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Acta Scientific Nutritional Health

Journal Papers (89) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Pain , Dalamagka Maria.
Pain acts as a protective mechanism of the body, by forcing the person to react so that it is removed from the stimulus. It is im-portant not only for cases where there is marked tissue damage, but also for everyday simple activities. Thus, when a person sits on the hips for a long time, it is possible to damage the tissues due to the inhibition of the skin's blood supply to the places where the skin is compressed by body weight. When the skin starts to ache because of ischemia, the person completely unconsciously changes position. However, when the sensation of pain is lost, as is the case with spinal cord injury, the person cannot feel the pain and thus does not change position. This condition leads to ulcers in the area where the pressure is applied very quickly.
2 Improvement of the Strategy in Food Safety, through the Research Action, the Huacana, Michoacán. , Avila Serrato Salatiel
The creation of new mechanisms of social participatory action, constitutes the reformulation of the community organization, cor-responding to the transversal axes from the local to the inclusion and adaptation of globalizing parameters.That is why, through the research-action methodology, new reorganization alternatives are implemented in the microregion of Huacana, Michoacan; to include new gears of reorganization of production and food education, resulting in the increase in the use of the region's own foods to the usual diet.
3 Food Education in Times of COVID-19 , Agustina Larra
Junk food, low on nutrients and nutritional properties, bear-ing monotonous colors, with excessive amounts of sugar. These are, among others, the characteristics of the food that children are closer to.
4 500 Million People have a Food Allergy , Xavier Román.
Our metabolism, lifestyle, new nutritional habits or other envi-ronmental factors affect our body by producing changes that cause us to react with an allergy or intolerance when consuming certain foods.
5 Efficacy of Ketogenic Diet in Seizure Reduction in Epileptic Patients-A Review , Aamina Sabir, Hafiz Muhammad Ubaid Tayyib,  Faran Khan.
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked seizures of varying frequencies and intensity. Several pharma-cological treatments had been used previously for its treatment. However ketogenic diet has gained importance as non-pharmaco-logical therapy to epilepsy in recent years. This review aims to discuss the efficacy of ketogenic diet in epilepsy. Key words used for search include “ketogenic diet”, “epilepsy”, “childhood epilepsy” and “ketogenic diet side effects”. Studies conclude that ketogenic diet is an effective remedy in seizure reduction. It comprises of very high fat, low protein and very low carbohydrates. Seizure reduction is due to decrease in the amount of reactive oxygen species which is a result of high ketone bodies and low glucose levels achieved by the use ketogenic diet, hence improving the condition of epileptic patients. It has proven efficacy in patients with epilepsy resistance to pharmacological treatment. In children it has positive or no impact on cognition, mood and behavior of children along with its antiepileptic properties. However further researches must be carried out to highlight the impact of ketogenic diet on cognition and mood of children. As ketogenic diet is high in fats, its long-term use may alter the lipid profile of patients. Moreover, gastrointestinal disturbances, insulin resistance has also been observed. Studies also show that there still need of clinical trials and researches in adult epileptic patients.
6 Association between Nutrition Knowledge on Diabetes and Dietary Practice of People Living with Diabetes Mellitus in Nandi County , Kimutai Sagam Caleb.
Diabetes mellitus is growing fast the world is witnessing. The incidence of alarming concern health care providers is rapidly rising. The main burden of this disease will fall on all developing countries. The number of diabetic patients will reach 300 million by the end of 2025 it is known through the estimation mostly developing countries will have such dramatic and significant impacts. Methodology: The quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study design was used with convenient sampling (n = 200). There was a relatively good knowledge (76.16%) among patients on dietary recommendations in management of type 2 DM. Older patients had lower level of education on recommended dietary practices. Consequently, knowledge on need to carry candy as a first aid when one is hypoglycemic was low. In addition, knowledge on the need for patients with type 2 DM to keep the times one consume their meals (meal timings) as well as consume snacks in between main meals in order to reduce incidences of hypoglycemia was low. Level of formal education of patients with type 2 DM influenced strongly the assimilation of information provided by healthcare providers. Age was also strongly associated with how much a patient was able to grasp information and remember. Continuous education on recommended dietary prac-tices was noted as important. Compliance to recommended dietary practices was 59.6%. Unlike the level of knowledge which was influenced by various demographic characteristics like age and level of formal education, compliance was not influenced by any of the assessed demographic factors. While the level of knowledge was high at 76.2%, this was found not to directly translate to compliance to recommended dietary practices in management of type 2 DM. Compliance to recommended practices was not influenced by level of knowledge on recommended dietary practices in man-agement of type 2 DM. Support by those related/living with the patients was reported as one of the strong facilitator towards compliance. Management of type 2 DM was reported to be resource intense; financially and time wise. It was therefore some-times difficult for patients to balance all aspects of recommendations.
7 Suggestions on Food and Lifestyle for Fighting Corona Virus by Boosting Immunity - A Holistic Approach , Aparna Kuna, Prabhat Kumar Mandal.
The world is going through a most critical threat now due to the Corona Virus Disease, 2019 (COVID 19). Here is the summery of the preventive holistic approach for boosting immunity and fight the disease better from inside. Here we propose following sugges-tions for reducing the chances of infection or to reduce the severity if infected: Take protein rich foods (Meat chicken, fish, eggs, milk and milk products any kind of pulses, beans and nuts) daily. Take any available fruits daily, especially citrus fruits (gooseberry, lemon, sweet lime, orange, pineapple), apple, pomegran-ate, banana etc. Take herbs and spices (turmeric, ginger, garlic, cardamom, cinnamon, tulasi) especially black jeera (Kalonji), is very effec-tive for Corona. Fruits and herbs can be taken as raw, juice, extract or dry as available. If not available take supplements, Vitamin-C, E (Evion), B Complex (Becosules, Cobadex CZS), Zincovit etc. Eat more vegetables, especially salads (tomato, cucumber, carrot, capsicum, radish, onion), honey, avoid smoking and Alco-hol. Daily Exercise, Yoga, Pranayam (Bhrastika, Anulom-Vilom, Kapalbhati) Meditation, Chanting (Mahamrityunjay Mantra) will improve immunity. Walk in sunlight and fresh air (in Terrace or Balcony during lockdown) daily morning and evening is very helpful for im-munity. Relax, take enough Rest and Sleep that will boost immunity. Take only essential updates, too much informations in social media may cause anxiety. Drink more tea (Chinese Doctors reported very good effect of tea on the corona patients), more water (warm), enough coconut water and citrus juice if infected.10. Finally, don't panic, fear and anxiety reduces immunity, be mentally strong and positive, pray with Full faith or rely on Na-ture to boost immunity and fight Corona.
8 Self-Defense: A Practical Approach to Combatting COVID-19 , Salam A Ibrahim, Rabin Gyawali, Hafize Fidan.
In order to elucidate the importance of the immune system with regard to the spread, diagnosis, and treatment of the novel COV-ID-19, this paper aims to emphasize the need for a more holistic approach to understand and treat the COVID-19. We have provided an overview of why high quality nutrition is important for the immune system to function properly. To do this, we have summarized the current evidence available from information being reported by the health authorities and studies in human subjects, to support this opinion. Though the available data in the literature is relatively scarce, we also offer our own informed opinions on the role of human microbiota (probiotics) in creating a natural immunological defense system for combating COVID-19. We thus hope that this paper will help to inspire scientists from other fields such as nutrition immunology to be involved in order to provide consumers with a more global approach to fighting this epidemic. If we want to eliminate the threat of this novel coronavirus pneumonia, we must practically address this issue itself.
9 A Mini-Review on an Association between Nutrition and Mucosal Immunity in the Midst of the COVID-19 Pandemic , Kyoka Matsubayashi, Minami Yoshiike,Yuji Aoki.
In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, which the World Health Organization officially declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020, we write a mini-review on an association between nutrition and mucosal immunity. The human immunity consists of non-specific innate immunity recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns and subsequent adaptive immunity specific for the target an-tigens. The immune system of the intestine as mucosal immunity must have functions to defend against constant threat of invading pathogens while suppressing immune responses to harmless dietary antigens and commensal bacteria. Nutrition seems to have a major role in non-heritable influences on the innate and adaptive immunity. It has been demonstrated in humans that some nutrients including β-glucan have the potential to boost the mucosal immunity to viral infections. Conversely, it is conceivable that continuing supplementation of (large-dose) β-glucans or lipopolysaccharides can suppress the innate immunity by stimulating regulatory T cells. For now, the impact of nutrition on human immunity should neither be overestimated nor be underestimated.
10 Whole-Genome Sequencing of Lactobacillus fermentum and its Application as Probiotic in Poultry Feed , Rafia Sameen, Shakira Ghazanfar.
Aviculture is the efficient animal production system and good source of animal protein worldwide. Poultry gastrointestinal tract houses certain microbial communities with bacteria being dominant above all. These bacteria produce beneficial products and result in non-pathogenic immune response providing nutrition and protection for animals. Antibiotic treatment causes reduction of benefi-cial bacterial population in intestine which can be controlled by probiotic supplements. Probiotics play their role to control intestinal pathogens by competing for adhesion sites and nutrients, producing anti-bacterial substances. Lactic acid bacteria could be a good probiotic for animal use among which Lactobacillus fermentum is major heterofermentative specie found to have probiotic potential and can be used in supplements for animal feed. Its probiotic potential was well studied by its tolerance to inhibitory substances like bile and salt, its antimicrobial activity and evaluation by supplementing it in poultry feed. To identify probiotic properties of Lactobacillus fermentum, its whole-genome was sequenced and analysed. Whole genome sequencing is a DNA sequencing technol-ogy that has revolutionized genomic research. Whole genome is sequenced, assembled and annotated using bioinformatics tool and then analyzed. Galaxy is one of most commonly used genome analysis tool that provides data analysis support through framework, to give simple interfaces to certain powerful tools and automatically manage computational details. Following to evaluation of pro-biotic potential through certain parameters and whole genome sequencing, antimicrobial resistance can also be evaluated to make a decision about safety of L. fermentum use as probiotic in poultry feed. Administration of L. fermentum to poultry showed beneficial effects on their growth.
11 Lactic Acid Bacteria: Promising Role against Coronaviruses , Mahnoor Nadeem, Aimen Saleem, Hamza Ali, Allah Nawaz Khan, Shakira Ghazanfar.
Gram-positive, nonpathogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are considered to be promising candidates for the development of novel, safe production and delivery systems of heterologous proteins. LABs have diverse beneficial applications for human welfare. LAB plays an important role in the industry for the synthesis of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, or other useful products in food industry. Certain Lactobacilli can induce an increase in the cellular or humoral systemic immune response, it acts as a vehicle to insert gene to produce required protein of interest. Many of the researcher find out the best possible way to utilize the beneficiaries of lactic role to combat recent coronavirus pandemic lactic acid bacteria concerning COVID-19. New recombinant strains and vectors continue to be constructed and described in detail what can lead in the near future to standardization of LAB vectors in vaccine production. The development of new LAB recombinant strains and vectors continue to be constructed and described in detail what can lead in the near future to standardization of LAB vectors in vaccine production for COVID-19.
12 Impact of Covid-19 on Agriculture and Food Supply , Shiamala Devi Ramaiya.
The Covid-19 continues to wreak havoc on many countries and create a lot of changes in people's everyday lives all over the world. As the Covid-19 pandemic is raging across the world, the broader economic crisis is also emerging and creating major challenges to food security and nutrition. Many of the affected countries have implemented a regional lockout policy. This strategy enforced a plethora of Covid-19 security measures such as movement control, supermarket, restaurant and market closure, quarantines and sup-ply chain and trade disruption which greatly impacted agricultural production, food supply and demand.
13 The Relationship between Nutritional Status, Sleep Quality and Depression in Shift Workers , Merve Kiran, Perim Fatma Türker.
Shift work expands globally and it has become necessary to increase productivity and provide continuously service in various sectors like industry. It has been identified as an important risk factor in the etiology of metabolic disorders and chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of sleep quality and depression with nutritional status of shift workers. A total of 170 male rotating shift workers of an industrial organization aged between 20 - 55 years participated in this study. A questionnaire which consisted of demographic and lifestyle characteristics was used. Weight, height, waist and neck circumferences (WC and NC) of participants were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were also calculated. Body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sleep quality was assessed by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), while anxiety and depression were estimated through Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire. The average age of participants was 40.1 ± 6.87 years. Among the 170 shift workers, 44.7% of them were pre-obese, and 35.3% were obese. As BMI increased, the percentages of poor sleep quality increased. There were positive correlations between PSQI score and WC, WHtR and body fat mass, and a negative correlation between total body water, which were found to be statistically significant. There was no relationship between depression and BMI, WC, WHtR and body fat mass. Participants with depressive symptoms had significantly higher prevalence of risk based on NC. HAD-D score was inversely correlated with fat free mass. This study showed that pre-obesity and obesity is common in shift workers. The previously reported relationship between obesity and poor sleep quality is supported. Sleep quality get worse as WC, WHtR and body fat mass increase, while total body water decrease. Decrease in fat free mass is associated with the development of depressive symptoms. These associations need to be verified in large studies. Based on the results, appropriate strategies including both employer and worker should be performed to reduce the detrimental health outcomes associated with shift work.
