1 Conservation and Genetic Improvement of Gir Cattle , Vikramjit Singh and Poonam Choudhary
Livestock are the best insurance against the vagaries of nature like drought, famine and other natural calamities. India’s livestock sector is one of the largest in the world it has 56.7% of world’s buffaloes, 12.5% cattle, 20.45% small ruminants, 2.4% camel, 1.4% equine, 1.5% pigs and 3.1% poultry (FAOSTAT, 2015). The total livestock population has decreased by about 3.33% over the previous census. There are fourty three (43) recognized breeds of cattle in India, in addition to large number of non-descript cattle (NBAGR, 2019). In recent times, several of the indigenous breeds suffered decline mainly due to their becoming uneconomical. Draught breeds utility has decreased because of mechanization in agriculture. The indigenous breeds have following merits over exotic breeds viz: Better disease resistance than exotic breeds, more suitable for low input management system, Survive better in local environment, Suitable for draught work and in addition to this existence of superior indigenous breeds can provide valuable research inputs for developing superior breeds. It is therefore im-portant that Indigenous breeds of cattle are conserved, developed and proliferated. Cattle and buffalo genetic improvement will be done taking into consideration the farmers needs, market and agro climate and simultaneously conserving the livestock, biodiversity.
2 Feline Prepucial Urethrostomy , Carretto Gustavo Roberto, Vitale Verónica, Mangione Mauro, Rizzo Magdalena and Ugarte Gabriel
A male feline of 9 years of age with clinical signs of hematuria/dysuria is received and bearing in mind that this is not the first episode it is decided to perform a prep t urethrostomy, This is a permanent surgical procedure, which could be used as an alternative to perineal urethrostomy in felines. It is indicated for the treatment of tumor pathologies, severe trauma, stenosis caused by repeated catheters, relapses of urethral blockages by urinary sediments or lithos.
3 Thoracic Synostosis Associated with Secondary Scoliosis in Arabian Horse Foal , Ahmed F Almomany and Musa A Alshehabat
Congenital or acquired skeletal malformations of the vertebral column of horses are very rare in horses. Thoracic synostosis associated with scoliosis is a rare condition in equine practice. Synostosis is fusion of two or more bones while scoliosis is lateral curvature of the spine. We are reporting thoracic synostosis associated with scoliosis in an Arabian filly. Physical examination revealed obvious deviation of the thoracic section to the left side. Observational gait analysis did not show any gross abnormalities. Neurological examination showed no neurological deficits in the fore or the hind limbs. Radiography was essential to characterize the malformations which showed synostosis of the thoracic vertebrae (T11, T12 and T13). Follow up evaluation of the foal, in six months, did not demonstrate any worsening in gait or neurological status and showed the filly is still ambulating normally. The owner instructed not to ride or work the presented foal. Furthermore, owner was instructed not to breed the foal.
4 Computational and Molecular Characterization of Surface Proteins Neuraminidase and Haemagglutinin from Egyptian Isolates of Avian Influenza H5N1 Subtype , Soliman YA, Maha AN Gamal and Eman MS El-Nagar
Avian influenza isolated from different Egyptian governorate during the period of 2010-2017 have been computationally evaluated for the B-cell and T-cell epitope mapping and MHC II binding sequence prediction. The ten studied isolates showed limited variation on the level of deduced amino acid for the N1 gene, on the other hand H5 gene showed much wider variation. Many B – and T- cell epitopes have been predicted for both H5 and N1 proteins which spanning nearly the entire sequence. B- Cell epitopes have been seen within the cleavage site thus the generated antibody clone might hinder the cleavage of haemagglutinin by the cellular protease and prevent viral entry. Different T- cell epitopes found on the N1 protein can stimulate IFN-γ production and hence inhibit viral replication. These data explain the power of genetic vaccine coding for both H5 and N1 to elucidate high protection rate with minimal shedding level
5 Retrospective Study on Dental Affections in Horses of Equestrian Clubs and their Possible Treatment , Mostafa M Kassem, Ahmed S Korittum and Ahmed S Raslan
The present work was carried out in the period between “March 2015 to December 2016” the total number of examined horses was 354 horses, 92 horses 26% had dental affections including 52 Equestrian horses, 34 Riding horses, 6 Funeral dragging horses. These horses were of both sexes and their ages were ranged between 3 years up to 22 years old. The examined horses were collected from Armed Equestrian club, El Gzera club, El haram farms, Cairo stadium, El Shams club and Wadi Degla club.The horses were divided according to usage into 3 groups, first group was used as equestrian horses, second group was used as riding horses and third group was used as funeral dragging horses. First group involved 52 equestrian horses, 49 male horses and 3 female ones. Second group involved 34 riding horses, 13male horses and 21 female ones. Third group involved 6 funeral dragging horses, they all are male horses.The examined horses in this study were subjected to comprehensive study including history, type of horse (Equestrian, Riding and Funeral dragging), the time of last floating, post treatment care and follow-up. The prevalent dental affections in equestrian clubs that were found are dental tartar 81.52%, sharp enamel points 42.39%, dental caries 35.86%, periodontal disease 19.57%, rostral hook 16.30%, diastmata (diastasis dentium) 16.30%, incisor tooth fracture 6.52%, parrot mouth 3.26%, bit seat 3.26%, caudal hook 3.26% and canine tooth fracture 1.087%. Periodical examination is essential in detection and treatment of dental affections; furthermore, using of power float, mouthwashes, curetting of teeth and extraction of teeth gave good results in treatment of these dental affections Neglecting the treatment of dental tartar, sharp enamel points, dental caries, periodontal disease, diastmata, bit seat and caudal hook resulted in some complications as equine colic and ulcer.
6 Emergency Case of Failure in Spay Surgery , Hazem Karem Shafik
A nine years old female cat had been operated a spay surgery due to pyometra but after a week it attempt to our clinic due to looking unwell and continuous moaning due to pain and the surgical suture had lost also the wound is not fine.
7 Impact of Body Condition Score on Performance of Sahiwal Cattle , Vikramjit Singh1, Poonam Choudhary and Arun Kumar Jhirwal.
Livestock plays a pivotal role in the Indian economy. About 70% of India’s population is dependent on agriculture and livestock associated activities. Animal husbandry is probably the most im-portant amalgamated activity providing a means of instant cash to farmers and thus plays a vital role in socio-economic life of live-stock farmers in India. Economical and balanced feeding of live-stock for optimum production is extremely important. The value of milk group stands at Rs. 7,58,417 crores and the livestock sector contributes nearly 4.9% to India’s GDP. India has an enormous livestock population and it ranks 1st in cattle population and milk production too by contributing 21.29% of total milk production throughout world. The total milk production of India stands at 187.7 million tonnes in 2018-19. Cows provide 47.85 % of milk production in India with a production of 89.83 million tonnes in 2018-19. The population of milch Non-descript/Indigenous ani-mals stands at 35.17 million in 2019 and the milk production from these Non-descript/Indigenous cows is 38.57 million tonnes.
8 Ethnoveterinary Practices of Wild Medicinal Plants in Pakistan: A Review , Muhammad Jamil Ahmed, Farooq Ahmed and Javaid Qayyoom Swati.
Today, ethnic communities throughout the world retain sound indigenous ethnoveterinary knowledge and mainly depend on medicinal plants as alternative treatments for various livestock ailments. The present review aims to provide the current compilation of wild medicinal plant species practiced as ethnoveterinary herbal medicine by traditional societies of Pakistan. Data was gathered from online databases regarding ethnoveterinary studies in Pakistan from 2000 - 2018. The botanical name, families, parts used, method of administration and diseases treatments were presented by literature review. The literature search revealed a total of 255 wild plant species belonging to 203 genera and 88 families were being in common use to cure 17 categories of livestock diseases. The highest number of wild plant of Asteraceae, followed by Fabaceae, Lamiaceae Euphorbiaceae, Polygonaceae and Solanaceae were used as ethnoveterinary herbal medicine. The most privilege diseases were abdominal worm, mastitis, ague, foot and mouth diseases, skin diseases, lungs and respiratory disorder. Worms’s infestation and parasitic ailments were treated with 67 plant species followed by gastrointestinal ailments, reproductive ailments and miscellaneous category accounted for 66, 43 and 29 species respectively. The highly consumed parts of plant were leaves (29.59%) followed by whole plants (15.98%), aerial parts (10.65%), roots (10.65%) and fruits (8.28%). It is suggested that, the present review will serve as databank and stimulate further pharmacological, clinical investigation for novel drug discovery from natural resource and benefited worldwide.
9 Animal Welfare during Pandemics , Hamza Jawad, Nasir Iqbal, Ayesha Sadiq, Zubair Luqman, Sadaf Aslam, Naveed Hussain and Suwaibatul Annisa.
Simple definition of animal welfare is how does the animal feel? In this CoVID-19 pandemic, animal welfare has become an important aspect of our lives, including pets, livestock and laboratory animals. The dangers posed to animals during COVID-19 should be considered not only from a welfare point of view but also from a zoonotic point of view. Prolonged lockdown has greatly reduced food resources for animals. Due to misconceptions such as COVID-19 can spread by animals the owners of the animals keep themselves away from the animals which has a negative impact on the welfare of the animals. This is situation is worrying for all of us that so far the welfare of animals in lockdown situations has not been mentioned in the media. Effective experiments, including emotionality, are subjective, so they cannot be measured in animals, but the information contains indirect physical and behavioral indicators that can be used carefully to interpret such experiments. There are many forms of animal cruelty such as neglect of animals, misuse of animals, exploitation of animals and testing of animals. People are cruel to animals everywhere. Animals are emotional creatures that deserve our respect and protection. New research is very necessary to find out the present reasons of animal abuse and cruelty during pandemics. We can prevent animal cruelty by raising public awareness about the absence of COVID-19 zoonosis in every community.
