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1 Pain , Dalamagka Maria.
Pain acts as a protective mechanism of the body, by forcing the person to react so that it is removed from the stimulus. It is im-portant not only for cases where there is marked tissue damage, but also for everyday simple activities. Thus, when a person sits on the hips for a long time, it is possible to damage the tissues due to the inhibition of the skin's blood supply to the places where the skin is compressed by body weight. When the skin starts to ache because of ischemia, the person completely unconsciously changes position. However, when the sensation of pain is lost, as is the case with spinal cord injury, the person cannot feel the pain and thus does not change position. This condition leads to ulcers in the area where the pressure is applied very quickly.
2 Improvement of the Strategy in Food Safety, through the Research Action, the Huacana, Michoacán. , Avila Serrato Salatiel
The creation of new mechanisms of social participatory action, constitutes the reformulation of the community organization, cor-responding to the transversal axes from the local to the inclusion and adaptation of globalizing parameters.That is why, through the research-action methodology, new reorganization alternatives are implemented in the microregion of Huacana, Michoacan; to include new gears of reorganization of production and food education, resulting in the increase in the use of the region's own foods to the usual diet.
3 Food Education in Times of COVID-19 , Agustina Larra
Junk food, low on nutrients and nutritional properties, bear-ing monotonous colors, with excessive amounts of sugar. These are, among others, the characteristics of the food that children are closer to.
4 500 Million People have a Food Allergy , Xavier Román.
Our metabolism, lifestyle, new nutritional habits or other envi-ronmental factors affect our body by producing changes that cause us to react with an allergy or intolerance when consuming certain foods.
5 Efficacy of Ketogenic Diet in Seizure Reduction in Epileptic Patients-A Review , Aamina Sabir, Hafiz Muhammad Ubaid Tayyib,  Faran Khan.
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked seizures of varying frequencies and intensity. Several pharma-cological treatments had been used previously for its treatment. However ketogenic diet has gained importance as non-pharmaco-logical therapy to epilepsy in recent years. This review aims to discuss the efficacy of ketogenic diet in epilepsy. Key words used for search include “ketogenic diet”, “epilepsy”, “childhood epilepsy” and “ketogenic diet side effects”. Studies conclude that ketogenic diet is an effective remedy in seizure reduction. It comprises of very high fat, low protein and very low carbohydrates. Seizure reduction is due to decrease in the amount of reactive oxygen species which is a result of high ketone bodies and low glucose levels achieved by the use ketogenic diet, hence improving the condition of epileptic patients. It has proven efficacy in patients with epilepsy resistance to pharmacological treatment. In children it has positive or no impact on cognition, mood and behavior of children along with its antiepileptic properties. However further researches must be carried out to highlight the impact of ketogenic diet on cognition and mood of children. As ketogenic diet is high in fats, its long-term use may alter the lipid profile of patients. Moreover, gastrointestinal disturbances, insulin resistance has also been observed. Studies also show that there still need of clinical trials and researches in adult epileptic patients.
6 Association between Nutrition Knowledge on Diabetes and Dietary Practice of People Living with Diabetes Mellitus in Nandi County , Kimutai Sagam Caleb.
Diabetes mellitus is growing fast the world is witnessing. The incidence of alarming concern health care providers is rapidly rising. The main burden of this disease will fall on all developing countries. The number of diabetic patients will reach 300 million by the end of 2025 it is known through the estimation mostly developing countries will have such dramatic and significant impacts. Methodology: The quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study design was used with convenient sampling (n = 200). There was a relatively good knowledge (76.16%) among patients on dietary recommendations in management of type 2 DM. Older patients had lower level of education on recommended dietary practices. Consequently, knowledge on need to carry candy as a first aid when one is hypoglycemic was low. In addition, knowledge on the need for patients with type 2 DM to keep the times one consume their meals (meal timings) as well as consume snacks in between main meals in order to reduce incidences of hypoglycemia was low. Level of formal education of patients with type 2 DM influenced strongly the assimilation of information provided by healthcare providers. Age was also strongly associated with how much a patient was able to grasp information and remember. Continuous education on recommended dietary prac-tices was noted as important. Compliance to recommended dietary practices was 59.6%. Unlike the level of knowledge which was influenced by various demographic characteristics like age and level of formal education, compliance was not influenced by any of the assessed demographic factors. While the level of knowledge was high at 76.2%, this was found not to directly translate to compliance to recommended dietary practices in management of type 2 DM. Compliance to recommended practices was not influenced by level of knowledge on recommended dietary practices in man-agement of type 2 DM. Support by those related/living with the patients was reported as one of the strong facilitator towards compliance. Management of type 2 DM was reported to be resource intense; financially and time wise. It was therefore some-times difficult for patients to balance all aspects of recommendations.
7 Suggestions on Food and Lifestyle for Fighting Corona Virus by Boosting Immunity - A Holistic Approach , Aparna Kuna, Prabhat Kumar Mandal.
The world is going through a most critical threat now due to the Corona Virus Disease, 2019 (COVID 19). Here is the summery of the preventive holistic approach for boosting immunity and fight the disease better from inside. Here we propose following sugges-tions for reducing the chances of infection or to reduce the severity if infected: Take protein rich foods (Meat chicken, fish, eggs, milk and milk products any kind of pulses, beans and nuts) daily. Take any available fruits daily, especially citrus fruits (gooseberry, lemon, sweet lime, orange, pineapple), apple, pomegran-ate, banana etc. Take herbs and spices (turmeric, ginger, garlic, cardamom, cinnamon, tulasi) especially black jeera (Kalonji), is very effec-tive for Corona. Fruits and herbs can be taken as raw, juice, extract or dry as available. If not available take supplements, Vitamin-C, E (Evion), B Complex (Becosules, Cobadex CZS), Zincovit etc. Eat more vegetables, especially salads (tomato, cucumber, carrot, capsicum, radish, onion), honey, avoid smoking and Alco-hol. Daily Exercise, Yoga, Pranayam (Bhrastika, Anulom-Vilom, Kapalbhati) Meditation, Chanting (Mahamrityunjay Mantra) will improve immunity. Walk in sunlight and fresh air (in Terrace or Balcony during lockdown) daily morning and evening is very helpful for im-munity. Relax, take enough Rest and Sleep that will boost immunity. Take only essential updates, too much informations in social media may cause anxiety. Drink more tea (Chinese Doctors reported very good effect of tea on the corona patients), more water (warm), enough coconut water and citrus juice if infected.10. Finally, don't panic, fear and anxiety reduces immunity, be mentally strong and positive, pray with Full faith or rely on Na-ture to boost immunity and fight Corona.
8 Self-Defense: A Practical Approach to Combatting COVID-19 , Salam A Ibrahim, Rabin Gyawali, Hafize Fidan.
In order to elucidate the importance of the immune system with regard to the spread, diagnosis, and treatment of the novel COV-ID-19, this paper aims to emphasize the need for a more holistic approach to understand and treat the COVID-19. We have provided an overview of why high quality nutrition is important for the immune system to function properly. To do this, we have summarized the current evidence available from information being reported by the health authorities and studies in human subjects, to support this opinion. Though the available data in the literature is relatively scarce, we also offer our own informed opinions on the role of human microbiota (probiotics) in creating a natural immunological defense system for combating COVID-19. We thus hope that this paper will help to inspire scientists from other fields such as nutrition immunology to be involved in order to provide consumers with a more global approach to fighting this epidemic. If we want to eliminate the threat of this novel coronavirus pneumonia, we must practically address this issue itself.
9 A Mini-Review on an Association between Nutrition and Mucosal Immunity in the Midst of the COVID-19 Pandemic , Kyoka Matsubayashi, Minami Yoshiike,Yuji Aoki.
In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, which the World Health Organization officially declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020, we write a mini-review on an association between nutrition and mucosal immunity. The human immunity consists of non-specific innate immunity recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns and subsequent adaptive immunity specific for the target an-tigens. The immune system of the intestine as mucosal immunity must have functions to defend against constant threat of invading pathogens while suppressing immune responses to harmless dietary antigens and commensal bacteria. Nutrition seems to have a major role in non-heritable influences on the innate and adaptive immunity. It has been demonstrated in humans that some nutrients including β-glucan have the potential to boost the mucosal immunity to viral infections. Conversely, it is conceivable that continuing supplementation of (large-dose) β-glucans or lipopolysaccharides can suppress the innate immunity by stimulating regulatory T cells. For now, the impact of nutrition on human immunity should neither be overestimated nor be underestimated.
10 Whole-Genome Sequencing of Lactobacillus fermentum and its Application as Probiotic in Poultry Feed , Rafia Sameen, Shakira Ghazanfar.
Aviculture is the efficient animal production system and good source of animal protein worldwide. Poultry gastrointestinal tract houses certain microbial communities with bacteria being dominant above all. These bacteria produce beneficial products and result in non-pathogenic immune response providing nutrition and protection for animals. Antibiotic treatment causes reduction of benefi-cial bacterial population in intestine which can be controlled by probiotic supplements. Probiotics play their role to control intestinal pathogens by competing for adhesion sites and nutrients, producing anti-bacterial substances. Lactic acid bacteria could be a good probiotic for animal use among which Lactobacillus fermentum is major heterofermentative specie found to have probiotic potential and can be used in supplements for animal feed. Its probiotic potential was well studied by its tolerance to inhibitory substances like bile and salt, its antimicrobial activity and evaluation by supplementing it in poultry feed. To identify probiotic properties of Lactobacillus fermentum, its whole-genome was sequenced and analysed. Whole genome sequencing is a DNA sequencing technol-ogy that has revolutionized genomic research. Whole genome is sequenced, assembled and annotated using bioinformatics tool and then analyzed. Galaxy is one of most commonly used genome analysis tool that provides data analysis support through framework, to give simple interfaces to certain powerful tools and automatically manage computational details. Following to evaluation of pro-biotic potential through certain parameters and whole genome sequencing, antimicrobial resistance can also be evaluated to make a decision about safety of L. fermentum use as probiotic in poultry feed. Administration of L. fermentum to poultry showed beneficial effects on their growth.
11 Lactic Acid Bacteria: Promising Role against Coronaviruses , Mahnoor Nadeem, Aimen Saleem, Hamza Ali, Allah Nawaz Khan, Shakira Ghazanfar.
Gram-positive, nonpathogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered to be promising candidates for the development of novel, safe production and delivery systems of heterologous proteins. LABs have diverse beneficial applications for human welfare. LAB plays an important role in the industry for the synthesis of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, or other useful products in food industry. Certain Lactobacilli can induce an increase in the cellular or humoral systemic immune response, it acts as a vehicle to insert gene to produce required protein of interest. Many of the researcher find out the best possible way to utilize the beneficiaries of lactic role to combat recent coronavirus pandemic lactic acid bacteria concerning COVID-19. New recombinant strains and vectors continue to be constructed and described in detail what can lead in the near future to standardization of LAB vectors in vaccine production. The development of new LAB recombinant strains and vectors continue to be constructed and described in detail what can lead in the near future to standardization of LAB vectors in vaccine production for COVID-19.
12 Impact of Covid-19 on Agriculture and Food Supply , Shiamala Devi Ramaiya.
The Covid-19 continues to wreak havoc on many countries and create a lot of changes in people's everyday lives all over the world. As the Covid-19 pandemic is raging across the world, the broader economic crisis is also emerging and creating major challenges to food security and nutrition. Many of the affected countries have implemented a regional lockout policy. This strategy enforced a plethora of Covid-19 security measures such as movement control, supermarket, restaurant and market closure, quarantines and sup-ply chain and trade disruption which greatly impacted agricultural production, food supply and demand.
13 The Relationship between Nutritional Status, Sleep Quality and Depression in Shift Workers , Merve Kiran, Perim Fatma Türker.
Shift work expands globally and it has become necessary to increase productivity and provide continuously service in various sectors like industry. It has been identified as an important risk factor in the etiology of metabolic disorders and chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of sleep quality and depression with nutritional status of shift workers. A total of 170 male rotating shift workers of an industrial organization aged between 20 - 55 years participated in this study. A questionnaire which consisted of demographic and lifestyle characteristics was used. Weight, height, waist and neck circumferences (WC and NC) of participants were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were also calculated. Body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sleep quality was assessed by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), while anxiety and depression were estimated through Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire. The average age of participants was 40.1 ± 6.87 years. Among the 170 shift workers, 44.7% of them were pre-obese, and 35.3% were obese. As BMI increased, the percentages of poor sleep quality increased. There were positive correlations between PSQI score and WC, WHtR and body fat mass, and a negative correlation between total body water, which were found to be statistically significant. There was no relationship between depression and BMI, WC, WHtR and body fat mass. Participants with depressive symptoms had significantly higher prevalence of risk based on NC. HAD-D score was inversely correlated with fat free mass. This study showed that pre-obesity and obesity is common in shift workers. The previously reported relationship between obesity and poor sleep quality is supported. Sleep quality get worse as WC, WHtR and body fat mass increase, while total body water decrease. Decrease in fat free mass is associated with the development of depressive symptoms. These associations need to be verified in large studies. Based on the results, appropriate strategies including both employer and worker should be performed to reduce the detrimental health outcomes associated with shift work.
14 The Effect of Storage Conditions on Physicochemical, Microbial and Textural Properties of UHT-Processed Cheese , Mahmoud Ibrahim El-Sayed, Sameh Awad, Amel Ahmed Ibrahim.
This study investigated the effect of storage condition (time and temperature) on physicochemical, textural and microbial properties of UHT-Processed cheese. The UHT-processed cheese was stored in controlled incubators at 4, 18, 32 and 37°C (the study plan used the recommended temperature (4°C), the average of temperature in winter and springer (18°C), in summer (32°C) and in Upper Egypt in some year months (37°C)) and at room temperature (20 - 25°C in months of September – December) for 120 days. The results showed that there was no significant (P ≥ 0.05) changes were observed in the protein %, fat %, dry matter (DM %), and pH values of UHT-processed cheese during storage for 120 days at 4 and 18°C. On the other side, protein % and fat % were significant (P ≤ 0.05) increased during storage at 32°C, 37°C, while, the weight and pH values were decreased. On room temperatures, the fat% and DM% were increased by the end of storage (at day 120), while the protein% and pH values were not changed. The hardness, gumminess and chewiness were increased during storage at all temperatures, while the adhesiveness values were decreased. Springiness was not changed at 4 and 18°C, but it was increased at other storage temperature. Concerning the cohesiveness values, there was no significant (P ≥ 0.05) changes were observed except with sample stored at 37°C. No microorganisms were found in all processed cheese samples stored at different temperatures. These results confirmed that the best temperature to storage UHT- processed cheese is at 4°C followed by 18°C.
15 Presence of Mycotoxins and Heavy Metals in Organic Commercial Cereal-Based Foods Sold in Faisalabad Market , Yasir Abbas Shah, Muhammad Afzaal,Umar Farooq.
Epidemiological data indicates that mycotoxins and heavy metals can be harmful when ingested by humans and animals. The present study was conducted to report the presence of mycotoxins and heavy metals in organic commercial cereal-based products, available in the Faisalabad market. Forty-four samples of organic cereals products including wheat, barley, rice, oat and maize were examined for the presence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins), heavy metals (Pb, Cd) and trace elements (Cu, Zn, Ni). Results were induced and compared to the recommended levels. 23 (52.2%) of the collected samples were detected with the presence of aflatoxins in higher concentrations then allowed as according to the limits set by EU legislation for the presence of AFs. Wheat, oat, rice, barley and maize showed 61, 60, 54, 50 and 33% of the samples respectively contaminated with aflatoxins. 5 (11%) and 3 (6%) of the samples surpassed the allowed limit for Pb and Cd respectively. Trace elements were detected in higher amounts in some of the evaluated samples. Results of the present work specify the need of continuous monitoring of raw material and processed products regardless of them being organically grown or not, in order to minimize the risk of contamination in cereal-based foods.
16 Development and Evaluation of an Infusion of Red Tea (Camellia sinensis) with Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius) Enriched with β-Glucans for the Control Glycemia in Diabetic Persons , Adriana Beatriz Di Iorio, Crista Castillo, Luis David Naranjo, Raul Espinal, Donald Francisco Molina, Ludovic Boully, Ana Carolina Arévalo, Jose Miguel Chinchilla, Poliana Deyse Gurak.
An infusion of red tea with blackberries enriched with β-glucans for glycemic control in diabetic subjects was developed and evaluated by virtue of a high percentage of people using plant extracts as traditional medicine to meet their primary health care needs. A completely randomized block design was used to evaluate concentrations of red tea with dehydrated blackberry (50/50 and 75/25), temperatures (75 and 95°C) and infusion times (2 and 5 minutes) for preparation of beverage with higher content of total polyphenols. The selected treatment was evaluated in 30 diabetics for 28 days, who underwent anthropometric measures (weight, height, waist-hip circumference and blood pressure), biometric (glucose and cholesterol) and performed and food intake was analyzed through a 24-hour reminder. Results: The treatment with higher content of polyphenols was obtained with 75/25 red tea with blackberry, 95ºC and infusion for 5 minutes. Tea intake was associated with reductions in anthropometric measures of Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist-to-Hip Index (WHI). It was possible to extract greater content of total polyphenols with longer infusion temperature and time. There was a greater reduction in BMI at ages 45 - 65 years, glucose levels at ages 45 - 65 and > 65 years, total cholesterol levels at ages 45 - 65 years and diabetic patients had a normal distribution of dietary intake macronutrients.
17 Maccabi Integrated Care 3600 - A Holistic, Multidisciplinary Care Model for Complex Patient , Irony A, Abu Hussain H, Nigel Y, Landau T, Asch N.
While massive efforts are invested in chronic populations the outcomes are only partly satisfactory. The management and control of multiple chronic conditions requires comprehensive solutions. Maccabi Health Care Services, 2nd HMO in Israel, developed a multi-dimensional solution for complex patients that combines a conceptual, technological and treatment model. In this paper we present Integration 3600 - Maccabi Integrated Care (MIC) program. Using quasi-experimental methods we compare the effects of the MIC 3600on complex patients recruited in 2019 to similar patients in MHS registry. Potential cohort is derived from a matrix including the following parameters: age 50+, chronic diseases, multiple/high risk drugs, cognitive decline, function level, socioeconomic status (SES) and annual expenditure. Potential target population include about 19,000 patients scoring 5 - 10 in complexity score. MIC patients are recruited by primary physician. Control patients are matched through propensity score based on based on sex, age and complexity score. Outcomes of MIC vs. control were assessed comparing the following 6-months outcomes to the corresponding pre-entrance period for each MIC patient: care providers visits and average monthly costs.Results: The analysis included 241 matched pairs (MIC vs. control) of complex patients. Comparing the MIC patients' visits to care providers to matched control group prior and following the intervention we found the average number of visits to nurse, social worker and nutritionist increased significantly while among matched control patients the average number of visits to primary physician and nurse decreased significantly. Finally, we found a 20% decrease in overall monthly costs in MIC patients compared to a 8% decrease in control patients with hospitalization cost being the main contributor to this cost reduction (-54% in MIC vs. 2% in control, p < 0.05). MIC 3600 is a viable, sustainable and practical program. Our findings show that the implementation of the integrated model results in more visits to multidisciplinary care providers and that the program is cost saving. Furthermore, the initiative is transferable. This model or alike should be implemented in almost any community care setting with the dominance of primary care physicians.