14 The Effect of Storage Conditions on Physicochemical, Microbial and Textural Properties of UHT-Processed Cheese , Mahmoud Ibrahim El-Sayed, Sameh Awad, Amel Ahmed Ibrahim.
This study investigated the effect of storage condition (time and temperature) on physicochemical, textural and microbial properties of UHT-Processed cheese. The UHT-processed cheese was stored in controlled incubators at 4, 18, 32 and 37°C (the study plan used the recommended temperature (4°C), the average of temperature in winter and springer (18°C), in summer (32°C) and in Upper Egypt in some year months (37°C)) and at room temperature (20 - 25°C in months of September – December) for 120 days. The results showed that there was no significant (P ≥ 0.05) changes were observed in the protein %, fat %, dry matter (DM %), and pH values of UHT-processed cheese during storage for 120 days at 4 and 18°C. On the other side, protein % and fat % were significant (P ≤ 0.05) increased during storage at 32°C, 37°C, while, the weight and pH values were decreased. On room temperatures, the fat% and DM% were increased by the end of storage (at day 120), while the protein% and pH values were not changed. The hardness, gumminess and chewiness were increased during storage at all temperatures, while the adhesiveness values were decreased. Springiness was not changed at 4 and 18°C, but it was increased at other storage temperature. Concerning the cohesiveness values, there was no significant (P ≥ 0.05) changes were observed except with sample stored at 37°C. No microorganisms were found in all processed cheese samples stored at different temperatures. These results confirmed that the best temperature to storage UHT- processed cheese is at 4°C followed by 18°C.
15 Presence of Mycotoxins and Heavy Metals in Organic Commercial Cereal-Based Foods Sold in Faisalabad Market , Yasir Abbas Shah, Muhammad Afzaal,Umar Farooq.
Epidemiological data indicates that mycotoxins and heavy metals can be harmful when ingested by humans and animals. The present study was conducted to report the presence of mycotoxins and heavy metals in organic commercial cereal-based products, available in the Faisalabad market. Forty-four samples of organic cereals products including wheat, barley, rice, oat and maize were examined for the presence of mycotoxins (aflatoxins), heavy metals (Pb, Cd) and trace elements (Cu, Zn, Ni). Results were induced and compared to the recommended levels. 23 (52.2%) of the collected samples were detected with the presence of aflatoxins in higher concentrations then allowed as according to the limits set by EU legislation for the presence of AFs. Wheat, oat, rice, barley and maize showed 61, 60, 54, 50 and 33% of the samples respectively contaminated with aflatoxins. 5 (11%) and 3 (6%) of the samples surpassed the allowed limit for Pb and Cd respectively. Trace elements were detected in higher amounts in some of the evaluated samples. Results of the present work specify the need of continuous monitoring of raw material and processed products regardless of them being organically grown or not, in order to minimize the risk of contamination in cereal-based foods.
16 Development and Evaluation of an Infusion of Red Tea (Camellia sinensis) with Blackberry (Rubus ulmifolius) Enriched with β-Glucans for the Control Glycemia in Diabetic Persons , Adriana Beatriz Di Iorio, Crista Castillo, Luis David Naranjo, Raul Espinal, Donald Francisco Molina, Ludovic Boully, Ana Carolina Arévalo, Jose Miguel Chinchilla, Poliana Deyse Gurak.
An infusion of red tea with blackberries enriched with β-glucans for glycemic control in diabetic subjects was developed and evaluated by virtue of a high percentage of people using plant extracts as traditional medicine to meet their primary health care needs. A completely randomized block design was used to evaluate concentrations of red tea with dehydrated blackberry (50/50 and 75/25), temperatures (75 and 95°C) and infusion times (2 and 5 minutes) for preparation of beverage with higher content of total polyphenols. The selected treatment was evaluated in 30 diabetics for 28 days, who underwent anthropometric measures (weight, height, waist-hip circumference and blood pressure), biometric (glucose and cholesterol) and performed and food intake was analyzed through a 24-hour reminder. Results: The treatment with higher content of polyphenols was obtained with 75/25 red tea with blackberry, 95ºC and infusion for 5 minutes. Tea intake was associated with reductions in anthropometric measures of Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist-to-Hip Index (WHI). It was possible to extract greater content of total polyphenols with longer infusion temperature and time. There was a greater reduction in BMI at ages 45 - 65 years, glucose levels at ages 45 - 65 and > 65 years, total cholesterol levels at ages 45 - 65 years and diabetic patients had a normal distribution of dietary intake macronutrients.
17 Maccabi Integrated Care 3600 - A Holistic, Multidisciplinary Care Model for Complex Patient , Irony A, Abu Hussain H, Nigel Y, Landau T, Asch N.
While massive efforts are invested in chronic populations the outcomes are only partly satisfactory. The management and control of multiple chronic conditions requires comprehensive solutions. Maccabi Health Care Services, 2nd HMO in Israel, developed a multi-dimensional solution for complex patients that combines a conceptual, technological and treatment model. In this paper we present Integration 3600 - Maccabi Integrated Care (MIC) program. Using quasi-experimental methods we compare the effects of the MIC 3600on complex patients recruited in 2019 to similar patients in MHS registry. Potential cohort is derived from a matrix including the following parameters: age 50+, chronic diseases, multiple/high risk drugs, cognitive decline, function level, socioeconomic status (SES) and annual expenditure. Potential target population include about 19,000 patients scoring 5 - 10 in complexity score. MIC patients are recruited by primary physician. Control patients are matched through propensity score based on based on sex, age and complexity score. Outcomes of MIC vs. control were assessed comparing the following 6-months outcomes to the corresponding pre-entrance period for each MIC patient: care providers visits and average monthly costs.Results: The analysis included 241 matched pairs (MIC vs. control) of complex patients. Comparing the MIC patients' visits to care providers to matched control group prior and following the intervention we found the average number of visits to nurse, social worker and nutritionist increased significantly while among matched control patients the average number of visits to primary physician and nurse decreased significantly. Finally, we found a 20% decrease in overall monthly costs in MIC patients compared to a 8% decrease in control patients with hospitalization cost being the main contributor to this cost reduction (-54% in MIC vs. 2% in control, p < 0.05). MIC 3600 is a viable, sustainable and practical program. Our findings show that the implementation of the integrated model results in more visits to multidisciplinary care providers and that the program is cost saving. Furthermore, the initiative is transferable. This model or alike should be implemented in almost any community care setting with the dominance of primary care physicians.
18 Tips of Daily Healthy Food and Nutrition Intake During COVID-19 City Lockdown and Self-Quarantine , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn, Utoomporn Sittisingh
Maintaining a healthy immune diet during the COVID-19 pan-demic, strict city lockdown, or self-quarantine is causing much changes in individuals’ daily lives around the globe
19 Intervention by Post for Reducing the Chronic Use of High Doses of Proton Pump Inhibitors , Elena Valverde Bilbao, Amaia Mendizabal Olaizola, Guillermo Delgado Alvarado, Itxaso Idoiaga Hoyos, Daniel Hernández Amunarriz
Objectives: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the drugs most commonly prescribed in our setting. The objective of the intervention was to assess whether a letter sent by post is more effective in achieving a reduction/cessation of long-term high-doses of PPI use than usual practice. Methods: This was a randomised intervention study, with before-and-after outcome measures and a control group, in patients who had an active prescription for PPIs at high doses for at least 6 months. The intervention consisted of sending patients an informative letter by post, in which their doctor invited them to seek an appointment for a medication review. Control group patients did not receive such a letter, and they were treated as usual. The main outcome variable was the number of active prescriptions of each PPI dose (high dose/standard dose/treatment cessation) at 6 months after the intervention. Results: Six months after the intervention, 8% of control group patients and 16.4% of intervention group patients were not on any PPIs. Additionally, among those with active prescriptions for PPIs, 6% of controls and 20% of intervention group patients had reduced their intake to the standard dose. Overall, cessation/reduction in the intervention group was higher than in the control group, 36.4% vs 14%, the difference being significant (22.4%; 95% CI: 14.1 to 30.7). Conclusion: Sending a letter by post to patients who had been on high-dose PPI therapy for at least 6 months was found to be more effective for treatment cessation and/or dose reduction than usual practice
20 Salt- An Overview , Aparna Nagendra, Namratha Pramod, Seema Mukund
Pythagoras stated “Salt is born of the purest parents - “The Sun and the Sea”. Salt always takes the small but significant role in our diet. In this paper, we have mainly aimed on salt and its consumption. As it is the single common ingredient used across all cuisines in the world from ancient times and one the major element in the diet which plays a crucial role on health. It is generally called as ‘Com-mon Salt’ and also widely used in the processing technology and preservation of foods. Due to urbanization and globalization, there has been a change in the eating pattern of the population, and adequate nutrition is essential for a healthy life. But, health effects are related to sodium which is linked with increased consumption of salt and it is one of the most important determinants of high blood pressure, cardiovascular risk and other diseases worldwide. This calls for creating awareness and educating the population regard-ing the daily salt consumption and also the hidden salt in various preserved foods. Encouraging on healthy eating pattern is the main criteria. An attempt was also made to introduce our readers to the different kinds of salts available in the shelves of supermarket.
21 Local Food and Beverages as a Tool for Regional Tourism Development: Case Study , Iveta Hamarneh
The aim of the paper is to introduce and evaluate the Ústí nad Labem region for food tourism. The Region belongs to the less visited areas in the Czech Republic although Region offers suitable conditions for tourism development. We can assume that the interest in local food in frame of food tourism in the Region can subsequently increase overall visitation of Ústín ad Labem Region. Methods which were used for completing the paper included literature review, content analysis of documents and case study.
22 Dietary and Life Habits of Obesity and Brown Rice Eaters among Genmai Evidence for Nutritional Kenko Innovation (GENKI) Study I and II , Masahito Takahashi1, Shaw Watanabe, Azusa Hirakawa, Shoich Mizuno
The relationship between diet and health is a field that requires more research in an ultra-aging society. A questionnaire survey was conducted, to compare groups of brown rice and natural foods eaters, with residential population to clarify the relationship between the brown rice eaters and obese people. The total number of respondents was 7183. The odds ratio to be obesity was 1.67 among white rice eaters, while it was 0.48 among brown rice eaters. The consumption of food items as side dishes showed a characteristic trend among white rice eaters, while it was 0.48 among brawn rice eaters. Brown rice eaters consumed significantly more carrots, green yellow vegetables, burdock, lotus roots, pumpkin, sweet potatoes, yam, sesame, salty plum pickles (umeboshi), peanut, chestnut, mushrooms, dried mushrooms (shiitake), sea weed (nori, konbu), red bean (azuki), and soy milk. They did not consume meat and fish, but soy protein and other plant protein substituted to meat and fish. The polished white rice eaters of obesity group preferentially consumed sweet bread, broccoli, bell pepper, eggplant, banana, grapefruit, red meat fish like tuna, beaf, cow and pig meat, egg, dairy products, sugar, and mayonnaise. They also consumed coffee and soft drinks, chocolate, cakes, ice cream and jelly.Brown rice contains many functional ingredients that have various effects on physiological functions, such as innate immunity, recognition, etc., so these should be effective in aging and post corona society.
23 Emerging Landscape in the Management of Covid 19. Role of Pidotimod , Pradyut Waghray,  Kunal Waghray
The burden of Covid 19 is increasing all over the world. Pidoti-mod, an Immunomodulator had been used in COPD patients to prevent the exacerbations of COPD and also in the prevention of Recurrent respiratory tract infections both in adults and children successfully.
24 Developing the Human Factor in an Integrated Health Organization , Maria Luz Jauregui García, Maria Luisa Merino Hernández, Arantxa Urruzola Lizarribar, Nagore Lora Laca, Iobat Jiménez Jauregui, Francisco Serna Rodríguez
This article describes a formative and participatory understanding with the aim of fostering a relational culture that facilitates the transition to a patient-centered care model by improving communication. It consists in transmitting the advances of neuroscience and technology related to unit professionals through a common communication code that highlights the importance of the human factor. In addition, the values of the organization are worked, based on professionals, through collaborative work in each UAP.It analyses ns results of the intervention, highlighting do that professionals manifest as very positive the being able to share values in the way of understanding human relationships. They also show that the project has allowed us to generate discussion and reflection on how to communicate.Working these values from the perspective of professionals acts as a facilitator to feel the culture of the organization as their own.Participants can improve their personal relationship as this intervention encourages the sharing of beliefs and willgo in a relaxed environment.