10 Assessing the Effectiveness of Acoustic Enrichment for ‘Settling’ Sanctuary Hens , Kirsty Mccalden
The aim of this study was to establish whether certain forms of acoustic enrichment improve settling behaviour in laying hens to a greater extent than others. Based on acoustic enrichments previously applied to captive animals, three acoustics were involved: classical music, white noise and radio. Due on previous findings, it was hypothesised that hens would display more settled (inactive) behaviour when exposed to classical music than when exposed to white noise or radio. It was also hypothesised that hens would display more settled (inactive) behaviour when exposed to white noise than to radio, due to its unpredictable nature. Testing involved one group of 15 laying hens in a Northern Ireland hen rescue centre. Hens were exposed to randomised acoustics (including a control) for 30 minutes, during four consecutive per week, for four consecutive weeks. Video observations were used to assess the level of active and inactive behaviour during exposure as well as overall settling time. No statistically significant results were found in three of four observed behaviours; perching, preening on the perch, lying/sitting on the perch. However, findings appeared to indicate less activity in hens during exposure to white noise, compared to classical music and radio. Therefore, the first hypothesis was rejected. In contrast to expectations, this study appeared to provide support for previous theories of species-specificity regarding classical music. A statistically significant result was found for standing behaviour on the perch which provided support for the second hypothesis. Post-hoc analysis indicated that a higher proportion of observed hens displayed standing behaviour during radio exposure, compared to the control (p = .012). This allowed the second hypothesis to be accepted as hens generally appeared to display less active behaviour overall during exposure to white noise, and statistically more active behaviour during radio exposure. Somewhat conflicting findings emerged in regards to overall setting. 80% of hens settled in a shorter time during radio exposure, than during exposure to white noise. This was also the case when measured at 90%. Although this finding was insignificant it highlights a need for further, more precise research.
11 Wellbeing of Veterinary and Medical Students during COVID-19 Pandemic , Hamza Jawad, Hiba Qasir, Nasir Iqbal, Javeria Azhar, Arooba Mubeen and Muhammad Affaq Azhar.
COVID-19 (coronavirus diseases 2019) has caused a high rate of anxiety, depression, alcoholism and stress in veterinary and medical students. Prolonged closures have created a financial crisis for students. The poor quality of the online education system is not meeting the needs of these students. Many people suffer from psychological distress due to economic losses and loneliness. This review summarizes data from recent research papers that sheds light on the concerns of veterinary and medical students during the COVID-19 lockdown. Suggestions for future pandemics are also summarized. Medical and veterinary education system need new research on teaching methods, especially from a clinical point of view. In addition to improving the quality of online education in preparation for future crises, student well-being should also be considered to mitigate social crises. Because this COVID-19 pandemic has severely damaged the performance of students in academic and social life. More research is needed to improve the veterinary and medical education system during any.
12 Improving Livestock Production Using Auxiliary Reproductive Biotechnology , Hamza Jawad, Nasir Iqbal, Ayesha Sadiq, Zubair Luqman, Sadaf Aslam, Naveed Hussain, Suwaibatul Annisa and Hiba Qasir.
From the beginning, many reproductive techniques have been used in domestic animals to achieve the desired goals. These goals include: Increasing reproductive and productive efficiency, improved genetic makeup of farm animals, reducing the risk of diseases and injury, producing resistance against climate and infectious agents, and research. Major Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) discussed in this brief review are, Artificial Insemination (AI), Estrus Synchronization, Superovulation, Semen Sexing, Cryopreservation, and Embryo Transfer (ET). Artificial insemination is the most basic and widely used technique for improving genetics and increasing conception rate. Estrus synchronization is the technique in which the selected females are targeted to come in heat (estrus) simultaneously in a brief period using different protocols. Super-ovulation is producing multiple ova at a single time using many combinations of hormones. Semen Sexing, as the name implies, is a method in which sperms are sorted out, using different techniques, to gain animal of desirable sex. In Cryopreservation, long-term preservation of living cells and tissues is done at a very low temperature (conventionally -196 ͦC) without compromising the structural and functional integrity of the preserved specimen. Embryo transfer involves producing and collecting embryos in donor animals and then implanting them in recipients. Reproduction is the backbone of any livestock enterprise, and to achieve remarkable results, the use of Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) is inevitable. This mini review article will provide a brief comparison of such great reproductive biotechnological methods which are using in livestock farming.
13 Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Germinated Maize on Hematological Parameters of Kadaknath Layers , Akhelesh Kumar Karoriya, Archana Jain, Chouhan Laxmi, MK. Mehta and Rakesh Kumar.
The present research work was undertaken to find out the effect of supplementation of germinated maize at different levels on hematological parameters of Kadaknath layers started from day old stage. The experiment was done on a total number of 128, day old chicks (DOC) of Kadaknath breed belonging to same hatch. On arrival, the chicks were weighed and equally distributed randomly into four treatment groups T0, T1, T2 and T3 with 32 chicks each. Each group was divided into four replicates of 8 chicks each. The control group T0 was given commercial maize - DOC soya based diet. The treatment groups T1, T2 and T3 were given diet containing germinated maize at 50%, 75% and 100% levels of the cereal component, respectively. The experimental chicks were vaccinated against the prescribed schedule of vaccination. All the chicks were housed in deep litter system in the well ventilated and lighted rooms and the feed was given ad lib with plenty of fresh water. Five birds were separated from each group on 30 days, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 days for collection of about 2 - 3 ml of blood in EDTA and non EDTA vials for hematological analysis. All observations were analyzed by using ANOVA to compare different treatment groups. There were a significant (P < 0.01, P < 0.05) increase in all hematological parameters such as total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in all the treated groups as compared to control from values taken every 30 days up to 240 days of age.
14 Knowledge; Hygienic Practice among Milk and Cottage Cheese Handlers in Districts of Gamo and Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia , Edget Abayneh, Minale Getachew, Wasihun Seyoum and Ephram Tora.
A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Arba Minch Zuria and Demba Gofa districts of Gamo and Gofa Zone of the Southern nation nationalities and people’s regional state with the objectives of assessing knowledge of hygienic practice of milk and cheese handlers in both study area. For this a total of 102 farmers who involved in milking, collecting and retailing of milk were included in the study area. Data obtained from questionnaire survey were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Chi-square test, using the Statistical package for social science (SPSS Version 17). The participants of this study were woman of different age group and 27 (52.9%) of participants in Arba Minch Zuria and 32 (64.7%) in Demba Gofa were >36 years old. The majority of participants 21 (41.2%) and 22 (43.1%) were educated up to grade 1-8 in Arba Minch Zuria and Demba Gofa, respectively. This had an impact on hygienic practice of milking and milk handling. The difference in hygienic handling, training obtained and cheese making practice among the study areas were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was also a statistically significant difference in hand washing and utensil as well as manner of washing between the two study areas (p < 0.01). Finally this study revealed that there were no variation in Antibiotic usage and Practice of treating sick animal in both study area (p > 0.05) with significant difference in Prognosis, Level of skin infection and Selling practice among study participants in both study areas (p < 0.05). Good manufacturing; handling practice as well as hygienic milking and cleaning practice should be improved in both study areas.
15 Ovine Tunica Albuginea as Xenograft for Cystoplasty in Rats , Natasha Nogueira Ferreira, Cecília Ribeiro Castañon, Fellipe Ferreira Lemos de Medeiros, Fernanda Moreira da Silva, Bruna Scalzilli, Tábata Maués, Carla Ferreira Farias Lancetta, Viviane Alexandre Nunes Degani and Maria de Lourdes Gonçalves Ferreira.
The purpose of this study was to prove the conserved ovine tunica albuginea (OTA) as a practicable and adequate biomaterial for bladder scaffolds even as its histopathological cicatrization aspects. The conserved heterologous OTA implant was experimentally used for cystoplasty in 20 Wistar rats. The operated bladder areas of all rats from test (n = 20) and simulation (n = 20) groups were examined macroscopically and histologically at 7, 14, 2, 8 and 42 postoperative days. Test group animals underwent partial cystectomy followed by cystoplasty with OTA graft application, and simulation group rats to partial cystectomy. There was no mortality in any group, and all animals showed good post-surgery recovery. Bladders histopathological analysis showed that the test group obtained more intensive blood vessels and had the first signs of total regeneration earlier than the simulation group. Our findings pointed that macroscopic and histological results, easiness of surgical technique and graft availability, OTA can be used as an alternative biomaterial graft for bladder wall reconstruction in rats which represent a valuable animal model to comparative studies with the human being and other species.
16 COVID 19 and the Veterinary Community , Varghese Samuel Mathai
We would have never thought of Living through pandemic let alone having one in this lifetime. COVID-19 has presented us with a lot of unprecedented circumstances, loss of loved ones and a chance to retrospect on the inadequacies of veterinary-human medicine interactions.
17 Study on Prevalence of Toxocara canis in Stray and Pet Dogs of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal , Sabina Lamsal and Rakesh Prajapati
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Toxocara canis in street and pet dogs in Kathmandu valley and to understand the associated risk factors for Toxocara canis (T. canis) infestations in dogs and to assess the awareness on canine helminth zoonoses among pet owners. A cross-sectional study was carried out from February to April 2019 within Kathmandu valley, Nepal. A total of 110 faecal samples were randomly collected from 55 pet and street dogs each per-rectally via the faecal loop. Wisconsin centrifugation flotation method was used to examine the presence of T. canis eggs. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 55 dog owners. Descriptive statistics were calculated using IBM © SPSS statistics version 22 and MS-Excel 2016. We found that 13.64% dogs (15/110) were found for T. canis. Comparatively, prevalence was higher in stray dogs than in pet dogs (20% versus 7.27%); dogs below one year 13.95%; in female dogs 15.63%; in dog getting in contact with other dogs 10.53%; in non-dewormed dogs 23.08%. Out of 55 pet owners surveyed, 41.82% were aware that they can get diseases from dogs but only 14.55% of the owners had some idea about canine helminth zoonoses. T. canis being the parasite having high zoonotic significance, there is a need to carry out awareness programs to educate pet owners regarding canine zoonoses and on appropriate anthelmintic treatment. A viable system should be in place to maintain stray dogs such as animal birth control programs which will help to reduce the prevalence of T. canis among street dogs.
