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1 Pain , Dalamagka Maria.
Pain acts as a protective mechanism of the body, by forcing the person to react so that it is removed from the stimulus. It is im-portant not only for cases where there is marked tissue damage, but also for everyday simple activities. Thus, when a person sits on the hips for a long time, it is possible to damage the tissues due to the inhibition of the skin's blood supply to the places where the skin is compressed by body weight. When the skin starts to ache because of ischemia, the person completely unconsciously changes position. However, when the sensation of pain is lost, as is the case with spinal cord injury, the person cannot feel the pain and thus does not change position. This condition leads to ulcers in the area where the pressure is applied very quickly.
2 Improvement of the Strategy in Food Safety, through the Research Action, the Huacana, Michoacán. , Avila Serrato Salatiel
The creation of new mechanisms of social participatory action, constitutes the reformulation of the community organization, cor-responding to the transversal axes from the local to the inclusion and adaptation of globalizing parameters.That is why, through the research-action methodology, new reorganization alternatives are implemented in the microregion of Huacana, Michoacan; to include new gears of reorganization of production and food education, resulting in the increase in the use of the region's own foods to the usual diet.
3 Food Education in Times of COVID-19 , Agustina Larra
Junk food, low on nutrients and nutritional properties, bear-ing monotonous colors, with excessive amounts of sugar. These are, among others, the characteristics of the food that children are closer to.
4 500 Million People have a Food Allergy , Xavier Román.
Our metabolism, lifestyle, new nutritional habits or other envi-ronmental factors affect our body by producing changes that cause us to react with an allergy or intolerance when consuming certain foods.
5 Efficacy of Ketogenic Diet in Seizure Reduction in Epileptic Patients-A Review , Aamina Sabir, Hafiz Muhammad Ubaid Tayyib,  Faran Khan.
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked seizures of varying frequencies and intensity. Several pharma-cological treatments had been used previously for its treatment. However ketogenic diet has gained importance as non-pharmaco-logical therapy to epilepsy in recent years. This review aims to discuss the efficacy of ketogenic diet in epilepsy. Key words used for search include “ketogenic diet”, “epilepsy”, “childhood epilepsy” and “ketogenic diet side effects”. Studies conclude that ketogenic diet is an effective remedy in seizure reduction. It comprises of very high fat, low protein and very low carbohydrates. Seizure reduction is due to decrease in the amount of reactive oxygen species which is a result of high ketone bodies and low glucose levels achieved by the use ketogenic diet, hence improving the condition of epileptic patients. It has proven efficacy in patients with epilepsy resistance to pharmacological treatment. In children it has positive or no impact on cognition, mood and behavior of children along with its antiepileptic properties. However further researches must be carried out to highlight the impact of ketogenic diet on cognition and mood of children. As ketogenic diet is high in fats, its long-term use may alter the lipid profile of patients. Moreover, gastrointestinal disturbances, insulin resistance has also been observed. Studies also show that there still need of clinical trials and researches in adult epileptic patients.
6 Association between Nutrition Knowledge on Diabetes and Dietary Practice of People Living with Diabetes Mellitus in Nandi County , Kimutai Sagam Caleb.
Diabetes mellitus is growing fast the world is witnessing. The incidence of alarming concern health care providers is rapidly rising. The main burden of this disease will fall on all developing countries. The number of diabetic patients will reach 300 million by the end of 2025 it is known through the estimation mostly developing countries will have such dramatic and significant impacts. Methodology: The quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study design was used with convenient sampling (n = 200). There was a relatively good knowledge (76.16%) among patients on dietary recommendations in management of type 2 DM. Older patients had lower level of education on recommended dietary practices. Consequently, knowledge on need to carry candy as a first aid when one is hypoglycemic was low. In addition, knowledge on the need for patients with type 2 DM to keep the times one consume their meals (meal timings) as well as consume snacks in between main meals in order to reduce incidences of hypoglycemia was low. Level of formal education of patients with type 2 DM influenced strongly the assimilation of information provided by healthcare providers. Age was also strongly associated with how much a patient was able to grasp information and remember. Continuous education on recommended dietary prac-tices was noted as important. Compliance to recommended dietary practices was 59.6%. Unlike the level of knowledge which was influenced by various demographic characteristics like age and level of formal education, compliance was not influenced by any of the assessed demographic factors. While the level of knowledge was high at 76.2%, this was found not to directly translate to compliance to recommended dietary practices in management of type 2 DM. Compliance to recommended practices was not influenced by level of knowledge on recommended dietary practices in man-agement of type 2 DM. Support by those related/living with the patients was reported as one of the strong facilitator towards compliance. Management of type 2 DM was reported to be resource intense; financially and time wise. It was therefore some-times difficult for patients to balance all aspects of recommendations.
7 Suggestions on Food and Lifestyle for Fighting Corona Virus by Boosting Immunity - A Holistic Approach , Aparna Kuna, Prabhat Kumar Mandal.
The world is going through a most critical threat now due to the Corona Virus Disease, 2019 (COVID 19). Here is the summery of the preventive holistic approach for boosting immunity and fight the disease better from inside. Here we propose following sugges-tions for reducing the chances of infection or to reduce the severity if infected: Take protein rich foods (Meat chicken, fish, eggs, milk and milk products any kind of pulses, beans and nuts) daily. Take any available fruits daily, especially citrus fruits (gooseberry, lemon, sweet lime, orange, pineapple), apple, pomegran-ate, banana etc. Take herbs and spices (turmeric, ginger, garlic, cardamom, cinnamon, tulasi) especially black jeera (Kalonji), is very effec-tive for Corona. Fruits and herbs can be taken as raw, juice, extract or dry as available. If not available take supplements, Vitamin-C, E (Evion), B Complex (Becosules, Cobadex CZS), Zincovit etc. Eat more vegetables, especially salads (tomato, cucumber, carrot, capsicum, radish, onion), honey, avoid smoking and Alco-hol. Daily Exercise, Yoga, Pranayam (Bhrastika, Anulom-Vilom, Kapalbhati) Meditation, Chanting (Mahamrityunjay Mantra) will improve immunity. Walk in sunlight and fresh air (in Terrace or Balcony during lockdown) daily morning and evening is very helpful for im-munity. Relax, take enough Rest and Sleep that will boost immunity. Take only essential updates, too much informations in social media may cause anxiety. Drink more tea (Chinese Doctors reported very good effect of tea on the corona patients), more water (warm), enough coconut water and citrus juice if infected.10. Finally, don't panic, fear and anxiety reduces immunity, be mentally strong and positive, pray with Full faith or rely on Na-ture to boost immunity and fight Corona.
8 Self-Defense: A Practical Approach to Combatting COVID-19 , Salam A Ibrahim, Rabin Gyawali, Hafize Fidan.
In order to elucidate the importance of the immune system with regard to the spread, diagnosis, and treatment of the novel COV-ID-19, this paper aims to emphasize the need for a more holistic approach to understand and treat the COVID-19. We have provided an overview of why high quality nutrition is important for the immune system to function properly. To do this, we have summarized the current evidence available from information being reported by the health authorities and studies in human subjects, to support this opinion. Though the available data in the literature is relatively scarce, we also offer our own informed opinions on the role of human microbiota (probiotics) in creating a natural immunological defense system for combating COVID-19. We thus hope that this paper will help to inspire scientists from other fields such as nutrition immunology to be involved in order to provide consumers with a more global approach to fighting this epidemic. If we want to eliminate the threat of this novel coronavirus pneumonia, we must practically address this issue itself.
9 A Mini-Review on an Association between Nutrition and Mucosal Immunity in the Midst of the COVID-19 Pandemic , Kyoka Matsubayashi, Minami Yoshiike,Yuji Aoki.
In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, which the World Health Organization officially declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020, we write a mini-review on an association between nutrition and mucosal immunity. The human immunity consists of non-specific innate immunity recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns and subsequent adaptive immunity specific for the target an-tigens. The immune system of the intestine as mucosal immunity must have functions to defend against constant threat of invading pathogens while suppressing immune responses to harmless dietary antigens and commensal bacteria. Nutrition seems to have a major role in non-heritable influences on the innate and adaptive immunity. It has been demonstrated in humans that some nutrients including β-glucan have the potential to boost the mucosal immunity to viral infections. Conversely, it is conceivable that continuing supplementation of (large-dose) β-glucans or lipopolysaccharides can suppress the innate immunity by stimulating regulatory T cells. For now, the impact of nutrition on human immunity should neither be overestimated nor be underestimated.
10 Whole-Genome Sequencing of Lactobacillus fermentum and its Application as Probiotic in Poultry Feed , Rafia Sameen, Shakira Ghazanfar.
Aviculture is the efficient animal production system and good source of animal protein worldwide. Poultry gastrointestinal tract houses certain microbial communities with bacteria being dominant above all. These bacteria produce beneficial products and result in non-pathogenic immune response providing nutrition and protection for animals. Antibiotic treatment causes reduction of benefi-cial bacterial population in intestine which can be controlled by probiotic supplements. Probiotics play their role to control intestinal pathogens by competing for adhesion sites and nutrients, producing anti-bacterial substances. Lactic acid bacteria could be a good probiotic for animal use among which Lactobacillus fermentum is major heterofermentative specie found to have probiotic potential and can be used in supplements for animal feed. Its probiotic potential was well studied by its tolerance to inhibitory substances like bile and salt, its antimicrobial activity and evaluation by supplementing it in poultry feed. To identify probiotic properties of Lactobacillus fermentum, its whole-genome was sequenced and analysed. Whole genome sequencing is a DNA sequencing technol-ogy that has revolutionized genomic research. Whole genome is sequenced, assembled and annotated using bioinformatics tool and then analyzed. Galaxy is one of most commonly used genome analysis tool that provides data analysis support through framework, to give simple interfaces to certain powerful tools and automatically manage computational details. Following to evaluation of pro-biotic potential through certain parameters and whole genome sequencing, antimicrobial resistance can also be evaluated to make a decision about safety of L. fermentum use as probiotic in poultry feed. Administration of L. fermentum to poultry showed beneficial effects on their growth.
11 Lactic Acid Bacteria: Promising Role against Coronaviruses , Mahnoor Nadeem, Aimen Saleem, Hamza Ali, Allah Nawaz Khan, Shakira Ghazanfar.
Gram-positive, nonpathogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered to be promising candidates for the development of novel, safe production and delivery systems of heterologous proteins. LABs have diverse beneficial applications for human welfare. LAB plays an important role in the industry for the synthesis of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, or other useful products in food industry. Certain Lactobacilli can induce an increase in the cellular or humoral systemic immune response, it acts as a vehicle to insert gene to produce required protein of interest. Many of the researcher find out the best possible way to utilize the beneficiaries of lactic role to combat recent coronavirus pandemic lactic acid bacteria concerning COVID-19. New recombinant strains and vectors continue to be constructed and described in detail what can lead in the near future to standardization of LAB vectors in vaccine production. The development of new LAB recombinant strains and vectors continue to be constructed and described in detail what can lead in the near future to standardization of LAB vectors in vaccine production for COVID-19.
12 Impact of Covid-19 on Agriculture and Food Supply , Shiamala Devi Ramaiya.
The Covid-19 continues to wreak havoc on many countries and create a lot of changes in people's everyday lives all over the world. As the Covid-19 pandemic is raging across the world, the broader economic crisis is also emerging and creating major challenges to food security and nutrition. Many of the affected countries have implemented a regional lockout policy. This strategy enforced a plethora of Covid-19 security measures such as movement control, supermarket, restaurant and market closure, quarantines and sup-ply chain and trade disruption which greatly impacted agricultural production, food supply and demand.
13 The Relationship between Nutritional Status, Sleep Quality and Depression in Shift Workers , Merve Kiran, Perim Fatma Türker.
Shift work expands globally and it has become necessary to increase productivity and provide continuously service in various sectors like industry. It has been identified as an important risk factor in the etiology of metabolic disorders and chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of sleep quality and depression with nutritional status of shift workers. A total of 170 male rotating shift workers of an industrial organization aged between 20 - 55 years participated in this study. A questionnaire which consisted of demographic and lifestyle characteristics was used. Weight, height, waist and neck circumferences (WC and NC) of participants were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were also calculated. Body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sleep quality was assessed by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), while anxiety and depression were estimated through Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire. The average age of participants was 40.1 ± 6.87 years. Among the 170 shift workers, 44.7% of them were pre-obese, and 35.3% were obese. As BMI increased, the percentages of poor sleep quality increased. There were positive correlations between PSQI score and WC, WHtR and body fat mass, and a negative correlation between total body water, which were found to be statistically significant. There was no relationship between depression and BMI, WC, WHtR and body fat mass. Participants with depressive symptoms had significantly higher prevalence of risk based on NC. HAD-D score was inversely correlated with fat free mass. This study showed that pre-obesity and obesity is common in shift workers. The previously reported relationship between obesity and poor sleep quality is supported. Sleep quality get worse as WC, WHtR and body fat mass increase, while total body water decrease. Decrease in fat free mass is associated with the development of depressive symptoms. These associations need to be verified in large studies. Based on the results, appropriate strategies including both employer and worker should be performed to reduce the detrimental health outcomes associated with shift work.
14 The Effect of Storage Conditions on Physicochemical, Microbial and Textural Properties of UHT-Processed Cheese , Mahmoud Ibrahim El-Sayed, Sameh Awad, Amel Ahmed Ibrahim.
This study investigated the effect of storage condition (time and temperature) on physicochemical, textural and microbial properties of UHT-Processed cheese. The UHT-processed cheese was stored in controlled incubators at 4, 18, 32 and 37°C (the study plan used the recommended temperature (4°C), the average of temperature in winter and springer (18°C), in summer (32°C) and in Upper Egypt in some year months (37°C)) and at room temperature (20 - 25°C in months of September – December) for 120 days. The results showed that there was no significant (P ≥ 0.05) changes were observed in the protein %, fat %, dry matter (DM %), and pH values of UHT-processed cheese during storage for 120 days at 4 and 18°C. On the other side, protein % and fat % were significant (P ≤ 0.05) increased during storage at 32°C, 37°C, while, the weight and pH values were decreased. On room temperatures, the fat% and DM% were increased by the end of storage (at day 120), while the protein% and pH values were not changed. The hardness, gumminess and chewiness were increased during storage at all temperatures, while the adhesiveness values were decreased. Springiness was not changed at 4 and 18°C, but it was increased at other storage temperature. Concerning the cohesiveness values, there was no significant (P ≥ 0.05) changes were observed except with sample stored at 37°C. No microorganisms were found in all processed cheese samples stored at different temperatures. These results confirmed that the best temperature to storage UHT- processed cheese is at 4°C followed by 18°C.
15 Presence of Mycotoxins and Heavy Metals in Organic Commercial Cereal-Based Foods Sold in Faisalabad Market , Yasir Abbas Shah, Muhammad Afzaal,Umar Farooq.
Epidemiological data indicates that mycotoxins and heavy metals can be harmful when ingested by humans and animals. The present study was conducted to report the presence of mycotoxins and heavy metals in organic commercial cereal-based products, available in the Faisalabad market. Forty-four samples of organic cereals products including wheat, barley, rice, oat and maize were examined for the presence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins), heavy metals (Pb, Cd) and trace elements (Cu, Zn, Ni). Results were induced and compared to the recommended levels. 23 (52.2%) of the collected samples were detected with the presence of aflatoxins in higher concentrations then allowed as according to the limits set by EU legislation for the presence of AFs. Wheat, oat, rice, barley and maize showed 61, 60, 54, 50 and 33% of the samples respectively contaminated with aflatoxins. 5 (11%) and 3 (6%) of the samples surpassed the allowed limit for Pb and Cd respectively. Trace elements were detected in higher amounts in some of the evaluated samples. Results of the present work specify the need of continuous monitoring of raw material and processed products regardless of them being organically grown or not, in order to minimize the risk of contamination in cereal-based foods.
16 Development and Evaluation of an Infusion of Red Tea (Camellia sinensis) with Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius) Enriched with β-Glucans for the Control Glycemia in Diabetic Persons , Adriana Beatriz Di Iorio, Crista Castillo, Luis David Naranjo, Raul Espinal, Donald Francisco Molina, Ludovic Boully, Ana Carolina Arévalo, Jose Miguel Chinchilla, Poliana Deyse Gurak.
An infusion of red tea with blackberries enriched with β-glucans for glycemic control in diabetic subjects was developed and evaluated by virtue of a high percentage of people using plant extracts as traditional medicine to meet their primary health care needs. A completely randomized block design was used to evaluate concentrations of red tea with dehydrated blackberry (50/50 and 75/25), temperatures (75 and 95°C) and infusion times (2 and 5 minutes) for preparation of beverage with higher content of total polyphenols. The selected treatment was evaluated in 30 diabetics for 28 days, who underwent anthropometric measures (weight, height, waist-hip circumference and blood pressure), biometric (glucose and cholesterol) and performed and food intake was analyzed through a 24-hour reminder. Results: The treatment with higher content of polyphenols was obtained with 75/25 red tea with blackberry, 95ºC and infusion for 5 minutes. Tea intake was associated with reductions in anthropometric measures of Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist-to-Hip Index (WHI). It was possible to extract greater content of total polyphenols with longer infusion temperature and time. There was a greater reduction in BMI at ages 45 - 65 years, glucose levels at ages 45 - 65 and > 65 years, total cholesterol levels at ages 45 - 65 years and diabetic patients had a normal distribution of dietary intake macronutrients.
17 Maccabi Integrated Care 3600 - A Holistic, Multidisciplinary Care Model for Complex Patient , Irony A, Abu Hussain H, Nigel Y, Landau T, Asch N.
While massive efforts are invested in chronic populations the outcomes are only partly satisfactory. The management and control of multiple chronic conditions requires comprehensive solutions. Maccabi Health Care Services, 2nd HMO in Israel, developed a multi-dimensional solution for complex patients that combines a conceptual, technological and treatment model. In this paper we present Integration 3600 - Maccabi Integrated Care (MIC) program. Using quasi-experimental methods we compare the effects of the MIC 3600on complex patients recruited in 2019 to similar patients in MHS registry. Potential cohort is derived from a matrix including the following parameters: age 50+, chronic diseases, multiple/high risk drugs, cognitive decline, function level, socioeconomic status (SES) and annual expenditure. Potential target population include about 19,000 patients scoring 5 - 10 in complexity score. MIC patients are recruited by primary physician. Control patients are matched through propensity score based on based on sex, age and complexity score. Outcomes of MIC vs. control were assessed comparing the following 6-months outcomes to the corresponding pre-entrance period for each MIC patient: care providers visits and average monthly costs.Results: The analysis included 241 matched pairs (MIC vs. control) of complex patients. Comparing the MIC patients' visits to care providers to matched control group prior and following the intervention we found the average number of visits to nurse, social worker and nutritionist increased significantly while among matched control patients the average number of visits to primary physician and nurse decreased significantly. Finally, we found a 20% decrease in overall monthly costs in MIC patients compared to a 8% decrease in control patients with hospitalization cost being the main contributor to this cost reduction (-54% in MIC vs. 2% in control, p < 0.05). MIC 3600 is a viable, sustainable and practical program. Our findings show that the implementation of the integrated model results in more visits to multidisciplinary care providers and that the program is cost saving. Furthermore, the initiative is transferable. This model or alike should be implemented in almost any community care setting with the dominance of primary care physicians.
18 Tips of Daily Healthy Food and Nutrition Intake During COVID-19 City Lockdown and Self-Quarantine , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn, Utoomporn Sittisingh
Maintaining a healthy immune diet during the COVID-19 pan-demic, strict city lockdown, or self-quarantine is causing much changes in individuals’ daily lives around the globe
19 Intervention by Post for Reducing the Chronic Use of High Doses of Proton Pump Inhibitors , Elena Valverde Bilbao, Amaia Mendizabal Olaizola, Guillermo Delgado Alvarado, Itxaso Idoiaga Hoyos, Daniel Hernández Amunarriz
Objectives: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the drugs most commonly prescribed in our setting. The objective of the intervention was to assess whether a letter sent by post is more effective in achieving a reduction/cessation of long-term high-doses of PPI use than usual practice. Methods: This was a randomised intervention study, with before-and-after outcome measures and a control group, in patients who had an active prescription for PPIs at high doses for at least 6 months. The intervention consisted of sending patients an informative letter by post, in which their doctor invited them to seek an appointment for a medication review. Control group patients did not receive such a letter, and they were treated as usual. The main outcome variable was the number of active prescriptions of each PPI dose (high dose/standard dose/treatment cessation) at 6 months after the intervention. Results: Six months after the intervention, 8% of control group patients and 16.4% of intervention group patients were not on any PPIs. Additionally, among those with active prescriptions for PPIs, 6% of controls and 20% of intervention group patients had reduced their intake to the standard dose. Overall, cessation/reduction in the intervention group was higher than in the control group, 36.4% vs 14%, the difference being significant (22.4%; 95% CI: 14.1 to 30.7). Conclusion: Sending a letter by post to patients who had been on high-dose PPI therapy for at least 6 months was found to be more effective for treatment cessation and/or dose reduction than usual practice
20 Salt- An Overview , Aparna Nagendra, Namratha Pramod, Seema Mukund
Pythagoras stated “Salt is born of the purest parents - “The Sun and the Sea”. Salt always takes the small but significant role in our diet. In this paper, we have mainly aimed on salt and its consumption. As it is the single common ingredient used across all cuisines in the world from ancient times and one the major element in the diet which plays a crucial role on health. It is generally called as ‘Com-mon Salt’ and also widely used in the processing technology and preservation of foods. Due to urbanization and globalization, there has been a change in the eating pattern of the population, and adequate nutrition is essential for a healthy life. But, health effects are related to sodium which is linked with increased consumption of salt and it is one of the most important determinants of high blood pressure, cardiovascular risk and other diseases worldwide. This calls for creating awareness and educating the population regard-ing the daily salt consumption and also the hidden salt in various preserved foods. Encouraging on healthy eating pattern is the main criteria. An attempt was also made to introduce our readers to the different kinds of salts available in the shelves of supermarket.
21 Local Food and Beverages as a Tool for Regional Tourism Development: Case Study , Iveta Hamarneh
The aim of the paper is to introduce and evaluate the Ústí nad Labem region for food tourism. The Region belongs to the less visited areas in the Czech Republic although Region offers suitable conditions for tourism development. We can assume that the interest in local food in frame of food tourism in the Region can subsequently increase overall visitation of Ústín ad Labem Region. Methods which were used for completing the paper included literature review, content analysis of documents and case study.
22 Dietary and Life Habits of Obesity and Brown Rice Eaters among Genmai Evidence for Nutritional Kenko Innovation (GENKI) Study I and II , Masahito Takahashi1, Shaw Watanabe, Azusa Hirakawa, Shoich Mizuno
The relationship between diet and health is a field that requires more research in an ultra-aging society. A questionnaire survey was conducted, to compare groups of brown rice and natural foods eaters, with residential population to clarify the relationship between the brown rice eaters and obese people. The total number of respondents was 7183. The odds ratio to be obesity was 1.67 among white rice eaters, while it was 0.48 among brown rice eaters. The consumption of food items as side dishes showed a characteristic trend among white rice eaters, while it was 0.48 among brawn rice eaters. Brown rice eaters consumed significantly more carrots, green yellow vegetables, burdock, lotus roots, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, yam, sesame, salty plum pickles (umeboshi), peanut, chestnut, mushrooms, dried mushrooms (shiitake), sea weed (nori, konbu), red bean (azuki), and soy milk. They did not consume meat and fish, but soy protein and other plant protein substituted to meat and fish. The polished white rice eaters of obesity group preferentially consumed sweet bread, broccoli, bell pepper, eggplant, banana, grapefruit, red meat fish like tuna, beaf, cow and pig meat, egg, dairy products, sugar, and mayonnaise. They also consumed coffee and soft drinks, chocolate, cakes, ice cream and jelly.Brown rice contains many functional ingredients that have various effects on physiological functions, such as innate immunity, recognition, etc., so these should be effective in aging and post corona society.
23 Emerging Landscape in the Management of Covid 19. Role of Pidotimod , Pradyut Waghray,  Kunal Waghray
The burden of Covid 19 is increasing all over the world. Pidoti-mod, an Immunomodulator had been used in COPD patients to prevent the exacerbations of COPD and also in the prevention of Recurrent respiratory tract infections both in adults and children successfully.
24 Developing the Human Factor in an Integrated Health Organization , Maria Luz Jauregui García, Maria Luisa Merino Hernández, Arantxa Urruzola Lizarribar, Nagore Lora Laca, Iobat Jiménez Jauregui, Francisco Serna Rodríguez
This article describes a formative and participatory understanding with the aim of fostering a relational culture that facilitates the transition to a patient-centered care model by improving communication. It consists in transmitting the advances of neuroscience and technology related to unit professionals through a common communication code that highlights the importance of the human factor. In addition, the values of the organization are worked, based on professionals, through collaborative work in each UAP.It analyses ns results of the intervention, highlighting do that professionals manifest as very positive the being able to share values in the way of understanding human relationships. They also show that the project has allowed us to generate discussion and reflection on how to communicate.Working these values from the perspective of professionals acts as a facilitator to feel the culture of the organization as their own.Participants can improve their personal relationship as this intervention encourages the sharing of beliefs and willgo in a relaxed environment.
25 Ready-to-Cook Fish Steaks from Catla Fish with High Nutritional Value and Longer Shelf Life , Priyam Sharma, Bibha Chetia Borah
The demand for fish is very high in the NE Region of India, where 95-100% of populations of the constituent states are fish eaters. As domestic production is not sufficient to meet the demand of people, the gap between demand and production is met by importing from other states and neighboring countries. However the preservation and transportation process exercised for the import, always leaves a question mark regarding quality of the product. Processing of raw fish to make it pan-ready is often not convenient for consumers particularly for the urban population. The present communication deals with development of a protocol for ‘ready-to-cook’ steak from Catla (Catla catla) with good nutritional quality and longer shelf life to meet consumers’ demand. The present communication includes quality evaluation of Catla fish steaks treated with different antimicrobial agents viz., dry salt (T1), vinegar (T2), salt + turmeric (T3), salt+ turmeric+ vinegar (T4), vacuum packed and stored for a period of 21 days at -18°C at definite interval of days and assessment of its economic viability for commercial application. Out of the treatments, T4 was the best treatment in view of the highest average crude protein content (20.11%), ash content (0.189%), acceptability (8.94), taste value (8.94), flavor (8.44) and texture value (8.81) with zero microbial load up to 21 days of storage. The results indicate a viable protocol for entrepreneurship development through commercial production of ‘ready-to-cook’ fish steaks from Catla with high nutritional quality and long shelf life up to 21 days of storage.
26 ACTA 2 Mutations and Risk of Premature Myocardial Infarction , Fatemeh Hajibabaie, Mohammad Hossein Modarressi, Masoumeh Sadeghi, Laleh Shariati
Premature myocardial infarction (MI) is characterized by high re-infarction rates, the occurrence of severe heart fail-ure and therefore significant cardiovascular long-term mortality at a young age. Previous studies demonstrated that one of the most important risk factors in younger patients is family history and genetic factors. This research was launched to assess the association of ACTA 2 genetic variations with premature MI.Materials and Methods: Out of eighty unrelated patients with premature MI referred to health center, patients with autosomal dominant premature MI were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, diabetes and smoking. Genomic DNA was extracted from the whole peripheral blood. Eight exons and intron/exon boundaries of the ACTA2 gene were amplified, and all the amplicons were subject to Sanger sequencing. Results: According to thecriteria, 16 patients were included in our research. No mutations were found in ACTA2 gene in our pro-bands.
27 Perspective on Childhood Eating Habits among Rural and Urban Children in Saudi Arabia , Nawal A Alissa
This discussion will be addressing the perspective about Child-hood Eating Habits among Rural and Urban Children in Saudi Ara-bia, it has been discovered that healthy eating habits in children is becoming more difficult to achieve for mothers due to the more changing times and busy working schedule for modern mothers.
28 Nutrition and Anaemia in Women in Reference to Odisha , Puspanjali Mishra
Anaemia is a condition in which the number of red blood cells or their oxygen-carrying capacity is insufficient to meet physiolog-ic needs, which vary with age, sex, attitude, smoking and pregnan-cy status, if any Today anaemia is a big health problem of many people as it causes mortality.
29 Intake of Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Creatine Monohydrate and Green Tea in a Milk Matrix and Variations in Body Composition in Human Volunteers , C Ramón de Cangas Morán, C Aldo Hernández Monzón, Karina Torres Escandón, Purificación López Sela, Ignacio Brime Casanueva, Karel Torres Miranda, Pedro López Díaz, C Andrés Llavona Fernández, Jose Ramón Bahamonde Nava, Fernando Rojo Fernández
Overweight and obesity are increasingly frequent in the world. This fact has a high cost for health and excess body fat increases the risk of chronic and cardiovascular diseases. Proper dietary guidelines along with an active life can promote the maintenance of a healthy weight. It is also possible that some functional foods may serve as a fast. Conjugated linoleic acid is a well-studied substance, and in different studies it has been suggested that it can help to modify the body composition, so it could avoid that it is interesting to include it, only in the company of other substances such as creatine monohydrate or green tea, which have also suggested certain effects on body composition, in certain food matrices for specific functional foods to help reduce the percentage of body fat.
30 Why are we a Sensitive Population to COVID-19? , Maldonado-Vega M, Farias-Serratos F
For many years, the Mexican population has modified their eat-ing habits and lifestyle. Modernization favored spectacular things with electrification, the introduction of television in each home, the intubation and distribution of drinking water, introduction in various hygiene and health measures, national vaccination in-creased the longevity of the Mexican population, we went from 65 years to 75 years olds in the 70's, and currently we reach an av-erage longevity of 80 years of age
31 Gluten Linked to Autoimmune Disease, Bowel Diseases and More , Sara Kittaneh
You may be wondering how something so mainstream could be harmful to your gut. Wouldn’t we all be sick? Well, unfortunately, it has become mainstream to have a chronic illness such as heart disease, cancer, or an autoimmune disease and the rates are rising. Gluten has been linked to more than 55 diseases and an estimated 99% of people who have either celiac or non-celiac gluten sensitiv-ity are never diagnosed.
32 Iron-Containing Heme Homeostasis: Critically Impacts on Pulmonary Physiological and Pathological Processes and Balance between Health and Disease , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn, Utoomporn Sittisingh
Proteins, the building blocks of life are the major source of nutrients. Digested proteins release amino acids to the body for cellular energy generation. In addition to amino acids, proteins also provide metal, particularly iron that is most abundant in the human body. One adult human body requires approximately 3 - 4 grams of iron. Heme and non-heme iron are two forms found in dietary iron
33 Role of Immunity Boosting Nutritional Foods and COVID-19 , Mishra P, Mohapatra AK,Maharana S
“Health is wealth”. Keeping oneself healthy is one of the concerns today. Depending on the climate, regions, places many people eat their local foods and keep themselves fit. Some do yoga and exercise along with the food. But it has been seen that a balanced nutritional diet is the main cause of the keeping a person fit. Depending on the diseases proper foods are advised. Today WHO has declared the CoVID-19 cases as pandemic. The whole world is panic now. In this situation making your immunity through your daily available food is one of the important issues. Of course side by side breathing exercise is advised. In this report, Nutrition related issues in relations to immunity to avoid infection of COVID -19 is discussed, besides maintaining social distancing among people, use of mask and repeated hand washing.
34 Nanomaterials in Food Processing and Packaging, its Toxicity and Food Labeling , Amra Bratovcic
Over the past few decades, nanotechnology has increasingly been considered to be attractive technology that has revolutionized the food sector. Nanomaterials, unlike conventional microscale materials, having novel characteristics can improve sensory quality of foods by imparting novel texture, colour, appearance, processability and stability during shelf life. The physicochemical charac-teristics of a nanomaterial are important as they can affect the outcome of the risk assessment. This paper provides an overview of the application of nanotechnology in the field of food processing and packaging. In addition, this paper also discussed toxic effects of nanomaterials and food labeling. The results of this paper shows that today there is a divided opinion on the use of nanotechnology in food processing and packaging because on the one hand there are the results of the study which reveal that the majority of consumers prefer the use of nanotechnology-based solutions, while on the other hand there is immense public concern regarding the toxicity and environmental effect of these nanoparticles.
35 Sensory Characteristics of Three Different Levels of Turmeric Powder on Beef Stick Product , Wannee Tangkham
The objective of this study was to evaluate sensory characteristics of a beef stick product with three levels of turmeric powder (TP). Specifically, these three levels of TP include: 1) 0% TP; 2) 1% TP and 3) 2% TP. Each treatment was evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. Fifty-eight untrained participants evaluated the beef stick product for acceptability of appearance, color, texture, flavor, taste, and overall liking. With respect to overall liking, beef stick product with 1% TP was the most desirable with a score of 7.13, fol-low by the control treatment (6.84) and 2% TP was least desirable with a score of 6.81. Additionally, beef stick product with added turmeric received positive participant ratings with respect to acceptability and purchase intent with and without health claims. Therefore, adding TP to a beef stick product might be a marketable alternative to original beef stick product.
36 The Analysis of Health Expenditure as a Determinant of Economic Growth in 37 High Income Countries , Özlem Özsoy, Metin Gürler
Labour force, which is one of the main factors of production function with capital input in traditional economic growth theory, has got an important effect on a country’s economic growth. So a productive labour force is crucial for an economy. An in-crease in health expenditure improves good health care to the citizens. Since people who were provided by good health care feel themselves more productive, the increasing productivity in labour force and working hours cause an economic growth hence en-hancement in income (Gross Domestic Product, GDP) and income per capita (IPC) in a country incessantly. Also higher IPC means better access to the health services which were supplied by public and private sectors in a country. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the share of health expenditure in GDP (HEXP) and IPC data and vice versa for 37 High Income Countries (HIC). Methods:Cross-section data (CSD) analysis and panel data (PD) analysis consisting of random and fixed effects estimations were used in the study to investigate the relationship between HEXP and IPC for selected country group. Results: According to the random effects model (RAM) and fixed effects model (FEM) with PD analysis and CSD analysis in the study, HEXP is found as one of the determinants of IPC and IPC as a main determinant of HEXP in 37 HIC. Granger causality test is also ap-plied to test the direction of causality between HEXP and IPC for HIC and Turkey. It is obviously seen that IPC Granger causes HEXP increase whereas we can’t reject HEXP doesn’t cause IPC hypothesis according to Granger test statistics for PD. There is also no proven correlation between two variables for CSD analysis. Conclusion: In the study after the analysis of 37 HIC together it is found that IPC promotes HEXP not at once but in a time period. In the manuscript our results show that economic growth Granger causes HEXP increase and HEXP does not Granger cause IPC for PD. For CSD there is no relationship between HEXP and IPC. The case of IPC not increasing to a high income level from middle income stuck on a threshold is called in literature as "Middle Income Trap (MIT)". So guiding how HIC jumped from middle class to high income class is important for the emerging countries (EC) to avoid the "MIT". EC should increase HEXP to improve labour force productivity, which will cause a rapid economic growth as developed countries have done in past.
37 Ketogenic Diet Modifies the Expression of MicroRNAs Linked to Migraine , Roberto Cannataro, Maria Cristina Caroleo, Antonio Siniscalchi, Luca Gallelli, Giovambattista De Sarro, Erika Cione
Epidemiological studies have emphasized the relationship between migraine and obesity also pointing out its prevalence in the female sex. The mechanisms promoting pain migraine in obese subjects prone to this neurological disorder is multifactorial, among these the overproduction of soluble mediators favoring neural inflammation, psychological and behavioral risk factors. The ketogenic diet (KD) is a well-recognized as a therapeutic option for refractory pediatric epilepsy and a promising prophylactic treatment for episodic and chronic migraine in the adult. Performing a pilot study on the capability of KD to modulate a plethora of 800 microRNAs (miRs), a group of female obese subjects, 6 of 18 self-reported a reduction of the frequency and the intensity of migraine-pain attacks. Therefore, we check for miRs linked to migraines. The effects of KD seem to be mediated by specific serum hsa-miR-590-5p, hsa-miR-660-3p modulation
38 Sericin Peptide Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis Via Mitochondrial Function Modulation , Na Ryung Choi, Hyeon Tae Kang, Seung Min Lee, Yeon-Lim Suh, Hyukjin Kwon, Jaekyu Noh, Sang Bong Ahn, Dae Won Jun
Sericin is a component of cocoons. Studies have shown that sericin improves metabolic disease in animal model. However, it is not yet known whether sericin is effective in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Twenty C57BL/6N mice were divided into control and sericin treated group. High fat diet was fed to mice for 10 weeks. From 11th to 21st week sericin and distilled water were administered assigned groups via oral gavage. Body weight and liver to body weight ratio was assessed. AST, ALT, triglyceride, cho-lesterol and blood glucose levels were measured. qRT-PCR, Electro-microscopy, and Free fatty acid induced lipotoxicity assay were performed. Mitochondrial membrane potential was checked. As a result, there were no differences in body weight and diet intake in two groups. However, liver weight and liver/body weight ratio were significantly decreased in sericin group than in control group. Both the degree of hepatic steatosis and inflammation were lower in sericin group than the control group. NAFLD activity score were also decreased in treatment group. Serum ALT, AST, and triglyceride levels as well as area under receiver operating characteristics of oral glucose tolerance test were significantly decreased in sericin group. Hepatic mRNA expressions of TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6 mRNA were decreased in sericin group. Electron microscopy findings showed restoration of abnormal mitochondria with sericin treatment. Lipotoxicity induced HepG2 cell death was significantly attenuated in palmitic acid and sericin co-treated cells. Sericin also prevented palmitic acid induced mitochondrial depolarization. In conclusion, Sericin peptide treatment attenuated non-alcoholic steatohepati-tis via mitochondrial function modulation.
39 Effect of Using Different Plant Milk as Alternative Milk in Rice Pudding , EL-Sisy TT, Jehan B Ali
The aim of study was to produce healthy rice pudding by replacement of cow milk with plant milk as alternative milk and study their effect on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties. Plant milk was produced from black eyes-bean, chick-peas, white lima-bean, oats, rice, soya-bean, yellow corn and cow milk served as control. Protein ranged between 1.7 to 6.02% and the white lima beans had the highest protein value (6.02%). Rice pudding of cow milk the highest value of ash (0.79%) and the lowest value was yellow corn (0.04). Fat % ranged from 0.20 to 3.32% and rice pudding of cow milk the highest fat% (3.32%). Carbohydrate increased with the grains and rice pudding of rice milk the highest carbohydrate values (68.83%). Viscosity of rice pudding of Rice milk were the highest between rice pudding samples and were the best in organoleptic properties. Data also indicated that as a result of pH and acidity of different prepared milk samples and pudding samples. Microbiological analysis of milk samples and rice pudding from plant milk were determined. Viscosity was higher for the rice pudding (16800Cp/s) with low acidity (0.05%) than other samples. Differences in sensory attributes were associated with different rice pudding from plant milk and cow milk. Rice pudding of chick peas milk obtained the least score (16.50) for body and texture whereas rice pudding of cow milk, rice pudding of oats milk, rice pudding of yellow corn milk and black eyed beans received the highest score (19.50, 19.0, 19.0 and18.83 respectively). Sensorial, rice pudding of yellow corn and rice pudding of rice milk is more acceptability than other treatment after the rice pudding of cow milk control. Thus we recommend to use the plant milk in rice pudding especially, rice pudding of rice milk and rice pudding of Yellow corn milk to give the consumer a new nutraceutical product with prebiotic substances for milk allergy, sensitivity children and plant people.
40 Additives: Regulation in Colombia and Risks in the Salt of the Child Population , Angela Maria Wilches Flórez, Francy Sandoval Barbosa, Angie Catalina Ramos Geraldine, Casas Ortega
In Colombia, there is little information regarding the serious health problems that children face as they are subjected to the consumption of food products from the family basket and school support, which have multiple additives harmful to their long-term health. In addition, the regulation of the food industry ineffective. For this reason, three additives commonly found in food in the family basket and easily accessible to the child population were studied: tartrazine, aspartame and monosodium glutamate, in aspects such as their consumption, their effects and their regulation according to Colombian legislation. From this, it seeks to provide a bioethical perspective of the facts mentioned above by analyzing the decrees and policies that govern Colombian companies and how this could directly affect the child population.
41 Pharmaceutical Industry Report , Gisele Ferreira De Souza
For decades now, pharmaceuticals have been developed and de-signed to be stable as possible to avoid degradation before reach-ing their eventual recipient. The next 10 - 15 years could be an era of great progress and growth. In this period, we have the tech-nological, financial and human resources to raise living standards across the world. Good policies that support investment and inno-vation can further reduce poverty and hunger, make fast-growing cities economically vibrant and socially inclusive, and restore and protect the world’s natural environments.
42 Therapeutics of Red Golden Threads- Saffron , Anjana Agarwal
Red golden threads of saffron are divine delight when sub-merged in milk and added in different cuisine of the world. The ra-diance of its distinct colour and aroma calls for complete refresh-ment, richness and rejuvenation. It symbolizes the royalty and auspiciousness when put on the forehead as kesar tilak. Saffron word comes from the French word “Safran” meaning yellow or red gold. Saffron is obtained as the stigma of the mauve coloured flow-er of Crocus sativus. It is mainly cultivated in Iran, India and Greece. Can you imagine yield of saffron? Over 70,000 flowers yield only 500g of saffron threads .
43 The Impact of Nutrition Education of Parents on Food Choices of Their Children , Pınar Göbel, Aydan Ercan, Sinem Bayram
This study aimed to determine whether periodically healthy nutrition educations given to parents effect their nutritional knowledge and healthy food choices of all family. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 20 parents and their 25 children in a preschool. Parents of children aged be-tween 1 and 6 who agreed to participate in the study were included in the study. Parents were given a total of 180 minutes of educa-tion on healthy nutrition in 3 sessions, each of which took around 60 minutes. Food choices and WHO BMI z scores of children were compared before and after education. Results: The effect of all three educations on the BMI of the children was revealed that while children with normal BMI was 8% in the first education, it was 28% at the end of the third education. The comparison of the food consumption records of the children showed that the intake of many nutrients including protein, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acid, vitamin C, calcium, and iron increased significantly after education. On the other hand, particularly white bread consumption of parents was found to decrease after educa-tion sessions, while their vegetable and fruit-herbal tea consumption increased. The effect of the education on eating behavior was evident in males. Conclusion: After the nutrition education, parents were found to make healthy choices for their children even though they did not apply adequately for their own food choices. It is important to provide nutrition education to families with preschoolar children.
44 Nutrient Assessment and Potential Renal Load of Solutes in Infant Powder Formulas Available on the Honduran Market , Adriana Beatriz Di Iorio, Erika Yomalli Mera Cruz, Aquileo Daniel González De León Gómez,Adriana Hernandez Santana
TInfant formulas (FIP) are food products that have been modified to partially or totally satisfy the physiological needs of the baby, manufactured under the rules of the Alimentarius Codex. Objective: To evaluate whether the FIP available in the Honduran market comply with the international regulations European Soci-ety for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGAN) and the European Technical Regulation (RTS), regarding the potential renal load of solutes (CRPS) and the content of vitamins, minerals and proteins. Methods: The sample was 39 FIP, descriptive statistics was used, a review of the nutritional labeling was performed and the CRPS of each FIP was estimated. Statistical correlation was established between minerals, proteins and CRPS using the SPSS 25.0 program. Results: 55% of FIP come from Mexico, the estimated CRPS is correlated with their protein content; FIP CRPS for > 1 year was 237.28 mOsm/L and 130.36 mOsm/L on average. A higher caloric and micronutrient concentration was observed in FIP for premature in-fants. In all FIP, the macronutrient content was in accordance with the recommendations of ESPGAN and RTS.   Conclusion: FIPs of 0 - 12 months do not comply with the CRPS recommendation for the age of 0 - 6 months. The fat-soluble vitamins were located in the minimum limits established by the RTS. 5% of the FIP evaluated contained trans fatty acids and for over a year were above the maximum limit established for vitamin B3.
45 Perception Why the Prefecture has a Longer Life Expectancy Among Japanese Students , Tatsuya Koyama
One reason to study life expectancy may be to determine desirable health behaviours. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clarify which Japanese prefectures university students recognise as having the longest lifespans and why. In June 2020, a self-ad-ministered questionnaire was completed by 32 first-year college students (3 males and 29 females) at a registered dietician train-ing school in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. In order to determine the students’ perceptions, the following question was asked: "What prefecture do you think has the longest life expectancy?" The reasons were limited to dietary habits due to the characteristics of the department, and answers were written out freely. Additionally, the questionnaire included: "Why do you think that prefecture has the longest life expectancy? Please write the reasons, including dietary habits." Nagano was most frequently chosen by the students as the prefecture with the longest life expectancy (n = 24; 75%). The extracted words were "vegetable" (mentioned 28 times), "in-take" (21 times), "salt" (14 times), "fruit" (10 times), "reduced salt" (4 times), "nutrient" (4 times), and "miso soup" (4 times). Most students thought that desirable dietary habits included more vegetable intake and less salt.
46 Nutrition and Quarantine , Vinayaka AM
The unexpected appearance of Coronavirus disease (COV-ID-19) in Wuhan, China and its overall speedy transmission has made all of the humankind in the holds of a dangerous hands of pandemic, the last era of pandemic was observed with the Spanish Flu in 1918. Health care workers and general wellbeing authorities around the world, trying very hard to fight COVID-19 to spare lives and forestall further cases. Albeit some pharmacological investi-gations and even immunization preliminaries are in progress, the COVID-19 pandemic presents us with deficient information and stretches the restrictions of preeminent suppository.
47 Chemical and Mineral Composition of Biscuit Produced from Wheat and Bambara Groundnut Flour , Adegbanke OR, Osundahunsi OF, Enujiugha VN
NThe aim of this study was to determine the potential of bambara groundnut, an under utilised legume for use both as flour and protein isolate in biscuit production. Sixteen response surface methodology (RSM) runs were evaluated from combination of wheat flour (WF), bambara groundnut flour (BF) and bambara protein isolate (BPI). Based on the crude protein and functional properties these ratios were selected WF: BF (85.0:15.0%, 76.2:23.8% and 52.5:47.5%) and labeled as WBF1, WBF2, WBF3, respectively with WF: BPI (85.0:15.0%, 76.2:23.8% and 52.5:47.5%) as WBPI1, WBPI2 and WBPI3 for blends of wheat flour and bambara protein isolate respectively. The proximate and mineral composition of the composite flour blends and biscuits were determined. Data were analysed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significance at P < 0.05. The wheat-bambara groundnut flour, wheat-bambara groundnut protein isolate and biscuits contained (g/100g) moisture (9.43-9.63), (1.64-3.59), (6.70-7.60), (4.00-5.70), to-tal ash (0.79-1.76), (2.83-3.37), (1.00-170), (2.50-2.80) and crude protein, wheat-bambara groundnut flour (14.41-21.67), wheat-bambara groundnut protein isolate (32.42-61.10) and biscuits (15.30-20.10) (26.20-46.20) g/100g were recorded respectively. The carbohydrate content for wheat-bambara flour (62.47-66.75) g/100g, wheat-bambara protein isolate flour (31.56-61.21) g/100g and biscuits (63.10-67.00), (40.50-5750) g/100g. The mineral composition (mg/100g): sodium ranged from (442.06 to 960.36) for wheat-bambara composite flour, biscuit (3.12-4.77) and calcium ranged from (94.33-494.88) for wheat-bambara composite flour, biscuit (2.08-3.82) respectively. Among the trace metals, copper ranged between for wheat-bambara composite flour (14.80-35.11), biscuit (0.04-0.06) and manganese ranged between for wheat-bambara composite flour (8.00-26.03), biscuit (0.21-0.31) were high in the composite flour and low in the biscuit samples. Lead was not detected in both the flour samples and the biscuit. The calculated mineral ratios Na/K of the composite flour was (0.24-0.41) and biscuits (0.58- 0.92) respectively. Ca/P ratio for wheat-bambara composite flour (1.07-2.42) and biscuit (2.00- 2.47). The Ca/P ratios in the composite flour and biscuits samples were greater than recommendation of > 1.0, this will help to increase the absorption of calcium on the small intestine.It could be concluded that, the study remarkably developed flour and biscuit with high contents of crude protein, calcium, and phosphorus.
48 Physico-Chemical Analysis of Honey Produced in Bako-Tibe District, Western Showa Zone, Oromia Region, Western Ethiopia , Million Chimdessa; Desalegn Begna,
Honey production is a long-standing practice in the rural communities of Ethiopia in general and Oromia regional state in particu-lar. However, there is scanty information with regards to the quality of the honey produced in the most parts of Oromia. The study was conducted to assess the Physico-Chemical Analysis of honey produced around Bako Tibe district, western Showa, Ethiopia. A total of 13 fresh honey samples each weighing 50 gram were randomly collected from three agro-ecologies of the district. The collected honey samples were analyzed in the laboratory for their physico-chemical parameters. The average results indicated that 19.81%, 4.23, 21.43meq, 0.11 % for moisture, pH, free acidity and ash, respectively. According to this analysis, the results of all the samples fall within acceptable ranges for the national and international standards. This study investigated and availed the honey quality results of study area and ascertained all the values concur with local and international requisites. Owing to lack of testing facility, the informa-tion on the honey safety aspects still remain blurred, requiring further investigations
49 Effects of Yogurt Supplementation and Exercise on Body Composition during Lactation , Alexis Sharkey, Lauren San Diego, Tiffany Fuller, Roberta Claro da Silva, Salam A Ibrahim, Heather L Colleran
Breastfeeding reduces long-term maternal pregnancy weight retention but also results in high bone turnover. Dairy intake and exercise have bone-protective effects in pre-menopausal women during weight loss. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of yogurt supplementation and exercise on body composition and bone mineral density in lactating women 8 - 20 weeks postpartum. At 8-wks postpartum, women were randomized into an intervention group [IG, n = 6 that received yogurt supplementa-tion (≥ 3d/wk, 6oz each day) and exercise (3 d/wk, 45 min/d, ≥ 10,000 steps/d)] or a control group (CG, n = 2, no dietary or exercise intervention) for 12-wks. Dual x-ray absorptiometry measured body composition (weight, fat mass, lean body mass) and bone min-eral density. A submaximal treadmill test predicted VO2 max. Three-day dietary records were collected using Nutrition Data System for Research software. Due to COVID-19, results are reported without comparisons between groups. IG body composition and bone changes were similar to previous studies. Dietary intake did not differ between groups and both groups met the Recommended Di-etary Allowance for carbohydrates and protein (g) intake. IG compliance for 3 d/wk of yogurt consumption and exercise was 97% and 90%, respectively. The study provided preliminary data on dairy intake and exercise on body composition during lactation
50 Assessment of Nutrition Status of School-Going Children of Age 8 - 16 Years: District Lahore - Pakistan , Hira Akram, Safa Akram, Sajid Khan Tahir, Ahmad Ali
Nutrition status is the general conditioning of the body while nutrition assessment is a systematic process of verifying and inter-preting data to make decisions about the nature and cause of nutrition-related problems. The present study was conducted to assess the nutrition status of school-going children age 8 - 16 years in Lahore city, Pakistan. The study aim was to identify the children who were at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional assessment was carried out among both genders male and female. It was a cross-sectional survey and the sample size was two hundred (200). Randomly, male and female students were selected. A questionnaire was designed to collect data. An interview technique was used to fill the questionnaire. Questions were related to demographic data, anthropometric data, frequency of meals consumption and food frequency data. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Data were presented in tables (percentages) and pie charts. The present study result showed that most children have normal body mass index percentile. Children were consuming eggs, wheat flat bread without oil (Chapatti) and milk on a daily basis. Mostly children were taking breakfast, lunch and dinner on a daily basis. Most of them were not taking bedtime snacks. Few children were consuming miscellaneous and fast foods. So, based on the results it was concluded that the majority of school-going children have healthy eating habits and good nutritional status
51 Multisectoral Nutrition Implementation in Burkina Faso: Organization, Collaboration and Support of Contributing Sectors at Regional Level , Dieudonné Diasso, Maimouna Halidou Doudou, Aly Savadogo
Among other aspects of nutrition capacities, the state of human, material, financial resources and technical structures’ organiza-tion in Burkina-Faso are not exhaustive nor assessed to date. The objective of this evaluation study was to analyze the various capaci-ties of the contributing key sectors in nutrition of the Regional Directorates, and to identify gaps and challenges for their support to a successful implementation of the national nutrition plan. Tools and resources proposed by the Framework for Nutrition Capacity, recently developed by the United Nations Network for Scaling Up Nutrition was used with an adapted analytical framework. The methodology consisted on documentary reviews, data collection and analysis from evaluation surveys. Nearly 96% of Regional Direc-torates, in all key sectors, highlighted the unavailability of adequate skills to support the expansion of nutrition services. Only 17.6% of the Regional Directorates have nutrition training plan, against 79.7%. A certain number of external factors, which hindered the effective implementation of activities, was underlined by 60.8% of the technical structures, and the existence of an internal dialogue on nutrition within the Directorate is only effective in 23% of cases. The results show a strong involvement of the Regional Director-ates in the Regional Food Security Councils, and moderate for the Regional Social Protection Units and low or even non-existent for the Regional Nutrition Consultation Councils. In a national context where dialogue and synergy between the different coordination bodies and stakeholders at the central level remain problematic, it is more necessary to reinforce nutrition regional dialogue around the governorate, in order to successfully scale up multisectoral interventions in the country.
52 Effectual Gold Nanoprobe Sensor for Screening Cow Milk Adulteration in Goat Milk , Jose Manuel Llopis Ortiz, Dimitra Panagiotis Houhoula, Efstathia Tsakali, Sophie Pytel
Different methods of detection have been used to detect milk adulteration, but in recent years the use of nanomaterials has demonstrated to be an interesting tool in this field, because of their interesting optical properties. A gold nanoparticle (AuNP) probe strategy for testing milk authenticity was developed, which relies on the colorimetric differentiation of a particular DNA sequence, due to the differential aggregation profiles exhibited by the AuNPs in the presence or absence of specific target hybridization. Gold nanoparticles were conjugated with thiolated oligonucleotides which specifically amplify a 271 bp fragment of cow mitochondrial DNA. In the presence of a complementary target preventing aggregation of the AuNPs when acid was added, the reaction mixtures retained the original pink coloration of the colloidal particles, whereas they turned purple in the opposite event. Negative and goat reaction mixtures showed a purplish coloured solution with a peak at ≥570nm, while samples containing bovine DNA have an absorbance closer to the characteristic peak of the AuNPs at 520-525 nm. Presence of bovine milk even at traces levels was detected, achieving a level of detection comparable with PCR + Electrophoresis. The use of AuNPs for the colorimetric detection of DNA targets from undeclared species in milk products provides an inexpensive and easy-toperform alternative to common molecular assays. However, the tested oligonucleotides only proved to be effective under very concrete conditions, due to their low specificity. The technology described here can be further developed and more specific oligonucleotides are advised to be tested. Even though, this method offers the possibility to accommodate for detection of many cases of adulteration and fraudulent practices in different food matrices.
53 Malnutrition Trends in School Children of Madinah Al Munawarrah-A Cross-Sectional study , Atta UR Rehman Khan, Meshal Al Malki
Malnutrition is considered a major challenge in the area of public health nutrition. But recently the clear footprints have been spotted by researchers at remarkable magnitude even in the developing as well as developed countries. National studies to predict Malnutrition prevalence in Saudi Arabia are lacking. To date no study has been conducted to find out prevalence of Malnutri-tion in the 2nd holiest city of Muslims Al Madinah Al Munawarrah located on western part of Saudi Arabia. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Malnutrition in school children of Madinah Al Munawarrah-Saudi Arabia.Methods: Participants were healthy school boys and girls aged 05 - 18 years. It was a cross-sectional stratified study. Total sample size was 6000 consisting of 3000 boys and 3000 girls Twenty (20) schools were selected with random stratification with the help of Ministry of education. Data were collected during April - December 2017. Height and weight of children were measured to calculate percentiles for BMI-for-age and -sex according to the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts. Acute Malnutrition was defined as BMI-for-age/sex < 5th % tile.Results: Acute malnutrition: The overall children who were suffering from Acute Malnutrition were 19% (n = 755). Prevalence in boys was 24% (n = 529) and in girls was 13% (n = 226).For boys: The presence of Acute Malnutrition in Category-I (5 - 8 years) was 25% (n = 8), category-II (9 - 13 years) was 23% (n = 149) and Category-III (14 - 18 years) was 24% (n = 372).For girls: The prevalence in Category-I (5 - 8 years) was 41% (n = 45), category-II (9 - 13 years) was 13% (n = 79) and Category-III (14 - 18 years) was 10% (n = 102).Conclusion: Malnutrition in school children in Al Madinah Al Munawarrah prevails as high as in few under developed countries. Integrated Intervention and prevention programs in primary through high school should focus at all school-aged children especially primary school students. Ministry of education and Ministry of health have a key role. Dietitians and public health nutrition care workers are potential key role players to effectively address this issue.
54 In Vitro Antioxidant Activity, Spectrophotometric Determination of Caffeine, Total Phenol and Flavonoid Contents in Traditional Omani Qahwa in Comparison with Green and Black Tea , Maryam F Hasan, Wed S Aldaraji, Dhanalakshmi UM, Shah A Khan, M Ali
The aim of the present work was to quantify caffeine and total phenolic content and to evaluate the antioxidant activity in com-mercially available black tea, green tea, Turkish coffee and traditional Omani qahwa. Aqueous extracts of tea and coffee samples prepared by decoction were subjected to the phytochemical screening test for phenols and caffeine. Caffeine in the samples was quantified with the help of a linear regression equation obtained from the standard plot. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the tea and coffee were estimated colorimetrically. Antioxidant activity of the samples was investigated by DPPH (1, 1 diphenyl picrylhy-drazyl) free radical assay and phosphomolybdenum methods. All the test extracts showed the presence of phenolic compounds and caffeine. The results indicated a variation in caffeine content, phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity between the two extracts and among same extracts with different brand names. In general, Mumtaz black tea was found to contain the high-est caffeine (24.44 mg/g) and phenolic content (8.27 mg/g of GAE). It also showed the highest total antioxidant activity (10.46 mg/g of ascorbic acid equivalent) but surprisingly its flavonoid content and antioxidant activity by DPPH method was lower than other samples. Tea was found to be richer in phenols and caffeine but Omani qahwa showed better antioxidant activity. It can be concluded that phenolic content and the antioxidant activities depend on the origin, brands and additives of these beverages that may lead to variation in the content and bioactivity.
55 Beta-Adrenergic Agonists: Effects on Growth and Characteristics of Meat and Livestock Production , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn, Utoomporn Sittisingh,
Number of multinucleated cellular units or muscle fibers is fixed at birth. Increasing muscle hypertrophy has been a primary focus of investigators. Beta-adrenergic agonists increase muscle mass by increasing the ratio of protein to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), while steroidal implants increase muscle mass by increas-ing accumulation of DNA in muscle. Beta-adrenergic agonists and steroidal implants have similar physiologic responses of muscle hypertrophy, but have different mechanisms of action to achieve muscle growth. Beta-adrenergic agonists suppress adipose accre-tion in livestock species. Cattle has more than 99% of beta-2 ad-renergic receptor in the skeletal muscle and has more than 90% of beta-2 adrenergic receptor in adipose tissue, whereas pig has 73% of beta-1, 20% of beta-2 and 7% of beta-3 adrenergic receptors.
56 Preparation and Quality Evaluation of Yogurt by Incorporation with Moringa oleifera Leaves Powder , Sanjaya Karki, Saugat Prajapati, Susma Bhattarai,
Moringa oleifera leaves is fill with a pack of nutrients therefore, this study was carried out in order to enrich the nutritional value of traditional yoghurt. The powdered leaves of Moringa oleifera were analyzed for moisture content, vitamin C, protein, ash and fat content and the result was found to be 7.34 ± 0.04%, 17.24 ± 0.10 mg/100g, 25.89 ± 1.42%, 9.67 ± 0.40% and 2.1 ± 0.2% respectively and mesh size was 140 μm. From the sensory analysis the product having 0.5% Moringa oleifera leaves powder incorporated yoghurt was chosen for further analysis as it showed comparable result with control yoghurt. The chemical analysis of moringa incorporated yoghurt showed that fat, lactose, protein, total solid, acidity, calcium and pH were 2.9 ± 0.11%, 3.71 ± 0.02, 4.51 ± 0.09%, 22.18 ± 0.19%, 0.82 ± 0.02, 356.83 ± 10.19 (mg/100g) and 4.3 ± 0.02 whereas that of control yoghurt were found to be 2.76 ± 0.07%, 3.86 ± 0.03, 3.7 ± 0.4%, 19.90 ± 0.28%, 0.69 ± 0.01, 244.67 ± 10.19 (mg/100g) and 4.5 ± 0.01 respectively. The fresh yoghurt was found to contain no any coliform, yeast and mold count. Setting time and syneresis for moringa leaves incorporated yoghurt (0.5%) i.e. sample A was found 270 minutes and 34.05 ± 1.30%, respectively whereas setting time for control sample i.e. Sample E was 300 minutes and syneresis was 22.43 ± 2.12%. Acidity was continuously observed in the interval of 30 minutes till the yoghurt sets which showed rapid increase in acidity in Moringa oleifera incorporated yoghurt than that of control yo-ghurt. Acidity rose from 0.69 to 1.14 in control yoghurt and for Moringa oleifera incorporated yoghurt it rose from 0.82 to 1.40 during 12 days storage period. The total plate count of the yoghurt decreased during the storage period of 12 days from 1.20 × 109 cfu/ml to 1.1 × 103 cfu/ml for Sample A and from 1.76 × 109 cfu/ml to 4.4 × 103 cfu/ml for Sample E i.e. control yoghurt.
