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Indexed Journal

1 Conservation and Genetic Improvement of Gir Cattle , Vikramjit Singh and Poonam Choudhary
Livestock are the best insurance against the vagaries of nature like drought, famine and other natural calamities. India’s livestock sector is one of the largest in the world it has 56.7% of world’s buffaloes, 12.5% cattle, 20.45% small ruminants, 2.4% camel, 1.4% equine, 1.5% pigs and 3.1% poultry (FAOSTAT, 2015). The total livestock population has decreased by about 3.33% over the previous census. There are fourty three (43) recognized breeds of cattle in India, in addition to large number of non-descript cattle (NBAGR, 2019). In recent times, several of the indigenous breeds suffered decline mainly due to their becoming uneconomical. Draught breeds utility has decreased because of mechanization in agriculture. The indigenous breeds have following merits over exotic breeds viz: Better disease resistance than exotic breeds, more suitable for low input management system, Survive better in local environment, Suitable for draught work and in addition to this existence of superior indigenous breeds can provide valuable research inputs for developing superior breeds. It is therefore im-portant that Indigenous breeds of cattle are conserved, developed and proliferated. Cattle and buffalo genetic improvement will be done taking into consideration the farmers needs, market and agro climate and simultaneously conserving the livestock, biodiversity.
2 Feline Prepucial Urethrostomy , Carretto Gustavo Roberto, Vitale Verónica, Mangione Mauro, Rizzo Magdalena and Ugarte Gabriel
A male feline of 9 years of age with clinical signs of hematuria/dysuria is received and bearing in mind that this is not the first episode it is decided to perform a prep t urethrostomy, This is a permanent surgical procedure, which could be used as an alternative to perineal urethrostomy in felines. It is indicated for the treatment of tumor pathologies, severe trauma, stenosis caused by repeated catheters, relapses of urethral blockages by urinary sediments or lithos.
3 Thoracic Synostosis Associated with Secondary Scoliosis in Arabian Horse Foal , Ahmed F Almomany and Musa A Alshehabat
Congenital or acquired skeletal malformations of the vertebral column of horses are very rare in horses. Thoracic synostosis associated with scoliosis is a rare condition in equine practice. Synostosis is fusion of two or more bones while scoliosis is lateral curvature of the spine. We are reporting thoracic synostosis associated with scoliosis in an Arabian filly. Physical examination revealed obvious deviation of the thoracic section to the left side. Observational gait analysis did not show any gross abnormalities. Neurological examination showed no neurological deficits in the fore or the hind limbs. Radiography was essential to characterize the malformations which showed synostosis of the thoracic vertebrae (T11, T12 and T13). Follow up evaluation of the foal, in six months, did not demonstrate any worsening in gait or neurological status and showed the filly is still ambulating normally. The owner instructed not to ride or work the presented foal. Furthermore, owner was instructed not to breed the foal.
4 Computational and Molecular Characterization of Surface Proteins Neuraminidase and Haemagglutinin from Egyptian Isolates of Avian Influenza H5N1 Subtype , Soliman YA, Maha AN Gamal and Eman MS El-Nagar
Avian influenza isolated from different Egyptian governorate during the period of 2010-2017 have been computationally evaluated for the B-cell and T-cell epitope mapping and MHC II binding sequence prediction. The ten studied isolates showed limited variation on the level of deduced amino acid for the N1 gene, on the other hand H5 gene showed much wider variation. Many B – and T- cell epitopes have been predicted for both H5 and N1 proteins which spanning nearly the entire sequence. B- Cell epitopes have been seen within the cleavage site thus the generated antibody clone might hinder the cleavage of haemagglutinin by the cellular protease and prevent viral entry. Different T- cell epitopes found on the N1 protein can stimulate IFN-γ production and hence inhibit viral replication. These data explain the power of genetic vaccine coding for both H5 and N1 to elucidate high protection rate with minimal shedding level
5 Retrospective Study on Dental Affections in Horses of Equestrian Clubs and their Possible Treatment , Mostafa M Kassem, Ahmed S Korittum and Ahmed S Raslan
The present work was carried out in the period between “March 2015 to December 2016” the total number of examined horses was 354 horses, 92 horses 26% had dental affections including 52 Equestrian horses, 34 Riding horses, 6 Funeral dragging horses. These horses were of both sexes and their ages were ranged between 3 years up to 22 years old. The examined horses were collected from Armed Equestrian club, El Gzera club, El haram farms, Cairo stadium, El Shams club and Wadi Degla club.The horses were divided according to usage into 3 groups, first group was used as equestrian horses, second group was used as riding horses and third group was used as funeral dragging horses. First group involved 52 equestrian horses, 49 male horses and 3 female ones. Second group involved 34 riding horses, 13male horses and 21 female ones. Third group involved 6 funeral dragging horses, they all are male horses.The examined horses in this study were subjected to comprehensive study including history, type of horse (Equestrian, Riding and Funeral dragging), the time of last floating, post treatment care and follow-up. The prevalent dental affections in equestrian clubs that were found are dental tartar 81.52%, sharp enamel points 42.39%, dental caries 35.86%, periodontal disease 19.57%, rostral hook 16.30%, diastmata (diastasis dentium) 16.30%, incisor tooth fracture 6.52%, parrot mouth 3.26%, bit seat 3.26%, caudal hook 3.26% and canine tooth fracture 1.087%. Periodical examination is essential in detection and treatment of dental affections; furthermore, using of power float, mouthwashes, curetting of teeth and extraction of teeth gave good results in treatment of these dental affections Neglecting the treatment of dental tartar, sharp enamel points, dental caries, periodontal disease, diastmata, bit seat and caudal hook resulted in some complications as equine colic and ulcer.
6 Emergency Case of Failure in Spay Surgery , Hazem Karem Shafik
A nine years old female cat had been operated a spay surgery due to pyometra but after a week it attempt to our clinic due to looking unwell and continuous moaning due to pain and the surgical suture had lost also the wound is not fine.
7 Impact of Body Condition Score on Performance of Sahiwal Cattle , Vikramjit Singh1, Poonam Choudhary and Arun Kumar Jhirwal.
Livestock plays a pivotal role in the Indian economy. About 70% of India’s population is dependent on agriculture and livestock associated activities. Animal husbandry is probably the most im-portant amalgamated activity providing a means of instant cash to farmers and thus plays a vital role in socio-economic life of live-stock farmers in India. Economical and balanced feeding of live-stock for optimum production is extremely important. The value of milk group stands at Rs. 7,58,417 crores and the livestock sector contributes nearly 4.9% to India’s GDP. India has an enormous livestock population and it ranks 1st in cattle population and milk production too by contributing 21.29% of total milk production throughout world. The total milk production of India stands at 187.7 million tonnes in 2018-19. Cows provide 47.85 % of milk production in India with a production of 89.83 million tonnes in 2018-19. The population of milch Non-descript/Indigenous ani-mals stands at 35.17 million in 2019 and the milk production from these Non-descript/Indigenous cows is 38.57 million tonnes.
8 Ethnoveterinary Practices of Wild Medicinal Plants in Pakistan: A Review , Muhammad Jamil Ahmed, Farooq Ahmed and Javaid Qayyoom Swati.
Today, ethnic communities throughout the world retain sound indigenous ethnoveterinary knowledge and mainly depend on medicinal plants as alternative treatments for various livestock ailments. The present review aims to provide the current compilation of wild medicinal plant species practiced as ethnoveterinary herbal medicine by traditional societies of Pakistan. Data was gathered from online databases regarding ethnoveterinary studies in Pakistan from 2000 - 2018. The botanical name, families, parts used, method of administration and diseases treatments were presented by literature review. The literature search revealed a total of 255 wild plant species belonging to 203 genera and 88 families were being in common use to cure 17 categories of livestock diseases. The highest number of wild plant of Asteraceae, followed by Fabaceae, Lamiaceae Euphorbiaceae, Polygonaceae and Solanaceae were used as ethnoveterinary herbal medicine. The most privilege diseases were abdominal worm, mastitis, ague, foot and mouth diseases, skin diseases, lungs and respiratory disorder. Worms’s infestation and parasitic ailments were treated with 67 plant species followed by gastrointestinal ailments, reproductive ailments and miscellaneous category accounted for 66, 43 and 29 species respectively. The highly consumed parts of plant were leaves (29.59%) followed by whole plants (15.98%), aerial parts (10.65%), roots (10.65%) and fruits (8.28%). It is suggested that, the present review will serve as databank and stimulate further pharmacological, clinical investigation for novel drug discovery from natural resource and benefited worldwide.
9 Animal Welfare during Pandemics , Hamza Jawad, Nasir Iqbal, Ayesha Sadiq, Zubair Luqman, Sadaf Aslam, Naveed Hussain and Suwaibatul Annisa.
Simple definition of animal welfare is how does the animal feel? In this CoVID-19 pandemic, animal welfare has become an important aspect of our lives, including pets, livestock and laboratory animals. The dangers posed to animals during COVID-19 should be considered not only from a welfare point of view but also from a zoonotic point of view. Prolonged lockdown has greatly reduced food resources for animals. Due to misconceptions such as COVID-19 can spread by animals the owners of the animals keep themselves away from the animals which has a negative impact on the welfare of the animals. This is situation is worrying for all of us that so far the welfare of animals in lockdown situations has not been mentioned in the media. Effective experiments, including emotionality, are subjective, so they cannot be measured in animals, but the information contains indirect physical and behavioral indicators that can be used carefully to interpret such experiments. There are many forms of animal cruelty such as neglect of animals, misuse of animals, exploitation of animals and testing of animals. People are cruel to animals everywhere. Animals are emotional creatures that deserve our respect and protection. New research is very necessary to find out the present reasons of animal abuse and cruelty during pandemics. We can prevent animal cruelty by raising public awareness about the absence of COVID-19 zoonosis in every community.
10 Assessing the Effectiveness of Acoustic Enrichment for ‘Settling’ Sanctuary Hens , Kirsty Mccalden
The aim of this study was to establish whether certain forms of acoustic enrichment improve settling behaviour in laying hens to a greater extent than others. Based on acoustic enrichments previously applied to captive animals, three acoustics were involved: classical music, white noise and radio. Due on previous findings, it was hypothesised that hens would display more settled (inactive) behaviour when exposed to classical music than when exposed to white noise or radio. It was also hypothesised that hens would display more settled (inactive) behaviour when exposed to white noise than to radio, due to its unpredictable nature. Testing involved one group of 15 laying hens in a Northern Ireland hen rescue centre. Hens were exposed to randomised acoustics (including a control) for 30 minutes, during four consecutive per week, for four consecutive weeks. Video observations were used to assess the level of active and inactive behaviour during exposure as well as overall settling time. No statistically significant results were found in three of four observed behaviours; perching, preening on the perch, lying/sitting on the perch. However, findings appeared to indicate less activity in hens during exposure to white noise, compared to classical music and radio. Therefore, the first hypothesis was rejected. In contrast to expectations, this study appeared to provide support for previous theories of species-specificity regarding classical music. A statistically significant result was found for standing behaviour on the perch which provided support for the second hypothesis. Post-hoc analysis indicated that a higher proportion of observed hens displayed standing behaviour during radio exposure, compared to the control (p = .012). This allowed the second hypothesis to be accepted as hens generally appeared to display less active behaviour overall during exposure to white noise, and statistically more active behaviour during radio exposure. Somewhat conflicting findings emerged in regards to overall setting. 80% of hens settled in a shorter time during radio exposure, than during exposure to white noise. This was also the case when measured at 90%. Although this finding was insignificant it highlights a need for further, more precise research.
11 Wellbeing of Veterinary and Medical Students during COVID-19 Pandemic , Hamza Jawad, Hiba Qasir, Nasir Iqbal, Javeria Azhar, Arooba Mubeen and Muhammad Affaq Azhar.
COVID-19 (coronavirus diseases 2019) has caused a high rate of anxiety, depression, alcoholism and stress in veterinary and medical students. Prolonged closures have created a financial crisis for students. The poor quality of the online education system is not meeting the needs of these students. Many people suffer from psychological distress due to economic losses and loneliness. This review summarizes data from recent research papers that sheds light on the concerns of veterinary and medical students during the COVID-19 lockdown. Suggestions for future pandemics are also summarized. Medical and veterinary education system need new research on teaching methods, especially from a clinical point of view. In addition to improving the quality of online education in preparation for future crises, student well-being should also be considered to mitigate social crises. Because this COVID-19 pandemic has severely damaged the performance of students in academic and social life. More research is needed to improve the veterinary and medical education system during any.
12 Improving Livestock Production Using Auxiliary Reproductive Biotechnology , Hamza Jawad, Nasir Iqbal, Ayesha Sadiq, Zubair Luqman, Sadaf Aslam, Naveed Hussain, Suwaibatul Annisa and Hiba Qasir.
From the beginning, many reproductive techniques have been used in domestic animals to achieve the desired goals. These goals include: Increasing reproductive and productive efficiency, improved genetic makeup of farm animals, reducing the risk of diseases and injury, producing resistance against climate and infectious agents, and research. Major Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) discussed in this brief review are, Artificial Insemination (AI), Estrus Synchronization, Superovulation, Semen Sexing, Cryopreservation, and Embryo Transfer (ET). Artificial insemination is the most basic and widely used technique for improving genetics and increasing conception rate. Estrus synchronization is the technique in which the selected females are targeted to come in heat (estrus) simultaneously in a brief period using different protocols. Super-ovulation is producing multiple ova at a single time using many combinations of hormones. Semen Sexing, as the name implies, is a method in which sperms are sorted out, using different techniques, to gain animal of desirable sex. In Cryopreservation, long-term preservation of living cells and tissues is done at a very low temperature (conventionally -196 ͦC) without compromising the structural and functional integrity of the preserved specimen. Embryo transfer involves producing and collecting embryos in donor animals and then implanting them in recipients. Reproduction is the backbone of any livestock enterprise, and to achieve remarkable results, the use of Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) is inevitable. This mini review article will provide a brief comparison of such great reproductive biotechnological methods which are using in livestock farming.
13 Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Germinated Maize on Hematological Parameters of Kadaknath Layers , Akhelesh Kumar Karoriya, Archana Jain, Chouhan Laxmi, MK. Mehta and Rakesh Kumar.
The present research work was undertaken to find out the effect of supplementation of germinated maize at different levels on hematological parameters of Kadaknath layers started from day old stage. The experiment was done on a total number of 128, day old chicks (DOC) of Kadaknath breed belonging to same hatch. On arrival, the chicks were weighed and equally distributed randomly into four treatment groups T0, T1, T2 and T3 with 32 chicks each. Each group was divided into four replicates of 8 chicks each. The control group T0 was given commercial maize - DOC soya based diet. The treatment groups T1, T2 and T3 were given diet containing germinated maize at 50%, 75% and 100% levels of the cereal component, respectively. The experimental chicks were vaccinated against the prescribed schedule of vaccination. All the chicks were housed in deep litter system in the well ventilated and lighted rooms and the feed was given ad lib with plenty of fresh water. Five birds were separated from each group on 30 days, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 days for collection of about 2 - 3 ml of blood in EDTA and non EDTA vials for hematological analysis. All observations were analyzed by using ANOVA to compare different treatment groups. There were a significant (P < 0.01, P < 0.05) increase in all hematological parameters such as total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in all the treated groups as compared to control from values taken every 30 days up to 240 days of age.
14 Knowledge; Hygienic Practice among Milk and Cottage Cheese Handlers in Districts of Gamo and Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia , Edget Abayneh, Minale Getachew, Wasihun Seyoum and Ephram Tora.
A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Arba Minch Zuria and Demba Gofa districts of Gamo and Gofa Zone of the Southern nation nationalities and people’s regional state with the objectives of assessing knowledge of hygienic practice of milk and cheese handlers in both study area. For this a total of 102 farmers who involved in milking, collecting and retailing of milk were included in the study area. Data obtained from questionnaire survey were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Chi-square test, using the Statistical package for social science (SPSS Version 17). The participants of this study were woman of different age group and 27 (52.9%) of participants in Arba Minch Zuria and 32 (64.7%) in Demba Gofa were >36 years old. The majority of participants 21 (41.2%) and 22 (43.1%) were educated up to grade 1-8 in Arba Minch Zuria and Demba Gofa, respectively. This had an impact on hygienic practice of milking and milk handling. The difference in hygienic handling, training obtained and cheese making practice among the study areas were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was also a statistically significant difference in hand washing and utensil as well as manner of washing between the two study areas (p < 0.01). Finally this study revealed that there were no variation in Antibiotic usage and Practice of treating sick animal in both study area (p > 0.05) with significant difference in Prognosis, Level of skin infection and Selling practice among study participants in both study areas (p < 0.05). Good manufacturing; handling practice as well as hygienic milking and cleaning practice should be improved in both study areas.
15 Ovine Tunica Albuginea as Xenograft for Cystoplasty in Rats , Natasha Nogueira Ferreira, Cecília Ribeiro Castañon, Fellipe Ferreira Lemos de Medeiros, Fernanda Moreira da Silva, Bruna Scalzilli, Tábata Maués, Carla Ferreira Farias Lancetta, Viviane Alexandre Nunes Degani and Maria de Lourdes Gonçalves Ferreira.
The purpose of this study was to prove the conserved ovine tunica albuginea (OTA) as a practicable and adequate biomaterial for bladder scaffolds even as its histopathological cicatrization aspects. The conserved heterologous OTA implant was experimentally used for cystoplasty in 20 Wistar rats. The operated bladder areas of all rats from test (n = 20) and simulation (n = 20) groups were examined macroscopically and histologically at 7, 14, 2, 8 and 42 postoperative days. Test group animals underwent partial cystectomy followed by cystoplasty with OTA graft application, and simulation group rats to partial cystectomy. There was no mortality in any group, and all animals showed good post-surgery recovery. Bladders histopathological analysis showed that the test group obtained more intensive blood vessels and had the first signs of total regeneration earlier than the simulation group. Our findings pointed that macroscopic and histological results, easiness of surgical technique and graft availability, OTA can be used as an alternative biomaterial graft for bladder wall reconstruction in rats which represent a valuable animal model to comparative studies with the human being and other species.
16 COVID 19 and the Veterinary Community , Varghese Samuel Mathai
We would have never thought of Living through pandemic let alone having one in this lifetime. COVID-19 has presented us with a lot of unprecedented circumstances, loss of loved ones and a chance to retrospect on the inadequacies of veterinary-human medicine interactions.