18 Seasonal Cytokine Production and Combinatorial Effect of Recombinant Cytokines and Melatonin on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Proliferation , Amaresh Kumar Singh and Chandana Haldar
The immune system is influenced by various internal (like hormones) and external (environmental: seasons) factors in which melatonin plays a vital role. Melatonin modulates seasonal immunity by influencing the cell-mediated immune function like cytokine secretion and cellular proliferation in rodents, however, there is a lack of information that how melatonin modulates the secretion of different cytokines in different seasons and directs the cellular proliferation in presence of specific cytokine. Therefore, in the present study, we elucidated the effect of seasonal melatonin variation on peripheral cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α) level and proliferative response (%SR) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The effect of recombinant cytokines (rIL-2, rIL-6, and rTNF-α) on the proliferative response of PBMCs was also noted in presence of melatonin under in vitro condition. As a result, we observed that high endogenous melatonin causes an increased level of IL-2, and IL-6 and down-regulates TNF-α during the winter season. Melatonin significantly modulates the proliferative response of PBMCs in presence of rIL-2, rIL-6 and rTNF-α by enhancing the immunomodulatory effect of rIL-2 and rIL-6 and by diminishing immunosuppressive effect of rTNF-α in goat. In conclusion, we may propose that melatonin maintains immune-homeostasis by modulating circulatory cytokines levels during different seasons. Melatonin might influence the secretion of immunomodulatory cytokine (i.e. IL-2 and IL-6) and also regulate the immuno-inhibitory action of TNF-α to modulate cell-mediated immune function.
19 Assessment on Poisonous Plants of Livestock and their Impacts on Livestock Producers in Wondo Genet, Sidama Zone, South Nation Nationalities and People Regional State, Ethiopia , Abdallahi Abdurehman, Shimelis Mengistu, Nigusie Barassa, Nuredin Mohammed, Fayisa Aliye and Mohammed Jafer
This study was conducted in Wondo Genet, Sidama Zone, SNNPRS, Ethiopia from November 2017 to May 2018 to assess toxic plants which well-known among society of the area, potential to cause intoxication of livestock and its significant impacts on livestock producers. Totally, 300 individuals composed of 260 animal owners, 15 animal health practitioners, 13 especially selected knowledgeable people and 12 traditional animal healers were interviewed based on structured questioner. Out of 300 individuals 245 (81.7%) were declared the existence of poisonous plants. During assessment of presence of impacts on livestock producers in different ways 110 (44.9%) of them complained its presence but 135 (55.1%) only heard such impacts from the others and knew the presence of such plants and some information about it. During field visit 30 poisonous plants that suggested by those respondents were collected. From these plants, Amaranthus spp. Aspera (21.2%), Oxalis corniculate (17.6%), Prunus africana (10.2%), “gaggassa’’ (local name) (8.6%), ‘‘haruufichcho’’ (grass sp.) (8.2%), Euphorbia cotinifolia (3.7%), Ricinus communis (3.3%), Brucea antidysenterica (2.9%), Lantana camara (2.5%), Medicago sativa (2.5%) were complained as cause of toxicity frequently. Season of the year and reason why animal consume the poisonous plants were some of conditions which known to aggravate the exposure of livestock to poisonous plants. In this study, rainy season was documented as main season of the year plant poisoning occur and purposeful consumption also accounts majority from reasons why animal consume. The study also indicate that bovine was more susceptibly for number of poisonous plants 25 (83.3%) and followed by ovine for 18 (60.0%), caprine for 17 (56.7%), equine for 4 (13.3%) and all livestock species for 2 (6.7%) as suggested. Bloat, diarrhea, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, skin lesion/irritation or alopecia, vomiting, abortion, photosensitization, bloody urine and death are mainly and frequently raised adverse effects of poisonous plants. As this assessment shows, there are poisonous plants and impacts on livestock producers at study area; that needs involvement of responsible individuals to do further studies on identification of poisonous plant and extraction of ingredients in it and find solution to alleviate the outcome of poisonous plants.
20 Problem Free Pets: A New Model for Companion Animal Veterinary Care , Lowell Ackerman
The current model of companion animal veterinary practice tends to be reactive, often waiting for animals to become ill before pet owners seek veterinary care. By helping to establish appropriate pet owner expectations regarding the care of their animals, veterinary teams can be more proactive and focus on prevention, wellness, and better control of chronic diseases
21 Regression of Symptoms of Trypanosomosis in Mice Dosed Cotrimoxazole-Antivirt®{Al4(SiO4)3 + 3Mg2SiO4 → 2Al2Mg3(SiO4)3} Formulation , MCO Ezeibe, MI Ezeja, CA Akpan, FIO Onyeachonam, ME Sanda, IJ Ogbonna, E Kalu, NU Njoku and MI Udobi
Protozoa require Folic acid for replication and Cotrimoxazole inhibits synthesis of the B-vitamin. So, the drug could be effective for treatment of trypanosomosis (tropical protozoan disease of man and animals). To improve efficacy of such treatment on symptoms of the disease, a formulation of the medicine and The Medicinal synthetic Aluminum-magnesium silicate (Antivirt®) was used to treat mice. Cotrimoxazole improved (P ≤ 0.05) PCV, RBC and HB in uninfected mice (from 47.60 ± 0.51, 7.93 ± 0.09 and 15.87 ± 0.17 to 59.60 ± 0.51, 9.93 ± 0.09 and 19.93 ± 0.12) and in trypanosome-infected mice (from 34.75 ± 0.48, 5.79 ± 0.08 and 11.67 ± 0.14 to 37.67 ± 0.88, 6.28 ± 0.15 and 12.56 ± 0.29) but it worsened fever in trypanosome-infected mice (from rectal temperature: 36.30 ± 0.35 to 46.27 ± 0.79). Stabilizing the drug with Antivirt® reduced (P ≤ 0.05) that adverse effect (fever) from temperature of 46.27 ± 0.79 to 39.50 ± 0.29. Weight of the mice remained approximately (P ≥ 0.05) same in all the groups. Formulation of Cotrimoxazole (anti-protozoan) and Antivirt® could be a new medicine for trypanosomosis (sleeping sickness).
22 The Potential Role of Epigenetics in the Welfare and Behavior of Mammals. , Ricardo Zanella
The term “epigenetic” was introduced by Conrad Waddington in the early 1940s who have suggested the involvement of exter-nal agents in the modulation of the individuals' epigenotype. Since then, several studies have benefited and strengthened with this knowledge. Among them, we can mention the enormous progress of evolutionary studies, developmental biology, and cancer re-search, which have broken enormous barriers, explaining pheno-types not caused by Mendelian inheritance.
23 On-site diagnosis for Infectious Diseases , Barkha Sharma
On site test or Penside or Point-of-care testing (POCT) also known as portable test, field test refers to laboratory testing per-formed on the site, in the proximity of the patient so that prompt and accurate diagnosis can be made and adequate treatment can be given to the patient well in time. Thus, it aims to bring the labo-ratory at the door step of the patient, for the convenience of the doctor as well as the patient. Various rapid diagnostic test/tools with variable sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis of important infectious diseases have been developed to facilitate on field diag-nosis of various diseases in humans as well as in animals. Standard laboratory procedures like blood culture, high-throughput immu-noassays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mass spectrom-etry (MS), which have been hitherto relied upon for their accurate results usually take much longer time and sophisticated laborato-ries with costly equipments and trained people.
24 Artificial Intelligence and Pandemics , Deeptivet
Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human in-telligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. It is also known as Machine Intelligence which is any device that perceives its environment and takes ac-tions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. An intelligent agent should be skilled in perception, practical reasoning and have an ability to take action to achieve its goals. It incorporates the skills required to pass the Turing Test, which assesses whether a machine can think like a human? AI makes it possible for machines to learn from experience, adjust to new inputs and perform human-like tasks. The goals of artificial in-telligence include learning, reasoning, and perception.
25 Review on Auromanes Disease , Abduleziz Jemal Hamido
The genus Aeromonas consists of Gram-negative, oxidase posi-tive bacilli that are considered of aquatic environments and are commonly isolated from clinical and environmental samples. Typi-cal habitats for these bacteria are freshwater (ground water, lakes, rivers and reservoirs), chlorinated and un-treated drinking water, bottled water, swimming pools, wastewater, reclaimed waters, brackish waters, and seawater. Aeromonas spp. Can produce sever-al diseases in wild and farmed freshwater and marine fish species impacting the economy of the aquaculture sector. Most common human clinical presentations of Aeromonas infections are diarrhea, wound and soft-tissue infections and bacteremia. Many infections are related to water exposure (traumatic accidents, near drown-ing, natural disasters.
26 Multidisciplinary Vision in the Teaching of Veterinary Medicine , Navarro C
The fabulous world of veterinary medicine has been uncovered years ago in history. The study of some pathologies such as canine distemper is proof of this. There are many others that without the multidisciplinary approach today would still be in a precarious situation, because since Mochizuki., et al., in 1999 described new genotypes of the ca-nine distemper virus that story changed.This brief report does nothing but improve the current multidisciplinary approach of Veterinary Medicine, today more important considering the concept of One Health.
27 Heart and Cancer: Rare Events or Protective Events as a New Medical Hypothesis , Ahed J Alkhatib
It is rarely to diagnose cancers in heart, and this, in turn, led to critical questions about this phenomenon. One of hypotheses has focused on developmental biology in which the body through cross-talks decided that heart is very crucial to the body and its roles can’t be replaced.