25 Ready-to-Cook Fish Steaks from Catla Fish with High Nutritional Value and Longer Shelf Life , Priyam Sharma, Bibha Chetia Borah
The demand for fish is very high in the NE Region of India, where 95-100% of populations of the constituent states are fish eaters. As domestic production is not sufficient to meet the demand of people, the gap between demand and production is met by importing from other states and neighboring countries. However the preservation and transportation process exercised for the import, always leaves a question mark regarding quality of the product. Processing of raw fish to make it pan-ready is often not convenient for consumers particularly for the urban population. The present communication deals with development of a protocol for ‘ready-to-cook’ steak from Catla (Catla catla) with good nutritional quality and longer shelf life to meet consumers’ demand. The present communication includes quality evaluation of Catla fish steaks treated with different antimicrobial agents viz., dry salt (T1), vinegar (T2), salt + turmeric (T3), salt+ turmeric+ vinegar (T4), vacuum packed and stored for a period of 21 days at -18°C at definite interval of days and assessment of its economic viability for commercial application. Out of the treatments, T4 was the best treatment in view of the highest average crude protein content (20.11%), ash content (0.189%), acceptability (8.94), taste value (8.94), flavor (8.44) and texture value (8.81) with zero microbial load up to 21 days of storage. The results indicate a viable protocol for entrepreneurship development through commercial production of ‘ready-to-cook’ fish steaks from Catla with high nutritional quality and long shelf life up to 21 days of storage.
26 ACTA 2 Mutations and Risk of Premature Myocardial Infarction , Fatemeh Hajibabaie, Mohammad Hossein Modarressi, Masoumeh Sadeghi, Laleh Shariati
Premature myocardial infarction (MI) is characterized by high re-infarction rates, the occurrence of severe heart fail-ure and therefore significant cardiovascular long-term mortality at a young age. Previous studies demonstrated that one of the most important risk factors in younger patients is family history and genetic factors. This research was launched to assess the association of ACTA 2 genetic variations with premature MI.Materials and Methods: Out of eighty unrelated patients with premature MI referred to health center, patients with autosomal dominant premature MI were included in the study. Exclusion criteria included hypercholesterolemia, hyperlipidemia, diabetes and smoking. Genomic DNA was extracted from the whole peripheral blood. Eight exons and intron/exon boundaries of the ACTA2 gene were amplified, and all the amplicons were subject to Sanger sequencing. Results: According to thecriteria, 16 patients were included in our research. No mutations were found in ACTA2 gene in our pro-bands.
27 Perspective on Childhood Eating Habits among Rural and Urban Children in Saudi Arabia , Nawal A Alissa
This discussion will be addressing the perspective about Child-hood Eating Habits among Rural and Urban Children in Saudi Ara-bia, it has been discovered that healthy eating habits in children is becoming more difficult to achieve for mothers due to the more changing times and busy working schedule for modern mothers.
28 Nutrition and Anaemia in Women in Reference to Odisha , Puspanjali Mishra
Anaemia is a condition in which the number of red blood cells or their oxygen-carrying capacity is insufficient to meet physiolog-ic needs, which vary with age, sex, attitude, smoking and pregnan-cy status, if any Today anaemia is a big health problem of many people as it causes mortality.
29 Intake of Conjugated Linoleic Acid, Creatine Monohydrate and Green Tea in a Milk Matrix and Variations in Body Composition in Human Volunteers , C Ramón de Cangas Morán, C Aldo Hernández Monzón, Karina Torres Escandón, Purificación López Sela, Ignacio Brime Casanueva, Karel Torres Miranda, Pedro López Díaz, C Andrés Llavona Fernández, Jose Ramón Bahamonde Nava, Fernando Rojo Fernández
Overweight and obesity are increasingly frequent in the world. This fact has a high cost for health and excess body fat increases the risk of chronic and cardiovascular diseases. Proper dietary guidelines along with an active life can promote the maintenance of a healthy weight. It is also possible that some functional foods may serve as a fast. Conjugated linoleic acid is a well-studied substance, and in different studies it has been suggested that it can help to modify the body composition, so it could avoid that it is interesting to include it, only in the company of other substances such as creatine monohydrate or green tea, which have also suggested certain effects on body composition, in certain food matrices for specific functional foods to help reduce the percentage of body fat.
30 Why are we a Sensitive Population to COVID-19? , Maldonado-Vega M, Farias-Serratos F
For many years, the Mexican population has modified their eat-ing habits and lifestyle. Modernization favored spectacular things with electrification, the introduction of television in each home, the intubation and distribution of drinking water, introduction in various hygiene and health measures, national vaccination in-creased the longevity of the Mexican population, we went from 65 years to 75 years olds in the 70's, and currently we reach an av-erage longevity of 80 years of age
31 Gluten Linked to Autoimmune Disease, Bowel Diseases and More , Sara Kittaneh
You may be wondering how something so mainstream could be harmful to your gut. Wouldn’t we all be sick? Well, unfortunately, it has become mainstream to have a chronic illness such as heart disease, cancer, or an autoimmune disease and the rates are rising. Gluten has been linked to more than 55 diseases and an estimated 99% of people who have either celiac or non-celiac gluten sensitiv-ity are never diagnosed.
32 Iron-Containing Heme Homeostasis: Critically Impacts on Pulmonary Physiological and Pathological Processes and Balance between Health and Disease , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn, Utoomporn Sittisingh
Proteins, the building blocks of life are the major source of nutrients. Digested proteins release amino acids to the body for cellular energy generation. In addition to amino acids, proteins also provide metal, particularly iron that is most abundant in the human body. One adult human body requires approximately 3 - 4 grams of iron. Heme and non-heme iron are two forms found in dietary iron
33 Role of Immunity Boosting Nutritional Foods and COVID-19 , Mishra P, Mohapatra AK,Maharana S
“Health is wealth”. Keeping oneself healthy is one of the concerns today. Depending on the climate, regions, places many people eat their local foods and keep themselves fit. Some do yoga and exercise along with the food. But it has been seen that a balanced nutritional diet is the main cause of the keeping a person fit. Depending on the diseases proper foods are advised. Today WHO has declared the CoVID-19 cases as pandemic. The whole world is panic now. In this situation making your immunity through your daily available food is one of the important issues. Of course side by side breathing exercise is advised. In this report, Nutrition related issues in relations to immunity to avoid infection of COVID -19 is discussed, besides maintaining social distancing among people, use of mask and repeated hand washing.
34 Nanomaterials in Food Processing and Packaging, its Toxicity and Food Labeling , Amra Bratovcic
Over the past few decades, nanotechnology has increasingly been considered to be attractive technology that has revolutionized the food sector. Nanomaterials, unlike conventional microscale materials, having novel characteristics can improve sensory quality of foods by imparting novel texture, colour, appearance, processability and stability during shelf life. The physicochemical charac-teristics of a nanomaterial are important as they can affect the outcome of the risk assessment. This paper provides an overview of the application of nanotechnology in the field of food processing and packaging. In addition, this paper also discussed toxic effects of nanomaterials and food labeling. The results of this paper shows that today there is a divided opinion on the use of nanotechnology in food processing and packaging because on the one hand there are the results of the study which reveal that the majority of consumers prefer the use of nanotechnology-based solutions, while on the other hand there is immense public concern regarding the toxicity and environmental effect of these nanoparticles.
35 Sensory Characteristics of Three Different Levels of Turmeric Powder on Beef Stick Product , Wannee Tangkham
The objective of this study was to evaluate sensory characteristics of a beef stick product with three levels of turmeric powder (TP). Specifically, these three levels of TP include: 1) 0% TP; 2) 1% TP and 3) 2% TP. Each treatment was evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. Fifty-eight untrained participants evaluated the beef stick product for acceptability of appearance, color, texture, flavor, taste, and overall liking. With respect to overall liking, beef stick product with 1% TP was the most desirable with a score of 7.13, fol-low by the control treatment (6.84) and 2% TP was least desirable with a score of 6.81. Additionally, beef stick product with added turmeric received positive participant ratings with respect to acceptability and purchase intent with and without health claims. Therefore, adding TP to a beef stick product might be a marketable alternative to original beef stick product.
36 The Analysis of Health Expenditure as a Determinant of Economic Growth in 37 High Income Countries , Özlem Özsoy, Metin Gürler
Labour force, which is one of the main factors of production function with capital input in traditional economic growth theory, has got an important effect on a country’s economic growth. So a productive labour force is crucial for an economy. An in-crease in health expenditure improves good health care to the citizens. Since people who were provided by good health care feel themselves more productive, the increasing productivity in labour force and working hours cause an economic growth hence en-hancement in income (Gross Domestic Product, GDP) and income per capita (IPC) in a country incessantly. Also higher IPC means better access to the health services which were supplied by public and private sectors in a country. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the share of health expenditure in GDP (HEXP) and IPC data and vice versa for 37 High Income Countries (HIC). Methods:Cross-section data (CSD) analysis and panel data (PD) analysis consisting of random and fixed effects estimations were used in the study to investigate the relationship between HEXP and IPC for selected country group. Results: According to the random effects model (RAM) and fixed effects model (FEM) with PD analysis and CSD analysis in the study, HEXP is found as one of the determinants of IPC and IPC as a main determinant of HEXP in 37 HIC. Granger causality test is also ap-plied to test the direction of causality between HEXP and IPC for HIC and Turkey. It is obviously seen that IPC Granger causes HEXP increase whereas we can’t reject HEXP doesn’t cause IPC hypothesis according to Granger test statistics for PD. There is also no proven correlation between two variables for CSD analysis. Conclusion: In the study after the analysis of 37 HIC together it is found that IPC promotes HEXP not at once but in a time period. In the manuscript our results show that economic growth Granger causes HEXP increase and HEXP does not Granger cause IPC for PD. For CSD there is no relationship between HEXP and IPC. The case of IPC not increasing to a high income level from middle income stuck on a threshold is called in literature as "Middle Income Trap (MIT)". So guiding how HIC jumped from middle class to high income class is important for the emerging countries (EC) to avoid the "MIT". EC should increase HEXP to improve labour force productivity, which will cause a rapid economic growth as developed countries have done in past.
37 Ketogenic Diet Modifies the Expression of MicroRNAs Linked to Migraine , Roberto Cannataro, Maria Cristina Caroleo, Antonio Siniscalchi, Luca Gallelli, Giovambattista De Sarro, Erika Cione
Epidemiological studies have emphasized the relationship between migraine and obesity also pointing out its prevalence in the female sex. The mechanisms promoting pain migraine in obese subjects prone to this neurological disorder is multifactorial, among these the overproduction of soluble mediators favoring neural inflammation, psychological and behavioral risk factors. The ketogenic diet (KD) is a well-recognized as a therapeutic option for refractory pediatric epilepsy and a promising prophylactic treatment for episodic and chronic migraine in the adult. Performing a pilot study on the capability of KD to modulate a plethora of 800 microRNAs (miRs), a group of female obese subjects, 6 of 18 self-reported a reduction of the frequency and the intensity of migraine-pain attacks. Therefore, we check for miRs linked to migraines. The effects of KD seem to be mediated by specific serum hsa-miR-590-5p, hsa-miR-660-3p modulation
38 Sericin Peptide Attenuates Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis Via Mitochondrial Function Modulation , Na Ryung Choi, Hyeon Tae Kang, Seung Min Lee, Yeon-Lim Suh, Hyukjin Kwon, Jaekyu Noh, Sang Bong Ahn, Dae Won Jun
Sericin is a component of cocoons. Studies have shown that sericin improves metabolic disease in animal model. However, it is not yet known whether sericin is effective in the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Twenty C57BL/6N mice were divided into control and sericin treated group. High fat diet was fed to mice for 10 weeks. From 11th to 21st week sericin and distilled water were administered assigned groups via oral gavage. Body weight and liver to body weight ratio was assessed. AST, ALT, triglyceride, cho-lesterol and blood glucose levels were measured. qRT-PCR, Electro-microscopy, and Free fatty acid induced lipotoxicity assay were performed. Mitochondrial membrane potential was checked. As a result, there were no differences in body weight and diet intake in two groups. However, liver weight and liver/body weight ratio were significantly decreased in sericin group than in control group. Both the degree of hepatic steatosis and inflammation were lower in sericin group than the control group. NAFLD activity score were also decreased in treatment group. Serum ALT, AST, and triglyceride levels as well as area under receiver operating characteristics of oral glucose tolerance test were significantly decreased in sericin group. Hepatic mRNA expressions of TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6 mRNA were decreased in sericin group. Electron microscopy findings showed restoration of abnormal mitochondria with sericin treatment. Lipotoxicity induced HepG2 cell death was significantly attenuated in palmitic acid and sericin co-treated cells. Sericin also prevented palmitic acid induced mitochondrial depolarization. In conclusion, Sericin peptide treatment attenuated non-alcoholic steatohepati-tis via mitochondrial function modulation.
39 Effect of Using Different Plant Milk as Alternative Milk in Rice Pudding , EL-Sisy TT, Jehan B Ali
The aim of study was to produce healthy rice pudding by replacement of cow milk with plant milk as alternative milk and study their effect on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory properties. Plant milk was produced from black eyes-bean, chick-peas, white lima-bean, oats, rice, soya-bean, yellow corn and cow milk served as control. Protein ranged between 1.7 to 6.02% and the white lima beans had the highest protein value (6.02%). Rice pudding of cow milk the highest value of ash (0.79%) and the lowest value was yellow corn (0.04). Fat % ranged from 0.20 to 3.32% and rice pudding of cow milk the highest fat% (3.32%). Carbohydrate increased with the grains and rice pudding of rice milk the highest carbohydrate values (68.83%). Viscosity of rice pudding of Rice milk were the highest between rice pudding samples and were the best in organoleptic properties. Data also indicated that as a result of pH and acidity of different prepared milk samples and pudding samples. Microbiological analysis of milk samples and rice pudding from plant milk were determined. Viscosity was higher for the rice pudding (16800Cp/s) with low acidity (0.05%) than other samples. Differences in sensory attributes were associated with different rice pudding from plant milk and cow milk. Rice pudding of chick peas milk obtained the least score (16.50) for body and texture whereas rice pudding of cow milk, rice pudding of oats milk, rice pudding of yellow corn milk and black eyed beans received the highest score (19.50, 19.0, 19.0 and18.83 respectively). Sensorial, rice pudding of yellow corn and rice pudding of rice milk is more acceptability than other treatment after the rice pudding of cow milk control. Thus we recommend to use the plant milk in rice pudding especially, rice pudding of rice milk and rice pudding of Yellow corn milk to give the consumer a new nutraceutical product with prebiotic substances for milk allergy, sensitivity children and plant people.