17 Study on Prevalence of Toxocara canis in Stray and Pet Dogs of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal , Sabina Lamsal and Rakesh Prajapati
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Toxocara canis in street and pet dogs in Kathmandu valley and to understand the associated risk factors for Toxocara canis (T. canis) infestations in dogs and to assess the awareness on canine helminth zoonoses among pet owners. A cross-sectional study was carried out from February to April 2019 within Kathmandu valley, Nepal. A total of 110 faecal samples were randomly collected from 55 pet and street dogs each per-rectally via the faecal loop. Wisconsin centrifugation flotation method was used to examine the presence of T. canis eggs. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 55 dog owners. Descriptive statistics were calculated using IBM © SPSS statistics version 22 and MS-Excel 2016. We found that 13.64% dogs (15/110) were found for T. canis. Comparatively, prevalence was higher in stray dogs than in pet dogs (20% versus 7.27%); dogs below one year 13.95%; in female dogs 15.63%; in dog getting in contact with other dogs 10.53%; in non-dewormed dogs 23.08%. Out of 55 pet owners surveyed, 41.82% were aware that they can get diseases from dogs but only 14.55% of the owners had some idea about canine helminth zoonoses. T. canis being the parasite having high zoonotic significance, there is a need to carry out awareness programs to educate pet owners regarding canine zoonoses and on appropriate anthelmintic treatment. A viable system should be in place to maintain stray dogs such as animal birth control programs which will help to reduce the prevalence of T. canis among street dogs.
18 Seasonal Cytokine Production and Combinatorial Effect of Recombinant Cytokines and Melatonin on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Proliferation , Amaresh Kumar Singh and Chandana Haldar
The immune system is influenced by various internal (like hormones) and external (environmental: seasons) factors in which melatonin plays a vital role. Melatonin modulates seasonal immunity by influencing the cell-mediated immune function like cytokine secretion and cellular proliferation in rodents, however, there is a lack of information that how melatonin modulates the secretion of different cytokines in different seasons and directs the cellular proliferation in presence of specific cytokine. Therefore, in the present study, we elucidated the effect of seasonal melatonin variation on peripheral cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α) level and proliferative response (%SR) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The effect of recombinant cytokines (rIL-2, rIL-6, and rTNF-α) on the proliferative response of PBMCs was also noted in presence of melatonin under in vitro condition. As a result, we observed that high endogenous melatonin causes an increased level of IL-2, and IL-6 and down-regulates TNF-α during the winter season. Melatonin significantly modulates the proliferative response of PBMCs in presence of rIL-2, rIL-6 and rTNF-α by enhancing the immunomodulatory effect of rIL-2 and rIL-6 and by diminishing immunosuppressive effect of rTNF-α in goat. In conclusion, we may propose that melatonin maintains immune-homeostasis by modulating circulatory cytokines levels during different seasons. Melatonin might influence the secretion of immunomodulatory cytokine (i.e. IL-2 and IL-6) and also regulate the immuno-inhibitory action of TNF-α to modulate cell-mediated immune function.
19 Assessment on Poisonous Plants of Livestock and their Impacts on Livestock Producers in Wondo Genet, Sidama Zone, South Nation Nationalities and People Regional State, Ethiopia , Abdallahi Abdurehman, Shimelis Mengistu, Nigusie Barassa, Nuredin Mohammed, Fayisa Aliye and Mohammed Jafer
This study was conducted in Wondo Genet, Sidama Zone, SNNPRS, Ethiopia from November 2017 to May 2018 to assess toxic plants which well-known among society of the area, potential to cause intoxication of livestock and its significant impacts on livestock producers. Totally, 300 individuals composed of 260 animal owners, 15 animal health practitioners, 13 especially selected knowledgeable people and 12 traditional animal healers were interviewed based on structured questioner. Out of 300 individuals 245 (81.7%) were declared the existence of poisonous plants. During assessment of presence of impacts on livestock producers in different ways 110 (44.9%) of them complained its presence but 135 (55.1%) only heard such impacts from the others and knew the presence of such plants and some information about it. During field visit 30 poisonous plants that suggested by those respondents were collected. From these plants, Amaranthus spp. Aspera (21.2%), Oxalis corniculate (17.6%), Prunus africana (10.2%), “gaggassa’’ (local name) (8.6%), ‘‘haruufichcho’’ (grass sp.) (8.2%), Euphorbia cotinifolia (3.7%), Ricinus communis (3.3%), Brucea antidysenterica (2.9%), Lantana camara (2.5%), Medicago sativa (2.5%) were complained as cause of toxicity frequently. Season of the year and reason why animal consume the poisonous plants were some of conditions which known to aggravate the exposure of livestock to poisonous plants. In this study, rainy season was documented as main season of the year plant poisoning occur and purposeful consumption also accounts majority from reasons why animal consume. The study also indicate that bovine was more susceptibly for number of poisonous plants 25 (83.3%) and followed by ovine for 18 (60.0%), caprine for 17 (56.7%), equine for 4 (13.3%) and all livestock species for 2 (6.7%) as suggested. Bloat, diarrhea, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, skin lesion/irritation or alopecia, vomiting, abortion, photosensitization, bloody urine and death are mainly and frequently raised adverse effects of poisonous plants. As this assessment shows, there are poisonous plants and impacts on livestock producers at study area; that needs involvement of responsible individuals to do further studies on identification of poisonous plant and extraction of ingredients in it and find solution to alleviate the outcome of poisonous plants.
20 Problem Free Pets: A New Model for Companion Animal Veterinary Care , Lowell Ackerman
The current model of companion animal veterinary practice tends to be reactive, often waiting for animals to become ill before pet owners seek veterinary care. By helping to establish appropriate pet owner expectations regarding the care of their animals, veterinary teams can be more proactive and focus on prevention, wellness, and better control of chronic diseases
21 Regression of Symptoms of Trypanosomosis in Mice Dosed Cotrimoxazole-Antivirt®{Al4(SiO4)3 + 3Mg2SiO4 → 2Al2Mg3(SiO4)3} Formulation , MCO Ezeibe, MI Ezeja, CA Akpan, FIO Onyeachonam, ME Sanda, IJ Ogbonna, E Kalu, NU Njoku and MI Udobi
Protozoa require Folic acid for replication and Cotrimoxazole inhibits synthesis of the B-vitamin. So, the drug could be effective for treatment of trypanosomosis (tropical protozoan disease of man and animals). To improve efficacy of such treatment on symptoms of the disease, a formulation of the medicine and The Medicinal synthetic Aluminum-magnesium silicate (Antivirt®) was used to treat mice. Cotrimoxazole improved (P ≤ 0.05) PCV, RBC and HB in uninfected mice (from 47.60 ± 0.51, 7.93 ± 0.09 and 15.87 ± 0.17 to 59.60 ± 0.51, 9.93 ± 0.09 and 19.93 ± 0.12) and in trypanosome-infected mice (from 34.75 ± 0.48, 5.79 ± 0.08 and 11.67 ± 0.14 to 37.67 ± 0.88, 6.28 ± 0.15 and 12.56 ± 0.29) but it worsened fever in trypanosome-infected mice (from rectal temperature: 36.30 ± 0.35 to 46.27 ± 0.79). Stabilizing the drug with Antivirt® reduced (P ≤ 0.05) that adverse effect (fever) from temperature of 46.27 ± 0.79 to 39.50 ± 0.29. Weight of the mice remained approximately (P ≥ 0.05) same in all the groups. Formulation of Cotrimoxazole (anti-protozoan) and Antivirt® could be a new medicine for trypanosomosis (sleeping sickness).
22 The Potential Role of Epigenetics in the Welfare and Behavior of Mammals. , Ricardo Zanella
The term “epigenetic” was introduced by Conrad Waddington in the early 1940s who have suggested the involvement of exter-nal agents in the modulation of the individuals' epigenotype. Since then, several studies have benefited and strengthened with this knowledge. Among them, we can mention the enormous progress of evolutionary studies, developmental biology, and cancer re-search, which have broken enormous barriers, explaining pheno-types not caused by Mendelian inheritance.
23 On-site diagnosis for Infectious Diseases , Barkha Sharma
On site test or Penside or Point-of-care testing (POCT) also known as portable test, field test refers to laboratory testing per-formed on the site, in the proximity of the patient so that prompt and accurate diagnosis can be made and adequate treatment can be given to the patient well in time. Thus, it aims to bring the labo-ratory at the door step of the patient, for the convenience of the doctor as well as the patient. Various rapid diagnostic test/tools with variable sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis of important infectious diseases have been developed to facilitate on field diag-nosis of various diseases in humans as well as in animals. Standard laboratory procedures like blood culture, high-throughput immu-noassays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mass spectrom-etry (MS), which have been hitherto relied upon for their accurate results usually take much longer time and sophisticated laborato-ries with costly equipments and trained people.
24 Artificial Intelligence and Pandemics , Deeptivet
Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human in-telligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. It is also known as Machine Intelligence which is any device that perceives its environment and takes ac-tions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. An intelligent agent should be skilled in perception, practical reasoning and have an ability to take action to achieve its goals. It incorporates the skills required to pass the Turing Test, which assesses whether a machine can think like a human? AI makes it possible for machines to learn from experience, adjust to new inputs and perform human-like tasks. The goals of artificial in-telligence include learning, reasoning, and perception.
25 Review on Auromanes Disease , Abduleziz Jemal Hamido
The genus Aeromonas consists of Gram-negative, oxidase posi-tive bacilli that are considered of aquatic environments and are commonly isolated from clinical and environmental samples. Typi-cal habitats for these bacteria are freshwater (ground water, lakes, rivers and reservoirs), chlorinated and un-treated drinking water, bottled water, swimming pools, wastewater, reclaimed waters, brackish waters, and seawater. Aeromonas spp. Can produce sever-al diseases in wild and farmed freshwater and marine fish species impacting the economy of the aquaculture sector. Most common human clinical presentations of Aeromonas infections are diarrhea, wound and soft-tissue infections and bacteremia. Many infections are related to water exposure (traumatic accidents, near drown-ing, natural disasters.
26 Multidisciplinary Vision in the Teaching of Veterinary Medicine , Navarro C
The fabulous world of veterinary medicine has been uncovered years ago in history. The study of some pathologies such as canine distemper is proof of this. There are many others that without the multidisciplinary approach today would still be in a precarious situation, because since Mochizuki., et al., in 1999 described new genotypes of the ca-nine distemper virus that story changed.This brief report does nothing but improve the current multidisciplinary approach of Veterinary Medicine, today more important considering the concept of One Health.
27 Heart and Cancer: Rare Events or Protective Events as a New Medical Hypothesis , Ahed J Alkhatib
It is rarely to diagnose cancers in heart, and this, in turn, led to critical questions about this phenomenon. One of hypotheses has focused on developmental biology in which the body through cross-talks decided that heart is very crucial to the body and its roles can’t be replaced.
28 Hypertrophic Osteopathy in a Two-years-old Belgian Shepherd Associated with a Pantoa agglomerans Infective Endocarditis , Del Fabbro N, Dulieu FBJ, Magnan S, Cotrel AGG, Trombini GB, Girardet SJ and Ginesta JJJ
The association of an infective valvular endocarditis and a hypertrophic osteopathy in a young dog is considered as rare. The latter case is usually due to an intra-thoracic lesion but the association with a cardiac disease has only been reported in a few numbers of cases. A 2 years old Belgian shepherd military dog is presented to the French Army Referral Center, 24th Veterinary Group of Suippes, for an hypertrophic osteopathy due ton an infective valvular endocarditis caused by Pantoea agglomerans, confirmed by a blood culture. To our acknowledgement, it is the first published case of dog infection by Pantoea agglomerans, an emerging, zoonotic, soil related and nosocomial bacteria in human infectious diseases
29 Proventriculitis in Chickens , Mohamed M Amer
The proventriculus is the first part of a bird's stomach, where digestive enzymes are secreted and mixed with food before it goes to the gizzard. Proventriculus is a rod shaped glandular organ secretes hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen, where food is stored and/or starts the digestion processes with enzymes. Proventriculitis is a diseased condition characterized by enlargement of the proventriculus and weakness of the gastric isthmus. The disease is associated with retarded growth and low feed conversion. Broiler in the slaughterhouse, during evisceration the af-fected proventriculus can rupture, causing the spread of its contents into the body cavity and contamination of the carcass, further increasing the incidence of condemnation and economical losses. Several agents have been incriminated single and/or in combination, as a possible cause of proventriculitis including noninfectious causes (oral exposure to biogenic amines, mycotoxins, low dietary fiber, and high copper sulfate) and infectious causes [adenovirus, Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), reovirus, Marek's disease virus, Chicken proventricular necrosis virus (CPNV), clostridium and Macrorhabdus ornithogaster (megabacterium)]. The objective of this article is to summarize literature written about Proventriculitis to be available to students, researchers, and veterinarians in poultry practical
30 Observations on the Influence of Ration Quality on the Efficiency of Dietary Protein Utilisation for Milk Versus Meat Production in Friesians , J B Moran
From previously published research undertaken by the author over four years in two countries, the data generated in animal pro-duction studies on the beef or dairy performance of well fed and managed Friesian bulls or cows has been compared. The efficiency of utilisation of dietary protein retained in the carcasses of Friesian bulls fed one of two diets was monitored as was the efficiency of dietary protein for milk protein production in lot fed Friesian cows and heifers fed one of four diets. In both studies, the diets varied in the concentration of cereal grains or other high energy constituents. Generating such animal protein in the form of milk protein is 6 to 7 times faster and 2 to 3 times more efficient than retaining protein in the animal carcass. For intensively managed Friesian bulls, this would be equivalent to growth rates of over 6 kg/head/day together with double their voluntary feed intakes, both feats physiologically impossible
31 Chicken Intestinal Microbiota , Mohamed M Amer
Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ISSN: 2582-3183) Volume 3 Issue 5 May 2021Chicken Intestinal MicrobiotaMohamed M Amer* Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt*Corresponding Author: Mohamed M Amer, Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.Short CommunicationReceived: April 22, 2021Published: April 28, 2021© All rights are reserved by Mohamed M Amer.The gastrointestinal (GI) tract considered as one of the largest exposed surface in the body. The GI tract acts as a selective barrier between bird’s tissues and its luminal environment. The GI barrier is composed of many factors including physical, chemical, immu-nological, and microbiological components
32 Obesity’s Importance to Equidae and its Consequences , Rodrigo Martins Ribeiro and Debora da Silva Freitas Ribeiro
Obesity is defined by Word Health Organization as an abnor-mal or excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in the body [1]. According to Body Condition Score (BCS) developed by Henneke., et al. (1983), horses and ponies with BCS 7 can be considered over-weight and BCS 8 or 9 are considered obese
33 The Use of Animal Models in Type 1 Diabetes Studies: Promising Results in Animals and Defects in Human Outcomes , Ahed J Alkhatib
In this editorial, I would like to make a focus in a problem we are experienced in diabetes type 1 between basic research and clini-cal outcomes when we came to apply in human patients. Studies that have conducted using animal models to induce diabetic type 1 depend usually on the use of alloxan or streptozotocin (STZ) to chemically damage pancreatic cells (β cells). Various therapeutic options including herbs of medical use such as Urtica species and metformin were used to treat diabetic animals with good results. Coming to humans, no therapeutic options gave good results. A big question came to the mind of researcher, where is the defect?
34 Dry Matter Yield and Chemical Composition of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Varieties as Animal Feed in the South Omo Zone of South-western Ethiopia , Denbela Hidosa and Sintayehu Kibret
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) species is leguminous herbaceous forage primarily used as feed for livestock due to high protein content and digestible fibers. This study was initiated to evaluate dry matter yield and chemical composition of four Alfalfa varieties grown under rain fed condition in a randomized completed block design in factorial arrangement having three locations (On-station of Jinka Agricultural Research Center, Shama-Bulket and Chali) and four varieties(DZ409, DZ407, DZ local and D5533) with three replications per variety. Data on dry matter yield, cutting height above ground, leaf to stem ratio and chemical compositions were analyzed using the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS. The higher (P > 0.05) dry matter yield (5.20 t ha-1) was recorded for DZ local variety and whereas, the lowest dry matter yield (3.74 t ha-1) was recorded for DZ5533 variety. The higher (P < 0.001) Crude Protein (220.98 g/Kg, DM) obtained from DZ409 variety and whereas, the lowest (P < 0.001) Crude protein (180 g/Kg, DM) obtained from DZ local variety. Based on the result from this study we concluded that farmers and agro-pastoralists could enhance the feed availability for increased livestock production in the study area by planting DZ local alfalfa variety and DZ409 variety for higher dry matter yield and Crude Protein respectively.
35 Isolation and Molecular Detection of Rota Virus Associated with Calves, in Central Oromia, Ethiopia , Umer Seid, Fufa Dawo, Asamino Tesfaye, Melaku Sombo and Munera Ahmednur
Epidemiological study, conducting of the diagnostic tests, clinical observation and molecular Detection of the causative agent is important for prevention and control of the diseases. Diarrheal disease in calves caused rotavirus which the most common pathogen. Despite the fact that, the effect of rotavirus which was cause calves diarrhea in Ethiopia are not fully understood. A cross-sectional study was undertaking with the purpose of isolation and molecular detection of rotavirus in calves from central part of Oromia (Bish-oftu, Sebata, Holeta and Addis Ababa), Ethiopia from November 2018 to May 2019. The study sites were selected purposively and fecal samples were collected for detection of rotavirus by using antigen detection Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) kit. The associated risk factors of rotavirus infection were also studied. Different farm levels (floor of the calf) and calf level (sex, age) factors were measured the level of association between variables. In the current study, 245 (83 diarrheic and 162 non-diarrheic) fecal samples were collected from calves less than 1 month of age and then samples were screened for presence of rotavirus infec-tion. From 83 diarrheic samples, 6 (7.2%) samples were found positive for rotavirus antigen by Ag-ELISA. But all 162 non-diarrheic samples were negative for rotavirus infection. 2.45% (6/245) were an overall prevalence of rotavirus in calves. All samples (6) of ELISA test positive were propagated in Madin Darby Bovine Kidney Cell (MDBK cells). After 3 continuous passages, progressive cytopathic effect (CPE) of 4 sample (66.7%) were founded. For detection of rotavirus by molecular technique, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to show the occurrence of rotavirus by using specific generic primers for VP4 genetic regions in feces samples. From 6 sample which was positive by ELISA, only Four samples, were develop CPE on cell culture and positive on RT-PCR technique. In male calves the peaked of infection prevalence was obtained at first and second weeks of age. Rotavirus which was lead diarrheal disease in calves have zoonotic importance, decreased weight of calves and increased mortality. So, the current study showed rotavirus disease in calves in Ethiopia that should be solved by practicing early colostrum feeding in newborn calves and improving husbandry system of livestock.
36 Chemical Composition of Seed Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb from Jalisco, México , J Jesús Vargas-Radillo, Rubén Rosales Ramírez and Lucía Barrientos Ramírez
Mature seeds of Enterolobium cyclocarpum were sampled from two locations with physiographic and edaphoclimatic differences, in the state of Jalisco, México. The ground seeds of E. cyclocarpum was then analyzed. Nutritional value was evaluated by proximate analysis; amino acids by HPLC; and minerals through absorption spectrophotometry. Different nutritional value was obtained in each sampled locality. In particular crude proteins was high, with 19.56 and 30.34 (g/100 g dm) in each of the sampling areas. Alike, the aminoacids content showed variation by sampling area, although in most cases, higher value than the daily requirements suggested in the amino acid scoring patterns from the FAO/WHO/ONU reports. In terms of the mineral content of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium, copper, showed difference between both sampling sites, which appear to be directly related to the quality of the sandy loamy.