57 Knowing the Role of Supplementary Nutrition and Growth Monitoring from the Beneficiaries of Selected Anganwadi Centers in Rural Wardha, Maharashtra , Samarpita Dutta1,Abhishek V Raut,
Launched in 1975 by the Government of India, the ICDS scheme is currently the most important scheme in the field of child health and development and care of women throughout their critical stages in life. With four decades of implementation of this scheme, it is imperative to take stock of this flagship programme from its basic level of implementation in the country. The present study was thus conducted to determine the facilities available at selected Anganwadi centers and find out the concerns and performance of the Anganwadi Workers through observation, review of records and interviews.The study was conducted in 2 phases over a period of 3 months, in 15 Anganwadi Centers of the field practice area of a Rural Health Training Centre in Wardha district, Maharashtra. The 1st phase consisted of facility survey using pre-designed checklist while the 2nd phase consisted of in-depth interviews with the respective Anganwadi Workers.Facility survey revealed lack of storage, kitchen and toilet facilities in 5, 2 and 6 centers respectively. Hot Cooked Food was being served at 11 of the 15 centers. Peoples’ concern regarding quality of take home recipes, immunization days and improper utilization of learning material emerged as important issues compromising health promotion and pre-school education activities during the in-depth interviews.Bottlenecks identified through key functionaries of the scheme at community level would enable the administration take up coor-dinated steps to make it locally acceptable and reliable towards a fruitful impact in the nation.
58 The Relationship between Allergic Pollinosis and Low Salivary Levels of Secretory IgA in Adults , Tetsuro Yamamoto, T Enomoto, Akira Tsuda, Hisayoshi Okamura, T Honda, Shaw Watanabe, Hideyo Yamaguchi
Secretary IgA is a key element of intestinal immunity. Low levels of secretory IgA (SIgA) and development of allergy in infants were often reported, but it is not in adults. Saliva and serum were simultaneously analyzed from 20 adult patients with Cedar pollino-sis aged 22 - 53 years and 22 non-allergic control adults aged 25 - 65 years. The mean salivary level of SIgA for JCP patients was sig-nificantly lower than the value for control subjects. Median, 25th - 75th percentile was 11.5 UA/ml, 4.05, 23.1, respectively in pollinosis group and < 0.34 UA/ml in control group. Low levels of salivary SIgA in adults was associated with increased allergic manifestations.
59 Systematic Review - Nutrition in the Elderly , Alba Child, J Gerardo Villa, Pilar S Collado
This systematic review aims to compile the concept of aging, which entails it and the nutritional recommendations that have been addressed in recent years as a preventive measure for the best functional management and better quality of life of these people. Data Sources: Systematic searches were conducted in the PubMed, Medline and SPORTDiscus databases and manual searches were made in the reference lists of the selected articles.Study Selection: The selected cohort studies were those that examined the concept and effects of the aging process, as well as the effects of physical activity and especially nutrition in this older population. Data Extraction: Data was extracted independently. Data Synthesis: Thirty articles were included in which the subject of aging, physical activity and/or nutrition was discussed. Conclusion: Older adults are an extremely heterogeneous group, as a result, the assessment of nutritional risk requires careful and centralized individualization, considering physiological changes and possible disease, as well as psychosocial, economic and environ-mental factors that influence nutritional status, being the basic objectives of maintaining the functional independence and quality of life of these people.
60 Association of Physical Activity with Obesity Trends in School Children of Madinah Al Munawarrah-A Cross-Sectional Study , Atta UR Rehman Khan, Meshal Al Malki
Obesity is one of the three gravest threats to human health globally. There was no study on association of obesity with physical activity of children of the 2nd holiest city of Muslims Al Madinah Al Munawarrah which is located on North West of Saudi Arabia. Objectives: This study aimed to • Evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children.• To study association of physical activity and obesity.Methods: Participants were healthy school boys and girls aged 5 - 18 years. Study design was cross-sectional. A total of 6000 school children, consisting of 3000 boys and 3000 girls from twenty (20) schools were enrolled. School selection was done by random strati-fication with the help of Ministry of education. Data were collected between April - December 2017. Height and weight of children were measured to calculate percentiles for BMI-for-age and -sex according to the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts, Overweight and obesity was defined as BMI-for-age/sex ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentile respectively.Results: The overall prevalence of obesity was 14.7% (n = 588). Obesity Prevalence in boys was 16% (n = 347) and in girls was 14% (n = 241). The overall prevalence of overweight was 15.4% (n = 616). The Prevalence in boys was 16% (n = 366) and in girls was 14% (n = 250). There was negative correlation between Physical activity and Body Mass Index. This relationship is also highly significant. (P -Value < .0005) Conclusions: Overweight and obesity in school children in Al Madinah Al Munawarrah is similar to global prevalence. Physical ac-tivity is a major risk factor for obesity in school children. Physical activity programs should be seriously implemented at education levels in every school of AlMadinah Al Munawarah to control this epidemic with coordination of Ministry of education and Ministry of health.
61 A Neurocommunication Model between the Brain and Liver Regarding Glucose Production and Secretion in Early Morning Using GH-Method: Math-Physical Medicine (No. 324) , Gerald C Hsu
This article address the author’s hypothesis on the neurocommunication model existing between the brain and liver regarding production and glucose secretion in the early morning. This is based on the observation of the difference between glucose at wake up moment in the morning for the fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and glucose at the first bite of breakfast for the glucose at 0-minute or “open glucose” of postprandial plasma glucose (PPG). All of the eight identified glucoses of breakfast PPG are higher than the eight glucoses at time of wake up by a difference of an average of 8 mg/dL.The value difference using Method B of CGM sensor glucoses during the COVID-19 period offers the most accurate picture and credible glucose difference of 8 mg/dL between his FPG at wake-up moment and PPG at the first bite of breakfast. The author believes that the brain senses when a person wakes up due to different kinds of stimuli from many sources, including eye, environment and even internal organs, which will alert the body to be in “active” mode requiring “energy” through glucose. Even though the person has not eaten anything or is not actively moving, the brain issues a marching order to the liver to produce or re-lease glucose for the body to use in the forthcoming day. This hypothesis can currently explain why his glucose of eating his breakfast is ~8 mg/dL higher than his FPG at wakeup.
62 Nutrients Analysis of Diplazium esculentum: Underutilized Wild Wetland Pteridophytes Ensure Food and Nutritional Security , Sanjay Mohan Gupta, Basant Ballabh, Pradeep Kumar Yadav, Ankur Agarwal, Madhu Bala
Food and nutrition (hidden hunger) for rapidly growing global populations (expected to increase 10 billion by 2050) are major concern of public health issue in most of the global developing countries. One way to tackle these problems is through the inter-vention of local traditional less-explored high-value food crops as dietary supplements for ensuring food and nutritional security. The Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw (also called as ‘Vegetable fern’ or ‘Liguna’; fam. Athyriaceae) is an underutilized wild wetland pteridophytes occurring commonly throughout world, from sea level to 2,300m. The young frond and rhizomes of D. esculentumare generally used as green vegetables during the monsoon season, which are reported to possess notable nutritional and medici-nal properties. This research article highlights the detailed nutritive phytochemical (primary and secondary metabolites, essential mineral content, dietary fibres, calorific value etc) profiling of young fronds of D. esculentum. Our results suggest that D. esculentumfronds contains rich amounts of protein (52.3%), carbohydrate (28.2%), antioxidants (Vitamin C etc) and exceptionally high contents of important minerals (Ca, Fe, Na), dietary fibre (17.44%) with good calorific energy value (324 Kcal/100 gm). The overall results suggest that, the young fronds of D. esculentum contains rich source of phyto-nutrients that may be commercially utilized for the development of healthcare value added products as a sustainable solution to the health and nutritional security.
63 Bromelain and Amylase Assisted Extraction of Cucurbita pepo Seed Oil Enriched with Phytosterol , Nguyen Thi Minh Tu, Kieu Thi Hoang Yen, Tran Huong Nga, Le Tat Thanh, Dang Thi Thu
Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds’ hydrolysis condition was investigated in order to achieve oil containing high content of phy-tosterol by using enzyme bromelain and amylase. For this purpose, hydrolysis conditions of bromelain and amylase including ratio of C. pepo to water, ratio of concentration of the enzyme bromelain/amylase to substance, temperature, pH, hydrolysis time were investigated. Bromelain hydrolysis of C. pepo seeds with 1.75% enzyme at 55oC for 7hrs at pH of 7 gave 27.83% oil and 1909.95 mg phytosterol in 100 g oil. For amylase hydrolysis these figures were 0.9%; 50oC; 5.5 hrs and 7, respectively; and the oil yield was 14.02% with 2245.03 mg phytosterol in 100 g oil.Although oil yield by using enzyme bromelain (27.83%) and enzyme amylase (14.02%) was lower than that by using solvent and ultrasonic methods (26.57% to 42.74%), phytosterol content inversely was as 2 to 3 times as higher (631.41 - 772.78 to 19909.95 - 2245.03 mg/100g oil). Fourteen compounds were found in phytosterol mixture obtained by amylase hydrolysis, among them three important e.g. campesterol, stigmasterol, β - sitosterol accounted for315.460, 120.111 and 189.987 mg/100g oil respectively.
64 Vaginal Birth After Caesarean Section - Experience in Shree Birendra Hospital , Ratna A Khatri, Arju Chand, Sumana Thapa,Shailaza Khadka
The rate of primary caesarean section (CS) is on the rising trend. Vaginal birth after CS (VBAC) can be an alternative to reduce this rate of CS worldwide. Antenatal examination and intrapartum monitoring are the most important factors for VBAC. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of VBAC at SBH in selected cases. To analyze the maternal and fetal out-come of VBAC and repeat CS cases. Methodology:It is a cross-sectional institute-based study carried out in Shree Birendra hospital, a tertiary level Nepalese Army Hos-pital, from March 2019 to March 2020. The study population included cases with one previous caesarean section fulfilling the inclu-sion criteria of Royal College of Obstetrician and Gynaecology (RCOG) for VBAC. After counseling for VBAC, the data were estimated of those who were willing for VBAC and those who refused. Trial of labor was given to the patients accepted for VBAC. Feto-maternal outcome were analyzed of VBAC and of repeat CS.Results: There were total of 108 cases of previous LSCS reported at ANC OPD, among them 23 cases were excluded from the study as they were not meeting the RCOG inclusion criteria, 85 cases were enrolled in the study. Out of 85 cases, 75 (88.23%) refused to undergo VBAC, only 10 cases (11.76%) accepted to undergo trial of labor. Out of 10 cases, 5 (50%) had successful VBAC. The sample size was too small to come to any conclusion, still it is observed that women who had an emergency cesarean section in their first delivery had lower VBAC success particularly those with failed induction. No maternal and neonatal mortality observed. Conclusion: Vaginal Birth after Caesarean section is relatively safe, provided it is conducted in carefully selected cases and under constant supervision. Spontaneous onset of labor, good Bishop score and average sized baby were good predictors of successful VBAC.
65 Comparative Study on Antioxidant Activity and Microbial Loads of Dried Tomatoes Treated with Local Spices (Aframomum danielli and Syzygium aromaticum) , Mapamile AD, Osunbade OA*, Ani CP, Oyewo IO
The worldwide usage of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cannot be underestimated therefore, spoilage and postharvest losses must be controlled through processing and preservation. Two spices (Aframomum danielli and Syzygium aromaticum) aqueous ex-tract were separately formulated into 5 and 10% concentrations. The aqueous extract preparations were used to pre-treat tomatoes (var. UTC) prior to drying. Two drying methods (sun drying and oven drying at 60oC) were employed to effect drying. Dried tomato samples treated with 0% spice served as control for dried samples treated with 5 and 10% spice concentrations. The activity of each spice used was evaluated and compared based on their concentrations in terms of ascorbic acid, total carotenoid, lycopene and total viable and fungal count using standard methods. The results of antioxidants revealed that ascorbic acid and lycopene value were reduced in sun-dried samples when treated with varying concentrations of A. danielli and S. aromaticum compared to the control sample. However, in spice-treated oven-dried samples when compared to the control sample, the ascorbic acid values were better retained with increasing concentrations of spice from 5 to 10% concentrations. The values of total carotenoid were best retained in sun dried samples treated with 5% concentrations of S. aromaticum and 5% concentrations of A. danielli in oven dried sample. There were also considerable reductions in the values of both total viable and fungal count of spice-treated dried tomato samples over the control samples. Evidently, the findings revealed the effectiveness of A. danielli to exact a more preservative effect in oven dried sample better than S. aromaticum. This was evident in its better antioxidant retention ability as well as reduction in total viable and fungi count of the oven dried samples treated with both spices.
66 Analysis of Non-Scheduled Consultations in Patients with Digestive Neoplasms , Matilde Bolaños Naranjo, Victoria Aviñó Tarazona, Francisco Javier Jiménez Ruiz, Juan Bayo Calero
Non-scheduled consultation is very frequent among patients with cancer, creating alterations and delays in pro-grammed visits. We describe the incidence of non-scheduled consultations in patients with digestive cancer in our hospital.Methods: Descriptive, prospective, non-interventional study. In a six-month period (May - December 2017), non-scheduled visits were chronologically recorded in the medical oncology consultation of digestive tumours of Hospital Juan Ramón Jiménez de Huelva. We performed a descriptive analysis of the variables collected through the statistical program G-STAT v.2.0.Results: Patients with colon or rectal cancer generated most consultations (68,63%), followed by pancreatic (9,15%) and gastric (5,23%). Most patients had metastatic or advanced stage cancer (59,87%) and were under palliative or symptomatic treatment (58,82%). The most frequent reason for consultation was clinical symptoms (47,05%), followed by information demand (18,30%).Conclusion: Non-scheduled consultations in cancer patients are frequent; they cause interference in scheduled consultations and not always resolved satisfactorily. We propose several measures to reduce the number of non-scheduled consultation in oncology.
67 Development of a Baby Food Pureed with Probiotic Microorganisms for an Infant from 6 to 12 Months , Cardona MA, López BE,Restrepo M
The infant population and more specifically infants between 6 to 12 months are the most vulnerable to suffering from diseases that jeopardize the immune conditions of their developing organism. To counteract this, this research aimed to: develop a functional food baby pureed for an infant aged 6 to 12 months, using a probiotic strain, where the probiotic strain studied was Bacillus coagu-lans. The methodology involved the preparation of 3 flavors of baby food pureed such as: ahuyama, carrot and figs, which B. coagulanswere added as a functional component. A three-month shelf-life study was determined and evaluated, in which a count was made in the CFU of B. coagulans and its permanence in baby food pureed during this time. It was found that the adequate counting technique is vital for the detection of the microorganism and that carbohydrate content favors its permanence. It was concluded that baby food pureed could have a functional effect seen from the count of B. coagulans and from the study of shelf life as follows: ahuyama up to 90 days, carrot 30 days.
68 Lipedema and Nutrition: What’s the Link? , Cannataro Roberto, Erika Cione,
Lipedema is a dysfunction of the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), it is characteristic of women, although it is reported in rare cases also in men, it was described for the first time in 1940, with a better characterization in 1951, although this is often still con-fused with classic obesity. It affects the lower and upper limbs, the buttocks, usually sparing the feet and trunk. It is classified into 5 levels, according to the area of the body affected by the dysfunction. The tissues are nodular to the touch and this, among other things, suggests an inflammatory phenomenon. The treatments concern surgery (bariatric and liposuction), compression garments, physiotherapy. The nutritional approach often has little or no efficacy, probably because the adipose tissue is inflamed, therefore not very responsive if the inflammation itself is not managed. An approach that is having an interesting response is the ketogenic diet (a nutritional approach that provides for a carbohydrate intake of less than 30g per day), in previous work we have demonstrated the marked anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action of this nutritional approach, which could prove effective in assist the treatment of lipedema.
69 Healthy Eating Vs Dietary Supplements and the Fight against COVID- 19 Pandemic , Louay Labban
The novel coronavirus or COVID 19 has caused many changes in the daily lives of people around the globe since it first started in China in early 2020. This virus has caused a death toll reaching around 1 million. This number was due to its complications which can be attributed to lower immunity. It’s been known for a long time that immunity is closely related to nutritional status which can affect the prevalence of infections and their severity. The in-dividuals who follow unhealthy dietary systems are at a greater risk these infections. On the other hand, these infections can cause nutrients deficiencies affecting the individuals’ nutritional status. Therefore, people should focus on their diets during the ongoing Corona virus pandemic especially those with underlying diseases which make the situation worse.
70 Vitamin D Deficiency, Biology and its Functions , Afrozul Haq, Nuzhat Ahsan
Vitamin D deficiency is a major global, public health problem and is prevalent among all ages and ethnic groups. Neverthe-less, it is preventable cost-effectively, if proper public health in-terventions are implemented. Only a handful of expensive foods contain vitamin D and it is difficulty to change people’s attitude and lifestyles. Therefore, an inexpensive supplements and food-fornication programs have been recommended. More than 80% of the requirement vitamin D should generate from our skin, but sun avoidance behaviors prevent this. The combination of lifestyle and environmental issues, decreased exposures to sunlight have led to vitamin D insufficiency. This affects approximately, 50% of the global population and estimated 1.5 billion people worldwide have vitamin D deficiency [1]. Sunlight remains the primary source of vitamin D3 that is synthesis in dermal tissues in humans and in animals
71 Health Issues Related to Fat Consumption and Choice of Diet as Remedy , Anjan Borah
Rapid urbanization and changes in lifestyle has changed food habits towards processed foods. However processed foods are hav-ing associated risk factors. Most of the processed foods like French fries, potato chips, Snacks, breakfast cereals (ready to eat), cook-ies, roasted almond, crackers and related products are reported to have Acrylamides reported to be a neurotoxicant and probably a week human carcinogen. A processed food that contains partially hydrogenated oil (PHOs) as a shortening is the richest source of Trans Fatty Acid (TFA). TFA (isomers of the octadecenoic acids) significantly increase risk of heart disease and may drive insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes
72 Life Style, Nutritional Habits, Body Composition and Respiratory Capacity as Fundamental Aspects of Risk Evaluation in Professional Divers , Maria Concetta D’Ovidio, Daniela Pigini1, Maria Rosaria Marchetti, Paola Melis1, Lucio Bertini, Massimo Spalletta, Tiziana Paola Baccolo, Giovanna Tranfo, Enrico Marchetti
Exposure to hyperbaric atmospheres is an occupational risk for workers. The diver needs a good physical/mental performance, control of physical activity and nutrition. In this work the objective is to assess physical status of professional diver of Italian National Fire Department.The study was conducted on 71 male divers of the National Fire Department subjected to annual medical examination. We utilized a questionnaire regarding work habits and lifestyles, bioimpedance and spirometric analysis.Results of the questionnaire indicate that more than one half of workers practice a correct lifestyle and has varied and balanced consumption of food; 25 - 30% professional divers show a higher BMI respect to the ideal BMI value.These results will be used to create a database on the different physiological parameters of these workers and to define the varia-tions during the immersion phase
73 Eating Quickly is Associated with Ultrasound-Diagnosed Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Japanese Adults , Koichiro Irie, Tetsuji Azuma, Takatoshi Yonenaga, Minako Hada, Kazutoshi Watanabe, Fumiko Deguchi, Akihiro Obora, Takao Kojima,Takaaki Tomofuji
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major global health problem. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between eating quickly and NAFLD in Japanese adults. A total of 8556 participants underwent a health checkup. Abdominal ultrasonography was applied to diagnose NAFLD, and information on eating speed was obtained using a self-ad-ministrated questionnaire. Of the study participants, 2570 (30.0%) had ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD. The participants who reported eating quickly had a higher prevalence of NAFLD when compared to those who did not report eating quickly. The presence of NAFLD was significantly associated with male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 3.163, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.800 - 3.573), age ≥ 65 years (OR = 1.426, 95%CI = 1.076 - 1.889), high body mass index (≥ 25 kg/m2; OR = 9.615, 95%CI = 8.511 - 10.863), hypertension (OR = 1.659, 95%CI = 1.424 - 1.931), high hemoglobin A1c values (≥ 6.5%; OR = 4.096, 95%CI = 3.080 - 5.446), the presence of regular exercise habits (OR = 0.605, 95%CI = 0.522 - 0.701), and eating quickly (OR = 1.146, 95%CI = 1.023 - 1.283) after adjusting for confounding factors. These results indicated that lifestyle factors, including eating quickly, is positively associated with NAFLD in Japanese adults independently of overweight and obesity.
74 Trade of Medicinal Plants and Herbal Products with Teratogenic Potential and their Consumption during Pregnancy , Yvis Silva De Castro, Juliana Silva Pereira Santos, Stela Bersan Faustino, Cristhian Gomes Cardeal Martos, Gabriel Bastos Teixeira, Aline Oliveira da Conceição
The indiscriminate use and market of medicinal plants and herbal products is a reality in Brazil. Despite the preventive measures that already regulate this use, they do not reach all the communities. Therefore, investigations on the use of medicinal plants or herb-al medicines in pregnancy are of fundamental need to help in the establishment of pharmacovigilance norms. The objective of this study was to investigate the sale of medicinal plants and herbal medicines in the city of Ilhéus, Bahia and the consumption of plants by women served in the municipal maternity ward. A qualitative and descriptive study was carried out, through field research, using a semi-structured questionnaire that addressed socioeconomic and ethnobotanical aspects. Herbalists and sellers in the local market were also interviewed about the presence of medicinal plants and herbal products with teratogenic potential in their establishments. In total, 19 individuals were invited to participate in the research, six sellers of medicinal plants and 13 women who gave birth in the local maternity ward. The results showed that medicinal plants with teratogenic potential are easily marketed in the municipality of Ilhéus. However, no teratogenic effects related to medicinal plants or previous high consumption of medicinal plants were men-tioned. Despite the low evidence of harmful effects in this study, the fact that the plants are being sold freely in the local market shows the need of pharmacovigilance and education in natural products for professionals in local public health.
75 Metabolic Obesity , Isabel Cristina Bento, Heather D Balentine
Obesity is a worldwide pandemic, with high prevalence. In the United States, at least 35% of men and 40% of women are obese [1]. In Brazil, the latest Survey of Surveillance of Risk and Protec-tion Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey [2], from the Ministry of Health found that the frequency of obese adults has been increasing, from 11.8% in 2006 to 20.3% in 2019, is similar for men and women in 2019.
76 Association of Consumption Frequency of Meals Consisting of Grain Dishes, Fish and Meat Dishes, and Vegetables Dishes with Satisfaction with Diet and Health Status Among Japanese People , Tatsuya Koyama
Objective:To examine the association of the consumption frequency of well-balanced meals (comprising grain dishes, fish and meat dishes, and vegetable dishes) with satisfaction with the diet and health status. Methods: In December 2019, a self-administered questionnaire survey on lifestyle was conducted for 295 local civil servants in a town of Aomori, Japan. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regressions were performed to compare satisfaction with the diet and health status among three groups (every day [daily], four to five days a week [frequently], three days or less in a week [occasionally]) based on the frequency of intake of well-balanced meals .Results: Compared with participants who consumed well-balanced meals daily, participants who consumed well-balanced meals occasionally were less satisfied with the diet after adjustment for sex, age, smoking and drinking habits (odds ratio 0.28, 95% con-fidence interval: 0.09, 0.85). The association persisted after adjustment for BMI, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Com-pared with participants who consumed well-balanced meals daily, participants who consumed well-balanced meal occasionally had a higher risk of subjective health and dyslipidemia adjustment for sex, age, current smoking and drinking habits. These significant associations disappeared after adjustment for BMI.Conclusion: The frequency of intake of well-balanced meals was associated with the degree of satisfaction of the diet.
77 Conversion of Khadrwai Dates from Khulal to Tamar through Various Practices , Rehman Ali, Umber Shehzadi, Amara Rasheed, Maryam Bibi, Anam Zafar
Dates have been an important basic food for several cultures all over the world and they are still consumed widely over thousands of year. The aim of our study was to protect khadrwai dates from monsoon season and minimize post-harvest losses. For this pur-pose, some bunches were wrapped with polythene plastic sheet, some covered in sacks and others remained open on date palm. Date samples were collected during Khalal, Rutab and Tamar stage by weekly intervals. Chemical and physical characteristics were deter-mined using published procedures. Result showed firmness was more in polythene plastic dates about 4.733, 4.46 and 1.6 during every stage and other conditions have less firmness. Brix % gradually increases during all stages. At full ripening stage, brix % was near about 30 - 40%. Color changes during ripening from light yellow at Khalal to golden brown at Rutab stage and then converted to dark brown color at Tamar stage. Moisture content was decrease with the passage of time. At Tamar stage, moisture content was about 15 % which was beneficial for long term storage. The highest losses on date palm were observed in sack dates due to shrinkage of size and bitter taste. Monsoon season less effected on opened date palm. Polythene plastic condition is best for maximum produc-tion and minimum losses on date palm.
78 Using of Natural Remedies for Patients Recovered from COVID-19 , Poonam Maurya, Neelesh Kumar Maurya
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported a global public health concern by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to its pandemic. Typical human coronavirus NL63 (alpha coro-navirus), 229E (alpha coronavirus), OC43 (beta coronavirus), and HKU1 (beta coronavirus) cause widespread coldness [1]. Corona-virus Cases: the risk of death of a novel coronavirus was reported to be approximately 2% at the WHO press conference on 29 Janu-ary 2020 [2]. Globally, 22,812,491 recorded cases of COVID-19, including 795,132 fatalities, were announced to the WHO at 2:09 p.m. CEST, 22 August 2020
79 Effect of Nutrition Education Videos on Mothers’ Knowledge, and Practices on Complementary Feeding of Children 6 - 23 Months in Ruaraka Sub-county, Nairobi City County , Robinson Nyaribo Mochoni, Judith Kimiywe
Background:Children aged 6-23 months are most exposed to malnutrition because complementary feeding is done poorly in this stage of children’s growth. Efforts have been put forth to improve child nutrition but there are still significant gaps in complementary feeding. Low information on complementary feeding among mothers has been the main contributor. This study aimed to establish the effect of video use on nutrition education to improve mothers’ knowledge and practices on complementary feeding. The study was conducted in Ruaraka sub-county, Nairobi City County, Kenya. Methodology: Post intervention cross-sectional analytical design with control was adopted with 198 mothers with children 6-23 months who sought health services from selected health facilities. The study involved an intervention group that watched the short nutrition video clips on complementary feeding and a control group which did not watch the videos from a different locality but shared similar characteristics with intervention group.Results: Most households, control (83.6%) and intervention (92.4%) groups were headed by males. The majority of mothers were married (86.4%) and Housewives (67.7%) with a mean age of 25.3 years. They were Christians (97.1%), lactating (95.2%) and had attained primary school education as highest level (46.7%). The majority, 41.1% had no specific allocation of income for purchase of food. There was a significantly higher proportion of mothers in the intervention (100%) than in the control (51.3%) who had the cor-rect knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding (P = 0.041). A significant difference was also noted in the minimum dietary diversity score with 3.73% in control and 5.19% in intervention group with majority from intervention (95.5%) feeding their children from the four food groups as opposed to control group (30.0%) with a significant difference P = 0.006. There was also a significant difference in knowledge mean score between the intervention and control with P = 0.001. A significantly higher proportion of mothers from inter-vention (100%) had good knowledge of the age of initiating complementary feeding as compared to the control group (96.3%) with P = 0.021. In terms of practice, a significant difference was found between the control and intervention on complementary feeding of children 6-23 months (P = 0.021).Conclusion:The use of audio-visual tools has been found to be effective in passing messages. Since the video clips’ messages are eas-ily understood, interpreted due to the use of the local language, Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health knowledge is easily gained by the hearers. Better practices shown in the intervention group indicates gained knowledge.
80 Mind Genomics: Accelerating and Scaling Our Understanding of the Everyday Mind and its Prospects for Efforts in Nutrition , Sophia Davidov, Ariola Harizi, Glenn Zemel, Alex Hutchinson,Howard R Moskowitz
We present the newly emerging science of Mind Genomics, which studies the way we make decisions in everyday life. Mind Ge-nomics defines a topic, creates four relevant questions, creates four answers to each question, for a total of 16 elements. The subject evaluates a unique set of 24 vignettes, combinations of 2-4 elements, at most one answer to each question, rating the vignette on a scale. The scale may judge amount of (e.g., perceived fullness, liking, etc.), or may require the subject to choose an emotion. Each subject tests a different set of combinations. All combinations are created by experimental design, ensuring statistical independence. The analysis of the results reveals how each answer or element ‘drives’ the rating. A measure of response time, collected at the same time, shows the degree of psychological engagement. Finally, Mind Genomics reveals new-to-the-world mind-sets of people, with different ways of looking at the topic. Mind Genomics finishes with a personal viewpoint identifier, new people to be assigned to a mind-set. We finish with the vision of scaling the process, to understand the algebra of the mind for the world of foods and nutrition, and to correlate the mind-sets with exogenous behavior, both economics-oriented and health-related, respectively.
81 Effects of High Protein/Low Carbohydrate Rationed Formulated Diet on Glycemic Tolerance and Control, Body Weight and Organ Histomorphometry in Experimental Diabetic Rats , Magnus Michael Chukwudike Anyakudo, David Opeyemi Adeniji
Metabolic response to carbohydrate and protein ingestion plays an important role in health and disease states. This experimental-ly-controlled designed nutritional study aimed to determine the effects of a high protein/low carbohydrate rationed formulated (HP/LC) diet on body weight, organs (kidneys, liver, heart, lungs, spleen and testes) histomorphometry, glycemic tolerance and control in experimental diabetic and healthy rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats randomly categorized into four groups (n = 6, each): Healthy control group (HC), Healthy treated group (HT), Diabetic control group (DC) and Diabetic treated group (DT) were used for this study which lasted eight weeks. The animals were fed according to the experimental design with water ad libitum. Diabetes was inducted with freshly prepared alloxan monohydrate solution (150 mg/kg bwt, intraperitoneally). Body weights and fasting blood sugar con-centrations were measured twice weekly while oral glucose tolerance test was conducted on the last day of the study after which, the organs were extracted for weight assessment and histomorphometric analysis. In this study, the high-protein/low-carbohydrate rationed formulated diet caused significant reduction in mean body weight gain both in treated diabetic (DT: 22.6%; P = .001) and healthy (HT: 5.8%; P = .007) rats compared with their respective controls which recorded significant (P < .05) increase in body weight gain (DC: 12.4%; HC: 11.2%). In DT and HT rats, glycemic tolerance and control improved significantly (DT > HT) while no visible lesions or distortion in organs histoarchitecture observed. In conclusion, high-protein/low-carbohydrate rationed formulated diet reduced body weight gain with improved glycemic tolerance and control without pathologic consequences on organs histoarchi-tecture in experimental diabetic and healthy rats.
82 Cancer Nutrition: Prevention and Treatment! , Raquel M Fernandes
Cancer is ranked in the ranking of the most kill-killing diseases in the world. Scientifically it is a disease classified as a genetic mu-tation, which can be caused by several factors (physical, chemical or biological). According to INCA, it is estimated that in 2018 there were 18 million new cases with 9.6 million deaths, the most fre-quent being lung cancer, breast cancer, colon and rectal cancer and prostate cancer.
83 Evaluation of Bacteriological Quality in Artisanal Juices Issued at Carabobo University. Faculty of Health Sciences. Bable Core , Noja Izzeddin, Arencibia R Angely, Barreto G Martha, Luís F Medina
Foodborne diseases, most of which are of microbial origin, have a global impact as a major cause of morbidity and mortality; in this way the intake of contaminated food has become one of the most important ways to adapt gastrointestinal diseases. The objec-tive of this work was to evaluate the bacteriological quality in artisanal juices of expended in the schools of Bioanalysis, Biomedical Sciences and Basic Area at the Faculty of Health Sciences of the Universidad de Carabobo headquarters Bárbula, in May 2015. The study was within the limits of descriptive, non-experimental and field research, as a total of 30 samples of artisanal fruit juices were collected and analyzed, which is evaluated at different times. For the analysis of juices, the quantification of total and heat-resistant coliform bacteria and the identification of bacteria such as Escherichia coli andSalmonella spp were performed. Of the 30 samples studied 60% had total coliforms, 33% had heat resistant bacteria, and the total samples did not identify the presence of Escherichia coli or Salmonella spp. Thus concluding that the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the arts juices of frequent consumption in the schools Bioanalysis, Biomedical Sciences and Basic Area of the Faculty of Health Sciences, suggests that the health quality of these actually poses a risk to the health of consumers since feedings cannot contain microorganisms.
84 Study on Parasitic Load in Local Goats Reared in Three Different Systems of Rearing , Mahadev Lamani, SB Prasanna, Mahadevappa D Gouri, Suma N4and Shankarappa Bhajantri
An experiment to study the effect of three systems of rearing on the parasitic load and welfare of growing goat kids were studied. The 3 months study was conducted on local osmanabadi crossbred goats at Niharika Sheep and Goat Farm, Sira, Tumkur district, Karnataka, India. Thirty weaned local goat kids (3 months) were randomly allocated into three treatment groups with ten kids in each viz., T1 (Intensive-in housed and fed all time), T2 (Semi intensive- browse for 5 - 6 hours during day time, housed and fed rest of time)and T3 (Extensive rearing- browse throughout the day 6 - 8 hours and no feed supplementation). The animals in T1 groupwere confined to the shed both during day and night.The average parasitic load at the beginning of the trial was 180 ± 38.15, 205 ± 36.86 and 185 ± 33.37 in T1, T2 and T3, respectively. At the end of experimental trial, parasitic load was 1320 ± 35.12, 1985 ± 75.3 and 2235 ± 91.91 eggs per gram in T1, T2 and T3 respec-tively. This study indicates to design a suitable deworming program to control helminths more often in extensive system while for protozoans like coccidiosis in intensive system of rearing.
85 Influence of Varying Salinity and Different Protein Sources on the Water Quality Changes During the Rearing of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) , P Pravallika, D Ravindrakumar Reddy, A Chnadrashekar Rao3, Prasanna Kumar, Shyam Prasad Mamidala
A study was conducted for 63 days to study the influence of varying salinity (0, 10, 15, 25 ppt) and different protein sources on the water quality changes during the rearing of Pacific white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The shrimp diet was prepared at three protein level (25%, 30% and 35%) by mixing all the ingredients in required proportions into pellets by the replacement of fish meal with Cottonseed meal, (CSM), sunflower meal (SF), Acetes indicus (AI) meal, Mysid meal (MM). Shrimps were fed with the diets thrice a daily at a satiation level. Water quality parameters such as pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), total alkalinity and total hardness was analysed weekly intervals. In the study, the water pH ranged between 8.2 to 8.3, 8.2 to 8.3, 8.3 to 8.4 and 8.4 to 8.5 for 0, 5, 15, and 25 ppt, respectively. While the temperature and dissolved oxygen ranged between 29.5 to 31.7°C and 5.66 and 7.81 mg l-1,respectively in all the treatments. Moreover, the total alkalinity varied between 214 to 155 mg l-1, 315 to 229 mg l-1 and 625 to 535 mg l-1 and 725 to 645 mg l-1 at 0, 5, 15 and 25 ppt, respectively. Similarly, the total hardness of water ranged between 238 to 191 mg l-1, 322 to 240 mg l-1, 675 to 601mg l-1 and 777 to 700 mg l-1 at 0, 10 15 and 25 ppt, respectively irrespective of varying protein sources in the diets. In conclusion, the study revealed the feasibility of L. vannamei up to 25 ppt salinity as the water quality parameters are within the suitable ranges irrespective of varying dietary protein sources and growth.
86 Trends in Orange Juice Consumption and Nutrient Adequacy in Adults 2003-2016s , Nicklas TA1* O’Neil CE, Saab R, Fulgoni VL III
No studies have looked at trends in nutrient intakes, orange juice (OJ) consumption and nutrient adequacy in adults overtime. Methods: The purpose of this study was to examine secular trends in nutrient intakes, OJ consumption, and nutrient adequacy in adults 19 plus years participating in the 2003-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results: Approximately 13% of the total sample consumed OJ with a mean intake of 39.5 g/d (76.2 KJ [0.89% of total energy intake]). Amounts of all 100% fruit juices consumed decreased and whole fruit intake increased from 2003-2016. Intake of total energy, total carbohydrates, added sugars decreased. Intakes of folate, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamin C decreased and intakes of niacin and vita-min B6 increased. Intakes of iron, sodium, and zinc decreased and intake of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus increased. Percent-age of adults below the EAR decreased for ten nutrients (i.e. folate, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamins B6, and D, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorous and zinc) and the percent above the AI increased for two nutrients (i.e. dietary fiber and sodium) across the deciles of OJ consumption. OJ, other 100% fruit juices, fruits, breads/rolls/tortillas, and ready-to-eat cereals were major food sources of many nutrients that were consumed at levels below recommendations. IntroductionConclusion: There were changes in intake and nutrient adequacy among adults overtime which varied by OJ consumption. Food pat-terns varied among consumers and non-consumers suggesting that studies looking at the consumption versus non-consumption of foods need to look at food patterns within the context of the total diet.
87 Study of the Influence of Ultrasound in the Process of Osmotic Drying of Melon , Radjabov Mansur Farkhodovich, Kurambaev Sherzod Raimberganovich, Saparov Makhmud Kadamovich, Khakimova Bakhor Bakhtiyarovna, Rakhmanova Mukhabbat Ismailovna and Abdullaeva Gulnoza Ulugbek Qizi
Due to the deterioration of the ecological and social situation the creation of production technologies is of particular importance canned products providing maximum preservation of native biologically active substances of raw materials, and also using biologi-cal processes. It is necessary develop technologies for the production of functional products, where additives are biologically active substances, derived from various parts of fruits and vegetables. At present, there is an awareness of the importance of changing the structure of nutrition, and the demand for products with preventive and medicinal properties is increasing. Vegetables and fruits contain natural antioxidants, vitamins, biologically active and mineral substances, i.e. are one of the raw materials for this kind of products.
88 Productivity Enhancement of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) by Integrated Nutrient Management Under Salt Affected Soils , Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Ahmad Khan, Raza Ullah Khan, Muhammad Arshad Ullah, Muhammad Asad Hameed, Huma Aziz1
Excessive and imbalanced use of expensive chemical fertilizers may pose devastating effect on soil fertility and sustainable pro-ductivity. Bio-organic amendments improve soil fertility and sustainable crop productivity. The application of integrated nutrient management (INM) bio-organic amendments couple with chemical fertilizers is one of the promising strategy that not only enhances crop productivity on sustainable basis but also reduces the use of chemical fertilizers. Therefore a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the productivity enhancement of wheat by combined application of Biofertilizer and chemical fertilizers including Zinc Sulphate and Boric Acid on growth and nutrient concentration of wheat variety (Faisalabad 2008) directly sown in a saline sodic soil (ECe=4.92 dSm-1, pH=8.22 and SAR=16.15 dSm-1) at Soil Salinity Research Institute (SRRI) Farm, Pindi Bhattian during Rabi 2019-20. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The crop was harvested at maturity, data on tillering, plant height, number of grains spike-1, 1000- grain weight, straw and wheat grain yields were recorded. N, P, K, Zn and B concentration in grain and straw were estimated using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Wheat productivity was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased by INM. Wheat grain yield was the maximum (4.76 tha-1) at the application of 120 kg N, 90 kg P 60 kg K, 5 kg Zn and 1kg B ha-1 along with Biozote and it was registered 35% more than Farmer practice. This study confirms that INM has tremendous potential of plant nutrients supply for productivity enhancement of Wheat on sustainable basis.
89 Determination and Comparison of Non-essential and Essential Elements in Different Species of Fish Available in Omani Markets by Using Inductively Coupled Plasma-optical Emission Spectrometry , Issa Al-Amri, Isam Kadim1, Abdulaziz AlKindi1, Ahmed Al-Harrasi1, Khadija Al-Hosni1, Aiysha Al-Kiymi1, Anwar Al-Amri1, Muzna Al-Salehi1, Fazal Mabood1, Ahmed Hamaed1, Saud M Al Jufaili3, Samera Khalaf2 and Mohamed Al-Omairi
In this study an ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry) was used to investigate the concentration levels of both essential and non-essential elements in 70 edible portion of fish samples representing 11 different species of fish collected from Omani markets. Sample preparation via microwave digestion were analyzed, using ICP-OES for seven non-essential elements [Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), lead (Ph), titanium (Ti), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg)] and seven essential elements [iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), selenium (Se), and magnesium (Mg)]. A comparison of the results for the concentration of Cd, Ni, Pb, Ti, Cu and Fe elements between the species of fish showed that there was significant (P < 0.05) difference in concentrations. Tissue samples from Seriola dumerili and Xiphias gladius tissues contained significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of Cd, while Lutjanus argentimaculatus and Parastromateus niger samples had significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of Ni than those from other fish species. The levels Pb found in the tissues of Merluccius bilinearis, and Lethrinus nebulosus fish were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than other fish species. Further, Lethrinus nebulosus and seriola dumerili tissue samples contained sig-nificantly (P < 0.05) higher concentrations of Ti. The concentrations of Ni and Pb were found higher than the maximum permissible limits in certain fish species samples for human consumption. The results indicated that the edible portion contained significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of Cu in Seriola dumerili species and Fe elements in Ocyurus chrysurus and Pagellus affinis than other fish spe-cies. This study concluded that Cd, Ni, Pb, Ti, Cu and Fe elements were species-dependent.
90 General Anesthetics , Dalamagka Maria
General anesthetics are administered to approximately 50 mil-lion patients each year in the United States. Anesthetic vapors and gases are also widely used in dentists’ offices, veterinary clinics, and laboratories for animal research. All the volatile anesthetics that are currently used are halogenated compounds destructive to the ozone layer. These halogenated anesthetics could have poten-tial significant impact on global warming. The widely used anes-thetic gas nitrous oxide is a known greenhouse gas as well as an important ozone-depleting gas. These anesthetic gases and vapors are primarily eliminated through exhalation without being metab-olized in the body, and most anesthesia systems transfer these gases as waste directly and unchanged into the atmosphere. Little consideration has been given to the ecotoxicological properties of gaseous general anesthetics. Our estimation using the most recent consumption data indicates that the anesthetic use of nitrous ox-ide contributes 3.0% of the total emissions in the United States. Studies suggest that the influence of halogenated anesthetics on global warming will be of increasing relative importance given the decreasing level of chlorofluorocarbons globally. Despite these nonnegligible pollutant effects of the anesthetics, no data on the production or emission of these gases and vapors are publicly available. Since Fox.
91 Physical Fitness Comparison of Trained and Untrained Industrial Emergency Brigades , Esteban Oñate, Elías Apud
Emergencies can occur at any time and may reach unpredictable magnitudes. Unfortunately, in many companies, emergency brigades are often organized with people who perform work of sedentary nature and they are not prepared to face sporadic tasks of high physical demands.The objective of this study was to compare the physical fitness of workers with different degree of training. They worked for the same company, but in different industrial plants. In one of them they had a physical training program, guided 3 times per week during working hours by a physical educator; In the other plant there was no facilities for training.Age, stature, body mass, body fat and aerobic capacity were evaluated with conventional methods in 57 physically trained and 21 untrained workers. Results showed that aerobic capacity was 20.8% higher in the trained brigade. Body fat content was significantly higher in the un-trained brigade. A further analysis showed that according to Chilean standards for emergency brigades, 58% of the untrained brigade members do not reach the recommended level, while only 19% of the trained workers are below the reference level.As conclusion, the results only confirmed the importance of physical training to improve working capacity and this is particularly important for workers who perform light activities and in isolated occasions have to face high and dangerous demands. Therefore, the main recommendation is to stimulate training within working hours as part of the preparation of the brigade members.
92 Prevalence of Geriatric Malnutrition in Long Term Care Center in Riyadh/Saudi Arabia: A Cross Sectional Study , Maha Al Turki, Noura Al Sibaie, Hind Al Otaibi, Ghadeer Al Ammari, Raghad Al Otaibi
Older adults are more vulnerable to malnutrition and multiple nutritional deficiencies due to several age-related physiological and functional changes. The prevalence of malnutrition among institutionalized elderly is estimated to be between 30%–60%; therefore, accurate nutritional assessment is important for both effective diagnosis and intervention of comprehensive treatment plans for older people.Objective: To assess the nutritional status of institutionalized elderly female in Riyadh city, and to explore the association between their nutritional statuses and other determinants such as their mobility status and mood of feeding.Method: Cross-sectional study of 38 females aged 60 years and over who currently resident at the Social Welfare Home for Elderly Females in Riyadh/ Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric/biochemical data, medications, and length of residency were retrieved form medi-cal records of the resident. Nutritional status was assessed using Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool. Results: More than 94% of the residents were malnourished or at risk of developing malnutrition. Twenty one percent of the resi-dent were underweight (BMI below 18.5 kg/m2) and 60% of them were categorized as overweight/obese (BMI above 25 kg/m2). Significantly greater percentage of malnourished residents were dependent for mobility (p < 0.001) or require assistant during feed-ing (p = 0.023). Physical dependency was an independent predictor of the nutritional status among our sample (β=2.375; SE 0.800; p = 0.006).Conclusion: According to several nutritional assessment methods, the majority of institutionalized elderly females at the Social Welfare Home for Elderly Females in Riyadh were malnourished or at risk of developing malnutrition. This study underlines the as-sociation between nutritional status and physical dependencies among this age group. Strategies for effective nutritional care should be implemented for institutionalized older adults to treat and prevent the malnutrition and to improve the quality of life for them.
93 Resveratrol Nanoemulsion; A Promising regulator of TGFB1and TFF-3 Genes Expression in DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats , Riham A Mahmoud, Mohamed S Naser Eldin, Ali A Ali, Mohammed A Hussein
Immunosuppressants or anti-inflammatory drugs was used in treatment of bowel disease. The aim of the present article was to evaluate the intestinal anti-inflammatory properties activity of resveratrol nanoemulsion (RENE) against ulcerative colitis induced by DSS in rats.Results: RENE was prepared with size of 49.5 ± 0.05 nm and zeta potential of +15.75 with the observed shapes of nanoparticle was spherical. Also, RENE (39.75 mg/kg b.w.) was administered orally to DSS-induced colitic rats for 21 days.RENE (100 μM) significantly reduces in vitro the release of TGFB1 in the extracellular matrix of in human intestinal colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line and human colon carcinoma cell line HT29. The daily oral administration of the RENE at a concentration of 39.75 mg/kg body weight for 21 days to rats ameliorated the histological damage, body weight, DAI score, colon length and sever-ity of DSS- induced colitis, and improved the compromised oxidative status of the colon. However, only the rats treated with RENE showed a significant reduction in the levels of different pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF- α and MPO) and nitric oxide in comparison with the DSS control group. Moreover, RENE significantly decreases the gene expression of TGFB1 and IL-4 as well as significantly increases the gene expression of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) in comparison with the DSS control group. AbbreviationsConclusion: The results clearly suggest that RENE displayed intestinal anti-inflammatory properties in the DSS model of colitis in rats, which were improved by functionalization with the TGFB1, IL-4 and TFF3 gene expression.
94 Nutrition and SMART Goals , Flavia Luzia Bender
The article Nutrition and SMART Goals is a mini-review that shows how SMART goals can help improve the effectiveness of nutritional treatment. Nowadays people, especially young people, have difficulty adhering to treatment because they are anxious to have the so-called “ideal body” and SMART goals have the function of demonstrating that a behavioral change does not occur quickly, but needs a lot of focus and determination.The increasing search for a standard body is increasingly pre-sent in people’s lives today. Achieving an ideal body has become the dream of many men and women, especially young people. But to what extent the search for the “ideal” body can be harmful, lea-ding to the development of a series of eating disorders such as bin-ge eating, bulimia or anorexia [1].Self-acceptance is a great challenge nowadays, due to the great advent of social networks, which has been valuing the image even more. Several studies show that adolescents are very influenced by the standard of beauty imposed by the media, developing various eating and psychological disorders, and may even reach suicide cases.
95 Nutritional Status of Diet Soft Drinks Consumption Among Chilean School Children , Ximena Rodríguez Palleres, Gabriella Di Capua Ramírez, Álvaro Toledo San Martín
The childhood obesity is a public health problem whose main causes are the consumption of processed foods and junk food with a decrease in physical activity.Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the existence of associations between nutritional status and the consumption of diet soft drinks in school children in Santiago, Chile. Methods: Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 157 school children of both sexes from 6 to 9 years of age of the Renca mu-nicipality, Santiago, Chile. To determine the nutritional status, weight, height and waist circumference were evaluated. To describe the consumption of diet soft drinks, a survey prepared for this study was applied. Results: 57.97% of school children are overweight and obese according to BMI. Regarding abdominal obesity, 53.51% presented this condition according to waist circumference. 64.34% consume diet soft drinks at least one glass a day. Compared to the children who never drink diet soft drinks, the risk of obesity was higher in those who drank 1 glass a day of diet soft drinks (Odds ratio (OR): 1.02 [(IC) 95%: 0.45-2.32]), and who consumed 2 or more glasses a day of diet soft drinks (Odds ratio (OR): 1.52 [(IC) 95%: 0.74-3.2] p = 0.258). The risk of abdominal obesity in school children who consumed 1 glass (Odds ratio (OR): 1.3 [(IC) 95%: 0.58-2.98]) or 2 glasses a day of diet soft drinks (Odds ratio (OR): 1.1 [(IC) 95%: 0.57-2.4] p = 0.6726) was also higher.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of excess malnutrition accompanied by a significant percentage of children who drink diet soft drinks daily. School children who drink diet soft drinks every day are at increased risk of obesity.
96 Schooling Effect in Economic Growth: Benchmarking Turkey vs High Income Countries , Metin Gurler, Ozlem Ozsoy
In modern economic growth theory, human capital is not only an important source in the growth of economy but also has got a significant effect on productivity. According to the analysis of the results based on random effects estimation with panel and cross-section data in the study, mean years of schooling is found as a determinant of the economic growth via health improvement achiev-ing a productive labour force in High Income Countries. Data for mean years of schooling was obtained from United Nations Devel-opment Programme (UNDP) Human Development Reports and Barro-Lee Educational Attainment Dataset whereas for income per capita from the World Bank for the 12 periods in 1995-2014 for 37 High Income Countries and Turkey. Since mean years of schooling in Turkey has been found less than the High-Income Countries’ values, she should increase mean schooling years to reach a healthy well-being level to get a productivity progress causing a rapid economic growth as advanced countries. In the study we analysed Turkey vs 37 High Income Countries. Turkey who is also an emerging economy has a risk to rise to an upper income level as some other middle income countries have. The case is called in literature as "Middle Income Trap". So bench-marking Turkey (the 17th greatest economy in the world) vs High Income Countries is important to show guidelines avoiding the Middle Income Trap. Granger causality test is also applied to test the direction of causality between mean years of schooling (MYS) with national in-come per capita (IPC) and vice versa, and it is seen that mean years of schooling (MYS) Granger causes economic (income per capita) growth (IPC) for panel data. For cross-section data analysis there is no proved correlation between mean years of schooling (MYS) and economic growth (IPC) and vice versa.
97 Integrated Goat Fish Farming as Source of Low Cost Nutrition Security for Small Farmers , Bibha Chetia Borah, Sonmoina Bhuyan, Biswajyoti Bordoloi
As per the 20th livestock census (2019), the population of goat in India is 148.88 million, which is 10.14% higher than the same in the 19th livestock Census, 2012 and around 27.8% of the total livestock population of the country. The increase in livestock popula-tion is always associated with the problem of waste disposal and its possible impact on the environment. Integration of fish farming with livestock husbandry is a viable option, where the livestock waste is recycled for production of fish. The present study encom-passes integrated farming of goat and fish by recycling goat manure, a rich source of N (2.7%), P (1.7%) and K (2.9%) and protein (17.3%), for enhancing fish production in pond. The average range of production of goat dung was 106.2 gm - 176.4gm/goat/night for animal weighing 10.5 - 17.5 kg under open grazing system. It was found that application of goat dung @ 10,000 kg/Ha/year in split doses is the most viable proposition. Calculated per Ha production of fish @ 3879.4 kg (T2), 3430.8 kg (T3), 3358.9 kg (T1) and 2061.8 kg (C) indicated the comparative efficiency of goat dung application for small scale sustainable fish farming with low external input.
98 Determinants of Food and Nutrition Security in Côte d'Ivoire: Case of Abobo Baoulea Sub-district of the Ivorian Political Capital in West Africa , Yoboue N’da Mireille, Assa Rebecca Rachel, N’guessan Anon Franck-Donald, Kouakou Egnon KV
In Côte d'Ivoire, the food and nutritional situation of households has weakened in recent decades according to the ministries of agriculture and health. Experts propose increased monitoring of the situation to avoid a food crisis, capable of disrupting the socio-economic stability of the country. In order to contribute to this strategy, a study was carried out. The study aims to analyze the level of food and nutritional security of the populations of Abobo-Baoulé, in the district of Abidjan, in Côte d'Ivoire. Thisstudy is a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical that involved a sample of 300 households and 453 children under 5 years old.The results reveal rates of 23.70% medium food security, 26.30% low food security, 24% very low food security and low dietary diversity. In addition, the children present a poor nutritional state with rates of 5.1% of acute malnutrition, 12.40% of chronic mal-nutrition and 3.7% of overweight.These results show that food and nutrition security in the country has not changed, compared to previous work and still remains precarious. This could be justified by inadequacies in the search for the causes, and in the implementation of interventions with households.To this end, it would be necessary to revise the causal analysis of the food situation and target the most vulnerable households, in order to reduce malnutrition in Abobo-Baoulé’s locality.
99 Epigenetic and Metabolic Alterations that Interfere in Human Development and Predispose the Manifestation of Obesity and Other Metabolic Disorders: A Systematic Review , Linda Carla Moraes Lima1, Angela Civalsci Cubaski, Mirian Ueda Yamaguchi, Marcelo Picinin Bernuci
Recent studies have demonstrated the multifactorial characteristics of the development of metabolic disorders that have shown the necessity for new research in the area, with the objective of unravelling the factors that could possibly influence critical stages of human development, altering a patient’s metabolic programming. This study aims to identify the main elements that endorse the biological incorporation of these events on an intrauterine environment or on the first years of life, assessing the potential epigen-etic, endocrinological and metabolic mechanisms responsible for this process. The goal of this analysis is to state which main factors allow broader studies to develop specific intervention models for the prevention of metabolic disorders, particularly obesity. This systematic review was based on the PRISMA-E 2012(Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and registered on PROSPERO (Nº CRD42020197344). The research and selection of the articles occurred in June-July 2020 and used the United States National Library of Medicine PubMed – Medline and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, and clinical trials that focused on the analysis of influencing factors on metabolic programming were collected. In this study, we discuss how these elements are capable of influencing critical periods of human development and its potential consequences for the affected individuals, with the objective of identifying possible targets for future interventions. Sixty-two articles were identified and included in this systematic review. Among the selected articles, twelve were directly related to epigenetics, fourteen were related to obesity, sixteen were nutrition related and twelve were focused on diabetes. The data revised showed that stress, excessive weight and maternal malnutrition are potential fetal metabolism modifiers that result in disorders that can predispose to child obesity. It was also demonstrated that gestational diabetes and dyslipidemia are conditions that can influence the fetus’ levels of adiposity and that epigenetics can directly alter fetal programming, resulting in significant metabolic alterations, including the predisposition to weight disorders in the child. In conclusion, epigenesis presented itself as an important way for biological incorporation of the heritability of metabolic diseases, through the methylation and deacetylation pathways, becoming an important factor in future studies focusing on possible interventions for the prevention of these disorders.
100 Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Fermented Young Muskmelon (Cucumis melon Linn) , Norng Chakriya, Dizon I Erlinda, Elegado B Francisco, Huon Thavrak, Ang Vichheka, Ly Sokheng, Prom Kimheang, Rith Sokuncharya, Masataka Uchino Chay Chim
Fermentation has been used since ancient times as an easy method of vegetables’ preservation, which also maintains and im-proves the nutritional and sensory properties of the final products. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involved in fermentation are gen-erally recognized as safe. Lactic acid bacteria are a group of Gram positive, non-respiring, non- spore forming, cocci or rod, which produce lactic acid as the major end product of the fermentation of carbohydrate. This study isolated LAB from naturally-fermenting young muskmelon (Cucumis melon Linn)in 10% brine solution at pre-determined time intervals using the standard pour plating technique. A total of 18 isolates were chosen and purified by streak plating on MRS agar medium and incubated at 37 ÌŠC for 24-48h. Physiological and biochemical characterization of the isolates were carried out. Fermentation of carbohydrates was determined us-ing the API 50 CHL System. Results of the study revealed that out of the three (3) strains of selected LAB strains; one strain was iden-tified as Lactobacillus brevis while thetwo strains are Pediococcus pentosaceus. These LABS are potential inoculants for commercial production of fermented fruits and vegetables.
101 Eating Out of Home and Risk for Obesity: An Overview , Rotondo G, Cazzaniga E, Palestini P
Despite Mediterranean dietary pattern has become a healthy eating standard, even Mediterranean countries such as Italy, show a progressive disaffection from this diet in parallel to the increasing trend in prevalence of body overweight and obesity and correlate pathologies. The causes that led to the explosion of the body overweight and obesity phenomenon and the differences in the prevalence of this condition among various social groups, are cultural and economic as well as biological and epidemiological. In developed countries out-of-home eating, defined as the consumption of foods and beverages out of home, has received increas-ing attention among cultural and behavioral factors linked to obesity. Indeed, with the rapid development of economy, diet habits have undergone great changes. An increasingly number of people, especially in urban settings, is eating out of home not only for working people during their lunch break, but also at dinnertime. Studies showed that a very high dietary energy content of both full service and fast-food restau-rant meals is a widespread phenomenon and that there is a positive relationship between the consumption of food away from home and weight gain. This has garnered considerable attention from public health experts in formulating national policies and programs designed to curb the growing trends in obesity. USA, Canada and Australia, proposed calorie-labeling policy that required chain restaurants to post the calorie content of items on menus. In Europe, there is not such a policy yet. Unfortunately, many studies show that menu restaurant calories and nutritionallabeling mandatory policies did not have achieved the set goals in guiding consumers throughout restaurant menu to choose healthier dishes in terms of less calories and nutrients composition.
102 Can We Solve the Problem of Global Syndemic? Mediterranean Diet as a Potential Solution , Anka Trajkovska Petkoska
Healthy diets and sustainable food systems, in general, are among the key players to achieve sustainable planet and welfare of all people, and at the same time, to be in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, UN 2015). These food systems offer not only a way towards ending the hunger, but also enable healthier nations and less environmental pollution. A good representative of a sustainable food system and a healthy diet is the Mediterranean diet that is affordable and transferable even in the regions far from the Mediterranean basin. Mediterranean diet could be a solution to overcome the global syndemic, which is becoming an emerging problem for the whole planet. This study proposes Mediterranean Diet as an example of a healthy and sustainable diet that could be introduced to children and young generations from early stages of their lives for the welfare and better human health and socio-economic status, as well as a way to reduce the impact of food production on the climate change.
103 Determinants on Household Food Security Among Indigenous Population of Nagaland, India , Aatish Kumar Sahu, Sanjoy Das, Lakshmidhar Hatai
Food being a primary subject of concern for social development as well a vital indicator of well being of citizens in a state, it is more important when ‘last mile food security’ is given due priority. In developing major economy like India, tribal population across the country act as the last mile and it is ought to be studied with better methodologies. The current study conducted during the early part of the year 2017 delves into the food security indicators and identifying the factors responsible for food (in) security of Chakhesang and Pochury tribes of Phek district of Nagaland. In this regard, a household survey comprising of 80 households, was conducted in Phek district of Nagaland during early 2017. Based on multistage random sampling, two rural development blocks namely Kikruma and Pfutsero block were sampled from the district and four villages were sampled as second stage. Using the relevant parameters observed from the survey, the components of food (in)security developed for the study region [1]and household Food Security Index (FSIP) was computed and further descripted and statistically analyzed. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the odds of status of household food security given villages, categories of family size, pri-mary occupation, income level, possessions of agronomic crops, vegetables and fruits and livestock. It was observed from the study that the distance of regular markets, family size and livestock possession of the families played a critical role in food security of a household in the region.