40 Additives: Regulation in Colombia and Risks in the Salt of the Child Population , Angela Maria Wilches Flórez, Francy Sandoval Barbosa, Angie Catalina Ramos Geraldine, Casas Ortega
In Colombia, there is little information regarding the serious health problems that children face as they are subjected to the consumption of food products from the family basket and school support, which have multiple additives harmful to their long-term health. In addition, the regulation of the food industry ineffective. For this reason, three additives commonly found in food in the family basket and easily accessible to the child population were studied: tartrazine, aspartame and monosodium glutamate, in aspects such as their consumption, their effects and their regulation according to Colombian legislation. From this, it seeks to provide a bioethical perspective of the facts mentioned above by analyzing the decrees and policies that govern Colombian companies and how this could directly affect the child population.
41 Pharmaceutical Industry Report , Gisele Ferreira De Souza
For decades now, pharmaceuticals have been developed and de-signed to be stable as possible to avoid degradation before reach-ing their eventual recipient. The next 10 - 15 years could be an era of great progress and growth. In this period, we have the tech-nological, financial and human resources to raise living standards across the world. Good policies that support investment and inno-vation can further reduce poverty and hunger, make fast-growing cities economically vibrant and socially inclusive, and restore and protect the world’s natural environments.
42 Therapeutics of Red Golden Threads- Saffron , Anjana Agarwal
Red golden threads of saffron are divine delight when sub-merged in milk and added in different cuisine of the world. The ra-diance of its distinct colour and aroma calls for complete refresh-ment, richness and rejuvenation. It symbolizes the royalty and auspiciousness when put on the forehead as kesar tilak. Saffron word comes from the French word “Safran” meaning yellow or red gold. Saffron is obtained as the stigma of the mauve coloured flow-er of Crocus sativus. It is mainly cultivated in Iran, India and Greece. Can you imagine yield of saffron? Over 70,000 flowers yield only 500g of saffron threads .
43 The Impact of Nutrition Education of Parents on Food Choices of Their Children , Pınar Göbel, Aydan Ercan, Sinem Bayram
This study aimed to determine whether periodically healthy nutrition educations given to parents effect their nutritional knowledge and healthy food choices of all family. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 20 parents and their 25 children in a preschool. Parents of children aged be-tween 1 and 6 who agreed to participate in the study were included in the study. Parents were given a total of 180 minutes of educa-tion on healthy nutrition in 3 sessions, each of which took around 60 minutes. Food choices and WHO BMI z scores of children were compared before and after education. Results: The effect of all three educations on the BMI of the children was revealed that while children with normal BMI was 8% in the first education, it was 28% at the end of the third education. The comparison of the food consumption records of the children showed that the intake of many nutrients including protein, fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acid, vitamin C, calcium, and iron increased significantly after education. On the other hand, particularly white bread consumption of parents was found to decrease after educa-tion sessions, while their vegetable and fruit-herbal tea consumption increased. The effect of the education on eating behavior was evident in males. Conclusion: After the nutrition education, parents were found to make healthy choices for their children even though they did not apply adequately for their own food choices. It is important to provide nutrition education to families with preschoolar children.
44 Nutrient Assessment and Potential Renal Load of Solutes in Infant Powder Formulas Available on the Honduran Market , Adriana Beatriz Di Iorio, Erika Yomalli Mera Cruz, Aquileo Daniel González De León Gómez,Adriana Hernandez Santana
TInfant formulas (FIP) are food products that have been modified to partially or totally satisfy the physiological needs of the baby, manufactured under the rules of the Alimentarius Codex. Objective: To evaluate whether the FIP available in the Honduran market comply with the international regulations European Soci-ety for Paediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGAN) and the European Technical Regulation (RTS), regarding the potential renal load of solutes (CRPS) and the content of vitamins, minerals and proteins. Methods: The sample was 39 FIP, descriptive statistics was used, a review of the nutritional labeling was performed and the CRPS of each FIP was estimated. Statistical correlation was established between minerals, proteins and CRPS using the SPSS 25.0 program. Results: 55% of FIP come from Mexico, the estimated CRPS is correlated with their protein content; FIP CRPS for > 1 year was 237.28 mOsm/L and 130.36 mOsm/L on average. A higher caloric and micronutrient concentration was observed in FIP for premature in-fants. In all FIP, the macronutrient content was in accordance with the recommendations of ESPGAN and RTS.   Conclusion: FIPs of 0 - 12 months do not comply with the CRPS recommendation for the age of 0 - 6 months. The fat-soluble vitamins were located in the minimum limits established by the RTS. 5% of the FIP evaluated contained trans fatty acids and for over a year were above the maximum limit established for vitamin B3.
45 Perception Why the Prefecture has a Longer Life Expectancy Among Japanese Students , Tatsuya Koyama
One reason to study life expectancy may be to determine desirable health behaviours. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to clarify which Japanese prefectures university students recognise as having the longest lifespans and why. In June 2020, a self-ad-ministered questionnaire was completed by 32 first-year college students (3 males and 29 females) at a registered dietician train-ing school in Aomori Prefecture, Japan. In order to determine the students’ perceptions, the following question was asked: "What prefecture do you think has the longest life expectancy?" The reasons were limited to dietary habits due to the characteristics of the department, and answers were written out freely. Additionally, the questionnaire included: "Why do you think that prefecture has the longest life expectancy? Please write the reasons, including dietary habits." Nagano was most frequently chosen by the students as the prefecture with the longest life expectancy (n = 24; 75%). The extracted words were "vegetable" (mentioned 28 times), "in-take" (21 times), "salt" (14 times), "fruit" (10 times), "reduced salt" (4 times), "nutrient" (4 times), and "miso soup" (4 times). Most students thought that desirable dietary habits included more vegetable intake and less salt.
46 Nutrition and Quarantine , Vinayaka AM
The unexpected appearance of Coronavirus disease (COV-ID-19) in Wuhan, China and its overall speedy transmission has made all of the humankind in the holds of a dangerous hands of pandemic, the last era of pandemic was observed with the Spanish Flu in 1918. Health care workers and general wellbeing authorities around the world, trying very hard to fight COVID-19 to spare lives and forestall further cases. Albeit some pharmacological investi-gations and even immunization preliminaries are in progress, the COVID-19 pandemic presents us with deficient information and stretches the restrictions of preeminent suppository.
47 Chemical and Mineral Composition of Biscuit Produced from Wheat and Bambara Groundnut Flour , Adegbanke OR, Osundahunsi OF, Enujiugha VN
NThe aim of this study was to determine the potential of bambara groundnut, an under utilised legume for use both as flour and protein isolate in biscuit production. Sixteen response surface methodology (RSM) runs were evaluated from combination of wheat flour (WF), bambara groundnut flour (BF) and bambara protein isolate (BPI). Based on the crude protein and functional properties these ratios were selected WF: BF (85.0:15.0%, 76.2:23.8% and 52.5:47.5%) and labeled as WBF1, WBF2, WBF3, respectively with WF: BPI (85.0:15.0%, 76.2:23.8% and 52.5:47.5%) as WBPI1, WBPI2 and WBPI3 for blends of wheat flour and bambara protein isolate respectively. The proximate and mineral composition of the composite flour blends and biscuits were determined. Data were analysed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and significance at P < 0.05. The wheat-bambara groundnut flour, wheat-bambara groundnut protein isolate and biscuits contained (g/100g) moisture (9.43-9.63), (1.64-3.59), (6.70-7.60), (4.00-5.70), to-tal ash (0.79-1.76), (2.83-3.37), (1.00-170), (2.50-2.80) and crude protein, wheat-bambara groundnut flour (14.41-21.67), wheat-bambara groundnut protein isolate (32.42-61.10) and biscuits (15.30-20.10) (26.20-46.20) g/100g were recorded respectively. The carbohydrate content for wheat-bambara flour (62.47-66.75) g/100g, wheat-bambara protein isolate flour (31.56-61.21) g/100g and biscuits (63.10-67.00), (40.50-5750) g/100g. The mineral composition (mg/100g): sodium ranged from (442.06 to 960.36) for wheat-bambara composite flour, biscuit (3.12-4.77) and calcium ranged from (94.33-494.88) for wheat-bambara composite flour, biscuit (2.08-3.82) respectively. Among the trace metals, copper ranged between for wheat-bambara composite flour (14.80-35.11), biscuit (0.04-0.06) and manganese ranged between for wheat-bambara composite flour (8.00-26.03), biscuit (0.21-0.31) were high in the composite flour and low in the biscuit samples. Lead was not detected in both the flour samples and the biscuit. The calculated mineral ratios Na/K of the composite flour was (0.24-0.41) and biscuits (0.58- 0.92) respectively. Ca/P ratio for wheat-bambara composite flour (1.07-2.42) and biscuit (2.00- 2.47). The Ca/P ratios in the composite flour and biscuits samples were greater than recommendation of > 1.0, this will help to increase the absorption of calcium on the small intestine.It could be concluded that, the study remarkably developed flour and biscuit with high contents of crude protein, calcium, and phosphorus.
48 Physico-Chemical Analysis of Honey Produced in Bako-Tibe District, Western Showa Zone, Oromia Region, Western Ethiopia , Million Chimdessa; Desalegn Begna,
Honey production is a long-standing practice in the rural communities of Ethiopia in general and Oromia regional state in particu-lar. However, there is scanty information with regards to the quality of the honey produced in the most parts of Oromia. The study was conducted to assess the Physico-Chemical Analysis of honey produced around Bako Tibe district, western Showa, Ethiopia. A total of 13 fresh honey samples each weighing 50 gram were randomly collected from three agro-ecologies of the district. The collected honey samples were analyzed in the laboratory for their physico-chemical parameters. The average results indicated that 19.81%, 4.23, 21.43meq, 0.11 % for moisture, pH, free acidity and ash, respectively. According to this analysis, the results of all the samples fall within acceptable ranges for the national and international standards. This study investigated and availed the honey quality results of study area and ascertained all the values concur with local and international requisites. Owing to lack of testing facility, the informa-tion on the honey safety aspects still remain blurred, requiring further investigations
49 Effects of Yogurt Supplementation and Exercise on Body Composition during Lactation , Alexis Sharkey, Lauren San Diego, Tiffany Fuller, Roberta Claro da Silva, Salam A Ibrahim, Heather L Colleran
Breastfeeding reduces long-term maternal pregnancy weight retention but also results in high bone turnover. Dairy intake and exercise have bone-protective effects in pre-menopausal women during weight loss. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of yogurt supplementation and exercise on body composition and bone mineral density in lactating women 8 - 20 weeks postpartum. At 8-wks postpartum, women were randomized into an intervention group [IG, n = 6 that received yogurt supplementa-tion (≥ 3d/wk, 6oz each day) and exercise (3 d/wk, 45 min/d, ≥ 10,000 steps/d)] or a control group (CG, n = 2, no dietary or exercise intervention) for 12-wks. Dual x-ray absorptiometry measured body composition (weight, fat mass, lean body mass) and bone min-eral density. A submaximal treadmill test predicted VO2 max. Three-day dietary records were collected using Nutrition Data System for Research software. Due to COVID-19, results are reported without comparisons between groups. IG body composition and bone changes were similar to previous studies. Dietary intake did not differ between groups and both groups met the Recommended Di-etary Allowance for carbohydrates and protein (g) intake. IG compliance for 3 d/wk of yogurt consumption and exercise was 97% and 90%, respectively. The study provided preliminary data on dairy intake and exercise on body composition during lactation
50 Assessment of Nutrition Status of School-Going Children of Age 8 - 16 Years: District Lahore - Pakistan , Hira Akram, Safa Akram, Sajid Khan Tahir, Ahmad Ali
Nutrition status is the general conditioning of the body while nutrition assessment is a systematic process of verifying and inter-preting data to make decisions about the nature and cause of nutrition-related problems. The present study was conducted to assess the nutrition status of school-going children age 8 - 16 years in Lahore city, Pakistan. The study aim was to identify the children who were at risk of malnutrition. Nutritional assessment was carried out among both genders male and female. It was a cross-sectional survey and the sample size was two hundred (200). Randomly, male and female students were selected. A questionnaire was designed to collect data. An interview technique was used to fill the questionnaire. Questions were related to demographic data, anthropometric data, frequency of meals consumption and food frequency data. Data were analyzed by using SPSS version 22. Data were presented in tables (percentages) and pie charts. The present study result showed that most children have normal body mass index percentile. Children were consuming eggs, wheat flat bread without oil (Chapatti) and milk on a daily basis. Mostly children were taking breakfast, lunch and dinner on a daily basis. Most of them were not taking bedtime snacks. Few children were consuming miscellaneous and fast foods. So, based on the results it was concluded that the majority of school-going children have healthy eating habits and good nutritional status
51 Multisectoral Nutrition Implementation in Burkina Faso: Organization, Collaboration and Support of Contributing Sectors at Regional Level , Dieudonné Diasso, Maimouna Halidou Doudou, Aly Savadogo
Among other aspects of nutrition capacities, the state of human, material, financial resources and technical structures’ organiza-tion in Burkina-Faso are not exhaustive nor assessed to date. The objective of this evaluation study was to analyze the various capaci-ties of the contributing key sectors in nutrition of the Regional Directorates, and to identify gaps and challenges for their support to a successful implementation of the national nutrition plan. Tools and resources proposed by the Framework for Nutrition Capacity, recently developed by the United Nations Network for Scaling Up Nutrition was used with an adapted analytical framework. The methodology consisted on documentary reviews, data collection and analysis from evaluation surveys. Nearly 96% of Regional Direc-torates, in all key sectors, highlighted the unavailability of adequate skills to support the expansion of nutrition services. Only 17.6% of the Regional Directorates have nutrition training plan, against 79.7%. A certain number of external factors, which hindered the effective implementation of activities, was underlined by 60.8% of the technical structures, and the existence of an internal dialogue on nutrition within the Directorate is only effective in 23% of cases. The results show a strong involvement of the Regional Director-ates in the Regional Food Security Councils, and moderate for the Regional Social Protection Units and low or even non-existent for the Regional Nutrition Consultation Councils. In a national context where dialogue and synergy between the different coordination bodies and stakeholders at the central level remain problematic, it is more necessary to reinforce nutrition regional dialogue around the governorate, in order to successfully scale up multisectoral interventions in the country.
