can ever replace the live 1:1 personal trainer or live group classes because the energy, emotion and feeling is just not there or the same. A small real life smile can actually motivate a student much quicker then what motivation can be felt and given in live streaming classes.
125 Evaluation of Body Composition in Rural and Urban Schoolchildren in a Municipality in the Southern Interior of the Legal Amazon , Rafael Ayres Romanholo, Laurindo Pereira de Souza, Helizandra Simoneti Romanholo, Marcia Guerino de Lima, Fabricio Moraes de Almeida
To evaluate the corporal composition in rural and urban schoolchildren in a city in the southern interior of the Western Amazon. Method: This is a quantitative study classified as ex-post facto in order to verify the body composition of schoolchildren. The sample was composed of 482 students enrolled in rural and urban schools in the municipality of Cacoal-Rondônia (Brazil). Results: Most of the students were female and lived in the rural area, the study revealed that the overweight indexes are high in both rural and urban schoolchildren, but with an increase for those who live in the city.Conclusion: Obesity remains a serious public health problem in view of its rise for several years in this population profile, thus the involvement of the whole society is necessary, so that there is feasibility of health programs in schools in order to intensify actions aimed at nutritional support, physical activity, and the involvement of families to prevent and reduce the prevalence of this serious multifactorial disease.
126 Female College Students’ Attitudes Towards Healthy Eating Habits in the Rising Incidence of Breast Cancer in Japan , Riona Ushiyama, Minami Yoshiike, Eri Tonsho, Kanami Suzuki, Kai Kuribayashi, Yuji Aoki
We have recently reported that age-specific incidence rates of breast cancer among Japanese women clearly increased from 2000 to 2015 in a bimodal distribution pattern. As for the premenopausal breast cancer in Japan, the incidence rates have become com-parable to those in western countries. The westernization of lifestyle including eating habits needs to be considered as a modifiable risk factor. In this report, we assessed female college students’ attitudes towards healthy eating habits using 7 questions raised for the promotion of food and nutrition education (shokuiku in Japanese) among the younger generation. By a web questionnaire sur-vey, it was suggested that female college students who learned nutrition and health had insufficient attitudes towards healthy eating habits, although their attitudes were better than those of female junior college students who did not learn nutrition as a specialized subject. The largest difference between the two groups of students was found in the question “I buy foods without reading nutrition labels”. The female junior college students who selected “Yes” for it were likely to have worse attitudes for healthy eating habits. The female college students learning nutrition had knowledge on nutrition labels, which was not necessarily linked with attitudes towards healthy eating habits. Nutrition awareness campaigns using well designed nutrition labels may be effective to improve the college students’ attitudes.
127 Analysis of Alimentary Behavior and Self-perception in a Cross-section of 21 Adolescents Diagnosed as Suffering from Anorexia Nervosa , Carlo Prunet, Sara Guidotti
Data from research conducted over the past twenty years agree on the relationship between eating and emotional disorders. This work aims to offer a contribution to the understanding of some of the psychological factors involved in the onset of eating disorders, with particular emphasis on "anorexia nervosa" in adolescents through the introduction of the Pisa Survey for Eat-ing Disorder [1], a tool capable of probing the behavioral and perceptive aspects related to body image, and collect information on eating habits, which can be more or less dysfunctional.Methods: The results obtained by 21 female adolescents who were diagnosed as suffering from anorexia nervosa were examined. The age of the sample is in a range between 14.1 and 23.1 years. The participants completed the PSED.Conclusion: The data collected through the self-evaluation questionnaire made it possible to highlight and discriminate between behavioral components in interpersonal relationships (affectionate, sexual, and social), in eating habits (dieting, bingeing and laxa-tive use), in physical activities (type and frequency) and also delineate the characteristics of self-awareness (relationship with one's own body, enjoyment levels) in adolescents with serious alimentary disturbances.The results, albeit preliminary, confirm what is present in the literature on the relationship between eating and emotional disor-ders. In fact, it was found that mood swings may depend on the ability to control one's body weight and keep it within desired limits. The tendency to engage in obsessive behaviors focused on weight control through diet, physical activity, compensatory behaviors was also confirmed. The fundamental role played by interpersonal relationships within this category of patients is also well described.Finally, this preliminary study highlights the discriminatory capacity of the PSED which proves to be a simple, economical and useful self-assessment tool
128 Are the Residents of Varanasi City Practicing Enough to Manage their Kitchen Waste? , Mukesh Kumar Paswan,Dr. AC Tiwari
Kitchens are the foremost areas to generate large quantity of wastes and the moisture-loaded wastes are generally dumped in open to putrefy rapidly, to emit foul odour and to invite disease vectors. The article investigates existing policy measures and cur-rent kitchen waste management (KWM) practices to portray the waste management scenario in Varanasi City. It also emphasizes to elicit lacuna from municipal authorities’ part and residents’ role in KWM. The work embraced quantitative and qualitative methods along with descriptive and case study research designs to sail the research work smoothly. Residents from Varanasi city have been recruited by using snowball-sampling technique. Non-participatory direct observation accompanied by self-administered schedule have been incorporated in the process of data collection. Results exhibit that the assigned municipal personal do not execute mu-nicipal solid waste management guidelines. Open dumping is the most common way for the disposal of kitchen waste. Education of the respondents is the key factors, which creates the difference in their behaviour and attitude towards waste management. Mixing different waste altogether intensifies the complexity of the issue. Therefore, awareness creation among the residents and candid implementation of the rules are pivotal to set up sustainable and healthy living conditions in the city.
129 Investigating Treatment Literacy on Antiretroviral Drugs (ARVs) and Nutrient Interaction Among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) , Nthani D,Hamoonga Mwiinga Bona
Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are potent life prolonging drugs; with potential interaction with food. The importance of taking ARVs consistently and appropriately can never be over-emphasized. For ARVs to be effective there must be regular food supply, a nutrition plan and continuous support system to ensure healthy eating [1]. Nutrition is therefore an essential component of ART interventions. However, the effects of food and ARV drug interaction has not been singularly researched in Zambia. The study objective was to deter-mine the level and scope of information known (treatment literacy) amongst people living with HIV (PLHIV) about food-nutrient and ARV drug interaction. Specific objectives were to determine treatment literacy of PLHIV, determine whether PLHIV knew the meal and medication timing of their drugs and to determine PLHIV awareness of possible adverse effects of nutrition and drug interaction. The study was carried out in three (3) purposively chosen ART sites in Chongwe District, encompassing all HIV clients above twenty (20) years accessing health care and having been on ARV drugs for over 6 months. The study assumed a qualitative cross sectional descriptive study using open ended questionnaires with the aid of an audio tape recorder for recording responses. The collected data was transcribed and coded; themes were identified by way of content analysis for reporting. The results indicated that treatment literacy was inadequate both in quality and quantity of content. Additionally, drug-meal timing was not strictly followed. Further findings revealed step down and instructional format without reason given for actions. Overall, respondents were not aware of any drug-nutrient interactions, let alone expected side effects upon initiating medication. Respondents expressed desire for privacy and generally yearned for more information on HIV/AIDS. The findings also clearly showed lack of information on food and nutrition linkages to HIV/AIDS. In conclusion, nutrition being a cross cutting issue; its importance in the management of non-communicable and communicable diseases including HIV across different human physiological states and age groups cannot be over emphasized. Therefore, arising recommendations should be taken seriously into consideration not only by Chongwe District Health Management Team but also extrapolated nationwide in implementation.
130 Intervention Protocols for the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome and its Components in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review , Ewerton Eiti Yamada, Mirian Ueda Yamaguchi, Marcelo Picinin Bernuci
Physical exercise, in general, promotes the improvement of several metabolic markers in overweight and obese children and adolescents, however, the evidence still presents some divergences regarding the impact of different training protocols on metabolic syndrome (MS). This systematic review aimed to assess and discuss the impact of different physical exercise protocols on the preva-lence of MS and its markers in children and adolescents. The study followed the guidelines proposed by PRISMA-E 2012 and searches for articles were performed in the electronic database PubMed. As an inclusion criterion, the articles should explore the intervention and the impact of physical exercise on MS and its components on children and adolescents. A total of 348 articles were found and, after applying the eligibility criteria, 10 studies remained for qualitative analysis. Of the 10 selected studies, 3 used aerobic training protocol, 4 applied concurrent training, 2 recreational interventions and only 1 resisted training. Regardless of the protocol, physi-cal exercise is a fundamental tool in maintaining several blood biomarkers and body composition, although protocols with aerobic exercises have shown good results. However, further investigations are still needed.
131 Physiological Workload during Rescue Drills at Sea Level and at Geographical Altitude in Chile , Esteban Oñate, Elías Apud
Most large companies and institutions have emergency brigades to deal with potential risks. Furthermore, they must have good organizational systems to react quickly and efficiently to take control and protect affected populations. Therefore, it is very important in these jobs with high physiological demands to organize the activities to balance the workload between the members of the rescue teams. For this reason, on-site drills are useful to analyse the organization of work with concrete data which provide information to prevent brigade members from collapsing due to fatigue. Consequently, the objective of the present study was to determine the level of physiological load imposed by the activities carried out during three rescue drills of injured workers. Two of them were carried out at sea level and a third at 4300 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.). The results revealed significant differences in the physiological load between the members of the brigades in the three evaluations. It was found that some of them reached dangerous levels overloading their cardiovascular system over 80% and even 100% of their estimated maximal heart rate. Among the results, the positive correla-tion between the average heart rate achieved in the drills and the Body Mass Index (BMI) stands out, revealing that the overweight members of the brigades worked with higher cardiovascular load levels than those with normal weight. The results allow to conclude that the distribution of activities should be re-examined to evaluate alternatives aimed at balancing the intensity of the efforts. It is also recommended that the emergency brigades participate in regular physical training programs and educate them in eating habits to reduce their trend to overweight.
132 Sensory and Physical Evaluation of Cocoas (Theobroma cacao L.) From Different Countries for its Use in a Gourmet Chocolate , Maria Fernanda Flores, Briggit Katan, Susan Lavin, Karla Ortiz, Jormarelys Pericaguan, Shioling Ripalda, Elevina Pérez
The genetic origin and the climate surrounding the plantation help cacao fruits developing their sensory quality and those of the final chocolate flavor. The postharvest procedure is also influential in the sensory quality of the cocoa derivatives. The physical prop-erties and sensory profile of cacao beans after the postharvest have to be evaluated to guaranty the chocolate sensory quality. The evaluation has be done using formats to compile the information described in the national and international norms and literature. The objectives were to design formats and protocols to evaluate and compare physically and sensorial the cocoa beans from differ-ent world regions to select the best cacao with citric notes. From physical characteristics data, was selected the cocoa with the best quality. Once selected, it was applied to the roasting protocol to obtain cacao liquor. On the cacao liquor, using descriptive analysis of the taste descriptor profile was determined the sensory profile. The data have shown that the formats designed facilitate compilation and calculation of data obtained from the cocoa. Barinas cacao has shown the best flavor characteristics for its use in the elaboration of gourmet chocolate with citrus notes.
133 Eating Behaviors: Does Culture Play a Role in Our Food and Beverage Choices? , Aisha Ansari
Choice in beverages, diet and health may all depend on our culture and ethnicity. Nutritional values found in fruit juice and carbonated beverages are often selected based on cultural norms. Exploring the nutritional benefits found in both fruit juices and carbonated drinks reveal health benefits and defenses against cancer and other chronic diseases. With a literary review in nutrition and beverage, and a philosophical grounded theory, an argument will be made in favor of the nutritional value found in fruit juices, water, coffee, tea, water and carbonated drinks, require a balance in beverage intake and food consumption. Codependency on both beverages and foods are necessary for optimum nutritional health.
134 Nutritional Knowledge and Practices among Lactating Mothers , Victor Ouma Otieno
Diabetes mellitus (DM) also known as ‘sugar’ is a chronic non communicable disease (NCD) which has emerged as one of the lead-ing global health problems associated with the pancreas in the production of insulin leading to hyperglycemia (WHO, 2014). Globally, according to the international Diabetes Federation (IDF), 352 million adults were reported to have impaired glucose tolerance which is a high risk of developing diabetes by 2045 (Bommer, 2018). The scientific research evidence shows the predisposing factors to diabetes are: advancing age, family history, excessive body weight, excessive alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, stress, unhealth diet and chronic use of steroids among others.The objectives of the study will be to: To assess nutritional status, nutritional knowledge and lastly the dietary diversity among patients with type two diabetes in Nakuru County hospital.The study methods to be used will comprise of; contains study design, study area, study population, inclusion and exclusion criteria, variables, sampling techniques, sampling size determination, data collection tools instruments, data collection procedure, piloting, validity and reliability, data analysis and ethical considerations.
135 Growth Fitness of Indigenous Wine Yeasts in Grape Musts from Different Vitis Species , María Laura Raymond Eder, Alberto Luis Rosa
Yeast communities associated with Vitis vinifera L. niches (i.e. grapes and fermenting grape musts) have been widely characterized. Less is known, however, about yeast communities present in other non-viniferaVitis ecosystems. Moreover, there are no studies concerning eventual must-specific growth fitness of indigenous wine yeast species. In this work, we have characterized the potential must-specific growth fitness of ten different indigenous wine yeast species (i.e. C. azymoides, C. californica, H. uvarum, H. vineae, I. hanoiensis, M. pulcherrima, P. cecembensis, T. delbrueckii, S. bacillaris and S. cerevisiae). All the analyzed strains were isolated from spontaneously fermenting musts of V. vinifera L. (cv. Malbec) and/or V. labrusca L. (cv. Isabella) grapes harvested from vineyards in a shared terroir. Yeast identification was performed using standard ITS-rDNA RFLPs and/or microsatellite genotyping. Growth fitness of selected yeast species and strains, on Malbec and Isabella pasteurized grape must media, was studied by measuring lag phases (i.e. Lag Time) and maximum growth rates (i.e. μmax). Results showed that rare yeast species isolated from the Isabella ecosystem (i.e. P. cecembensis and I. hanoiensis) have better growth parameters when growing in Isabella grape must. The growth parameters of other wine yeast species, isolated from Malbec and Isabella ecosystems, did not show any clear associations with their musts of origin. Our findings suggest that the presence of two rare yeast species in Isabella could result from their growth advantage to this Vitis ecosystem. It is possible that yeast communities assembled in alternative grape musts result from the growth fitness of yeast species and strains to each specific Vitis species. Non-conventional Vitis ecosystems may constitute a reservoir of unique yeast strains valuable in the winemaking industry.
136 Undernutrition as a Cause of Personality Disorder , Konstantinos Koutoulogenis
Considering the increase of malnutrition worldwide [1] and its difficulty to maintain a healthy lifestyle, this article purpose is to emerge the awareness of possible contribution personality comor-bidities followed by nutrition status.Minnesota Starvation Experiment (MSE) was probably a break though protocol which not only studied the effects of malnutrition on human physiology, Keys., et al. [2] but also studied the effect on psychology presenting striking results, clinical signs and symp-toms that are similar to those of patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) [3]. The participants were well-built, healthy male soldiers from the USA army who undertook a period of starvation and nutritional rehabilitation. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality In-ventory was used for assessing the personality traits of the par-ticipants which included hypochondria, depression and hysteria. A detailed analysis of the responses showed that there were no fundamental differences between the type of responses given by the subjects who were malnourished in relation to patients with a clinical diagnosis of psychoneurosis. The effect of malnutrition was considered as the factor that caused psychoneurosis.
137 Sedentary Work and Anthropometric Assessment in Workers at a Polytechnic Higher Education Institution in Portugal , Sónia Fialho, Anabela Correia Martins, João Almeida
In the last decades, with the introduction of changes in work processes and new technologies, there has been an in-crease in occupational sedentarism (worker in a sitting position for long periods).Sedentary behavior is associated with an increased risk of developing chronic diseases such as obesity, type II diabetes, cardio-vascular disease.Objective: This study evaluates the relationship between sedentary work and anthropometric evaluation in Coimbra workers of polytechnic higher education institutions.Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was applied, the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ). Data on age, sex, body fat percentage, waist circumference, skeletal muscle mass and body mass index were collected from a sample of 59 adult men and women between December 2017 and January 2018, working full time. For statistical treatment, the authors analyzed the information with SPSS Statistics.Results: In the present study, 39 of the individuals were females and 19 males, aged between 31 and 62. Non-teachers showed a more significant sedentary lifestyle in their occupational activity, and teachers showed greater skeletal muscle mass and lower body fat percentage. Spearman's correlation revealed that there was no association between occupational sedentarism (sitting posture) and anthropometric parameters (p > 0.05).Conclusion: Although there was no statistically significant association between sedentary work and anthropometric data, it was possible to observe a tendency for workers with a higher occupational sedentary lifestyle to show worse anthropometric parameters. Taking these data into account, it is urgent to adopt measures to create conditions for a healthy work environment
138 Gold Fish (Carassius auratus) Grows Gradually in a Confined Pot Maintained Carefully in all Corners of this World as Popular Hobby , Manju Das, Zaman Sufia, SK Biswas
Gold fish (C. auratus) from family Cypriniformes can adjust in a small confined glass and fibre container to grow gradually. Weight and Length is measured carefully to check growth. Food supplied by the caretaker depends for its growth. Artificial food available in the market (Hobby Centre) in a plastic packet, (MPDA). Small pinch of artificial food in the morning can rare 1 or two fishes in a small fibre aquarium. In the lid perforations help to enter air continuously for mixing with surface water. Need 5 - 6 hrs exposure of air bubble to combat respiration properly. Gills are sensitive for stream-lined fish as fish respire through nostrils located in head. Olfactory rosette most sensitive for fish to feel surroundings.
139 Miraculous Properties of Camel Milk , Faran Khan
Milk is considered as nature’s most complete biological fluid required for growth and nourishment and a complete diet benefi-cial for individuals of all age groups. It has a considerable role in human’s nutrition for the reason that it is an excellent source of various nutrients. Milk diet has been recommended in managing various diseases, particularly camel milk has some outstanding characteristics nutritionally as well as economically it is an excel-lent source of vitamins and minerals additionally the low choles-terol and high concentration of insulin makes it more beneficial. It contains a good amount of minerals like Iron and calcium. Camel milk contains higher amount of trace minerals.
140 Luqaimat Diet with Egyptian Cases , Zeyad Maged
Diversity of diet regimes in Egypt, and clarification of the most important of them for most of those interested in diet.Diet has now become the dominant idea for many people be-cause of the speed of life, the lack of effort exerted and the high level of the mechanism, which has caused many health problems affected by the mechanism.These health problems such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and an increase in harmful cholesterol and triglycerides, which made them think about proper nutrition and different diet regi-mens to recover from these diseases
141 Monocentric Retrospective Study Assessing the Association Between Clinical and Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Type 2 DM) and the Benefit of Treating Hypothyroidism on the Improvement of Diabetes Control , Mohammad Rida Farhat, Khaled Soukarieh, Bilal Jamal El Din; Batoul Mcheik
Diabetes prevalence was as high as 14.6% in Lebanon in 2017. A lot of studies suggest an association between clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism, and type 2 DM, but with small sample sizes.Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism among Lebanese diabetic patients, to assess the benefit of treating hypothyroidism on the improvement of diabetes, and to check whether a screening of hypothyroidism could be beneficial in all diabetic patients.Methods: A monocentric cross sectional study was conducted to randomly recruit 100 patients having two HbA1C and two TSH readings, among diabetic patients. Data was collected from 2010 till 2017. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 11.99% among Lebanese diabetic patients.Results: Mean HbA1C level before hypothyroidism treatment was 8.84 and decreased to 8.26 afterwards. This study showed that the patients who received hypothyroidism treatment had significantly lower HbA1C levels (p-value = 0.001). However, statistically signif-icant HbA1C reduction was shown in women (p-value < 0.001), and in patients who didn’t have any comorbidities (p-value = 0.005).Conclusion: The prevalence of hypothyroidism among diabetic patients was determined and proved the utility of treating it to im-prove HbA1C levels.
142 #Obesity: Analysis of Publications Related to Obesity on Instagram , Philip Zemuner Paiva Rossini, Marina Mattei Garcia, Victor Perussi Light, Tania Maria Gomes da Silva; Marcelo Picinin Bernuci
Obesity is considered an epidemic by the World Health Organization and has increased considerably among the young population. As sedentary lifestyle and deregulated eating are factors that contribute to obesity, the dissemination of information that stimulates the development of healthier behaviors can help control obesity. Recent studies have shown that social media present themselves as potential aids tools for stimulating a healthy lifestyle. Among young people, Instagram stands out in terms of popularity and its influence on life habits has already been pointed out by scientific literature. Given the fact that Instagram presents itself as a highly influential social media’ platform, we aimed to analyze the posts related to obesity. This is a descriptive study conducted in October 2020, from the analysis of the 100 most relevant posts, according to Instagram plugin, indexed by the hashtag obesity. It was found that among the posts analyzed, 68% contained photographic component and 32% illustrative component. As for the content posted, most were about encouragement (26%), followed by health promotion (24%), personal experience (18%), surgical results (13%), diet (13%), exercise (3%) and memes (3%). Regarding the objects depicted in the posts, 42% were people, 25% texts/illustrations, 24% selfies, 8% food and 1% nature. Most of the posts were made by health professionals (72%) and the rest by non-professionals (28%). It is observed that most posts have as content the prevention of obesity and change in the course of the disease, either through encouragement, personal experience, health promotion and diet, suggesting that Instagram can be an useful tool to disseminate con-tent about obesity and encourage preventive behaviors.
143 Characteristics of Radiological Description of TB-HIV Patients Based on CD4 Levels and Results of TCM Examination , Iin Novita Nurhidayati Mahmuda, Angiesta Pinakesty, Poetrie Wulandari Ruswandi, Nandya Herdiana and Triana Rahma Juwita
Tuberculosis (TB) is an opportunistic infection that is most often found in HIV infection and is the leading cause of death in PLWHA (people living with HIV/AIDS). The risk of TB transmission is 26 to 31 times greater in people with HIV than in people with-out HIV. There are obstacles in determining the diagnosis and management because HIV patients coinfected with TB usually have a negative smear test result and tend to have less characteristic radiological features. The number of clusters of differentiation 4 (CD4) and the results of the Rapid Molecular Test (TCM) are associated with clinical manifestations of HIV patients that can be seen from the radiological picture. This study aims to determine the characteristics of the radiological features of TB-HIV patients based on CD4 levels and TCM results. This research used a descriptive research design and was conducted from November to December 2020 at PKU Muhammadiyah Surakarta Hospital. The number of research subjects as many as 10 patients taken by purposive sampling technique. Retrieval of data using patient medical record data. The results of this study found that TB-HIV patients with very low CD4 cell counts and negative TCM results were the most common. The dominant radiological features found in this study are radiological features typical of TB. It can be concluded that very low CD4 cell counts and negative TCM results in TB-HIV patients tend to have the radiological features characteristic of TB. Retrieval of data using patient medical record data. The results of this study found that TB-HIV patients with very low CD4 cell counts and negative TCM results were the most common. The dominant radiological features found in this study are radiological features typical of TB. It can be concluded that very low CD4 cell counts and negative TCM results in TB-HIV patients tend to have the radiological features characteristic of TB. Retrieval of data using patient medical record data. The results of this study found that TB-HIV patients with very low CD4 cell counts and negative TCM results were the most common. The dominant radiological features found in this study are radiological features typical of TB. It can be concluded that very low CD4 cell counts and negative TCM results in TB-HIV patients tend to have the radiological features characteristic of TB.
144 Decision Making in Biodynamic Vineyard Management , Cláudia Brazil Marques;Fabrício Moraes de Almeida
Wine has shown a synergistic effect in a holistic context, and it has been referenced in recent years in several fields such as medi-cine the which considers it a natural antioxidant. Among other fields of study that find qualitative and quantitative characteristics in wine are Economics, Tourism, Design and Agribusiness. The wine industry, therefore, is constantly seeking new practices for Vitis vinifera grapes, such as the use of biodynamic agriculture, which shows positive results for the sustainability of the ecosystem and soil quality. This paper explores the, what interferes in the winegrower’s decision when choosing environmentally sustainable prac-tices in the management of the vineyard, and as an objective, to characterize the environmental profile of the biodynamic vineyard. The methodology used was a descriptive case study of qualitative analysis. Therefore, the factor that interferes the choice of the wine production system is the need to maintain the fertility and productivity of the vineyard and, in this case, the biodynamic system may be an option for a sustainable production of grapes.
145 Contribution to the Monitoring of Leptospira in Wild Animals (Hedgehog of Bouira District) , Aouadi Nawal, Mensah Tonyi Raouf, Abbas Sadjia, Bitam Idir,Arab Karim
Leptospirosis is an anthropozoonotique disease of worldwide distribution with tropical dominance. It is caused by a pathogenic bacterium Leptospira interrogans which her primary reservoirs are rodents that shed the bacteria in the urine. Leptospira is wide-spread in the environment (freshwater, moist soil, sludge...).This study was carried out at Pasteur Institute of Algiers PIA’s laboratory, the ecology of vector systems department in different regions of Bouira district focused on the detection of leptospira spp in different samples: blood, organs, and urine of wild-caught animals (hedgehogs).After analysis of various samples (9 hedgehogs) in regions M'chedallah, Raffour, and Ahl- el –Ksar in 2012, we were able to iso-late leptospira by the bacteriological test (culture of urine, liver, and kidney) 22.22% of positivity, Test of thermo- resistant antigen (33.33% of positivity) and Microscopic-Agglutination-Test (0%). These diagnostic approaches appear to be complementary.
146 Health Economics Study: Epidemiological, Socioeconomic and Health Service Coverage Indicators in a State in the Western Amazon (Brazil) , Carlos Alberto Paraguassú-Chaves, Josefa Lourdes Ramos, Carla Dolezel Trindade, Simão Aznar Filho, Fabrício Moraes de Almeida, Edmundo Machado Neto, Leonardo Severo da Luz Neto, Ronaldo André Bezerra Salton, Fábio Robson Casara Cavalcante, Lenita Rodrigues Moreira Dantas,Osvaldo dos Anjos
The objective of the research was to identify the significance of the epidemiological, socioeconomic and health service coverage indicators in Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil. Method: Multivariate statistical technique, using Factor Analysis (PA) and the Principal Component Analysis method (PCA), with em-phasis on identifying significance. A sample with 121 variables was used, divided into two scenarios: Scenario 1 with 121 variables; and Scenario 2 with 42 variables with an explanation above 95%. Results: Factor 1 epidemiological indicators showed 69 variables with explanation above 70%, factor 2 socioeconomic indicators highlighted 4 variables with explanation above 70% and factor 3 indicators of health service coverage highlighted only 2 (two) variables with explanation above 70%. Statistically, in the context of factorial exploration, it was found that factor (1) presented a variance of 69.90%, factor (2) 14.47% and factor (3) 6.46%. Scenario 2 composed of 42 variables with explanation above 95% in the application of PA and ACP obtained 34 variables with explanation above 70%. Of these, 24 are of factor 1 and had an explanation above 95%. The variable with the greatest explanatory power is the first with 99.66% (referring to the% of children aged 10 to 14 years, with more than 1 year of school delay). The correlation between factors 1, 2 and 3 is explained by 66.53% for epidemiological indicators, 18.72% for socioeconomic indicators and 7.53% for service coverage indicators. From this study, it is possible to infer the almost absolute predominance of epidemiological variables and, with less emphasis, socioeconomic variables, which measure access to basic education in the State of Rondônia. The health service coverage variables, however, were not significant. Porto Velho (Capital) presented a negative correlation of (-47.86%) which can be justified by the presence of diseases common to other municipalities, for example, dengue, tuberculosis, leprosy, injuries due to external causes, etc. And, it contributed with 72.84% in Factor 1 and 17.64% in Factor 2, which can be explained by the condition of being the state reference in health. Conclusions: The study showed that of the 39 indicators agreed between the State Department of Health of Rondônia and the 52 municipalities, 33 (thirty-three indicators) are included among the indicators with statistical significance, which validates the choice of the method.
147 Multivariate Analysis of Health Indicators in the State of Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil , Carlos Alberto Paraguassú-Chaves, Josefa Lourdes Ramos, Carla Dolezel Trindade, Simão Aznar Filho, Fabrício Moraes de Almeida, Lenita Rodrigues Moreira Dantas, Leonardo Severo da Luz Neto, Edmundo Machado Neto, Ronaldo André Bezerra Salton, Osvaldo dos AnjosGisely Beck Gonçalves Salton
The research aims to analyze the significance of epidemiological, socioeconomic and health service coverage indicators, applying the multivariate statistical technique and to compare indicators with statistical significance compared to the indicators agreed by the State Secretariat of Health of Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil, in the period corresponding to one year. This is a descriptive exploratory study applied to epidemiological, socioeconomic and health service coverage indicators in the State of Rondônia, with a territorial coverage of 52 municipalities. The adopted procedure was to apply the Factor Analysis Technique (PA) and the statistical method of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in 121 variables, grouped, and after, only, in the group of variables with explanation above 95%, divided two scenarios. In Scenario (1) the epidemiological variables had an explanation above 70%, whereas in Scenario (2) they influenced the set of variables with an explanation between 99.66% - 99.99%. In Scenario (1) Porto Velho (Capital) contrib-uted with 72.84% cases, maintaining the trend in Scenario (2) with 75.67%. In the comparison between surveyed indicators (121) and agreed indicators (39), it was noticed that of the 39 indicators, 33 (thirty-three) are included among the indicators with statisti-cal significance in the study.
148 Inclusive Feeding in People with Cerebral Palsy , Pérez Doménech Marta
Cerebral palsy is a motor impairment of the nervous system. Its incidence in developed countries is 2-2.5 per 1.000 newborns and it occurs before the first 5 years of life. This disorder affects an appropriate development of movement and posture, causing sensory, intellectual, emotional, attentional and urinary alterations as well as eating and swallowing disorders, among others. The latter entail that unappetizing and annoying ingestions comprising possible malnutrition. To avoid or ameliorate these alterations we will use introduce an inclusive diet, which intends to normalize dietary guidelines. To achieve this, different devices and strategies are made available to people with cerebral palsy in order to allow them to eat autonomously. In the present article, 14 families from the Valencian community who have a member with cerebral palsy were polled. Physiologi-cal and motor difficulties involved in nutrition will be studied as well as percentages of patients using each aid. In addition, the degree of disability of those suffering from cerebral palsy will be related to the level of family stress.
149 Mother Perception of Body Image and Infant Feeding Knowledge of their Preschool Children: Cross-sectional Study , Carla Correia de Sá
Parents are important agents in the promotion of health, behavior, and education of their preschool children; especially, parental nutrition knowledge and children’s body image perception have been described as important factors for children’s healthy food knowledge, as well, as influence their children’s diet quality and micronutrient adequate intake. This study aimed to examine parent’s perception concerning the real and ideal image of their preschool children and identify parental nutrition knowledge of their chil-dren. 58 preschool children were a cross-sectional community sample of 54 mothers who were recruited in a Portuguese preschool, with a mean age of 4.3 ± 1.0 years, of which 37.0% were female with a mean BMI of 16.3 ± 1.3 kg/m2. Questionnaires of knowledge of infant feeding questionnaire and perception of the child's body image were applied. 98.1% of mothers had an insufficient knowledge (score less than 37) about their infant feeding, and 1.9% had a good knowledge (score more than 42). 38.8% of mothers in this study were little worried about their children nutritional status, and most (48.1%) of them have the perception that their children have a normal weight. In conclusion, preschool children in this study have a normal BMI percentile, however we found that mothers with higher BMI, were more concern about their children be overweight / obese in future. However, mostly of mothers' perception of their children's weight does not correspond to the real value.
150 Dietary Patterns and Healthy Eating Scores of Breastfeeding Mothers , Lauren San Diego, Deja Carrington, Tiffany M Fuller, Heather L Colleran
Obesity in America has risen to epidemic levels over the past 10-years. Retention of weight gained during pregnancy may be a con-tributing factor. Breastfeeding may reduce long-term maternal weight retention from pregnancy and is recommended for at least the first six months. The study’s purpose was to assess the effects of a 12-week nutrition and exercise program on dietary patterns and diet quality using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) in lactating women. The participants were from the MEEMA (Moms Exercising and Eating for Maintaining Health and Active Lifestyle) study. Eligible women completed baseline and endpoint three-day diet interviews recorded on the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR 2019, UMinn.). Participants randomized into the intervention group (IG, n = 6) underwent 12-weeks of exercise, nutrition education and were given 6-oz of yogurt 3-times/week. IG increased their fruit intake (1.1 to 1.8 servings), vegetable intake (3.3 to 4.4 servings), and total grains (1.8 to 7.8 servings) to meet the recommended servings. Dairy intake remained unchanged and below the recommendation of 3 servings/day. The dietary quality measured using HEI scores for the women declined (59.8 ± 6.4 to 54.3 ± 11.2 out of 100) due to reduced whole grain intake. Overall, IG increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, and grains; decreased consumption of sweets and protein intake to meet recommendations. The findings sug-gest that exercise, nutrition education, and yogurt consumption may improve dietary patterns of lactating women. However, more tailored nutrition education is needed to improve dietary patterns and dietary quality using HEI scores.
151 Impact of Covid-19 on Alterations in Food Habits and Lifestyle Behaviour of Indians: A Review , Jyoti Singh,Nikita Wadhawan
People from all walks of life have been seriously influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic. The global dissemination of the disease to almost all areas of the world has provided the entire human population with immense health, economic, environmental and social challenges. One of the solutions proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for minimising the spread of this deadly virus is lockdown. On March 22, 2020, India was swift to close its international boundaries and implement the world's biggest COVID lockdown. This Pandemic had affected every age group though, the time is more crucial: for children because of their increased exposure to television advertisements directed at the selling of junk foods, those in their adolescence because it is the age of habit formation and the incorrect habit developed during this period will begin to affect their adult life. In general, it could result in obvious epigenetic and/or phenotypic variation being passed on to subsequent generations, as well as significant dietary changes leading to increased obesity and hyperglycaemia in many countries. There is insufficient evidence on how this pandemic is impacting our food and lifestyle-related habits. Therefore, this study reviews impact of COVID-19 on alterations in food habits and lifestyle behaviour of Indians. These unprecedented circumstances provide an opportunity to better understand the negative impact of strict lockdown measures on lifestyles, and at the same time, help identify and initiate positive behavioural changes, which if consolidated, may im-prove chronic disease outcomes in the long run. It would be up to governments, communities, and academia to learn - and benefit from lessons learned from this pandemic - with the ultimate objective of better educating and promoting healthy lifestyles among communities.
152 Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Cardiovascular Risk in Elderly , Ivone Freires de Oliveira Costa Nunes, Isabele Frazão Mascarenhas2, Natália de Jesus Melo3, Nayara Vieira do Nascimento Monteiro4, Andressa Nathanna Castro Damasceno5, Maria do Socorro Pires e Cruz6, João Marcelo de Castro e Sousa7, Felipe Cavalcante Carneiro da Silva7, Monique da Silva Rocha3, Leopoldo Fabrício Marçal do Nascimento8, Flaviane Alves de Pinho9 and Cecilia Maria Resende Gonçalves de Carvalho
Studies show an inverse association between 25 (OH) D concentrations and occurrence of risk for cardiovascular disease.Objective: To identify the frequency of VDR gene FokI and BsmI polymorphism in the elderly and to determine the existence of a relationship with cardiovascular risk.Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study. Sample composed of 359 elderly men and women. Infor-mation was collected: sociodemographic; cardiovascular risk assessment using the online calculator of the Brazilian Society of Car-diology; biochemical and molecular evaluation in a subsample of 100 elderly. The BsmI and FokI were genotyped by the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism technique. Fisher's Exact Test was applied to evaluate association between categorical variables in the SPSS software, version 22.0.Results: 61.6% of the sample were female (n = 221). The mean value of 25 (OH) D was 22.4 (8.0) ng/mL, representing vitamin D in-sufficiency. In BsmI polymorphism, 57% have heterozygous (Bb) genotype and in FokI polymorphism, 47% have genotype. dominant (FF) and 50% the heterozygous genotype (Ff ). The genotypes FF and Bb were the only ones to presentelderly with low cardiovascu-lar risk, however, heterozygote (Bb) presented higher percentage for intermediate and high cardiovascular risk.Discussion: Studies show that the BsmI polymorphism increases the susceptibility to CVD, and the association of the BB genotype with greater carotid artery thickness. While studies of the FokI polymorphism show a greater association of the ff genotype with CVD risk.
153 Hepatoprotective Effect of Balanites aegyptiaca Extract against Paraquat-Induced Liver Toxicity , Mohammed A Hussein1*, Amira M Mohamed2, Aya O Mohamed2, Eman E Jaafar2, Mai W Abdelazem2, Marwa R Hassan2, Mennatallah M Mohamed2, Mennatallah N Mostafa2, Nada M Ahmed2, Rana M El tweki2, Reem M El zoghby2, Ali A Ali3 and Naglaa A Gobba
Paraquat-induced liver fibrosis involves two factors, direct injury by oxygen free radicals and indirect injury by inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. This study was carried out to examine the prophylactic potential of the Balanites aegyptiaca seeds water extract (BASWE) on paraquat-induced injury in rat. Oral administration of BASWE (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) to paraquat treated rats nor-malize significantly the serum levels of hepatic enzymes AST, ALT and ALP activity as well as liver TBARS, NO, TNF-α and IL-1β. Oral administration of BASWE also exhibited its capacity to replenish the paraquat-induced decreased GSH levels and enhance increase in IL-10 and SOD activity. The present results proved the protective effect of BASWE against paraquat-induced liver fibrosis by suppression of miR-122a and miR-192 gene expression as well as normalized the liver histology.
154 Balanites aegyptiaca Extract Inhibits COX-2 and P53 Expression in DSS-induced Ulcerative Colitis , Mohammed A Hussein1*, Nada S Abdelghany2, Dina R Elsayed2, Tasneem M Mahmoud2, Reham M Abdelhay2, Maithaa N Mohamed2, Norhan A Abdelaal2, Nashwa M Abdelhaleem2, Sara E Nasser2 and Ali A Ali3 and Naglaa A Gobba
Histologically, the mouse model of DSS induced distal colitis resembles human colitis ulceration. The objective of this paper was to assess the potential protective role of Balanites aegyptiaca against DSS-induced colitis in rats model.Methods:Balanites aegyptiaca bioactive compounds was extracted and administered orally to DSS-induced colitic rats for 14 days.Results: Day after 14 days of oral treatment of Balanites aegyptiaca (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) and celecoxib (0.1 mmole/kg.b.w.) in rats, colon length and severity histological damages of the colon induced by DSS were reduced and the oxidisation status of the colon was improved. However, there is a significant decrease in the levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines only in rats treated with balance-aegyptiaca and celecoxib; TNF-α, IFN-α, IL-1 and TBARS, along with a substantial increase to GSH and GST levels compared to DSS control groups. In addition, the expression of COX-2 and P53 proteins decreases significantly in the DSS control group com-pared to the Balanites aegyptiaca. Conclusion: The results clearly show that Balanites aegyptiaca exhibited anti-inflammatory properties in the DSS colitis model in rats that have also been enhanced by P53 and COX-2 protein expression functionalization. In the intestinal histoarchitecture Balanites aegyptiaca and Celecoxib almost normalised the effect of this effect compared to Celecoxib.
155 NF-κB, Caspase-3 and p53 Pathways are Involved in Resveratrol-Chitosan Nanoparticles-Induced Apoptosis in Hela Cells with Oxidative Stress , Mohammed A Hussein1*, Raghad M Mahmmed2, Afnan A Sebawaih2, Basma A El-Maghraby2, Eman E Mohammed2, Zekra S Mohamed2 and Ali A Ali3
Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic phytoalexin commonly found in fruits, grape and red wine. The objective of this study was to prepare RENE for Hela cell anticancer therapy using low chitosan and tripolyphosphate (TPP) method.Methods: In the present study resveratrol-chitosan nanoparticles was prepared made in the presences of TPP using a phase inver-sion method. Morphology, particle size and zeta potential of RENE was then characterized. Furthermore, RENE was evaluated for its cytotoxic effect on Hela cells as well as their effect on TBARS, GSH, GST, caspase-3, NF-κB and P53. Results: RENE was showed spherical shape with mean particle size of around 49.5 ± 0.05 nm with (+15.75) negative zeta potential. The treatment of Hela cells with RENE led to a high inhibition in the Hela cell proliferation as concluded by the low IC50 values 31.89 μg/ml. Also, RENE possess apoptotic properties via activation of the TBARS, caspase-3 and P53 protein expression as well as inhibi-tion NF-Κb, GST and GSH levels. Conclusion: The results presented here may suggest that RENE possess anticancer and apoptotic effects on Hela cell proliferation, and therefore, can be used as new approach of pharmaceutical drugs. Also, the results clearly suggest that NF-κB, is one of the central players in the synergism of RENE and act as a regulator of caspase-3 and P53.
156 Public Health , Adinnu Chiamaka M
Why does Public Health matter? This is a question that begs an-swering, as the answers to this question expose the need to place public health on a pedestal of importance especially in our present century. With the world being inundated with unprecedented public health issues - from the pandemic ravaging the world in its wake to the climate crisis impeding on community health and even to the prevalent food insecurity and other food-related challenges, all these have laid bare the disparaging truth and reality of our inad-equate health system. Looking back prior to 2020, the past few decades had chron-icled some of the most significant achievement in public health, from reductions in child mortality to increased access to safe water and sanitation, prevention and control of malaria and HIV/AIDS and many others. However, the plethora of global issues in 2020 and now in 2021 has dealt a devastating blow to these great strides which took decades to achieve.
157 Comparing Values of Protein and Fat by Composition-based Method and Conventional Method , Tatsuya Koyama
AThe revised version of the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan (STFCJ 2020) was published in 2020. The aim of the present paper is to discuss issues concerning calculation of protein and fat using food components listed in STFCJ 2020. In SFTCJ 2020, in addition to conventional values of protein content calculated as reference nitrogen multiplied by protein conversion fac-tor <XN> (PROTRN) and gravimetrically determined fat (FAT), values of protein were expressed as the sum of amino acid residues <PROTCAA> and values of lipids as triacylglycerol equivalents of fatty acids <FATNLEA>. Protein and fat contents were significantly decreased when the preferred analytical methods of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (PROTRN and FATNLEA) were applied instead of the conventional values. Therefore, it is important to compare calculated protein and fat using PROCTAA and FATLEA to calculations from previous studies of protein and fat.
158 Bioactive Metabolites Identification and FTIR Analysis in Ziziphus oenoplia Mill , Thenmozhi M, Sangeetha M, Jayanthi M, Suganthi M,
Medicinal Plants have inexpensive amount of bioactive phytochemicals or bionutrients.Phytochemicals are present in all me-dicinal plants at different levels and are useful compounds of human diet. In recent decades research studies have shown that phy-tochemicals are playing major role in preventing chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer and heart disease. They are being used to control oxidation and chronic diseases associated with stress, such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes because it possesses strong antioxidant activity. Aim of the present study was Ziziphus oenoplia Mill. phytochemical screening, alkaloid estimation and their FTIR analysis. This experiment provides evidence to support the existence of different biologically important medicinal bio-active compounds or phytochemicals that explain their use in conventional medicines. This medicine can be therapeutically used separately or combination with other extracts to cure any disorder and disease.
159 Role of Trigonella foenum-graecim Extract along with Ursolic Acid a Pentacyclic Triterpenoid as Newer Plant Products for the Therapy of Diabetes Mellitus - A Short Communication , Kulvinder Kochar Kaur,Gautam Allahbadia, Mandeep Singh
Lots of medicinal plants have shown the potential for Treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). We have already reviewed the role of lot of plants as well as plant products related to this that can be utilized in future to prevent the cost and side effects of the oral hypoglycaemic agents like monoterpenes that get produced in various organisms including bacteria, fungi, plants and animals, role of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors (produced by marine organisms was plants, role of herbs and spices, Antho-cyanins are present in berries which include blackberries, bilberries, chokeberries, elder berries, cranberries and raspberries that are the richest sources of anthocyanins. Many other highly colored fruits like strawberries, black currant, cherry, grape, coloured cabbage, eggplant and radish also have high levels of anthocyanins, thus it is important to include these in the low-calorie diets plans to improve insulin resistance (IR) along with helping in weight reduction. Here we further report on two potential new compounds for therapy of DM, like Trigonella foenum-graecim extract along with ursolic acid another pentacyclic terpenoid.
160 An Overview of Nutrition Informatics: A Public Health Perspective , Derangula Lokesh
Nutrition informatics is the fusion of nutrition, information, and technology. Public health professionals work in an immensely “information-rich” world. As many paper-based tools transition to the technology, there are more efficient ways to collect, display and study data from such tools as food/nutrition analysis tables, electronic health records (EHRs), and smartphone applications. Nutrition informatics allows public health professionals to more effectively use their knowledge and skills through the support of technology in many ways
161 Revive Massive Production of Food and Nutritious Plants in South East Nigeria: A Fallout from the Food Blocked by the North , Eze O Jude, Ekpere-Ezugwu M Ogechukwu, Obeta M Uchejeso
The news about recent move by farmers and interest groups under the aegis of amalgamated union of foodstuff and cattle deal-ers of Nigeria (AUFCON) in Northern Nigeria to impose embargo on food supply to the south [1] as seen in figure 1, has implicated a huge food production gap in the southern part of the country. This development has created food security challenges in Nigeria es-pecially in south eastern Nigeria. Nigeria is a sextuplet federation resting on double tripod of six geopolitical zones; more broadly divided into North and South. But concerns are heightened during the blockade because, the term "south" was an envelope word used to specifically represent the south east Nigeria.By that ban, they made the south east to look like clochard men-dicants, pauperized panhandlers and obligate parasites in a nation that sprouted on synergistic symbiosis. This is because the South east has deviated from commercial agriculture to merely subsis-tence and over dependence on food buying in order to face other life challenges.
162 Effect of Different Processing Conditions on the Physicochemical and Sensorial Characteristics of Cheddar Cheese Prepared from Different Milk Sources , Abdul Rehman1*, Ahmed Bilal1, Muhammad Imran1, Muhammad Rizwan1, Ravi Prakash Jha2, Athar Jamal3, Sundus Khan1, Zainab Ali4and Hafiz Muhammad Zubair
Globally, the relationship between diet and human health convinces the customers to pay great attention to food and its composi-tion. Milk is used widely to produce value-added goods. Milk formulation is an integral ingredient that is often used by Americans instead of influencing the consistency of the finished product. Pakistan is the 2nd largest buffalo milk producer, contributing about 67 percent, while cow milk accounts for about 31 percent of overall production. Cheese is a combination of a matrix of moisture, sugar, protein, salt, peptides, amino acids, lactose, minerals, and other small constituents. It is a biochemically dynamic product which, during ripening, undergoes important changes. Current investigation was done to see the effect of different processing conditions on the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of cheddar cheese processed at lab scale. Three different levels of temperature were used 65, 70 and 75°C for processing of cheddar cheese, similarly three different levels of starter culture were used as CaCl2% 0.07, 0.08, and 0.09. All the prepared cheese samples were then assessed for their moisture, protein, fat, acidity, pH and TS (total solids) contents. Highest moisture content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (35.2 ± 0.0765). While the least moisture content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (34.515 ± 0.070.07). Lowest fat content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (29.23 ± 0.0665). While the highest fat content was observed at 75°C Tem-perature and 0.09% Starter culture (29.46 ± 0.0565). Lowest protein content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (28.12 ± 0.0465). While the highest protein content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (28.29 ± 0.0665). Lowest acidity content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (0.82 ± 075). While the highest acid-ity content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (0.87 ± 0.0165). Highest pH content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (5.26 ± 0.0165). While the least pH content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (5.15 ± 0.0175). Lowest TS content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (5.15 ± 0.0175). While the highest TS content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (5.26 ± 0.0165). It was articulated in cur-rent study that temperature and amount of starter culture used readily effect the processing of cheddar cheese.
163 The Perceptions of Home Gardening Zone Program and the Potential Impacts on Household Food Security , Sri Adiningsih, Siti Rahayu Nadhiroh,  Farapti
Introduction: One of the breakthrough efforts to increase dietary diversity that would lead to food security is the launching of the home gardening zone (HGZ) program by the Indonesia Ministry of Agriculture. Understanding the effect of the program on the community could identify benefits and shortfalls that may be crucial to the success of it. The purpose of this study was to assess the reasons community gardeners participate in the home gardening zone program, as well as to explore the potential impacts such participation has on the community and household food security.Methods: The study was conductedat Mojokrapak village, Tembelang district, Jombang regency, East Java, Indonesia between May-September 2015. Data were collected through ten individual in-depth interviews with gardeners, one focus group discussion to stakeholders, and observation on the home gardening zone (type and large of plants and animals). Data were analyzed using the Thematic Content Analysis approach.Results: Gardeners reported seed distribution and assistance by the government as the main reason for participating. There were some contributions to household food security in aspects of food availability, food access, and food consumption. Additionally, there was an improvement of communalism among gardeners as another benefit. Results obtained from the focus group discussion and observation concurred with the findings from the in-depth interviews. However, some gardeners expressed the need to acquire sup-port such as motivation and the availability of fertilizer to keep the program going.Conclusion:Home gardening zone increased access to household food security and community nutrition. Findings from this study will hopefully serve to guide future quantitative research evaluating the home gardening zone as a potential food and nutrition secu-rity improvement intervention.
164 An Interdisciplinary Oral Health Program for Children in Kindergartens of Northern Italy , A Orlando, MW Arisido, S Brioschi1, L Maccà, S Graci, MC Panzeri, F Mecatti, P Palestini,E Cazzaniga
The aim of the study was to investigate if a parents’ training program on nutritional and oral health behaviours held by health professionals can influence children habits in a sample of kindergartens in Northern Italy.Methods: The study designed was a longitudinal study. The study population were children aged 6–36 months attending four kin-dergartens. Parents were invited to participate to a training meeting and to fill out a self-administered questionnaire at baseline and after 3 months from the meeting. The questionnaire included information on socio-demographics about parents, oral hygiene habits of parents and child, and eating habits of child. Wald test was used to analyse data collected. Results: After the training program, almost all parents could use a toothbrush suitable for kids (from 91% at the baseline to 99% after the 3-months). The analysis shows that the given training significantly increased the number of children who use toothpaste from 86% at baseline (95%CI: 85% - 88%) to 96% (95%CI: 94%-98%), in particular a fluoride toothpaste (59% to 80%). The inter-vention study showed a positive impact on the number of pupils who wash their tooth more than twice per week and on the timing of oral hygiene as both night and morning time proportion increased. Regarding the feeding habits the given consultation resulted in a statistically significant increase the morning snack from 94% (95%CI: 92% - 96%) to 97% (95%CI: 94% - 99%). Another promis-ing effect is the decrease from 47% at baseline (95%CI: 46% - 49%) to 42% after the study (95%CI: 41% - 43%) of the bad habit of having a snack after dinner.Conclusion: Results of our study have shown that a parents training intervention can have good results on the oral hygiene and eating habits of children of this age group. To underline the importance of several professional figures who work together with a common purpose.
165 The New Sugar to Suppress Postprandial Hyperglycemia: Improvement of Refined White Sugar by Mixing Specially Grown Brown Cane Extract , Tsutomu Arimura1, Shaw Watanabe, Hiroyuki SakakibaraShigekatsu Kimura
The minimal refining process of sugarcane extract retained some of its phytochemicals, vitamins, and minerals. The addition of this extract to the refined brown sugar lowered glycemic index (GI) and suppress postprandial hyperglycemia. A quick squeeze of sugar cane and quick processing caused a considerable amount of antioxidants (polyphenols). Overall, low postrandial (LP) sugar had a better nutritional quality in terms of physicochemical characteristics and health benefits.
166 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Nursing Mothers towards Exclusive Breastfeeding in Oda Community, Akure South, Ondo State , Michael Olabode Tomori
Breast milk is the natural first food for babies, it provides all the energy and nutrient that the infant needs for primary month of life and it continues to supply up to half or more of a child’s nutritional needs during the second half of the year and up to one-third during the second year of life. Hence, exclusive breastfeeding is therefore important in protecting infants from infectious diseases, assist in improving their immune system and also very vital for their general health, growth and developments. Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate into the knowledge, attitude and practice of nursing mothers towards exclusive breastfeed-ing in Oda, Ondo State.Methodology: A descriptive study was conducted on nursing mothers in Oda Community. Simple random technique was used in selecting the 260 respondents whose consent was sought before administering the questionnaires. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages.Results: The study showed that majority 93.5% of the respondents has heard about exclusive breastfeeding, 89% of them practiced exclusive breastfeeding while 11% practiced mixed feeding. 68% of the respondents says that exclusive breastfeeding protect infants against infection, 27.4% of them believed that it is nutritious to infants and of benefits to both the mother and infants.Conclusion: The study showed high level of knowledge on exclusive breastfeeding among respondents and majority of them prac-ticed exclusive breastfeeding.Recommendation: Exclusive breastfeeding counseling during clinic visit, health education program should be implemented.