18 Tips of Daily Healthy Food and Nutrition Intake During COVID-19 City Lockdown and Self-Quarantine , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn, Utoomporn Sittisingh
Maintaining a healthy immune diet during the COVID-19 pan-demic, strict city lockdown, or self-quarantine is causing much changes in individuals’ daily lives around the globe
19 Intervention by Post for Reducing the Chronic Use of High Doses of Proton Pump Inhibitors , Elena Valverde Bilbao, Amaia Mendizabal Olaizola, Guillermo Delgado Alvarado, Itxaso Idoiaga Hoyos, Daniel Hernández Amunarriz
Objectives: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the drugs most commonly prescribed in our setting. The objective of the intervention was to assess whether a letter sent by post is more effective in achieving a reduction/cessation of long-term high-doses of PPI use than usual practice. Methods: This was a randomised intervention study, with before-and-after outcome measures and a control group, in patients who had an active prescription for PPIs at high doses for at least 6 months. The intervention consisted of sending patients an informative letter by post, in which their doctor invited them to seek an appointment for a medication review. Control group patients did not receive such a letter, and they were treated as usual. The main outcome variable was the number of active prescriptions of each PPI dose (high dose/standard dose/treatment cessation) at 6 months after the intervention. Results: Six months after the intervention, 8% of control group patients and 16.4% of intervention group patients were not on any PPIs. Additionally, among those with active prescriptions for PPIs, 6% of controls and 20% of intervention group patients had reduced their intake to the standard dose. Overall, cessation/reduction in the intervention group was higher than in the control group, 36.4% vs 14%, the difference being significant (22.4%; 95% CI: 14.1 to 30.7). Conclusion: Sending a letter by post to patients who had been on high-dose PPI therapy for at least 6 months was found to be more effective for treatment cessation and/or dose reduction than usual practice
20 Salt- An Overview , Aparna Nagendra, Namratha Pramod, Seema Mukund
Pythagoras stated “Salt is born of the purest parents - “The Sun and the Sea”. Salt always takes the small but significant role in our diet. In this paper, we have mainly aimed on salt and its consumption. As it is the single common ingredient used across all cuisines in the world from ancient times and one the major element in the diet which plays a crucial role on health. It is generally called as ‘Com-mon Salt’ and also widely used in the processing technology and preservation of foods. Due to urbanization and globalization, there has been a change in the eating pattern of the population, and adequate nutrition is essential for a healthy life. But, health effects are related to sodium which is linked with increased consumption of salt and it is one of the most important determinants of high blood pressure, cardiovascular risk and other diseases worldwide. This calls for creating awareness and educating the population regard-ing the daily salt consumption and also the hidden salt in various preserved foods. Encouraging on healthy eating pattern is the main criteria. An attempt was also made to introduce our readers to the different kinds of salts available in the shelves of supermarket.
21 Local Food and Beverages as a Tool for Regional Tourism Development: Case Study , Iveta Hamarneh
The aim of the paper is to introduce and evaluate the Ústí nad Labem region for food tourism. The Region belongs to the less visited areas in the Czech Republic although Region offers suitable conditions for tourism development. We can assume that the interest in local food in frame of food tourism in the Region can subsequently increase overall visitation of Ústín ad Labem Region. Methods which were used for completing the paper included literature review, content analysis of documents and case study.
22 Dietary and Life Habits of Obesity and Brown Rice Eaters among Genmai Evidence for Nutritional Kenko Innovation (GENKI) Study I and II , Masahito Takahashi1, Shaw Watanabe, Azusa Hirakawa, Shoich Mizuno
The relationship between diet and health is a field that requires more research in an ultra-aging society. A questionnaire survey was conducted, to compare groups of brown rice and natural foods eaters, with residential population to clarify the relationship between the brown rice eaters and obese people. The total number of respondents was 7183. The odds ratio to be obesity was 1.67 among white rice eaters, while it was 0.48 among brown rice eaters. The consumption of food items as side dishes showed a characteristic trend among white rice eaters, while it was 0.48 among brawn rice eaters. Brown rice eaters consumed significantly more carrots, green yellow vegetables, burdock, lotus roots, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, yam, sesame, salty plum pickles (umeboshi), peanut, chestnut, mushrooms, dried mushrooms (shiitake), sea weed (nori, konbu), red bean (azuki), and soy milk. They did not consume meat and fish, but soy protein and other plant protein substituted to meat and fish. The polished white rice eaters of obesity group preferentially consumed sweet bread, broccoli, bell pepper, eggplant, banana, grapefruit, red meat fish like tuna, beaf, cow and pig meat, egg, dairy products, sugar, and mayonnaise. They also consumed coffee and soft drinks, chocolate, cakes, ice cream and jelly.Brown rice contains many functional ingredients that have various effects on physiological functions, such as innate immunity, recognition, etc., so these should be effective in aging and post corona society.
23 Emerging Landscape in the Management of Covid 19. Role of Pidotimod , Pradyut Waghray,  Kunal Waghray
The burden of Covid 19 is increasing all over the world. Pidoti-mod, an Immunomodulator had been used in COPD patients to prevent the exacerbations of COPD and also in the prevention of Recurrent respiratory tract infections both in adults and children successfully.
24 Developing the Human Factor in an Integrated Health Organization , Maria Luz Jauregui García, Maria Luisa Merino Hernández, Arantxa Urruzola Lizarribar, Nagore Lora Laca, Iobat Jiménez Jauregui, Francisco Serna Rodríguez
This article describes a formative and participatory understanding with the aim of fostering a relational culture that facilitates the transition to a patient-centered care model by improving communication. It consists in transmitting the advances of neuroscience and technology related to unit professionals through a common communication code that highlights the importance of the human factor. In addition, the values of the organization are worked, based on professionals, through collaborative work in each UAP.It analyses ns results of the intervention, highlighting do that professionals manifest as very positive the being able to share values in the way of understanding human relationships. They also show that the project has allowed us to generate discussion and reflection on how to communicate.Working these values from the perspective of professionals acts as a facilitator to feel the culture of the organization as their own.Participants can improve their personal relationship as this intervention encourages the sharing of beliefs and willgo in a relaxed environment.
25 Ready-to-Cook Fish Steaks from Catla Fish with High Nutritional Value and Longer Shelf Life , Priyam Sharma, Bibha Chetia Borah
The demand for fish is very high in the NE Region of India, where 95-100% of populations of the constituent states are fish eaters. As domestic production is not sufficient to meet the demand of people, the gap between demand and production is met by importing from other states and neighboring countries. However the preservation and transportation process exercised for the import, always leaves a question mark regarding quality of the product. Processing of raw fish to make it pan-ready is often not convenient for consumers particularly for the urban population. The present communication deals with development of a protocol for ‘ready-to-cook’ steak from Catla (Catla catla) with good nutritional quality and longer shelf life to meet consumers’ demand. The present communication includes quality evaluation of Catla fish steaks treated with different antimicrobial agents viz., dry salt (T1), vinegar (T2), salt + turmeric (T3), salt+ turmeric+ vinegar (T4), vacuum packed and stored for a period of 21 days at -18°C at definite interval of days and assessment of its economic viability for commercial application. Out of the treatments, T4 was the best treatment in view of the highest average crude protein content (20.11%), ash content (0.189%), acceptability (8.94), taste value (8.94), flavor (8.44) and texture value (8.81) with zero microbial load up to 21 days of storage. The results indicate a viable protocol for entrepreneurship development through commercial production of ‘ready-to-cook’ fish steaks from Catla with high nutritional quality and long shelf life up to 21 days of storage.
26 ACTA 2 Mutations and Risk of Premature Myocardial Infarction , Fatemeh Hajibabaie, Mohammad Hossein Modarressi, Masoumeh Sadeghi, Laleh Shariati
Premature myocardial infarction (MI) is characterized by high re-infarction rates, the occurrence of severe heart fail-ure and therefore significant cardiovascular long-term mortality at a young age. Previous studies demonstrated that one of the most important risk factors in younger patients is family history and genetic factors. This research was launched to assess the association of ACTA 2 genetic variations with premature MI.Materials and Methods: Out of eighty unrelated patients with premature MI referred to health center, patients with autosomal dominant premature MI were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, diabetes and smoking. Genomic DNA was extracted from the whole peripheral blood. Eight exons and intron/exon boundaries of the ACTA2 gene were amplified, and all the amplicons were subject to Sanger sequencing. Results: According to thecriteria, 16 patients were included in our research. No mutations were found in ACTA2 gene in our pro-bands.
27 Perspective on Childhood Eating Habits among Rural and Urban Children in Saudi Arabia , Nawal A Alissa
This discussion will be addressing the perspective about Child-hood Eating Habits among Rural and Urban Children in Saudi Ara-bia, it has been discovered that healthy eating habits in children is becoming more difficult to achieve for mothers due to the more changing times and busy working schedule for modern mothers.
28 Nutrition and Anaemia in Women in Reference to Odisha , Puspanjali Mishra
Anaemia is a condition in which the number of red blood cells or their oxygen-carrying capacity is insufficient to meet physiolog-ic needs, which vary with age, sex, attitude, smoking and pregnan-cy status, if any Today anaemia is a big health problem of many people as it causes mortality.
29 Intake of Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Creatine Monohydrate and Green Tea in a Milk Matrix and Variations in Body Composition in Human Volunteers , C Ramón de Cangas Morán, C Aldo Hernández Monzón, Karina Torres Escandón, Purificación López Sela, Ignacio Brime Casanueva, Karel Torres Miranda, Pedro López Díaz, C Andrés Llavona Fernández, Jose Ramón Bahamonde Nava, Fernando Rojo Fernández
Overweight and obesity are increasingly frequent in the world. This fact has a high cost for health and excess body fat increases the risk of chronic and cardiovascular diseases. Proper dietary guidelines along with an active life can promote the maintenance of a healthy weight. It is also possible that some functional foods may serve as a fast. Conjugated linoleic acid is a well-studied substance, and in different studies it has been suggested that it can help to modify the body composition, so it could avoid that it is interesting to include it, only in the company of other substances such as creatine monohydrate or green tea, which have also suggested certain effects on body composition, in certain food matrices for specific functional foods to help reduce the percentage of body fat.
30 Why are we a Sensitive Population to COVID-19? , Maldonado-Vega M, Farias-Serratos F
For many years, the Mexican population has modified their eat-ing habits and lifestyle. Modernization favored spectacular things with electrification, the introduction of television in each home, the intubation and distribution of drinking water, introduction in various hygiene and health measures, national vaccination in-creased the longevity of the Mexican population, we went from 65 years to 75 years olds in the 70's, and currently we reach an av-erage longevity of 80 years of age
31 Gluten Linked to Autoimmune Disease, Bowel Diseases and More , Sara Kittaneh
You may be wondering how something so mainstream could be harmful to your gut. Wouldn’t we all be sick? Well, unfortunately, it has become mainstream to have a chronic illness such as heart disease, cancer, or an autoimmune disease and the rates are rising. Gluten has been linked to more than 55 diseases and an estimated 99% of people who have either celiac or non-celiac gluten sensitiv-ity are never diagnosed.
32 Iron-Containing Heme Homeostasis: Critically Impacts on Pulmonary Physiological and Pathological Processes and Balance between Health and Disease , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn, Utoomporn Sittisingh
Proteins, the building blocks of life are the major source of nutrients. Digested proteins release amino acids to the body for cellular energy generation. In addition to amino acids, proteins also provide metal, particularly iron that is most abundant in the human body. One adult human body requires approximately 3 - 4 grams of iron. Heme and non-heme iron are two forms found in dietary iron
33 Role of Immunity Boosting Nutritional Foods and COVID-19 , Mishra P, Mohapatra AK,Maharana S
“Health is wealth”. Keeping oneself healthy is one of the concerns today. Depending on the climate, regions, places many people eat their local foods and keep themselves fit. Some do yoga and exercise along with the food. But it has been seen that a balanced nutritional diet is the main cause of the keeping a person fit. Depending on the diseases proper foods are advised. Today WHO has declared the CoVID-19 cases as pandemic. The whole world is panic now. In this situation making your immunity through your daily available food is one of the important issues. Of course side by side breathing exercise is advised. In this report, Nutrition related issues in relations to immunity to avoid infection of COVID -19 is discussed, besides maintaining social distancing among people, use of mask and repeated hand washing.
34 Nanomaterials in Food Processing and Packaging, its Toxicity and Food Labeling , Amra Bratovcic
Over the past few decades, nanotechnology has increasingly been considered to be attractive technology that has revolutionized the food sector. Nanomaterials, unlike conventional microscale materials, having novel characteristics can improve sensory quality of foods by imparting novel texture, colour, appearance, processability and stability during shelf life. The physicochemical charac-teristics of a nanomaterial are important as they can affect the outcome of the risk assessment. This paper provides an overview of the application of nanotechnology in the field of food processing and packaging. In addition, this paper also discussed toxic effects of nanomaterials and food labeling. The results of this paper shows that today there is a divided opinion on the use of nanotechnology in food processing and packaging because on the one hand there are the results of the study which reveal that the majority of consumers prefer the use of nanotechnology-based solutions, while on the other hand there is immense public concern regarding the toxicity and environmental effect of these nanoparticles.
35 Sensory Characteristics of Three Different Levels of Turmeric Powder on Beef Stick Product , Wannee Tangkham
The objective of this study was to evaluate sensory characteristics of a beef stick product with three levels of turmeric powder (TP). Specifically, these three levels of TP include: 1) 0% TP; 2) 1% TP and 3) 2% TP. Each treatment was evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. Fifty-eight untrained participants evaluated the beef stick product for acceptability of appearance, color, texture, flavor, taste, and overall liking. With respect to overall liking, beef stick product with 1% TP was the most desirable with a score of 7.13, fol-low by the control treatment (6.84) and 2% TP was least desirable with a score of 6.81. Additionally, beef stick product with added turmeric received positive participant ratings with respect to acceptability and purchase intent with and without health claims. Therefore, adding TP to a beef stick product might be a marketable alternative to original beef stick product.
36 The Analysis of Health Expenditure as a Determinant of Economic Growth in 37 High Income Countries , Özlem Özsoy, Metin Gürler
Labour force, which is one of the main factors of production function with capital input in traditional economic growth theory, has got an important effect on a country’s economic growth. So a productive labour force is crucial for an economy. An in-crease in health expenditure improves good health care to the citizens. Since people who were provided by good health care feel themselves more productive, the increasing productivity in labour force and working hours cause an economic growth hence en-hancement in income (Gross Domestic Product, GDP) and income per capita (IPC) in a country incessantly. Also higher IPC means better access to the health services which were supplied by public and private sectors in a country. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the share of health expenditure in GDP (HEXP) and IPC data and vice versa for 37 High Income Countries (HIC). Methods:Cross-section data (CSD) analysis and panel data (PD) analysis consisting of random and fixed effects estimations were used in the study to investigate the relationship between HEXP and IPC for selected country group. Results: According to the random effects model (RAM) and fixed effects model (FEM) with PD analysis and CSD analysis in the study, HEXP is found as one of the determinants of IPC and IPC as a main determinant of HEXP in 37 HIC. Granger causality test is also ap-plied to test the direction of causality between HEXP and IPC for HIC and Turkey. It is obviously seen that IPC Granger causes HEXP increase whereas we can’t reject HEXP doesn’t cause IPC hypothesis according to Granger test statistics for PD. There is also no proven correlation between two variables for CSD analysis. Conclusion: In the study after the analysis of 37 HIC together it is found that IPC promotes HEXP not at once but in a time period. In the manuscript our results show that economic growth Granger causes HEXP increase and HEXP does not Granger cause IPC for PD. For CSD there is no relationship between HEXP and IPC. The case of IPC not increasing to a high income level from middle income stuck on a threshold is called in literature as "Middle Income Trap (MIT)". So guiding how HIC jumped from middle class to high income class is important for the emerging countries (EC) to avoid the "MIT". EC should increase HEXP to improve labour force productivity, which will cause a rapid economic growth as developed countries have done in past.
37 Ketogenic Diet Modifies the Expression of MicroRNAs Linked to Migraine , Roberto Cannataro, Maria Cristina Caroleo, Antonio Siniscalchi, Luca Gallelli, Giovambattista De Sarro, Erika Cione
Epidemiological studies have emphasized the relationship between migraine and obesity also pointing out its prevalence in the female sex. The mechanisms promoting pain migraine in obese subjects prone to this neurological disorder is multifactorial, among these the overproduction of soluble mediators favoring neural inflammation, psychological and behavioral risk factors. The ketogenic diet (KD) is a well-recognized as a therapeutic option for refractory pediatric epilepsy and a promising prophylactic treatment for episodic and chronic migraine in the adult. Performing a pilot study on the capability of KD to modulate a plethora of 800 microRNAs (miRs), a group of female obese subjects, 6 of 18 self-reported a reduction of the frequency and the intensity of migraine-pain attacks. Therefore, we check for miRs linked to migraines. The effects of KD seem to be mediated by specific serum hsa-miR-590-5p, hsa-miR-660-3p modulation
38 Sericin Peptide Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis Via Mitochondrial Function Modulation , Na Ryung Choi, Hyeon Tae Kang, Seung Min Lee, Yeon-Lim Suh, Hyukjin Kwon, Jaekyu Noh, Sang Bong Ahn, Dae Won Jun
Sericin is a component of cocoons. Studies have shown that sericin improves metabolic disease in animal model. However, it is not yet known whether sericin is effective in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Twenty C57BL/6N mice were divided into control and sericin treated group. High fat diet was fed to mice for 10 weeks. From 11th to 21st week sericin and distilled water were administered assigned groups via oral gavage. Body weight and liver to body weight ratio was assessed. AST, ALT, triglyceride, cho-lesterol and blood glucose levels were measured. qRT-PCR, Electro-microscopy, and Free fatty acid induced lipotoxicity assay were performed. Mitochondrial membrane potential was checked. As a result, there were no differences in body weight and diet intake in two groups. However, liver weight and liver/body weight ratio were significantly decreased in sericin group than in control group. Both the degree of hepatic steatosis and inflammation were lower in sericin group than the control group. NAFLD activity score were also decreased in treatment group. Serum ALT, AST, and triglyceride levels as well as area under receiver operating characteristics of oral glucose tolerance test were significantly decreased in sericin group. Hepatic mRNA expressions of TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6 mRNA were decreased in sericin group. Electron microscopy findings showed restoration of abnormal mitochondria with sericin treatment. Lipotoxicity induced HepG2 cell death was significantly attenuated in palmitic acid and sericin co-treated cells. Sericin also prevented palmitic acid induced mitochondrial depolarization. In conclusion, Sericin peptide treatment attenuated non-alcoholic steatohepati-tis via mitochondrial function modulation.
39 Effect of Using Different Plant Milk as Alternative Milk in Rice Pudding , EL-Sisy TT, Jehan B Ali
The aim of study was to produce healthy rice pudding by replacement of cow milk with plant milk as alternative milk and study their effect on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties. Plant milk was produced from black eyes-bean, chick-peas, white lima-bean, oats, rice, soya-bean, yellow corn and cow milk served as control. Protein ranged between 1.7 to 6.02% and the white lima beans had the highest protein value (6.02%). Rice pudding of cow milk the highest value of ash (0.79%) and the lowest value was yellow corn (0.04). Fat % ranged from 0.20 to 3.32% and rice pudding of cow milk the highest fat% (3.32%). Carbohydrate increased with the grains and rice pudding of rice milk the highest carbohydrate values (68.83%). Viscosity of rice pudding of Rice milk were the highest between rice pudding samples and were the best in organoleptic properties. Data also indicated that as a result of pH and acidity of different prepared milk samples and pudding samples. Microbiological analysis of milk samples and rice pudding from plant milk were determined. Viscosity was higher for the rice pudding (16800Cp/s) with low acidity (0.05%) than other samples. Differences in sensory attributes were associated with different rice pudding from plant milk and cow milk. Rice pudding of chick peas milk obtained the least score (16.50) for body and texture whereas rice pudding of cow milk, rice pudding of oats milk, rice pudding of yellow corn milk and black eyed beans received the highest score (19.50, 19.0, 19.0 and18.83 respectively). Sensorial, rice pudding of yellow corn and rice pudding of rice milk is more acceptability than other treatment after the rice pudding of cow milk control. Thus we recommend to use the plant milk in rice pudding especially, rice pudding of rice milk and rice pudding of Yellow corn milk to give the consumer a new nutraceutical product with prebiotic substances for milk allergy, sensitivity children and plant people.
40 Additives: Regulation in Colombia and Risks in the Salt of the Child Population , Angela Maria Wilches Flórez, Francy Sandoval Barbosa, Angie Catalina Ramos Geraldine, Casas Ortega
In Colombia, there is little information regarding the serious health problems that children face as they are subjected to the consumption of food products from the family basket and school support, which have multiple additives harmful to their long-term health. In addition, the regulation of the food industry ineffective. For this reason, three additives commonly found in food in the family basket and easily accessible to the child population were studied: tartrazine, aspartame and monosodium glutamate, in aspects such as their consumption, their effects and their regulation according to Colombian legislation. From this, it seeks to provide a bioethical perspective of the facts mentioned above by analyzing the decrees and policies that govern Colombian companies and how this could directly affect the child population.
41 Pharmaceutical Industry Report , Gisele Ferreira De Souza
For decades now, pharmaceuticals have been developed and de-signed to be stable as possible to avoid degradation before reach-ing their eventual recipient. The next 10 - 15 years could be an era of great progress and growth. In this period, we have the tech-nological, financial and human resources to raise living standards across the world. Good policies that support investment and inno-vation can further reduce poverty and hunger, make fast-growing cities economically vibrant and socially inclusive, and restore and protect the world’s natural environments.