52 Effectual Gold Nanoprobe Sensor for Screening Cow Milk Adulteration in Goat Milk , Jose Manuel Llopis Ortiz, Dimitra Panagiotis Houhoula, Efstathia Tsakali, Sophie Pytel
Different methods of detection have been used to detect milk adulteration, but in recent years the use of nanomaterials has demonstrated to be an interesting tool in this field, because of their interesting optical properties. A gold nanoparticle (AuNP) probe strategy for testing milk authenticity was developed, which relies on the colorimetric differentiation of a particular DNA sequence, due to the differential aggregation profiles exhibited by the AuNPs in the presence or absence of specific target hybridization. Gold nanoparticles were conjugated with thiolated oligonucleotides which specifically amplify a 271 bp fragment of cow mitochondrial DNA. In the presence of a complementary target preventing aggregation of the AuNPs when acid was added, the reaction mixtures retained the original pink coloration of the colloidal particles, whereas they turned purple in the opposite event. Negative and goat reaction mixtures showed a purplish coloured solution with a peak at ≥570nm, while samples containing bovine DNA have an absorbance closer to the characteristic peak of the AuNPs at 520-525 nm. Presence of bovine milk even at traces levels was detected, achieving a level of detection comparable with PCR + Electrophoresis. The use of AuNPs for the colorimetric detection of DNA targets from undeclared species in milk products provides an inexpensive and easy-toperform alternative to common molecular assays. However, the tested oligonucleotides only proved to be effective under very concrete conditions, due to their low specificity. The technology described here can be further developed and more specific oligonucleotides are advised to be tested. Even though, this method offers the possibility to accommodate for detection of many cases of adulteration and fraudulent practices in different food matrices.
53 Malnutrition Trends in School Children of Madinah Al Munawarrah-A Cross-Sectional study , Atta UR Rehman Khan, Meshal Al Malki
Malnutrition is considered a major challenge in the area of public health nutrition. But recently the clear footprints have been spotted by researchers at remarkable magnitude even in the developing as well as developed countries. National studies to predict Malnutrition prevalence in Saudi Arabia are lacking. To date no study has been conducted to find out prevalence of Malnutri-tion in the 2nd holiest city of Muslims Al Madinah Al Munawarrah located on western part of Saudi Arabia. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Malnutrition in school children of Madinah Al Munawarrah-Saudi Arabia.Methods: Participants were healthy school boys and girls aged 05 - 18 years. It was a cross-sectional stratified study. Total sample size was 6000 consisting of 3000 boys and 3000 girls Twenty (20) schools were selected with random stratification with the help of Ministry of education. Data were collected during April - December 2017. Height and weight of children were measured to calculate percentiles for BMI-for-age and -sex according to the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts. Acute Malnutrition was defined as BMI-for-age/sex < 5th % tile.Results: Acute malnutrition: The overall children who were suffering from Acute Malnutrition were 19% (n = 755). Prevalence in boys was 24% (n = 529) and in girls was 13% (n = 226).For boys: The presence of Acute Malnutrition in Category-I (5 - 8 years) was 25% (n = 8), category-II (9 - 13 years) was 23% (n = 149) and Category-III (14 - 18 years) was 24% (n = 372).For girls: The prevalence in Category-I (5 - 8 years) was 41% (n = 45), category-II (9 - 13 years) was 13% (n = 79) and Category-III (14 - 18 years) was 10% (n = 102).Conclusion: Malnutrition in school children in Al Madinah Al Munawarrah prevails as high as in few under developed countries. Integrated Intervention and prevention programs in primary through high school should focus at all school-aged children especially primary school students. Ministry of education and Ministry of health have a key role. Dietitians and public health nutrition care workers are potential key role players to effectively address this issue.
54 In Vitro Antioxidant Activity, Spectrophotometric Determination of Caffeine, Total Phenol and Flavonoid Contents in Traditional Omani Qahwa in Comparison with Green and Black Tea , Maryam F Hasan, Wed S Aldaraji, Dhanalakshmi UM, Shah A Khan, M Ali
The aim of the present work was to quantify caffeine and total phenolic content and to evaluate the antioxidant activity in com-mercially available black tea, green tea, Turkish coffee and traditional Omani qahwa. Aqueous extracts of tea and coffee samples prepared by decoction were subjected to the phytochemical screening test for phenols and caffeine. Caffeine in the samples was quantified with the help of a linear regression equation obtained from the standard plot. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents in the tea and coffee were estimated colorimetrically. Antioxidant activity of the samples was investigated by DPPH (1, 1 diphenyl picrylhy-drazyl) free radical assay and phosphomolybdenum methods. All the test extracts showed the presence of phenolic compounds and caffeine. The results indicated a variation in caffeine content, phenolic content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity between the two extracts and among same extracts with different brand names. In general, Mumtaz black tea was found to contain the high-est caffeine (24.44 mg/g) and phenolic content (8.27 mg/g of GAE). It also showed the highest total antioxidant activity (10.46 mg/g of ascorbic acid equivalent) but surprisingly its flavonoid content and antioxidant activity by DPPH method was lower than other samples. Tea was found to be richer in phenols and caffeine but Omani qahwa showed better antioxidant activity. It can be concluded that phenolic content and the antioxidant activities depend on the origin, brands and additives of these beverages that may lead to variation in the content and bioactivity.
55 Beta-Adrenergic Agonists: Effects on Growth and Characteristics of Meat and Livestock Production , Attapon Cheepsattayakorn, Ruangrong Cheepsattayakorn, Utoomporn Sittisingh,
Number of multinucleated cellular units or muscle fibers is fixed at birth. Increasing muscle hypertrophy has been a primary focus of investigators. Beta-adrenergic agonists increase muscle mass by increasing the ratio of protein to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), while steroidal implants increase muscle mass by increas-ing accumulation of DNA in muscle. Beta-adrenergic agonists and steroidal implants have similar physiologic responses of muscle hypertrophy, but have different mechanisms of action to achieve muscle growth. Beta-adrenergic agonists suppress adipose accre-tion in livestock species. Cattle has more than 99% of beta-2 ad-renergic receptor in the skeletal muscle and has more than 90% of beta-2 adrenergic receptor in adipose tissue, whereas pig has 73% of beta-1, 20% of beta-2 and 7% of beta-3 adrenergic receptors.
56 Preparation and Quality Evaluation of Yogurt by Incorporation with Moringa oleifera Leaves Powder , Sanjaya Karki, Saugat Prajapati, Susma Bhattarai,
Moringa oleifera leaves is fill with a pack of nutrients therefore, this study was carried out in order to enrich the nutritional value of traditional yoghurt. The powdered leaves of Moringa oleifera were analyzed for moisture content, vitamin C, protein, ash and fat content and the result was found to be 7.34 ± 0.04%, 17.24 ± 0.10 mg/100g, 25.89 ± 1.42%, 9.67 ± 0.40% and 2.1 ± 0.2% respectively and mesh size was 140 μm. From the sensory analysis the product having 0.5% Moringa oleifera leaves powder incorporated yoghurt was chosen for further analysis as it showed comparable result with control yoghurt. The chemical analysis of moringa incorporated yoghurt showed that fat, lactose, protein, total solid, acidity, calcium and pH were 2.9 ± 0.11%, 3.71 ± 0.02, 4.51 ± 0.09%, 22.18 ± 0.19%, 0.82 ± 0.02, 356.83 ± 10.19 (mg/100g) and 4.3 ± 0.02 whereas that of control yoghurt were found to be 2.76 ± 0.07%, 3.86 ± 0.03, 3.7 ± 0.4%, 19.90 ± 0.28%, 0.69 ± 0.01, 244.67 ± 10.19 (mg/100g) and 4.5 ± 0.01 respectively. The fresh yoghurt was found to contain no any coliform, yeast and mold count. Setting time and syneresis for moringa leaves incorporated yoghurt (0.5%) i.e. sample A was found 270 minutes and 34.05 ± 1.30%, respectively whereas setting time for control sample i.e. Sample E was 300 minutes and syneresis was 22.43 ± 2.12%. Acidity was continuously observed in the interval of 30 minutes till the yoghurt sets which showed rapid increase in acidity in Moringa oleifera incorporated yoghurt than that of control yo-ghurt. Acidity rose from 0.69 to 1.14 in control yoghurt and for Moringa oleifera incorporated yoghurt it rose from 0.82 to 1.40 during 12 days storage period. The total plate count of the yoghurt decreased during the storage period of 12 days from 1.20 × 109 cfu/ml to 1.1 × 103 cfu/ml for Sample A and from 1.76 × 109 cfu/ml to 4.4 × 103 cfu/ml for Sample E i.e. control yoghurt.
57 Knowing the Role of Supplementary Nutrition and Growth Monitoring from the Beneficiaries of Selected Anganwadi Centers in Rural Wardha, Maharashtra , Samarpita Dutta1,Abhishek V Raut,
Launched in 1975 by the Government of India, the ICDS scheme is currently the most important scheme in the field of child health and development and care of women throughout their critical stages in life. With four decades of implementation of this scheme, it is imperative to take stock of this flagship programme from its basic level of implementation in the country. The present study was thus conducted to determine the facilities available at selected Anganwadi centers and find out the concerns and performance of the Anganwadi Workers through observation, review of records and interviews.The study was conducted in 2 phases over a period of 3 months, in 15 Anganwadi Centers of the field practice area of a Rural Health Training Centre in Wardha district, Maharashtra. The 1st phase consisted of facility survey using pre-designed checklist while the 2nd phase consisted of in-depth interviews with the respective Anganwadi Workers.Facility survey revealed lack of storage, kitchen and toilet facilities in 5, 2 and 6 centers respectively. Hot Cooked Food was being served at 11 of the 15 centers. Peoples’ concern regarding quality of take home recipes, immunization days and improper utilization of learning material emerged as important issues compromising health promotion and pre-school education activities during the in-depth interviews.Bottlenecks identified through key functionaries of the scheme at community level would enable the administration take up coor-dinated steps to make it locally acceptable and reliable towards a fruitful impact in the nation.
58 The Relationship between Allergic Pollinosis and Low Salivary Levels of Secretory IgA in Adults , Tetsuro Yamamoto, T Enomoto, Akira Tsuda, Hisayoshi Okamura, T Honda, Shaw Watanabe, Hideyo Yamaguchi
Secretary IgA is a key element of intestinal immunity. Low levels of secretory IgA (SIgA) and development of allergy in infants were often reported, but it is not in adults. Saliva and serum were simultaneously analyzed from 20 adult patients with Cedar pollino-sis aged 22 - 53 years and 22 non-allergic control adults aged 25 - 65 years. The mean salivary level of SIgA for JCP patients was sig-nificantly lower than the value for control subjects. Median, 25th - 75th percentile was 11.5 UA/ml, 4.05, 23.1, respectively in pollinosis group and < 0.34 UA/ml in control group. Low levels of salivary SIgA in adults was associated with increased allergic manifestations.