167 Role of HIF 1 α in Covid-19 Disease , Tulsi Patil, Arun Soni,Chirag Patel, Sanjeev Acharya
This review article aimsto point outthe manyroles of HIF-1α in COVID-19 diseases. World health organization named the newly emerged virus SARS-CoV-2 or 2019-nCoV or covid-19. At beginning of coronavirus symptoms of pneumonia were appeared in De-cember 2019 near Wuhan city of China. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 outbreak spread rapidly worldwide and is associated with the high death rate in humans. However, there are currently fewer safe and effective drugs available for targeting SARS-CoV-2. So, there is an emergency for the invention of effective prevention and treatment options for the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. SARS-CoV-2 recognizes the human ACE2 more strongly than SARS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 spike supermolecule having a very high robust binding affinity to human ACE2. Relatively limited information is understood about the transcriptional regulation of ACE2. Hypoxic condition reduces the syn-thesis of ACE2, Further experimentation has shown that hypoxic condition induced HIF-1α protein leads to increases ACE synthesis which, prompts to rise the amount of Ang II and overall this process modulates the reduction in ACE2 synthesis with the help of Ang II. Activation of HIF-1 is related to numerous physiological and pathological processes. HIF-1 will manage ACE2 regulation and several natural components exhibit the role in activation and stabilization of the HIF-1α protein. The level of HIF-1α in cells gives us future opportunities for new, safe, and effective treatment options for the novel coronavirus.
168 Dietary Nitrates, Nitrites, and Food Safety: Risks Versus Benefits , Keith R Martin
Atmospheric nitrogen, via the environmental nitrogen cycle, is captured, or fixed, by symbiotic bacteria interacting with plants. Nitrates, as a result, are intermediates in the movement of atmospheric nitrogen into the food chain with rich dietary sources includ-ing red spinach, beetroot, etc. Nitrate-rich fertilizers may further increase nitrogen content of plants. Other sources include potable water, dietary supplements and food additives. Although prevalent in the diet, nitrates have been viewed negatively because they chemically form carcinogenic nitrosamines in acidic environments, e.g. stomach, purportedly leading to gastric cancer as well as neoplasia of the intestine, brain, pancreas, and contributing to Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Other reports indicate associations with hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus. A second major concern with dietary nitrate consumption is the development of methemo-globinemia particularly in infants caused by increases in methemoglobin where heme iron is oxidized to ferric iron and unable to bind and transport oxygen. In contrast, the recent discoveries of the vital gasotransmitter function of nitric oxide derived from di-etary nitrates and nitrites, endogenous production, and endogenous recycling and considerable concentration in saliva have revealed the importance of nitrates to health including improved cardiovascular function (reductions in blood pressure), improved cognition, reduced platelet aggregation, and enhanced blood flow to ischemic (hypoxic) and/or exercising tissues. As a result, dietary supple-mentation may represent an effective, inexpensive option for individuals with vascular disorders and a safe, efficacious means of enhancing performance in both recreational and competitive athletes. Given the myriad beneficial effects tempered by the purported negative effects, it is timely to revisit the conundrum of risk versus benefit from dietary nitrates.
169 Public Health , Adinnu Chiamaka M
Why does Public Health matter? This is a question that begs an-swering, as the answers to this question expose the need to place public health on a pedestal of importance especially in our present century. With the world being inundated with unprecedented public health issues - from the pandemic ravaging the world in its wake to the climate crisis impeding on community health and even to the prevalent food insecurity and other food-related challenges, all these have laid bare the disparaging truth and reality of our inad-equate health system. Looking back prior to 2020, the past few decades had chron-icled some of the most significant achievement in public health, from reductions in child mortality to increased access to safe water and sanitation, prevention and control of malaria and HIV/AIDS and many others. However, the plethora of global issues in 2020 and now in 2021 has dealt a devastating blow to these great strides which took decades to achieve. In a world drowning with public health challenges, it is indeed a necessity to employ and implement all possible strategies to strengthen our health systems as well as improve preparedness and response to global health emergencies. Understanding the ba-sis of public health, including having adequate knowledge of its ten (10) essential services is certainly a strategy communities can em-ploy to improve community health performance, and hence solve community health problems.
170 An Overview of Nutrition Informatics: A Public Health Perspective , Derangula Lokesh
Nutrition informatics is the fusion of nutrition, information, and technology. Public health professionals work in an immensely “information-rich” world. As many paper-based tools transition to the technology, there are more efficient ways to collect, display and study data from such tools as food/nutrition analysis tables, electronic health records (EHRs), and smartphone applications. Nutrition informatics allows public health professionals to more effectively use their knowledge and skills through the support of technology in many ways
171 Comparing Values of Protein and Fat by Composition-based Method and Conventional Method , Tatsuya Koyama
AThe revised version of the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan (STFCJ 2020) was published in 2020. The aim of the present paper is to discuss issues concerning calculation of protein and fat using food components listed in STFCJ 2020. In SFTCJ 2020, in addition to conventional values of protein content calculated as reference nitrogen multiplied by protein conversion fac-tor <XN> (PROTRN) and gravimetrically determined fat (FAT), values of protein were expressed as the sum of amino acid residues <PROTCAA> and values of lipids as triacylglycerol equivalents of fatty acids <FATNLEA>. Protein and fat contents were significantly decreased when the preferred analytical methods of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (PROTRN and FATNLEA) were applied instead of the conventional values. Therefore, it is important to compare calculated protein and fat using PROCTAA and FATLEA to calculations from previous studies of protein and fat.
172 Bioactive Metabolites Identification and FTIR Analysis in Ziziphus oenoplia Mill , Thenmozhi M, Sangeetha M, Jayanthi M, Suganthi M
Medicinal Plants have inexpensive amount of bioactive phytochemicals or bionutrients.Phytochemicals are present in all me-dicinal plants at different levels and are useful compounds of human diet. In recent decades research studies have shown that phy-tochemicals are playing major role in preventing chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer and heart disease. They are being used to control oxidation and chronic diseases associated with stress, such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes because it possesses strong antioxidant activity. Aim of the present study was Ziziphus oenoplia Mill. phytochemical screening, alkaloid estimation and their FTIR analysis. This experiment provides evidence to support the existence of different biologically important medicinal bio-active compounds or phytochemicals that explain their use in conventional medicines. This medicine can be therapeutically used separately or combination with other extracts to cure any disorder and disease.
173 Role of Trigonella foenum-graecim Extract along with Ursolic Acid a Pentacyclic Triterpenoid as Newer Plant Products for the Therapy of Diabetes Mellitus - A Short Communication , Kulvinder Kochar Kaur, Gautam Allahbadia, Mandeep Singh
Lots of medicinal plants have shown the potential for Treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). We have already reviewed the role of lot of plants as well as plant products related to this that can be utilized in future to prevent the cost and side effects of the oral hypoglycaemic agents like monoterpenes that get produced in various organisms including bacteria, fungi, plants and animals, role of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors (produced by marine organisms was plants, role of herbs and spices, Antho-cyanins are present in berries which include blackberries, bilberries, chokeberries, elder berries, cranberries and raspberries that are the richest sources of anthocyanins. Many other highly colored fruits like strawberries, black currant, cherry, grape, coloured cabbage, eggplant and radish also have high levels of anthocyanins, thus it is important to include these in the low-calorie diets plans to improve insulin resistance (IR) along with helping in weight reduction. Here we further report on two potential new compounds for therapy of DM, like Trigonella foenum-graecim extract along with ursolic acid another pentacyclic terpenoid.
174 Revive Massive Production of Food and Nutritious Plants in South East Nigeria: A Fallout from the Food Blocked by the North , Eze O Jude, Ekpere-Ezugwu M Ogechukwu, Obeta M Uchejeso
The news about recent move by farmers and interest groups under the aegis of amalgamated union of foodstuff and cattle deal-ers of Nigeria (AUFCON) in Northern Nigeria to impose embargo on food supply to the south [1] as seen in figure 1, has implicated a huge food production gap in the southern part of the country. This development has created food security challenges in Nigeria es-pecially in south eastern Nigeria. Nigeria is a sextuplet federation resting on double tripod of six geopolitical zones; more broadly divided into North and South. But concerns are heightened during the blockade because, the term "south" was an envelope word used to specifically represent the south east Nigeria.
175 Effect of Different Processing Conditions on the Physicochemical and Sensorial Characteristics of Cheddar Cheese Prepared from Different Milk Sources , Abdul Rehman, Ahmed Bilal, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Rizwan, Ravi Prakash Jha, Athar Jamal, Sundus Khan1, Zainab Ali,  Hafiz Muhammad Zubair
Globally, the relationship between diet and human health convinces the customers to pay great attention to food and its composi-tion. Milk is used widely to produce value-added goods. Milk formulation is an integral ingredient that is often used by Americans instead of influencing the consistency of the finished product. Pakistan is the 2nd largest buffalo milk producer, contributing about 67 percent, while cow milk accounts for about 31 percent of overall production. Cheese is a combination of a matrix of moisture, sugar, protein, salt, peptides, amino acids, lactose, minerals, and other small constituents. It is a biochemically dynamic product which, during ripening, undergoes important changes. Current investigation was done to see the effect of different processing conditions on the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of cheddar cheese processed at lab scale. Three different levels of temperature were used 65, 70 and 75°C for processing of cheddar cheese, similarly three different levels of starter culture were used as CaCl2% 0.07, 0.08, and 0.09. All the prepared cheese samples were then assessed for their moisture, protein, fat, acidity, pH and TS (total solids) contents. Highest moisture content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (35.2 ± 0.0765). While the least moisture content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (34.515 ± 0.070.07). Lowest fat content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (29.23 ± 0.0665). While the highest fat content was observed at 75°C Tem-perature and 0.09% Starter culture (29.46 ± 0.0565). Lowest protein content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (28.12 ± 0.0465). While the highest protein content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (28.29 ± 0.0665). Lowest acidity content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (0.82 ± 075). While the highest acid-ity content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (0.87 ± 0.0165). Highest pH content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (5.26 ± 0.0165). While the least pH content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (5.15 ± 0.0175). Lowest TS content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (5.15 ± 0.0175). While the highest TS content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (5.26 ± 0.0165). It was articulated in cur-rent study that temperature and amount of starter culture used readily effect the processing of cheddar cheese.
176 The Perceptions of Home Gardening Zone Program and the Potential Impacts on Household Food Security , Sri Adiningsih, Siti Rahayu Nadhiroh, Farapti
One of the breakthrough efforts to increase dietary diversity that would lead to food security is the launching of the home gardening zone (HGZ) program by the Indonesia Ministry of Agriculture. Understanding the effect of the program on the community could identify benefits and shortfalls that may be crucial to the success of it. The purpose of this study was to assess the reasons community gardeners participate in the home gardening zone program, as well as to explore the potential impacts such participation has on the community and household food security.Methods: The study was conductedat Mojokrapak village, Tembelang district, Jombang regency, East Java, Indonesia between May-September 2015. Data were collected through ten individual in-depth interviews with gardeners, one focus group discussion to stakeholders, and observation on the home gardening zone (type and large of plants and animals). Data were analyzed using the Thematic Content Analysis approach.Results: Gardeners reported seed distribution and assistance by the government as the main reason for participating. There were some contributions to household food security in aspects of food availability, food access, and food consumption. Additionally, there was an improvement of communalism among gardeners as another benefit. Results obtained from the focus group discussion and observation concurred with the findings from the in-depth interviews. However, some gardeners expressed the need to acquire sup-port such as motivation and the availability of fertilizer to keep the program going.Conclusion:Home gardening zone increased access to household food security and community nutrition. Findings from this study will hopefully serve to guide future quantitative research evaluating the home gardening zone as a potential food and nutrition secu-rity improvement intervention.
177 An Interdisciplinary Oral Health Program for Children in Kindergartens of Northern Italy , A Orlando, MW Arisido, S Brioschi, L Maccà, S Graci, MC Panzeri, F Mecatti, P Palestini, E Cazzaniga
The aim of the study was to investigate if a parents’ training program on nutritional and oral health behaviours held by health professionals can influence children habits in a sample of kindergartens in Northern Italy.Methods: The study designed was a longitudinal study. The study population were children aged 6–36 months attending four kin-dergartens. Parents were invited to participate to a training meeting and to fill out a self-administered questionnaire at baseline and after 3 months from the meeting. The questionnaire included information on socio-demographics about parents, oral hygiene habits of parents and child, and eating habits of child. Wald test was used to analyse data collected. Results: After the training program, almost all parents could use a toothbrush suitable for kids (from 91% at the baseline to 99% after the 3-months). The analysis shows that the given training significantly increased the number of children who use toothpaste from 86% at baseline (95%CI: 85% - 88%) to 96% (95%CI: 94%-98%), in particular a fluoride toothpaste (59% to 80%). The inter-vention study showed a positive impact on the number of pupils who wash their tooth more than twice per week and on the timing of oral hygiene as both night and morning time proportion increased. Regarding the feeding habits the given consultation resulted in a statistically significant increase the morning snack from 94% (95%CI: 92% - 96%) to 97% (95%CI: 94% - 99%). Another promis-ing effect is the decrease from 47% at baseline (95%CI: 46% - 49%) to 42% after the study (95%CI: 41% - 43%) of the bad habit of having a snack after dinner.Conclusion: Results of our study have shown that a parents training intervention can have good results on the oral hygiene and eating habits of children of this age group. To underline the importance of several professional figures who work together with a common purpose.
178 The New Sugar to Suppress Postprandial Hyperglycemia: Improvement of Refined White Sugar by Mixing Specially Grown Brown Cane Extract , Tsutomu Arimura, Shaw Watanabe, Hiroyuki Sakakibara, Shigekatsu Kimura
The minimal refining process of sugarcane extract retained some of its phytochemicals, vitamins, and minerals. The addition of this extract to the refined brown sugar lowered glycemic index (GI) and suppress postprandial hyperglycemia. A quick squeeze of sugar cane and quick processing caused a considerable amount of antioxidants (polyphenols). Overall, low postrandial (LP) sugar had a better nutritional quality in terms of physicochemical characteristics and health benefits.
179 Responsibility in Writing Scientific Articles , Dayanne da Silva Borges
Increasingly, the ease with which everyone has access to infor-mation, causes myths and truths to mix and confuse laypeople and professionals, who seek updates. In this sense, scientific articles are highlighted by the dissemination of results from research that may have an impact on people’s lives.When we write a scientific article, whether it is the result of original research or a literature review, authors should keep in mind that other people may come to use the published data in determining conduct, either for themselves or for the guidance of others. And with that in mind, we must emphasize the responsibil-ity that the authors have in each of their statements and denials.At all stages of writing an article, authors must act impartial-ly. The introduction must be constructed to direct readers to the line of reasoning that the authors made and that led them to the problem or guiding question of the research. The method section is the most important one of the studies and must be described with all the necessary detail so that other people can replicate it. A study that has been meticulously planned, will have no dif-ficulties in having this step described in detail, but it is common to find this section confused and incomplete, in studies that have not gone through a rigorous planning process, causing many steps to have only been thought of when the need arose. On the other hand, when we come across articles that present the method sec-tion rich in details, we realize the zeal with which the authors did this writing and we have already anticipated that the same should be observed in the rest of the work.
180 Factor Related to Nutritional Status of Children with Disability Living in Dhaka City, Bangladesh , Md Harun-Or-Rashid, Abul Hasnat Mohiuddin, Omar Faruque, Bijoya Sarkar, Kakoli Alamgir, Abu Yousuf, Shamim Reza
To assess the nutritional status and nutritional related knowledge of children or their caregiver of CWD in Dhaka city. Objectives:To assess the anthropometric measurement byBMI, WAZ, HAZ of the respondents, To assess the nutrition related knowl-edge of the children or their caregivers of the respondents, To appraise the food frequency pattern of the participants, To find outso-cio-demographic (age, gender, family type, living area, educational status) characteristics ofCWDParents.Methodology: Children with neurodevelopment disorders living in Dhaka city.CWD(neurodevelopmentdisability like as Autism, CP, ID and Down syndrome) living inEskatanandSWIDBangladesh between September 2020 to March 2021. The instruments used included direct interview, a standard questionnaire and Knowledge of nutrition and food frequency pattern. Data were numerically coded and captured in Excel, using an SPSS 22.0 version. Results: The findings of the study provide a baseline of information about find out nutritional status and FCS disabled child in Bangladesh the study found that mean age of the participant was 9.98 (SD ± 1.62) years and most of the participants were above 5 years. The youngest participants in this study were 7 years old and oldest participants were 12 years old. In this study, this study showed that male caregivers participants were highest rate that was 58.6% (n = 51). Female caregivers participant were rate that was 41.4% (n = 36) with males attended more than females, in this study showed >10000 BDT range participants were highest rate (n = 36) with males attended more than females, in this study showed >10000 BDT range participants were highest rate that was 62.1% (n = 54). Primary passed participants were highest rate that was 34.5% (n = 30). More degree passed participant were sec-ond highest rate that was 31% (n = 27). According to our findings, knowledge about nutrition of the participants showed that no participants were highest rate that was 39.1% (n = 34). Yes participant second highest were rate that was 34.5% (n = 30) and not sure participants were 26.4% (n = 23). Knowledge about nutrition components of the participants. This study showed that yes par-ticipants were highest rate that was 41.4% (n = 36). No participant second highest were rate that was 29.9% (n = 26) and not sure participants were 28.7% (n = 25).
181 Effect of Ground Flaxseed Intake on Lipidic Profile in Subjects with Dyslipidemic with and without Pharmacotherapy , M Paz Beyer, Camila Escala, Javiera Gómez, Javiera González, Ximena Palma
Dyslipidemia corresponds to a number of alterations of blood lipids concentrations that is associated with health risks. Diets high in fat, family background, among others are risk factors. One way to correct lipid alterations would be to consume dietary fiber like the one present in ground flaxseed, which could contribute to the improvement of cholesterol and triglycerides levels.General Objective: To determine the effect of daily consumption of ground flaxseed on the lipid profile of 10 dyslipidemic subjects diagnosed with a follow up of 1 month. Methods: Participants in this study were adults, age 40-70 years old. Subjects consumed 15 g of ground flax in 200 ml of water with their lunch. Blood lipid profile tests were performed before and after consumption for one month. Data was analyzed using an indi-vidual delta for each lipid profile and was compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). To evaluate the difference in food intake the averages of each variable were compared using T-Student test.Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in LDL cholesterol in all the participants from 184 ± 28,38 mg/dL to 139 ± 29,02 mg/dL during the 1-month follow up. The changes in levels of total cholesterol, LDL and blood triglycerides were statistically significant.Conclusion: The daily intake of flaxseed with a meal is associated with improved levels of LDL.
182 Nutraceuticals: Frontier in Healthcare , Firoj A Tamboli, Harinath N More, Vishal H Thorat, Asha S Jadhav, Niolfar A Tamboli
Nutraceutical is a term used for segregated products from processed foods, supplements, specialty foods and food products that are used as nutrients in balanced foods. The lifestyles of people around the world have changed over the past century due to in-creased incomes, declining exercise and preferences for unhealthy foods. Nutraceuticals are very popular because of their safety, nutritional value and treatment. They are used in the treatment and prevention of various diseases, including heart disease, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke and Parkinson’s disease, as well as obesity. Better understanding “from treatment to preven-tion” leads to an increase in the demand for nutraceutical. Nutraceutical has lead to in a new era of medicine and health, which has made the food and pharmaceutical industry a business of research interest
183 Jasonia Montana; A Promising Therapeutic Agent to Attenuate Neurological Disorders Associated with SCO-induced Dementia , Mohammed A Hussein, Nada M El-Laban, Lamiaa H Elabody, Amany M Ghazal1, Basant S Mohamed, Azhar A Mohamed, Lamiaa Y Elhalafwy, Sanaa M Elsayad, Amal S Othman, Ali A Ali
Neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by progressive cognitive and memory dysfunction.This study investigated the effect of Jasonia montana ethanolic extract (JMEE) on Ca-, Mg+2 and Na+, K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities as well as β amyloid1-42 level in brain hippocampus of adult rats exposed to SCO. Rats were exposed to SCO (3.0 mg/Kg) and JMEE (150mg/Kg) by gavage for 14days. Rats were randomly divided into six groups with 6 rats in each: [Saline], [saline/SCO (3.0mg/kg)], [saline/SCO (3.0mg/kg)/JMEE (150 mg/kg,)], [saline/SCO (3.0mg/kg)/ DHC (3 mg/kg)] and [saline/SCO (3.0mg/kg)/JMEE (150 mg/kg,)/ DHC (3 mg/kg)]. Results demonstrated that plasma TC, TG as well as brain hippocampus levels of AChE, MAO, βA1-42, TBARS. Also, the results showed that a significant depletion of plasma HDL-C as well as brain hippocampus levels of phospholipids, GSH, ACh, Ca+2, Mg+2 and Na+, K+-ATPase. Treatment with JMEE (150mg/Kg) prevented the increase in TC, TG, AChE, MAO, β amy-loid1-42, TBARS activity when compared to SCO-treated group. JMEE treatment prevented the SCO-induced decrease in Ca+2, Mg+2and Na+, K+-ATPase activities as well as GSH, HDL-C, ACh and phospholipids in SCO-treated group when compared to normal group. Our data showed that JMEE have a protector effect against SCO induced neurodegenerative. Also, Jasonia Montana is a promising therapeutic agent to attenuate neurological disorders associated with SCO induced dementia.
184 Almond (Prunus dulcis): A Nutritive Dense Dry Fruit , Waseem Khalid, Fareed Afzal, Ravi Prakash Jha, Nageen Afzal, Muhammad Zubair Khalid, Talal Shoaib, Ramish Akram, Poonam Gill5, Afifa Aziz, Noman Aslam, Areeg Azha
Almond belongs to plant-based food and is botanically calledPrunus dulcis. The edible part of the almond is the seed that is com-posed of different nutritive and non-nutritive components. Almond seed consists of fat, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and phenolic compounds. These compositional constituents of almond seed play important role in the human body. It is helpful in heart disease and diabetes because it is a good source of antioxidants and polyphenols that prevents inflammation of cells. Almond seed fiber is suitable for preventing constipation. Conclusively, its seeds are composed of many beneficial components that can reduce the chances of diseases
185 Covid-19 and Common Mental Disorders in the Risk Group Population: A Study in Brazilian Amazon , Carlos Alberto Paraguassú-Chaves, Carla Dolezel Trindade, Simão Aznar Filho, Fabrício Moraes de Almeida, Lenita Rodrigues Moreira Dantas, Gisely Beck Gonçalves Salton
To evaluate the frequency of common mental disorders (CMD) in a population group at risk during the Covid-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study, with a quantitative approach, a type characterized as epidemiological. An adapted version of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), the adapted PSS and the abbreviated WOHOO were used as data collection instruments. A total of 560 volunteers participated in the sample, 57% female and 43% male, with ages ranging from 35 to 85 years. Results: The general average of proportional relative frequency for each 10 research subjects belonging to the risk group for Covid-19, resulting from the composition of the 5 factors of the SRQ-20 was 7.8, higher than the cutoff point that characterize common mental disorders (CMD). Among the factors of the PSS prevail: “anxiety for information about the disease”, “fear”, “sadness” and “anxiety”, “fear of being infected by covid-19”, “fear of dying”, “frustration and boredom”, "Anger", "irritability", "uncertainty" and, "having a chronic illness". The WHOQOL-bref found results that show dissatisfaction with the quality of life in this risk group. The results of the 3 instruments applied show and characterize the CMD in this studied group. Conclusion: It can be said that this risk group suffers from CMD with symptomatic characterization of depression.
186 Features of Community-acquired Pneumonia in Children with Children's Cerebral Paralysis , RR Aishauova, ST Abdrakhmanova, LN Skuchalina, VV Meshcheryakov
To investigate the features of the clinical course and treatment tactics for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in chil-dren with cerebral palsy (CP). Materials and Methods: The analysis of clinical, radiological, laboratory parameters and treatment tactics was carried out in two groups: 56 children with CAP on the background of cerebral palsy and 100 children with CAP without neurological pathology at the age from 0 to 14 years. Results: Children with cerebral palsy were more likely to have recurrent pneumonia. In cerebral palsy, CAP was more often bi-lateral, proceeded with prolonged manifestations of bronchitis and bronchial obstruction, problems with sputum discharge, more pronounced respiratory failure, which more often required intensive therapy, including artificial ventilation of the lungs, repeated courses of antibiotic therapy, and longer hospitalization. A significant role of Streptococcus pneumoniae in CAP in children with cere-bral palsy has been established. Conclusion: The revealed features determine the need to actively use in the treatment of children with cerebral palsy with commu-nity-acquired pneumonia (CAP), medication and non-medication methods of sanitation of the bronchial tree and bronchodilators. The tendency to develop community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and its more severe course confirms the relevance of compulsory pneumococcal vaccination of children with cerebral palsy.
187 Vitamin D Deficiency can Accelerate Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis , Irem Akin, Nuray Yazihan
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the most important causes of mortality all around the world. Studies have been shown that vitamin D is closely related CVDs, including heart failure (HF). We aim to assess the serum vitamin D levels in pa-tients with HF in this meta-analysis.Methods: A systematic research was performed in Pubmed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases for following keywords; “vitamin D level” OR “vitamin D status” AND “heart failure” until September 2020. Each step of the meta-analysis is appropriate to the PRISMA guideline. Totally, 2968 publications were screened and 16 articles were found to have suitable data. Analysis was done with RevMan 5.3. software. We also used GraphPad Prism 6 software for the correlation analysis and figures.Results: Our pooled data showed that patients with HF had significantly lower levels of serum vitamin D compared to controls (REM p < 0.00001 mean difference: -8.20 [-10.46, -5.95]). There was also significant correlation between serum vitamin D level and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (p: 0.0134, r: 0.4785) (n = 26).Conclusion: In this meta-analysis, it has been indicated that HF patients have lower serum vitamin D levels compared to controls. As seen in our study, vitamin D might be an important risk factor for HF, and vitamin D deficiency (VDD) may lead increased mortality caused by HF. Further researches are needed to elucidate which mechanisms play a role in the association between HF and vitamin D.
188 Evaluation of Spirituality in Grieving Patients Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy at the Suicide Grief Clinic of the University Center for Health Sciences of the University of Guadalajara, Mexico , Villagómez Zavala Patricia Guadalupe
Attachment refers to the significant bond we establish with a person, when this is broken, what we call a significant loss occurs, followed by a grieving process: natural pain reaction to the detachment of something or someone who had a It was worth it During this, spirituality appears as a central strategy to overcome painful experiences, but it can also be affected by the meanings attributed to it. Acceptance and commitment therapy has been used in different psychological disorders that involve experiential avoidance, including grief.Objectives: The central objective of the study is to evaluate the complicated spiritual duel. Material and methods: The Inventory of Complicated Spiritual Grief (ICSG) was applied in patients with grief, before and after being treated with Acceptance and Commit-ment Therapy in the grief clinic of the University Center of Health Sciences.Results and Conclusions: Acceptance Therapy and commitment has proven to be useful in facilitating the elaboration of grief, as well as in restoring spirituality since it is resignified and gives meaning to painful experiences.
189 Assessment of Nutritional Status, Eating Attitude and Body Satisfaction of University Students , Nural Erzurum Alim, Rahime Evra Karakaya
Body perception and nutritional behavior of university students differ due to environmental factors which lead to increased risk of obesity. The aim of this study is to evaluate body perception, eating attitudes and nutritional status of university students'. A questionnaire form including general information and nutritional habits were applied to university students. Body weight and height were measured by a trained researcher. Body perception was evaluated by Body Cathexis Scale and nutritional behavior was assessed by Eating Attitude Test-40. The study was conducted with 343 university students (15.7% male and 84.3% female). The prevalence of overweight was 13.1% and obesity was 2.3%. Higher risk of abnormal eating attitudes were detected in overweight group (21.2%) than underweight (12.1%) and obese group (3.0%) (p > 0.05). Mean body cathexis scale total score was higher in normal weight group (143.40 ± 22.99) than overweight, underweight and obese group (141.93 ± 23.34, 139.86 ± 21.29, 131.50 ± 21.08 respectively) (p > 0.05). Eating attitude test and meal frequency weren’t significant predictors of body mass index (B = 0.028, p = 0.059; B = 0.478, p = 0.083, respectively). Abnormal nutritional status such as underweight, overweight and obesity could be a potential risk among university students. Risk of abnormal eating attitudes was observed whereas body satisfaction was similar in these groups.
190 Assessment of Quality of Raw Milk in References to Antibiotic Residues and Microbial Loads at Farmers and Retailers’ Level in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh , KBM Saiful Islam, Sujan Kumar Sarkar, Syeeda Shiraj-Um-Mahmuda
Milk is one of the most nutritious drinks in the world which is suitable for people of all ages. The quality and safety of such drink are of utmost importance for public health issues. Residual antibiotics and microbial quality of milk have thus become as major concerns to consumers. Therefore, present study was conducted to detect antibiotic residues and assess microbial quality of fresh bovine milk samples both at origin and vendors level in Dhaka city and nearby areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods:A total of 150 milk samples were aseptically collected from randomly selected farmers and retailer. Anti-biotic residues in milk was detected by streak plate techniques on nutrient agar plate using Bacillus subtilisas test organisms. Total bacterial counts and coliform counts were determined following the pour plate technique using nutrients agar and MacConke’s agar, respectively.Results:Antibiotic residues were detected in 10.67% of total milk sample while 18% of farmers’ milk and 7% of retailers’ milk were positive for the same. The mean standard plate count of raw milk collected from farms and retailer were 7.63 ± 0.14 log10 cfu/ml and 8.46 ± 0.23 log 10 cfu/l of milk, respectively. In contrast, total coliform count in fresh milk samples collected from farms and retailer were 2.64 ± 0.21 log10 cfu/ml and 3.92 ± 0.05 log10 cfu/ml of milk, respectively. Conclusion:Milk produced and sold in the study areas could be considered as of fair quality in terms of microbial load. However, presence of antibiotic residues in milk could pose human health risk. Therefore, awareness should be created on the sensible use of antibiotic and obedience to drug withdrawal period.
191 Nutrition and Awareness , Tibor Deme
Awareness is the state of being conscious of something. It’s the ability to know, and feel, and perceive what is going on around you. Another definition describes Awareness as a state in which we fo-cus our attention to our current behavior in order to make changes to a wide range of habitual actions.Deepak Chopra says, “What we are not aware of we cannot change”.Modifying our beliefs, can only occur if we are aware of our be-liefs. To the same extent, modifying our habits and actions can only take place if we’re aware of them.We cannot reinforce a positive change without being aware of what needs to change.And so awareness is key in any positive and lasting change. Many of us have adopted the coping mechanism of denial, which pushes awareness away, and allows us to ‘get by’ without listen-ing to our inner truths. But if we want to make positive long-term changes to reach our goal of optimal health, we don’t want to just ‘get by.’ We need the power of honest awareness, without judge-ment but with self-compassion, to identify any of our unhealthy behaviors so that we can make modifications which benefit our well-being.
192 Formulation of Rice Based Low Cost Balanced, Nutritious and Safe Diet for the Malnourished Street Children in Capital City Dhaka , Saima Jahan, Sultan Abu Saleh Mahmud, Iftekharul Huq, Md Mariful Islam, Md Mohsin, Md Sakil Ahamed, Anika Antara Siddiqquee, Zannatul Sanzida, Habibul Bari Shozib, Muhammad Ali Siddiquee
A total of h384 street children were subjected to study a baseline survey aged from 4 to 12 years old in Capital City, Dhaka. The sample size was fixed by addressing Cochran equation. Among the respondents 63% were male and 37% were female from street children population of 384. Survey took place at 20 different hot spots covering both Dhaka city north and south. We have observed the recommended dietary intake per day from 4 years to 12 years old male boys and found 27 to 59% deficiency in our male popula-tion samples of 243. Similarly, we also observed the recommended dietary intake per day from 4 years to 12 years old female girls and found 28 to 56% deficiency in our female population samples of 141. Since our Energy Dense Rice Cake (EDRC) has a potential of providing 500 kcal energy per 100g serving so, we could predict that incorporating our improved rice-based product once a day along with their daily regular intake, it will able to mitigate nutritional gap by 64 to 100% for street boys and noticeably 70 to 100% for girls. We have prepared Energy Dense Rice Biscuit (EDRB, 3.6% moisture, 515 kcal per 100g of serving) and EDRC (5.0% mois-ture, 500 kcal per 100g of serving). EDRC was found prepared than EDRB in impact study when the respondents were given choice of rice-based bakery items intake for four months long period. Finally, a total of 32 respondents were took part in a four months period impact study on EDRC from street children population. All anthropometric and biochemical data such as CBC (Complete Blood Count), Hemoglobin, CRP, Prealbumin etc. were collected at both the starting (Day 0) and the end time (Day 120) of the impact survey of selected 32 respondents. Respondents were given 100g serving of EDRC every day (rice cake) to 32 street children samples for 4 months period along with their normal food intake. Our data revealed that malnutrition related parameters specially CRP (de-creased) and Prealbumin (Increased) are significantly improved during four months supplementary intake of extra 500 kcal per 100 g serving of EDRC in tested street children’s samples which resembles the possible impact of EDRC on street children. Rice-based bakery products specially EDRB and EDRC can potentially be used in school feeding nutritional program and disaster management in Bangladesh.
193 Cough Treatment Options in Children with Acute Respiratory Infections , BM Blokhin, IP Lobushkova, AS Suyundukova, AD Prokhorova
The article contains the results of a non-interventional, multicentre, prospective, observational, non-randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of Stodal drug product in children aged 2 to 7 years old with cough caused by acute respiratory infection (ARI). Objective of the Research: To assess therapeutic efficacy and safety of Stodal drug product in children treated for cough caused by mild to moderate acute respiratory infections. Materials and Methods: The study included 1000 children aged 2 to 7 years old with cough caused by mild to moderate ARI. The study was conducted in 23 medical institutions based in Moscow and the Moscow region. The study participants were stratified by age into 2 groups: Group 1 included children aged 2 to 4 years old; Group 2 included children aged 4 to 7 years old. Stodal clinical efficacy was evaluated based on the time course of cough severity in the daytime and at night, parents’/adoptive parents' satisfaction with the treatment and the treatment safety. Treatment duration was 7 days. Results: In both groups, on the 7th day of therapy, treatment with Stodal resulted in a statistically significant decrease in cough sever-ity: in Group 1, cough severity decreased by 1.51 (from 2.16 to 0.65; p < 0,001); in Group 2 it decreased by 1.57 (from 2.25 to 0.68; p < 0.001). Treatment efficacy was not age-dependent and was similar in both groups (p = 0.158). In total population cough severity in the daytime statistically significantly decreased by 1.53 (from 2.2 on the 1st day of treatment to 0.67 points on the 7th day of treat-ment, p < 0.001). In 35% of patients cough completely resolved (cough severity decreased to 0 points), and in 63% it became clini-cally insignificant (cough severity was 1 point). These children recovered and were allowed to attend organized groups. In Group 1, nocturnal cough severity statistically significantly decreased by 1.16 (from 1.64 to 0.48, p < 0.001); in Group 2 it decreased by 1.25 (from 1.71 to 0.46, p < 0.001). 951 (95,1%) parents/adoptive parents positively rated cough treatment and scored it using satisfac-tion rating scale as 4 and 5 points. Conclusion: The study demonstrated efficacy and safety of Stodal drug product when used for cough treatment in children aged 2 to 7 years old with mild to moderate ARI, which allows to recommend Stodal to be included in treatment regimens beginning from the first days of the disease.
194 Why ‘No’ to TB Health Facilities? Answer from a Community Perspective , Arupkumar Chakrabartty
During peak of the COVID 19 pandemic people were mostly confined at their home and became hesitant to come to healthcare facilities seeking any care unless it was very much urgent. In a ru- ral district, Purulia in West Bengal, India; as a public health spe- cialist, by virtue of the author’s association in the management of TB services, some interactions were made with the people from the community to explore the cause of poor footfall at different healthcare facilities. The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the gains made over recent years. World Health Organization shows that high TB burden countries have observed sharp decline in TB notifications in 2020. It foresees 50% drop in TB case detection over 3 months and 400 000 additional TB deaths this year alone. Poor case identification is a major challenge for achieving global TB targets. Interactions were made through 4 Focus Group Discus- sions among adult male and female and adolescent boys and girls, and 12 In-depth interviews among community gatekeepers. This unstructured and informal exploration revealed out some key find- ings attached to poor footfalls of people seeking TB services from designated TB health facilities that have been shared through this note
195 Nutritional Behaviour and Perceptions on Staying Well during the First Wave of COVID-19 Pandemic - the Experiences of Students from a University in Birmingham, UK , Fatemeh Rabiee Khan, Karolina Biernat
The impact of COVID-19 pandemic and related restrictive measures on the health and well-being of the general population have recently been highlighted. This paper emerges from a larger study on the impact of a COVID-19 on health and wellbeing of university students in Birmingham, UK. It focuses on the nutritional aspects and students’ perceptions of behaviours that helped them to stay well during a time of uncertainty. A cross sectional study design has been used and data was collected during May and June 2020, via an anonymised online questionnaire. 1784 students completed the questionnaire (F = 1360, M = 418 and Non-binary = 14) with the age range of 18 - 53 (Mean = 25, SD ± 8) years. Findings indicate a major negative impact of covid-19 pandemic and lockdown measures on students’ financial situation, with almost 50% stating decreased in their paid employment. This could have been the reasons for an increased consumption of food out of boredom and anxiety (61.8%), increased purchasing food out of fear (23.8%), consumption of more canned fruits and vegetables (18.6%) and being dependent on social protection measures related to food (10%). The positive impact however was more home cooking and baking (72.4%), more consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables (50.4%), and an awareness of what to do to stay well.
196 Impact of Nutrition Counseling on Diet Diversity Practices of Children (12 - 24 months) in Jaipur City , Vandana Goyal, Nimali Singh
Poor feeding practices directly or indirectly contribute to undernutrition, morbidity, and mortality in children. The reasons are not just the socioeconomic background but also the lack of knowledge and awareness about proper feeding practices. The present study was carried out in Jaipur City with the objective that improving knowledge would lead to improvement in diet diversity practices. Methodology: The study was conducted on 107 mothers of children aged 12 - 24 months attending the vaccination clinic of JK Lon Hospital in Jaipur city. All the selected mothers were approached personally and WHO, 2010 scale was used to study their diet di- versity practices at pre and post-stage. A child receiving four or more on this scale is considered to have adequate diet diversity. A structured intervention protocol was developed and used for intervention. Results: In the pre-stage of the study the scores for dietary diversity were calculated to be 3.16 ± 0.98, 3.75 ± 1.52 and 4.42 ± 0.67 among boys of low, mid and high SES respectively, which increased to 3.38 ± 0.91, 4.17 ± 1.01 and 4.76 ± 0.62 out of 7 at post counsel- ing. For girls the score increased from 3.11 ± 1.16 to 3.23 ± 1.25 in low SES, 3.55 ± 1.42 to 3.66 ± 1.22 in mid SES and 4.36 ± 1.03 to 4.76 ± 0.87 in high SES respectively. Irrespective of the increase in knowledge, the impact of the intervention was found to be statisti- cally insignificant in all the three subgroups of girls from pre to post-stage. The difference in the mean score of boys and girls for both pre-stage and post-stage across SES was statistically significant using ANOVA at p < 0.01. Conclusion: In India, feeding practices appear to be influenced by social, cultural, and economic factors. It is recommended to pro- vide education to mothers and to strengthen the public health education campaigns so as to improve the positive practices which can, in turn, improve the health and well-being of the children
197 Calcium Propionate - Health Food? , Leonard W Heflich
Calcium propionate has been used as a mold inhibitor in bakery products for over 50 years. I have a bread bag from the mid 60’s that makes the audacious claim “Now with Calcium Propionate for Added Freshness”. How the world has changed! Today, calcium propionate is viewed by many consumers and activists as a poten- tially harmful chemical preservative that should be removed from bakery products. There is evidence that calcium propionate is dif- ferent from other ingredients used as preservatives and deserves to be treated separately. Let’s examine the facts.
198 Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle in Foliar Nutrition of Maize Crop in Southern Amazonia , Willian Tsuyoshi Kume, Felipe Adolfo Litter, Márcia de Almeida Carneiro, Luana Marques Campos, Marco Antonio Camillo de Carvalho and Gustavo Caione
Adequate nutrition management of maize crop is essential when aiming at high yields and grain quality. In this context, Zn fertil- ization stands out since its content increase in grains used for human consumption is an alternative to alleviate malnutrition. There- fore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate foliar fertilization as a supplement, with alternative Zn doses and sources in the maize crop in southern Amazonia. The field experiment was conducted in Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso State, in dystrophic red yellow Oxisol. A randomized block design in a 4x2 factorial scheme was used, with four doses (0, 250, 500 and 1000 g ha-1) and two sources (ZnSO4 and ZnO 40 nm) with foliar application during R1 stage. At the end of the experiment, the cob diameter, mass of 100 grains, number of grain rows per cob, Zn content in grains and productivity were evaluated. Foliar application of doses and sources of Zn did not promote significant difference between treatments. This was possibly due to the low mobility of the micronutrient in the plant. Thus, it is suggested to apply higher doses, or more than one foliar application along the maize crop cycle.
199 Characterization of Dysphagia in Congenital Cardiopathic Infants Admitted to the Intensive and Intermediate Care Unit , Carolina Orge Anunciação Bacelar, Katharine Dias Coelho de Lucena, Larissa Monteiro, Carla Salati Almeida Ghirello-Pires, Anna Clara Mota Duque
To investigate the correlation between infants diagnosed with congenital heart disease and dysphagia. Methods: Hospitalized in Intensive and Intermediate Care Units from 2017 to 2020, infants up to 60 days of life diagnosed with con- genital heart disease and full-term controls were compared for dysphagia. Results: Sixteen patients and forty-eight controls were included. Comparing them, the group of patients with heart disease showed correlation for dysphagia. Conclusion: Infants diagnosed with congenital heart disease have a greater tendency to present dysphagia.
200 COVID-19: Chronic Illness , Paul T E Cusack
I have suffered with COVID-19 since early December 2019, be- fore it was in the News. I do not know how I contracted, although there are Chinese students on the bus who attend the local univer- sity. I have been sick every 3 three weeks since then. The sickness brings on throwing up, congestion, coughing up phlegm, and usu- ally, but not always, chills and fever. I have never been tested. I have had the vaccine since February 28,2021. I received my second dose six weeks later. I have had the Pfizer vaccine. I’m still sick every three weeks. There is no sign of the virus letting go. I might have to live with being sick every 3 weeks for the rest of my life.
201 A New Low-protein Foodstuff from Processed Brown Rice for Chronic Kidney Disease , Shaw Watanabe, Satoshi Minakuchi, Masaki Yamaguchi, Hiromasa Uchiyama4, Tomitsu Haramoto, Kazunori Egawa, Ken’ichi Otsubo, Azusa Hirakawa
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing in prevalence worldwide, not only as a complication of diabetes and end-stage glomerulonephritis but also as a typical degenerative process in the elderly. A low-protein diet is essential for the prevention and delay of CKD. As rice is the leading staple food in many countries, low-protein rice should be considered for dietary therapy. Brown rice, in particular, contains many functional factors for health, so that low-protein brown rice could provide additional benefits for CKD patients. Methods: Four steps are necessary to produce low-protein brown rice of high quality: selection of rice cultivar, surface treatment of brown rice with a penetrating enzyme solution, protein extraction, and hygienic packaging. We developed a new low-protein brown rice (LPBR) product using protease treatment and Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation. Results: LPBR maintained the high energy content of rice. While it provided the lowest protein content possible (0.2 g/100 g of boiled rice), almost no potassium (0.5 mg/100 g boiled rice), and less than 1/5 of usual phosphate contents (17 mg/100 g boiled rice). In addition, toxic metals such as antimony and cadmium were not present. Like common brown rice brands, the new product had high dietary fibers (1.0 g/100 g boiled rice), γ-oryzanol (6.3 mg/100g boiled rice), and antioxidant activity (300 ORAC Unit). Conclusion: A low-protein diet has been known to be effective for the prevention of CKD. LPBR could provide enough energy with low protein, low potassium, low phosphate. Furthermore, the remaining dietary fibers, γ-oryzanol, and antioxidant activity could have sound effects to stabilize intestinal microbiota, short-chain fatty acids, and innate immunity.
202 Evaluation of Market Demand for Alternative Poultry Feeds in Nigeria , Geirsdottir OG, Jonsson PV, Thorsdottir I,Ramel A
Feeds constitute 70% of the cost of poultry production and of this, proteins constitute the highest cost. Finding cheaper alternatives to existing protein sources would improve efficiency of poultry production. Development and promotion of insect protein- based poultry feeds is assessed. It was observed that insect-based protein sources could significantly supplement cum replace fish meal which is the major source of feed protein. The market for conventional protein was expected to switch from fish to complete substitution with insect sources. The study main objective was to analyse demand, market size and trends of current conventional and sources of poultry feed proteins in Nigeria and make projections. The study was conducted in Imo, Edo and Kano states, Nigeria. The bulk of data was from secondary sources and primary data from formal survey of farmers and poultry value chain actors. Aggregate demand for insect feed ingredients for poultry feed was 5382 metric tons on dry matter basis at 50% rate of substitution of conventional protein. Projected demand for poultry feed proteins was 11,550 metric tons in the next 5 years. Insects had a strong potential for incorporation into poultry feeds.
203 Adherence to Low-Carbohydrate Diet and Hemoglobin A1c Levels among Adults with Diabetes: A Population-Based Cross-sectional Study , Elta Charles, Eunkyung Lee
Evidence of a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) on diabetes prognosis is not consistent. This study examined the association between adherence to LCD and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in adults with diabetes. A total of 3,628 adults with self-reported diabetes were identified from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2016. Adherence to LCD was measured using LCD scores (range 0-30) based on the proportions of energy intake from three macronutrients, with higher scores indicating lower intakes of carbohydrates. Average dietary intakes and HbA1c levels were estimated and compared across the quintiles of LCD scores. Multivariable survey logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between quintile of LCD score and elevated HbA1c levels (≥6.5%). The average diet of adults with DM consisted of 47.2% carbohydrates, 36.0% fat, and 16.8% protein, with a mean LCD score of 15.6. The mean HbA1c level was 7.15%, and 64% of participants presented with elevated HbA1c levels of ≥6.5%. There was no significant difference in odds of presenting with elevated HbA1c levels when those in the highest and lowest quintiles of LCD were compared after adjustment for potential confounders (OR=0.94; 95%CI=0.57-1.53). However, individuals in the highest quintile of LCD score showed lower intakes of total fruits, added sugars, and refined grains, but higher intakes of total energy, satu- rated fats, cholesterol, alcohol, and sodium compared to those in the lowest quintile. Future studies should focus more on diet quality, in addition to the composition of the diet.
204 Impact of Whole Body Electromyostimulation with Nutrition Strategies on Body Composition in Overweight Adults: A Prospective Study , Elgabsi Zeineb, Ayed Khadija, Ksouri Riadh, Serairi Beji Raja
Nutritional treatment and physical exercise are promising measures to prevent and treat obesity. However, conventional exercise is not always suitable for some patients due to unability to exercise conventionally. In this study, we examined the effect of a combined approach of the novel training method whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) and individualized nutritional interventions on anthropometric parameters and body composition in obese subjects after 12 weeks. Methods: One hundred and twenty voluntary participants, aged 37.6 ± 6.01 years, were associated with the arms of the study ac- cording to eating habits: • Control group WB-EMS SD (n = 30) having continued their spontaneous feeding during the 12 weeks of study, without any attempt to balance it, • WB-EMS BD group (n = 30) followed dietary advice from the nutritionist in order to balance their diet both quantitatively and qualitatively, • WB-EMS HP group (n = 30) under a high protein diet with a daily protein of between 1.8 and 2 g per kg of body weight and • *WB-EMS IF group (n = 30) practicing intermittent fasting with time limitation (16/8 method). All participants were trained via the WB-EMS. A preliminary analysis of spontaneous food intake was made by a nutritionist with all participants: a 24-hour reminder. Body composition and weight were measured by Bio-impedancemetry. We similarly measured the waist and the hips circumferences using a tape measure. All measurements were made in triplicate. Data analysis was performed using BILNUT software and the SAS system. Results: After 12 weeks of experimentation, results show that subjects belonging to the control group (WB-EMS-SD) significantly lost weight (p < 0.05) and decreased their BMI (p < 0.05). When body fat is expressed as a percentage of body mass, it significantly increased (34.04 ± 7.57% vs 34.65 ± 7.19%; p < 0.05) while when expressed in kg, it significantly decreased (31.73 ± 7.13 kg vs 30.15 ± 7.94 kg; p < 0.05) between the start and the end of the experimental period. Skeletal muscle mass did not undergo any significant change (p > 0.05). It is also for body water whether expressed as a percentage (p > 0.05) and in kg (p > 0.05). Compared to control group, participants in the WB-EMS-BD group lost more body fat (-7.69 ± 2.83 vs -1.57 ± 1.76; p < 0.05) but gained more skeletal muscle mass (1.68 ± 1.31 vs -0.09 ± 0.89; p < 0.05). As for the WB-EMS-HP group, they lost weight and decreased their BMI. Com- pared to the group without dietary intervention (WB-EMS-AS), the high-protein diet induced a greater loss in fat mass (-9.12 ± 2.94 vs -1.57 ± 1.76) but did not allow preserve skeletal muscle mass (-1.81 ± 2.67 vs -0.09 ± 0.89). Participants in the WB-EMS-IF group significantly reduced their weight (p < 0.001) and their BMI (p < 0.001). Body fat significantly decreased both when expressed as a percentage and in kg (p < 0.05). However, skeletal muscle mass and body water increased significantly. Conclusion: Training by WB-EMS will be one of the best allies since it combines time saving and efficiency.
205 Measuring Trans Fats in Native American Adolescents , Madelyn Bradley, Justin Do, Juleene Moritz,Shasha Zheng
Obesity is becoming increasingly prevalent among US adolescents due to various factors such as food preference, availability, and social condition: however, rates of obesity in Native American adolescents are comparatively much higher than their counterparts as differences of as much as 7.2% have been reported between Native American and white adolescents. Given extensive study highlight- ing the highly harmful effects to overall health that consuming trans fats has been linked to, this study investigated the dietary intake levels of trans fats by Native American adolescents and explored the implications in regard to their health in terms of BMI. This was done by collecting macronutrient intake levels of adolescents aged 14-18 at Sherman Indian High School. This information was col- lected from participants using the Harvard School of Public Health Adolescent Questionnaire (HSPH YAQ) for an eight-week period, the data then sorted participants into appropriate dietary groups using statistical software from Cal Baptist University (CBU). The results of the analysis indicated that there was a statistically significant difference in mean trans fats intake between no risk groups (normal and underweight) and at-risk groups (overweight and obese) (p ≤ 0.05) in male adolescents, however statistically significant findings for Native American female adolescents were not observed. This suggests that trans fats intake could be contributing to the high levels of obesity among Native American adolescents. Furthermore, it is of note that this study shows that production and con- sumption of trans fats are still happening on a day-to-day basis, and a continued effort must be made to eliminate all foods with trans fats from being manufactured and distributed.
206 Food to Eat and Food to Avoid during the Pandemic and Later , Maria Kuman
Clinical studies showed that when patients with arthritis, gout, etc. are fed with dry beans, their symptoms become much worse [1]. My mother was claiming that there are two categories of food - food that thins the blood and increases the blood circulation and food that makes the blood thicker and decreases the blood circula- tion. My mother’s claims were the ancient Celtic wisdom, but the ancient Chinese wisdom says the same - there are two types of food - Yang food (“Yang” means “active” and this is the food that activates (increases) blood circulation) and Yin food (“Yin” means “passive” and this is the food that decreases the blood circulation because it makes the blood thicker)
207 Nutritional Assessment of Geriatric Population (65 - 75 Years) , Gauravi Santosh Bapat,Anuradha Shekhar
Geriatric is a term used for elderly people or older adults. Aging is characterized by diminished organ system reserves, weakened homeostatic controls, increased heterogeneity among individuals influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Nutritional needs of the elderly are determined by multiple factors including specific health problems and related organ system compromise on indi- vidual’s level of activity, energy expenditure, caloric requirements, the ability to access, prepare, ingest, digest food and personal food preferences. Factors that can affect individual aging rates include diverse occurrences as genetic profile, food supply, social circum- stances, political events, exposure to disease, climate, natural disasters and other environmental events. In India the demographic transition is attributed to the increasing fertility and decreasing mortality rates due to availability of better health care services. The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of urban geriatric population between the age group of 65-75 years. A purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample size of 60 elderly people to conduct the study. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity pattern, sleeping pattern and eating pattern were assessed by a structured questionnaire which included questions on background data, 24 hour diet recall and food frequency. Analyses were performed by SPSS software and the data findings were considered to be significant. Of the total number of 60 participants 25% were men and 75% were female. The height and weight results indicated highly significant lower differences when compared with reference standards. Most of the subjects had BMI in the normal range of 18-23 kg/m². Along with height and weight, the hand grip strength was also measured. It was observed that most of the participants had poor hand grip strength. The consump- tion of macro and micronutrients was low when compared to the RDA’s. The mean calorie, protein and fat intake was 1100 kcal, 31.7g and 34.08g for women and 1219 kcal, 37.7g and 35.08g for men respectively. It was also observed that most of the subjects did not indulge in any kind of physical activity. Most of the participants slept for 8 hours on a daily basis. It was observed that all the subjects consumed cereals and dals on a regular basis but the consumption of fruits and leafy vegetables was comparatively low. Hence it can be concluded that efforts need to be taken towards counselling for the elderly to encourage them to have optimum nutrition and maintain a healthy lifestyle.