42 Therapeutics of Red Golden Threads- Saffron , Anjana Agarwal
Red golden threads of saffron are divine delight when sub-merged in milk and added in different cuisine of the world. The ra-diance of its distinct colour and aroma calls for complete refresh-ment, richness and rejuvenation. It symbolizes the royalty and auspiciousness when put on the forehead as kesar tilak. Saffron word comes from the French word “Safran” meaning yellow or red gold. Saffron is obtained as the stigma of the mauve coloured flow-er of Crocus sativus. It is mainly cultivated in Iran, India and Greece. Can you imagine yield of saffron? Over 70,000 flowers yield only 500g of saffron threads .
43 The Impact of Nutrition Education of Parents on Food Choices of Their Children , Pınar Göbel, Aydan Ercan, Sinem Bayram
This study aimed to determine whether periodically healthy nutrition educations given to parents effect their nutritional knowledge and healthy food choices of all family. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 20 parents and their 25 children in a preschool. Parents of children aged be-tween 1 and 6 who agreed to participate in the study were included in the study. Parents were given a total of 180 minutes of educa-tion on healthy nutrition in 3 sessions, each of which took around 60 minutes. Food choices and WHO BMI z scores of children were compared before and after education. Results: The effect of all three educations on the BMI of the children was revealed that while children with normal BMI was 8% in the first education, it was 28% at the end of the third education. The comparison of the food consumption records of the children showed that the intake of many nutrients including protein, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acid, vitamin C, calcium, and iron increased significantly after education. On the other hand, particularly white bread consumption of parents was found to decrease after educa-tion sessions, while their vegetable and fruit-herbal tea consumption increased. The effect of the education on eating behavior was evident in males. Conclusion: After the nutrition education, parents were found to make healthy choices for their children even though they did not apply adequately for their own food choices. It is important to provide nutrition education to families with preschoolar children.
44 Nutrient Assessment and Potential Renal Load of Solutes in Infant Powder Formulas Available on the Honduran Market , Adriana Beatriz Di Iorio, Erika Yomalli Mera Cruz, Aquileo Daniel González De León Gómez,Adriana Hernandez Santana
TInfant formulas (FIP) are food products that have been modified to partially or totally satisfy the physiological needs of the baby, manufactured under the rules of the Alimentarius Codex. Objective: To evaluate whether the FIP available in the Honduran market comply with the international regulations European Soci-ety for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGAN) and the European Technical Regulation (RTS), regarding the potential renal load of solutes (CRPS) and the content of vitamins, minerals and proteins. Methods: The sample was 39 FIP, descriptive statistics was used, a review of the nutritional labeling was performed and the CRPS of each FIP was estimated. Statistical correlation was established between minerals, proteins and CRPS using the SPSS 25.0 program. Results: 55% of FIP come from Mexico, the estimated CRPS is correlated with their protein content; FIP CRPS for > 1 year was 237.28 mOsm/L and 130.36 mOsm/L on average. A higher caloric and micronutrient concentration was observed in FIP for premature in-fants. In all FIP, the macronutrient content was in accordance with the recommendations of ESPGAN and RTS.   Conclusion: FIPs of 0 - 12 months do not comply with the CRPS recommendation for the age of 0 - 6 months. The fat-soluble vitamins were located in the minimum limits established by the RTS. 5% of the FIP evaluated contained trans fatty acids and for over a year were above the maximum limit established for vitamin B3.
45 Perception Why the Prefecture has a Longer Life Expectancy Among Japanese Students , Tatsuya Koyama
One reason to study life expectancy may be to determine desirable health behaviours. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clarify which Japanese prefectures university students recognise as having the longest lifespans and why. In June 2020, a self-ad-ministered questionnaire was completed by 32 first-year college students (3 males and 29 females) at a registered dietician train-ing school in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. In order to determine the students’ perceptions, the following question was asked: "What prefecture do you think has the longest life expectancy?" The reasons were limited to dietary habits due to the characteristics of the department, and answers were written out freely. Additionally, the questionnaire included: "Why do you think that prefecture has the longest life expectancy? Please write the reasons, including dietary habits." Nagano was most frequently chosen by the students as the prefecture with the longest life expectancy (n = 24; 75%). The extracted words were "vegetable" (mentioned 28 times), "in-take" (21 times), "salt" (14 times), "fruit" (10 times), "reduced salt" (4 times), "nutrient" (4 times), and "miso soup" (4 times). Most students thought that desirable dietary habits included more vegetable intake and less salt.
46 Nutrition and Quarantine , Vinayaka AM
The unexpected appearance of Coronavirus disease (COV-ID-19) in Wuhan, China and its overall speedy transmission has made all of the humankind in the holds of a dangerous hands of pandemic, the last era of pandemic was observed with the Spanish Flu in 1918. Health care workers and general wellbeing authorities around the world, trying very hard to fight COVID-19 to spare lives and forestall further cases. Albeit some pharmacological investi-gations and even immunization preliminaries are in progress, the COVID-19 pandemic presents us with deficient information and stretches the restrictions of preeminent suppository.
47 Chemical and Mineral Composition of Biscuit Produced from Wheat and Bambara Groundnut Flour , Adegbanke OR, Osundahunsi OF, Enujiugha VN
NThe aim of this study was to determine the potential of bambara groundnut, an under utilised legume for use both as flour and protein isolate in biscuit production. Sixteen response surface methodology (RSM) runs were evaluated from combination of wheat flour (WF), bambara groundnut flour (BF) and bambara protein isolate (BPI). Based on the crude protein and functional properties these ratios were selected WF: BF (85.0:15.0%, 76.2:23.8% and 52.5:47.5%) and labeled as WBF1, WBF2, WBF3, respectively with WF: BPI (85.0:15.0%, 76.2:23.8% and 52.5:47.5%) as WBPI1, WBPI2 and WBPI3 for blends of wheat flour and bambara protein isolate respectively. The proximate and mineral composition of the composite flour blends and biscuits were determined. Data were analysed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significance at P < 0.05. The wheat-bambara groundnut flour, wheat-bambara groundnut protein isolate and biscuits contained (g/100g) moisture (9.43-9.63), (1.64-3.59), (6.70-7.60), (4.00-5.70), to-tal ash (0.79-1.76), (2.83-3.37), (1.00-170), (2.50-2.80) and crude protein, wheat-bambara groundnut flour (14.41-21.67), wheat-bambara groundnut protein isolate (32.42-61.10) and biscuits (15.30-20.10) (26.20-46.20) g/100g were recorded respectively. The carbohydrate content for wheat-bambara flour (62.47-66.75) g/100g, wheat-bambara protein isolate flour (31.56-61.21) g/100g and biscuits (63.10-67.00), (40.50-5750) g/100g. The mineral composition (mg/100g): sodium ranged from (442.06 to 960.36) for wheat-bambara composite flour, biscuit (3.12-4.77) and calcium ranged from (94.33-494.88) for wheat-bambara composite flour, biscuit (2.08-3.82) respectively. Among the trace metals, copper ranged between for wheat-bambara composite flour (14.80-35.11), biscuit (0.04-0.06) and manganese ranged between for wheat-bambara composite flour (8.00-26.03), biscuit (0.21-0.31) were high in the composite flour and low in the biscuit samples. Lead was not detected in both the flour samples and the biscuit. The calculated mineral ratios Na/K of the composite flour was (0.24-0.41) and biscuits (0.58- 0.92) respectively. Ca/P ratio for wheat-bambara composite flour (1.07-2.42) and biscuit (2.00- 2.47). The Ca/P ratios in the composite flour and biscuits samples were greater than recommendation of > 1.0, this will help to increase the absorption of calcium on the small intestine.It could be concluded that, the study remarkably developed flour and biscuit with high contents of crude protein, calcium, and phosphorus.
48 Physico-Chemical Analysis of Honey Produced in Bako-Tibe District, Western Showa Zone, Oromia Region, Western Ethiopia , Million Chimdessa; Desalegn Begna,
Honey production is a long-standing practice in the rural communities of Ethiopia in general and Oromia regional state in particu-lar. However, there is scanty information with regards to the quality of the honey produced in the most parts of Oromia. The study was conducted to assess the Physico-Chemical Analysis of honey produced around Bako Tibe district, western Showa, Ethiopia. A total of 13 fresh honey samples each weighing 50 gram were randomly collected from three agro-ecologies of the district. The collected honey samples were analyzed in the laboratory for their physico-chemical parameters. The average results indicated that 19.81%, 4.23, 21.43meq, 0.11 % for moisture, pH, free acidity and ash, respectively. According to this analysis, the results of all the samples fall within acceptable ranges for the national and international standards. This study investigated and availed the honey quality results of study area and ascertained all the values concur with local and international requisites. Owing to lack of testing facility, the informa-tion on the honey safety aspects still remain blurred, requiring further investigations
49 Effects of Yogurt Supplementation and Exercise on Body Composition during Lactation , Alexis Sharkey, Lauren San Diego, Tiffany Fuller, Roberta Claro da Silva, Salam A Ibrahim, Heather L Colleran
Breastfeeding reduces long-term maternal pregnancy weight retention but also results in high bone turnover. Dairy intake and exercise have bone-protective effects in pre-menopausal women during weight loss. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of yogurt supplementation and exercise on body composition and bone mineral density in lactating women 8 - 20 weeks postpartum. At 8-wks postpartum, women were randomized into an intervention group [IG, n = 6 that received yogurt supplementa-tion (≥ 3d/wk, 6oz each day) and exercise (3 d/wk, 45 min/d, ≥ 10,000 steps/d)] or a control group (CG, n = 2, no dietary or exercise intervention) for 12-wks. Dual x-ray absorptiometry measured body composition (weight, fat mass, lean body mass) and bone min-eral density. A submaximal treadmill test predicted VO2 max. Three-day dietary records were collected using Nutrition Data System for Research software. Due to COVID-19, results are reported without comparisons between groups. IG body composition and bone changes were similar to previous studies. Dietary intake did not differ between groups and both groups met the Recommended Di-etary Allowance for carbohydrates and protein (g) intake. IG compliance for 3 d/wk of yogurt consumption and exercise was 97% and 90%, respectively. The study provided preliminary data on dairy intake and exercise on body composition during lactation
50 Assessment of Nutrition Status of School-Going Children of Age 8 - 16 Years: District Lahore - Pakistan , Hira Akram, Safa Akram, Sajid Khan Tahir, Ahmad Ali
Nutrition status is the general conditioning of the body while nutrition assessment is a systematic process of verifying and inter-preting data to make decisions about the nature and cause of nutrition-related problems. The present study was conducted to assess the nutrition status of school-going children age 8 - 16 years in Lahore city, Pakistan. The study aim was to identify the children who were at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional assessment was carried out among both genders male and female. It was a cross-sectional survey and the sample size was two hundred (200). Randomly, male and female students were selected. A questionnaire was designed to collect data. An interview technique was used to fill the questionnaire. Questions were related to demographic data, anthropometric data, frequency of meals consumption and food frequency data. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Data were presented in tables (percentages) and pie charts. The present study result showed that most children have normal body mass index percentile. Children were consuming eggs, wheat flat bread without oil (Chapatti) and milk on a daily basis. Mostly children were taking breakfast, lunch and dinner on a daily basis. Most of them were not taking bedtime snacks. Few children were consuming miscellaneous and fast foods. So, based on the results it was concluded that the majority of school-going children have healthy eating habits and good nutritional status
51 Multisectoral Nutrition Implementation in Burkina Faso: Organization, Collaboration and Support of Contributing Sectors at Regional Level , Dieudonné Diasso, Maimouna Halidou Doudou, Aly Savadogo
Among other aspects of nutrition capacities, the state of human, material, financial resources and technical structures’ organiza-tion in Burkina-Faso are not exhaustive nor assessed to date. The objective of this evaluation study was to analyze the various capaci-ties of the contributing key sectors in nutrition of the Regional Directorates, and to identify gaps and challenges for their support to a successful implementation of the national nutrition plan. Tools and resources proposed by the Framework for Nutrition Capacity, recently developed by the United Nations Network for Scaling Up Nutrition was used with an adapted analytical framework. The methodology consisted on documentary reviews, data collection and analysis from evaluation surveys. Nearly 96% of Regional Direc-torates, in all key sectors, highlighted the unavailability of adequate skills to support the expansion of nutrition services. Only 17.6% of the Regional Directorates have nutrition training plan, against 79.7%. A certain number of external factors, which hindered the effective implementation of activities, was underlined by 60.8% of the technical structures, and the existence of an internal dialogue on nutrition within the Directorate is only effective in 23% of cases. The results show a strong involvement of the Regional Director-ates in the Regional Food Security Councils, and moderate for the Regional Social Protection Units and low or even non-existent for the Regional Nutrition Consultation Councils. In a national context where dialogue and synergy between the different coordination bodies and stakeholders at the central level remain problematic, it is more necessary to reinforce nutrition regional dialogue around the governorate, in order to successfully scale up multisectoral interventions in the country.
52 Effectual Gold Nanoprobe Sensor for Screening Cow Milk Adulteration in Goat Milk , Jose Manuel Llopis Ortiz, Dimitra Panagiotis Houhoula, Efstathia Tsakali, Sophie Pytel
Different methods of detection have been used to detect milk adulteration, but in recent years the use of nanomaterials has demonstrated to be an interesting tool in this field, because of their interesting optical properties. A gold nanoparticle (AuNP) probe strategy for testing milk authenticity was developed, which relies on the colorimetric differentiation of a particular DNA sequence, due to the differential aggregation profiles exhibited by the AuNPs in the presence or absence of specific target hybridization. Gold nanoparticles were conjugated with thiolated oligonucleotides which specifically amplify a 271 bp fragment of cow mitochondrial DNA. In the presence of a complementary target preventing aggregation of the AuNPs when acid was added, the reaction mixtures retained the original pink coloration of the colloidal particles, whereas they turned purple in the opposite event. Negative and goat reaction mixtures showed a purplish coloured solution with a peak at ≥570nm, while samples containing bovine DNA have an absorbance closer to the characteristic peak of the AuNPs at 520-525 nm. Presence of bovine milk even at traces levels was detected, achieving a level of detection comparable with PCR + Electrophoresis. The use of AuNPs for the colorimetric detection of DNA targets from undeclared species in milk products provides an inexpensive and easy-toperform alternative to common molecular assays. However, the tested oligonucleotides only proved to be effective under very concrete conditions, due to their low specificity. The technology described here can be further developed and more specific oligonucleotides are advised to be tested. Even though, this method offers the possibility to accommodate for detection of many cases of adulteration and fraudulent practices in different food matrices.
53 Malnutrition Trends in School Children of Madinah Al Munawarrah-A Cross-Sectional study , Atta UR Rehman Khan, Meshal Al Malki
Malnutrition is considered a major challenge in the area of public health nutrition. But recently the clear footprints have been spotted by researchers at remarkable magnitude even in the developing as well as developed countries. National studies to predict Malnutrition prevalence in Saudi Arabia are lacking. To date no study has been conducted to find out prevalence of Malnutri-tion in the 2nd holiest city of Muslims Al Madinah Al Munawarrah located on western part of Saudi Arabia. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Malnutrition in school children of Madinah Al Munawarrah-Saudi Arabia.Methods: Participants were healthy school boys and girls aged 05 - 18 years. It was a cross-sectional stratified study. Total sample size was 6000 consisting of 3000 boys and 3000 girls Twenty (20) schools were selected with random stratification with the help of Ministry of education. Data were collected during April - December 2017. Height and weight of children were measured to calculate percentiles for BMI-for-age and -sex according to the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts. Acute Malnutrition was defined as BMI-for-age/sex < 5th % tile.Results: Acute malnutrition: The overall children who were suffering from Acute Malnutrition were 19% (n = 755). Prevalence in boys was 24% (n = 529) and in girls was 13% (n = 226).For boys: The presence of Acute Malnutrition in Category-I (5 - 8 years) was 25% (n = 8), category-II (9 - 13 years) was 23% (n = 149) and Category-III (14 - 18 years) was 24% (n = 372).For girls: The prevalence in Category-I (5 - 8 years) was 41% (n = 45), category-II (9 - 13 years) was 13% (n = 79) and Category-III (14 - 18 years) was 10% (n = 102).Conclusion: Malnutrition in school children in Al Madinah Al Munawarrah prevails as high as in few under developed countries. Integrated Intervention and prevention programs in primary through high school should focus at all school-aged children especially primary school students. Ministry of education and Ministry of health have a key role. Dietitians and public health nutrition care workers are potential key role players to effectively address this issue.
54 In Vitro Antioxidant Activity, Spectrophotometric Determination of Caffeine, Total Phenol and Flavonoid Contents in Traditional Omani Qahwa in Comparison with Green and Black Tea , Maryam F Hasan, Wed S Aldaraji, Dhanalakshmi UM, Shah A Khan, M Ali
The aim of the present work was to quantify caffeine and total phenolic content and to evaluate the antioxidant activity in com-mercially available black tea, green tea, Turkish coffee and traditional Omani qahwa. Aqueous extracts of tea and coffee samples prepared by decoction were subjected to the phytochemical screening test for phenols and caffeine. Caffeine in the samples was quantified with the help of a linear regression equation obtained from the standard plot. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the tea and coffee were estimated colorimetrically. Antioxidant activity of the samples was investigated by DPPH (1, 1 diphenyl picrylhy-drazyl) free radical assay and phosphomolybdenum methods. All the test extracts showed the presence of phenolic compounds and caffeine. The results indicated a variation in caffeine content, phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity between the two extracts and among same extracts with different brand names. In general, Mumtaz black tea was found to contain the high-est caffeine (24.44 mg/g) and phenolic content (8.27 mg/g of GAE). It also showed the highest total antioxidant activity (10.46 mg/g of ascorbic acid equivalent) but surprisingly its flavonoid content and antioxidant activity by DPPH method was lower than other samples. Tea was found to be richer in phenols and caffeine but Omani qahwa showed better antioxidant activity. It can be concluded that phenolic content and the antioxidant activities depend on the origin, brands and additives of these beverages that may lead to variation in the content and bioactivity.
55 Beta-Adrenergic Agonists: Effects on Growth and Characteristics of Meat and Livestock Production , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn, Utoomporn Sittisingh,
Number of multinucleated cellular units or muscle fibers is fixed at birth. Increasing muscle hypertrophy has been a primary focus of investigators. Beta-adrenergic agonists increase muscle mass by increasing the ratio of protein to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), while steroidal implants increase muscle mass by increas-ing accumulation of DNA in muscle. Beta-adrenergic agonists and steroidal implants have similar physiologic responses of muscle hypertrophy, but have different mechanisms of action to achieve muscle growth. Beta-adrenergic agonists suppress adipose accre-tion in livestock species. Cattle has more than 99% of beta-2 ad-renergic receptor in the skeletal muscle and has more than 90% of beta-2 adrenergic receptor in adipose tissue, whereas pig has 73% of beta-1, 20% of beta-2 and 7% of beta-3 adrenergic receptors.
56 Preparation and Quality Evaluation of Yogurt by Incorporation with Moringa oleifera Leaves Powder , Sanjaya Karki, Saugat Prajapati, Susma Bhattarai,
Moringa oleifera leaves is fill with a pack of nutrients therefore, this study was carried out in order to enrich the nutritional value of traditional yoghurt. The powdered leaves of Moringa oleifera were analyzed for moisture content, vitamin C, protein, ash and fat content and the result was found to be 7.34 ± 0.04%, 17.24 ± 0.10 mg/100g, 25.89 ± 1.42%, 9.67 ± 0.40% and 2.1 ± 0.2% respectively and mesh size was 140 μm. From the sensory analysis the product having 0.5% Moringa oleifera leaves powder incorporated yoghurt was chosen for further analysis as it showed comparable result with control yoghurt. The chemical analysis of moringa incorporated yoghurt showed that fat, lactose, protein, total solid, acidity, calcium and pH were 2.9 ± 0.11%, 3.71 ± 0.02, 4.51 ± 0.09%, 22.18 ± 0.19%, 0.82 ± 0.02, 356.83 ± 10.19 (mg/100g) and 4.3 ± 0.02 whereas that of control yoghurt were found to be 2.76 ± 0.07%, 3.86 ± 0.03, 3.7 ± 0.4%, 19.90 ± 0.28%, 0.69 ± 0.01, 244.67 ± 10.19 (mg/100g) and 4.5 ± 0.01 respectively. The fresh yoghurt was found to contain no any coliform, yeast and mold count. Setting time and syneresis for moringa leaves incorporated yoghurt (0.5%) i.e. sample A was found 270 minutes and 34.05 ± 1.30%, respectively whereas setting time for control sample i.e. Sample E was 300 minutes and syneresis was 22.43 ± 2.12%. Acidity was continuously observed in the interval of 30 minutes till the yoghurt sets which showed rapid increase in acidity in Moringa oleifera incorporated yoghurt than that of control yo-ghurt. Acidity rose from 0.69 to 1.14 in control yoghurt and for Moringa oleifera incorporated yoghurt it rose from 0.82 to 1.40 during 12 days storage period. The total plate count of the yoghurt decreased during the storage period of 12 days from 1.20 × 109 cfu/ml to 1.1 × 103 cfu/ml for Sample A and from 1.76 × 109 cfu/ml to 4.4 × 103 cfu/ml for Sample E i.e. control yoghurt.