59 Systematic Review - Nutrition in the Elderly , Alba Child, J Gerardo Villa, Pilar S Collado
This systematic review aims to compile the concept of aging, which entails it and the nutritional recommendations that have been addressed in recent years as a preventive measure for the best functional management and better quality of life of these people. Data Sources: Systematic searches were conducted in the PubMed, Medline and SPORTDiscus databases and manual searches were made in the reference lists of the selected articles.Study Selection: The selected cohort studies were those that examined the concept and effects of the aging process, as well as the effects of physical activity and especially nutrition in this older population. Data Extraction: Data was extracted independently. Data Synthesis: Thirty articles were included in which the subject of aging, physical activity and/or nutrition was discussed. Conclusion: Older adults are an extremely heterogeneous group, as a result, the assessment of nutritional risk requires careful and centralized individualization, considering physiological changes and possible disease, as well as psychosocial, economic and environ-mental factors that influence nutritional status, being the basic objectives of maintaining the functional independence and quality of life of these people.
60 Association of Physical Activity with Obesity Trends in School Children of Madinah Al Munawarrah-A Cross-Sectional Study , Atta UR Rehman Khan, Meshal Al Malki
Obesity is one of the three gravest threats to human health globally. There was no study on association of obesity with physical activity of children of the 2nd holiest city of Muslims Al Madinah Al Munawarrah which is located on North West of Saudi Arabia. Objectives: This study aimed to • Evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity in school children.• To study association of physical activity and obesity.Methods: Participants were healthy school boys and girls aged 5 - 18 years. Study design was cross-sectional. A total of 6000 school children, consisting of 3000 boys and 3000 girls from twenty (20) schools were enrolled. School selection was done by random strati-fication with the help of Ministry of education. Data were collected between April - December 2017. Height and weight of children were measured to calculate percentiles for BMI-for-age and -sex according to the 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) growth charts, Overweight and obesity was defined as BMI-for-age/sex ≥ 85th and ≥ 95th percentile respectively.Results: The overall prevalence of obesity was 14.7% (n = 588). Obesity Prevalence in boys was 16% (n = 347) and in girls was 14% (n = 241). The overall prevalence of overweight was 15.4% (n = 616). The Prevalence in boys was 16% (n = 366) and in girls was 14% (n = 250). There was negative correlation between Physical activity and Body Mass Index. This relationship is also highly significant. (P -Value < .0005) Conclusions: Overweight and obesity in school children in Al Madinah Al Munawarrah is similar to global prevalence. Physical ac-tivity is a major risk factor for obesity in school children. Physical activity programs should be seriously implemented at education levels in every school of AlMadinah Al Munawarah to control this epidemic with coordination of Ministry of education and Ministry of health.
61 A Neurocommunication Model between the Brain and Liver Regarding Glucose Production and Secretion in Early Morning Using GH-Method: Math-Physical Medicine (No. 324) , Gerald C Hsu
This article address the author’s hypothesis on the neurocommunication model existing between the brain and liver regarding production and glucose secretion in the early morning. This is based on the observation of the difference between glucose at wake up moment in the morning for the fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and glucose at the first bite of breakfast for the glucose at 0-minute or “open glucose” of postprandial plasma glucose (PPG). All of the eight identified glucoses of breakfast PPG are higher than the eight glucoses at time of wake up by a difference of an average of 8 mg/dL.The value difference using Method B of CGM sensor glucoses during the COVID-19 period offers the most accurate picture and credible glucose difference of 8 mg/dL between his FPG at wake-up moment and PPG at the first bite of breakfast. The author believes that the brain senses when a person wakes up due to different kinds of stimuli from many sources, including eye, environment and even internal organs, which will alert the body to be in “active” mode requiring “energy” through glucose. Even though the person has not eaten anything or is not actively moving, the brain issues a marching order to the liver to produce or re-lease glucose for the body to use in the forthcoming day. This hypothesis can currently explain why his glucose of eating his breakfast is ~8 mg/dL higher than his FPG at wakeup.
62 Nutrients Analysis of Diplazium esculentum: Underutilized Wild Wetland Pteridophytes Ensure Food and Nutritional Security , Sanjay Mohan Gupta, Basant Ballabh, Pradeep Kumar Yadav, Ankur Agarwal, Madhu Bala
Food and nutrition (hidden hunger) for rapidly growing global populations (expected to increase 10 billion by 2050) are major concern of public health issue in most of the global developing countries. One way to tackle these problems is through the inter-vention of local traditional less-explored high-value food crops as dietary supplements for ensuring food and nutritional security. The Diplazium esculentum (Retz.) Sw (also called as ‘Vegetable fern’ or ‘Liguna’; fam. Athyriaceae) is an underutilized wild wetland pteridophytes occurring commonly throughout world, from sea level to 2,300m. The young frond and rhizomes of D. esculentumare generally used as green vegetables during the monsoon season, which are reported to possess notable nutritional and medici-nal properties. This research article highlights the detailed nutritive phytochemical (primary and secondary metabolites, essential mineral content, dietary fibres, calorific value etc) profiling of young fronds of D. esculentum. Our results suggest that D. esculentumfronds contains rich amounts of protein (52.3%), carbohydrate (28.2%), antioxidants (Vitamin C etc) and exceptionally high contents of important minerals (Ca, Fe, Na), dietary fibre (17.44%) with good calorific energy value (324 Kcal/100 gm). The overall results suggest that, the young fronds of D. esculentum contains rich source of phyto-nutrients that may be commercially utilized for the development of healthcare value added products as a sustainable solution to the health and nutritional security.
63 Bromelain and Amylase Assisted Extraction of Cucurbita pepo Seed Oil Enriched with Phytosterol , Nguyen Thi Minh Tu, Kieu Thi Hoang Yen, Tran Huong Nga, Le Tat Thanh, Dang Thi Thu
Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds’ hydrolysis condition was investigated in order to achieve oil containing high content of phy-tosterol by using enzyme bromelain and amylase. For this purpose, hydrolysis conditions of bromelain and amylase including ratio of C. pepo to water, ratio of concentration of the enzyme bromelain/amylase to substance, temperature, pH, hydrolysis time were investigated. Bromelain hydrolysis of C. pepo seeds with 1.75% enzyme at 55oC for 7hrs at pH of 7 gave 27.83% oil and 1909.95 mg phytosterol in 100 g oil. For amylase hydrolysis these figures were 0.9%; 50oC; 5.5 hrs and 7, respectively; and the oil yield was 14.02% with 2245.03 mg phytosterol in 100 g oil.Although oil yield by using enzyme bromelain (27.83%) and enzyme amylase (14.02%) was lower than that by using solvent and ultrasonic methods (26.57% to 42.74%), phytosterol content inversely was as 2 to 3 times as higher (631.41 - 772.78 to 19909.95 - 2245.03 mg/100g oil). Fourteen compounds were found in phytosterol mixture obtained by amylase hydrolysis, among them three important e.g. campesterol, stigmasterol, β - sitosterol accounted for315.460, 120.111 and 189.987 mg/100g oil respectively.
64 Vaginal Birth After Caesarean Section - Experience in Shree Birendra Hospital , Ratna A Khatri, Arju Chand, Sumana Thapa,Shailaza Khadka
The rate of primary caesarean section (CS) is on the rising trend. Vaginal birth after CS (VBAC) can be an alternative to reduce this rate of CS worldwide. Antenatal examination and intrapartum monitoring are the most important factors for VBAC. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of VBAC at SBH in selected cases. To analyze the maternal and fetal out-come of VBAC and repeat CS cases. Methodology:It is a cross-sectional institute-based study carried out in Shree Birendra hospital, a tertiary level Nepalese Army Hos-pital, from March 2019 to March 2020. The study population included cases with one previous caesarean section fulfilling the inclu-sion criteria of Royal College of Obstetrician and Gynaecology (RCOG) for VBAC. After counseling for VBAC, the data were estimated of those who were willing for VBAC and those who refused. Trial of labor was given to the patients accepted for VBAC. Feto-maternal outcome were analyzed of VBAC and of repeat CS.Results: There were total of 108 cases of previous LSCS reported at ANC OPD, among them 23 cases were excluded from the study as they were not meeting the RCOG inclusion criteria, 85 cases were enrolled in the study. Out of 85 cases, 75 (88.23%) refused to undergo VBAC, only 10 cases (11.76%) accepted to undergo trial of labor. Out of 10 cases, 5 (50%) had successful VBAC. The sample size was too small to come to any conclusion, still it is observed that women who had an emergency cesarean section in their first delivery had lower VBAC success particularly those with failed induction. No maternal and neonatal mortality observed. Conclusion: Vaginal Birth after Caesarean section is relatively safe, provided it is conducted in carefully selected cases and under constant supervision. Spontaneous onset of labor, good Bishop score and average sized baby were good predictors of successful VBAC.
65 Comparative Study on Antioxidant Activity and Microbial Loads of Dried Tomatoes Treated with Local Spices (Aframomum danielli and Syzygium aromaticum) , Mapamile AD, Osunbade OA*, Ani CP, Oyewo IO
The worldwide usage of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cannot be underestimated therefore, spoilage and postharvest losses must be controlled through processing and preservation. Two spices (Aframomum danielli and Syzygium aromaticum) aqueous ex-tract were separately formulated into 5 and 10% concentrations. The aqueous extract preparations were used to pre-treat tomatoes (var. UTC) prior to drying. Two drying methods (sun drying and oven drying at 60oC) were employed to effect drying. Dried tomato samples treated with 0% spice served as control for dried samples treated with 5 and 10% spice concentrations. The activity of each spice used was evaluated and compared based on their concentrations in terms of ascorbic acid, total carotenoid, lycopene and total viable and fungal count using standard methods. The results of antioxidants revealed that ascorbic acid and lycopene value were reduced in sun-dried samples when treated with varying concentrations of A. danielli and S. aromaticum compared to the control sample. However, in spice-treated oven-dried samples when compared to the control sample, the ascorbic acid values were better retained with increasing concentrations of spice from 5 to 10% concentrations. The values of total carotenoid were best retained in sun dried samples treated with 5% concentrations of S. aromaticum and 5% concentrations of A. danielli in oven dried sample. There were also considerable reductions in the values of both total viable and fungal count of spice-treated dried tomato samples over the control samples. Evidently, the findings revealed the effectiveness of A. danielli to exact a more preservative effect in oven dried sample better than S. aromaticum. This was evident in its better antioxidant retention ability as well as reduction in total viable and fungi count of the oven dried samples treated with both spices.
66 Analysis of Non-Scheduled Consultations in Patients with Digestive Neoplasms , Matilde Bolaños Naranjo, Victoria Aviñó Tarazona, Francisco Javier Jiménez Ruiz, Juan Bayo Calero
Non-scheduled consultation is very frequent among patients with cancer, creating alterations and delays in pro-grammed visits. We describe the incidence of non-scheduled consultations in patients with digestive cancer in our hospital.Methods: Descriptive, prospective, non-interventional study. In a six-month period (May - December 2017), non-scheduled visits were chronologically recorded in the medical oncology consultation of digestive tumours of Hospital Juan Ramón Jiménez de Huelva. We performed a descriptive analysis of the variables collected through the statistical program G-STAT v.2.0.Results: Patients with colon or rectal cancer generated most consultations (68,63%), followed by pancreatic (9,15%) and gastric (5,23%). Most patients had metastatic or advanced stage cancer (59,87%) and were under palliative or symptomatic treatment (58,82%). The most frequent reason for consultation was clinical symptoms (47,05%), followed by information demand (18,30%).Conclusion: Non-scheduled consultations in cancer patients are frequent; they cause interference in scheduled consultations and not always resolved satisfactorily. We propose several measures to reduce the number of non-scheduled consultation in oncology.
67 Development of a Baby Food Pureed with Probiotic Microorganisms for an Infant from 6 to 12 Months , Cardona MA, López BE,Restrepo M
The infant population and more specifically infants between 6 to 12 months are the most vulnerable to suffering from diseases that jeopardize the immune conditions of their developing organism. To counteract this, this research aimed to: develop a functional food baby pureed for an infant aged 6 to 12 months, using a probiotic strain, where the probiotic strain studied was Bacillus coagu-lans. The methodology involved the preparation of 3 flavors of baby food pureed such as: ahuyama, carrot and figs, which B. coagulanswere added as a functional component. A three-month shelf-life study was determined and evaluated, in which a count was made in the CFU of B. coagulans and its permanence in baby food pureed during this time. It was found that the adequate counting technique is vital for the detection of the microorganism and that carbohydrate content favors its permanence. It was concluded that baby food pureed could have a functional effect seen from the count of B. coagulans and from the study of shelf life as follows: ahuyama up to 90 days, carrot 30 days.
68 Lipedema and Nutrition: What’s the Link? , Cannataro Roberto, Erika Cione,
Lipedema is a dysfunction of the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), it is characteristic of women, although it is reported in rare cases also in men, it was described for the first time in 1940, with a better characterization in 1951, although this is often still con-fused with classic obesity. It affects the lower and upper limbs, the buttocks, usually sparing the feet and trunk. It is classified into 5 levels, according to the area of the body affected by the dysfunction. The tissues are nodular to the touch and this, among other things, suggests an inflammatory phenomenon. The treatments concern surgery (bariatric and liposuction), compression garments, physiotherapy. The nutritional approach often has little or no efficacy, probably because the adipose tissue is inflamed, therefore not very responsive if the inflammation itself is not managed. An approach that is having an interesting response is the ketogenic diet (a nutritional approach that provides for a carbohydrate intake of less than 30g per day), in previous work we have demonstrated the marked anti-inflammatory and antioxidant action of this nutritional approach, which could prove effective in assist the treatment of lipedema.