208 Boost the Defense of Your Mucous Membranes during the Pandemic for Protection against any Mutated Airborne Viruses , Maria Kuman
Viruses mutate - we already have a few new mutated Corona- viruses and more mutated viruses could be expected. If so, the right approach to protect ourselves is to boost the defense of our mucous membranes against any mutated airborne viruses. All air- borne viruses pass through the mucous membranes of the nose and throat to go to the lungs. How to boost the defense of these mucous membranes? I offer a combination of oil vitamins - Vita- min A, Vitamin E, Vitamin F, and vitamin D3. They are all oil vita- mins and need to be taken in liquid form to be assimilated. They are not assimilated when taken as tablets
209 Honey - Medicinal Value and Preservation Properties , Maria Kuman
The honey has great medicinal values, but it needs to be raw. When heated to melt the residual vax, so that the honey would not solidify, most of the medicinal properties of honey are lost. How to be sure that the honey is raw? - raw honey is transparent, while the heated honey is slightly foggy because of the dissolved vax. Never put raw honey in a hot tea or water because the honey will lose its medicinal properties. What are the medicinal properties of honey?
210 Spontaneous Intradural Cerebral Artery Dissection: Spectrum of Clinical Presentations and Correlation with Angiographic Findings , Aminur Rahman, Sirintara Pongpech, Pakorn Jiarakongmun, Ekachat Chanthanaphak, Wittawat Takong, Kittiphop Somboonnithiphol, Thanaboon Worakijthamrongchai
Intradural Cerebral Artery dissections are recognized cause of stroke. Aim of this study was to analysis the distribution of spon- taneous intradural cerebral artery dissection, angiographic pattern with the symptomatology of admitted patients to our hospital. Materials and Methods: We analyzed retrospectively collected data of the stroke patients’ and carefully evaluated on 4-vessels an- giogram in our institute from January 2013 to June 2014. Out of 164 of cerebral dissections in angiographically evidenced we found only 16 patients of intradural dissecting aneurysms that were included in this study. The male-female ratio was 37.5: 62.5 and the mean age was 47.56 ± 13.19 years. According to the angiographic finding depicting the location of the dissection plane in the arterial wall, we categorized to steno-occlusive, aneurysmal, combined pattern. In each dissection pattern, we evaluated presenting symp- toms and presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage, infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage or combined. Results: The most common symptomatic presentation was headache (75%), followed by neck pain (50%), motor weakness of limb(s) (43.8%), loss of consciousness (37.5%), vertigo (12.5%), vomiting (12.5) and arm tingling sensation (6.3%). The most com- mon angiographic pattern was aneurysmal patterns (68.75%) followed by steno-occlusive (18.75%) and combined (steno-occlusive and aneurysmal) (12.5%) patterns. aneurysmal pattern was most frequently related to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (7/11, 63.63%) in contrast that steno-occlusive pattern was only related to infarction (3/3, 100%). The most frequent dissection was in the intradural vertebral arteries (IV) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA), presented with SAH 80% (4/5) and 33.33% (1/3) respectively followed by infarction and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Infarction was common abnormality in patients with the intradural carotid arteries(IC) 33.33%(1/3), superior cerebellar artery(SCA) 33.33%(1/3) and basilar artery(BA) 33.33% (1/3) each but in- tracerebral hemorrhage(ICH) was common abnormality in patients with the posterior inferior cerebellar artery(PICA) 50%(1/2). Conclusion: The most common symptomatic clinical presentations of intradural cerebral artery dissection are headache and neck pain followed by motor weakness of limbs and loss of consciousness. SAH with aneurysmal pattern, in the posterior circulation es- pecially in the vertebral artery is the most frequent diagnosis of in intradural cerebral artery dissection which requires combined analysis of angiographic pattern and clinical presentations of stroke.
211 Living Alone is Associated with Poorer Muscular Strength, Lower 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and Lower Bone Mineral Density in Icelandic Community Dwelling Old Adults , Geirsdottir OG, Jonsson PV, Thorsdottir I,Ramel A
Living alone has been a significant public health concern among older adults given its association with a wide range of adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine whether living alone is associated with physical strength and bone health in community-dwelling older adults. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of existing cross-sectional data of old adults (N = 182, 73.7 ± 5.7yrs, 58.2% female) from the Reykjavik capital area in Iceland. Information on socioeconomics, health, dietary intake and physical function was collected. 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD) and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured. Participants were grouped retrospectively into "living alone" and into "in cohabitation". Results: Of our subjects, 76.4% were in cohabitation and and 23.6% lived alone. Participants who lived alone were older (74.5 ± 5.6 vs. 72.1 ± 5.0, P = 0.008) and more often female (74.4 vs. 53.2%, P = 0.014), but there were no differences in education, smoking, number of medications, physical activity (PA) or body mass index (BMI). According to age and gender corrected analyses, participants in cohabitation had higher grip strength (6.2 ± 2.4lb, P = 0.011), higher 25OHD (13.1 ± 6.3nmol/L, P = 0.037) and higher BMD (z-score lumbal: 1.195 ± 0.417, P = 0.005; z-score femur: 0.421 ± 0.219, P = 0.054; z-score total: 0.846 ± 0.290, P = 0.004). Statistical correction for PA, BMI, education and fish oil intake did not change the results. Conclusion: In comparison to old adults who live in cohabitation, Icelandic old adults who live alone have poorer physical strength, lower 25OHD and lower BMD, which can increase their risk for wrist- or hip fracture. These differences between groups were not explained by physical, dietary or social confounding variables
212 Healthy Adults’ Basal Metabolic Rate Comparison Measured with Indirect Calorimetry Versus Predictive Formulas , Dulce María Segalés Gill
The total daily energy expenditure is composed of the basal metabolic rate (BMR), the thermic effect of food (TEF) and the energy expenditure during physical activity, the latter being subdivided into the energy used specifically in exercise training and energy in activities not associated with exercise. BMR is understood as the "cost of living", that is, the energy cost of keeping all physiological processes active, cognitive alertness and sets the stage for all life activities. It comprises the caloric expenditure at rest and occupies approximately 2/3 of the total daily caloric expenditure. BMR varies between subjects and is proportional to weight, particularly muscle mass, body composition and energy imbalance. Objective: To compare the basal metabolic rate of healthy adults, recreational athletes by indirect calorimetry and predictive for- mulas. Methods: Non-experimental design study, with a quantitative approach, correlational scope with the objective of group comparison. 76 people with normal weight and overweight according to BMI were evaluated with indirect calorimetry. Results: Significant differences were found when comparing the basal metabolic rate of recreational athletes by indirect calorimetry and predictive formulas proposed by Owen, Mifflin and Schofield, whereas no significant differences were found when comparing with the Harris-Benedict predictive formula.
213 A Widespread Acquired Ailment, Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; Its Approaches Related to Nutritional Therapy , Mujahid Hassan, Yasir Shah, Aisha Tariq, Zainab Qasim, Sehrish Jabbar,Mushaim Fatima
NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) is an inherited metabolic disorder characterised by triglyceride buildup in the liver (TGs). The four clinical-pathological categories frequently followed by the NAFLD pathway are non-alcoholic steatosis, steatohepati- tis, increasing fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer. The prevalence of NAFLD is increased by obesity and insulin resistance. NAFLD is linked to liver disease in both children and adults and is influenced by age, gender, race, and ethnicity. Hyper-caloric diets, especially those high in trans-/saturated fat and cholesterol, as well as fructose-sweetened drinks, seems to enhance visceral adipos- ity in people of all ages. Reduced calorie intake, increased soy protein and whey consumption, and supplementation of monounsatu- rated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and fibre, polyphenolic substances have preventative and therapeutic benefits are the initial steps toward its management. Along with good eating habits, exercise and physical activity that leads to weight loss and a reduction in liver fat buildup are also important. The patient becomes vulnerable to liver transplantation due to poor care (the end stage of NAFLD).
214 A Literature Review of Gelatin: Past, Present and Future in Drug Delivery , Ambujakshi Manjunatha Vinayaka, Harsha Madakaripura Dasegowda, Priyanka Raj
Hydrogels are liquid-absorbing polymer networks that can absorb any liquid, including biological fluids. The hydrogels are made up of natural polymers and their derivatives, as well as synthetic polymers. The crosslinking of either synthesised polymers start- ing from monomers or already established polymers creates the networks that make up hydrogels. Crosslinking can occur either physically, involving secondary intermolecular interactions, or chemically, involving the formation of a covalent connection between polymeric chains. Gelatins are protein polymers that are derived from natural sources. Gelatin is one of the most common biopoly- mers used to make hydrogels. Other than hydrogels, gelatin has a wide range of applications. Hydrogels, their properties and syn- thesis mechanisms, as well as their application in biomedicine and gelatin chemistry and application, are discussed in this review. Gelatin-based hydrogels could be used in drug delivery, bioink, transdermal therapy, wound healing, and tissue repair due to their nonimmunogenicity, nontoxicity, low cost, and great availability. On the condition that cost-effective, sustainable technologies for converting gelatin into valuable bioproducts exist or are developed, gelatin beneficiation can result in their sustainable conversion into high-value biomaterials.
215 Anthropometric and Biochemical Effects of Consuming Omega-3 Fatty Acids Enriched Eggs , Adriana Beatriz Di iorio, Freire Álvarez Brandon Javier,Vinueza Duque Rubén Esteban
Functional foods are products that control nontransmissible diseases. Egg is a low-cost food with high nutritional value and huge population intake. In the present study, the effect of Omega-3 fatty acids enriched eggs and non-enriched eggs on anthropometric measurements (weight, height, waist, hip, blood pressure, total fat percentage, visceral fat) and biochemical (lipid profile and glu- cose) were evaluated during 10 weeks, of 15 people with overweight or type I obesity. The participants were randomly assigned to receive a different treatment of enriched or non with Omega 3 eggs consumption with a dietary guideline or a specific eating plan. In the biochemical parameters, significant differences were observed for: total cholesterol (p = 0.037), HDL (p = 0.001) in treatment T4 and triglycerides (p = 0.033) in treatment T3. The adherence of each treatment was greater than 80%. In conclusion, enriched Omega-3 fatty acid eggs intake showed significant changes in biochemical indicators as total cholesterol, triglycerides and increase of HDL concentration.
216 Effect of Some Organic Acids and it's Mixtures as Mold Inhibiters on the Quality of Wheat Flour and Bread Making , Temraz EA, Abdel Salam IZ1, Shahin SI, Elsisy TT
Preservatives are most commonly used to control mold growth in baked goods so that the preservatives as an antimicrobial agent used to preserve food by preventing growth of microorganisms and subsequent spoilage. There are classifications of preservatives which were chemical and natural permitted chemical mold inhibitors in bread include acetic acid (E260), ascorbic acid (E300), propionic acid (E280) and it's Mixtures. The present review concludes the predominant efficacy and it's effects of preservatives in wheat flour and Flat bread (balady bread) by the chemical, physical, Rheological properties and sensory evaluation. Protein content of flours was ranged from (11.40%) to (12.20%). The use of 0.04% propionic acid wheat flour had the high protein content (12.20%) while the control wheat flour was the low protein content (11.40%). The ascorbic wheat treatment (2.0%) flour showed protein content of (10.7%) and had the high Wet and dry gluten and hydration ratio (25.2, 8.5 and 1.96% respectively) compare to other samples. Data showed that the acetic acid (0.04%) dose of wheat flours was more good suitable properties for making beard than the other wheat flour treatments. However Sensory evaluation of flat bread (balady bread) were shown that acetic (0.06%) balady bread had highest total scores (85.1%) than the control balady bread 75.5% while the lowest one was ascorbic (2%) balady bread (55.0%).
217 Effect of Covid-19 on Food Consumption Pattern of Indian Adolescent Girls , Jyoti Singh, Nikita Wadhawan
Since the beginning of 2020, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a major public health issue. Adolescences constitute about 21 percent of Indian population. It is an important phase of human life and the habits form during this period can last longer. This sudden outbreak of pandemic can have an impact on their dietary patterns. Therefore, current study was undertaken to assess the effect of COVID-19 on food consumption pattern of adolescent girls. For carrying out the investigation, 120 urban adolescent girls aged 13-18 years were purposively selected from two schools of Udaipur district, Rajasthan. A well-structured interview schedule consisted of food frequency list was prepared and pretested. Data on food consumption pattern before and during COVID-19 was collected from selected samples through personal interview in month of march 2021, keeping in mind COVID-19 guidelines. SPSS version 26 was used for analysing all the data. The findings of the study revealed that COVID-19 had affected consumption pattern of food such as ginger, garlic, fruits such as banana, kinoo, apple, grapes, non-vegetarian food such as mutton, chicken, fish, bever- ages such as lemon water, turmeric milk, herbal tea, carbonated beverages and junk foods. COVID-19 had marginally improved the consumption pattern of immunity booster’s food among adolescent girls.
218 Individual and Combined Effects of Alpha-amylase and Biocides on Biofilms Formed by Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Brazilian Dairy Farms , Samuel Ferreira Gonçalves, Sarah Hwa In Lee, Lara Aguiar Borges, Marta Liliane de Vasconcelos, Carlos Humberto Corassin, Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira
This work aimed at evaluating the effect of alpha-amylase (AA, 100 mg/mL), sodium hypochlorite (SH, 0.5%), peracetic acid (PAA, 0.3%), and enzyme-biocide combinations (SH or PAA and AA) on mono-species biofilms formed by four Staphylococcus aureus strains (P01F2T1, P01F5T2, P16 and P24) previously isolated from dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil. Biofilm formation index (BFI) and culturable cell counts were evaluated for biofilms formed on polystyrene microplates for 72 h at 25ºC. The BFI of isolates P16 and P24 significantly decreased (P < 0.05) after treatment with PAA or SH combined with AA, compared with the biocides alone. The biofilms formed by isolates P01F2T1 and P01F5T2 had lower BFI values (P < 0.05) after treatment with combinations of PAA + AA and SH + AA, respectively. However, significant reductions in the biofilm culturable counts were observed only for isolates P01F2T1 treated with SH + AA and PAA + AA, P01F5T2 treated with SH + AA, and P24 treated with PAA + AA. Further studies are required to define the best combinations of AA and SH or PAA to completely remove S. aureus biofilms formed on plastic surfaces in processing dairy environments.
219 FarmBid - A Bidding E-commerce Platform to Provide Fresh Produces from Farmers to Customers , Aloysius Chiong Zhen Quan, Khairunnisa binti Sufian, Ng Sing Woei, Lai Li Ying,  Amanda Ling Tzi Yun
Contract farming derived benefits such as improved agricultural production and increased incomes for contract farmers, allowing better access to services and resources provided new opportunities to participate in markets. However, it has been criticised for the uneven bargaining power that may lead to the exploitation of farmers by large agribusiness firms. FAMA describes contract farming as a potential strategy that provides farmers and producers many benefits. Free agriculture markets in Malaysia often face inflexible elements which allow direct intervene from governments. Besides, the existence of middlemen in the supply chain further pressures the farmers, forcing them to rely on middlemen to sell their products. FarmBid, a bidding integrated e-commerce platform, is a solu- tion to increase the farmers’ bargaining power so that it can increase their income. Fieldwork is performed on 30 respondents, consisting of 2 main segments, buyers (16 respondents) and sellers (14 respondents). Results show that most buyers prefer to have a direct purchase from farmers and from mobile application too. The addition of deliv- ery service will be a better push for buyer to make a purchase. On the other hand, sellers claimed to have more than 15kg production daily which makes a good production rate for the community. Similarly to buyers, a standardized delivery service is a great boost for sellers’ business. It was observed that direct negotiation from farmers to customers and standardized delivery service are some of the good fea- tures which FarmBid should take into consideration. Hence, the quality of farmers’ life can be improved with the introduction of FarmBid by increasing their income.
220 Comparison of Dietary Intakes and Quality of Professional and Amateur Young Football Players , Beril Köse, Esen YeÅŸil, Merve Özdemir, Aysu Ayhan
Introduction: Nutritional requirements are higher in adolescence than in other life phases. These requirements are necessary not only for maintaining health and supporting growth and development, but also for providing energy for physical activities. In this case, the need for adequate energy and nutrient intakes becomes especially important for young athletes. Methods: The population of this study consists of 185 amateur and professional football players whom aged 13-17 years. A ques- tionnaire with multiple-choice and open-ended questions and the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED) with questions on nutritional status of adolescents were administered. In addition, a food consumption record for 24 hours was obtained. Results: The mean KIDMED score of amateur and professional football players was 6.9 ± 2.26. Accordingly, 9.8% of the amateur football players and 8.6% of the professional football players had low diet quality. The professional football players (1934.4 ± 611.08 kcal) had higher daily energy intake than the amateurs (1475.1 ± 538.60 kcal). A negative correlation was found between the KID- MED scores and body weight values of all footballers, and a positive correlation between their KIDMED scores and weekly training days. Conclusions: The football players who participated in this study had low energy intake. Professional subjects had higher intakes of energy and macro and micro nutrients than amateurs. Both groups had similar diet quality.
221 The Effect of Home Confinement During COVID-19 on Stress and Eating Disorders in Saudi Arabia , Khloud Ghafouri, Jameelah Alqarni, Wedad Azhar, Hibah Almasmoum, Alaa Qadhi
Background: Home confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic drastically affected the daily lives of millions of people around the world. It created a situation across the globe that is expected to affect human mental and physical health in different ways. For instance, it might increase the prevalence of eating disorders (EDs), a common health problem affecting both genders. The incidence of EDs during home confinement may be affected by stress and high exposure to social media. Objective: To investigate the incidence of developing EDs among the Saudi population during the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, this study seeks to analyse the effect of stress and exposure to social media on the development of EDs. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken from April 27 2020 to June 15 2020. A total of 1,867 adult residents of Saudi Arabia aged between 18-80 participated in this study, completing a self-reported questionnaire. A SCOFF questionnaire was used for ED screening, while the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used for measuring stress levels. Data were analysed using SPSS statistical software. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the demographic characteristics of the participants. Results: Of the 1867 participants, 39.9% gave a positive SCOFF score. Approximately 40.9% of participants reported an increase in body weight during the quarantine. Most of them (80.8%) had a perception about ideal body shape, and more than half (58%) reported they thought about their figure more during the quarantine. A significant relationship has been noticed between the devel-opment of EDs and age (P-Value: 0.019), job (P-Value: 0.001), having a health condition that requires medication (P-Value: 0.021), being a smoker (P-Value: 0.001), and spending time on social media (P-Value: 0.001). Additionally, the level of stress (P-Value: 0.001), working from home during the home confinement (P-Value: 0.044), and the impact of the home confinement on monthly income (P-Value: 0.004) were found to have a significant relationship with having a positive screening for EDs.
222 Chemistry and Covid-19: A Review on the Central Role of Chemistry in the Understanding, Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of Covid-19 , Thilageshwary Gobalan, Chimi Denka, EA Vindya Hemali Edirimanna, Shaznine Ramiz, A Christine Thevarmirtha, Jeslin Jeba Soundari Mahimairaja, MSA Muthukumar Nadar, Ahmedul Kabir,P Mosae Selvakumar
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the newly discovered Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organization declared the disease a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, and on 11 March 2020, it was declared as a pandemic. Research and development have been critical in combating the global disease crisis caused by COVID-19 where Chemistry plays an important part in everything from virus composi- tion to pathogenesis, vaccine and treatment, and the creation of materials and procedures used by fundamental laboratories, virolo- gists, and clinicians. Fundamental studies into the molecules that control viral formation and activity will speed up the development of treatments and vaccines for infectious diseases. Most fundamental chemistry-based scientific organizations and pharmaceutical companies are collaborating to gather more knowledge about SARS-CoV-2, develop better analytical methods, and design vaccines to alleviate the situation as soon as possible. To date, there are several COVID-19 vaccines available, all of them designed using the knowledge of chemical behavior of viruses and many screening techniques are developed based on their molecular nature. Hence, this review is an approach to clarify the nature, chemical aspects of viruses, virus protection using the Chemistry shield, and potential research possibilities, the effectiveness of siddha formulations, and food and nutrition from the perspective of chemical behavior.
223 Impact of Dietary Counseling on the Anthropometric Indices, Biochemical Profile, and Sports Performance of Adolescent Badminton Players , Arpana Indoria, Nimali Singh
Introduction: Athlete and their coaches should pay specific attention to nutrition because diet is an imperative part of sports per- formance. Adequate nutrition provides the body compensation for improved energy loss and dietary needs and supports supreme adaptation to physical load. Sports performance and exhaustion acquired by adolescent athletes during aerobic training that reliant on carbohydrate stores in the body and carbohydrate needs during the physical session. Aim: To study the impact of dietary counseling on anthropometric indices, biochemical profile, and sports performance of adolescent badminton players in the age group 10 - 12 years. Methodology: The present study was conducted at a Badminton Academy. Sixty adolescent athletes participated in 12-week inter- vention program. Students were purposively selected in to control group (n = 60) and Badminton group (n = 60). Anthropometry measurements were recorded, and biochemical estimations were carried out. Intervention was carried out through counseling, using IEC material, discussions and sharing of healthy recipes. The children were also given one to one counseling on importance of nutri- tion, hydration, and impact of meals prior to an event, during event and post event and its role in sport performance. Physical fitness test consisting of endurance, flexibility, shuttle run test, agility, leg rising, crunches, zig-zag run and speed were assessed at pre and post intervention. Results: The results indicate that there was a significant improvement in weight, height, and waist to hip ratio of badminton play- ers. There was also a significant improvement in the biochemical parameters such as hemoglobin and serum calcium, the vitamin D status also improved but the change was found to be statistically non-significant. Physical fitness parameters were also improved including flexibility, speed and 50-yard desk among adolescent. Conclusion: The study indicates that intervention through nutrition counseling positively improved anthropometric indices and biochemical profile and physical fitness score of children. These finding suggest that fitness program with sports performance test would be more effective and encourage physical fitness among adolescents.
224 Elucidating Hyperglycemic and Hyperlipidemic Potential of Basil Seed Gum Aqueous Extract Powder in Diabetic Rat Model , Mavra Javed, Waqas Ahmed, Abdul Momin Rizwan Ahmad, Samar Rashid
Lifestyle diseases evolved during 20th century to promote epidemiological landscape with increasing industrial growth and cli- mate change. Diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, heart diseases, stroke, pulmonary diseases, and mental diseases along with al- cohol abuse and smoking increase the risk of mortality and morbidity in population. So, the current study was conducted to evaluate aqueous extract powder of Ocimum basilicum potential against streptozotocin induced hyperglycemia with its potential to ameliorate biochemical parameters associated with liver and kidney functionality and body weight in albino rats. Four groups of albino rats were selected having six rats in each group (control group, diabetic group, 0.5% and 1% treatment group. Biochemical parameters which were evaluated were AST, ALP, ALT, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, globulin, creatinine, and urea along with estimation of to- tal cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL. Aqueous extract powder significantly reduced blood glucose levels at both doses. Body weight was also improved significantly. Biochemical parameters for liver and kidney tests along with lipid profile was also improved showed ameliorated effect of extract powder. Mainly 1% basil seed gum showed prominent improvement in blood glucose param- eters along with other biochemical parameters. This study concludes that both levels of BSG powder have notable possible effect to reduce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia associated with diabetes. Therefor it may be helpful in diabetes management.
225 Effect of Composite Edible Coating on Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Sapota , Adrita Banerjee, Jincy Abraham
Composite edible coatings made up of natural gums and polysaccharides contribute to extending the shelf life and reducing spoil- age of fresh produces. This research work was designed with the objective to determine the effect of a composite edible coating on sapota fruit. The coating was effective in minimizing weight loss and overall spoilage of the fruit. Physical and microbial assay of whole sapota fruits coated with of the developed coating was performed. The objective of this work was also to study the consumer awareness and acceptance of edible coatings on fruits. The results of the survey showed that consumers majorly preferred edible coatings due to enhanced stability and better quality. Socio-economic status, age, knowledge level of the consumers influenced their preference and acceptability of edible coatings. This study demonstrates the use of composite multilayered edible coatings as a po- tential means to decrease the post harvest losses for sapota fruit and increase its shelf life.
226 Impact of Flax Seed Powder Supplementation on the Anthropometry and Bio-chemical Parameters of Dyslipidemic Patients , Deepika Sharma, Nimali Singh
Introduction: Dyslipidemia is measured to be one among the 5 top most threatening factors for cardio-vascular diseases, along with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking and obesity. Plant seeds like flax seeds are easy to consume and more effective in dyslip- idemic patients. Therefore, this study is intended to conclude whether flax seed powder has any dose response on clinical variables associated with dyslipidemia in dyslipidemic patients. Aim: To study the impact of supplementation of flax seed powder on the lipid levels as well as on the nutritional status of dyslipid- emic patients. Methodology: A private hospital, Galaxy Specialty Centre, Jaipur was selected to conduct the study. Total 100 dyslipidemic patients of age between 30 and 55 years were selected and 50 patients were given flax seed powder 15 grams per day for three months and 50 patients were kept as control. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical estimations were measured at pre and post inter- vention. Results: After three months of supplementation with flax seed powder, there were significant improvements observed in the an- thropometric measurements like weight, waist, hip circumference and BMI of the dyslipidemic patients. However, no changes were observed in control group. The lipid levels of the experimental group were found to be reduced significantly. The high density lipo- protein cholesterol was also increased in experimental group whereas in control group it was almost same. Conclusion: The results indicate that intervention with flax seed powder may be regarded a useful remedial food for the manage- ment of dyslipidemia.
227 Seasonal Variations in Fatty Acid Profile of Milk Among Different Milch Species (Cow, Buffalo, Camel, Sheep and Goat) , Syeda Aima Bokhar, Sanaullah Iqbal, Hasiba Munir
This study was conducted in University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore regarding seasonal variations in fatty acid pro- file of milk among different milch species. Milk from 5 different species was taken including cow, buffalo, camel, sheep and goat from Pattoki campus, UVAS. Nature of study was experimental. Fatty acid profile was assessed in 2 different seasons including 3 months of summer i.e. May, July and August and 3 months of winter i.e. November, December, January. Data was analyzed statistically on Co- Stat using two-way completely randomized ANOVA and was presented in tabular and graphical form. Significance value was kept less than 5% (p < 0.05). Results of Fatty Acid profile of milk in all species showed abundance of palmitic acid in all species. C16:0 was high in summer in cow milk and was recorded to be high in buffalo milk during winter season. C18:1 was high in all species during winter than in summer. All medium chain fatty acids i.e. C6, C8, C10, C12 and C14 were high in sheep milk during winter season. C14 was high in all species during summer season.
228 An Empirical Study on the Influencing Factors and Trade Potential of International Trade in African Regional Integration Organizations: A Case of ECOWAS and SADC , Mariam Doumbouya, Liu Xia
The success of countries and continents relies heavily on its capability to handle its trading activities as well as its policies regard- ing trading activities. The African continent, like the rest of the continents, still relies on trade for its successes and social-economic development. The aspect of regional integration of countries will come into play given that these trading activities take place within the country, between countries, and between the continents. The extra and intraregional organizations will be an influential factor when it comes to the success of the trade. The need to improve the overall stance of the African continent in the face of the world has forced the African leaders to come up with different regional organizations to aid in its economic activities. The article, therefore, covers on the factors influencing Africa’s regional, potential bilateral trade whereby the econometric analysis methods are used in understanding the estimation model used in line with the OLS estimation and Random fixed effects. It also includes the significant factors behind the growth of exports, imports, and bilateral trade through engaging gravity variables as well as analysis of supple- mentary dummy variables. The findings of this article show that factors influencing international trade are economic components such as per capita GDP, difference exchange rate of currencies, GDP of involved countries as well as the distance between trading partners. The regional trading block on which the article focuses its studies on is the (ECOWAS SADC.
229 Food Consumption Patterns of the Community in the Border Area Sangihe Islands Regency, North Sulawesi Province , Agustinus N Kairupan , Gabriel H Joseph, Conny N Manoppo, Ratri Retno Ivada, Herlina N Salamba and Anggela T Tombuku
One of the main activities in realizing food security is the achievement of food diversification through improving people's food consumption patterns. The balance of the amount and type of food consumed is important to note because one type of food alone cannot provide optimal nutritional needs. The formation of healthy and quality human resources requires a variety of food consump- tion to achieve a balance of nutrients according to the standard of adequacy rate. The purpose of this study was to determine the energy/nutrient adequacy rate (AKE/G) and protein adequacy rate (AKP/G) along with the expected food pattern score (PPH) as a parameter of food security and to determine the proportion of energy contribution from each food group to total consumption. en- ergy, especially for people in border areas. The research design used is a cross-sectional study from September to October 2017. The population is community households in border areas with a total of 90 households selected by non-probability sampling purposively. The research data is sourced from secondary and primary data covering socio-economic characteristics, and energy and protein food consumption. Data analysis was carried out quantitatively and qualitatively. The results show that: 1) the average calorie and protein consumption of people in border areas is still within the ideal limit of the adequacy of calorie and protein consumption, which is 2015 kcal and 53.82 grams of protein, and the average consumption of energy and protein is classified as low. normal level deficit category. Consumption of the grain food group contributed energy ranging from 57.80% oil and fat 12.60%, animal food 10.45%, vegetables and fruit (8.41%), and tubers 3.34%). The oily fruit/seed food group and other food groups contributed at least 1.3-1.4% energy.
230 Evolution of Physico-chemical Indices and Functional Properties of Fruit Yogurt during Storage , Viorica Bulgaru, Tatiana Cușmenco, Elisaveta Sandulachi, Artur Macari, Rodica Sturza
Background: In the context of the current trend of consumers to consume foods as natural as possible, increasing the nutritional and biological value of yogurt by using raw materials (goat’s milk and fruit) with a well-balanced chemical composition is of great interest in the dairy products manufacture. General Objective: The study and analysis of fruit nutritional and biological value impact on quality indices and funtional properties of goat’s milk and cow’s milk yogurt during the storage. Methods: The yogurt was obtained from a mixture of 50% goat’s milk and 50% cow’s milk with the addition of aronia (Aronia melanocarpa), raspberries (Rubus idaeus), strawberry (Fragaria xanassa) fruits. Physico-chemical indices and biological value were determined according to standard methods in 1, 5, 10, 15 days of storage. Results: Sample’s titratable acidity shows increasing values, being influenced by the addition of fruits, that have a higher acidity compared to classic yogurt but remaining in the range of allowable values. The pH of the yogurt samples decreases with increasing storage period, as the metabolic activity of the starter culture persists. Yogurt with added aronia (P2) has the best values of total dry matter (18.45 ± 0.31%), water activity (0.875 ± 0.025), viscosity (2500 ± 0.023 mPa·s) and the highest content of anthocyanins of 66.03 mg/100g, the highest polyphenol content of 268.97 mg GAE · 100g-1 and the best values of antioxidant property of 2.2 ± 0.025 mg AA/g SH. Strawberry yogurt (P4) has the highest content of vitamin C (47.87 mg/100g) and carotenoids 0.292 mg/100g. Conclusion: Fruit addition had a positive impact on the quality indices of yogurt during storage.
231 Legume Flour Enrichment of Cereal Products: Effects on Consumer Perception and Physical Quality , Hela Gliguem, Faten Khamassi, Anissa Hanafi, Wafa Hajji, Mounira Hechmi Esseghaier, Sihem Bellagha
Legume flour enrichment can enhance the nutritional value of many cereal products, in line with the current dietary recom- mendations of the World Health Organization. The aim of this study based on a survey of 105 consumers was firstly to investigate the perception and acceptance of Tunisian consumers with regard to including legumes in their diet, but also to be innovative in their consumption habits. Secondly, among the legumes listed in the survey, chickpeas and lentils were selected by the respondents and were added in different proportions to supplement bread and cake formulations. Moisture content, protein and ash of common wheat and legume flours and of the legume-enriched products were determined and compared to those of the control products. Crust and crumb color measurements were run on in final products. Sensory evaluations were also performed through a hedonic test and a linear scale test. The results showed that legume flour enrichment of bread and cake was a viable alternative and that consumers were aware of the fact that legumes are a source of dietary minerals and proteins. The challenge of including high percentages of legumes (between 20% and 40%) was met in this study with no major technological and organoleptic impairment.
232 Millets for Dietary Diversification , Vijaya Khader
Millets grown under traditional methods, no millet attracts any pest. They can be termed as pest-free crops. A majority of them are not affected by storage pests. Thus they are a great boon to the agricultural environment. Millets are amazing in their nutrients content. Each of the millets is three to five times nutritionally superior to the widely promoted rice and wheat in terms of proteins, minerals and vitamins. Millets produce multiple securities such as food, fodder, health, nutrition, livelihood and ecological making them the crops of agricultural security. Most of us seek micronutrient such as Beta Carotene in pharmaceutical pills and capsules, mil- lets offer it in abundant quantities. The much privileged rice, ironically, has zero quantity of this precious micronutrient. Every single millet is extraordinarily superior to rice and wheat and therefore is the solution for the malnutrition that affects a vast majority of the Indian population. Millets remain our agricultural answer to the climate crisis that the world is facing. Climate Change is expected to confront us with three challenges. 1) Increase in temperature up to 2-5 degree Celsius 2) Increasing water stress 3) Severe malnutri- tion. Only millets have the capacity to meet this challenge. In views of all these features that they so amazingly combine, millets can only be called as Miracle Grains.
233 Low Prevalence of Protein Energy Wasting in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease Patients Managed with a Nutritional Monitoring Program , Guillermina Barril, Angel Nogueira, Graciela Alvarez, Almudena Nuñez, Carmen Sanchez and Paula Romasco
To analyze the prevalence of Protein Energy Wasting (PEW) in Advanced Chronic Kidney Patients (ACKD) using monitor- ing tools normally used in the multidisciplinary CKD Unit. To assess the differences in nutritional parameters, body composition and muscle strength between patients with and without PEW. Design and Method: Retrospective cross sectional study of patients from the ACKD Unit. The study included outpatient consulta - tions offering specialized care for ACKD in the multidisciplinary hospital unit. We performed an initial nutritional assessment with screening and a complete baseline assessment followed by screening at each consultation (minimum every 3 months) and complete assessment every 6 months or if malnutrition appeared in the screening of risk. We performed screening and complete evaluation with biochemical parameters, body composition assessed by vectorial-bioimpedance and anthropometry, and hand grip strength measurement. PEW was diagnosed according to international society of renal nutrition and metabolism (ISRNM) criteria. Results: We found a PEW prevalence of 9.1% (29/320 patients) without significant differences between men and women. The mean age of the patients with PEW was higher than that of non-PEW patients (74.58 ± 12.84 vs 70.54 ± 12.37), although the difference was not statistically significant. We observed significant differences in biochemical parameters, vectorial bioimpedance and anthropometric values, and hand grip strength between patients with and without PEW. A multivariate regression analysis showed that age, transferrin, % fat-free-mass, % total body water and phase-angle were predictive factors for PEW. Of them, phase angle was the best predictive factor. Conclusions: The use of nutritional status monitoring protocols results in low prevalence of PEW and allows its early detection, thereby favoring the reversion of this condition with the appropriate intervention. An adequate nutritional status monitoring is a priority for the integral care of patients at ACKD Units.
234 Ultrasound-assisted Extraction and Characterization of Mexican Moringa oleifera Seed Oil: Identification of Tocopherols and Phytosterols Using UPLC-APCI+MS/MS , Ivet Gallegos-Marín, María L Juárez-Rafael, Blanca D Vázquez-Cabral, Erasmo Herman-Lara, Betsabé Hernández-Santos, Jesús Rodríguez-Miranda, Alberto Álvarez-Castillo, Susana Santoyo, Cecilia E Martínez-Sánchez
Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) from Mexican Moringa oleifera seed oil, characterization, and identification of tocopherols and phytosterols using UPLC-APCI+MS/MS were investigated. The extraction process variables such as sample/solvent ratio (6 - 20 g/mL), temperature (40 - 60°C) and ultrasound time (10 - 20 min) were evaluated on yield, extraction efficiency, peroxide index, p- anisidine, Totox value and free fatty acids. Optimization was carried out by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The three optimal treatments (A, B and C) were determined by tocopherols and phytosterols content using UPLC-APCI+MS/MS. Antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. Alpha-tocopherol was found in a greater proportion in all three treatments and β-sitosterol was the predominant phytosterol in A and B. Treatment A presented a greater antioxidant capacity. Optimal conditions for UAE were sample/solvent ratio of 1:17.16 (w/v), 50.99 °C and extraction time of 25.95 min.
235 Evaluation of Some Physico-chemical and Antioxidant Characteristics of Commercial Honey Samples Originated from Different Regions of Turkey , Mehmet Gültekin Bilgin, Ay?e Güne? Bay?r, Bilge Özkan, Zeynep Özman, Fatmanur Babal? Bal?bey, Feyzanur Turgay, ?rem Karaka?, Nesrin Köse, Tülay Sevinç, Tu?banur Selçuk, Nezire Öztürk
Recently encountered pandemic SARS-CoV-2 infection is a serious concern in the worldwide. In order to prevent this disease and to avoid the side effects of the drugs used during the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection, humans turned to the consumption of na- tural foods including bee products. Honey is an important bee product rich in antioxidants, but should be suitable for consumption in terms of food control and safety. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the physico-chemical and the antioxi- dant characteristics of commercial honey samples originated from 7 different regions of Turkey as well as, to interpret the results with the Turkish Food Codex and European Commission Regulation. Total antioxidant capacity including polyphenols was highest in 100g honey from Agean Region (100 mmol Ascorbic acid Eq and mg Gallic acid Eq, respectively) whereas flavonoid content was the highest in honey from Mediterranean Region. It was found that 19 honey samples (63.3%) were suitable for the Codex Honey Communiqué in terms of sucrose, invert sugar (glucose and fructose), moisture content, number of diastases, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), commercial glucose and pollen analyzes. The honey samples originated from seven different regions of Turkey showed more than half good quality. Their quality depends on various factors such as floral source, geographical origin, harvest seasons, packaging, processing conditions, and storage conditions. Therefore, the consumer’s awareness and the education of beekeepers can improve the production and sales for good quality honey.
236 Fruit Traits at Harvest and After Storage Related to the Incidence of Postharvest Physiological Disorders in ‘Keitt’ Mangoes , Matheus Elysio Ayres de Andrade, Bárbara Orrana Sobreira da Silva, Tiffany da Silva Ribeiro, Luana Ferreira dos Santos, Augusto Miguel Nascimento Lima, Fábio Freire de Oliveira, Sergio Tonetto de Freitas
Physiological disorders are among the most important causes of mango postharvest loss. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify at harvest and after storage fruit physical and chemical traits related to the incidence of internal physiological dis - orders in ‘Keitt’ mangoes. A total of 200 ‘Keitt’ mangoes were harvested at the commercial maturity. After the harvest, one half of each fruit without the seed was cut longitudinally and evaluated, while the other half containing the seed was treated with sodium hypochlorite at 1000 μl L-1, covered with a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film and stored at 10°C until the flesh firmness reached <15 N, which was considered ready-to-eat maturity. According to the results, the physiological disorders incidence after storage reached 9% for jelly seed, 9% for black flesh and 11% for spongy tissue. There were no differences between fruit with and without disorders for AA, SS, TA, and DM analyzed at harvest and after storage. Mangos that developed spongy tissue had at harvest higher skin hue angle, lower levels of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and Ca/B ratio, as well as higher levels of manganese (Mn) and N/Ca, K/Mg, K/Ca ratios, compared to sound fruit. Mangoes that developed jelly seed symptoms had at harvest lower levels of total extractable polyphenols (TEP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), Ca, Mg, Zn, as well as higher Mn levels and N/Ca, Ca/Mg, K/ Mg, K/Ca ratios, compared to sound fruit. Flesh nutrient concentrations remained the same in each fruit from harvest to the end of storage. After storage, mangos with jelly seed symptoms showed higher skin hue angle and TEP levels, as well as lower TAC, com- pared to healthy fruit. Mangos that developed black flesh symptoms had higher levels of N, Mn and N/Ca, K/Mg, K/Ca ratios, as well as lower Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Ca/B ratios at harvest, compared to sound mangoes. After storage, mangoes with black flesh symptoms had darker skin (lower L) and lower skin C and b values, as well as higher TEP levels, compared to sound fruit. In conclusion, the skin hue angle and TEP levels in flesh tissue have the potential to predict at harvest and determined after storage the incidence of spongy tissue and jelly seed in ‘Keitt’ mangoes, respectively. Skin L, C and b values have the potential to non-destructively determine the presence of black flesh in ready-to-eat ‘Keitt’ mangoes. Mangoes that developed black flesh, jelly seed and spongy tissue during storage had at harvest low levels of Ca, Mg, and Zn, as well as high Mn levels, compared to healthy fruit. More studies are required to determine the level of each physicochemical and nutritional trait that can be used as an index to predict at harvest or identify ready- to-eat fruit with physiological disorders.
237 Fruit Traits at Harvest and After Storage Related to the Incidence of Postharvest Physiological Disorders in ‘Keitt’ Mangoes , Matheus Elysio Ayres de Andrade, Bárbara Orrana Sobreira da Silva, Tiffany da Silva Ribeiro, Luana Ferreira dos Santos, Augusto Miguel Nascimento Lima, Fábio Freire de Oliveira, Sergio Tonetto de Freitas
Physiological disorders are among the most important causes of mango postharvest loss. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to identify at harvest and after storage fruit physical and chemical traits related to the incidence of internal physiological dis - orders in ‘Keitt’ mangoes. A total of 200 ‘Keitt’ mangoes were harvested at the commercial maturity. After the harvest, one half of each fruit without the seed was cut longitudinally and evaluated, while the other half containing the seed was treated with sodium hypochlorite at 1000 μl L-1, covered with a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film and stored at 10°C until the flesh firmness reached <15 N, which was considered ready-to-eat maturity. According to the results, the physiological disorders incidence after storage reached 9% for jelly seed, 9% for black flesh and 11% for spongy tissue. There were no differences between fruit with and without disorders for AA, SS, TA, and DM analyzed at harvest and after storage. Mangos that developed spongy tissue had at harvest higher skin hue angle, lower levels of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and Ca/B ratio, as well as higher levels of manganese (Mn) and N/Ca, K/Mg, K/Ca ratios, compared to sound fruit. Mangoes that developed jelly seed symptoms had at harvest lower levels of total extractable polyphenols (TEP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), Ca, Mg, Zn, as well as higher Mn levels and N/Ca, Ca/Mg, K/ Mg, K/Ca ratios, compared to sound fruit. Flesh nutrient concentrations remained the same in each fruit from harvest to the end of storage. After storage, mangos with jelly seed symptoms showed higher skin hue angle and TEP levels, as well as lower TAC, com- pared to healthy fruit. Mangos that developed black flesh symptoms had higher levels of N, Mn and N/Ca, K/Mg, K/Ca ratios, as well as lower Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Ca/B ratios at harvest, compared to sound mangoes. After storage, mangoes with black flesh symptoms had darker skin (lower L) and lower skin C and b values, as well as higher TEP levels, compared to sound fruit. In conclusion, the skin hue angle and TEP levels in flesh tissue have the potential to predict at harvest and determined after storage the incidence of spongy tissue and jelly seed in ‘Keitt’ mangoes, respectively. Skin L, C and b values have the potential to non-destructively determine the presence of black flesh in ready-to-eat ‘Keitt’ mangoes. Mangoes that developed black flesh, jelly seed and spongy tissue during storage had at harvest low levels of Ca, Mg, and Zn, as well as high Mn levels, compared to healthy fruit. More studies are required to determine the level of each physicochemical and nutritional trait that can be used as an index to predict at harvest or identify ready- to-eat fruit with physiological disorders.
238 eDiagnostics in Pregnancy in Covid 19 Pandemic , Kharb S, Singh A
eHealth being a secure and cost-effective mode of use of information communication technologies (ICT) in healthcare services, and conducting surveillance, literature, and education in healthcare for gaining knowledge for conducting further research. Objective: The technology for point of care and point of care medical testing is still in infancy, requiring further research for produc- ing various eHealth diagnostic devices to support eHealth systems. This is important that such e- devices (eDiagnostics) should have minimal involvement of user for analyzing direct biological samples and should be affordable to general population. Methods: This prospective article explores technological advances in remote monitoring of pregnant women. Results: Technology is allowing pregnant women to stay away from hospitals, and it’s improving care—for those who can get access, and ediagnostics will be promising for them during covid 19 pandemic. Conclusion: The technology for point of care and point of care medical testing is still in infancy, requiring further research for pro- ducing various eHealth diagnostic devices to support eHealth systems.
239 eDiagnostics in Pregnancy in Covid 19 Pandemic , Kharb S, Singh A
eHealth being a secure and cost-effective mode of use of information communication technologies (ICT) in healthcare services, and conducting surveillance, literature, and education in healthcare for gaining knowledge for conducting further research. Objective: The technology for point of care and point of care medical testing is still in infancy, requiring further research for produc- ing various eHealth diagnostic devices to support eHealth systems. This is important that such e- devices (eDiagnostics) should have minimal involvement of user for analyzing direct biological samples and should be affordable to general population. Methods: This prospective article explores technological advances in remote monitoring of pregnant women. Results: Technology is allowing pregnant women to stay away from hospitals, and it’s improving care—for those who can get access, and ediagnostics will be promising for them during covid 19 pandemic. Conclusion: The technology for point of care and point of care medical testing is still in infancy, requiring further research for pro- ducing various eHealth diagnostic devices to support eHealth systems.
240 Effects of Selenium Mineral on Health , Rabia Melda Karaa?aç, Ça?la P?narl, Fatih Tarlak
Selenium (Se), discovered by Brezilius and Gahn in 1817, is a trace element that is known as a cofactor of many enzymes in our body and has an antioxidant function. It is found in nature and organisms in organic and/or inorganic forms. Se is an important com- ponent of selenoproteins that play a role in many biological functions such as antioxidant defense, formation of thyroid hormones, DNA synthesis, fertility, and reproduction. The most important sources of Se are brazil nuts, offal, and fish. Adults should consume 55 micrograms per day. Se toxicity can occur if Se has taken into the body more than necessary. The most common clinical symptoms of Se toxicity are hair loss and split nails. Adults should consume no more than 400 micrograms of Se per day. Se shortage is more common in areas where the soil contains little Se. As a result of deficiency, Keshan and Kashin-Beck diseases occur in people. Se is a mineral that has been linked to chronic illnesses like cancer and cardiovascular disease. There is also a relationship between seleni- um and gut microbiata. This review aims to discuss the Se mineral from a clinical and metabolic point of view.
241 Effects of Alternative Ingredients and Processing Conditions on the Quality of Liquid Non-dairy Coffee Creamer: A Review , Thithiya Thepkamnoet, Nor Afizah Mustapha, Wan Zunairah Wan Ibadullah, Roselina Karim
The demand towards coffee and non-dairy products is expected to grow during the next few years due to changing of consumers behavior and perception. This situation provides an opportunity for manufacturers to develop more new variants with improved formulas for health-conscious consumers. However, the usage of traditional ingredients especially in powdered non-dairy coffee creamer has some disadvantages mainly due to the presence of trans-fat and synthetic ingredients. In consideration of these draw - backs, liquid non-dairy coffee creamer either partially or fully substituted with alternative ingredients derived from natural sources are introduced. Nevertheless, incorporation of different types of alternative ingredients and processing conditions used influenced the quality of the final liquid non-dairy coffee creamer. This paper reviewed the effects of alternative ingredients and processing variables on the physicochemical properties, shelf life, sensory attributes, and health aspects of liquid non-dairy coffee creamer. In addition, the application of liquid non-dairy coffee creamer in hot acidic coffee is also described. This review imparts beneficial information on liquid non-dairy coffee creamer’s development using potential ingredients and optimal processing conditions in an attempt to improve the qualitycharacteristics of the final products, to satisfy consumers’ demand and preferences toward a healthier alternative ingredient.
242 Is Flavored Milk Really a Bad Beverage Choice? The Nutritional Benefits of Flavored Milk Outweigh the Added Sugars Content , Theresa A Nicklas, Rabab Saab,Victor L Fulgoni III
The objective of this study was to re-examine the nutritional contribution of flavored milk in the diets of children with an empha- sis on total milk consumption, added sugars, and the shortfall nutrients of public health concern using the most recent national data set available. Intake data from children 2 to 18 years (N = 28,259) participating in the NHANES 2001-2018 were obtained from the 24- hour dietary recall interviews. Mean nutrient intakes, nutrient adequacy, least square means and standard errors of energy and intakes of each nutrient were determined. Z-scores were used to assess population differences in nutrient adequacy. A conservative p-value of (p ≤ 0.001) was used. Compared with non-consumers, consumers of flavored milk had higher intakes of total energy, total sugars, and total added sugars. Consumers of flavored milk consumed more total milk (approximately 1-cup equivalent more) than non-consumers. Flavored milk consumers 2-to-18 years, had significantly (p < 0.0001) higher intakes of fiber, vitamins D, A and B-12, riboflavin, calcium, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus than non-consumers. Compared to non-consumers, consumers of flavored milk had a lower percentage not meeting dietary recommendations for vitamins A, D, and B-12, riboflavin, calcium, magne- sium, and phosphorus. The percentage of flavored milk consumers with intakes above the AI was lower for fiber intake but higher for potassium intake compared to non-consumers. Based on data from this study, flavored milk is not a bad beverage of choice. The nutritional benefits of flavored milk far outweighs the added sugars content.
243 Is Flavored Milk Really a Bad Beverage Choice? The Nutritional Benefits of Flavored Milk Outweigh the Added Sugars Content , Theresa A Nicklas, Rabab Saab,Victor L Fulgoni III
The objective of this study was to re-examine the nutritional contribution of flavored milk in the diets of children with an empha- sis on total milk consumption, added sugars, and the shortfall nutrients of public health concern using the most recent national data set available. Intake data from children 2 to 18 years (N = 28,259) participating in the NHANES 2001-2018 were obtained from the 24- hour dietary recall interviews. Mean nutrient intakes, nutrient adequacy, least square means and standard errors of energy and intakes of each nutrient were determined. Z-scores were used to assess population differences in nutrient adequacy. A conservative p-value of (p ≤ 0.001) was used. Compared with non-consumers, consumers of flavored milk had higher intakes of total energy, total sugars, and total added sugars. Consumers of flavored milk consumed more total milk (approximately 1-cup equivalent more) than non-consumers. Flavored milk consumers 2-to-18 years, had significantly (p < 0.0001) higher intakes of fiber, vitamins D, A and B-12, riboflavin, calcium, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus than non-consumers. Compared to non-consumers, consumers of flavored milk had a lower percentage not meeting dietary recommendations for vitamins A, D, and B-12, riboflavin, calcium, magne- sium, and phosphorus. The percentage of flavored milk consumers with intakes above the AI was lower for fiber intake but higher for potassium intake compared to non-consumers. Based on data from this study, flavored milk is not a bad beverage of choice. The nutritional benefits of flavored milk far outweighs the added sugars content.
244 Physical - Chemical Profile of Kombuchas Marketed in the Governador Valadares City - Brazil , Nayara Ferreira Zagnoli, Thays Luke Archangel, Victórya Soares Ávila, Vitória Oliveira Silva Paes, Najara Souza da Silva, Ana Clara De Alvarenga Morais, Eloisa Helena Medeiros Cunha, Anderson Ferreira Vilela
Kombucha is a drink typically made of green or black tea, as well as needs the fermentation coming from an association of mi- croorganisms beneficial to health. The consumption of Kombucha has become more frequent, since it brings vast benefits to health, as well as preventing cardiovascular diseases, promoting digestive functions, stimulating the immune system, reducing inflamma- tory problems. The objective of this work was to evaluate the physical-chemical parameters of Kombucha samples sold in the city of Governador Valadares-MG. This was a qualitative and quantitative experimental type of analytical study, where pH, humidity, ashes, sugars and antioxidants were analyzed. The results obtained showed moisture values according to the standards required by current legislation, no indicative legislation was found for ash values, also showed ideal pH values for Kombucha according to cur- rent legislation, presence of ascorbic acid, small amount of reducing and non-reducing sugars and presented satisfactory results for consumption. Therefore, it is of great importance to encourage the consumption of the beverage since it presents benefits for health and quality of life.
245 Non-coeliac Gluten Intolerance and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. An Approach to Diagnosis , Ramón Tormo Carnicé, Sara Martínez Lagar
Many patients with symptoms of those described in IRRITABLE bowel syndrome (IBS) such as abdominal pain, sporadic diarrhoea, flatulence, constipation, uncomfortable feeling of gastric fullness after meals, among other symptoms, eliminate gluten from their diet, without carrying out the diagnostic tests for coeliac disease, or even if these tests are negative and they claim to feel relieved for a certain period of time, an improvement that they attribute to the elimination of gluten.