104 Nutritional and Biochemical Composition of Amla (Emblica officinalis) and its Therapeutic Impact: A Review , Ali Ikram, Waseem Khalid, Maryam Aziz, Muhammad Adnan Arif, Ravi Prakash Jha, Muhammad Zubair Khalid, Chasheen Fizza, Muhammad Zarnoor Mehmood, Muhammad Haseeb, Muhammad Abdul Rahim, Sadia Naeem, Fatima Sultana
From ancient times, plants played a vital role in the development of mankind and was an exceptional source of natural medicine. The difficulty of the production of chemical medications, their side effects on safety, and the expense of rebellion have led research-ers worldwide to concentrate on therapeutic plant science. Pakistan has a large collection of various plant species, with around 5,000 plants claiming to have important medicinal values. The papers published in recent decades on medicinal plants relate to the function of various plant bioactive composites commonly used in the cure of numerous human diseases. Bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, and several other components are reported to have been verified to have various medicinal activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, radiological, antitisinous, hepatoprotective, immune-modulatory, hypolipidemic and several other actions. The drug also has anti-cancer, antidepressant, antidiabetic, injury healing, antiulcerogenic, and so on. The present review article sums up the phytochemical components and pharmacology of the Em-blica officinalis plant and its traditional application. Amla phyto-chemicals, including ellagic acid, emblicanine A, emblacani B, Gallic acid, phyllantine, quercetin and phyllantidine were found to have various biological activities such as antioxidants, antimicrobials, antiinlammative, antidiabetic, anti-radiation protection, chemopreventive and healing of wounds.
105 Effectively Managing the Co-ingestion of Dietary Supplements and Prescription Drugs , Jacquelyn C Pence, Keith R Martin, Richard J Bloomer
According to recent surveys, over half of American adults take at least one dietary supplement (DS), with usage increasing with age. Healthcare providers should be aware of which DS products their patients are taking in order to best manage their overall care. While DS can be used to complement and enhance the actions of traditional medicine, they may be contraindicated when taken con-comitant with prescribed medications. Herein, example DS-drug interactions associated with common conditions are discussed, as well as two hypothetical applications of DS.
106 Foodomics; Principles, Challenges, and Applications - A Promising Tool for Food Analysis , Ayda Ghahary;Rambod Abiri;
Human nutrition is a multifaceted, complex, and broad scien-tific field, demonstrating how food components, ingredients and flavors present required nourishment for the life-sustaining [34]. Since the dawn of civilization, food and nutrition components have been obligated to maintain human life by releasing energy [11]. However, over the decades, human nutrition has been widely con-sidered as a promising resource to treat and/or prevent diseases [21]. Recently, the application of modern research in nutrition and food science has been shifted from classical technologies and equipment to advance analytical methodologies [4]. To achieve the mentioned goal, a new discipline, namely called foodomics, was introduced as the global strategy through using the application of advanced omics in the food science domain [17].
107 Science/Education Portraits VII: Statistical Methods Used in 1081 Papers Published in Year 2020 Across 12 Life Science Journals Under BioMed Central , Kyle D Kim; Shaun CH Chua;Maurice HT Ling;
Statistics is an integral part of biology and is required for all undergraduate life science curriculum. However, are biology students trained in statistical skills required in the field? Despite studies listing various commonly statistical methods used in specialised branches of life sciences; such as, immunology and tropical biology; there is a lack of study on the common statistical methods used in life science in general. Here, we examine 1081 articles across 12 life sciences journals under BioMed Central, published in 2020, to elucidate the common statistical methods used in current life science research, as a basis to recommend an updated syllabus to all institutions that educate biologists. 72.7% of the examined articles contains identifiable statistical methods and a total of 2431 instances were identified. Our findings show that the first 3 out of 15 categories of methods; parametric comparison of means (25.38% of instances), correlation/regression (18.88%), and post-hoc test (10.32%); accounts for 54.59% of the instances. In terms of individual methods, the top 8 methods account for 52.04% of the instances – (a) t-test (13.00%), (b) ANOVA (12.26%), (c) un-specified (likely to be Pearson’s correlation) and Pearson’s correlation (9.79%), (d) Benjamini and Hochberg’s False Discovery Rate (FDR) (4.77%), (e) Tukey's HSD (4.36%), (f) Kruskal-Wallis Test (2.96%), (g) Mann-Whitney U Test (2.80%), and (h) Chi Square Test (2.10%). These findings may have an impact on future curriculum design.
108 The Emergence of COVID-19: Is it a Proof of Historical Nutritional Neglect? , Atta Ur Rehman Khan; Abdul Qadir Habshi, Ali Subei, Rubina Tariq, Kiran Khan and Al Madinah Al Munawarah
It is strange for many but I have to quote Shakespeare for a soft reminder to ourselves, what Nutrition entails in the lives of human which stands true since times of Aristotle. Marching against nature and siding with “Artificialism” is hallmark of today. One classical example is of natural orange extracts which are used everywhere from cosmetics to paints but for our diet only remains the artificial orange flavors. Where the nature is and where it must be, I quote.‘This fortress built by Nature for herself against infection and hand of war’ (The Tragedy of King Richard II, Act II, Scene I, lines 43 and 44, William Shakespeare).
109 Anti Herpesviral Activity of Medicinal Plants Indicated to Treat Oral Diseases , Carlos ED Igidio, Adriana S Santos, Dhierllate F Sousa, Bolívar O Landi and Aline O Conceição
Oral diseases constitute a serial public health problem. Periodontitis, one of the main oral diseases, has bacteria as the most preva-lent agent, although today it is known that there are multiple factors that interfere with the installation and evolution of periodon-tics’ disease. Herpesvirus infections, for example, lead to a drop in local immunity that can consequently lead to the multiplication of pathogenic bacteria and destructive periodontal disease. Within this problem, the importance of treatments of broad spectrum is stressed: bacteria, viruses, and the immune system. In this case, medicinal plants, recognized for their therapeutic action and the presence of a variety of metabolites are candidates for validation of their popular use. In this work we describe the in vitro anti herpesvirus study of four medicinal plants indicated to treat oral disease by a cocoa region community. Plants were collected in the field and ethanolic extracts were obtained from dried leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae), Cajanus cajan (Fabaceae), and Tamarindus indica (Fabaceae). As a herpesvirus model, suid and equid herpesvirus were used. The best activity was seen for C. cajan against suid herpesvirus (96.84% of inhibition) at a concentration of 75μg/mL. However, the results presented here encourage further in vitro and in vivo tests in search of preventive or adjuvant therapies in the treatment of oral disease.
110 Hypoglycemic Potentials and Phenolic Characterization of Aqueous Extract of Senna Podocarpa Leaf , Saliu JA
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a life threatening metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Senna podocarpa is an evergreen glabrous shrub plant whose leaves are used in folklore medicine as poultices for the treatment of wounds, swellings, skin diseases, yawns and diabetes. This study was carried out to determine the effect of Senna podocarpa on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and to analysis the phenolic profiles of the plant. Enzyme inhibitory assay of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas were carried out. In addition, DPPH radical scavenging ability, iron chelating capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP), total phenolic content, and total flavonoid content and HPLC-DAD phenolic analysis of Senna podocarpa were investigated. Tukey test at p < 0.05 was the statistical tool used. The results revealed that the aque-ous extract of Senna podocarpa leaves had inhibitory actions on α-amylase, α-glucosidase and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas. The extract also showed DPPH radical scavenging ability and iron chelating capacity in concentration-related fashion and the ferric reducing antioxidant property (0.49 ± 0.01), total phenolic contents (0.96 ± 0.01) and total flavonoid content (0.56 ± 0.01). Furthermore, HPLC-DAD phenolic analysis shown the occurrence of the chlorogenic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, epicat-echin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol and gallic acid. Nevertheless, chlorogenic acid was the most abundant. The results ob-tained from this study showed that aqueous extract of Senna podocarpa leaf had strong inhibitory action on carbohydrate hydrolyz-ing enzymes and potent antioxidant property which might be feasible mechanistic approach supporting its use for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This hypoglycemic action could be due to the preponderance of phenolics and phenolic acids present in this plant.
111 Hints and Tips for Better Nutrition and Cooking Methods , Edward F Block
In these uncertain times and living under the unspoken rule of large corporations, It is imperative that we as a people begin to take back our own personal destiny. I see the grip that modern marketing has upon the means that people go about getting the things that they need to survive, live, love and laugh! Please have the courage, determination and perseverance to wrest your choic-es from the propaganda that corporations would have you believe and remain subject to.All that I am going to share with you is from the experiences that my body, my emotions and my mind have endured in the face of ongoing difficulties related to finding out about the food choices that are presented to me as a consumer. The reasons for this are simple. My body, my emotions and my mind are affected by what I am able to purchase, prepare and eat as food.
112 “X Factor” of Japanese to Suppress Covid-19 Mortality , Shaw Watanabe, Kazumoto Inuma2, Kota Kikuchi3 and Tetsuro Yamamoto
Japan experiences three waves of COVID-19 pandemic. The National Institute of Infectious Diseases has determined the CO-VID-19 first wave was derived from the Wuhan, and the second wave originated from a COVID-19 variant of the European type. Since October, the third wave causes the pandemic spread. The grim milestone of 100,000 COVID-19 cumulative cases reached at the end of October. On December 26, the cumulative number of PCR positive cases becomes 218,358. Even though, the total case/fatality rate is 1.4% or 2.45 death/100K population. Japan’s death rate from COVID-19 is one of the lowest in the developed coun-tries, despite its high risk aging population [1]. Factors explaining this low death rate are said to include cultural habits, such as bow-ing etiquette and wearing face masks, hand washing with sanitiz-ing equipment, so far [2]. Still, we suspect an essential “X factor” is the strong innate immunity which explain the different mortality among countries.
113 Infants Compensate Energy Intake Fully for Modest Reduction in Energy Density of Formula , SJ Fomon, SE Nelson and EE Ziegler
Infants regulate food intake primarily to satisfy energy needs. Feedings with widely different energy densities (e.g., 54 vs 100 kcal/100 ml) result in different energy intakes in infants <2 months old but not later. It is not known how infants handle smaller dif-ferences in energy density. We used two milk-based formulas that were practically identical in composition except that one (Formula A) was lower in fat content (2.70 g/100 g) and energy density (60.2 kcal/100 g) than the other (Formula B, fat 3.43 g/100 g, 68.9 kcal/100 g). The primary study outcome was weight gain, with amount of formula and other foods consumed the secondary outcome.Normal term infants (N = 76) were enrolled before 9 days of age and assigned randomly to one of the formulas, which were fed during the entire study to age 224 days (exclusively until 140 days of age). Of the 61 infants who completed the study and whose data are re-ported, 31 (14 males, 17 females) were fed A and 30 (16 males, 14 females) were fed B. Weight was measured every 14 days until 56 days and then every 28 days. Food intake was determined by weighing containers. Other foods were permitted after 140 days of age.Results: Between 8 and 224 days of age, infants fed A consumed significantly more formula (155 ± 12 g/kg/d) than infants fed B (137 ± 11 g/kg/d; p < 0.001). On the other hand, total energy intakes were similar: 94.3 ± 5.7 kcal/kg/d with A and 95.6 ± 6.4 kcal/kg/d with B. Between 8 and 56 days, there was no significant difference in energy intake. Intake of other foods after 140 days was similar. There were no feeding-related differences in anthropometric results. We conclude that infants compensate fully for a modest difference in energy density of formula.
114 Role of Mulberry Leaves in Human Nutrition: A Review , Fareed Afzal, Waseem Khalid, Muhammad Naveed Asif, Ayesha Jabeen, Ravi Prakash Jha, Muhammad Zubair Khalid, Chasheen Fizza, Afifa Aziz, Ramish Akram, Aqsa Bashir, Sahar Younas, Farwa Nayyer, Rehan Yasin, Muhammad Zeeshan Ahmad
Diabetes and different cardiovascular diseases are major problems across the globe for the human. Different traditional and modern medicinal techniques are being in use to cure these problems. Use of herbal medicines is one of them. Present review was conducted to determine the effects of mulberry plant powder for the treatment of these diseases. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is impor-tant medicinal plant that contains numerous bioactive compounds including antioxidants i.e. flavonoids, phenolics as well as dietary fiber. Owing to presence of bioactive components, it shows strong effect against maladies like diabetes, cardiovascular disease and viral activities. Mulberry leaf powder is characterized for physicochemical characteristics (moisture content, pH, acidity, TSS, TPC). Moreover, due to high nutrients concentration, mulberry leaves are considered as vital for health.
115 Overcoming Obesogenic Environments: A Qualitative Study Exploring Mechanisms of Healthy Eaters , Sofía Sutherland Borja, Emilio A González Silva, Cinthya Urquidi Bellota, Gabriela Sarrat Gonzalez, Eliana Reyes Soto
To identify mechanisms that enable overcoming obesogenic environments amongst healthy eaters through a Salutogen-esis approach.Methods: Sixteen middle-class Chilean adults (14 females and 2 males) following healthy diets according to the Healthy Eating Index were purposively selected from a primary health care center in urban Santiago. Semi-structured interviews and a grounded theory approach were used to explore ways in which healthy eaters manage their food practices.Interview transcripts were coded through open, axial and selective coding with a constant comparative method. Results: The link between food and health is the main mechanism that promotes healthy diets. Healthy eaters assign importance to the physical and emotional roles of food, and use knowledge, motivation and resource-management skills to manage healthy food practices. A three stage food-related learning processes is proposed. Conclusion: Understanding healthy eating as fundamental to reach a state of well-being and having skills to perform adequate food practices is key for facing obesogenic environments. The health-food link and the Food Learning Triad may serve for nutrition educa-tion interventions.
116 Identification of Ectoparasite and Prevalence Male and Female of Cantang Grouper Fish (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus x Epinephelus lanceolatus) in Aquaculture Paluh Pisang Mas Deli Serdang, North Sumatera Province , Yusni E, D Wulandari and Fuad SP
The identification of ectoparasites with 30 samples of fish was infected male and female of Cantang Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus x epinephelus lanceolatus) in Paluh Pisang Mas Pond, Hamparan Perak District, Deli Serdang Regency, North Sumatra and to determine the prevalence of Cantang Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus x epinephelus lanceolatus) in Paluh Pisang Mas Pond. There are four types of ectoparasites was infected in Cantang Grouper fish in Paluh Pisang Mas Pond, namely Zeylanicobdella sp., Brooklynella hostilis, Caligus sp. and Dactylogyrus sp. The highest prevalence rate was found of Zeylanicobdella sp. with a value of 26.66% in the oral organs and 23.33% in the mucous organs with the category of frequent infections. Brooklynella hostilis with a value of 23.33% with the category of frequent infections. Genus Caligus sp with a value of 10% with the category of frequent infections and genus Dactylogyrus sp. with a value of 16.66% in the category of frequent infections. The Zeylanicobdella sp, was found highest of 20 types, Brooklynella hostilis of 11 in female, and 16 types and 3 types was found in male, but ectoparasite of cligus sp was found highest of 6 types in male and not infected by female. Compare of Dactylogyrus sp was found highest of 5 types in female, and 2 type in male
117 Nursing Diagnoses for the Patient with Werdnig - Hoffman Syndrome in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit , Márcia Gisele Peixoto Kades, Maria Eduarda Silvano de Aquino Freitas, Laurindo Pereira de Souza, Rafael Ayres Romanholo, Cídia Vasconcellos
The objective of this research was to investigate the clinical and epidemiological profile of WHS patients, their diseases and propose the main nursing diagnosis labels. Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, qualitative and quantitative field survey of 02 children who were ad-mitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of the Regional Hospital of Cacoal in the period of October from 2015 to June 2016, with a confirmed medical diagnosis of Werdnig-Hoffman Syndrome (WHS).
118 Seedlessness in Hybrid Fruits is a Low-input Resource for Canning Industry , Satya SS Narina, Kim Cheyyar, Reza Refie2, Ravi Sankar C, Hanumantha Rao GV, Christopher J Catanzaro
So many dual-purpose tropical fruit crops, with both vegetable and fruit use, were unexplored until today to study in-depth about the physiological control of their genomes. These studies would be useful for modern fruit breeding programs aiming 1) seedless hybrid fruits for canning, pulp and food industry 2) dwarf hybrid fruit trees and 3) for improving organic quality of fruit production with pesticide free as well with disease and pest resistance. The mechanism, techniques and various kinds of male-sterility (ms) and their major role in seedless fruit production while connecting ms to the concepts of self-incompatibility, parthenocarpy and poly-embryony were reviewed. The physiological parameters contributing ms, responses and success of ms in different fruit crop's F1 production with seedlessness in their fruits, markers identified for ms and or seedlessness were explained along with manipulating nuclear-mitochondrial gene controlled biochemical pathways at the tissue and cellular level during their flower-bud and fruit devel-opment. The routes for possible success in producing hybrid seedless fruits and benefits in the improvement of available unexplored nutritious fruits of tropical origin were detailed in this chapter.
119 Analysis of Micro and Macro Nutrient Levels in Compost and Vermicompost Fertilizer Formulated from Selected Agro-waste and Comparative Assessment of the Fertilizer Efficiencies , Ebele Rita Emendu, Arinze Jude Chinweuba, Onuorah Chinedu Chibuzor,Nnamdi Benneth Emendu
There is global a demand for organic food due to perceived harmful effects of synthetic and chemical fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides to humans health. Owing to this, biofertilizer was produced from some selected organic waste materials through Conven-tional Compost and Vermicompost methods to determine their macro and micro mineral nutrients, also to ascertain their efficiency in organic farming. The Vermicompost was done with (Eisena fetilda) earthworm in an earthen pot with mixture of samples of farm and poultry droppings in the ratio of 5:1. Results of the compost and vermicompost of all the samples showed that macro mineral nutrients of samples A-C are as follows. Fe (24.00mg/kg-33.41mg/kg), Cu (26.01mg/kg-39.15mg/kg), Zn (4.91mg/kg-11.20mg/kg), Mn (27.50mg/kg-34.71mg/kg) while micro mineral nutrients are Mg (21.51mg/kg-4.19mg/kg), Ca (18.20mg/kg-25.51mg/kg) N (20.00mg/kg-29.41.00mg/kg) K (25.51mg/kg-32.01mg/kg) P (30.80mg/kg-38.51mg/kg). Comparatively Vermicompost had better macro and micro nutrient probably due to the action of Eisenia fetida which promotes mineralization. Vermicompost fertilizer pro-motes growth rate of Scent leave due to nutrient balance in organic manure which affects plant growth and development compared to conventional compost fertilizer. Vermicompost and conventional compost fertilizer samples can be utilized as organic fertilizer in crop production and could be commercialized. They can also be applied in waste management to promote healthy environment.
120 Meat Analogue: A Short Review on Processing Aspects , Soumitra Banerjee; Anushree Rao; Saba Ali Zahid
Animal source proteins have been a part of the human diet since long time back. Consumer preferences are seeing a shift from the conventional meat products to the meat analogues based on plant sources. This shift is due to the growing drive for more sustainable and healthier lifestyles, rising health awareness, environmental impact etc. Meat analogues are meat like materials made from plant sources. They have similar texture, flavour, appearances and other nutritional qualities to that of animal meat. Extrusion technology finds its applications in the making of plant-based meat analogues. This paper is focuses on the need for meat analogues and process technology involved for its production
121 Evaluation of Nutritional and Food Addiction Status of Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Presenting to Ankara Baskent Hospital , Özlem Baran;Perim Fatma Türker
It is known that diabetes is an important health problem worldwide with increasing prevalence over the years. In this context, identifying the nutritional tendencies of individuals with diabetes and determining related factors such as food addiction may posi-tively affect the management of diabetes. This study was carried out to evaluate the daily energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake and food addiction of individuals with and without Type 2 diabetes and to determine the impact of food addiction on the intake of the specified nutrients.Materials and Methods: The study consisted of a total of 128 individuals, including 64 diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes and 64 with no Type 2 diabetes, who were aged between 18 and 65 and presented to BaÅŸkent University Ankara Hospital Endocrinology Depart-ment. A questionnaire was used to collect data about demographic characteristics, disease information, and lifestyle characteristics of the participants. Food addiction status was determined with the "Yale Food Addiction Scale". A 3-day food consumption form was administered to evaluate the daily energy and nutrient intake of the individuals.Findings: A total of 128 individuals, including 92 females (71.9%) and 36 males (28.1%), made up the study sample. Sixty-four of the participants had already been diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. The mean age was 47.23 ± 9.95 years. It was found that 25 (39.1%) of the individuals with Type 2 diabetes had a food addiction but that 39 (60.9%) did not. On the other hand, 19 (29.7%) of the individu-als with no Type 2 diabetes had a food addiction, but 45 (70.3%) did not. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). A comparison of daily average energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intakes of individuals with and without food addiction was made according to their diabetes status. The average daily energy intake of individuals with a diagnosis of food addiction and Type 2 diabetes was found to be statistically significantly higher than those without Type 2 diabetes (p < 0.05).Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference between individuals with and without Type 2 diabetes in terms of food addiction. A significant difference was found between daily energy intakes of individuals with food addiction according to their Type 2 diabetes status.
122 Interaction Effects of Salinity and Ultrasound Pretreatment on the Phytochemical Compounds of Clover Sprouts , Tahany AA Aly;Abdullateef Taiye Mustapha;Lei Zhang;Xiaojie Yu;Abu ElGasim A Yagoub;Haile Ma;Li Chen;Cunshan Zhou
This study investigated the interaction effects of salinity and ultrasound pretreatment on the phytochemical composition and growth of clover sprouts. Clover seeds were pretreated with ultrasound at 20, 28, and 40 kHz for 30 min at 30 °C and soaked for 9 h in deionized water, 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl solution, then sprouted in the dark for 3 days. Clover sprout length significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased with increasing salinity concentration to 2000 ppm NaCl, and increased for the ultrasound pretreated samples, sug-gesting a reduction in the salinity damage to clover sprout growth. The phytochemical compounds in clover sprout were identified by GC/MS/MS analysis. Some phytochemicals detected in the clover sprouts (7,8,3,4-tetramethoxyflavone, 3,7,8,2'-tetramethoxyflavone and docasane, 4-methyl) were not identified in the seeds. The results showed an increase in the methionine in the clover sprout with increasing salinity concentration. In contrast, no significant difference was observed on the methionine with the ultrasound treated samples. The phenolic compound salicylic acid in clover sprouts increased with increasing ultrasound frequency levels. It inhibited the ethylene production and induced salinity tolerance of the clover seedling. A novel mechanism of protecting the sprout tissues from the damage effect of salinity by the ultrasound pretreatment was proposed.
123 Myasthenia Gravis Secondary to Pembrolizumab , Minardi EP
In recent years, the development of anti-cancer target drugs therapy has been increasing significantly. In this context, a new monoclonal antibody group, which inhibits the programmed cell death 1 receptor, has emerged as an effective frontline of treatment of certain neoplasms. Prembrolizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, is a standard option for the treatment of advanced and metastatic malignancies like multiple myeloma. However, clinical research has uncovered diverse, unpredictable and serious im-mune related adverse events that raise concerns regarding its safety. Here, we will describe the case of an oncology patient with a suspected myasthenia gravis after receiving pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks.
124 The Pandemic of the E-Human Movement , Julie Rammal
The evolution and change in movement has strikingly shut down gyms, health clubs, fitness classes, live personal training jobs and more during the pandemic. The massive shift has opened up live streaming and online classes, however we may be soon facing a new body and mind pandemic if we are not aware of the side ef-fects.Many classes, applications, live streaming workouts have ac-commodated the public to stay fit during quarantine however the truth is that nothing can ever replace the live 1:1 personal trainer or live group classes because the energy, emotion and feeling is just not there or the same. A small real life smile can actually motivate a student much quicker then what motivation can be felt and given in live streaming classes.
125 Evaluation of Body Composition in Rural and Urban Schoolchildren in a Municipality in the Southern Interior of the Legal Amazon , Rafael Ayres Romanholo, Laurindo Pereira de Souza, Helizandra Simoneti Romanholo, Marcia Guerino de Lima, Fabricio Moraes de Almeida
To evaluate the corporal composition in rural and urban schoolchildren in a city in the southern interior of the Western Amazon. Method: This is a quantitative study classified as ex-post facto in order to verify the body composition of schoolchildren. The sample was composed of 482 students enrolled in rural and urban schools in the municipality of Cacoal-Rondônia (Brazil). Results: Most of the students were female and lived in the rural area, the study revealed that the overweight indexes are high in both rural and urban schoolchildren, but with an increase for those who live in the city.Conclusion: Obesity remains a serious public health problem in view of its rise for several years in this population profile, thus the involvement of the whole society is necessary, so that there is feasibility of health programs in schools in order to intensify actions aimed at nutritional support, physical activity, and the involvement of families to prevent and reduce the prevalence of this serious multifactorial disease.
126 Female College Students’ Attitudes Towards Healthy Eating Habits in the Rising Incidence of Breast Cancer in Japan , Riona Ushiyama, Minami Yoshiike, Eri Tonsho, Kanami Suzuki, Kai Kuribayashi, Yuji Aoki
We have recently reported that age-specific incidence rates of breast cancer among Japanese women clearly increased from 2000 to 2015 in a bimodal distribution pattern. As for the premenopausal breast cancer in Japan, the incidence rates have become com-parable to those in western countries. The westernization of lifestyle including eating habits needs to be considered as a modifiable risk factor. In this report, we assessed female college students’ attitudes towards healthy eating habits using 7 questions raised for the promotion of food and nutrition education (shokuiku in Japanese) among the younger generation. By a web questionnaire sur-vey, it was suggested that female college students who learned nutrition and health had insufficient attitudes towards healthy eating habits, although their attitudes were better than those of female junior college students who did not learn nutrition as a specialized subject. The largest difference between the two groups of students was found in the question “I buy foods without reading nutrition labels”. The female junior college students who selected “Yes” for it were likely to have worse attitudes for healthy eating habits. The female college students learning nutrition had knowledge on nutrition labels, which was not necessarily linked with attitudes towards healthy eating habits. Nutrition awareness campaigns using well designed nutrition labels may be effective to improve the college students’ attitudes.
127 Analysis of Alimentary Behavior and Self-perception in a Cross-section of 21 Adolescents Diagnosed as Suffering from Anorexia Nervosa , Carlo Prunet, Sara Guidotti
Data from research conducted over the past twenty years agree on the relationship between eating and emotional disorders. This work aims to offer a contribution to the understanding of some of the psychological factors involved in the onset of eating disorders, with particular emphasis on "anorexia nervosa" in adolescents through the introduction of the Pisa Survey for Eat-ing Disorder [1], a tool capable of probing the behavioral and perceptive aspects related to body image, and collect information on eating habits, which can be more or less dysfunctional.Methods: The results obtained by 21 female adolescents who were diagnosed as suffering from anorexia nervosa were examined. The age of the sample is in a range between 14.1 and 23.1 years. The participants completed the PSED.Conclusion: The data collected through the self-evaluation questionnaire made it possible to highlight and discriminate between behavioral components in interpersonal relationships (affectionate, sexual, and social), in eating habits (dieting, bingeing and laxa-tive use), in physical activities (type and frequency) and also delineate the characteristics of self-awareness (relationship with one's own body, enjoyment levels) in adolescents with serious alimentary disturbances.The results, albeit preliminary, confirm what is present in the literature on the relationship between eating and emotional disor-ders. In fact, it was found that mood swings may depend on the ability to control one's body weight and keep it within desired limits. The tendency to engage in obsessive behaviors focused on weight control through diet, physical activity, compensatory behaviors was also confirmed. The fundamental role played by interpersonal relationships within this category of patients is also well described.Finally, this preliminary study highlights the discriminatory capacity of the PSED which proves to be a simple, economical and useful self-assessment tool
128 Are the Residents of Varanasi City Practicing Enough to Manage their Kitchen Waste? , Mukesh Kumar Paswan,Dr. AC Tiwari
Kitchens are the foremost areas to generate large quantity of wastes and the moisture-loaded wastes are generally dumped in open to putrefy rapidly, to emit foul odour and to invite disease vectors. The article investigates existing policy measures and cur-rent kitchen waste management (KWM) practices to portray the waste management scenario in Varanasi City. It also emphasizes to elicit lacuna from municipal authorities’ part and residents’ role in KWM. The work embraced quantitative and qualitative methods along with descriptive and case study research designs to sail the research work smoothly. Residents from Varanasi city have been recruited by using snowball-sampling technique. Non-participatory direct observation accompanied by self-administered schedule have been incorporated in the process of data collection. Results exhibit that the assigned municipal personal do not execute mu-nicipal solid waste management guidelines. Open dumping is the most common way for the disposal of kitchen waste. Education of the respondents is the key factors, which creates the difference in their behaviour and attitude towards waste management. Mixing different waste altogether intensifies the complexity of the issue. Therefore, awareness creation among the residents and candid implementation of the rules are pivotal to set up sustainable and healthy living conditions in the city.
129 Investigating Treatment Literacy on Antiretroviral Drugs (ARVs) and Nutrient Interaction Among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) , Nthani D,Hamoonga Mwiinga Bona
Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are potent life prolonging drugs; with potential interaction with food. The importance of taking ARVs consistently and appropriately can never be over-emphasized. For ARVs to be effective there must be regular food supply, a nutrition plan and continuous support system to ensure healthy eating [1]. Nutrition is therefore an essential component of ART interventions. However, the effects of food and ARV drug interaction has not been singularly researched in Zambia. The study objective was to deter-mine the level and scope of information known (treatment literacy) amongst people living with HIV (PLHIV) about food-nutrient and ARV drug interaction. Specific objectives were to determine treatment literacy of PLHIV, determine whether PLHIV knew the meal and medication timing of their drugs and to determine PLHIV awareness of possible adverse effects of nutrition and drug interaction. The study was carried out in three (3) purposively chosen ART sites in Chongwe District, encompassing all HIV clients above twenty (20) years accessing health care and having been on ARV drugs for over 6 months. The study assumed a qualitative cross sectional descriptive study using open ended questionnaires with the aid of an audio tape recorder for recording responses. The collected data was transcribed and coded; themes were identified by way of content analysis for reporting. The results indicated that treatment literacy was inadequate both in quality and quantity of content. Additionally, drug-meal timing was not strictly followed. Further findings revealed step down and instructional format without reason given for actions. Overall, respondents were not aware of any drug-nutrient interactions, let alone expected side effects upon initiating medication. Respondents expressed desire for privacy and generally yearned for more information on HIV/AIDS. The findings also clearly showed lack of information on food and nutrition linkages to HIV/AIDS. In conclusion, nutrition being a cross cutting issue; its importance in the management of non-communicable and communicable diseases including HIV across different human physiological states and age groups cannot be over emphasized. Therefore, arising recommendations should be taken seriously into consideration not only by Chongwe District Health Management Team but also extrapolated nationwide in implementation.
130 Intervention Protocols for the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome and its Components in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review , Ewerton Eiti Yamada, Mirian Ueda Yamaguchi, Marcelo Picinin Bernuci
Physical exercise, in general, promotes the improvement of several metabolic markers in overweight and obese children and adolescents, however, the evidence still presents some divergences regarding the impact of different training protocols on metabolic syndrome (MS). This systematic review aimed to assess and discuss the impact of different physical exercise protocols on the preva-lence of MS and its markers in children and adolescents. The study followed the guidelines proposed by PRISMA-E 2012 and searches for articles were performed in the electronic database PubMed. As an inclusion criterion, the articles should explore the intervention and the impact of physical exercise on MS and its components on children and adolescents. A total of 348 articles were found and, after applying the eligibility criteria, 10 studies remained for qualitative analysis. Of the 10 selected studies, 3 used aerobic training protocol, 4 applied concurrent training, 2 recreational interventions and only 1 resisted training. Regardless of the protocol, physi-cal exercise is a fundamental tool in maintaining several blood biomarkers and body composition, although protocols with aerobic exercises have shown good results. However, further investigations are still needed.
131 Physiological Workload during Rescue Drills at Sea Level and at Geographical Altitude in Chile , Esteban Oñate, Elías Apud
Most large companies and institutions have emergency brigades to deal with potential risks. Furthermore, they must have good organizational systems to react quickly and efficiently to take control and protect affected populations. Therefore, it is very important in these jobs with high physiological demands to organize the activities to balance the workload between the members of the rescue teams. For this reason, on-site drills are useful to analyse the organization of work with concrete data which provide information to prevent brigade members from collapsing due to fatigue. Consequently, the objective of the present study was to determine the level of physiological load imposed by the activities carried out during three rescue drills of injured workers. Two of them were carried out at sea level and a third at 4300 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.). The results revealed significant differences in the physiological load between the members of the brigades in the three evaluations. It was found that some of them reached dangerous levels overloading their cardiovascular system over 80% and even 100% of their estimated maximal heart rate. Among the results, the positive correla-tion between the average heart rate achieved in the drills and the Body Mass Index (BMI) stands out, revealing that the overweight members of the brigades worked with higher cardiovascular load levels than those with normal weight. The results allow to conclude that the distribution of activities should be re-examined to evaluate alternatives aimed at balancing the intensity of the efforts. It is also recommended that the emergency brigades participate in regular physical training programs and educate them in eating habits to reduce their trend to overweight.
132 Sensory and Physical Evaluation of Cocoas (Theobroma cacao L.) From Different Countries for its Use in a Gourmet Chocolate , Maria Fernanda Flores, Briggit Katan, Susan Lavin, Karla Ortiz, Jormarelys Pericaguan, Shioling Ripalda, Elevina Pérez
The genetic origin and the climate surrounding the plantation help cacao fruits developing their sensory quality and those of the final chocolate flavor. The postharvest procedure is also influential in the sensory quality of the cocoa derivatives. The physical prop-erties and sensory profile of cacao beans after the postharvest have to be evaluated to guaranty the chocolate sensory quality. The evaluation has be done using formats to compile the information described in the national and international norms and literature. The objectives were to design formats and protocols to evaluate and compare physically and sensorial the cocoa beans from differ-ent world regions to select the best cacao with citric notes. From physical characteristics data, was selected the cocoa with the best quality. Once selected, it was applied to the roasting protocol to obtain cacao liquor. On the cacao liquor, using descriptive analysis of the taste descriptor profile was determined the sensory profile. The data have shown that the formats designed facilitate compilation and calculation of data obtained from the cocoa. Barinas cacao has shown the best flavor characteristics for its use in the elaboration of gourmet chocolate with citrus notes.
133 Eating Behaviors: Does Culture Play a Role in Our Food and Beverage Choices? , Aisha Ansari
Choice in beverages, diet and health may all depend on our culture and ethnicity. Nutritional values found in fruit juice and carbonated beverages are often selected based on cultural norms. Exploring the nutritional benefits found in both fruit juices and carbonated drinks reveal health benefits and defenses against cancer and other chronic diseases. With a literary review in nutrition and beverage, and a philosophical grounded theory, an argument will be made in favor of the nutritional value found in fruit juices, water, coffee, tea, water and carbonated drinks, require a balance in beverage intake and food consumption. Codependency on both beverages and foods are necessary for optimum nutritional health.
134 Nutritional Knowledge and Practices among Lactating Mothers , Victor Ouma Otieno
Diabetes mellitus (DM) also known as ‘sugar’ is a chronic non communicable disease (NCD) which has emerged as one of the lead-ing global health problems associated with the pancreas in the production of insulin leading to hyperglycemia (WHO, 2014). Globally, according to the international Diabetes Federation (IDF), 352 million adults were reported to have impaired glucose tolerance which is a high risk of developing diabetes by 2045 (Bommer, 2018). The scientific research evidence shows the predisposing factors to diabetes are: advancing age, family history, excessive body weight, excessive alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, stress, unhealth diet and chronic use of steroids among others.The objectives of the study will be to: To assess nutritional status, nutritional knowledge and lastly the dietary diversity among patients with type two diabetes in Nakuru County hospital.The study methods to be used will comprise of; contains study design, study area, study population, inclusion and exclusion criteria, variables, sampling techniques, sampling size determination, data collection tools instruments, data collection procedure, piloting, validity and reliability, data analysis and ethical considerations.
135 Growth Fitness of Indigenous Wine Yeasts in Grape Musts from Different Vitis Species , María Laura Raymond Eder, Alberto Luis Rosa
Yeast communities associated with Vitis vinifera L. niches (i.e. grapes and fermenting grape musts) have been widely characterized. Less is known, however, about yeast communities present in other non-viniferaVitis ecosystems. Moreover, there are no studies concerning eventual must-specific growth fitness of indigenous wine yeast species. In this work, we have characterized the potential must-specific growth fitness of ten different indigenous wine yeast species (i.e. C. azymoides, C. californica, H. uvarum, H. vineae, I. hanoiensis, M. pulcherrima, P. cecembensis, T. delbrueckii, S. bacillaris and S. cerevisiae). All the analyzed strains were isolated from spontaneously fermenting musts of V. vinifera L. (cv. Malbec) and/or V. labrusca L. (cv. Isabella) grapes harvested from vineyards in a shared terroir. Yeast identification was performed using standard ITS-rDNA RFLPs and/or microsatellite genotyping. Growth fitness of selected yeast species and strains, on Malbec and Isabella pasteurized grape must media, was studied by measuring lag phases (i.e. Lag Time) and maximum growth rates (i.e. μmax). Results showed that rare yeast species isolated from the Isabella ecosystem (i.e. P. cecembensis and I. hanoiensis) have better growth parameters when growing in Isabella grape must. The growth parameters of other wine yeast species, isolated from Malbec and Isabella ecosystems, did not show any clear associations with their musts of origin. Our findings suggest that the presence of two rare yeast species in Isabella could result from their growth advantage to this Vitis ecosystem. It is possible that yeast communities assembled in alternative grape musts result from the growth fitness of yeast species and strains to each specific Vitis species. Non-conventional Vitis ecosystems may constitute a reservoir of unique yeast strains valuable in the winemaking industry.
136 Undernutrition as a Cause of Personality Disorder , Konstantinos Koutoulogenis
Considering the increase of malnutrition worldwide [1] and its difficulty to maintain a healthy lifestyle, this article purpose is to emerge the awareness of possible contribution personality comor-bidities followed by nutrition status.Minnesota Starvation Experiment (MSE) was probably a break though protocol which not only studied the effects of malnutrition on human physiology, Keys., et al. [2] but also studied the effect on psychology presenting striking results, clinical signs and symp-toms that are similar to those of patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) [3]. The participants were well-built, healthy male soldiers from the USA army who undertook a period of starvation and nutritional rehabilitation. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality In-ventory was used for assessing the personality traits of the par-ticipants which included hypochondria, depression and hysteria. A detailed analysis of the responses showed that there were no fundamental differences between the type of responses given by the subjects who were malnourished in relation to patients with a clinical diagnosis of psychoneurosis. The effect of malnutrition was considered as the factor that caused psychoneurosis.
137 Sedentary Work and Anthropometric Assessment in Workers at a Polytechnic Higher Education Institution in Portugal , Sónia Fialho, Anabela Correia Martins, João Almeida
In the last decades, with the introduction of changes in work processes and new technologies, there has been an in-crease in occupational sedentarism (worker in a sitting position for long periods).Sedentary behavior is associated with an increased risk of developing chronic diseases such as obesity, type II diabetes, cardio-vascular disease.Objective: This study evaluates the relationship between sedentary work and anthropometric evaluation in Coimbra workers of polytechnic higher education institutions.Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was applied, the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ). Data on age, sex, body fat percentage, waist circumference, skeletal muscle mass and body mass index were collected from a sample of 59 adult men and women between December 2017 and January 2018, working full time. For statistical treatment, the authors analyzed the information with SPSS Statistics.Results: In the present study, 39 of the individuals were females and 19 males, aged between 31 and 62. Non-teachers showed a more significant sedentary lifestyle in their occupational activity, and teachers showed greater skeletal muscle mass and lower body fat percentage. Spearman's correlation revealed that there was no association between occupational sedentarism (sitting posture) and anthropometric parameters (p > 0.05).Conclusion: Although there was no statistically significant association between sedentary work and anthropometric data, it was possible to observe a tendency for workers with a higher occupational sedentary lifestyle to show worse anthropometric parameters. Taking these data into account, it is urgent to adopt measures to create conditions for a healthy work environment
138 Gold Fish (Carassius auratus) Grows Gradually in a Confined Pot Maintained Carefully in all Corners of this World as Popular Hobby , Manju Das, Zaman Sufia, SK Biswas
Gold fish (C. auratus) from family Cypriniformes can adjust in a small confined glass and fibre container to grow gradually. Weight and Length is measured carefully to check growth. Food supplied by the caretaker depends for its growth. Artificial food available in the market (Hobby Centre) in a plastic packet, (MPDA). Small pinch of artificial food in the morning can rare 1 or two fishes in a small fibre aquarium. In the lid perforations help to enter air continuously for mixing with surface water. Need 5 - 6 hrs exposure of air bubble to combat respiration properly. Gills are sensitive for stream-lined fish as fish respire through nostrils located in head. Olfactory rosette most sensitive for fish to feel surroundings.
139 Miraculous Properties of Camel Milk , Faran Khan
Milk is considered as nature’s most complete biological fluid required for growth and nourishment and a complete diet benefi-cial for individuals of all age groups. It has a considerable role in human’s nutrition for the reason that it is an excellent source of various nutrients. Milk diet has been recommended in managing various diseases, particularly camel milk has some outstanding characteristics nutritionally as well as economically it is an excel-lent source of vitamins and minerals additionally the low choles-terol and high concentration of insulin makes it more beneficial. It contains a good amount of minerals like Iron and calcium. Camel milk contains higher amount of trace minerals.
140 Luqaimat Diet with Egyptian Cases , Zeyad Maged
Diversity of diet regimes in Egypt, and clarification of the most important of them for most of those interested in diet.Diet has now become the dominant idea for many people be-cause of the speed of life, the lack of effort exerted and the high level of the mechanism, which has caused many health problems affected by the mechanism.These health problems such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and an increase in harmful cholesterol and triglycerides, which made them think about proper nutrition and different diet regi-mens to recover from these diseases
141 Monocentric Retrospective Study Assessing the Association Between Clinical and Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Type 2 DM) and the Benefit of Treating Hypothyroidism on the Improvement of Diabetes Control , Mohammad Rida Farhat, Khaled Soukarieh, Bilal Jamal El Din; Batoul Mcheik
Diabetes prevalence was as high as 14.6% in Lebanon in 2017. A lot of studies suggest an association between clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism, and type 2 DM, but with small sample sizes.Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism among Lebanese diabetic patients, to assess the benefit of treating hypothyroidism on the improvement of diabetes, and to check whether a screening of hypothyroidism could be beneficial in all diabetic patients.Methods: A monocentric cross sectional study was conducted to randomly recruit 100 patients having two HbA1C and two TSH readings, among diabetic patients. Data was collected from 2010 till 2017. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 11.99% among Lebanese diabetic patients.Results: Mean HbA1C level before hypothyroidism treatment was 8.84 and decreased to 8.26 afterwards. This study showed that the patients who received hypothyroidism treatment had significantly lower HbA1C levels (p-value = 0.001). However, statistically signif-icant HbA1C reduction was shown in women (p-value < 0.001), and in patients who didn’t have any comorbidities (p-value = 0.005).Conclusion: The prevalence of hypothyroidism among diabetic patients was determined and proved the utility of treating it to im-prove HbA1C levels.
142 #Obesity: Analysis of Publications Related to Obesity on Instagram , Philip Zemuner Paiva Rossini, Marina Mattei Garcia, Victor Perussi Light, Tania Maria Gomes da Silva; Marcelo Picinin Bernuci
Obesity is considered an epidemic by the World Health Organization and has increased considerably among the young population. As sedentary lifestyle and deregulated eating are factors that contribute to obesity, the dissemination of information that stimulates the development of healthier behaviors can help control obesity. Recent studies have shown that social media present themselves as potential aids tools for stimulating a healthy lifestyle. Among young people, Instagram stands out in terms of popularity and its influence on life habits has already been pointed out by scientific literature. Given the fact that Instagram presents itself as a highly influential social media’ platform, we aimed to analyze the posts related to obesity. This is a descriptive study conducted in October 2020, from the analysis of the 100 most relevant posts, according to Instagram plugin, indexed by the hashtag obesity. It was found that among the posts analyzed, 68% contained photographic component and 32% illustrative component. As for the content posted, most were about encouragement (26%), followed by health promotion (24%), personal experience (18%), surgical results (13%), diet (13%), exercise (3%) and memes (3%). Regarding the objects depicted in the posts, 42% were people, 25% texts/illustrations, 24% selfies, 8% food and 1% nature. Most of the posts were made by health professionals (72%) and the rest by non-professionals (28%). It is observed that most posts have as content the prevention of obesity and change in the course of the disease, either through encouragement, personal experience, health promotion and diet, suggesting that Instagram can be an useful tool to disseminate con-tent about obesity and encourage preventive behaviors.
143 Characteristics of Radiological Description of TB-HIV Patients Based on CD4 Levels and Results of TCM Examination , Iin Novita Nurhidayati Mahmuda, Angiesta Pinakesty, Poetrie Wulandari Ruswandi, Nandya Herdiana and Triana Rahma Juwita
Tuberculosis (TB) is an opportunistic infection that is most often found in HIV infection and is the leading cause of death in PLWHA (people living with HIV/AIDS). The risk of TB transmission is 26 to 31 times greater in people with HIV than in people with-out HIV. There are obstacles in determining the diagnosis and management because HIV patients coinfected with TB usually have a negative smear test result and tend to have less characteristic radiological features. The number of clusters of differentiation 4 (CD4) and the results of the Rapid Molecular Test (TCM) are associated with clinical manifestations of HIV patients that can be seen from the radiological picture. This study aims to determine the characteristics of the radiological features of TB-HIV patients based on CD4 levels and TCM results. This research used a descriptive research design and was conducted from November to December 2020 at PKU Muhammadiyah Surakarta Hospital. The number of research subjects as many as 10 patients taken by purposive sampling technique. Retrieval of data using patient medical record data. The results of this study found that TB-HIV patients with very low CD4 cell counts and negative TCM results were the most common. The dominant radiological features found in this study are radiological features typical of TB. It can be concluded that very low CD4 cell counts and negative TCM results in TB-HIV patients tend to have the radiological features characteristic of TB. Retrieval of data using patient medical record data. The results of this study found that TB-HIV patients with very low CD4 cell counts and negative TCM results were the most common. The dominant radiological features found in this study are radiological features typical of TB. It can be concluded that very low CD4 cell counts and negative TCM results in TB-HIV patients tend to have the radiological features characteristic of TB. Retrieval of data using patient medical record data. The results of this study found that TB-HIV patients with very low CD4 cell counts and negative TCM results were the most common. The dominant radiological features found in this study are radiological features typical of TB. It can be concluded that very low CD4 cell counts and negative TCM results in TB-HIV patients tend to have the radiological features characteristic of TB.
144 Decision Making in Biodynamic Vineyard Management , Cláudia Brazil Marques;Fabrício Moraes de Almeida
Wine has shown a synergistic effect in a holistic context, and it has been referenced in recent years in several fields such as medi-cine the which considers it a natural antioxidant. Among other fields of study that find qualitative and quantitative characteristics in wine are Economics, Tourism, Design and Agribusiness. The wine industry, therefore, is constantly seeking new practices for Vitis vinifera grapes, such as the use of biodynamic agriculture, which shows positive results for the sustainability of the ecosystem and soil quality. This paper explores the, what interferes in the winegrower’s decision when choosing environmentally sustainable prac-tices in the management of the vineyard, and as an objective, to characterize the environmental profile of the biodynamic vineyard. The methodology used was a descriptive case study of qualitative analysis. Therefore, the factor that interferes the choice of the wine production system is the need to maintain the fertility and productivity of the vineyard and, in this case, the biodynamic system may be an option for a sustainable production of grapes.
145 Contribution to the Monitoring of Leptospira in Wild Animals (Hedgehog of Bouira District) , Aouadi Nawal, Mensah Tonyi Raouf, Abbas Sadjia, Bitam Idir,Arab Karim
Leptospirosis is an anthropozoonotique disease of worldwide distribution with tropical dominance. It is caused by a pathogenic bacterium Leptospira interrogans which her primary reservoirs are rodents that shed the bacteria in the urine. Leptospira is wide-spread in the environment (freshwater, moist soil, sludge...).This study was carried out at Pasteur Institute of Algiers PIA’s laboratory, the ecology of vector systems department in different regions of Bouira district focused on the detection of leptospira spp in different samples: blood, organs, and urine of wild-caught animals (hedgehogs).After analysis of various samples (9 hedgehogs) in regions M'chedallah, Raffour, and Ahl- el –Ksar in 2012, we were able to iso-late leptospira by the bacteriological test (culture of urine, liver, and kidney) 22.22% of positivity, Test of thermo- resistant antigen (33.33% of positivity) and Microscopic-Agglutination-Test (0%). These diagnostic approaches appear to be complementary.
146 Health Economics Study: Epidemiological, Socioeconomic and Health Service Coverage Indicators in a State in the Western Amazon (Brazil) , Carlos Alberto Paraguassú-Chaves, Josefa Lourdes Ramos, Carla Dolezel Trindade, Simão Aznar Filho, Fabrício Moraes de Almeida, Edmundo Machado Neto, Leonardo Severo da Luz Neto, Ronaldo André Bezerra Salton, Fábio Robson Casara Cavalcante, Lenita Rodrigues Moreira Dantas,Osvaldo dos Anjos
The objective of the research was to identify the significance of the epidemiological, socioeconomic and health service coverage indicators in Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil. Method: Multivariate statistical technique, using Factor Analysis (PA) and the Principal Component Analysis method (PCA), with em-phasis on identifying significance. A sample with 121 variables was used, divided into two scenarios: Scenario 1 with 121 variables; and Scenario 2 with 42 variables with an explanation above 95%. Results: Factor 1 epidemiological indicators showed 69 variables with explanation above 70%, factor 2 socioeconomic indicators highlighted 4 variables with explanation above 70% and factor 3 indicators of health service coverage highlighted only 2 (two) variables with explanation above 70%. Statistically, in the context of factorial exploration, it was found that factor (1) presented a variance of 69.90%, factor (2) 14.47% and factor (3) 6.46%. Scenario 2 composed of 42 variables with explanation above 95% in the application of PA and ACP obtained 34 variables with explanation above 70%. Of these, 24 are of factor 1 and had an explanation above 95%. The variable with the greatest explanatory power is the first with 99.66% (referring to the% of children aged 10 to 14 years, with more than 1 year of school delay). The correlation between factors 1, 2 and 3 is explained by 66.53% for epidemiological indicators, 18.72% for socioeconomic indicators and 7.53% for service coverage indicators. From this study, it is possible to infer the almost absolute predominance of epidemiological variables and, with less emphasis, socioeconomic variables, which measure access to basic education in the State of Rondônia. The health service coverage variables, however, were not significant. Porto Velho (Capital) presented a negative correlation of (-47.86%) which can be justified by the presence of diseases common to other municipalities, for example, dengue, tuberculosis, leprosy, injuries due to external causes, etc. And, it contributed with 72.84% in Factor 1 and 17.64% in Factor 2, which can be explained by the condition of being the state reference in health. Conclusions: The study showed that of the 39 indicators agreed between the State Department of Health of Rondônia and the 52 municipalities, 33 (thirty-three indicators) are included among the indicators with statistical significance, which validates the choice of the method.
147 Multivariate Analysis of Health Indicators in the State of Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil , Carlos Alberto Paraguassú-Chaves, Josefa Lourdes Ramos, Carla Dolezel Trindade, Simão Aznar Filho, Fabrício Moraes de Almeida, Lenita Rodrigues Moreira Dantas, Leonardo Severo da Luz Neto, Edmundo Machado Neto, Ronaldo André Bezerra Salton, Osvaldo dos AnjosGisely Beck Gonçalves Salton
The research aims to analyze the significance of epidemiological, socioeconomic and health service coverage indicators, applying the multivariate statistical technique and to compare indicators with statistical significance compared to the indicators agreed by the State Secretariat of Health of Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil, in the period corresponding to one year. This is a descriptive exploratory study applied to epidemiological, socioeconomic and health service coverage indicators in the State of Rondônia, with a territorial coverage of 52 municipalities. The adopted procedure was to apply the Factor Analysis Technique (PA) and the statistical method of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in 121 variables, grouped, and after, only, in the group of variables with explanation above 95%, divided two scenarios. In Scenario (1) the epidemiological variables had an explanation above 70%, whereas in Scenario (2) they influenced the set of variables with an explanation between 99.66% - 99.99%. In Scenario (1) Porto Velho (Capital) contrib-uted with 72.84% cases, maintaining the trend in Scenario (2) with 75.67%. In the comparison between surveyed indicators (121) and agreed indicators (39), it was noticed that of the 39 indicators, 33 (thirty-three) are included among the indicators with statisti-cal significance in the study.
148 Inclusive Feeding in People with Cerebral Palsy , Pérez Doménech Marta
Cerebral palsy is a motor impairment of the nervous system. Its incidence in developed countries is 2-2.5 per 1.000 newborns and it occurs before the first 5 years of life. This disorder affects an appropriate development of movement and posture, causing sensory, intellectual, emotional, attentional and urinary alterations as well as eating and swallowing disorders, among others. The latter entail that unappetizing and annoying ingestions comprising possible malnutrition. To avoid or ameliorate these alterations we will use introduce an inclusive diet, which intends to normalize dietary guidelines. To achieve this, different devices and strategies are made available to people with cerebral palsy in order to allow them to eat autonomously. In the present article, 14 families from the Valencian community who have a member with cerebral palsy were polled. Physiologi-cal and motor difficulties involved in nutrition will be studied as well as percentages of patients using each aid. In addition, the degree of disability of those suffering from cerebral palsy will be related to the level of family stress.
149 Mother Perception of Body Image and Infant Feeding Knowledge of their Preschool Children: Cross-sectional Study , Carla Correia de Sá
Parents are important agents in the promotion of health, behavior, and education of their preschool children; especially, parental nutrition knowledge and children’s body image perception have been described as important factors for children’s healthy food knowledge, as well, as influence their children’s diet quality and micronutrient adequate intake. This study aimed to examine parent’s perception concerning the real and ideal image of their preschool children and identify parental nutrition knowledge of their chil-dren. 58 preschool children were a cross-sectional community sample of 54 mothers who were recruited in a Portuguese preschool, with a mean age of 4.3 ± 1.0 years, of which 37.0% were female with a mean BMI of 16.3 ± 1.3 kg/m2. Questionnaires of knowledge of infant feeding questionnaire and perception of the child's body image were applied. 98.1% of mothers had an insufficient knowledge (score less than 37) about their infant feeding, and 1.9% had a good knowledge (score more than 42). 38.8% of mothers in this study were little worried about their children nutritional status, and most (48.1%) of them have the perception that their children have a normal weight. In conclusion, preschool children in this study have a normal BMI percentile, however we found that mothers with higher BMI, were more concern about their children be overweight / obese in future. However, mostly of mothers' perception of their children's weight does not correspond to the real value.
150 Dietary Patterns and Healthy Eating Scores of Breastfeeding Mothers , Lauren San Diego, Deja Carrington, Tiffany M Fuller, Heather L Colleran
Obesity in America has risen to epidemic levels over the past 10-years. Retention of weight gained during pregnancy may be a con-tributing factor. Breastfeeding may reduce long-term maternal weight retention from pregnancy and is recommended for at least the first six months. The study’s purpose was to assess the effects of a 12-week nutrition and exercise program on dietary patterns and diet quality using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) in lactating women. The participants were from the MEEMA (Moms Exercising and Eating for Maintaining Health and Active Lifestyle) study. Eligible women completed baseline and endpoint three-day diet interviews recorded on the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR 2019, UMinn.). Participants randomized into the intervention group (IG, n = 6) underwent 12-weeks of exercise, nutrition education and were given 6-oz of yogurt 3-times/week. IG increased their fruit intake (1.1 to 1.8 servings), vegetable intake (3.3 to 4.4 servings), and total grains (1.8 to 7.8 servings) to meet the recommended servings. Dairy intake remained unchanged and below the recommendation of 3 servings/day. The dietary quality measured using HEI scores for the women declined (59.8 ± 6.4 to 54.3 ± 11.2 out of 100) due to reduced whole grain intake. Overall, IG increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, and grains; decreased consumption of sweets and protein intake to meet recommendations. The findings sug-gest that exercise, nutrition education, and yogurt consumption may improve dietary patterns of lactating women. However, more tailored nutrition education is needed to improve dietary patterns and dietary quality using HEI scores.
151 Impact of Covid-19 on Alterations in Food Habits and Lifestyle Behaviour of Indians: A Review , Jyoti Singh,Nikita Wadhawan
People from all walks of life have been seriously influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic. The global dissemination of the disease to almost all areas of the world has provided the entire human population with immense health, economic, environmental and social challenges. One of the solutions proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for minimising the spread of this deadly virus is lockdown. On March 22, 2020, India was swift to close its international boundaries and implement the world's biggest COVID lockdown. This Pandemic had affected every age group though, the time is more crucial: for children because of their increased exposure to television advertisements directed at the selling of junk foods, those in their adolescence because it is the age of habit formation and the incorrect habit developed during this period will begin to affect their adult life. In general, it could result in obvious epigenetic and/or phenotypic variation being passed on to subsequent generations, as well as significant dietary changes leading to increased obesity and hyperglycaemia in many countries. There is insufficient evidence on how this pandemic is impacting our food and lifestyle-related habits. Therefore, this study reviews impact of COVID-19 on alterations in food habits and lifestyle behaviour of Indians. These unprecedented circumstances provide an opportunity to better understand the negative impact of strict lockdown measures on lifestyles, and at the same time, help identify and initiate positive behavioural changes, which if consolidated, may im-prove chronic disease outcomes in the long run. It would be up to governments, communities, and academia to learn - and benefit from lessons learned from this pandemic - with the ultimate objective of better educating and promoting healthy lifestyles among communities.
152 Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Cardiovascular Risk in Elderly , Ivone Freires de Oliveira Costa Nunes, Isabele Frazão Mascarenhas2, Natália de Jesus Melo3, Nayara Vieira do Nascimento Monteiro4, Andressa Nathanna Castro Damasceno5, Maria do Socorro Pires e Cruz6, João Marcelo de Castro e Sousa7, Felipe Cavalcante Carneiro da Silva7, Monique da Silva Rocha3, Leopoldo Fabrício Marçal do Nascimento8, Flaviane Alves de Pinho9 and Cecilia Maria Resende Gonçalves de Carvalho
Studies show an inverse association between 25 (OH) D concentrations and occurrence of risk for cardiovascular disease.Objective: To identify the frequency of VDR gene FokI and BsmI polymorphism in the elderly and to determine the existence of a relationship with cardiovascular risk.Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study. Sample composed of 359 elderly men and women. Infor-mation was collected: sociodemographic; cardiovascular risk assessment using the online calculator of the Brazilian Society of Car-diology; biochemical and molecular evaluation in a subsample of 100 elderly. The BsmI and FokI were genotyped by the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism technique. Fisher's Exact Test was applied to evaluate association between categorical variables in the SPSS software, version 22.0.Results: 61.6% of the sample were female (n = 221). The mean value of 25 (OH) D was 22.4 (8.0) ng/mL, representing vitamin D in-sufficiency. In BsmI polymorphism, 57% have heterozygous (Bb) genotype and in FokI polymorphism, 47% have genotype. dominant (FF) and 50% the heterozygous genotype (Ff ). The genotypes FF and Bb were the only ones to presentelderly with low cardiovascu-lar risk, however, heterozygote (Bb) presented higher percentage for intermediate and high cardiovascular risk.Discussion: Studies show that the BsmI polymorphism increases the susceptibility to CVD, and the association of the BB genotype with greater carotid artery thickness. While studies of the FokI polymorphism show a greater association of the ff genotype with CVD risk.