28 Hypertrophic Osteopathy in a Two-years-old Belgian Shepherd Associated with a Pantoa agglomerans Infective Endocarditis , Del Fabbro N, Dulieu FBJ, Magnan S, Cotrel AGG, Trombini GB, Girardet SJ and Ginesta JJJ
The association of an infective valvular endocarditis and a hypertrophic osteopathy in a young dog is considered as rare. The latter case is usually due to an intra-thoracic lesion but the association with a cardiac disease has only been reported in a few numbers of cases. A 2 years old Belgian shepherd military dog is presented to the French Army Referral Center, 24th Veterinary Group of Suippes, for an hypertrophic osteopathy due ton an infective valvular endocarditis caused by Pantoea agglomerans, confirmed by a blood culture. To our acknowledgement, it is the first published case of dog infection by Pantoea agglomerans, an emerging, zoonotic, soil related and nosocomial bacteria in human infectious diseases
29 Proventriculitis in Chickens , Mohamed M Amer
The proventriculus is the first part of a bird's stomach, where digestive enzymes are secreted and mixed with food before it goes to the gizzard. Proventriculus is a rod shaped glandular organ secretes hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen, where food is stored and/or starts the digestion processes with enzymes. Proventriculitis is a diseased condition characterized by enlargement of the proventriculus and weakness of the gastric isthmus. The disease is associated with retarded growth and low feed conversion. Broiler in the slaughterhouse, during evisceration the af-fected proventriculus can rupture, causing the spread of its contents into the body cavity and contamination of the carcass, further increasing the incidence of condemnation and economical losses. Several agents have been incriminated single and/or in combination, as a possible cause of proventriculitis including noninfectious causes (oral exposure to biogenic amines, mycotoxins, low dietary fiber, and high copper sulfate) and infectious causes [adenovirus, Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), reovirus, Marek's disease virus, Chicken proventricular necrosis virus (CPNV), clostridium and Macrorhabdus ornithogaster (megabacterium)]. The objective of this article is to summarize literature written about Proventriculitis to be available to students, researchers, and veterinarians in poultry practical
30 Observations on the Influence of Ration Quality on the Efficiency of Dietary Protein Utilisation for Milk Versus Meat Production in Friesians , J B Moran
From previously published research undertaken by the author over four years in two countries, the data generated in animal pro-duction studies on the beef or dairy performance of well fed and managed Friesian bulls or cows has been compared. The efficiency of utilisation of dietary protein retained in the carcasses of Friesian bulls fed one of two diets was monitored as was the efficiency of dietary protein for milk protein production in lot fed Friesian cows and heifers fed one of four diets. In both studies, the diets varied in the concentration of cereal grains or other high energy constituents. Generating such animal protein in the form of milk protein is 6 to 7 times faster and 2 to 3 times more efficient than retaining protein in the animal carcass. For intensively managed Friesian bulls, this would be equivalent to growth rates of over 6 kg/head/day together with double their voluntary feed intakes, both feats physiologically impossible
31 Chicken Intestinal Microbiota , Mohamed M Amer
Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences (ISSN: 2582-3183) Volume 3 Issue 5 May 2021Chicken Intestinal MicrobiotaMohamed M Amer* Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt*Corresponding Author: Mohamed M Amer, Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.Short CommunicationReceived: April 22, 2021Published: April 28, 2021© All rights are reserved by Mohamed M Amer.The gastrointestinal (GI) tract considered as one of the largest exposed surface in the body. The GI tract acts as a selective barrier between bird’s tissues and its luminal environment. The GI barrier is composed of many factors including physical, chemical, immu-nological, and microbiological components
32 Obesity’s Importance to Equidae and its Consequences , Rodrigo Martins Ribeiro and Debora da Silva Freitas Ribeiro
Obesity is defined by Word Health Organization as an abnor-mal or excessive accumulation of adipose tissue in the body [1]. According to Body Condition Score (BCS) developed by Henneke., et al. (1983), horses and ponies with BCS 7 can be considered over-weight and BCS 8 or 9 are considered obese
33 The Use of Animal Models in Type 1 Diabetes Studies: Promising Results in Animals and Defects in Human Outcomes , Ahed J Alkhatib
In this editorial, I would like to make a focus in a problem we are experienced in diabetes type 1 between basic research and clini-cal outcomes when we came to apply in human patients. Studies that have conducted using animal models to induce diabetic type 1 depend usually on the use of alloxan or streptozotocin (STZ) to chemically damage pancreatic cells (β cells). Various therapeutic options including herbs of medical use such as Urtica species and metformin were used to treat diabetic animals with good results. Coming to humans, no therapeutic options gave good results. A big question came to the mind of researcher, where is the defect?
34 Dry Matter Yield and Chemical Composition of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) Varieties as Animal Feed in the South Omo Zone of South-western Ethiopia , Denbela Hidosa and Sintayehu Kibret
Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) species is leguminous herbaceous forage primarily used as feed for livestock due to high protein content and digestible fibers. This study was initiated to evaluate dry matter yield and chemical composition of four Alfalfa varieties grown under rain fed condition in a randomized completed block design in factorial arrangement having three locations (On-station of Jinka Agricultural Research Center, Shama-Bulket and Chali) and four varieties(DZ409, DZ407, DZ local and D5533) with three replications per variety. Data on dry matter yield, cutting height above ground, leaf to stem ratio and chemical compositions were analyzed using the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS. The higher (P > 0.05) dry matter yield (5.20 t ha-1) was recorded for DZ local variety and whereas, the lowest dry matter yield (3.74 t ha-1) was recorded for DZ5533 variety. The higher (P < 0.001) Crude Protein (220.98 g/Kg, DM) obtained from DZ409 variety and whereas, the lowest (P < 0.001) Crude protein (180 g/Kg, DM) obtained from DZ local variety. Based on the result from this study we concluded that farmers and agro-pastoralists could enhance the feed availability for increased livestock production in the study area by planting DZ local alfalfa variety and DZ409 variety for higher dry matter yield and Crude Protein respectively.
35 Isolation and Molecular Detection of Rota Virus Associated with Calves, in Central Oromia, Ethiopia , Umer Seid, Fufa Dawo, Asamino Tesfaye, Melaku Sombo and Munera Ahmednur
Epidemiological study, conducting of the diagnostic tests, clinical observation and molecular Detection of the causative agent is important for prevention and control of the diseases. Diarrheal disease in calves caused rotavirus which the most common pathogen. Despite the fact that, the effect of rotavirus which was cause calves diarrhea in Ethiopia are not fully understood. A cross-sectional study was undertaking with the purpose of isolation and molecular detection of rotavirus in calves from central part of Oromia (Bish-oftu, Sebata, Holeta and Addis Ababa), Ethiopia from November 2018 to May 2019. The study sites were selected purposively and fecal samples were collected for detection of rotavirus by using antigen detection Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ag-ELISA) kit. The associated risk factors of rotavirus infection were also studied. Different farm levels (floor of the calf) and calf level (sex, age) factors were measured the level of association between variables. In the current study, 245 (83 diarrheic and 162 non-diarrheic) fecal samples were collected from calves less than 1 month of age and then samples were screened for presence of rotavirus infec-tion. From 83 diarrheic samples, 6 (7.2%) samples were found positive for rotavirus antigen by Ag-ELISA. But all 162 non-diarrheic samples were negative for rotavirus infection. 2.45% (6/245) were an overall prevalence of rotavirus in calves. All samples (6) of ELISA test positive were propagated in Madin Darby Bovine Kidney Cell (MDBK cells). After 3 continuous passages, progressive cytopathic effect (CPE) of 4 sample (66.7%) were founded. For detection of rotavirus by molecular technique, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to show the occurrence of rotavirus by using specific generic primers for VP4 genetic regions in feces samples. From 6 sample which was positive by ELISA, only Four samples, were develop CPE on cell culture and positive on RT-PCR technique. In male calves the peaked of infection prevalence was obtained at first and second weeks of age. Rotavirus which was lead diarrheal disease in calves have zoonotic importance, decreased weight of calves and increased mortality. So, the current study showed rotavirus disease in calves in Ethiopia that should be solved by practicing early colostrum feeding in newborn calves and improving husbandry system of livestock.
36 Chemical Composition of Seed Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) Griseb from Jalisco, México , J Jesús Vargas-Radillo, Rubén Rosales Ramírez and Lucía Barrientos Ramírez
Mature seeds of Enterolobium cyclocarpum were sampled from two locations with physiographic and edaphoclimatic differences, in the state of Jalisco, México. The ground seeds of E. cyclocarpum was then analyzed. Nutritional value was evaluated by proximate analysis; amino acids by HPLC; and minerals through absorption spectrophotometry. Different nutritional value was obtained in each sampled locality. In particular crude proteins was high, with 19.56 and 30.34 (g/100 g dm) in each of the sampling areas. Alike, the aminoacids content showed variation by sampling area, although in most cases, higher value than the daily requirements suggested in the amino acid scoring patterns from the FAO/WHO/ONU reports. In terms of the mineral content of phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sodium, copper, showed difference between both sampling sites, which appear to be directly related to the quality of the sandy loamy.