37 Review on Epidemiological Distribution of Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in Ethiopia , Firaol Bekele and Abdissa Lemma
Bovine viral diarrhea virus(BVDV) is an infectious and contagious agent of cattle which cause high economic losses because of decline in production performance and it may also result in mortality. The disease is caused by Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) a member of the Pestivirus genus within the family Flaviviridae and there is no known health risk to humans from this virus. It causes diarrhea, anorexia, pyrexia, oral erosion, abortion, congenital defects, poor growth, depression, fever, immunesuppression and death in animals. Animals which persistantly infected (PI) can harbor this virus for all of their life and shed it without any clinical sign. The diagnostic approaches used to detect BVDV infections are the detection of viral components (direct tests) and detection of immune response to BVDV (indirect tests). PI animal elimination can highly mitigate the spread of the virus and control strategy which in-cludes vaccination and strict prevention of the introduction of BVDV in previously uninfected herds. BVDV has huge impact on dairy industry by high economic losses due to decline in performance and mortality of animals and considered as a serious threat to the livestock production worldwide. The major strategies for prevention and control of this virus include isolating new animals before introducing them to the herds, culling repeat breeders, elimination of persistently infected (PI) animals, enhanced immunity through vaccination, and implementation of insecurity measures
38 Literature Review on Avian Influenza Virus Prevalence in Birds and Humans , Ibsa Abrahim Umar and Abduleziz Jemal
Avian influenza viruses are now widely recognized as important threats to agricultural biosecurity and public health, and as the potential source for pandemic human influenza viruses. Human infections with avian influenza viruses have been reported from Asia (H5N1, H5N2, H9N2), Africa (H5N1, H10N7), Europe (H7N7, H7N3, H7N2), and North America (H7N3, H7N2, H11N9). Direct and indirect public health risks from avian influenza are not restricted to the highly pathogenic H5N1 “bird flu” virus and include low pathogenic as well as high pathogenic strains of other avian influenza virus subtypes, e.g. H1N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, and H9N2. Research has shown that the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic was caused by an H1N1 influenza virus of avian origins, and during the past decade, fatal human disease and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed among persons infected with H5N1 and H7N7 avian influenza viruses. Our ability to accurately assess and map the potential economic and public health risks associated with avian influenza outbreaks is currently constrained by uncertainties regarding key aspects of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influ-enza viruses in birds and humans, and the mechanisms by which highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are transmitted between and among wild birds, domestic poultry, mammals, and humans.
39 Multidisciplinary Vision in the Teaching of Veterinary Medicine , Navarro C
The fabulous world of veterinary medicine has been uncovered years ago in history. The study of some pathologies such as canine distemper is proof of this. There are many others that without the multidisciplinary approach today would still be in a precarious situation, because since Mochizuki., et al., in 1999 described new genotypes of the ca-nine distemper virus that story changed.This brief report does nothing but improve the current multidisciplinary approach of Veterinary Medicine, today more important considering the concept of One Health
40 Case Control Study of Avian Coccidiosis in Commercial Poultry , Saima Parveen, Altaf Mahmood, Tanveer Hussain, Sajid Umar, Ayesha Azad, Nosheen Shoukat, Mirza Muhammad Arsalan Azam, Nosheen Akhtar Malik, Zubia Malik, Shujjah Haider and Syed Muhammad Kamal Nasir
Commercial poultry sector is one of the most important segments of global trade and production. Coccidiosis, a worldwide disease of economic importance, significantly influences the production potential of this sector. To decrease the prevalence and consequent economic losses, identification of factors, which influence the frequency and persistence of illness, is pre requisite. A retrospective case control study was conducted for a period of one year in order to identify the risk factors associated with coccidiosis infection. Total of 70 broiler and 15 layer flocks of varying age and population sizes were selected as cases. For each case flock, one apparently healthy flock of similar breed, age and population size was also selected as control. Data of these 85 case control pair flocks regarding disease incidence and associated factors, recorded from January through December 2018, were analyzed for measures of association. Monsoon season, no vaccination, broiler breed, winter season, post monsoon season, spring season, open shed, wet litter, ≤ 4 weeks age, coccidiostat excluded feed and crowding appeared as putative risk factors exhibiting significant (P < 0.05) association with coc-cidiosis infection by odds ratios of 2.88, 3.35, 3.66, 5.70, 6.77, 7.12, 8.14, 8.50, 9.28, 9.33 and 11.40 respectively. Non-significant (P > 0.05) association of coccidiosis infection was recorded with layer breed and scarce flushing with odds ratios of 0.73 and 0.94 respec-tively. Incidence and persistence of coccidiosis infection in commercial poultry population is significantly influenced by management and seasonal factors
41 Short Review on Histoplasmosis , Abduleziz Jemal, Milion Shiferaw and Mogos Mokonin
Histoplasmosis is an infection disease that caused by fungus which is called Histoplasma capsulatum. It was found in the en-vironment, especially in soil that contains large amounts of bird populations and bat droppings, and enters in to the body by inhala-tion and affects primarily the lungs
42 Review on Epidemiology, Prevention and Control of FMD , Hailemariam Adugna Getahun
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly devastating and debilitating viral disease of the cloven-hoofed animals and considered as a serious threat to the livestock industry worldwide. Worldwide 70 countries are officially recognized by the OIE as FMD free ir-respective of vaccination, while India along with around 100 other countries are still considered as endemic or sporadic zones. The disease is most important in cattle and pigs but goats, sheep, buffaloes in India and llama in South America are also affected. The virus is resistant to external influences including common disinfectants and the usual storage practices of the meat trade. Following an acute disease, affected animals shed the virus in all the body secretions and excretions (including exhaled air) like saliva, nasal and lachrymal fluid, milk, urine, feces and semen. Preventive measures in the absence of disease should be implemented as Control of national borders to prevent significant movement of animals and livestock products from non-free neighbors or trade partners. Currently FMD is widely prevalent and distributed in all areas of Ethiopia, although the level of the disease prevalence may show significant variations across the different farming systems and agro-ecological zones of the country. Endemic distributions of five of seven serotypes of FMDV are maintained in the country and Serotypes O, A, C, SAT1 and SAT2 were responsible for FMD outbreaks during 1974–2007). The most dominant serotype is O, accounting for 72% of the investigated outbreaks occurring in the country. Global eradication of FMD in the world include control by eradication, strengthens veterinary services, and control and prevention of other diseases. The main challenges faced during the FMD eradication are the virus related challenges, economic considerations of FMD enzootic considerations, and social and political challenges
43 Milk Lactoferrin: A Future Biomolecule for Livestock Species , Tanveer Hussain
Lactoferrin, a pleiotropic and multivalent natural protein, derived from milk of livestock species, has become the center of attention in current scientific era due to its diverse biological activities and functions. It is an 80kDa single chain glycoprotein containing two lobes N-lobe and C-lobe, packed together with the hydrophobic connections with iron binding sites. Lactoferrin can be derived from multiple sources however it has found in higher quantities in milk of livestock animals especially bovine and camel. In bovine milk, it varies from 1.5 to 485.3 μg/mL [1] but colostrum has higher amount about 1-5 mg/mL [2] and lactoferrin concen-tration in camel milk is reported from 0.02 to 7.28 mg/mL [3]. The major purpose of milk-derived lactoferrin is because of its cost-ef-fective acquisition and it has been found that animal milk derived lactoferrin showed more activity and therapeutic potential than human lactoferrin.
44 Transmission of Rabies by Consuming Meat of Rabid Animal , Hailemariam Adugna Getahun
Rabies is a fatal deadly zoonotic virus which is transmitted by biting of infected animals. It causes the inflammation of brains, comma and death of animals and humans. The virus can affect the body when it enters the peripheral nervous system (PNS) directly and migrates to the brain. It replicates within muscle tissue, where it is safe from the host’s immune system. From here, it enters the nervous system through the neuromuscular junctions.
45 Evaluation the Prevalence of Ovine Worms in and Around Injibara , Hailemariam Adugna
A cross sectional study was carried out from November 2019 to April 2020 with the objective of determining the prevalence and identifying the species of ovine lungworm occured in Injibara, Awi zone. Faecal examinations were carried out in 384 sheep with the Associated factors of age, body condition score and sexes. In the study period 152 male and 232 female were selected. A total preva-lence of 35.9% was found by Modified Beremannes technique examinations. These animals were infected by different types of spe-cies namely D. filaria (17.18%), P. rufescens (7.27%), M. capillaries (5.46%) and Mixed infection was observed in 4.42% of the cases. D. filaria (17.18) was the highest predominant species in the study area. In the study period Females have higher prevalence (39.2%) than males (30.9) and younger sheep are highly infected (44.3%) than adult sheep (30.5). Even if high prevalence was observed in females and younger animals, there was no significant difference between the age and sex variables (P > 0.05). A significance dif-ference was observed in body conditions (poor, 71.4%, medium, 33.4%, good, 28.2%) i.e. p < 0.05 for body condition variable. This research indicated that the ovine lungworm is an important disease in farmers those participated in livestock production in the area. High infestation of ovine lungworm in the area needs high engrossment to reduce the impact of the problems and due to its side effect on livestock production; concentration should be provided for the control and prevention of lung worm infection in the study area.
46 Advancement of Genome Editing in Livestock , Ramneet Kaur
Genome editing is an efficient tool that can significantly modify the genome of an organism to attain desired endogenous gene alteration and integrated exogenous gene insertion. Genetic engi-neering of livestock has proven difficult. The development of ge-netically modified livestock remained hindered due to the short-age of embryonic stem (ES) cells [1,2]. In the mouse, targeted gene deletion can be conducted in ES cells, and then the ES cells contain-ing the desired genotypes can be implanted into recipient blasto-cysts to produce chimeric mice that can pass the genotype to the germline. As a result of the success of this technique, the mouse has become the primary model in biomedicine for elucidating the role of target genes
47 Health Management for People and Pets during COVID-19 , Dodds W Jean
During the present worldwide pandemic, companies are mar-keting to the heightened public anxiety about SARS-CoV-2 and its disease COVID-19 [1]. These concerns not only affect human popu-lations but also impact upon the companion animal pets that share their lives. Commercial companies are profiting from selling a myriad of safety and sanitizing supplies as well pet face coverings. One pet mask company reported that sales spiked 500%. However, a recent February 2021 survey from market research company, Packaged Facts, said that “40% of pet product shoppers claimed they shopped online more for pet products due to the impact of COVID-19”. But,the company also pointed out that this uptick in e-commerce shopping in the United States pet industry won’t be reversed even as restrictions are increasingly lifted and the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines become more widely available, because consum-ers have become acclimated to the ease and convenience of online ordering [2]
48 Light-Trap Catch of Macrolepidoptera Individuals and Species in Connection with the Geomagnetic Disturbed (D), Quiet (Q) and Usual (U) Nights , Nowinszky L, Puskás J and Kiss M
This paper engages in relationship with geomagnetism and light-trap catch of moths (Lepidoptera). We found correspondence between disturbed (D), quiet (Q) and usual (U) days and light trapped individuals and species. The light trap caught the most individuals on disturbed nights and the number of species was also the highest in the spring and summer aspects. They were unfavourable, however, for catching the quiet nights. Individuals of the autumn aspect species flew to the light in larger amounts on the usual nights.
49 Impact of Krishi Vigyan Kendra Training on Knowledge Gain and Farmers Adoption Behaviour , Shardul Vikram Lal, N Anand Laxmi, Y Ramakrishna and Augustine Jerard
The study conducted in Dukenagar village of North and Middle Andaman district. The study was taken up here because Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Nimbudera ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research Institute is carrying out development activities related to livestock. It was observed that people of this village were not aware of practices related to poultry for efficient poultry production. The data was collected from 24 respondents covering the main areas of Dukenagar village. Based on the response to field studies carried out in the month of June 2020, the training and demonstration activities were undertaken for respondents in Dukenagar vil-lage (n = 24) for rearing of Vanaraja birds. Evaluation of knowledge level of participants for the best practices in backyard poultry farming on Vanaraja chickens revealed increase in knowledge level after the training programme. The demonstration on backyard farming of Vanraja birds resulted in higher growth performance of birds compared to local chick population. The benefit cost ratio after the demonstration for backyard farming of Vanaraja was 2.18 compared to local backyard chickens which was only 1.30. It was noted that percent change in adoption of best practices in backyard poultry farming was as follows; 1. separation of sick birds (56%) followed by 2 deworming (42%), 3. storage of eggs in refrigerator (38%), 4. rearing of Vanraja birds (29%), 5. vaccination (25%), 6. artificial incubation (25%), 7. use of litter material (21%), 8. artificial brooding (13%) and 9. night shelter (8%). In conclusion, the training programme conducted for skill development, resulted in increase in knowledge and skill level of participants on scientific practices of backyard poultry.
50 Study on the Use of Resveratrol as an Adjuvant in Cancer Therapy , Diana Mihaela Alexandru, Ana-Maria Coman, Maria Iuliana Gruia2and Maria Crivineanu
Chemotherapy, the most widely used therapy in oncology, leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which often gener-ates adverse effects in patients. To reduce the oxidative stress due to either the action of cytostatics or pathological tumour mecha-nisms, we analyzed the effectiveness of antioxidants. The use of antioxidants as adjuvant therapy can improve the therapeutic effects by potentiating the antitumour action of cytostatics and reducing their toxicity to healthy tissues.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of resveratrol administered 3 days after Epirubicin in Wistar rats inoculated with Walker tumour 256. In our experiment we evaluated three indices of oxidative stress and found that the lowest values were recorded at the group receiving resveratrol, thus emphasizing the beneficial antioxidant action of resveratrol.
51 The Veterinarian and the Public Health , Juliana Shimara Pires Ferrão
The veterinarian is considered by many to be just a dog and cat doctor. However, today, this has been shown to be different. It is known that the occupation area of a veterinarian is very wide, since he acts for the health and well-being of animals and human beings and for the environment sustainability
52 Surgical Correction of Umbilical Hernia in Buffalo Calf: A Case Report , Dhurba DC and Ranjana Ranabhat
A four month old male buffalo calf with the history of bulge type swelling found at the point of umbilicus was brought to United Veterinary Center, Hetauda, Makawanpur, Nepal. Clinical examination revealed a reducible type small bulge mass with 4 fingers length and 3 fingers breadth hernial ring. Other clinical parameters were within the normal physiological limit. The case was corrected surgically by means of herniorrhaphy.
53 Use of Larva Meal as an Alternate Protein Source to Soya Bean and Fish Meal in Backyard Poultry in Low Income Areas of Country , Rana Umar Tayyab, Nasir Iqbal and Hamza Jawad
All areas of a country can never be same so as the residents at different localities. Backyard poultry is a source of edible protein source for the low-income area residents that they can earn by sell-ing in the high demand areas of the country. Larva meal is a cheap and rich source of protein diet. It contains crude protein (CP) = 43% - 60%, unsaturated fatty acids = 27% - 75% and metaboliz-able energy (ME) = 24 MJ/kg DM. They also contain minerals like potassium, calcium, phosphorous, and zinc [1,2]. They are used in feeding poultry, fisheries, piglets and research is being done for its use in ruminants. Commonly black soldier fly and housefly larvae are used. Larva meal can replace soy bean meal and fish meal from 27 to 100% depending upon the specie of the animal [3,4]. They can be used as fresh and live in backyard poultry as well as killed and dried to be mixed with other feed.1kg of larva biomass can be produced from 2kg of substrate biomass
54 Use of Larva Meal as an Alternate Protein Source to Soya Bean and Fish Meal in Backyard Poultry in Low Income Areas of Country , Rana Umar Tayyab, Nasir Iqbal and Hamza Jawad
All areas of a country can never be same so as the residents at different localities. Backyard poultry is an edible protein source for the low-income area residents that they can earn by selling in the high demand areas of the country. Larva meal is a cheap and rich source of protein diet. It contains crude protein (CP) = 43% - 60%, unsaturated fatty acids = 27% - 75% and metabolizable energy (ME) = 24 MJ/kg DM. They also contain minerals like potassium, calcium, phosphorous, and zinc. They are used in feeding poultry, fisheries, piglets and research is being done for its use in the ruminants. Commonly Black Soldier Fly and Housefly larvae are used. Larva meal can replace soy bean meal and fish meal from 27 to 100% depending upon the species of the animal. They can be used as fresh and live in backyard poultry as well as killed and dried to be mixed with other feed. 1kg of larva biomass can be produced from 2 kg of substrate biomass. Black Soldier Fly (BSF) and Housefly larvae are commonly used. Housefly has lifecycle of 10 days as com-pared to that of Black Soldier Fly that has life cycle of 45 days. Moreover, Black Soldier Fly is native to U.S.A, South and North America whereas Housefly is found everywhere. So, it is convenient to use Housefly to produce larva. The ideal temperature for larva produc-tion is 30° to 40°C and moisture content of air is 75%. Housefly larva can be best reared on substrates like poultry droppings, cow manure, rotten fruits and vegetables, animal offal. In this activity wheat bran and cotton seed cake are used. Then larva is harvested either by floatation method or by screening method. After harvesting, larva can be killed by boiling or using NaCl and then dried in oven or sun. There is need to commercialize it and persuade investors to invest in larva production making it a productive industry that will help backyard poultry industry
55 Conservation and Genetic Improvement of Gir Cattle , Vikramjit Singh and Poonam Choudhary
Livestock are the best insurance against the vagaries of nature like drought, famine and other natural calamities. India’s livestock sector is one of the largest in the world it has 56.7% of world’s buffaloes, 12.5% cattle, 20.45% small ruminants, 2.4% camel, 1.4% equine, 1.5% pigs and 3.1% poultry (FAOSTAT, 2015). The total livestock population has decreased by about 3.33% over the previous census. There are fourty three (43) recognized breeds of cattle in India, in addition to large number of non-descript cattle (NBAGR, 2019). In recent times, several of the indigenous breeds suffered decline mainly due to their becoming uneconomical. Draught breeds utility has decreased because of mechanization in agriculture. The indigenous breeds have following merits over exotic breeds viz: Better disease resistance than exotic breeds, more suitable for low input management system, Survive better in local environment, Suitable for draught work and in addition to this existence of superior indigenous breeds can provide valuable research inputs for developing superior breeds. It is therefore im-portant that Indigenous breeds of cattle are conserved, developed and proliferated. Cattle and buffalo genetic improvement will be done taking into consideration the farmers needs, market and agro climate and simultaneously conserving the livestock, biodiversity.