57 Knowing the Role of Supplementary Nutrition and Growth Monitoring from the Beneficiaries of Selected Anganwadi Centers in Rural Wardha, Maharashtra , Samarpita Dutta1,Abhishek V Raut,
Launched in 1975 by the Government of India, the ICDS scheme is currently the most important scheme in the field of child health and development and care of women throughout their critical stages in life. With four decades of implementation of this scheme, it is imperative to take stock of this flagship programme from its basic level of implementation in the country. The present study was thus conducted to determine the facilities available at selected Anganwadi centers and find out the concerns and performance of the Anganwadi Workers through observation, review of records and interviews.The study was conducted in 2 phases over a period of 3 months, in 15 Anganwadi Centers of the field practice area of a Rural Health Training Centre in Wardha district, Maharashtra. The 1st phase consisted of facility survey using pre-designed checklist while the 2nd phase consisted of in-depth interviews with the respective Anganwadi Workers.Facility survey revealed lack of storage, kitchen and toilet facilities in 5, 2 and 6 centers respectively. Hot Cooked Food was being served at 11 of the 15 centers. Peoples’ concern regarding quality of take home recipes, immunization days and improper utilization of learning material emerged as important issues compromising health promotion and pre-school education activities during the in-depth interviews.Bottlenecks identified through key functionaries of the scheme at community level would enable the administration take up coor-dinated steps to make it locally acceptable and reliable towards a fruitful impact in the nation.
58 The Relationship between Allergic Pollinosis and Low Salivary Levels of Secretory IgA in Adults , Tetsuro Yamamoto, T Enomoto, Akira Tsuda, Hisayoshi Okamura, T Honda, Shaw Watanabe, Hideyo Yamaguchi
Secretary IgA is a key element of intestinal immunity. Low levels of secretory IgA (SIgA) and development of allergy in infants were often reported, but it is not in adults. Saliva and serum were simultaneously analyzed from 20 adult patients with Cedar pollino-sis aged 22 - 53 years and 22 non-allergic control adults aged 25 - 65 years. The mean salivary level of SIgA for JCP patients was sig-nificantly lower than the value for control subjects. Median, 25th - 75th percentile was 11.5 UA/ml, 4.05, 23.1, respectively in pollinosis group and < 0.34 UA/ml in control group. Low levels of salivary SIgA in adults was associated with increased allergic manifestations.
59 Systematic Review - Nutrition in the Elderly , Alba Child, J Gerardo Villa, Pilar S Collado
This systematic review aims to compile the concept of aging, which entails it and the nutritional recommendations that have been addressed in recent years as a preventive measure for the best functional management and better quality of life of these people. Data Sources: Systematic searches were conducted in the PubMed, Medline and SPORTDiscus databases and manual searches were made in the reference lists of the selected articles.Study Selection: The selected cohort studies were those that examined the concept and effects of the aging process, as well as the effects of physical activity and especially nutrition in this older population. Data Extraction: Data was extracted independently. Data Synthesis: Thirty articles were included in which the subject of aging, physical activity and/or nutrition was discussed. Conclusion: Older adults are an extremely heterogeneous group, as a result, the assessment of nutritional risk requires careful and centralized individualization, considering physiological changes and possible disease, as well as psychosocial, economic and environ-mental factors that influence nutritional status, being the basic objectives of maintaining the functional independence and quality of life of these people.
60 Association of Physical Activity with Obesity Trends in School Children of Madinah Al Munawarrah-A Cross-Sectional Study , Atta UR Rehman Khan, Meshal Al Malki
Obesity is one of the three gravest threats to human health globally. There was no study on association of obesity with physical activity of children of the 2nd holiest city of Muslims Al Madinah Al Munawarrah which is located on North West of Saudi Arabia. Objectives: This study aimed to • Evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children.• To study association of physical activity and obesity.Methods: Participants were healthy school boys and girls aged 5 - 18 years. Study design was cross-sectional. A total of 6000 school children, consisting of 3000 boys and 3000 girls from twenty (20) schools were enrolled. School selection was done by random strati-fication with the help of Ministry of education. Data were collected between April - December 2017. Height and weight of children were measured to calculate percentiles for BMI-for-age and -sex according to the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts, Overweight and obesity was defined as BMI-for-age/sex ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentile respectively.Results: The overall prevalence of obesity was 14.7% (n = 588). Obesity Prevalence in boys was 16% (n = 347) and in girls was 14% (n = 241). The overall prevalence of overweight was 15.4% (n = 616). The Prevalence in boys was 16% (n = 366) and in girls was 14% (n = 250). There was negative correlation between Physical activity and Body Mass Index. This relationship is also highly significant. (P -Value < .0005) Conclusions: Overweight and obesity in school children in Al Madinah Al Munawarrah is similar to global prevalence. Physical ac-tivity is a major risk factor for obesity in school children. Physical activity programs should be seriously implemented at education levels in every school of AlMadinah Al Munawarah to control this epidemic with coordination of Ministry of education and Ministry of health.
61 A Neurocommunication Model between the Brain and Liver Regarding Glucose Production and Secretion in Early Morning Using GH-Method: Math-Physical Medicine (No. 324) , Gerald C Hsu
This article address the author’s hypothesis on the neurocommunication model existing between the brain and liver regarding production and glucose secretion in the early morning. This is based on the observation of the difference between glucose at wake up moment in the morning for the fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and glucose at the first bite of breakfast for the glucose at 0-minute or “open glucose” of postprandial plasma glucose (PPG). All of the eight identified glucoses of breakfast PPG are higher than the eight glucoses at time of wake up by a difference of an average of 8 mg/dL.The value difference using Method B of CGM sensor glucoses during the COVID-19 period offers the most accurate picture and credible glucose difference of 8 mg/dL between his FPG at wake-up moment and PPG at the first bite of breakfast. The author believes that the brain senses when a person wakes up due to different kinds of stimuli from many sources, including eye, environment and even internal organs, which will alert the body to be in “active” mode requiring “energy” through glucose. Even though the person has not eaten anything or is not actively moving, the brain issues a marching order to the liver to produce or re-lease glucose for the body to use in the forthcoming day. This hypothesis can currently explain why his glucose of eating his breakfast is ~8 mg/dL higher than his FPG at wakeup.
62 Nutrients Analysis of Diplazium esculentum: Underutilized Wild Wetland Pteridophytes Ensure Food and Nutritional Security , Sanjay Mohan Gupta, Basant Ballabh, Pradeep Kumar Yadav, Ankur Agarwal, Madhu Bala
Food and nutrition (hidden hunger) for rapidly growing global populations (expected to increase 10 billion by 2050) are major concern of public health issue in most of the global developing countries. One way to tackle these problems is through the inter-vention of local traditional less-explored high-value food crops as dietary supplements for ensuring food and nutritional security. The Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw (also called as ‘Vegetable fern’ or ‘Liguna’; fam. Athyriaceae) is an underutilized wild wetland pteridophytes occurring commonly throughout world, from sea level to 2,300m. The young frond and rhizomes of D. esculentumare generally used as green vegetables during the monsoon season, which are reported to possess notable nutritional and medici-nal properties. This research article highlights the detailed nutritive phytochemical (primary and secondary metabolites, essential mineral content, dietary fibres, calorific value etc) profiling of young fronds of D. esculentum. Our results suggest that D. esculentumfronds contains rich amounts of protein (52.3%), carbohydrate (28.2%), antioxidants (Vitamin C etc) and exceptionally high contents of important minerals (Ca, Fe, Na), dietary fibre (17.44%) with good calorific energy value (324 Kcal/100 gm). The overall results suggest that, the young fronds of D. esculentum contains rich source of phyto-nutrients that may be commercially utilized for the development of healthcare value added products as a sustainable solution to the health and nutritional security.
63 Bromelain and Amylase Assisted Extraction of Cucurbita pepo Seed Oil Enriched with Phytosterol , Nguyen Thi Minh Tu, Kieu Thi Hoang Yen, Tran Huong Nga, Le Tat Thanh, Dang Thi Thu
Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds’ hydrolysis condition was investigated in order to achieve oil containing high content of phy-tosterol by using enzyme bromelain and amylase. For this purpose, hydrolysis conditions of bromelain and amylase including ratio of C. pepo to water, ratio of concentration of the enzyme bromelain/amylase to substance, temperature, pH, hydrolysis time were investigated. Bromelain hydrolysis of C. pepo seeds with 1.75% enzyme at 55oC for 7hrs at pH of 7 gave 27.83% oil and 1909.95 mg phytosterol in 100 g oil. For amylase hydrolysis these figures were 0.9%; 50oC; 5.5 hrs and 7, respectively; and the oil yield was 14.02% with 2245.03 mg phytosterol in 100 g oil.Although oil yield by using enzyme bromelain (27.83%) and enzyme amylase (14.02%) was lower than that by using solvent and ultrasonic methods (26.57% to 42.74%), phytosterol content inversely was as 2 to 3 times as higher (631.41 - 772.78 to 19909.95 - 2245.03 mg/100g oil). Fourteen compounds were found in phytosterol mixture obtained by amylase hydrolysis, among them three important e.g. campesterol, stigmasterol, β - sitosterol accounted for315.460, 120.111 and 189.987 mg/100g oil respectively.
64 Vaginal Birth After Caesarean Section - Experience in Shree Birendra Hospital , Ratna A Khatri, Arju Chand, Sumana Thapa,Shailaza Khadka
The rate of primary caesarean section (CS) is on the rising trend. Vaginal birth after CS (VBAC) can be an alternative to reduce this rate of CS worldwide. Antenatal examination and intrapartum monitoring are the most important factors for VBAC. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of VBAC at SBH in selected cases. To analyze the maternal and fetal out-come of VBAC and repeat CS cases. Methodology:It is a cross-sectional institute-based study carried out in Shree Birendra hospital, a tertiary level Nepalese Army Hos-pital, from March 2019 to March 2020. The study population included cases with one previous caesarean section fulfilling the inclu-sion criteria of Royal College of Obstetrician and Gynaecology (RCOG) for VBAC. After counseling for VBAC, the data were estimated of those who were willing for VBAC and those who refused. Trial of labor was given to the patients accepted for VBAC. Feto-maternal outcome were analyzed of VBAC and of repeat CS.Results: There were total of 108 cases of previous LSCS reported at ANC OPD, among them 23 cases were excluded from the study as they were not meeting the RCOG inclusion criteria, 85 cases were enrolled in the study. Out of 85 cases, 75 (88.23%) refused to undergo VBAC, only 10 cases (11.76%) accepted to undergo trial of labor. Out of 10 cases, 5 (50%) had successful VBAC. The sample size was too small to come to any conclusion, still it is observed that women who had an emergency cesarean section in their first delivery had lower VBAC success particularly those with failed induction. No maternal and neonatal mortality observed. Conclusion: Vaginal Birth after Caesarean section is relatively safe, provided it is conducted in carefully selected cases and under constant supervision. Spontaneous onset of labor, good Bishop score and average sized baby were good predictors of successful VBAC.
65 Comparative Study on Antioxidant Activity and Microbial Loads of Dried Tomatoes Treated with Local Spices (Aframomum danielli and Syzygium aromaticum) , Mapamile AD, Osunbade OA*, Ani CP, Oyewo IO
The worldwide usage of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cannot be underestimated therefore, spoilage and postharvest losses must be controlled through processing and preservation. Two spices (Aframomum danielli and Syzygium aromaticum) aqueous ex-tract were separately formulated into 5 and 10% concentrations. The aqueous extract preparations were used to pre-treat tomatoes (var. UTC) prior to drying. Two drying methods (sun drying and oven drying at 60oC) were employed to effect drying. Dried tomato samples treated with 0% spice served as control for dried samples treated with 5 and 10% spice concentrations. The activity of each spice used was evaluated and compared based on their concentrations in terms of ascorbic acid, total carotenoid, lycopene and total viable and fungal count using standard methods. The results of antioxidants revealed that ascorbic acid and lycopene value were reduced in sun-dried samples when treated with varying concentrations of A. danielli and S. aromaticum compared to the control sample. However, in spice-treated oven-dried samples when compared to the control sample, the ascorbic acid values were better retained with increasing concentrations of spice from 5 to 10% concentrations. The values of total carotenoid were best retained in sun dried samples treated with 5% concentrations of S. aromaticum and 5% concentrations of A. danielli in oven dried sample. There were also considerable reductions in the values of both total viable and fungal count of spice-treated dried tomato samples over the control samples. Evidently, the findings revealed the effectiveness of A. danielli to exact a more preservative effect in oven dried sample better than S. aromaticum. This was evident in its better antioxidant retention ability as well as reduction in total viable and fungi count of the oven dried samples treated with both spices.
66 Analysis of Non-Scheduled Consultations in Patients with Digestive Neoplasms , Matilde Bolaños Naranjo, Victoria Aviñó Tarazona, Francisco Javier Jiménez Ruiz, Juan Bayo Calero
Non-scheduled consultation is very frequent among patients with cancer, creating alterations and delays in pro-grammed visits. We describe the incidence of non-scheduled consultations in patients with digestive cancer in our hospital.Methods: Descriptive, prospective, non-interventional study. In a six-month period (May - December 2017), non-scheduled visits were chronologically recorded in the medical oncology consultation of digestive tumours of Hospital Juan Ramón Jiménez de Huelva. We performed a descriptive analysis of the variables collected through the statistical program G-STAT v.2.0.Results: Patients with colon or rectal cancer generated most consultations (68,63%), followed by pancreatic (9,15%) and gastric (5,23%). Most patients had metastatic or advanced stage cancer (59,87%) and were under palliative or symptomatic treatment (58,82%). The most frequent reason for consultation was clinical symptoms (47,05%), followed by information demand (18,30%).Conclusion: Non-scheduled consultations in cancer patients are frequent; they cause interference in scheduled consultations and not always resolved satisfactorily. We propose several measures to reduce the number of non-scheduled consultation in oncology.
67 Development of a Baby Food Pureed with Probiotic Microorganisms for an Infant from 6 to 12 Months , Cardona MA, López BE,Restrepo M
The infant population and more specifically infants between 6 to 12 months are the most vulnerable to suffering from diseases that jeopardize the immune conditions of their developing organism. To counteract this, this research aimed to: develop a functional food baby pureed for an infant aged 6 to 12 months, using a probiotic strain, where the probiotic strain studied was Bacillus coagu-lans. The methodology involved the preparation of 3 flavors of baby food pureed such as: ahuyama, carrot and figs, which B. coagulanswere added as a functional component. A three-month shelf-life study was determined and evaluated, in which a count was made in the CFU of B. coagulans and its permanence in baby food pureed during this time. It was found that the adequate counting technique is vital for the detection of the microorganism and that carbohydrate content favors its permanence. It was concluded that baby food pureed could have a functional effect seen from the count of B. coagulans and from the study of shelf life as follows: ahuyama up to 90 days, carrot 30 days.
68 Lipedema and Nutrition: What’s the Link? , Cannataro Roberto, Erika Cione,
Lipedema is a dysfunction of the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), it is characteristic of women, although it is reported in rare cases also in men, it was described for the first time in 1940, with a better characterization in 1951, although this is often still con-fused with classic obesity. It affects the lower and upper limbs, the buttocks, usually sparing the feet and trunk. It is classified into 5 levels, according to the area of the body affected by the dysfunction. The tissues are nodular to the touch and this, among other things, suggests an inflammatory phenomenon. The treatments concern surgery (bariatric and liposuction), compression garments, physiotherapy. The nutritional approach often has little or no efficacy, probably because the adipose tissue is inflamed, therefore not very responsive if the inflammation itself is not managed. An approach that is having an interesting response is the ketogenic diet (a nutritional approach that provides for a carbohydrate intake of less than 30g per day), in previous work we have demonstrated the marked anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action of this nutritional approach, which could prove effective in assist the treatment of lipedema.
69 Healthy Eating Vs Dietary Supplements and the Fight against COVID- 19 Pandemic , Louay Labban
The novel coronavirus or COVID 19 has caused many changes in the daily lives of people around the globe since it first started in China in early 2020. This virus has caused a death toll reaching around 1 million. This number was due to its complications which can be attributed to lower immunity. It’s been known for a long time that immunity is closely related to nutritional status which can affect the prevalence of infections and their severity. The in-dividuals who follow unhealthy dietary systems are at a greater risk these infections. On the other hand, these infections can cause nutrients deficiencies affecting the individuals’ nutritional status. Therefore, people should focus on their diets during the ongoing Corona virus pandemic especially those with underlying diseases which make the situation worse.
70 Vitamin D Deficiency, Biology and its Functions , Afrozul Haq, Nuzhat Ahsan
Vitamin D deficiency is a major global, public health problem and is prevalent among all ages and ethnic groups. Neverthe-less, it is preventable cost-effectively, if proper public health in-terventions are implemented. Only a handful of expensive foods contain vitamin D and it is difficulty to change people’s attitude and lifestyles. Therefore, an inexpensive supplements and food-fornication programs have been recommended. More than 80% of the requirement vitamin D should generate from our skin, but sun avoidance behaviors prevent this. The combination of lifestyle and environmental issues, decreased exposures to sunlight have led to vitamin D insufficiency. This affects approximately, 50% of the global population and estimated 1.5 billion people worldwide have vitamin D deficiency [1]. Sunlight remains the primary source of vitamin D3 that is synthesis in dermal tissues in humans and in animals
71 Health Issues Related to Fat Consumption and Choice of Diet as Remedy , Anjan Borah
Rapid urbanization and changes in lifestyle has changed food habits towards processed foods. However processed foods are hav-ing associated risk factors. Most of the processed foods like French fries, potato chips, Snacks, breakfast cereals (ready to eat), cook-ies, roasted almond, crackers and related products are reported to have Acrylamides reported to be a neurotoxicant and probably a week human carcinogen. A processed food that contains partially hydrogenated oil (PHOs) as a shortening is the richest source of Trans Fatty Acid (TFA). TFA (isomers of the octadecenoic acids) significantly increase risk of heart disease and may drive insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes
72 Life Style, Nutritional Habits, Body Composition and Respiratory Capacity as Fundamental Aspects of Risk Evaluation in Professional Divers , Maria Concetta D’Ovidio, Daniela Pigini1, Maria Rosaria Marchetti, Paola Melis1, Lucio Bertini, Massimo Spalletta, Tiziana Paola Baccolo, Giovanna Tranfo, Enrico Marchetti
Exposure to hyperbaric atmospheres is an occupational risk for workers. The diver needs a good physical/mental performance, control of physical activity and nutrition. In this work the objective is to assess physical status of professional diver of Italian National Fire Department.The study was conducted on 71 male divers of the National Fire Department subjected to annual medical examination. We utilized a questionnaire regarding work habits and lifestyles, bioimpedance and spirometric analysis.Results of the questionnaire indicate that more than one half of workers practice a correct lifestyle and has varied and balanced consumption of food; 25 - 30% professional divers show a higher BMI respect to the ideal BMI value.These results will be used to create a database on the different physiological parameters of these workers and to define the varia-tions during the immersion phase
73 Eating Quickly is Associated with Ultrasound-Diagnosed Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Japanese Adults , Koichiro Irie, Tetsuji Azuma, Takatoshi Yonenaga, Minako Hada, Kazutoshi Watanabe, Fumiko Deguchi, Akihiro Obora, Takao Kojima,Takaaki Tomofuji
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major global health problem. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between eating quickly and NAFLD in Japanese adults. A total of 8556 participants underwent a health checkup. Abdominal ultrasonography was applied to diagnose NAFLD, and information on eating speed was obtained using a self-ad-ministrated questionnaire. Of the study participants, 2570 (30.0%) had ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD. The participants who reported eating quickly had a higher prevalence of NAFLD when compared to those who did not report eating quickly. The presence of NAFLD was significantly associated with male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 3.163, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.800 - 3.573), age ≥ 65 years (OR = 1.426, 95%CI = 1.076 - 1.889), high body mass index (≥ 25 kg/m2; OR = 9.615, 95%CI = 8.511 - 10.863), hypertension (OR = 1.659, 95%CI = 1.424 - 1.931), high hemoglobin A1c values (≥ 6.5%; OR = 4.096, 95%CI = 3.080 - 5.446), the presence of regular exercise habits (OR = 0.605, 95%CI = 0.522 - 0.701), and eating quickly (OR = 1.146, 95%CI = 1.023 - 1.283) after adjusting for confounding factors. These results indicated that lifestyle factors, including eating quickly, is positively associated with NAFLD in Japanese adults independently of overweight and obesity.