37 Review on Epidemiological Distribution of Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) in Ethiopia , Firaol Bekele and Abdissa Lemma
Bovine viral diarrhea virus(BVDV) is an infectious and contagious agent of cattle which cause high economic losses because of decline in production performance and it may also result in mortality. The disease is caused by Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) a member of the Pestivirus genus within the family Flaviviridae and there is no known health risk to humans from this virus. It causes diarrhea, anorexia, pyrexia, oral erosion, abortion, congenital defects, poor growth, depression, fever, immunesuppression and death in animals. Animals which persistantly infected (PI) can harbor this virus for all of their life and shed it without any clinical sign. The diagnostic approaches used to detect BVDV infections are the detection of viral components (direct tests) and detection of immune response to BVDV (indirect tests). PI animal elimination can highly mitigate the spread of the virus and control strategy which in-cludes vaccination and strict prevention of the introduction of BVDV in previously uninfected herds. BVDV has huge impact on dairy industry by high economic losses due to decline in performance and mortality of animals and considered as a serious threat to the livestock production worldwide. The major strategies for prevention and control of this virus include isolating new animals before introducing them to the herds, culling repeat breeders, elimination of persistently infected (PI) animals, enhanced immunity through vaccination, and implementation of insecurity measures
38 Literature Review on Avian Influenza Virus Prevalence in Birds and Humans , Ibsa Abrahim Umar and Abduleziz Jemal
Avian influenza viruses are now widely recognized as important threats to agricultural biosecurity and public health, and as the potential source for pandemic human influenza viruses. Human infections with avian influenza viruses have been reported from Asia (H5N1, H5N2, H9N2), Africa (H5N1, H10N7), Europe (H7N7, H7N3, H7N2), and North America (H7N3, H7N2, H11N9). Direct and indirect public health risks from avian influenza are not restricted to the highly pathogenic H5N1 “bird flu” virus and include low pathogenic as well as high pathogenic strains of other avian influenza virus subtypes, e.g. H1N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N7, and H9N2. Research has shown that the 1918 Spanish Flu pandemic was caused by an H1N1 influenza virus of avian origins, and during the past decade, fatal human disease and human-to-human transmission has been confirmed among persons infected with H5N1 and H7N7 avian influenza viruses. Our ability to accurately assess and map the potential economic and public health risks associated with avian influenza outbreaks is currently constrained by uncertainties regarding key aspects of the ecology and epidemiology of avian influ-enza viruses in birds and humans, and the mechanisms by which highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses are transmitted between and among wild birds, domestic poultry, mammals, and humans.
39 Multidisciplinary Vision in the Teaching of Veterinary Medicine , Navarro C
The fabulous world of veterinary medicine has been uncovered years ago in history. The study of some pathologies such as canine distemper is proof of this. There are many others that without the multidisciplinary approach today would still be in a precarious situation, because since Mochizuki., et al., in 1999 described new genotypes of the ca-nine distemper virus that story changed.This brief report does nothing but improve the current multidisciplinary approach of Veterinary Medicine, today more important considering the concept of One Health
40 Case Control Study of Avian Coccidiosis in Commercial Poultry , Saima Parveen, Altaf Mahmood, Tanveer Hussain, Sajid Umar, Ayesha Azad, Nosheen Shoukat, Mirza Muhammad Arsalan Azam, Nosheen Akhtar Malik, Zubia Malik, Shujjah Haider and Syed Muhammad Kamal Nasir
Commercial poultry sector is one of the most important segments of global trade and production. Coccidiosis, a worldwide disease of economic importance, significantly influences the production potential of this sector. To decrease the prevalence and consequent economic losses, identification of factors, which influence the frequency and persistence of illness, is pre requisite. A retrospective case control study was conducted for a period of one year in order to identify the risk factors associated with coccidiosis infection. Total of 70 broiler and 15 layer flocks of varying age and population sizes were selected as cases. For each case flock, one apparently healthy flock of similar breed, age and population size was also selected as control. Data of these 85 case control pair flocks regarding disease incidence and associated factors, recorded from January through December 2018, were analyzed for measures of association. Monsoon season, no vaccination, broiler breed, winter season, post monsoon season, spring season, open shed, wet litter, ≤ 4 weeks age, coccidiostat excluded feed and crowding appeared as putative risk factors exhibiting significant (P < 0.05) association with coc-cidiosis infection by odds ratios of 2.88, 3.35, 3.66, 5.70, 6.77, 7.12, 8.14, 8.50, 9.28, 9.33 and 11.40 respectively. Non-significant (P > 0.05) association of coccidiosis infection was recorded with layer breed and scarce flushing with odds ratios of 0.73 and 0.94 respec-tively. Incidence and persistence of coccidiosis infection in commercial poultry population is significantly influenced by management and seasonal factors
41 Short Review on Histoplasmosis , Abduleziz Jemal, Milion Shiferaw and Mogos Mokonin
Histoplasmosis is an infection disease that caused by fungus which is called Histoplasma capsulatum. It was found in the en-vironment, especially in soil that contains large amounts of bird populations and bat droppings, and enters in to the body by inhala-tion and affects primarily the lungs
42 Review on Epidemiology, Prevention and Control of FMD , Hailemariam Adugna Getahun
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly devastating and debilitating viral disease of the cloven-hoofed animals and considered as a serious threat to the livestock industry worldwide. Worldwide 70 countries are officially recognized by the OIE as FMD free ir-respective of vaccination, while India along with around 100 other countries are still considered as endemic or sporadic zones. The disease is most important in cattle and pigs but goats, sheep, buffaloes in India and llama in South America are also affected. The virus is resistant to external influences including common disinfectants and the usual storage practices of the meat trade. Following an acute disease, affected animals shed the virus in all the body secretions and excretions (including exhaled air) like saliva, nasal and lachrymal fluid, milk, urine, feces and semen. Preventive measures in the absence of disease should be implemented as Control of national borders to prevent significant movement of animals and livestock products from non-free neighbors or trade partners. Currently FMD is widely prevalent and distributed in all areas of Ethiopia, although the level of the disease prevalence may show significant variations across the different farming systems and agro-ecological zones of the country. Endemic distributions of five of seven serotypes of FMDV are maintained in the country and Serotypes O, A, C, SAT1 and SAT2 were responsible for FMD outbreaks during 1974–2007). The most dominant serotype is O, accounting for 72% of the investigated outbreaks occurring in the country. Global eradication of FMD in the world include control by eradication, strengthens veterinary services, and control and prevention of other diseases. The main challenges faced during the FMD eradication are the virus related challenges, economic considerations of FMD enzootic considerations, and social and political challenges
43 Milk Lactoferrin: A Future Biomolecule for Livestock Species , Tanveer Hussain
Lactoferrin, a pleiotropic and multivalent natural protein, derived from milk of livestock species, has become the center of attention in current scientific era due to its diverse biological activities and functions. It is an 80kDa single chain glycoprotein containing two lobes N-lobe and C-lobe, packed together with the hydrophobic connections with iron binding sites. Lactoferrin can be derived from multiple sources however it has found in higher quantities in milk of livestock animals especially bovine and camel. In bovine milk, it varies from 1.5 to 485.3 μg/mL [1] but colostrum has higher amount about 1-5 mg/mL [2] and lactoferrin concen-tration in camel milk is reported from 0.02 to 7.28 mg/mL [3]. The major purpose of milk-derived lactoferrin is because of its cost-ef-fective acquisition and it has been found that animal milk derived lactoferrin showed more activity and therapeutic potential than human lactoferrin.
44 Transmission of Rabies by Consuming Meat of Rabid Animal , Hailemariam Adugna Getahun
Rabies is a fatal deadly zoonotic virus which is transmitted by biting of infected animals. It causes the inflammation of brains, comma and death of animals and humans. The virus can affect the body when it enters the peripheral nervous system (PNS) directly and migrates to the brain. It replicates within muscle tissue, where it is safe from the host’s immune system. From here, it enters the nervous system through the neuromuscular junctions.
45 Evaluation the Prevalence of Ovine Worms in and Around Injibara , Hailemariam Adugna
A cross sectional study was carried out from November 2019 to April 2020 with the objective of determining the prevalence and identifying the species of ovine lungworm occured in Injibara, Awi zone. Faecal examinations were carried out in 384 sheep with the Associated factors of age, body condition score and sexes. In the study period 152 male and 232 female were selected. A total preva-lence of 35.9% was found by Modified Beremannes technique examinations. These animals were infected by different types of spe-cies namely D. filaria (17.18%), P. rufescens (7.27%), M. capillaries (5.46%) and Mixed infection was observed in 4.42% of the cases. D. filaria (17.18) was the highest predominant species in the study area. In the study period Females have higher prevalence (39.2%) than males (30.9) and younger sheep are highly infected (44.3%) than adult sheep (30.5). Even if high prevalence was observed in females and younger animals, there was no significant difference between the age and sex variables (P > 0.05). A significance dif-ference was observed in body conditions (poor, 71.4%, medium, 33.4%, good, 28.2%) i.e. p < 0.05 for body condition variable. This research indicated that the ovine lungworm is an important disease in farmers those participated in livestock production in the area. High infestation of ovine lungworm in the area needs high engrossment to reduce the impact of the problems and due to its side effect on livestock production; concentration should be provided for the control and prevention of lung worm infection in the study area.
46 Advancement of Genome Editing in Livestock , Ramneet Kaur
Genome editing is an efficient tool that can significantly modify the genome of an organism to attain desired endogenous gene alteration and integrated exogenous gene insertion. Genetic engi-neering of livestock has proven difficult. The development of ge-netically modified livestock remained hindered due to the short-age of embryonic stem (ES) cells [1,2]. In the mouse, targeted gene deletion can be conducted in ES cells, and then the ES cells contain-ing the desired genotypes can be implanted into recipient blasto-cysts to produce chimeric mice that can pass the genotype to the germline. As a result of the success of this technique, the mouse has become the primary model in biomedicine for elucidating the role of target genes
47 Health Management for People and Pets during COVID-19 , Dodds W Jean
During the present worldwide pandemic, companies are mar-keting to the heightened public anxiety about SARS-CoV-2 and its disease COVID-19 [1]. These concerns not only affect human popu-lations but also impact upon the companion animal pets that share their lives. Commercial companies are profiting from selling a myriad of safety and sanitizing supplies as well pet face coverings. One pet mask company reported that sales spiked 500%. However, a recent February 2021 survey from market research company, Packaged Facts, said that “40% of pet product shoppers claimed they shopped online more for pet products due to the impact of COVID-19”. But,the company also pointed out that this uptick in e-commerce shopping in the United States pet industry won’t be reversed even as restrictions are increasingly lifted and the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines become more widely available, because consum-ers have become acclimated to the ease and convenience of online ordering [2]
48 Light-Trap Catch of Macrolepidoptera Individuals and Species in Connection with the Geomagnetic Disturbed (D), Quiet (Q) and Usual (U) Nights , Nowinszky L, Puskás J and Kiss M
This paper engages in relationship with geomagnetism and light-trap catch of moths (Lepidoptera). We found correspondence between disturbed (D), quiet (Q) and usual (U) days and light trapped individuals and species. The light trap caught the most individuals on disturbed nights and the number of species was also the highest in the spring and summer aspects. They were unfavourable, however, for catching the quiet nights. Individuals of the autumn aspect species flew to the light in larger amounts on the usual nights.