56 Feline Prepucial Urethrostomy , Carretto Gustavo Roberto, Vitale Verónica, Mangione Mauro, Rizzo Magdalena and Ugarte Gabriel
A male feline of 9 years of age with clinical signs of hematuria/dysuria is received and bearing in mind that this is not the first episode it is decided to perform a prep t urethrostomy, This is a permanent surgical procedure, which could be used as an alternative to perineal urethrostomy in felines. It is indicated for the treatment of tumor pathologies, severe trauma, stenosis caused by repeated catheters, relapses of urethral blockages by urinary sediments or lithos.
57 Thoracic Synostosis Associated with Secondary Scoliosis in Arabian Horse Foal , Ahmed F Almomany and Musa A Alshehabat
Congenital or acquired skeletal malformations of the vertebral column of horses are very rare in horses. Thoracic synostosis associated with scoliosis is a rare condition in equine practice. Synostosis is fusion of two or more bones while scoliosis is lateral curvature of the spine. We are reporting thoracic synostosis associated with scoliosis in an Arabian filly. Physical examination revealed obvious deviation of the thoracic section to the left side. Observational gait analysis did not show any gross abnormalities. Neurological examination showed no neurological deficits in the fore or the hind limbs. Radiography was essential to characterize the malformations which showed synostosis of the thoracic vertebrae (T11, T12 and T13). Follow up evaluation of the foal, in six months, did not demonstrate any worsening in gait or neurological status and showed the filly is still ambulating normally. The owner instructed not to ride or work the presented foal. Furthermore, owner was instructed not to breed the foal.
58 Computational and Molecular Characterization of Surface Proteins Neuraminidase and Haemagglutinin from Egyptian Isolates of Avian Influenza H5N1 Subtype , Soliman YA, Maha AN Gamal and Eman MS El-Nagar
Avian influenza isolated from different Egyptian governorate during the period of 2010-2017 have been computationally evaluated for the B-cell and T-cell epitope mapping and MHC II binding sequence prediction. The ten studied isolates showed limited variation on the level of deduced amino acid for the N1 gene, on the other hand H5 gene showed much wider variation. Many B – and T- cell epitopes have been predicted for both H5 and N1 proteins which spanning nearly the entire sequence. B- Cell epitopes have been seen within the cleavage site thus the generated antibody clone might hinder the cleavage of haemagglutinin by the cellular protease and prevent viral entry. Different T- cell epitopes found on the N1 protein can stimulate IFN-γ production and hence inhibit viral replication. These data explain the power of genetic vaccine coding for both H5 and N1 to elucidate high protection rate with minimal shedding level
59 Retrospective Study on Dental Affections in Horses of Equestrian Clubs and their Possible Treatment , Mostafa M Kassem, Ahmed S Korittum and Ahmed S Raslan
The present work was carried out in the period between “March 2015 to December 2016” the total number of examined horses was 354 horses, 92 horses 26% had dental affections including 52 Equestrian horses, 34 Riding horses, 6 Funeral dragging horses. These horses were of both sexes and their ages were ranged between 3 years up to 22 years old. The examined horses were collected from Armed Equestrian club, El Gzera club, El haram farms, Cairo stadium, El Shams club and Wadi Degla club.The horses were divided according to usage into 3 groups, first group was used as equestrian horses, second group was used as riding horses and third group was used as funeral dragging horses. First group involved 52 equestrian horses, 49 male horses and 3 female ones. Second group involved 34 riding horses, 13male horses and 21 female ones. Third group involved 6 funeral dragging horses, they all are male horses.The examined horses in this study were subjected to comprehensive study including history, type of horse (Equestrian, Riding and Funeral dragging), the time of last floating, post treatment care and follow-up. The prevalent dental affections in equestrian clubs that were found are dental tartar 81.52%, sharp enamel points 42.39%, dental caries 35.86%, periodontal disease 19.57%, rostral hook 16.30%, diastmata (diastasis dentium) 16.30%, incisor tooth fracture 6.52%, parrot mouth 3.26%, bit seat 3.26%, caudal hook 3.26% and canine tooth fracture 1.087%. Periodical examination is essential in detection and treatment of dental affections; furthermore, using of power float, mouthwashes, curetting of teeth and extraction of teeth gave good results in treatment of these dental affections Neglecting the treatment of dental tartar, sharp enamel points, dental caries, periodontal disease, diastmata, bit seat and caudal hook resulted in some complications as equine colic and ulcer.
60 Emergency Case of Failure in Spay Surgery , Hazem Karem Shafik
A nine years old female cat had been operated a spay surgery due to pyometra but after a week it attempt to our clinic due to looking unwell and continuous moaning due to pain and the surgical suture had lost also the wound is not fine.
61 Impact of Body Condition Score on Performance of Sahiwal Cattle , Vikramjit Singh1, Poonam Choudhary and Arun Kumar Jhirwal.
Livestock plays a pivotal role in the Indian economy. About 70% of India’s population is dependent on agriculture and livestock associated activities. Animal husbandry is probably the most im-portant amalgamated activity providing a means of instant cash to farmers and thus plays a vital role in socio-economic life of live-stock farmers in India. Economical and balanced feeding of live-stock for optimum production is extremely important. The value of milk group stands at Rs. 7,58,417 crores and the livestock sector contributes nearly 4.9% to India’s GDP. India has an enormous livestock population and it ranks 1st in cattle population and milk production too by contributing 21.29% of total milk production throughout world. The total milk production of India stands at 187.7 million tonnes in 2018-19. Cows provide 47.85 % of milk production in India with a production of 89.83 million tonnes in 2018-19. The population of milch Non-descript/Indigenous ani-mals stands at 35.17 million in 2019 and the milk production from these Non-descript/Indigenous cows is 38.57 million tonnes.
62 Ethnoveterinary Practices of Wild Medicinal Plants in Pakistan: A Review , Muhammad Jamil Ahmed, Farooq Ahmed and Javaid Qayyoom Swati.
Today, ethnic communities throughout the world retain sound indigenous ethnoveterinary knowledge and mainly depend on medicinal plants as alternative treatments for various livestock ailments. The present review aims to provide the current compilation of wild medicinal plant species practiced as ethnoveterinary herbal medicine by traditional societies of Pakistan. Data was gathered from online databases regarding ethnoveterinary studies in Pakistan from 2000 - 2018. The botanical name, families, parts used, method of administration and diseases treatments were presented by literature review. The literature search revealed a total of 255 wild plant species belonging to 203 genera and 88 families were being in common use to cure 17 categories of livestock diseases. The highest number of wild plant of Asteraceae, followed by Fabaceae, Lamiaceae Euphorbiaceae, Polygonaceae and Solanaceae were used as ethnoveterinary herbal medicine. The most privilege diseases were abdominal worm, mastitis, ague, foot and mouth diseases, skin diseases, lungs and respiratory disorder. Worms’s infestation and parasitic ailments were treated with 67 plant species followed by gastrointestinal ailments, reproductive ailments and miscellaneous category accounted for 66, 43 and 29 species respectively. The highly consumed parts of plant were leaves (29.59%) followed by whole plants (15.98%), aerial parts (10.65%), roots (10.65%) and fruits (8.28%). It is suggested that, the present review will serve as databank and stimulate further pharmacological, clinical investigation for novel drug discovery from natural resource and benefited worldwide.
63 Animal Welfare during Pandemics , Hamza Jawad, Nasir Iqbal, Ayesha Sadiq, Zubair Luqman, Sadaf Aslam, Naveed Hussain and Suwaibatul Annisa.
Simple definition of animal welfare is how does the animal feel? In this CoVID-19 pandemic, animal welfare has become an important aspect of our lives, including pets, livestock and laboratory animals. The dangers posed to animals during COVID-19 should be considered not only from a welfare point of view but also from a zoonotic point of view. Prolonged lockdown has greatly reduced food resources for animals. Due to misconceptions such as COVID-19 can spread by animals the owners of the animals keep themselves away from the animals which has a negative impact on the welfare of the animals. This is situation is worrying for all of us that so far the welfare of animals in lockdown situations has not been mentioned in the media. Effective experiments, including emotionality, are subjective, so they cannot be measured in animals, but the information contains indirect physical and behavioral indicators that can be used carefully to interpret such experiments. There are many forms of animal cruelty such as neglect of animals, misuse of animals, exploitation of animals and testing of animals. People are cruel to animals everywhere. Animals are emotional creatures that deserve our respect and protection. New research is very necessary to find out the present reasons of animal abuse and cruelty during pandemics. We can prevent animal cruelty by raising public awareness about the absence of COVID-19 zoonosis in every community.
64 Assessing the Effectiveness of Acoustic Enrichment for ‘Settling’ Sanctuary Hens , Kirsty Mccalden
The aim of this study was to establish whether certain forms of acoustic enrichment improve settling behaviour in laying hens to a greater extent than others. Based on acoustic enrichments previously applied to captive animals, three acoustics were involved: classical music, white noise and radio. Due on previous findings, it was hypothesised that hens would display more settled (inactive) behaviour when exposed to classical music than when exposed to white noise or radio. It was also hypothesised that hens would display more settled (inactive) behaviour when exposed to white noise than to radio, due to its unpredictable nature. Testing involved one group of 15 laying hens in a Northern Ireland hen rescue centre. Hens were exposed to randomised acoustics (including a control) for 30 minutes, during four consecutive per week, for four consecutive weeks. Video observations were used to assess the level of active and inactive behaviour during exposure as well as overall settling time. No statistically significant results were found in three of four observed behaviours; perching, preening on the perch, lying/sitting on the perch. However, findings appeared to indicate less activity in hens during exposure to white noise, compared to classical music and radio. Therefore, the first hypothesis was rejected. In contrast to expectations, this study appeared to provide support for previous theories of species-specificity regarding classical music. A statistically significant result was found for standing behaviour on the perch which provided support for the second hypothesis. Post-hoc analysis indicated that a higher proportion of observed hens displayed standing behaviour during radio exposure, compared to the control (p = .012). This allowed the second hypothesis to be accepted as hens generally appeared to display less active behaviour overall during exposure to white noise, and statistically more active behaviour during radio exposure. Somewhat conflicting findings emerged in regards to overall setting. 80% of hens settled in a shorter time during radio exposure, than during exposure to white noise. This was also the case when measured at 90%. Although this finding was insignificant it highlights a need for further, more precise research.
65 Wellbeing of Veterinary and Medical Students during COVID-19 Pandemic , Hamza Jawad, Hiba Qasir, Nasir Iqbal, Javeria Azhar, Arooba Mubeen and Muhammad Affaq Azhar.
COVID-19 (coronavirus diseases 2019) has caused a high rate of anxiety, depression, alcoholism and stress in veterinary and medical students. Prolonged closures have created a financial crisis for students. The poor quality of the online education system is not meeting the needs of these students. Many people suffer from psychological distress due to economic losses and loneliness. This review summarizes data from recent research papers that sheds light on the concerns of veterinary and medical students during the COVID-19 lockdown. Suggestions for future pandemics are also summarized. Medical and veterinary education system need new research on teaching methods, especially from a clinical point of view. In addition to improving the quality of online education in preparation for future crises, student well-being should also be considered to mitigate social crises. Because this COVID-19 pandemic has severely damaged the performance of students in academic and social life. More research is needed to improve the veterinary and medical education system during any.
66 Improving Livestock Production Using Auxiliary Reproductive Biotechnology , Hamza Jawad, Nasir Iqbal, Ayesha Sadiq, Zubair Luqman, Sadaf Aslam, Naveed Hussain, Suwaibatul Annisa and Hiba Qasir.
From the beginning, many reproductive techniques have been used in domestic animals to achieve the desired goals. These goals include: Increasing reproductive and productive efficiency, improved genetic makeup of farm animals, reducing the risk of diseases and injury, producing resistance against climate and infectious agents, and research. Major Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) discussed in this brief review are, Artificial Insemination (AI), Estrus Synchronization, Superovulation, Semen Sexing, Cryopreservation, and Embryo Transfer (ET). Artificial insemination is the most basic and widely used technique for improving genetics and increasing conception rate. Estrus synchronization is the technique in which the selected females are targeted to come in heat (estrus) simultaneously in a brief period using different protocols. Super-ovulation is producing multiple ova at a single time using many combinations of hormones. Semen Sexing, as the name implies, is a method in which sperms are sorted out, using different techniques, to gain animal of desirable sex. In Cryopreservation, long-term preservation of living cells and tissues is done at a very low temperature (conventionally -196 ͦC) without compromising the structural and functional integrity of the preserved specimen. Embryo transfer involves producing and collecting embryos in donor animals and then implanting them in recipients. Reproduction is the backbone of any livestock enterprise, and to achieve remarkable results, the use of Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) is inevitable. This mini review article will provide a brief comparison of such great reproductive biotechnological methods which are using in livestock farming.
67 Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Germinated Maize on Hematological Parameters of Kadaknath Layers , Akhelesh Kumar Karoriya, Archana Jain, Chouhan Laxmi, MK. Mehta and Rakesh Kumar.
The present research work was undertaken to find out the effect of supplementation of germinated maize at different levels on hematological parameters of Kadaknath layers started from day old stage. The experiment was done on a total number of 128, day old chicks (DOC) of Kadaknath breed belonging to same hatch. On arrival, the chicks were weighed and equally distributed randomly into four treatment groups T0, T1, T2 and T3 with 32 chicks each. Each group was divided into four replicates of 8 chicks each. The control group T0 was given commercial maize - DOC soya based diet. The treatment groups T1, T2 and T3 were given diet containing germinated maize at 50%, 75% and 100% levels of the cereal component, respectively. The experimental chicks were vaccinated against the prescribed schedule of vaccination. All the chicks were housed in deep litter system in the well ventilated and lighted rooms and the feed was given ad lib with plenty of fresh water. Five birds were separated from each group on 30 days, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 days for collection of about 2 - 3 ml of blood in EDTA and non EDTA vials for hematological analysis. All observations were analyzed by using ANOVA to compare different treatment groups. There were a significant (P < 0.01, P < 0.05) increase in all hematological parameters such as total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in all the treated groups as compared to control from values taken every 30 days up to 240 days of age.
68 Knowledge; Hygienic Practice among Milk and Cottage Cheese Handlers in Districts of Gamo and Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia , Edget Abayneh, Minale Getachew, Wasihun Seyoum and Ephram Tora.
A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Arba Minch Zuria and Demba Gofa districts of Gamo and Gofa Zone of the Southern nation nationalities and people’s regional state with the objectives of assessing knowledge of hygienic practice of milk and cheese handlers in both study area. For this a total of 102 farmers who involved in milking, collecting and retailing of milk were included in the study area. Data obtained from questionnaire survey were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Chi-square test, using the Statistical package for social science (SPSS Version 17). The participants of this study were woman of different age group and 27 (52.9%) of participants in Arba Minch Zuria and 32 (64.7%) in Demba Gofa were >36 years old. The majority of participants 21 (41.2%) and 22 (43.1%) were educated up to grade 1-8 in Arba Minch Zuria and Demba Gofa, respectively. This had an impact on hygienic practice of milking and milk handling. The difference in hygienic handling, training obtained and cheese making practice among the study areas were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was also a statistically significant difference in hand washing and utensil as well as manner of washing between the two study areas (p < 0.01). Finally this study revealed that there were no variation in Antibiotic usage and Practice of treating sick animal in both study area (p > 0.05) with significant difference in Prognosis, Level of skin infection and Selling practice among study participants in both study areas (p < 0.05). Good manufacturing; handling practice as well as hygienic milking and cleaning practice should be improved in both study areas.
69 Ovine Tunica Albuginea as Xenograft for Cystoplasty in Rats , Natasha Nogueira Ferreira, Cecília Ribeiro Castañon, Fellipe Ferreira Lemos de Medeiros, Fernanda Moreira da Silva, Bruna Scalzilli, Tábata Maués, Carla Ferreira Farias Lancetta, Viviane Alexandre Nunes Degani and Maria de Lourdes Gonçalves Ferreira.
The purpose of this study was to prove the conserved ovine tunica albuginea (OTA) as a practicable and adequate biomaterial for bladder scaffolds even as its histopathological cicatrization aspects. The conserved heterologous OTA implant was experimentally used for cystoplasty in 20 Wistar rats. The operated bladder areas of all rats from test (n = 20) and simulation (n = 20) groups were examined macroscopically and histologically at 7, 14, 2, 8 and 42 postoperative days. Test group animals underwent partial cystectomy followed by cystoplasty with OTA graft application, and simulation group rats to partial cystectomy. There was no mortality in any group, and all animals showed good post-surgery recovery. Bladders histopathological analysis showed that the test group obtained more intensive blood vessels and had the first signs of total regeneration earlier than the simulation group. Our findings pointed that macroscopic and histological results, easiness of surgical technique and graft availability, OTA can be used as an alternative biomaterial graft for bladder wall reconstruction in rats which represent a valuable animal model to comparative studies with the human being and other species.
70 COVID 19 and the Veterinary Community , Varghese Samuel Mathai
We would have never thought of Living through pandemic let alone having one in this lifetime. COVID-19 has presented us with a lot of unprecedented circumstances, loss of loved ones and a chance to retrospect on the inadequacies of veterinary-human medicine interactions.
71 Study on Prevalence of Toxocara canis in Stray and Pet Dogs of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal , Sabina Lamsal and Rakesh Prajapati
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Toxocara canis in street and pet dogs in Kathmandu valley and to understand the associated risk factors for Toxocara canis (T. canis) infestations in dogs and to assess the awareness on canine helminth zoonoses among pet owners. A cross-sectional study was carried out from February to April 2019 within Kathmandu valley, Nepal. A total of 110 faecal samples were randomly collected from 55 pet and street dogs each per-rectally via the faecal loop. Wisconsin centrifugation flotation method was used to examine the presence of T. canis eggs. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 55 dog owners. Descriptive statistics were calculated using IBM © SPSS statistics version 22 and MS-Excel 2016. We found that 13.64% dogs (15/110) were found for T. canis. Comparatively, prevalence was higher in stray dogs than in pet dogs (20% versus 7.27%); dogs below one year 13.95%; in female dogs 15.63%; in dog getting in contact with other dogs 10.53%; in non-dewormed dogs 23.08%. Out of 55 pet owners surveyed, 41.82% were aware that they can get diseases from dogs but only 14.55% of the owners had some idea about canine helminth zoonoses. T. canis being the parasite having high zoonotic significance, there is a need to carry out awareness programs to educate pet owners regarding canine zoonoses and on appropriate anthelmintic treatment. A viable system should be in place to maintain stray dogs such as animal birth control programs which will help to reduce the prevalence of T. canis among street dogs.