74 Trade of Medicinal Plants and Herbal Products with Teratogenic Potential and their Consumption during Pregnancy , Yvis Silva De Castro, Juliana Silva Pereira Santos, Stela Bersan Faustino, Cristhian Gomes Cardeal Martos, Gabriel Bastos Teixeira, Aline Oliveira da Conceição
The indiscriminate use and market of medicinal plants and herbal products is a reality in Brazil. Despite the preventive measures that already regulate this use, they do not reach all the communities. Therefore, investigations on the use of medicinal plants or herb-al medicines in pregnancy are of fundamental need to help in the establishment of pharmacovigilance norms. The objective of this study was to investigate the sale of medicinal plants and herbal medicines in the city of Ilhéus, Bahia and the consumption of plants by women served in the municipal maternity ward. A qualitative and descriptive study was carried out, through field research, using a semi-structured questionnaire that addressed socioeconomic and ethnobotanical aspects. Herbalists and sellers in the local market were also interviewed about the presence of medicinal plants and herbal products with teratogenic potential in their establishments. In total, 19 individuals were invited to participate in the research, six sellers of medicinal plants and 13 women who gave birth in the local maternity ward. The results showed that medicinal plants with teratogenic potential are easily marketed in the municipality of Ilhéus. However, no teratogenic effects related to medicinal plants or previous high consumption of medicinal plants were men-tioned. Despite the low evidence of harmful effects in this study, the fact that the plants are being sold freely in the local market shows the need of pharmacovigilance and education in natural products for professionals in local public health.
75 Metabolic Obesity , Isabel Cristina Bento, Heather D Balentine
Obesity is a worldwide pandemic, with high prevalence. In the United States, at least 35% of men and 40% of women are obese [1]. In Brazil, the latest Survey of Surveillance of Risk and Protec-tion Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey [2], from the Ministry of Health found that the frequency of obese adults has been increasing, from 11.8% in 2006 to 20.3% in 2019, is similar for men and women in 2019.
76 Association of Consumption Frequency of Meals Consisting of Grain Dishes, Fish and Meat Dishes, and Vegetables Dishes with Satisfaction with Diet and Health Status Among Japanese People , Tatsuya Koyama
Objective:To examine the association of the consumption frequency of well-balanced meals (comprising grain dishes, fish and meat dishes, and vegetable dishes) with satisfaction with the diet and health status. Methods: In December 2019, a self-administered questionnaire survey on lifestyle was conducted for 295 local civil servants in a town of Aomori, Japan. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regressions were performed to compare satisfaction with the diet and health status among three groups (every day [daily], four to five days a week [frequently], three days or less in a week [occasionally]) based on the frequency of intake of well-balanced meals .Results: Compared with participants who consumed well-balanced meals daily, participants who consumed well-balanced meals occasionally were less satisfied with the diet after adjustment for sex, age, smoking and drinking habits (odds ratio 0.28, 95% con-fidence interval: 0.09, 0.85). The association persisted after adjustment for BMI, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Com-pared with participants who consumed well-balanced meals daily, participants who consumed well-balanced meal occasionally had a higher risk of subjective health and dyslipidemia adjustment for sex, age, current smoking and drinking habits. These significant associations disappeared after adjustment for BMI.Conclusion: The frequency of intake of well-balanced meals was associated with the degree of satisfaction of the diet.
77 Conversion of Khadrwai Dates from Khulal to Tamar through Various Practices , Rehman Ali, Umber Shehzadi, Amara Rasheed, Maryam Bibi, Anam Zafar
Dates have been an important basic food for several cultures all over the world and they are still consumed widely over thousands of year. The aim of our study was to protect khadrwai dates from monsoon season and minimize post-harvest losses. For this pur-pose, some bunches were wrapped with polythene plastic sheet, some covered in sacks and others remained open on date palm. Date samples were collected during Khalal, Rutab and Tamar stage by weekly intervals. Chemical and physical characteristics were deter-mined using published procedures. Result showed firmness was more in polythene plastic dates about 4.733, 4.46 and 1.6 during every stage and other conditions have less firmness. Brix % gradually increases during all stages. At full ripening stage, brix % was near about 30 - 40%. Color changes during ripening from light yellow at Khalal to golden brown at Rutab stage and then converted to dark brown color at Tamar stage. Moisture content was decrease with the passage of time. At Tamar stage, moisture content was about 15 % which was beneficial for long term storage. The highest losses on date palm were observed in sack dates due to shrinkage of size and bitter taste. Monsoon season less effected on opened date palm. Polythene plastic condition is best for maximum produc-tion and minimum losses on date palm.
78 Using of Natural Remedies for Patients Recovered from COVID-19 , Poonam Maurya, Neelesh Kumar Maurya
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported a global public health concern by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to its pandemic. Typical human coronavirus NL63 (alpha coro-navirus), 229E (alpha coronavirus), OC43 (beta coronavirus), and HKU1 (beta coronavirus) cause widespread coldness [1]. Corona-virus Cases: the risk of death of a novel coronavirus was reported to be approximately 2% at the WHO press conference on 29 Janu-ary 2020 [2]. Globally, 22,812,491 recorded cases of COVID-19, including 795,132 fatalities, were announced to the WHO at 2:09 p.m. CEST, 22 August 2020
79 Effect of Nutrition Education Videos on Mothers’ Knowledge, and Practices on Complementary Feeding of Children 6 - 23 Months in Ruaraka Sub-county, Nairobi City County , Robinson Nyaribo Mochoni, Judith Kimiywe
Background:Children aged 6-23 months are most exposed to malnutrition because complementary feeding is done poorly in this stage of children’s growth. Efforts have been put forth to improve child nutrition but there are still significant gaps in complementary feeding. Low information on complementary feeding among mothers has been the main contributor. This study aimed to establish the effect of video use on nutrition education to improve mothers’ knowledge and practices on complementary feeding. The study was conducted in Ruaraka sub-county, Nairobi City County, Kenya. Methodology: Post intervention cross-sectional analytical design with control was adopted with 198 mothers with children 6-23 months who sought health services from selected health facilities. The study involved an intervention group that watched the short nutrition video clips on complementary feeding and a control group which did not watch the videos from a different locality but shared similar characteristics with intervention group.Results: Most households, control (83.6%) and intervention (92.4%) groups were headed by males. The majority of mothers were married (86.4%) and Housewives (67.7%) with a mean age of 25.3 years. They were Christians (97.1%), lactating (95.2%) and had attained primary school education as highest level (46.7%). The majority, 41.1% had no specific allocation of income for purchase of food. There was a significantly higher proportion of mothers in the intervention (100%) than in the control (51.3%) who had the cor-rect knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding (P = 0.041). A significant difference was also noted in the minimum dietary diversity score with 3.73% in control and 5.19% in intervention group with majority from intervention (95.5%) feeding their children from the four food groups as opposed to control group (30.0%) with a significant difference P = 0.006. There was also a significant difference in knowledge mean score between the intervention and control with P = 0.001. A significantly higher proportion of mothers from inter-vention (100%) had good knowledge of the age of initiating complementary feeding as compared to the control group (96.3%) with P = 0.021. In terms of practice, a significant difference was found between the control and intervention on complementary feeding of children 6-23 months (P = 0.021).Conclusion:The use of audio-visual tools has been found to be effective in passing messages. Since the video clips’ messages are eas-ily understood, interpreted due to the use of the local language, Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health knowledge is easily gained by the hearers. Better practices shown in the intervention group indicates gained knowledge.
80 Mind Genomics: Accelerating and Scaling Our Understanding of the Everyday Mind and its Prospects for Efforts in Nutrition , Sophia Davidov, Ariola Harizi, Glenn Zemel, Alex Hutchinson,Howard R Moskowitz
We present the newly emerging science of Mind Genomics, which studies the way we make decisions in everyday life. Mind Ge-nomics defines a topic, creates four relevant questions, creates four answers to each question, for a total of 16 elements. The subject evaluates a unique set of 24 vignettes, combinations of 2-4 elements, at most one answer to each question, rating the vignette on a scale. The scale may judge amount of (e.g., perceived fullness, liking, etc.), or may require the subject to choose an emotion. Each subject tests a different set of combinations. All combinations are created by experimental design, ensuring statistical independence. The analysis of the results reveals how each answer or element ‘drives’ the rating. A measure of response time, collected at the same time, shows the degree of psychological engagement. Finally, Mind Genomics reveals new-to-the-world mind-sets of people, with different ways of looking at the topic. Mind Genomics finishes with a personal viewpoint identifier, new people to be assigned to a mind-set. We finish with the vision of scaling the process, to understand the algebra of the mind for the world of foods and nutrition, and to correlate the mind-sets with exogenous behavior, both economics-oriented and health-related, respectively.
81 Effects of High Protein/Low Carbohydrate Rationed Formulated Diet on Glycemic Tolerance and Control, Body Weight and Organ Histomorphometry in Experimental Diabetic Rats , Magnus Michael Chukwudike Anyakudo, David Opeyemi Adeniji
Metabolic response to carbohydrate and protein ingestion plays an important role in health and disease states. This experimental-ly-controlled designed nutritional study aimed to determine the effects of a high protein/low carbohydrate rationed formulated (HP/LC) diet on body weight, organs (kidneys, liver, heart, lungs, spleen and testes) histomorphometry, glycemic tolerance and control in experimental diabetic and healthy rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats randomly categorized into four groups (n = 6, each): Healthy control group (HC), Healthy treated group (HT), Diabetic control group (DC) and Diabetic treated group (DT) were used for this study which lasted eight weeks. The animals were fed according to the experimental design with water ad libitum. Diabetes was inducted with freshly prepared alloxan monohydrate solution (150 mg/kg bwt, intraperitoneally). Body weights and fasting blood sugar con-centrations were measured twice weekly while oral glucose tolerance test was conducted on the last day of the study after which, the organs were extracted for weight assessment and histomorphometric analysis. In this study, the high-protein/low-carbohydrate rationed formulated diet caused significant reduction in mean body weight gain both in treated diabetic (DT: 22.6%; P = .001) and healthy (HT: 5.8%; P = .007) rats compared with their respective controls which recorded significant (P < .05) increase in body weight gain (DC: 12.4%; HC: 11.2%). In DT and HT rats, glycemic tolerance and control improved significantly (DT > HT) while no visible lesions or distortion in organs histoarchitecture observed. In conclusion, high-protein/low-carbohydrate rationed formulated diet reduced body weight gain with improved glycemic tolerance and control without pathologic consequences on organs histoarchi-tecture in experimental diabetic and healthy rats.
82 Cancer Nutrition: Prevention and Treatment! , Raquel M Fernandes
Cancer is ranked in the ranking of the most kill-killing diseases in the world. Scientifically it is a disease classified as a genetic mu-tation, which can be caused by several factors (physical, chemical or biological). According to INCA, it is estimated that in 2018 there were 18 million new cases with 9.6 million deaths, the most fre-quent being lung cancer, breast cancer, colon and rectal cancer and prostate cancer.
83 Evaluation of Bacteriological Quality in Artisanal Juices Issued at Carabobo University. Faculty of Health Sciences. Bable Core , Noja Izzeddin, Arencibia R Angely, Barreto G Martha, Luís F Medina
Foodborne diseases, most of which are of microbial origin, have a global impact as a major cause of morbidity and mortality; in this way the intake of contaminated food has become one of the most important ways to adapt gastrointestinal diseases. The objec-tive of this work was to evaluate the bacteriological quality in artisanal juices of expended in the schools of Bioanalysis, Biomedical Sciences and Basic Area at the Faculty of Health Sciences of the Universidad de Carabobo headquarters Bárbula, in May 2015. The study was within the limits of descriptive, non-experimental and field research, as a total of 30 samples of artisanal fruit juices were collected and analyzed, which is evaluated at different times. For the analysis of juices, the quantification of total and heat-resistant coliform bacteria and the identification of bacteria such as Escherichia coli andSalmonella spp were performed. Of the 30 samples studied 60% had total coliforms, 33% had heat resistant bacteria, and the total samples did not identify the presence of Escherichia coli or Salmonella spp. Thus concluding that the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the arts juices of frequent consumption in the schools Bioanalysis, Biomedical Sciences and Basic Area of the Faculty of Health Sciences, suggests that the health quality of these actually poses a risk to the health of consumers since feedings cannot contain microorganisms.
84 Study on Parasitic Load in Local Goats Reared in Three Different Systems of Rearing , Mahadev Lamani, SB Prasanna, Mahadevappa D Gouri, Suma N4and Shankarappa Bhajantri
An experiment to study the effect of three systems of rearing on the parasitic load and welfare of growing goat kids were studied. The 3 months study was conducted on local osmanabadi crossbred goats at Niharika Sheep and Goat Farm, Sira, Tumkur district, Karnataka, India. Thirty weaned local goat kids (3 months) were randomly allocated into three treatment groups with ten kids in each viz., T1 (Intensive-in housed and fed all time), T2 (Semi intensive- browse for 5 - 6 hours during day time, housed and fed rest of time)and T3 (Extensive rearing- browse throughout the day 6 - 8 hours and no feed supplementation). The animals in T1 groupwere confined to the shed both during day and night.The average parasitic load at the beginning of the trial was 180 ± 38.15, 205 ± 36.86 and 185 ± 33.37 in T1, T2 and T3, respectively. At the end of experimental trial, parasitic load was 1320 ± 35.12, 1985 ± 75.3 and 2235 ± 91.91 eggs per gram in T1, T2 and T3 respec-tively. This study indicates to design a suitable deworming program to control helminths more often in extensive system while for protozoans like coccidiosis in intensive system of rearing.
85 Influence of Varying Salinity and Different Protein Sources on the Water Quality Changes During the Rearing of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) , P Pravallika, D Ravindrakumar Reddy, A Chnadrashekar Rao3, Prasanna Kumar, Shyam Prasad Mamidala
A study was conducted for 63 days to study the influence of varying salinity (0, 10, 15, 25 ppt) and different protein sources on the water quality changes during the rearing of Pacific white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The shrimp diet was prepared at three protein level (25%, 30% and 35%) by mixing all the ingredients in required proportions into pellets by the replacement of fish meal with Cottonseed meal, (CSM), sunflower meal (SF), Acetes indicus (AI) meal, Mysid meal (MM). Shrimps were fed with the diets thrice a daily at a satiation level. Water quality parameters such as pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), total alkalinity and total hardness was analysed weekly intervals. In the study, the water pH ranged between 8.2 to 8.3, 8.2 to 8.3, 8.3 to 8.4 and 8.4 to 8.5 for 0, 5, 15, and 25 ppt, respectively. While the temperature and dissolved oxygen ranged between 29.5 to 31.7°C and 5.66 and 7.81 mg l-1,respectively in all the treatments. Moreover, the total alkalinity varied between 214 to 155 mg l-1, 315 to 229 mg l-1 and 625 to 535 mg l-1 and 725 to 645 mg l-1 at 0, 5, 15 and 25 ppt, respectively. Similarly, the total hardness of water ranged between 238 to 191 mg l-1, 322 to 240 mg l-1, 675 to 601mg l-1 and 777 to 700 mg l-1 at 0, 10 15 and 25 ppt, respectively irrespective of varying protein sources in the diets. In conclusion, the study revealed the feasibility of L. vannamei up to 25 ppt salinity as the water quality parameters are within the suitable ranges irrespective of varying dietary protein sources and growth.
86 Trends in Orange Juice Consumption and Nutrient Adequacy in Adults 2003-2016s , Nicklas TA1* O’Neil CE, Saab R, Fulgoni VL III
No studies have looked at trends in nutrient intakes, orange juice (OJ) consumption and nutrient adequacy in adults overtime. Methods: The purpose of this study was to examine secular trends in nutrient intakes, OJ consumption, and nutrient adequacy in adults 19 plus years participating in the 2003-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results: Approximately 13% of the total sample consumed OJ with a mean intake of 39.5 g/d (76.2 KJ [0.89% of total energy intake]). Amounts of all 100% fruit juices consumed decreased and whole fruit intake increased from 2003-2016. Intake of total energy, total carbohydrates, added sugars decreased. Intakes of folate, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamin C decreased and intakes of niacin and vita-min B6 increased. Intakes of iron, sodium, and zinc decreased and intake of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus increased. Percent-age of adults below the EAR decreased for ten nutrients (i.e. folate, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamins B6, and D, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorous and zinc) and the percent above the AI increased for two nutrients (i.e. dietary fiber and sodium) across the deciles of OJ consumption. OJ, other 100% fruit juices, fruits, breads/rolls/tortillas, and ready-to-eat cereals were major food sources of many nutrients that were consumed at levels below recommendations. IntroductionConclusion: There were changes in intake and nutrient adequacy among adults overtime which varied by OJ consumption. Food pat-terns varied among consumers and non-consumers suggesting that studies looking at the consumption versus non-consumption of foods need to look at food patterns within the context of the total diet.
87 Study of the Influence of Ultrasound in the Process of Osmotic Drying of Melon , Radjabov Mansur Farkhodovich, Kurambaev Sherzod Raimberganovich, Saparov Makhmud Kadamovich, Khakimova Bakhor Bakhtiyarovna, Rakhmanova Mukhabbat Ismailovna and Abdullaeva Gulnoza Ulugbek Qizi
Due to the deterioration of the ecological and social situation the creation of production technologies is of particular importance canned products providing maximum preservation of native biologically active substances of raw materials, and also using biologi-cal processes. It is necessary develop technologies for the production of functional products, where additives are biologically active substances, derived from various parts of fruits and vegetables. At present, there is an awareness of the importance of changing the structure of nutrition, and the demand for products with preventive and medicinal properties is increasing. Vegetables and fruits contain natural antioxidants, vitamins, biologically active and mineral substances, i.e. are one of the raw materials for this kind of products.
88 Productivity Enhancement of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) by Integrated Nutrient Management Under Salt Affected Soils , Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Ahmad Khan, Raza Ullah Khan, Muhammad Arshad Ullah, Muhammad Asad Hameed, Huma Aziz1
Excessive and imbalanced use of expensive chemical fertilizers may pose devastating effect on soil fertility and sustainable pro-ductivity. Bio-organic amendments improve soil fertility and sustainable crop productivity. The application of integrated nutrient management (INM) bio-organic amendments couple with chemical fertilizers is one of the promising strategy that not only enhances crop productivity on sustainable basis but also reduces the use of chemical fertilizers. Therefore a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the productivity enhancement of wheat by combined application of Biofertilizer and chemical fertilizers including Zinc Sulphate and Boric Acid on growth and nutrient concentration of wheat variety (Faisalabad 2008) directly sown in a saline sodic soil (ECe=4.92 dSm-1, pH=8.22 and SAR=16.15 dSm-1) at Soil Salinity Research Institute (SRRI) Farm, Pindi Bhattian during Rabi 2019-20. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The crop was harvested at maturity, data on tillering, plant height, number of grains spike-1, 1000- grain weight, straw and wheat grain yields were recorded. N, P, K, Zn and B concentration in grain and straw were estimated using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Wheat productivity was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased by INM. Wheat grain yield was the maximum (4.76 tha-1) at the application of 120 kg N, 90 kg P 60 kg K, 5 kg Zn and 1kg B ha-1 along with Biozote and it was registered 35% more than Farmer practice. This study confirms that INM has tremendous potential of plant nutrients supply for productivity enhancement of Wheat on sustainable basis.