49 Impact of Krishi Vigyan Kendra Training on Knowledge Gain and Farmers Adoption Behaviour , Shardul Vikram Lal, N Anand Laxmi, Y Ramakrishna and Augustine Jerard
The study conducted in Dukenagar village of North and Middle Andaman district. The study was taken up here because Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK), Nimbudera ICAR-Central Island Agricultural Research Institute is carrying out development activities related to livestock. It was observed that people of this village were not aware of practices related to poultry for efficient poultry production. The data was collected from 24 respondents covering the main areas of Dukenagar village. Based on the response to field studies carried out in the month of June 2020, the training and demonstration activities were undertaken for respondents in Dukenagar vil-lage (n = 24) for rearing of Vanaraja birds. Evaluation of knowledge level of participants for the best practices in backyard poultry farming on Vanaraja chickens revealed increase in knowledge level after the training programme. The demonstration on backyard farming of Vanraja birds resulted in higher growth performance of birds compared to local chick population. The benefit cost ratio after the demonstration for backyard farming of Vanaraja was 2.18 compared to local backyard chickens which was only 1.30. It was noted that percent change in adoption of best practices in backyard poultry farming was as follows; 1. separation of sick birds (56%) followed by 2 deworming (42%), 3. storage of eggs in refrigerator (38%), 4. rearing of Vanraja birds (29%), 5. vaccination (25%), 6. artificial incubation (25%), 7. use of litter material (21%), 8. artificial brooding (13%) and 9. night shelter (8%). In conclusion, the training programme conducted for skill development, resulted in increase in knowledge and skill level of participants on scientific practices of backyard poultry.
50 Study on the Use of Resveratrol as an Adjuvant in Cancer Therapy , Diana Mihaela Alexandru, Ana-Maria Coman, Maria Iuliana Gruia2and Maria Crivineanu
Chemotherapy, the most widely used therapy in oncology, leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, which often gener-ates adverse effects in patients. To reduce the oxidative stress due to either the action of cytostatics or pathological tumour mecha-nisms, we analyzed the effectiveness of antioxidants. The use of antioxidants as adjuvant therapy can improve the therapeutic effects by potentiating the antitumour action of cytostatics and reducing their toxicity to healthy tissues.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of resveratrol administered 3 days after Epirubicin in Wistar rats inoculated with Walker tumour 256. In our experiment we evaluated three indices of oxidative stress and found that the lowest values were recorded at the group receiving resveratrol, thus emphasizing the beneficial antioxidant action of resveratrol.
51 The Veterinarian and the Public Health , Juliana Shimara Pires Ferrão
The veterinarian is considered by many to be just a dog and cat doctor. However, today, this has been shown to be different. It is known that the occupation area of a veterinarian is very wide, since he acts for the health and well-being of animals and human beings and for the environment sustainability
52 Surgical Correction of Umbilical Hernia in Buffalo Calf: A Case Report , Dhurba DC and Ranjana Ranabhat
A four month old male buffalo calf with the history of bulge type swelling found at the point of umbilicus was brought to United Veterinary Center, Hetauda, Makawanpur, Nepal. Clinical examination revealed a reducible type small bulge mass with 4 fingers length and 3 fingers breadth hernial ring. Other clinical parameters were within the normal physiological limit. The case was corrected surgically by means of herniorrhaphy.
53 Use of Larva Meal as an Alternate Protein Source to Soya Bean and Fish Meal in Backyard Poultry in Low Income Areas of Country , Rana Umar Tayyab, Nasir Iqbal and Hamza Jawad
All areas of a country can never be same so as the residents at different localities. Backyard poultry is a source of edible protein source for the low-income area residents that they can earn by sell-ing in the high demand areas of the country. Larva meal is a cheap and rich source of protein diet. It contains crude protein (CP) = 43% - 60%, unsaturated fatty acids = 27% - 75% and metaboliz-able energy (ME) = 24 MJ/kg DM. They also contain minerals like potassium, calcium, phosphorous, and zinc [1,2]. They are used in feeding poultry, fisheries, piglets and research is being done for its use in ruminants. Commonly black soldier fly and housefly larvae are used. Larva meal can replace soy bean meal and fish meal from 27 to 100% depending upon the specie of the animal [3,4]. They can be used as fresh and live in backyard poultry as well as killed and dried to be mixed with other feed.1kg of larva biomass can be produced from 2kg of substrate biomass
54 Use of Larva Meal as an Alternate Protein Source to Soya Bean and Fish Meal in Backyard Poultry in Low Income Areas of Country , Rana Umar Tayyab, Nasir Iqbal and Hamza Jawad
All areas of a country can never be same so as the residents at different localities. Backyard poultry is an edible protein source for the low-income area residents that they can earn by selling in the high demand areas of the country. Larva meal is a cheap and rich source of protein diet. It contains crude protein (CP) = 43% - 60%, unsaturated fatty acids = 27% - 75% and metabolizable energy (ME) = 24 MJ/kg DM. They also contain minerals like potassium, calcium, phosphorous, and zinc. They are used in feeding poultry, fisheries, piglets and research is being done for its use in the ruminants. Commonly Black Soldier Fly and Housefly larvae are used. Larva meal can replace soy bean meal and fish meal from 27 to 100% depending upon the species of the animal. They can be used as fresh and live in backyard poultry as well as killed and dried to be mixed with other feed. 1kg of larva biomass can be produced from 2 kg of substrate biomass. Black Soldier Fly (BSF) and Housefly larvae are commonly used. Housefly has lifecycle of 10 days as com-pared to that of Black Soldier Fly that has life cycle of 45 days. Moreover, Black Soldier Fly is native to U.S.A, South and North America whereas Housefly is found everywhere. So, it is convenient to use Housefly to produce larva. The ideal temperature for larva produc-tion is 30° to 40°C and moisture content of air is 75%. Housefly larva can be best reared on substrates like poultry droppings, cow manure, rotten fruits and vegetables, animal offal. In this activity wheat bran and cotton seed cake are used. Then larva is harvested either by floatation method or by screening method. After harvesting, larva can be killed by boiling or using NaCl and then dried in oven or sun. There is need to commercialize it and persuade investors to invest in larva production making it a productive industry that will help backyard poultry industry
55 Corona Virus , Dr. Loveson Lakhani
Corona virus COVID-19 is a virus that causes disease in avian and mammals. Coronavirus effect is felt on the respiratory tract in humans. This virus may also produce infection in chicken’s up-per respiratory effect, and in pigs and cows it causes diarrhea and vomiting. Genomic size of this virus is about 30 to 35 kilobases. The first outbreak of this virus was reported in Wuhan, China in De-cember 2019 but so far over 175000 cases of COVID-19 have been recorded in more than 128 countries. The most affected countries are China, Italy, Iran and South Korea. According to world figures over 6800 people have so far died of this disease and over 75000 patients have recovered.
56 Application of Phage Therapy in Foods of Animal Origin , Firaol Bekele Bayecha
In the world people purchase and consume different types of animal source food products by considering these products is safe and free from any microbial agents which cause disease. But, every year, thousands of people get sick and loss their life due to different types of foodborne pathogens spread through foods [1].Several approaches including traditional antimicrobial meth-ods are used to help improve the safety of our foods but they have significant downside effect, such as a huge initial capital, signifi-cant damage to processing materials due to their corrosive proper-ties, and a deleterious impact on organoleptic qualities and nutri-tional content of foods [2,3].
57 Covid-19 Infection and Cardiovascular System: A-Review , Warda Mustfa and Hina Ayub
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) affects the cells by ACE, leading to infect the human respiratory system severely. Recently investigated that COVID-19 also damage the Cardiovascular System, leading to cause severe myocardial injury. The increased mortality and morbidity in COVID-19 patients are mainly because of hypertension. This paper interprets the relationship between COVID-19 with cardiovascular damage, hypertension (HTN), ACE, blood pressure, CK-MB, and Lipid Profile. Hypertension (HTN) continues to be a strong and widespread risk factor for IHD.
58 Forecast of New and Deceased Cases of COVID-19 in Cuba with an Advance of 105 Days , Ricardo Osés Rodríguez, Rigoberto Fimia Duarte, Claudia Osés Llanes, María Patricia Zambrano Gavilanes, Thaináh Bruna Santos Zambrano and Alfredo González Meneses
In this work, new cases and daily deaths of the COVID-19 pandemic affecting Cuba so far in the year 2021 were modeled. Math-ematical models were obtained by means of the methodology of Regressive Objective Regression (ROR), which explains their behav-ior, depending on 105 days in advance, a parameter which is related to a delay of 4 months. A long-term prognosis was performed, which allows taking measures in clinical services to reduce deaths and complications in patients with COVID-19. It is concluded that COVID-19, despite being a new disease in the world, can be predicted 105 days in advance by means of ROR mathematical modeling, which allows reducing the number of deceased, severe, and critical patients for better management of the pandemic. The tendency of the disease is on the rise, so the management, monitoring, and control of the disease should continue to be taken to the extreme, as established in the medical protocols. An accumulated number of 1000 deaths could be reached by August 19, 2021, and 500 deaths by April 15, 2021, according to the models run.
59 Wild Tigers are in Danger , Dr. Loveson Lakhani
As you know an estimated 3,800 tigers remain in the wild, but if we wants to secure its species for future in the world then we should protect them form many haunted men and killers. In some areas, the tiger numbers are declining because of many reasons and problems likewise, killing of tigers, holding of tigers in the cag-es, in fighting, in games but specially they sellout their organs and products in black market.