72 Seasonal Cytokine Production and Combinatorial Effect of Recombinant Cytokines and Melatonin on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Proliferation , Amaresh Kumar Singh and Chandana Haldar
The immune system is influenced by various internal (like hormones) and external (environmental: seasons) factors in which melatonin plays a vital role. Melatonin modulates seasonal immunity by influencing the cell-mediated immune function like cytokine secretion and cellular proliferation in rodents, however, there is a lack of information that how melatonin modulates the secretion of different cytokines in different seasons and directs the cellular proliferation in presence of specific cytokine. Therefore, in the present study, we elucidated the effect of seasonal melatonin variation on peripheral cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α) level and proliferative response (%SR) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The effect of recombinant cytokines (rIL-2, rIL-6, and rTNF-α) on the proliferative response of PBMCs was also noted in presence of melatonin under in vitro condition. As a result, we observed that high endogenous melatonin causes an increased level of IL-2, and IL-6 and down-regulates TNF-α during the winter season. Melatonin significantly modulates the proliferative response of PBMCs in presence of rIL-2, rIL-6 and rTNF-α by enhancing the immunomodulatory effect of rIL-2 and rIL-6 and by diminishing immunosuppressive effect of rTNF-α in goat. In conclusion, we may propose that melatonin maintains immune-homeostasis by modulating circulatory cytokines levels during different seasons. Melatonin might influence the secretion of immunomodulatory cytokine (i.e. IL-2 and IL-6) and also regulate the immuno-inhibitory action of TNF-α to modulate cell-mediated immune function.
73 Assessment on Poisonous Plants of Livestock and their Impacts on Livestock Producers in Wondo Genet, Sidama Zone, South Nation Nationalities and People Regional State, Ethiopia , Abdallahi Abdurehman, Shimelis Mengistu, Nigusie Barassa, Nuredin Mohammed, Fayisa Aliye and Mohammed Jafer
This study was conducted in Wondo Genet, Sidama Zone, SNNPRS, Ethiopia from November 2017 to May 2018 to assess toxic plants which well-known among society of the area, potential to cause intoxication of livestock and its significant impacts on livestock producers. Totally, 300 individuals composed of 260 animal owners, 15 animal health practitioners, 13 especially selected knowledgeable people and 12 traditional animal healers were interviewed based on structured questioner. Out of 300 individuals 245 (81.7%) were declared the existence of poisonous plants. During assessment of presence of impacts on livestock producers in different ways 110 (44.9%) of them complained its presence but 135 (55.1%) only heard such impacts from the others and knew the presence of such plants and some information about it. During field visit 30 poisonous plants that suggested by those respondents were collected. From these plants, Amaranthus spp. Aspera (21.2%), Oxalis corniculate (17.6%), Prunus africana (10.2%), “gaggassa’’ (local name) (8.6%), ‘‘haruufichcho’’ (grass sp.) (8.2%), Euphorbia cotinifolia (3.7%), Ricinus communis (3.3%), Brucea antidysenterica (2.9%), Lantana camara (2.5%), Medicago sativa (2.5%) were complained as cause of toxicity frequently. Season of the year and reason why animal consume the poisonous plants were some of conditions which known to aggravate the exposure of livestock to poisonous plants. In this study, rainy season was documented as main season of the year plant poisoning occur and purposeful consumption also accounts majority from reasons why animal consume. The study also indicate that bovine was more susceptibly for number of poisonous plants 25 (83.3%) and followed by ovine for 18 (60.0%), caprine for 17 (56.7%), equine for 4 (13.3%) and all livestock species for 2 (6.7%) as suggested. Bloat, diarrhea, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, skin lesion/irritation or alopecia, vomiting, abortion, photosensitization, bloody urine and death are mainly and frequently raised adverse effects of poisonous plants. As this assessment shows, there are poisonous plants and impacts on livestock producers at study area; that needs involvement of responsible individuals to do further studies on identification of poisonous plant and extraction of ingredients in it and find solution to alleviate the outcome of poisonous plants.
74 Problem Free Pets: A New Model for Companion Animal Veterinary Care , Lowell Ackerman
The current model of companion animal veterinary practice tends to be reactive, often waiting for animals to become ill before pet owners seek veterinary care. By helping to establish appropriate pet owner expectations regarding the care of their animals, veterinary teams can be more proactive and focus on prevention, wellness, and better control of chronic diseases
75 Regression of Symptoms of Trypanosomosis in Mice Dosed Cotrimoxazole-Antivirt®{Al4(SiO4)3 + 3Mg2SiO4 → 2Al2Mg3(SiO4)3} Formulation , MCO Ezeibe, MI Ezeja, CA Akpan, FIO Onyeachonam, ME Sanda, IJ Ogbonna, E Kalu, NU Njoku and MI Udobi
Protozoa require Folic acid for replication and Cotrimoxazole inhibits synthesis of the B-vitamin. So, the drug could be effective for treatment of trypanosomosis (tropical protozoan disease of man and animals). To improve efficacy of such treatment on symptoms of the disease, a formulation of the medicine and The Medicinal synthetic Aluminum-magnesium silicate (Antivirt®) was used to treat mice. Cotrimoxazole improved (P ≤ 0.05) PCV, RBC and HB in uninfected mice (from 47.60 ± 0.51, 7.93 ± 0.09 and 15.87 ± 0.17 to 59.60 ± 0.51, 9.93 ± 0.09 and 19.93 ± 0.12) and in trypanosome-infected mice (from 34.75 ± 0.48, 5.79 ± 0.08 and 11.67 ± 0.14 to 37.67 ± 0.88, 6.28 ± 0.15 and 12.56 ± 0.29) but it worsened fever in trypanosome-infected mice (from rectal temperature: 36.30 ± 0.35 to 46.27 ± 0.79). Stabilizing the drug with Antivirt® reduced (P ≤ 0.05) that adverse effect (fever) from temperature of 46.27 ± 0.79 to 39.50 ± 0.29. Weight of the mice remained approximately (P ≥ 0.05) same in all the groups. Formulation of Cotrimoxazole (anti-protozoan) and Antivirt® could be a new medicine for trypanosomosis (sleeping sickness).
76 The Potential Role of Epigenetics in the Welfare and Behavior of Mammals. , Ricardo Zanella
The term “epigenetic” was introduced by Conrad Waddington in the early 1940s who have suggested the involvement of exter-nal agents in the modulation of the individuals' epigenotype. Since then, several studies have benefited and strengthened with this knowledge. Among them, we can mention the enormous progress of evolutionary studies, developmental biology, and cancer re-search, which have broken enormous barriers, explaining pheno-types not caused by Mendelian inheritance.
77 On-site diagnosis for Infectious Diseases , Barkha Sharma
On site test or Penside or Point-of-care testing (POCT) also known as portable test, field test refers to laboratory testing per-formed on the site, in the proximity of the patient so that prompt and accurate diagnosis can be made and adequate treatment can be given to the patient well in time. Thus, it aims to bring the labo-ratory at the door step of the patient, for the convenience of the doctor as well as the patient. Various rapid diagnostic test/tools with variable sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis of important infectious diseases have been developed to facilitate on field diag-nosis of various diseases in humans as well as in animals. Standard laboratory procedures like blood culture, high-throughput immu-noassays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mass spectrom-etry (MS), which have been hitherto relied upon for their accurate results usually take much longer time and sophisticated laborato-ries with costly equipments and trained people.
78 Artificial Intelligence and Pandemics , Deeptivet
Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human in-telligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. It is also known as Machine Intelligence which is any device that perceives its environment and takes ac-tions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. An intelligent agent should be skilled in perception, practical reasoning and have an ability to take action to achieve its goals. It incorporates the skills required to pass the Turing Test, which assesses whether a machine can think like a human? AI makes it possible for machines to learn from experience, adjust to new inputs and perform human-like tasks. The goals of artificial in-telligence include learning, reasoning, and perception.
79 Review on Auromanes Disease , Abduleziz Jemal Hamido
The genus Aeromonas consists of Gram-negative, oxidase posi-tive bacilli that are considered of aquatic environments and are commonly isolated from clinical and environmental samples. Typi-cal habitats for these bacteria are freshwater (ground water, lakes, rivers and reservoirs), chlorinated and un-treated drinking water, bottled water, swimming pools, wastewater, reclaimed waters, brackish waters, and seawater. Aeromonas spp. Can produce sever-al diseases in wild and farmed freshwater and marine fish species impacting the economy of the aquaculture sector. Most common human clinical presentations of Aeromonas infections are diarrhea, wound and soft-tissue infections and bacteremia. Many infections are related to water exposure (traumatic accidents, near drown-ing, natural disasters.
80 Multidisciplinary Vision in the Teaching of Veterinary Medicine , Navarro C
The fabulous world of veterinary medicine has been uncovered years ago in history. The study of some pathologies such as canine distemper is proof of this. There are many others that without the multidisciplinary approach today would still be in a precarious situation, because since Mochizuki., et al., in 1999 described new genotypes of the ca-nine distemper virus that story changed.This brief report does nothing but improve the current multidisciplinary approach of Veterinary Medicine, today more important considering the concept of One Health.
81 Heart and Cancer: Rare Events or Protective Events as a New Medical Hypothesis , Ahed J Alkhatib
It is rarely to diagnose cancers in heart, and this, in turn, led to critical questions about this phenomenon. One of hypotheses has focused on developmental biology in which the body through cross-talks decided that heart is very crucial to the body and its roles can’t be replaced.
82 Hypertrophic Osteopathy in a Two-years-old Belgian Shepherd Associated with a Pantoa agglomerans Infective Endocarditis , Del Fabbro N, Dulieu FBJ, Magnan S, Cotrel AGG, Trombini GB, Girardet SJ and Ginesta JJJ
The association of an infective valvular endocarditis and a hypertrophic osteopathy in a young dog is considered as rare. The latter case is usually due to an intra-thoracic lesion but the association with a cardiac disease has only been reported in a few numbers of cases. A 2 years old Belgian shepherd military dog is presented to the French Army Referral Center, 24th Veterinary Group of Suippes, for an hypertrophic osteopathy due ton an infective valvular endocarditis caused by Pantoea agglomerans, confirmed by a blood culture. To our acknowledgement, it is the first published case of dog infection by Pantoea agglomerans, an emerging, zoonotic, soil related and nosocomial bacteria in human infectious diseases
83 Proventriculitis in Chickens , Mohamed M Amer
The proventriculus is the first part of a bird's stomach, where digestive enzymes are secreted and mixed with food before it goes to the gizzard. Proventriculus is a rod shaped glandular organ secretes hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen, where food is stored and/or starts the digestion processes with enzymes. Proventriculitis is a diseased condition characterized by enlargement of the proventriculus and weakness of the gastric isthmus. The disease is associated with retarded growth and low feed conversion. Broiler in the slaughterhouse, during evisceration the af-fected proventriculus can rupture, causing the spread of its contents into the body cavity and contamination of the carcass, further increasing the incidence of condemnation and economical losses. Several agents have been incriminated single and/or in combination, as a possible cause of proventriculitis including noninfectious causes (oral exposure to biogenic amines, mycotoxins, low dietary fiber, and high copper sulfate) and infectious causes [adenovirus, Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), reovirus, Marek's disease virus, Chicken proventricular necrosis virus (CPNV), clostridium and Macrorhabdus ornithogaster (megabacterium)]. The objective of this article is to summarize literature written about Proventriculitis to be available to students, researchers, and veterinarians in poultry practical
84 Observations on the Influence of Ration Quality on the Efficiency of Dietary Protein Utilisation for Milk Versus Meat Production in Friesians , J B Moran
From previously published research undertaken by the author over four years in two countries, the data generated in animal pro-duction studies on the beef or dairy performance of well fed and managed Friesian bulls or cows has been compared. The efficiency of utilisation of dietary protein retained in the carcasses of Friesian bulls fed one of two diets was monitored as was the efficiency of dietary protein for milk protein production in lot fed Friesian cows and heifers fed one of four diets. In both studies, the diets varied in the concentration of cereal grains or other high energy constituents. Generating such animal protein in the form of milk protein is 6 to 7 times faster and 2 to 3 times more efficient than retaining protein in the animal carcass. For intensively managed Friesian bulls, this would be equivalent to growth rates of over 6 kg/head/day together with double their voluntary feed intakes, both feats physiologically impossible
85 Chicken Intestinal Microbiota , Mohamed M Amer
Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ISSN: 2582-3183) Volume 3 Issue 5 May 2021Chicken Intestinal MicrobiotaMohamed M Amer* Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt*Corresponding Author: Mohamed M Amer, Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.Short CommunicationReceived: April 22, 2021Published: April 28, 2021© All rights are reserved by Mohamed M Amer.The gastrointestinal (GI) tract considered as one of the largest exposed surface in the body. The GI tract acts as a selective barrier between bird’s tissues and its luminal environment. The GI barrier is composed of many factors including physical, chemical, immu-nological, and microbiological components
86 Obesity’s Importance to Equidae and its Consequences , Rodrigo Martins Ribeiro and Debora da Silva Freitas Ribeiro
Obesity is defined by Word Health Organization as an abnor-mal or excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in the body [1]. According to Body Condition Score (BCS) developed by Henneke., et al. (1983), horses and ponies with BCS 7 can be considered over-weight and BCS 8 or 9 are considered obese
87 The Use of Animal Models in Type 1 Diabetes Studies: Promising Results in Animals and Defects in Human Outcomes , Ahed J Alkhatib
In this editorial, I would like to make a focus in a problem we are experienced in diabetes type 1 between basic research and clini-cal outcomes when we came to apply in human patients. Studies that have conducted using animal models to induce diabetic type 1 depend usually on the use of alloxan or streptozotocin (STZ) to chemically damage pancreatic cells (β cells). Various therapeutic options including herbs of medical use such as Urtica species and metformin were used to treat diabetic animals with good results. Coming to humans, no therapeutic options gave good results. A big question came to the mind of researcher, where is the defect?
88 Dry Matter Yield and Chemical Composition of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Varieties as Animal Feed in the South Omo Zone of South-western Ethiopia , Denbela Hidosa and Sintayehu Kibret
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) species is leguminous herbaceous forage primarily used as feed for livestock due to high protein content and digestible fibers. This study was initiated to evaluate dry matter yield and chemical composition of four Alfalfa varieties grown under rain fed condition in a randomized completed block design in factorial arrangement having three locations (On-station of Jinka Agricultural Research Center, Shama-Bulket and Chali) and four varieties(DZ409, DZ407, DZ local and D5533) with three replications per variety. Data on dry matter yield, cutting height above ground, leaf to stem ratio and chemical compositions were analyzed using the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS. The higher (P > 0.05) dry matter yield (5.20 t ha-1) was recorded for DZ local variety and whereas, the lowest dry matter yield (3.74 t ha-1) was recorded for DZ5533 variety. The higher (P < 0.001) Crude Protein (220.98 g/Kg, DM) obtained from DZ409 variety and whereas, the lowest (P < 0.001) Crude protein (180 g/Kg, DM) obtained from DZ local variety. Based on the result from this study we concluded that farmers and agro-pastoralists could enhance the feed availability for increased livestock production in the study area by planting DZ local alfalfa variety and DZ409 variety for higher dry matter yield and Crude Protein respectively.
89 Isolation and Molecular Detection of Rota Virus Associated with Calves, in Central Oromia, Ethiopia , Umer Seid, Fufa Dawo, Asamino Tesfaye, Melaku Sombo and Munera Ahmednur
Epidemiological study, conducting of the diagnostic tests, clinical observation and molecular Detection of the causative agent is important for prevention and control of the diseases. Diarrheal disease in calves caused rotavirus which the most common pathogen. Despite the fact that, the effect of rotavirus which was cause calves diarrhea in Ethiopia are not fully understood. A cross-sectional study was undertaking with the purpose of isolation and molecular detection of rotavirus in calves from central part of Oromia (Bish-oftu, Sebata, Holeta and Addis Ababa), Ethiopia from November 2018 to May 2019. The study sites were selected purposively and fecal samples were collected for detection of rotavirus by using antigen detection Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) kit. The associated risk factors of rotavirus infection were also studied. Different farm levels (floor of the calf) and calf level (sex, age) factors were measured the level of association between variables. In the current study, 245 (83 diarrheic and 162 non-diarrheic) fecal samples were collected from calves less than 1 month of age and then samples were screened for presence of rotavirus infec-tion. From 83 diarrheic samples, 6 (7.2%) samples were found positive for rotavirus antigen by Ag-ELISA. But all 162 non-diarrheic samples were negative for rotavirus infection. 2.45% (6/245) were an overall prevalence of rotavirus in calves. All samples (6) of ELISA test positive were propagated in Madin Darby Bovine Kidney Cell (MDBK cells). After 3 continuous passages, progressive cytopathic effect (CPE) of 4 sample (66.7%) were founded. For detection of rotavirus by molecular technique, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to show the occurrence of rotavirus by using specific generic primers for VP4 genetic regions in feces samples. From 6 sample which was positive by ELISA, only Four samples, were develop CPE on cell culture and positive on RT-PCR technique. In male calves the peaked of infection prevalence was obtained at first and second weeks of age. Rotavirus which was lead diarrheal disease in calves have zoonotic importance, decreased weight of calves and increased mortality. So, the current study showed rotavirus disease in calves in Ethiopia that should be solved by practicing early colostrum feeding in newborn calves and improving husbandry system of livestock.
90 Chemical Composition of Seed Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb from Jalisco, México , J Jesús Vargas-Radillo, Rubén Rosales Ramírez and Lucía Barrientos Ramírez
Mature seeds of Enterolobium cyclocarpum were sampled from two locations with physiographic and edaphoclimatic differences, in the state of Jalisco, México. The ground seeds of E. cyclocarpum was then analyzed. Nutritional value was evaluated by proximate analysis; amino acids by HPLC; and minerals through absorption spectrophotometry. Different nutritional value was obtained in each sampled locality. In particular crude proteins was high, with 19.56 and 30.34 (g/100 g dm) in each of the sampling areas. Alike, the aminoacids content showed variation by sampling area, although in most cases, higher value than the daily requirements suggested in the amino acid scoring patterns from the FAO/WHO/ONU reports. In terms of the mineral content of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium, copper, showed difference between both sampling sites, which appear to be directly related to the quality of the sandy loamy.