89 Determination and Comparison of Non-essential and Essential Elements in Different Species of Fish Available in Omani Markets by Using Inductively Coupled Plasma-optical Emission Spectrometry , Issa Al-Amri, Isam Kadim1, Abdulaziz AlKindi1, Ahmed Al-Harrasi1, Khadija Al-Hosni1, Aiysha Al-Kiymi1, Anwar Al-Amri1, Muzna Al-Salehi1, Fazal Mabood1, Ahmed Hamaed1, Saud M Al Jufaili3, Samera Khalaf2 and Mohamed Al-Omairi
In this study an ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry) was used to investigate the concentration levels of both essential and non-essential elements in 70 edible portion of fish samples representing 11 different species of fish collected from Omani markets. Sample preparation via microwave digestion were analyzed, using ICP-OES for seven non-essential elements [Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), lead (Ph), titanium (Ti), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg)] and seven essential elements [iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), selenium (Se), and magnesium (Mg)]. A comparison of the results for the concentration of Cd, Ni, Pb, Ti, Cu and Fe elements between the species of fish showed that there was significant (P < 0.05) difference in concentrations. Tissue samples from Seriola dumerili and Xiphias gladius tissues contained significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of Cd, while Lutjanus argentimaculatus and Parastromateus niger samples had significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of Ni than those from other fish species. The levels Pb found in the tissues of Merluccius bilinearis, and Lethrinus nebulosus fish were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than other fish species. Further, Lethrinus nebulosus and seriola dumerili tissue samples contained sig-nificantly (P < 0.05) higher concentrations of Ti. The concentrations of Ni and Pb were found higher than the maximum permissible limits in certain fish species samples for human consumption. The results indicated that the edible portion contained significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of Cu in Seriola dumerili species and Fe elements in Ocyurus chrysurus and Pagellus affinis than other fish spe-cies. This study concluded that Cd, Ni, Pb, Ti, Cu and Fe elements were species-dependent.
90 General Anesthetics , Dalamagka Maria
General anesthetics are administered to approximately 50 mil-lion patients each year in the United States. Anesthetic vapors and gases are also widely used in dentists’ offices, veterinary clinics, and laboratories for animal research. All the volatile anesthetics that are currently used are halogenated compounds destructive to the ozone layer. These halogenated anesthetics could have poten-tial significant impact on global warming. The widely used anes-thetic gas nitrous oxide is a known greenhouse gas as well as an important ozone-depleting gas. These anesthetic gases and vapors are primarily eliminated through exhalation without being metab-olized in the body, and most anesthesia systems transfer these gases as waste directly and unchanged into the atmosphere. Little consideration has been given to the ecotoxicological properties of gaseous general anesthetics. Our estimation using the most recent consumption data indicates that the anesthetic use of nitrous ox-ide contributes 3.0% of the total emissions in the United States. Studies suggest that the influence of halogenated anesthetics on global warming will be of increasing relative importance given the decreasing level of chlorofluorocarbons globally. Despite these nonnegligible pollutant effects of the anesthetics, no data on the production or emission of these gases and vapors are publicly available. Since Fox.
91 Physical Fitness Comparison of Trained and Untrained Industrial Emergency Brigades , Esteban Oñate, Elías Apud
Emergencies can occur at any time and may reach unpredictable magnitudes. Unfortunately, in many companies, emergency brigades are often organized with people who perform work of sedentary nature and they are not prepared to face sporadic tasks of high physical demands.The objective of this study was to compare the physical fitness of workers with different degree of training. They worked for the same company, but in different industrial plants. In one of them they had a physical training program, guided 3 times per week during working hours by a physical educator; In the other plant there was no facilities for training.Age, stature, body mass, body fat and aerobic capacity were evaluated with conventional methods in 57 physically trained and 21 untrained workers. Results showed that aerobic capacity was 20.8% higher in the trained brigade. Body fat content was significantly higher in the un-trained brigade. A further analysis showed that according to Chilean standards for emergency brigades, 58% of the untrained brigade members do not reach the recommended level, while only 19% of the trained workers are below the reference level.As conclusion, the results only confirmed the importance of physical training to improve working capacity and this is particularly important for workers who perform light activities and in isolated occasions have to face high and dangerous demands. Therefore, the main recommendation is to stimulate training within working hours as part of the preparation of the brigade members.
92 Prevalence of Geriatric Malnutrition in Long Term Care Center in Riyadh/Saudi Arabia: A Cross Sectional Study , Maha Al Turki, Noura Al Sibaie, Hind Al Otaibi, Ghadeer Al Ammari, Raghad Al Otaibi
Older adults are more vulnerable to malnutrition and multiple nutritional deficiencies due to several age-related physiological and functional changes. The prevalence of malnutrition among institutionalized elderly is estimated to be between 30%–60%; therefore, accurate nutritional assessment is important for both effective diagnosis and intervention of comprehensive treatment plans for older people.Objective: To assess the nutritional status of institutionalized elderly female in Riyadh city, and to explore the association between their nutritional statuses and other determinants such as their mobility status and mood of feeding.Method: Cross-sectional study of 38 females aged 60 years and over who currently resident at the Social Welfare Home for Elderly Females in Riyadh/ Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric/biochemical data, medications, and length of residency were retrieved form medi-cal records of the resident. Nutritional status was assessed using Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool. Results: More than 94% of the residents were malnourished or at risk of developing malnutrition. Twenty one percent of the resi-dent were underweight (BMI below 18.5 kg/m2) and 60% of them were categorized as overweight/obese (BMI above 25 kg/m2). Significantly greater percentage of malnourished residents were dependent for mobility (p < 0.001) or require assistant during feed-ing (p = 0.023). Physical dependency was an independent predictor of the nutritional status among our sample (β=2.375; SE 0.800; p = 0.006).Conclusion: According to several nutritional assessment methods, the majority of institutionalized elderly females at the Social Welfare Home for Elderly Females in Riyadh were malnourished or at risk of developing malnutrition. This study underlines the as-sociation between nutritional status and physical dependencies among this age group. Strategies for effective nutritional care should be implemented for institutionalized older adults to treat and prevent the malnutrition and to improve the quality of life for them.
93 Resveratrol Nanoemulsion; A Promising regulator of TGFB1and TFF-3 Genes Expression in DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats , Riham A Mahmoud, Mohamed S Naser Eldin, Ali A Ali, Mohammed A Hussein
Immunosuppressants or anti-inflammatory drugs was used in treatment of bowel disease. The aim of the present article was to evaluate the intestinal anti-inflammatory properties activity of resveratrol nanoemulsion (RENE) against ulcerative colitis induced by DSS in rats.Results: RENE was prepared with size of 49.5 ± 0.05 nm and zeta potential of +15.75 with the observed shapes of nanoparticle was spherical. Also, RENE (39.75 mg/kg b.w.) was administered orally to DSS-induced colitic rats for 21 days.RENE (100 μM) significantly reduces in vitro the release of TGFB1 in the extracellular matrix of in human intestinal colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line and human colon carcinoma cell line HT29. The daily oral administration of the RENE at a concentration of 39.75 mg/kg body weight for 21 days to rats ameliorated the histological damage, body weight, DAI score, colon length and sever-ity of DSS- induced colitis, and improved the compromised oxidative status of the colon. However, only the rats treated with RENE showed a significant reduction in the levels of different pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF- α and MPO) and nitric oxide in comparison with the DSS control group. Moreover, RENE significantly decreases the gene expression of TGFB1 and IL-4 as well as significantly increases the gene expression of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) in comparison with the DSS control group. AbbreviationsConclusion: The results clearly suggest that RENE displayed intestinal anti-inflammatory properties in the DSS model of colitis in rats, which were improved by functionalization with the TGFB1, IL-4 and TFF3 gene expression.
94 Nutrition and SMART Goals , Flavia Luzia Bender
The article Nutrition and SMART Goals is a mini-review that shows how SMART goals can help improve the effectiveness of nutritional treatment. Nowadays people, especially young people, have difficulty adhering to treatment because they are anxious to have the so-called “ideal body” and SMART goals have the function of demonstrating that a behavioral change does not occur quickly, but needs a lot of focus and determination.The increasing search for a standard body is increasingly pre-sent in people’s lives today. Achieving an ideal body has become the dream of many men and women, especially young people. But to what extent the search for the “ideal” body can be harmful, lea-ding to the development of a series of eating disorders such as bin-ge eating, bulimia or anorexia [1].Self-acceptance is a great challenge nowadays, due to the great advent of social networks, which has been valuing the image even more. Several studies show that adolescents are very influenced by the standard of beauty imposed by the media, developing various eating and psychological disorders, and may even reach suicide cases.
95 Nutritional Status of Diet Soft Drinks Consumption Among Chilean School Children , Ximena Rodríguez Palleres, Gabriella Di Capua Ramírez, Álvaro Toledo San Martín
The childhood obesity is a public health problem whose main causes are the consumption of processed foods and junk food with a decrease in physical activity.Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the existence of associations between nutritional status and the consumption of diet soft drinks in school children in Santiago, Chile. Methods: Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 157 school children of both sexes from 6 to 9 years of age of the Renca mu-nicipality, Santiago, Chile. To determine the nutritional status, weight, height and waist circumference were evaluated. To describe the consumption of diet soft drinks, a survey prepared for this study was applied. Results: 57.97% of school children are overweight and obese according to BMI. Regarding abdominal obesity, 53.51% presented this condition according to waist circumference. 64.34% consume diet soft drinks at least one glass a day. Compared to the children who never drink diet soft drinks, the risk of obesity was higher in those who drank 1 glass a day of diet soft drinks (Odds ratio (OR): 1.02 [(IC) 95%: 0.45-2.32]), and who consumed 2 or more glasses a day of diet soft drinks (Odds ratio (OR): 1.52 [(IC) 95%: 0.74-3.2] p = 0.258). The risk of abdominal obesity in school children who consumed 1 glass (Odds ratio (OR): 1.3 [(IC) 95%: 0.58-2.98]) or 2 glasses a day of diet soft drinks (Odds ratio (OR): 1.1 [(IC) 95%: 0.57-2.4] p = 0.6726) was also higher.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of excess malnutrition accompanied by a significant percentage of children who drink diet soft drinks daily. School children who drink diet soft drinks every day are at increased risk of obesity.
96 Schooling Effect in Economic Growth: Benchmarking Turkey vs High Income Countries , Metin Gurler, Ozlem Ozsoy
In modern economic growth theory, human capital is not only an important source in the growth of economy but also has got a significant effect on productivity. According to the analysis of the results based on random effects estimation with panel and cross-section data in the study, mean years of schooling is found as a determinant of the economic growth via health improvement achiev-ing a productive labour force in High Income Countries. Data for mean years of schooling was obtained from United Nations Devel-opment Programme (UNDP) Human Development Reports and Barro-Lee Educational Attainment Dataset whereas for income per capita from the World Bank for the 12 periods in 1995-2014 for 37 High Income Countries and Turkey. Since mean years of schooling in Turkey has been found less than the High-Income Countries’ values, she should increase mean schooling years to reach a healthy well-being level to get a productivity progress causing a rapid economic growth as advanced countries. In the study we analysed Turkey vs 37 High Income Countries. Turkey who is also an emerging economy has a risk to rise to an upper income level as some other middle income countries have. The case is called in literature as "Middle Income Trap". So bench-marking Turkey (the 17th greatest economy in the world) vs High Income Countries is important to show guidelines avoiding the Middle Income Trap. Granger causality test is also applied to test the direction of causality between mean years of schooling (MYS) with national in-come per capita (IPC) and vice versa, and it is seen that mean years of schooling (MYS) Granger causes economic (income per capita) growth (IPC) for panel data. For cross-section data analysis there is no proved correlation between mean years of schooling (MYS) and economic growth (IPC) and vice versa.
97 Integrated Goat Fish Farming as Source of Low Cost Nutrition Security for Small Farmers , Bibha Chetia Borah, Sonmoina Bhuyan, Biswajyoti Bordoloi
As per the 20th livestock census (2019), the population of goat in India is 148.88 million, which is 10.14% higher than the same in the 19th livestock Census, 2012 and around 27.8% of the total livestock population of the country. The increase in livestock popula-tion is always associated with the problem of waste disposal and its possible impact on the environment. Integration of fish farming with livestock husbandry is a viable option, where the livestock waste is recycled for production of fish. The present study encom-passes integrated farming of goat and fish by recycling goat manure, a rich source of N (2.7%), P (1.7%) and K (2.9%) and protein (17.3%), for enhancing fish production in pond. The average range of production of goat dung was 106.2 gm - 176.4gm/goat/night for animal weighing 10.5 - 17.5 kg under open grazing system. It was found that application of goat dung @ 10,000 kg/Ha/year in split doses is the most viable proposition. Calculated per Ha production of fish @ 3879.4 kg (T2), 3430.8 kg (T3), 3358.9 kg (T1) and 2061.8 kg (C) indicated the comparative efficiency of goat dung application for small scale sustainable fish farming with low external input.
98 Determinants of Food and Nutrition Security in Côte d'Ivoire: Case of Abobo Baoulea Sub-district of the Ivorian Political Capital in West Africa , Yoboue N’da Mireille, Assa Rebecca Rachel, N’guessan Anon Franck-Donald, Kouakou Egnon KV
In Côte d'Ivoire, the food and nutritional situation of households has weakened in recent decades according to the ministries of agriculture and health. Experts propose increased monitoring of the situation to avoid a food crisis, capable of disrupting the socio-economic stability of the country. In order to contribute to this strategy, a study was carried out. The study aims to analyze the level of food and nutritional security of the populations of Abobo-Baoulé, in the district of Abidjan, in Côte d'Ivoire. Thisstudy is a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical that involved a sample of 300 households and 453 children under 5 years old.The results reveal rates of 23.70% medium food security, 26.30% low food security, 24% very low food security and low dietary diversity. In addition, the children present a poor nutritional state with rates of 5.1% of acute malnutrition, 12.40% of chronic mal-nutrition and 3.7% of overweight.These results show that food and nutrition security in the country has not changed, compared to previous work and still remains precarious. This could be justified by inadequacies in the search for the causes, and in the implementation of interventions with households.To this end, it would be necessary to revise the causal analysis of the food situation and target the most vulnerable households, in order to reduce malnutrition in Abobo-Baoulé’s locality.
99 Epigenetic and Metabolic Alterations that Interfere in Human Development and Predispose the Manifestation of Obesity and Other Metabolic Disorders: A Systematic Review , Linda Carla Moraes Lima1, Angela Civalsci Cubaski, Mirian Ueda Yamaguchi, Marcelo Picinin Bernuci
Recent studies have demonstrated the multifactorial characteristics of the development of metabolic disorders that have shown the necessity for new research in the area, with the objective of unravelling the factors that could possibly influence critical stages of human development, altering a patient’s metabolic programming. This study aims to identify the main elements that endorse the biological incorporation of these events on an intrauterine environment or on the first years of life, assessing the potential epigen-etic, endocrinological and metabolic mechanisms responsible for this process. The goal of this analysis is to state which main factors allow broader studies to develop specific intervention models for the prevention of metabolic disorders, particularly obesity. This systematic review was based on the PRISMA-E 2012(Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and registered on PROSPERO (Nº CRD42020197344). The research and selection of the articles occurred in June-July 2020 and used the United States National Library of Medicine PubMed – Medline and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, and clinical trials that focused on the analysis of influencing factors on metabolic programming were collected. In this study, we discuss how these elements are capable of influencing critical periods of human development and its potential consequences for the affected individuals, with the objective of identifying possible targets for future interventions. Sixty-two articles were identified and included in this systematic review. Among the selected articles, twelve were directly related to epigenetics, fourteen were related to obesity, sixteen were nutrition related and twelve were focused on diabetes. The data revised showed that stress, excessive weight and maternal malnutrition are potential fetal metabolism modifiers that result in disorders that can predispose to child obesity. It was also demonstrated that gestational diabetes and dyslipidemia are conditions that can influence the fetus’ levels of adiposity and that epigenetics can directly alter fetal programming, resulting in significant metabolic alterations, including the predisposition to weight disorders in the child. In conclusion, epigenesis presented itself as an important way for biological incorporation of the heritability of metabolic diseases, through the methylation and deacetylation pathways, becoming an important factor in future studies focusing on possible interventions for the prevention of these disorders.
100 Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Fermented Young Muskmelon (Cucumis melon Linn) , Norng Chakriya, Dizon I Erlinda, Elegado B Francisco, Huon Thavrak, Ang Vichheka, Ly Sokheng, Prom Kimheang, Rith Sokuncharya, Masataka Uchino Chay Chim
Fermentation has been used since ancient times as an easy method of vegetables’ preservation, which also maintains and im-proves the nutritional and sensory properties of the final products. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involved in fermentation are gen-erally recognized as safe. Lactic acid bacteria are a group of Gram positive, non-respiring, non- spore forming, cocci or rod, which produce lactic acid as the major end product of the fermentation of carbohydrate. This study isolated LAB from naturally-fermenting young muskmelon (Cucumis melon Linn)in 10% brine solution at pre-determined time intervals using the standard pour plating technique. A total of 18 isolates were chosen and purified by streak plating on MRS agar medium and incubated at 37 ̊C for 24-48h. Physiological and biochemical characterization of the isolates were carried out. Fermentation of carbohydrates was determined us-ing the API 50 CHL System. Results of the study revealed that out of the three (3) strains of selected LAB strains; one strain was iden-tified as Lactobacillus brevis while thetwo strains are Pediococcus pentosaceus. These LABS are potential inoculants for commercial production of fermented fruits and vegetables.
101 Eating Out of Home and Risk for Obesity: An Overview , Rotondo G, Cazzaniga E, Palestini P
Despite Mediterranean dietary pattern has become a healthy eating standard, even Mediterranean countries such as Italy, show a progressive disaffection from this diet in parallel to the increasing trend in prevalence of body overweight and obesity and correlate pathologies. The causes that led to the explosion of the body overweight and obesity phenomenon and the differences in the prevalence of this condition among various social groups, are cultural and economic as well as biological and epidemiological. In developed countries out-of-home eating, defined as the consumption of foods and beverages out of home, has received increas-ing attention among cultural and behavioral factors linked to obesity. Indeed, with the rapid development of economy, diet habits have undergone great changes. An increasingly number of people, especially in urban settings, is eating out of home not only for working people during their lunch break, but also at dinnertime. Studies showed that a very high dietary energy content of both full service and fast-food restau-rant meals is a widespread phenomenon and that there is a positive relationship between the consumption of food away from home and weight gain. This has garnered considerable attention from public health experts in formulating national policies and programs designed to curb the growing trends in obesity. USA, Canada and Australia, proposed calorie-labeling policy that required chain restaurants to post the calorie content of items on menus. In Europe, there is not such a policy yet. Unfortunately, many studies show that menu restaurant calories and nutritionallabeling mandatory policies did not have achieved the set goals in guiding consumers throughout restaurant menu to choose healthier dishes in terms of less calories and nutrients composition.
102 Can We Solve the Problem of Global Syndemic? Mediterranean Diet as a Potential Solution , Anka Trajkovska Petkoska
Healthy diets and sustainable food systems, in general, are among the key players to achieve sustainable planet and welfare of all people, and at the same time, to be in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, UN 2015). These food systems offer not only a way towards ending the hunger, but also enable healthier nations and less environmental pollution. A good representative of a sustainable food system and a healthy diet is the Mediterranean diet that is affordable and transferable even in the regions far from the Mediterranean basin. Mediterranean diet could be a solution to overcome the global syndemic, which is becoming an emerging problem for the whole planet. This study proposes Mediterranean Diet as an example of a healthy and sustainable diet that could be introduced to children and young generations from early stages of their lives for the welfare and better human health and socio-economic status, as well as a way to reduce the impact of food production on the climate change.
103 Determinants on Household Food Security Among Indigenous Population of Nagaland, India , Aatish Kumar Sahu, Sanjoy Das, Lakshmidhar Hatai
Food being a primary subject of concern for social development as well a vital indicator of well being of citizens in a state, it is more important when ‘last mile food security’ is given due priority. In developing major economy like India, tribal population across the country act as the last mile and it is ought to be studied with better methodologies. The current study conducted during the early part of the year 2017 delves into the food security indicators and identifying the factors responsible for food (in) security of Chakhesang and Pochury tribes of Phek district of Nagaland. In this regard, a household survey comprising of 80 households, was conducted in Phek district of Nagaland during early 2017. Based on multistage random sampling, two rural development blocks namely Kikruma and Pfutsero block were sampled from the district and four villages were sampled as second stage. Using the relevant parameters observed from the survey, the components of food (in)security developed for the study region [1]and household Food Security Index (FSIP) was computed and further descripted and statistically analyzed. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the odds of status of household food security given villages, categories of family size, pri-mary occupation, income level, possessions of agronomic crops, vegetables and fruits and livestock. It was observed from the study that the distance of regular markets, family size and livestock possession of the families played a critical role in food security of a household in the region.