246 Your Nutritional State - A Result of your Coping? , Kathleen Hudson
Your nutritional state – from where is it derived? Your nutri - tional state is intimately connected to your emotional state, and consequently the resultant coping style. Coping is quite complex. Coping can be positive, healthy, resilient, and also quite negative, destructive, and dangerous. Coping is impacted upon by many variables that are within your control and some that are not. In the big picture, these variables include such things as social, economic, cultural, gender and spiritual aspects. How does this effect your nutritional state? It is probably best to provide the model to which this question can be responded to and provides some guidance. The coping com- plexity model as outlined by Hudson [1] clearly depicts the vari- ous components of coping. Coping is the inherent response to daily stressors. Stressors take many forms and their responses vary as well. This complexity of coping can influence a range of eating dis- orders from obesity, created by over eating, to illnesses of under eating such as anorexia nervosa
247 Have we done Justice to Linus Pauling’s Discovery in 1970s with Regards to Utilization of Vitamin C for Prevention of Acute Respiratory Illnesses, Besides Role of Vitamin C in Current COVID19 Epidemic - A Comprehensive Review , Kulvinder Kochar Kaur, Gautam Allahbadia, Mandeep Singh
At present restricted therapies are existent with regards to COVID-19. The significant antiinflammatory, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antithrombotic, antiviral characteristics of Vitamin C makes it a promising agent for avoidance in addition to abrogate COVID-19 infection, thus has a role as an adjunctive treatment for the critical care of COVID-19. Here we provide proof with regards to role of Vitamin C deficit in acute respiratory infections, in addition to support of the stress reaction, part of Vitamin C in avoidance as well as therapy of Pneumonia, besides sepsis as well as COVID-19. The proof till date pointed that oral Vitamin C in dosages 2-8g daily might cause reduction of incidence as well as time period of respiratory infections Here we conducted a systematic review uti- lizing search engine pubmed, google scholar; web of science; embase; Cochrane review library utilizing the Me SH terms like Vitamin C; physiological stress; Pneumonia; Sepsis;, COVID-19; mode of action; stress response and Vitamin C; antiinflammatory, immuno- modulatory; antioxidant; antithrombotic; antiviral characteristics; oral; intravenous regimens from 1950s till date 2021. We found a total of 1300 articles out of which we selected 50 articles for this review, as per the restrictions of journal. No meta-analysis was done. Proof showed that iv Vitamin C (6-24g daily was demonstrated to cause a reduction in mortality, hospital intensive care unit (ICU) stay besides mechanical ventilation for acute robust respiratory infections. Thus its utilization is warranted in all severe respiratory infections, any viral Pneumonias apart from COVID-19 infection without any side action plus economical.
248 Effect of Flax Seed Powder and Flax Seed Oil Intervention on the Lipid Profile and Anthropometry of the Patients with Dyslipidemia , Deepika Sharma, Nimali Singh
Dyslipidemia is a medical and social problem, leading to increasing morbidity and mortality worldwide. The major risk factors of dyslipidemia are associated with atherosclerosis and it results in ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. Omega-3 fatty acids have significant beneficial effects on the physical condition and general wellbeing. The seeds of the some plants such as flax seeds have more than 50% omega 3 and they are easy to ingest and very helpful in dyslipidemic patients. Therefore, the present study is designed to observe the effects of flax seed powder and flax seed oil on the clinical variables associated with dyslip- idemia in dyslipidemic patients. Aim: To compare the effects of administration of flax seed powder and flax seed oil on the nutritional status and lipid profile of the Patients with dyslipidemia. Methodology: The present study was conducted in a hospital, Galaxy Specialty Centre, Jaipur. There were total 100 patients with dyslipidemia of age between 30 and 55 years. Out of those 150 subjects, 50 patients were provided with flax seed powder 15 grams/d and other 50 subjects were supplemented with flax seed oil 6 grams/d for three months. The lipid profile and anthropometric indices were measured at pre and post study. Results: After three months of supplementation with flax seed powder, there was significant reduction in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference of the dyslipidemic patients however, no change was observed in anthropometric indices in the patients of oil group. The lipid levels of the flax seed powder group were also found to be reduced significantly whereas the changes in the lipid levels of the oil group were not clinically significant. There was increase observed in the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol among the subjects of both powder and oil group. Conclusion: The results suggested that this is an effective intervention. Hence, flax seed powder and flax seed oil may well be con- sidered as a remedial food to control and prevent dyslipidemia.
249 Effect of Euclea divinorum Aqueous Leaf Extract in the Treatment of Coccidiosis in Broilers at the Poultry Unit, Federal College of Forestry Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria , Onuwa GC
The study was carried out to analyze the effect of Euclea divinorum Aqueous Leaf Extract in the Treatment of Coccidiosis in Broil- ers at the Poultry Unit, Federal College of Forestry Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. Sixty (60) birds were experimentally infected with (5%, 10% 20% and 0%) solution of Euclea divinorum. The birds were divided into four groups T1, T2, T3, and T4, with three (3) replicates each. Duncan count was carried out at the end of the experiment for scoring of hemorrhage and data analysis using ANOVA. The phy- tochemical analysis of Euclea divinorum indicated the presence of Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Saponins, Tannins, Phenol, Resin, Glycosides and Steriodal ring; which have been reported to have a retrogressive effects on micro-organisms. The chemical constituents of the plant extract indicated positive signs; however, Resin had a negative sign. The ANOVA result revealed significant differences among the different levels of inclusion; there is a significant difference at 5% (p > 0.05) level of probability in the birds treated with dif- ferent levels of concentration of Euclea divinorum aqueous leaf extract. Treatments (T1), (T2), (T3) and (T4) reported mortality rates of 13.3% (2), 6.7% (1), 66.7% (10) and 80% (12), respectively, with gross mortality of twenty-five (25) birds. From the study, it is suggested that Euclea divinorum has great potentials in being used to control coccidiosis in broilers. Cultivation of Euclea divinorium; more support for research on using plant extracts for poultry disease control, subsidized vaccines and medical supplies, improved extension services for poultry farmers are strongly recommended
250 Cinnamon Bioactives and their Impact on Poultry Nutrition and Meat Quality - Impact on Human Health , Areeba Yaqoob, Poushmal Abdul Razzaq, Sana Iqbal, Obaid-ul-Hassan, Hassam Ishtiaq, Sajjad Hussain, Waheed Ahmad, Muhammad Rizwan, Mariam Altaf, Hafza Fasiha Zahid, Akhtar Ali
In recent decades, natural phytochemicals gained much attention due to antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. Previously, syn- thetic preservatives widely used in meat industry to control pathogenic bacterial and to inhibit the lipid peroxidation in order to ex- tend the shelf life and to improve the acceptability of meat and meat products. Due to consumer’s awareness and demand and ban on synthetic additives in Europe, demand of plant derived natural products increased. Cinnamon is a wonderful spice that has been used from ancient’s time to improve food flavor and sensory and organoleptic characteristics. Due to antioxidant and anti-microbial be- havior potential of cinnamon bioactives, the natural antioxidants have been found effective in extending the shelf life and to increase the acceptability of meat by the consumers. Due to non-toxic, natural, residue free and easy availability of natural products make them highly acceptable as food additive and preservative. Cinnamon have been reported precious spice due to various beneficial ef- fects like increased digestive enzymes, appetizer, immune stimulant, antioxidant, anti-microbial and anti-viral activities. Cinnamon is most widely used spice in poultry industry due to its vital phytochemicals and safe use.
251 Amino Acids Analyses of Four Varieties of Raw and Cooked African Bitter Yam , Emmanuel Ilesanmi Adeyeye, Gbolagade Ayinde Yusuff, Ayodele Olajide, Idowu Olajumoke Tolulope, Popoola Olugbenga Kayode, Idowu Kolade
Dioscorea dumetorum is a tuber that shows great variation in colour, form and quality. Objective: The major purpose of this work is to report and compare the amino acid composition of both raw and cooked bitter yam. Method: The D. dumetorum samples were the four edible different types available in Nigeria. For this work, the varieties were la- belled as A 6, B 6, C 6 and D 6 (all raw samples), whereas A 13, B 13, C 13 and D 13 were the cooked equivalents. The method of amino acid analysis was by ion - exchange chromatography using the Technicon Sequential Multisample Amino Acid Analyser (TSM) (Technicon Instruments Corporation, New York, USA). Results: For comparison, the raw and corresponding cooked samples had these total amino acid levels (in g 100g -1), A 6/A13 (61.1/54.7), B6/B13 (65.1/54.7), C6/C13 (52.6/54.6) and D 6/D13 (56.6/60.0). The amino acid values in the cooked samples showed both enhancement and leaching of the amino acids. EAA levels ranged from 25.5- 31.6g100g-1 in raw and 24.1- 26.0g100 g-1 in cooked samples. P-PER range was 1.63 - 2.88 (raw) and 1.59 - 2.43 (cooked). EAAI was 99.1 - 100 (raw) and 99.3 - 100 (cooked) whereas the BV values were 96.3 - 97.3 (raw) and 96.5 - 97.3 (cooked). The limiting amino acids were Ser, Met + Cys and Lys depending on the amino acid scoring standards compared to. Statistical comparisons among the pairs at r = 0.01 showed that significantly different: A6/ A13, B6/B13, C6/C13 and D6/D13; A6/D6, A6/B6, A6/C6 and D6/C6; A13/B13, A13/C13, A13/D13, B13/C13 and D13/C13. Conclusion: The EAAI, BV and P-PER showed the samples to be highly bioavailable. Samples A6 and B6 had generally similar chemical characteristics and slightly better food qualities than C6 and D6 which also showed similar chemical characteristics. The A13, B13, C13 and D13 were appendages of their corresponding A6, B6, C6 and D6 respectively.
252 Future and Sustainability: Insects in Human Food , Renaly Kaline Gomes dos Santos, Rogério Silva de Almeida, Danilo Salustiano dos Santos, Fidelis Franco Felizardo da Silva, José Narciso Francisco da Silva Filho, Juliana Gonçalvez Gomes, Geiza Michelle Angelo Pacheco, Natália Costa da Silva, Samarone Xavier da Silva, Anderson Ferreira Vilela, Arianne Dantas Viana, Edilma Pinto Coutinho
Studies indicate that in the coming years the number of inhabitants on earth reaches at least 9.8 billion, thus an increase in the de- mand for food due to population growth. Because of this perspective, researchers are looking for new food alternatives. The present work aimed to deal with the bibliographic survey about the knowledge of entomofagia, nutritional and environmental advantages and difficulties of its insertion in the global culture. Entomophagy or anthropoentomophagy is defined as the consumption of insects or products containing them in its formulation, this practice is currently both well accepted and rejected, depending on the region of the planet and it has been growing due to the dissemination of knowledge that edible insects are rich in nutrients such as proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals, in addition to having sustainable production with low environmental impact. Through this study it can be observed that insects have characteristics of great relevance for the food area, since it contains a high nutritional value present in satisfactory amounts. Another positive point observed, is its low production cost when compared to other animals and its high rate of conversion feed which make them allies of the environment. However, the consumption of these insects faces some obstacles that need to be better studied, such as the resistance of the consumption of the population for cultural issues and also the scarcity of current legislation.
253 Lactoferrin for Treating and Preventing Covid-19: A Review , Stacey J Bell, Lindsey Ormond
After nearly two years of living with the COVID-19 pandemic, much has been learned. Today we know that the virus that causes COVID-19 is transmitted in the air, treatments have improved, and prevention of contracting it is possible through vaccination. This opens an opportunity for natural ingredients and bovine lactoferrin is considered to be one of the best options for treating and pre- venting COVID-19. Lactoferrin has been studied extensively before the identification of severe acute respiratory syndrome corona- virus (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19. It was found to be an anti-viral agent against other viruses, and now new research has shown it to be equally effective against the virus that causes COVID-19. In addition, lactoferrin has the potential to boost the body’s natural immune function without over-reacting. Clinical studies in COVID-19 patients, who took oral bovine lactoferrin, improved faster and tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 virus sooner compared to those who were not supplemented. Besides helping treat COV- ID-19 patients, lactoferrin holds promise for prevention against getting it. In one clinical trial, healthy subjects, who received supple- mental lactoferrin, did not develop COVID-19 despite living with family members who had it. From the current body of evidence, it is possible to determine the right amount of lactoferrin to use if you contract COVID-19 and what you need to prevent it. For treatment, use of 500 mg to 1,000 mg daily of lactoferrin is recommended until symptoms associated with COVID-19 have improved or have gone away completely. For prevention, taking 250 mg to 500 mg daily is recommended. Lactoferrin is a well-tested, safe, and natural compound with the potential to help many during the COVID-19 pandemic.
254 Brassica Vegetables: Diversity, Nutritional and Health Benefits, and Innovative Markets for Dietary Diversity , João Carlos da Silva Dias
The genus Brassica comprises six crop species: B. nigra, B. oleracea, B. rapa, B. carinata, B. juncea and B. napus, which provide edi- ble roots, leaves, petioles, stems, inflorescences and seed. All of these six species can be used and consumed as vegetable, although B. nigra is most exclusively cultivated as condiment mustard. Of these species, B. oleracea and B. rapa are highly polymorphic dis- playing a range of vegetable morphotypes. Brassica vegetable crops are a unique and diverse group. They are highly nutritious and have unique flavor and taste. Brassicas are good sources of dietary fiber, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin K, minerals, and antioxidants glucosinolates and flavonoids, that exhibit anticarcinogen properties. They can accumulate considerable amounts of selenium when grown on high selenium content soils. This article highlights the nutritional and health benefits of vegetable Brassicas, as well as ex- amples of breeding products and attractive product concepts that can stimulate Brassicas consumption and diet diversity.
255 Nutritional Status of Mother-Child Couple at Matoto Health Center, Conakry, Guinea , Ibrahima Kaba, Fanta Touré, Ahmadou Sadio Diallo
In Guinea there is insufficient information on the nutritional status of the mother-child couple. Objective: To know the nutritional status of the mother-child couple at the Matoto Health Center (CSM). Materials and Methods: It was a cross-sectional, descriptive study from March 25 to May 27, 2019 that involved 202 mothers and 205 children. The data were collected by a questionnaire administered to mothers with a measure of anthropometric and biological parameters of mother-child couples. The sampling was exhaustive and concerned these couples seen at the CSM. Results: The predominant age group of mothers was 21 - 40 years (74%), 34% were housewives, 36% out of school, 95% married and 83% monogamous. Most children were 0 to 5 months old (83%). 18% of mothers breastfed the child in 30 minutes postpartum, 82% after 30 minutes and 18% breastfed exclusively. The mothers had 6% thinness, 29% overweight, 6% obesity and 87% anemia. The children had undernutrition expressed by wasting (16%) and no obesity. 91% of emaciated children were weaned early. 20% of the children were anaemic. The socio-demographic factors of mothers that affected the nutritional status of children (wasting) were occupation (p = 0.0274) and level of education (p = 0.0435). The nutritional status of the mother expressed in thinness and hemoglo- bin levels did not influence that of the child. Conclusion: Efforts to educate, promote breastfeeding and empower women could contribute to the reduction of malnutrition in Matotocommune.
256 Therapeutic Role of Curcumin on Glycemic Regulation, Lipid Parameters and Potential Benefits on Hyperandrogenemia - A Short Communication , Kulvinder Kochar Kaur, Gautam Allahbadia, Mandeep Singh
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) represents one of most com- mon endocrine condition in case of reproductive women, that most- ly presents in the form of a menstrual disorder, hirsutism, infertility [1]. Despite lot of therapies exist like utilization of Oral contracep- tives to hamper the maturation of ovarian follicles in the form of long time PCOS treatment, besides ovulation induction for those PCOS patients needing fertility, they can’t cure it. Till now lifestyle modifications (like weight reduction) continues to be the 1st line, besides the mainstay of treatment [2]. Earlier we reviewed how to classify in addition to treat PCOS presents especially those with obesity [3]. Furthermore, we discussed the role of therapy with pro- biotics as one of the innovative treatments in view of no specific therapy working [4].
257 The Role of Vitamin D and the Impact of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patients , Solmaz Ece Yilmaz, Ayse Gunes-Bayir
Background: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is one of the common intestinal diseases reducing quality of life. Its global prevalence varies between 7 - 21%. Changes in intestinal microbiome, permeability, immune function, motility and visceral sensitivity, brain-in- testinal interactions and psychosocial status are suggested to be effective in the pathogenesis of IBS. Variability of symptoms in IBS including chronic abdominal pain with diarrhea or constipation separately or both resulted in different strategies to be carried out in the treatment of the disease. Summary: In the treatment of IBS patients, a holistic approach consisting of diet, lifestyle changes and drugs is required. Recent stu- dies shown that vitamin D deficiency is common in IBS patients and supplementation of vitamin D can be effective in the treatment of IBS. The immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties of vitamin D and its association with psychosocial status are related to its role in IBS. Since IBS is a stress-sensitive disorder, impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on IBS symptoms can not be ignored. In addition, IBS patients have a high risk of vitamin D deficiency resulting more severe symptoms during the pandemic. In this study, the role of vitamin D in IBS and the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in IBS patients were reviewed. Key points: The intervention studies on vitamin D supplementation do not provide strong and generalizable evidence. SARS-CoV-2 infection could effect IBS symptoms. Vitamin D supplementation may be effective for IBS patients during COVID-19 pandemic since IBS patients are prone to infection and have a risk of more severe symptoms.
258 Concepts of Healing , EF Block IV
This work addresses the concepts that surround what com - prises healing modalities in these days and times. The concepts discussed do not involve those of surgery. There are three major thrusts in the origin of healing concepts that have been developed over the ages. The more advanced Eastern concepts first originat- ed in the sub-continent of India and were later transferred to the area that is now known as China. All Eastern concepts began devel- opment some 4000 years ago and eventually yielded a comprehen- sive treatment system that lasted into modern times. The Western concepts originated in Europe and progressed much more slowly than those in the East. In all cases, most of what would be known as medicines were for the most part derived from herbal sources with a minority from mineral of animal sources. It was not until the late 19th century that what may be con - strued as modern medicine was developed in the West. However, late in the previous century (18th), one such healing modality known as Homeopathy was conceived and developed into a very successful treatment modality. This was in addition to the already practiced herbal medicine in Europe and North America. In the USA, Homeopathy was demonized by the political actions of the American Medical Association (AMA) their members and very ac- tive adverse propaganda campaigns. This was despite the very ef- fective treatment modalities of Homeopathic medicine. More upon the subject of Homeopathy later in this article.
259 My Experience as APCNS President; Future Challenges , Shaw Watanabe
The Asia Pacific Clinical Nutrition Society was established by Professor Mark Lawrence Wahlqvhinist about 20 years ago. Dr. Wahlqvist shared knowledge among doctors, dietitians, and nutri- tionists from non-English speaking countries, and he encouraged them to publish scientific papers in English. The Asia Pacific Jour- nal of Clinical Nutrition was thus created, and now Dr. Duo Li is the editor-in-chief. I was the president for four years from 2018 to 2022, but in light of the Sustainable Development Goals an- nounced by the United Nations in 2015, there are many problems in the Asia-Pacific region. We would better remind the five Ps in 2030 Agenda. The Goals and targets will stimulate action over the next eight years in areas of critical importance for humanity and the planet:
260 Process Optimization for Whey-Based Tomato Soup , Simran Kaur Arora
Tomato soup is liked for its taste, colour and aroma. While tomato is rich in ascorbic acid and carotene, whey, an effluent from dairy industry with high biological oxygen demand, is rich in protein, vitamins and minerals. Keeping it in view, whey-based tomato soup (WTS) was developed using different levels of whey, tomato pulp and garam masala by evaluating sensory and physical attri- butes. Further, the starch-based thickener (arrowroot) was replaced with different levels of carrageenan. Soup prepared using whey and tomato pulp in the ratio of 80:20 along with 1.0% garam masala (incorporated by bag method with condiments and spices) gave high scores for flavour (7.6), body- texture (7.8), colour- appearance (7.5) and overall acceptability (7.7). Carrageenan at 0.1 per cent was found to successfully replace arrowroot with overall acceptability score of 7.9. The optimized WTS was hot-filled under aseptic conditions into glass bottles with screw caps and was found to have a shelf-life of 6 days/30 ± 10C and 18 days/6 ± 10C.
261 Nutritional Genomics: Genes and Polymorphisms in Energy Metabolism: An Overview , Thais Verdi
Recent studies have demonstrated the effects of nutrients on gene expression and their influence on skeletal muscle metabo- lism. Macronutrients play important roles, which through dietary signals control the metabolic programming of cells to maintain cell homeostasis, influencing specific gene expression. The effect of nutrients and their relationship to genes. In this review, we discuss advances in genetic studies of DNA polymorphisms and their association with energy metabolism. Various genes (AMPD1 C34T rs17602729, PPAR-? (PPARA) rs8192678, PPAR-D (PPARD) rs2016520, PPAR-G (PPARG) rs 1807282, PGC 1 a (PPARGC1A) rs8192678, PPP3RUDD1) 1807282, PPAR8GC 1a, PPP3RUDD1 (PPARD) UCP006 UCP006 UCP006 UCP006 UCP006 UCP006 PPARG (PPARG) 1807282, PGC 1a (PPARGC1A) rs8192678; rs33 (PPARGC1A) GC1A, rs1937 and CLOCK/BMAL1 have been implicated in various aspects of skeletal muscle energy. Future research is guaranteed to explore multigenetic traits to provide a deeper molecular understanding, with greater genetic predisposition and metabolically flexible tissue, skeletal muscle largely contributes to the meta- bolic adaptation of the entire body.
262 Are Full-Fat Dairy Products Anti-Diabetes and Anti-Metabolic Diseases? , Akbar Nikkhah
AThe objective of this perspective article was to discuss if consuming full-fat dairy products may help prevent diabetes and meta- bolic complexities. Diabetes and related metabolic issues are dependent on lifestyle, especially dietary regimens. Conventionally, consuming low-fat or fat-free dairy products has been encouraged in an effort to decrease diabetes and metabolic issues risks. This indication stems mainly from the fact that full-fat dairy products are rich in saturated fatty acids that may lead to cardiometabolic issues. Nevertheless, recent evidence indicates that full-fat dairy products have neutral or likely advantageous effects on cardiometa- bolic health and diabetes preclusion. Dairy products such as yogurt and cheese are considered bio-functional foods that contain a variety of nutrients (e.g., vitamins, minerals, probiotics, anti-inflammatory, and bioactive molecules) that work together towards im- proved metabolic health. To conclude, consuming full-fat dairy products to help prevent diabetes and cardiometabolic issues would be a valid area to be further examined in many aspects. This further evaluation is expected to greatly contribute to improving public opinions on health and welfare in today’s stressful life.
263 Protein and Iron Intake Related to Growth Retardation and Anemia in Children Under 5 Years of Age, Ecuador , Amparito del Rosario Barahona Meneses, Jacqueline Andrea Pozo Benavidez, Gladys Edelmira Morejón Jácome, Sara Rosales Rivadeneira, Kateryn Tixilima Ayala
Introduction: Children under 5 years of age constitute a group vulnerable to nutritional deficiencies, with iron deficiency anemia and chronic malnutrition being the main problems that afflict children in this population. The objective was to evaluate the relation- ship between the consumption of protein and iron, with growth retardation, and the presence of anemia in children from 3 to 5 years of age, in a community of Cotacachi belonging to Ecuador, 2020. Material and Methods: descriptiveor cross-sectional study and correlation. The study population consisted of 184children. Protein and iron consumption was assessed through the application of a food consumption frequency questionnaire (CFCA). Hemoglobin values were obtained from the review of medical records, and growth retardation was assessed using the height for age indicator. Results: 21.7% of the population presented growth retardation and 29.3% was identified with iron deficiency anemia; a relation- ship was found between growth retardation and the consumption of theanimal proteinsource, such as meat and dairy (p =< 0.05). A relationship was also found between the bgarlic consumption of foodsource of heminic iron with the presence of anemia (p = < 0.05). Conclusions: Se encontró relationship between the consumption of food source of protein and iron of animal origin with the retarda- tion of growth and iron deficiency anemia.
264 Bioactivity, Bioavailability and Bioaccessibility of Blackcurrant Anthocyanins: An Updated Comprehensive Review , Ruiting Li , Chunmin Yang , Bin Xue , Xiaodan Hui, Xin Shao, Gang Wu
Blackcurrant-based products are trending worldwide as potential functional foods consumed for diseases prevention. Blackcur- rant is recognized as its abundant sources of bioactive compounds and dietary fiber. The phenolic compounds, especially proantho- cyanins and anthocyanins existing in blackcurrant berry fruit, have been extensively studied by the scientific community for their various medicinal values. The benefits of the anthocyanins are associated with their free-radical scavenging capacity. Anthocyanins must be available or removed from the blackcurrant matrix and then bioaccessible in the gastrointestinal system and must pass through metabolism to the targeted tissue for this capability in humans or animals. This review was focused on the anthocyanin metabolism from the blackcurrant, including the bioavailability, bioaccessibility, and bioactivity, by summarizing factors affecting phytochemical profiles of blackcurrant-based products, including growing and processing and biokinetics of blackcurrant anthocya- nins. Assessment of bioaccessibility and bioavailability of blackcurrant anthocyanin is important for understanding its limitations on absorption and functions of blackcurrant anthocyanin towards human nutrition.
265 Take Another Look at Antioxidants , Leonard W Heflich
Antioxidants are molecules that are capable of donating an elec- tron or accepting a proton from an unstable free radical molecule. Free radicals have an extra unpaired electron, making them very unstable, highly reactive and therefore dangerous. Early forms of life had to develop a mechanism for neutralizing free radicals in or- der to avoid the damage they cause. Studies of early bacteria have discovered the presence of antioxidants at least 2.5 billion years ago. Exposure to atmospheric oxygen and sunlight would not be possible without antioxidants to neutralize the free radicals pro- duced. Anerobic bacteria never learned the trick and even today must hide underground or deep in the ocean where sunlight and oxygen cannot reach.
266 Oral Care, Oral Health and Associated Nutrition Related Problems in Icelandic Nursing Home Residents , Sigurdardottir AS, Geirsdottir OG , Ramel A, Arnadottir IB
Background and aims: Old adults in nursing homes have often poor oral health and malnutrition. The aim of this study was to inves- tigate the associations between oral health and nutrition related problems in Icelandic nursing home residents. Methods: This cross-sectional study included older adults (> 67 years, N = 82) from two nursing homes from the Reykjavik capital area, Iceland. Two dentists performed a clinical examination using the Oral Health Survey form and a clinical dentist collected further data. Information on nutrition related problems (possible range from 0 to 8) were retrieved from the Oral Health Impact Profile. Results: The mean decayed, missed and filled teeth (DMFT) index was around 26, however, still 42% of participants rated their oral health as good. Two thirds of the participants were in need of dental therapy and a similar proportion of participants had the last dentist’s visit > 1 year ago. More than 40% had complete dentures and the number of nutrition related problems was 4.8 ± 2.5. According to age and sex adjusted analysis, poor DMFT was significantly related to difficulties to chew, avoiding certain foods, stop eating food and to not being able to eat, however, not to changes in taste perception. Having complete dentures was very similarly associated with these nutrition related problems. Length of residence was related to changes in taste perception and difficulties to chew, however no significant relations could be seen between need for dental therapy, last dentist’s visit and nutrition related prob- lems. Conclusion: In Icelandic nursing home residents oral health is poor and there is a great need for improved oral care. The frequency of nutrition related problems related to malnutrition is high and poor oral health is significantly associated with these problems as it is length of residence.
267 Quality Evaluation of the Physical Properties and Phytochemicals of Selected Date Palm New Strain Grown in Nag Hamady Governorate , Rasha N. Arafa, Sayed A. A. Elsayh,  Ghada A. Ali
It is considered that the date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera) was one of the first crops to be farmed in the Middle East, dating back thousands of years. The current study aimed to assess the variations in the quality of the new strain of Nag Hamady and Medjool cultivar on the basis of physical characteristics and chemicals properties. There was conducting research on date palm fruits from a 30-year-old seedling tree in Nag Hamady, Egypt. The results were compared to those of Medjool cv. in two consecutive seasons (2020 and 2021). A novel seedling strain’s physical and chemical properties were the primary focus of this investigation. In compared the number of date/Kg, Medjool cv. recorded (110 kg/palm), however the maximum yield was seen in Nag Hamady 2 (250 kg/palm). When it comes to physical features like length, diameter, weight, and number of dates per kg, the Nag Hamady 2 had the greatest numbers, at 5.40 cm, 2.60 cm, 28.00g, and 38.00 dates per kg, while the Medjool had the lowest. Nag Hamady 2 has the best chemical characteristics, according to the results. The soluble solid content of a date palm fruit is 80.00 gm per 100 gm. There were 80.20 gm of carbs per 100 gm and 3.85 gm of protein per 100 gm. It was determined that the ash and fiber levels were 0.67 and 6.50 gm per 100 gm, respectively. The carbohydrate content was found to be high in glucose and fructose, and it was found to be free of sucrose. Due to its low level of crude lipids 0.50g/100g compared with content of sugar, date palm might be beneficial for cardiovascular and diabetic patients. There is the great calcium content in Nag Hamady 2 may be a good supply of calcium, which is required for healthy bone formation and energy metabolism. The date fruits are regarded to be a healthy diet rich in minerals and play an important func- tion in the development of the immune system for humans because of the presence of these key components in the fruit.
268 Reduction of Antinutritional Factors of Three Varieties of Sesame (Sesamum Indicum L.) Seeds When Applying Heat-Alkaline Treatments , Harold Toros, Romel Guzmán-Alvarez
Diets rich in plant products have become popular in recent times due to the contribution of essential macronutrients, as well as micronutrients with beneficial characteristics for health and sesame (Sesamum indicum) is part of this group of foods for its protein content and its content of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids that contribute to the prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases. However, there are secondary metabolites synthesized by plants as protective mechanisms, called anti-nutritional factors, which affect the nutritional value of certain foods, in this case sesame seeds. We studied the effect on three different varieties of sesame seeds (DV-9; Guesa-4 and Guesa-150 whole and dehulled, the application of an alkaline treatment (KOH 0.7%) at 55°C for 5; 10 and 15 minutes, on the reduction of antinutritional factors (saponins, phytic acid and oxalates). The most effective treatment in re- ducing antinutritional factors was the alkaline treatment dehulled for 15 minutes because it reduced the content for the DV-9 variety, of saponins, phytic acid and oxalates by 27.76; 93.27 and 88.63% respectively, for the Guesa-4 variety by 23.79; 92.22 and 92.06% respectively and for the Guesa-150 variety by 23.79; 86.88 and 91.36% respectively. These results showed that when seeds were exposed to 0.7% KOH solution for 15 minutes, the phytic acid and oxalate content was reduced by a high percentage. The alkaline dehulled treatment during 15 minutes, produced changes in the proximal composition of the varieties of seeds studied, generating an increase in the content of moisture, crude protein and crude fat, and reduced the content of ash and carbohydrates.
269 Bacteroidetes Help Hosts Harvest More Energy from High Fiber Diets , Xue bin, Pingru Liu, Gang Wu
Obesity has been associated with imbalance of gut microbiota. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of gut micro- biota in host’s harvesting energy. During the period of 8 weeks’ feeding of the high-soybean-fiber (HSF) diet or the high-fructooligo- saccharide (HFOS) diet, the rats’ body weight (BW), gut microbiota composition, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in feces, plasma lipo- polysaccharide (LPS) and leptin were measured at week 0, 4 and 8. The results presented high dietary fibers (HDFs) can up-regulate the abundance of Bacteroidetes in rats’ gut. Since Bacteroidetes can hydrolyze complex carbohydrates to release energy, such as SC- FAs, lean rats, more Bacteroidetes growing in their gut, gained more body weight than the obese ones when they both consumed the same HDF diets. The fluctuations of plasma LPS and leptin individually kept consistent with that of the abundance of Gram-negative bacteria in feces and rats’ BW gain. Hence, Bacteroidetes in gut is the key one to help hosts harvest more energy from HDFs diet.
270 The Important in Nutrition in Pregnancy , Deborah Garida Nunes, Maria Gisele dos Santos
The human being has around 100 trillion cells and of these, 50 billion are renewed daily. Each cell uses numerous nutrients to promote its proper functioning. The promotion of a perfect cellular functioning allows the organs the expected functional execution [1,2]. Medicine has demonstrated in recent centuries the correlation between nutritional imbalances and various diseases associated with them. The relationship between human beings and food dates to antiquity [3,4]. Thus, it is understood that nutrition is essential for the existence of living beings. Nutrition is the science that studies food and nutrients, analyzing its action, interaction and bal - ance related to health and disease [5]. Functional nutrition consolidates genetic, physiological and scientific knowledge, taking into account the emotional and environmental aspects of the human being to promote health in its integral form [6,7]. Here, it is worth mentioning that dietotherapeutic care involves everything from cellular nutrition to stress factors, emotional changes, exposure to pesticides and environmental pollutants [8,9].
271 Disquisitions on the Art of Teaching in the Time of the Coronavirus , Marta Cecilia Palacio Arteaga
Let us begin by saying how since the dawn of humanity man has had to fight against one of the faces of the Grim Reaper, the abso- lute master of death or the giver of tombs, in other words, the real- ity of death or the Tyche, as the philosopher who the Greek tradi- tion names as Aristotle, will call it. The power of death is so sinister that today in the twenty-first century there is enemy presence that, although they are so small that man can only observe it through a microscope, reveals all the art he has to conclude human life: vi- ruses. Many opportunities have proved to be more lethal than the wars and famines suffered by humanity. Viruses that have given rise to vast epidemics that, colloquially, have been named plagues.
272 Impact of an Organic Acid and Calcium Chloride Solution on Minimally Processed Breadfruit Quality , Angélica de Kássia Barbosa Flôr, Thaís Regina Rodrigues Vieira, Edleide Freitas Pires, Daniele S Ribeiro, Maria Inês Sucupira Maciel
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis ) is described as an important food source in the diet of several countries and it is considered a valuable food resource with the potential to positively affect food security in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an organic acid and calcium chloride solution on the physicochemical characteristics of fresh-cut breadfruit. Breadfruit was processed and two groups were separated with and without immersion treatment in a solution containing 2% citric acid, 0.2% ascorbic acid, and 5% calcium chloride. Samples were drained and stored at 6 ° C ± 1 ° C for 15 days. Chemical composition, physi- cal characteristics, bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and microbial behavior were determined every two days. The direct relationship between total phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity of the analyzed samples was observed. Treated samples had higher total phenolic content statistically significant, (p < 0.05), when compared with control samples during the storage time 0 = 350.65 ± 1.89; 3 days = 250.61 ± 1.75; 5 days = 240.11 ± 2.03; 7 days = 150.69 ± 2.68; 10 days = 280.40 ± 1.43; 13 days = 240.87 ± 1.46; 15 days = 350.60 ± 1.64 mg GAE.100 g-1 dry sample. And higher antioxidant activity, (p < 0.05), compared with control samples, for both DPPH. time 0 = 69.34 ± 0.05; 3 days = 50.69 ± 0.07; 5 days = 46.31 ± 0.09; 7 days = 200.36 ± 0.04; 10 days = 83.05 ± 0.06; 13 days = 59.70 ± 0.07; 15 days = 33.33 ± 0.04 EC50 in μg/mL and ABTS+ radicals, at time 0 = 53.98 ± 0.04; 3 days = 54.57 ± 0.05; 5 days = 92.30 ± 0.20; 7 days = 58.59 ± 0.10; 10 days = 82.54 ± 0.03; 13 days = 78.32 ± 0.09; 15 days = 188.60 ± 0.06 μmol Trolox/g sample. It was concluded that the used solution improved the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit, by increasing its phenolic content and antioxidant activity.
273 Ayurvedic Perspective for Covid-19 , Firoj A Tamboli, Vishal H Thorat1, Pritam Kolge, Pranay Ganvir, Ganesh Gophane, Manish Wani
Because the entire globe is suffering from the COVID-19 epidemic, there has been a surge of attention in techniques to increase our immune power and therefore establish the first line of defense against the terrible virus. Therapeutic plants, shrubs, and medi- cines have been recognized for their therapeutic benefits from the classical era. As a result, therapeutic plants and herbs are playing an important role in decreasing the COVID-19 epidemic. It is also essential to eat nutrients in the form of formulations such as Tulsi, Amla, and Cumin, which will help your body fight infections. This study describes how common medicinal plants and herbs interact with COVID-19.
274 Analysis of Antioxidants and its Properties of Vitamins as a Key Source for Human Health , Vora Axita P, Mistry Parth R, Patel Prachi K, Gohel Payal K, Rathod Zalak R, Saraf Meenu S
Antioxidants are one of the most powerful safeguards for our long-term health; they work to protect our bodies from the dam- aging effects of chemicals and free radicals that humans may encounter through normal activities such as breathing or through environmental contaminants such as cigarette smoke or pollutants. Chronic diseases are exacerbated by oxidative stress. Increased antioxidant capacity in the body can help to minimise oxidative stress and prevent or alleviate disease. Some food components and/ or organism-produced vitamins, like vitamin C, E, A and carotenoids, are well-known antioxidants; however, other vitamins with an- tioxidant potential, such as Vitamin K, Vitamin D, Niacin, Pyridoxine, and Riboflavin, are rarely featured. This review includes studies that looked into the antioxidant properties of vitamins, as well as known antioxidants, and their impact on oxidative stress reduction. Further, other vitamins, according to the reviewed studies, have showed antioxidant properties and can help with oxidative stress, such as lipid peroxidation, protein carboxylation, and the reduction of advanced gyrated end-products.
275 A Retrospective Study of 25(OH)D Levels in Children of Different Age, Sex, and Nationality , Afrozul Haq, Jitka Sirohi , Mohammad Imran, William B Grant
Background and Aims: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency—having serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations less than 75 nmol/L (30 ng/mL)—is a common phenomenon worldwide. Regardless of age, vitamin D deficiency is a serious health problem, especially in women and children. Despite plentiful of sunshine, D-deficiency is particularly a major health problem for residents of the Middle Eastern countries. The data presented in this paper are specifically of the juvenile population living in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)—that is, residents younger than 18 years from various countries. Methods: Vitamin D estimation was done by chemiluminescence immunoassay, a quantitative immunoassay method used to de- termine total 25(OH)D in serum on a fully automated analyzer. Currently, the ideal methods for measuring 25(OH)D 3 are based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. This method simultaneously measures 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D 3 . HPLC and mass spectrometry can differentiate between those two forms, yield- ing distinct results for each fraction. Results: Vitamin D deficiency was highly prevalent among children aged 13-18 years living in the United Arab Emirates. Female sex and ethnicity were the variables most commonly associated with vitamin D deficiency. An inverse relationship exists between the level of 25(OH)D and age of juveniles. Among the study groups, UAE nationals have the lowest level of 25(OH)D. The severe deficiency (<25 nmol/L) was most prevalent in UAE national teenage girls aged 13-18 years (51.0%). Conclusion: Among the age, sex, and nationality variables, age was the most important factor associated with serum 25(OH)D lev- els. Levels of serum 25(OH)D were inversely correlated with age in children. Severe vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D < 25 nmol/L] was present in 9.5% of patients aged 1-3 years, 56.4% aged 7-9 years, and 79.9% aged 13-15 years. Therefore, vitamin D deficiency increased with age.
276 Brief Description of the Dietary Supplement "Bapilact" , Tell L, Romankulov E, Lysenkov S
The dietary supplement “Bapilact” is recommended for use for the prevention of intestinal microbiocinosis disorders. It is a di - etary supplement based on Bapol with enhanced prebiotic proper- ties and an inhibitory effect on the pathogenic microflora of the human intestine. It is known that wheat bran is used in the clinic of internal dis- eases in the treatment of various diseases [1,2]. However, wheat bran does not affect the intestinal microflora, and in some patients, it causes unpleasant sensations (bloating, feeling of an overfilled stomach, heartburn, etc.).
277 Respiratory Diseases follow-up based on the Extraction of Plethysmography Signal Parameters , Rene Gonzalez-Fernandez, Jose L Hernandez-Caceres, Jorge G Perez-Blanco
The aim of this paper is to discuss an approach to the monitoring of respiratory diseases based on the combined study of heart rhythm, respiratory rate and pulse oximetry (SpO2). Respiratory diseases can arise from pulmonary, cardiovascular and other causes, and can be fatal. Worldwide, 235 million people have asthma and 64 million suffer from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Dis- ease (COPD). The respiratory system works in coordination with the cardiovascular system and respiratory insufficiencies are com- pensated by an increase in heart rate, which can lead to heart disorders. The combined study of both systems would allow to know accurately how a respiratory patient evolves. A prototype was developed based on the E305654 m'odule, which on-demand delivers SpO2, photoplethysmography signal samples and pulse rate values, and the STM32L073CZTx processor. A vector was computed every thirty minutes; it is composed by respiratory rate, derived from metrics calculated from the plethysmography signal (PPG), the SpO2 mean value and the pulse rate. 10 healthy volunteers and 6 people with COPD, including one suffering COVID-19, and three asthmatics were studied. The dispersion inside each patient ́s group was not significant, but a remarkable difference can be observed between the healthy volunteers and the other studied persons. A “normal region” can be defined with clearly defined frontiers. The proposed solution seems promising to assess respiratory function even when it is compensated by a cardiac response. Keywords: Respiratory Disease Monitoring; Pulse Oximetry; PPG Signal; PPG Derived Respiratory Rate; Analysis of Chronic Obstruc- tive Pulmonary Disease
278 Glycemic and Lipidemic Effect of African Yam Bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) on Dexamethasone-Treated Pregnant Rats , Funmilola Comfort OLADELE, Olayinka Anthony AWOYINKA
This study focused on the glycemic and lipidemic effect of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa) on dexamethasone-treated pregnant rats. Sphenostylis stenocarpa were locally sourced from a market in Ado Ekiti. They were milled into powder and used in formulating feed for experimental animals. Fifteen female pregnant rats were divided in three groups of five each. Animals in group A were exposed to standard animal feed only. This served as the control group. Those in group B were exposed to Spheno- stylis stenocarpa-formulated diet + 0.3 mg/kg body weight of dexamethasone, while those in group C were exposed to Sphenostylis stenocarpa-formulated diet. At the end of eight days treatment, animals were sacrificed and blood sample was collected into EDTA bottles and centrifuged. Plasma was separated and used for the determination of glucose and lipid profile. Treatment of animals with dexamethasone was observed to significantly (p < 0.05) increased the concentration of plasma glucose when compared with the control as well as animals fed with S. stenocarpa-formulated diet only. Animals exposed to dexamethasone were observed to have higher concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) when compared with those in animals in the control group as well as those fed with S. stenocarpa-formulated diet only. The results of this study showed that dexamethasone induced dyslipidemia in treated pregnant rats thus possessing the propensity to induce diabetes, obesity as well as cardiovascular diseases. S. stenocarpa seed on the other hand was observed to favorably regulate plasma glucose and lipid profile of pregnant rats.
279 Cerebral Infarctions in New-borns and Infants: Early Detection of Risk Factors, and Sequelae in Neuroevolutionary Development , Rufo Campos Miguel, Rufo Muñoz Miguel, Rufo Tejeiro Olga
Despite the importance of neonatal infarctions, there are very few relative data in our country, both on their frequency, mortality, major risk factors, as well as their important sequelae. In addition, both its pathophysiology and the associated risk factors are not yet clearly understood and defined. Therefore, we tried to establish the percentages of risk, mortality and sequelae of all neonatal strokes that occurred in a large third-level hospital, especially the risk factors that produce it, to try to predict their recurrence. During a period of 4 years, 53 cases have been collected in which the existence of a recent ischemic-hemorrhagic infarction that occurred during the perinatal period has been demonstrated by neuroimaging a study, making a cut at 30 months of age. Half of the cases were diagnosed within the first month of birth. The predominance was male and the distribution of cerebral ischemic injury was predominantly of the medial cerebral artery and most often in the left cerebral hemisphere Risk factors were primiparity, fetal death, neonatal sepsis, asphyxia, twin pregnancy, placental abruption, emergency caesarean section, Apgar score ≤7 after 5 min, breech presentation and hyperbilirubinemia. The guiding sign to start the etiological search was the existence of a motor deficit and the presence of epileptic seizures. In much lower proportions psychomotor retardation.
280 Extracts of Sweet Potato leaf (Ipomoea Batatas) and Taioba (Xanthosoma Sagittifolium): New Sources of Natural Bioactives for the Food Industry , Gilmar Freire da Costa, Cristiani Viegas Brandão Grisi, Bruno, Raniere Lins de Albuquerque Meireles, Solange de Sousa, Angela Maria Tribuzy de Magalhães Cordeiro
The research was conducted to seek evidence of the potential of sweet potato leaf and taioba ear in the form of natural extracts to use as sources of bioactives in food. The leaf reduced to powder were subjected to a liquid-solid extraction with ethanol: water (80:20, v/v). In the extracts obtained, the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds was performed by High-perfor- mance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity was also analyzed. High-performance liquid chro- matography (HPLC) analysis resulted in the identification of fourteen secondary metabolites for each extract. It was also found that the SPLE has antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values in relation to Bacillus cereus from 500 to 1000 μg/mL and Salmonella Typhimurium from 250 to 1000 μg/mL. Both extracts showed moderate cytotoxic activity against Arte- mia salina with LD50 of 300.4 μg/mL for SPLE and 265.7 μg/mL for TLE. The results obtained indicate that the two extracts can be used for the development of bioactive ingredients with promising applications in food area.
281 A Global “Tug of War”: Increased Longevity Versus Obesity. What to do about it , Alfredo L Fort
After reviewing the accomplishments of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and of the Millen- nium Development Goals (MDG) on key global health and development aspects, we embark on a demographic and epidemiologi - cal comparative analysis of trends on the aging of populations versus the continued rise of obesity and diabetes. We present data spanning 30 to 50 years that unmistakably confirm how progress on medical and living standards in the world have extended life expectancy, including at older ages. However, data also demonstrate how physical inactivity and sedentarism, coupled with inad- equate dieting, are eroding such gains, producing the new phenomena of overweight and obesity, which is occurring at all ages and in all regions of the world. Obesity and diabetes are increasingly associated with cancer and cardiovascular disease, risk factors for premature mortality and critical components in the rise of the burden of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD). We end the discus - sion proposing a few recommendations, from addressing the issues globally as part of health and well-being in the new Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), to countries enacting policies to educate their population on proper dieting and exercise, create gyms and sport centers in urban areas, and legislation for workplaces to allow physical activity among workers, while restricting and taxing sugary and processed drinks and foods. These timely actions should release the current tug-of-war between Longevity and Obesity, and align future modern lifestyle with quality of life in older ages. Keywords: Life Expectancy; Longevity; Obesity; Physical Inactivity; Poor Diet; Sedentarism
282 Kinematic Analysis of Gait of Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Longitudinal Study) , Paloma Nepomuceno Araujo, Paulo Fernando Lôbo Correa, Denise Sisterolli Diniz, Jakeline Ferreira de Araújo Lôbo
Introduction: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a terminal neurodegenerative, progressive and paralytic disease that occurs due to the degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons. Survival is 3 to 5 years and the peak of the disease occurs between 65 and 75 years, being more prevalent in Caucasian men. The quality of life of affected individuals is mainly compromised by reduced mobility and ability to perform daily life activities, such as gait. Keywords: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; March; Kinematics Introduction Objective: The objective of this stucco was to evaluate the gait performance of individuals with ASS, without the use of aid devices, through the analysis of kinematic parameters. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive and laboratory study, in which we analyzed the kinematic gait parameters of pa- tients with ALS, such as inclination, oblinetity and pelvis rotation; flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and hip rotation; flexion, extension, abduction and knee adduction; and plantar flexion, dorsal flexion and bearings ankle. The study included adult patients with confirmed diagnosis of ASS, both genders, ages 18 to 80 years, living in the state of Goiás and who were able to march indepen- dently without the use of auxiliary devices. For each patient, five gait captures were performed and the mean of the five collections was used for analysis. The kinematic parameters were evaluated by 10 infrared cameras and 2 video cameras. Results and Discussion: In kinematic analysis, there was changes in all joints, with greater frequency in the ankle and pelvis compo- nent. The scarcity of materials that analyzed the kinematics of EDS made it difficult to discuss a comparative discussion. Conclusion: The presence of kinematic gait alterations of patients with ALS with great heterogeneity in the kinematic components was observed
283 Breastfeeding Practices and Childhood Nutritional Outcomes in Rural India , Robert W Buckingham, Renata Ferretti
Objective: To investigate the factors in relation to childhood nutritional outcomes and breastfeeding practices in rural and urban India. Keywords: Breastfeeding; Breastfeeding Practices; Infants; India; Nutrition; Children Introduction Methods: The research was conducted through a literary review of various public health interventions and research exclusive to breastfeeding, maternal nutrition, and child nutrition outcomes in India. Results : There were several factors related to childhood malnutrition and the termination of exclusive breastfeeding in regard to the mothers rural and urban setting. Conclusion: Childhood malnutrition can be directly linked to the termination of exclusive breastfeeding practices and a shortened duration of breastfeeding. There are several varying factors that impact breastfeeding rates and maternal nutritional including: ma- ternal autonomy, gender of the child, age of the mother, socio-economic status of the mother, and the current lacking Indian health- care infrastructure. Interventions based on the rural and urban areas will contribute to the reduction of child mortality and increas- ing exclusive breastfeeding rates.
284 Acacia gums and Adansonia digitata pulp Nutritional Value: Formulation Potential from Biotechnological Approach , Ahmed A. M. Elnour
Background: The human innate immune system (HIIs) prevents the host from being infected by pathogenic organisms, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi. This defense mechanism of the HIIs can be augmented by an increased metabolism level, which requires energy sources and substrates derived from food. Aim: This pioneer study investigates the nutritional values (NVs) of an optimum blended formula (5:3:2 grams) of Acacia gums (AGs) (composed of Acacia seyal gum and Acacia sengal gum) and Adansonia digitata L pulp (ADLPs) respectively, to evaluate their NVs for supporting the HIIs of infected COVID-19 patients, especially those associated with metabolic syndrom (Met-S) diseases. Methods: The study's main objective is to develop an optimal formula using a specific combination of AGs and ADLPs based on their NVs. The NVs, including moisture, ash, minerals, protein, amino acids (AAs), carbohydrates, sugars, prebiotic polysaccharides, energy, dietary fibers (DFs), and crude fibers, were investigated using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results: As a result, the mineral level of the (3in1) blend, which comprises (AGs and ADLPs), was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) dominated by K(70.56±2.35), Ca(68.54±3.12), Na(31.4±4.8), Zn (19.19±2.10), Fe(19±0.14), Mg(16.60±4.8), Cu(15.12±1.81), P(11.50±2.50), and Se(0.037±0.005)g/100gDW. The (3in1) blend had a higher hydroxyproline content of 30.17g/100g for the (3in1) blend compared to the AGs (2in1) blend. The blended formula's total protein content was 3.34 ± 0.121% significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher. Moreover, carbohydrates (CHOs) were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher in the (3in1) blend compared to the AGs (2in1) blend. The major reduc- ing sugar constituents were arabinose (48.23 and 49.97g/100gDW) for the the (2in1) and (3in1) blend, respectively. Interestingly, the prebiotic polysaccharide was 88.61 ± 3.121 g/100gDW for the (3in1) blend, which is (p ≤ 0.05) higher compared to 84.00 ± 2.15 g/100gDW for the AGs (2in1) blend. The energy value for the (3in1) blend was 350.12 ± 5.210 kcal/100g, significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than the 340.67 ± 3.155 Kcal/100g for AGs. The dietary fibers (DFs) were 12.62 ± 2.10g/100gDW as insoluble dietary fibers (IDFs) and 87 ± 2.124g/100gDW as soluble dietary fibers (SDFs) for the (3in1) blend, which is significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different com- pared to 1.865 ± 0.005g/100gDW of IDFs and 84 ± 30.45g/100gDW of SDFs for the AGs (2in1) blend. Conclusion: Finally, we conclude that AGs with ADLPs have an effective molecular structure that may have strengthened HIIs against the Covid-19 pandemic. This suggests the potential beneficial use of AGs blended with ADLPs as a natural antiviral agent.
285 Effects of Breakfast on Cognitive Function of Children , Simran Kaur Arora
In the present review article, importance of breakfast for the functioning of child’s brain, his intelligence as reflected through vari- ous tests based on memory, mathematical or visual ability and verbal fluency has been discussed. Breakfast and no-breakfast condi- tions can affect the mental abilities of children. Many schools run programs to provide meal to kids. Type and quality of breakfast can influence the child’s performance and intelligence. There could be varied reasons due to which a healthy child may skip his breakfast, however, the effects of including breakfast are more pronounced for the children who are nutritionally at-risk or malnourished. In such cases, provision of breakfast help bring improvement in performance.
286 Rice Consumption Enhancing Innate Immunity with a Reduced Risk of COVID-19 Infection and Mortality , Shaw Watanabe, Kazumoto Iinuma
Incidence and mortality of COVID-19 varied significantly by country. No clear hypothesis has been proposed to explain such an enormous difference. We found that annual rice consumption by country inversely correlated well to the cumulative number of COVID-19/million by compiling data from 17 major countries of G20. The negative correlation coefficient was 0.74, while wheat con- sumption showed a positive correlation. It suggested that the nature of staple foods supported primary resistance to SARS-CoV-2 in- fection. Early resistance to developing COVID-19 pneumonia would be cellular immunity and curable inflammation. Parallel increase of antibodies helped to eradicate pathogenic viruses. Pathologically, two plausible factors were sIgA, which mechanically blocked the virus from binding to the ACE2 receptor. Another factor was suppressing cytokine storm by regulatory T cells expanded by butyrate from intestinal microbiota. The gut environment based upon the rice eating habit seemed essential to support a stable immune system byT17/Treg balance. Long rice-eating practices contributed to producing a secretary piece of IgA and growing particular microbiota composition, which had produced butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids, influencing various physiological functions. Rice eating would be the "X factor" by building solid innate immunity. However, different cultural habits, such as bowing etiquette, wearing face masks, and hand- washing with sanitizing equipment, also suppress SARC-Co-2 infection. The suppressive action of the X-factor continued regardless of the different variants of SARS-Co-2. infection. The recent pandemic of Omicron seems to attenuate to habituate in human society as suggested from the historical aspect.