91 Review on Epidemiological Distribution of Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in Ethiopia , Firaol Bekele and Abdissa Lemma
Bovine viral diarrhea virus(BVDV) is an infectious and contagious agent of cattle which cause high economic losses because of decline in production performance and it may also result in mortality. The disease is caused by Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) a member of the Pestivirus genus within the family Flaviviridae and there is no known health risk to humans from this virus. It causes diarrhea, anorexia, pyrexia, oral erosion, abortion, congenital defects, poor growth, depression, fever, immunesuppression and death in animals. Animals which persistantly infected (PI) can harbor this virus for all of their life and shed it without any clinical sign. The diagnostic approaches used to detect BVDV infections are the detection of viral components (direct tests) and detection of immune response to BVDV (indirect tests). PI animal elimination can highly mitigate the spread of the virus and control strategy which in-cludes vaccination and strict prevention of the introduction of BVDV in previously uninfected herds. BVDV has huge impact on dairy industry by high economic losses due to decline in performance and mortality of animals and considered as a serious threat to the livestock production worldwide. The major strategies for prevention and control of this virus include isolating new animals before introducing them to the herds, culling repeat breeders, elimination of persistently infected (PI) animals, enhanced immunity through vaccination, and implementation of insecurity measures
92 Literature Review on Avian Influenza Virus Prevalence in Birds and Humans , Ibsa Abrahim Umar and Abduleziz Jemal
Avian influenza viruses are now widely recognized as important threats to agricultural biosecurity and public health, and as the potential source for pandemic human influenza viruses. Human infections with avian influenza viruses have been reported from Asia (H5N1, H5N2, H9N2), Africa (H5N1, H10N7), Europe (H7N7, H7N3, H7N2), and North America (H7N3, H7N2, H11N9). Direct and indirect public health risks from avian influenza are not restricted to the highly pathogenic H5N1 “bird flu” virus and include low pathogenic as well as high pathogenic strains of other avian influenza virus subtypes, e.g. H1N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, and H9N2. Research has shown that the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic was caused by an H1N1 influenza virus of avian origins, and during the past decade, fatal human disease and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed among persons infected with H5N1 and H7N7 avian influenza viruses. Our ability to accurately assess and map the potential economic and public health risks associated with avian influenza outbreaks is currently constrained by uncertainties regarding key aspects of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influ-enza viruses in birds and humans, and the mechanisms by which highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are transmitted between and among wild birds, domestic poultry, mammals, and humans.
93 Multidisciplinary Vision in the Teaching of Veterinary Medicine , Navarro C
The fabulous world of veterinary medicine has been uncovered years ago in history. The study of some pathologies such as canine distemper is proof of this. There are many others that without the multidisciplinary approach today would still be in a precarious situation, because since Mochizuki., et al., in 1999 described new genotypes of the ca-nine distemper virus that story changed.This brief report does nothing but improve the current multidisciplinary approach of Veterinary Medicine, today more important considering the concept of One Health
94 Case Control Study of Avian Coccidiosis in Commercial Poultry , Saima Parveen, Altaf Mahmood, Tanveer Hussain, Sajid Umar, Ayesha Azad, Nosheen Shoukat, Mirza Muhammad Arsalan Azam, Nosheen Akhtar Malik, Zubia Malik, Shujjah Haider and Syed Muhammad Kamal Nasir
Commercial poultry sector is one of the most important segments of global trade and production. Coccidiosis, a worldwide disease of economic importance, significantly influences the production potential of this sector. To decrease the prevalence and consequent economic losses, identification of factors, which influence the frequency and persistence of illness, is pre requisite. A retrospective case control study was conducted for a period of one year in order to identify the risk factors associated with coccidiosis infection. Total of 70 broiler and 15 layer flocks of varying age and population sizes were selected as cases. For each case flock, one apparently healthy flock of similar breed, age and population size was also selected as control. Data of these 85 case control pair flocks regarding disease incidence and associated factors, recorded from January through December 2018, were analyzed for measures of association. Monsoon season, no vaccination, broiler breed, winter season, post monsoon season, spring season, open shed, wet litter, ≤ 4 weeks age, coccidiostat excluded feed and crowding appeared as putative risk factors exhibiting significant (P < 0.05) association with coc-cidiosis infection by odds ratios of 2.88, 3.35, 3.66, 5.70, 6.77, 7.12, 8.14, 8.50, 9.28, 9.33 and 11.40 respectively. Non-significant (P > 0.05) association of coccidiosis infection was recorded with layer breed and scarce flushing with odds ratios of 0.73 and 0.94 respec-tively. Incidence and persistence of coccidiosis infection in commercial poultry population is significantly influenced by management and seasonal factors
95 Short Review on Histoplasmosis , Abduleziz Jemal, Milion Shiferaw and Mogos Mokonin
Histoplasmosis is an infection disease that caused by fungus which is called Histoplasma capsulatum. It was found in the en-vironment, especially in soil that contains large amounts of bird populations and bat droppings, and enters in to the body by inhala-tion and affects primarily the lungs
96 Review on Epidemiology, Prevention and Control of FMD , Hailemariam Adugna Getahun
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly devastating and debilitating viral disease of the cloven-hoofed animals and considered as a serious threat to the livestock industry worldwide. Worldwide 70 countries are officially recognized by the OIE as FMD free ir-respective of vaccination, while India along with around 100 other countries are still considered as endemic or sporadic zones. The disease is most important in cattle and pigs but goats, sheep, buffaloes in India and llama in South America are also affected. The virus is resistant to external influences including common disinfectants and the usual storage practices of the meat trade. Following an acute disease, affected animals shed the virus in all the body secretions and excretions (including exhaled air) like saliva, nasal and lachrymal fluid, milk, urine, feces and semen. Preventive measures in the absence of disease should be implemented as Control of national borders to prevent significant movement of animals and livestock products from non-free neighbors or trade partners. Currently FMD is widely prevalent and distributed in all areas of Ethiopia, although the level of the disease prevalence may show significant variations across the different farming systems and agro-ecological zones of the country. Endemic distributions of five of seven serotypes of FMDV are maintained in the country and Serotypes O, A, C, SAT1 and SAT2 were responsible for FMD outbreaks during 1974–2007). The most dominant serotype is O, accounting for 72% of the investigated outbreaks occurring in the country. Global eradication of FMD in the world include control by eradication, strengthens veterinary services, and control and prevention of other diseases. The main challenges faced during the FMD eradication are the virus related challenges, economic considerations of FMD enzootic considerations, and social and political challenges
97 Milk Lactoferrin: A Future Biomolecule for Livestock Species , Tanveer Hussain
Lactoferrin, a pleiotropic and multivalent natural protein, derived from milk of livestock species, has become the center of attention in current scientific era due to its diverse biological activities and functions. It is an 80kDa single chain glycoprotein containing two lobes N-lobe and C-lobe, packed together with the hydrophobic connections with iron binding sites. Lactoferrin can be derived from multiple sources however it has found in higher quantities in milk of livestock animals especially bovine and camel. In bovine milk, it varies from 1.5 to 485.3 μg/mL [1] but colostrum has higher amount about 1-5 mg/mL [2] and lactoferrin concen-tration in camel milk is reported from 0.02 to 7.28 mg/mL [3]. The major purpose of milk-derived lactoferrin is because of its cost-ef-fective acquisition and it has been found that animal milk derived lactoferrin showed more activity and therapeutic potential than human lactoferrin.
98 Transmission of Rabies by Consuming Meat of Rabid Animal , Hailemariam Adugna Getahun
Rabies is a fatal deadly zoonotic virus which is transmitted by biting of infected animals. It causes the inflammation of brains, comma and death of animals and humans. The virus can affect the body when it enters the peripheral nervous system (PNS) directly and migrates to the brain. It replicates within muscle tissue, where it is safe from the host’s immune system. From here, it enters the nervous system through the neuromuscular junctions.
99 Evaluation the Prevalence of Ovine Worms in and Around Injibara , Hailemariam Adugna
A cross sectional study was carried out from November 2019 to April 2020 with the objective of determining the prevalence and identifying the species of ovine lungworm occured in Injibara, Awi zone. Faecal examinations were carried out in 384 sheep with the Associated factors of age, body condition score and sexes. In the study period 152 male and 232 female were selected. A total preva-lence of 35.9% was found by Modified Beremannes technique examinations. These animals were infected by different types of spe-cies namely D. filaria (17.18%), P. rufescens (7.27%), M. capillaries (5.46%) and Mixed infection was observed in 4.42% of the cases. D. filaria (17.18) was the highest predominant species in the study area. In the study period Females have higher prevalence (39.2%) than males (30.9) and younger sheep are highly infected (44.3%) than adult sheep (30.5). Even if high prevalence was observed in females and younger animals, there was no significant difference between the age and sex variables (P > 0.05). A significance dif-ference was observed in body conditions (poor, 71.4%, medium, 33.4%, good, 28.2%) i.e. p < 0.05 for body condition variable. This research indicated that the ovine lungworm is an important disease in farmers those participated in livestock production in the area. High infestation of ovine lungworm in the area needs high engrossment to reduce the impact of the problems and due to its side effect on livestock production; concentration should be provided for the control and prevention of lung worm infection in the study area.
100 Advancement of Genome Editing in Livestock , Ramneet Kaur
Genome editing is an efficient tool that can significantly modify the genome of an organism to attain desired endogenous gene alteration and integrated exogenous gene insertion. Genetic engi-neering of livestock has proven difficult. The development of ge-netically modified livestock remained hindered due to the short-age of embryonic stem (ES) cells [1,2]. In the mouse, targeted gene deletion can be conducted in ES cells, and then the ES cells contain-ing the desired genotypes can be implanted into recipient blasto-cysts to produce chimeric mice that can pass the genotype to the germline. As a result of the success of this technique, the mouse has become the primary model in biomedicine for elucidating the role of target genes
101 Health Management for People and Pets during COVID-19 , Dodds W Jean
During the present worldwide pandemic, companies are mar-keting to the heightened public anxiety about SARS-CoV-2 and its disease COVID-19 [1]. These concerns not only affect human popu-lations but also impact upon the companion animal pets that share their lives. Commercial companies are profiting from selling a myriad of safety and sanitizing supplies as well pet face coverings. One pet mask company reported that sales spiked 500%. However, a recent February 2021 survey from market research company, Packaged Facts, said that “40% of pet product shoppers claimed they shopped online more for pet products due to the impact of COVID-19”. But,the company also pointed out that this uptick in e-commerce shopping in the United States pet industry won’t be reversed even as restrictions are increasingly lifted and the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines become more widely available, because consum-ers have become acclimated to the ease and convenience of online ordering [2]
102 Light-Trap Catch of Macrolepidoptera Individuals and Species in Connection with the Geomagnetic Disturbed (D), Quiet (Q) and Usual (U) Nights , Nowinszky L, Puskás J and Kiss M
This paper engages in relationship with geomagnetism and light-trap catch of moths (Lepidoptera). We found correspondence between disturbed (D), quiet (Q) and usual (U) days and light trapped individuals and species. The light trap caught the most individuals on disturbed nights and the number of species was also the highest in the spring and summer aspects. They were unfavourable, however, for catching the quiet nights. Individuals of the autumn aspect species flew to the light in larger amounts on the usual nights.
103 Impact of Krishi Vigyan Kendra Training on Knowledge Gain and Farmers Adoption Behaviour , Shardul Vikram Lal, N Anand Laxmi, Y Ramakrishna and Augustine Jerard
The study conducted in Dukenagar village of North and Middle Andaman district. The study was taken up here because Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Nimbudera ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research Institute is carrying out development activities related to livestock. It was observed that people of this village were not aware of practices related to poultry for efficient poultry production. The data was collected from 24 respondents covering the main areas of Dukenagar village. Based on the response to field studies carried out in the month of June 2020, the training and demonstration activities were undertaken for respondents in Dukenagar vil-lage (n = 24) for rearing of Vanaraja birds. Evaluation of knowledge level of participants for the best practices in backyard poultry farming on Vanaraja chickens revealed increase in knowledge level after the training programme. The demonstration on backyard farming of Vanraja birds resulted in higher growth performance of birds compared to local chick population. The benefit cost ratio after the demonstration for backyard farming of Vanaraja was 2.18 compared to local backyard chickens which was only 1.30. It was noted that percent change in adoption of best practices in backyard poultry farming was as follows; 1. separation of sick birds (56%) followed by 2 deworming (42%), 3. storage of eggs in refrigerator (38%), 4. rearing of Vanraja birds (29%), 5. vaccination (25%), 6. artificial incubation (25%), 7. use of litter material (21%), 8. artificial brooding (13%) and 9. night shelter (8%). In conclusion, the training programme conducted for skill development, resulted in increase in knowledge and skill level of participants on scientific practices of backyard poultry.
104 Study on the Use of Resveratrol as an Adjuvant in Cancer Therapy , Diana Mihaela Alexandru, Ana-Maria Coman, Maria Iuliana Gruia2and Maria Crivineanu
Chemotherapy, the most widely used therapy in oncology, leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which often gener-ates adverse effects in patients. To reduce the oxidative stress due to either the action of cytostatics or pathological tumour mecha-nisms, we analyzed the effectiveness of antioxidants. The use of antioxidants as adjuvant therapy can improve the therapeutic effects by potentiating the antitumour action of cytostatics and reducing their toxicity to healthy tissues.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of resveratrol administered 3 days after Epirubicin in Wistar rats inoculated with Walker tumour 256. In our experiment we evaluated three indices of oxidative stress and found that the lowest values were recorded at the group receiving resveratrol, thus emphasizing the beneficial antioxidant action of resveratrol.
105 The Veterinarian and the Public Health , Juliana Shimara Pires Ferrão
The veterinarian is considered by many to be just a dog and cat doctor. However, today, this has been shown to be different. It is known that the occupation area of a veterinarian is very wide, since he acts for the health and well-being of animals and human beings and for the environment sustainability
106 Surgical Correction of Umbilical Hernia in Buffalo Calf: A Case Report , Dhurba DC and Ranjana Ranabhat
A four month old male buffalo calf with the history of bulge type swelling found at the point of umbilicus was brought to United Veterinary Center, Hetauda, Makawanpur, Nepal. Clinical examination revealed a reducible type small bulge mass with 4 fingers length and 3 fingers breadth hernial ring. Other clinical parameters were within the normal physiological limit. The case was corrected surgically by means of herniorrhaphy.
107 Use of Larva Meal as an Alternate Protein Source to Soya Bean and Fish Meal in Backyard Poultry in Low Income Areas of Country , Rana Umar Tayyab, Nasir Iqbal and Hamza Jawad
All areas of a country can never be same so as the residents at different localities. Backyard poultry is a source of edible protein source for the low-income area residents that they can earn by sell-ing in the high demand areas of the country. Larva meal is a cheap and rich source of protein diet. It contains crude protein (CP) = 43% - 60%, unsaturated fatty acids = 27% - 75% and metaboliz-able energy (ME) = 24 MJ/kg DM. They also contain minerals like potassium, calcium, phosphorous, and zinc [1,2]. They are used in feeding poultry, fisheries, piglets and research is being done for its use in ruminants. Commonly black soldier fly and housefly larvae are used. Larva meal can replace soy bean meal and fish meal from 27 to 100% depending upon the specie of the animal [3,4]. They can be used as fresh and live in backyard poultry as well as killed and dried to be mixed with other feed.1kg of larva biomass can be produced from 2kg of substrate biomass
108 Use of Larva Meal as an Alternate Protein Source to Soya Bean and Fish Meal in Backyard Poultry in Low Income Areas of Country , Rana Umar Tayyab, Nasir Iqbal and Hamza Jawad
All areas of a country can never be same so as the residents at different localities. Backyard poultry is an edible protein source for the low-income area residents that they can earn by selling in the high demand areas of the country. Larva meal is a cheap and rich source of protein diet. It contains crude protein (CP) = 43% - 60%, unsaturated fatty acids = 27% - 75% and metabolizable energy (ME) = 24 MJ/kg DM. They also contain minerals like potassium, calcium, phosphorous, and zinc. They are used in feeding poultry, fisheries, piglets and research is being done for its use in the ruminants. Commonly Black Soldier Fly and Housefly larvae are used. Larva meal can replace soy bean meal and fish meal from 27 to 100% depending upon the species of the animal. They can be used as fresh and live in backyard poultry as well as killed and dried to be mixed with other feed. 1kg of larva biomass can be produced from 2 kg of substrate biomass. Black Soldier Fly (BSF) and Housefly larvae are commonly used. Housefly has lifecycle of 10 days as com-pared to that of Black Soldier Fly that has life cycle of 45 days. Moreover, Black Soldier Fly is native to U.S.A, South and North America whereas Housefly is found everywhere. So, it is convenient to use Housefly to produce larva. The ideal temperature for larva produc-tion is 30° to 40°C and moisture content of air is 75%. Housefly larva can be best reared on substrates like poultry droppings, cow manure, rotten fruits and vegetables, animal offal. In this activity wheat bran and cotton seed cake are used. Then larva is harvested either by floatation method or by screening method. After harvesting, larva can be killed by boiling or using NaCl and then dried in oven or sun. There is need to commercialize it and persuade investors to invest in larva production making it a productive industry that will help backyard poultry industry
109 Corona Virus , Dr. Loveson Lakhani
Corona virus COVID-19 is a virus that causes disease in avian and mammals. Coronavirus effect is felt on the respiratory tract in humans. This virus may also produce infection in chicken’s up-per respiratory effect, and in pigs and cows it causes diarrhea and vomiting. Genomic size of this virus is about 30 to 35 kilobases. The first outbreak of this virus was reported in Wuhan, China in De-cember 2019 but so far over 175000 cases of COVID-19 have been recorded in more than 128 countries. The most affected countries are China, Italy, Iran and South Korea. According to world figures over 6800 people have so far died of this disease and over 75000 patients have recovered.
110 Application of Phage Therapy in Foods of Animal Origin , Firaol Bekele Bayecha
In the world people purchase and consume different types of animal source food products by considering these products is safe and free from any microbial agents which cause disease. But, every year, thousands of people get sick and loss their life due to different types of foodborne pathogens spread through foods [1].Several approaches including traditional antimicrobial meth-ods are used to help improve the safety of our foods but they have significant downside effect, such as a huge initial capital, signifi-cant damage to processing materials due to their corrosive proper-ties, and a deleterious impact on organoleptic qualities and nutri-tional content of foods [2,3].
111 Covid-19 Infection and Cardiovascular System: A-Review , Warda Mustfa and Hina Ayub
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) affects the cells by ACE, leading to infect the human respiratory system severely. Recently investigated that COVID-19 also damage the Cardiovascular System, leading to cause severe myocardial injury. The increased mortality and morbidity in COVID-19 patients are mainly because of hypertension. This paper interprets the relationship between COVID-19 with cardiovascular damage, hypertension (HTN), ACE, blood pressure, CK-MB, and Lipid Profile. Hypertension (HTN) continues to be a strong and widespread risk factor for IHD.
112 Forecast of New and Deceased Cases of COVID-19 in Cuba with an Advance of 105 Days , Ricardo Osés Rodríguez, Rigoberto Fimia Duarte, Claudia Osés Llanes, María Patricia Zambrano Gavilanes, Thaináh Bruna Santos Zambrano and Alfredo González Meneses
In this work, new cases and daily deaths of the COVID-19 pandemic affecting Cuba so far in the year 2021 were modeled. Math-ematical models were obtained by means of the methodology of Regressive Objective Regression (ROR), which explains their behav-ior, depending on 105 days in advance, a parameter which is related to a delay of 4 months. A long-term prognosis was performed, which allows taking measures in clinical services to reduce deaths and complications in patients with COVID-19. It is concluded that COVID-19, despite being a new disease in the world, can be predicted 105 days in advance by means of ROR mathematical modeling, which allows reducing the number of deceased, severe, and critical patients for better management of the pandemic. The tendency of the disease is on the rise, so the management, monitoring, and control of the disease should continue to be taken to the extreme, as established in the medical protocols. An accumulated number of 1000 deaths could be reached by August 19, 2021, and 500 deaths by April 15, 2021, according to the models run.