104 Nutritional and Biochemical Composition of Amla (Emblica officinalis) and its Therapeutic Impact: A Review , Ali Ikram, Waseem Khalid, Maryam Aziz, Muhammad Adnan Arif, Ravi Prakash Jha, Muhammad Zubair Khalid, Chasheen Fizza, Muhammad Zarnoor Mehmood, Muhammad Haseeb, Muhammad Abdul Rahim, Sadia Naeem, Fatima Sultana
From ancient times, plants played a vital role in the development of mankind and was an exceptional source of natural medicine. The difficulty of the production of chemical medications, their side effects on safety, and the expense of rebellion have led research-ers worldwide to concentrate on therapeutic plant science. Pakistan has a large collection of various plant species, with around 5,000 plants claiming to have important medicinal values. The papers published in recent decades on medicinal plants relate to the function of various plant bioactive composites commonly used in the cure of numerous human diseases. Bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, and several other components are reported to have been verified to have various medicinal activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, radiological, antitisinous, hepatoprotective, immune-modulatory, hypolipidemic and several other actions. The drug also has anti-cancer, antidepressant, antidiabetic, injury healing, antiulcerogenic, and so on. The present review article sums up the phytochemical components and pharmacology of the Em-blica officinalis plant and its traditional application. Amla phyto-chemicals, including ellagic acid, emblicanine A, emblacani B, Gallic acid, phyllantine, quercetin and phyllantidine were found to have various biological activities such as antioxidants, antimicrobials, antiinlammative, antidiabetic, anti-radiation protection, chemopreventive and healing of wounds.
105 Effectively Managing the Co-ingestion of Dietary Supplements and Prescription Drugs , Jacquelyn C Pence, Keith R Martin, Richard J Bloomer
According to recent surveys, over half of American adults take at least one dietary supplement (DS), with usage increasing with age. Healthcare providers should be aware of which DS products their patients are taking in order to best manage their overall care. While DS can be used to complement and enhance the actions of traditional medicine, they may be contraindicated when taken con-comitant with prescribed medications. Herein, example DS-drug interactions associated with common conditions are discussed, as well as two hypothetical applications of DS.
106 Foodomics; Principles, Challenges, and Applications - A Promising Tool for Food Analysis , Ayda Ghahary;Rambod Abiri;
Human nutrition is a multifaceted, complex, and broad scien-tific field, demonstrating how food components, ingredients and flavors present required nourishment for the life-sustaining [34]. Since the dawn of civilization, food and nutrition components have been obligated to maintain human life by releasing energy [11]. However, over the decades, human nutrition has been widely con-sidered as a promising resource to treat and/or prevent diseases [21]. Recently, the application of modern research in nutrition and food science has been shifted from classical technologies and equipment to advance analytical methodologies [4]. To achieve the mentioned goal, a new discipline, namely called foodomics, was introduced as the global strategy through using the application of advanced omics in the food science domain [17].
107 Science/Education Portraits VII: Statistical Methods Used in 1081 Papers Published in Year 2020 Across 12 Life Science Journals Under BioMed Central , Kyle D Kim; Shaun CH Chua;Maurice HT Ling;
Statistics is an integral part of biology and is required for all undergraduate life science curriculum. However, are biology students trained in statistical skills required in the field? Despite studies listing various commonly statistical methods used in specialised branches of life sciences; such as, immunology and tropical biology; there is a lack of study on the common statistical methods used in life science in general. Here, we examine 1081 articles across 12 life sciences journals under BioMed Central, published in 2020, to elucidate the common statistical methods used in current life science research, as a basis to recommend an updated syllabus to all institutions that educate biologists. 72.7% of the examined articles contains identifiable statistical methods and a total of 2431 instances were identified. Our findings show that the first 3 out of 15 categories of methods; parametric comparison of means (25.38% of instances), correlation/regression (18.88%), and post-hoc test (10.32%); accounts for 54.59% of the instances. In terms of individual methods, the top 8 methods account for 52.04% of the instances – (a) t-test (13.00%), (b) ANOVA (12.26%), (c) un-specified (likely to be Pearson’s correlation) and Pearson’s correlation (9.79%), (d) Benjamini and Hochberg’s False Discovery Rate (FDR) (4.77%), (e) Tukey's HSD (4.36%), (f) Kruskal-Wallis Test (2.96%), (g) Mann-Whitney U Test (2.80%), and (h) Chi Square Test (2.10%). These findings may have an impact on future curriculum design.
108 The Emergence of COVID-19: Is it a Proof of Historical Nutritional Neglect? , Atta Ur Rehman Khan; Abdul Qadir Habshi, Ali Subei, Rubina Tariq, Kiran Khan and Al Madinah Al Munawarah
It is strange for many but I have to quote Shakespeare for a soft reminder to ourselves, what Nutrition entails in the lives of human which stands true since times of Aristotle. Marching against nature and siding with “Artificialism” is hallmark of today. One classical example is of natural orange extracts which are used everywhere from cosmetics to paints but for our diet only remains the artificial orange flavors. Where the nature is and where it must be, I quote.‘This fortress built by Nature for herself against infection and hand of war’ (The Tragedy of King Richard II, Act II, Scene I, lines 43 and 44, William Shakespeare).
109 Anti Herpesviral Activity of Medicinal Plants Indicated to Treat Oral Diseases , Carlos ED Igidio, Adriana S Santos, Dhierllate F Sousa, Bolívar O Landi and Aline O Conceição
Oral diseases constitute a serial public health problem. Periodontitis, one of the main oral diseases, has bacteria as the most preva-lent agent, although today it is known that there are multiple factors that interfere with the installation and evolution of periodon-tics’ disease. Herpesvirus infections, for example, lead to a drop in local immunity that can consequently lead to the multiplication of pathogenic bacteria and destructive periodontal disease. Within this problem, the importance of treatments of broad spectrum is stressed: bacteria, viruses, and the immune system. In this case, medicinal plants, recognized for their therapeutic action and the presence of a variety of metabolites are candidates for validation of their popular use. In this work we describe the in vitro anti herpesvirus study of four medicinal plants indicated to treat oral disease by a cocoa region community. Plants were collected in the field and ethanolic extracts were obtained from dried leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae), Cajanus cajan (Fabaceae), and Tamarindus indica (Fabaceae). As a herpesvirus model, suid and equid herpesvirus were used. The best activity was seen for C. cajan against suid herpesvirus (96.84% of inhibition) at a concentration of 75μg/mL. However, the results presented here encourage further in vitro and in vivo tests in search of preventive or adjuvant therapies in the treatment of oral disease.
110 Hypoglycemic Potentials and Phenolic Characterization of Aqueous Extract of Senna Podocarpa Leaf , Saliu JA
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a life threatening metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Senna podocarpa is an evergreen glabrous shrub plant whose leaves are used in folklore medicine as poultices for the treatment of wounds, swellings, skin diseases, yawns and diabetes. This study was carried out to determine the effect of Senna podocarpa on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and to analysis the phenolic profiles of the plant. Enzyme inhibitory assay of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas were carried out. In addition, DPPH radical scavenging ability, iron chelating capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP), total phenolic content, and total flavonoid content and HPLC-DAD phenolic analysis of Senna podocarpa were investigated. Tukey test at p < 0.05 was the statistical tool used. The results revealed that the aque-ous extract of Senna podocarpa leaves had inhibitory actions on α-amylase, α-glucosidase and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas. The extract also showed DPPH radical scavenging ability and iron chelating capacity in concentration-related fashion and the ferric reducing antioxidant property (0.49 ± 0.01), total phenolic contents (0.96 ± 0.01) and total flavonoid content (0.56 ± 0.01). Furthermore, HPLC-DAD phenolic analysis shown the occurrence of the chlorogenic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, epicat-echin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol and gallic acid. Nevertheless, chlorogenic acid was the most abundant. The results ob-tained from this study showed that aqueous extract of Senna podocarpa leaf had strong inhibitory action on carbohydrate hydrolyz-ing enzymes and potent antioxidant property which might be feasible mechanistic approach supporting its use for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This hypoglycemic action could be due to the preponderance of phenolics and phenolic acids present in this plant.
111 Hints and Tips for Better Nutrition and Cooking Methods , Edward F Block
In these uncertain times and living under the unspoken rule of large corporations, It is imperative that we as a people begin to take back our own personal destiny. I see the grip that modern marketing has upon the means that people go about getting the things that they need to survive, live, love and laugh! Please have the courage, determination and perseverance to wrest your choic-es from the propaganda that corporations would have you believe and remain subject to.All that I am going to share with you is from the experiences that my body, my emotions and my mind have endured in the face of ongoing difficulties related to finding out about the food choices that are presented to me as a consumer. The reasons for this are simple. My body, my emotions and my mind are affected by what I am able to purchase, prepare and eat as food.
112 “X Factor” of Japanese to Suppress Covid-19 Mortality , Shaw Watanabe, Kazumoto Inuma2, Kota Kikuchi3 and Tetsuro Yamamoto
Japan experiences three waves of COVID-19 pandemic. The National Institute of Infectious Diseases has determined the CO-VID-19 first wave was derived from the Wuhan, and the second wave originated from a COVID-19 variant of the European type. Since October, the third wave causes the pandemic spread. The grim milestone of 100,000 COVID-19 cumulative cases reached at the end of October. On December 26, the cumulative number of PCR positive cases becomes 218,358. Even though, the total case/fatality rate is 1.4% or 2.45 death/100K population. Japan’s death rate from COVID-19 is one of the lowest in the developed coun-tries, despite its high risk aging population [1]. Factors explaining this low death rate are said to include cultural habits, such as bow-ing etiquette and wearing face masks, hand washing with sanitiz-ing equipment, so far [2]. Still, we suspect an essential “X factor” is the strong innate immunity which explain the different mortality among countries.
113 Infants Compensate Energy Intake Fully for Modest Reduction in Energy Density of Formula , SJ Fomon, SE Nelson and EE Ziegler
Infants regulate food intake primarily to satisfy energy needs. Feedings with widely different energy densities (e.g., 54 vs 100 kcal/100 ml) result in different energy intakes in infants <2 months old but not later. It is not known how infants handle smaller dif-ferences in energy density. We used two milk-based formulas that were practically identical in composition except that one (Formula A) was lower in fat content (2.70 g/100 g) and energy density (60.2 kcal/100 g) than the other (Formula B, fat 3.43 g/100 g, 68.9 kcal/100 g). The primary study outcome was weight gain, with amount of formula and other foods consumed the secondary outcome.Normal term infants (N = 76) were enrolled before 9 days of age and assigned randomly to one of the formulas, which were fed during the entire study to age 224 days (exclusively until 140 days of age). Of the 61 infants who completed the study and whose data are re-ported, 31 (14 males, 17 females) were fed A and 30 (16 males, 14 females) were fed B. Weight was measured every 14 days until 56 days and then every 28 days. Food intake was determined by weighing containers. Other foods were permitted after 140 days of age.Results: Between 8 and 224 days of age, infants fed A consumed significantly more formula (155 ± 12 g/kg/d) than infants fed B (137 ± 11 g/kg/d; p < 0.001). On the other hand, total energy intakes were similar: 94.3 ± 5.7 kcal/kg/d with A and 95.6 ± 6.4 kcal/kg/d with B. Between 8 and 56 days, there was no significant difference in energy intake. Intake of other foods after 140 days was similar. There were no feeding-related differences in anthropometric results. We conclude that infants compensate fully for a modest difference in energy density of formula.
114 Role of Mulberry Leaves in Human Nutrition: A Review , Fareed Afzal, Waseem Khalid, Muhammad Naveed Asif, Ayesha Jabeen, Ravi Prakash Jha, Muhammad Zubair Khalid, Chasheen Fizza, Afifa Aziz, Ramish Akram, Aqsa Bashir, Sahar Younas, Farwa Nayyer, Rehan Yasin, Muhammad Zeeshan Ahmad
Diabetes and different cardiovascular diseases are major problems across the globe for the human. Different traditional and modern medicinal techniques are being in use to cure these problems. Use of herbal medicines is one of them. Present review was conducted to determine the effects of mulberry plant powder for the treatment of these diseases. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is impor-tant medicinal plant that contains numerous bioactive compounds including antioxidants i.e. flavonoids, phenolics as well as dietary fiber. Owing to presence of bioactive components, it shows strong effect against maladies like diabetes, cardiovascular disease and viral activities. Mulberry leaf powder is characterized for physicochemical characteristics (moisture content, pH, acidity, TSS, TPC). Moreover, due to high nutrients concentration, mulberry leaves are considered as vital for health.
115 Overcoming Obesogenic Environments: A Qualitative Study Exploring Mechanisms of Healthy Eaters , Sofía Sutherland Borja, Emilio A González Silva, Cinthya Urquidi Bellota, Gabriela Sarrat Gonzalez, Eliana Reyes Soto
To identify mechanisms that enable overcoming obesogenic environments amongst healthy eaters through a Salutogen-esis approach.Methods: Sixteen middle-class Chilean adults (14 females and 2 males) following healthy diets according to the Healthy Eating Index were purposively selected from a primary health care center in urban Santiago. Semi-structured interviews and a grounded theory approach were used to explore ways in which healthy eaters manage their food practices.Interview transcripts were coded through open, axial and selective coding with a constant comparative method. Results: The link between food and health is the main mechanism that promotes healthy diets. Healthy eaters assign importance to the physical and emotional roles of food, and use knowledge, motivation and resource-management skills to manage healthy food practices. A three stage food-related learning processes is proposed. Conclusion: Understanding healthy eating as fundamental to reach a state of well-being and having skills to perform adequate food practices is key for facing obesogenic environments. The health-food link and the Food Learning Triad may serve for nutrition educa-tion interventions.
116 Identification of Ectoparasite and Prevalence Male and Female of Cantang Grouper Fish (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus x Epinephelus lanceolatus) in Aquaculture Paluh Pisang Mas Deli Serdang, North Sumatera Province , Yusni E, D Wulandari and Fuad SP
The identification of ectoparasites with 30 samples of fish was infected male and female of Cantang Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus x epinephelus lanceolatus) in Paluh Pisang Mas Pond, Hamparan Perak District, Deli Serdang Regency, North Sumatra and to determine the prevalence of Cantang Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus x epinephelus lanceolatus) in Paluh Pisang Mas Pond. There are four types of ectoparasites was infected in Cantang Grouper fish in Paluh Pisang Mas Pond, namely Zeylanicobdella sp., Brooklynella hostilis, Caligus sp. and Dactylogyrus sp. The highest prevalence rate was found of Zeylanicobdella sp. with a value of 26.66% in the oral organs and 23.33% in the mucous organs with the category of frequent infections. Brooklynella hostilis with a value of 23.33% with the category of frequent infections. Genus Caligus sp with a value of 10% with the category of frequent infections and genus Dactylogyrus sp. with a value of 16.66% in the category of frequent infections. The Zeylanicobdella sp, was found highest of 20 types, Brooklynella hostilis of 11 in female, and 16 types and 3 types was found in male, but ectoparasite of cligus sp was found highest of 6 types in male and not infected by female. Compare of Dactylogyrus sp was found highest of 5 types in female, and 2 type in male
117 Nursing Diagnoses for the Patient with Werdnig - Hoffman Syndrome in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit , Márcia Gisele Peixoto Kades, Maria Eduarda Silvano de Aquino Freitas, Laurindo Pereira de Souza, Rafael Ayres Romanholo, Cídia Vasconcellos
The objective of this research was to investigate the clinical and epidemiological profile of WHS patients, their diseases and propose the main nursing diagnosis labels. Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, qualitative and quantitative field survey of 02 children who were ad-mitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of the Regional Hospital of Cacoal in the period of October from 2015 to June 2016, with a confirmed medical diagnosis of Werdnig-Hoffman Syndrome (WHS).
118 Seedlessness in Hybrid Fruits is a Low-input Resource for Canning Industry , Satya SS Narina, Kim Cheyyar, Reza Refie2, Ravi Sankar C, Hanumantha Rao GV, Christopher J Catanzaro
So many dual-purpose tropical fruit crops, with both vegetable and fruit use, were unexplored until today to study in-depth about the physiological control of their genomes. These studies would be useful for modern fruit breeding programs aiming 1) seedless hybrid fruits for canning, pulp and food industry 2) dwarf hybrid fruit trees and 3) for improving organic quality of fruit production with pesticide free as well with disease and pest resistance. The mechanism, techniques and various kinds of male-sterility (ms) and their major role in seedless fruit production while connecting ms to the concepts of self-incompatibility, parthenocarpy and poly-embryony were reviewed. The physiological parameters contributing ms, responses and success of ms in different fruit crop's F1 production with seedlessness in their fruits, markers identified for ms and or seedlessness were explained along with manipulating nuclear-mitochondrial gene controlled biochemical pathways at the tissue and cellular level during their flower-bud and fruit devel-opment. The routes for possible success in producing hybrid seedless fruits and benefits in the improvement of available unexplored nutritious fruits of tropical origin were detailed in this chapter.
119 Analysis of Micro and Macro Nutrient Levels in Compost and Vermicompost Fertilizer Formulated from Selected Agro-waste and Comparative Assessment of the Fertilizer Efficiencies , Ebele Rita Emendu, Arinze Jude Chinweuba, Onuorah Chinedu Chibuzor,Nnamdi Benneth Emendu
There is global a demand for organic food due to perceived harmful effects of synthetic and chemical fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides to humans health. Owing to this, biofertilizer was produced from some selected organic waste materials through Conven-tional Compost and Vermicompost methods to determine their macro and micro mineral nutrients, also to ascertain their efficiency in organic farming. The Vermicompost was done with (Eisena fetilda) earthworm in an earthen pot with mixture of samples of farm and poultry droppings in the ratio of 5:1. Results of the compost and vermicompost of all the samples showed that macro mineral nutrients of samples A-C are as follows. Fe (24.00mg/kg-33.41mg/kg), Cu (26.01mg/kg-39.15mg/kg), Zn (4.91mg/kg-11.20mg/kg), Mn (27.50mg/kg-34.71mg/kg) while micro mineral nutrients are Mg (21.51mg/kg-4.19mg/kg), Ca (18.20mg/kg-25.51mg/kg) N (20.00mg/kg-29.41.00mg/kg) K (25.51mg/kg-32.01mg/kg) P (30.80mg/kg-38.51mg/kg). Comparatively Vermicompost had better macro and micro nutrient probably due to the action of Eisenia fetida which promotes mineralization. Vermicompost fertilizer pro-motes growth rate of Scent leave due to nutrient balance in organic manure which affects plant growth and development compared to conventional compost fertilizer. Vermicompost and conventional compost fertilizer samples can be utilized as organic fertilizer in crop production and could be commercialized. They can also be applied in waste management to promote healthy environment.
120 Meat Analogue: A Short Review on Processing Aspects , Soumitra Banerjee; Anushree Rao; Saba Ali Zahid
Animal source proteins have been a part of the human diet since long time back. Consumer preferences are seeing a shift from the conventional meat products to the meat analogues based on plant sources. This shift is due to the growing drive for more sustainable and healthier lifestyles, rising health awareness, environmental impact etc. Meat analogues are meat like materials made from plant sources. They have similar texture, flavour, appearances and other nutritional qualities to that of animal meat. Extrusion technology finds its applications in the making of plant-based meat analogues. This paper is focuses on the need for meat analogues and process technology involved for its production
121 Evaluation of Nutritional and Food Addiction Status of Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Presenting to Ankara Baskent Hospital , Özlem Baran;Perim Fatma Türker
It is known that diabetes is an important health problem worldwide with increasing prevalence over the years. In this context, identifying the nutritional tendencies of individuals with diabetes and determining related factors such as food addiction may posi-tively affect the management of diabetes. This study was carried out to evaluate the daily energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake and food addiction of individuals with and without Type 2 diabetes and to determine the impact of food addiction on the intake of the specified nutrients.Materials and Methods: The study consisted of a total of 128 individuals, including 64 diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes and 64 with no Type 2 diabetes, who were aged between 18 and 65 and presented to Başkent University Ankara Hospital Endocrinology Depart-ment. A questionnaire was used to collect data about demographic characteristics, disease information, and lifestyle characteristics of the participants. Food addiction status was determined with the "Yale Food Addiction Scale". A 3-day food consumption form was administered to evaluate the daily energy and nutrient intake of the individuals.Findings: A total of 128 individuals, including 92 females (71.9%) and 36 males (28.1%), made up the study sample. Sixty-four of the participants had already been diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. The mean age was 47.23 ± 9.95 years. It was found that 25 (39.1%) of the individuals with Type 2 diabetes had a food addiction but that 39 (60.9%) did not. On the other hand, 19 (29.7%) of the individu-als with no Type 2 diabetes had a food addiction, but 45 (70.3%) did not. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). A comparison of daily average energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intakes of individuals with and without food addiction was made according to their diabetes status. The average daily energy intake of individuals with a diagnosis of food addiction and Type 2 diabetes was found to be statistically significantly higher than those without Type 2 diabetes (p < 0.05).Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference between individuals with and without Type 2 diabetes in terms of food addiction. A significant difference was found between daily energy intakes of individuals with food addiction according to their Type 2 diabetes status.