287 Comparative Characteristics of the Mineral Composition of the Meat of the Black Sea Grass Shrimp Palaemon Adspersus, Rathke, 1837 in Different Fishing Periods , Lebskaya Tatyana Konstantinovna, Bal-Prilipko Larisa Vatslavovna, Lebsky Sergey Olegovich, Slobodyanyuk Natalia Mikhailovna
The nutritional value of the mineral composition of the meat of one of the species of crustaceans of the Black Sea-Palaemon adspersus Rathke, 1837 in the spring and autumn periods of fishing-has been studied. Essential mineral elements. Calcium (Ca) Potassium (K), Sodium (Na) Magnesium (Mg), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), Lithium (Li), Little Studied (Silver (Ag), Aluminum (Al), Barium (Va), Boron (B), Bismuth (Bi), As Well as Toxic (Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Swine c (Pb), Mercury (Hg).. The level of most mineral elements in the meat of this crustacean is lower than the physiological needs for an adult, with the exception of Cu, Cr, Ni and Al. Their amount significantly exceeds the recommended values for humans, however substantially below the toxicity threshold. The content of heavy metal in the meat of Palaemon adspersus Rathke, 1837 during catch periods does not exceed the permissible norms.
288 Application Conference Matrices for Parameter Design , Teruo Mori ,Soichiro Tanabe2, Yoshiyuki Iwanaga , Izuru Sadamatsu, Takekazu Yamamoto, Yuji Matsuoka, Munetoshi Noda, Shun Sato, Tetsuya Sato , Yoshiyuki Ukai
When optimizing using an orthogonal array, it is desirable to consider the various relationships between factors and assign many factors. Two-level orthogonal array can be assigned many factors. Three-level orthogonal array has the advantage of obtaining in- termediate information on the level. For this reason, mixed type orthogonal arrays L18 (2137), L36 (211313) [1,2], etc are still used today. The response of these mixed typed orthogonal arrays is logarithmically converted to the SN ratio and sensitivity for optimiza- tion. This way also is called Taguchi methods [1]. Parameter design with a two-step procedure for predicting the optimum conditions is performed from this SN ratio and sensitiv- ity with factor effect graph. However, this method has two problems (1) and (2). (1): The number of experiments will be increased proportional to the number of layout factors in the mixed type orthogonal array. (2): In the first step of reducing the variation, select the combination of the levels that maximum levels the SN ratio of the factor effect graph as the optimum condition. The confirmation value (b) had been expected as the optimum condition with minimized the variation. But, there are the problem that this confirmation value (b) is worse than the best value (a) of the SN ratio of the orthogonal array used for estimation" will be appeared for 62% of cases [3,4]. So, the prediction accuracy for the optimum conditions are poor. In order to improve these problems (1) and (2), this paper report will propose a new method to apply the conference matrix to the layout and the coefficient figure to the analysis to the row data. This report provides an easy-to-understand explanation that the conference matrix [5-11] reduces the number of experiments and improves prediction accuracy using the Coefficient of variation, especially for researchers. We are sure our proposed ways to reduce the experimental number and the period and cost almost to 1/3~1/2 with the higher accuracy for optimizing, so we will recommend as the specific ways to solve the subjects of the Sustainable Development Goals. Es- pecially it will contribute to create the effective countermeasures to Global Warning that has been requested immediately to take the actions to reduce the increasing temperature. Keywords: Optimizing; Mixed Type Orthogonal Array; Conference Matrices; Coefficient Of Variation; Coefficient Graph; Regression Analysis; Taguchi Methods; Global Warning; Sustainable Development Goals
289 Vitamin, Mineral and Dietary Supplement Use of Adults Before and After Covıd-19 Period , Olcay Eminsoy I, Eminsoy MG, Erdal R
Introduction: Coronavirus (Covid-19) is a pandemic, affecting lifestyle, healthcare system, national and worldwide economy. Along with social isolation, we are experiencing the physiological and psychological effects of Covid-19. The immune system can be strengthened by differentiating dietary habits. Method: The study was distributed over social media through a questionnaire consisting of 29 questions prepared with Google forms between September 2020 and January 2021. In this study, the pre-Covid-19 period is defined as the period until 31.12.2019, and the post-Covid-19 period is defined as the period after 01.01.2020. Results: The individuals participating in the study were 84.9% women and 15.1% men. The average age of the women, men and all the participants in order were 32.2 ± 11.03, 38.1 ± 11.09 and 33.2 ± 11.20 years. The use of supplementation by individuals has increased during the Covid-19 period. The reason ‘increase immunity’ for using mineral, vitamin and nutrition support in order was 34.1%, 40.4% and 39.7% after Covid-19. While vitamin C was never used before Covid-19, it was determined that the use of some vitamins and nutritional supplements, especially vitamin C, increased. Discussion: Vitamin C deficiency impairs immune function and increases susceptibility to infections. People with low vitamin C sta- tus might benefit more from vitamin C supplementation than those who already obtain sufficient vitamin C In this study, there was a great increase for taking vitamin C. The participants began to use vitamin C for increase the immune system, and participants began using vitamin with the healthcare professional advice after Covid-19. Participants used vitamin C without knowing their vitamin level. Conclusion: However, scientific evidence regarding the prevention of chronic diseases by routine use of micronutrients is insuffi- cient, it has been seen that participants decided to use supplementations with but especially without healthcare professional advice.
290 Underlying Reasons of Christians’ Reluctance to Adopt a Healthy Lifestyle at Senga Seventh-Day Adventists Church in Gweru - Zimbabwe , Sophonie Ndahayo, Monique Mukanyandwi, Michel M Mutabazi
The purpose of this descriptive study was to establish underlying reasons of respondents’ reluctance to adopt a healthy lifestyle at Senga SDA Church in Zimbabwe. A sample of 41 members filled in a structured questionnaire which was used to collect data. Data were analysed statistically using SPSS 16.0 to identify descriptive information of the results. Findings showed that while members (87.80%) expected leaders to be role models even in the adoption of a healthy lifestyle, leaders did not consider themselves charis- matic. It was recommended that further studies with larger samples for generalisation of results are necessary.
291 Gastrostomy in the Complex of Measures for Enteral Nutrition , Bondarenko SB, Valiev RU, Vrublevskiy SG, Dogadov Eduard A
The analysis of the results endoscopically assisted puncture gastrostomy in children undergoing long-term tube feeding, based on 224 cases of installation gastrostomies. Advantages and disadvantages of the two basic techniques puncture gastrostomy. Explain the approaches to the choice of the operating tactics in patients with altered anatomy in the background of comorbidity. Identified contraindications to the use of this technique
292 Chemical Profile of the Leaves from Morus alba L. Using GC-MS , José González, Enrique Gómez, Julio C Pérez, Max Monan, Frantz François-Haugrin
Using different extraction solvents, a preliminary chemical profile of the leaves from Morus alba L. that grow in Cuba was done. Chromatographic characterization after extraction with Ethyl Acetate, Hexane, Ethanol at 30%, EtOH 50% and EtOH 80% from three section of the leaves (low, middle, high) by GCMS-QP 2010 Ultra Shimadzu were matched with NIST libraries after samples de- rivatization. Higher amount of chemical components was get by the extraction with hexane, while the lowest was with EtOH at 30%. Rotenone, a flavonoid that belongs to Rotenoids subgroup was detected only five times into the extracts.
293 An Assessment of Cassava Post-Harvest Losses (PHL) in South-West Nigeria: A Case Study of Oyo-State, Nigeria , Ayedun Bamikole, Abdoulaye Tahirou, Okechukwu Richardson
The paper is on an assessment of cassava post-harvest losses (PHL) in South-West Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 150 farming households for interview on their experiences on post-harvest losses on cassava production and process- ing. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and econometric models where necessary. The average percentage post-harvest loss of the harvested cassava was 13% with 96% of farmers indicated experiencing PHL from harvesting to marketing. Improved varieties experience more losses (75%) than local varieties (25%). Losses based on seasons show that more cassava were lost in dry season (61.4%) compare to rainy season (38.6%). The highest PHL was from gari processing and the percentage of house- holds that have processing equipment was low but accessibility was high. Data from the field was modeled using Tobit regression model to determine factors influencing PHL among cassava farmers. Results show that being a female farmer/household head (P < 0.01), years of membership of association (P < 0.05), higher dependency ratio (P < 0.01), use of local cassava stem (P < 0.05) and having non-farm occupation (P < 0.05) reduced the probability and intensity of PHL significantly. The result shows that the higher the number of members of household (P < 0.01) used for farming activities the more the PHL. Factors influencing post-harvest losses among farmers that processed cassava tuber to other products were determined using Tobit model. The dependent variable was the percentage of cassava tuber reserved for processing lost during processing. The Tobit model result revealed that married households incurred more PHL (P < 0.1) than single ones, access and obtaining credit (P < 0.05) and the percentage of annual cas- sava root processed (P < 0.01) were positively correlated with PHL. Belonging to an association (P < 0.05) and use of family labour (P < 0.01), being a member of association (P < 0.05) were negatively and significantly relayed to PHL. In regard to types of products processed by farmers, only fufu and starch processing had tendency to reduce PHL although not significantly correlated. In another vein, processing of garri and lafun (cassava powder) had tendency of increasing PHL. In case of lafun, the tendency was significant (p < 0.01). The study considered the use of siever, knife_peeler, grater and presser machines; all the equipment except presser (signifi- cant at P < 0.1) had tendency to increase PHL. Use of knife for peeling cassava (P < 0.01) significantly increased PHL. Stakeholders should consider those factors influencing post-harvest losses under production, and adapt it to curb PHL where necessary. Extension agents should consider the three stages of production function and pass it on to farmers on how to employ resources in an optimal way. There is also seasonal variation in PHL, measures to reduce PHL during dry season should be considered and researchers along with extension institutions should work on improved cassava varieties with durable ability not to spoil after maturity, not just having higher yield. On processing, there are now processing machines like mechanical peelers that can be used to reduce PHL, Ministry of Agriculture can assist farmers both at federal and state levels to assist farmers in acquiring them or assisting them through subsidy. Better measures of producing cassava products should be considered as to reduce wastage during their processing.
294 An Introduction to Food Adulteration and Testing- A Preliminary Study , Pinal K Dave
Food is adulterated to improve the quantity and make more profit of any commercial product. The food is sucked of its nutrients and the place where the food is grown is often contaminated. For an instance: Milk is mixed with water, Vanaspati is used as an adulterant for ghee. Ergot is used as an adulterant for cereals. Chalk-powder is used as an adulterant for flour. Chicory is used as an adulterant for coffee. Papaya seeds is used as an adulterant for pepper. Brick-powder is used as an adulterant for chilly-powder, tamarind seed powder is used as adulterant for coffee, wood powder is adulterated for turmeric and dhaniya powder. In the study we have checked some of the common food substances from the local market e.g., salt, turmeric, chilli, milk, honey etc. It was observed in this preliminary study, that some of the spices and sweetening agents of the local market was adulterated as compared to than that of the sealed packed branded one. Adulterated products are dangerous to health of any living organism the customer caution and action can help to improve the situation. However, such efforts are not productive except consumers themselves are aware of their privileges and duties. Under these conditions, consumer literacy is the need of the hour with special attention to low income groups who suffer the most.
295 A Socio- Demographic Profile and a Pattern of Drug Abuse among Youths in Haridwar District, Uttarakhand, India , Ashruti Bhatt, Akanksha Singh, Sonam Bhatia, Piyush Ranjan Singh
This is preliminary study of socio-demographic distinctiveness and pattern of drug abuse in holy city Haridwar in northern India. Clinico-statistical examination of 296 drug users among various respondents in Haridwar district from 1stJanuary to 31stMarch 2019 in an Opium Substitution therapy (O.S.T) Centre was performed based on predesigned and structured interview schedule for data collection. In present study, it was observed that majority of drug abusers were from lower socio- economic class; 34.8% respon- dents aged between 20 - 25 years of age; 99% were male; 67.9% belonged from a nuclear family. In terms of education, major drug abusers (34.5%) were educated up to higher secondary. Out of the total respondents, 73.3%were residing in urban area and among drug abusers 41.6% are financially part-time employed; have the average monthly income of 10,000. Among abusers population alcohol intake was found to be highest (20%) followed by abuse by cannabis products (18%). The main objective of this study was to monitor the effects of Socio-economic status (SEC) on the prevalence of drug abusers during that time. The study revealed that re- spondents with different (SEC) background approached drug consumption depending upon their financial status; respondents with lower SEC were found to be abusing drugs which are majorly seen to be varying among youths. Drug user’s prevalence also altered with the geographical aspect and the educational qualification of the individual.
296 Mechanism and Ways of Transmission and Source of Appearance of Coronavirus Strains , Evgeny Bryndin
The mechanism of transmission of infection is a way of moving an infectious agent from an infected organism to a susceptible one. Each infectious disease has its own characteristic pathway of pathogen transmission, which was formed during evolution to preserve the pathogen as a species. The mechanism of pathogen transmission includes three phases: excretion of the pathogen from the host organism into the environment, presence of the pathogen in the environment, introduction of the pathogen into a new susceptible organism. The main mechanism for transmitting coronavirus infection is air-droplet (or air-dust), in which the pathogens are local- ized in the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract and transferred to the new body through the air. In this transmission path, the pathogen enters the external environment during sneezing and coughing with liquid drops and is introduced into the human body when inhaling air containing infected particles. If the particles are small, they are for some time in the air in the form of an aerosol (drops suspended in the air), and if the particles are larger, then they settle on various surfaces at a distance of up to two meters around the sick person. Very often these are frequent items: door handles, handrails in transport, mobile phones, etc. Touching his face, a person puts the virus on the mucous membranes of the nose, mouth, eye.
297 Impact of the Life Reform Program On the Prevention of Liver Steatosis in Teachers from the City of Chachapoyas , Manuel Jesús Quispe Narváez
The objective was to evaluate the impact of the life reform program in the prevention of hepatic steatosis in teachers and ad- ministrators of this population. The approach was quantitative, quasi - experimental methodology with a single group with pre and post test, with a representative sample of 64 teachers from regular basic level educational institutions in the city of Chachapoyas Amazonas network. The results revealed that the life reform program showed a decrease in the levels of hepatic steatosis, which is why its affinity in preventing it is inferred; in the teachers of the three educational institutions of the City of Chachapoyas, Amazonas - Peru: San Juan de la Libertad (P = 0.006), Seminario Jesús María (P = 0.01) and Virgen de Asunta (P = 0.01) with a 95% confidence, denoting the changes before and after the intervention. It concludes with the proposal of the Rainbow Cosmic Care Theory, which integrates a collaborative, multidisciplinary work of sectorial gear to achieve integral human health with a healthy environment in these times.
298 The Complete Art of Meditation , Edward F Block
This will be a complete departure from all of the previous infor- mation relagated to what is called as Meditation. This will be simply because nowhere before has the information divulged at this time ever been offered for dissemination in its present form. None of this information is “secret”, it very simply has never before been pack - aged/presented together as it will at this time. The diverse informa- tion being presented here within these pages is being done so in a very unique and never before done so manner. This is simply be- cause no other person has to date been able to identify, understand and interpret what is happening within the human body with re- gard to the components involved. These seemingly disparate com- ponents will be viewed to readily mesh and completely complement each other. The entire point of meditation is in fact simply to learn to be able to bring the entire Enteric Nervous System (ENS) under conscious volition! Enjoy!
299 Main Dream Theories and their Involvement in Psychological and Medical Clinics: A Need to Rethink the Function of Dreams? , Romuald Stone Mbangmou , Martial Aime Wakeu, Marguerite Rose Ngeukeu
The dream is a complex mental function and would even be the most complex according to several authors. Since the construction of the Freudian theory of dreams, several dreamlike theories have emerged, and until today, several are on offer. Except that, most of these theories explain only one aspect of the dreamlike phenomenon, colliding with others. For example, the Freudian psychoanalytic theory will explain the part of repressed desires in the dream but will not be able to explain why the child begins to dream before he is even born, yet he does not yet have a recorded traumatogen experience. In this article, we set out to present the main theories and research on dreaming, and their contribution to clinical practice, in order to show the need for scientists to develop a global theory of the dream process, including all phases of sleep.
300 Nutrition Recommendations for A Stage in Altitude , Sergio Díez Rodríguez
Altitude training is a common practice for elite endurance ath- letes. Usually, athletes do altitude training several times during the season, in 2-4-week stages. Altitude training (1600-2400 metres) is a method to improve performance that appeared for the first time at 1968 Olympic Games. Under those circumstances athletes suffer hypoxia, that leads to a bunch of compensatory mechanisms that can help athletes to improve his performance in future com- petitions. The most important mechanism is the EPO mediated in- crease in red blood cells number. Athletes increase their training load in this period and it ́s obvious that nutritional requirements are going to change as well, and maybe adapt your nutrition before the stage starts could be a useful strategy.
301 Diagnostics and Assessment of Salt Resistance of Tomato Varieties and Hybrids in The Republic of Karakalpakstan , DE Madreyimova, SI Dusmuratova
Growing tomatoes and obtaining high yields is associated with the use of varieties and hybrids resistant to stress conditions. Researches on the diagnosis of salt tolerance of 7 varieties and 3 hybrids of tomato by the method of germination in salt solutions of various concentrations were carried out in the Republic of Karakalpakstan. The following variants were tested: dry seeds (control 1); - seeds soaked in water (control 2); - seeds soaked in solutions: 0.3% NaCl; - 0.5% NaCl; - 0.7% NaCl; - 1.0% NaCl; - 0.3% Na2SO4; - 0.5% Na2SO4; - 0.7% Na2SO4; - 1.0% Na2SO4. The tested varieties and hybrids of tomato turned out to be relatively resistant to chloride and sulfate salinization at the lowest concentrations (0.3%). A further increase in the concentration of salt solutions (from 0.5 to 1.0%) negatively affected the sow- ing qualities of seeds. The most resistant among the studied varieties and hybrids were varieties Volgogradsky 5/95; TMK-22; Rio Grande and Novichok, hybrids Solerosso F1, Tristar F1 and Sultan F1.
302 Nutrition in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease , Popovska Hristina, Petrov Igor, Kiteva-Trencevska G, Popovski Neron
The topic of nutrition in patients with Parkison’s disease has been investigated over the past years. There are some known recom- mendations that should be preferred in these patients. This refers to nutritients that should be taken during the everyday living, as well as the nutritional habits that will help to overcome the gastrointestinal issues that these patients are facing with.
303 Optimization of Drying Conditions of Eruca Vesicaria Leaves and Study of Their Effects on Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity Using Response Surface Methodology , Saoussen Bouacida, Ahmed Snoussi, Hayet Ben Haj Koubaier, Ismahen Essaidi, Mohamed Aroua, Nabiha Bouzouita
In this study, the optimization of Eruca verisacira leaves drying parameters and study of their effects on total phenols content (TPC), total flavonoids content (TFC) and antioxydant activity tested by DPPH essay and ABTS essay were realized. An experimental design was formulated using the Design-Expert software (version with 23 factorial designs. eleven experiments were real- ized, and data and results were analyzed using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The analysis of variance shows a significant linear effect of drying time and heat treatment on total phenols content and total flavonoids content. It's shows that the increase in the duration and temperature of the heat treatment can allow a better quantification of the phenolic compounds. Results indicate a significant negative linear effect of temperature on the antioxidant activity of the extracts. This shows that antioxidant activity in- creases with temperature. Results showed a negative and significant linear effect of Time/Temperature interaction for the antiradical activity on DPPH and ABTS + . Knowing that the effect of time is not significant, the effect of the interaction of the two parameters follows the trend of the results of the effect of temperature. The optimal heat treatment conditions (100°C for 30 min), selected by the Design-Expert statistical software, present the best desirability value of around 0.77. The conformity of the experimental values with those predicted by the mathematical models confirms the choice of the optimum 100°C for 30 min.
304 The Consumption of Omega-3 as Part of the Treatment and Prevention of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) , Jacqueline Valenzuela Rangel, Itzel Cabrera Yepez, Dra María, Montserrat López Ortíz
It is common to hear about the liver, and how this organ can easily get sick or damaged by excessive alcohol consumption. How- ever, there is a condition that is not necessarily related to alcohol intake, this is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and it can be prevented or modified in its early stages of evolution [1].
305 “Delta Variant and Omicron”: Viewing COVID-19 Pandemics Through the Lens of History and Our Daily Lives , Aisha Ansari
Scientific names for recent pandemics, Coronavirus COVID-19, Omicron variants, and Delta viruses require much classification, contemplation, research, and reflection. Coronavirus pandemic and scientific terms are of Greek origins, like Alpha and Omega. With such implications, much of this discussion will center around these word origins and how they play a role in history and our daily lives. Analysis in history and our daily lives will include global effects on food security and family life.
306 Foreign Experience of Government Policy Rural Sustainable Development , AS Shcherbakova
The article describes the successful foreign experience in the development of rural areas. In advanced economies, rural devel- opment is the main goal of regional policy. In advanced economies, much attention paid to sustainable rural development, where regional policy is an integral part. The state policy of rural development of the countries of the European Union been investigated.The main tools for sustainable development of rural areas in the form of strategies and programs are considered. It revealed that the adopted documents do not solve the complex problems of sustainable rural development. State programs for the development of rural areas are practically not coordinated. A significant backlog of state = support for Russian agriculture from foreign countries been established. Sustainable rural development will require the creation of a special body at the level of the Federation and regions. The experience of creating management structures in Finland and Canada is very valuable for the northern territories of Russia.
307 Genetic and Factory Factors About the Variation in the Production of Leche from a Double Proposition , Miguel A Rojas, Audrey Torres, Manuel G Gómez, Carlos Lucena, Gonzalo E Martínez, Gilberto A Pérez
Obtain bovines that express adaptability and efficient productions in tropical environments, is the object in double proposition gauging investigations. Finally, to evaluate the genetic and non-genetic effects that affect the variation in leche production in double proposal vacuums, 3722 analyzed lactose flies were analyzed in 244 days (P244) of 1334 vacancies, belonging to a finica ubicada in La Ceiba, Trujillo State. Model I, allowed to evaluate the non-genetic and genetic effects affecting the P244 variation, establishes as ef-fective effects: month of party (MP), year of party (AP), share of party (EP), number of parties (NP) ) and racial group (GR) and como effects: padre, madre de la vaca y residual, are evaluating and working on an analysis of variance using the mixed model methodology of the SAS® statistical package. Model II determines the components of (co) variance, genetic and non-genetic parameters, using a unified animal model with the conjunction of MTDFREML programs. Considering the effective effects, those that result in significant results (P < 0.05) of model I: (AP), (EP), (NP) and (GR). Considered as powerful effects: the animal, the permanent atmosphere of the vaca and the error. If we estimate the additive genetic variance (σ2a), proportions of the total phenotypic variance (σ2F), it calculates the permanent ambient variance of the vaca (σ2Ap), residual variance (e2), index of herence (h2) and coefficient of repetition. For P244 the adjusted weight of 1562.26 ± 150.06 kg. All effective effects result significantly (P < 0.05), excluding the part of the part. Estimates of the univariate model of σ2a, σ2Ap, e2, σ2F, h2 and ri for P244 fueron: 55970; 101127; 118896; 275993; 0.20 and 0.56, respectively. P244 is highly affected by environmental and genetic factors.
308 Genetic and Factory Factors About the Variation in the Production of Leche from a Double Proposition , Miguel A Rojas, Audrey Torres, Manuel G Gómez, Carlos Lucena, Gonzalo E Martínez Gilberto A Pérez
Obtain bovines that express adaptability and efficient productions in tropical environments, is the object in double proposition gauging investigations. Finally, to evaluate the genetic and non-genetic effects that affect the variation in leche production in double proposal vacuums, 3722 analyzed lactose flies were analyzed in 244 days (P244) of 1334 vacancies, belonging to a finica ubicada in La Ceiba, Trujillo State. Model I, allowed to evaluate the non-genetic and genetic effects affecting the P244 variation, establishes as ef- fective effects: month of party (MP), year of party (AP), share of party (EP), number of parties (NP) ) and racial group (GR) and como effects: padre, madre de la vaca y residual, are evaluating and working on an analysis of variance using the mixed model methodology of the SAS® statistical package. Model II determines the components of (co) variance, genetic and non-genetic parameters, using a unified animal model with the conjunction of MTDFREML programs. Considering the effective effects, those that result in significant results (P < 0.05) of model I: (AP), (EP), (NP) and (GR). Considered as powerful effects: the animal, the permanent atmosphere of the vaca and the error. If we estimate the additive genetic variance (σ2a), proportions of the total phenotypic variance (σ2F), it calculates the permanent ambient variance of the vaca (σ2Ap), residual variance (e2), index of herence (h2) and coefficient of repetition. For P244 the adjusted weight of 1562.26 ± 150.06 kg. All effective effects result significantly (P < 0.05), excluding the part of the part. Estimates of the univariate model of σ2a, σ2Ap, e2, σ2F, h2 and ri for P244 fueron: 55970; 101127; 118896; 275993; 0.20 and 0.56, respectively. P244 is highly affected by environmental and genetic factors.
309 Self-Pollinating Crop Isolation Techniques for Micro Scale Gardeners with Limited Access to Arable Land. A Mini Review , Szymon Wojciech Lara, Amalia Tsiami, Philippa Ryan
Aims and objectives: The aim of this review is to shortlist and present the most popular crop-isolation techniques for micro-scale gardeners. This will be fulfilled through a mini scoping review of existing literature across academic, professional journals, and grey literature databases. Introduction: Crop isolation is extremely important in seed saving, especially when growing orphan or landrace varieties of plants. Guidance literature on this matter exists, however, it is mainly orientated around crop isolation for large scale entities/farms and gardeners growing easily crossbreeding food crops. Much less attention is given to micro scale gardeners that try to pursue garden crop cultivation. There is hardly any evidence for crop isolation techniques for self-pollinating plants as those do not require much attention due to their self-fertility properties. Nevertheless, micro scale gardeners have limited access to resources like space, and this increases the chances of producing breed untrue seeds, even from self-fertile varieties of garden crops. Inclusion Criteria: This review included academic and non-academic (grey) literature written on or around the topic of crop isolation, with a focus on self-pollinating plants. Methods: The literature search was conducted electronically on the following academic data bases: (1) Science Direct, (2) Emerald Insight, (3) ProQuest, (4) PubMed and (5) Google Scholar. Additional search was conducted using an electronic institutional database/ library called Summon Search Engine, with access provided on behalf of the University of West London. Results: The results indicated that distance isolation is the best technique for minimising cross pollination. In self-pollinating plants, the distance should exceed a minimum of 3 meters. Other techniques like mechanical isolation through blossom bags and insect proof mesh also exist, especially for those that can penetrate the enclosed blossom dome and cross contaminate with foreign pollen. Time isolation is rather difficult to achieve, especially for annual garden crops. Conclusion: The main issues for pollen cross contamination arises from the lack of arable space amongst micro scale gardeners and allotment holders. It would be advisable not to cultivate multiple varieties in one garden, especially if trying to produce breed true seeds. Although, some of the outlined measures could be applied to minimise the risks involved
310 An Update on Etiology of Chronic Kidney Disease with Role of Associated Vitamin K Deficiency in Prevention of Vascular Calcification and Cardiovascular Risks and Avoid Mortality: A Minireview , Kulvinder Kochar Kaur, Gautam Allahbadia, Mandeep Singh
Vitamin K possesses numerous significant role in human health. More recently researchers have a established that healthy diet consumption possessing good fats, Vitamins, minerals, polyphenolics possesses anti-inflammatory actions can act in antiaging role. Earlier the belief was that Vitamin K acts basically as an anticoagulant, besides part in calcium homeostasis. Having reviewed the etiology in chronic kidney disease (CKD), Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD)with those patients presenting with DKD- CKD or end stage renal Disease (ESRD), in addition to details of associated Vascular calcification, acute kidney injury here we tried to further update knowledge regarding role of Vitamin K deficit in deterioration of CKD in particular the ones associated with Vascular calcification (VC). Vitamin K plays a significant role as a co- factor in transformation of glutamate to Gla. This has a significance in hampering of VC. CKD patients both on dialysis as well as not on dialysis generally possess Vitamin K deficiency. Enhancement of uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein [MGP] (uc MGP) indirectly points to Vitamin K deficiency as well as correlated with a greater chance of generation of the cardiovascular processes. It has been pointed that greater Vitamin K consumption might cause avoidance of development of VC, besides reduction in CV risk. Thus we did a minireview utilizing the search engine pubmed, google scholar and other sutilizing the MeSH terms like DKD; CKD; Vitamin K ; Growth arrest specific protein 6 (Gas6); VC; hemodialysis (HD) patients from 2000 till date in 2022. We found s total of 65 articles with regards to CKD, Vitamin K, out of which we chose50 articles for this minireview. Despite all the research till date role of supplementation of Vitamin K with dosage, kinds still not clear that is varying from country to country as well as source VK1 or2. Still greater large RCTs are required to settle that query.
311 Analysis of Concentration of Sodium, Sodium, Sweets and Cinds in Commercialized Isons in the Goodness of Governor Valadares - Minas Gerais , Anne christine amaral ferreira, Jaéle kécia do carmo e silva, Sarah Pereira of Macedo1, Yasmim Gangá Ienczmionka, Najara Sousa Da Silva, Ana Clara De Alvarenga Morais3, Eloisa Helena Medeiros Cunha,Anderson Ferreira Vilela,Tatiana Calavorty Lanna Pascoal
Introduction: The isotonics are products that use hydration to lose weight during high resistance exercises, compost predominantly for water and electrolytes such as sodium and potassium, as well as to contain minor amounts of acids, antioxidants, preservatives and antioxidants. Objective: The objective of this work is to analyze the characteristics of isotonic substances that are related to the theory of sugars, sodium chloride, sodium and salts, and to compare them with nutritional counseling and vigilant legislation. Methodology: The present work is based on an analytical study of the quantitative and qualitative experimental type. Foram ana- lyzed chlorine concentration of soda, sugar and cinzas. With the help of software R (R Development Core Team, 2017), the data were submitted for analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated mediations, to verify the homogeneity of the media. Results: As amostras present values of total sugar between 9.14% and 23.92%. Our interest purchases include a difference in inorganic matter between analyzes of 10.02% and 10.09%. Yes a sodium chloride analyte can take note of a variance between 0.27% and 0.60% and a soda has a variation between 1080 mg/L and 2400 mg/L. Amostra I3 presents values that describe our descriptive and superior descriptions as permitted by this legislation. Conclusion: However, it is concluded that the analyzes analyzed in I2 are more adequate than those that theories of sugar and soda have given the natural ingredients present in the baby. Our interest purchases include a difference in inorganic matter between analyzes of 10.02% and 10.09%. Yes a sodium chloride analyte can take note of a variance between 0.27% and 0.60% and a soda has a variation between 1080 mg/L and 2400 mg/L. Amostra I3 presents values that describe our descriptive and superior descriptions as permitted by this legislation. Conclusion: However, it is concluded that the analyzes analyzed in I2 are more adequate than those that theories of sugar and soda have given the natural ingredients present in the baby. Our interest pur- chases include a difference in inorganic matter between analyzes of 10.02% and 10.09%. Yes a sodium chloride analyte can take note of a variance between 0.27% and 0.60% and a soda has a variation between 1080 mg/L and 2400 mg/L. Amostra I3 presents values that describe our descriptive and superior descriptions as permitted by this legislation. Conclusion: However, it is concluded that the analyzes analyzed in I2 are more adequate than those that theories of sugar and soda have given the natural ingredients present in the baby. Amostra I3 presents values that describe our descriptive and superior descriptions as permitted by this legislation. Conclu- sion: However, it is concluded that the analyzes analyzed in I2 are more adequate than those that theories of sugar and soda have given the natural ingredients present in the baby. Amostra I3 presents values that describe our descriptive and superior descriptions as permitted by this legislation. Conclusion: However, it is concluded that the analyzes analyzed in I2 are more adequate than those that theories of sugar and soda have given the natural ingredients present in the baby..
312 Effects of BMI on Occupation and Employment Status: An Adult Nigerians Study , AS Adekoya, CI Ojo,OA Mafimidiwo
Background: Globally, obesity epidemic has implications for workforce, such as its effects on employment and occupation. It can prevent people from being in paid work due to poor health resulting in social or work discrimination. This study is to investigate the effects of BMI on occupation and employment status. Dataset/Methods: Participants of working age (20-64yrs), adult males and females were randomly selected (n = 240). The BMI was measured using ≥ 30 kg/m2 as the cut-off; and the employment status categorized based on their occupation in two ways; first contrasting being in paid employment and occupation, and second, contrasting not being in paid employment due to non-working, sickness/disability, unemployment, early retirement and caring for home/family; but capable of paid work. Observational analyses were conducted to investigate the effect of increased BMI on occupation and employment-related outcomes. Results: BMI association with all the occupation and employment-related outcomes investigated shows evidence of higher BMI causing increased risk of sickness, decreased caring for home/family, underemployment, and lower household income. There were evidence for causal effects and impacts differing by sex and age. Discussion: BMI exerts causal effect on occupation and employment status, by affecting an individual’s health leading to increased unemployment arising from social or work discrimination, and inability to engage in paid occupation. Obesity epidemic may con- tribute to worklessness and therefore impose an increasing societal burden. This is of policy interest and rationale for government action.
313 Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Development of Health Facilities in Narayanpur Block of District Mirzapur , Sachchidanand Maurya
Relation between a well-developed health system and healthy life is positively correlated to each other. Implementation of state and centre led health policies may prove its utility, if the mass population get proper treatment at the right time. The present study is an attempt to explore the ground reality of health service delivery in Narayanpur development block of Mirzapur district. For the said purpose descriptive research design has been opted to conduct the entire work. Apart from it, both primary and secondary data have been incorporated to authenticate current work. Results suggest that the study area is gaining medical facilities, but that is not adequate and satisfactory. So, efforts at every level are needed for a better healthcare system.
314 Exclusive Values of Radiated Lives and Personal Lives in the Living Basins of the Radian Specialization , Ruban AA, Novikova (Zakharova) MV, Kostin AA
The Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens) Larvae (BSFL) fat have similar composition and quality to coconut and palm oil, which makes it the one of promising alternative fat sources. In industry, fats and oils are usually used in the form of emulsions regardless of the application field. Emulsion is a dispersed system, which contains two immiscible liquids stabilized with an emulsifier. Effective viscosity is included in the main physical characteristic of liquids, which determines the behavior of the liquid during flow and affects the production, use and storage of emulsions. Lecithin is a natural emulsifier with high availability and safety, it can have a strong influence on rheological properties of emulsions. Therefore, the aim of the work was to determine the effective viscosity of lecithin solutions and BSFL fat emulsions, depending on the lecithin content (0.5 - 2.5 wt.%). It has been found that consistency indices of lecithin solutions increased with an increase of lecithin concentration from 0.5 to 2 wt.%. Moreover, 1-2 wt% lecithin solutions showed shear thinning behavior, but the increasing of the lecithin content to 2.5 wt% had changed the flow behavior to dilatant. The BSFL fat emulsions showed two times lower consistency compare to lecithin solutions with the same lecithin concentration.
315 A Different Approach Towards Nutrition, Food Manufacturing and Public Health , Edgardo Carrillo Cabrera*
Although the idea has been going around in my head for a while, when I thought about what title would I use for this paper, I could not stop doubting if I should use the word approach or system. Then I realised that I was already dealing with systems; nutrition, food production and public health and these are like most systems very complex ones, so approach seems to be right way to go [1-4]. Is there a need for an integrated approach towards a better Nutrition, Food manufacturing and Public Health? In my years of experience as food manufacturer, food safety has always been my main concern, in the times that we are living where the pandemic has altered life as we know it, mostly for the worse, the relevance of food safety has not been diminish, on the contrary. Food is essential to life, there cannot be a proper public health system if other systems like nutrition and food production are not properly integrated as whole for the benefit of the society. It is to be expected that all systems work in an interconnected way, but in my opinion, this is not what we have at present times. Figure 1, represents food, nutrition and health systems that are poorly related or interconnected.
316 Anthropometric Profile of Type1 Diabetic Children (Aged 7-12years) of Ajmer City of Rajasthan (India) , RuchiUdawat; Ritu Mathur
Anthropometric parameters have been widely used as reliable indicators for predicting the incidence of diabetes mellitus in children. Growth parameters are important indicators of a child's overall health and growth patterns, and they are influenced by factors like blood glucose levels in diabetic children. A number of studies have shown correlations between anthropometry and other metabolic disorders. Various studies have shown that anthropometric parameters such as height, weight, BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist hip ratio (WHR), and waist height ratio (WHR) are useful indicators for predicting incidence of type I diabetes. This study aims to study the health status and growth pattern of diabetic children using anthropometric measurements.
317 Are Algal Proteins a Viable Alternative to Animal Protein? - A Review , Maria Silva
Protein is a macronutrient extremely important for human health. This macronutrient presents a wide variety of biological functions - structural, catalytic, storage, signaling, protective - and, therefore, it is essential that individuals include it properly in their dietary patterns. Nonetheless, the extreme dependency on livestock to fulfill human requirements has a strong negative impact on the environment. Future predictions point to an increase of the global population from 7.7 billion to 11.2 billion by the end of the century and not enough alternative and efficient solutions to overcome this problem. Algae represent a promising source since, when compared to vegetal sources, they have higher growth and photosynthesis rates. Besides, their potential to produce bioactive compounds that can be included in co-production with protein and the dispensability of arable land for their cultivation make them excellent candidates to support this demand. This article aims to present a review of the scientific literature on the protein algal properties and their ability to replace animal protein.
318 Boosting Immunity to Compat Covid-19 Virus: A Prospective of Bioplot Validation Study Using Acacia Gums and Adansonia digitata Pulp , Ahmed A. M. Elnour, Mohamed ES Mirghani, Djabir Daddiouais-sa, Nassereldeen A Kabbashi, Omayma Sabir4, Khalid Hamid Musa, El Bashier Sallam6, Elmoubasher Abu Baker Abd Farag, Abdelgadir Elfadil Abdelgadir, Zahra Haroun, Ibrahim Bani
The innate immune system (IIS) prevents the host from being infected by pathogenic organisms, including viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi. An increased metabolism level, which needs energy sources and substrates for strengthening and con- trolling molecules, supplemented this keen action, eventually obtained from the superfood. Aims: This is the first study that investigates the micronutrient values (MNVs) and microbial contents of an optimum blend formula at a ratio of 5:3:2 (grams) prepared for Acacia gums (Acacia seyal, Acacia sengal and Adansonia digitata L pulp (ADLPs)), respectively. Objective: The study's main objective is to develop an optimal formula using a specific combination of AGs and ADLPs to support the infected COVID-19 patient's IIS based on MNVs. Methods: We investigated the MNVs, including microbial content and vitamins, using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) from AGs, using an artificial stomach. We conducted a randomized trial and a pilot study to identify the effects of the daily optimum blended formula (OPF) (3 in 1) on Covid-19 patients. They gave one hundred five participants the blended (5:3:2 grams/3 times per day) until symptom relief. Results: Incubated at 35°C for 48 hours, the monocyte counts (MCs) of blended (3in1) revealed a safety level of less than 2.4x105 Cfu/g. Vitamins C, A, B1, and B3, which represented approximately 281±3.01, 201±1.53, 3.02±0.023, and 2±0.006 mg/100g DW, respectively, dominated the vitamin concentration of blended (3in1) significantly (p≤0.05) higher than all samples of vitamin content in this study. In terms of prebiotic activity, SCFA, such as acetate, butyrate, and propionate, AGs (PMC) produced (7% SCFA after 48 hours of incubation) significantly (p ≤ 0.05) less than AGs (PTC) (50% SCFA after 24 hours of incubation). Finally, based on biplot results, twenty-six (86%) out of the 30 patients improved dramatically over the three days in their clinical conditions on the symptoms, which involved cough, fatigue, and fever; therefore, they regained their abilities to smell and taste and the disappearance of the skin rashes. Conclusion: Finally, the blended (3 in 1) MNVs have shown potent evidence of their use in traditional medicine and in preventing and combating COVID-19 symptoms among patients and contact persons. This suggests the potential use of AGs blended with ADLPs as natural antiviral agents to support the system.
319 Nutrition and Breast Cancer in the Provincial Hospital Jason Sendwe, in Lubumbashi: A Case Control Study, January 2019 to December 2020 , Ngoy Bulaya Emmanuel, Epule Difumakoy Nelly, Mbayo Muganza Gerard, Kalume Tshinuishi Credo, Kela Nsenga Catherine, Tshibuabua Mutombo Bavon, Kabongo Ntambwe John, Mapatano Mala Ali, Luboya Numbi Oscar
The morbidity and mortality of breast cancer is a major public health problem in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). However there is insufficient study in the country highlighting its epidemiological profile. This study aims at assessing at what extent dietary habits are associated with breast cancer. The objectives of this study are to identify the dietary habits of women with breast cancer, to determine the nutritional status of patients, to determine the frequency and specific mortality due to breast cancer and finally to identify whether or not there is an association between dietary intake and breast cancer. Designs (Methodology) We conducted a case control study of 430 hospitalized patients at the Provincial Hospital Jason Sendwe from January 2019 to December 2020. The study population consisted of women with breast cancer (cases) and without breast cancer (controls). Encoding data and data analysis were performed using Excel, IBM SPSS 23, and Openepi software to assess association. Results The frequency of breast cancer was 124 cases or 28.84%, the frequency of appropriate nutrition dietary habits against breast cancer was 13.96% and that of inappropriate nutrition dietary habits was 86.04%. Regarding nutritional status, 8.87% of patients were underweight, 18.54% overweight and 13.70% obese. We found a significant association between dietary intake and breast cancer risk (Odds Ratio: 2.65; 95% CI (1.49-4.71); p-value: 0.001). Our study reports a specific mortality due to breast cancer of 34.67%. Conclusion Breast cancer is a very frequent and fatal disease in our environment, which unfortunately is often discovered late due to lack of screening and good nutritional management. The respect of the food pyramid (appropriate diet) and a Mediterranean diet are the cornerstone in the prevention not only of breast cancer but also of other cancers and pathologies. Keywords: Breast Cancer; Nutrition; Sendwe Hospital; Lubumbashi; DRC
320 Effect of the Flaxseed Supplementation on the BMI, WHR, SBP, DBP, Cholesterol, and Triglycerides in Mild Hypertensive Patients , Meenakshi Jakhar, Ritu Mathur, Pintu Nahata, Devendra Agrawal, Dinesh Choudhary
Flaxseed (Linum Usitatissimum) is an oilseed rich in dietary fiber, alpha-linolenic acid, and lignans. It is a well-known nutritional supplement for weight loss and other health ailments. The study was conducted to see the effect of flaxseed intake on the Body Mass Index (BMI), Waist Hip Ratio (WHR), Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP), Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP), cholesterol, and triglyceride in mild hypertensive patients. Likewise, the study also intends to test the effect of the duration of dietary supplementation on the BMI, WHR, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglyceride. This study hypothesized that the intake of 10 gm/day of roasted flaxseed as a dietary supplement would significantly moderate the BMI, WHR, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglyceride in mild hypertensive patients. We performed a two-way repeated measure ANOVA test on finding using the SPSS tool to test the hypothesis. The result reveals that the 10gm per day of flaxseed intake as a dietary supplement significantly impacts the BMI, WHR, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol, and triglyceride. Keywords: Flaxseed; Oilseed; Hypertension; Prehypertensive Patients; Cholesterol; Body Mass Index; BMI; Waist Hip Ratio; WHR; Triglycerides; Cholesterol; Cardiovascular Diseases; Systolic Blood Pressure; Diastolic Blood Pressure
321 Transpyloric Feeding of Gastroesophageal Reflux of Preterm Infantso , OG Smirnov, NV Braginа, NG Aleynikova; VI Gorbachev
Optimizing nutritional support is essential for critically ill children, and preterm infants are particularly vulnerable to the effects of prolonged fasting. There is a lot of evidence in the scientific literature for the benefits of enteral nutrition. It is known that prema- ture infants need an individual approach to nutrition due to the prevalence of catabolic processes, while treatment in the intensive care unit requires a surplus of calories. Timely introduction of enteral nutrition helps to reduce morbidity and mortality in this popu- lation. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is common in preterm infants. The decreasing tolerance to enteral feeding makes doctors usu- ally prefer parenteral nutrition. However, its use can be associated with metabolic, infectious and iatrogenic complications. A step-by- step therapeutic approach is recommended in the treatment of GER in preterm infants. Conservative treatment should be considered as first-line therapy in children without clinical complications. Feeding through a gastric tube is not always well tolerated by seriously ill patients. As for the treatment of complicated GER, studies show that the use of transpyloric feeding is comparable in effectiveness to fundoplication. Transpyloric feeding tube can be justified as a strategy for treating GER that is refractory to conservative therapy. Keywords: Enteral Nutrition; Transpyloric Feeding; Preterm Infants; Gastroesophageal Reflux; Nutritional Support
322 Is it “Diet Alone” or “Diet-with-Exercise” that Primarily Influence Blood HDL-C Concentration? a Case Study , Wondyefraw Mekonen
Controversy exists in literatures concerning the effect of diet-alone or diet-with exercise in altering blood high-density lipopro- tein-Cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration. This case study has assessed the influence of consuming high-CHO and high-fat diet in al- tering blood HDL-C alone or in combination with exercise. A healthy active subject, 29 years and 78 kg had a basal HDL-C level of 50.9 mg/dl with normal-balanced diet. 1. During diet-alone trial, the subject consumed a high-CHO diet (70% CHO, 18% fat, 12% protein) for 1-month and his HDL-C level was 36.3 mg/dl. After 7-days gap, he took high-fat diet (20% CHO, 68% fat, 12% protein) for 1-month and his HDL-C was raised to 71.4 mg/dl. 2. During diet with exercise trial, the subject took similar (i.e., high-CHO and high fat) diet and additionally performed an intensive (85% HRmax, 30 min), and moderate excise (50% HRmax, 90 min) tests with 7 days interval. Results indicated that high-CHO intake alone or with exercise, depressed blood HDL-C to the same degree (by about 28%), but to the contrary, intake of high-fat diet elevated HDL-C (by about 40%) compared to the basal diet. Exercise did not influence HDL- C concentration different from the dietary effect alone. This case report primarily indicates a greater sensitivity of HDL-C to diet than physical exercise in optimizing blood HDL-level. A cohort study that includes gender is necessary to reach to a reasonable conclusion.
323 Using Water in the Modern Bakery Industry , Olha Petkova; Yakov Verkhivker
In bakery water is used as a solvent for salt, sugar and other raw materials: for dough preparation, preparation of liquid yeast, starter cultures; goes for household needs cleaning of raw materials, equipment, premises, for heat engineering purposes - the production of steam necessary to humidify the air in proofing cabinets and ovens. Water plays an important role in the technology of delayed baking of bread products or in the technology of frozen semi-finished products: it is used during kneading to obtain an optimally developed gluten frame for better form and gas holding capacity; to obtain cold dough, which is the basis for slowing down the onset of the fermentation process, while fermentation should be minimized or completely absent; the amount of water affects the consistency of the dough for better dimensional stability during defrosting. A low-temperature process, deep freezing strongly affects the structural and mechanical properties of the dough and the quality of the finished product; secondly, under certain parameters of freezing, the structure of the intracellular water of yeast can lead to a decrease in their activity, and even to the death of microorgan- isms. Therefore, the issues of the quality and quantity of water at any technological operation in bakery production with delayed baking are issues of the quality of finished products and therefore are very relevant. Keywords: Water Treatment; Industry; Bakery; Dough Kneading; Yeast; Freezing; Product Quality
324 Effect of Food Processing on Protein and Its Functionality , Simran Kaur Arora;  Ranjana Acharya;  Ayushi Joshi
The demand for processed foods with high content of protein is increasing globally. Food processing affects physical, chemical as well as functional properties of nutrients. In the present review article, certain changes like proteolysis, protein cross-linking, amino acid racemization and Maillard reaction that occur during food processing and storage affecting the textural and nutritional qualities of protein-rich foods have been outlined. Keywords: Protein; Proteolysis; Racemization; Functional Properties
325 Best Way of Standardize Cleaning of Automated Dispensing Cabinets to Prevent Infections , Saleh Alanazi, Fawziah Almutairi, Asma Altoub, Thamer Alo- taibi, Saad Alobaidi, Saad Alnofaie, Khalil Almajed, Meshal Alshakrah, Hind Albadali, Abdullah AlRomi, Nourah Shuraym; Haya Almufrij
Background: King Abdulaziz Medical City -KAMC is tertiary hospital in Riyadh, with a bed capacity of 1501. Commenced implemen- tation of Automated Dispensing Cabinets (ADCs) technology. However, despite variety of benefits of ADCs, as is the case with many medical equipment handled by multiple users in the daily workflow it can be a risk for transmission of pathogens from user to user or from user to patient. Furthermore, Additional considerations regarding cleaning ADCs is essential during COVID-19 pandemic. This guidance preformed to provide best practice advice on defining responsibilities and standardize effective cleaning and disinfection ADC machine. Method: we start with cleaning after that do disinfection using appropriate substance for remove all organic substance to make the pathogen capacity a smaller amount were infection transmission impossible. Result: provide a standardized guideless for effective cleaning process. As will implement measurements tool to meantime infection control. Conclusion: Many hospital staff use the same medical equipment every day in their work, as it may become more likely that infec- tion can be transmitted from staff to staff or from staff to patient. Moreover, to avoid many kinds of contamination and infections we having such a cleaning guideline is essential.