69 Healthy Eating Vs Dietary Supplements and the Fight against COVID- 19 Pandemic , Louay Labban
The novel coronavirus or COVID 19 has caused many changes in the daily lives of people around the globe since it first started in China in early 2020. This virus has caused a death toll reaching around 1 million. This number was due to its complications which can be attributed to lower immunity. It’s been known for a long time that immunity is closely related to nutritional status which can affect the prevalence of infections and their severity. The in-dividuals who follow unhealthy dietary systems are at a greater risk these infections. On the other hand, these infections can cause nutrients deficiencies affecting the individuals’ nutritional status. Therefore, people should focus on their diets during the ongoing Corona virus pandemic especially those with underlying diseases which make the situation worse.
70 Vitamin D Deficiency, Biology and its Functions , Afrozul Haq, Nuzhat Ahsan
Vitamin D deficiency is a major global, public health problem and is prevalent among all ages and ethnic groups. Neverthe-less, it is preventable cost-effectively, if proper public health in-terventions are implemented. Only a handful of expensive foods contain vitamin D and it is difficulty to change people’s attitude and lifestyles. Therefore, an inexpensive supplements and food-fornication programs have been recommended. More than 80% of the requirement vitamin D should generate from our skin, but sun avoidance behaviors prevent this. The combination of lifestyle and environmental issues, decreased exposures to sunlight have led to vitamin D insufficiency. This affects approximately, 50% of the global population and estimated 1.5 billion people worldwide have vitamin D deficiency [1]. Sunlight remains the primary source of vitamin D3 that is synthesis in dermal tissues in humans and in animals
71 Health Issues Related to Fat Consumption and Choice of Diet as Remedy , Anjan Borah
Rapid urbanization and changes in lifestyle has changed food habits towards processed foods. However processed foods are hav-ing associated risk factors. Most of the processed foods like French fries, potato chips, Snacks, breakfast cereals (ready to eat), cook-ies, roasted almond, crackers and related products are reported to have Acrylamides reported to be a neurotoxicant and probably a week human carcinogen. A processed food that contains partially hydrogenated oil (PHOs) as a shortening is the richest source of Trans Fatty Acid (TFA). TFA (isomers of the octadecenoic acids) significantly increase risk of heart disease and may drive insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes
72 Life Style, Nutritional Habits, Body Composition and Respiratory Capacity as Fundamental Aspects of Risk Evaluation in Professional Divers , Maria Concetta D’Ovidio, Daniela Pigini1, Maria Rosaria Marchetti, Paola Melis1, Lucio Bertini, Massimo Spalletta, Tiziana Paola Baccolo, Giovanna Tranfo, Enrico Marchetti
Exposure to hyperbaric atmospheres is an occupational risk for workers. The diver needs a good physical/mental performance, control of physical activity and nutrition. In this work the objective is to assess physical status of professional diver of Italian National Fire Department.The study was conducted on 71 male divers of the National Fire Department subjected to annual medical examination. We utilized a questionnaire regarding work habits and lifestyles, bioimpedance and spirometric analysis.Results of the questionnaire indicate that more than one half of workers practice a correct lifestyle and has varied and balanced consumption of food; 25 - 30% professional divers show a higher BMI respect to the ideal BMI value.These results will be used to create a database on the different physiological parameters of these workers and to define the varia-tions during the immersion phase
73 Eating Quickly is Associated with Ultrasound-Diagnosed Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Japanese Adults , Koichiro Irie, Tetsuji Azuma, Takatoshi Yonenaga, Minako Hada, Kazutoshi Watanabe, Fumiko Deguchi, Akihiro Obora, Takao Kojima,Takaaki Tomofuji
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major global health problem. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between eating quickly and NAFLD in Japanese adults. A total of 8556 participants underwent a health checkup. Abdominal ultrasonography was applied to diagnose NAFLD, and information on eating speed was obtained using a self-ad-ministrated questionnaire. Of the study participants, 2570 (30.0%) had ultrasound diagnosed NAFLD. The participants who reported eating quickly had a higher prevalence of NAFLD when compared to those who did not report eating quickly. The presence of NAFLD was significantly associated with male sex (odds ratio [OR] = 3.163, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.800 - 3.573), age ≥ 65 years (OR = 1.426, 95%CI = 1.076 - 1.889), high body mass index (≥ 25 kg/m2; OR = 9.615, 95%CI = 8.511 - 10.863), hypertension (OR = 1.659, 95%CI = 1.424 - 1.931), high hemoglobin A1c values (≥ 6.5%; OR = 4.096, 95%CI = 3.080 - 5.446), the presence of regular exercise habits (OR = 0.605, 95%CI = 0.522 - 0.701), and eating quickly (OR = 1.146, 95%CI = 1.023 - 1.283) after adjusting for confounding factors. These results indicated that lifestyle factors, including eating quickly, is positively associated with NAFLD in Japanese adults independently of overweight and obesity.
74 Trade of Medicinal Plants and Herbal Products with Teratogenic Potential and their Consumption during Pregnancy , Yvis Silva De Castro, Juliana Silva Pereira Santos, Stela Bersan Faustino, Cristhian Gomes Cardeal Martos, Gabriel Bastos Teixeira, Aline Oliveira da Conceição
The indiscriminate use and market of medicinal plants and herbal products is a reality in Brazil. Despite the preventive measures that already regulate this use, they do not reach all the communities. Therefore, investigations on the use of medicinal plants or herb-al medicines in pregnancy are of fundamental need to help in the establishment of pharmacovigilance norms. The objective of this study was to investigate the sale of medicinal plants and herbal medicines in the city of Ilhéus, Bahia and the consumption of plants by women served in the municipal maternity ward. A qualitative and descriptive study was carried out, through field research, using a semi-structured questionnaire that addressed socioeconomic and ethnobotanical aspects. Herbalists and sellers in the local market were also interviewed about the presence of medicinal plants and herbal products with teratogenic potential in their establishments. In total, 19 individuals were invited to participate in the research, six sellers of medicinal plants and 13 women who gave birth in the local maternity ward. The results showed that medicinal plants with teratogenic potential are easily marketed in the municipality of Ilhéus. However, no teratogenic effects related to medicinal plants or previous high consumption of medicinal plants were men-tioned. Despite the low evidence of harmful effects in this study, the fact that the plants are being sold freely in the local market shows the need of pharmacovigilance and education in natural products for professionals in local public health.
75 Metabolic Obesity , Isabel Cristina Bento, Heather D Balentine
Obesity is a worldwide pandemic, with high prevalence. In the United States, at least 35% of men and 40% of women are obese [1]. In Brazil, the latest Survey of Surveillance of Risk and Protec-tion Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey [2], from the Ministry of Health found that the frequency of obese adults has been increasing, from 11.8% in 2006 to 20.3% in 2019, is similar for men and women in 2019.
76 Association of Consumption Frequency of Meals Consisting of Grain Dishes, Fish and Meat Dishes, and Vegetables Dishes with Satisfaction with Diet and Health Status Among Japanese People , Tatsuya Koyama
Objective:To examine the association of the consumption frequency of well-balanced meals (comprising grain dishes, fish and meat dishes, and vegetable dishes) with satisfaction with the diet and health status. Methods: In December 2019, a self-administered questionnaire survey on lifestyle was conducted for 295 local civil servants in a town of Aomori, Japan. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regressions were performed to compare satisfaction with the diet and health status among three groups (every day [daily], four to five days a week [frequently], three days or less in a week [occasionally]) based on the frequency of intake of well-balanced meals .Results: Compared with participants who consumed well-balanced meals daily, participants who consumed well-balanced meals occasionally were less satisfied with the diet after adjustment for sex, age, smoking and drinking habits (odds ratio 0.28, 95% con-fidence interval: 0.09, 0.85). The association persisted after adjustment for BMI, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Com-pared with participants who consumed well-balanced meals daily, participants who consumed well-balanced meal occasionally had a higher risk of subjective health and dyslipidemia adjustment for sex, age, current smoking and drinking habits. These significant associations disappeared after adjustment for BMI.Conclusion: The frequency of intake of well-balanced meals was associated with the degree of satisfaction of the diet.
77 Conversion of Khadrwai Dates from Khulal to Tamar through Various Practices , Rehman Ali, Umber Shehzadi, Amara Rasheed, Maryam Bibi, Anam Zafar
Dates have been an important basic food for several cultures all over the world and they are still consumed widely over thousands of year. The aim of our study was to protect khadrwai dates from monsoon season and minimize post-harvest losses. For this pur-pose, some bunches were wrapped with polythene plastic sheet, some covered in sacks and others remained open on date palm. Date samples were collected during Khalal, Rutab and Tamar stage by weekly intervals. Chemical and physical characteristics were deter-mined using published procedures. Result showed firmness was more in polythene plastic dates about 4.733, 4.46 and 1.6 during every stage and other conditions have less firmness. Brix % gradually increases during all stages. At full ripening stage, brix % was near about 30 - 40%. Color changes during ripening from light yellow at Khalal to golden brown at Rutab stage and then converted to dark brown color at Tamar stage. Moisture content was decrease with the passage of time. At Tamar stage, moisture content was about 15 % which was beneficial for long term storage. The highest losses on date palm were observed in sack dates due to shrinkage of size and bitter taste. Monsoon season less effected on opened date palm. Polythene plastic condition is best for maximum produc-tion and minimum losses on date palm.
78 Using of Natural Remedies for Patients Recovered from COVID-19 , Poonam Maurya, Neelesh Kumar Maurya
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported a global public health concern by the World Health Organization (WHO) due to its pandemic. Typical human coronavirus NL63 (alpha coro-navirus), 229E (alpha coronavirus), OC43 (beta coronavirus), and HKU1 (beta coronavirus) cause widespread coldness [1]. Corona-virus Cases: the risk of death of a novel coronavirus was reported to be approximately 2% at the WHO press conference on 29 Janu-ary 2020 [2]. Globally, 22,812,491 recorded cases of COVID-19, including 795,132 fatalities, were announced to the WHO at 2:09 p.m. CEST, 22 August 2020
79 Effect of Nutrition Education Videos on Mothers’ Knowledge, and Practices on Complementary Feeding of Children 6 - 23 Months in Ruaraka Sub-county, Nairobi City County , Robinson Nyaribo Mochoni, Judith Kimiywe
Background:Children aged 6-23 months are most exposed to malnutrition because complementary feeding is done poorly in this stage of children’s growth. Efforts have been put forth to improve child nutrition but there are still significant gaps in complementary feeding. Low information on complementary feeding among mothers has been the main contributor. This study aimed to establish the effect of video use on nutrition education to improve mothers’ knowledge and practices on complementary feeding. The study was conducted in Ruaraka sub-county, Nairobi City County, Kenya. Methodology: Post intervention cross-sectional analytical design with control was adopted with 198 mothers with children 6-23 months who sought health services from selected health facilities. The study involved an intervention group that watched the short nutrition video clips on complementary feeding and a control group which did not watch the videos from a different locality but shared similar characteristics with intervention group.Results: Most households, control (83.6%) and intervention (92.4%) groups were headed by males. The majority of mothers were married (86.4%) and Housewives (67.7%) with a mean age of 25.3 years. They were Christians (97.1%), lactating (95.2%) and had attained primary school education as highest level (46.7%). The majority, 41.1% had no specific allocation of income for purchase of food. There was a significantly higher proportion of mothers in the intervention (100%) than in the control (51.3%) who had the cor-rect knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding (P = 0.041). A significant difference was also noted in the minimum dietary diversity score with 3.73% in control and 5.19% in intervention group with majority from intervention (95.5%) feeding their children from the four food groups as opposed to control group (30.0%) with a significant difference P = 0.006. There was also a significant difference in knowledge mean score between the intervention and control with P = 0.001. A significantly higher proportion of mothers from inter-vention (100%) had good knowledge of the age of initiating complementary feeding as compared to the control group (96.3%) with P = 0.021. In terms of practice, a significant difference was found between the control and intervention on complementary feeding of children 6-23 months (P = 0.021).Conclusion:The use of audio-visual tools has been found to be effective in passing messages. Since the video clips’ messages are eas-ily understood, interpreted due to the use of the local language, Maternal and Child Nutrition and Health knowledge is easily gained by the hearers. Better practices shown in the intervention group indicates gained knowledge.
80 Mind Genomics: Accelerating and Scaling Our Understanding of the Everyday Mind and its Prospects for Efforts in Nutrition , Sophia Davidov, Ariola Harizi, Glenn Zemel, Alex Hutchinson,Howard R Moskowitz
We present the newly emerging science of Mind Genomics, which studies the way we make decisions in everyday life. Mind Ge-nomics defines a topic, creates four relevant questions, creates four answers to each question, for a total of 16 elements. The subject evaluates a unique set of 24 vignettes, combinations of 2-4 elements, at most one answer to each question, rating the vignette on a scale. The scale may judge amount of (e.g., perceived fullness, liking, etc.), or may require the subject to choose an emotion. Each subject tests a different set of combinations. All combinations are created by experimental design, ensuring statistical independence. The analysis of the results reveals how each answer or element ‘drives’ the rating. A measure of response time, collected at the same time, shows the degree of psychological engagement. Finally, Mind Genomics reveals new-to-the-world mind-sets of people, with different ways of looking at the topic. Mind Genomics finishes with a personal viewpoint identifier, new people to be assigned to a mind-set. We finish with the vision of scaling the process, to understand the algebra of the mind for the world of foods and nutrition, and to correlate the mind-sets with exogenous behavior, both economics-oriented and health-related, respectively.