122 Interaction Effects of Salinity and Ultrasound Pretreatment on the Phytochemical Compounds of Clover Sprouts , Tahany AA Aly;Abdullateef Taiye Mustapha;Lei Zhang;Xiaojie Yu;Abu ElGasim A Yagoub;Haile Ma;Li Chen;Cunshan Zhou
This study investigated the interaction effects of salinity and ultrasound pretreatment on the phytochemical composition and growth of clover sprouts. Clover seeds were pretreated with ultrasound at 20, 28, and 40 kHz for 30 min at 30 °C and soaked for 9 h in deionized water, 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl solution, then sprouted in the dark for 3 days. Clover sprout length significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased with increasing salinity concentration to 2000 ppm NaCl, and increased for the ultrasound pretreated samples, sug-gesting a reduction in the salinity damage to clover sprout growth. The phytochemical compounds in clover sprout were identified by GC/MS/MS analysis. Some phytochemicals detected in the clover sprouts (7,8,3,4-tetramethoxyflavone, 3,7,8,2'-tetramethoxyflavone and docasane, 4-methyl) were not identified in the seeds. The results showed an increase in the methionine in the clover sprout with increasing salinity concentration. In contrast, no significant difference was observed on the methionine with the ultrasound treated samples. The phenolic compound salicylic acid in clover sprouts increased with increasing ultrasound frequency levels. It inhibited the ethylene production and induced salinity tolerance of the clover seedling. A novel mechanism of protecting the sprout tissues from the damage effect of salinity by the ultrasound pretreatment was proposed.
123 Myasthenia Gravis Secondary to Pembrolizumab , Minardi EP
In recent years, the development of anti-cancer target drugs therapy has been increasing significantly. In this context, a new monoclonal antibody group, which inhibits the programmed cell death 1 receptor, has emerged as an effective frontline of treatment of certain neoplasms. Prembrolizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, is a standard option for the treatment of advanced and metastatic malignancies like multiple myeloma. However, clinical research has uncovered diverse, unpredictable and serious im-mune related adverse events that raise concerns regarding its safety. Here, we will describe the case of an oncology patient with a suspected myasthenia gravis after receiving pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks.
124 The Pandemic of the E-Human Movement , Julie Rammal
The evolution and change in movement has strikingly shut down gyms, health clubs, fitness classes, live personal training jobs and more during the pandemic. The massive shift has opened up live streaming and online classes, however we may be soon facing a new body and mind pandemic if we are not aware of the side ef-fects.Many classes, applications, live streaming workouts have ac-commodated the public to stay fit during quarantine however the truth is that nothing can ever replace the live 1:1 personal trainer or live group classes because the energy, emotion and feeling is just not there or the same. A small real life smile can actually motivate a student much quicker then what motivation can be felt and given in live streaming classes.
125 Evaluation of Body Composition in Rural and Urban Schoolchildren in a Municipality in the Southern Interior of the Legal Amazon , Rafael Ayres Romanholo, Laurindo Pereira de Souza, Helizandra Simoneti Romanholo, Marcia Guerino de Lima, Fabricio Moraes de Almeida
To evaluate the corporal composition in rural and urban schoolchildren in a city in the southern interior of the Western Amazon. Method: This is a quantitative study classified as ex-post facto in order to verify the body composition of schoolchildren. The sample was composed of 482 students enrolled in rural and urban schools in the municipality of Cacoal-Rondônia (Brazil). Results: Most of the students were female and lived in the rural area, the study revealed that the overweight indexes are high in both rural and urban schoolchildren, but with an increase for those who live in the city.Conclusion: Obesity remains a serious public health problem in view of its rise for several years in this population profile, thus the involvement of the whole society is necessary, so that there is feasibility of health programs in schools in order to intensify actions aimed at nutritional support, physical activity, and the involvement of families to prevent and reduce the prevalence of this serious multifactorial disease.
126 Female College Students’ Attitudes Towards Healthy Eating Habits in the Rising Incidence of Breast Cancer in Japan , Riona Ushiyama, Minami Yoshiike, Eri Tonsho, Kanami Suzuki, Kai Kuribayashi, Yuji Aoki
We have recently reported that age-specific incidence rates of breast cancer among Japanese women clearly increased from 2000 to 2015 in a bimodal distribution pattern. As for the premenopausal breast cancer in Japan, the incidence rates have become com-parable to those in western countries. The westernization of lifestyle including eating habits needs to be considered as a modifiable risk factor. In this report, we assessed female college students’ attitudes towards healthy eating habits using 7 questions raised for the promotion of food and nutrition education (shokuiku in Japanese) among the younger generation. By a web questionnaire sur-vey, it was suggested that female college students who learned nutrition and health had insufficient attitudes towards healthy eating habits, although their attitudes were better than those of female junior college students who did not learn nutrition as a specialized subject. The largest difference between the two groups of students was found in the question “I buy foods without reading nutrition labels”. The female junior college students who selected “Yes” for it were likely to have worse attitudes for healthy eating habits. The female college students learning nutrition had knowledge on nutrition labels, which was not necessarily linked with attitudes towards healthy eating habits. Nutrition awareness campaigns using well designed nutrition labels may be effective to improve the college students’ attitudes.
127 Analysis of Alimentary Behavior and Self-perception in a Cross-section of 21 Adolescents Diagnosed as Suffering from Anorexia Nervosa , Carlo Prunet, Sara Guidotti
Data from research conducted over the past twenty years agree on the relationship between eating and emotional disorders. This work aims to offer a contribution to the understanding of some of the psychological factors involved in the onset of eating disorders, with particular emphasis on "anorexia nervosa" in adolescents through the introduction of the Pisa Survey for Eat-ing Disorder [1], a tool capable of probing the behavioral and perceptive aspects related to body image, and collect information on eating habits, which can be more or less dysfunctional.Methods: The results obtained by 21 female adolescents who were diagnosed as suffering from anorexia nervosa were examined. The age of the sample is in a range between 14.1 and 23.1 years. The participants completed the PSED.Conclusion: The data collected through the self-evaluation questionnaire made it possible to highlight and discriminate between behavioral components in interpersonal relationships (affectionate, sexual, and social), in eating habits (dieting, bingeing and laxa-tive use), in physical activities (type and frequency) and also delineate the characteristics of self-awareness (relationship with one's own body, enjoyment levels) in adolescents with serious alimentary disturbances.The results, albeit preliminary, confirm what is present in the literature on the relationship between eating and emotional disor-ders. In fact, it was found that mood swings may depend on the ability to control one's body weight and keep it within desired limits. The tendency to engage in obsessive behaviors focused on weight control through diet, physical activity, compensatory behaviors was also confirmed. The fundamental role played by interpersonal relationships within this category of patients is also well described.Finally, this preliminary study highlights the discriminatory capacity of the PSED which proves to be a simple, economical and useful self-assessment tool
128 Are the Residents of Varanasi City Practicing Enough to Manage their Kitchen Waste? , Mukesh Kumar Paswan,Dr. AC Tiwari
Kitchens are the foremost areas to generate large quantity of wastes and the moisture-loaded wastes are generally dumped in open to putrefy rapidly, to emit foul odour and to invite disease vectors. The article investigates existing policy measures and cur-rent kitchen waste management (KWM) practices to portray the waste management scenario in Varanasi City. It also emphasizes to elicit lacuna from municipal authorities’ part and residents’ role in KWM. The work embraced quantitative and qualitative methods along with descriptive and case study research designs to sail the research work smoothly. Residents from Varanasi city have been recruited by using snowball-sampling technique. Non-participatory direct observation accompanied by self-administered schedule have been incorporated in the process of data collection. Results exhibit that the assigned municipal personal do not execute mu-nicipal solid waste management guidelines. Open dumping is the most common way for the disposal of kitchen waste. Education of the respondents is the key factors, which creates the difference in their behaviour and attitude towards waste management. Mixing different waste altogether intensifies the complexity of the issue. Therefore, awareness creation among the residents and candid implementation of the rules are pivotal to set up sustainable and healthy living conditions in the city.
129 Investigating Treatment Literacy on Antiretroviral Drugs (ARVs) and Nutrient Interaction Among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) , Nthani D,Hamoonga Mwiinga Bona
Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are potent life prolonging drugs; with potential interaction with food. The importance of taking ARVs consistently and appropriately can never be over-emphasized. For ARVs to be effective there must be regular food supply, a nutrition plan and continuous support system to ensure healthy eating [1]. Nutrition is therefore an essential component of ART interventions. However, the effects of food and ARV drug interaction has not been singularly researched in Zambia. The study objective was to deter-mine the level and scope of information known (treatment literacy) amongst people living with HIV (PLHIV) about food-nutrient and ARV drug interaction. Specific objectives were to determine treatment literacy of PLHIV, determine whether PLHIV knew the meal and medication timing of their drugs and to determine PLHIV awareness of possible adverse effects of nutrition and drug interaction. The study was carried out in three (3) purposively chosen ART sites in Chongwe District, encompassing all HIV clients above twenty (20) years accessing health care and having been on ARV drugs for over 6 months. The study assumed a qualitative cross sectional descriptive study using open ended questionnaires with the aid of an audio tape recorder for recording responses. The collected data was transcribed and coded; themes were identified by way of content analysis for reporting. The results indicated that treatment literacy was inadequate both in quality and quantity of content. Additionally, drug-meal timing was not strictly followed. Further findings revealed step down and instructional format without reason given for actions. Overall, respondents were not aware of any drug-nutrient interactions, let alone expected side effects upon initiating medication. Respondents expressed desire for privacy and generally yearned for more information on HIV/AIDS. The findings also clearly showed lack of information on food and nutrition linkages to HIV/AIDS. In conclusion, nutrition being a cross cutting issue; its importance in the management of non-communicable and communicable diseases including HIV across different human physiological states and age groups cannot be over emphasized. Therefore, arising recommendations should be taken seriously into consideration not only by Chongwe District Health Management Team but also extrapolated nationwide in implementation.
130 Intervention Protocols for the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome and its Components in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review , Ewerton Eiti Yamada, Mirian Ueda Yamaguchi, Marcelo Picinin Bernuci
Physical exercise, in general, promotes the improvement of several metabolic markers in overweight and obese children and adolescents, however, the evidence still presents some divergences regarding the impact of different training protocols on metabolic syndrome (MS). This systematic review aimed to assess and discuss the impact of different physical exercise protocols on the preva-lence of MS and its markers in children and adolescents. The study followed the guidelines proposed by PRISMA-E 2012 and searches for articles were performed in the electronic database PubMed. As an inclusion criterion, the articles should explore the intervention and the impact of physical exercise on MS and its components on children and adolescents. A total of 348 articles were found and, after applying the eligibility criteria, 10 studies remained for qualitative analysis. Of the 10 selected studies, 3 used aerobic training protocol, 4 applied concurrent training, 2 recreational interventions and only 1 resisted training. Regardless of the protocol, physi-cal exercise is a fundamental tool in maintaining several blood biomarkers and body composition, although protocols with aerobic exercises have shown good results. However, further investigations are still needed.
131 Physiological Workload during Rescue Drills at Sea Level and at Geographical Altitude in Chile , Esteban Oñate, Elías Apud
Most large companies and institutions have emergency brigades to deal with potential risks. Furthermore, they must have good organizational systems to react quickly and efficiently to take control and protect affected populations. Therefore, it is very important in these jobs with high physiological demands to organize the activities to balance the workload between the members of the rescue teams. For this reason, on-site drills are useful to analyse the organization of work with concrete data which provide information to prevent brigade members from collapsing due to fatigue. Consequently, the objective of the present study was to determine the level of physiological load imposed by the activities carried out during three rescue drills of injured workers. Two of them were carried out at sea level and a third at 4300 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.). The results revealed significant differences in the physiological load between the members of the brigades in the three evaluations. It was found that some of them reached dangerous levels overloading their cardiovascular system over 80% and even 100% of their estimated maximal heart rate. Among the results, the positive correla-tion between the average heart rate achieved in the drills and the Body Mass Index (BMI) stands out, revealing that the overweight members of the brigades worked with higher cardiovascular load levels than those with normal weight. The results allow to conclude that the distribution of activities should be re-examined to evaluate alternatives aimed at balancing the intensity of the efforts. It is also recommended that the emergency brigades participate in regular physical training programs and educate them in eating habits to reduce their trend to overweight.
132 Sensory and Physical Evaluation of Cocoas (Theobroma cacao L.) From Different Countries for its Use in a Gourmet Chocolate , Maria Fernanda Flores, Briggit Katan, Susan Lavin, Karla Ortiz, Jormarelys Pericaguan, Shioling Ripalda, Elevina Pérez
The genetic origin and the climate surrounding the plantation help cacao fruits developing their sensory quality and those of the final chocolate flavor. The postharvest procedure is also influential in the sensory quality of the cocoa derivatives. The physical prop-erties and sensory profile of cacao beans after the postharvest have to be evaluated to guaranty the chocolate sensory quality. The evaluation has be done using formats to compile the information described in the national and international norms and literature. The objectives were to design formats and protocols to evaluate and compare physically and sensorial the cocoa beans from differ-ent world regions to select the best cacao with citric notes. From physical characteristics data, was selected the cocoa with the best quality. Once selected, it was applied to the roasting protocol to obtain cacao liquor. On the cacao liquor, using descriptive analysis of the taste descriptor profile was determined the sensory profile. The data have shown that the formats designed facilitate compilation and calculation of data obtained from the cocoa. Barinas cacao has shown the best flavor characteristics for its use in the elaboration of gourmet chocolate with citrus notes.
133 Eating Behaviors: Does Culture Play a Role in Our Food and Beverage Choices? , Aisha Ansari
Choice in beverages, diet and health may all depend on our culture and ethnicity. Nutritional values found in fruit juice and carbonated beverages are often selected based on cultural norms. Exploring the nutritional benefits found in both fruit juices and carbonated drinks reveal health benefits and defenses against cancer and other chronic diseases. With a literary review in nutrition and beverage, and a philosophical grounded theory, an argument will be made in favor of the nutritional value found in fruit juices, water, coffee, tea, water and carbonated drinks, require a balance in beverage intake and food consumption. Codependency on both beverages and foods are necessary for optimum nutritional health.
134 Nutritional Knowledge and Practices among Lactating Mothers , Victor Ouma Otieno
Diabetes mellitus (DM) also known as ‘sugar’ is a chronic non communicable disease (NCD) which has emerged as one of the lead-ing global health problems associated with the pancreas in the production of insulin leading to hyperglycemia (WHO, 2014). Globally, according to the international Diabetes Federation (IDF), 352 million adults were reported to have impaired glucose tolerance which is a high risk of developing diabetes by 2045 (Bommer, 2018). The scientific research evidence shows the predisposing factors to diabetes are: advancing age, family history, excessive body weight, excessive alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, stress, unhealth diet and chronic use of steroids among others.The objectives of the study will be to: To assess nutritional status, nutritional knowledge and lastly the dietary diversity among patients with type two diabetes in Nakuru County hospital.The study methods to be used will comprise of; contains study design, study area, study population, inclusion and exclusion criteria, variables, sampling techniques, sampling size determination, data collection tools instruments, data collection procedure, piloting, validity and reliability, data analysis and ethical considerations.
135 Growth Fitness of Indigenous Wine Yeasts in Grape Musts from Different Vitis Species , María Laura Raymond Eder, Alberto Luis Rosa
Yeast communities associated with Vitis vinifera L. niches (i.e. grapes and fermenting grape musts) have been widely characterized. Less is known, however, about yeast communities present in other non-viniferaVitis ecosystems. Moreover, there are no studies concerning eventual must-specific growth fitness of indigenous wine yeast species. In this work, we have characterized the potential must-specific growth fitness of ten different indigenous wine yeast species (i.e. C. azymoides, C. californica, H. uvarum, H. vineae, I. hanoiensis, M. pulcherrima, P. cecembensis, T. delbrueckii, S. bacillaris and S. cerevisiae). All the analyzed strains were isolated from spontaneously fermenting musts of V. vinifera L. (cv. Malbec) and/or V. labrusca L. (cv. Isabella) grapes harvested from vineyards in a shared terroir. Yeast identification was performed using standard ITS-rDNA RFLPs and/or microsatellite genotyping. Growth fitness of selected yeast species and strains, on Malbec and Isabella pasteurized grape must media, was studied by measuring lag phases (i.e. Lag Time) and maximum growth rates (i.e. μmax). Results showed that rare yeast species isolated from the Isabella ecosystem (i.e. P. cecembensis and I. hanoiensis) have better growth parameters when growing in Isabella grape must. The growth parameters of other wine yeast species, isolated from Malbec and Isabella ecosystems, did not show any clear associations with their musts of origin. Our findings suggest that the presence of two rare yeast species in Isabella could result from their growth advantage to this Vitis ecosystem. It is possible that yeast communities assembled in alternative grape musts result from the growth fitness of yeast species and strains to each specific Vitis species. Non-conventional Vitis ecosystems may constitute a reservoir of unique yeast strains valuable in the winemaking industry.
136 Undernutrition as a Cause of Personality Disorder , Konstantinos Koutoulogenis
Considering the increase of malnutrition worldwide [1] and its difficulty to maintain a healthy lifestyle, this article purpose is to emerge the awareness of possible contribution personality comor-bidities followed by nutrition status.Minnesota Starvation Experiment (MSE) was probably a break though protocol which not only studied the effects of malnutrition on human physiology, Keys., et al. [2] but also studied the effect on psychology presenting striking results, clinical signs and symp-toms that are similar to those of patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) [3]. The participants were well-built, healthy male soldiers from the USA army who undertook a period of starvation and nutritional rehabilitation. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality In-ventory was used for assessing the personality traits of the par-ticipants which included hypochondria, depression and hysteria. A detailed analysis of the responses showed that there were no fundamental differences between the type of responses given by the subjects who were malnourished in relation to patients with a clinical diagnosis of psychoneurosis. The effect of malnutrition was considered as the factor that caused psychoneurosis.
137 Sedentary Work and Anthropometric Assessment in Workers at a Polytechnic Higher Education Institution in Portugal , Sónia Fialho, Anabela Correia Martins, João Almeida
In the last decades, with the introduction of changes in work processes and new technologies, there has been an in-crease in occupational sedentarism (worker in a sitting position for long periods).Sedentary behavior is associated with an increased risk of developing chronic diseases such as obesity, type II diabetes, cardio-vascular disease.Objective: This study evaluates the relationship between sedentary work and anthropometric evaluation in Coimbra workers of polytechnic higher education institutions.Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was applied, the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ). Data on age, sex, body fat percentage, waist circumference, skeletal muscle mass and body mass index were collected from a sample of 59 adult men and women between December 2017 and January 2018, working full time. For statistical treatment, the authors analyzed the information with SPSS Statistics.Results: In the present study, 39 of the individuals were females and 19 males, aged between 31 and 62. Non-teachers showed a more significant sedentary lifestyle in their occupational activity, and teachers showed greater skeletal muscle mass and lower body fat percentage. Spearman's correlation revealed that there was no association between occupational sedentarism (sitting posture) and anthropometric parameters (p > 0.05).Conclusion: Although there was no statistically significant association between sedentary work and anthropometric data, it was possible to observe a tendency for workers with a higher occupational sedentary lifestyle to show worse anthropometric parameters. Taking these data into account, it is urgent to adopt measures to create conditions for a healthy work environment
138 Gold Fish (Carassius auratus) Grows Gradually in a Confined Pot Maintained Carefully in all Corners of this World as Popular Hobby , Manju Das, Zaman Sufia, SK Biswas
Gold fish (C. auratus) from family Cypriniformes can adjust in a small confined glass and fibre container to grow gradually. Weight and Length is measured carefully to check growth. Food supplied by the caretaker depends for its growth. Artificial food available in the market (Hobby Centre) in a plastic packet, (MPDA). Small pinch of artificial food in the morning can rare 1 or two fishes in a small fibre aquarium. In the lid perforations help to enter air continuously for mixing with surface water. Need 5 - 6 hrs exposure of air bubble to combat respiration properly. Gills are sensitive for stream-lined fish as fish respire through nostrils located in head. Olfactory rosette most sensitive for fish to feel surroundings.