153 Hepatoprotective Effect of Balanites aegyptiaca Extract against Paraquat-Induced Liver Toxicity , Mohammed A Hussein1*, Amira M Mohamed2, Aya O Mohamed2, Eman E Jaafar2, Mai W Abdelazem2, Marwa R Hassan2, Mennatallah M Mohamed2, Mennatallah N Mostafa2, Nada M Ahmed2, Rana M El tweki2, Reem M El zoghby2, Ali A Ali3 and Naglaa A Gobba
Paraquat-induced liver fibrosis involves two factors, direct injury by oxygen free radicals and indirect injury by inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. This study was carried out to examine the prophylactic potential of the Balanites aegyptiaca seeds water extract (BASWE) on paraquat-induced injury in rat. Oral administration of BASWE (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) to paraquat treated rats nor-malize significantly the serum levels of hepatic enzymes AST, ALT and ALP activity as well as liver TBARS, NO, TNF-α and IL-1β. Oral administration of BASWE also exhibited its capacity to replenish the paraquat-induced decreased GSH levels and enhance increase in IL-10 and SOD activity. The present results proved the protective effect of BASWE against paraquat-induced liver fibrosis by suppression of miR-122a and miR-192 gene expression as well as normalized the liver histology.
154 Balanites aegyptiaca Extract Inhibits COX-2 and P53 Expression in DSS-induced Ulcerative Colitis , Mohammed A Hussein1*, Nada S Abdelghany2, Dina R Elsayed2, Tasneem M Mahmoud2, Reham M Abdelhay2, Maithaa N Mohamed2, Norhan A Abdelaal2, Nashwa M Abdelhaleem2, Sara E Nasser2 and Ali A Ali3 and Naglaa A Gobba
Histologically, the mouse model of DSS induced distal colitis resembles human colitis ulceration. The objective of this paper was to assess the potential protective role of Balanites aegyptiaca against DSS-induced colitis in rats model.Methods:Balanites aegyptiaca bioactive compounds was extracted and administered orally to DSS-induced colitic rats for 14 days.Results: Day after 14 days of oral treatment of Balanites aegyptiaca (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) and celecoxib (0.1 mmole/kg.b.w.) in rats, colon length and severity histological damages of the colon induced by DSS were reduced and the oxidisation status of the colon was improved. However, there is a significant decrease in the levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines only in rats treated with balance-aegyptiaca and celecoxib; TNF-α, IFN-α, IL-1 and TBARS, along with a substantial increase to GSH and GST levels compared to DSS control groups. In addition, the expression of COX-2 and P53 proteins decreases significantly in the DSS control group com-pared to the Balanites aegyptiaca. Conclusion: The results clearly show that Balanites aegyptiaca exhibited anti-inflammatory properties in the DSS colitis model in rats that have also been enhanced by P53 and COX-2 protein expression functionalization. In the intestinal histoarchitecture Balanites aegyptiaca and Celecoxib almost normalised the effect of this effect compared to Celecoxib.
155 NF-κB, Caspase-3 and p53 Pathways are Involved in Resveratrol-Chitosan Nanoparticles-Induced Apoptosis in Hela Cells with Oxidative Stress , Mohammed A Hussein1*, Raghad M Mahmmed2, Afnan A Sebawaih2, Basma A El-Maghraby2, Eman E Mohammed2, Zekra S Mohamed2 and Ali A Ali3
Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic phytoalexin commonly found in fruits, grape and red wine. The objective of this study was to prepare RENE for Hela cell anticancer therapy using low chitosan and tripolyphosphate (TPP) method.Methods: In the present study resveratrol-chitosan nanoparticles was prepared made in the presences of TPP using a phase inver-sion method. Morphology, particle size and zeta potential of RENE was then characterized. Furthermore, RENE was evaluated for its cytotoxic effect on Hela cells as well as their effect on TBARS, GSH, GST, caspase-3, NF-κB and P53. Results: RENE was showed spherical shape with mean particle size of around 49.5 ± 0.05 nm with (+15.75) negative zeta potential. The treatment of Hela cells with RENE led to a high inhibition in the Hela cell proliferation as concluded by the low IC50 values 31.89 μg/ml. Also, RENE possess apoptotic properties via activation of the TBARS, caspase-3 and P53 protein expression as well as inhibi-tion NF-Κb, GST and GSH levels. Conclusion: The results presented here may suggest that RENE possess anticancer and apoptotic effects on Hela cell proliferation, and therefore, can be used as new approach of pharmaceutical drugs. Also, the results clearly suggest that NF-κB, is one of the central players in the synergism of RENE and act as a regulator of caspase-3 and P53.
156 Public Health , Adinnu Chiamaka M
Why does Public Health matter? This is a question that begs an-swering, as the answers to this question expose the need to place public health on a pedestal of importance especially in our present century. With the world being inundated with unprecedented public health issues - from the pandemic ravaging the world in its wake to the climate crisis impeding on community health and even to the prevalent food insecurity and other food-related challenges, all these have laid bare the disparaging truth and reality of our inad-equate health system. Looking back prior to 2020, the past few decades had chron-icled some of the most significant achievement in public health, from reductions in child mortality to increased access to safe water and sanitation, prevention and control of malaria and HIV/AIDS and many others. However, the plethora of global issues in 2020 and now in 2021 has dealt a devastating blow to these great strides which took decades to achieve.
157 Comparing Values of Protein and Fat by Composition-based Method and Conventional Method , Tatsuya Koyama
AThe revised version of the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan (STFCJ 2020) was published in 2020. The aim of the present paper is to discuss issues concerning calculation of protein and fat using food components listed in STFCJ 2020. In SFTCJ 2020, in addition to conventional values of protein content calculated as reference nitrogen multiplied by protein conversion fac-tor <XN> (PROTRN) and gravimetrically determined fat (FAT), values of protein were expressed as the sum of amino acid residues <PROTCAA> and values of lipids as triacylglycerol equivalents of fatty acids <FATNLEA>. Protein and fat contents were significantly decreased when the preferred analytical methods of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (PROTRN and FATNLEA) were applied instead of the conventional values. Therefore, it is important to compare calculated protein and fat using PROCTAA and FATLEA to calculations from previous studies of protein and fat.
158 Bioactive Metabolites Identification and FTIR Analysis in Ziziphus oenoplia Mill , Thenmozhi M, Sangeetha M, Jayanthi M, Suganthi M,
Medicinal Plants have inexpensive amount of bioactive phytochemicals or bionutrients.Phytochemicals are present in all me-dicinal plants at different levels and are useful compounds of human diet. In recent decades research studies have shown that phy-tochemicals are playing major role in preventing chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer and heart disease. They are being used to control oxidation and chronic diseases associated with stress, such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes because it possesses strong antioxidant activity. Aim of the present study was Ziziphus oenoplia Mill. phytochemical screening, alkaloid estimation and their FTIR analysis. This experiment provides evidence to support the existence of different biologically important medicinal bio-active compounds or phytochemicals that explain their use in conventional medicines. This medicine can be therapeutically used separately or combination with other extracts to cure any disorder and disease.
159 Role of Trigonella foenum-graecim Extract along with Ursolic Acid a Pentacyclic Triterpenoid as Newer Plant Products for the Therapy of Diabetes Mellitus - A Short Communication , Kulvinder Kochar Kaur,Gautam Allahbadia, Mandeep Singh
Lots of medicinal plants have shown the potential for Treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). We have already reviewed the role of lot of plants as well as plant products related to this that can be utilized in future to prevent the cost and side effects of the oral hypoglycaemic agents like monoterpenes that get produced in various organisms including bacteria, fungi, plants and animals, role of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors (produced by marine organisms was plants, role of herbs and spices, Antho-cyanins are present in berries which include blackberries, bilberries, chokeberries, elder berries, cranberries and raspberries that are the richest sources of anthocyanins. Many other highly colored fruits like strawberries, black currant, cherry, grape, coloured cabbage, eggplant and radish also have high levels of anthocyanins, thus it is important to include these in the low-calorie diets plans to improve insulin resistance (IR) along with helping in weight reduction. Here we further report on two potential new compounds for therapy of DM, like Trigonella foenum-graecim extract along with ursolic acid another pentacyclic terpenoid.
160 An Overview of Nutrition Informatics: A Public Health Perspective , Derangula Lokesh
Nutrition informatics is the fusion of nutrition, information, and technology. Public health professionals work in an immensely “information-rich” world. As many paper-based tools transition to the technology, there are more efficient ways to collect, display and study data from such tools as food/nutrition analysis tables, electronic health records (EHRs), and smartphone applications. Nutrition informatics allows public health professionals to more effectively use their knowledge and skills through the support of technology in many ways
161 Revive Massive Production of Food and Nutritious Plants in South East Nigeria: A Fallout from the Food Blocked by the North , Eze O Jude, Ekpere-Ezugwu M Ogechukwu, Obeta M Uchejeso
The news about recent move by farmers and interest groups under the aegis of amalgamated union of foodstuff and cattle deal-ers of Nigeria (AUFCON) in Northern Nigeria to impose embargo on food supply to the south [1] as seen in figure 1, has implicated a huge food production gap in the southern part of the country. This development has created food security challenges in Nigeria es-pecially in south eastern Nigeria. Nigeria is a sextuplet federation resting on double tripod of six geopolitical zones; more broadly divided into North and South. But concerns are heightened during the blockade because, the term "south" was an envelope word used to specifically represent the south east Nigeria.By that ban, they made the south east to look like clochard men-dicants, pauperized panhandlers and obligate parasites in a nation that sprouted on synergistic symbiosis. This is because the South east has deviated from commercial agriculture to merely subsis-tence and over dependence on food buying in order to face other life challenges.
162 Effect of Different Processing Conditions on the Physicochemical and Sensorial Characteristics of Cheddar Cheese Prepared from Different Milk Sources , Abdul Rehman1*, Ahmed Bilal1, Muhammad Imran1, Muhammad Rizwan1, Ravi Prakash Jha2, Athar Jamal3, Sundus Khan1, Zainab Ali4and Hafiz Muhammad Zubair
Globally, the relationship between diet and human health convinces the customers to pay great attention to food and its composi-tion. Milk is used widely to produce value-added goods. Milk formulation is an integral ingredient that is often used by Americans instead of influencing the consistency of the finished product. Pakistan is the 2nd largest buffalo milk producer, contributing about 67 percent, while cow milk accounts for about 31 percent of overall production. Cheese is a combination of a matrix of moisture, sugar, protein, salt, peptides, amino acids, lactose, minerals, and other small constituents. It is a biochemically dynamic product which, during ripening, undergoes important changes. Current investigation was done to see the effect of different processing conditions on the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of cheddar cheese processed at lab scale. Three different levels of temperature were used 65, 70 and 75°C for processing of cheddar cheese, similarly three different levels of starter culture were used as CaCl2% 0.07, 0.08, and 0.09. All the prepared cheese samples were then assessed for their moisture, protein, fat, acidity, pH and TS (total solids) contents. Highest moisture content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (35.2 ± 0.0765). While the least moisture content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (34.515 ± 0.070.07). Lowest fat content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (29.23 ± 0.0665). While the highest fat content was observed at 75°C Tem-perature and 0.09% Starter culture (29.46 ± 0.0565). Lowest protein content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (28.12 ± 0.0465). While the highest protein content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (28.29 ± 0.0665). Lowest acidity content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (0.82 ± 075). While the highest acid-ity content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (0.87 ± 0.0165). Highest pH content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (5.26 ± 0.0165). While the least pH content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (5.15 ± 0.0175). Lowest TS content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (5.15 ± 0.0175). While the highest TS content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (5.26 ± 0.0165). It was articulated in cur-rent study that temperature and amount of starter culture used readily effect the processing of cheddar cheese.
163 The Perceptions of Home Gardening Zone Program and the Potential Impacts on Household Food Security , Sri Adiningsih, Siti Rahayu Nadhiroh,  Farapti
Introduction: One of the breakthrough efforts to increase dietary diversity that would lead to food security is the launching of the home gardening zone (HGZ) program by the Indonesia Ministry of Agriculture. Understanding the effect of the program on the community could identify benefits and shortfalls that may be crucial to the success of it. The purpose of this study was to assess the reasons community gardeners participate in the home gardening zone program, as well as to explore the potential impacts such participation has on the community and household food security.Methods: The study was conductedat Mojokrapak village, Tembelang district, Jombang regency, East Java, Indonesia between May-September 2015. Data were collected through ten individual in-depth interviews with gardeners, one focus group discussion to stakeholders, and observation on the home gardening zone (type and large of plants and animals). Data were analyzed using the Thematic Content Analysis approach.Results: Gardeners reported seed distribution and assistance by the government as the main reason for participating. There were some contributions to household food security in aspects of food availability, food access, and food consumption. Additionally, there was an improvement of communalism among gardeners as another benefit. Results obtained from the focus group discussion and observation concurred with the findings from the in-depth interviews. However, some gardeners expressed the need to acquire sup-port such as motivation and the availability of fertilizer to keep the program going.Conclusion:Home gardening zone increased access to household food security and community nutrition. Findings from this study will hopefully serve to guide future quantitative research evaluating the home gardening zone as a potential food and nutrition secu-rity improvement intervention.
164 An Interdisciplinary Oral Health Program for Children in Kindergartens of Northern Italy , A Orlando, MW Arisido, S Brioschi1, L Maccà, S Graci, MC Panzeri, F Mecatti, P Palestini,E Cazzaniga
The aim of the study was to investigate if a parents’ training program on nutritional and oral health behaviours held by health professionals can influence children habits in a sample of kindergartens in Northern Italy.Methods: The study designed was a longitudinal study. The study population were children aged 6–36 months attending four kin-dergartens. Parents were invited to participate to a training meeting and to fill out a self-administered questionnaire at baseline and after 3 months from the meeting. The questionnaire included information on socio-demographics about parents, oral hygiene habits of parents and child, and eating habits of child. Wald test was used to analyse data collected. Results: After the training program, almost all parents could use a toothbrush suitable for kids (from 91% at the baseline to 99% after the 3-months). The analysis shows that the given training significantly increased the number of children who use toothpaste from 86% at baseline (95%CI: 85% - 88%) to 96% (95%CI: 94%-98%), in particular a fluoride toothpaste (59% to 80%). The inter-vention study showed a positive impact on the number of pupils who wash their tooth more than twice per week and on the timing of oral hygiene as both night and morning time proportion increased. Regarding the feeding habits the given consultation resulted in a statistically significant increase the morning snack from 94% (95%CI: 92% - 96%) to 97% (95%CI: 94% - 99%). Another promis-ing effect is the decrease from 47% at baseline (95%CI: 46% - 49%) to 42% after the study (95%CI: 41% - 43%) of the bad habit of having a snack after dinner.Conclusion: Results of our study have shown that a parents training intervention can have good results on the oral hygiene and eating habits of children of this age group. To underline the importance of several professional figures who work together with a common purpose.
165 The New Sugar to Suppress Postprandial Hyperglycemia: Improvement of Refined White Sugar by Mixing Specially Grown Brown Cane Extract , Tsutomu Arimura1, Shaw Watanabe, Hiroyuki SakakibaraShigekatsu Kimura
The minimal refining process of sugarcane extract retained some of its phytochemicals, vitamins, and minerals. The addition of this extract to the refined brown sugar lowered glycemic index (GI) and suppress postprandial hyperglycemia. A quick squeeze of sugar cane and quick processing caused a considerable amount of antioxidants (polyphenols). Overall, low postrandial (LP) sugar had a better nutritional quality in terms of physicochemical characteristics and health benefits.
166 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Nursing Mothers towards Exclusive Breastfeeding in Oda Community, Akure South, Ondo State , Michael Olabode Tomori
Breast milk is the natural first food for babies, it provides all the energy and nutrient that the infant needs for primary month of life and it continues to supply up to half or more of a child’s nutritional needs during the second half of the year and up to one-third during the second year of life. Hence, exclusive breastfeeding is therefore important in protecting infants from infectious diseases, assist in improving their immune system and also very vital for their general health, growth and developments. Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate into the knowledge, attitude and practice of nursing mothers towards exclusive breastfeed-ing in Oda, Ondo State.Methodology: A descriptive study was conducted on nursing mothers in Oda Community. Simple random technique was used in selecting the 260 respondents whose consent was sought before administering the questionnaires. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages.Results: The study showed that majority 93.5% of the respondents has heard about exclusive breastfeeding, 89% of them practiced exclusive breastfeeding while 11% practiced mixed feeding. 68% of the respondents says that exclusive breastfeeding protect infants against infection, 27.4% of them believed that it is nutritious to infants and of benefits to both the mother and infants.Conclusion: The study showed high level of knowledge on exclusive breastfeeding among respondents and majority of them prac-ticed exclusive breastfeeding.Recommendation: Exclusive breastfeeding counseling during clinic visit, health education program should be implemented.
167 Role of HIF 1 α in Covid-19 Disease , Tulsi Patil, Arun Soni,Chirag Patel, Sanjeev Acharya
This review article aimsto point outthe manyroles of HIF-1α in COVID-19 diseases. World health organization named the newly emerged virus SARS-CoV-2 or 2019-nCoV or covid-19. At beginning of coronavirus symptoms of pneumonia were appeared in De-cember 2019 near Wuhan city of China. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 outbreak spread rapidly worldwide and is associated with the high death rate in humans. However, there are currently fewer safe and effective drugs available for targeting SARS-CoV-2. So, there is an emergency for the invention of effective prevention and treatment options for the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. SARS-CoV-2 recognizes the human ACE2 more strongly than SARS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 spike supermolecule having a very high robust binding affinity to human ACE2. Relatively limited information is understood about the transcriptional regulation of ACE2. Hypoxic condition reduces the syn-thesis of ACE2, Further experimentation has shown that hypoxic condition induced HIF-1α protein leads to increases ACE synthesis which, prompts to rise the amount of Ang II and overall this process modulates the reduction in ACE2 synthesis with the help of Ang II. Activation of HIF-1 is related to numerous physiological and pathological processes. HIF-1 will manage ACE2 regulation and several natural components exhibit the role in activation and stabilization of the HIF-1α protein. The level of HIF-1α in cells gives us future opportunities for new, safe, and effective treatment options for the novel coronavirus.
168 Dietary Nitrates, Nitrites, and Food Safety: Risks Versus Benefits , Keith R Martin
Atmospheric nitrogen, via the environmental nitrogen cycle, is captured, or fixed, by symbiotic bacteria interacting with plants. Nitrates, as a result, are intermediates in the movement of atmospheric nitrogen into the food chain with rich dietary sources includ-ing red spinach, beetroot, etc. Nitrate-rich fertilizers may further increase nitrogen content of plants. Other sources include potable water, dietary supplements and food additives. Although prevalent in the diet, nitrates have been viewed negatively because they chemically form carcinogenic nitrosamines in acidic environments, e.g. stomach, purportedly leading to gastric cancer as well as neoplasia of the intestine, brain, pancreas, and contributing to Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Other reports indicate associations with hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus. A second major concern with dietary nitrate consumption is the development of methemo-globinemia particularly in infants caused by increases in methemoglobin where heme iron is oxidized to ferric iron and unable to bind and transport oxygen. In contrast, the recent discoveries of the vital gasotransmitter function of nitric oxide derived from di-etary nitrates and nitrites, endogenous production, and endogenous recycling and considerable concentration in saliva have revealed the importance of nitrates to health including improved cardiovascular function (reductions in blood pressure), improved cognition, reduced platelet aggregation, and enhanced blood flow to ischemic (hypoxic) and/or exercising tissues. As a result, dietary supple-mentation may represent an effective, inexpensive option for individuals with vascular disorders and a safe, efficacious means of enhancing performance in both recreational and competitive athletes. Given the myriad beneficial effects tempered by the purported negative effects, it is timely to revisit the conundrum of risk versus benefit from dietary nitrates.
169 Pain , Dalamagka Maria.
Pain acts as a protective mechanism of the body, by forcing the person to react so that it is removed from the stimulus. It is im-portant not only for cases where there is marked tissue damage, but also for everyday simple activities. Thus, when a person sits on the hips for a long time, it is possible to damage the tissues due to the inhibition of the skin's blood supply to the places where the skin is compressed by body weight. When the skin starts to ache because of ischemia, the person completely unconsciously changes position. However, when the sensation of pain is lost, as is the case with spinal cord injury, the person cannot feel the pain and thus does not change position. This condition leads to ulcers in the area where the pressure is applied very quickly.
170 Improvement of the Strategy in Food Safety, through the Research Action, the Huacana, Michoacán. , Avila Serrato Salatiel
The creation of new mechanisms of social participatory action, constitutes the reformulation of the community organization, cor-responding to the transversal axes from the local to the inclusion and adaptation of globalizing parameters.That is why, through the research-action methodology, new reorganization alternatives are implemented in the microregion of Huacana, Michoacan; to include new gears of reorganization of production and food education, resulting in the increase in the use of the region's own foods to the usual diet.
171 Food Education in Times of COVID-19 , Agustina Larra
Junk food, low on nutrients and nutritional properties, bear-ing monotonous colors, with excessive amounts of sugar. These are, among others, the characteristics of the food that children are closer to.
172 500 Million People have a Food Allergy , Xavier Román.
Our metabolism, lifestyle, new nutritional habits or other envi-ronmental factors affect our body by producing changes that cause us to react with an allergy or intolerance when consuming certain foods.
173 Efficacy of Ketogenic Diet in Seizure Reduction in Epileptic Patients-A Review , Aamina Sabir, Hafiz Muhammad Ubaid Tayyib,  Faran Khan.
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked seizures of varying frequencies and intensity. Several pharma-cological treatments had been used previously for its treatment. However ketogenic diet has gained importance as non-pharmaco-logical therapy to epilepsy in recent years. This review aims to discuss the efficacy of ketogenic diet in epilepsy. Key words used for search include “ketogenic diet”, “epilepsy”, “childhood epilepsy” and “ketogenic diet side effects”. Studies conclude that ketogenic diet is an effective remedy in seizure reduction. It comprises of very high fat, low protein and very low carbohydrates. Seizure reduction is due to decrease in the amount of reactive oxygen species which is a result of high ketone bodies and low glucose levels achieved by the use ketogenic diet, hence improving the condition of epileptic patients. It has proven efficacy in patients with epilepsy resistance to pharmacological treatment. In children it has positive or no impact on cognition, mood and behavior of children along with its antiepileptic properties. However further researches must be carried out to highlight the impact of ketogenic diet on cognition and mood of children. As ketogenic diet is high in fats, its long-term use may alter the lipid profile of patients. Moreover, gastrointestinal disturbances, insulin resistance has also been observed. Studies also show that there still need of clinical trials and researches in adult epileptic patients.
174 Association between Nutrition Knowledge on Diabetes and Dietary Practice of People Living with Diabetes Mellitus in Nandi County , Kimutai Sagam Caleb.
Diabetes mellitus is growing fast the world is witnessing. The incidence of alarming concern health care providers is rapidly rising. The main burden of this disease will fall on all developing countries. The number of diabetic patients will reach 300 million by the end of 2025 it is known through the estimation mostly developing countries will have such dramatic and significant impacts. Methodology: The quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study design was used with convenient sampling (n = 200). There was a relatively good knowledge (76.16%) among patients on dietary recommendations in management of type 2 DM. Older patients had lower level of education on recommended dietary practices. Consequently, knowledge on need to carry candy as a first aid when one is hypoglycemic was low. In addition, knowledge on the need for patients with type 2 DM to keep the times one consume their meals (meal timings) as well as consume snacks in between main meals in order to reduce incidences of hypoglycemia was low. Level of formal education of patients with type 2 DM influenced strongly the assimilation of information provided by healthcare providers. Age was also strongly associated with how much a patient was able to grasp information and remember. Continuous education on recommended dietary prac-tices was noted as important. Compliance to recommended dietary practices was 59.6%. Unlike the level of knowledge which was influenced by various demographic characteristics like age and level of formal education, compliance was not influenced by any of the assessed demographic factors. While the level of knowledge was high at 76.2%, this was found not to directly translate to compliance to recommended dietary practices in management of type 2 DM. Compliance to recommended practices was not influenced by level of knowledge on recommended dietary practices in man-agement of type 2 DM. Support by those related/living with the patients was reported as one of the strong facilitator towards compliance. Management of type 2 DM was reported to be resource intense; financially and time wise. It was therefore some-times difficult for patients to balance all aspects of recommendations.
175 Suggestions on Food and Lifestyle for Fighting Corona Virus by Boosting Immunity - A Holistic Approach , Aparna Kuna, Prabhat Kumar Mandal.
The world is going through a most critical threat now due to the Corona Virus Disease, 2019 (COVID 19). Here is the summery of the preventive holistic approach for boosting immunity and fight the disease better from inside. Here we propose following sugges-tions for reducing the chances of infection or to reduce the severity if infected: Take protein rich foods (Meat chicken, fish, eggs, milk and milk products any kind of pulses, beans and nuts) daily. Take any available fruits daily, especially citrus fruits (gooseberry, lemon, sweet lime, orange, pineapple), apple, pomegran-ate, banana etc. Take herbs and spices (turmeric, ginger, garlic, cardamom, cinnamon, tulasi) especially black jeera (Kalonji), is very effec-tive for Corona. Fruits and herbs can be taken as raw, juice, extract or dry as available. If not available take supplements, Vitamin-C, E (Evion), B Complex (Becosules, Cobadex CZS), Zincovit etc. Eat more vegetables, especially salads (tomato, cucumber, carrot, capsicum, radish, onion), honey, avoid smoking and Alco-hol. Daily Exercise, Yoga, Pranayam (Bhrastika, Anulom-Vilom, Kapalbhati) Meditation, Chanting (Mahamrityunjay Mantra) will improve immunity. Walk in sunlight and fresh air (in Terrace or Balcony during lockdown) daily morning and evening is very helpful for im-munity. Relax, take enough Rest and Sleep that will boost immunity. Take only essential updates, too much informations in social media may cause anxiety. Drink more tea (Chinese Doctors reported very good effect of tea on the corona patients), more water (warm), enough coconut water and citrus juice if infected.10. Finally, don't panic, fear and anxiety reduces immunity, be mentally strong and positive, pray with Full faith or rely on Na-ture to boost immunity and fight Corona.
176 Self-Defense: A Practical Approach to Combatting COVID-19 , Salam A Ibrahim, Rabin Gyawali, Hafize Fidan.
In order to elucidate the importance of the immune system with regard to the spread, diagnosis, and treatment of the novel COV-ID-19, this paper aims to emphasize the need for a more holistic approach to understand and treat the COVID-19. We have provided an overview of why high quality nutrition is important for the immune system to function properly. To do this, we have summarized the current evidence available from information being reported by the health authorities and studies in human subjects, to support this opinion. Though the available data in the literature is relatively scarce, we also offer our own informed opinions on the role of human microbiota (probiotics) in creating a natural immunological defense system for combating COVID-19. We thus hope that this paper will help to inspire scientists from other fields such as nutrition immunology to be involved in order to provide consumers with a more global approach to fighting this epidemic. If we want to eliminate the threat of this novel coronavirus pneumonia, we must practically address this issue itself.
177 A Mini-Review on an Association between Nutrition and Mucosal Immunity in the Midst of the COVID-19 Pandemic , Kyoka Matsubayashi, Minami Yoshiike,Yuji Aoki.
In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, which the World Health Organization officially declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020, we write a mini-review on an association between nutrition and mucosal immunity. The human immunity consists of non-specific innate immunity recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns and subsequent adaptive immunity specific for the target an-tigens. The immune system of the intestine as mucosal immunity must have functions to defend against constant threat of invading pathogens while suppressing immune responses to harmless dietary antigens and commensal bacteria. Nutrition seems to have a major role in non-heritable influences on the innate and adaptive immunity. It has been demonstrated in humans that some nutrients including β-glucan have the potential to boost the mucosal immunity to viral infections. Conversely, it is conceivable that continuing supplementation of (large-dose) β-glucans or lipopolysaccharides can suppress the innate immunity by stimulating regulatory T cells. For now, the impact of nutrition on human immunity should neither be overestimated nor be underestimated.
178 Whole-Genome Sequencing of Lactobacillus fermentum and its Application as Probiotic in Poultry Feed , Rafia Sameen, Shakira Ghazanfar.
Aviculture is the efficient animal production system and good source of animal protein worldwide. Poultry gastrointestinal tract houses certain microbial communities with bacteria being dominant above all. These bacteria produce beneficial products and result in non-pathogenic immune response providing nutrition and protection for animals. Antibiotic treatment causes reduction of benefi-cial bacterial population in intestine which can be controlled by probiotic supplements. Probiotics play their role to control intestinal pathogens by competing for adhesion sites and nutrients, producing anti-bacterial substances. Lactic acid bacteria could be a good probiotic for animal use among which Lactobacillus fermentum is major heterofermentative specie found to have probiotic potential and can be used in supplements for animal feed. Its probiotic potential was well studied by its tolerance to inhibitory substances like bile and salt, its antimicrobial activity and evaluation by supplementing it in poultry feed. To identify probiotic properties of Lactobacillus fermentum, its whole-genome was sequenced and analysed. Whole genome sequencing is a DNA sequencing technol-ogy that has revolutionized genomic research. Whole genome is sequenced, assembled and annotated using bioinformatics tool and then analyzed. Galaxy is one of most commonly used genome analysis tool that provides data analysis support through framework, to give simple interfaces to certain powerful tools and automatically manage computational details. Following to evaluation of pro-biotic potential through certain parameters and whole genome sequencing, antimicrobial resistance can also be evaluated to make a decision about safety of L. fermentum use as probiotic in poultry feed. Administration of L. fermentum to poultry showed beneficial effects on their growth.
179 Lactic Acid Bacteria: Promising Role against Coronaviruses , Mahnoor Nadeem, Aimen Saleem, Hamza Ali, Allah Nawaz Khan, Shakira Ghazanfar.
Gram-positive, nonpathogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered to be promising candidates for the development of novel, safe production and delivery systems of heterologous proteins. LABs have diverse beneficial applications for human welfare. LAB plays an important role in the industry for the synthesis of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, or other useful products in food industry. Certain Lactobacilli can induce an increase in the cellular or humoral systemic immune response, it acts as a vehicle to insert gene to produce required protein of interest. Many of the researcher find out the best possible way to utilize the beneficiaries of lactic role to combat recent coronavirus pandemic lactic acid bacteria concerning COVID-19. New recombinant strains and vectors continue to be constructed and described in detail what can lead in the near future to standardization of LAB vectors in vaccine production. The development of new LAB recombinant strains and vectors continue to be constructed and described in detail what can lead in the near future to standardization of LAB vectors in vaccine production for COVID-19.
180 Impact of Covid-19 on Agriculture and Food Supply , Shiamala Devi Ramaiya.
The Covid-19 continues to wreak havoc on many countries and create a lot of changes in people's everyday lives all over the world. As the Covid-19 pandemic is raging across the world, the broader economic crisis is also emerging and creating major challenges to food security and nutrition. Many of the affected countries have implemented a regional lockout policy. This strategy enforced a plethora of Covid-19 security measures such as movement control, supermarket, restaurant and market closure, quarantines and sup-ply chain and trade disruption which greatly impacted agricultural production, food supply and demand.
181 The Relationship between Nutritional Status, Sleep Quality and Depression in Shift Workers , Merve Kiran, Perim Fatma Türker.
Shift work expands globally and it has become necessary to increase productivity and provide continuously service in various sectors like industry. It has been identified as an important risk factor in the etiology of metabolic disorders and chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of sleep quality and depression with nutritional status of shift workers. A total of 170 male rotating shift workers of an industrial organization aged between 20 - 55 years participated in this study. A questionnaire which consisted of demographic and lifestyle characteristics was used. Weight, height, waist and neck circumferences (WC and NC) of participants were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were also calculated. Body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sleep quality was assessed by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), while anxiety and depression were estimated through Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire. The average age of participants was 40.1 ± 6.87 years. Among the 170 shift workers, 44.7% of them were pre-obese, and 35.3% were obese. As BMI increased, the percentages of poor sleep quality increased. There were positive correlations between PSQI score and WC, WHtR and body fat mass, and a negative correlation between total body water, which were found to be statistically significant. There was no relationship between depression and BMI, WC, WHtR and body fat mass. Participants with depressive symptoms had significantly higher prevalence of risk based on NC. HAD-D score was inversely correlated with fat free mass. This study showed that pre-obesity and obesity is common in shift workers. The previously reported relationship between obesity and poor sleep quality is supported. Sleep quality get worse as WC, WHtR and body fat mass increase, while total body water decrease. Decrease in fat free mass is associated with the development of depressive symptoms. These associations need to be verified in large studies. Based on the results, appropriate strategies including both employer and worker should be performed to reduce the detrimental health outcomes associated with shift work.
182 The Effect of Storage Conditions on Physicochemical, Microbial and Textural Properties of UHT-Processed Cheese , Mahmoud Ibrahim El-Sayed, Sameh Awad, Amel Ahmed Ibrahim.
This study investigated the effect of storage condition (time and temperature) on physicochemical, textural and microbial properties of UHT-Processed cheese. The UHT-processed cheese was stored in controlled incubators at 4, 18, 32 and 37°C (the study plan used the recommended temperature (4°C), the average of temperature in winter and springer (18°C), in summer (32°C) and in Upper Egypt in some year months (37°C)) and at room temperature (20 - 25°C in months of September – December) for 120 days. The results showed that there was no significant (P ≥ 0.05) changes were observed in the protein %, fat %, dry matter (DM %), and pH values of UHT-processed cheese during storage for 120 days at 4 and 18°C. On the other side, protein % and fat % were significant (P ≤ 0.05) increased during storage at 32°C, 37°C, while, the weight and pH values were decreased. On room temperatures, the fat% and DM% were increased by the end of storage (at day 120), while the protein% and pH values were not changed. The hardness, gumminess and chewiness were increased during storage at all temperatures, while the adhesiveness values were decreased. Springiness was not changed at 4 and 18°C, but it was increased at other storage temperature. Concerning the cohesiveness values, there was no significant (P ≥ 0.05) changes were observed except with sample stored at 37°C. No microorganisms were found in all processed cheese samples stored at different temperatures. These results confirmed that the best temperature to storage UHT- processed cheese is at 4°C followed by 18°C.
183 Presence of Mycotoxins and Heavy Metals in Organic Commercial Cereal-Based Foods Sold in Faisalabad Market , Yasir Abbas Shah, Muhammad Afzaal,Umar Farooq.
Epidemiological data indicates that mycotoxins and heavy metals can be harmful when ingested by humans and animals. The present study was conducted to report the presence of mycotoxins and heavy metals in organic commercial cereal-based products, available in the Faisalabad market. Forty-four samples of organic cereals products including wheat, barley, rice, oat and maize were examined for the presence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins), heavy metals (Pb, Cd) and trace elements (Cu, Zn, Ni). Results were induced and compared to the recommended levels. 23 (52.2%) of the collected samples were detected with the presence of aflatoxins in higher concentrations then allowed as according to the limits set by EU legislation for the presence of AFs. Wheat, oat, rice, barley and maize showed 61, 60, 54, 50 and 33% of the samples respectively contaminated with aflatoxins. 5 (11%) and 3 (6%) of the samples surpassed the allowed limit for Pb and Cd respectively. Trace elements were detected in higher amounts in some of the evaluated samples. Results of the present work specify the need of continuous monitoring of raw material and processed products regardless of them being organically grown or not, in order to minimize the risk of contamination in cereal-based foods.
184 Development and Evaluation of an Infusion of Red Tea (Camellia sinensis) with Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius) Enriched with β-Glucans for the Control Glycemia in Diabetic Persons , Adriana Beatriz Di Iorio, Crista Castillo, Luis David Naranjo, Raul Espinal, Donald Francisco Molina, Ludovic Boully, Ana Carolina Arévalo, Jose Miguel Chinchilla, Poliana Deyse Gurak.
An infusion of red tea with blackberries enriched with β-glucans for glycemic control in diabetic subjects was developed and evaluated by virtue of a high percentage of people using plant extracts as traditional medicine to meet their primary health care needs. A completely randomized block design was used to evaluate concentrations of red tea with dehydrated blackberry (50/50 and 75/25), temperatures (75 and 95°C) and infusion times (2 and 5 minutes) for preparation of beverage with higher content of total polyphenols. The selected treatment was evaluated in 30 diabetics for 28 days, who underwent anthropometric measures (weight, height, waist-hip circumference and blood pressure), biometric (glucose and cholesterol) and performed and food intake was analyzed through a 24-hour reminder. Results: The treatment with higher content of polyphenols was obtained with 75/25 red tea with blackberry, 95ºC and infusion for 5 minutes. Tea intake was associated with reductions in anthropometric measures of Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist-to-Hip Index (WHI). It was possible to extract greater content of total polyphenols with longer infusion temperature and time. There was a greater reduction in BMI at ages 45 - 65 years, glucose levels at ages 45 - 65 and > 65 years, total cholesterol levels at ages 45 - 65 years and diabetic patients had a normal distribution of dietary intake macronutrients.
185 Maccabi Integrated Care 3600 - A Holistic, Multidisciplinary Care Model for Complex Patient , Irony A, Abu Hussain H, Nigel Y, Landau T, Asch N.
While massive efforts are invested in chronic populations the outcomes are only partly satisfactory. The management and control of multiple chronic conditions requires comprehensive solutions. Maccabi Health Care Services, 2nd HMO in Israel, developed a multi-dimensional solution for complex patients that combines a conceptual, technological and treatment model. In this paper we present Integration 3600 - Maccabi Integrated Care (MIC) program. Using quasi-experimental methods we compare the effects of the MIC 3600on complex patients recruited in 2019 to similar patients in MHS registry. Potential cohort is derived from a matrix including the following parameters: age 50+, chronic diseases, multiple/high risk drugs, cognitive decline, function level, socioeconomic status (SES) and annual expenditure. Potential target population include about 19,000 patients scoring 5 - 10 in complexity score. MIC patients are recruited by primary physician. Control patients are matched through propensity score based on based on sex, age and complexity score. Outcomes of MIC vs. control were assessed comparing the following 6-months outcomes to the corresponding pre-entrance period for each MIC patient: care providers visits and average monthly costs.Results: The analysis included 241 matched pairs (MIC vs. control) of complex patients. Comparing the MIC patients' visits to care providers to matched control group prior and following the intervention we found the average number of visits to nurse, social worker and nutritionist increased significantly while among matched control patients the average number of visits to primary physician and nurse decreased significantly. Finally, we found a 20% decrease in overall monthly costs in MIC patients compared to a 8% decrease in control patients with hospitalization cost being the main contributor to this cost reduction (-54% in MIC vs. 2% in control, p < 0.05). MIC 3600 is a viable, sustainable and practical program. Our findings show that the implementation of the integrated model results in more visits to multidisciplinary care providers and that the program is cost saving. Furthermore, the initiative is transferable. This model or alike should be implemented in almost any community care setting with the dominance of primary care physicians.
186 Tips of Daily Healthy Food and Nutrition Intake During COVID-19 City Lockdown and Self-Quarantine , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn, Utoomporn Sittisingh
Maintaining a healthy immune diet during the COVID-19 pan-demic, strict city lockdown, or self-quarantine is causing much changes in individuals’ daily lives around the globe
187 Intervention by Post for Reducing the Chronic Use of High Doses of Proton Pump Inhibitors , Elena Valverde Bilbao, Amaia Mendizabal Olaizola, Guillermo Delgado Alvarado, Itxaso Idoiaga Hoyos, Daniel Hernández Amunarriz
Objectives: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the drugs most commonly prescribed in our setting. The objective of the intervention was to assess whether a letter sent by post is more effective in achieving a reduction/cessation of long-term high-doses of PPI use than usual practice. Methods: This was a randomised intervention study, with before-and-after outcome measures and a control group, in patients who had an active prescription for PPIs at high doses for at least 6 months. The intervention consisted of sending patients an informative letter by post, in which their doctor invited them to seek an appointment for a medication review. Control group patients did not receive such a letter, and they were treated as usual. The main outcome variable was the number of active prescriptions of each PPI dose (high dose/standard dose/treatment cessation) at 6 months after the intervention. Results: Six months after the intervention, 8% of control group patients and 16.4% of intervention group patients were not on any PPIs. Additionally, among those with active prescriptions for PPIs, 6% of controls and 20% of intervention group patients had reduced their intake to the standard dose. Overall, cessation/reduction in the intervention group was higher than in the control group, 36.4% vs 14%, the difference being significant (22.4%; 95% CI: 14.1 to 30.7). Conclusion: Sending a letter by post to patients who had been on high-dose PPI therapy for at least 6 months was found to be more effective for treatment cessation and/or dose reduction than usual practice
188 Salt- An Overview , Aparna Nagendra, Namratha Pramod, Seema Mukund
Pythagoras stated “Salt is born of the purest parents - “The Sun and the Sea”. Salt always takes the small but significant role in our diet. In this paper, we have mainly aimed on salt and its consumption. As it is the single common ingredient used across all cuisines in the world from ancient times and one the major element in the diet which plays a crucial role on health. It is generally called as ‘Com-mon Salt’ and also widely used in the processing technology and preservation of foods. Due to urbanization and globalization, there has been a change in the eating pattern of the population, and adequate nutrition is essential for a healthy life. But, health effects are related to sodium which is linked with increased consumption of salt and it is one of the most important determinants of high blood pressure, cardiovascular risk and other diseases worldwide. This calls for creating awareness and educating the population regard-ing the daily salt consumption and also the hidden salt in various preserved foods. Encouraging on healthy eating pattern is the main criteria. An attempt was also made to introduce our readers to the different kinds of salts available in the shelves of supermarket.
189 Local Food and Beverages as a Tool for Regional Tourism Development: Case Study , Iveta Hamarneh
The aim of the paper is to introduce and evaluate the Ústí nad Labem region for food tourism. The Region belongs to the less visited areas in the Czech Republic although Region offers suitable conditions for tourism development. We can assume that the interest in local food in frame of food tourism in the Region can subsequently increase overall visitation of Ústín ad Labem Region. Methods which were used for completing the paper included literature review, content analysis of documents and case study.
190 Dietary and Life Habits of Obesity and Brown Rice Eaters among Genmai Evidence for Nutritional Kenko Innovation (GENKI) Study I and II , Masahito Takahashi1, Shaw Watanabe, Azusa Hirakawa, Shoich Mizuno
The relationship between diet and health is a field that requires more research in an ultra-aging society. A questionnaire survey was conducted, to compare groups of brown rice and natural foods eaters, with residential population to clarify the relationship between the brown rice eaters and obese people. The total number of respondents was 7183. The odds ratio to be obesity was 1.67 among white rice eaters, while it was 0.48 among brown rice eaters. The consumption of food items as side dishes showed a characteristic trend among white rice eaters, while it was 0.48 among brawn rice eaters. Brown rice eaters consumed significantly more carrots, green yellow vegetables, burdock, lotus roots, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, yam, sesame, salty plum pickles (umeboshi), peanut, chestnut, mushrooms, dried mushrooms (shiitake), sea weed (nori, konbu), red bean (azuki), and soy milk. They did not consume meat and fish, but soy protein and other plant protein substituted to meat and fish. The polished white rice eaters of obesity group preferentially consumed sweet bread, broccoli, bell pepper, eggplant, banana, grapefruit, red meat fish like tuna, beaf, cow and pig meat, egg, dairy products, sugar, and mayonnaise. They also consumed coffee and soft drinks, chocolate, cakes, ice cream and jelly.Brown rice contains many functional ingredients that have various effects on physiological functions, such as innate immunity, recognition, etc., so these should be effective in aging and post corona society.
191 Emerging Landscape in the Management of Covid 19. Role of Pidotimod , Pradyut Waghray,  Kunal Waghray
The burden of Covid 19 is increasing all over the world. Pidoti-mod, an Immunomodulator had been used in COPD patients to prevent the exacerbations of COPD and also in the prevention of Recurrent respiratory tract infections both in adults and children successfully.
192 Developing the Human Factor in an Integrated Health Organization , Maria Luz Jauregui García, Maria Luisa Merino Hernández, Arantxa Urruzola Lizarribar, Nagore Lora Laca, Iobat Jiménez Jauregui, Francisco Serna Rodríguez
This article describes a formative and participatory understanding with the aim of fostering a relational culture that facilitates the transition to a patient-centered care model by improving communication. It consists in transmitting the advances of neuroscience and technology related to unit professionals through a common communication code that highlights the importance of the human factor. In addition, the values of the organization are worked, based on professionals, through collaborative work in each UAP.It analyses ns results of the intervention, highlighting do that professionals manifest as very positive the being able to share values in the way of understanding human relationships. They also show that the project has allowed us to generate discussion and reflection on how to communicate.Working these values from the perspective of professionals acts as a facilitator to feel the culture of the organization as their own.Participants can improve their personal relationship as this intervention encourages the sharing of beliefs and willgo in a relaxed environment.
193 Ready-to-Cook Fish Steaks from Catla Fish with High Nutritional Value and Longer Shelf Life , Priyam Sharma, Bibha Chetia Borah
The demand for fish is very high in the NE Region of India, where 95-100% of populations of the constituent states are fish eaters. As domestic production is not sufficient to meet the demand of people, the gap between demand and production is met by importing from other states and neighboring countries. However the preservation and transportation process exercised for the import, always leaves a question mark regarding quality of the product. Processing of raw fish to make it pan-ready is often not convenient for consumers particularly for the urban population. The present communication deals with development of a protocol for ‘ready-to-cook’ steak from Catla (Catla catla) with good nutritional quality and longer shelf life to meet consumers’ demand. The present communication includes quality evaluation of Catla fish steaks treated with different antimicrobial agents viz., dry salt (T1), vinegar (T2), salt + turmeric (T3), salt+ turmeric+ vinegar (T4), vacuum packed and stored for a period of 21 days at -18°C at definite interval of days and assessment of its economic viability for commercial application. Out of the treatments, T4 was the best treatment in view of the highest average crude protein content (20.11%), ash content (0.189%), acceptability (8.94), taste value (8.94), flavor (8.44) and texture value (8.81) with zero microbial load up to 21 days of storage. The results indicate a viable protocol for entrepreneurship development through commercial production of ‘ready-to-cook’ fish steaks from Catla with high nutritional quality and long shelf life up to 21 days of storage.
194 ACTA 2 Mutations and Risk of Premature Myocardial Infarction , Fatemeh Hajibabaie, Mohammad Hossein Modarressi, Masoumeh Sadeghi, Laleh Shariati
Premature myocardial infarction (MI) is characterized by high re-infarction rates, the occurrence of severe heart fail-ure and therefore significant cardiovascular long-term mortality at a young age. Previous studies demonstrated that one of the most important risk factors in younger patients is family history and genetic factors. This research was launched to assess the association of ACTA 2 genetic variations with premature MI.Materials and Methods: Out of eighty unrelated patients with premature MI referred to health center, patients with autosomal dominant premature MI were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, diabetes and smoking. Genomic DNA was extracted from the whole peripheral blood. Eight exons and intron/exon boundaries of the ACTA2 gene were amplified, and all the amplicons were subject to Sanger sequencing. Results: According to thecriteria, 16 patients were included in our research. No mutations were found in ACTA2 gene in our pro-bands.
195 Perspective on Childhood Eating Habits among Rural and Urban Children in Saudi Arabia , Nawal A Alissa
This discussion will be addressing the perspective about Child-hood Eating Habits among Rural and Urban Children in Saudi Ara-bia, it has been discovered that healthy eating habits in children is becoming more difficult to achieve for mothers due to the more changing times and busy working schedule for modern mothers.
196 Nutrition and Anaemia in Women in Reference to Odisha , Puspanjali Mishra
Anaemia is a condition in which the number of red blood cells or their oxygen-carrying capacity is insufficient to meet physiolog-ic needs, which vary with age, sex, attitude, smoking and pregnan-cy status, if any Today anaemia is a big health problem of many people as it causes mortality.
197 Intake of Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Creatine Monohydrate and Green Tea in a Milk Matrix and Variations in Body Composition in Human Volunteers , C Ramón de Cangas Morán, C Aldo Hernández Monzón, Karina Torres Escandón, Purificación López Sela, Ignacio Brime Casanueva, Karel Torres Miranda, Pedro López Díaz, C Andrés Llavona Fernández, Jose Ramón Bahamonde Nava, Fernando Rojo Fernández
Overweight and obesity are increasingly frequent in the world. This fact has a high cost for health and excess body fat increases the risk of chronic and cardiovascular diseases. Proper dietary guidelines along with an active life can promote the maintenance of a healthy weight. It is also possible that some functional foods may serve as a fast. Conjugated linoleic acid is a well-studied substance, and in different studies it has been suggested that it can help to modify the body composition, so it could avoid that it is interesting to include it, only in the company of other substances such as creatine monohydrate or green tea, which have also suggested certain effects on body composition, in certain food matrices for specific functional foods to help reduce the percentage of body fat.
198 Why are we a Sensitive Population to COVID-19? , Maldonado-Vega M, Farias-Serratos F
For many years, the Mexican population has modified their eat-ing habits and lifestyle. Modernization favored spectacular things with electrification, the introduction of television in each home, the intubation and distribution of drinking water, introduction in various hygiene and health measures, national vaccination in-creased the longevity of the Mexican population, we went from 65 years to 75 years olds in the 70's, and currently we reach an av-erage longevity of 80 years of age
199 Gluten Linked to Autoimmune Disease, Bowel Diseases and More , Sara Kittaneh
You may be wondering how something so mainstream could be harmful to your gut. Wouldn’t we all be sick? Well, unfortunately, it has become mainstream to have a chronic illness such as heart disease, cancer, or an autoimmune disease and the rates are rising. Gluten has been linked to more than 55 diseases and an estimated 99% of people who have either celiac or non-celiac gluten sensitiv-ity are never diagnosed.
200 Iron-Containing Heme Homeostasis: Critically Impacts on Pulmonary Physiological and Pathological Processes and Balance between Health and Disease , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn, Utoomporn Sittisingh
Proteins, the building blocks of life are the major source of nutrients. Digested proteins release amino acids to the body for cellular energy generation. In addition to amino acids, proteins also provide metal, particularly iron that is most abundant in the human body. One adult human body requires approximately 3 - 4 grams of iron. Heme and non-heme iron are two forms found in dietary iron
201 Role of Immunity Boosting Nutritional Foods and COVID-19 , Mishra P, Mohapatra AK,Maharana S
“Health is wealth”. Keeping oneself healthy is one of the concerns today. Depending on the climate, regions, places many people eat their local foods and keep themselves fit. Some do yoga and exercise along with the food. But it has been seen that a balanced nutritional diet is the main cause of the keeping a person fit. Depending on the diseases proper foods are advised. Today WHO has declared the CoVID-19 cases as pandemic. The whole world is panic now. In this situation making your immunity through your daily available food is one of the important issues. Of course side by side breathing exercise is advised. In this report, Nutrition related issues in relations to immunity to avoid infection of COVID -19 is discussed, besides maintaining social distancing among people, use of mask and repeated hand washing.
202 Nanomaterials in Food Processing and Packaging, its Toxicity and Food Labeling , Amra Bratovcic
Over the past few decades, nanotechnology has increasingly been considered to be attractive technology that has revolutionized the food sector. Nanomaterials, unlike conventional microscale materials, having novel characteristics can improve sensory quality of foods by imparting novel texture, colour, appearance, processability and stability during shelf life. The physicochemical charac-teristics of a nanomaterial are important as they can affect the outcome of the risk assessment. This paper provides an overview of the application of nanotechnology in the field of food processing and packaging. In addition, this paper also discussed toxic effects of nanomaterials and food labeling. The results of this paper shows that today there is a divided opinion on the use of nanotechnology in food processing and packaging because on the one hand there are the results of the study which reveal that the majority of consumers prefer the use of nanotechnology-based solutions, while on the other hand there is immense public concern regarding the toxicity and environmental effect of these nanoparticles.
203 Sensory Characteristics of Three Different Levels of Turmeric Powder on Beef Stick Product , Wannee Tangkham
The objective of this study was to evaluate sensory characteristics of a beef stick product with three levels of turmeric powder (TP). Specifically, these three levels of TP include: 1) 0% TP; 2) 1% TP and 3) 2% TP. Each treatment was evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. Fifty-eight untrained participants evaluated the beef stick product for acceptability of appearance, color, texture, flavor, taste, and overall liking. With respect to overall liking, beef stick product with 1% TP was the most desirable with a score of 7.13, fol-low by the control treatment (6.84) and 2% TP was least desirable with a score of 6.81. Additionally, beef stick product with added turmeric received positive participant ratings with respect to acceptability and purchase intent with and without health claims. Therefore, adding TP to a beef stick product might be a marketable alternative to original beef stick product.
204 The Analysis of Health Expenditure as a Determinant of Economic Growth in 37 High Income Countries , Özlem Özsoy, Metin Gürler
Labour force, which is one of the main factors of production function with capital input in traditional economic growth theory, has got an important effect on a country’s economic growth. So a productive labour force is crucial for an economy. An in-crease in health expenditure improves good health care to the citizens. Since people who were provided by good health care feel themselves more productive, the increasing productivity in labour force and working hours cause an economic growth hence en-hancement in income (Gross Domestic Product, GDP) and income per capita (IPC) in a country incessantly. Also higher IPC means better access to the health services which were supplied by public and private sectors in a country. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the share of health expenditure in GDP (HEXP) and IPC data and vice versa for 37 High Income Countries (HIC). Methods:Cross-section data (CSD) analysis and panel data (PD) analysis consisting of random and fixed effects estimations were used in the study to investigate the relationship between HEXP and IPC for selected country group. Results: According to the random effects model (RAM) and fixed effects model (FEM) with PD analysis and CSD analysis in the study, HEXP is found as one of the determinants of IPC and IPC as a main determinant of HEXP in 37 HIC. Granger causality test is also ap-plied to test the direction of causality between HEXP and IPC for HIC and Turkey. It is obviously seen that IPC Granger causes HEXP increase whereas we can’t reject HEXP doesn’t cause IPC hypothesis according to Granger test statistics for PD. There is also no proven correlation between two variables for CSD analysis. Conclusion: In the study after the analysis of 37 HIC together it is found that IPC promotes HEXP not at once but in a time period. In the manuscript our results show that economic growth Granger causes HEXP increase and HEXP does not Granger cause IPC for PD. For CSD there is no relationship between HEXP and IPC. The case of IPC not increasing to a high income level from middle income stuck on a threshold is called in literature as "Middle Income Trap (MIT)". So guiding how HIC jumped from middle class to high income class is important for the emerging countries (EC) to avoid the "MIT". EC should increase HEXP to improve labour force productivity, which will cause a rapid economic growth as developed countries have done in past.
205 Ketogenic Diet Modifies the Expression of MicroRNAs Linked to Migraine , Roberto Cannataro, Maria Cristina Caroleo, Antonio Siniscalchi, Luca Gallelli, Giovambattista De Sarro, Erika Cione
Epidemiological studies have emphasized the relationship between migraine and obesity also pointing out its prevalence in the female sex. The mechanisms promoting pain migraine in obese subjects prone to this neurological disorder is multifactorial, among these the overproduction of soluble mediators favoring neural inflammation, psychological and behavioral risk factors. The ketogenic diet (KD) is a well-recognized as a therapeutic option for refractory pediatric epilepsy and a promising prophylactic treatment for episodic and chronic migraine in the adult. Performing a pilot study on the capability of KD to modulate a plethora of 800 microRNAs (miRs), a group of female obese subjects, 6 of 18 self-reported a reduction of the frequency and the intensity of migraine-pain attacks. Therefore, we check for miRs linked to migraines. The effects of KD seem to be mediated by specific serum hsa-miR-590-5p, hsa-miR-660-3p modulation
206 Sericin Peptide Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis Via Mitochondrial Function Modulation , Na Ryung Choi, Hyeon Tae Kang, Seung Min Lee, Yeon-Lim Suh, Hyukjin Kwon, Jaekyu Noh, Sang Bong Ahn, Dae Won Jun
Sericin is a component of cocoons. Studies have shown that sericin improves metabolic disease in animal model. However, it is not yet known whether sericin is effective in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Twenty C57BL/6N mice were divided into control and sericin treated group. High fat diet was fed to mice for 10 weeks. From 11th to 21st week sericin and distilled water were administered assigned groups via oral gavage. Body weight and liver to body weight ratio was assessed. AST, ALT, triglyceride, cho-lesterol and blood glucose levels were measured. qRT-PCR, Electro-microscopy, and Free fatty acid induced lipotoxicity assay were performed. Mitochondrial membrane potential was checked. As a result, there were no differences in body weight and diet intake in two groups. However, liver weight and liver/body weight ratio were significantly decreased in sericin group than in control group. Both the degree of hepatic steatosis and inflammation were lower in sericin group than the control group. NAFLD activity score were also decreased in treatment group. Serum ALT, AST, and triglyceride levels as well as area under receiver operating characteristics of oral glucose tolerance test were significantly decreased in sericin group. Hepatic mRNA expressions of TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6 mRNA were decreased in sericin group. Electron microscopy findings showed restoration of abnormal mitochondria with sericin treatment. Lipotoxicity induced HepG2 cell death was significantly attenuated in palmitic acid and sericin co-treated cells. Sericin also prevented palmitic acid induced mitochondrial depolarization. In conclusion, Sericin peptide treatment attenuated non-alcoholic steatohepati-tis via mitochondrial function modulation.
207 Effect of Using Different Plant Milk as Alternative Milk in Rice Pudding , EL-Sisy TT, Jehan B Ali
The aim of study was to produce healthy rice pudding by replacement of cow milk with plant milk as alternative milk and study their effect on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties. Plant milk was produced from black eyes-bean, chick-peas, white lima-bean, oats, rice, soya-bean, yellow corn and cow milk served as control. Protein ranged between 1.7 to 6.02% and the white lima beans had the highest protein value (6.02%). Rice pudding of cow milk the highest value of ash (0.79%) and the lowest value was yellow corn (0.04). Fat % ranged from 0.20 to 3.32% and rice pudding of cow milk the highest fat% (3.32%). Carbohydrate increased with the grains and rice pudding of rice milk the highest carbohydrate values (68.83%). Viscosity of rice pudding of Rice milk were the highest between rice pudding samples and were the best in organoleptic properties. Data also indicated that as a result of pH and acidity of different prepared milk samples and pudding samples. Microbiological analysis of milk samples and rice pudding from plant milk were determined. Viscosity was higher for the rice pudding (16800Cp/s) with low acidity (0.05%) than other samples. Differences in sensory attributes were associated with different rice pudding from plant milk and cow milk. Rice pudding of chick peas milk obtained the least score (16.50) for body and texture whereas rice pudding of cow milk, rice pudding of oats milk, rice pudding of yellow corn milk and black eyed beans received the highest score (19.50, 19.0, 19.0 and18.83 respectively). Sensorial, rice pudding of yellow corn and rice pudding of rice milk is more acceptability than other treatment after the rice pudding of cow milk control. Thus we recommend to use the plant milk in rice pudding especially, rice pudding of rice milk and rice pudding of Yellow corn milk to give the consumer a new nutraceutical product with prebiotic substances for milk allergy, sensitivity children and plant people.
208 Additives: Regulation in Colombia and Risks in the Salt of the Child Population , Angela Maria Wilches Flórez, Francy Sandoval Barbosa, Angie Catalina Ramos Geraldine, Casas Ortega
In Colombia, there is little information regarding the serious health problems that children face as they are subjected to the consumption of food products from the family basket and school support, which have multiple additives harmful to their long-term health. In addition, the regulation of the food industry ineffective. For this reason, three additives commonly found in food in the family basket and easily accessible to the child population were studied: tartrazine, aspartame and monosodium glutamate, in aspects such as their consumption, their effects and their regulation according to Colombian legislation. From this, it seeks to provide a bioethical perspective of the facts mentioned above by analyzing the decrees and policies that govern Colombian companies and how this could directly affect the child population.
209 Pharmaceutical Industry Report , Gisele Ferreira De Souza
For decades now, pharmaceuticals have been developed and de-signed to be stable as possible to avoid degradation before reach-ing their eventual recipient. The next 10 - 15 years could be an era of great progress and growth. In this period, we have the tech-nological, financial and human resources to raise living standards across the world. Good policies that support investment and inno-vation can further reduce poverty and hunger, make fast-growing cities economically vibrant and socially inclusive, and restore and protect the world’s natural environments.
210 Therapeutics of Red Golden Threads- Saffron , Anjana Agarwal
Red golden threads of saffron are divine delight when sub-merged in milk and added in different cuisine of the world. The ra-diance of its distinct colour and aroma calls for complete refresh-ment, richness and rejuvenation. It symbolizes the royalty and auspiciousness when put on the forehead as kesar tilak. Saffron word comes from the French word “Safran” meaning yellow or red gold. Saffron is obtained as the stigma of the mauve coloured flow-er of Crocus sativus. It is mainly cultivated in Iran, India and Greece. Can you imagine yield of saffron? Over 70,000 flowers yield only 500g of saffron threads .