81 Effects of High Protein/Low Carbohydrate Rationed Formulated Diet on Glycemic Tolerance and Control, Body Weight and Organ Histomorphometry in Experimental Diabetic Rats , Magnus Michael Chukwudike Anyakudo, David Opeyemi Adeniji
Metabolic response to carbohydrate and protein ingestion plays an important role in health and disease states. This experimental-ly-controlled designed nutritional study aimed to determine the effects of a high protein/low carbohydrate rationed formulated (HP/LC) diet on body weight, organs (kidneys, liver, heart, lungs, spleen and testes) histomorphometry, glycemic tolerance and control in experimental diabetic and healthy rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats randomly categorized into four groups (n = 6, each): Healthy control group (HC), Healthy treated group (HT), Diabetic control group (DC) and Diabetic treated group (DT) were used for this study which lasted eight weeks. The animals were fed according to the experimental design with water ad libitum. Diabetes was inducted with freshly prepared alloxan monohydrate solution (150 mg/kg bwt, intraperitoneally). Body weights and fasting blood sugar con-centrations were measured twice weekly while oral glucose tolerance test was conducted on the last day of the study after which, the organs were extracted for weight assessment and histomorphometric analysis. In this study, the high-protein/low-carbohydrate rationed formulated diet caused significant reduction in mean body weight gain both in treated diabetic (DT: 22.6%; P = .001) and healthy (HT: 5.8%; P = .007) rats compared with their respective controls which recorded significant (P < .05) increase in body weight gain (DC: 12.4%; HC: 11.2%). In DT and HT rats, glycemic tolerance and control improved significantly (DT > HT) while no visible lesions or distortion in organs histoarchitecture observed. In conclusion, high-protein/low-carbohydrate rationed formulated diet reduced body weight gain with improved glycemic tolerance and control without pathologic consequences on organs histoarchi-tecture in experimental diabetic and healthy rats.
82 Cancer Nutrition: Prevention and Treatment! , Raquel M Fernandes
Cancer is ranked in the ranking of the most kill-killing diseases in the world. Scientifically it is a disease classified as a genetic mu-tation, which can be caused by several factors (physical, chemical or biological). According to INCA, it is estimated that in 2018 there were 18 million new cases with 9.6 million deaths, the most fre-quent being lung cancer, breast cancer, colon and rectal cancer and prostate cancer.
83 Evaluation of Bacteriological Quality in Artisanal Juices Issued at Carabobo University. Faculty of Health Sciences. Bable Core , Noja Izzeddin, Arencibia R Angely, Barreto G Martha, Luís F Medina
Foodborne diseases, most of which are of microbial origin, have a global impact as a major cause of morbidity and mortality; in this way the intake of contaminated food has become one of the most important ways to adapt gastrointestinal diseases. The objec-tive of this work was to evaluate the bacteriological quality in artisanal juices of expended in the schools of Bioanalysis, Biomedical Sciences and Basic Area at the Faculty of Health Sciences of the Universidad de Carabobo headquarters Bárbula, in May 2015. The study was within the limits of descriptive, non-experimental and field research, as a total of 30 samples of artisanal fruit juices were collected and analyzed, which is evaluated at different times. For the analysis of juices, the quantification of total and heat-resistant coliform bacteria and the identification of bacteria such as Escherichia coli andSalmonella spp were performed. Of the 30 samples studied 60% had total coliforms, 33% had heat resistant bacteria, and the total samples did not identify the presence of Escherichia coli or Salmonella spp. Thus concluding that the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the arts juices of frequent consumption in the schools Bioanalysis, Biomedical Sciences and Basic Area of the Faculty of Health Sciences, suggests that the health quality of these actually poses a risk to the health of consumers since feedings cannot contain microorganisms.
84 Study on Parasitic Load in Local Goats Reared in Three Different Systems of Rearing , Mahadev Lamani, SB Prasanna, Mahadevappa D Gouri, Suma N4and Shankarappa Bhajantri
An experiment to study the effect of three systems of rearing on the parasitic load and welfare of growing goat kids were studied. The 3 months study was conducted on local osmanabadi crossbred goats at Niharika Sheep and Goat Farm, Sira, Tumkur district, Karnataka, India. Thirty weaned local goat kids (3 months) were randomly allocated into three treatment groups with ten kids in each viz., T1 (Intensive-in housed and fed all time), T2 (Semi intensive- browse for 5 - 6 hours during day time, housed and fed rest of time)and T3 (Extensive rearing- browse throughout the day 6 - 8 hours and no feed supplementation). The animals in T1 groupwere confined to the shed both during day and night.The average parasitic load at the beginning of the trial was 180 ± 38.15, 205 ± 36.86 and 185 ± 33.37 in T1, T2 and T3, respectively. At the end of experimental trial, parasitic load was 1320 ± 35.12, 1985 ± 75.3 and 2235 ± 91.91 eggs per gram in T1, T2 and T3 respec-tively. This study indicates to design a suitable deworming program to control helminths more often in extensive system while for protozoans like coccidiosis in intensive system of rearing.
85 Influence of Varying Salinity and Different Protein Sources on the Water Quality Changes During the Rearing of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) , P Pravallika, D Ravindrakumar Reddy, A Chnadrashekar Rao3, Prasanna Kumar, Shyam Prasad Mamidala
A study was conducted for 63 days to study the influence of varying salinity (0, 10, 15, 25 ppt) and different protein sources on the water quality changes during the rearing of Pacific white leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The shrimp diet was prepared at three protein level (25%, 30% and 35%) by mixing all the ingredients in required proportions into pellets by the replacement of fish meal with Cottonseed meal, (CSM), sunflower meal (SF), Acetes indicus (AI) meal, Mysid meal (MM). Shrimps were fed with the diets thrice a daily at a satiation level. Water quality parameters such as pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), total alkalinity and total hardness was analysed weekly intervals. In the study, the water pH ranged between 8.2 to 8.3, 8.2 to 8.3, 8.3 to 8.4 and 8.4 to 8.5 for 0, 5, 15, and 25 ppt, respectively. While the temperature and dissolved oxygen ranged between 29.5 to 31.7°C and 5.66 and 7.81 mg l-1,respectively in all the treatments. Moreover, the total alkalinity varied between 214 to 155 mg l-1, 315 to 229 mg l-1 and 625 to 535 mg l-1 and 725 to 645 mg l-1 at 0, 5, 15 and 25 ppt, respectively. Similarly, the total hardness of water ranged between 238 to 191 mg l-1, 322 to 240 mg l-1, 675 to 601mg l-1 and 777 to 700 mg l-1 at 0, 10 15 and 25 ppt, respectively irrespective of varying protein sources in the diets. In conclusion, the study revealed the feasibility of L. vannamei up to 25 ppt salinity as the water quality parameters are within the suitable ranges irrespective of varying dietary protein sources and growth.
86 Trends in Orange Juice Consumption and Nutrient Adequacy in Adults 2003-2016s , Nicklas TA1* O’Neil CE, Saab R, Fulgoni VL III
No studies have looked at trends in nutrient intakes, orange juice (OJ) consumption and nutrient adequacy in adults overtime. Methods: The purpose of this study was to examine secular trends in nutrient intakes, OJ consumption, and nutrient adequacy in adults 19 plus years participating in the 2003-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results: Approximately 13% of the total sample consumed OJ with a mean intake of 39.5 g/d (76.2 KJ [0.89% of total energy intake]). Amounts of all 100% fruit juices consumed decreased and whole fruit intake increased from 2003-2016. Intake of total energy, total carbohydrates, added sugars decreased. Intakes of folate, riboflavin, thiamin, and vitamin C decreased and intakes of niacin and vita-min B6 increased. Intakes of iron, sodium, and zinc decreased and intake of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus increased. Percent-age of adults below the EAR decreased for ten nutrients (i.e. folate, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamins B6, and D, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorous and zinc) and the percent above the AI increased for two nutrients (i.e. dietary fiber and sodium) across the deciles of OJ consumption. OJ, other 100% fruit juices, fruits, breads/rolls/tortillas, and ready-to-eat cereals were major food sources of many nutrients that were consumed at levels below recommendations. IntroductionConclusion: There were changes in intake and nutrient adequacy among adults overtime which varied by OJ consumption. Food pat-terns varied among consumers and non-consumers suggesting that studies looking at the consumption versus non-consumption of foods need to look at food patterns within the context of the total diet.
87 Study of the Influence of Ultrasound in the Process of Osmotic Drying of Melon , Radjabov Mansur Farkhodovich, Kurambaev Sherzod Raimberganovich, Saparov Makhmud Kadamovich, Khakimova Bakhor Bakhtiyarovna, Rakhmanova Mukhabbat Ismailovna and Abdullaeva Gulnoza Ulugbek Qizi
Due to the deterioration of the ecological and social situation the creation of production technologies is of particular importance canned products providing maximum preservation of native biologically active substances of raw materials, and also using biologi-cal processes. It is necessary develop technologies for the production of functional products, where additives are biologically active substances, derived from various parts of fruits and vegetables. At present, there is an awareness of the importance of changing the structure of nutrition, and the demand for products with preventive and medicinal properties is increasing. Vegetables and fruits contain natural antioxidants, vitamins, biologically active and mineral substances, i.e. are one of the raw materials for this kind of products.
88 Productivity Enhancement of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) by Integrated Nutrient Management Under Salt Affected Soils , Syed Ishtiaq Hyder, Ahmad Khan, Raza Ullah Khan, Muhammad Arshad Ullah, Muhammad Asad Hameed, Huma Aziz1
Excessive and imbalanced use of expensive chemical fertilizers may pose devastating effect on soil fertility and sustainable pro-ductivity. Bio-organic amendments improve soil fertility and sustainable crop productivity. The application of integrated nutrient management (INM) bio-organic amendments couple with chemical fertilizers is one of the promising strategy that not only enhances crop productivity on sustainable basis but also reduces the use of chemical fertilizers. Therefore a field experiment was conducted to evaluate the productivity enhancement of wheat by combined application of Biofertilizer and chemical fertilizers including Zinc Sulphate and Boric Acid on growth and nutrient concentration of wheat variety (Faisalabad 2008) directly sown in a saline sodic soil (ECe=4.92 dSm-1, pH=8.22 and SAR=16.15 dSm-1) at Soil Salinity Research Institute (SRRI) Farm, Pindi Bhattian during Rabi 2019-20. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The crop was harvested at maturity, data on tillering, plant height, number of grains spike-1, 1000- grain weight, straw and wheat grain yields were recorded. N, P, K, Zn and B concentration in grain and straw were estimated using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Wheat productivity was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased by INM. Wheat grain yield was the maximum (4.76 tha-1) at the application of 120 kg N, 90 kg P 60 kg K, 5 kg Zn and 1kg B ha-1 along with Biozote and it was registered 35% more than Farmer practice. This study confirms that INM has tremendous potential of plant nutrients supply for productivity enhancement of Wheat on sustainable basis.
89 Determination and Comparison of Non-essential and Essential Elements in Different Species of Fish Available in Omani Markets by Using Inductively Coupled Plasma-optical Emission Spectrometry , Issa Al-Amri, Isam Kadim1, Abdulaziz AlKindi1, Ahmed Al-Harrasi1, Khadija Al-Hosni1, Aiysha Al-Kiymi1, Anwar Al-Amri1, Muzna Al-Salehi1, Fazal Mabood1, Ahmed Hamaed1, Saud M Al Jufaili3, Samera Khalaf2 and Mohamed Al-Omairi
In this study an ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry) was used to investigate the concentration levels of both essential and non-essential elements in 70 edible portion of fish samples representing 11 different species of fish collected from Omani markets. Sample preparation via microwave digestion were analyzed, using ICP-OES for seven non-essential elements [Arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), lead (Ph), titanium (Ti), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg)] and seven essential elements [iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), selenium (Se), and magnesium (Mg)]. A comparison of the results for the concentration of Cd, Ni, Pb, Ti, Cu and Fe elements between the species of fish showed that there was significant (P < 0.05) difference in concentrations. Tissue samples from Seriola dumerili and Xiphias gladius tissues contained significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of Cd, while Lutjanus argentimaculatus and Parastromateus niger samples had significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of Ni than those from other fish species. The levels Pb found in the tissues of Merluccius bilinearis, and Lethrinus nebulosus fish were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than other fish species. Further, Lethrinus nebulosus and seriola dumerili tissue samples contained sig-nificantly (P < 0.05) higher concentrations of Ti. The concentrations of Ni and Pb were found higher than the maximum permissible limits in certain fish species samples for human consumption. The results indicated that the edible portion contained significantly (P < 0.05) higher levels of Cu in Seriola dumerili species and Fe elements in Ocyurus chrysurus and Pagellus affinis than other fish spe-cies. This study concluded that Cd, Ni, Pb, Ti, Cu and Fe elements were species-dependent.