113 Wild Tigers are in Danger , Dr. Loveson Lakhani
As you know an estimated 3,800 tigers remain in the wild, but if we wants to secure its species for future in the world then we should protect them form many haunted men and killers. In some areas, the tiger numbers are declining because of many reasons and problems likewise, killing of tigers, holding of tigers in the cag-es, in fighting, in games but specially they sellout their organs and products in black market.
114 Role of Veterinary Professionals in the Coming Time Period of Ongoing COVID-19 Pandemic , Sanjeev Kumar
It is now more than one year since COVID-19, known as SARS-CoV-2, pandemic started at the end of December 2019 in Wuhan, a central city in China. Several variants of SARS-CoV-2 were de-tected since then. Coronaviruses belong to the order Nidoviralesin the family Coronaviridae.CoronavirinaeandTorovirinaeare two subfamilies of Coronaviridae family. Coronavirinae subfam-ily can be divided into four genera viz:Alpha-coronavirus,Beta-coronavirus,Gamma-coronavirus, andDelta-coronavirus[1].The phylogenetic analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 genome revealed that this is closely related to the Beta-coronaviruses [2]. The genome of SARS-CoV-2 is consists of positive-sense single-stranded RNA [3]. We have learned much about this virus during this period.Currently, some countries have passed or some countries are in the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Globally, there have been 177,108,695 confirmedcases ofCOVID-19andoutofwhich3,840,223deaths were reported to the world health organization (WHO) until 18 June 2021.
115 Survey on Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Disease in Aquatic Animals , Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah
In general, any factor that upsets the hemostatic balance of the living organism creates a condition called disease. VHS is a sea-sonal deadly infectious disease of fish that is most severe in late winter and early spring when the water temperature rises. It is a specific infectious disease that occurs in a fish farm establishment usually following the importation of live fish from another infected plant. The disease is caused by the VHSV virus in fish, which is a type of RNA virus that is in the form of a bullet. The causative agent is a rhabdovirus. The virus is highly sensitive to heat. At 60°C, it disappears within fifteen minutes. It survives at 0°C for 24 hours but at -20°C for a long time. The vhs virus has four types of geno-types, including genotypes 1, 2 and 3, which are mainly found in Europe and Asia and cause a severe disease in Trout are rainbow trout, and genotype 4, also known as the North American genus, has been found in wild fish on the west and east coasts of North America, and more recently in the Great Lakes Watershed.
116 Importance of Micro-nutrient Supplementation for Livestock a Mini-Review , Iqra Bano, Eva Štefková Kašparová, Hira Sajjad and Rashed Reza
Trace minerals are very much crucial for livestock health and production. They play many tasks to maintain homeostasis of ani-mal’s body including regulation of enzymatic reactions, redox biology, acting as antioxidant agents. They are also involved in boost-ing various reproductive traits of animals by improving spermatozoa quality and having an influence on the endocrine system. They also enhance immunity and fight against viral infections. Despite various health benefits still, these nutrients are highly negligible in animal’s ration. There must be an addition of trace minerals in animal ration up to a certain limit to improve animals’ health and performance. Mineral deficiencies therapeutic episodes are uncommon, and thus their relevance to research and teaching programs is scarce. In recent years, we have faced new trends in the evolution of organic and other sustainable production systems, which have not allowed or at least limited mineral supplementation to respond to ethical, health, and environmental concerns in connection with intensive farming and related health care. The current review covers various aspects of animal health and the production based on trace minerals supplementation.
117 Risks of Covid-19 Infection from Human-Non-Human Wildlife in Present Scenario , Dr. Ishita Ganguly
On the rise of Covid-19 virus globally, it is important to rise questions on human to non-human wildlife transfer of the dis-ease in present scenario. Rhinolophid bats were considered as the most potential evolutionary source for Covid-19 virus but human-to-non-human wildlife transmission (zooanthroponotic potential) has happened on numerous events, in different nations, and including a few animal groups. In any case, almost certainly, further cases in animal life will arise since numerous Covids have an expansive host range [1].
118 Fungal Infections in Animals and Humans: A Tumultuous Public Health Challenge , Dr Manuel Thomas
The past few decades has witnessed medical, veterinary and ecological excrescence of fungal diseases with a dramatic increase coupled with a myriad of pathognomonic manifestations in both animals and humans. To worsen the situation, climate change in- duced/related emergence of fungal infections is also evident irre- spective of geographical region with new host spectrum/species. The emergence of Chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis among amphibian population is the classic example in this regard which contributes extinctions of several frog species [1]. Coral reef depletion due to Aspergillus sydowii [2], mass mortalities of tur- tle by Fusarium solani [3] and white nose syndrome due to Pseu- dogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans [4] in bats are other major emerging fungal diseases worldwide in animals with crippling im- pacts. In humans, rise of immunocompromised people opens new avenues for fungal diseases which are further complicated by dia- betes and currently the COVID 19 complications. According to the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections (GAFFI), over 300 million people of all ages suffer from serious fungal diseases every year, resulting in over 13,50,000 deaths globally [5].
119 Causes Related to Renal Failure in Camel (Camillus dromedaries) , Hazem Karem Shafiek
This review article is written to describe the causes related to renal failure supported by the lab diagnosis and sometimes by Post- mortem and ultrasonography finding. Many cases were recorded with a renal failure and this common disease in Saudi Arabia and there are some causes like urine retention, Ruminal overload, long-term anti-inflammatory, cystitis, dehydration and hematuria are most common causes. In this article we will mention some cases with is lab finding and PM and sometime ultrasound examination.
120 Sudden Death of a Mare Caused by Rupture of Diaphragm , JP Kachhawa; Kapil Kachawaha;  RK Soni; Jamata Ram and Sand- eep Gautam
An 11 year old thoroughbred mare was presented in veterinary Clinical Complex of College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Bikaner with a history of abdominal pain. The mare was examined clinical and the condition is diagnosed as colic. The animal was kicking and rolling over the ground due to severe pain and treatment for colic was initiated immediately. Soon after, she was fall down and her respiratory rate increased suddenly and started trembling. She became recumbent and died within 10 minutes. A 22 cm long rent and rupture of the diaphragm was found in post mortem examination. The lungs were completely collapsed and there was severe hemothorax. The cause of death was determined to be hemorrhagic shock and asphyxia due to lungs collapse.
121 Contamination of Environment by Lead: A Threat to One Health , Subrat Kumar Dash
Lead is one of the highly toxic environmental pollutants. Con- tamination of our environment by lead is mainly due to human and industrial activities. The toxic effluents from various industries re- lease lead to the environment because of poor or non-functional waste management system. Rules regarding waste treatment and management are made only for showing purpose and industries are hardly following these rules. As a result we, the human (cre- ator of this problem) along with animals, plants, fresh water and marine life along with other living organisms in the environment are now facing the dangerous effects of lead. It is now a “one health issue” (Figure 1).
122 Effects of Replacing Inorganic Trace Minerals with Organic Ones (HimChelate-P) in Layer Diets on Production Performance, Egg Quality Traits, and Biochemical Parameters , Bhagwat Vishwanath G, Santosh Kumar V and Rangesh Paramesh
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of HimChelate-P on production performance, biochemical parameters, and egg quality parameters in BV-300 layer birds. In this study, one hundred twenty 50-week-old BV 300-layer birds were enrolled and randomly assigned to three groups, namely, T1, T2, and T3, with two replicates having 20 birds each. T1, T2, and T3 were raised on normal commercial feed and concurrently supplemented with inorganic trace minerals (ITMs) at 1000 g/ton of feed to T1 and competitor organic trace minerals (OTMs) and HimChelate-P (HC-P) at 500 g/ton of feed to T2 and T3, respectively. Hen-day egg production significantly improved following supplementation with HimChelate-P as compared with ITMs. The egg weight increased by 3.50% following supplementation with HimChelate-P compared with ITMs. A significant increase in eggshell thickness (mm) was observed in T2 (p < 0.05) and T3 (p < 0.001) on week 4 and T3 (p < 0.001) on week 5. In this study, T3 had numerical increases in serum protein, albumin, and globulin levels and the albumin–globulin ratio compared with T1. Serum copper and manganese concentrations decreased in T2 and T3 compared with T1. Moreover, the serum level of zinc decreased in T2 only. In conclusion, supplementation with HimChelate-P improves the overall health status, production performance, and egg quality parameters of BV- 300 layer birds compared with ITMs and OTMs. Hence, replacing ITM and OTM products with HimChelate-P at a dose of 500 g/ton could be recommended for augmenting production performance, improving the overall health status, and enhancing egg quality in BV 300-layer birds.
123 What can Amphibians Tell us about Environmental Health? , Roberta da Rocha Braga
Amphibians are a fascinating class of Vertebrate animals with a double life, relying on the water during their “infancy” to meta- morphose into terrestrial adult ones. More than eight thousand species are reported worldwide, and the order Anura (frogs and toads) makes up ninety percent of the total [1].
124 Tilapia Reveals: Unsustainable Management by an Organization in Charge of Sustainability , Hussein Valikhani and Milad Khosravi
After a decade, the efforts and persistence of the Iranian Fisheries Organization and Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute for introducing tilapia to the aquaculture industry paid off in Iran. Despite the contentions and resistance of the environmentalists, who believe that this introduction has destructive effects on the biodiversity and natural ecosystems as well as variant socio-econom- ic impacts, the Iranian Department of Environment granted tilapia culture license for this species to be introduced to the aquaculture of five central provinces of the country in 2018. According to some characteristics of the species such as feeding on different food resources, high reproductive potential and high ability in resisting of environmental condition and diseases, if the species intention- ally or accidentally finds the way into the natural inland water bodies from the aquaculture centers, could cause major impacts on the native species and ecosystems. Many experts agree that such unsustainable decisions reflect the structural weakness of the or- ganization at the level of management and administrative structure. After years of running this organization by non-specialists, the improvement of the current situation is strongly felt
125 Screening of Indian Pigs for Porcine Kobuvirus (PKV): Is it Matters? , Shailesh Kumar Patel, Mamta Pathak, Alok Singh, Aditya Agrawal, Jigyasa Rana and G Saikumar
The porcine kobuvirus (PKV) is suspected to cause large outbreaks of diarrhea and dehydration along with vomiting in suckling piglets with a high morbidity rate. Despite of its global importance only few studies are available on the pathology of PKV. The present study was conducted with the objective to investigate the pathology of PKV in naturally infected Indian pigs. A total of 41 intestinal content and tissue samples from dead pigs were collected from post-mortem facility of, ICAR-IVRI during April 2019 to July 2020 and subjected to histopathological examination and molecular investigation. The 3D region of PKV was amplified using RT-PCR and 3D gene based Genetic characterization of Indian isolate of the PKV was done. A total of six out of 41 necropsied piglets were found positive for the PKV with the thickening and clouding of brain meninges, congestion of brain, pneumonia along with catarrhal and haemorrhagic enteritis as common gross lesions. Mild to moderate perivascular cuffing, congestion of meningeal and cerebral ves- sels, focal gliosis and neuronophagia along with mild to severe interstitial pneumonia and emphysema was observed as common microscopic findings. Intestinal mucosa revealed severe inflammatory changes along with sloughing of villi. This study reported the first pathological investigation of PKV from Indian pigs. In addition, the molecular characterization revealed maximum identity of 91 - 93% with Chinese strain of PKV, FJ459905 and Indian isolate of PKV, MH394282. Further explorative surveillance along with epidemiological studies is highly warranted to find out the real impact of the PKV on Indian pigs.
126 Choice of Dairying in the Subcontinent: Cattle or Buffalo , Gangu Naidu Surla and P Ramesh Babu
Traditionally dairying is of three main purposes, 1. Produce male calves for plough purposes, 2. Use of dung cakes and manure for Agriculture, 3. Milk production. Modern successful dairy farm- ing includes slowly adopting farm mechanization to reduce the labor component and use of novel concepts like random checking of milk urea estimation is helpful in feed efficiency of a herd [1], and use of nitrates feeding to methane reduction on this planet (1a). The demand for Milk is an up-trend and continuous because human population growth is continuous and also to meet the gap in per-capita availability of the milk. To meet the demand, India like other countries planned the “Operation flood” program dur- ing 1970, now it became World’s first position in milk produc- tion and consumption [3]. Here the question arises, which dairy animal (cows or Buffaloes) is viable to maintain the dairy farm. Major factors to be considered to choose a cow or buffalo for milk production, based on the end-user’s choice i.e. Cow milk is better for consumption and also buffalo milk is mainly used for making milk-based products.
127 Tick Borne Virus , Dr. Loveson Lakhani and B Mathan
A malady referred to as Severe Fever with blood disease Syn- drome (SFTS), caused by a tick-borne virus, has killed seven and infected a minimum of sixty, setting off alarm bells among health officers in China. Covid-19 pandemic scenario across the globe destroying the health and economy, corona virus that has infected a lot of the eighteen million folks round the world and killed over than 600 thousand folks among seven months, China is that the 1st country wherever 1st case was rumoured and still facing the deadly health crisis however currently different virus detected by Chinese some- body that’s referred to as tick borne virus.
128 Role of Veterinarians and Livestock Owners in Achieving One Calf Per Year in Dairy Cows , Swati Ruhil
Obtaining a calf every year in a dairy herd appears to be a dif- ficult goal yet is achievable with concerted efforts of dairy farm- ers and veterinarians. The core role of dairy veterinarians remains individual animal examinations but this must be supplemented with systematic herd fertility investigation and veterinarian-led herd fertility management. This new role encompasses leading the change from clinical calls only to a planned approach to herd fer- tility, demonstrating the cost-benefits of the program, scheduling fertility management consultations, assisting the farmer in setting specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and time-limited goals. The application of such goals in dairy herds is possible when the dairy farmer is ready to adopt the newer protocols of fixing vol- untary waiting periods and applying estrus synchronization and timed inseminations with high fertility semen. For individual cows the role of the owner is increased as compared to the veterinary professional. An important consideration for the farmer is not to wait for prolonged periods of 6 months to get his cows pregnant again post calving.
129 Psychological Impacts of COVID-19 , RA Bhat1, S Gulzar, A Muhee, MI Yatoo, S Nisa and M Nisa
The coronavirus disease outbreak of 2019 (COVID-19) has triggered a global health catastrophe that has had a profound impact on how we view the world and live our daily lives. Given the existing physical reach of the COVID-19 pandemic in the population, long-term socioeconomic and psychological consequences are unavoidable. The rapid rise in worry and anxiety among individuals as a result of the disease’s unknown nature is accompanied by necessary but socially disruptive measures such as lockdowns and quar-antines. Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, panic disorders, and behavioural problems are among the psychological and psychiatric diseases that might result. Staying away from family, loneliness, disinformation on social media, financial insecurity, and stigmatisation are all risk factors. Children will be challenged primarily by a lack of structure associated with the closing of schools and colleges. Pregnant women are one of the most vulnerable groups during a viral outbreak, and they are at a higher risk of experiencing anxiety, stress, and depression symptoms during the COVID 19 outbreak. Older adults and people of any age with major underlying medical disorders may be at a higher risk of severe disease from COVID-19 according to currently available information and clinical expertise. With increased vulnerability comes an increase in anxiety, panic, and apprehension among the elderly and their family, which has been ongoing but little discussed. An increase in the prevalence rate of COVID-19 and the resulting restrictions leads to an increase in anxiety; thus, promoting public awareness of the condition and giving positive psychological programmes in the media focused at stress management can help society reduce anxiety.
130 Effects of Multiple Tropopause and Changes of Height of Tropopause on the Light Trapping of European Corn-borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, 1796) , Nowinszky L, Puskás J and Kiss M
This study deals with the light-trap catch of European Corn-borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, 1796) in the context of multiple trop- opauses and nocturnal changes in the tropopause. The catch is most effective in the case of a simple tropopause. It decreases with double and triple tropopause. The catch is most effective if the height of the tropopause remains unchanged during the night. Both a sharp decline and an increase significantly reduce the catch.
131 Symptoms and Care of Hantavirus , Dr. Loveson Lakhani
Hantavirus is brought about by rodents its first flare-up was ac- counted for in May 1993 in America’s four corners Regions. China has won the months-long conflict against Covid however again there are reports of another viral infection case recognized from its Yunnan region. The infection is known as Hantavirus brought about by rodents. The Hantavirus previously broke out in May 1993 in south- western US’s ‘four corners region’ shared by Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Utah where a youthful, in great shape Navajo man experiencing windedness was hurried to an emergency clinic in New Mexico and kicked the bucket quickly. America’s infectious prevention community says that rat are primary driver to spread of this sickness from rat to human, and such patients are designated “Hantavirus individuals”. The Hantavirus has been accounted for when Covid has con- taminated more than 400,000 individuals and the demise count is supposed to be around 16300 all throughout the planet.
132 Heavy Metals Toxicity on Various Growth Parameters and Biomolecules of Earthworm, Eisenia fetida , Shweta Sharma, Mahima, Anshu, RK Gupta and Dharambir Singh
Earthworms are very sensitive bio-indicators of soil pollution. The aim of present investigation was to study the effects of heavy metals toxicity on various growth parameters of earthworms and also on their bio-molecules (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids) which are involved in several processes such as energy storage (carbohydrates), catalyzing biochemical reactions etc. Adult individuals of Eisenia fetida were collected and kept in the green house. After acclimatization they were transferred either to unpolluted slurry (treated as control) or to the heavy metals’ polluted (Cu, Sn, Cu+Sn) slurry. They were kept in these treatments at 22±2°C, RH 35% for 90 days. More cocoons and juveniles appeared in unpolluted slurry as compared to polluted one. The bio-molecules of worms maintained in unpolluted slurry were unaffected whereas heavy metals’ polluted worms showed reduction in bio-molecules (%). In contrast, in the Cu polluted slurry samples, high mortality of adults was recorded, body weight and length was reduced, reproduction completely inhibited and bio-molecules also reduced (%).
133 Parasites in Pets and Humans Cause Cancer by Global Warming , Robert Skopec
Internal parasites are incredibly common in both cats and dogs. Because of their relative ease of transmission and high rate of occurrence, the vast majority of dogs will contract a parasitic infection during their lifetime. Although treatment with parasiticides is reasonably simple and straightforward, many pet owners are unaware of how common these infections are. If left untreated and al- lowed to progress, these infections can create health issues such as anemia or failure to gain weight and some pose a risk of zoonosis.