211 The Impact of Nutrition Education of Parents on Food Choices of Their Children , Pınar Göbel, Aydan Ercan, Sinem Bayram
This study aimed to determine whether periodically healthy nutrition educations given to parents effect their nutritional knowledge and healthy food choices of all family. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 20 parents and their 25 children in a preschool. Parents of children aged be-tween 1 and 6 who agreed to participate in the study were included in the study. Parents were given a total of 180 minutes of educa-tion on healthy nutrition in 3 sessions, each of which took around 60 minutes. Food choices and WHO BMI z scores of children were compared before and after education. Results: The effect of all three educations on the BMI of the children was revealed that while children with normal BMI was 8% in the first education, it was 28% at the end of the third education. The comparison of the food consumption records of the children showed that the intake of many nutrients including protein, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acid, vitamin C, calcium, and iron increased significantly after education. On the other hand, particularly white bread consumption of parents was found to decrease after educa-tion sessions, while their vegetable and fruit-herbal tea consumption increased. The effect of the education on eating behavior was evident in males. Conclusion: After the nutrition education, parents were found to make healthy choices for their children even though they did not apply adequately for their own food choices. It is important to provide nutrition education to families with preschoolar children.
212 Nutrient Assessment and Potential Renal Load of Solutes in Infant Powder Formulas Available on the Honduran Market , Adriana Beatriz Di Iorio, Erika Yomalli Mera Cruz, Aquileo Daniel González De León Gómez,Adriana Hernandez Santana
TInfant formulas (FIP) are food products that have been modified to partially or totally satisfy the physiological needs of the baby, manufactured under the rules of the Alimentarius Codex. Objective: To evaluate whether the FIP available in the Honduran market comply with the international regulations European Soci-ety for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGAN) and the European Technical Regulation (RTS), regarding the potential renal load of solutes (CRPS) and the content of vitamins, minerals and proteins. Methods: The sample was 39 FIP, descriptive statistics was used, a review of the nutritional labeling was performed and the CRPS of each FIP was estimated. Statistical correlation was established between minerals, proteins and CRPS using the SPSS 25.0 program. Results: 55% of FIP come from Mexico, the estimated CRPS is correlated with their protein content; FIP CRPS for > 1 year was 237.28 mOsm/L and 130.36 mOsm/L on average. A higher caloric and micronutrient concentration was observed in FIP for premature in-fants. In all FIP, the macronutrient content was in accordance with the recommendations of ESPGAN and RTS.   Conclusion: FIPs of 0 - 12 months do not comply with the CRPS recommendation for the age of 0 - 6 months. The fat-soluble vitamins were located in the minimum limits established by the RTS. 5% of the FIP evaluated contained trans fatty acids and for over a year were above the maximum limit established for vitamin B3.
213 Perception Why the Prefecture has a Longer Life Expectancy Among Japanese Students , Tatsuya Koyama
One reason to study life expectancy may be to determine desirable health behaviours. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clarify which Japanese prefectures university students recognise as having the longest lifespans and why. In June 2020, a self-ad-ministered questionnaire was completed by 32 first-year college students (3 males and 29 females) at a registered dietician train-ing school in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. In order to determine the students’ perceptions, the following question was asked: "What prefecture do you think has the longest life expectancy?" The reasons were limited to dietary habits due to the characteristics of the department, and answers were written out freely. Additionally, the questionnaire included: "Why do you think that prefecture has the longest life expectancy? Please write the reasons, including dietary habits." Nagano was most frequently chosen by the students as the prefecture with the longest life expectancy (n = 24; 75%). The extracted words were "vegetable" (mentioned 28 times), "in-take" (21 times), "salt" (14 times), "fruit" (10 times), "reduced salt" (4 times), "nutrient" (4 times), and "miso soup" (4 times). Most students thought that desirable dietary habits included more vegetable intake and less salt.
214 Nutrition and Quarantine , Vinayaka AM
The unexpected appearance of Coronavirus disease (COV-ID-19) in Wuhan, China and its overall speedy transmission has made all of the humankind in the holds of a dangerous hands of pandemic, the last era of pandemic was observed with the Spanish Flu in 1918. Health care workers and general wellbeing authorities around the world, trying very hard to fight COVID-19 to spare lives and forestall further cases. Albeit some pharmacological investi-gations and even immunization preliminaries are in progress, the COVID-19 pandemic presents us with deficient information and stretches the restrictions of preeminent suppository.
215 Chemical and Mineral Composition of Biscuit Produced from Wheat and Bambara Groundnut Flour , Adegbanke OR, Osundahunsi OF, Enujiugha VN
NThe aim of this study was to determine the potential of bambara groundnut, an under utilised legume for use both as flour and protein isolate in biscuit production. Sixteen response surface methodology (RSM) runs were evaluated from combination of wheat flour (WF), bambara groundnut flour (BF) and bambara protein isolate (BPI). Based on the crude protein and functional properties these ratios were selected WF: BF (85.0:15.0%, 76.2:23.8% and 52.5:47.5%) and labeled as WBF1, WBF2, WBF3, respectively with WF: BPI (85.0:15.0%, 76.2:23.8% and 52.5:47.5%) as WBPI1, WBPI2 and WBPI3 for blends of wheat flour and bambara protein isolate respectively. The proximate and mineral composition of the composite flour blends and biscuits were determined. Data were analysed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significance at P < 0.05. The wheat-bambara groundnut flour, wheat-bambara groundnut protein isolate and biscuits contained (g/100g) moisture (9.43-9.63), (1.64-3.59), (6.70-7.60), (4.00-5.70), to-tal ash (0.79-1.76), (2.83-3.37), (1.00-170), (2.50-2.80) and crude protein, wheat-bambara groundnut flour (14.41-21.67), wheat-bambara groundnut protein isolate (32.42-61.10) and biscuits (15.30-20.10) (26.20-46.20) g/100g were recorded respectively. The carbohydrate content for wheat-bambara flour (62.47-66.75) g/100g, wheat-bambara protein isolate flour (31.56-61.21) g/100g and biscuits (63.10-67.00), (40.50-5750) g/100g. The mineral composition (mg/100g): sodium ranged from (442.06 to 960.36) for wheat-bambara composite flour, biscuit (3.12-4.77) and calcium ranged from (94.33-494.88) for wheat-bambara composite flour, biscuit (2.08-3.82) respectively. Among the trace metals, copper ranged between for wheat-bambara composite flour (14.80-35.11), biscuit (0.04-0.06) and manganese ranged between for wheat-bambara composite flour (8.00-26.03), biscuit (0.21-0.31) were high in the composite flour and low in the biscuit samples. Lead was not detected in both the flour samples and the biscuit. The calculated mineral ratios Na/K of the composite flour was (0.24-0.41) and biscuits (0.58- 0.92) respectively. Ca/P ratio for wheat-bambara composite flour (1.07-2.42) and biscuit (2.00- 2.47). The Ca/P ratios in the composite flour and biscuits samples were greater than recommendation of > 1.0, this will help to increase the absorption of calcium on the small intestine.It could be concluded that, the study remarkably developed flour and biscuit with high contents of crude protein, calcium, and phosphorus.
216 Physico-Chemical Analysis of Honey Produced in Bako-Tibe District, Western Showa Zone, Oromia Region, Western Ethiopia , Million Chimdessa; Desalegn Begna,
Honey production is a long-standing practice in the rural communities of Ethiopia in general and Oromia regional state in particu-lar. However, there is scanty information with regards to the quality of the honey produced in the most parts of Oromia. The study was conducted to assess the Physico-Chemical Analysis of honey produced around Bako Tibe district, western Showa, Ethiopia. A total of 13 fresh honey samples each weighing 50 gram were randomly collected from three agro-ecologies of the district. The collected honey samples were analyzed in the laboratory for their physico-chemical parameters. The average results indicated that 19.81%, 4.23, 21.43meq, 0.11 % for moisture, pH, free acidity and ash, respectively. According to this analysis, the results of all the samples fall within acceptable ranges for the national and international standards. This study investigated and availed the honey quality results of study area and ascertained all the values concur with local and international requisites. Owing to lack of testing facility, the informa-tion on the honey safety aspects still remain blurred, requiring further investigations
217 Effects of Yogurt Supplementation and Exercise on Body Composition during Lactation , Alexis Sharkey, Lauren San Diego, Tiffany Fuller, Roberta Claro da Silva, Salam A Ibrahim, Heather L Colleran
Breastfeeding reduces long-term maternal pregnancy weight retention but also results in high bone turnover. Dairy intake and exercise have bone-protective effects in pre-menopausal women during weight loss. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of yogurt supplementation and exercise on body composition and bone mineral density in lactating women 8 - 20 weeks postpartum. At 8-wks postpartum, women were randomized into an intervention group [IG, n = 6 that received yogurt supplementa-tion (≥ 3d/wk, 6oz each day) and exercise (3 d/wk, 45 min/d, ≥ 10,000 steps/d)] or a control group (CG, n = 2, no dietary or exercise intervention) for 12-wks. Dual x-ray absorptiometry measured body composition (weight, fat mass, lean body mass) and bone min-eral density. A submaximal treadmill test predicted VO2 max. Three-day dietary records were collected using Nutrition Data System for Research software. Due to COVID-19, results are reported without comparisons between groups. IG body composition and bone changes were similar to previous studies. Dietary intake did not differ between groups and both groups met the Recommended Di-etary Allowance for carbohydrates and protein (g) intake. IG compliance for 3 d/wk of yogurt consumption and exercise was 97% and 90%, respectively. The study provided preliminary data on dairy intake and exercise on body composition during lactation
218 Assessment of Nutrition Status of School-Going Children of Age 8 - 16 Years: District Lahore - Pakistan , Hira Akram, Safa Akram, Sajid Khan Tahir, Ahmad Ali
Nutrition status is the general conditioning of the body while nutrition assessment is a systematic process of verifying and inter-preting data to make decisions about the nature and cause of nutrition-related problems. The present study was conducted to assess the nutrition status of school-going children age 8 - 16 years in Lahore city, Pakistan. The study aim was to identify the children who were at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional assessment was carried out among both genders male and female. It was a cross-sectional survey and the sample size was two hundred (200). Randomly, male and female students were selected. A questionnaire was designed to collect data. An interview technique was used to fill the questionnaire. Questions were related to demographic data, anthropometric data, frequency of meals consumption and food frequency data. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Data were presented in tables (percentages) and pie charts. The present study result showed that most children have normal body mass index percentile. Children were consuming eggs, wheat flat bread without oil (Chapatti) and milk on a daily basis. Mostly children were taking breakfast, lunch and dinner on a daily basis. Most of them were not taking bedtime snacks. Few children were consuming miscellaneous and fast foods. So, based on the results it was concluded that the majority of school-going children have healthy eating habits and good nutritional status
219 Multisectoral Nutrition Implementation in Burkina Faso: Organization, Collaboration and Support of Contributing Sectors at Regional Level , Dieudonné Diasso, Maimouna Halidou Doudou, Aly Savadogo
Among other aspects of nutrition capacities, the state of human, material, financial resources and technical structures’ organiza-tion in Burkina-Faso are not exhaustive nor assessed to date. The objective of this evaluation study was to analyze the various capaci-ties of the contributing key sectors in nutrition of the Regional Directorates, and to identify gaps and challenges for their support to a successful implementation of the national nutrition plan. Tools and resources proposed by the Framework for Nutrition Capacity, recently developed by the United Nations Network for Scaling Up Nutrition was used with an adapted analytical framework. The methodology consisted on documentary reviews, data collection and analysis from evaluation surveys. Nearly 96% of Regional Direc-torates, in all key sectors, highlighted the unavailability of adequate skills to support the expansion of nutrition services. Only 17.6% of the Regional Directorates have nutrition training plan, against 79.7%. A certain number of external factors, which hindered the effective implementation of activities, was underlined by 60.8% of the technical structures, and the existence of an internal dialogue on nutrition within the Directorate is only effective in 23% of cases. The results show a strong involvement of the Regional Director-ates in the Regional Food Security Councils, and moderate for the Regional Social Protection Units and low or even non-existent for the Regional Nutrition Consultation Councils. In a national context where dialogue and synergy between the different coordination bodies and stakeholders at the central level remain problematic, it is more necessary to reinforce nutrition regional dialogue around the governorate, in order to successfully scale up multisectoral interventions in the country.
220 Effectual Gold Nanoprobe Sensor for Screening Cow Milk Adulteration in Goat Milk , Jose Manuel Llopis Ortiz, Dimitra Panagiotis Houhoula, Efstathia Tsakali, Sophie Pytel
Different methods of detection have been used to detect milk adulteration, but in recent years the use of nanomaterials has demonstrated to be an interesting tool in this field, because of their interesting optical properties. A gold nanoparticle (AuNP) probe strategy for testing milk authenticity was developed, which relies on the colorimetric differentiation of a particular DNA sequence, due to the differential aggregation profiles exhibited by the AuNPs in the presence or absence of specific target hybridization. Gold nanoparticles were conjugated with thiolated oligonucleotides which specifically amplify a 271 bp fragment of cow mitochondrial DNA. In the presence of a complementary target preventing aggregation of the AuNPs when acid was added, the reaction mixtures retained the original pink coloration of the colloidal particles, whereas they turned purple in the opposite event. Negative and goat reaction mixtures showed a purplish coloured solution with a peak at ≥570nm, while samples containing bovine DNA have an absorbance closer to the characteristic peak of the AuNPs at 520-525 nm. Presence of bovine milk even at traces levels was detected, achieving a level of detection comparable with PCR + Electrophoresis. The use of AuNPs for the colorimetric detection of DNA targets from undeclared species in milk products provides an inexpensive and easy-toperform alternative to common molecular assays. However, the tested oligonucleotides only proved to be effective under very concrete conditions, due to their low specificity. The technology described here can be further developed and more specific oligonucleotides are advised to be tested. Even though, this method offers the possibility to accommodate for detection of many cases of adulteration and fraudulent practices in different food matrices.
221 Malnutrition Trends in School Children of Madinah Al Munawarrah-A Cross-Sectional study , Atta UR Rehman Khan, Meshal Al Malki
Malnutrition is considered a major challenge in the area of public health nutrition. But recently the clear footprints have been spotted by researchers at remarkable magnitude even in the developing as well as developed countries. National studies to predict Malnutrition prevalence in Saudi Arabia are lacking. To date no study has been conducted to find out prevalence of Malnutri-tion in the 2nd holiest city of Muslims Al Madinah Al Munawarrah located on western part of Saudi Arabia. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Malnutrition in school children of Madinah Al Munawarrah-Saudi Arabia.Methods: Participants were healthy school boys and girls aged 05 - 18 years. It was a cross-sectional stratified study. Total sample size was 6000 consisting of 3000 boys and 3000 girls Twenty (20) schools were selected with random stratification with the help of Ministry of education. Data were collected during April - December 2017. Height and weight of children were measured to calculate percentiles for BMI-for-age and -sex according to the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts. Acute Malnutrition was defined as BMI-for-age/sex < 5th % tile.Results: Acute malnutrition: The overall children who were suffering from Acute Malnutrition were 19% (n = 755). Prevalence in boys was 24% (n = 529) and in girls was 13% (n = 226).For boys: The presence of Acute Malnutrition in Category-I (5 - 8 years) was 25% (n = 8), category-II (9 - 13 years) was 23% (n = 149) and Category-III (14 - 18 years) was 24% (n = 372).For girls: The prevalence in Category-I (5 - 8 years) was 41% (n = 45), category-II (9 - 13 years) was 13% (n = 79) and Category-III (14 - 18 years) was 10% (n = 102).Conclusion: Malnutrition in school children in Al Madinah Al Munawarrah prevails as high as in few under developed countries. Integrated Intervention and prevention programs in primary through high school should focus at all school-aged children especially primary school students. Ministry of education and Ministry of health have a key role. Dietitians and public health nutrition care workers are potential key role players to effectively address this issue.
222 In Vitro Antioxidant Activity, Spectrophotometric Determination of Caffeine, Total Phenol and Flavonoid Contents in Traditional Omani Qahwa in Comparison with Green and Black Tea , Maryam F Hasan, Wed S Aldaraji, Dhanalakshmi UM, Shah A Khan, M Ali
The aim of the present work was to quantify caffeine and total phenolic content and to evaluate the antioxidant activity in com-mercially available black tea, green tea, Turkish coffee and traditional Omani qahwa. Aqueous extracts of tea and coffee samples prepared by decoction were subjected to the phytochemical screening test for phenols and caffeine. Caffeine in the samples was quantified with the help of a linear regression equation obtained from the standard plot. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the tea and coffee were estimated colorimetrically. Antioxidant activity of the samples was investigated by DPPH (1, 1 diphenyl picrylhy-drazyl) free radical assay and phosphomolybdenum methods. All the test extracts showed the presence of phenolic compounds and caffeine. The results indicated a variation in caffeine content, phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity between the two extracts and among same extracts with different brand names. In general, Mumtaz black tea was found to contain the high-est caffeine (24.44 mg/g) and phenolic content (8.27 mg/g of GAE). It also showed the highest total antioxidant activity (10.46 mg/g of ascorbic acid equivalent) but surprisingly its flavonoid content and antioxidant activity by DPPH method was lower than other samples. Tea was found to be richer in phenols and caffeine but Omani qahwa showed better antioxidant activity. It can be concluded that phenolic content and the antioxidant activities depend on the origin, brands and additives of these beverages that may lead to variation in the content and bioactivity.
223 Beta-Adrenergic Agonists: Effects on Growth and Characteristics of Meat and Livestock Production , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn, Utoomporn Sittisingh,
Number of multinucleated cellular units or muscle fibers is fixed at birth. Increasing muscle hypertrophy has been a primary focus of investigators. Beta-adrenergic agonists increase muscle mass by increasing the ratio of protein to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), while steroidal implants increase muscle mass by increas-ing accumulation of DNA in muscle. Beta-adrenergic agonists and steroidal implants have similar physiologic responses of muscle hypertrophy, but have different mechanisms of action to achieve muscle growth. Beta-adrenergic agonists suppress adipose accre-tion in livestock species. Cattle has more than 99% of beta-2 ad-renergic receptor in the skeletal muscle and has more than 90% of beta-2 adrenergic receptor in adipose tissue, whereas pig has 73% of beta-1, 20% of beta-2 and 7% of beta-3 adrenergic receptors.
224 Preparation and Quality Evaluation of Yogurt by Incorporation with Moringa oleifera Leaves Powder , Sanjaya Karki, Saugat Prajapati, Susma Bhattarai,
Moringa oleifera leaves is fill with a pack of nutrients therefore, this study was carried out in order to enrich the nutritional value of traditional yoghurt. The powdered leaves of Moringa oleifera were analyzed for moisture content, vitamin C, protein, ash and fat content and the result was found to be 7.34 ± 0.04%, 17.24 ± 0.10 mg/100g, 25.89 ± 1.42%, 9.67 ± 0.40% and 2.1 ± 0.2% respectively and mesh size was 140 μm. From the sensory analysis the product having 0.5% Moringa oleifera leaves powder incorporated yoghurt was chosen for further analysis as it showed comparable result with control yoghurt. The chemical analysis of moringa incorporated yoghurt showed that fat, lactose, protein, total solid, acidity, calcium and pH were 2.9 ± 0.11%, 3.71 ± 0.02, 4.51 ± 0.09%, 22.18 ± 0.19%, 0.82 ± 0.02, 356.83 ± 10.19 (mg/100g) and 4.3 ± 0.02 whereas that of control yoghurt were found to be 2.76 ± 0.07%, 3.86 ± 0.03, 3.7 ± 0.4%, 19.90 ± 0.28%, 0.69 ± 0.01, 244.67 ± 10.19 (mg/100g) and 4.5 ± 0.01 respectively. The fresh yoghurt was found to contain no any coliform, yeast and mold count. Setting time and syneresis for moringa leaves incorporated yoghurt (0.5%) i.e. sample A was found 270 minutes and 34.05 ± 1.30%, respectively whereas setting time for control sample i.e. Sample E was 300 minutes and syneresis was 22.43 ± 2.12%. Acidity was continuously observed in the interval of 30 minutes till the yoghurt sets which showed rapid increase in acidity in Moringa oleifera incorporated yoghurt than that of control yo-ghurt. Acidity rose from 0.69 to 1.14 in control yoghurt and for Moringa oleifera incorporated yoghurt it rose from 0.82 to 1.40 during 12 days storage period. The total plate count of the yoghurt decreased during the storage period of 12 days from 1.20 × 109 cfu/ml to 1.1 × 103 cfu/ml for Sample A and from 1.76 × 109 cfu/ml to 4.4 × 103 cfu/ml for Sample E i.e. control yoghurt.
225 Knowing the Role of Supplementary Nutrition and Growth Monitoring from the Beneficiaries of Selected Anganwadi Centers in Rural Wardha, Maharashtra , Samarpita Dutta1,Abhishek V Raut,
Launched in 1975 by the Government of India, the ICDS scheme is currently the most important scheme in the field of child health and development and care of women throughout their critical stages in life. With four decades of implementation of this scheme, it is imperative to take stock of this flagship programme from its basic level of implementation in the country. The present study was thus conducted to determine the facilities available at selected Anganwadi centers and find out the concerns and performance of the Anganwadi Workers through observation, review of records and interviews.The study was conducted in 2 phases over a period of 3 months, in 15 Anganwadi Centers of the field practice area of a Rural Health Training Centre in Wardha district, Maharashtra. The 1st phase consisted of facility survey using pre-designed checklist while the 2nd phase consisted of in-depth interviews with the respective Anganwadi Workers.Facility survey revealed lack of storage, kitchen and toilet facilities in 5, 2 and 6 centers respectively. Hot Cooked Food was being served at 11 of the 15 centers. Peoples’ concern regarding quality of take home recipes, immunization days and improper utilization of learning material emerged as important issues compromising health promotion and pre-school education activities during the in-depth interviews.Bottlenecks identified through key functionaries of the scheme at community level would enable the administration take up coor-dinated steps to make it locally acceptable and reliable towards a fruitful impact in the nation.
226 The Relationship between Allergic Pollinosis and Low Salivary Levels of Secretory IgA in Adults , Tetsuro Yamamoto, T Enomoto, Akira Tsuda, Hisayoshi Okamura, T Honda, Shaw Watanabe, Hideyo Yamaguchi
Secretary IgA is a key element of intestinal immunity. Low levels of secretory IgA (SIgA) and development of allergy in infants were often reported, but it is not in adults. Saliva and serum were simultaneously analyzed from 20 adult patients with Cedar pollino-sis aged 22 - 53 years and 22 non-allergic control adults aged 25 - 65 years. The mean salivary level of SIgA for JCP patients was sig-nificantly lower than the value for control subjects. Median, 25th - 75th percentile was 11.5 UA/ml, 4.05, 23.1, respectively in pollinosis group and < 0.34 UA/ml in control group. Low levels of salivary SIgA in adults was associated with increased allergic manifestations.
227 Systematic Review - Nutrition in the Elderly , Alba Child, J Gerardo Villa, Pilar S Collado
This systematic review aims to compile the concept of aging, which entails it and the nutritional recommendations that have been addressed in recent years as a preventive measure for the best functional management and better quality of life of these people. Data Sources: Systematic searches were conducted in the PubMed, Medline and SPORTDiscus databases and manual searches were made in the reference lists of the selected articles.Study Selection: The selected cohort studies were those that examined the concept and effects of the aging process, as well as the effects of physical activity and especially nutrition in this older population. Data Extraction: Data was extracted independently. Data Synthesis: Thirty articles were included in which the subject of aging, physical activity and/or nutrition was discussed. Conclusion: Older adults are an extremely heterogeneous group, as a result, the assessment of nutritional risk requires careful and centralized individualization, considering physiological changes and possible disease, as well as psychosocial, economic and environ-mental factors that influence nutritional status, being the basic objectives of maintaining the functional independence and quality of life of these people.
228 Association of Physical Activity with Obesity Trends in School Children of Madinah Al Munawarrah-A Cross-Sectional Study , Atta UR Rehman Khan, Meshal Al Malki
Obesity is one of the three gravest threats to human health globally. There was no study on association of obesity with physical activity of children of the 2nd holiest city of Muslims Al Madinah Al Munawarrah which is located on North West of Saudi Arabia. Objectives: This study aimed to • Evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children.• To study association of physical activity and obesity.Methods: Participants were healthy school boys and girls aged 5 - 18 years. Study design was cross-sectional. A total of 6000 school children, consisting of 3000 boys and 3000 girls from twenty (20) schools were enrolled. School selection was done by random strati-fication with the help of Ministry of education. Data were collected between April - December 2017. Height and weight of children were measured to calculate percentiles for BMI-for-age and -sex according to the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts, Overweight and obesity was defined as BMI-for-age/sex ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentile respectively.Results: The overall prevalence of obesity was 14.7% (n = 588). Obesity Prevalence in boys was 16% (n = 347) and in girls was 14% (n = 241). The overall prevalence of overweight was 15.4% (n = 616). The Prevalence in boys was 16% (n = 366) and in girls was 14% (n = 250). There was negative correlation between Physical activity and Body Mass Index. This relationship is also highly significant. (P -Value < .0005) Conclusions: Overweight and obesity in school children in Al Madinah Al Munawarrah is similar to global prevalence. Physical ac-tivity is a major risk factor for obesity in school children. Physical activity programs should be seriously implemented at education levels in every school of AlMadinah Al Munawarah to control this epidemic with coordination of Ministry of education and Ministry of health.
229 A Neurocommunication Model between the Brain and Liver Regarding Glucose Production and Secretion in Early Morning Using GH-Method: Math-Physical Medicine (No. 324) , Gerald C Hsu
This article address the author’s hypothesis on the neurocommunication model existing between the brain and liver regarding production and glucose secretion in the early morning. This is based on the observation of the difference between glucose at wake up moment in the morning for the fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and glucose at the first bite of breakfast for the glucose at 0-minute or “open glucose” of postprandial plasma glucose (PPG). All of the eight identified glucoses of breakfast PPG are higher than the eight glucoses at time of wake up by a difference of an average of 8 mg/dL.The value difference using Method B of CGM sensor glucoses during the COVID-19 period offers the most accurate picture and credible glucose difference of 8 mg/dL between his FPG at wake-up moment and PPG at the first bite of breakfast. The author believes that the brain senses when a person wakes up due to different kinds of stimuli from many sources, including eye, environment and even internal organs, which will alert the body to be in “active” mode requiring “energy” through glucose. Even though the person has not eaten anything or is not actively moving, the brain issues a marching order to the liver to produce or re-lease glucose for the body to use in the forthcoming day. This hypothesis can currently explain why his glucose of eating his breakfast is ~8 mg/dL higher than his FPG at wakeup.
230 Nutrients Analysis of Diplazium esculentum: Underutilized Wild Wetland Pteridophytes Ensure Food and Nutritional Security , Sanjay Mohan Gupta, Basant Ballabh, Pradeep Kumar Yadav, Ankur Agarwal, Madhu Bala
Food and nutrition (hidden hunger) for rapidly growing global populations (expected to increase 10 billion by 2050) are major concern of public health issue in most of the global developing countries. One way to tackle these problems is through the inter-vention of local traditional less-explored high-value food crops as dietary supplements for ensuring food and nutritional security. The Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw (also called as ‘Vegetable fern’ or ‘Liguna’; fam. Athyriaceae) is an underutilized wild wetland pteridophytes occurring commonly throughout world, from sea level to 2,300m. The young frond and rhizomes of D. esculentumare generally used as green vegetables during the monsoon season, which are reported to possess notable nutritional and medici-nal properties. This research article highlights the detailed nutritive phytochemical (primary and secondary metabolites, essential mineral content, dietary fibres, calorific value etc) profiling of young fronds of D. esculentum. Our results suggest that D. esculentumfronds contains rich amounts of protein (52.3%), carbohydrate (28.2%), antioxidants (Vitamin C etc) and exceptionally high contents of important minerals (Ca, Fe, Na), dietary fibre (17.44%) with good calorific energy value (324 Kcal/100 gm). The overall results suggest that, the young fronds of D. esculentum contains rich source of phyto-nutrients that may be commercially utilized for the development of healthcare value added products as a sustainable solution to the health and nutritional security.
231 Bromelain and Amylase Assisted Extraction of Cucurbita pepo Seed Oil Enriched with Phytosterol , Nguyen Thi Minh Tu, Kieu Thi Hoang Yen, Tran Huong Nga, Le Tat Thanh, Dang Thi Thu
Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds’ hydrolysis condition was investigated in order to achieve oil containing high content of phy-tosterol by using enzyme bromelain and amylase. For this purpose, hydrolysis conditions of bromelain and amylase including ratio of C. pepo to water, ratio of concentration of the enzyme bromelain/amylase to substance, temperature, pH, hydrolysis time were investigated. Bromelain hydrolysis of C. pepo seeds with 1.75% enzyme at 55oC for 7hrs at pH of 7 gave 27.83% oil and 1909.95 mg phytosterol in 100 g oil. For amylase hydrolysis these figures were 0.9%; 50oC; 5.5 hrs and 7, respectively; and the oil yield was 14.02% with 2245.03 mg phytosterol in 100 g oil.Although oil yield by using enzyme bromelain (27.83%) and enzyme amylase (14.02%) was lower than that by using solvent and ultrasonic methods (26.57% to 42.74%), phytosterol content inversely was as 2 to 3 times as higher (631.41 - 772.78 to 19909.95 - 2245.03 mg/100g oil). Fourteen compounds were found in phytosterol mixture obtained by amylase hydrolysis, among them three important e.g. campesterol, stigmasterol, β - sitosterol accounted for315.460, 120.111 and 189.987 mg/100g oil respectively.
232 Vaginal Birth After Caesarean Section - Experience in Shree Birendra Hospital , Ratna A Khatri, Arju Chand, Sumana Thapa,Shailaza Khadka
The rate of primary caesarean section (CS) is on the rising trend. Vaginal birth after CS (VBAC) can be an alternative to reduce this rate of CS worldwide. Antenatal examination and intrapartum monitoring are the most important factors for VBAC. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of VBAC at SBH in selected cases. To analyze the maternal and fetal out-come of VBAC and repeat CS cases. Methodology:It is a cross-sectional institute-based study carried out in Shree Birendra hospital, a tertiary level Nepalese Army Hos-pital, from March 2019 to March 2020. The study population included cases with one previous caesarean section fulfilling the inclu-sion criteria of Royal College of Obstetrician and Gynaecology (RCOG) for VBAC. After counseling for VBAC, the data were estimated of those who were willing for VBAC and those who refused. Trial of labor was given to the patients accepted for VBAC. Feto-maternal outcome were analyzed of VBAC and of repeat CS.Results: There were total of 108 cases of previous LSCS reported at ANC OPD, among them 23 cases were excluded from the study as they were not meeting the RCOG inclusion criteria, 85 cases were enrolled in the study. Out of 85 cases, 75 (88.23%) refused to undergo VBAC, only 10 cases (11.76%) accepted to undergo trial of labor. Out of 10 cases, 5 (50%) had successful VBAC. The sample size was too small to come to any conclusion, still it is observed that women who had an emergency cesarean section in their first delivery had lower VBAC success particularly those with failed induction. No maternal and neonatal mortality observed. Conclusion: Vaginal Birth after Caesarean section is relatively safe, provided it is conducted in carefully selected cases and under constant supervision. Spontaneous onset of labor, good Bishop score and average sized baby were good predictors of successful VBAC.
233 Comparative Study on Antioxidant Activity and Microbial Loads of Dried Tomatoes Treated with Local Spices (Aframomum danielli and Syzygium aromaticum) , Mapamile AD, Osunbade OA*, Ani CP, Oyewo IO
The worldwide usage of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cannot be underestimated therefore, spoilage and postharvest losses must be controlled through processing and preservation. Two spices (Aframomum danielli and Syzygium aromaticum) aqueous ex-tract were separately formulated into 5 and 10% concentrations. The aqueous extract preparations were used to pre-treat tomatoes (var. UTC) prior to drying. Two drying methods (sun drying and oven drying at 60oC) were employed to effect drying. Dried tomato samples treated with 0% spice served as control for dried samples treated with 5 and 10% spice concentrations. The activity of each spice used was evaluated and compared based on their concentrations in terms of ascorbic acid, total carotenoid, lycopene and total viable and fungal count using standard methods. The results of antioxidants revealed that ascorbic acid and lycopene value were reduced in sun-dried samples when treated with varying concentrations of A. danielli and S. aromaticum compared to the control sample. However, in spice-treated oven-dried samples when compared to the control sample, the ascorbic acid values were better retained with increasing concentrations of spice from 5 to 10% concentrations. The values of total carotenoid were best retained in sun dried samples treated with 5% concentrations of S. aromaticum and 5% concentrations of A. danielli in oven dried sample. There were also considerable reductions in the values of both total viable and fungal count of spice-treated dried tomato samples over the control samples. Evidently, the findings revealed the effectiveness of A. danielli to exact a more preservative effect in oven dried sample better than S. aromaticum. This was evident in its better antioxidant retention ability as well as reduction in total viable and fungi count of the oven dried samples treated with both spices.
234 Analysis of Non-Scheduled Consultations in Patients with Digestive Neoplasms , Matilde Bolaños Naranjo, Victoria Aviñó Tarazona, Francisco Javier Jiménez Ruiz, Juan Bayo Calero
Non-scheduled consultation is very frequent among patients with cancer, creating alterations and delays in pro-grammed visits. We describe the incidence of non-scheduled consultations in patients with digestive cancer in our hospital.Methods: Descriptive, prospective, non-interventional study. In a six-month period (May - December 2017), non-scheduled visits were chronologically recorded in the medical oncology consultation of digestive tumours of Hospital Juan Ramón Jiménez de Huelva. We performed a descriptive analysis of the variables collected through the statistical program G-STAT v.2.0.Results: Patients with colon or rectal cancer generated most consultations (68,63%), followed by pancreatic (9,15%) and gastric (5,23%). Most patients had metastatic or advanced stage cancer (59,87%) and were under palliative or symptomatic treatment (58,82%). The most frequent reason for consultation was clinical symptoms (47,05%), followed by information demand (18,30%).Conclusion: Non-scheduled consultations in cancer patients are frequent; they cause interference in scheduled consultations and not always resolved satisfactorily. We propose several measures to reduce the number of non-scheduled consultation in oncology.
235 Development of a Baby Food Pureed with Probiotic Microorganisms for an Infant from 6 to 12 Months , Cardona MA, López BE,Restrepo M
The infant population and more specifically infants between 6 to 12 months are the most vulnerable to suffering from diseases that jeopardize the immune conditions of their developing organism. To counteract this, this research aimed to: develop a functional food baby pureed for an infant aged 6 to 12 months, using a probiotic strain, where the probiotic strain studied was Bacillus coagu-lans. The methodology involved the preparation of 3 flavors of baby food pureed such as: ahuyama, carrot and figs, which B. coagulanswere added as a functional component. A three-month shelf-life study was determined and evaluated, in which a count was made in the CFU of B. coagulans and its permanence in baby food pureed during this time. It was found that the adequate counting technique is vital for the detection of the microorganism and that carbohydrate content favors its permanence. It was concluded that baby food pureed could have a functional effect seen from the count of B. coagulans and from the study of shelf life as follows: ahuyama up to 90 days, carrot 30 days.
236 Lipedema and Nutrition: What’s the Link? , Cannataro Roberto, Erika Cione,
Lipedema is a dysfunction of the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), it is characteristic of women, although it is reported in rare cases also in men, it was described for the first time in 1940, with a better characterization in 1951, although this is often still con-fused with classic obesity. It affects the lower and upper limbs, the buttocks, usually sparing the feet and trunk. It is classified into 5 levels, according to the area of the body affected by the dysfunction. The tissues are nodular to the touch and this, among other things, suggests an inflammatory phenomenon. The treatments concern surgery (bariatric and liposuction), compression garments, physiotherapy. The nutritional approach often has little or no efficacy, probably because the adipose tissue is inflamed, therefore not very responsive if the inflammation itself is not managed. An approach that is having an interesting response is the ketogenic diet (a nutritional approach that provides for a carbohydrate intake of less than 30g per day), in previous work we have demonstrated the marked anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action of this nutritional approach, which could prove effective in assist the treatment of lipedema.
237 Healthy Eating Vs Dietary Supplements and the Fight against COVID- 19 Pandemic , Louay Labban
The novel coronavirus or COVID 19 has caused many changes in the daily lives of people around the globe since it first started in China in early 2020. This virus has caused a death toll reaching around 1 million. This number was due to its complications which can be attributed to lower immunity. It’s been known for a long time that immunity is closely related to nutritional status which can affect the prevalence of infections and their severity. The in-dividuals who follow unhealthy dietary systems are at a greater risk these infections. On the other hand, these infections can cause nutrients deficiencies affecting the individuals’ nutritional status. Therefore, people should focus on their diets during the ongoing Corona virus pandemic especially those with underlying diseases which make the situation worse.
238 Vitamin D Deficiency, Biology and its Functions , Afrozul Haq, Nuzhat Ahsan
Vitamin D deficiency is a major global, public health problem and is prevalent among all ages and ethnic groups. Neverthe-less, it is preventable cost-effectively, if proper public health in-terventions are implemented. Only a handful of expensive foods contain vitamin D and it is difficulty to change people’s attitude and lifestyles. Therefore, an inexpensive supplements and food-fornication programs have been recommended. More than 80% of the requirement vitamin D should generate from our skin, but sun avoidance behaviors prevent this. The combination of lifestyle and environmental issues, decreased exposures to sunlight have led to vitamin D insufficiency. This affects approximately, 50% of the global population and estimated 1.5 billion people worldwide have vitamin D deficiency [1]. Sunlight remains the primary source of vitamin D3 that is synthesis in dermal tissues in humans and in animals
239 Health Issues Related to Fat Consumption and Choice of Diet as Remedy , Anjan Borah
Rapid urbanization and changes in lifestyle has changed food habits towards processed foods. However processed foods are hav-ing associated risk factors. Most of the processed foods like French fries, potato chips, Snacks, breakfast cereals (ready to eat), cook-ies, roasted almond, crackers and related products are reported to have Acrylamides reported to be a neurotoxicant and probably a week human carcinogen. A processed food that contains partially hydrogenated oil (PHOs) as a shortening is the richest source of Trans Fatty Acid (TFA). TFA (isomers of the octadecenoic acids) significantly increase risk of heart disease and may drive insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes
240 Life Style, Nutritional Habits, Body Composition and Respiratory Capacity as Fundamental Aspects of Risk Evaluation in Professional Divers , Maria Concetta D’Ovidio, Daniela Pigini1, Maria Rosaria Marchetti, Paola Melis1, Lucio Bertini, Massimo Spalletta, Tiziana Paola Baccolo, Giovanna Tranfo, Enrico Marchetti
Exposure to hyperbaric atmospheres is an occupational risk for workers. The diver needs a good physical/mental performance, control of physical activity and nutrition. In this work the objective is to assess physical status of professional diver of Italian National Fire Department.The study was conducted on 71 male divers of the National Fire Department subjected to annual medical examination. We utilized a questionnaire regarding work habits and lifestyles, bioimpedance and spirometric analysis.Results of the questionnaire indicate that more than one half of workers practice a correct lifestyle and has varied and balanced consumption of food; 25 - 30% professional divers show a higher BMI respect to the ideal BMI value.These results will be used to create a database on the different physiological parameters of these workers and to define the varia-tions during the immersion phase
241 Eating Quickly is Associated with Ultrasound-Diagnosed Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Japanese Adults , Koichiro Irie, Tetsuji Azuma, Takatoshi Yonenaga, Minako Hada, Kazutoshi Watanabe, Fumiko Deguchi, Akihiro Obora, Takao Kojima,Takaaki Tomofuji
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major global health problem. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between eating quickly and NAFLD in Japanese adults. A total of 8556 participants underwent a health checkup. Abdominal ultrasonography was applied to diagnose NAFLD, and information on eating speed was obtained using a self-ad-ministrated questionnaire. Of the study participants, 2570 (30.0%) had ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD. The participants who reported eating quickly had a higher prevalence of NAFLD when compared to those who did not report eating quickly. The presence of NAFLD was significantly associated with male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 3.163, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.800 - 3.573), age ≥ 65 years (OR = 1.426, 95%CI = 1.076 - 1.889), high body mass index (≥ 25 kg/m2; OR = 9.615, 95%CI = 8.511 - 10.863), hypertension (OR = 1.659, 95%CI = 1.424 - 1.931), high hemoglobin A1c values (≥ 6.5%; OR = 4.096, 95%CI = 3.080 - 5.446), the presence of regular exercise habits (OR = 0.605, 95%CI = 0.522 - 0.701), and eating quickly (OR = 1.146, 95%CI = 1.023 - 1.283) after adjusting for confounding factors. These results indicated that lifestyle factors, including eating quickly, is positively associated with NAFLD in Japanese adults independently of overweight and obesity.
242 Trade of Medicinal Plants and Herbal Products with Teratogenic Potential and their Consumption during Pregnancy , Yvis Silva De Castro, Juliana Silva Pereira Santos, Stela Bersan Faustino, Cristhian Gomes Cardeal Martos, Gabriel Bastos Teixeira, Aline Oliveira da Conceição
The indiscriminate use and market of medicinal plants and herbal products is a reality in Brazil. Despite the preventive measures that already regulate this use, they do not reach all the communities. Therefore, investigations on the use of medicinal plants or herb-al medicines in pregnancy are of fundamental need to help in the establishment of pharmacovigilance norms. The objective of this study was to investigate the sale of medicinal plants and herbal medicines in the city of Ilhéus, Bahia and the consumption of plants by women served in the municipal maternity ward. A qualitative and descriptive study was carried out, through field research, using a semi-structured questionnaire that addressed socioeconomic and ethnobotanical aspects. Herbalists and sellers in the local market were also interviewed about the presence of medicinal plants and herbal products with teratogenic potential in their establishments. In total, 19 individuals were invited to participate in the research, six sellers of medicinal plants and 13 women who gave birth in the local maternity ward. The results showed that medicinal plants with teratogenic potential are easily marketed in the municipality of Ilhéus. However, no teratogenic effects related to medicinal plants or previous high consumption of medicinal plants were men-tioned. Despite the low evidence of harmful effects in this study, the fact that the plants are being sold freely in the local market shows the need of pharmacovigilance and education in natural products for professionals in local public health.
243 Metabolic Obesity , Isabel Cristina Bento, Heather D Balentine
Obesity is a worldwide pandemic, with high prevalence. In the United States, at least 35% of men and 40% of women are obese [1]. In Brazil, the latest Survey of Surveillance of Risk and Protec-tion Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey [2], from the Ministry of Health found that the frequency of obese adults has been increasing, from 11.8% in 2006 to 20.3% in 2019, is similar for men and women in 2019.
244 Association of Consumption Frequency of Meals Consisting of Grain Dishes, Fish and Meat Dishes, and Vegetables Dishes with Satisfaction with Diet and Health Status Among Japanese People , Tatsuya Koyama
Objective:To examine the association of the consumption frequency of well-balanced meals (comprising grain dishes, fish and meat dishes, and vegetable dishes) with satisfaction with the diet and health status. Methods: In December 2019, a self-administered questionnaire survey on lifestyle was conducted for 295 local civil servants in a town of Aomori, Japan. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regressions were performed to compare satisfaction with the diet and health status among three groups (every day [daily], four to five days a week [frequently], three days or less in a week [occasionally]) based on the frequency of intake of well-balanced meals .Results: Compared with participants who consumed well-balanced meals daily, participants who consumed well-balanced meals occasionally were less satisfied with the diet after adjustment for sex, age, smoking and drinking habits (odds ratio 0.28, 95% con-fidence interval: 0.09, 0.85). The association persisted after adjustment for BMI, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Com-pared with participants who consumed well-balanced meals daily, participants who consumed well-balanced meal occasionally had a higher risk of subjective health and dyslipidemia adjustment for sex, age, current smoking and drinking habits. These significant associations disappeared after adjustment for BMI.Conclusion: The frequency of intake of well-balanced meals was associated with the degree of satisfaction of the diet.
245 Conversion of Khadrwai Dates from Khulal to Tamar through Various Practices , Rehman Ali, Umber Shehzadi, Amara Rasheed, Maryam Bibi, Anam Zafar
Dates have been an important basic food for several cultures all over the world and they are still consumed widely over thousands of year. The aim of our study was to protect khadrwai dates from monsoon season and minimize post-harvest losses. For this pur-pose, some bunches were wrapped with polythene plastic sheet, some covered in sacks and others remained open on date palm. Date samples were collected during Khalal, Rutab and Tamar stage by weekly intervals. Chemical and physical characteristics were deter-mined using published procedures. Result showed firmness was more in polythene plastic dates about 4.733, 4.46 and 1.6 during every stage and other conditions have less firmness. Brix % gradually increases during all stages. At full ripening stage, brix % was near about 30 - 40%. Color changes during ripening from light yellow at Khalal to golden brown at Rutab stage and then converted to dark brown color at Tamar stage. Moisture content was decrease with the passage of time. At Tamar stage, moisture content was about 15 % which was beneficial for long term storage. The highest losses on date palm were observed in sack dates due to shrinkage of size and bitter taste. Monsoon season less effected on opened date palm. Polythene plastic condition is best for maximum produc-tion and minimum losses on date palm.
246 Using of Natural Remedies for Patients Recovered from COVID-19 , Poonam Maurya, Neelesh Kumar Maurya
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported a global public health concern by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to its pandemic. Typical human coronavirus NL63 (alpha coro-navirus), 229E (alpha coronavirus), OC43 (beta coronavirus), and HKU1 (beta coronavirus) cause widespread coldness [1]. Corona-virus Cases: the risk of death of a novel coronavirus was reported to be approximately 2% at the WHO press conference on 29 Janu-ary 2020 [2]. Globally, 22,812,491 recorded cases of COVID-19, including 795,132 fatalities, were announced to the WHO at 2:09 p.m. CEST, 22 August 2020
247 Effect of Nutrition Education Videos on Mothers’ Knowledge, and Practices on Complementary Feeding of Children 6 - 23 Months in Ruaraka Sub-county, Nairobi City County , Robinson Nyaribo Mochoni, Judith Kimiywe
Background:Children aged 6-23 months are most exposed to malnutrition because complementary feeding is done poorly in this stage of children’s growth. Efforts have been put forth to improve child nutrition but there are still significant gaps in complementary feeding. Low information on complementary feeding among mothers has been the main contributor. This study aimed to establish the effect of video use on nutrition education to improve mothers’ knowledge and practices on complementary feeding. The study was conducted in Ruaraka sub-county, Nairobi City County, Kenya. Methodology: Post intervention cross-sectional analytical design with control was adopted with 198 mothers with children 6-23 months who sought health services from selected health facilities. The study involved an intervention group that watched the short nutrition video clips on complementary feeding and a control group which did not watch the videos from a different locality but shared similar characteristics with intervention group.Results: Most households, control (83.6%) and intervention (92.4%) groups were headed by males. The majority of mothers were married (86.4%) and Housewives (67.7%) with a mean age of 25.3 years. They were Christians (97.1%), lactating (95.2%) and had attained primary school education as highest level (46.7%). The majority, 41.1% had no specific allocation of income for purchase of food. There was a significantly higher proportion of mothers in the intervention (100%) than in the control (51.3%) who had the cor-rect knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding (P = 0.041). A significant difference was also noted in the minimum dietary diversity score with 3.73% in control and 5.19% in intervention group with majority from intervention (95.5%) feeding their children from the four food groups as opposed to control group (30.0%) with a significant difference P = 0.006. There was also a significant difference in knowledge mean score between the intervention and control with P = 0.001. A significantly higher proportion of mothers from inter-vention (100%) had good knowledge of the age of initiating complementary feeding as compared to the control group (96.3%) with P = 0.021. In terms of practice, a significant difference was found between the control and intervention on complementary feeding of children 6-23 months (P = 0.021).Conclusion:The use of audio-visual tools has been found to be effective in passing messages. Since the video clips’ messages are eas-ily understood, interpreted due to the use of the local language, Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health knowledge is easily gained by the hearers. Better practices shown in the intervention group indicates gained knowledge.
248 Mind Genomics: Accelerating and Scaling Our Understanding of the Everyday Mind and its Prospects for Efforts in Nutrition , Sophia Davidov, Ariola Harizi, Glenn Zemel, Alex Hutchinson,Howard R Moskowitz
We present the newly emerging science of Mind Genomics, which studies the way we make decisions in everyday life. Mind Ge-nomics defines a topic, creates four relevant questions, creates four answers to each question, for a total of 16 elements. The subject evaluates a unique set of 24 vignettes, combinations of 2-4 elements, at most one answer to each question, rating the vignette on a scale. The scale may judge amount of (e.g., perceived fullness, liking, etc.), or may require the subject to choose an emotion. Each subject tests a different set of combinations. All combinations are created by experimental design, ensuring statistical independence. The analysis of the results reveals how each answer or element ‘drives’ the rating. A measure of response time, collected at the same time, shows the degree of psychological engagement. Finally, Mind Genomics reveals new-to-the-world mind-sets of people, with different ways of looking at the topic. Mind Genomics finishes with a personal viewpoint identifier, new people to be assigned to a mind-set. We finish with the vision of scaling the process, to understand the algebra of the mind for the world of foods and nutrition, and to correlate the mind-sets with exogenous behavior, both economics-oriented and health-related, respectively.
249 Effects of High Protein/Low Carbohydrate Rationed Formulated Diet on Glycemic Tolerance and Control, Body Weight and Organ Histomorphometry in Experimental Diabetic Rats , Magnus Michael Chukwudike Anyakudo, David Opeyemi Adeniji
Metabolic response to carbohydrate and protein ingestion plays an important role in health and disease states. This experimental-ly-controlled designed nutritional study aimed to determine the effects of a high protein/low carbohydrate rationed formulated (HP/LC) diet on body weight, organs (kidneys, liver, heart, lungs, spleen and testes) histomorphometry, glycemic tolerance and control in experimental diabetic and healthy rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats randomly categorized into four groups (n = 6, each): Healthy control group (HC), Healthy treated group (HT), Diabetic control group (DC) and Diabetic treated group (DT) were used for this study which lasted eight weeks. The animals were fed according to the experimental design with water ad libitum. Diabetes was inducted with freshly prepared alloxan monohydrate solution (150 mg/kg bwt, intraperitoneally). Body weights and fasting blood sugar con-centrations were measured twice weekly while oral glucose tolerance test was conducted on the last day of the study after which, the organs were extracted for weight assessment and histomorphometric analysis. In this study, the high-protein/low-carbohydrate rationed formulated diet caused significant reduction in mean body weight gain both in treated diabetic (DT: 22.6%; P = .001) and healthy (HT: 5.8%; P = .007) rats compared with their respective controls which recorded significant (P < .05) increase in body weight gain (DC: 12.4%; HC: 11.2%). In DT and HT rats, glycemic tolerance and control improved significantly (DT > HT) while no visible lesions or distortion in organs histoarchitecture observed. In conclusion, high-protein/low-carbohydrate rationed formulated diet reduced body weight gain with improved glycemic tolerance and control without pathologic consequences on organs histoarchi-tecture in experimental diabetic and healthy rats.
250 Cancer Nutrition: Prevention and Treatment! , Raquel M Fernandes
Cancer is ranked in the ranking of the most kill-killing diseases in the world. Scientifically it is a disease classified as a genetic mu-tation, which can be caused by several factors (physical, chemical or biological). According to INCA, it is estimated that in 2018 there were 18 million new cases with 9.6 million deaths, the most fre-quent being lung cancer, breast cancer, colon and rectal cancer and prostate cancer.
251 Evaluation of Bacteriological Quality in Artisanal Juices Issued at Carabobo University. Faculty of Health Sciences. Bable Core , Noja Izzeddin, Arencibia R Angely, Barreto G Martha, Luís F Medina
Foodborne diseases, most of which are of microbial origin, have a global impact as a major cause of morbidity and mortality; in this way the intake of contaminated food has become one of the most important ways to adapt gastrointestinal diseases. The objec-tive of this work was to evaluate the bacteriological quality in artisanal juices of expended in the schools of Bioanalysis, Biomedical Sciences and Basic Area at the Faculty of Health Sciences of the Universidad de Carabobo headquarters Bárbula, in May 2015. The study was within the limits of descriptive, non-experimental and field research, as a total of 30 samples of artisanal fruit juices were collected and analyzed, which is evaluated at different times. For the analysis of juices, the quantification of total and heat-resistant coliform bacteria and the identification of bacteria such as Escherichia coli andSalmonella spp were performed. Of the 30 samples studied 60% had total coliforms, 33% had heat resistant bacteria, and the total samples did not identify the presence of Escherichia coli or Salmonella spp. Thus concluding that the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the arts juices of frequent consumption in the schools Bioanalysis, Biomedical Sciences and Basic Area of the Faculty of Health Sciences, suggests that the health quality of these actually poses a risk to the health of consumers since feedings cannot contain microorganisms.
252 Study on Parasitic Load in Local Goats Reared in Three Different Systems of Rearing , Mahadev Lamani, SB Prasanna, Mahadevappa D Gouri, Suma N4and Shankarappa Bhajantri
An experiment to study the effect of three systems of rearing on the parasitic load and welfare of growing goat kids were studied. The 3 months study was conducted on local osmanabadi crossbred goats at Niharika Sheep and Goat Farm, Sira, Tumkur district, Karnataka, India. Thirty weaned local goat kids (3 months) were randomly allocated into three treatment groups with ten kids in each viz., T1 (Intensive-in housed and fed all time), T2 (Semi intensive- browse for 5 - 6 hours during day time, housed and fed rest of time)and T3 (Extensive rearing- browse throughout the day 6 - 8 hours and no feed supplementation). The animals in T1 groupwere confined to the shed both during day and night.The average parasitic load at the beginning of the trial was 180 ± 38.15, 205 ± 36.86 and 185 ± 33.37 in T1, T2 and T3, respectively. At the end of experimental trial, parasitic load was 1320 ± 35.12, 1985 ± 75.3 and 2235 ± 91.91 eggs per gram in T1, T2 and T3 respec-tively. This study indicates to design a suitable deworming program to control helminths more often in extensive system while for protozoans like coccidiosis in intensive system of rearing.
253 Influence of Varying Salinity and Different Protein Sources on the Water Quality Changes During the Rearing of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) , P Pravallika, D Ravindrakumar Reddy, A Chnadrashekar Rao3, Prasanna Kumar, Shyam Prasad Mamidala
A study was conducted for 63 days to study the influence of varying salinity (0, 10, 15, 25 ppt) and different protein sources on the water quality changes during the rearing of Pacific white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The shrimp diet was prepared at three protein level (25%, 30% and 35%) by mixing all the ingredients in required proportions into pellets by the replacement of fish meal with Cottonseed meal, (CSM), sunflower meal (SF), Acetes indicus (AI) meal, Mysid meal (MM). Shrimps were fed with the diets thrice a daily at a satiation level. Water quality parameters such as pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), total alkalinity and total hardness was analysed weekly intervals. In the study, the water pH ranged between 8.2 to 8.3, 8.2 to 8.3, 8.3 to 8.4 and 8.4 to 8.5 for 0, 5, 15, and 25 ppt, respectively. While the temperature and dissolved oxygen ranged between 29.5 to 31.7°C and 5.66 and 7.81 mg l-1,respectively in all the treatments. Moreover, the total alkalinity varied between 214 to 155 mg l-1, 315 to 229 mg l-1 and 625 to 535 mg l-1 and 725 to 645 mg l-1 at 0, 5, 15 and 25 ppt, respectively. Similarly, the total hardness of water ranged between 238 to 191 mg l-1, 322 to 240 mg l-1, 675 to 601mg l-1 and 777 to 700 mg l-1 at 0, 10 15 and 25 ppt, respectively irrespective of varying protein sources in the diets. In conclusion, the study revealed the feasibility of L. vannamei up to 25 ppt salinity as the water quality parameters are within the suitable ranges irrespective of varying dietary protein sources and growth.
254 Trends in Orange Juice Consumption and Nutrient Adequacy in Adults 2003-2016s , Nicklas TA1* O’Neil CE, Saab R, Fulgoni VL III
No studies have looked at trends in nutrient intakes, orange juice (OJ) consumption and nutrient adequacy in adults overtime. Methods: The purpose of this study was to examine secular trends in nutrient intakes, OJ consumption, and nutrient adequacy in adults 19 plus years participating in the 2003-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results: Approximately 13% of the total sample consumed OJ with a mean intake of 39.5 g/d (76.2 KJ [0.89% of total energy intake]). Amounts of all 100% fruit juices consumed decreased and whole fruit intake increased from 2003-2016. Intake of total energy, total carbohydrates, added sugars decreased. Intakes of folate, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamin C decreased and intakes of niacin and vita-min B6 increased. Intakes of iron, sodium, and zinc decreased and intake of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus increased. Percent-age of adults below the EAR decreased for ten nutrients (i.e. folate, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamins B6, and D, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorous and zinc) and the percent above the AI increased for two nutrients (i.e. dietary fiber and sodium) across the deciles of OJ consumption. OJ, other 100% fruit juices, fruits, breads/rolls/tortillas, and ready-to-eat cereals were major food sources of many nutrients that were consumed at levels below recommendations. IntroductionConclusion: There were changes in intake and nutrient adequacy among adults overtime which varied by OJ consumption. Food pat-terns varied among consumers and non-consumers suggesting that studies looking at the consumption versus non-consumption of foods need to look at food patterns within the context of the total diet.
255 Study of the Influence of Ultrasound in the Process of Osmotic Drying of Melon , Radjabov Mansur Farkhodovich, Kurambaev Sherzod Raimberganovich, Saparov Makhmud Kadamovich, Khakimova Bakhor Bakhtiyarovna, Rakhmanova Mukhabbat Ismailovna and Abdullaeva Gulnoza Ulugbek Qizi
Due to the deterioration of the ecological and social situation the creation of production technologies is of particular importance canned products providing maximum preservation of native biologically active substances of raw materials, and also using biologi-cal processes. It is necessary develop technologies for the production of functional products, where additives are biologically active substances, derived from various parts of fruits and vegetables. At present, there is an awareness of the importance of changing the structure of nutrition, and the demand for products with preventive and medicinal properties is increasing. Vegetables and fruits contain natural antioxidants, vitamins, biologically active and mineral substances, i.e. are one of the raw materials for this kind of products.
256 Productivity Enhancement of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) by Integrated Nutrient Management Under Salt Affected Soils , Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Ahmad Khan, Raza Ullah Khan, Muhammad Arshad Ullah, Muhammad Asad Hameed, Huma Aziz1
Excessive and imbalanced use of expensive chemical fertilizers may pose devastating effect on soil fertility and sustainable pro-ductivity. Bio-organic amendments improve soil fertility and sustainable crop productivity. The application of integrated nutrient management (INM) bio-organic amendments couple with chemical fertilizers is one of the promising strategy that not only enhances crop productivity on sustainable basis but also reduces the use of chemical fertilizers. Therefore a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the productivity enhancement of wheat by combined application of Biofertilizer and chemical fertilizers including Zinc Sulphate and Boric Acid on growth and nutrient concentration of wheat variety (Faisalabad 2008) directly sown in a saline sodic soil (ECe=4.92 dSm-1, pH=8.22 and SAR=16.15 dSm-1) at Soil Salinity Research Institute (SRRI) Farm, Pindi Bhattian during Rabi 2019-20. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The crop was harvested at maturity, data on tillering, plant height, number of grains spike-1, 1000- grain weight, straw and wheat grain yields were recorded. N, P, K, Zn and B concentration in grain and straw were estimated using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Wheat productivity was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased by INM. Wheat grain yield was the maximum (4.76 tha-1) at the application of 120 kg N, 90 kg P 60 kg K, 5 kg Zn and 1kg B ha-1 along with Biozote and it was registered 35% more than Farmer practice. This study confirms that INM has tremendous potential of plant nutrients supply for productivity enhancement of Wheat on sustainable basis.