326 An Assessment of Cassava Post-Harvest Losses (PHL) in South-West Nigeria: A Case Study of Oyo-State, Nigeria , Ayedun Bamikole , Abdoulaye Tahirou; Okechukwu Richardson
The paper is on an assessment of cassava post-harvest losses (PHL) in South-West Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 150 farming households for interview on their experiences on post-harvest losses on cassava production and process- ing. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and econometric models where necessary. The average percentage post-harvest loss of the harvested cassava was 13% with 96% of farmers indicated experiencing PHL from harvesting to marketing. Improved varieties experience more losses (75%) than local varieties (25%). Losses based on seasons show that more cassava were lost in dry season (61.4%) compare to rainy season (38.6%). The highest PHL was from gari processing and the percentage of house- holds that have processing equipment was low but accessibility was high. Data from the field was modeled using Tobit regression model to determine factors influencing PHL among cassava farmers. Results show that being a female farmer/household head (P < 0.01), years of membership of association (P < 0.05), higher dependency ratio (P < 0.01), use of local cassava stem (P < 0.05) and having non-farm occupation (P < 0.05) reduced the probability and intensity of PHL significantly. The result shows that the higher the number of members of household (P < 0.01) used for farming activities the more the PHL. Factors influencing post-harvest losses among farmers that processed cassava tuber to other products were determined using Tobit model. The dependent variable was the percentage of cassava tuber reserved for processing lost during processing. The Tobit model result revealed that married households incurred more PHL (P < 0.1) than single ones, access and obtaining credit (P < 0.05) and the percentage of annual cas- sava root processed (P < 0.01) were positively correlated with PHL. Belonging to an association (P < 0.05) and use of family labour (P < 0.01), being a member of association (P < 0.05) were negatively and significantly relayed to PHL. In regard to types of products processed by farmers, only fufu and starch processing had tendency to reduce PHL although not significantly correlated. In another vein, processing of garri and lafun (cassava powder) had tendency of increasing PHL. In case of lafun, the tendency was significant (p < 0.01). The study considered the use of siever, knife_peeler, grater and presser machines; all the equipment except presser (signifi- cant at P < 0.1) had tendency to increase PHL. Use of knife for peeling cassava (P < 0.01) significantly increased PHL. Stakeholders should consider those factors influencing post-harvest losses under production, and adapt it to curb PHL where necessary. Extension agents should consider the three stages of production function and pass it on to farmers on how to employ resources in an optimal way. There is also seasonal variation in PHL, measures to reduce PHL during dry season should be considered and researchers along with extension institutions should work on improved cassava varieties with durable ability not to spoil after maturity, not just having higher yield. On processing, there are now processing machines like mechanical peelers that can be used to reduce PHL, Ministry of Agriculture can assist farmers both at federal and state levels to assist farmers in acquiring them or assisting them through subsidy. Better measures of producing cassava products should be considered as to reduce wastage during their processing. Keywords: Post-Harvest Losses (PHL); Tobit Regression Model; Dependency Ratio; Processing Machines; Seasonal Variation
327 An Assessment of Cassava Post-Harvest Losses (PHL) in South-West Nigeria: A Case Study of Oyo-State, Nigeria , Ayedun Bamikole , Abdoulaye Tahirou; Okechukwu Richardson
The paper is on an assessment of cassava post-harvest losses (PHL) in South-West Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 150 farming households for interview on their experiences on post-harvest losses on cassava production and process- ing. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and econometric models where necessary. The average percentage post-harvest loss of the harvested cassava was 13% with 96% of farmers indicated experiencing PHL from harvesting to marketing. Improved varieties experience more losses (75%) than local varieties (25%). Losses based on seasons show that more cassava were lost in dry season (61.4%) compare to rainy season (38.6%). The highest PHL was from gari processing and the percentage of house- holds that have processing equipment was low but accessibility was high. Data from the field was modeled using Tobit regression model to determine factors influencing PHL among cassava farmers. Results show that being a female farmer/household head (P < 0.01), years of membership of association (P < 0.05), higher dependency ratio (P < 0.01), use of local cassava stem (P < 0.05) and having non-farm occupation (P < 0.05) reduced the probability and intensity of PHL significantly. The result shows that the higher the number of members of household (P < 0.01) used for farming activities the more the PHL. Factors influencing post-harvest losses among farmers that processed cassava tuber to other products were determined using Tobit model. The dependent variable was the percentage of cassava tuber reserved for processing lost during processing. The Tobit model result revealed that married households incurred more PHL (P < 0.1) than single ones, access and obtaining credit (P < 0.05) and the percentage of annual cas- sava root processed (P < 0.01) were positively correlated with PHL. Belonging to an association (P < 0.05) and use of family labour (P < 0.01), being a member of association (P < 0.05) were negatively and significantly relayed to PHL. In regard to types of products processed by farmers, only fufu and starch processing had tendency to reduce PHL although not significantly correlated. In another vein, processing of garri and lafun (cassava powder) had tendency of increasing PHL. In case of lafun, the tendency was significant (p < 0.01). The study considered the use of siever, knife_peeler, grater and presser machines; all the equipment except presser (signifi- cant at P < 0.1) had tendency to increase PHL. Use of knife for peeling cassava (P < 0.01) significantly increased PHL. Stakeholders should consider those factors influencing post-harvest losses under production, and adapt it to curb PHL where necessary. Extension agents should consider the three stages of production function and pass it on to farmers on how to employ resources in an optimal way. There is also seasonal variation in PHL, measures to reduce PHL during dry season should be considered and researchers along with extension institutions should work on improved cassava varieties with durable ability not to spoil after maturity, not just having higher yield. On processing, there are now processing machines like mechanical peelers that can be used to reduce PHL, Ministry of Agriculture can assist farmers both at federal and state levels to assist farmers in acquiring them or assisting them through subsidy. Better measures of producing cassava products should be considered as to reduce wastage during their processing. Keywords: Post-Harvest Losses (PHL); Tobit Regression Model; Dependency Ratio; Processing Machines; Seasonal Variation
328 A Comparative Study of Food for Dietary Use and Food for Medicinal Purpose Regulation in India, China, USA , Kanchan Subhashchandra Gond; Sanjay Chauhan
Food for Special Dietary Use and Food for Medicinal Purpose optimization approaches are becoming more well-known around the world for decreasing health risks and improving health quality. The pharmaceutical and nutritional sectors recognise the financial advantages of employing food for special dietary purposes as well as food for medicinal purposes. Foods for special dietary purposes have been proved to offer health benefits, and their consumption will help humans maintain a healthy lifestyle by preventing illness. Both at home and abroad, functional foods and international products offer a value-added growth opportunity. When more well- characterized and research-proven commodities are developed, consumer confidence in food for special dietary usage and food for medicinal purposes will improve. However, it is clearly clear that clinical proof and product safety criteria cannot be decreased. Poor fruit and vegetable diet causes around 16 million disability-adjusted life years and 2.8 percent of yearly world mortality, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). These numbers reveal that today's people are at a far higher risk of developing a variety of lifestyle-related ailments. An increase in smoking prevalence, particularly among working people around the world, exacerbates unhealthy eating behaviours. These numbers reveal that today's people are at a far higher risk of developing a variety of lifestyle- related ailments. An increase in smoking prevalence, particularly among working people around the world, exacerbates unhealthy eating behaviours.
329 Why does the Egg White have Healing Properties? , Maria Kuman
The eggshells have pores through which the chicks can breathe. Together with the breathing air, germs will enter and kill the chick, if the egg white wouldn’t have something that kills germs. This something was insulated and it is called gamma globulin. Gamma globulin is injected during flu seasons as a flu injection. In the US they charge $20 for such injection and just think how much eggs (with egg white) you can buy for this money, but they will not tell you that the gamma globulin they inject into you was insulated from egg whites. Egg white has been used as a folk remedy since humanity existed on Earth.
330 Fortification of ‘Zobo’ (Hibiscus sabdariffa) Drink with Pineapple and Watermelon enhances its Nutritional Qualities and Phytochemical Compositions , Kehinde Salewa Onabanjo, Augustine Ikhueoya Airaodion
This study sought to investigate the influence of pineapple and watermelon on the nutritional qualities and phytochemical compo- sitions of zobo drink. Dry calyces of H. sabdariffa (zobo) leaves were obtained from Lafenwa market in Abeokuta, Nigeria. The leaves were boiled, cooled, filtered and stored in 3 different containers labelled A, B and C respectively. Pineapple and watermelon juice were extracted and added to the zobo drink labelled B and C respectively in ratio 1:4. The samples were immediately transferred to the laboratory for analysis. The proximate and phytochemical analyses were carried out using standard methods. The results showed that zobo drinks flavored with pineapple and watermelon was generally higher in proximate and phytochemical contents. It was ob- served that zobo drink flavored with watermelon has the highest concentrations of protein (0.91%) and ash (0.79%). Zobo drink fla- vored with pineapple was observed to contain the highest concentrations of crude fat (3.04%), crude fibre (0.16%) as well as energy value of 73.12 KJ/100mL. On the other hand, unflavored zobo drink was highest in moisture (87.33%) and carbohydrate (11.07%) concentrations. The results of the phytochemical analysis showed that concentrations of alkaloid (0.47 mg/100mL), flavonoid (1.71 mg/100mL) and phytate (2.83 mg/100mL) were highest in zobo drink flavored with pineapple while the concentrations of saponnin (7.95 mg/100mL), tannin (0.89) and phenol (2.76 mg/100mL) as well as pH (4.95) value were highest in zobo drink flavored with watermelon. This result showed that fortification of zobo drinks with pineapple and watermelon enhances its nutritional qualities and phytochemical compositions.
331 Evaluation of the Feeding of Broilers with Endogenous Resources of the Northern Zone of the State Cojedes , Rivas Francisco, Salazar Wilmer
An experiment was carried out to know the substitution of alternative foods on the productive, health and economic indicators in the chickens of fattening raised in a family production system. We worked with agricultural products grown and harvested in the northern part of the state of Cojedes. These were harvest remains of cassava root (Manihot esculentaCrantz) and dried quinchoncho (Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth). In the case of maize (Zea maysL.) commercial maize flour was purchased for animal feed. 50 chickens were used per treatment in a random block design. The treatments were: T-1 formed by the mixture of 15-10-75; T-2 by mixing 10-50-40; the T-3 by 10-30-60 and the T-4 by 10-10-80 of quinchoncho, cassava flour and corn respectively, the T-5 formed by commercial feed. In the statistical analysis, the ANOVA test was used to detect significant differences between treatments and the Statgraphics Version 4 statistical package was used. The best live weight behavior of broilers was obtained with T-5; followed by T-1. In the rest of the treatments, no significant differences were observed. With respect to food consumption, it was obtained that in T-5 it was signifi- cantly higher, followed by T-1. In T-2 and T-3, the lowest food intakes were observed. However, feed conversion was better from T-1 to T-4, very close to 2.5. The greatest economic gain was obtained in the T-1; as well as profitability. It is concluded that it is feasible to use these products in the feeding of broilers, and replace commercial feed.
332 Nutrition in Brain Damage , María José Maceira Franqueiro
Many people are affected by the consequences of brain damage. The duration and severity of the different sequel or injuries that it provokes, constitute a health challenge of great importance. The causes of brain damage are diverse: cerebrovascular accident, traumatic brain injury, anoxia, brain tumor or infection that affects the brain level as meningitis. One of the problems that most often affect these patients is dysphagia, a factor very related to respiratory complications, but especially with problems in the diet. It is essential, to minimize the risk of respiratory problems and to make the necessary adapta- tions in diets, to avoid the appearance of serious problems such as malnutrition and/or dehydration. To avoid these consequences, it is necessary to carry out an assessment of the nutritional status that facilitates the detection of these cases and perform a timely nutritional intervention. Given the evidence that shows the relationship between a healthy diet and the evolution of the sequelae of brain damage, the early intervention of a nutrition professional is considered very important.
333 A Review on Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Importance of Anethum graveolens L , Garima Yadav, Priyankaraj Sonigra, Mukesh Meena
Anethum graveolens is a well-acknowledged and widely used culinary annual herb belongs to the family Apiaceae, commonly known as “dill”. The seeds of dill are stomachic, carminative, and diuretic. It comprises numerous bioactive compounds which are broadly exploited for different medicinal purposes. A. graveolens contain a specific odor due to the presence of essential oils. The plant extracts and oil have different activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti- hypercholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory, anti- diabetic, etc. The main aim of this review is to comprehend the importance, bioactivities and medicinal uses of A. graveolens and its secondary metabolites.
334 Addition of Lentils and Chickpeas to Yogurt: Effects on Physicochemical, Colorimetric, Microbiological, Rheological and Organoleptic Properties During Refrigeration , Saoussen Bouacida; Mohamed Aroua ; Hayet Ben Haj Koubaier; Ahmed Snoussi; Ismahen Essaidi; Nabiha Bouzouita
In this study, yoghurt fortified with lentil and chickpea germinated or not proteins isolate was manufactured. The effects of the addition of lentil and chickpea proteins isolate on the sensory, physico-chemical, colorimetric, microbiological and rheological prop- erties of yoghurt during storage are studied. Physicochemical analyses have shown that for all yogurt samples, a significant decrease in pH and increasing of TA were observed during the first two weeks after which was not significant. Results show that there is not significant difference of DM values during storage period of the different yoghurt samples. Whey separation (Syneresis) was lower in fortified yogurts with lentil and chickpea proteins isolate as compared with control yoghurt. The colorimetric results showed that the factor L*, a* and b* have no significant difference with each other during 21-day storage period for all samples. Microbial evalu- ation shows that total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, total coliforms, fecal coliforms and S. aureus colonies were not found in any of the yogurt samples until the 21st day of storage. Rheologic analysis shows that the control samples exhibited the lowest viscosity and consistency index values. Sensory results have shown that there is not significant difference between sensory scores for all descrip- tors of yogurt samples fortified or not with leguminous proteins. Yoghurts YCGPI and YLGPI presented sightly highest sensory scores comparing with the other ones. The results of the present study suggest that leguminous proteins fruit can be effectively used as gelling agent in the manufacture yogurt.
335 Additive Advantages of Utilization of a Combination Therapy of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) and Vitamin D Supplementation for Overweight/Obese Individuals in Appetite Reduction, Favourable Metabolic profile-A Short Communication , Kulvinder Kochar Kaur, Gautam Allahbadia; Mandeep Singh;
Currently regulation in addition to avoidance of weight accru- al, represent factors of maximum significance existent regarding factors in avoidance of mortality along with disease globally [1]. Regulation of appetitie is based on variation of neurological, psy- chological along with cultural factor s. Regarding the physiological angle, appetitie controlling gut hormones possess significant part in hunger in addition to satiety [2]. PYY represents an anorexigenic peptide generated from the L cells of the intestine along with lib- eration in the blood stream. Regarding this ghrelin is an orexigenic peptide that is an acylated peptide further gets liberated from the stomach [3]. With the information that exercise results in re- duction of the orexigenic peptide (alias acylated ghrelin) besides enhancing the anorexigenic peptide (alias PYY) [4]. Outcomes of numerous studies have illustrated an association amongst physical activity besides physiological modes of appetite regulation [4]. On the escalation of inactivity, a positive energy equilibrium develops that is followed by weight accrual. Nevertheless, physical activity possesses a major part regarding the management of body weight by generating a negative energy equilibrium along with impacting the appetite controlling hormones [5]. Of the maximum necessary
336 Biblical Guidelines and Divine Sustainable Approach to Health Promotion, Diseases Prevention and Dietary Measures to Prevent and Control Non-Communicable Diseases , Sophonie Ndahayo
The Bible is the source of many ethical principles. As it is well articulated, every design has a designer who gives instructions on how to handle his invention. A scrutiny of the Word of God demonstrates that using a sustainable approach to health promotion, God provided universal dietary measures to prevent of control many ill conditions, including non-communicable diseases that have become pandemic. Adherence to divine health guidance can alleviate many preventable diet-related diseases.
337 Shoulder-Fulp Pain Syndrome in Patients, Work Physical Culture and Sport: Modern Aspects of Rehabilitation , TV Builova, VA Balchugovn; EA Severova
Purpose: Improving the effectiveness of rehabilitation of athletes and those engaged in physical education with shoulder pain syn- drome. Material and Methods: Rehabilitation activities were carried out in 980 patients with shoulder-type pain syndrome. Rotator cuff pathology was diagnosed in 88% of patients, in 5% cases - the biceps long head tendinitis, in 4% - the clavicular acromial joint pathol- ogy, in 2% of cases - the subacromial bursitis. Clinical methods (including DASH - Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Outcome Measure) as well as instrumental methods (sonography and MRI diagnostics) were used. Results: Excellent and good results were obtained in 98% of patients with shoulder pain syndrome. 2% of patients were referred for surgical treatment. The disappearance of shoulder pain syndrome was observed in 82% of patients; 16% of patients had pain syndrome significantly reduced. Conclusion: The use of differentiated rehabilitation programs using modern physical therapy techniques allows to get excellent and good results in all patients with shoulder-patched pain syndrome, engaged in physical culture and sports
338 Effect of Minocycline and its Nano-Formulation on Central Auditory System in Blast-Induced Hearing Loss Rat Model , Venkatesan Perumal, Ningning Shao, Arun Reddy Ravula; Namas Chandra
Blast injuries are common among the military service members and veterans. One of the devastating effects of blast wave induced TBI is either temporary or permanent hearing loss. It particularly causes trauma to the auditory pathway because of the gas filled middle ear, the fluid filled inner ear and auditory brain structures are more susceptible to blast shock wave. As per WHO, hearing loss affects more than 466 million people. Treating hearing loss using minocycline is restricted by optimal drug concentration, route of administration, and its half-life. Therefore, therapeutic approach using novel therapeutic delivery method is in great need. Among the different delivery methods, nanotechnology-based drug delivery is desirable, which can achieve longer systemic circulation, pass through some biological barriers and specifically targets desired sites. The current study aimed to examine therapeutic effect of minocycline and its nanoparticle formulation in moderate blast induced hearing loss rat model through central auditory system (CAS). The nanoparticle formulations were prepared by modified dissolvation method and then intravenous administered at reduced dose and frequency than regularly administered toxic dose. Hearing threshold were recorded by auditory brain response (ABR) and pathological changes of central auditory system were analyzed at acute and chronic periods by immunohistochemistry. After moderate blast exposure, rats had hearing impairment as determined by ABR at 7- and 30-days post exposure. Rats treated with free minocycline has the significant effect of reducing the ABR threshold compared with blood brain barrier (BBB) targeted transferrin tagged nanoparticle and PEGylated(non-targeted) nanoparticle acutely. In chronic condition, free minocycline also showed the sig- nificant reduction in ABR threshold. Comparatively, both the BBB targeted transferrin tagged nanoparticle and regular (PEGylated non-targeted) nanoparticle formulation improved hearing loss. In central auditory system, it is found in this study that minocycline nanoparticles ameliorate excitation in inferior colliculus (IC); and astrocytes and microglia activation after the blast exposure is re- duced by minocycline nanoparticles administration. Our results indicated that in moderate blast induced hearing loss, minocycline and its nanoparticle formulation exhibited the optimal therapeutic effect on the recovery of the ABR impairment and a protective ef- fect through central auditory system. In conclusion, our study provides the first evidence that both free minocycline and its nanopar- ticle formulation have therapeutic effect on blast induced hearing loss.
339 Optimization and Standardization of Spreadable Cheese Fortified with Mushroom Powder , Savita Yadav; Sunita Mishra
The main purpose of this study was to develop spreadable cheese fortified with mushroom powder. Moisture, fat, and protein content were of higher value in fortified cheese supplemented with mushroom powder. The moisture content of fortified cheese was 58.66% while that of control cheese was 52.36%. The protein content of fortified cheese was 29.08%, while that of control cheese was 22.45%, fat content in fortified cheese was 32.2% while that of control cheese was 28.8% and the ash content of fortified cheese was 3.95 % while that of control cheese was 2.72%. The microstructure of mushroom powder, fortified cheese, and spread- able cheese was analyzed through SEM and XRD. Fortified cheese was amorphous. Elements composition of control cheese, fortified cheese, and mushroom powder was also detected through the EDS graph. In this graph different types of elements were found in mushroom powder, spreadable cheese, and fortified cheese. The physic-chemical parameters were studies like Texture, surface, color, aroma, and taste. The product developed was appreciated by the sensory panelist. For further better analysis nutritional properties of spreadable cheese and mushroom powder. And the morphology analysis was done by SEM and XRD.
340 Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children Younger than Six Months and Time of Umbilical Cord Clamping. Anemia in 6 Months Old Infants and Delayed Clamping of the Umbilical Cord , Fabíola Figueiredo Nejar, Marina Ferreira Rea; Ana Maria Segall-Corrêa
Iron deficiency anemia is a very common nutritional disorder among pregnant women and children. Although anemia is not iden- tified as the primary cause of death, it is related to the impairment of physical and cognitive development in children and to weakness in the mechanism of immunity, thus increasing morbidity rates. This article aims to discuss the time of umbilical cord clamping and anemia among children under six months of age, analyzing the possible relationships with socio-economic and demographic and biomedical conditions. This is a cohort, with a total study sample of 934 children, but we had losses during follow-up at 150 days of life, resulting in a sample of 592 children aged close to 5 months. Maintaining the parameters established by the study design, this number of children is sufficient to perform the proposed analyses. The variables considered in the study can be divided in variables that deal with socio-economic and demographic conditions, such as: age, schooling and maternal work, in addition to per capita family income. And biomedical variables such as: gestational age, type of pregnancy, birth weight, time of umbilical cord clamping, pre-gestational body mass index, maternal anemia, prenatal follow-up and breastfeeding. The development of the study followed the requirements of the committee standards in Pesquisa CEP/FCM/UNICAMP No. 198/2004). Ducting as significant variables for risk of iron deficiency anemia for children under 5 months of age, gestational age less than 37 weeks, type of pregnancy, being the duo with the highest risk for the disease and birth weight less than 2500grams. The clamping time of the cord was not related to anemia because, in this study, the clamping of the cord of the delivered deliveries was early in 91.6% of the cases, presenting an average of 18.5seconds. In this study, the mean time of umbilical cord clamping was very low and even though no association was observed with anemia among the infants studied, there is already evidence that guides changes in this practice. Descriptors • Anemia, iron-deficiency • Delivery of care • Newborn • Epidemiology • Cord umbilical clamping
341 Evaluation of the Nutritional Status by Astrometry of Adults in Three Districts of the Commune of Matoto , Ousmane Sangare, Fatoumata Bah; Ahmed Guisse
The comparative study of the nutritional status of men and women by anthropometry of a sample of the adult population of the commune of Matoto (Yimbaya, Matoto Centre, Gbessia), constitutes a public health problem to which the adult population of the city of Conakry is confronted such as: inadequate food which can lead to either overweight, or a deficit or even micronutrient deficiencies. Indeed, it is a descriptive cross-sectional study of adults aged from 19 to 59 from different occupations living in the Commune of Matoto (Matoto Centre, Yimbaya and Gbessia), carried out from May 6 to July 17, 2021. This is why we have set ourselves the objective of making a comparison between the nutritional status of men and that of women in certain districts of the Commune of Matoto in order to determine the causes related to malnutrition and to propose a resolution on the various health problems facing this current adult population. The study focused on the nutritional status of 575 participants, which was determined by measuring their BMI. On this sample, a survey sheet allowed us to then determine the occupations, the levels of physical activity and consumption of Fruits and Vegetables of Guinea. The analysis of the data collected showed that men were much more affected by underweight compared to women, equivalent to 11.41% against 2.89%. The percentage of men with a normal nutritional status was higher than that of women. It was 68.48% for men against 42.51% for women. Overweight and obesity were more observed in women than in men, equivalent to 33.33% overweight and 20.77% obesity in women and 16.53% overweight and 3.53% obesity in men. Among the 207 women surveyed 0.00% were athletic, 82.61% active and 17.39% were sedentary. In contrast, on the 368 men surveyed, 11.96% were athletic, 83.2% active and only 4.62% sedentary. Regarding the distribution of men and women according to the occupation, it follows that among normal weight men, the per- centages were: pupils: 22.22%, students: 17.86% and civil servants: 15.88%. The obese, pupils: 0.00%, students: 8.33% and civil servants: 33.33%. Overweight, pupils: 3.28%, students: 9.84% and civil servants: 27.87%. As for women, among normal weight, pupils are at 17.08%, female students: 11.36% and civil servants: 3.41%. Overweight, pu- pils: 7.25%, female students: 5.75% and civil servants: 5.79%. In obese, students: 6.67%, civil servants: 6.67% and housewives: 10%. For the consumption of fruits and vegetables, men consumed more than women.
342 On the Treatment of Sars-Cov-2 Including Omicron Type , Sorush Niknamian; Somayeh Zaminpira
Objective: The aim of this research is to introduce new method of the treatment/control of Omicron Virus and answer some major questions regarding the cure of COVID-19 and the new type: Omicron. Background: We have selected 24 patients (12 females plus 12 males) aged from 15-64 years of old contaminated severe Omicron virus and used the novel methods on the treatment of these patients. Introduction: The Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) is a variant of SARS-CoV-2 which was first reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) from South Africa on 24 November 2021. Omicron multiplies around 70 times faster than the Delta variant in the bronchi but some evidence suggests that it is less severe than previous strains, specifically compared to the Delta variant. Omicron might be less able to penetrate deep lung tissue. Omicron infections are 91 percent less fatal than the delta variant, with 51 percent less risk of hospitalization. Materials and Methods: The Omicron virus has strongly high rate of mutation compared with other kinds of Coronaviruses and therefore, cause severe symptoms of inflammation in the patients including lungs. In our research, all the patients were under unique control. They received HBO2T with 2% Ozone mixture with Oxygen in special cube. Also, they had an injection of liquid ozone which dramatically decline the inflammation in all tissues. They had under strict diet of special Ketogenic diet to maintain their mitochon- dria to remain high metabolism to hamper the fatigue and tiredness. The had also gain supplements necessary for the disease. Results: all the patient showed full recovery in 3 days, but they had fatigue and tiredness which we had to give them MTC oil 30 grams/day and coconut oil 30 grams/day as well which reduced the tiredness of the patients dramatically and remain their metabo- lism in a normal state. As a whole, all the patients recovered in 7 days without any symptoms including coughing, tiredness, fever and etc. Conclusion: Using the novel methodology of the treatment of SARS-CoV including Omicron had positive results on the patients. HBO2T plus specific Ozone therapy dramatically reduced the inflammation in all tissues of the patients. This novel method is a break- through in the science of Infectious Diseases including Omicron virus.
343 Evaluation of Total Phenolic, Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil Extracted from Aromatic Plant Thai Basil Leaves (Ocimum Basilicum Var. Thyrsiflorum) , Priya Singh; Sunita Mishra
Introduction: Thai Basil (Ocimum basilicum var.thyrsiflorum) is a famous medicinal plant and an excellent source of vitamins, essen- tial nutrients and antioxidant compounds with numerous health benefits, with action to prevent cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the proximate analysis, total flavonoid and phenolic contents including antioxidant activity of Thai basil leaves after oil extraction using Soxhelt method. Methods: The proximate analysis was done using AOAC method. The total phenolic and flavonoid content were evaluated using colo- rimetric assay. Antioxidant activity was analysed using the in-vitro standard spectrophotometer method. Thai basil leaf extract was investigated for their in-vitro radical scavenging activities using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Result: The proximate analysis in % showed that the Thai basil leaves contain the highest amount of moisture content (13.50%) and crude fat content (11.30%), moderate amount of ash (5.20%), crude fibre (9.80%), and crude protein (8.30%). The total phenolic and flavonoid content in the examined extract was found to be 79μg/ml and 51μg/ml on a dry matter basis. The leaf extract increases DPPH scavenging activity up to 81.735μg of concentration.
344 Isolation of Extracts from Spices and Determination of their Antimicrobial Effects against Saccharomyces Cerevisiae , Swati Solanki1, Parul Thapar;Fanish K Pandey
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is commonly known yeast for its role as “baker’s yeast”, but recently, some strains of it have been reported as an emerging food born pathogen. It can lead to spread of infections in specific organs like lung and blood, especially in immune-compromised patients. The main cause is the multi-drug resistance of the species to the drugs including amphotericin B and azole derivatives. To control the antibiotic resistance of this food born pathogen, different ways have to be explored. There has been a surge in interest in evaluating plants with antibacterial and antifungal activity against variety of common contaminating agents. The biologically active compounds found in various plant parts in the form of spices have evolved the interest of scientists working in this field. The spices like clove, oregano, thyme, cinnamom and cumin possess certain antibacterial and antifungal activities against organisms. This study is conducted to investigate the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of five common spices- black pepper (Piper nigrum), black cardamom (Amomum subulatum), cloves (Syzygium aromaticum), red chilli (Capsicum annum), and cinnamon (Cinnamom umverum) against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Out of the five extracts, Piper nigrum showed maximum zone of inhibition of 22 mm diameter against the strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. So, the black pepper extract can be considered as one of the best antimicrobial agent and an alternative against the diseases caused by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This can be applied further in various medicines and food products to prevent the diseases caused by this yeast
345 A Novel Gut-Orchestrated Exercise Theory on Obesity and Cancer Prevention, Akbar Nikkhah
A novel gastrointestinal tract (gut) mediated exercise theory was developed to explain how highly disciplined physical activity can help prevent obesity and cancer. The gut serves the modern human body as another brain. The gut microbiota plays crucial regula- tory roles in determining the health of the gut itself and entire body. Adequate exercise has been recommended to increase energy expenditure and reduce fat deposition, especially visceral adiposity. This article presents a gut-brain axis related theory based upon which with adequately intense and regular physical activity, the gut does assimilate foods and nutrients more effectively. Thus, the amount and flow of excreta are optimized. As such, the excretion of unhealthy compounds such as cholesterol, fatty acids, and to some extent starch increase. As a result, hepatic load of nutrients decrease. Consequently, the entire body tissues experience a relief in the time-consuming and energy-burning process of metabolite turnover and detoxification. Therefore, regular intense exercise does not only reduce unhealthy nutrient deposition, it can also decrease appetite and nutrient intake. This theory should permit in- novative research to formulate new gut-centered public recommendations regarding the importance of adequate regular exercise to help prevent obesity and cancer and associated metabolic complexities
346 Introduction to Novelty Diet: Chandra Diet, an Emerging Approach to Nutritional Psychology, Lutvi Abdullah
Chandra diet is a dietary modification linking between nutrition and mental health by having a background from the Mediterra- nean and Okinawan diet as the basic foundation, making Chandra diet, that has the potential to be developed to be implications for individuals who want to be a diet with taking of importance to aspects of their mental health, with nutritional psychology as main aspect, Chandra diet has to be implements and promotes mindfulness and intuitive eating as the basic foundation for eating behavior, so that Chandra diet has very applicable innovations in addition to attaching importance to aspects of diet and diet, then attaching importance to eating behavior so that when we implement or use this diet method can be maximized in aspects of nutrition to mental health. The introduction of this novelty diet uses a descriptive research method that combines several aspects of problems and data so that it is used as an alternative solution to be developed in the future.
347 Proposal of an Instrument to Assess the Level of Knowledge of Adults About the Relationship Between Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, Jhainieiry Cordeiro Famelli Ferret, Braulio Henrique Magnani Branco and Marcelo Picinin Bernuci
Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is a disorder associated with multiple states of health problems with high prevalence in the adult population worldwide. In view of this, lifestyle modification and weight loss should be considered as the first step in preventing or treating MS. However, people prone to developing MS, notably those with excess weight, are resistant to adhering to one or more of the self-care recommendations, such as medication use, physical activity, and healthy eating. Studies have shown that these people’s lack of knowledge about the risk and protective factors of MS contribute to non-adherence to a healthy lifestyle and evoke the need to develop more effective health education strategies. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop an instrument to assess peo- ple’s knowledge of the relationship between obesity and the development of MS. To develop the instrument’s questions, a search was carried out in journals indexed in the PubMed databases, using the descriptors “metabolic syndrome” and “obesity”. After review- ing all literature data, 40 questions were created. The answers to the affirmatives of the questions were made using the Likert-type measurement scale. The 40 questions of the instrument were divided into three dimensions: a) Knowledge about obesity and related diseases; b) Knowledge about risk factors and c) Knowledge about protective factors. The instrument was valid in a population of adults (n = 53) whose sociodemographic data were used to analyze the factors that may influence the responses to the questionnaire. A superior performance in the answers obtained in the applied questionnaire was positively correlated with the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants, such as education level and racial ethnic profile. The instrument has a suitable structure to assess aspects of knowledge about the relationship between obesity, lifestyle, and MS.
348 Proposal of an Instrument to Assess the Level of Knowledge of Adults About the Relationship Between Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, Jhainieiry Cordeiro Famelli Ferret, Braulio Henrique Magnani Branco and Marcelo Picinin Bernuci
Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is a disorder associated with multiple states of health problems with high prevalence in the adult population worldwide. In view of this, lifestyle modification and weight loss should be considered as the first step in preventing or treating MS. However, people prone to developing MS, notably those with excess weight, are resistant to adhering to one or more of the self-care recommendations, such as medication use, physical activity, and healthy eating. Studies have shown that these people’s lack of knowledge about the risk and protective factors of MS contribute to non-adherence to a healthy lifestyle and evoke the need to develop more effective health education strategies. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop an instrument to assess peo- ple’s knowledge of the relationship between obesity and the development of MS. To develop the instrument’s questions, a search was carried out in journals indexed in the PubMed databases, using the descriptors “metabolic syndrome” and “obesity”. After review- ing all literature data, 40 questions were created. The answers to the affirmatives of the questions were made using the Likert-type measurement scale. The 40 questions of the instrument were divided into three dimensions: a) Knowledge about obesity and related diseases; b) Knowledge about risk factors and c) Knowledge about protective factors. The instrument was valid in a population of adults (n = 53) whose sociodemographic data were used to analyze the factors that may influence the responses to the questionnaire. A superior performance in the answers obtained in the applied questionnaire was positively correlated with the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants, such as education level and racial ethnic profile. The instrument has a suitable structure to assess aspects of knowledge about the relationship between obesity, lifestyle, and MS.
349 Ultrasound Diagnosis of Pregnancy, Monitoring of Mares’ Physiological State, Benkhadir Farouk Ahmed, Gnezdilova Larisa Alexandrovna, Lazarev Dmitry Ivanovich
The results of complete evaluation of the mare keeping system at the Hartley Horse House’ breed- ing center, Moscow Region, the monitoring of their condition after insemination and the diagnosis by ultrasound of gestation are presented. The animals are kept in good sanitary and hygienic conditions: indoor air temperature is 4-5 °C, rela- tive air humidity - 75%, air movement speed - 0.3 m/s, the illumination - 150 LX. The quality of the feed according to the main parameters corre- sponds to the average standard with the exception of slightly increased fiber content. As a result of blood tests on pregnant mares an increase in the number of eosino- phils has been found, - on aver- age in the group - 7 ± 1.85% and slight decrease in segmented neutrophil index - on average in the group - 39 ± 2.21%. All biochemical parameters of the blood serum of the mares in the first gestation period are in accordance with physiological norms, except for an increase in the level of alkaline phos- phatase in the blood serum - 417.11 ± 22.28 u/l. Ultrasound surveillance of mares gestation has shown the possibility of monitoring its performance: 14-16 days after insemination, a 15 mm fetal egg is visualized in the right uterine horn; 30 days after the insemination, a developing embryo is visual- ized. On the 65-70th day after the insemination, it is possible to determine the sex of the future foal with an accuracy of 90%. For more effective organ- ization the reproduction of horses in the breeding centers, it is necessary to carry out a complete evaluation of keeping and feeding the mares with an analysis of the structure of the diet and feed quality, to assess clinical condition of animals after the insemination, to use the method of transrectal ultrasound for early diagnosis of gestation and morphometric and functional embryonic develop- ment
350 Food and Nutrition: Indispensable in Promoting a Healthy Lifestyle, Radhika Kapur
Food and nutrition are regarded as significant concepts that need to be taken into consideration by the individuals throughout their lives. The concepts of food and nutrition are regarded to contribute effectively in promoting good health and well-being of the individuals. The individuals have their eating habits, which they follow as a part of their daily life routine. The individuals, belonging to all cultures, occupations, communities, categories and socio-economic backgrounds have aims and objectives to achieve. Hence, to achieve all types of aims and objectives and lead to enrichment of one’s living conditions, it is of utmost significance to put emphasis on food and nutrition. Furthermore, to lead to effective growth and development of individuals, food and nutrition are important areas that are to be focused upon regularly. Food makes provision of essential nutrients to the individuals. They obtain the neces- sary energy to carry out all tasks and activities in an appropriate manner. It is of utmost significance for all the individuals to meet their daily nutritional requirements in an appropriate manner. Food provides nourishment to the body. The individuals need to be informative in terms of methods to fulfil their nutritional requirements on daily basis. They prepare meals within homes, eat out in restaurants or order food online. The individuals are required to pay attention on food and nutrition on regular basis. Therefore, it is well-understood that food and nutrition is indispensable in promoting a healthy lifestyle. The main concepts that are taken into account by the individuals are, factors highlighting the significance of food and nutrition, functions of food and factors influencing food and nutrition.
351 Kombucha Application in Health: Systematic Review, Greice Dotto Simões, Cainá Corrêa do Amaral, Camila Perelló Ferrúa, Amanda de Lima Aldrighi, Karoline Brizola de Souza, Geovanna Peter Corrêa, Roberta Giorgi and Fernanda Nedel
The kombucha beverage (KB) is a drink resulting from the fermentation of sweetened teas or juices containing a symbiotic con- sortium of bacteria and yeast as inoculum, also known as Scooby. KB consumption has become popular worldwide due to its various claims and some scientifically established properties including anti-diabetic, hepatoprotective and antioxidant potential, and its effects in metabolic disorders, atherosclerosis, inflammatory problems, arthritis, and cancer. Thus, KB have been studied in animal models to better comprehend its possible effects on human health. Given the above, the present study aimed to systematically review the literature in order to establish in which human health conditions have KB been applied considering animal models. A search was carried out in PubMed, Scopus, Scielo, ScienceDirect, and ISI Web of Knowledge, using the descriptors “(Kombucha [MeSH])” and “(Kombucha tea [MeSH])”. Of the 1214 studies found, 40 were included in the systematic review. A total of 24 human health condi- tions have been investigated considering the use of KB using as experimental research animal models. The health conditions: diabe- tes, hepatotoxicity and physiological conditions were the most prevalently studied. In conclusion, KB has been studied in diverse hu- man health conditions considering animal models, showing a great potential to modulate biological parameters in both physiological and pathological conditions.
352 Occupational Exposure to Mycotoxin-Producing Fungi in Respirable and Surface Dust of Farms and Feed Factories Located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil: A Pilot Study, Larissa Tuanny Franco,Tatiana Alves Reis , Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira
In the present study, a preliminary investigation was conducted on the occurrence of mycotoxin-producing fungi in respirable air and surface dust from farms (N = 4) and feed factories (N = 3) located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The main genera detected were Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp., and Cladosporium sp. Aspergillus sp. was identified in more than 50% of samples analyzed. The values of colony forming units (CFU) were higher in feed factories than in farms, with a maximum of 7.10 Log CFU/ m2 . In samples of respirable dust, average values were 3.12 Log CFU/m 3 in animal feed factories and 2.95 Log CFU/m3 in farms. The study demonstrated that the levels of mycotoxin-producing fungi found in the work environments studied may be of concern to the health of the workers.
353 Zinc Deficiency in Major Depressive Disorder, Dana Shamshtein,Timur Liwinski
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a major public health concern necessitating novel strategies for prevention and treatment. Zinc is an essential trace element involved in a myriad of vital biological processes, including crucial brain processes. Zinc deficiency is a major global health concern. Cross-sectional surveys show that patients with MDD frequently suffer from insufficient zinc supply. Emerging evidence from randomized trials supports the role of zinc in treating MDD. This clinical data is supported by neurobiologi- cal evidence generated using animal models linking zinc deficiency with neuronal dysfunction and depressive-like behavior. Import- antly, zinc might link inflammation with glutamatergic and serotonergic dysfunction in depression. This brief review summarizes the most important clinical and basic science evidence for zinc’s role in depression and draws con- clusions for the clinical practice.
354 Influence High Concentrations of Copper on Different Parts and Cell Compartments of Growing Wheat Seedling, Sarsenbayev Kanat, Altayuly Sagymbek, Sarsenbayeva Aigerim
This article sets out the material on the influence of the accumulation of copper accumulation in various parts of plants and cellular compartments of wheat seedlings. It was revealed that the addition of copper to the solution sharply lowered growth processes in plants. It was shown that the greatest accumulation of copper was observed in the roots, showing their protective barrier function. We studied various compartments of the cell. In 7 studied, copper was mainly accumulated in the cell membrane and in the cytoplasm. The results obtained contribute to the establishment of the basic laws of the distribution of copper in the cell, when its excess and increased understanding of the mechanisms of the action of heavy metals on plants.
355 Tommy Atkins Mango Foam Mat Drying: Formulation of Functional Foods with Dehydrated Pulp and Sensory Evaluation, Francine Albernaz Teixeira Fonseca Lobo, Josiane Domingues, Deborah Falcão, Carlos Eduardo de Faria Cardoso, Carla Stinco, Francisco Rodriguez-Pulido, Dolores Vila, Kátia Araujo
Mango is an important tropical fruit in terms of production and consumption, characterized as a fruit of high potential for tech- nological use in the food industry in the formulation of new functional products, presenting an excellent nutritional profile and an important variety of bioactive compounds. Identified of these potentialities, the present study had an investigative focus, testing the formulation of functional foods, from the addition of the dried mango pulp by foam mat drying and performing the sensory analysis of the preparations in order to identify the acceptability of these products formulated with the processed mango compared to prod- ucts added from fresh mango. Two preparations were formulated (mousse and soft drink) using dehydrated mango as an ingredient. Both formulations were subjected to sensory testing. The panel had 90 tasters and three different analyzes were performed (ac- ceptability, purchase intention and difference test using the triangular method). The results showed a high potential for reconstitu- tion and dispersion of the dried mango pulp in the tested formulations, pointing to its promising use in the food industry. Through sensory analysis, it was possible to identify that the formulations were well accepted by consumers and the results indicate a high potential for commercialization in the food market. Finally, the study showed that the dehydrated mango pulp has excellent techno- logical characteristics to be used in the formulation of new foods.
356 New Dietary Method to Improve Gut-Kidney Axis in CKD, Shaw Watanabe, Shu Wakino
The number of chronic kidney disease patients (CKD) is in- creasing worldwide. The low protein diet was a traditional treat- ment to decrease proteinuria [1], and it was the only method until the 1960s’ when hemodialysis was implemented. Since the 1980s, development of anti-hypertensive, anti-diabetic, diuretic drugs and recent SGL-2 inhibitors ignores the usefulness of low protein diet therapy. However, these therapies have not decreased the number of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Rigorous multidrug treatment was employed in the FROM-J and Doit3 studies in Japan, but the progression and complication of CKD in diabetic patients did not show a significant reduction
357 Expression Profile of Cancer-Related miRNAs in HeLa Cervix Carcinoma Cells, Hussein Sabit, Mariam Zakaria, Shimaa Abdel-Ghany, Osama AM Said, Manar Al-Abdullah, Emre Cevik, Amany Al-qosaibi, Huseyin Tombuloglu, Fatma Almulhim, Mokhtar El-Zawahry
Background: Cervical cancer (CC) is the second leading common cancer among women globally. The disease begins with abnormal changes in the cervical that is generally associated with infection with human papillomavirus (HPV). Studies indicated the crucial role of miRNAs in CC tumorigenesis, progression and metastasis. More than 40 miRNAs have been reported signifying their role in the regulation of CC. Material and Methods: In the present study, the expression profiles of 24 miRNAs were measured using PCR array for tumor sup- pressor genes. Results: We have reported 9 upregulated miRNA (hsa-miR-31-5p, hsa-miR-23b-3p, hsa-miR-30d-5p, hsa-miR-206, hsa-miR-20b-5p, hsa-miR-30c-4p, and hsa-miR-145-5p) and 15 downregulated. Using miRNet online prediction tool (link provided in the M and M section), genes, diseases, lncRNA, and small molecules were predicted for the upregulated group only. Data obtained indicated that 8 of the upregulated miRNAs in HeLa cervical cancer cells targets 2429 genes, two of them targets 20 different diseases, three of them target 31 small molecules, and eight of them targets 253 lncRNAs. Conclusion: The present study revealed that hsa-miR-20b-5p could be used as a potential biomarker because of its high expression profile in CC cells.
358 Risk-Factors Associated with Overweight and Obesity Among Adolescents in Selected Urban and Peri-Urban Secondary Schools in Monze, Zambia, Sophonie Ndahayo, Hikabasa Halwindi ,Monique M - Ndahayo
This research article was part of a dissertation that explored overweight and obesity: prevalence, level of awareness and associ- ated risk-factors among adolescents in selected secondary schools in Monze, Zambia. A total of 358 respondents participated in the cross-sectional study. Risk-factors identified included: inadequate time in physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, eating fast foods, snacking, irregularity in fruits and vegetables intake, insufficient sleeping hours, skipping breakfast, lack of school-policy to regulated sale and consumption of energy-dense foods and drinks in and around school premises as well as insufficient awareness about overweight and obesity risk-factors among the studied population. It was recommended that schools, parents and other education stakeholders should among other interventions develop and enforce the implementation of a national policy that require schools to create a conducive environment for the prevention and control of overweight and obesity such as Nour- ishing: based on the understanding that food policies to prevent obesity should aim to improve dietary behaviours by improving the availability, affordability and acceptability of healthy diets and decreasing the availability, affordability and acceptability of unhealthy diets or food and beverage dietary guidelines respectively.
359 Nutrition Role in Women Fertility, Deeksha Singh
Introduction: I have treated thousands of pregnant women over the years. It is a honour to be a doctor, friend during their most miraculous time of their lifetime. I have worked on diet of many women from their planning days to postpartum journey. Intervention: So basically, this article cover my experience as diet planner with my pregnant women’s throughout I met in my clinic. So nutrition for fertility cover diet for conceiving baby, pregnancy three trimester, postpartum and breastfeeding mom. So advance congratulations from my side for being planning or pregnant already with your baby. Conclusion: Step by step we will be detailed everything about essential and non-essential nutrition journey of women’s gestation times to avoid discomfort through right diet. There is relationship between diet and healthy pregnancy journey of women.
360 Determination of Food Addiction and Mindful Eating in Overweight and Obese Adults, Cansu DÖLEK, M Ali CEBİRBAY
Aim: The aim of the study is to evaluate the food addiction and mindful eating in overweight and obese adults. Method: The research was designed as a survey model to determine the food addiction and mindful eating of 592 overweight and obese adults living in Konya, Turkey. The data were obtained by a survey that included demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, eating habits, Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) and the Mindful Eating Questionnaire (MEQ-30). Results: Eating addiction was found in to be available for 76.4% of participants. Food addiction was found 58.0% in women and 42.0% in men. Food addiction did not differ between gender and BMI (p>0.05). All MEQ-30 scores except awareness and eating dis- cipline and total score was associated with food addiction (p = 0.000). Due to the food addiction in high triggering overeating desire results among groups were found 81.4%, 70.6%, 66.4%, 50.0%, and 45.8% in sweetened snacks (p = 0.098), fast food (p = 0.042), cereals (p = 0.886), meat and products (p = 0.038), and fruits (p = 0.011), respectively. YFAS symptoms affected (B = 0.942) total MEQ-30 scores (p = 0.000), but BMI did not correlate with YFAS (p = 0.626) and MEQ-30 scores (p = 0.721). Conclusion: The results showed that mindful eating is related to the food addiction, and it can be a key role as a strategy in weight management. High sugar, fat and ultra-processed foods can trigger overeating and it should be gain and sustain healthy eating be- haviors.
361 Analytical Assessment of Favorable Ratio Between Thickness of Knife and Grate of Auger Meat Chopper Aimed to Improve Minced Meat Quality and Reduce Cutting Pair Wear Rate, VV Pelenko, TY Korotkova, VG Zlobin, SV Shakhov
A mathematical model has been developed for the bending process of the outlet grinding grate as a circular perforated plate under the load of the meat product parabolically decreasing along the radius. The deflection of the knife blade under this parabolic load of the food medium has been determined analytically. Based on the analysis of the features of the physical model representing the pro- cess of contact interaction between the elements of the cutting unit of meat raw materials, the conditions of fastening are formulated. The mentioned conditions exclude the concentration of mutual friction forces of the knife and grate and ensure a decrease in the rate of their wear and high quality of the meat product. Based on the principle of deformations compatibility, an analytical dependence of the required thickness of the knife blade on the thickness of the outlet grinding grate was established with the objective to reduce the wear rate by ensuring the equidistance of elastic lines of their bending under the raw meat load parabolically decreasing along the radius. The equidistance of the elastic deflection lines of the knife blades and the annular grinding grate excludes the gap between the contact surfaces of the knife and the grate. In this case, the penetration of the fibers of the crushed meat into the contact joint of the cutting pair is prevented. Consequently, the absence of joint wedging eliminates the material crumpling and the useful meat juice squeezing. Thus, reducing the loss of the meat liquid phase in the prepared minced meat ensures the high quality of the output product.
362 Effects of Kombucha in Diabetes Induced Animal Models: A Systematic Review, Greice Dotto Simões Roberta Giorgi, Cainá Corrêa do Amaral, Camila Perelló Ferrúa, Geovanna Peter Corrêa, Tiago Fernandez Garcia, Amanda de Lima Aldrighi, Karoline Brizola de Souza, Aline Longoni dos Santos, Adriano Martimbianco de Assis, Priscila Marques Moura de Leon, Fernanda Nedel
This study aimed to systematically review the literature to identify the effects of KB in animal models of diabetes induction. A search was carried out in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Scielo, ScienceDirect, and ISI Web of Knowledge, using the de- scriptors “(Kombucha [MeSH])” and “(Kombucha tea [MeSH])”. From the articles found, two independent and previously calibrated reviewers, using the EndNote X7 (Thomson Reuters, New York, US), selected those that investigated the effects of KB in animal mod- els of diabetes induction. Of the 1214 studies found, 7 were included in the systematic review. All studies used male rats and induced diabetes with alloxan or streptozotocin. The most prevalent substrate applied in the KB fermentation was sweetened black tea (BT). The included studies focused on biochemical analysis, mainly in markers for diabetes (glucose, insulin and glycated hemoglobin), lipid profile, antioxidant molecules, and histological analyses of the pancreas and the liver, demonstrating a reverse in damages caused by the chemical induction of diabetes in animal models. In this study, a panel of KB effects in parameters altered by diabetes induction in rats was created, which could contribute to understanding the benefits of KB administration
363 Serum Vitamin D Level and Nutritional Status Associated with Musculoskeletal Disorders among the Workers in a Garment Industry in Narayanganj, Suvarthy Dey, MH Faruquee, Sk Akhtar Ahmad, Rabeya Yasmin, Saika Nizam, Sarmin Sultana, Israt Jahan, Ali Kamal Mostofa Rubel
In Bangladesh, musculoskeletal disorders are a common complaint among garment workers, and work-related factors have been associated with musculoskeletal disorders. So far, vitamin D deficiency has not been linked to musculoskeletal disorders among garment workers in Bangladesh. This study attempted to identify the serum vitamin D level and nutritional status associated with musculoskeletal disorders in garment workers. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among garment workers in Narayangonj. Respondents in the study were workers who had worked for at least one year in the selected garment industry. The total respondents of the study were 168 workers. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with respondents to collect the information. To assess musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire was used. To determine the serum vitamin D level, 3 mL of venous blood was collected from each respondent. MSDs were found in 37.5% of the total respondents. Workers who worked > 9 hours per day and had no or little work experience suffered significantly more (47.9% and 43.5%, respectively) from MSDs. Those who did not or infrequently consume vitamin D-rich foods had a significantly (p < .05) higher proportion of MSDs. Workers with a deficiency or insufficiency in serum vitamin D, however, had more MSDs (62.5% and 35.5% respectively). The mean serum vitamin D level was found to be significantly lower (61.06 ng/mL) in workers with MSDs. According to a logistic regression analysis, every unit decrease in serum vitamin D level increased the risk of developing MSDs by 1.6 %. This study came to the conclusion that, in addition to work-related factors, vitamin D deficiency was responsible for the occurrence of MSDs.
364 Impact of Diet and Nutrition on Memory T Cell Development, Maintenance and Function in the Context of Healthy Immune System, Joyeta Ghosh, Khusboo Singh, Sudrita Roy Choudhury, Samarpita Koner, Neelanjana Basu2 and Subhasis Maity
A well-functioning immune system is censorious for permanence in today’s earth. The immune system must be persistently alert, keep track of intimation of danger or invasion. Optimum nutrition is always one crucial factor for every cell to function optimally, including cells in the immune system as well. Memory T cells are one rudimentary component of immunological memory, furnishing rapid and powerful host protection against secondary challenges. The diet and nutritional status of the host are two major regulators of T cell functioning and immune system. Present article will review literature considering the crucial impact of diet and nutrition on memory T cell development, maintenance and function in the context of healthy immune function. Caloric restriction without having undernutrition influence memory T cell functioning, while undernutrition or protein energy malnutrition or diet induced obesity predisposes T cell dysfunctionality. On one hand, undernutrition causes immunodeficiency (increased susceptibility to infection), whereas overnutrition/obesity results in inflammation due to increase in pro-inflammatory regulators. Gut dysbiosis also has a significant role in T cell biology and host fitness. In order to maintain a healthy gut microbiome proper dietary intervention are very crucial. Although more detailed research is needed in the current field to unfold the exact role of balanced diet in T cell development, maintenance and function in the context of healthy immune function.