134 Evaluation of Ficus religiosa in Comparison to Captopril against Experimental Cardiotoxicity due to 5-Fluorouracil in Rats , Ghadigaonkar Sushma, Reddy Gopala A, B Kala Kumar, M Lakshman, Shiva Kumar and Anudeep Reddy
The present study was conducted to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of Ficus religiosa against 5-FU induced toxicity in rats. A total of 36 healthy male wistar rats of uniform age and weights were divided into 6 groups of 6 animals each. Normal saline (I), Ficus religiosa extract (II), Captopril (III) groups were control while next 3 groups (IV, V, VI) were concurrently treated with 5-FU, 5-FU+ FRLE, FU + CA. respectively for 14 day lipid peroxidation level was significantly higher while superoxide dismutase activity reduces in 5FU exposed groups. GST activity was significantly lower in vehicle control, Ficus religiosa and Captopril alone groups, concurrent treatment FR with FU showed decreased in LPO level and improvement in SOD, GST, GPx activities comparable to control groups. Histopathology study showed dilatation of cardiac muscle fiber, focal atrophy of cardiomyocyte with severe interstitial edema, and dilated blood vessels in 5-FU group. control groups showed no notable abnormal histological changes compared to 5-FU toxic control group. Heart sections of rats treated with 5-FU + FRLE, and 5-FU + Captopril showed morphology similar to that of control and exhib- ited reduced damage to cardiac architecture with fewer areas of congestion along with vacuolization. However, there was congestion of blood capillaries, swelling around the nuclei and focal haemorrhage in between the myocardial bundle. TEM of left ventricular myocardium of 5-FU toxic control group confirmed the light microscopic findings and revealed irregular nuclear envelope, dilated myofibrils with degenerating nucleus, dilatation of nucleus, dilatation of sarcoplasmic reticulum, disorganized, electron-dense and bizarre shaped mitochondria and congestion of blood capillaries. 5-FU significantly altered all parameters in study while groups that received FRLE and CA along with 5FU revealed significant improvement in all the parameters and the values were comparable to control group. Thus, it can be concluded that 5-FU is an anticancer that can cause cytotoxic effect, administration of FRLE altered those effects due to its antioxidant effect.
135 Veterinarian and Mental Health , Amaan Ghazi
Approximately one million people attempt and die by suicide each year due to their helplessness towards their psychological well-being. Numerous researchers and studies have claimed that Veterinarians too suffer from deteriorating mental health while contribut- ing their share of duty and responsibility to the society. Our psychological health generally goes ignored but that of veterinarians isn’t considered for “they are not dealing with humans” but definitely living beings. Despite many researches that have conveyed shocking results about the same, “it is discussed or consid- ered lesser”. In this paper such researches and studies have been reviewed and discussed while providing more suggestions to add onto in order to improve psychological well-being of veterinarians and become aware about the same
136 Render Unto Pets the Things that are Pet’s: More a COVID-19 Victim than a Zoonotic Villain , Isabella Thomaz da Silva, Eliane de O Ferreira and Bruno de A Penna
Based upon genomic sequence analysis [1] and other coronavi- ruses (including SARS-CoV and MERS-Cov), SARS-CoV-2 originates from bats, but further studies are still needed to confirm whether it is or not transmitted directly or through an intermediate host. Other animals, such as ferrets and pangolins, are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and may be potential intermediate hosts, but there may be several intermediate hosts [2]. Recently, awareness regarding cat’s role in SARS-CoV-2 pan- demics has increased since its susceptibility to COVID-19 has been established. Shi., et al. [3] reported that SARS-CoV-2 infect cats and limited airborne transmission from infected to uninfected cats [3]. Nevertheless, we need to take some things into perspective. Firstly, the transmission rate was meager, with three positive cats trans- mitting to one out of three exposed cats. Secondly, the evaluation of the transmission was far from the reality since animals were dis- played side-by-side in cages for an extended period (at least three days). A second study evaluated a nasal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 from inoculated cats and the subsequent transmission of the virus to cats with no previous contact with the virus [4]. In this study, cats with no prior infection became positive only after two days (one cat) or five days (the other two exposed cats).
137 Comparison Between Two Enrichment Broths for Detection of Salmonella from Reptilian Feces and Cloacal Swabs , Naqa Saleh Mahdi Tamimi, Amir Rostami and Hossein Esmaeili
Reptiles are shown to harbor and shed Salmonella without having any sign of illness and with notable rates that could pose a health hazard for their owners. In order to find a suitable enrichment broth for the recovery of Salmonella from these animals’ feces Rappaport Vassiliadis (RV) broth was compared with selenite F (SF). Two sets of samples were collected from 270 reptiles in Tehran province which belonged to 46 reptilian species of 22 families. The specimens included 171 cloacal swabs, 20 feces, and 79 terrarium water specimens (in which the reptile defecates) according to their availability and reptile species. Each sample was separately en- riched in RV and SF enrichment broths and then inoculated in three culture media to increase the possibility of Salmonella detection (CHROMagar Salmonella, MacConkey agar, and xylosine-lysin desoxycholate) and later checked for their biochemical properties as Salmonella spp. A total of 147 (54.4%) specimens were found positive for Salmonella using both enrichment broths. The positivity rate for RV (49.6%) was significantly higher than SF (40.4%) showing that RV could be considered a better enrichment broth for Salmonella recovery in feces or cloacal swabs (p = 0.031). In addition, the reptilian feces samples were more likely to have positive culture results than cloacal swabs and terrarium water in RV and SF broths (p = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively); suggesting that, feces can be better specimens for detection of Salmonella intestinal shedding in reptiles or other animals.
138 Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Index and Some Biochemical Parameters in Neonatal Calves with Diarrhea , Enes Akyüz and Abdulsamed Kükürt
The aim of this study was to evaluate the total oxidant/antioxidant (TOC/TAC), oxidative stress index (OSI), and alanine amino- transferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine (CREA), and UREA levels in neonatal calves with diarrhea. In the study, 15 calves (0-10 days old Simmental, Swiss brown, or hybrid) brought to the clinic with the complaint of diarrhea formed the disease group. 15 healthy calves under the same care/feeding conditions formed the control group. TAC and TOC concentrations were measured by commercial kits. OSI results were calculated with the formula in which TOC and TAC results were proportioned. Serum ALT, AST, CREA, and UREA concentrations were measured with an autoanalyzer. The findings showed that TAC and TOC con- centrations were affected by clinical diarrhea. Thus, it increased the oxidative stress index (OSI) (p < 0.001). Also, the ALT, AST, CREA, and UREA levels of diarrheal calves were found to be significantly higher than the levels of healthy calves. Consequently, it was ob- served that the oxidative damage in diarrhea caused an increase in OSI levels.
139 Bilious Vomiting Syndrome in Dogs , Süleyman Kozat
Bilious Vomiting Syndrome (BWS) is a condition associated with the patient’s vomiting characterized by bile in the early morning hours. BWS (reflux gastritis/duodenal gastric reflux) is a common disease that develops due to biliary reflux from the duo- denum to the stomach and is characterized by chronic and inter- mittent bile vomiting [1-3]. Vomiting is thought to occur as a result of irritation of the gastric mucosa as a result of reflux of duodenal fluid into the lumen of the stomach. Although the cause is unclear, the primary underlying cause is thought to be gastric hypomotility. No age, race or gender predisposition is reported in the disease. It is mostly observed in the middle-aged dogs [1,3,4]. The disease is mainly symptomatic in dogs that have not received food in the morning and during the night. It is characterized by chronic and intermittent bile vomiting. These dogs have an empty stomach and gastric bile reflux is observed. Body condition of the patients is generally normal. Bile salts cause damage to the gastric mucosal barrier over time, leaving the gastric mucosa unprotected against gastric acid. In dogs with bilious vomiting syndrome, gastric bile reflux and irritation of bile on the gastric mucosa lead to the devel- opment of gastritis over time [1].
140 Traumatized Reptiles: A Retrospective Study of Wild Reptiles Examined in Northeastern Brazil , Roberta da Rocha Braga  and Antônio Rafael Lima Ramos
Physical injuries represent one of the main threats to free-living animals, and interactions with humans perform the leading cau- se of their admission in veterinary care. In the USA, the main causes of physical injuries in reptiles and amphibians were run over, fishing or gardening accidents, and predation by domestic carnivores. Anthropic actions potentially increase the morbidity and mor- tality in reptiles due to traumatic injuries and can cause populations to be isolated in forest remnants, such as urban parks. Fortaleza is a metropolis in northeastern Brazil, that has progressively lost its vegetation cover due to urbanization processes. However, as the ERA “Matinha do Pici”, few urban parks stand out as a hotspot of local fauna conservation. The objective of this work was to report and characterize a sample of traumatized reptiles, received, and examined at LAPS-UFC, in Fortaleza, from 2010 to 2020. Thirty-four cases were included, mostly lizards from the ERA “Matinha do Pici”, with diverse blunt force lesions, mainly caused by domestic car- nivores’ predation, run over or human predation.
141 Gene Banking for Fish Germplasm Conservation , SK Raghuvanshi and S Kumar
During recent years, the importance and need of fish biodiversity conservation has raised widespread concerns at global-level. This is because biodiversity is directly related to improvement of ecological productivity. The population of fishes is decreasing day- by-day due to changing climatic conditions as well as anthropogenic factors like, over-exploitation, habitat destruction, invasion of exotic species as well as urbanization and modernization. As a result, species extinction rate is thousand-times more as compared to the background rate. This emphasizes the need of developing and modernizing the fish seed production technology in eco-regime for stocking the water bodies and developing culture practices for long-term benefits of the inhabitants. In the present situation, where fish stocks are declining at alarming rate, conservation of fish germplasm resources can be considered as a promising and effective measure to counter the depletion rate in the future. Cryopreservation of gametes is basically a technique for storage of sperm/ova at very low temperature (-1960C) for long period of time in viable and fertilizable sate. This paper emphasizes the importance of ex-situ conservation of fish germplasm through gene banking.
142 Effect of Thermal Processing on Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities in Different Milk Types , Vinesh Sharma, Birbal Singh, Gauri Jairath, Jyoti B. Dhar, Rinku Sharma, Devi Gopinath, Neelam Sharma and Gorakh Mal
Present investigation was undertaken to study the effects of various thermal treatments on antioxidant and antimicrobial activi- ties of milk fractions of indigenous cattle, Jersey cross-bred cattle, local non-Gaddi goats and Gaddi goats. The significant (p < 0.05) variation in total phenolic content (TPC) was observed among all the breeds and the significantly higher value was noted in Gaddi goat boiled milk. Thermal processing significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced TPC in boiled milk of indigenous and Jersey cross-bred cattle. Ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in local non-Gaddi goats fresh milk. Antimicrobial activity was detected only in indigenous cattle whey fractions, boiled milk and its whey fractions against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Maximum antimicrobial activity was observed in boiled whey protein fractions against E. coli and S. aureus. SDS-PAGE profiling of milk protein revealed that casein protein fractions were more heat-resistant as compared to whey protein fractions in all milk types. It is inferred that thermal processing of milk led to increased total phenol, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities.
143 Review on Complete Blood Count Parameters of Animals - A Formidable Aid in Veterinary Disease Diagnosis , Harshit Saxen and Shalvi Srivastava
Diagnosis of an ailment is soul of clinical practice and perhaps the biggest challenge as far as veterinary clinical practice is con- cerned. A long array of procedures, diagnostic test and methods are available for a clinician that can aid him to make his interpreta- tion and make a promising opinion about any disease condition. Blood profiling remained one of the most valuable Diagnostic tech- nique since times and in it Complete Blood Count/ Picture is very cardinal test that provide a glance about pathophysiological state of a subject in very quick convenient and economical way. Thus this review aims at understanding different parameters of Complete Blood Count (CBC) test in important farm and companion animals. It also give insights into modern technology that is making these tests more refined and easily accessible to patients as well as to clinicians.
144 Animal Diseases: Retention of Placenta in Cattle , Dr. Loveson Lakhani
The placenta is a huge organ that bureaucracy withinside the animal’s uterus throughout the being pregnant of the animal. It is hooked up to the wall of the uterus typically on the pinnacle side. Umbilical twine connects placenta to fetus. Blood from the mom byskip via the placenta filtering the oxygen, glucose and different vitamins to animal fetus through the umbilical twine. When the fe- tus is born, it ought to be out of the uterus inside 8 to 12 hours and whilst placenta does now no longer expel out from the uterus in- side a sure duration of time, it’s miles known as ‘retained placenta’. There may be numerous reasons of this disease. If the placenta does now no longer pass out at its scheduled time, the petrification technique starts off evolved and the Uterus can do even greater damage. The blood withinside the animal will become poisoned through the placenta, which additionally purpose Septicemia which can cause animal’s death.
145 Fermented Products vs Probiotic Supplemented Drinks as Biotherapies , Nupur Kothari
Gut microbiology holds a central pivotal point in maintaining good health and assist the immune system to fight the diseases. Human GI tract is estimated to be colonised by 1,000 different strains of bacteria. A healthy consortium of gut microorganisms is required to maintain homeostasis especially when usage of an- tibiotics alters the digestive environment, decreasing the number of good bacteria and helping the pathogens and opportunists like yeast to proliferate. What we eat is what we get. Our diet can influ- ence the bacteria in our body, in both positive and negative ways. Nutrients such as vitamins, amino acids or dietary fibre that are consumed by the host are assimilated and converted into other metabolites by intestinal microbes. Fat rich foods and refined car- bohydrates can create intestinal dysbiosis. Incorporating probiotic bacteria (Live microorganisms that show health benefits) contain- ing rich foods in our daily diet can reap the benefits of healthy gut.
146 Bone Mineral Density and Weaning Weight of Piglets from First-Parity Sows Fed Zinc during Gestation and Lactation , Claudia Cassimira Silva, Natalia Barros Petroli Utimi, Larissa José Parazzi, Cristiane Soares da Silva Araújo, Brunna Garcia de Souza Leite, Maitê Vital Mendonça, Yasmin Gonçalves de Almeida Sartore, Vera Letticie de Azevedo Ruiz, Simone Maria Massami Kitamura Martins, Carlos Alexandre Granghelli and Lúcio Francelino Araújo
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of zinc provided to sows and their progeny on reproductive parameters, litter and nursery piglet’s performance, zinc (Zn) concentration in plasma, colostrum and milk, bone densitometry, fecal score and intestinal morphom- etry in piglets. A total of 18 first-parity sows and their hundred and eighty weaned piglets at 21-d-old, were distributed according to a randomized block experimental design in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement into nine treatments, consisting of the supplementation of 100 mg Zn/kg of three different sources (zinc-glycine (ZnGly), zinc amino acid complex (ZnAA) or zinc oxide (ZnO) in the maternal (gestation and lactation) and in the nursery diets. Data were analyzed by MIXED procedures of SAS, and means were compared by the test of Tukey-Kramer. Significance was assessed at P ≤ 0.05 and trends were discussed at P > 0.05 ≤ 0.1. Pregnant sows fed ZnO had greater total feed intake than those fed organic Zn, and lower body weight loss (P < 0.05). Also, piglets from sows fed ZnO had greater ADG (P = 0.05) compared with other treatments. Colostrum and milk Zn concentration were not affected by diet (P > 0.05). Plasma Zn concentration at 21d of lactation in the ZnAA sows were higher than those fed with ZnGly, but it was similar to ZnO (P < 0.05). At 21-d-old, ZnO sows had heavier piglets (P < 0.05) compared to ZnGly sows, but were similar to ZnAA sows. Also, the piglets from sows fed ZnAA had higher (P < 0.05) BMD than those from ZnO sows, but it was similar to sows fed ZnGly the ZnO + ZnGly piglets weaned showed 28.2% of incidence of pasty feces than those in the ZnGly + ZnAA (18.2%) and ZnGly + ZnGly (16.4%) groups, but it similar to the other groups. At 70-d-old, the lowest villus height (P < 0.05) was measured in the duodenum of ZnAA + ZnGly piglets compared to other treatments. The larger CD was observed when the piglets received ZnO and ZnGly (P < 0.05), regardless Zn source from sow. These data suggest that sows fed diets supplemented with ZnO during gestation may be able to increase total feed intake of sow and piglets weaning weight and reduce body weight loss sow. However, in the nursery pig there seems to be very little difference among zinc source on intestinal morphometry, performance and zinc plasma concentration.
147 Management of Abscess in Right Para Lumber Fossa in a Cow - A Case Report , Zahid Bashir Khanday
An abscess is an accumulation of pus that hollows out a cavity in the tissues by destroying and expanding them and surrounded by fibrous tissue. Diagnosis of a skin abscess is usually made based on what it looks like and is confirmed by cutting it open. Ultra- sound imaging may be useful in cases in which the diagnosis is not clear. Successful management of the abscess was presented in fe- male cattle of five years of age. The abscess swelling was unusually located subcutaneously in right Para lumber fossa, behind the last rib. Clinical examination revealed the mass was warm, hard, and painful in the initial stages, and become fluctuating, gas filled and soft on maturation. The animal was successfully treated by regular surgical drainage of pus along with a daily antiseptic dressing of tincture-iodine, parenteral administration of antibiotics (streptomycin and penicillin, for 5 days), and oxytetracycline wound spray. The animal was treated successfully and it recovered after 1 month post-intervention without any other complications
148 Ameliorating Effect of Terminalia arjuna Against 5-Fluorouacil Induced Cardiotoxicity in Wistar Rats , Sushma Ghadigaonkar, A Gopala Reddy, BDP Kala Kumar and M Lakshman
The Terminalia arjuna has traditionally been used as cardiotonic. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna on pathological changes after 5-FU administration. Wistar rats where randomly divided into 6 groups: normal control, TRLE alone, Captopril alone, 5-FU alone, 5-FU + TALE and 5-FU + Captopril. Animals were sacrificed and tissue samples from the cardiac muscle were taken and processed for thickness of left ventricle wall measurement, myocardial anti- oxidant parameters and also for both Light and Electron Microscopical examination. 5-FU significantly altered all the parameters in the study while animals received TALE and Captopril along with 5-FU revealed significant improvement in all the parameters and the values were comparable to the control group. Light microscopic examination revealed that administration of 5-FU caused variable signs of cardiotoxicity which are represented by dilatation of cardiac muscle fiber, focal atrophy of cardiomyocyte with severe inter- stitial edema, and dilated blood vessels. Ultrastructural examination of these specimens confirmed the light microscopic findings and demonstrated irregular nuclear envelope, dilated myofibrils with degenerating nucleus, dilatation of nucleus, dilatation of sarco- plasmic reticulum, disorganized, electron-dense and bizarre shaped mitochondria and congestion of blood capillaries. Pre-treatment with TALE and its concomitant administration with 5-FUfor 14 days attenuated 5-FU induced myocardial damage and effectively reverted the abnormal structural changes near to normalcy. In conclusion, these results suggest that Terminalia arjuna has a protec- tive potential in ameliorating 5-FU induced cardiotoxicity