257 Determination and Comparison of Non-essential and Essential Elements in Different Species of Fish Available in Omani Markets by Using Inductively Coupled Plasma-optical Emission Spectrometry , Issa Al-Amri, Isam Kadim1, Abdulaziz AlKindi1, Ahmed Al-Harrasi1, Khadija Al-Hosni1, Aiysha Al-Kiymi1, Anwar Al-Amri1, Muzna Al-Salehi1, Fazal Mabood1, Ahmed Hamaed1, Saud M Al Jufaili3, Samera Khalaf2 and Mohamed Al-Omairi
In this study an ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry) was used to investigate the concentration levels of both essential and non-essential elements in 70 edible portion of fish samples representing 11 different species of fish collected from Omani markets. Sample preparation via microwave digestion were analyzed, using ICP-OES for seven non-essential elements [Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), lead (Ph), titanium (Ti), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg)] and seven essential elements [iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), selenium (Se), and magnesium (Mg)]. A comparison of the results for the concentration of Cd, Ni, Pb, Ti, Cu and Fe elements between the species of fish showed that there was significant (P < 0.05) difference in concentrations. Tissue samples from Seriola dumerili and Xiphias gladius tissues contained significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of Cd, while Lutjanus argentimaculatus and Parastromateus niger samples had significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of Ni than those from other fish species. The levels Pb found in the tissues of Merluccius bilinearis, and Lethrinus nebulosus fish were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than other fish species. Further, Lethrinus nebulosus and seriola dumerili tissue samples contained sig-nificantly (P < 0.05) higher concentrations of Ti. The concentrations of Ni and Pb were found higher than the maximum permissible limits in certain fish species samples for human consumption. The results indicated that the edible portion contained significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of Cu in Seriola dumerili species and Fe elements in Ocyurus chrysurus and Pagellus affinis than other fish spe-cies. This study concluded that Cd, Ni, Pb, Ti, Cu and Fe elements were species-dependent.
258 General Anesthetics , Dalamagka Maria
General anesthetics are administered to approximately 50 mil-lion patients each year in the United States. Anesthetic vapors and gases are also widely used in dentists’ offices, veterinary clinics, and laboratories for animal research. All the volatile anesthetics that are currently used are halogenated compounds destructive to the ozone layer. These halogenated anesthetics could have poten-tial significant impact on global warming. The widely used anes-thetic gas nitrous oxide is a known greenhouse gas as well as an important ozone-depleting gas. These anesthetic gases and vapors are primarily eliminated through exhalation without being metab-olized in the body, and most anesthesia systems transfer these gases as waste directly and unchanged into the atmosphere. Little consideration has been given to the ecotoxicological properties of gaseous general anesthetics. Our estimation using the most recent consumption data indicates that the anesthetic use of nitrous ox-ide contributes 3.0% of the total emissions in the United States. Studies suggest that the influence of halogenated anesthetics on global warming will be of increasing relative importance given the decreasing level of chlorofluorocarbons globally. Despite these nonnegligible pollutant effects of the anesthetics, no data on the production or emission of these gases and vapors are publicly available. Since Fox.
259 Physical Fitness Comparison of Trained and Untrained Industrial Emergency Brigades , Esteban Oñate, Elías Apud
Emergencies can occur at any time and may reach unpredictable magnitudes. Unfortunately, in many companies, emergency brigades are often organized with people who perform work of sedentary nature and they are not prepared to face sporadic tasks of high physical demands.The objective of this study was to compare the physical fitness of workers with different degree of training. They worked for the same company, but in different industrial plants. In one of them they had a physical training program, guided 3 times per week during working hours by a physical educator; In the other plant there was no facilities for training.Age, stature, body mass, body fat and aerobic capacity were evaluated with conventional methods in 57 physically trained and 21 untrained workers. Results showed that aerobic capacity was 20.8% higher in the trained brigade. Body fat content was significantly higher in the un-trained brigade. A further analysis showed that according to Chilean standards for emergency brigades, 58% of the untrained brigade members do not reach the recommended level, while only 19% of the trained workers are below the reference level.As conclusion, the results only confirmed the importance of physical training to improve working capacity and this is particularly important for workers who perform light activities and in isolated occasions have to face high and dangerous demands. Therefore, the main recommendation is to stimulate training within working hours as part of the preparation of the brigade members.
260 Prevalence of Geriatric Malnutrition in Long Term Care Center in Riyadh/Saudi Arabia: A Cross Sectional Study , Maha Al Turki, Noura Al Sibaie, Hind Al Otaibi, Ghadeer Al Ammari, Raghad Al Otaibi
Older adults are more vulnerable to malnutrition and multiple nutritional deficiencies due to several age-related physiological and functional changes. The prevalence of malnutrition among institutionalized elderly is estimated to be between 30%–60%; therefore, accurate nutritional assessment is important for both effective diagnosis and intervention of comprehensive treatment plans for older people.Objective: To assess the nutritional status of institutionalized elderly female in Riyadh city, and to explore the association between their nutritional statuses and other determinants such as their mobility status and mood of feeding.Method: Cross-sectional study of 38 females aged 60 years and over who currently resident at the Social Welfare Home for Elderly Females in Riyadh/ Saudi Arabia. Anthropometric/biochemical data, medications, and length of residency were retrieved form medi-cal records of the resident. Nutritional status was assessed using Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) tool. Results: More than 94% of the residents were malnourished or at risk of developing malnutrition. Twenty one percent of the resi-dent were underweight (BMI below 18.5 kg/m2) and 60% of them were categorized as overweight/obese (BMI above 25 kg/m2). Significantly greater percentage of malnourished residents were dependent for mobility (p < 0.001) or require assistant during feed-ing (p = 0.023). Physical dependency was an independent predictor of the nutritional status among our sample (β=2.375; SE 0.800; p = 0.006).Conclusion: According to several nutritional assessment methods, the majority of institutionalized elderly females at the Social Welfare Home for Elderly Females in Riyadh were malnourished or at risk of developing malnutrition. This study underlines the as-sociation between nutritional status and physical dependencies among this age group. Strategies for effective nutritional care should be implemented for institutionalized older adults to treat and prevent the malnutrition and to improve the quality of life for them.
261 Resveratrol Nanoemulsion; A Promising regulator of TGFB1and TFF-3 Genes Expression in DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats , Riham A Mahmoud, Mohamed S Naser Eldin, Ali A Ali, Mohammed A Hussein
Immunosuppressants or anti-inflammatory drugs was used in treatment of bowel disease. The aim of the present article was to evaluate the intestinal anti-inflammatory properties activity of resveratrol nanoemulsion (RENE) against ulcerative colitis induced by DSS in rats.Results: RENE was prepared with size of 49.5 ± 0.05 nm and zeta potential of +15.75 with the observed shapes of nanoparticle was spherical. Also, RENE (39.75 mg/kg b.w.) was administered orally to DSS-induced colitic rats for 21 days.RENE (100 μM) significantly reduces in vitro the release of TGFB1 in the extracellular matrix of in human intestinal colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line and human colon carcinoma cell line HT29. The daily oral administration of the RENE at a concentration of 39.75 mg/kg body weight for 21 days to rats ameliorated the histological damage, body weight, DAI score, colon length and sever-ity of DSS- induced colitis, and improved the compromised oxidative status of the colon. However, only the rats treated with RENE showed a significant reduction in the levels of different pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF- α and MPO) and nitric oxide in comparison with the DSS control group. Moreover, RENE significantly decreases the gene expression of TGFB1 and IL-4 as well as significantly increases the gene expression of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) in comparison with the DSS control group. AbbreviationsConclusion: The results clearly suggest that RENE displayed intestinal anti-inflammatory properties in the DSS model of colitis in rats, which were improved by functionalization with the TGFB1, IL-4 and TFF3 gene expression.
262 Nutrition and SMART Goals , Flavia Luzia Bender
The article Nutrition and SMART Goals is a mini-review that shows how SMART goals can help improve the effectiveness of nutritional treatment. Nowadays people, especially young people, have difficulty adhering to treatment because they are anxious to have the so-called “ideal body” and SMART goals have the function of demonstrating that a behavioral change does not occur quickly, but needs a lot of focus and determination.The increasing search for a standard body is increasingly pre-sent in people’s lives today. Achieving an ideal body has become the dream of many men and women, especially young people. But to what extent the search for the “ideal” body can be harmful, lea-ding to the development of a series of eating disorders such as bin-ge eating, bulimia or anorexia [1].Self-acceptance is a great challenge nowadays, due to the great advent of social networks, which has been valuing the image even more. Several studies show that adolescents are very influenced by the standard of beauty imposed by the media, developing various eating and psychological disorders, and may even reach suicide cases.
263 Nutritional Status of Diet Soft Drinks Consumption Among Chilean School Children , Ximena Rodríguez Palleres, Gabriella Di Capua Ramírez, Álvaro Toledo San Martín
The childhood obesity is a public health problem whose main causes are the consumption of processed foods and junk food with a decrease in physical activity.Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the existence of associations between nutritional status and the consumption of diet soft drinks in school children in Santiago, Chile. Methods: Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 157 school children of both sexes from 6 to 9 years of age of the Renca mu-nicipality, Santiago, Chile. To determine the nutritional status, weight, height and waist circumference were evaluated. To describe the consumption of diet soft drinks, a survey prepared for this study was applied. Results: 57.97% of school children are overweight and obese according to BMI. Regarding abdominal obesity, 53.51% presented this condition according to waist circumference. 64.34% consume diet soft drinks at least one glass a day. Compared to the children who never drink diet soft drinks, the risk of obesity was higher in those who drank 1 glass a day of diet soft drinks (Odds ratio (OR): 1.02 [(IC) 95%: 0.45-2.32]), and who consumed 2 or more glasses a day of diet soft drinks (Odds ratio (OR): 1.52 [(IC) 95%: 0.74-3.2] p = 0.258). The risk of abdominal obesity in school children who consumed 1 glass (Odds ratio (OR): 1.3 [(IC) 95%: 0.58-2.98]) or 2 glasses a day of diet soft drinks (Odds ratio (OR): 1.1 [(IC) 95%: 0.57-2.4] p = 0.6726) was also higher.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of excess malnutrition accompanied by a significant percentage of children who drink diet soft drinks daily. School children who drink diet soft drinks every day are at increased risk of obesity.
264 Schooling Effect in Economic Growth: Benchmarking Turkey vs High Income Countries , Metin Gurler, Ozlem Ozsoy
In modern economic growth theory, human capital is not only an important source in the growth of economy but also has got a significant effect on productivity. According to the analysis of the results based on random effects estimation with panel and cross-section data in the study, mean years of schooling is found as a determinant of the economic growth via health improvement achiev-ing a productive labour force in High Income Countries. Data for mean years of schooling was obtained from United Nations Devel-opment Programme (UNDP) Human Development Reports and Barro-Lee Educational Attainment Dataset whereas for income per capita from the World Bank for the 12 periods in 1995-2014 for 37 High Income Countries and Turkey. Since mean years of schooling in Turkey has been found less than the High-Income Countries’ values, she should increase mean schooling years to reach a healthy well-being level to get a productivity progress causing a rapid economic growth as advanced countries. In the study we analysed Turkey vs 37 High Income Countries. Turkey who is also an emerging economy has a risk to rise to an upper income level as some other middle income countries have. The case is called in literature as "Middle Income Trap". So bench-marking Turkey (the 17th greatest economy in the world) vs High Income Countries is important to show guidelines avoiding the Middle Income Trap. Granger causality test is also applied to test the direction of causality between mean years of schooling (MYS) with national in-come per capita (IPC) and vice versa, and it is seen that mean years of schooling (MYS) Granger causes economic (income per capita) growth (IPC) for panel data. For cross-section data analysis there is no proved correlation between mean years of schooling (MYS) and economic growth (IPC) and vice versa.
265 Integrated Goat Fish Farming as Source of Low Cost Nutrition Security for Small Farmers , Bibha Chetia Borah, Sonmoina Bhuyan, Biswajyoti Bordoloi
As per the 20th livestock census (2019), the population of goat in India is 148.88 million, which is 10.14% higher than the same in the 19th livestock Census, 2012 and around 27.8% of the total livestock population of the country. The increase in livestock popula-tion is always associated with the problem of waste disposal and its possible impact on the environment. Integration of fish farming with livestock husbandry is a viable option, where the livestock waste is recycled for production of fish. The present study encom-passes integrated farming of goat and fish by recycling goat manure, a rich source of N (2.7%), P (1.7%) and K (2.9%) and protein (17.3%), for enhancing fish production in pond. The average range of production of goat dung was 106.2 gm - 176.4gm/goat/night for animal weighing 10.5 - 17.5 kg under open grazing system. It was found that application of goat dung @ 10,000 kg/Ha/year in split doses is the most viable proposition. Calculated per Ha production of fish @ 3879.4 kg (T2), 3430.8 kg (T3), 3358.9 kg (T1) and 2061.8 kg (C) indicated the comparative efficiency of goat dung application for small scale sustainable fish farming with low external input.
266 Determinants of Food and Nutrition Security in Côte d'Ivoire: Case of Abobo Baoulea Sub-district of the Ivorian Political Capital in West Africa , Yoboue N’da Mireille, Assa Rebecca Rachel, N’guessan Anon Franck-Donald, Kouakou Egnon KV
In Côte d'Ivoire, the food and nutritional situation of households has weakened in recent decades according to the ministries of agriculture and health. Experts propose increased monitoring of the situation to avoid a food crisis, capable of disrupting the socio-economic stability of the country. In order to contribute to this strategy, a study was carried out. The study aims to analyze the level of food and nutritional security of the populations of Abobo-Baoulé, in the district of Abidjan, in Côte d'Ivoire. Thisstudy is a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical that involved a sample of 300 households and 453 children under 5 years old.The results reveal rates of 23.70% medium food security, 26.30% low food security, 24% very low food security and low dietary diversity. In addition, the children present a poor nutritional state with rates of 5.1% of acute malnutrition, 12.40% of chronic mal-nutrition and 3.7% of overweight.These results show that food and nutrition security in the country has not changed, compared to previous work and still remains precarious. This could be justified by inadequacies in the search for the causes, and in the implementation of interventions with households.To this end, it would be necessary to revise the causal analysis of the food situation and target the most vulnerable households, in order to reduce malnutrition in Abobo-Baoulé’s locality.
267 Epigenetic and Metabolic Alterations that Interfere in Human Development and Predispose the Manifestation of Obesity and Other Metabolic Disorders: A Systematic Review , Linda Carla Moraes Lima1, Angela Civalsci Cubaski, Mirian Ueda Yamaguchi, Marcelo Picinin Bernuci
Recent studies have demonstrated the multifactorial characteristics of the development of metabolic disorders that have shown the necessity for new research in the area, with the objective of unravelling the factors that could possibly influence critical stages of human development, altering a patient’s metabolic programming. This study aims to identify the main elements that endorse the biological incorporation of these events on an intrauterine environment or on the first years of life, assessing the potential epigen-etic, endocrinological and metabolic mechanisms responsible for this process. The goal of this analysis is to state which main factors allow broader studies to develop specific intervention models for the prevention of metabolic disorders, particularly obesity. This systematic review was based on the PRISMA-E 2012(Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and registered on PROSPERO (Nº CRD42020197344). The research and selection of the articles occurred in June-July 2020 and used the United States National Library of Medicine PubMed – Medline and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, and clinical trials that focused on the analysis of influencing factors on metabolic programming were collected. In this study, we discuss how these elements are capable of influencing critical periods of human development and its potential consequences for the affected individuals, with the objective of identifying possible targets for future interventions. Sixty-two articles were identified and included in this systematic review. Among the selected articles, twelve were directly related to epigenetics, fourteen were related to obesity, sixteen were nutrition related and twelve were focused on diabetes. The data revised showed that stress, excessive weight and maternal malnutrition are potential fetal metabolism modifiers that result in disorders that can predispose to child obesity. It was also demonstrated that gestational diabetes and dyslipidemia are conditions that can influence the fetus’ levels of adiposity and that epigenetics can directly alter fetal programming, resulting in significant metabolic alterations, including the predisposition to weight disorders in the child. In conclusion, epigenesis presented itself as an important way for biological incorporation of the heritability of metabolic diseases, through the methylation and deacetylation pathways, becoming an important factor in future studies focusing on possible interventions for the prevention of these disorders.
268 Identification of Lactic Acid Bacteria from Fermented Young Muskmelon (Cucumis melon Linn) , Norng Chakriya, Dizon I Erlinda, Elegado B Francisco, Huon Thavrak, Ang Vichheka, Ly Sokheng, Prom Kimheang, Rith Sokuncharya, Masataka Uchino Chay Chim
Fermentation has been used since ancient times as an easy method of vegetables’ preservation, which also maintains and im-proves the nutritional and sensory properties of the final products. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involved in fermentation are gen-erally recognized as safe. Lactic acid bacteria are a group of Gram positive, non-respiring, non- spore forming, cocci or rod, which produce lactic acid as the major end product of the fermentation of carbohydrate. This study isolated LAB from naturally-fermenting young muskmelon (Cucumis melon Linn)in 10% brine solution at pre-determined time intervals using the standard pour plating technique. A total of 18 isolates were chosen and purified by streak plating on MRS agar medium and incubated at 37 ÌŠC for 24-48h. Physiological and biochemical characterization of the isolates were carried out. Fermentation of carbohydrates was determined us-ing the API 50 CHL System. Results of the study revealed that out of the three (3) strains of selected LAB strains; one strain was iden-tified as Lactobacillus brevis while thetwo strains are Pediococcus pentosaceus. These LABS are potential inoculants for commercial production of fermented fruits and vegetables.
269 Eating Out of Home and Risk for Obesity: An Overview , Rotondo G, Cazzaniga E, Palestini P
Despite Mediterranean dietary pattern has become a healthy eating standard, even Mediterranean countries such as Italy, show a progressive disaffection from this diet in parallel to the increasing trend in prevalence of body overweight and obesity and correlate pathologies. The causes that led to the explosion of the body overweight and obesity phenomenon and the differences in the prevalence of this condition among various social groups, are cultural and economic as well as biological and epidemiological. In developed countries out-of-home eating, defined as the consumption of foods and beverages out of home, has received increas-ing attention among cultural and behavioral factors linked to obesity. Indeed, with the rapid development of economy, diet habits have undergone great changes. An increasingly number of people, especially in urban settings, is eating out of home not only for working people during their lunch break, but also at dinnertime. Studies showed that a very high dietary energy content of both full service and fast-food restau-rant meals is a widespread phenomenon and that there is a positive relationship between the consumption of food away from home and weight gain. This has garnered considerable attention from public health experts in formulating national policies and programs designed to curb the growing trends in obesity. USA, Canada and Australia, proposed calorie-labeling policy that required chain restaurants to post the calorie content of items on menus. In Europe, there is not such a policy yet. Unfortunately, many studies show that menu restaurant calories and nutritionallabeling mandatory policies did not have achieved the set goals in guiding consumers throughout restaurant menu to choose healthier dishes in terms of less calories and nutrients composition.
270 Can We Solve the Problem of Global Syndemic? Mediterranean Diet as a Potential Solution , Anka Trajkovska Petkoska
Healthy diets and sustainable food systems, in general, are among the key players to achieve sustainable planet and welfare of all people, and at the same time, to be in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, UN 2015). These food systems offer not only a way towards ending the hunger, but also enable healthier nations and less environmental pollution. A good representative of a sustainable food system and a healthy diet is the Mediterranean diet that is affordable and transferable even in the regions far from the Mediterranean basin. Mediterranean diet could be a solution to overcome the global syndemic, which is becoming an emerging problem for the whole planet. This study proposes Mediterranean Diet as an example of a healthy and sustainable diet that could be introduced to children and young generations from early stages of their lives for the welfare and better human health and socio-economic status, as well as a way to reduce the impact of food production on the climate change.
271 Determinants on Household Food Security Among Indigenous Population of Nagaland, India , Aatish Kumar Sahu, Sanjoy Das, Lakshmidhar Hatai
Food being a primary subject of concern for social development as well a vital indicator of well being of citizens in a state, it is more important when ‘last mile food security’ is given due priority. In developing major economy like India, tribal population across the country act as the last mile and it is ought to be studied with better methodologies. The current study conducted during the early part of the year 2017 delves into the food security indicators and identifying the factors responsible for food (in) security of Chakhesang and Pochury tribes of Phek district of Nagaland. In this regard, a household survey comprising of 80 households, was conducted in Phek district of Nagaland during early 2017. Based on multistage random sampling, two rural development blocks namely Kikruma and Pfutsero block were sampled from the district and four villages were sampled as second stage. Using the relevant parameters observed from the survey, the components of food (in)security developed for the study region [1]and household Food Security Index (FSIP) was computed and further descripted and statistically analyzed. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was applied to identify the odds of status of household food security given villages, categories of family size, pri-mary occupation, income level, possessions of agronomic crops, vegetables and fruits and livestock. It was observed from the study that the distance of regular markets, family size and livestock possession of the families played a critical role in food security of a household in the region.
272 Nutritional and Biochemical Composition of Amla (Emblica officinalis) and its Therapeutic Impact: A Review , Ali Ikram, Waseem Khalid, Maryam Aziz, Muhammad Adnan Arif, Ravi Prakash Jha, Muhammad Zubair Khalid, Chasheen Fizza, Muhammad Zarnoor Mehmood, Muhammad Haseeb, Muhammad Abdul Rahim, Sadia Naeem, Fatima Sultana
From ancient times, plants played a vital role in the development of mankind and was an exceptional source of natural medicine. The difficulty of the production of chemical medications, their side effects on safety, and the expense of rebellion have led research-ers worldwide to concentrate on therapeutic plant science. Pakistan has a large collection of various plant species, with around 5,000 plants claiming to have important medicinal values. The papers published in recent decades on medicinal plants relate to the function of various plant bioactive composites commonly used in the cure of numerous human diseases. Bioactive compounds such as ascorbic acids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenoids, saponins, and several other components are reported to have been verified to have various medicinal activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, radiological, antitisinous, hepatoprotective, immune-modulatory, hypolipidemic and several other actions. The drug also has anti-cancer, antidepressant, antidiabetic, injury healing, antiulcerogenic, and so on. The present review article sums up the phytochemical components and pharmacology of the Em-blica officinalis plant and its traditional application. Amla phyto-chemicals, including ellagic acid, emblicanine A, emblacani B, Gallic acid, phyllantine, quercetin and phyllantidine were found to have various biological activities such as antioxidants, antimicrobials, antiinlammative, antidiabetic, anti-radiation protection, chemopreventive and healing of wounds.
273 Effectively Managing the Co-ingestion of Dietary Supplements and Prescription Drugs , Jacquelyn C Pence, Keith R Martin, Richard J Bloomer
According to recent surveys, over half of American adults take at least one dietary supplement (DS), with usage increasing with age. Healthcare providers should be aware of which DS products their patients are taking in order to best manage their overall care. While DS can be used to complement and enhance the actions of traditional medicine, they may be contraindicated when taken con-comitant with prescribed medications. Herein, example DS-drug interactions associated with common conditions are discussed, as well as two hypothetical applications of DS.
274 Foodomics; Principles, Challenges, and Applications - A Promising Tool for Food Analysis , Ayda Ghahary;Rambod Abiri;
Human nutrition is a multifaceted, complex, and broad scien-tific field, demonstrating how food components, ingredients and flavors present required nourishment for the life-sustaining [34]. Since the dawn of civilization, food and nutrition components have been obligated to maintain human life by releasing energy [11]. However, over the decades, human nutrition has been widely con-sidered as a promising resource to treat and/or prevent diseases [21]. Recently, the application of modern research in nutrition and food science has been shifted from classical technologies and equipment to advance analytical methodologies [4]. To achieve the mentioned goal, a new discipline, namely called foodomics, was introduced as the global strategy through using the application of advanced omics in the food science domain [17].
275 Science/Education Portraits VII: Statistical Methods Used in 1081 Papers Published in Year 2020 Across 12 Life Science Journals Under BioMed Central , Kyle D Kim; Shaun CH Chua;Maurice HT Ling;
Statistics is an integral part of biology and is required for all undergraduate life science curriculum. However, are biology students trained in statistical skills required in the field? Despite studies listing various commonly statistical methods used in specialised branches of life sciences; such as, immunology and tropical biology; there is a lack of study on the common statistical methods used in life science in general. Here, we examine 1081 articles across 12 life sciences journals under BioMed Central, published in 2020, to elucidate the common statistical methods used in current life science research, as a basis to recommend an updated syllabus to all institutions that educate biologists. 72.7% of the examined articles contains identifiable statistical methods and a total of 2431 instances were identified. Our findings show that the first 3 out of 15 categories of methods; parametric comparison of means (25.38% of instances), correlation/regression (18.88%), and post-hoc test (10.32%); accounts for 54.59% of the instances. In terms of individual methods, the top 8 methods account for 52.04% of the instances – (a) t-test (13.00%), (b) ANOVA (12.26%), (c) un-specified (likely to be Pearson’s correlation) and Pearson’s correlation (9.79%), (d) Benjamini and Hochberg’s False Discovery Rate (FDR) (4.77%), (e) Tukey's HSD (4.36%), (f) Kruskal-Wallis Test (2.96%), (g) Mann-Whitney U Test (2.80%), and (h) Chi Square Test (2.10%). These findings may have an impact on future curriculum design.
276 The Emergence of COVID-19: Is it a Proof of Historical Nutritional Neglect? , Atta Ur Rehman Khan; Abdul Qadir Habshi, Ali Subei, Rubina Tariq, Kiran Khan and Al Madinah Al Munawarah
It is strange for many but I have to quote Shakespeare for a soft reminder to ourselves, what Nutrition entails in the lives of human which stands true since times of Aristotle. Marching against nature and siding with “Artificialism” is hallmark of today. One classical example is of natural orange extracts which are used everywhere from cosmetics to paints but for our diet only remains the artificial orange flavors. Where the nature is and where it must be, I quote.‘This fortress built by Nature for herself against infection and hand of war’ (The Tragedy of King Richard II, Act II, Scene I, lines 43 and 44, William Shakespeare).
277 Anti Herpesviral Activity of Medicinal Plants Indicated to Treat Oral Diseases , Carlos ED Igidio, Adriana S Santos, Dhierllate F Sousa, Bolívar O Landi and Aline O Conceição
Oral diseases constitute a serial public health problem. Periodontitis, one of the main oral diseases, has bacteria as the most preva-lent agent, although today it is known that there are multiple factors that interfere with the installation and evolution of periodon-tics’ disease. Herpesvirus infections, for example, lead to a drop in local immunity that can consequently lead to the multiplication of pathogenic bacteria and destructive periodontal disease. Within this problem, the importance of treatments of broad spectrum is stressed: bacteria, viruses, and the immune system. In this case, medicinal plants, recognized for their therapeutic action and the presence of a variety of metabolites are candidates for validation of their popular use. In this work we describe the in vitro anti herpesvirus study of four medicinal plants indicated to treat oral disease by a cocoa region community. Plants were collected in the field and ethanolic extracts were obtained from dried leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius (Anacardiaceae), Cajanus cajan (Fabaceae), and Tamarindus indica (Fabaceae). As a herpesvirus model, suid and equid herpesvirus were used. The best activity was seen for C. cajan against suid herpesvirus (96.84% of inhibition) at a concentration of 75μg/mL. However, the results presented here encourage further in vitro and in vivo tests in search of preventive or adjuvant therapies in the treatment of oral disease.
278 Hypoglycemic Potentials and Phenolic Characterization of Aqueous Extract of Senna Podocarpa Leaf , Saliu JA
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a life threatening metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia. Senna podocarpa is an evergreen glabrous shrub plant whose leaves are used in folklore medicine as poultices for the treatment of wounds, swellings, skin diseases, yawns and diabetes. This study was carried out to determine the effect of Senna podocarpa on carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and to analysis the phenolic profiles of the plant. Enzyme inhibitory assay of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas were carried out. In addition, DPPH radical scavenging ability, iron chelating capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP), total phenolic content, and total flavonoid content and HPLC-DAD phenolic analysis of Senna podocarpa were investigated. Tukey test at p < 0.05 was the statistical tool used. The results revealed that the aque-ous extract of Senna podocarpa leaves had inhibitory actions on α-amylase, α-glucosidase and Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas. The extract also showed DPPH radical scavenging ability and iron chelating capacity in concentration-related fashion and the ferric reducing antioxidant property (0.49 ± 0.01), total phenolic contents (0.96 ± 0.01) and total flavonoid content (0.56 ± 0.01). Furthermore, HPLC-DAD phenolic analysis shown the occurrence of the chlorogenic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, epicat-echin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol and gallic acid. Nevertheless, chlorogenic acid was the most abundant. The results ob-tained from this study showed that aqueous extract of Senna podocarpa leaf had strong inhibitory action on carbohydrate hydrolyz-ing enzymes and potent antioxidant property which might be feasible mechanistic approach supporting its use for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This hypoglycemic action could be due to the preponderance of phenolics and phenolic acids present in this plant.
279 Hints and Tips for Better Nutrition and Cooking Methods , Edward F Block
In these uncertain times and living under the unspoken rule of large corporations, It is imperative that we as a people begin to take back our own personal destiny. I see the grip that modern marketing has upon the means that people go about getting the things that they need to survive, live, love and laugh! Please have the courage, determination and perseverance to wrest your choic-es from the propaganda that corporations would have you believe and remain subject to.All that I am going to share with you is from the experiences that my body, my emotions and my mind have endured in the face of ongoing difficulties related to finding out about the food choices that are presented to me as a consumer. The reasons for this are simple. My body, my emotions and my mind are affected by what I am able to purchase, prepare and eat as food.
280 “X Factor” of Japanese to Suppress Covid-19 Mortality , Shaw Watanabe, Kazumoto Inuma2, Kota Kikuchi3 and Tetsuro Yamamoto
Japan experiences three waves of COVID-19 pandemic. The National Institute of Infectious Diseases has determined the CO-VID-19 first wave was derived from the Wuhan, and the second wave originated from a COVID-19 variant of the European type. Since October, the third wave causes the pandemic spread. The grim milestone of 100,000 COVID-19 cumulative cases reached at the end of October. On December 26, the cumulative number of PCR positive cases becomes 218,358. Even though, the total case/fatality rate is 1.4% or 2.45 death/100K population. Japan’s death rate from COVID-19 is one of the lowest in the developed coun-tries, despite its high risk aging population [1]. Factors explaining this low death rate are said to include cultural habits, such as bow-ing etiquette and wearing face masks, hand washing with sanitiz-ing equipment, so far [2]. Still, we suspect an essential “X factor” is the strong innate immunity which explain the different mortality among countries.
281 Infants Compensate Energy Intake Fully for Modest Reduction in Energy Density of Formula , SJ Fomon, SE Nelson and EE Ziegler
Infants regulate food intake primarily to satisfy energy needs. Feedings with widely different energy densities (e.g., 54 vs 100 kcal/100 ml) result in different energy intakes in infants <2 months old but not later. It is not known how infants handle smaller dif-ferences in energy density. We used two milk-based formulas that were practically identical in composition except that one (Formula A) was lower in fat content (2.70 g/100 g) and energy density (60.2 kcal/100 g) than the other (Formula B, fat 3.43 g/100 g, 68.9 kcal/100 g). The primary study outcome was weight gain, with amount of formula and other foods consumed the secondary outcome.Normal term infants (N = 76) were enrolled before 9 days of age and assigned randomly to one of the formulas, which were fed during the entire study to age 224 days (exclusively until 140 days of age). Of the 61 infants who completed the study and whose data are re-ported, 31 (14 males, 17 females) were fed A and 30 (16 males, 14 females) were fed B. Weight was measured every 14 days until 56 days and then every 28 days. Food intake was determined by weighing containers. Other foods were permitted after 140 days of age.Results: Between 8 and 224 days of age, infants fed A consumed significantly more formula (155 ± 12 g/kg/d) than infants fed B (137 ± 11 g/kg/d; p < 0.001). On the other hand, total energy intakes were similar: 94.3 ± 5.7 kcal/kg/d with A and 95.6 ± 6.4 kcal/kg/d with B. Between 8 and 56 days, there was no significant difference in energy intake. Intake of other foods after 140 days was similar. There were no feeding-related differences in anthropometric results. We conclude that infants compensate fully for a modest difference in energy density of formula.
282 Role of Mulberry Leaves in Human Nutrition: A Review , Fareed Afzal, Waseem Khalid, Muhammad Naveed Asif, Ayesha Jabeen, Ravi Prakash Jha, Muhammad Zubair Khalid, Chasheen Fizza, Afifa Aziz, Ramish Akram, Aqsa Bashir, Sahar Younas, Farwa Nayyer, Rehan Yasin, Muhammad Zeeshan Ahmad
Diabetes and different cardiovascular diseases are major problems across the globe for the human. Different traditional and modern medicinal techniques are being in use to cure these problems. Use of herbal medicines is one of them. Present review was conducted to determine the effects of mulberry plant powder for the treatment of these diseases. Mulberry (Morus alba L.) is impor-tant medicinal plant that contains numerous bioactive compounds including antioxidants i.e. flavonoids, phenolics as well as dietary fiber. Owing to presence of bioactive components, it shows strong effect against maladies like diabetes, cardiovascular disease and viral activities. Mulberry leaf powder is characterized for physicochemical characteristics (moisture content, pH, acidity, TSS, TPC). Moreover, due to high nutrients concentration, mulberry leaves are considered as vital for health.
283 Overcoming Obesogenic Environments: A Qualitative Study Exploring Mechanisms of Healthy Eaters , Sofía Sutherland Borja, Emilio A González Silva, Cinthya Urquidi Bellota, Gabriela Sarrat Gonzalez, Eliana Reyes Soto
To identify mechanisms that enable overcoming obesogenic environments amongst healthy eaters through a Salutogen-esis approach.Methods: Sixteen middle-class Chilean adults (14 females and 2 males) following healthy diets according to the Healthy Eating Index were purposively selected from a primary health care center in urban Santiago. Semi-structured interviews and a grounded theory approach were used to explore ways in which healthy eaters manage their food practices.Interview transcripts were coded through open, axial and selective coding with a constant comparative method. Results: The link between food and health is the main mechanism that promotes healthy diets. Healthy eaters assign importance to the physical and emotional roles of food, and use knowledge, motivation and resource-management skills to manage healthy food practices. A three stage food-related learning processes is proposed. Conclusion: Understanding healthy eating as fundamental to reach a state of well-being and having skills to perform adequate food practices is key for facing obesogenic environments. The health-food link and the Food Learning Triad may serve for nutrition educa-tion interventions.
284 Identification of Ectoparasite and Prevalence Male and Female of Cantang Grouper Fish (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus x Epinephelus lanceolatus) in Aquaculture Paluh Pisang Mas Deli Serdang, North Sumatera Province , Yusni E, D Wulandari and Fuad SP
The identification of ectoparasites with 30 samples of fish was infected male and female of Cantang Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus x epinephelus lanceolatus) in Paluh Pisang Mas Pond, Hamparan Perak District, Deli Serdang Regency, North Sumatra and to determine the prevalence of Cantang Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus x epinephelus lanceolatus) in Paluh Pisang Mas Pond. There are four types of ectoparasites was infected in Cantang Grouper fish in Paluh Pisang Mas Pond, namely Zeylanicobdella sp., Brooklynella hostilis, Caligus sp. and Dactylogyrus sp. The highest prevalence rate was found of Zeylanicobdella sp. with a value of 26.66% in the oral organs and 23.33% in the mucous organs with the category of frequent infections. Brooklynella hostilis with a value of 23.33% with the category of frequent infections. Genus Caligus sp with a value of 10% with the category of frequent infections and genus Dactylogyrus sp. with a value of 16.66% in the category of frequent infections. The Zeylanicobdella sp, was found highest of 20 types, Brooklynella hostilis of 11 in female, and 16 types and 3 types was found in male, but ectoparasite of cligus sp was found highest of 6 types in male and not infected by female. Compare of Dactylogyrus sp was found highest of 5 types in female, and 2 type in male
285 Nursing Diagnoses for the Patient with Werdnig - Hoffman Syndrome in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit , Márcia Gisele Peixoto Kades, Maria Eduarda Silvano de Aquino Freitas, Laurindo Pereira de Souza, Rafael Ayres Romanholo, Cídia Vasconcellos
The objective of this research was to investigate the clinical and epidemiological profile of WHS patients, their diseases and propose the main nursing diagnosis labels. Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, qualitative and quantitative field survey of 02 children who were ad-mitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of the Regional Hospital of Cacoal in the period of October from 2015 to June 2016, with a confirmed medical diagnosis of Werdnig-Hoffman Syndrome (WHS).
286 Seedlessness in Hybrid Fruits is a Low-input Resource for Canning Industry , Satya SS Narina, Kim Cheyyar, Reza Refie2, Ravi Sankar C, Hanumantha Rao GV, Christopher J Catanzaro
So many dual-purpose tropical fruit crops, with both vegetable and fruit use, were unexplored until today to study in-depth about the physiological control of their genomes. These studies would be useful for modern fruit breeding programs aiming 1) seedless hybrid fruits for canning, pulp and food industry 2) dwarf hybrid fruit trees and 3) for improving organic quality of fruit production with pesticide free as well with disease and pest resistance. The mechanism, techniques and various kinds of male-sterility (ms) and their major role in seedless fruit production while connecting ms to the concepts of self-incompatibility, parthenocarpy and poly-embryony were reviewed. The physiological parameters contributing ms, responses and success of ms in different fruit crop's F1 production with seedlessness in their fruits, markers identified for ms and or seedlessness were explained along with manipulating nuclear-mitochondrial gene controlled biochemical pathways at the tissue and cellular level during their flower-bud and fruit devel-opment. The routes for possible success in producing hybrid seedless fruits and benefits in the improvement of available unexplored nutritious fruits of tropical origin were detailed in this chapter.
287 Analysis of Micro and Macro Nutrient Levels in Compost and Vermicompost Fertilizer Formulated from Selected Agro-waste and Comparative Assessment of the Fertilizer Efficiencies , Ebele Rita Emendu, Arinze Jude Chinweuba, Onuorah Chinedu Chibuzor,Nnamdi Benneth Emendu
There is global a demand for organic food due to perceived harmful effects of synthetic and chemical fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides to humans health. Owing to this, biofertilizer was produced from some selected organic waste materials through Conven-tional Compost and Vermicompost methods to determine their macro and micro mineral nutrients, also to ascertain their efficiency in organic farming. The Vermicompost was done with (Eisena fetilda) earthworm in an earthen pot with mixture of samples of farm and poultry droppings in the ratio of 5:1. Results of the compost and vermicompost of all the samples showed that macro mineral nutrients of samples A-C are as follows. Fe (24.00mg/kg-33.41mg/kg), Cu (26.01mg/kg-39.15mg/kg), Zn (4.91mg/kg-11.20mg/kg), Mn (27.50mg/kg-34.71mg/kg) while micro mineral nutrients are Mg (21.51mg/kg-4.19mg/kg), Ca (18.20mg/kg-25.51mg/kg) N (20.00mg/kg-29.41.00mg/kg) K (25.51mg/kg-32.01mg/kg) P (30.80mg/kg-38.51mg/kg). Comparatively Vermicompost had better macro and micro nutrient probably due to the action of Eisenia fetida which promotes mineralization. Vermicompost fertilizer pro-motes growth rate of Scent leave due to nutrient balance in organic manure which affects plant growth and development compared to conventional compost fertilizer. Vermicompost and conventional compost fertilizer samples can be utilized as organic fertilizer in crop production and could be commercialized. They can also be applied in waste management to promote healthy environment.
288 Meat Analogue: A Short Review on Processing Aspects , Soumitra Banerjee; Anushree Rao; Saba Ali Zahid
Animal source proteins have been a part of the human diet since long time back. Consumer preferences are seeing a shift from the conventional meat products to the meat analogues based on plant sources. This shift is due to the growing drive for more sustainable and healthier lifestyles, rising health awareness, environmental impact etc. Meat analogues are meat like materials made from plant sources. They have similar texture, flavour, appearances and other nutritional qualities to that of animal meat. Extrusion technology finds its applications in the making of plant-based meat analogues. This paper is focuses on the need for meat analogues and process technology involved for its production
289 Evaluation of Nutritional and Food Addiction Status of Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Presenting to Ankara Baskent Hospital , Özlem Baran;Perim Fatma Türker
It is known that diabetes is an important health problem worldwide with increasing prevalence over the years. In this context, identifying the nutritional tendencies of individuals with diabetes and determining related factors such as food addiction may posi-tively affect the management of diabetes. This study was carried out to evaluate the daily energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intake and food addiction of individuals with and without Type 2 diabetes and to determine the impact of food addiction on the intake of the specified nutrients.Materials and Methods: The study consisted of a total of 128 individuals, including 64 diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes and 64 with no Type 2 diabetes, who were aged between 18 and 65 and presented to BaÅŸkent University Ankara Hospital Endocrinology Depart-ment. A questionnaire was used to collect data about demographic characteristics, disease information, and lifestyle characteristics of the participants. Food addiction status was determined with the "Yale Food Addiction Scale". A 3-day food consumption form was administered to evaluate the daily energy and nutrient intake of the individuals.Findings: A total of 128 individuals, including 92 females (71.9%) and 36 males (28.1%), made up the study sample. Sixty-four of the participants had already been diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes. The mean age was 47.23 ± 9.95 years. It was found that 25 (39.1%) of the individuals with Type 2 diabetes had a food addiction but that 39 (60.9%) did not. On the other hand, 19 (29.7%) of the individu-als with no Type 2 diabetes had a food addiction, but 45 (70.3%) did not. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). A comparison of daily average energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat intakes of individuals with and without food addiction was made according to their diabetes status. The average daily energy intake of individuals with a diagnosis of food addiction and Type 2 diabetes was found to be statistically significantly higher than those without Type 2 diabetes (p < 0.05).Conclusion: There was no statistically significant difference between individuals with and without Type 2 diabetes in terms of food addiction. A significant difference was found between daily energy intakes of individuals with food addiction according to their Type 2 diabetes status.
290 Interaction Effects of Salinity and Ultrasound Pretreatment on the Phytochemical Compounds of Clover Sprouts , Tahany AA Aly;Abdullateef Taiye Mustapha;Lei Zhang;Xiaojie Yu;Abu ElGasim A Yagoub;Haile Ma;Li Chen;Cunshan Zhou
This study investigated the interaction effects of salinity and ultrasound pretreatment on the phytochemical composition and growth of clover sprouts. Clover seeds were pretreated with ultrasound at 20, 28, and 40 kHz for 30 min at 30 °C and soaked for 9 h in deionized water, 1000 and 2000 ppm NaCl solution, then sprouted in the dark for 3 days. Clover sprout length significantly (p ≤ 0.05) decreased with increasing salinity concentration to 2000 ppm NaCl, and increased for the ultrasound pretreated samples, sug-gesting a reduction in the salinity damage to clover sprout growth. The phytochemical compounds in clover sprout were identified by GC/MS/MS analysis. Some phytochemicals detected in the clover sprouts (7,8,3,4-tetramethoxyflavone, 3,7,8,2'-tetramethoxyflavone and docasane, 4-methyl) were not identified in the seeds. The results showed an increase in the methionine in the clover sprout with increasing salinity concentration. In contrast, no significant difference was observed on the methionine with the ultrasound treated samples. The phenolic compound salicylic acid in clover sprouts increased with increasing ultrasound frequency levels. It inhibited the ethylene production and induced salinity tolerance of the clover seedling. A novel mechanism of protecting the sprout tissues from the damage effect of salinity by the ultrasound pretreatment was proposed.
291 Myasthenia Gravis Secondary to Pembrolizumab , Minardi EP
In recent years, the development of anti-cancer target drugs therapy has been increasing significantly. In this context, a new monoclonal antibody group, which inhibits the programmed cell death 1 receptor, has emerged as an effective frontline of treatment of certain neoplasms. Prembrolizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody, is a standard option for the treatment of advanced and metastatic malignancies like multiple myeloma. However, clinical research has uncovered diverse, unpredictable and serious im-mune related adverse events that raise concerns regarding its safety. Here, we will describe the case of an oncology patient with a suspected myasthenia gravis after receiving pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks.
292 The Pandemic of the E-Human Movement , Julie Rammal
The evolution and change in movement has strikingly shut down gyms, health clubs, fitness classes, live personal training jobs and more during the pandemic. The massive shift has opened up live streaming and online classes, however we may be soon facing a new body and mind pandemic if we are not aware of the side ef-fects.Many classes, applications, live streaming workouts have ac-commodated the public to stay fit during quarantine however the truth is that nothing can ever replace the live 1:1 personal trainer or live group classes because the energy, emotion and feeling is just not there or the same. A small real life smile can actually motivate a student much quicker then what motivation can be felt and given in live streaming classes.
293 Evaluation of Body Composition in Rural and Urban Schoolchildren in a Municipality in the Southern Interior of the Legal Amazon , Rafael Ayres Romanholo, Laurindo Pereira de Souza, Helizandra Simoneti Romanholo, Marcia Guerino de Lima, Fabricio Moraes de Almeida
To evaluate the corporal composition in rural and urban schoolchildren in a city in the southern interior of the Western Amazon. Method: This is a quantitative study classified as ex-post facto in order to verify the body composition of schoolchildren. The sample was composed of 482 students enrolled in rural and urban schools in the municipality of Cacoal-Rondônia (Brazil). Results: Most of the students were female and lived in the rural area, the study revealed that the overweight indexes are high in both rural and urban schoolchildren, but with an increase for those who live in the city.Conclusion: Obesity remains a serious public health problem in view of its rise for several years in this population profile, thus the involvement of the whole society is necessary, so that there is feasibility of health programs in schools in order to intensify actions aimed at nutritional support, physical activity, and the involvement of families to prevent and reduce the prevalence of this serious multifactorial disease.
294 Female College Students’ Attitudes Towards Healthy Eating Habits in the Rising Incidence of Breast Cancer in Japan , Riona Ushiyama, Minami Yoshiike, Eri Tonsho, Kanami Suzuki, Kai Kuribayashi, Yuji Aoki
We have recently reported that age-specific incidence rates of breast cancer among Japanese women clearly increased from 2000 to 2015 in a bimodal distribution pattern. As for the premenopausal breast cancer in Japan, the incidence rates have become com-parable to those in western countries. The westernization of lifestyle including eating habits needs to be considered as a modifiable risk factor. In this report, we assessed female college students’ attitudes towards healthy eating habits using 7 questions raised for the promotion of food and nutrition education (shokuiku in Japanese) among the younger generation. By a web questionnaire sur-vey, it was suggested that female college students who learned nutrition and health had insufficient attitudes towards healthy eating habits, although their attitudes were better than those of female junior college students who did not learn nutrition as a specialized subject. The largest difference between the two groups of students was found in the question “I buy foods without reading nutrition labels”. The female junior college students who selected “Yes” for it were likely to have worse attitudes for healthy eating habits. The female college students learning nutrition had knowledge on nutrition labels, which was not necessarily linked with attitudes towards healthy eating habits. Nutrition awareness campaigns using well designed nutrition labels may be effective to improve the college students’ attitudes.
295 Analysis of Alimentary Behavior and Self-perception in a Cross-section of 21 Adolescents Diagnosed as Suffering from Anorexia Nervosa , Carlo Prunet, Sara Guidotti
Data from research conducted over the past twenty years agree on the relationship between eating and emotional disorders. This work aims to offer a contribution to the understanding of some of the psychological factors involved in the onset of eating disorders, with particular emphasis on "anorexia nervosa" in adolescents through the introduction of the Pisa Survey for Eat-ing Disorder [1], a tool capable of probing the behavioral and perceptive aspects related to body image, and collect information on eating habits, which can be more or less dysfunctional.Methods: The results obtained by 21 female adolescents who were diagnosed as suffering from anorexia nervosa were examined. The age of the sample is in a range between 14.1 and 23.1 years. The participants completed the PSED.Conclusion: The data collected through the self-evaluation questionnaire made it possible to highlight and discriminate between behavioral components in interpersonal relationships (affectionate, sexual, and social), in eating habits (dieting, bingeing and laxa-tive use), in physical activities (type and frequency) and also delineate the characteristics of self-awareness (relationship with one's own body, enjoyment levels) in adolescents with serious alimentary disturbances.The results, albeit preliminary, confirm what is present in the literature on the relationship between eating and emotional disor-ders. In fact, it was found that mood swings may depend on the ability to control one's body weight and keep it within desired limits. The tendency to engage in obsessive behaviors focused on weight control through diet, physical activity, compensatory behaviors was also confirmed. The fundamental role played by interpersonal relationships within this category of patients is also well described.Finally, this preliminary study highlights the discriminatory capacity of the PSED which proves to be a simple, economical and useful self-assessment tool
296 Are the Residents of Varanasi City Practicing Enough to Manage their Kitchen Waste? , Mukesh Kumar Paswan,Dr. AC Tiwari
Kitchens are the foremost areas to generate large quantity of wastes and the moisture-loaded wastes are generally dumped in open to putrefy rapidly, to emit foul odour and to invite disease vectors. The article investigates existing policy measures and cur-rent kitchen waste management (KWM) practices to portray the waste management scenario in Varanasi City. It also emphasizes to elicit lacuna from municipal authorities’ part and residents’ role in KWM. The work embraced quantitative and qualitative methods along with descriptive and case study research designs to sail the research work smoothly. Residents from Varanasi city have been recruited by using snowball-sampling technique. Non-participatory direct observation accompanied by self-administered schedule have been incorporated in the process of data collection. Results exhibit that the assigned municipal personal do not execute mu-nicipal solid waste management guidelines. Open dumping is the most common way for the disposal of kitchen waste. Education of the respondents is the key factors, which creates the difference in their behaviour and attitude towards waste management. Mixing different waste altogether intensifies the complexity of the issue. Therefore, awareness creation among the residents and candid implementation of the rules are pivotal to set up sustainable and healthy living conditions in the city.
297 Investigating Treatment Literacy on Antiretroviral Drugs (ARVs) and Nutrient Interaction Among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) , Nthani D,Hamoonga Mwiinga Bona
Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are potent life prolonging drugs; with potential interaction with food. The importance of taking ARVs consistently and appropriately can never be over-emphasized. For ARVs to be effective there must be regular food supply, a nutrition plan and continuous support system to ensure healthy eating [1]. Nutrition is therefore an essential component of ART interventions. However, the effects of food and ARV drug interaction has not been singularly researched in Zambia. The study objective was to deter-mine the level and scope of information known (treatment literacy) amongst people living with HIV (PLHIV) about food-nutrient and ARV drug interaction. Specific objectives were to determine treatment literacy of PLHIV, determine whether PLHIV knew the meal and medication timing of their drugs and to determine PLHIV awareness of possible adverse effects of nutrition and drug interaction. The study was carried out in three (3) purposively chosen ART sites in Chongwe District, encompassing all HIV clients above twenty (20) years accessing health care and having been on ARV drugs for over 6 months. The study assumed a qualitative cross sectional descriptive study using open ended questionnaires with the aid of an audio tape recorder for recording responses. The collected data was transcribed and coded; themes were identified by way of content analysis for reporting. The results indicated that treatment literacy was inadequate both in quality and quantity of content. Additionally, drug-meal timing was not strictly followed. Further findings revealed step down and instructional format without reason given for actions. Overall, respondents were not aware of any drug-nutrient interactions, let alone expected side effects upon initiating medication. Respondents expressed desire for privacy and generally yearned for more information on HIV/AIDS. The findings also clearly showed lack of information on food and nutrition linkages to HIV/AIDS. In conclusion, nutrition being a cross cutting issue; its importance in the management of non-communicable and communicable diseases including HIV across different human physiological states and age groups cannot be over emphasized. Therefore, arising recommendations should be taken seriously into consideration not only by Chongwe District Health Management Team but also extrapolated nationwide in implementation.
298 Intervention Protocols for the Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome and its Components in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review , Ewerton Eiti Yamada, Mirian Ueda Yamaguchi, Marcelo Picinin Bernuci
Physical exercise, in general, promotes the improvement of several metabolic markers in overweight and obese children and adolescents, however, the evidence still presents some divergences regarding the impact of different training protocols on metabolic syndrome (MS). This systematic review aimed to assess and discuss the impact of different physical exercise protocols on the preva-lence of MS and its markers in children and adolescents. The study followed the guidelines proposed by PRISMA-E 2012 and searches for articles were performed in the electronic database PubMed. As an inclusion criterion, the articles should explore the intervention and the impact of physical exercise on MS and its components on children and adolescents. A total of 348 articles were found and, after applying the eligibility criteria, 10 studies remained for qualitative analysis. Of the 10 selected studies, 3 used aerobic training protocol, 4 applied concurrent training, 2 recreational interventions and only 1 resisted training. Regardless of the protocol, physi-cal exercise is a fundamental tool in maintaining several blood biomarkers and body composition, although protocols with aerobic exercises have shown good results. However, further investigations are still needed.
299 Physiological Workload during Rescue Drills at Sea Level and at Geographical Altitude in Chile , Esteban Oñate, Elías Apud
Most large companies and institutions have emergency brigades to deal with potential risks. Furthermore, they must have good organizational systems to react quickly and efficiently to take control and protect affected populations. Therefore, it is very important in these jobs with high physiological demands to organize the activities to balance the workload between the members of the rescue teams. For this reason, on-site drills are useful to analyse the organization of work with concrete data which provide information to prevent brigade members from collapsing due to fatigue. Consequently, the objective of the present study was to determine the level of physiological load imposed by the activities carried out during three rescue drills of injured workers. Two of them were carried out at sea level and a third at 4300 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.). The results revealed significant differences in the physiological load between the members of the brigades in the three evaluations. It was found that some of them reached dangerous levels overloading their cardiovascular system over 80% and even 100% of their estimated maximal heart rate. Among the results, the positive correla-tion between the average heart rate achieved in the drills and the Body Mass Index (BMI) stands out, revealing that the overweight members of the brigades worked with higher cardiovascular load levels than those with normal weight. The results allow to conclude that the distribution of activities should be re-examined to evaluate alternatives aimed at balancing the intensity of the efforts. It is also recommended that the emergency brigades participate in regular physical training programs and educate them in eating habits to reduce their trend to overweight.
300 Sensory and Physical Evaluation of Cocoas (Theobroma cacao L.) From Different Countries for its Use in a Gourmet Chocolate , Maria Fernanda Flores, Briggit Katan, Susan Lavin, Karla Ortiz, Jormarelys Pericaguan, Shioling Ripalda, Elevina Pérez
The genetic origin and the climate surrounding the plantation help cacao fruits developing their sensory quality and those of the final chocolate flavor. The postharvest procedure is also influential in the sensory quality of the cocoa derivatives. The physical prop-erties and sensory profile of cacao beans after the postharvest have to be evaluated to guaranty the chocolate sensory quality. The evaluation has be done using formats to compile the information described in the national and international norms and literature. The objectives were to design formats and protocols to evaluate and compare physically and sensorial the cocoa beans from differ-ent world regions to select the best cacao with citric notes. From physical characteristics data, was selected the cocoa with the best quality. Once selected, it was applied to the roasting protocol to obtain cacao liquor. On the cacao liquor, using descriptive analysis of the taste descriptor profile was determined the sensory profile. The data have shown that the formats designed facilitate compilation and calculation of data obtained from the cocoa. Barinas cacao has shown the best flavor characteristics for its use in the elaboration of gourmet chocolate with citrus notes.
301 Eating Behaviors: Does Culture Play a Role in Our Food and Beverage Choices? , Aisha Ansari
Choice in beverages, diet and health may all depend on our culture and ethnicity. Nutritional values found in fruit juice and carbonated beverages are often selected based on cultural norms. Exploring the nutritional benefits found in both fruit juices and carbonated drinks reveal health benefits and defenses against cancer and other chronic diseases. With a literary review in nutrition and beverage, and a philosophical grounded theory, an argument will be made in favor of the nutritional value found in fruit juices, water, coffee, tea, water and carbonated drinks, require a balance in beverage intake and food consumption. Codependency on both beverages and foods are necessary for optimum nutritional health.
302 Nutritional Knowledge and Practices among Lactating Mothers , Victor Ouma Otieno
Diabetes mellitus (DM) also known as ‘sugar’ is a chronic non communicable disease (NCD) which has emerged as one of the lead-ing global health problems associated with the pancreas in the production of insulin leading to hyperglycemia (WHO, 2014). Globally, according to the international Diabetes Federation (IDF), 352 million adults were reported to have impaired glucose tolerance which is a high risk of developing diabetes by 2045 (Bommer, 2018). The scientific research evidence shows the predisposing factors to diabetes are: advancing age, family history, excessive body weight, excessive alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, stress, unhealth diet and chronic use of steroids among others.The objectives of the study will be to: To assess nutritional status, nutritional knowledge and lastly the dietary diversity among patients with type two diabetes in Nakuru County hospital.The study methods to be used will comprise of; contains study design, study area, study population, inclusion and exclusion criteria, variables, sampling techniques, sampling size determination, data collection tools instruments, data collection procedure, piloting, validity and reliability, data analysis and ethical considerations.
303 Growth Fitness of Indigenous Wine Yeasts in Grape Musts from Different Vitis Species , María Laura Raymond Eder, Alberto Luis Rosa
Yeast communities associated with Vitis vinifera L. niches (i.e. grapes and fermenting grape musts) have been widely characterized. Less is known, however, about yeast communities present in other non-viniferaVitis ecosystems. Moreover, there are no studies concerning eventual must-specific growth fitness of indigenous wine yeast species. In this work, we have characterized the potential must-specific growth fitness of ten different indigenous wine yeast species (i.e. C. azymoides, C. californica, H. uvarum, H. vineae, I. hanoiensis, M. pulcherrima, P. cecembensis, T. delbrueckii, S. bacillaris and S. cerevisiae). All the analyzed strains were isolated from spontaneously fermenting musts of V. vinifera L. (cv. Malbec) and/or V. labrusca L. (cv. Isabella) grapes harvested from vineyards in a shared terroir. Yeast identification was performed using standard ITS-rDNA RFLPs and/or microsatellite genotyping. Growth fitness of selected yeast species and strains, on Malbec and Isabella pasteurized grape must media, was studied by measuring lag phases (i.e. Lag Time) and maximum growth rates (i.e. μmax). Results showed that rare yeast species isolated from the Isabella ecosystem (i.e. P. cecembensis and I. hanoiensis) have better growth parameters when growing in Isabella grape must. The growth parameters of other wine yeast species, isolated from Malbec and Isabella ecosystems, did not show any clear associations with their musts of origin. Our findings suggest that the presence of two rare yeast species in Isabella could result from their growth advantage to this Vitis ecosystem. It is possible that yeast communities assembled in alternative grape musts result from the growth fitness of yeast species and strains to each specific Vitis species. Non-conventional Vitis ecosystems may constitute a reservoir of unique yeast strains valuable in the winemaking industry.
304 Undernutrition as a Cause of Personality Disorder , Konstantinos Koutoulogenis
Considering the increase of malnutrition worldwide [1] and its difficulty to maintain a healthy lifestyle, this article purpose is to emerge the awareness of possible contribution personality comor-bidities followed by nutrition status.Minnesota Starvation Experiment (MSE) was probably a break though protocol which not only studied the effects of malnutrition on human physiology, Keys., et al. [2] but also studied the effect on psychology presenting striking results, clinical signs and symp-toms that are similar to those of patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) [3]. The participants were well-built, healthy male soldiers from the USA army who undertook a period of starvation and nutritional rehabilitation. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality In-ventory was used for assessing the personality traits of the par-ticipants which included hypochondria, depression and hysteria. A detailed analysis of the responses showed that there were no fundamental differences between the type of responses given by the subjects who were malnourished in relation to patients with a clinical diagnosis of psychoneurosis. The effect of malnutrition was considered as the factor that caused psychoneurosis.
305 Sedentary Work and Anthropometric Assessment in Workers at a Polytechnic Higher Education Institution in Portugal , Sónia Fialho, Anabela Correia Martins, João Almeida
In the last decades, with the introduction of changes in work processes and new technologies, there has been an in-crease in occupational sedentarism (worker in a sitting position for long periods).Sedentary behavior is associated with an increased risk of developing chronic diseases such as obesity, type II diabetes, cardio-vascular disease.Objective: This study evaluates the relationship between sedentary work and anthropometric evaluation in Coimbra workers of polytechnic higher education institutions.Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was applied, the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ). Data on age, sex, body fat percentage, waist circumference, skeletal muscle mass and body mass index were collected from a sample of 59 adult men and women between December 2017 and January 2018, working full time. For statistical treatment, the authors analyzed the information with SPSS Statistics.Results: In the present study, 39 of the individuals were females and 19 males, aged between 31 and 62. Non-teachers showed a more significant sedentary lifestyle in their occupational activity, and teachers showed greater skeletal muscle mass and lower body fat percentage. Spearman's correlation revealed that there was no association between occupational sedentarism (sitting posture) and anthropometric parameters (p > 0.05).Conclusion: Although there was no statistically significant association between sedentary work and anthropometric data, it was possible to observe a tendency for workers with a higher occupational sedentary lifestyle to show worse anthropometric parameters. Taking these data into account, it is urgent to adopt measures to create conditions for a healthy work environment
306 Gold Fish (Carassius auratus) Grows Gradually in a Confined Pot Maintained Carefully in all Corners of this World as Popular Hobby , Manju Das, Zaman Sufia, SK Biswas
Gold fish (C. auratus) from family Cypriniformes can adjust in a small confined glass and fibre container to grow gradually. Weight and Length is measured carefully to check growth. Food supplied by the caretaker depends for its growth. Artificial food available in the market (Hobby Centre) in a plastic packet, (MPDA). Small pinch of artificial food in the morning can rare 1 or two fishes in a small fibre aquarium. In the lid perforations help to enter air continuously for mixing with surface water. Need 5 - 6 hrs exposure of air bubble to combat respiration properly. Gills are sensitive for stream-lined fish as fish respire through nostrils located in head. Olfactory rosette most sensitive for fish to feel surroundings.