60 Role of Veterinary Professionals in the Coming Time Period of Ongoing COVID-19 Pandemic , Sanjeev Kumar
It is now more than one year since COVID-19, known as SARS-CoV-2, pandemic started at the end of December 2019 in Wuhan, a central city in China. Several variants of SARS-CoV-2 were de-tected since then. Coronaviruses belong to the order Nidoviralesin the family Coronaviridae.CoronavirinaeandTorovirinaeare two subfamilies of Coronaviridae family. Coronavirinae subfam-ily can be divided into four genera viz:Alpha-coronavirus,Beta-coronavirus,Gamma-coronavirus, andDelta-coronavirus[1].The phylogenetic analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 genome revealed that this is closely related to the Beta-coronaviruses [2]. The genome of SARS-CoV-2 is consists of positive-sense single-stranded RNA [3]. We have learned much about this virus during this period.Currently, some countries have passed or some countries are in the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Globally, there have been 177,108,695 confirmedcases ofCOVID-19andoutofwhich3,840,223deaths were reported to the world health organization (WHO) until 18 June 2021.
61 Survey on Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Disease in Aquatic Animals , Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah
In general, any factor that upsets the hemostatic balance of the living organism creates a condition called disease. VHS is a sea-sonal deadly infectious disease of fish that is most severe in late winter and early spring when the water temperature rises. It is a specific infectious disease that occurs in a fish farm establishment usually following the importation of live fish from another infected plant. The disease is caused by the VHSV virus in fish, which is a type of RNA virus that is in the form of a bullet. The causative agent is a rhabdovirus. The virus is highly sensitive to heat. At 60°C, it disappears within fifteen minutes. It survives at 0°C for 24 hours but at -20°C for a long time. The vhs virus has four types of geno-types, including genotypes 1, 2 and 3, which are mainly found in Europe and Asia and cause a severe disease in Trout are rainbow trout, and genotype 4, also known as the North American genus, has been found in wild fish on the west and east coasts of North America, and more recently in the Great Lakes Watershed.
62 Importance of Micro-nutrient Supplementation for Livestock a Mini-Review , Iqra Bano, Eva Štefková Kašparová, Hira Sajjad and Rashed Reza
Trace minerals are very much crucial for livestock health and production. They play many tasks to maintain homeostasis of ani-mal’s body including regulation of enzymatic reactions, redox biology, acting as antioxidant agents. They are also involved in boost-ing various reproductive traits of animals by improving spermatozoa quality and having an influence on the endocrine system. They also enhance immunity and fight against viral infections. Despite various health benefits still, these nutrients are highly negligible in animal’s ration. There must be an addition of trace minerals in animal ration up to a certain limit to improve animals’ health and performance. Mineral deficiencies therapeutic episodes are uncommon, and thus their relevance to research and teaching programs is scarce. In recent years, we have faced new trends in the evolution of organic and other sustainable production systems, which have not allowed or at least limited mineral supplementation to respond to ethical, health, and environmental concerns in connection with intensive farming and related health care. The current review covers various aspects of animal health and the production based on trace minerals supplementation.
63 Risks of Covid-19 Infection from Human-Non-Human Wildlife in Present Scenario , Dr. Ishita Ganguly
On the rise of Covid-19 virus globally, it is important to rise questions on human to non-human wildlife transfer of the dis-ease in present scenario. Rhinolophid bats were considered as the most potential evolutionary source for Covid-19 virus but human-to-non-human wildlife transmission (zooanthroponotic potential) has happened on numerous events, in different nations, and including a few animal groups. In any case, almost certainly, further cases in animal life will arise since numerous Covids have an expansive host range [1].
64 Fungal Infections in Animals and Humans: A Tumultuous Public Health Challenge , Dr Manuel Thomas
The past few decades has witnessed medical, veterinary and ecological excrescence of fungal diseases with a dramatic increase coupled with a myriad of pathognomonic manifestations in both animals and humans. To worsen the situation, climate change in- duced/related emergence of fungal infections is also evident irre- spective of geographical region with new host spectrum/species. The emergence of Chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis among amphibian population is the classic example in this regard which contributes extinctions of several frog species [1]. Coral reef depletion due to Aspergillus sydowii [2], mass mortalities of tur- tle by Fusarium solani [3] and white nose syndrome due to Pseu- dogymnoascus (Geomyces) destructans [4] in bats are other major emerging fungal diseases worldwide in animals with crippling im- pacts. In humans, rise of immunocompromised people opens new avenues for fungal diseases which are further complicated by dia- betes and currently the COVID 19 complications. According to the Global Action Fund for Fungal Infections (GAFFI), over 300 million people of all ages suffer from serious fungal diseases every year, resulting in over 13,50,000 deaths globally [5].
65 Causes Related to Renal Failure in Camel (Camillus dromedaries) , Hazem Karem Shafiek
This review article is written to describe the causes related to renal failure supported by the lab diagnosis and sometimes by Post- mortem and ultrasonography finding. Many cases were recorded with a renal failure and this common disease in Saudi Arabia and there are some causes like urine retention, Ruminal overload, long-term anti-inflammatory, cystitis, dehydration and hematuria are most common causes. In this article we will mention some cases with is lab finding and PM and sometime ultrasound examination.
66 Sudden Death of a Mare Caused by Rupture of Diaphragm , JP Kachhawa; Kapil Kachawaha;  RK Soni; Jamata Ram and Sand- eep Gautam
An 11 year old thoroughbred mare was presented in veterinary Clinical Complex of College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Bikaner with a history of abdominal pain. The mare was examined clinical and the condition is diagnosed as colic. The animal was kicking and rolling over the ground due to severe pain and treatment for colic was initiated immediately. Soon after, she was fall down and her respiratory rate increased suddenly and started trembling. She became recumbent and died within 10 minutes. A 22 cm long rent and rupture of the diaphragm was found in post mortem examination. The lungs were completely collapsed and there was severe hemothorax. The cause of death was determined to be hemorrhagic shock and asphyxia due to lungs collapse.
67 Contamination of Environment by Lead: A Threat to One Health , Subrat Kumar Dash
Lead is one of the highly toxic environmental pollutants. Con- tamination of our environment by lead is mainly due to human and industrial activities. The toxic effluents from various industries re- lease lead to the environment because of poor or non-functional waste management system. Rules regarding waste treatment and management are made only for showing purpose and industries are hardly following these rules. As a result we, the human (cre- ator of this problem) along with animals, plants, fresh water and marine life along with other living organisms in the environment are now facing the dangerous effects of lead. It is now a “one health issue” (Figure 1).
68 Effects of Replacing Inorganic Trace Minerals with Organic Ones (HimChelate-P) in Layer Diets on Production Performance, Egg Quality Traits, and Biochemical Parameters , Bhagwat Vishwanath G, Santosh Kumar V and Rangesh Paramesh
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of HimChelate-P on production performance, biochemical parameters, and egg quality parameters in BV-300 layer birds. In this study, one hundred twenty 50-week-old BV 300-layer birds were enrolled and randomly assigned to three groups, namely, T1, T2, and T3, with two replicates having 20 birds each. T1, T2, and T3 were raised on normal commercial feed and concurrently supplemented with inorganic trace minerals (ITMs) at 1000 g/ton of feed to T1 and competitor organic trace minerals (OTMs) and HimChelate-P (HC-P) at 500 g/ton of feed to T2 and T3, respectively. Hen-day egg production significantly improved following supplementation with HimChelate-P as compared with ITMs. The egg weight increased by 3.50% following supplementation with HimChelate-P compared with ITMs. A significant increase in eggshell thickness (mm) was observed in T2 (p < 0.05) and T3 (p < 0.001) on week 4 and T3 (p < 0.001) on week 5. In this study, T3 had numerical increases in serum protein, albumin, and globulin levels and the albumin–globulin ratio compared with T1. Serum copper and manganese concentrations decreased in T2 and T3 compared with T1. Moreover, the serum level of zinc decreased in T2 only. In conclusion, supplementation with HimChelate-P improves the overall health status, production performance, and egg quality parameters of BV- 300 layer birds compared with ITMs and OTMs. Hence, replacing ITM and OTM products with HimChelate-P at a dose of 500 g/ton could be recommended for augmenting production performance, improving the overall health status, and enhancing egg quality in BV 300-layer birds.
69 What can Amphibians Tell us about Environmental Health? , Roberta da Rocha Braga
Amphibians are a fascinating class of Vertebrate animals with a double life, relying on the water during their “infancy” to meta- morphose into terrestrial adult ones. More than eight thousand species are reported worldwide, and the order Anura (frogs and toads) makes up ninety percent of the total [1].