365 Editorial: Dietary Fat, Melaku Tafese Awulachew
Cardiovascular disease is still the world’s leading cause of death [1]. Dyslipidemia is one of the most important risk factors for car- diovascular disease. Treatment of dyslipidemia with pharmaceuti- cal or lifestyle therapies has been found to reduce cardiovascular disease-related mortality [2,3], emphasizing the relevance of ad- dressing dyslipidemia in the prevention and treatment of cardio- vascular disease. Dyslipidemia is caused by a disruption in lipo- protein metabolism, of which dietary fat absorption is a prominent component. Therefore, it is essential to understand how the small intestine absorbs dietary lipids and transport them as lipopro- teins, namely chylomicrons and very low-density lipoproteins
366 Gender Based Self-Compassion, Body Weight and Risk of Eating Disorders: How they are Linked?, Gokcen M; Kose G;
This study was conducted to determine the relationship between self-compassion and body weight and eating disorders in adults. The study was carried out with 434 participants in Istanbul. Self-Compassion Scale Short Form, which determines the level of self- compassion, Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire and Eating Attiude Test, which measures the risk of eating disorders were applied. Self-Compassion was higher in males than females (p < 0.001). While there was no significant relationship between body mass index and self-compassion in females (p > 0.05), a significant positive correlation was found between body weight and eating disorder risk. There was a significant negative correlation between self-compassion and the risk of restriction eating disorder (r = -0,133) in females. BMI increase seemed to be a risk for eating disorders in females (p < 0.001) but in males BMI had no correla- tions with EAT-26 and sub-scales scores (p > 0.05). In addition, eating disorders risk was significantly higher in women than men. Self-compassion level was evaluated according to the education level, as a result the self-compassion level whose education level was secondary school was higher than university level. In addition, a positive significant relationship was observed between age and dieting behavior (p = 0.102). In our study, according to gender, self-compassion, eating disorders was related and the risk of develop- ing eating disorders increased as self-compassion decreased. Self-compassion can be a protective factor against the risk of obesity and eating disorders. Dietitians and mental health professionals can adopt a multidisciplinary approach to work in order to facilitate individuals’ well-being. Keywords: Self-Compassion; Body Weight; Eating Disorders; Eating Behavior; Eating Attitude
367 Genetically Modified Food in the New Risk Society, Lorena Gallardo
Although the notion of risk is inseparable from the idea of uncertainty, there has traditionally been a fundamental conceptual dif- ference between the two: its measurability. Uncertainty was considered immeasurable, while in risk, on the contrary, was considered feasible to establish what the possible options were and determine the probabilities of each of them. Today, in the field of genetically modified organisms, it is impossible to quantify these new risks linked to scientific and techno- logical development, making a new idea of risk necessary, which brings this concept closer to the classic idea of uncertainty: the uncertain risk. Keywords: GMO; Risks; Biotechnology; Food; Liability
368 Quality Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability of Noodles Produced from Wheat Flour Fortified with Kidney Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.) Flour, Adegbanke Omolara R, Olowoofoyeku, Deborah G and Liasu-oni Gbohunmi E
Noodles are made from white flour which has lost some nutrients during wheat flour refinement, it is therefore necessary to fortify noodles with protein rich ingredients which will enhance the nutritional value. The major raw materials Wheat Flour (WF) and Kidney Beans were gotten from Erekesan market, Akure, Ondo State. This study is aimed at fortifying noodles made from wheat with kidney bean flour (KBF). WF and KBF were formulated into ratios at different proportions of HBA 80:20 (Wheat: kidney bean flour); GCB 70:30 (Wheat: kidney bean flour); FDC 60:40(Wheat: kidney bean flour) and EED 50:50 (Wheat: kidney bean flour). The formulated blends were used in producing noodles which were evaluated for proximate analysis, mineral determination, noodle cooking quality, amino acid profile and sensory evaluation using commercial instant noodles as control. The proximate composition result showed that the protein, ash and fat contents were higher in the formulated samples than in the control sample. Sample EED had 22.93% protein and was significantly different (p < 0.05) from the control (10.21%). The protein and fat contents increased while carbohydrate decreased with increase in the incorporation of kidney bean flour to the blend. The mineral composition (Na, Ca and Zn) showed that there was significant difference (p > 0.05) in the formulated samples while Cd and Pb were not detected in the samples. Noodle cooking quality presented sample FDC with the least coking loss value and Amino acid results Leucine and Isoleu- cine values to range from (5.663-7.685g/100g) and (2.349-3.887g/100g) respectively. The result of the sensory evaluation is based on a nine-point hedonic scale which presented that generally apart from the control, noodles from FDC 60:40 (wheat: kidney bean) had the overall acceptability followed by GCB 70:30, HBA 80:20 and EED 50:50 respectively. Keywords: Noodles, Kidney Beans, Consumer Acceptability
369 Macronutrients and Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage Recovery, Thais Verdi
In recent years, significant advances in molecular biology has facilitated emerging knowledge pertaining to genetics in sport science research. Specific regions of DNA are known to influence genetic polymorphism(s) and partly explain individual variations in response to exercise stimuli and diet. Following exhaustive exercise, certain genetic variations or polymorphisms have been as- sociated with muscle damage indices and may influence muscular recovery. The purpose of this narrative review, also highlight the potential interaction of impact of macronutrients in muscle damage recover
370 Determinants of Anemia Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Bale-robe Town Health Facilities, Bale Zone, Southeast Ethiopia: A Case-control Study, Mohammed Hasen Badeso, Falaho Sani Kalili2, Mohammed Seid Abdulle, Tuji Mohammed HajiSani
Objective: In Ethiopia, the prevalence of anemia in pregnant women differs geographically and ranged from 15.8% to 56.8%. The objective of this study is to identify the determinants of anemia among pregnant women attending antenatal care in health facilities of Bale-Robe Town, Southeast Ethiopia. Design: A facility-based case-control study. Setting: one hospital and one health center in Bale-Robe, Southeast Ethiopia. Participants: A total of 282 pregnant women participated in the study (141 cases and 141 controls). Cases were pregnant women with altitude adjusted hemoglobin value < 11.0 g/dl at the first and third trimesters, and < 10.5 g/dl at second trimester. Controls were pregnant women with hemoglobin value ≥ than 11.0 g/dl at first and third trimesters, and ≥ 10.5 g/dl at second trimester. Measures: A structured and pretested questionnaire used to collect data. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was applied to assess the determinants of anemia. Determinants were categorized as sociodemographic and economic, obstetric and medical, and dietary intake and behavioral. Results: Housewife occupation (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.12-3.92), prolonged menstrual bleeding (AOR = 2.33, 95% CI = 1.38-3.92) and undernutrition (AOR = 4.03, 95% CI = 1.38-11.83) were factors significantly associated with anemia in pregnant women. Conclusion: Housewife occupation, prolonged menstrual bleeding and malnutrition were the determinants of anemia in pregnant women. Hence, anemia prevention and control strategy in pregnant women should include adequate dietary intake and strengthen- ing nutritional counselling for pregnant women during antenatal care is also required by health care provider. Keywords: Anemia; Pregnancy; Antenatal Clinic; Case Control; Bale-robe
371 Risk Factors for Low Serum 25 OHD Concentrations in Healthy Infants in Algeria, Drali Ouardia, Arab Madina, Lamdjadani Noureddine, Guechi Zhor, Berrah Hassina
Knowledge of vitamin D has made great progress in recent years with the identification of its receptors (VDR) in most tissues, passing it from the role of a purely phosphocalcic and bone tropic hormone to that of a hormone playing a role global health. In Algeria, we lack epidemiological studies to assess the vitamin D status of healthy and supplemented infants. Through this work, we propose to determine the vitamin D status, to assess the vitamin D nutritional intake of healthy infants and to identify risk factors related to hypovitaminosis D in order to target and treat populations at risk. Results: The analysis covers 395 infants aged between 9 and 24 months recruited during the 4 seasons. The mean age was 11.5 ± 1.3 months. The sex ratio was 1.5. The average daily dietary intake of vitamin D was estimated at 167 IU/d (4.1μg/d). 90% of the children had low daily food intakes (less than 200IU/d). The mean total vitamin D level in our series was 15.6 ± 4.4 ng/ml, significantly lower than current recommendations (25 OHD > 20 ng/ml) with a mean PTH level of 38 ± 4.2 pg/ml. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency increased from 50% in the 12-24 month age group, to 75% in the 09-12 month group in winter, and from 21% in children aged between 12 and 24 months to 64% in children aged between 09. The risk of vitamin D deficiency is associated with individual factors that cannot be modified (skin pigmentation), lifestyle habits (lack of sunlight, insufficient dietary intake of vitamin D and) and environmental factors (season). Conclusion: The magnitude of the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in infants with high bone growth velocity and increased vitamin D requirements prompts us to question vitamin D drug supplementation. Six-monthly systematic vitamin D supplementation would be necessary for children with risk factors as well as children without risk factors in the winter period according to the results of our study. Keywords: 2 5 OHD; Vitamin D Intake; Infants; PTH; Algeria
372 Green Roofs: Influence of Moisture Content of the Substrate in the Thermal Regulation of a Building in CABA - Argentina, Héctor Gustavo Rosatto, María Agustina Waslavsky Lattuada, María José Leveratto, Daniel Andrés Laureda, Martha Bargiela, Guido Fernando Botta
Urbanization is defined as the physical growth of urban areas. About half of the world’s population now lives in cities and ex- pected that this amount will increase to 61% by 2030; this growth will be more pronounced in developing countries. Cities are the habitat for excellence of human, and present environmental characteristics (urban climate) common in many parts of the world, as for example the presence of the island of urban heat (ICU). The urban heat island reveals the impact of habitat built on the physi- cal environment and the increase in temperature that produces. Climatic change effects and the processes of urban growth caused environmental deterioration in the city of Buenos Aires. The increase of the temperature according to the models established by the Intergovernmental Panel on climate change could emphasize over the next decades. For Buenos Aires the models predict, specifically in the 2020-2029 period, an increase of average maximum temperatures in 0.6°C to 2° C (for the minimum temperature average). One of the proposed solutions is the green roof, which, mainly can help as buffer against temperature extremes and the urban heat is- land. The objective of the present study was to determine, for the climatic conditions of the Autonomous city of Buenos Aires (CABA), if the moisture content of the substrate of green roof due to rains, has influence on the thermal regulation. The results obtained allow us to conclude that for the conditions of the study site and in the analyzed months, the Vegetated Roof (CV) allows a regulation of the temperature inside the building (on average) of around 2 degrees Celsius. However, statistically significant differences could not be verified on days with rain. Keywords: Heat Island; Vegetated Roofs; Thermal Regulation
373 Tart Cherry Juice Reduces Plasma Triglycerides and CVD Risk Factor, But Does not Affect Indirect Measures of Insulin Resistance, in Overweight and Obese Subjects: A Randomized, Crossover Pilot Study, Keith R Martin, Jennifer Bopp, Lacey Burrell
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for men and women globally in both developed and de- veloping countries, thus is a significant health problem. Obesity and overweightness (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), occurring in 67% of the U.S. population, and insulin insensitivity (pre-diabetes) are co-morbidities frequently occurring concomitantly with CVD. Accumulating epidemiological evidence shows that polyphenol-rich diets rich in fruits can significantly reduce CVD risk. Methods: In this randomized, placebo-controlled crossover pilot study, we recruited 10 participants (38.1 ± 12.5 y; 9 females, 2 males) with BMI > 25.0 (32.2 ± 4.6 kg/m2; 5 obese, 5 overweight) to consume 8 fl oz. daily of either 100% tart cherry juice (TCJ) or an alternate placebo beverage, for 4 weeks each with a 2-week intervening washout period. Fasting blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of each arm for measurement of biomarkers of dyslipidemia and glycemia. Results: Total cholesterol (TC) was not different between treatments (p > 0.05) but plasma triglycerides (TG) and the CVD risk fac- tor ratio TG/HDL-C were statistically decreased 10% and 17%, respectively (p < 0.05) after TCJ consumption. A trend existed for VLDL, which was reduced 15%. LDL-C and HDL-C were not different between treatments. Baseline fasting glucose (FG) and insulin levels were 99 ± 7 mg/dl and 12.8 ± 5.8 uIU/ml, respectively, with half having FG > 100 mg/dL. HOMA, QUICKI, and McAuley indices of insulin resistance were modulated suggesting pre-diabetes, but values were not significantly different between groups at study completion. Conclusion: Collectively, the data suggest that 100% TCJ can reduce CVD risk by reducing plasma TG and some routinely used risk factors. ratios Keywords: Tart Cherry Juice; Metabolic Syndrome; Insulin Resistance; Triglycerides; Overweight/Obese
374 Two-Viewpoints Distinguishing Methodological Mapping for Food Industry Issues. Introduction of Life Cycle Assessment, Vitaliy Sarancha
Global population growth with access of individuals both re- searchers and profane to networking through the Internet and social media together with exaggerated demand for novelty have induced extremely high levels of accumulation and circulation of information. It is entailed with the development of various con- cepts related to food industry and nutrition. Unfortunately, taking into consideration that many of them are designs of authors with distant and often unqualified relation to problems of nutrition and food processing, such activities create the enormous amount of informational noise. With purpose to decrease the influence of mentioned noise on professionals and general public we have the obligation to act responsibly with a duty to maintain a balance between quantity and quality of information concerning the food industry issues. As an option to methodologically structure the un- derstanding, we would like to introduce a two-viewpoints distin- guishing mapping to analyse approaches to food industry topics. First element of the mapping is classical reductionist approach. Forming the basic patterns for modern science, researchers solved many problems of humanity but since Democritus’ reductionist approach was ideologically preferred in the western science, much effort has been directed to the excessive value of details and analy- sis of processes from the point of view of their decomposition into constituent elements, parts, or small particles. But an overstudy of the chemical structure of nutritional ingredients, values of particu- lar micro - and macro components of products and their effects on molecular structures, physiological effects, biofeedback etc., some- times turns away the focus from general some issues such as gen- eral conditions or characteristics of particular product and holistic influence on health of population.
375 Awareness, Knowledge, Attitude and Practice among Taif City Residents about Seasonal Influenza and Influenza Vaccine Immunization, Osama Abdulaziz
Background: The aim of the study is to assess public knowledge, attitudes, awareness, and practices about seasonal flu and influenza vaccine in Taif City. The most effective way to avoid catching the flu and its complications is to be vaccinated. The study aims to evaluate public awareness of the benefits of influenza vaccinations and look into any barriers that may prevent people from getting the shot. Objective: To investigate the beliefs, attitudes, sources of knowledge, level of awareness about seasonal influenza vaccine in people living in Taif- Saudi Arabia. Methods: We used a questionnaire that was circulated online through social media to adult males and females in Taif to conduct a community-based cross-sectional study. Google forum was used, and data were collected and analysed using Microsoft excel. Results: The study included 1053 participants; only 51.5% of the participants had received the flu vaccine. Out of them, 32.5% take the vaccine annually and 72.9% don’t have any side effects or immune reactions. Only 26.7% of then got influenza after the vaccine, whereas 44.1% said that the social media are the best way to raise awareness about the flu vaccine. Only 11.2% had allergy from the food mainly from the egg. Around half of them know that the vaccine changed every year due to mutation of the virus. Conclusion: This study showed a low percentage of influenza vaccination, despite the fact that the majority of respondents claimed they were worried about influenza and thought the vaccine was effective. Additional initiatives are required to raise public knowledge of the benefits of influenza vaccination. Keywords: Influenza; Influenza Vaccine; Public Awareness
376 Media Influence on Dietary Practices Among Young Adults of Kolkata, Sudrita Roy Choudhury , Joyeta Ghosh , Samarpita Koner , Khusboo Singh , Neelanjana Basu
According to The Asian College of Journalism (ACJ) India has more than 600 million active internet users in 2021. Overall, 52% of the population depends on online media, including social media for news, 59% on TV, 50% on print and 63% on social media like Facebook and WhatsApp. In the present era, all the important decision-making approaches in nutrition science mostly depend on current available scientific evidence. Translation of scientific evidence to nutrition communication and marketing involves a number of challenges. As at present we are living in a time where plentiful information is available, yet sometimes causes miscommunication. Media does not give authentic information all the time and the population who are mostly affected are younger people. They tend to get influenced by the dietary information mostly. The objective of the present study was to find out the association between media influence and dietary practices and also to find out the current nutritional status of the respondent. The study was an observational descriptive study based on a pretested standardized questionnaire. This study included both males and females of a specific age group of 20-25 years. The location of the study was Kolkata, West Bengal with a sample size of 101. Alarmingly 94% of the respondents agreed that they see advertisement in the media, among them 62.1% were overweight or obese. It was observed that most of them get highly influenced by sports personalities followed by celebrities, it might be because they relate the sports celebrities more with fitness. From a health point of view there is a huge indulgence in processed foods, ready to eat foods and even junk foods. The advertisement and knowledge shared by the media need to be moderated by the administration and the companies need to further broaden their research so that the youth won’t be affected by false information. Proper nutrition education to the masses is also another challenge, faced by the Indian food market. To mark the growing challenges in protecting India from pseudoscience, practitioners, nutrition researchers and policy makers should work together to ensure efficiency and relevant collection of nutrition information. Keywords: Media; young adults; Diet patterns; Health behavior
377 Estimating the CO 2 Emission from Transportation: Case Study In Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Van Thi Thanh Ho, Nguyen Nhat Anh Hao , Dien Vinh Le , Khang Pham Vinh , Huyen Duong Thi Thanh , Tam Ho Phung, Truong Xuan Nguyen
According to a Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) scientific report, it is reported that 45% of CO2 emissions come from transportation source, therefore the calculation of CO 2 emissions from transportation is one of important and urgent issue for evalua- tion the CO 2 emissions. The results of the calculation and evaluation the CO 2 emissions that will be provided a scientific basis for policy makers to propose a feasible strategy to cut greenhouse gas emissions, particularly CO 2 from transport emissions. In this study, total CO 2 emissions from transport activities were calculated for 24 districts in Ho Chi Minh City, the biggest city in Vietnam. The result of study shows that the emissions ranging from CO2 tons /year up to 110 CO 2 tons/year and focus on the downtown area in city. It is indi- cated that the total amount of CO 2 emissions in Ho Chi Minh City is quite high and need to have some policies to reduce the CO 2 emission such as the development a model of using public transport instead of personal vehicles that really need to be need to implement and implement. The results of research serve as a scientific data and provide calculated inventory data, methods to inventory greenhouse gases from CO 2 emissions from transport sources and support the goal of reducing total emissions that aims to build a low-carbon city. Keywords: Climate Change; Population; CO 2 Emissions; GIS
378 Physiological Effects of Single Bout of Moderate and High Intensity Interval Exercise on Selective Attention in Young Adults, Farida Ahmad, Musarrat Zahra, Zubia Shah3, Fatma Zulfiqar, Afsheen Mahmood, Fida Muhammad Zulfiqar
Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to determine the effect of moderate intensity exercise and high intensity interval exercise on selective attention. Methodology: This experimental study was conducted at Khyber Girls Medical College Peshawar from September 2020 to Febru- ary 2021. A total 34 young adults were recruited who were called for two experimental sessions. During 1st experimental session, participants performed moderate intensity exercise of 15 minutes. Forward digit span test were done both before and after exercise. They were then called after one week for 2nd experimental session. Same steps were carried out but this time they performed high intensity interval exercise. The High intensity interval exercise consisted of one minute of low intensity alternating with one minute of high intensity exercise. Results: The mean age of participants was 20 ± 2 years, body mass index (BMI) was 23 ± 4 kg/m2 and mean waist hip ratio was 0.81 ± 0.05. After 15 minutes of high intensity interval exercise, selective attention was significantly improved (P = 0.001). Conclusions: A single session of High intensity interval exercise was more effective at improving selective attention as compared to moderate exercise. Keywords: High Intensity Interval Exercise; Selective Attention; Young Adults
379 Intestinal Morphologic Response to Spiny Amaranth (Amaranthus spinosus) Leaves as a Dietary Supplement for Sasso Chickens (Gallus gallus), Jeremy M Agpalasin, Elvin L Domingo, EJ Sean S Esteban, Carlo S Salazar, Joel B Ellamar, Marliza D Viloria, Janine I Berdos
The objectives of the study were to determine the effects of varying levels (%) (0, 5, 10, and 15) of spiny amaranth leaves in the diet of Sasso broilers, a free-range type of chicken. Further, the proximate composition of diets, growth production and carcass qual- ity parameters, and intestinal morphology were assessed in a feeding trial. A total of 120 Sasso broilers were randomly assigned in four treatments following Completely Randomized Design (CRD); each treatment had three replications with 10 Sasso broilers per replicate. The experimental treatments were without spiny amaranth, with 5% spiny amaranth, 10% spiny amaranth, and with 15% spiny amaranth. When expressed on a dry matter (DM) basis, spiny amaranth contained 89.00% DM, 20.20% crude protein, 10.80% crude fiber, 0.70% crude fat, and 16.50% ash. Intestinal morphology was evaluated with the use of a stereomicroscope equipped with a micrometer (mm) as a measuring unit and set to scanner magnification and low power objective (LPO) magnification. Gain in weight and carcass quality of Sasso broilers during the seven weeks was not influenced (P > 0.05) by spiny amaranth feeding. However, under scanner magnification setting, the intestinal morphology of Sasso broilers supplemented with 15% spiny amaranth had a numerically greater measurement of the duodenum (105mm) and jejunum’s (130mm) villi while Sasso broilers fed 5% spiny amaranth attained greater width of ileum’s (65mm) villi than their counterparts. Numerically, measurement in width of villi for Sasso broilers fed 10% spiny amaranth leads with 11mm among treatments. The results showed that spiny amaranth leaves as a supple- ment in the ration of Sasso broilers merit consideration. Keywords: Dry Matter; Spiny Amaranth; Sasso Broilers; Intestinal Morphology
380 Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults in Sucre (Colombia): Socio-Demographic, Physiological Variables and Lifestyles, Andrea Oviedo Pérez , Graciela Vimos Ibáñez, Melba Vertel Morinson
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is an alteration of metabolic origin, product of the simultaneous manifestation of cardiovascular dis- eases (CVD) and abdominal obesity, characterized by increasing cardiovascular risk and diabetes. Therefore, we sought to deter- mine the incidence of MS in a sample of adults over 60-63 years of age in the department of Sucre. Initially, bivariate analysis was performed, using chi-square test (Independence Test) for each of the factors (socio-demographic, physiological and lifestyle). Data Visualization comprised a mapping with principal component analysis (PCA) weighted - Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) for qualitative variables and K-media Clustering to identify groups expressing common relationships. As well as Logistic Regression to determine the presence of metabolic syndrome with respect to the study variables. Physiological variables had greater significance in the presence of MS; logistic regression indicated that the variables were not significant for developing MS. The PCA showed that a disordered lifestyle alters the metabolism, and therefore develops CVD and Chronic non-communicable disease (CNCD) that lead to the appearance of MS, likewise a low academic training predisposes to have an unhealthy diet, rich in flours and fats that lead to the increase in Body Mass Index (BMI). Keywords: Metabolic Syndrome; Cardiovascular Diseases; Obesity; Descriptive Statistics
381 Consumption of Formulated Beverages Including Salmon Eggs, Brown Rice, and Snow Fungus Improved Aging and Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity, Yung-Kai Lin , Bo Han Wu, Yung-Hsiang Lin, Chi-Fu Chiang
Recent studies indicated that salmon egg, brown rice, and snow fungus had antioxidant and anti-aging properties. However, there were not much studies on clinical. Therefore, the objective of this study was focused on the formula beverage included salmon egg, brown rice and snow fungus to evaluate its antioxidant and anti-aging properties. In this study, the formula beverage was used to treat neuroblastoma cell line, SH-SY5Y cells, and examined mitochondrial activity, antioxidant ability. 51 subjects were divided into a placebo group (n = 27) and a formula beverage group (n = 24) for 8 weeks and then examined blood biochemistry at 0, 8 weeks. The results indicated that formula beverage increased mitochondrial activity and decreased oxidative stress in vitro. In clinical, the formula beverages increased antioxidant-sulfur compounds (f-Thiols), decreased oxidative damage marker (HsCRP) compared to the placebo group, and improved anti-aging-related genes (CCT2 and CCT7) and depression. In conclusion, formula beverage combined salmon egg with brown rice, snow fungus had antioxidant and anti-aging effects. Keywords: Anti-Aging; Salmon Egg; Brown Rice; Snow Fungus; Oxidative Stress
382 New diet drink "WHEY-BRAN", Leonid Tell, Sergey Lysenkov
Whey is a unique natural product containing proteins, fats, car- bohydrates, a complex of vitamins (A, B, E) and macro- and micro- elements (calcium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, molyb- denum, cobalt, zinc, chromium) [1]. Whey is used as an independent dietary product, as well as the main a component of dietary products, but they lack soluble and insoluble vegetable dietary fiber. We decided to create compositions based on whey powder con- taining soluble and insoluble vegetable dietary fibers for the sub- sequent preparation of a drink with good organoleptic properties. We achieved this by adding products containing vegetable di- etary fibers to the dry whey, namely, a food product based on finely dispersed bran “Bapol” (patent No. 3671 KZ dated 09/16/1996. Authors: L.Z. Tel, S.P. Lysenkov) [2] and pectin in % ratio: whey powder 80.0-90.0; bapol - 10.0-20.0; pectin - 1.0-2.0;
383 Antioxidant-Rich Chocolate can Improve Health, Chire-Fajardo Gabriela Cristina, Ureña-Peralta Milber Oswaldo
Currently, millions of chocolates are consumed worldwide for pleasure, leaving aside their potential benefit or harm to health. For now, it is known that saturated fat food and, in some cases, sugar food, which contributes to the growing number of obese people. On the other hand, the amount of antioxidants present in cocoa could slow down the accelerated advance of cellular aging. On the latter, a lot of scientific and popular literature is promoting the growth of a market segment not only eager for pleasure but also concerned about its health. Now, what aspects must be considered for chocolate to be an interesting source of antioxidants. According to studies, these aspects would be: 1) cocoa as raw material, 2) the composition of chocolate, and 3) the heat treat- ment in its processing.
384 Consumption Of Nutritional Supplements in Older Adults Sabaneta, Antioquia, 2021, Deossa-R GC , Duque S , Mejía Y , Ortiz L, Portillo M
Objective: to characterize the use of nutritional supplements, according to qualitative and quantitative consumption of food groups in older adults of the "Club del Adulto Mayor" of the municipality of Sabaneta, Antioquia. Materials and Methods: A structured survey was applied, which investigated sociodemographic, socioeconomic, health and mor- bidity variables, consumption of nutritional supplements and food, through a questionnaire of frequency of consumption, based on food-based dietary guidelines for the Colombian population; nutritional status was evaluated by means of mini nutritional assess- ment (MNA). The information was analyzed by means of graphs generated by the "google forms" tool and was stored and processed in the Microsoft Excel 2016 program. Results: Participated 17 elderly; 47.1% presented a risk of malnutrition and 52.9% a normal nutritional status due to NTM for (qui- tar ese NTM for) MNA. 82.4% of older adults consumed nutritional supplements, which were recommended by relatives in 46.6%; however, in terms of food consumption, none of the participants managed to comply with the consumption recommendation for the 7 food groups analyzed. Conclusion: No participant managed to meet 90% of the daily recommendations for consumption of food groups, however most of the participants reported nutritional supplements. Therefore, itis necessary to propose immediate actions with educational pro- cesses aimed at the selection of the different food groups, as well as motivating adults and their families to know the benefits of a healthy diet during the human life process and to moderate the use of nutritional supplements.
385 Probiotics: Modulator of Human Health and Potential Fighter against Coronavirus Pandemic, Rafia Sameen, Sidra Moqaddes
Digestive tract of human is rich in bacterial microflora which not only protects the intestine from pathogenic microorganisms but also provide beneficial substances e.g., Vitamin B12 and lactic acid which are helpful in metabolism. In some individuals, microflora could not develop properly which result in recurrent infections, suppressed immune system, disturbed gut-brain axis leading to neural disorders in some severe cases. Probiotics are the microorganisms which impart health benefits if administered in appropri- ate amount. They have potential to improve gut-brain barrier thus reducing the chances of nervous system disorders like anxiety and depression. Pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative activity of probiotics has also demonstrated on human gastric and colorectal cancerous cells. Modulation of probiotics can be helpful to prevent colorectal cancer which has ranked to be third major types of cancers prevalent in developing countries. SARS CoV-2, the responsible factor of current Coronavirus pandemic requires Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE-2) as receptor for infection which is digestion related enzyme of human enterocytes. Expression of viral receptors can be elevated in invasive bacterial infections such as Salmonella enterica infecting small intestine, however healthy gut with proper dose of probiotics can help prevent such infections and indirectly the chances of Coronavirus infection by reducing the expression of ACE-2. Interleukin-17 associated endoplasmic reticulum stress induced in Coronavirus infection can also be reduced by some Bifidobacterium strains which have inhibitory effects against IL-17. Other probiotic microorganisms include Saccharomyces spp., Lactobacillus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. which are added in different food products like yogurt, curd, cheese and processed meat to stimulate metabolism. Keywords: Gut-Brain Axis; Probiotics; SARS CoV-2; Interleukin-17
386 Biomechanical Study of the Lumbar Spine: Finite Element Analysis, SEN Zafer, SAYAR Ferhat, AKKUS Onder
A normal disc is responsible for the flexibility and mobility of an entire spinal segment. Mechanical principles in the anatomy of the spine contribute to physicians in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease and in treatment planning. Data such as in vitro, in vivo and finite element (FE) models are used to understand and interpret the mechanism of the spine. In vivo studies help us understand the kinematics and muscle forces that occur in the lumbar spine. It also helps us find disc mechanics, disc injury mecha- nisms in finite element models and thus contributes to the clinical diagnosis and treatment models of lumbar spine problems. The aim of this study is to estimate the intervertebral disc stress values at L2-L2, L3-4 and L4-L5 levels by applying flexion, extension lateral bending, external rotation forces in the lumbar spine using the finite element. To create a three-dimensional finite element model, the lumbar spine of a healthy 40-year-old male individual was created by computerized tomography scanning. Tomography sections, L2-L5, 65 sections, 0.2 mm thick, were processed and processed into the program. By using the sections, the spine surface model was obtained up to the L2-L5 level. Analysis was performed by applying a force of 1 Nm to the spine in case of flexion. Spinal movements were observed along the L2-L5 vertebrae. In the flexion state, segmental movements observed at L2-3, L3-4, L4-5 verte- bral levels were 4.45, 4.01, 3.08 degrees, respectively. During the right side bending, the applied force was 2.32, 2.95 and 2.75 degrees for the L2-3, L3-4, L4-5 vertebrae, respectively. The movements observed in external rotation were observed as 3.35, 3.75 and 2.88 degrees for L2-3, L3-4, L4-5 vertebrae, respectively. When lateral force was applied, the tension in the lumbar spine intervertebral disc was 1.23, 0.65 and 0.73 MPa for L2-3, L3-4, L4-5 intervertebral discs, respectively. When the axial rotation force was applied, 2.54, 2.13 and 2.05 MPa were observed for L2-3, L3-4, L4-5 intervertebral discs, respectively. L2-3 range of motion was found to be more flexible than L4-5. It was concluded that the contribution of the formed ligament structures to the stability was positive, and L4-5 intervertebral discs were more stable during the applied axial rotation movement. The finite element model we created is valu- able in that it guides clinicians in terms of diagnosis, surgical planning, and follow-up treatment at a subjective-specific level. Keywords: Lumbar Spine; Finite Element; Disc; Mechanics; Flexion; Extention
387 Moringa oleifera: A Miraculous Plant to Combat Malnutrition, Faran Khan, Fatima Nasir, Huda Ikram, Ahmad Bilal, Mehreen Fatima, Maheen Shad
Moringa Oleifera is a multi-nutrients plant that is mostly grown in tropical and subtropical territories of the world and belongs to family Moringaceae. It is also known as Drumstick and marvel tree. Moringa Oleifera is a treasure of nutrients gifted to humans by nature. Malnutrition is a serious and prevailing problem effecting people all over the world especially in developing countries. A significant proportion of people are malnourished in the world. Moringa Oleifera have potential to overcome malnutrition. Each of its part is rich of nutrients. Its leaves, seeds, pods, flowers and roots are source of protein, vitamins e.g., vitamin A, Vitamin B-complex, vitamin C and vitamin E vice versa and minerals specifically (calcium, iron, potassium, zinc) Moringa Oleifera have nutritional as well as therapeutic properties for people of all ages. Moringa Oleifera provide more nutrients than fruits and vegetables. Moringa Oleifera leaves are used to treat to protein energy malnutrition (PEM). These leaves have been used to fortify biscuits and other food products to enhance their nutritional content to prevent malnutrition. Moringa Oleifera milk powder consumption results in weight gain in children. Supplementation e.g., with Moringa Oleifera plant is a strategy to overcome micronutrients deficiency. Moringa Oleifera is a super food and a cost-effective tool for combating malnutrition for under developing countries. It is a novel food with nutritional benefits. It is used as a substitute of iron supplements in treating anemia particularly menstrual cycle associated anemia and improves iron status. Moringa nachos and moringa khakhra are made using Moringa Oleifera powder for the nutritional benefits to combat malnutrition. Keywords: Moringa Oleifera; Malnutrition; Anemia; Supplementation
388 A Review of Obesity Management, Viola Hoxha, Kara Mayes
The World Health Organization (WHO) has reported that obe- sity has been growing at an alarming rate worldwide [1,2]. It has tripled between 1975 and 2016. In 2016 WHO reported that more than 1.9 billion adults had overweight, and 650 million of those had obesity. Obesity is diagnosed by calculating the body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), weight in kilogram divided by the height in meters squared. BMI greater or equal to 30 is considered obesity, meanwhile BMI at 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 is considered overweight. BMI greater than 25% and obesity are prominent risk factors for development of numerous conditions and diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, metabolic associated fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, chronic kidney disease, depression, and os- teoarthritis [2-5]. Consequently, BMI greater than 25% and obe- sity affect the healthcare system and have an enormous impact on healthcare costs.
389 Quality Evaluation of Some Processed Rice Brands Sold in Umuahia Metroplis Abia State Nigeria, Chidiamara Onyinyechi Adindu-Linus, Adindu Linus-Chibuezeh, Kuyik S. Abasiekong, Maduebibisi O Iwe
Quality parameters of 13 selected processed rice brands sold in Umuahia Metropolis were evaluated for their proximate, vita- min, mineral compositions and heavy metals (cadmium and lead) using standard methods. Nine brands of foreign rice (import- ed brands) and four locally processed brands were sampled. The samples were ground prior to analysis using a locally fabricated hammer mill. Result of proximate composition showed moisture content range of 7.40-12.65%, crude protein 2.32-7.42%, crude fibre 1.11-1.83%, ether extract 0.59-1.68%, ash 0.62-1.26% and carbohydrate 76.90-85.93%. Vitamin content showed thiamine (B1) range of 0.12-0.32mg/100g, riboflavin 0.08-0.27mg/100g and niacin 1.42-1.83mg/100g. Mineral content showed that calcium ranged from 0.16-0.23mg/100g, phosphorus 0.45-0.57mg/100g, potassium 0.16-0.27mg/100g, iron 0.55-98mg/100g, while sodium 0.11-016mg/100g. Cadmium and lead recorded low values of 0.001-8.00mg/100g and 0.004-0.022mg/100 respectively. Keywords: Survey; Quality; Local Rice; Foreign Rice; Umuahia
390 A Comprehensive Look at Obesity and its Treatment, Florencia D’amelio
Obesity is a chronic disease of high prevalence in all countries of the world. It is one of the main public health problems due to its increase in recent years, since it suggests a high risk of morbid- ity and mortality due to associated complications and represents a great economic burden for health budgets. Although it can be caused by many factors, the root cause is an energy imbalance be- tween calories consumed and calories expended. It is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), mellitus diabetes type 2 (MD2), arterial hyper- tension (HBP), dyslipidemia (elevated blood lipids), sleep apnea obstructive (SAO), cancer and locomotor disorders, among others.
391 Beneficial Effects of Jackfruit to Control Type-2 Diabetes: A Practice of Medical Nutritional Therapy (MNT) along with Anti-Diabetic Drug: An update, Srilatha Bashetti
Diabetes the world’s common metabolic disorder, which has spread its wings in no time and is global emergency plus concern leading to spend millions of rupees in learning about the disease, better tool for diagnosis, its medication and to for awareness. As it is said to be lifestyle disorder one can address the risk factors leading to diabetes and deliver very simple yet affordable lifestyle changes that one should adapt to either prevent or to manage the disease. In recent advances made in the field of diabetic manage- ment MNT is advised to practice as a primary therapy as recommended by nutritionists. Promising results are obtained by the prac- tice of MNT along with anti-diabetic drugs. Jackfruit is listed one among the exotic tropical fruits cultivated in South India in a large scale. Jackfruit known to be a natural sugar, rich in antioxidant property that doesn’t spike in the blood sugar levels, it is proven to be good source to manage diabetes as it contains good amount of fibers and proteins which are digested and absorbed by the body slowly. It is of public health interest and recommended to consume jackfruit both by non-diabetic and diabetic population. These may help to prevent or manage the disease, may further help in reducing the disease related complications. Keywords: Diabetes; Jackfruit; Awareness; Jackfruit Flour; Jackfruit Powder; Jackfruit Seeds; Fiber; Phytochemicals; Antioxidants
392 Knowledge and Attitude about Implants Contraceptive Method and their Complications among Women Attending to Health Centers in Fowwah District, in Mukalla City, Yemen during 2021-2022, Yahya Khamis Ahmed Almualm
Background: Family planning is critical for the health of women and their families, and it can accelerate a country’s progress toward reducing poverty and achieving development goals. Implants are among the most effective long-acting contraceptive methods, Implantable methods of contraception offer long-acting reversible contraception. Their uptake rate in comparison to other contraceptive methods has historically been low. Aim: To assess knowledge and attitude about implants contraceptive and their complication among women attending to health centers in Fowwah area, Mukalla, Yemen. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study design, was conduct at health centers in Fowwah area- Almukalla city, Yemen. A total of 185 woman in childbearing age were interviewed through questionnaire from 18 January to 27 February. The data were analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 26 software. Descriptive statistics and chi-square test used. P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Data was presented by using computer programs (word and excel office 2010) Result: A total of 185 women who were attended health center, their ages ranged from 15 to 45 years. The majority (75.7%) of them were in age group 26 to 35 years. (36.2%) had secondary educational level, majority (63.2%) of women are housewife, majority of women (92.4%) think that births spacing is important. only (17.8%) used implants contraceptive, majority of participants (94.6%) heard about implants contraceptive, (54.1%) of them have a low level of knowledge. vast majority of the participations 110 (59.5%) had positive attitude toward implants contraceptive and their complication. Conclusion: The results of the present study revealed that majority of the participants (94.6%) had heard about implants contracep- tion and few of them (5.4%) had not heard of it. This study also showed that near to half (45.9%) don’t agree with using implants contraceptive. (75.1%) accept that implants have complications, majority of participants (47%) don’t know if implants increase risk of infection. Finding of the present study, showed that women with low knowledge is more than half of the sample (54.1%). Also, women with positive attitudes towards implants and their complications (59.5%). There are statistically significant between women’s educational level and knowledge toward implants contraceptive. Keywords: Knowledge; Attitude; Implants Contraceptive; Family Planning; Complications
393 Components of an Optimal Weight Loss Diet: What Darwin Would Say About Survival of the Fittest, Stacey J Bell,Crystal MacGregor
Abstract Most North American adults will try to lose weight at some point, but likely regain what they lost. Many weight loss plans set diet- ers up for failure because they are predicated on gimmicks rather than science. If Charles Darwin were to comment on popular weight loss diets, he’d suggest the best ones include approaches that have been shown to work - “survival of the fittest”. In this review, we identify five components of a commercial weight loss diet (referred to as the Diet), which have been shown to be effective at promot- ing weight loss. First, the weight loss diet includes nutrient-dense foods, providing all essential nutrients. Diets fail because they are not nutritionally complete. Second, the Diet is devoid of ultra-processed foods, which have been shown to decrease satiety, promote hunger, and foster overeating. Third, the Diet is anti-inflammatory, which fosters weight loss. Fourth, the Diet adopts an intermittent fasting approach - there is no snacking - so it produces an overnight fast of at least 12 hours. The Diet is also energy-restricted to 1,500 kcal, which is at least as good at promoting weight loss as an intermittent fasting diet. Fifth, the Diet offers microbiome support because it is rich in dietary fiber, which promotes satiety and a diverse microbiota. The weight loss Diet described herein is easy to follow, includes recipes and meal plans, and features meals that can be prepared in 20 minutes or less. Nearly 12,000 individuals have followed the Diet for three months. The average rate of weight loss was one to two pounds each week. After three months, the per- centage of weight loss was considered to be medically significant, with a loss of at least 5%. Before starting any weight loss diet, it is important to determine if it is based on proven principles to support weight loss, and thus, if it has a “survival of the fittest” approach. Keywords: Weight Loss; Anti-inflammation; Nutrient-Dense Foods; Nutritional Completeness; Optimal Weight Loss Diet
394 Mood Foods of the Future, Julie Rammal
Today and in the future, mental, emotional, and physical imbal- ances will continue to rise as we are no longer connected to our- selves and nature. As a result, the need for special foods to re bal- ance, awaken, comfort and ease our moods, emotional, and mental imbalances will increase. For centuries, foods have been hand pick and selected for their colors, taste, texture, freshness, and availability to survive. Today, foods are selected mostly upon price, nutritional value, packaging, taste and to store as snacks or meals. In the future, foods will be prepackaged and genetically modified to induce special targeted feelings such as: happiness, calmness, energy and will mostly be lab grown and genetically modified. The production of beans and nuts are expected significantly to increase while red meat protein are expected to decrease. During the evolution of our food chal- lenges, we are also faced with the potential threat of zero food availability according to Harvard sociobiologist Edward Wilson in the next 27 years. Humanitarian organization Oxfam has also pre- dicted by 2050 the food on earth will run out.
395 Morphological Characteristics of Local Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) Cultivars, Zeynep BASCAM, Tulay OZCAN
Objectives: In this study, it was aimed to determine the morphological characteristics of 6 grape varieties grown commercially in Manisa region. In this context, pomological and biochemical properties of grape samples were investigated by collecting Antep Karası grape, Trakya İlkeren grape, Michaeli Paliere grape, Red Globe grape, Crimson Seedless and Sultani Seedless grapes according to harvest time. Methodology: From the pomological properties of grapes; berry size (mm), berry width (mm), berry thickness (mm), geometric mean diameter (Dg, mm), sphericity (ø), roundness (%, Ro), number of kernels in the berry, berry weight, 100 berry weight proper- ties, physicochemical properties; pH, acidity, water-soluble dry matter (WSDM) and maturity index properties were determined. In addition, the color difference and intensity (L*, a*, b*, h ̊, C*) values as well as the berry skin color were determined in the grape samples. Results: The lowest 100 berry weight was determined in Sultani Seedless, the highest in Michael Paliere. Within the scope of the study, Sultani and Crimson grape varieties are seedless, and it was determined that the grape with the highest number of seeds among other grape varieties was Red Globe. It was noted that Antep Karası, Michael Paliere and Sultani Seedless grapes had longer berry lengths, while Michael Paliere and Trakya İlkeren grape varieties had the highest width. Conculusions: It is thought that the findings obtained in the region, which has an important export potential in table and dried grapes, can be used as basic data in future studies on technical issues such as machine harvesting, storage, transportation and pro- duction, taking into account the morphological, physical and chemical properties of grape berries of these varieties. Keywords: Grape (Vitis vinifera L.); Morphological; Local
396 Awareness and Implementation of Covid-19 Safety Protocol Among Selected Fresh Food Marketers in Yenagoa Local Government Area, Bayelsa State, Nigeria, CD Nnadi
This study analyzed awareness and implementation of COVID-19 safety protocols among selected fresh food marketers in Yenagoa Local Government Area, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The objectives that guided the study were to; determine the level of awareness of COVID-19 safety protocols among food marketers and to ascertain the level of implementation of the COVID-19 safety protocols by food marketers Data from five (5) fresh food marketers each from meat, fish, fruits and vegetables sellers was collected by first a purposive selection of all seven (7) markets in Yenagoa Metropolis and thereafter the marketers randomly drawn from the market- ers associations’ lists; giving a total of 140 randomly sampled fresh food marketers. Descriptive statistics of percentage, range, mode and mean were used to analyze the data. The results indicated high level of awareness (94.29%) and poor implementation (1) of the COVID-19 safety protocol among fresh food marketers in YELGA. Increased incentive by gifting with some of the safety items such as hand sanitizers, face masks among others by the government, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) as well as good and spirited individuals was recommended
397 Sociodemographic and Parasitological Factors Determining Learning Capacity and Nutritional Status in Rural Schoolchildren: Data Mining for Decision Making, Maria Clareth Mendez Ramos, Jesus Sebastian Martinez Sevilla, Sebastián David Fernández Vertel and Melba Liliana Vertel Morinson
In Colombia, several studies have shown that the development and integral well-being of children in rural areas has been marked by the high presence of intestinal parasitosis accompanied by negative repercussions on socioeconomic progress, negative effects on nutritional status and low learning conditions of the child population. Taking into account this context, the present research was born which analyzes the sociodemographic and parasitological factors determining the learning capacity and nutritional status in rural schoolchildren, through descriptive-explanatory research which has as an object population of study a rural community of the department of Sucre. The analysis of the information in this study includes techniques that are part of the tools used in data mining, of which decision trees were initially used for the factors included in the study; as a second, Multiple Correspondence Analysis was used as a multivariate description tool of sociodemographic and parasitological profiles depending on nutritional status and learning capacity, Subsequently, Multiple Factor Analysis (AFM) was performed and finally the significant study variables were incorporated into a logistic regression model. All this was materialized through the free statistical software R [1]. As a result, a prevalence of 73.8% of the presence of intestinal parasites in schoolchildren with low weight was evidenced, likewise it was evidenced that the determin- ing risk factor in nutritional status taking as a reference the Body Mass Index-BMI was the deworming variable, while in the case of academic performance in Mathematics it was evidenced that it is determined by age and deworming in schoolchildren. Keywords: Parasitosis; Learning Ability; Nutritional Status
398 Saving Recourses and Controlling Wastage: 24-Hour Supply vs. Late Mix of Intravenous Vancomycin, Ahmed M Sabyani, Adil A Taha, Hani Al Suwayeh, Khaulah AAl Swaied, Abdulaziz MAl Amri, Abdullah M Alanazi, Ahmed A Bawazeer, Nouf N Albalawi, Bader AAl Nasser, Hamza FAl Samanhoudi
Vancomycin is a potent tricyclic glycopeptide antibiotic, used to treat bacterial infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. It is renally excreted. Therefore, monitoring trough levels is highly important to ensure safety and efficacy. Vancomycin has good stabil- ity after preparation, which lasts for weeks, depending on temperature. Hence, pharmacy, in KAMC-MNGHA, used to provide each patient with all doses to cover 24 hours. Unfortunately, because doses and/or frequency are usually increased/decreased for the pa- tients based on their renal function and drug levels, many doses are not given and wasted. That practice has been changed to prepare each dose of vancomycin 2 - 3 hours before time of administration. As a result, number of wasted doses has decreased significantly. Consequently, hospital resources are saved and shortage of essential materials is prevented.
399 Nutrients Anti-Nutrients Interaction in Millets and its Effect on Malnutrition, Naved Akbar
Malnutrition problem, which is derived from having insufficient amount of nutrients like minerals, essential vitamins and other macronutrients (proteins and carbohydrates) in our daily diet. After the pandemic, the prevalence of under nourishment jumped from 8.0 in 2019 to around 9.3 percent in 2020 and continued to rise in 2021. Malnutrition problem can be reduced by adding the nutrients in our daily diet. Millets are the excellent source of minerals, vitamins, proteins and carbohydrates. But some anti-nutrients (oxalate, phytate) present on them interact with nutrients (like minerals, vitamins) and reduce its bioavailability in millets. To over- come this malnutrition problem, anti-nutrients should be removed in crops like millets. There are many biofortification methods used by scientists to improve the nutritional content time to time. However, it is necessary to know the current status of these anti- nutrients and identify those genes which are responsible for the accumulation of these anti-nutrients in millets. Thus, for better hu- man health and physical wellbeing, it is most important to take bio-fortified foods containing fewer anti-nutrients.
400 Physiological Workload of Obese Chilean Miners Working at Altitudes between 3900 and 4200 Meters above Sea Level, Elías Apud , Esteban Oñate, Jorge Espinoza, Eduardo Lecannelier
Acta Scientific NUTRITIONAL HEALTH (ISSN:2582-1423) Volume 6 Issue 12 December 2022 Physiological Workload of Obese Chilean Miners Working at Altitudes between 3900 and 4200 Meters above Sea Level Elías Apud 1 , Esteban Oñate1 *, Jorge Espinoza 1 and Eduardo Lecannelier2 1 Department of Ergonomics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Concepción, Chile 2 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Concepcion, Chile *Corresponding Author: Esteban Oñate, Department of Ergonomics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Concepción, Chile. Research Article Received: October 03, 2022 Published: November 11, 2022 © All rights are reserved by Naved Akbar. Abstract Mining work in mountainous regions is frequently carried out at altitudes between 3,000 and 5,000 meters above sea level and even higher. Nowadays, there is consensus that subjects, performing identical dynamic physical activities, achieve lower perfor- mances at high altitude than at sea level, with equal or greater physical strain. This can be risky for people with chronic diseases, especially respiratory, circulatory, and metabolic conditions. Consequently, the main objective of this study was to evaluate the heart rate in situ of obese workers, who carried out their activities in a mining company, whose tasks are located in a range between 3,700 and 4,200 meters above sea level. The study was performed in 20 male miners, who carry out different jobs. The sampling was for convenience since the workers were chosen from a group whose body mass index exceeded a value of 30. All of them had medical pass to work at altitude. Follow- ups were done continuously during one shift per miner. Heart rate was measured with POLAR® monitors, simultaneously with time studies. Results showed that 80% of workers under the age of 45 did not exceed recommended limits of physiological load, while in those over 45, 80% reached higher average heart rates than recommended. It was also found that miners were exposed to high peak loads, which in extreme cases exceeded 140 heartbeats per minute. There was a significant correlation between the average heart rate and the peak of heartbeats. A more detailed analysis of two subjects with obesity class II, one with a sedentary job as operator of a frontal end loader and the other carrying out field activities as surveyor assistant, showed statistically significant differences in the physiological response to work. It is concluded that depending on the type of activity, working at high altitude, may excessively overload the cardiovascular sys- tem. Therefore, the prescription of exercise and diet has to be under control of specialists and, in this sense, ergonomics can provide very useful information to understand the impact of work. The approach proposed in this study is laborious, but these miners face daily high-risk tasks carried out in extreme environmental conditions that cannot be modified. Therefore, knowledge of the physi- ological response, even with basic indicators such as heart rate, is important in ergonomic studies at high altitude, because may help to improve the organization of work to avoid dangerous peak loads.
401 Modeling Weight Growth in Farm Animals, Mohamed Amine Ferchichi, Mohamed Aroua, Bayrem Jemmali
Statistical modeling offers a sure way and improves the accuracy of mathematical description for quantitative trait of farm animals. It simplifies making breeding decisions regarding provided summary information’s. Different empirical mathematical func- tions have been proposed to describe weight growth. By describing the growth by simple functions whose parameters have most often biological significance, growth curves allow comparison of the rate of development of animals, or to assess the effects on growth of selection, gender or different ecological fac- tors. Nevertheless, it is hard to believe that these functions with three or four parameters could explain in a precise way a phenom- enon as complicated as growth from birth to death. It is important to choose the right model because an inappropriate model can lead to errors in the conclusions and less precise estimates.
402 Action of Bioactive Compounds on Inflammation Via Nuclear Factor-Kappa B In Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases - Insights for Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Bruno Holanda De Sanctis, Fabio Moreira and Carlos Toledo Cerqueira
The transcriptional factor called NF-kB factor is responsible for modulating the inflammatory process and its deregulated acti- vation is related to the genesis and progression of NCDs, due to the activation of genes encoding inflammatory proteins. NCDs have been growing sharply in recent years around the world and generate too much burden on health systems, and it is of paramount importance to reduce their incidence. The BC present in fresh foods have shown great potential in inhibiting the NF-kB cascade. The aim of the study was to verify, through a literature review, BC suppressors of NF-kB. 47 articles were found, 26 with in vitro experi- ments, 7 in vivo with murine and 13 reviews and 1 clinical trial of the post-genomic era. Literature review has shown that ECGC, Curcumin, Resveratrol, Gingerol, Sulfuraphanes, Quercetin, Capsaicin and Omega III were able to suppress NF-kB by inhibiting IKK kinase and consequent inhibition of phosphorylation/degradation of IkB-α kinase, inhibition of translocation of the p65 subunit to the cell nucleus and suppression of NF-kB activating ROS. Keywords: NF-kB and Inflammation; Bioactive Compounds and NF-kB; Phenolic Compounds and NF-kB; Eicosapentaenoic Acid and NF-kB; Bioactive Compounds and Inflammation
403 The Impact of Ketoanalogues on Nephropathy Progression in Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease Older Patients, Gustavo Aroca-Martinez , Angélica Sierra , Luis Barros-Camargo , Adolfo Pertuz-Pinzon , Daniela Dianda, Andrés Cadena-Bonfanti, Carlos G Musso
Introduction: Advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be treated with conservative care or renal replacement therapies. CKD is associated with an increased risk of nephropathy progression, and death. Therefore, slow down CKD progression is crucial, and there is consensus regarding protein intake regulation benefit in delaying this progression. Ketoanalogues are nitrogen-free analogs of essential amino acids which supplements low protein diets. Thus, it was decided to evaluate if keto diet had benefit in reducing CKD progression. Material and Method: It was evaluated if there was a significant difference in CKD progression between two groups of stage 4-5 CKD patients: one group on keto diet, and one group with standard low protein diet. All patients received standard CKD treatment, and monthly eGFR (CKD-EPI) was documented. All evaluated parameters were compared between their initial and final values (delta value) in each group, and between the groups. Student and Wilcoxon tests were applied for data analysis. Results: From 140 stage 4-5 CKD old patients, 38 patients were randomly assigned to keto diet, and the rest (n: 102) were assigned to standard reduced protein diet (control group). Both groups were followed up during 12 months. There was no significant differ- ence between initial and final eGFR values neither in keto nor in control groups. Additionally, there was no significant difference between eGFR delta values between the two groups. Conclusion: There was no significant eGFR in older CKD patients neither on keto diet nor on standard CKD diet.
404 An Update on Role of Curcumin in Colorectal Cancer-A Minireview, Kulvinder Kaur, Gautam N, K Allahbadia
Earlier we had reviewed the part of curcumin as an anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuro shielding, anticancer, hapatoprotect- ing, as well as cardio shielding actions. Further its bioavailability issues, bio effectiveness as well as safety parameters along with quality properties of Curcumin were further tackled, besides its role in PCOS. Here we tried to concentrate on the part of curcumin in Colorectal cancer (CRC). Diffusion of curcumin takes place via the cell membrane into the cell membrane endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria along with nucleus where its anti-oxidant characteristics get impacted. Hence its utilization has been recom- mended regarding chemopreventive, antimetastatic along with anti-angiogenic uses. Thus we conducted a minireview review on role on CRC with the utilization of search engines like PubMed, google scholar, web of science, Cochrane library from 1995 till date in 2022 with the utilization of MeSH terms like Curcumin; antioxidant actions; other anti-inflammatory actions; anti angiogenic actions; CRC; chemopreventive actions; ER stress; familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP); in vivo studies in animal models; in vitro studies. We found 2500 articles but selected only 53 articles for this review with the journals constraints of upto 50 references. No meta-analysis was done. In vitro studies conducted on human colon cancer cell lines illustrated that Curcumin hampered growth via cell cycle arrest at the G2/M along with G1 phase, besides crosstalk with numerous molecular targets. In vivo studies were conducted in mice having inflammatory along with genetic CRC in animal models possessing a chemopreventive action. regarding enhancement of bioavailabil- ity, it has been correlated with small particles that escalate its absorption on oral delivery with great outcomes in both inflammation as well as carcinogenesis. Furthermore curcumin utilization has been done in dietary formulation for CRC chemoprevention. These illustrated that in vivo along with in vitro anti carcinogenic characteristics in inflammatory along with genetic CRC.A synergestic ac- tion was pointed on utilization of unique dosages of the component that was lesser in contrast to experimentally utilized for single component. Thus with favourable actions in animal models, good scope of their working in humans preclinical studies.