307 Miraculous Properties of Camel Milk , Faran Khan
Milk is considered as nature’s most complete biological fluid required for growth and nourishment and a complete diet benefi-cial for individuals of all age groups. It has a considerable role in human’s nutrition for the reason that it is an excellent source of various nutrients. Milk diet has been recommended in managing various diseases, particularly camel milk has some outstanding characteristics nutritionally as well as economically it is an excel-lent source of vitamins and minerals additionally the low choles-terol and high concentration of insulin makes it more beneficial. It contains a good amount of minerals like Iron and calcium. Camel milk contains higher amount of trace minerals.
308 Luqaimat Diet with Egyptian Cases , Zeyad Maged
Diversity of diet regimes in Egypt, and clarification of the most important of them for most of those interested in diet.Diet has now become the dominant idea for many people be-cause of the speed of life, the lack of effort exerted and the high level of the mechanism, which has caused many health problems affected by the mechanism.These health problems such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and an increase in harmful cholesterol and triglycerides, which made them think about proper nutrition and different diet regi-mens to recover from these diseases
309 Monocentric Retrospective Study Assessing the Association Between Clinical and Subclinical Hypothyroidism and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Type 2 DM) and the Benefit of Treating Hypothyroidism on the Improvement of Diabetes Control , Mohammad Rida Farhat, Khaled Soukarieh, Bilal Jamal El Din; Batoul Mcheik
Diabetes prevalence was as high as 14.6% in Lebanon in 2017. A lot of studies suggest an association between clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism, and type 2 DM, but with small sample sizes.Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hypothyroidism among Lebanese diabetic patients, to assess the benefit of treating hypothyroidism on the improvement of diabetes, and to check whether a screening of hypothyroidism could be beneficial in all diabetic patients.Methods: A monocentric cross sectional study was conducted to randomly recruit 100 patients having two HbA1C and two TSH readings, among diabetic patients. Data was collected from 2010 till 2017. The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 11.99% among Lebanese diabetic patients.Results: Mean HbA1C level before hypothyroidism treatment was 8.84 and decreased to 8.26 afterwards. This study showed that the patients who received hypothyroidism treatment had significantly lower HbA1C levels (p-value = 0.001). However, statistically signif-icant HbA1C reduction was shown in women (p-value < 0.001), and in patients who didn’t have any comorbidities (p-value = 0.005).Conclusion: The prevalence of hypothyroidism among diabetic patients was determined and proved the utility of treating it to im-prove HbA1C levels.
310 #Obesity: Analysis of Publications Related to Obesity on Instagram , Philip Zemuner Paiva Rossini, Marina Mattei Garcia, Victor Perussi Light, Tania Maria Gomes da Silva; Marcelo Picinin Bernuci
Obesity is considered an epidemic by the World Health Organization and has increased considerably among the young population. As sedentary lifestyle and deregulated eating are factors that contribute to obesity, the dissemination of information that stimulates the development of healthier behaviors can help control obesity. Recent studies have shown that social media present themselves as potential aids tools for stimulating a healthy lifestyle. Among young people, Instagram stands out in terms of popularity and its influence on life habits has already been pointed out by scientific literature. Given the fact that Instagram presents itself as a highly influential social media’ platform, we aimed to analyze the posts related to obesity. This is a descriptive study conducted in October 2020, from the analysis of the 100 most relevant posts, according to Instagram plugin, indexed by the hashtag obesity. It was found that among the posts analyzed, 68% contained photographic component and 32% illustrative component. As for the content posted, most were about encouragement (26%), followed by health promotion (24%), personal experience (18%), surgical results (13%), diet (13%), exercise (3%) and memes (3%). Regarding the objects depicted in the posts, 42% were people, 25% texts/illustrations, 24% selfies, 8% food and 1% nature. Most of the posts were made by health professionals (72%) and the rest by non-professionals (28%). It is observed that most posts have as content the prevention of obesity and change in the course of the disease, either through encouragement, personal experience, health promotion and diet, suggesting that Instagram can be an useful tool to disseminate con-tent about obesity and encourage preventive behaviors.
311 Characteristics of Radiological Description of TB-HIV Patients Based on CD4 Levels and Results of TCM Examination , Iin Novita Nurhidayati Mahmuda, Angiesta Pinakesty, Poetrie Wulandari Ruswandi, Nandya Herdiana and Triana Rahma Juwita
Tuberculosis (TB) is an opportunistic infection that is most often found in HIV infection and is the leading cause of death in PLWHA (people living with HIV/AIDS). The risk of TB transmission is 26 to 31 times greater in people with HIV than in people with-out HIV. There are obstacles in determining the diagnosis and management because HIV patients coinfected with TB usually have a negative smear test result and tend to have less characteristic radiological features. The number of clusters of differentiation 4 (CD4) and the results of the Rapid Molecular Test (TCM) are associated with clinical manifestations of HIV patients that can be seen from the radiological picture. This study aims to determine the characteristics of the radiological features of TB-HIV patients based on CD4 levels and TCM results. This research used a descriptive research design and was conducted from November to December 2020 at PKU Muhammadiyah Surakarta Hospital. The number of research subjects as many as 10 patients taken by purposive sampling technique. Retrieval of data using patient medical record data. The results of this study found that TB-HIV patients with very low CD4 cell counts and negative TCM results were the most common. The dominant radiological features found in this study are radiological features typical of TB. It can be concluded that very low CD4 cell counts and negative TCM results in TB-HIV patients tend to have the radiological features characteristic of TB. Retrieval of data using patient medical record data. The results of this study found that TB-HIV patients with very low CD4 cell counts and negative TCM results were the most common. The dominant radiological features found in this study are radiological features typical of TB. It can be concluded that very low CD4 cell counts and negative TCM results in TB-HIV patients tend to have the radiological features characteristic of TB. Retrieval of data using patient medical record data. The results of this study found that TB-HIV patients with very low CD4 cell counts and negative TCM results were the most common. The dominant radiological features found in this study are radiological features typical of TB. It can be concluded that very low CD4 cell counts and negative TCM results in TB-HIV patients tend to have the radiological features characteristic of TB.
312 Decision Making in Biodynamic Vineyard Management , Cláudia Brazil Marques;Fabrício Moraes de Almeida
Wine has shown a synergistic effect in a holistic context, and it has been referenced in recent years in several fields such as medi-cine the which considers it a natural antioxidant. Among other fields of study that find qualitative and quantitative characteristics in wine are Economics, Tourism, Design and Agribusiness. The wine industry, therefore, is constantly seeking new practices for Vitis vinifera grapes, such as the use of biodynamic agriculture, which shows positive results for the sustainability of the ecosystem and soil quality. This paper explores the, what interferes in the winegrower’s decision when choosing environmentally sustainable prac-tices in the management of the vineyard, and as an objective, to characterize the environmental profile of the biodynamic vineyard. The methodology used was a descriptive case study of qualitative analysis. Therefore, the factor that interferes the choice of the wine production system is the need to maintain the fertility and productivity of the vineyard and, in this case, the biodynamic system may be an option for a sustainable production of grapes.
313 Contribution to the Monitoring of Leptospira in Wild Animals (Hedgehog of Bouira District) , Aouadi Nawal, Mensah Tonyi Raouf, Abbas Sadjia, Bitam Idir,Arab Karim
Leptospirosis is an anthropozoonotique disease of worldwide distribution with tropical dominance. It is caused by a pathogenic bacterium Leptospira interrogans which her primary reservoirs are rodents that shed the bacteria in the urine. Leptospira is wide-spread in the environment (freshwater, moist soil, sludge...).This study was carried out at Pasteur Institute of Algiers PIA’s laboratory, the ecology of vector systems department in different regions of Bouira district focused on the detection of leptospira spp in different samples: blood, organs, and urine of wild-caught animals (hedgehogs).After analysis of various samples (9 hedgehogs) in regions M'chedallah, Raffour, and Ahl- el –Ksar in 2012, we were able to iso-late leptospira by the bacteriological test (culture of urine, liver, and kidney) 22.22% of positivity, Test of thermo- resistant antigen (33.33% of positivity) and Microscopic-Agglutination-Test (0%). These diagnostic approaches appear to be complementary.
314 Health Economics Study: Epidemiological, Socioeconomic and Health Service Coverage Indicators in a State in the Western Amazon (Brazil) , Carlos Alberto Paraguassú-Chaves, Josefa Lourdes Ramos, Carla Dolezel Trindade, Simão Aznar Filho, Fabrício Moraes de Almeida, Edmundo Machado Neto, Leonardo Severo da Luz Neto, Ronaldo André Bezerra Salton, Fábio Robson Casara Cavalcante, Lenita Rodrigues Moreira Dantas,Osvaldo dos Anjos
The objective of the research was to identify the significance of the epidemiological, socioeconomic and health service coverage indicators in Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil. Method: Multivariate statistical technique, using Factor Analysis (PA) and the Principal Component Analysis method (PCA), with em-phasis on identifying significance. A sample with 121 variables was used, divided into two scenarios: Scenario 1 with 121 variables; and Scenario 2 with 42 variables with an explanation above 95%. Results: Factor 1 epidemiological indicators showed 69 variables with explanation above 70%, factor 2 socioeconomic indicators highlighted 4 variables with explanation above 70% and factor 3 indicators of health service coverage highlighted only 2 (two) variables with explanation above 70%. Statistically, in the context of factorial exploration, it was found that factor (1) presented a variance of 69.90%, factor (2) 14.47% and factor (3) 6.46%. Scenario 2 composed of 42 variables with explanation above 95% in the application of PA and ACP obtained 34 variables with explanation above 70%. Of these, 24 are of factor 1 and had an explanation above 95%. The variable with the greatest explanatory power is the first with 99.66% (referring to the% of children aged 10 to 14 years, with more than 1 year of school delay). The correlation between factors 1, 2 and 3 is explained by 66.53% for epidemiological indicators, 18.72% for socioeconomic indicators and 7.53% for service coverage indicators. From this study, it is possible to infer the almost absolute predominance of epidemiological variables and, with less emphasis, socioeconomic variables, which measure access to basic education in the State of Rondônia. The health service coverage variables, however, were not significant. Porto Velho (Capital) presented a negative correlation of (-47.86%) which can be justified by the presence of diseases common to other municipalities, for example, dengue, tuberculosis, leprosy, injuries due to external causes, etc. And, it contributed with 72.84% in Factor 1 and 17.64% in Factor 2, which can be explained by the condition of being the state reference in health. Conclusions: The study showed that of the 39 indicators agreed between the State Department of Health of Rondônia and the 52 municipalities, 33 (thirty-three indicators) are included among the indicators with statistical significance, which validates the choice of the method.
315 Multivariate Analysis of Health Indicators in the State of Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil , Carlos Alberto Paraguassú-Chaves, Josefa Lourdes Ramos, Carla Dolezel Trindade, Simão Aznar Filho, Fabrício Moraes de Almeida, Lenita Rodrigues Moreira Dantas, Leonardo Severo da Luz Neto, Edmundo Machado Neto, Ronaldo André Bezerra Salton, Osvaldo dos AnjosGisely Beck Gonçalves Salton
The research aims to analyze the significance of epidemiological, socioeconomic and health service coverage indicators, applying the multivariate statistical technique and to compare indicators with statistical significance compared to the indicators agreed by the State Secretariat of Health of Rondônia, Western Amazon, Brazil, in the period corresponding to one year. This is a descriptive exploratory study applied to epidemiological, socioeconomic and health service coverage indicators in the State of Rondônia, with a territorial coverage of 52 municipalities. The adopted procedure was to apply the Factor Analysis Technique (PA) and the statistical method of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in 121 variables, grouped, and after, only, in the group of variables with explanation above 95%, divided two scenarios. In Scenario (1) the epidemiological variables had an explanation above 70%, whereas in Scenario (2) they influenced the set of variables with an explanation between 99.66% - 99.99%. In Scenario (1) Porto Velho (Capital) contrib-uted with 72.84% cases, maintaining the trend in Scenario (2) with 75.67%. In the comparison between surveyed indicators (121) and agreed indicators (39), it was noticed that of the 39 indicators, 33 (thirty-three) are included among the indicators with statisti-cal significance in the study.
316 Inclusive Feeding in People with Cerebral Palsy , Pérez Doménech Marta
Cerebral palsy is a motor impairment of the nervous system. Its incidence in developed countries is 2-2.5 per 1.000 newborns and it occurs before the first 5 years of life. This disorder affects an appropriate development of movement and posture, causing sensory, intellectual, emotional, attentional and urinary alterations as well as eating and swallowing disorders, among others. The latter entail that unappetizing and annoying ingestions comprising possible malnutrition. To avoid or ameliorate these alterations we will use introduce an inclusive diet, which intends to normalize dietary guidelines. To achieve this, different devices and strategies are made available to people with cerebral palsy in order to allow them to eat autonomously. In the present article, 14 families from the Valencian community who have a member with cerebral palsy were polled. Physiologi-cal and motor difficulties involved in nutrition will be studied as well as percentages of patients using each aid. In addition, the degree of disability of those suffering from cerebral palsy will be related to the level of family stress.
317 Mother Perception of Body Image and Infant Feeding Knowledge of their Preschool Children: Cross-sectional Study , Carla Correia de Sá
Parents are important agents in the promotion of health, behavior, and education of their preschool children; especially, parental nutrition knowledge and children’s body image perception have been described as important factors for children’s healthy food knowledge, as well, as influence their children’s diet quality and micronutrient adequate intake. This study aimed to examine parent’s perception concerning the real and ideal image of their preschool children and identify parental nutrition knowledge of their chil-dren. 58 preschool children were a cross-sectional community sample of 54 mothers who were recruited in a Portuguese preschool, with a mean age of 4.3 ± 1.0 years, of which 37.0% were female with a mean BMI of 16.3 ± 1.3 kg/m2. Questionnaires of knowledge of infant feeding questionnaire and perception of the child's body image were applied. 98.1% of mothers had an insufficient knowledge (score less than 37) about their infant feeding, and 1.9% had a good knowledge (score more than 42). 38.8% of mothers in this study were little worried about their children nutritional status, and most (48.1%) of them have the perception that their children have a normal weight. In conclusion, preschool children in this study have a normal BMI percentile, however we found that mothers with higher BMI, were more concern about their children be overweight / obese in future. However, mostly of mothers' perception of their children's weight does not correspond to the real value.
318 Dietary Patterns and Healthy Eating Scores of Breastfeeding Mothers , Lauren San Diego, Deja Carrington, Tiffany M Fuller, Heather L Colleran
Obesity in America has risen to epidemic levels over the past 10-years. Retention of weight gained during pregnancy may be a con-tributing factor. Breastfeeding may reduce long-term maternal weight retention from pregnancy and is recommended for at least the first six months. The study’s purpose was to assess the effects of a 12-week nutrition and exercise program on dietary patterns and diet quality using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) in lactating women. The participants were from the MEEMA (Moms Exercising and Eating for Maintaining Health and Active Lifestyle) study. Eligible women completed baseline and endpoint three-day diet interviews recorded on the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR 2019, UMinn.). Participants randomized into the intervention group (IG, n = 6) underwent 12-weeks of exercise, nutrition education and were given 6-oz of yogurt 3-times/week. IG increased their fruit intake (1.1 to 1.8 servings), vegetable intake (3.3 to 4.4 servings), and total grains (1.8 to 7.8 servings) to meet the recommended servings. Dairy intake remained unchanged and below the recommendation of 3 servings/day. The dietary quality measured using HEI scores for the women declined (59.8 ± 6.4 to 54.3 ± 11.2 out of 100) due to reduced whole grain intake. Overall, IG increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, and grains; decreased consumption of sweets and protein intake to meet recommendations. The findings sug-gest that exercise, nutrition education, and yogurt consumption may improve dietary patterns of lactating women. However, more tailored nutrition education is needed to improve dietary patterns and dietary quality using HEI scores.
319 Impact of Covid-19 on Alterations in Food Habits and Lifestyle Behaviour of Indians: A Review , Jyoti Singh,Nikita Wadhawan
People from all walks of life have been seriously influenced by the COVID-19 pandemic. The global dissemination of the disease to almost all areas of the world has provided the entire human population with immense health, economic, environmental and social challenges. One of the solutions proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) for minimising the spread of this deadly virus is lockdown. On March 22, 2020, India was swift to close its international boundaries and implement the world's biggest COVID lockdown. This Pandemic had affected every age group though, the time is more crucial: for children because of their increased exposure to television advertisements directed at the selling of junk foods, those in their adolescence because it is the age of habit formation and the incorrect habit developed during this period will begin to affect their adult life. In general, it could result in obvious epigenetic and/or phenotypic variation being passed on to subsequent generations, as well as significant dietary changes leading to increased obesity and hyperglycaemia in many countries. There is insufficient evidence on how this pandemic is impacting our food and lifestyle-related habits. Therefore, this study reviews impact of COVID-19 on alterations in food habits and lifestyle behaviour of Indians. These unprecedented circumstances provide an opportunity to better understand the negative impact of strict lockdown measures on lifestyles, and at the same time, help identify and initiate positive behavioural changes, which if consolidated, may im-prove chronic disease outcomes in the long run. It would be up to governments, communities, and academia to learn - and benefit from lessons learned from this pandemic - with the ultimate objective of better educating and promoting healthy lifestyles among communities.
320 Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Cardiovascular Risk in Elderly , Ivone Freires de Oliveira Costa Nunes, Isabele Frazão Mascarenhas2, Natália de Jesus Melo3, Nayara Vieira do Nascimento Monteiro4, Andressa Nathanna Castro Damasceno5, Maria do Socorro Pires e Cruz6, João Marcelo de Castro e Sousa7, Felipe Cavalcante Carneiro da Silva7, Monique da Silva Rocha3, Leopoldo Fabrício Marçal do Nascimento8, Flaviane Alves de Pinho9 and Cecilia Maria Resende Gonçalves de Carvalho
Studies show an inverse association between 25 (OH) D concentrations and occurrence of risk for cardiovascular disease.Objective: To identify the frequency of VDR gene FokI and BsmI polymorphism in the elderly and to determine the existence of a relationship with cardiovascular risk.Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study. Sample composed of 359 elderly men and women. Infor-mation was collected: sociodemographic; cardiovascular risk assessment using the online calculator of the Brazilian Society of Car-diology; biochemical and molecular evaluation in a subsample of 100 elderly. The BsmI and FokI were genotyped by the Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism technique. Fisher's Exact Test was applied to evaluate association between categorical variables in the SPSS software, version 22.0.Results: 61.6% of the sample were female (n = 221). The mean value of 25 (OH) D was 22.4 (8.0) ng/mL, representing vitamin D in-sufficiency. In BsmI polymorphism, 57% have heterozygous (Bb) genotype and in FokI polymorphism, 47% have genotype. dominant (FF) and 50% the heterozygous genotype (Ff ). The genotypes FF and Bb were the only ones to presentelderly with low cardiovascu-lar risk, however, heterozygote (Bb) presented higher percentage for intermediate and high cardiovascular risk.Discussion: Studies show that the BsmI polymorphism increases the susceptibility to CVD, and the association of the BB genotype with greater carotid artery thickness. While studies of the FokI polymorphism show a greater association of the ff genotype with CVD risk.
321 Hepatoprotective Effect of Balanites aegyptiaca Extract against Paraquat-Induced Liver Toxicity , Mohammed A Hussein1*, Amira M Mohamed2, Aya O Mohamed2, Eman E Jaafar2, Mai W Abdelazem2, Marwa R Hassan2, Mennatallah M Mohamed2, Mennatallah N Mostafa2, Nada M Ahmed2, Rana M El tweki2, Reem M El zoghby2, Ali A Ali3 and Naglaa A Gobba
Paraquat-induced liver fibrosis involves two factors, direct injury by oxygen free radicals and indirect injury by inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. This study was carried out to examine the prophylactic potential of the Balanites aegyptiaca seeds water extract (BASWE) on paraquat-induced injury in rat. Oral administration of BASWE (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) to paraquat treated rats nor-malize significantly the serum levels of hepatic enzymes AST, ALT and ALP activity as well as liver TBARS, NO, TNF-α and IL-1β. Oral administration of BASWE also exhibited its capacity to replenish the paraquat-induced decreased GSH levels and enhance increase in IL-10 and SOD activity. The present results proved the protective effect of BASWE against paraquat-induced liver fibrosis by suppression of miR-122a and miR-192 gene expression as well as normalized the liver histology.
322 Balanites aegyptiaca Extract Inhibits COX-2 and P53 Expression in DSS-induced Ulcerative Colitis , Mohammed A Hussein1*, Nada S Abdelghany2, Dina R Elsayed2, Tasneem M Mahmoud2, Reham M Abdelhay2, Maithaa N Mohamed2, Norhan A Abdelaal2, Nashwa M Abdelhaleem2, Sara E Nasser2 and Ali A Ali3 and Naglaa A Gobba
Histologically, the mouse model of DSS induced distal colitis resembles human colitis ulceration. The objective of this paper was to assess the potential protective role of Balanites aegyptiaca against DSS-induced colitis in rats model.Methods:Balanites aegyptiaca bioactive compounds was extracted and administered orally to DSS-induced colitic rats for 14 days.Results: Day after 14 days of oral treatment of Balanites aegyptiaca (100 and 200 mg/kg b.w.) and celecoxib (0.1 mmole/kg.b.w.) in rats, colon length and severity histological damages of the colon induced by DSS were reduced and the oxidisation status of the colon was improved. However, there is a significant decrease in the levels of various pro-inflammatory cytokines only in rats treated with balance-aegyptiaca and celecoxib; TNF-α, IFN-α, IL-1 and TBARS, along with a substantial increase to GSH and GST levels compared to DSS control groups. In addition, the expression of COX-2 and P53 proteins decreases significantly in the DSS control group com-pared to the Balanites aegyptiaca. Conclusion: The results clearly show that Balanites aegyptiaca exhibited anti-inflammatory properties in the DSS colitis model in rats that have also been enhanced by P53 and COX-2 protein expression functionalization. In the intestinal histoarchitecture Balanites aegyptiaca and Celecoxib almost normalised the effect of this effect compared to Celecoxib.
323 NF-κB, Caspase-3 and p53 Pathways are Involved in Resveratrol-Chitosan Nanoparticles-Induced Apoptosis in Hela Cells with Oxidative Stress , Mohammed A Hussein1*, Raghad M Mahmmed2, Afnan A Sebawaih2, Basma A El-Maghraby2, Eman E Mohammed2, Zekra S Mohamed2 and Ali A Ali3
Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic phytoalexin commonly found in fruits, grape and red wine. The objective of this study was to prepare RENE for Hela cell anticancer therapy using low chitosan and tripolyphosphate (TPP) method.Methods: In the present study resveratrol-chitosan nanoparticles was prepared made in the presences of TPP using a phase inver-sion method. Morphology, particle size and zeta potential of RENE was then characterized. Furthermore, RENE was evaluated for its cytotoxic effect on Hela cells as well as their effect on TBARS, GSH, GST, caspase-3, NF-κB and P53. Results: RENE was showed spherical shape with mean particle size of around 49.5 ± 0.05 nm with (+15.75) negative zeta potential. The treatment of Hela cells with RENE led to a high inhibition in the Hela cell proliferation as concluded by the low IC50 values 31.89 μg/ml. Also, RENE possess apoptotic properties via activation of the TBARS, caspase-3 and P53 protein expression as well as inhibi-tion NF-Κb, GST and GSH levels. Conclusion: The results presented here may suggest that RENE possess anticancer and apoptotic effects on Hela cell proliferation, and therefore, can be used as new approach of pharmaceutical drugs. Also, the results clearly suggest that NF-κB, is one of the central players in the synergism of RENE and act as a regulator of caspase-3 and P53.
324 Public Health , Adinnu Chiamaka M
Why does Public Health matter? This is a question that begs an-swering, as the answers to this question expose the need to place public health on a pedestal of importance especially in our present century. With the world being inundated with unprecedented public health issues - from the pandemic ravaging the world in its wake to the climate crisis impeding on community health and even to the prevalent food insecurity and other food-related challenges, all these have laid bare the disparaging truth and reality of our inad-equate health system. Looking back prior to 2020, the past few decades had chron-icled some of the most significant achievement in public health, from reductions in child mortality to increased access to safe water and sanitation, prevention and control of malaria and HIV/AIDS and many others. However, the plethora of global issues in 2020 and now in 2021 has dealt a devastating blow to these great strides which took decades to achieve.
325 Comparing Values of Protein and Fat by Composition-based Method and Conventional Method , Tatsuya Koyama
AThe revised version of the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan (STFCJ 2020) was published in 2020. The aim of the present paper is to discuss issues concerning calculation of protein and fat using food components listed in STFCJ 2020. In SFTCJ 2020, in addition to conventional values of protein content calculated as reference nitrogen multiplied by protein conversion fac-tor <XN> (PROTRN) and gravimetrically determined fat (FAT), values of protein were expressed as the sum of amino acid residues <PROTCAA> and values of lipids as triacylglycerol equivalents of fatty acids <FATNLEA>. Protein and fat contents were significantly decreased when the preferred analytical methods of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (PROTRN and FATNLEA) were applied instead of the conventional values. Therefore, it is important to compare calculated protein and fat using PROCTAA and FATLEA to calculations from previous studies of protein and fat.
326 Bioactive Metabolites Identification and FTIR Analysis in Ziziphus oenoplia Mill , Thenmozhi M, Sangeetha M, Jayanthi M, Suganthi M,
Medicinal Plants have inexpensive amount of bioactive phytochemicals or bionutrients.Phytochemicals are present in all me-dicinal plants at different levels and are useful compounds of human diet. In recent decades research studies have shown that phy-tochemicals are playing major role in preventing chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer and heart disease. They are being used to control oxidation and chronic diseases associated with stress, such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes because it possesses strong antioxidant activity. Aim of the present study was Ziziphus oenoplia Mill. phytochemical screening, alkaloid estimation and their FTIR analysis. This experiment provides evidence to support the existence of different biologically important medicinal bio-active compounds or phytochemicals that explain their use in conventional medicines. This medicine can be therapeutically used separately or combination with other extracts to cure any disorder and disease.
327 Role of Trigonella foenum-graecim Extract along with Ursolic Acid a Pentacyclic Triterpenoid as Newer Plant Products for the Therapy of Diabetes Mellitus - A Short Communication , Kulvinder Kochar Kaur,Gautam Allahbadia, Mandeep Singh
Lots of medicinal plants have shown the potential for Treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). We have already reviewed the role of lot of plants as well as plant products related to this that can be utilized in future to prevent the cost and side effects of the oral hypoglycaemic agents like monoterpenes that get produced in various organisms including bacteria, fungi, plants and animals, role of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors (produced by marine organisms was plants, role of herbs and spices, Antho-cyanins are present in berries which include blackberries, bilberries, chokeberries, elder berries, cranberries and raspberries that are the richest sources of anthocyanins. Many other highly colored fruits like strawberries, black currant, cherry, grape, coloured cabbage, eggplant and radish also have high levels of anthocyanins, thus it is important to include these in the low-calorie diets plans to improve insulin resistance (IR) along with helping in weight reduction. Here we further report on two potential new compounds for therapy of DM, like Trigonella foenum-graecim extract along with ursolic acid another pentacyclic terpenoid.
328 An Overview of Nutrition Informatics: A Public Health Perspective , Derangula Lokesh
Nutrition informatics is the fusion of nutrition, information, and technology. Public health professionals work in an immensely “information-rich” world. As many paper-based tools transition to the technology, there are more efficient ways to collect, display and study data from such tools as food/nutrition analysis tables, electronic health records (EHRs), and smartphone applications. Nutrition informatics allows public health professionals to more effectively use their knowledge and skills through the support of technology in many ways
329 Revive Massive Production of Food and Nutritious Plants in South East Nigeria: A Fallout from the Food Blocked by the North , Eze O Jude, Ekpere-Ezugwu M Ogechukwu, Obeta M Uchejeso
The news about recent move by farmers and interest groups under the aegis of amalgamated union of foodstuff and cattle deal-ers of Nigeria (AUFCON) in Northern Nigeria to impose embargo on food supply to the south [1] as seen in figure 1, has implicated a huge food production gap in the southern part of the country. This development has created food security challenges in Nigeria es-pecially in south eastern Nigeria. Nigeria is a sextuplet federation resting on double tripod of six geopolitical zones; more broadly divided into North and South. But concerns are heightened during the blockade because, the term "south" was an envelope word used to specifically represent the south east Nigeria.By that ban, they made the south east to look like clochard men-dicants, pauperized panhandlers and obligate parasites in a nation that sprouted on synergistic symbiosis. This is because the South east has deviated from commercial agriculture to merely subsis-tence and over dependence on food buying in order to face other life challenges.
330 Effect of Different Processing Conditions on the Physicochemical and Sensorial Characteristics of Cheddar Cheese Prepared from Different Milk Sources , Abdul Rehman1*, Ahmed Bilal1, Muhammad Imran1, Muhammad Rizwan1, Ravi Prakash Jha2, Athar Jamal3, Sundus Khan1, Zainab Ali4and Hafiz Muhammad Zubair
Globally, the relationship between diet and human health convinces the customers to pay great attention to food and its composi-tion. Milk is used widely to produce value-added goods. Milk formulation is an integral ingredient that is often used by Americans instead of influencing the consistency of the finished product. Pakistan is the 2nd largest buffalo milk producer, contributing about 67 percent, while cow milk accounts for about 31 percent of overall production. Cheese is a combination of a matrix of moisture, sugar, protein, salt, peptides, amino acids, lactose, minerals, and other small constituents. It is a biochemically dynamic product which, during ripening, undergoes important changes. Current investigation was done to see the effect of different processing conditions on the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of cheddar cheese processed at lab scale. Three different levels of temperature were used 65, 70 and 75°C for processing of cheddar cheese, similarly three different levels of starter culture were used as CaCl2% 0.07, 0.08, and 0.09. All the prepared cheese samples were then assessed for their moisture, protein, fat, acidity, pH and TS (total solids) contents. Highest moisture content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (35.2 ± 0.0765). While the least moisture content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (34.515 ± 0.070.07). Lowest fat content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (29.23 ± 0.0665). While the highest fat content was observed at 75°C Tem-perature and 0.09% Starter culture (29.46 ± 0.0565). Lowest protein content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (28.12 ± 0.0465). While the highest protein content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (28.29 ± 0.0665). Lowest acidity content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (0.82 ± 075). While the highest acid-ity content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (0.87 ± 0.0165). Highest pH content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (5.26 ± 0.0165). While the least pH content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (5.15 ± 0.0175). Lowest TS content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (5.15 ± 0.0175). While the highest TS content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (5.26 ± 0.0165). It was articulated in cur-rent study that temperature and amount of starter culture used readily effect the processing of cheddar cheese.
331 The Perceptions of Home Gardening Zone Program and the Potential Impacts on Household Food Security , Sri Adiningsih, Siti Rahayu Nadhiroh,  Farapti
Introduction: One of the breakthrough efforts to increase dietary diversity that would lead to food security is the launching of the home gardening zone (HGZ) program by the Indonesia Ministry of Agriculture. Understanding the effect of the program on the community could identify benefits and shortfalls that may be crucial to the success of it. The purpose of this study was to assess the reasons community gardeners participate in the home gardening zone program, as well as to explore the potential impacts such participation has on the community and household food security.Methods: The study was conductedat Mojokrapak village, Tembelang district, Jombang regency, East Java, Indonesia between May-September 2015. Data were collected through ten individual in-depth interviews with gardeners, one focus group discussion to stakeholders, and observation on the home gardening zone (type and large of plants and animals). Data were analyzed using the Thematic Content Analysis approach.Results: Gardeners reported seed distribution and assistance by the government as the main reason for participating. There were some contributions to household food security in aspects of food availability, food access, and food consumption. Additionally, there was an improvement of communalism among gardeners as another benefit. Results obtained from the focus group discussion and observation concurred with the findings from the in-depth interviews. However, some gardeners expressed the need to acquire sup-port such as motivation and the availability of fertilizer to keep the program going.Conclusion:Home gardening zone increased access to household food security and community nutrition. Findings from this study will hopefully serve to guide future quantitative research evaluating the home gardening zone as a potential food and nutrition secu-rity improvement intervention.
332 An Interdisciplinary Oral Health Program for Children in Kindergartens of Northern Italy , A Orlando, MW Arisido, S Brioschi1, L Maccà, S Graci, MC Panzeri, F Mecatti, P Palestini,E Cazzaniga
The aim of the study was to investigate if a parents’ training program on nutritional and oral health behaviours held by health professionals can influence children habits in a sample of kindergartens in Northern Italy.Methods: The study designed was a longitudinal study. The study population were children aged 6–36 months attending four kin-dergartens. Parents were invited to participate to a training meeting and to fill out a self-administered questionnaire at baseline and after 3 months from the meeting. The questionnaire included information on socio-demographics about parents, oral hygiene habits of parents and child, and eating habits of child. Wald test was used to analyse data collected. Results: After the training program, almost all parents could use a toothbrush suitable for kids (from 91% at the baseline to 99% after the 3-months). The analysis shows that the given training significantly increased the number of children who use toothpaste from 86% at baseline (95%CI: 85% - 88%) to 96% (95%CI: 94%-98%), in particular a fluoride toothpaste (59% to 80%). The inter-vention study showed a positive impact on the number of pupils who wash their tooth more than twice per week and on the timing of oral hygiene as both night and morning time proportion increased. Regarding the feeding habits the given consultation resulted in a statistically significant increase the morning snack from 94% (95%CI: 92% - 96%) to 97% (95%CI: 94% - 99%). Another promis-ing effect is the decrease from 47% at baseline (95%CI: 46% - 49%) to 42% after the study (95%CI: 41% - 43%) of the bad habit of having a snack after dinner.Conclusion: Results of our study have shown that a parents training intervention can have good results on the oral hygiene and eating habits of children of this age group. To underline the importance of several professional figures who work together with a common purpose.
333 The New Sugar to Suppress Postprandial Hyperglycemia: Improvement of Refined White Sugar by Mixing Specially Grown Brown Cane Extract , Tsutomu Arimura1, Shaw Watanabe, Hiroyuki SakakibaraShigekatsu Kimura
The minimal refining process of sugarcane extract retained some of its phytochemicals, vitamins, and minerals. The addition of this extract to the refined brown sugar lowered glycemic index (GI) and suppress postprandial hyperglycemia. A quick squeeze of sugar cane and quick processing caused a considerable amount of antioxidants (polyphenols). Overall, low postrandial (LP) sugar had a better nutritional quality in terms of physicochemical characteristics and health benefits.
334 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Nursing Mothers towards Exclusive Breastfeeding in Oda Community, Akure South, Ondo State , Michael Olabode Tomori
Breast milk is the natural first food for babies, it provides all the energy and nutrient that the infant needs for primary month of life and it continues to supply up to half or more of a child’s nutritional needs during the second half of the year and up to one-third during the second year of life. Hence, exclusive breastfeeding is therefore important in protecting infants from infectious diseases, assist in improving their immune system and also very vital for their general health, growth and developments. Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate into the knowledge, attitude and practice of nursing mothers towards exclusive breastfeed-ing in Oda, Ondo State.Methodology: A descriptive study was conducted on nursing mothers in Oda Community. Simple random technique was used in selecting the 260 respondents whose consent was sought before administering the questionnaires. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages.Results: The study showed that majority 93.5% of the respondents has heard about exclusive breastfeeding, 89% of them practiced exclusive breastfeeding while 11% practiced mixed feeding. 68% of the respondents says that exclusive breastfeeding protect infants against infection, 27.4% of them believed that it is nutritious to infants and of benefits to both the mother and infants.Conclusion: The study showed high level of knowledge on exclusive breastfeeding among respondents and majority of them prac-ticed exclusive breastfeeding.Recommendation: Exclusive breastfeeding counseling during clinic visit, health education program should be implemented.
335 Role of HIF 1 α in Covid-19 Disease , Tulsi Patil, Arun Soni,Chirag Patel, Sanjeev Acharya
This review article aimsto point outthe manyroles of HIF-1α in COVID-19 diseases. World health organization named the newly emerged virus SARS-CoV-2 or 2019-nCoV or covid-19. At beginning of coronavirus symptoms of pneumonia were appeared in De-cember 2019 near Wuhan city of China. The Coronavirus Disease 2019 outbreak spread rapidly worldwide and is associated with the high death rate in humans. However, there are currently fewer safe and effective drugs available for targeting SARS-CoV-2. So, there is an emergency for the invention of effective prevention and treatment options for the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. SARS-CoV-2 recognizes the human ACE2 more strongly than SARS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 spike supermolecule having a very high robust binding affinity to human ACE2. Relatively limited information is understood about the transcriptional regulation of ACE2. Hypoxic condition reduces the syn-thesis of ACE2, Further experimentation has shown that hypoxic condition induced HIF-1α protein leads to increases ACE synthesis which, prompts to rise the amount of Ang II and overall this process modulates the reduction in ACE2 synthesis with the help of Ang II. Activation of HIF-1 is related to numerous physiological and pathological processes. HIF-1 will manage ACE2 regulation and several natural components exhibit the role in activation and stabilization of the HIF-1α protein. The level of HIF-1α in cells gives us future opportunities for new, safe, and effective treatment options for the novel coronavirus.
336 Dietary Nitrates, Nitrites, and Food Safety: Risks Versus Benefits , Keith R Martin
Atmospheric nitrogen, via the environmental nitrogen cycle, is captured, or fixed, by symbiotic bacteria interacting with plants. Nitrates, as a result, are intermediates in the movement of atmospheric nitrogen into the food chain with rich dietary sources includ-ing red spinach, beetroot, etc. Nitrate-rich fertilizers may further increase nitrogen content of plants. Other sources include potable water, dietary supplements and food additives. Although prevalent in the diet, nitrates have been viewed negatively because they chemically form carcinogenic nitrosamines in acidic environments, e.g. stomach, purportedly leading to gastric cancer as well as neoplasia of the intestine, brain, pancreas, and contributing to Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Other reports indicate associations with hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus. A second major concern with dietary nitrate consumption is the development of methemo-globinemia particularly in infants caused by increases in methemoglobin where heme iron is oxidized to ferric iron and unable to bind and transport oxygen. In contrast, the recent discoveries of the vital gasotransmitter function of nitric oxide derived from di-etary nitrates and nitrites, endogenous production, and endogenous recycling and considerable concentration in saliva have revealed the importance of nitrates to health including improved cardiovascular function (reductions in blood pressure), improved cognition, reduced platelet aggregation, and enhanced blood flow to ischemic (hypoxic) and/or exercising tissues. As a result, dietary supple-mentation may represent an effective, inexpensive option for individuals with vascular disorders and a safe, efficacious means of enhancing performance in both recreational and competitive athletes. Given the myriad beneficial effects tempered by the purported negative effects, it is timely to revisit the conundrum of risk versus benefit from dietary nitrates.
337 Public Health , Adinnu Chiamaka M
Why does Public Health matter? This is a question that begs an-swering, as the answers to this question expose the need to place public health on a pedestal of importance especially in our present century. With the world being inundated with unprecedented public health issues - from the pandemic ravaging the world in its wake to the climate crisis impeding on community health and even to the prevalent food insecurity and other food-related challenges, all these have laid bare the disparaging truth and reality of our inad-equate health system. Looking back prior to 2020, the past few decades had chron-icled some of the most significant achievement in public health, from reductions in child mortality to increased access to safe water and sanitation, prevention and control of malaria and HIV/AIDS and many others. However, the plethora of global issues in 2020 and now in 2021 has dealt a devastating blow to these great strides which took decades to achieve. In a world drowning with public health challenges, it is indeed a necessity to employ and implement all possible strategies to strengthen our health systems as well as improve preparedness and response to global health emergencies. Understanding the ba-sis of public health, including having adequate knowledge of its ten (10) essential services is certainly a strategy communities can em-ploy to improve community health performance, and hence solve community health problems.
338 An Overview of Nutrition Informatics: A Public Health Perspective , Derangula Lokesh
Nutrition informatics is the fusion of nutrition, information, and technology. Public health professionals work in an immensely “information-rich” world. As many paper-based tools transition to the technology, there are more efficient ways to collect, display and study data from such tools as food/nutrition analysis tables, electronic health records (EHRs), and smartphone applications. Nutrition informatics allows public health professionals to more effectively use their knowledge and skills through the support of technology in many ways
339 Comparing Values of Protein and Fat by Composition-based Method and Conventional Method , Tatsuya Koyama
AThe revised version of the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan (STFCJ 2020) was published in 2020. The aim of the present paper is to discuss issues concerning calculation of protein and fat using food components listed in STFCJ 2020. In SFTCJ 2020, in addition to conventional values of protein content calculated as reference nitrogen multiplied by protein conversion fac-tor <XN> (PROTRN) and gravimetrically determined fat (FAT), values of protein were expressed as the sum of amino acid residues <PROTCAA> and values of lipids as triacylglycerol equivalents of fatty acids <FATNLEA>. Protein and fat contents were significantly decreased when the preferred analytical methods of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (PROTRN and FATNLEA) were applied instead of the conventional values. Therefore, it is important to compare calculated protein and fat using PROCTAA and FATLEA to calculations from previous studies of protein and fat.
340 Bioactive Metabolites Identification and FTIR Analysis in Ziziphus oenoplia Mill , Thenmozhi M, Sangeetha M, Jayanthi M, Suganthi M
Medicinal Plants have inexpensive amount of bioactive phytochemicals or bionutrients.Phytochemicals are present in all me-dicinal plants at different levels and are useful compounds of human diet. In recent decades research studies have shown that phy-tochemicals are playing major role in preventing chronic diseases such as diabetes, cancer and heart disease. They are being used to control oxidation and chronic diseases associated with stress, such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes because it possesses strong antioxidant activity. Aim of the present study was Ziziphus oenoplia Mill. phytochemical screening, alkaloid estimation and their FTIR analysis. This experiment provides evidence to support the existence of different biologically important medicinal bio-active compounds or phytochemicals that explain their use in conventional medicines. This medicine can be therapeutically used separately or combination with other extracts to cure any disorder and disease.
341 Role of Trigonella foenum-graecim Extract along with Ursolic Acid a Pentacyclic Triterpenoid as Newer Plant Products for the Therapy of Diabetes Mellitus - A Short Communication , Kulvinder Kochar Kaur, Gautam Allahbadia, Mandeep Singh
Lots of medicinal plants have shown the potential for Treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). We have already reviewed the role of lot of plants as well as plant products related to this that can be utilized in future to prevent the cost and side effects of the oral hypoglycaemic agents like monoterpenes that get produced in various organisms including bacteria, fungi, plants and animals, role of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitors (produced by marine organisms was plants, role of herbs and spices, Antho-cyanins are present in berries which include blackberries, bilberries, chokeberries, elder berries, cranberries and raspberries that are the richest sources of anthocyanins. Many other highly colored fruits like strawberries, black currant, cherry, grape, coloured cabbage, eggplant and radish also have high levels of anthocyanins, thus it is important to include these in the low-calorie diets plans to improve insulin resistance (IR) along with helping in weight reduction. Here we further report on two potential new compounds for therapy of DM, like Trigonella foenum-graecim extract along with ursolic acid another pentacyclic terpenoid.
342 Revive Massive Production of Food and Nutritious Plants in South East Nigeria: A Fallout from the Food Blocked by the North , Eze O Jude, Ekpere-Ezugwu M Ogechukwu, Obeta M Uchejeso
The news about recent move by farmers and interest groups under the aegis of amalgamated union of foodstuff and cattle deal-ers of Nigeria (AUFCON) in Northern Nigeria to impose embargo on food supply to the south [1] as seen in figure 1, has implicated a huge food production gap in the southern part of the country. This development has created food security challenges in Nigeria es-pecially in south eastern Nigeria. Nigeria is a sextuplet federation resting on double tripod of six geopolitical zones; more broadly divided into North and South. But concerns are heightened during the blockade because, the term "south" was an envelope word used to specifically represent the south east Nigeria.
343 Effect of Different Processing Conditions on the Physicochemical and Sensorial Characteristics of Cheddar Cheese Prepared from Different Milk Sources , Abdul Rehman, Ahmed Bilal, Muhammad Imran, Muhammad Rizwan, Ravi Prakash Jha, Athar Jamal, Sundus Khan1, Zainab Ali,  Hafiz Muhammad Zubair
Globally, the relationship between diet and human health convinces the customers to pay great attention to food and its composi-tion. Milk is used widely to produce value-added goods. Milk formulation is an integral ingredient that is often used by Americans instead of influencing the consistency of the finished product. Pakistan is the 2nd largest buffalo milk producer, contributing about 67 percent, while cow milk accounts for about 31 percent of overall production. Cheese is a combination of a matrix of moisture, sugar, protein, salt, peptides, amino acids, lactose, minerals, and other small constituents. It is a biochemically dynamic product which, during ripening, undergoes important changes. Current investigation was done to see the effect of different processing conditions on the physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of cheddar cheese processed at lab scale. Three different levels of temperature were used 65, 70 and 75°C for processing of cheddar cheese, similarly three different levels of starter culture were used as CaCl2% 0.07, 0.08, and 0.09. All the prepared cheese samples were then assessed for their moisture, protein, fat, acidity, pH and TS (total solids) contents. Highest moisture content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (35.2 ± 0.0765). While the least moisture content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (34.515 ± 0.070.07). Lowest fat content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (29.23 ± 0.0665). While the highest fat content was observed at 75°C Tem-perature and 0.09% Starter culture (29.46 ± 0.0565). Lowest protein content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (28.12 ± 0.0465). While the highest protein content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (28.29 ± 0.0665). Lowest acidity content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (0.82 ± 075). While the highest acid-ity content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (0.87 ± 0.0165). Highest pH content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (5.26 ± 0.0165). While the least pH content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (5.15 ± 0.0175). Lowest TS content was observed at 65°C Temperature and 0.07% Starter Culture (5.15 ± 0.0175). While the highest TS content was observed at 75°C Temperature and 0.09% Starter culture (5.26 ± 0.0165). It was articulated in cur-rent study that temperature and amount of starter culture used readily effect the processing of cheddar cheese.
344 The Perceptions of Home Gardening Zone Program and the Potential Impacts on Household Food Security , Sri Adiningsih, Siti Rahayu Nadhiroh, Farapti
One of the breakthrough efforts to increase dietary diversity that would lead to food security is the launching of the home gardening zone (HGZ) program by the Indonesia Ministry of Agriculture. Understanding the effect of the program on the community could identify benefits and shortfalls that may be crucial to the success of it. The purpose of this study was to assess the reasons community gardeners participate in the home gardening zone program, as well as to explore the potential impacts such participation has on the community and household food security.Methods: The study was conductedat Mojokrapak village, Tembelang district, Jombang regency, East Java, Indonesia between May-September 2015. Data were collected through ten individual in-depth interviews with gardeners, one focus group discussion to stakeholders, and observation on the home gardening zone (type and large of plants and animals). Data were analyzed using the Thematic Content Analysis approach.Results: Gardeners reported seed distribution and assistance by the government as the main reason for participating. There were some contributions to household food security in aspects of food availability, food access, and food consumption. Additionally, there was an improvement of communalism among gardeners as another benefit. Results obtained from the focus group discussion and observation concurred with the findings from the in-depth interviews. However, some gardeners expressed the need to acquire sup-port such as motivation and the availability of fertilizer to keep the program going.Conclusion:Home gardening zone increased access to household food security and community nutrition. Findings from this study will hopefully serve to guide future quantitative research evaluating the home gardening zone as a potential food and nutrition secu-rity improvement intervention.
345 An Interdisciplinary Oral Health Program for Children in Kindergartens of Northern Italy , A Orlando, MW Arisido, S Brioschi, L Maccà, S Graci, MC Panzeri, F Mecatti, P Palestini, E Cazzaniga
The aim of the study was to investigate if a parents’ training program on nutritional and oral health behaviours held by health professionals can influence children habits in a sample of kindergartens in Northern Italy.Methods: The study designed was a longitudinal study. The study population were children aged 6–36 months attending four kin-dergartens. Parents were invited to participate to a training meeting and to fill out a self-administered questionnaire at baseline and after 3 months from the meeting. The questionnaire included information on socio-demographics about parents, oral hygiene habits of parents and child, and eating habits of child. Wald test was used to analyse data collected. Results: After the training program, almost all parents could use a toothbrush suitable for kids (from 91% at the baseline to 99% after the 3-months). The analysis shows that the given training significantly increased the number of children who use toothpaste from 86% at baseline (95%CI: 85% - 88%) to 96% (95%CI: 94%-98%), in particular a fluoride toothpaste (59% to 80%). The inter-vention study showed a positive impact on the number of pupils who wash their tooth more than twice per week and on the timing of oral hygiene as both night and morning time proportion increased. Regarding the feeding habits the given consultation resulted in a statistically significant increase the morning snack from 94% (95%CI: 92% - 96%) to 97% (95%CI: 94% - 99%). Another promis-ing effect is the decrease from 47% at baseline (95%CI: 46% - 49%) to 42% after the study (95%CI: 41% - 43%) of the bad habit of having a snack after dinner.Conclusion: Results of our study have shown that a parents training intervention can have good results on the oral hygiene and eating habits of children of this age group. To underline the importance of several professional figures who work together with a common purpose.
346 The New Sugar to Suppress Postprandial Hyperglycemia: Improvement of Refined White Sugar by Mixing Specially Grown Brown Cane Extract , Tsutomu Arimura, Shaw Watanabe, Hiroyuki Sakakibara, Shigekatsu Kimura
The minimal refining process of sugarcane extract retained some of its phytochemicals, vitamins, and minerals. The addition of this extract to the refined brown sugar lowered glycemic index (GI) and suppress postprandial hyperglycemia. A quick squeeze of sugar cane and quick processing caused a considerable amount of antioxidants (polyphenols). Overall, low postrandial (LP) sugar had a better nutritional quality in terms of physicochemical characteristics and health benefits.
347 Responsibility in Writing Scientific Articles , Dayanne da Silva Borges
Increasingly, the ease with which everyone has access to infor-mation, causes myths and truths to mix and confuse laypeople and professionals, who seek updates. In this sense, scientific articles are highlighted by the dissemination of results from research that may have an impact on people’s lives.When we write a scientific article, whether it is the result of original research or a literature review, authors should keep in mind that other people may come to use the published data in determining conduct, either for themselves or for the guidance of others. And with that in mind, we must emphasize the responsibil-ity that the authors have in each of their statements and denials.At all stages of writing an article, authors must act impartial-ly. The introduction must be constructed to direct readers to the line of reasoning that the authors made and that led them to the problem or guiding question of the research. The method section is the most important one of the studies and must be described with all the necessary detail so that other people can replicate it. A study that has been meticulously planned, will have no dif-ficulties in having this step described in detail, but it is common to find this section confused and incomplete, in studies that have not gone through a rigorous planning process, causing many steps to have only been thought of when the need arose. On the other hand, when we come across articles that present the method sec-tion rich in details, we realize the zeal with which the authors did this writing and we have already anticipated that the same should be observed in the rest of the work.
348 Factor Related to Nutritional Status of Children with Disability Living in Dhaka City, Bangladesh , Md Harun-Or-Rashid, Abul Hasnat Mohiuddin, Omar Faruque, Bijoya Sarkar, Kakoli Alamgir, Abu Yousuf, Shamim Reza
To assess the nutritional status and nutritional related knowledge of children or their caregiver of CWD in Dhaka city. Objectives:To assess the anthropometric measurement byBMI, WAZ, HAZ of the respondents, To assess the nutrition related knowl-edge of the children or their caregivers of the respondents, To appraise the food frequency pattern of the participants, To find outso-cio-demographic (age, gender, family type, living area, educational status) characteristics ofCWDParents.Methodology: Children with neurodevelopment disorders living in Dhaka city.CWD(neurodevelopmentdisability like as Autism, CP, ID and Down syndrome) living inEskatanandSWIDBangladesh between September 2020 to March 2021. The instruments used included direct interview, a standard questionnaire and Knowledge of nutrition and food frequency pattern. Data were numerically coded and captured in Excel, using an SPSS 22.0 version. Results: The findings of the study provide a baseline of information about find out nutritional status and FCS disabled child in Bangladesh the study found that mean age of the participant was 9.98 (SD ± 1.62) years and most of the participants were above 5 years. The youngest participants in this study were 7 years old and oldest participants were 12 years old. In this study, this study showed that male caregivers participants were highest rate that was 58.6% (n = 51). Female caregivers participant were rate that was 41.4% (n = 36) with males attended more than females, in this study showed >10000 BDT range participants were highest rate (n = 36) with males attended more than females, in this study showed >10000 BDT range participants were highest rate that was 62.1% (n = 54). Primary passed participants were highest rate that was 34.5% (n = 30). More degree passed participant were sec-ond highest rate that was 31% (n = 27). According to our findings, knowledge about nutrition of the participants showed that no participants were highest rate that was 39.1% (n = 34). Yes participant second highest were rate that was 34.5% (n = 30) and not sure participants were 26.4% (n = 23). Knowledge about nutrition components of the participants. This study showed that yes par-ticipants were highest rate that was 41.4% (n = 36). No participant second highest were rate that was 29.9% (n = 26) and not sure participants were 28.7% (n = 25).
349 Effect of Ground Flaxseed Intake on Lipidic Profile in Subjects with Dyslipidemic with and without Pharmacotherapy , M Paz Beyer, Camila Escala, Javiera Gómez, Javiera González, Ximena Palma
Dyslipidemia corresponds to a number of alterations of blood lipids concentrations that is associated with health risks. Diets high in fat, family background, among others are risk factors. One way to correct lipid alterations would be to consume dietary fiber like the one present in ground flaxseed, which could contribute to the improvement of cholesterol and triglycerides levels.General Objective: To determine the effect of daily consumption of ground flaxseed on the lipid profile of 10 dyslipidemic subjects diagnosed with a follow up of 1 month. Methods: Participants in this study were adults, age 40-70 years old. Subjects consumed 15 g of ground flax in 200 ml of water with their lunch. Blood lipid profile tests were performed before and after consumption for one month. Data was analyzed using an indi-vidual delta for each lipid profile and was compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA). To evaluate the difference in food intake the averages of each variable were compared using T-Student test.Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in LDL cholesterol in all the participants from 184 ± 28,38 mg/dL to 139 ± 29,02 mg/dL during the 1-month follow up. The changes in levels of total cholesterol, LDL and blood triglycerides were statistically significant.Conclusion: The daily intake of flaxseed with a meal is associated with improved levels of LDL.
350 Nutraceuticals: Frontier in Healthcare , Firoj A Tamboli, Harinath N More, Vishal H Thorat, Asha S Jadhav, Niolfar A Tamboli
Nutraceutical is a term used for segregated products from processed foods, supplements, specialty foods and food products that are used as nutrients in balanced foods. The lifestyles of people around the world have changed over the past century due to in-creased incomes, declining exercise and preferences for unhealthy foods. Nutraceuticals are very popular because of their safety, nutritional value and treatment. They are used in the treatment and prevention of various diseases, including heart disease, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke and Parkinson’s disease, as well as obesity. Better understanding “from treatment to preven-tion” leads to an increase in the demand for nutraceutical. Nutraceutical has lead to in a new era of medicine and health, which has made the food and pharmaceutical industry a business of research interest
351 Jasonia Montana; A Promising Therapeutic Agent to Attenuate Neurological Disorders Associated with SCO-induced Dementia , Mohammed A Hussein, Nada M El-Laban, Lamiaa H Elabody, Amany M Ghazal1, Basant S Mohamed, Azhar A Mohamed, Lamiaa Y Elhalafwy, Sanaa M Elsayad, Amal S Othman, Ali A Ali
Neurodegenerative disorder clinically characterized by progressive cognitive and memory dysfunction.This study investigated the effect of Jasonia montana ethanolic extract (JMEE) on Ca-, Mg+2 and Na+, K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities as well as β amyloid1-42 level in brain hippocampus of adult rats exposed to SCO. Rats were exposed to SCO (3.0 mg/Kg) and JMEE (150mg/Kg) by gavage for 14days. Rats were randomly divided into six groups with 6 rats in each: [Saline], [saline/SCO (3.0mg/kg)], [saline/SCO (3.0mg/kg)/JMEE (150 mg/kg,)], [saline/SCO (3.0mg/kg)/ DHC (3 mg/kg)] and [saline/SCO (3.0mg/kg)/JMEE (150 mg/kg,)/ DHC (3 mg/kg)]. Results demonstrated that plasma TC, TG as well as brain hippocampus levels of AChE, MAO, βA1-42, TBARS. Also, the results showed that a significant depletion of plasma HDL-C as well as brain hippocampus levels of phospholipids, GSH, ACh, Ca+2, Mg+2 and Na+, K+-ATPase. Treatment with JMEE (150mg/Kg) prevented the increase in TC, TG, AChE, MAO, β amy-loid1-42, TBARS activity when compared to SCO-treated group. JMEE treatment prevented the SCO-induced decrease in Ca+2, Mg+2and Na+, K+-ATPase activities as well as GSH, HDL-C, ACh and phospholipids in SCO-treated group when compared to normal group. Our data showed that JMEE have a protector effect against SCO induced neurodegenerative. Also, Jasonia Montana is a promising therapeutic agent to attenuate neurological disorders associated with SCO induced dementia.
352 Almond (Prunus dulcis): A Nutritive Dense Dry Fruit , Waseem Khalid, Fareed Afzal, Ravi Prakash Jha, Nageen Afzal, Muhammad Zubair Khalid, Talal Shoaib, Ramish Akram, Poonam Gill5, Afifa Aziz, Noman Aslam, Areeg Azha
Almond belongs to plant-based food and is botanically calledPrunus dulcis. The edible part of the almond is the seed that is com-posed of different nutritive and non-nutritive components. Almond seed consists of fat, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and phenolic compounds. These compositional constituents of almond seed play important role in the human body. It is helpful in heart disease and diabetes because it is a good source of antioxidants and polyphenols that prevents inflammation of cells. Almond seed fiber is suitable for preventing constipation. Conclusively, its seeds are composed of many beneficial components that can reduce the chances of diseases
353 Covid-19 and Common Mental Disorders in the Risk Group Population: A Study in Brazilian Amazon , Carlos Alberto Paraguassú-Chaves, Carla Dolezel Trindade, Simão Aznar Filho, Fabrício Moraes de Almeida, Lenita Rodrigues Moreira Dantas, Gisely Beck Gonçalves Salton
To evaluate the frequency of common mental disorders (CMD) in a population group at risk during the Covid-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study, with a quantitative approach, a type characterized as epidemiological. An adapted version of the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20), the adapted PSS and the abbreviated WOHOO were used as data collection instruments. A total of 560 volunteers participated in the sample, 57% female and 43% male, with ages ranging from 35 to 85 years. Results: The general average of proportional relative frequency for each 10 research subjects belonging to the risk group for Covid-19, resulting from the composition of the 5 factors of the SRQ-20 was 7.8, higher than the cutoff point that characterize common mental disorders (CMD). Among the factors of the PSS prevail: “anxiety for information about the disease”, “fear”, “sadness” and “anxiety”, “fear of being infected by covid-19”, “fear of dying”, “frustration and boredom”, "Anger", "irritability", "uncertainty" and, "having a chronic illness". The WHOQOL-bref found results that show dissatisfaction with the quality of life in this risk group. The results of the 3 instruments applied show and characterize the CMD in this studied group. Conclusion: It can be said that this risk group suffers from CMD with symptomatic characterization of depression.
354 Features of Community-acquired Pneumonia in Children with Children's Cerebral Paralysis , RR Aishauova, ST Abdrakhmanova, LN Skuchalina, VV Meshcheryakov
To investigate the features of the clinical course and treatment tactics for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in chil-dren with cerebral palsy (CP). Materials and Methods: The analysis of clinical, radiological, laboratory parameters and treatment tactics was carried out in two groups: 56 children with CAP on the background of cerebral palsy and 100 children with CAP without neurological pathology at the age from 0 to 14 years. Results: Children with cerebral palsy were more likely to have recurrent pneumonia. In cerebral palsy, CAP was more often bi-lateral, proceeded with prolonged manifestations of bronchitis and bronchial obstruction, problems with sputum discharge, more pronounced respiratory failure, which more often required intensive therapy, including artificial ventilation of the lungs, repeated courses of antibiotic therapy, and longer hospitalization. A significant role of Streptococcus pneumoniae in CAP in children with cere-bral palsy has been established. Conclusion: The revealed features determine the need to actively use in the treatment of children with cerebral palsy with commu-nity-acquired pneumonia (CAP), medication and non-medication methods of sanitation of the bronchial tree and bronchodilators. The tendency to develop community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and its more severe course confirms the relevance of compulsory pneumococcal vaccination of children with cerebral palsy.
355 Vitamin D Deficiency can Accelerate Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis , Irem Akin, Nuray Yazihan
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the most important causes of mortality all around the world. Studies have been shown that vitamin D is closely related CVDs, including heart failure (HF). We aim to assess the serum vitamin D levels in pa-tients with HF in this meta-analysis.Methods: A systematic research was performed in Pubmed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases for following keywords; “vitamin D level” OR “vitamin D status” AND “heart failure” until September 2020. Each step of the meta-analysis is appropriate to the PRISMA guideline. Totally, 2968 publications were screened and 16 articles were found to have suitable data. Analysis was done with RevMan 5.3. software. We also used GraphPad Prism 6 software for the correlation analysis and figures.Results: Our pooled data showed that patients with HF had significantly lower levels of serum vitamin D compared to controls (REM p < 0.00001 mean difference: -8.20 [-10.46, -5.95]). There was also significant correlation between serum vitamin D level and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (p: 0.0134, r: 0.4785) (n = 26).Conclusion: In this meta-analysis, it has been indicated that HF patients have lower serum vitamin D levels compared to controls. As seen in our study, vitamin D might be an important risk factor for HF, and vitamin D deficiency (VDD) may lead increased mortality caused by HF. Further researches are needed to elucidate which mechanisms play a role in the association between HF and vitamin D.
356 Evaluation of Spirituality in Grieving Patients Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy at the Suicide Grief Clinic of the University Center for Health Sciences of the University of Guadalajara, Mexico , Villagómez Zavala Patricia Guadalupe
Attachment refers to the significant bond we establish with a person, when this is broken, what we call a significant loss occurs, followed by a grieving process: natural pain reaction to the detachment of something or someone who had a It was worth it During this, spirituality appears as a central strategy to overcome painful experiences, but it can also be affected by the meanings attributed to it. Acceptance and commitment therapy has been used in different psychological disorders that involve experiential avoidance, including grief.Objectives: The central objective of the study is to evaluate the complicated spiritual duel. Material and methods: The Inventory of Complicated Spiritual Grief (ICSG) was applied in patients with grief, before and after being treated with Acceptance and Commit-ment Therapy in the grief clinic of the University Center of Health Sciences.Results and Conclusions: Acceptance Therapy and commitment has proven to be useful in facilitating the elaboration of grief, as well as in restoring spirituality since it is resignified and gives meaning to painful experiences.
357 Assessment of Nutritional Status, Eating Attitude and Body Satisfaction of University Students , Nural Erzurum Alim, Rahime Evra Karakaya
Body perception and nutritional behavior of university students differ due to environmental factors which lead to increased risk of obesity. The aim of this study is to evaluate body perception, eating attitudes and nutritional status of university students'. A questionnaire form including general information and nutritional habits were applied to university students. Body weight and height were measured by a trained researcher. Body perception was evaluated by Body Cathexis Scale and nutritional behavior was assessed by Eating Attitude Test-40. The study was conducted with 343 university students (15.7% male and 84.3% female). The prevalence of overweight was 13.1% and obesity was 2.3%. Higher risk of abnormal eating attitudes were detected in overweight group (21.2%) than underweight (12.1%) and obese group (3.0%) (p > 0.05). Mean body cathexis scale total score was higher in normal weight group (143.40 ± 22.99) than overweight, underweight and obese group (141.93 ± 23.34, 139.86 ± 21.29, 131.50 ± 21.08 respectively) (p > 0.05). Eating attitude test and meal frequency weren’t significant predictors of body mass index (B = 0.028, p = 0.059; B = 0.478, p = 0.083, respectively). Abnormal nutritional status such as underweight, overweight and obesity could be a potential risk among university students. Risk of abnormal eating attitudes was observed whereas body satisfaction was similar in these groups.
358 Assessment of Quality of Raw Milk in References to Antibiotic Residues and Microbial Loads at Farmers and Retailers’ Level in Some Selected Areas of Bangladesh , KBM Saiful Islam, Sujan Kumar Sarkar, Syeeda Shiraj-Um-Mahmuda
Milk is one of the most nutritious drinks in the world which is suitable for people of all ages. The quality and safety of such drink are of utmost importance for public health issues. Residual antibiotics and microbial quality of milk have thus become as major concerns to consumers. Therefore, present study was conducted to detect antibiotic residues and assess microbial quality of fresh bovine milk samples both at origin and vendors level in Dhaka city and nearby areas of Bangladesh. Materials and Methods:A total of 150 milk samples were aseptically collected from randomly selected farmers and retailer. Anti-biotic residues in milk was detected by streak plate techniques on nutrient agar plate using Bacillus subtilisas test organisms. Total bacterial counts and coliform counts were determined following the pour plate technique using nutrients agar and MacConke’s agar, respectively.Results:Antibiotic residues were detected in 10.67% of total milk sample while 18% of farmers’ milk and 7% of retailers’ milk were positive for the same. The mean standard plate count of raw milk collected from farms and retailer were 7.63 ± 0.14 log10 cfu/ml and 8.46 ± 0.23 log 10 cfu/l of milk, respectively. In contrast, total coliform count in fresh milk samples collected from farms and retailer were 2.64 ± 0.21 log10 cfu/ml and 3.92 ± 0.05 log10 cfu/ml of milk, respectively. Conclusion:Milk produced and sold in the study areas could be considered as of fair quality in terms of microbial load. However, presence of antibiotic residues in milk could pose human health risk. Therefore, awareness should be created on the sensible use of antibiotic and obedience to drug withdrawal period.
359 Nutrition and Awareness , Tibor Deme
Awareness is the state of being conscious of something. It’s the ability to know, and feel, and perceive what is going on around you. Another definition describes Awareness as a state in which we fo-cus our attention to our current behavior in order to make changes to a wide range of habitual actions.Deepak Chopra says, “What we are not aware of we cannot change”.Modifying our beliefs, can only occur if we are aware of our be-liefs. To the same extent, modifying our habits and actions can only take place if we’re aware of them.We cannot reinforce a positive change without being aware of what needs to change.And so awareness is key in any positive and lasting change. Many of us have adopted the coping mechanism of denial, which pushes awareness away, and allows us to ‘get by’ without listen-ing to our inner truths. But if we want to make positive long-term changes to reach our goal of optimal health, we don’t want to just ‘get by.’ We need the power of honest awareness, without judge-ment but with self-compassion, to identify any of our unhealthy behaviors so that we can make modifications which benefit our well-being.
360 Formulation of Rice Based Low Cost Balanced, Nutritious and Safe Diet for the Malnourished Street Children in Capital City Dhaka , Saima Jahan, Sultan Abu Saleh Mahmud, Iftekharul Huq, Md Mariful Islam, Md Mohsin, Md Sakil Ahamed, Anika Antara Siddiqquee, Zannatul Sanzida, Habibul Bari Shozib, Muhammad Ali Siddiquee
A total of h384 street children were subjected to study a baseline survey aged from 4 to 12 years old in Capital City, Dhaka. The sample size was fixed by addressing Cochran equation. Among the respondents 63% were male and 37% were female from street children population of 384. Survey took place at 20 different hot spots covering both Dhaka city north and south. We have observed the recommended dietary intake per day from 4 years to 12 years old male boys and found 27 to 59% deficiency in our male popula-tion samples of 243. Similarly, we also observed the recommended dietary intake per day from 4 years to 12 years old female girls and found 28 to 56% deficiency in our female population samples of 141. Since our Energy Dense Rice Cake (EDRC) has a potential of providing 500 kcal energy per 100g serving so, we could predict that incorporating our improved rice-based product once a day along with their daily regular intake, it will able to mitigate nutritional gap by 64 to 100% for street boys and noticeably 70 to 100% for girls. We have prepared Energy Dense Rice Biscuit (EDRB, 3.6% moisture, 515 kcal per 100g of serving) and EDRC (5.0% mois-ture, 500 kcal per 100g of serving). EDRC was found prepared than EDRB in impact study when the respondents were given choice of rice-based bakery items intake for four months long period. Finally, a total of 32 respondents were took part in a four months period impact study on EDRC from street children population. All anthropometric and biochemical data such as CBC (Complete Blood Count), Hemoglobin, CRP, Prealbumin etc. were collected at both the starting (Day 0) and the end time (Day 120) of the impact survey of selected 32 respondents. Respondents were given 100g serving of EDRC every day (rice cake) to 32 street children samples for 4 months period along with their normal food intake. Our data revealed that malnutrition related parameters specially CRP (de-creased) and Prealbumin (Increased) are significantly improved during four months supplementary intake of extra 500 kcal per 100 g serving of EDRC in tested street children’s samples which resembles the possible impact of EDRC on street children. Rice-based bakery products specially EDRB and EDRC can potentially be used in school feeding nutritional program and disaster management in Bangladesh.
361 Cough Treatment Options in Children with Acute Respiratory Infections , BM Blokhin, IP Lobushkova, AS Suyundukova, AD Prokhorova
The article contains the results of a non-interventional, multicentre, prospective, observational, non-randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of Stodal drug product in children aged 2 to 7 years old with cough caused by acute respiratory infection (ARI). Objective of the Research: To assess therapeutic efficacy and safety of Stodal drug product in children treated for cough caused by mild to moderate acute respiratory infections. Materials and Methods: The study included 1000 children aged 2 to 7 years old with cough caused by mild to moderate ARI. The study was conducted in 23 medical institutions based in Moscow and the Moscow region. The study participants were stratified by age into 2 groups: Group 1 included children aged 2 to 4 years old; Group 2 included children aged 4 to 7 years old. Stodal clinical efficacy was evaluated based on the time course of cough severity in the daytime and at night, parents’/adoptive parents' satisfaction with the treatment and the treatment safety. Treatment duration was 7 days. Results: In both groups, on the 7th day of therapy, treatment with Stodal resulted in a statistically significant decrease in cough sever-ity: in Group 1, cough severity decreased by 1.51 (from 2.16 to 0.65; p < 0,001); in Group 2 it decreased by 1.57 (from 2.25 to 0.68; p < 0.001). Treatment efficacy was not age-dependent and was similar in both groups (p = 0.158). In total population cough severity in the daytime statistically significantly decreased by 1.53 (from 2.2 on the 1st day of treatment to 0.67 points on the 7th day of treat-ment, p < 0.001). In 35% of patients cough completely resolved (cough severity decreased to 0 points), and in 63% it became clini-cally insignificant (cough severity was 1 point). These children recovered and were allowed to attend organized groups. In Group 1, nocturnal cough severity statistically significantly decreased by 1.16 (from 1.64 to 0.48, p < 0.001); in Group 2 it decreased by 1.25 (from 1.71 to 0.46, p < 0.001). 951 (95,1%) parents/adoptive parents positively rated cough treatment and scored it using satisfac-tion rating scale as 4 and 5 points. Conclusion: The study demonstrated efficacy and safety of Stodal drug product when used for cough treatment in children aged 2 to 7 years old with mild to moderate ARI, which allows to recommend Stodal to be included in treatment regimens beginning from the first days of the disease.
362 Why ‘No’ to TB Health Facilities? Answer from a Community Perspective , Arupkumar Chakrabartty
During peak of the COVID 19 pandemic people were mostly confined at their home and became hesitant to come to healthcare facilities seeking any care unless it was very much urgent. In a ru- ral district, Purulia in West Bengal, India; as a public health spe- cialist, by virtue of the author’s association in the management of TB services, some interactions were made with the people from the community to explore the cause of poor footfall at different healthcare facilities. The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged the gains made over recent years. World Health Organization shows that high TB burden countries have observed sharp decline in TB notifications in 2020. It foresees 50% drop in TB case detection over 3 months and 400 000 additional TB deaths this year alone. Poor case identification is a major challenge for achieving global TB targets. Interactions were made through 4 Focus Group Discus- sions among adult male and female and adolescent boys and girls, and 12 In-depth interviews among community gatekeepers. This unstructured and informal exploration revealed out some key find- ings attached to poor footfalls of people seeking TB services from designated TB health facilities that have been shared through this note
363 Nutritional Behaviour and Perceptions on Staying Well during the First Wave of COVID-19 Pandemic - the Experiences of Students from a University in Birmingham, UK , Fatemeh Rabiee Khan, Karolina Biernat
The impact of COVID-19 pandemic and related restrictive measures on the health and well-being of the general population have recently been highlighted. This paper emerges from a larger study on the impact of a COVID-19 on health and wellbeing of university students in Birmingham, UK. It focuses on the nutritional aspects and students’ perceptions of behaviours that helped them to stay well during a time of uncertainty. A cross sectional study design has been used and data was collected during May and June 2020, via an anonymised online questionnaire. 1784 students completed the questionnaire (F = 1360, M = 418 and Non-binary = 14) with the age range of 18 - 53 (Mean = 25, SD ± 8) years. Findings indicate a major negative impact of covid-19 pandemic and lockdown measures on students’ financial situation, with almost 50% stating decreased in their paid employment. This could have been the reasons for an increased consumption of food out of boredom and anxiety (61.8%), increased purchasing food out of fear (23.8%), consumption of more canned fruits and vegetables (18.6%) and being dependent on social protection measures related to food (10%). The positive impact however was more home cooking and baking (72.4%), more consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables (50.4%), and an awareness of what to do to stay well.
364 Impact of Nutrition Counseling on Diet Diversity Practices of Children (12 - 24 months) in Jaipur City , Vandana Goyal, Nimali Singh
Poor feeding practices directly or indirectly contribute to undernutrition, morbidity, and mortality in children. The reasons are not just the socioeconomic background but also the lack of knowledge and awareness about proper feeding practices. The present study was carried out in Jaipur City with the objective that improving knowledge would lead to improvement in diet diversity practices. Methodology: The study was conducted on 107 mothers of children aged 12 - 24 months attending the vaccination clinic of JK Lon Hospital in Jaipur city. All the selected mothers were approached personally and WHO, 2010 scale was used to study their diet di- versity practices at pre and post-stage. A child receiving four or more on this scale is considered to have adequate diet diversity. A structured intervention protocol was developed and used for intervention. Results: In the pre-stage of the study the scores for dietary diversity were calculated to be 3.16 ± 0.98, 3.75 ± 1.52 and 4.42 ± 0.67 among boys of low, mid and high SES respectively, which increased to 3.38 ± 0.91, 4.17 ± 1.01 and 4.76 ± 0.62 out of 7 at post counsel- ing. For girls the score increased from 3.11 ± 1.16 to 3.23 ± 1.25 in low SES, 3.55 ± 1.42 to 3.66 ± 1.22 in mid SES and 4.36 ± 1.03 to 4.76 ± 0.87 in high SES respectively. Irrespective of the increase in knowledge, the impact of the intervention was found to be statisti- cally insignificant in all the three subgroups of girls from pre to post-stage. The difference in the mean score of boys and girls for both pre-stage and post-stage across SES was statistically significant using ANOVA at p < 0.01. Conclusion: In India, feeding practices appear to be influenced by social, cultural, and economic factors. It is recommended to pro- vide education to mothers and to strengthen the public health education campaigns so as to improve the positive practices which can, in turn, improve the health and well-being of the children
365 Calcium Propionate - Health Food? , Leonard W Heflich
Calcium propionate has been used as a mold inhibitor in bakery products for over 50 years. I have a bread bag from the mid 60’s that makes the audacious claim “Now with Calcium Propionate for Added Freshness”. How the world has changed! Today, calcium propionate is viewed by many consumers and activists as a poten- tially harmful chemical preservative that should be removed from bakery products. There is evidence that calcium propionate is dif- ferent from other ingredients used as preservatives and deserves to be treated separately. Let’s examine the facts.
366 Zinc Oxide Nanoparticle in Foliar Nutrition of Maize Crop in Southern Amazonia , Willian Tsuyoshi Kume, Felipe Adolfo Litter, Márcia de Almeida Carneiro, Luana Marques Campos, Marco Antonio Camillo de Carvalho and Gustavo Caione
Adequate nutrition management of maize crop is essential when aiming at high yields and grain quality. In this context, Zn fertil- ization stands out since its content increase in grains used for human consumption is an alternative to alleviate malnutrition. There- fore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate foliar fertilization as a supplement, with alternative Zn doses and sources in the maize crop in southern Amazonia. The field experiment was conducted in Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso State, in dystrophic red yellow Oxisol. A randomized block design in a 4x2 factorial scheme was used, with four doses (0, 250, 500 and 1000 g ha-1) and two sources (ZnSO4 and ZnO 40 nm) with foliar application during R1 stage. At the end of the experiment, the cob diameter, mass of 100 grains, number of grain rows per cob, Zn content in grains and productivity were evaluated. Foliar application of doses and sources of Zn did not promote significant difference between treatments. This was possibly due to the low mobility of the micronutrient in the plant. Thus, it is suggested to apply higher doses, or more than one foliar application along the maize crop cycle.
367 Characterization of Dysphagia in Congenital Cardiopathic Infants Admitted to the Intensive and Intermediate Care Unit , Carolina Orge Anunciação Bacelar, Katharine Dias Coelho de Lucena, Larissa Monteiro, Carla Salati Almeida Ghirello-Pires, Anna Clara Mota Duque
To investigate the correlation between infants diagnosed with congenital heart disease and dysphagia. Methods: Hospitalized in Intensive and Intermediate Care Units from 2017 to 2020, infants up to 60 days of life diagnosed with con- genital heart disease and full-term controls were compared for dysphagia. Results: Sixteen patients and forty-eight controls were included. Comparing them, the group of patients with heart disease showed correlation for dysphagia. Conclusion: Infants diagnosed with congenital heart disease have a greater tendency to present dysphagia.
368 COVID-19: Chronic Illness , Paul T E Cusack
I have suffered with COVID-19 since early December 2019, be- fore it was in the News. I do not know how I contracted, although there are Chinese students on the bus who attend the local univer- sity. I have been sick every 3 three weeks since then. The sickness brings on throwing up, congestion, coughing up phlegm, and usu- ally, but not always, chills and fever. I have never been tested. I have had the vaccine since February 28,2021. I received my second dose six weeks later. I have had the Pfizer vaccine. I’m still sick every three weeks. There is no sign of the virus letting go. I might have to live with being sick every 3 weeks for the rest of my life.
369 A New Low-protein Foodstuff from Processed Brown Rice for Chronic Kidney Disease , Shaw Watanabe, Satoshi Minakuchi, Masaki Yamaguchi, Hiromasa Uchiyama4, Tomitsu Haramoto, Kazunori Egawa, Ken’ichi Otsubo, Azusa Hirakawa
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing in prevalence worldwide, not only as a complication of diabetes and end-stage glomerulonephritis but also as a typical degenerative process in the elderly. A low-protein diet is essential for the prevention and delay of CKD. As rice is the leading staple food in many countries, low-protein rice should be considered for dietary therapy. Brown rice, in particular, contains many functional factors for health, so that low-protein brown rice could provide additional benefits for CKD patients. Methods: Four steps are necessary to produce low-protein brown rice of high quality: selection of rice cultivar, surface treatment of brown rice with a penetrating enzyme solution, protein extraction, and hygienic packaging. We developed a new low-protein brown rice (LPBR) product using protease treatment and Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation. Results: LPBR maintained the high energy content of rice. While it provided the lowest protein content possible (0.2 g/100 g of boiled rice), almost no potassium (0.5 mg/100 g boiled rice), and less than 1/5 of usual phosphate contents (17 mg/100 g boiled rice). In addition, toxic metals such as antimony and cadmium were not present. Like common brown rice brands, the new product had high dietary fibers (1.0 g/100 g boiled rice), γ-oryzanol (6.3 mg/100g boiled rice), and antioxidant activity (300 ORAC Unit). Conclusion: A low-protein diet has been known to be effective for the prevention of CKD. LPBR could provide enough energy with low protein, low potassium, low phosphate. Furthermore, the remaining dietary fibers, γ-oryzanol, and antioxidant activity could have sound effects to stabilize intestinal microbiota, short-chain fatty acids, and innate immunity.
370 Evaluation of Market Demand for Alternative Poultry Feeds in Nigeria , Geirsdottir OG, Jonsson PV, Thorsdottir I,Ramel A
Feeds constitute 70% of the cost of poultry production and of this, proteins constitute the highest cost. Finding cheaper alternatives to existing protein sources would improve efficiency of poultry production. Development and promotion of insect protein- based poultry feeds is assessed. It was observed that insect-based protein sources could significantly supplement cum replace fish meal which is the major source of feed protein. The market for conventional protein was expected to switch from fish to complete substitution with insect sources. The study main objective was to analyse demand, market size and trends of current conventional and sources of poultry feed proteins in Nigeria and make projections. The study was conducted in Imo, Edo and Kano states, Nigeria. The bulk of data was from secondary sources and primary data from formal survey of farmers and poultry value chain actors. Aggregate demand for insect feed ingredients for poultry feed was 5382 metric tons on dry matter basis at 50% rate of substitution of conventional protein. Projected demand for poultry feed proteins was 11,550 metric tons in the next 5 years. Insects had a strong potential for incorporation into poultry feeds.
371 Adherence to Low-Carbohydrate Diet and Hemoglobin A1c Levels among Adults with Diabetes: A Population-Based Cross-sectional Study , Elta Charles, Eunkyung Lee
Evidence of a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) on diabetes prognosis is not consistent. This study examined the association between adherence to LCD and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in adults with diabetes. A total of 3,628 adults with self-reported diabetes were identified from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2016. Adherence to LCD was measured using LCD scores (range 0-30) based on the proportions of energy intake from three macronutrients, with higher scores indicating lower intakes of carbohydrates. Average dietary intakes and HbA1c levels were estimated and compared across the quintiles of LCD scores. Multivariable survey logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between quintile of LCD score and elevated HbA1c levels (≥6.5%). The average diet of adults with DM consisted of 47.2% carbohydrates, 36.0% fat, and 16.8% protein, with a mean LCD score of 15.6. The mean HbA1c level was 7.15%, and 64% of participants presented with elevated HbA1c levels of ≥6.5%. There was no significant difference in odds of presenting with elevated HbA1c levels when those in the highest and lowest quintiles of LCD were compared after adjustment for potential confounders (OR=0.94; 95%CI=0.57-1.53). However, individuals in the highest quintile of LCD score showed lower intakes of total fruits, added sugars, and refined grains, but higher intakes of total energy, satu- rated fats, cholesterol, alcohol, and sodium compared to those in the lowest quintile. Future studies should focus more on diet quality, in addition to the composition of the diet.
372 Impact of Whole Body Electromyostimulation with Nutrition Strategies on Body Composition in Overweight Adults: A Prospective Study , Elgabsi Zeineb, Ayed Khadija, Ksouri Riadh, Serairi Beji Raja
Nutritional treatment and physical exercise are promising measures to prevent and treat obesity. However, conventional exercise is not always suitable for some patients due to unability to exercise conventionally. In this study, we examined the effect of a combined approach of the novel training method whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) and individualized nutritional interventions on anthropometric parameters and body composition in obese subjects after 12 weeks. Methods: One hundred and twenty voluntary participants, aged 37.6 ± 6.01 years, were associated with the arms of the study ac- cording to eating habits: • Control group WB-EMS SD (n = 30) having continued their spontaneous feeding during the 12 weeks of study, without any attempt to balance it, • WB-EMS BD group (n = 30) followed dietary advice from the nutritionist in order to balance their diet both quantitatively and qualitatively, • WB-EMS HP group (n = 30) under a high protein diet with a daily protein of between 1.8 and 2 g per kg of body weight and • *WB-EMS IF group (n = 30) practicing intermittent fasting with time limitation (16/8 method). All participants were trained via the WB-EMS. A preliminary analysis of spontaneous food intake was made by a nutritionist with all participants: a 24-hour reminder. Body composition and weight were measured by Bio-impedancemetry. We similarly measured the waist and the hips circumferences using a tape measure. All measurements were made in triplicate. Data analysis was performed using BILNUT software and the SAS system. Results: After 12 weeks of experimentation, results show that subjects belonging to the control group (WB-EMS-SD) significantly lost weight (p < 0.05) and decreased their BMI (p < 0.05). When body fat is expressed as a percentage of body mass, it significantly increased (34.04 ± 7.57% vs 34.65 ± 7.19%; p < 0.05) while when expressed in kg, it significantly decreased (31.73 ± 7.13 kg vs 30.15 ± 7.94 kg; p < 0.05) between the start and the end of the experimental period. Skeletal muscle mass did not undergo any significant change (p > 0.05). It is also for body water whether expressed as a percentage (p > 0.05) and in kg (p > 0.05). Compared to control group, participants in the WB-EMS-BD group lost more body fat (-7.69 ± 2.83 vs -1.57 ± 1.76; p < 0.05) but gained more skeletal muscle mass (1.68 ± 1.31 vs -0.09 ± 0.89; p < 0.05). As for the WB-EMS-HP group, they lost weight and decreased their BMI. Com- pared to the group without dietary intervention (WB-EMS-AS), the high-protein diet induced a greater loss in fat mass (-9.12 ± 2.94 vs -1.57 ± 1.76) but did not allow preserve skeletal muscle mass (-1.81 ± 2.67 vs -0.09 ± 0.89). Participants in the WB-EMS-IF group significantly reduced their weight (p < 0.001) and their BMI (p < 0.001). Body fat significantly decreased both when expressed as a percentage and in kg (p < 0.05). However, skeletal muscle mass and body water increased significantly. Conclusion: Training by WB-EMS will be one of the best allies since it combines time saving and efficiency.
373 Measuring Trans Fats in Native American Adolescents , Madelyn Bradley, Justin Do, Juleene Moritz,Shasha Zheng
Obesity is becoming increasingly prevalent among US adolescents due to various factors such as food preference, availability, and social condition: however, rates of obesity in Native American adolescents are comparatively much higher than their counterparts as differences of as much as 7.2% have been reported between Native American and white adolescents. Given extensive study highlight- ing the highly harmful effects to overall health that consuming trans fats has been linked to, this study investigated the dietary intake levels of trans fats by Native American adolescents and explored the implications in regard to their health in terms of BMI. This was done by collecting macronutrient intake levels of adolescents aged 14-18 at Sherman Indian High School. This information was col- lected from participants using the Harvard School of Public Health Adolescent Questionnaire (HSPH YAQ) for an eight-week period, the data then sorted participants into appropriate dietary groups using statistical software from Cal Baptist University (CBU). The results of the analysis indicated that there was a statistically significant difference in mean trans fats intake between no risk groups (normal and underweight) and at-risk groups (overweight and obese) (p ≤ 0.05) in male adolescents, however statistically significant findings for Native American female adolescents were not observed. This suggests that trans fats intake could be contributing to the high levels of obesity among Native American adolescents. Furthermore, it is of note that this study shows that production and con- sumption of trans fats are still happening on a day-to-day basis, and a continued effort must be made to eliminate all foods with trans fats from being manufactured and distributed.
374 Food to Eat and Food to Avoid during the Pandemic and Later , Maria Kuman
Clinical studies showed that when patients with arthritis, gout, etc. are fed with dry beans, their symptoms become much worse [1]. My mother was claiming that there are two categories of food - food that thins the blood and increases the blood circulation and food that makes the blood thicker and decreases the blood circula- tion. My mother’s claims were the ancient Celtic wisdom, but the ancient Chinese wisdom says the same - there are two types of food - Yang food (“Yang” means “active” and this is the food that activates (increases) blood circulation) and Yin food (“Yin” means “passive” and this is the food that decreases the blood circulation because it makes the blood thicker)
375 Nutritional Assessment of Geriatric Population (65 - 75 Years) , Gauravi Santosh Bapat,Anuradha Shekhar
Geriatric is a term used for elderly people or older adults. Aging is characterized by diminished organ system reserves, weakened homeostatic controls, increased heterogeneity among individuals influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Nutritional needs of the elderly are determined by multiple factors including specific health problems and related organ system compromise on indi- vidual’s level of activity, energy expenditure, caloric requirements, the ability to access, prepare, ingest, digest food and personal food preferences. Factors that can affect individual aging rates include diverse occurrences as genetic profile, food supply, social circum- stances, political events, exposure to disease, climate, natural disasters and other environmental events. In India the demographic transition is attributed to the increasing fertility and decreasing mortality rates due to availability of better health care services. The objective of this study was to assess the nutritional status of urban geriatric population between the age group of 65-75 years. A purposive sampling technique was used to select the sample size of 60 elderly people to conduct the study. Anthropometric measurements, physical activity pattern, sleeping pattern and eating pattern were assessed by a structured questionnaire which included questions on background data, 24 hour diet recall and food frequency. Analyses were performed by SPSS software and the data findings were considered to be significant. Of the total number of 60 participants 25% were men and 75% were female. The height and weight results indicated highly significant lower differences when compared with reference standards. Most of the subjects had BMI in the normal range of 18-23 kg/m². Along with height and weight, the hand grip strength was also measured. It was observed that most of the participants had poor hand grip strength. The consump- tion of macro and micronutrients was low when compared to the RDA’s. The mean calorie, protein and fat intake was 1100 kcal, 31.7g and 34.08g for women and 1219 kcal, 37.7g and 35.08g for men respectively. It was also observed that most of the subjects did not indulge in any kind of physical activity. Most of the participants slept for 8 hours on a daily basis. It was observed that all the subjects consumed cereals and dals on a regular basis but the consumption of fruits and leafy vegetables was comparatively low. Hence it can be concluded that efforts need to be taken towards counselling for the elderly to encourage them to have optimum nutrition and maintain a healthy lifestyle.
376 Boost the Defense of Your Mucous Membranes during the Pandemic for Protection against any Mutated Airborne Viruses , Maria Kuman
Viruses mutate - we already have a few new mutated Corona- viruses and more mutated viruses could be expected. If so, the right approach to protect ourselves is to boost the defense of our mucous membranes against any mutated airborne viruses. All air- borne viruses pass through the mucous membranes of the nose and throat to go to the lungs. How to boost the defense of these mucous membranes? I offer a combination of oil vitamins - Vita- min A, Vitamin E, Vitamin F, and vitamin D3. They are all oil vita- mins and need to be taken in liquid form to be assimilated. They are not assimilated when taken as tablets
377 Honey - Medicinal Value and Preservation Properties , Maria Kuman
The honey has great medicinal values, but it needs to be raw. When heated to melt the residual vax, so that the honey would not solidify, most of the medicinal properties of honey are lost. How to be sure that the honey is raw? - raw honey is transparent, while the heated honey is slightly foggy because of the dissolved vax. Never put raw honey in a hot tea or water because the honey will lose its medicinal properties. What are the medicinal properties of honey?
378 Spontaneous Intradural Cerebral Artery Dissection: Spectrum of Clinical Presentations and Correlation with Angiographic Findings , Aminur Rahman, Sirintara Pongpech, Pakorn Jiarakongmun, Ekachat Chanthanaphak, Wittawat Takong, Kittiphop Somboonnithiphol, Thanaboon Worakijthamrongchai
Intradural Cerebral Artery dissections are recognized cause of stroke. Aim of this study was to analysis the distribution of spon- taneous intradural cerebral artery dissection, angiographic pattern with the symptomatology of admitted patients to our hospital. Materials and Methods: We analyzed retrospectively collected data of the stroke patients’ and carefully evaluated on 4-vessels an- giogram in our institute from January 2013 to June 2014. Out of 164 of cerebral dissections in angiographically evidenced we found only 16 patients of intradural dissecting aneurysms that were included in this study. The male-female ratio was 37.5: 62.5 and the mean age was 47.56 ± 13.19 years. According to the angiographic finding depicting the location of the dissection plane in the arterial wall, we categorized to steno-occlusive, aneurysmal, combined pattern. In each dissection pattern, we evaluated presenting symp- toms and presence of subarachnoid hemorrhage, infarction, and intracerebral hemorrhage or combined. Results: The most common symptomatic presentation was headache (75%), followed by neck pain (50%), motor weakness of limb(s) (43.8%), loss of consciousness (37.5%), vertigo (12.5%), vomiting (12.5) and arm tingling sensation (6.3%). The most com- mon angiographic pattern was aneurysmal patterns (68.75%) followed by steno-occlusive (18.75%) and combined (steno-occlusive and aneurysmal) (12.5%) patterns. aneurysmal pattern was most frequently related to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) (7/11, 63.63%) in contrast that steno-occlusive pattern was only related to infarction (3/3, 100%). The most frequent dissection was in the intradural vertebral arteries (IV) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA), presented with SAH 80% (4/5) and 33.33% (1/3) respectively followed by infarction and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Infarction was common abnormality in patients with the intradural carotid arteries(IC) 33.33%(1/3), superior cerebellar artery(SCA) 33.33%(1/3) and basilar artery(BA) 33.33% (1/3) each but in- tracerebral hemorrhage(ICH) was common abnormality in patients with the posterior inferior cerebellar artery(PICA) 50%(1/2). Conclusion: The most common symptomatic clinical presentations of intradural cerebral artery dissection are headache and neck pain followed by motor weakness of limbs and loss of consciousness. SAH with aneurysmal pattern, in the posterior circulation es- pecially in the vertebral artery is the most frequent diagnosis of in intradural cerebral artery dissection which requires combined analysis of angiographic pattern and clinical presentations of stroke.
379 Living Alone is Associated with Poorer Muscular Strength, Lower 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and Lower Bone Mineral Density in Icelandic Community Dwelling Old Adults , Geirsdottir OG, Jonsson PV, Thorsdottir I,Ramel A
Living alone has been a significant public health concern among older adults given its association with a wide range of adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine whether living alone is associated with physical strength and bone health in community-dwelling older adults. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of existing cross-sectional data of old adults (N = 182, 73.7 ± 5.7yrs, 58.2% female) from the Reykjavik capital area in Iceland. Information on socioeconomics, health, dietary intake and physical function was collected. 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25OHD) and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured. Participants were grouped retrospectively into "living alone" and into "in cohabitation". Results: Of our subjects, 76.4% were in cohabitation and and 23.6% lived alone. Participants who lived alone were older (74.5 ± 5.6 vs. 72.1 ± 5.0, P = 0.008) and more often female (74.4 vs. 53.2%, P = 0.014), but there were no differences in education, smoking, number of medications, physical activity (PA) or body mass index (BMI). According to age and gender corrected analyses, participants in cohabitation had higher grip strength (6.2 ± 2.4lb, P = 0.011), higher 25OHD (13.1 ± 6.3nmol/L, P = 0.037) and higher BMD (z-score lumbal: 1.195 ± 0.417, P = 0.005; z-score femur: 0.421 ± 0.219, P = 0.054; z-score total: 0.846 ± 0.290, P = 0.004). Statistical correction for PA, BMI, education and fish oil intake did not change the results. Conclusion: In comparison to old adults who live in cohabitation, Icelandic old adults who live alone have poorer physical strength, lower 25OHD and lower BMD, which can increase their risk for wrist- or hip fracture. These differences between groups were not explained by physical, dietary or social confounding variables
380 Healthy Adults’ Basal Metabolic Rate Comparison Measured with Indirect Calorimetry Versus Predictive Formulas , Dulce María Segalés Gill
The total daily energy expenditure is composed of the basal metabolic rate (BMR), the thermic effect of food (TEF) and the energy expenditure during physical activity, the latter being subdivided into the energy used specifically in exercise training and energy in activities not associated with exercise. BMR is understood as the "cost of living", that is, the energy cost of keeping all physiological processes active, cognitive alertness and sets the stage for all life activities. It comprises the caloric expenditure at rest and occupies approximately 2/3 of the total daily caloric expenditure. BMR varies between subjects and is proportional to weight, particularly muscle mass, body composition and energy imbalance. Objective: To compare the basal metabolic rate of healthy adults, recreational athletes by indirect calorimetry and predictive for- mulas. Methods: Non-experimental design study, with a quantitative approach, correlational scope with the objective of group comparison. 76 people with normal weight and overweight according to BMI were evaluated with indirect calorimetry. Results: Significant differences were found when comparing the basal metabolic rate of recreational athletes by indirect calorimetry and predictive formulas proposed by Owen, Mifflin and Schofield, whereas no significant differences were found when comparing with the Harris-Benedict predictive formula.
381 A Widespread Acquired Ailment, Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; Its Approaches Related to Nutritional Therapy , Mujahid Hassan, Yasir Shah, Aisha Tariq, Zainab Qasim, Sehrish Jabbar,Mushaim Fatima
NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) is an inherited metabolic disorder characterised by triglyceride buildup in the liver (TGs). The four clinical-pathological categories frequently followed by the NAFLD pathway are non-alcoholic steatosis, steatohepati- tis, increasing fibrosis/cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer. The prevalence of NAFLD is increased by obesity and insulin resistance. NAFLD is linked to liver disease in both children and adults and is influenced by age, gender, race, and ethnicity. Hyper-caloric diets, especially those high in trans-/saturated fat and cholesterol, as well as fructose-sweetened drinks, seems to enhance visceral adipos- ity in people of all ages. Reduced calorie intake, increased soy protein and whey consumption, and supplementation of monounsatu- rated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids, and fibre, polyphenolic substances have preventative and therapeutic benefits are the initial steps toward its management. Along with good eating habits, exercise and physical activity that leads to weight loss and a reduction in liver fat buildup are also important. The patient becomes vulnerable to liver transplantation due to poor care (the end stage of NAFLD).
382 A Literature Review of Gelatin: Past, Present and Future in Drug Delivery , Ambujakshi Manjunatha Vinayaka, Harsha Madakaripura Dasegowda, Priyanka Raj
Hydrogels are liquid-absorbing polymer networks that can absorb any liquid, including biological fluids. The hydrogels are made up of natural polymers and their derivatives, as well as synthetic polymers. The crosslinking of either synthesised polymers start- ing from monomers or already established polymers creates the networks that make up hydrogels. Crosslinking can occur either physically, involving secondary intermolecular interactions, or chemically, involving the formation of a covalent connection between polymeric chains. Gelatins are protein polymers that are derived from natural sources. Gelatin is one of the most common biopoly- mers used to make hydrogels. Other than hydrogels, gelatin has a wide range of applications. Hydrogels, their properties and syn- thesis mechanisms, as well as their application in biomedicine and gelatin chemistry and application, are discussed in this review. Gelatin-based hydrogels could be used in drug delivery, bioink, transdermal therapy, wound healing, and tissue repair due to their nonimmunogenicity, nontoxicity, low cost, and great availability. On the condition that cost-effective, sustainable technologies for converting gelatin into valuable bioproducts exist or are developed, gelatin beneficiation can result in their sustainable conversion into high-value biomaterials.
383 Anthropometric and Biochemical Effects of Consuming Omega-3 Fatty Acids Enriched Eggs , Adriana Beatriz Di iorio, Freire Álvarez Brandon Javier,Vinueza Duque Rubén Esteban
Functional foods are products that control nontransmissible diseases. Egg is a low-cost food with high nutritional value and huge population intake. In the present study, the effect of Omega-3 fatty acids enriched eggs and non-enriched eggs on anthropometric measurements (weight, height, waist, hip, blood pressure, total fat percentage, visceral fat) and biochemical (lipid profile and glu- cose) were evaluated during 10 weeks, of 15 people with overweight or type I obesity. The participants were randomly assigned to receive a different treatment of enriched or non with Omega 3 eggs consumption with a dietary guideline or a specific eating plan. In the biochemical parameters, significant differences were observed for: total cholesterol (p = 0.037), HDL (p = 0.001) in treatment T4 and triglycerides (p = 0.033) in treatment T3. The adherence of each treatment was greater than 80%. In conclusion, enriched Omega-3 fatty acid eggs intake showed significant changes in biochemical indicators as total cholesterol, triglycerides and increase of HDL concentration.
384 Effect of Some Organic Acids and it's Mixtures as Mold Inhibiters on the Quality of Wheat Flour and Bread Making , Temraz EA, Abdel Salam IZ1, Shahin SI, Elsisy TT
Preservatives are most commonly used to control mold growth in baked goods so that the preservatives as an antimicrobial agent used to preserve food by preventing growth of microorganisms and subsequent spoilage. There are classifications of preservatives which were chemical and natural permitted chemical mold inhibitors in bread include acetic acid (E260), ascorbic acid (E300), propionic acid (E280) and it's Mixtures. The present review concludes the predominant efficacy and it's effects of preservatives in wheat flour and Flat bread (balady bread) by the chemical, physical, Rheological properties and sensory evaluation. Protein content of flours was ranged from (11.40%) to (12.20%). The use of 0.04% propionic acid wheat flour had the high protein content (12.20%) while the control wheat flour was the low protein content (11.40%). The ascorbic wheat treatment (2.0%) flour showed protein content of (10.7%) and had the high Wet and dry gluten and hydration ratio (25.2, 8.5 and 1.96% respectively) compare to other samples. Data showed that the acetic acid (0.04%) dose of wheat flours was more good suitable properties for making beard than the other wheat flour treatments. However Sensory evaluation of flat bread (balady bread) were shown that acetic (0.06%) balady bread had highest total scores (85.1%) than the control balady bread 75.5% while the lowest one was ascorbic (2%) balady bread (55.0%).
385 Effect of Covid-19 on Food Consumption Pattern of Indian Adolescent Girls , Jyoti Singh, Nikita Wadhawan
Since the beginning of 2020, coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a major public health issue. Adolescences constitute about 21 percent of Indian population. It is an important phase of human life and the habits form during this period can last longer. This sudden outbreak of pandemic can have an impact on their dietary patterns. Therefore, current study was undertaken to assess the effect of COVID-19 on food consumption pattern of adolescent girls. For carrying out the investigation, 120 urban adolescent girls aged 13-18 years were purposively selected from two schools of Udaipur district, Rajasthan. A well-structured interview schedule consisted of food frequency list was prepared and pretested. Data on food consumption pattern before and during COVID-19 was collected from selected samples through personal interview in month of march 2021, keeping in mind COVID-19 guidelines. SPSS version 26 was used for analysing all the data. The findings of the study revealed that COVID-19 had affected consumption pattern of food such as ginger, garlic, fruits such as banana, kinoo, apple, grapes, non-vegetarian food such as mutton, chicken, fish, bever- ages such as lemon water, turmeric milk, herbal tea, carbonated beverages and junk foods. COVID-19 had marginally improved the consumption pattern of immunity booster’s food among adolescent girls.
386 Individual and Combined Effects of Alpha-amylase and Biocides on Biofilms Formed by Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Brazilian Dairy Farms , Samuel Ferreira Gonçalves, Sarah Hwa In Lee, Lara Aguiar Borges, Marta Liliane de Vasconcelos, Carlos Humberto Corassin, Carlos Augusto Fernandes de Oliveira
This work aimed at evaluating the effect of alpha-amylase (AA, 100 mg/mL), sodium hypochlorite (SH, 0.5%), peracetic acid (PAA, 0.3%), and enzyme-biocide combinations (SH or PAA and AA) on mono-species biofilms formed by four Staphylococcus aureus strains (P01F2T1, P01F5T2, P16 and P24) previously isolated from dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil. Biofilm formation index (BFI) and culturable cell counts were evaluated for biofilms formed on polystyrene microplates for 72 h at 25ºC. The BFI of isolates P16 and P24 significantly decreased (P < 0.05) after treatment with PAA or SH combined with AA, compared with the biocides alone. The biofilms formed by isolates P01F2T1 and P01F5T2 had lower BFI values (P < 0.05) after treatment with combinations of PAA + AA and SH + AA, respectively. However, significant reductions in the biofilm culturable counts were observed only for isolates P01F2T1 treated with SH + AA and PAA + AA, P01F5T2 treated with SH + AA, and P24 treated with PAA + AA. Further studies are required to define the best combinations of AA and SH or PAA to completely remove S. aureus biofilms formed on plastic surfaces in processing dairy environments.
387 FarmBid - A Bidding E-commerce Platform to Provide Fresh Produces from Farmers to Customers , Aloysius Chiong Zhen Quan, Khairunnisa binti Sufian, Ng Sing Woei, Lai Li Ying,  Amanda Ling Tzi Yun
Contract farming derived benefits such as improved agricultural production and increased incomes for contract farmers, allowing better access to services and resources provided new opportunities to participate in markets. However, it has been criticised for the uneven bargaining power that may lead to the exploitation of farmers by large agribusiness firms. FAMA describes contract farming as a potential strategy that provides farmers and producers many benefits. Free agriculture markets in Malaysia often face inflexible elements which allow direct intervene from governments. Besides, the existence of middlemen in the supply chain further pressures the farmers, forcing them to rely on middlemen to sell their products. FarmBid, a bidding integrated e-commerce platform, is a solu- tion to increase the farmers’ bargaining power so that it can increase their income. Fieldwork is performed on 30 respondents, consisting of 2 main segments, buyers (16 respondents) and sellers (14 respondents). Results show that most buyers prefer to have a direct purchase from farmers and from mobile application too. The addition of deliv- ery service will be a better push for buyer to make a purchase. On the other hand, sellers claimed to have more than 15kg production daily which makes a good production rate for the community. Similarly to buyers, a standardized delivery service is a great boost for sellers’ business. It was observed that direct negotiation from farmers to customers and standardized delivery service are some of the good fea- tures which FarmBid should take into consideration. Hence, the quality of farmers’ life can be improved with the introduction of FarmBid by increasing their income.
388 Comparison of Dietary Intakes and Quality of Professional and Amateur Young Football Players , Beril Köse, Esen YeÅŸil, Merve Özdemir, Aysu Ayhan
Introduction: Nutritional requirements are higher in adolescence than in other life phases. These requirements are necessary not only for maintaining health and supporting growth and development, but also for providing energy for physical activities. In this case, the need for adequate energy and nutrient intakes becomes especially important for young athletes. Methods: The population of this study consists of 185 amateur and professional football players whom aged 13-17 years. A ques- tionnaire with multiple-choice and open-ended questions and the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index (KIDMED) with questions on nutritional status of adolescents were administered. In addition, a food consumption record for 24 hours was obtained. Results: The mean KIDMED score of amateur and professional football players was 6.9 ± 2.26. Accordingly, 9.8% of the amateur football players and 8.6% of the professional football players had low diet quality. The professional football players (1934.4 ± 611.08 kcal) had higher daily energy intake than the amateurs (1475.1 ± 538.60 kcal). A negative correlation was found between the KID- MED scores and body weight values of all footballers, and a positive correlation between their KIDMED scores and weekly training days. Conclusions: The football players who participated in this study had low energy intake. Professional subjects had higher intakes of energy and macro and micro nutrients than amateurs. Both groups had similar diet quality.
389 The Effect of Home Confinement During COVID-19 on Stress and Eating Disorders in Saudi Arabia , Khloud Ghafouri, Jameelah Alqarni, Wedad Azhar, Hibah Almasmoum, Alaa Qadhi
Background: Home confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic drastically affected the daily lives of millions of people around the world. It created a situation across the globe that is expected to affect human mental and physical health in different ways. For instance, it might increase the prevalence of eating disorders (EDs), a common health problem affecting both genders. The incidence of EDs during home confinement may be affected by stress and high exposure to social media. Objective: To investigate the incidence of developing EDs among the Saudi population during the COVID-19 pandemic. In particular, this study seeks to analyse the effect of stress and exposure to social media on the development of EDs. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken from April 27 2020 to June 15 2020. A total of 1,867 adult residents of Saudi Arabia aged between 18-80 participated in this study, completing a self-reported questionnaire. A SCOFF questionnaire was used for ED screening, while the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used for measuring stress levels. Data were analysed using SPSS statistical software. Descriptive statistics were used to identify the demographic characteristics of the participants. Results: Of the 1867 participants, 39.9% gave a positive SCOFF score. Approximately 40.9% of participants reported an increase in body weight during the quarantine. Most of them (80.8%) had a perception about ideal body shape, and more than half (58%) reported they thought about their figure more during the quarantine. A significant relationship has been noticed between the devel-opment of EDs and age (P-Value: 0.019), job (P-Value: 0.001), having a health condition that requires medication (P-Value: 0.021), being a smoker (P-Value: 0.001), and spending time on social media (P-Value: 0.001). Additionally, the level of stress (P-Value: 0.001), working from home during the home confinement (P-Value: 0.044), and the impact of the home confinement on monthly income (P-Value: 0.004) were found to have a significant relationship with having a positive screening for EDs.
390 Chemistry and Covid-19: A Review on the Central Role of Chemistry in the Understanding, Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatment of Covid-19 , Thilageshwary Gobalan, Chimi Denka, EA Vindya Hemali Edirimanna, Shaznine Ramiz, A Christine Thevarmirtha, Jeslin Jeba Soundari Mahimairaja, MSA Muthukumar Nadar, Ahmedul Kabir,P Mosae Selvakumar
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the newly discovered Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organization declared the disease a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, and on 11 March 2020, it was declared as a pandemic. Research and development have been critical in combating the global disease crisis caused by COVID-19 where Chemistry plays an important part in everything from virus composi- tion to pathogenesis, vaccine and treatment, and the creation of materials and procedures used by fundamental laboratories, virolo- gists, and clinicians. Fundamental studies into the molecules that control viral formation and activity will speed up the development of treatments and vaccines for infectious diseases. Most fundamental chemistry-based scientific organizations and pharmaceutical companies are collaborating to gather more knowledge about SARS-CoV-2, develop better analytical methods, and design vaccines to alleviate the situation as soon as possible. To date, there are several COVID-19 vaccines available, all of them designed using the knowledge of chemical behavior of viruses and many screening techniques are developed based on their molecular nature. Hence, this review is an approach to clarify the nature, chemical aspects of viruses, virus protection using the Chemistry shield, and potential research possibilities, the effectiveness of siddha formulations, and food and nutrition from the perspective of chemical behavior.
391 Impact of Dietary Counseling on the Anthropometric Indices, Biochemical Profile, and Sports Performance of Adolescent Badminton Players , Arpana Indoria, Nimali Singh
Introduction: Athlete and their coaches should pay specific attention to nutrition because diet is an imperative part of sports per- formance. Adequate nutrition provides the body compensation for improved energy loss and dietary needs and supports supreme adaptation to physical load. Sports performance and exhaustion acquired by adolescent athletes during aerobic training that reliant on carbohydrate stores in the body and carbohydrate needs during the physical session. Aim: To study the impact of dietary counseling on anthropometric indices, biochemical profile, and sports performance of adolescent badminton players in the age group 10 - 12 years. Methodology: The present study was conducted at a Badminton Academy. Sixty adolescent athletes participated in 12-week inter- vention program. Students were purposively selected in to control group (n = 60) and Badminton group (n = 60). Anthropometry measurements were recorded, and biochemical estimations were carried out. Intervention was carried out through counseling, using IEC material, discussions and sharing of healthy recipes. The children were also given one to one counseling on importance of nutri- tion, hydration, and impact of meals prior to an event, during event and post event and its role in sport performance. Physical fitness test consisting of endurance, flexibility, shuttle run test, agility, leg rising, crunches, zig-zag run and speed were assessed at pre and post intervention. Results: The results indicate that there was a significant improvement in weight, height, and waist to hip ratio of badminton play- ers. There was also a significant improvement in the biochemical parameters such as hemoglobin and serum calcium, the vitamin D status also improved but the change was found to be statistically non-significant. Physical fitness parameters were also improved including flexibility, speed and 50-yard desk among adolescent. Conclusion: The study indicates that intervention through nutrition counseling positively improved anthropometric indices and biochemical profile and physical fitness score of children. These finding suggest that fitness program with sports performance test would be more effective and encourage physical fitness among adolescents.
392 Elucidating Hyperglycemic and Hyperlipidemic Potential of Basil Seed Gum Aqueous Extract Powder in Diabetic Rat Model , Mavra Javed, Waqas Ahmed, Abdul Momin Rizwan Ahmad, Samar Rashid
Lifestyle diseases evolved during 20th century to promote epidemiological landscape with increasing industrial growth and cli- mate change. Diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypertension, heart diseases, stroke, pulmonary diseases, and mental diseases along with al- cohol abuse and smoking increase the risk of mortality and morbidity in population. So, the current study was conducted to evaluate aqueous extract powder of Ocimum basilicum potential against streptozotocin induced hyperglycemia with its potential to ameliorate biochemical parameters associated with liver and kidney functionality and body weight in albino rats. Four groups of albino rats were selected having six rats in each group (control group, diabetic group, 0.5% and 1% treatment group. Biochemical parameters which were evaluated were AST, ALP, ALT, total bilirubin, total protein, albumin, globulin, creatinine, and urea along with estimation of to- tal cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, and LDL. Aqueous extract powder significantly reduced blood glucose levels at both doses. Body weight was also improved significantly. Biochemical parameters for liver and kidney tests along with lipid profile was also improved showed ameliorated effect of extract powder. Mainly 1% basil seed gum showed prominent improvement in blood glucose param- eters along with other biochemical parameters. This study concludes that both levels of BSG powder have notable possible effect to reduce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia associated with diabetes. Therefor it may be helpful in diabetes management.
393 Effect of Composite Edible Coating on Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Sapota , Adrita Banerjee, Jincy Abraham
Composite edible coatings made up of natural gums and polysaccharides contribute to extending the shelf life and reducing spoil- age of fresh produces. This research work was designed with the objective to determine the effect of a composite edible coating on sapota fruit. The coating was effective in minimizing weight loss and overall spoilage of the fruit. Physical and microbial assay of whole sapota fruits coated with of the developed coating was performed. The objective of this work was also to study the consumer awareness and acceptance of edible coatings on fruits. The results of the survey showed that consumers majorly preferred edible coatings due to enhanced stability and better quality. Socio-economic status, age, knowledge level of the consumers influenced their preference and acceptability of edible coatings. This study demonstrates the use of composite multilayered edible coatings as a po- tential means to decrease the post harvest losses for sapota fruit and increase its shelf life.
394 Impact of Flax Seed Powder Supplementation on the Anthropometry and Bio-chemical Parameters of Dyslipidemic Patients , Deepika Sharma, Nimali Singh
Introduction: Dyslipidemia is measured to be one among the 5 top most threatening factors for cardio-vascular diseases, along with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking and obesity. Plant seeds like flax seeds are easy to consume and more effective in dyslip- idemic patients. Therefore, this study is intended to conclude whether flax seed powder has any dose response on clinical variables associated with dyslipidemia in dyslipidemic patients. Aim: To study the impact of supplementation of flax seed powder on the lipid levels as well as on the nutritional status of dyslipid- emic patients. Methodology: A private hospital, Galaxy Specialty Centre, Jaipur was selected to conduct the study. Total 100 dyslipidemic patients of age between 30 and 55 years were selected and 50 patients were given flax seed powder 15 grams per day for three months and 50 patients were kept as control. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical estimations were measured at pre and post inter- vention. Results: After three months of supplementation with flax seed powder, there were significant improvements observed in the an- thropometric measurements like weight, waist, hip circumference and BMI of the dyslipidemic patients. However, no changes were observed in control group. The lipid levels of the experimental group were found to be reduced significantly. The high density lipo- protein cholesterol was also increased in experimental group whereas in control group it was almost same. Conclusion: The results indicate that intervention with flax seed powder may be regarded a useful remedial food for the manage- ment of dyslipidemia.
395 Seasonal Variations in Fatty Acid Profile of Milk Among Different Milch Species (Cow, Buffalo, Camel, Sheep and Goat) , Syeda Aima Bokhar, Sanaullah Iqbal, Hasiba Munir
This study was conducted in University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore regarding seasonal variations in fatty acid pro- file of milk among different milch species. Milk from 5 different species was taken including cow, buffalo, camel, sheep and goat from Pattoki campus, UVAS. Nature of study was experimental. Fatty acid profile was assessed in 2 different seasons including 3 months of summer i.e. May, July and August and 3 months of winter i.e. November, December, January. Data was analyzed statistically on Co- Stat using two-way completely randomized ANOVA and was presented in tabular and graphical form. Significance value was kept less than 5% (p < 0.05). Results of Fatty Acid profile of milk in all species showed abundance of palmitic acid in all species. C16:0 was high in summer in cow milk and was recorded to be high in buffalo milk during winter season. C18:1 was high in all species during winter than in summer. All medium chain fatty acids i.e. C6, C8, C10, C12 and C14 were high in sheep milk during winter season. C14 was high in all species during summer season.
396 An Empirical Study on the Influencing Factors and Trade Potential of International Trade in African Regional Integration Organizations: A Case of ECOWAS and SADC , Mariam Doumbouya, Liu Xia
The success of countries and continents relies heavily on its capability to handle its trading activities as well as its policies regard- ing trading activities. The African continent, like the rest of the continents, still relies on trade for its successes and social-economic development. The aspect of regional integration of countries will come into play given that these trading activities take place within the country, between countries, and between the continents. The extra and intraregional organizations will be an influential factor when it comes to the success of the trade. The need to improve the overall stance of the African continent in the face of the world has forced the African leaders to come up with different regional organizations to aid in its economic activities. The article, therefore, covers on the factors influencing Africa’s regional, potential bilateral trade whereby the econometric analysis methods are used in understanding the estimation model used in line with the OLS estimation and Random fixed effects. It also includes the significant factors behind the growth of exports, imports, and bilateral trade through engaging gravity variables as well as analysis of supple- mentary dummy variables. The findings of this article show that factors influencing international trade are economic components such as per capita GDP, difference exchange rate of currencies, GDP of involved countries as well as the distance between trading partners. The regional trading block on which the article focuses its studies on is the (ECOWAS SADC.
397 Food Consumption Patterns of the Community in the Border Area Sangihe Islands Regency, North Sulawesi Province , Agustinus N Kairupan , Gabriel H Joseph, Conny N Manoppo, Ratri Retno Ivada, Herlina N Salamba and Anggela T Tombuku
One of the main activities in realizing food security is the achievement of food diversification through improving people's food consumption patterns. The balance of the amount and type of food consumed is important to note because one type of food alone cannot provide optimal nutritional needs. The formation of healthy and quality human resources requires a variety of food consump- tion to achieve a balance of nutrients according to the standard of adequacy rate. The purpose of this study was to determine the energy/nutrient adequacy rate (AKE/G) and protein adequacy rate (AKP/G) along with the expected food pattern score (PPH) as a parameter of food security and to determine the proportion of energy contribution from each food group to total consumption. en- ergy, especially for people in border areas. The research design used is a cross-sectional study from September to October 2017. The population is community households in border areas with a total of 90 households selected by non-probability sampling purposively. The research data is sourced from secondary and primary data covering socio-economic characteristics, and energy and protein food consumption. Data analysis was carried out quantitatively and qualitatively. The results show that: 1) the average calorie and protein consumption of people in border areas is still within the ideal limit of the adequacy of calorie and protein consumption, which is 2015 kcal and 53.82 grams of protein, and the average consumption of energy and protein is classified as low. normal level deficit category. Consumption of the grain food group contributed energy ranging from 57.80% oil and fat 12.60%, animal food 10.45%, vegetables and fruit (8.41%), and tubers 3.34%). The oily fruit/seed food group and other food groups contributed at least 1.3-1.4% energy.
398 Evolution of Physico-chemical Indices and Functional Properties of Fruit Yogurt during Storage , Viorica Bulgaru, Tatiana Cușmenco, Elisaveta Sandulachi, Artur Macari, Rodica Sturza
Background: In the context of the current trend of consumers to consume foods as natural as possible, increasing the nutritional and biological value of yogurt by using raw materials (goat’s milk and fruit) with a well-balanced chemical composition is of great interest in the dairy products manufacture. General Objective: The study and analysis of fruit nutritional and biological value impact on quality indices and funtional properties of goat’s milk and cow’s milk yogurt during the storage. Methods: The yogurt was obtained from a mixture of 50% goat’s milk and 50% cow’s milk with the addition of aronia (Aronia melanocarpa), raspberries (Rubus idaeus), strawberry (Fragaria xanassa) fruits. Physico-chemical indices and biological value were determined according to standard methods in 1, 5, 10, 15 days of storage. Results: Sample’s titratable acidity shows increasing values, being influenced by the addition of fruits, that have a higher acidity compared to classic yogurt but remaining in the range of allowable values. The pH of the yogurt samples decreases with increasing storage period, as the metabolic activity of the starter culture persists. Yogurt with added aronia (P2) has the best values of total dry matter (18.45 ± 0.31%), water activity (0.875 ± 0.025), viscosity (2500 ± 0.023 mPa·s) and the highest content of anthocyanins of 66.03 mg/100g, the highest polyphenol content of 268.97 mg GAE · 100g-1 and the best values of antioxidant property of 2.2 ± 0.025 mg AA/g SH. Strawberry yogurt (P4) has the highest content of vitamin C (47.87 mg/100g) and carotenoids 0.292 mg/100g. Conclusion: Fruit addition had a positive impact on the quality indices of yogurt during storage.