405 Mineral Composition of Black Sea Herbal Shrimp Meat Palaemon Adspersus Rathke, 1837, Lebskaya Tatyana Konstantinovna, Bal-Prilipko Larisa Vatslavovna, Lebsky Sergey Olegovich, Slobodyanuc Nataliay Michaylovna
The qualitative and quantitative composition of macro-, microelements and radionuclides in the meat of the Black Sea grass shrimp in the pre-spawning and post-spawning periods of catch were investigated. And the following essential macro- and micro elements are identified: Ca, K, Na, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Li; conditionally essential: B, Cd, Pb, Sr; as well as toxic or poorly underexplored: Ag, Al, Va, Bi, Cs. The level of essential mineral elements in the meat of the Black Sea shrimp is significantly lower than the recommended physiological needs for them for an adult. The amount of Cr and Ni exceeds the physiological needs of a person per day (140 and 34 times, respectively), but significantly below the threshold of toxicity for these elements. The content of heavy metals and radionu- clides in shrimp meat does not exceed the permissible norms, which indicates its safety. The results of studies show the possibility of using shrimp meat in different fishing seasons for food purposes as an additional source of essential macro- and micronutrients. Keywords: Essential; Conditionally Essential; Toxic Macro; Microelements; Shrimp Meat; Catch Seasons; Safety; Heavy Metals; Ra- dionuclides
406 Let Food be Thy Medicine and Medicine be Thy Food in the 21st Century and Beyond, Sophonie Ndahayo
Healthy nutrition is one of the most effective and cost- effective ways to prevent and control the burden of many diet-related diseases and their associated risk factors, such as overweight and obesity pandemics, diabetes type 2, high blood pressure and some types of cancers. Recently, Covid 19 pandemic degraded the public health problems of the world and killed a good number of people of all ages and social economic status. Despite the knowledge of an old adage “let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food,” some people do not believe that a healthy diet can be used to prevent, control or treat some diseases such as Covid 19 that has overwhelmed health and allied professions services to date. However, some studies support the saying that food can be medicinal. This review identifies some empirical studies that proved effective healthy plant-based diets or interventions in the prevention and control of diseases including Covid 19 pandemic, skin diseases, and non-communicable diseases just to name a few examples.
407 Obesity Contributing to Heart Disease and Stroke: Epidemiological Data and Logic Model, Lisa Marie Portugal
Logic models are mechanism that can be utilized for evaluating, communicating, managing, describing, and planning health inter- ventions or programs. A logic model is a visual representation depicting relationships between the intended effects of an intervention program and planned activities. In addition, logic model tools can be helpful in stating assumptions underlying expectations that a program can work. A logic model tool can frame the context in which programs operate. This discussion focuses on a data-driven approach to a strategic program design addressing the public health challenge of obesity which can be a contributing factor to heart disease and stroke. A logic model depicting epidemiological data supporting a strategic education intervention program is included. Keywords: Obesity; Heart Disease; Stroke; Epidemiology; Education; Health Promotion; Logic Model; Behavioral Interventions; Childhood Obesity; Nutritional Disorders; Risk Factors; Community Obesity Education Program; Data-Driven Approaches
408 Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome, Early Malnutrition: Different Faces of the Same Process, Jorge Hernández-Rodríguez
After dealing for some years with experimental and Clinical Di- abetes Mellitus (DM), Metabolic Syndrome (MS) and Intrauterine Growth Restriction, (all technical details have been properly pub- lished and can be found in the corresponding literature) strongly called our attention the similarities of origin of all these three metabolic disturbances, briefly: all of them share the antecedent of early age abnormal metabolic traits, like an early abnormal han- dling of carbohydrates and lipids, with clinical signs of obesity and cholesterol mishandling. Other common trait is Insulin resistance, these metabolic changes may start in the prenatal period including nutritional stress particularly in the case of IUGR, predisposing to late adult illness. They also share the consequences of these early changes, namely cardiovascular alterations, at older ages. Follow- ing this line of thought we observed that they share pathophysio- logical metabolic abnormalities in adulthood an
409 Complementary Feeding Practices Associated with Malnutrition in Children Aged 6-23 Months in the Tshamilemba Health Zone, Haut-Katanga, DRC, 2021, Ngoy Bulaya Emmanuel, Mapatano Mala Ali, Banza Lubaba Nkulu Celestin, Chuy Kalombola, Mbayo Muganza Gérard, Tshibuabua Mutombo Bavon, Ngoy B. Patient, Kalume Tshinuishi Crédo, Mulungulungu N HO Déogratias, Luboya Numbi Oscar
Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the strength of association between inappropriate complementary feeding prac- tices and malnutrition in children aged 6-23 months in the Tshamilemba health zone in Haut Katanga, DRC. Method: In a cross-sectional household survey, using multistage random sampling, we assessed 575 mother-child pairs 6-23months. We recruited and trained supervisors from among the Assistant Nutritionists and interviewers from among the Community Relays. We used Excel for data entry and ENA for Smart, SPSS, and Open Epi for analysis. Results: Malnutrition (chronic, acute, and underweight) was commonly observed twice as much in children whose complementary diet was non-diversified than in those who consumed the diversified complementary diet (RP = 2.025 CI: 1.326-3.143; RP = 2.152 CI : 1.436-3.219 and RP = 2.221 CI : 1.013-5.468). In addition, acute malnutrition was twice as prevalent among children whose moth- ers did not practice minimal handwashing (PR = 2.633 CI : 1.784-3.891), among those whose households used unimproved toilets (PR = 2.284 CI : 1.535-3.395), but also among male children (PR = 2.48 CI : 1.332-4.783), and three times more among those born to unmarried mothers (PR = 3.268 CI : 2.060-5.186). Underweight was about three and four times more prevalent in male children (PR = 2.978 CI : 1.561-5.944) and in children who were not optimally breastfed (3.934 CI : 1.501-13.080), but four and three times more prevented respectively among children whose households had a high socioeconomic level (PR = 0.228 CI : 0.118-0.453) and among those whose mothers had attended antenatal care (PR = 0.339 CI : 0.143-0.881). Conclusion: Poor complementary feeding practices are potential causes of all forms of deficiency malnutrition in children 6-23 months. Sustainable local solutions must be envisaged by designing recipes based on nutritional principles, and on avthe ailability, accessibility, and acceptance of ingredients in every area. Keywords: Socio-Demographic Characteristics; Haut-Katanga; Malnutrition; Complementary Feeding Practices; DRC; Tshamilemba Health Zone
410 The Risk of Suffering from Depression is Between 25% and 35% Higher in those Who Follow a Western Diet, Patricia Jiménez Fontanals
Your brain works 24/7, even while you sleep. This means it re- quires a constant supply of energy. That "fuel" comes from the food you eat, and the quality of that food makes all the difference. Sim- ply put, what you eat directly affects brain structure and function and, consequently, mood. Today, the burgeoning field of nutritional psychiatry is discove- ring that there are many consequences and correlations not only between what you eat, how you feel and how you behave, but also the types of bacteria that live in your gut - which directly influence neural functions.
411 Futuristics “OMICS” in Sports Medicine, Simmi Kharb S; Urvashi Gurpreet Gill
Basic aim of “omics” in sports medicine is to improve perfor- mance and reduce the risk of injury in athletes. The performance of athletes is affected by genomic profile, diet, training, drug intake etc. Genomics hold the key for the future of sports medicine. Va- rious studies have reported on futuristic role of omics and moni- toring system in sports and existing evidences propose a scope of integrative research in biochemistry and sports medicine.
412 Viruses: A Short Review and Overview, Leonard W Heflich
Viruses dominate our lives today perhaps more than ever, im- pacting our social habits, families, education practices, travel and of course our health. All the better to inform ourselves. Viruses are everywhere in the environment: on surfaces we touch, the air we breathe, the water we drink or bath in and inside of our bodies. Most of these are benign and do not make their pres- ence known to us. Sea water, for example, is known to contain up to one million viral particles per milliliter [1]. Soil as well contains ten times as many viral particles as bacteria. Luckily for us most of these viruses infect bacteria and demonstrate no pathogenicity to humans. The presence of so many viral particles begs several questions: what are they doing there, what purpose do they serve, and where do they come from, among others. We cannot answer these questions. We know that nature is in balance when left un- disturbed and frugal with resources, so there is likely a reason for all these viral particles.
413 A Trap of RCT in Low Protein Dietary Therapy. Revaluation of Pro-Post Study for Dietary Intervention, Shaw Watanabe
The current trend of clinical research in the medical world, which highly evaluates “evidence-based medicine” only with the RCT methodology, is expected to be seriously reconsidered by those involved. What is important is the scientific truth and the patient’s life, and it is essential in dietary therapy for CKD. Since the report of Volhard [1]. Germany (1918) over 100 years ago, numerous publications have examined the clinical effects of a strict low-protein diet in patients with chronic renal failure (CKD) or uremia. In particular, the Giordano [2]. Giovannetti [3] diet, which appeared in the 1960s, combined with the develop- ment of starch products, quietly spread this diet worldwide. This is because the theoretical background and techniques of the two significant skeletons of a low-protein diet, the sufficient energy intake, and consideration of amino acid scores have been solidi- fied for a correct low-protein diet. A low-protein diet is effective in suppressing increases in urea nitrogen, K, and P levels, as well as acidosis. It has been recognized for prolonging life prognosis and delaying the introduction of dialysis therapy.
414 Provisional Classification of Wild Edible Fruits Based on their Nutrient Profiles, Francis Omujal, Peter Ochan, Paul Okullo, Patrick E Ogwang, Clement Akais Okia, Sheila Natukunda, William Olupot
Nutritional analyses of food have mainly focused on determining the nutritional composition. Few concentrate on their nutritional value. This study provisionally classified ten wild edible fruit types (WEF) growing in the Teso sub region in eastern Uganda by their nutritional value. Fruit pulps of Carissa spinarum, Saba comorensis, Sclerocarya birrea. Flacourtia indica, Vitex doniana, Strychnos spinosa Ximenia americana., Vangueria infausta, Vitellaria paradoxa and Physalis minima. were analyzed for proximate and mineral composition, and their recommended dietary allowance (RDA) per 100g were calculated. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HLA), Prin- cipal Components Analysis (PCA), and Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) were used to classify the fruits based on their nutrient compositions. Then the pulps were profiled for nutrients composition using the nutritious food index (NFI) model. The HLA returned two and three clusters at linkage distances of
415 A Review on Piper betle L.: Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, Extraction and Application in Food Product Development, Sangeetha Karunanithi, Gnana Moorthy Eswaran U, Proshanta Guha, Prem Prakash Srivastav
Betel leaf (Piper betle L.) is a rich source of nutrients which attracts attention. Betel leaves utilized in various form like extract, ex- tract oil and essential oil which contains 20 to 60 major and minor chemical compounds like eugenol (48.41%), estragole (16.12%), α-copaene (6.43%), anethol (2.62%) and eucalyptol (1.58%). This oil has been reported by several clinical studies to have poten- tial roles in disease management. However, 35-70% of betel leaves are lost during processing. Therefore, extraction of valuable compounds from surplus leaves act as one of the post-harvest loss reduction methods. The beneficial effect of betel leave extract is depending on the availability of chemical compounds which varies based on the extraction system. So, selection and application of suitable extraction techniques play a crucial role in the process. The utilization of betel leave in food products development is an emerging strategy in the growing economy. Its importance to explore the application of betel leaves in traditional and modern food system. This review focused on nutrient, potential health benefits, novel extraction methods, recent application of betel leaf oil and extract in food product development for human consumption and food preservation with the aim of providing suggestions for its exploitation.
416 Nutrition in the Effect of Globalization: A Sociological Perspective, Esmanur Aygan, Ayse Günes-Bayir
Nutrition is a vital event that is naturally affected by many physiological, psychological, economic and sociocultural factors. The need for nutrition is affected by environment and emotions which started with the human being. The nutrition was one of the basic requirements of sustaining life in the beginning and has gained various meanings with the development of humanity. It has become an inseparable part of life by affecting the culture over time. Nutrition includes eating, the production, processing, preparation and consumption of food and beverages. These stages, in which people are involved at every stage, are therefore influenced by the culture and form the eating practices of people and societies. Although the effect of sociocultural factors on nutrition is as old as nutrition, the study of this subject in sociology started as recently as the 20th century. Nutrition stands out with the socialization of health. It has led to the emergence of new research topics such as the sociology of food, sociological body perception, and the globalization of food. Globalization is a multifaceted phenomenon that describes the international mobility of knowledge, materials, capital and people. With globalization, the importance of distances has decreased and intercultural interaction has increased. With the increase in transportation, communication and marketing opportunities food has also become global, and with the universalization of habits and trends, the local nutrition cultures of societies have gradually deteriorated. Ease of access to food has reduced the importance and time allocated to food in developed societies, and societies have quickly become consumer societies. With fast and practical con- sumption coming to the fore in every aspect of life, the food culture has also changed, and nutrition, which used to take long hours of the day, has become a need that is passed over in a short time today. The diet which called fast food, has brought health problems and cultural discussions to the agenda. As a result of these discussions, the Slow Food movement, which started in Italy and developed against the fast-food culture, had wide repercussions. In this study, the effect of globalization on nutrition has been evaluated from a sociological perspective.
417 Demographic-Socioeconomic Determinants of Nutritional Status among Children Ages 6-59 months from Female Headed Households in Luapula Valley, Zambia, Cephas Zulu, Dorcus Mbithe, Irene Ogada
Children with good nutrition status live beyond the age of five, their growth is less affected, and they gain in height and weight. The objective of the study was to determine demographic and socioeconomic determinants of nutritional status among children ages 6-59 months from female headed households (FHHs) in Luapula Valley. Cross-sectional analytical study design was used with sample size of 228 children ages 6-59 months. Questionnaires were used to collect data on demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the studied FHHs. Children’s nutritional status was determined through measurements of weight, height/length and Mid Upper Arm Circumference, and also examination for the presence/absence of edema. Measurements were then used to compute nutritional status by use of ENA for SMART software, 2011. Results showed that 45.2% children were Stunted, 20.6% underweight, 6.6% wasted and 1.3% overweight. Wasting was 4.8% by MUAC and 5 children had oedema. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the predictors of children’s nutritional status were social cash transfer, Age of household head, size of the household and distance to the market. Therefore, it is recommended to foster programs that improve demographic and socio-economic status of female headed households and by implication children’s nutritional status.
418 Nutritional Habits of Physicians Working in Family Health Centers: A Case from Turkey, Nurten Çekal, Aysun Özşahin, Ve Esradeniz Doğan
This study was carried out on 211 physicians working in family health centers in Denizli in order to determine the nutritional habits of these physicians. The target population of the research consisted of all physicians (246 people) working in the primary health care in Denizli city center. No sample selection was conducted since it was desired to reach the entire population; but 85.7% (211 people) of the physicians were able to participate in the research. Research Data were collected from 28 Family Health Centers (FHCs) located in Denizli city center. 33.6% of the physicians included in the study were female and 66.4% were male. 78.7% of the participants in the study were married and 21.3% were single. The mean age of the physicians was 37.0 ± 9.24 years. As a result of the study, it was determined that 53.1% of the physicians were in the overweight and obese group. 30.8% of the physicians included in the study stated that they slept 6 or less hours a day. 28.9% of the physicians stated that they smoked, 40.3% of the physicians stated that they did not exercise at all, and 41.0% of the physicians stated that they exercised irregularly. More than half of the physicians (52.1%) stated that they did not have an adequate and balanced diet, 69.2% of the physicians stated that they did not receive training on nutri- tion, and 9% of the physicians stated that they did not remember whether they had received any training.
419 Antibacterial Capacity and Inhibitory Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Essential Oils on Gastrointestinal Transit in Rats, Saber JEDIDI, Foued ALOUI, Houcine SELMI, Kais RTIBI, Houssem SAMMARI, Hichem SEBAI
Objectives: The present study aims to determine the inhibitory effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils (ROEO) on gastroin- testinal transit in rats as well as the involvement of its antimicrobial properties in such protection. Methodology: The antibacterial power of the oils was evaluated against bacteria (2 Gram - bacteria, 2 Gram + bacteria) by the dif- fusion method on agar medium. The gastrointestinal transit (GIT) was assessed using charcoal meal method. In this respect, female Wistar rats were used and divided into six groups of eight each: control, ROEO treated groups. The last two groups were pretreated with clonidine and yohimbine, two reference molecules, which accelerate and delay TGI, respectively. Results: Our results demonstrated that the SOEO exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, with a great effect against Gram+ strains compared to the Gram-. On the other hand, in vivo study showed that the ROEO significantly, and dose dependently, decreased the GIT activity. However, clonidine and yohimbine respectively decreased (39.76%) and increased (13.93%) the GIT. Conclusion: In conclusion, we suggest that ROEO had a potent inhibitory effect on gastrointestinal transit due in part to its antimi- crobial properties.
420 Methodology of Experimental Research in the Technology of Storage of Dairy Protein Products, IV Buyanova, Vladimir Shrayner, Chayrana Kuular
Recently, the Russian market has been increasingly preferring products with long shelf life. Since dairy products belong to the category of perishables, the problem of maintaining their quality is relevant at the present time. Modern technological techniques for the use of cold can extend the shelf life for a long time (up to a year or more) and solve topical issues of the industry in transportation and improving the supply of high-quality products to the population. The research was carried out on the experimental stand of the tile freezer. The design made it possible to create low temperatures on the surface of the plate (at minus 43º C) with internal circulation of freon in them, creating high speeds of the freezing process of the object, which are the main factor in preserving the original properties of the product. We studied the freezing patterns and kinetics of the heat sink when freezing a block of cottage cheese weighing from 1.0 to 5 kg. In the course of the experiment, the regularity of the influence of the geometric dimensions of the cottage cheese block on the layer- by-layer crystallization of water and the duration of freezing were established. Intense heat dissipation and high freezing rates are characteristic of surface layers with the formation of a finely crystalline ice structure that preserves the quality of the frozen product. The relatively large cross-sectional size of the object block increases the duration of the crystallization front, slowing down the freezing rate of the middle and central layers. The remaining chemically bound water and physicochemical water of the microcapillaries does not participate in crystallization, remaining in a natural position, pre- serving the structure of cottage cheese. The time-consuming freezing process retains moisture for a long time in a supercooled state without noticeable diffusion
421 “Organic” Food - why Does it Matter?, Maria Kuman
The article underlines the advantages of the so-called “organic” food grown with organic fertilizers (caw, horse, or chicken ma- nure): good taste and flavor, rich of vitamins and minerals, etc. Just as healthy is the food grown with classical music as a stimu- lant (instead of fertilizer) - it has good taste and flavor, it is rich of vitamins and minerals, etc. Unfortunately, classical music was not accepted as a stimulant because of the lack of understanding how it works. The article goes further to explain that the mu- sic influences the aura of the plants, which is emotionally sensitive (according to my almost 40 years of study of the aura). My studies found that: 1/the aura is weak informational field - nonlinear electromagnetic field (NEMF) capable to imprint informa- tion; 2/this weak informational NEMF (seen as aura) rules and regulates everything in all living beings, not with its strength, but with the information it carries. If so, the music (by influencing the aura) influences the whole development of the plants. Keywords: "Organic” Food; Artificial Fertilizers; Organic Fertilizers; Music Stimulates Plant Growth; Explaining the Effect of Music
422 Application of Engineering Strategies in Food Plant Materials for the Prevention of Diseases Resulting from Oxidative Stress: A Bibliometric Analysis, Jhonatan Andrés Rodriguez Manrique, Yessica Yulieth Julio Pérez, Erika Paola Arroyo Martínez, Valeria Diaz Ríos, Melba Vertel Morinson
The development of products for the prevention of diseases derived from oxidation reactions in humans is an essential contribu- tion to the improvement of their quality of life. However, to achieve this purpose it is essential to identify scientific and technologi- cal aspects that allow to preserve the faculties that plant materials have to counteract oxidation reactions. Based on the above, the objective of this study was to perform a bibliometric analysis of the application of engineering processing strategies in food plant materials for the prevention of diseases derived from oxidative stress in humans. Methodologically, a systematic search process was carried out using a search equation in scientific and freely accessible databases. The results obtained were processed using descrip- tive techniques, creation of bibliographic coupling networks (Network) and analysis of association strength of bibliographic coupling (normalization). The results were visualized through multiple correspondence analysis in qualitative variables, network mappings and identification of common concepts by K-means grouping (cluster). The results allowed to identify the contribution to the central theme from two clusters. One of them focused on engineering aspects related to the application of instrumental techniques for the analysis, design and development of products for disease prevention and the other, oriented towards the pharmaceutical area and possibly the de- velopment of medicines. It is concluded that the central topic of the study is an area of interest for many countries of the world that are making contributions from their perspectives supported by the formation of cooperation networks. Among them, the generation of knowledge in Asian countries such as China stands out, which leads the scientific production oriented towards the application of engineering and pharmaceutical strategies for the prevention of diseases based on food.
423 Development of Finger Millet Based Value-Added Product Enriched with Moringa olifera Leaves Using Different Drying Characterization and Nutritional Composition, Dupade RN, Bornare DT, Jaiswal SG, Aitwar SS
Objective: To de Development a finger millet Composite Value-added product Enriched with Moringa Olifera leaves using different drying characterization and Nutritional Composition. Material and Methods: Plants and Cereals can be utilized for the development of food products enriched with nutrients for all age groups of people. Considering mentioned point, the major objective of the research study was to develop a Finger millet (Ragi) forti- fied with a Moringa oleifera leaves-based Nutritional Bar. Result: The moisture content of tray-dried samples is higher as compared to sun-dried samples 5.13-1.5% respectively. The protein content found in the sun-dried sample was 25.76-25.34% respectively. Nutritional bars are nutritious for health with their effects to reduce health problems like diabetes, Malnutrition. Selected T1 sample i.e., with 5% moringa leaves powder was found to have 19.8% protein,5.74% fat,16.02% fiber,1.07%Ash, and 55.26% Carbohydrate. The present investigation also deals with the mineral content present. Compared control sample 12.4% protein 9.76% fat,2.66% fiber,8.01% Ash 66.67% Carbohydrate. Conclusion: The present investigation also deals with the minerals content present in Nutritional Bar in ppm i.e., 34.84 Ca,17.65 Mg, 2.89 Fe, 22.19 Na, 12 K, and also in Control sample 30.88 Ca,12.34 Mg, 2.11Fe, 19Na,10K per 100/g respectively. Due to less moisture content, the TPC result for 20-day -old, 5×103 CFU/g = 5000 sample, and for the fresh sample, the microbial count is absent. Vitamin C and Antioxidant are 13% and 43.63 and Present respectively. The important phytochemical compounds found in GC-MS are Vita- min E, Phytol, and n-Hexadecenoic acid (Palmitic acid), which possess antioxidant activity.
424 Bioactive Compounds and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Mountain Tea Extracts (Sideritis), Patramanis Nikolaos
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the extraction method on the yield of phenolics and flavonoids, as well as the profile of the main antioxidant components found in hybrid cultures of Sideritis scardica and Sideritis syriaca. In addition, the antioxidant and antimicrobial capacity of Sideritis syriaca extracts was studied. Methodology: The methods used for the extraction of phenolic and flavonoid components were the following: wetting of the solid sample, ultrasonic assisted extraction, USAE (Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction) and microwave assisted extraction, MAE (Microwave Assisted Extraction). Also, bioactive components of the extracts were identified by liquid chromatography LC UVDAD/ESI-MS meth- od. The presence of phenolic components was determined by the FolinCiocalteu method. Finally, DPPH and FRAP tests were per- formed to quantify the antioxidant capacity of the extracts, as well as tests against bacterial strains (S.aureus, E.feacalis, E.coli) to check their antimicrobial capacity. Result: The most effective extraction method of the phenolic and flavonoid components of Sideritis scardica and Sideritis syriaca extracts, was the ultrasonic assisted method (USAE). Some of the bioactive compounds identified in the extracts were chlorogenic acid, phenyltannoic glycosides as well as flavonoid glycosides. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were found, which are related to the phenolic concentration of the extracts. Conclusion: From the findings of the study, mountain tea can be considered a potential functional beverage and a valuable source of bioactive ingredients in a wide range of products.
425 Nutrient Retention, Carcass and Organ Characteristics of Finisher Broilers Fed Palm Press Fibre Meal, Juliana Nneka Ikpe, Emmanuel Chukwuma Oko, Ibukun Caroline Vining-Ogu
The quest for ways to solve the present soaring cost of chicken has lead to the exploration into the use of Palm Press Fibre (PPF) to substitute maize in feeding broiler birds. PPF is a high fibre agricultural waste product and high fibre feed ingredients are known to exert negative consequences on the carcass and organ characteristics of broiler birds. This research therefore understudied the nutrient retention, carcass and organ characteristics of finisher broilers fed different substitution rates of maize with Palm Press Fibre Meal (PPFM). A total of 240 ROSS 308 breed of finishing broilers of 28 days post hatch were used for the experiment follow- ing a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). Each treatment group had sixty broiler birds that were replicated three times to obtain twenty birds per replicate. The control diet (TI) contained no PPFM, while T2, T3 and T4 diets contained 10%, 20% and 30% PPFM re- spectively which represents 16.67, 33.33 and 50% substitution rates of maize. The birds were managed under deep litter system and fed adlibitum for 28 days. After which, the 3 broilers were slaughtered for carcass and organ assessment while another set of 3 broil- ers were put in a metabolic cage for nutrient retention assessment. Result of the proximate composition showed PPFM contained 12.61% Crude protein, 7.21%Crude fibre, 3.32% Ether extract and 6.87% Ash. The live weight of the broilers were significantly bigger for control and T2 but reduced for T3 and T4. The eviscerated weight in percentage live weight was similar (P > 0.05) for T1, T2 and T3 groups but reduced for T4 group. Also, the thigh and drumstick (%lw) had the highest value for the control which was similar (P > 0.05) with T2 but differed (P 0.05) with that of T2. There was a progressive increase in the gizzard size as inclusion rate of PPFM increased in the diets. Crude protein retention was significant (P > 0.05) reduced at T4. It was concluded that substitution of maize with PPFM can cause increase in gizzard size, not toxic to the broilers and protein retention can reduced when the inclusion rate increase to 50%.
426 Comparative Studies of the Proximate, Microscopic and Thermal Properties of Processed Maize, Wheat, Millet, Cassava and Bambara Nut Flours, Theophilus Maduabuchukwu Ikegwu, IRO Nkama, Ifeanyi Gabriel Okafor
This research investigated and compared the proximate composition, microscopic and thermal properties of some grains (maize, wheat, and millet), a root crop (cassava) and a leguminous crop (bambara nut) with the intent to formulate novel food product with the desired characteristics for industrial processing. The carbohydrate, moisture, ash, crude fat, crude protein and crude fibre con- tents ranged from 57.80-82.02%, 5.04-11.77%, 0.36-4.04%, 1.75-5.50%, 7.45-23.54% and 0.67-4.10%, respectively. The thermal properties showed that To, Tp, Tr and ∆H ranged from 79.85-86.36ºC, 86.02-90.26ºC, 89.67-95.44ºC and 0.80-39.07 J/g, respectively. Microscopically, the millet flour showed silvered-white indentations that evidenced presence of protein in the intact structure, unlike the other grains. The increased content of protein in the maize could be attributed to increased activity of α-amylase in the maize grain soaked for 48hrs. The DSC of the flours indicates the A+V-type polymorphs were present in the flours. Wheat and maize flours contained high values of the amylose that could have contributed to the increased values of the enthalpy in their flours, although maturity of the grain during harvest could influence the amylose content and consequently, the enthalpy of foods. The result of the FTIR- Spectroscopy revealed that the different samples had varying structural differences with different levels of orderliness in the structure. Furthermore, the millet flour possessed more ordered structure compared to the other grains. However, the bambara nut flour has the highest ordered structure.
427 Development of a Basic Chemistry Conversational Corpus, Maurice HT Ling, Syameer Musttakim, Poh Nguk Lau
Chatbot technology can be an important tool and supplement to education, leading to explorations in this area. Corpus-based chatbot building has a relatively low entry barrier as it only requires a relevant corpus to train a chatbot engine. The corpus is a set of human-readable questions and answers and may be an amalgamation of existing corpora. However, a suitable chemistry-based chatbot corpus catering for a freshman general chemistry course addressing inorganic and physical chemistry has not been devel- oped. In this study, we present a basic chemistry conversational corpus consisting of 998 pairs of questions and answers, focused on a freshman general chemistry course addressing inorganic and physical chemistry. Ten human raters evaluated the responses of a chatbot trained on the corpus and suggests that the corpus resulted in better response than random (t = 17.4, p-value = 1.86E-53). However, only 20 of the 50 test questions show better responses compared to random (difference in mean score ≥ 1.9, paired t-test p-value ≤ 0.0324), suggesting that the corpus provides better responses to certain questions rather than overall better responses, with questions related to definitions and computational procedures answered more accurately. Hence, this provides a baseline for future corpora development.
428 Hydrothermal Treatment on Reducing Saponins, Phytic Acid, and Oxalates of Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) Seeds, Harold Toros, Romel Guzmán-Alvarez
We studied the effect on three different varieties of sesame seeds (DV-9; Guesa-4 and Guesa-150 with bark and peeled, the applica- tion of a hydrothermal treatment at 55°C for 5; 10 and 15 minutes, on the reduction of antinutritional factors (saponins, phytic acid and oxalates). The most effective treatment in reducing antinutritional factors was the hydrothermal treatment without bark for 15 minutes because it reduced the content for the DV-9 variety, of saponins, phytic acid and oxalates by 22.54; 80.61 and 83.25% respec- tively, for the Guesa-4 variety by 12.78; 71.71 and 79.59% respectively and for the Guesa-150 variety by 10.43; 66.72 and 90.46% respectively. These results indicate that anti-nutritional factors (saponins, phytic acid and oxalates) can be reduced in sesame seed with simple and effective processes that could be used by growers without any expensive equipment.
429 Proximate Evaluation on the Various Parts of “Ede Ocha”, a Cultivar of Xanthosoma sagittifolium (L.) Schott Found in Anambra State, Southeastern Nigeria, Regina O Anona, Chinelo A Ezeabara, CU Okeke, HC Chukwudi
Cocoyam is a major source of sustenance and livelihood in Nigeria. The proximate evaluation on the corm, petiole and leaf of “Ede ocha” (white flesh) were carried out on dry matter bases using standard laboratory procedures. Test of significant was measured using the Least Significant Difference (LSD). High concentrations of moisture and carbohydrates were found in the corm. Crude fibre and fat content were detected in the petiole. Highest levels of protein and ash were present in the leaf. This study, therefore, suggested the nutritional benefits abound in the various parts of the plant.
430 Nutritional Status and Prevalence of Anaemia among In-school Adolescents in Urban and Rural Secondary Schools in Nsukka Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria, Ugwu Chinonso Victoria, Aloysius Nwabugo Maduforo, Agatha Nneka Obayi
The prevalence of malnutrition in Nigeria has been an age long problem. There is dearth of data on the magnitude of nutrition sta- tus and anaemia among adolescents in Nigeria; moreover there are consequential effects of iron deficiency anaemia. Iron deficiency anaemia is a major global and public health problem affecting many people. The study assessed the nutritional status and prevalence of anaemia among in-school adolescents of urban and rural communities in Nsukka local government area, Enugu State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study of stratified simple random sample by ballot without replacement was used to select 375 in - school adolescents (10-19 years) of government owned secondary schools in Nsukka Local Government Area. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, and health information were elicited with the use of validated questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained from 20% (75) of the sample size (375) to assess biochemical parameter (haemoglobin (Hb). Biochemical data was categorized with WHO standards to classify anaemic and normal subjects. Data was subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical Product and Service Solution version 21. Descriptive result was presented as frequency, percent, mean and standard deviation. Inferential analysis was performed with Pear- son’s correlation and chi-square, significant level was set at p < 0.05. Result showed that 69.3% of the respondents were females, while 30.7% were males. More (48.5%) of the respondents were in the age range of 14-16 years (middle adolescence). Result ob- tained from the Hb indicated that 25.3% of the respondents were anaemic. There was a statistical significant (p < 0.05) association between BMI class and iron status of respondents. The study shows that a substantial amount of the adolescents were underweight and had iron deficiency anaemia.
431 Nutrigenomics and Psychological Disorders, Simmi Kharb, Urvashi
Nutrigenomics is a rapidly emerging multidisciplinary science that aims to explore the effects of nutrients on the genome, proteome, and metabolome, and elucidate effect of genetic variation on the interaction between diet and disease. In coming year, significant advances are anticipated in nutritional genomics in order to understand psychological disorders, their prevention and treatment.
432 A 5-Year Systematic Review (2018 to 2022) on The Effectiveness of Mediterranean Diet in Preventing Alzheimer’s Disease, Nur Khairina Binte Azan, Ariel SY Ng, Farij Bin Samsudi , Muhammad Rusydi Bin Mazlan, Yuan Kai Loh, Maurice HT Ling
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an age-related neuronal disorder characterized by abnormal levels of proteins, beta amyloid (Aβ) and tau, resulting in gradual loss of cognitive functions due to impaired network of neurons in the brain. Past literature has proposed dietary interventions through administration of Mediterranean Diet (MD) as a solution to prevent AD development. A systematic review on the effectiveness of MD in preventing AD is executed up to July 3, 2022, using PubMed as source database within the last 5 years between 2018 to 2022. 131 articles were identified, and 26 articles were included in this review. After analysing the articles, 5 themes were identified to examine the effectiveness of MD: namely, (a) MD adherence and AD risk (b) MD and AD pathological development, (c) MD and cognitive health (d) Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) diet, and (e) Diet-microbe interaction. MD adherence is a vital factor in achieving successful dietary intervention. Various covariates and demographics affect adherence level. Differing evidence from literature discuss MD’s efficacy in preventing AD. MD is concluded to be effective to a certain extent in preventing Alzheimer’s disease due to various factors such as adherence levels, demographics etc and further longitudinal and randomised control trials (RCT) are warranted.
433 Comparative Studies on the Phytochemicals of Leaf, Stem and Root of Mimosa Pigra L., Henry C Chukwudi, Regina O Anona, Chinelo A Ezeabara, Clement U Okeke
Comparative studies on the phytochemicals of leaf, stem and root of Mimosa pigra L. were carried out using standard techniques. All statistical analysis was carried out at 5% level of significance using analysis of variance. The phytochemical composition of M. Pigra varies with part of the plant. Flavonoid was only present in the root and cardiac glycoside was absent in the leaf of M. Pigra. The phytochemical composition of the stem is more than any other part of the plant.
434 Eating Behavior of type 2 Diabetic and/or Hypertensive Patients, Antonio Orlando Farias Martins-Filho, Caroline dos Santos Leal, Diana de Araújo Eymael, Débora Simone Kilpp, Lúcia Rota Borges, Anne y Castro Marques, Ana Maria Pandolfo Feoli, Renata Torres Abib Bertacco
Background: Obesity, diabetes mellitus and systemic arterial hypertension constitute the main chronic non-communicable diseases associated with inadequate nutrition. The main challenge to control these diseases are lifestyle changes, adherence to dietary and pharmacological treatment. To help patients achieve lifestyle changes, an important step is to identify behavioral profiles. The aims of this study were to characterize the eating behavior of patients with diabetes and hypertension, and to compare its domain scores between genders, body mass index and age groups. Methods: This cross-sectional study assessed the characteristics of eating behavior domains of diabetic and hypertensive patients in the Diabetes and Hypertension Center of the Federal University of Pelotas, using the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. In addition, it compared the behavioral patterns between sex, age groups and nutritional status. Results: A total of 97 volunteer patients were included and the majority was elderly (60.82%), women (61.86%), and the mean age was 62 ± 11.15 years old. Overweight was present in 88.66% of the total sample, and obesity in 65.79% of the adults. Cognitive Restraint was the highest score domain in this sample. Women scored higher in the Emotional Eating domain (p < 0.003) than men. Adults presented significantly higher scores in the Emotional Eating (p < 0.001) and Binge Eating (p < 0.010) domains when com- pared to the elderly. An association between overweight and Emotional Eating (p = 0.003) and Binge Eating (p = 0.028) was found in the total sample. Overweight adults had a higher score for the Emotional Eating domain (p = 0.014) and obese adults had a higher score for the Emotional Eating domain (p = 0.036) and Binge Eating domain (p = 0.041). Conclusion: In conclusion, Cognitive Restraint was the domain with the highest score in this sample. Furthermore, an association between overweight, Emotional Eating and Binge Eating scores was found. Women scored higher in the Emotional Eating domain than men, and adults presented significantly higher scores for the Emotional Eating and Binge Eating domains than the elderly.
435 With the EU Regulations for the Use of Single-Use Plastics, Consumers have a Question: are the Bio-Based Alternative Materials a Risk for Coeliacs?, Van Der Hofstadt Rovira M; De Abreu Rodrigues C; Campos Caamaño A ; Martín-Cabrejas I
Currently, biodegradable tableware (cutlery, plates, straws...) made of wheat or other cereals is in use. Today, the number of alternatives to plastic is increasing fastly. While coeliac sufferers share the concern for taking care of the planet, nonetheless there is a worry about how safe are these materials are for people on a gluten-free diet. What happens when they eat a gluten-free dish from a plate made of wheat bran? And what happens if they also use a, a knife, fork, and spoon made from the same material? Or if they drink a smoothie through an edible straw? Does this contami- nate their food or drink with gluten? Although the regulations are different in each country, it is true that many restaurants and food producers are using this type of tableware made from bio-based materials that are more respectful of the environment. It is even more common regarding take away food, food trucks, or events such as festivals, making it extremely difficult for coeliac patients to eat safely because they have to ensure there is no cross-contam- ination at these places. This fact is not always easy, and they need to have a back-up plan.
436 Utilizing Tocopherols/Phytosterols Obtained from Pequi (Caryocar brasiliansis Camb.) for Complementing Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer treatment/alone -New Herbal Therapy for Improving 5-year Survival- A Short Communication, Kulvinder Kochar Kaur, Gautam Nand K Allahbadia, Mandeep Singh
The incidence along with mortality of cancer is escalating at a fast pace all over the world with Breast Cancer (BC) represent- ing a commonest cancer which is diagnosed in females as well as biggest etiology for mortality amongst them [1]. The utilization of novel drugs in addition to alternative treatments which work against cancer in view of manipulation of the immune system that get derived from the natural products like fruits is intriguing in view of considerable decrease in inimical actions. Induction of tu- mor cell demise in particular is necessary with normal cells not getting influenced or these actions are decreased to the minimum. Intriguingly, the utilization of peripheral blood is done which is of interest regarding evaluation of the functional capacity of sub- groups of immune cells
437 Features of Flax Seeds and their use in the Production of “Tahini.”, Ismoil Babadjanovich Isabaev, Anvar Shavkatovich Khudaykulov, Nafisa Radjabovna Djuraeva, Ulugbek Muradilloyevich Ibragimov
Research on the use of natural enrichment additives from vegetable raw materials is becoming increasingly important in solving the problem of providing the population with a complete and nutritionally balanced diet. The article covers a method for solving this urgent problem on the example of “Tahini” sesame paste, characterized by a reduced content of polyunsaturated fatty acids of the ω-3 family, in particular, α-linolenic acid. Authors used non-traditional raw materials for this product in order to enrich the paste. The purpose of research was to develop a recipe and technology for the production of sesame paste with the additional use of oil flax seeds to increase the nutritional value of the product. The task of research was to determine the possibility of using oil flax seeds for partial replacement of sesame seeds in the recipe of Tahini paste to enrich its chemical composition with essential fatty acids of the ω-3 family and minor biologically active nutrients. The objects of research were sesame seeds of the variety “Tashkentsky - 122” (GOST 12095-76. Sesame for processing. Specifications), flax seeds of the oilseed variety “Bakhmalsky - 2” (GOST 10582-76. Oil flax seeds. Industrial raw materials. Specifications), “Tahini” sesame paste (TS 10.39.22-2019. “Tahini” sesame paste, peanut butter, and other nut butters. Specifications). The experimental part of the work was carried out in the laboratories of the “Food technology” Department of the Bukhara Engineering-Technological Institute. The dependence of the influence of oil flax seeds on the quality and nutritional value of the finished product has been described. During the research, traditional methods for the laboratories of food production enterprises in order to study the properties of raw materials and finished products have been used. Effectiveness of the use of this additive to increase the nutritional value of the pasta has been substantiated. The authors consider it possible jointly using sesame seeds and oil flax in the production of “Tahini” sesame paste.
438 Influence of Body Image Perception on Dietary Practice and Behaviour Among Adolescents, Mistella Safoaa Kyeremateng
An adolescent is any individual between 12 and 21 years of age [1]. Adolescence is a very crucial period characterized by quick physical growth and sexual maturity changing from childhood to adulthood [2]. It is a thrilling but challenging stage of human devel- opment [1]. Adolescence is largely the most dynamic and multiplex transitional period of life marked with physical, psychological and social developmental changes [3]. Changes that occur in adolescence are not independent of each other but are constantly interact- ing with one another [4]. Some physiological changes that can be noticed include, rapid physical growth coupled with maturation of basic sexual characteristics and development of secondary characteristics of sex [4]. The rapid growth and development seen during adolescence is a substitute of the gradual growth process seen in early childhood [1]. The rapid growth process in adolescence that replaces the otherwise gradual growth process usually leaves the adolescent fascinated, charmed or horrified [4]. Cognitive and emotional changes leave the adolescent feeling more independent and gravitating towards peer influence and acceptance more than family values which creates conflicts between parents and children [1]. All these changes makes body image perception a constantly ever-changing concept easily susceptible to more change as the adolescent interacts with the social environment [4].
439 Contribution of Micronutrients to Boost the Immunity: “We Contribute for Human’s Healthy Life”, Srilatha Bashetti
Worldwide the leading cause for mortality and morbidity is widespread of viral infections. Well established public health practice to reduce the spread and severity of infections is by regular and timely vaccination, proper hygene and sanitization, etc., however, proper and sufficient nutrition is highly recommended to build-up an optimal immune function to fight against the infections and reduce its effect on the health of an individual. The micro-nutrients like vitamins and minerals help in supporting the immune system, contributing increase resistance to infections caused by various viruses. The aim of the review article is to throw a light of knowledge regarding the role of micronutrients and stating its importance to maintain a good health and quality of life. COVID-19, had explaind the importance of micronutrients and their role in reducing the burgen of infectious diseases. The article tries to give a public note and recommend every individual to have sufficient/optimal nutrion with supplementation of omega -3 fatty acids and all the other micronutrients to establish a strong immune system against infections and lead a healthy and fit life.
440 Problem of Malnutrition of Elderly People Living at Home in the District of Coleah (Commune of Matam), Ousmane SANGARE, Abdoulaye SANKHON and Ibrahima KABA
In Guinea, there is no data on the prevalence of un denutrition among elderly people living at home. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of under nutrition among the elderly and to contribute to the improve- ment of their diet. The results of this study show that a significant proportion of elderly people living at home have an altered nutritional status. The most affected were the male and those who lost their partners (widows and widowers). Indeed, out of a total of I 03 people surveyed in the Coleah district from 8 to 18 June 2018, we obtained the following results:D Ac- cording to the overall assessment of malnutrition, we found the following:One person (ie 0. 97%) out of the 103 respondents was severely malnourished, 19 (18.45%)were at risk of undmutrition and 83 (80. 58%) were in normal nutritional status D According to BMI, 8 out of 103 were underweight, 25 were overweight, 23 were obese an 7 had normal nutritional status. Keywords: Undemutrition; Elderly; Home
441 Cocoa and Hepatic Health, Nidhi Kaku
Cocoa, in the form of chocolate is one of the most known and universally relished product. Cocoa is a rich source of phenolic com- pounds, especially flavanols. The consumption of cocoa flavonoids has multiple health benefits by contributing to preventing or decreasing the risk of chronic diseases like certain forms of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, immune conditions, neurological con- ditions, diabetes, obesity and ageing etc. This review is designed based on the recent researches, highlighting the potential health benefits of cocoa flavanols related to the different liver conditions along with the molecular mechanisms involved. This paper reflects the antioxidant, anti-carcinogenic, lipolytic and genetic-modulating properties of cocoa at the hepatic level. Cocoa, thus, has been linked to improving the hepatic health.
442 Comparison of Histopathological Findings with Clinical Response among Patients Undergoing Consecutive Renal Biopsy for Lupus Nephritis in 2008-2021, Rafael Villadiego-Rojas, Gustavo Aroca-Martínez , Andrés Cadena-Bonfanti, Lil Geraldine Avedaño , Raúl García-Tolosa , Lucia Niño-Hernández , María de los Ángeles Vélez-Verbel , Lía Correa-Martínez, Javier Rodríguez-Murgas, Carlos G Musso
Introduction: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease involving several systems and has a high occurrence in areas such as the kidney, central nervous system, and vascular and serous structures. Furthermore, SLE poses a significant and increased risk of infections as well as an increase in morbidity and mortality. This increase is due to the presence of risk factors such as the use of corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and cytotoxic agents; changes in renal function; leukopenia, hypoalbuminemia; and alterations in both renal function and immunological profile (complement, anti-DNA). Renal biopsy (RB) is a safe method for obtaining renal tissue for the diagnosis and prognosis of SLE. Although complications, such as hemorrhage, are rare, if they do occur, they usually do so during the first 8-24 hours of the procedure. This diagnostic method is the best tool to diagnose lupus nephritis. Hence, we conducted a study to determine the histological changes in patients with lupus nephritis who were evaluated with consecutive biopsies from 2008 to 2021. Materials and Methods: An observational, analytical, and retrospective study was conducted using information collected from the RB database. Data on SLE and/or lupus nephritis recorded in this database by Clínica de la Costa uninterruptedly from 2008 to 2021. Patients with a diagnosis of SLE were selected based on at least four diagnostic criteria of the American College of Rheumatology. Those who had undergone renal puncture biopsy according to the consensus criteria of the group of systemic autoimmune diseases of the Spanish Society of Nephrology were selected. Results: A significant increase was observed in chronicity rates. Conclusion: Consecutive renal biopsy in LN allows early identification of the progress of the histopathological lesion. In this study, 30.7% of class III patients in their first renal biopsy presented histologicalprogress toward class IV in their consecutive biopsy. Keywords: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Lupus Nephritis; Consecutive Kidney Biopsies
443 Evaluation of Prebiotic and Antioxidant Potential of Citrus Peel Waste, Prabhjot Kaur, Monika Choudhary, Priya Katyal, Amarjeet Kaur
Background: In Punjab, citrus processing industries generate 40 million tones of citrus waste each year. Citrus fruit peels have been studied with reference to antioxidant potential and dietary fiber only. There are insufficient studies in context to the prebiotic poten- tial of citrus fruit peels. Prebiotic potential of the fruit peels may provide an option to develop functional foods with a cost effective ingredient. Materials and Methods: Citrus fruits such as kinnow (with or without albedo), lemon, and orange (with or without albedo) were purchased. Peels were separated manually and processed for further analysis. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analyzed using standard method. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to analyze prebiotic oligosaccharides and prebiotic potential of peels was also assessed. Results: The study concluded that the maximum total phenolic and flavonoid content was found in Orange without albedo (14.07 mg GAE/g) and (10.02 mg QE/g), respectively. Orange without albedo exhibited the highest antioxidant activity i.e., 82.97 percent RSA whereas orange with albedo showed maximum FRAP activity which was 17.32 mg FeSO4. The highest amount of total dietary fiber content was found in orange with albedo peel powder with an average value of 51.99 percent. However, kinnow peel without albedo showed the highest value for probiotic viability i.e., 7.61 CFU/ml. Conclusion: Kinnow peel without albedo with highest prebiotic potential may be used to develop prebiotic rich products.
444 Efficacy of Region-Specific Dietary Intervention on the Nutritional Status of Undernourished Farm Women, Neerja Singla, Poonam Bakhetia , Rohini Jain, Renuka Aggarwal
Keeping in view the poor diet quality of rural Indian women especially those belonging to low socio-economic status, in the pres- ent study an attempt was made to develop a Ready to Use (RTU) nutrient dense mixture from the indigenous and cost-effective ingre- dients like cereals, pulses, oilseeds etc. Out of various combinations, the one with a composition of Wheat flour: 50g, Chickpea flour: 25g, Green gram flour: 20g, Flaxseeds: 5g was selected and tested for the preparation of different food products which are consumed by rural Punjabi families commonly with the best organoleptic characteristics. Further, sixty farm women belonging to low socio- economic status were selected and were divided into two groups- Intervention (I) and Delayed intervention (DI) with 30 subjects in each group. Intervention group was provided with the mixture in their daily diets along with fortnight nutrition education for a pe- riod of four months, while no intervention was provided to delayed intervention group. Post-intervention, improved nutrient intake (in terms of increased energy, protein, fat, calcium and iron) was observed which resulted in a significant increase in weights (3.89 kg), body mass index (1.48 kg/m2) and heamoglobin (0.54 mg/dl) levels of the intervention group subjects. So, it can be concluded that the dietary supplementation along with the nutrition education can be an effective strategy to enhance the nutritional status of the women-a vulnerable section of the society.
445 Association Between Recent Changes in Breast Cancer Incidence and Food Intake among Japanese Women, Yuji Aoki, Hitomi Baba, Rika Tajima, Aki Sakamoto, Yui Nishizawa, Amane Niitsu
Age-specific incidence rates of breast cancer among Japanese women recently increased in a bimodal distribution pattern with two peaks in the premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. The recent incidence rates among premenopausal women in Japan appear to have exceed those in the United States. Focusing on diet in Japan during 2005 through 2015, changes in the incidence rates of breast cancer, different from those of colon cancer which is originally regarded to be increased by westernized lifestyle factors, negatively correlated with the intake of fruits, vegetables, algae, or fish and shellfish, whereas those positively correlated with the meat intake. The continuing increase in breast cancer incidence among Japanese women was associated with the recent change in food intake from the Japanese diet to the Western-like diet, especially among premenopausal women. From the relevant literature, the changes in food intake among Japanese women are inferred to possibly link with an increase in inflammation and estrogen levels.
446 Advances, Prospects and Concerns in Nanomaterials for Food Processing, Inobeme A; Adetunji CO
The advent of nanotechnology has boosted various sectors of human endeavors including food processing and packaging, the medical sector, and environment amongst others. It has improved the food industry significantly through enhanced food packaging, nutrient bioavailability and food preservation [1,2]. Nanomateri- als generally are considered as those particles having particle di- mensions lower than 100 nanometers at which their novel physi- cochemical properties make them significantly different from their bulk counterparts making them useful for various applications. Various investigations have been carried out and many more are in progress focusing on the potential usage of nanotechnology in the area of food packaging. Nanofood is a concept that is applied to food materials generated through the use of nanotechnology in production, processing, securing and packaging. Nanotechnol- ogy has outstanding potential in post-harvest processing of food [3,4]. The application of nanomaterials ensures food consisten- cies, which is attained through particle size modification, forma- tion of desired clusters as well as the surface charges of the food nanoparticles. Furthermore, the emergence of nano-mediated delivery systems for nutraceuticals, and the synergistic actions of nanoparticles in food security as further aided the advancement of this area. More recently, there are numerous consumable nano- coatings that are used in fruits, cheese, meat, bakery foods and fast food. Nanofilters have been adopted for the removal of undesired colours from beetroot as well as lactose from milk to make nano- modified milk available for patients that are lactose intolerant [5]. The introduction of bio-active nanomaterials into polymeric matri- ces further enhances the efficiency of the packaging materials and makes provision for enhanced functional components and attri- butes such as scavenging, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials. The formulation of various nanocrystalline particles has aided in the reduction of carbon dioxide inflow in beers.
447 Obesity and Mutations in Mc4r and Mc3r, Mercedes Dejuán Bitriá
Obesity is a multisystemic disease of great importance in global public health as it is one of the major risk factors for comorbidi- ties such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease or cancer. Several studies looking for the aetiology of this disease relate several external and internal factors to the development of the disease. Genetics has been shown to be an individual-specific factor with a broad effect on the development of obesity. There is a rs17782313 polymorphism in homozygous MC4R that has shown increased hyperphagia and hyperinsulinemia, lead- ing to early obesity. In turn, the heterozygous mutation shows milder forms of obesity with increased weight gain in response to large amounts of fat in the diet, thus inferring a dose-gene effect [1]. Another polymorphism with a similar condition but still under investigation is the MC3R receptor mutation. The various alternatives to solve this disease allude to weight loss through a combination of physical exercise and the search for early satiety. It is clear that the treatment of these patients must be both individual and comprehensive to address all the predispos- ing and developmental factors of the disease [2]. For this reason, the aim of the study is deepening in this little-known disease and name some of the dietary interventions used to handle the effects of the mutation.