70 Tilapia Reveals: Unsustainable Management by an Organization in Charge of Sustainability , Hussein Valikhani and Milad Khosravi
After a decade, the efforts and persistence of the Iranian Fisheries Organization and Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute for introducing tilapia to the aquaculture industry paid off in Iran. Despite the contentions and resistance of the environmentalists, who believe that this introduction has destructive effects on the biodiversity and natural ecosystems as well as variant socio-econom- ic impacts, the Iranian Department of Environment granted tilapia culture license for this species to be introduced to the aquaculture of five central provinces of the country in 2018. According to some characteristics of the species such as feeding on different food resources, high reproductive potential and high ability in resisting of environmental condition and diseases, if the species intention- ally or accidentally finds the way into the natural inland water bodies from the aquaculture centers, could cause major impacts on the native species and ecosystems. Many experts agree that such unsustainable decisions reflect the structural weakness of the or- ganization at the level of management and administrative structure. After years of running this organization by non-specialists, the improvement of the current situation is strongly felt
71 Screening of Indian Pigs for Porcine Kobuvirus (PKV): Is it Matters? , Shailesh Kumar Patel, Mamta Pathak, Alok Singh, Aditya Agrawal, Jigyasa Rana and G Saikumar
The porcine kobuvirus (PKV) is suspected to cause large outbreaks of diarrhea and dehydration along with vomiting in suckling piglets with a high morbidity rate. Despite of its global importance only few studies are available on the pathology of PKV. The present study was conducted with the objective to investigate the pathology of PKV in naturally infected Indian pigs. A total of 41 intestinal content and tissue samples from dead pigs were collected from post-mortem facility of, ICAR-IVRI during April 2019 to July 2020 and subjected to histopathological examination and molecular investigation. The 3D region of PKV was amplified using RT-PCR and 3D gene based Genetic characterization of Indian isolate of the PKV was done. A total of six out of 41 necropsied piglets were found positive for the PKV with the thickening and clouding of brain meninges, congestion of brain, pneumonia along with catarrhal and haemorrhagic enteritis as common gross lesions. Mild to moderate perivascular cuffing, congestion of meningeal and cerebral ves- sels, focal gliosis and neuronophagia along with mild to severe interstitial pneumonia and emphysema was observed as common microscopic findings. Intestinal mucosa revealed severe inflammatory changes along with sloughing of villi. This study reported the first pathological investigation of PKV from Indian pigs. In addition, the molecular characterization revealed maximum identity of 91 - 93% with Chinese strain of PKV, FJ459905 and Indian isolate of PKV, MH394282. Further explorative surveillance along with epidemiological studies is highly warranted to find out the real impact of the PKV on Indian pigs.
72 Choice of Dairying in the Subcontinent: Cattle or Buffalo , Gangu Naidu Surla and P Ramesh Babu
Traditionally dairying is of three main purposes, 1. Produce male calves for plough purposes, 2. Use of dung cakes and manure for Agriculture, 3. Milk production. Modern successful dairy farm- ing includes slowly adopting farm mechanization to reduce the labor component and use of novel concepts like random checking of milk urea estimation is helpful in feed efficiency of a herd [1], and use of nitrates feeding to methane reduction on this planet (1a). The demand for Milk is an up-trend and continuous because human population growth is continuous and also to meet the gap in per-capita availability of the milk. To meet the demand, India like other countries planned the “Operation flood” program dur- ing 1970, now it became World’s first position in milk produc- tion and consumption [3]. Here the question arises, which dairy animal (cows or Buffaloes) is viable to maintain the dairy farm. Major factors to be considered to choose a cow or buffalo for milk production, based on the end-user’s choice i.e. Cow milk is better for consumption and also buffalo milk is mainly used for making milk-based products.
73 Tick Borne Virus , Dr. Loveson Lakhani and B Mathan
A malady referred to as Severe Fever with blood disease Syn- drome (SFTS), caused by a tick-borne virus, has killed seven and infected a minimum of sixty, setting off alarm bells among health officers in China. Covid-19 pandemic scenario across the globe destroying the health and economy, corona virus that has infected a lot of the eighteen million folks round the world and killed over than 600 thousand folks among seven months, China is that the 1st country wherever 1st case was rumoured and still facing the deadly health crisis however currently different virus detected by Chinese some- body that’s referred to as tick borne virus.
74 Role of Veterinarians and Livestock Owners in Achieving One Calf Per Year in Dairy Cows , Swati Ruhil
Obtaining a calf every year in a dairy herd appears to be a dif- ficult goal yet is achievable with concerted efforts of dairy farm- ers and veterinarians. The core role of dairy veterinarians remains individual animal examinations but this must be supplemented with systematic herd fertility investigation and veterinarian-led herd fertility management. This new role encompasses leading the change from clinical calls only to a planned approach to herd fer- tility, demonstrating the cost-benefits of the program, scheduling fertility management consultations, assisting the farmer in setting specific, measurable, attainable, relevant and time-limited goals. The application of such goals in dairy herds is possible when the dairy farmer is ready to adopt the newer protocols of fixing vol- untary waiting periods and applying estrus synchronization and timed inseminations with high fertility semen. For individual cows the role of the owner is increased as compared to the veterinary professional. An important consideration for the farmer is not to wait for prolonged periods of 6 months to get his cows pregnant again post calving.
75 Psychological Impacts of COVID-19 , RA Bhat1, S Gulzar, A Muhee, MI Yatoo, S Nisa and M Nisa
The coronavirus disease outbreak of 2019 (COVID-19) has triggered a global health catastrophe that has had a profound impact on how we view the world and live our daily lives. Given the existing physical reach of the COVID-19 pandemic in the population, long-term socioeconomic and psychological consequences are unavoidable. The rapid rise in worry and anxiety among individuals as a result of the disease’s unknown nature is accompanied by necessary but socially disruptive measures such as lockdowns and quar-antines. Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, panic disorders, and behavioural problems are among the psychological and psychiatric diseases that might result. Staying away from family, loneliness, disinformation on social media, financial insecurity, and stigmatisation are all risk factors. Children will be challenged primarily by a lack of structure associated with the closing of schools and colleges. Pregnant women are one of the most vulnerable groups during a viral outbreak, and they are at a higher risk of experiencing anxiety, stress, and depression symptoms during the COVID 19 outbreak. Older adults and people of any age with major underlying medical disorders may be at a higher risk of severe disease from COVID-19 according to currently available information and clinical expertise. With increased vulnerability comes an increase in anxiety, panic, and apprehension among the elderly and their family, which has been ongoing but little discussed. An increase in the prevalence rate of COVID-19 and the resulting restrictions leads to an increase in anxiety; thus, promoting public awareness of the condition and giving positive psychological programmes in the media focused at stress management can help society reduce anxiety.
76 Effects of Multiple Tropopause and Changes of Height of Tropopause on the Light Trapping of European Corn-borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, 1796) , Nowinszky L, Puskás J and Kiss M
This study deals with the light-trap catch of European Corn-borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner, 1796) in the context of multiple trop- opauses and nocturnal changes in the tropopause. The catch is most effective in the case of a simple tropopause. It decreases with double and triple tropopause. The catch is most effective if the height of the tropopause remains unchanged during the night. Both a sharp decline and an increase significantly reduce the catch.
77 Symptoms and Care of Hantavirus , Dr. Loveson Lakhani
Hantavirus is brought about by rodents its first flare-up was ac- counted for in May 1993 in America’s four corners Regions. China has won the months-long conflict against Covid however again there are reports of another viral infection case recognized from its Yunnan region. The infection is known as Hantavirus brought about by rodents. The Hantavirus previously broke out in May 1993 in south- western US’s ‘four corners region’ shared by Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Utah where a youthful, in great shape Navajo man experiencing windedness was hurried to an emergency clinic in New Mexico and kicked the bucket quickly. America’s infectious prevention community says that rat are primary driver to spread of this sickness from rat to human, and such patients are designated “Hantavirus individuals”. The Hantavirus has been accounted for when Covid has con- taminated more than 400,000 individuals and the demise count is supposed to be around 16300 all throughout the planet.
78 Heavy Metals Toxicity on Various Growth Parameters and Biomolecules of Earthworm, Eisenia fetida , Shweta Sharma, Mahima, Anshu, RK Gupta and Dharambir Singh
Earthworms are very sensitive bio-indicators of soil pollution. The aim of present investigation was to study the effects of heavy metals toxicity on various growth parameters of earthworms and also on their bio-molecules (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids) which are involved in several processes such as energy storage (carbohydrates), catalyzing biochemical reactions etc. Adult individuals of Eisenia fetida were collected and kept in the green house. After acclimatization they were transferred either to unpolluted slurry (treated as control) or to the heavy metals’ polluted (Cu, Sn, Cu+Sn) slurry. They were kept in these treatments at 22±2°C, RH 35% for 90 days. More cocoons and juveniles appeared in unpolluted slurry as compared to polluted one. The bio-molecules of worms maintained in unpolluted slurry were unaffected whereas heavy metals’ polluted worms showed reduction in bio-molecules (%). In contrast, in the Cu polluted slurry samples, high mortality of adults was recorded, body weight and length was reduced, reproduction completely inhibited and bio-molecules also reduced (%).
79 Parasites in Pets and Humans Cause Cancer by Global Warming , Robert Skopec
Internal parasites are incredibly common in both cats and dogs. Because of their relative ease of transmission and high rate of occurrence, the vast majority of dogs will contract a parasitic infection during their lifetime. Although treatment with parasiticides is reasonably simple and straightforward, many pet owners are unaware of how common these infections are. If left untreated and al- lowed to progress, these infections can create health issues such as anemia or failure to gain weight and some pose a risk of zoonosis.
80 Evaluation of Ficus religiosa in Comparison to Captopril against Experimental Cardiotoxicity due to 5-Fluorouracil in Rats , Ghadigaonkar Sushma, Reddy Gopala A, B Kala Kumar, M Lakshman, Shiva Kumar and Anudeep Reddy
The present study was conducted to evaluate the cardioprotective effect of Ficus religiosa against 5-FU induced toxicity in rats. A total of 36 healthy male wistar rats of uniform age and weights were divided into 6 groups of 6 animals each. Normal saline (I), Ficus religiosa extract (II), Captopril (III) groups were control while next 3 groups (IV, V, VI) were concurrently treated with 5-FU, 5-FU+ FRLE, FU + CA. respectively for 14 day lipid peroxidation level was significantly higher while superoxide dismutase activity reduces in 5FU exposed groups. GST activity was significantly lower in vehicle control, Ficus religiosa and Captopril alone groups, concurrent treatment FR with FU showed decreased in LPO level and improvement in SOD, GST, GPx activities comparable to control groups. Histopathology study showed dilatation of cardiac muscle fiber, focal atrophy of cardiomyocyte with severe interstitial edema, and dilated blood vessels in 5-FU group. control groups showed no notable abnormal histological changes compared to 5-FU toxic control group. Heart sections of rats treated with 5-FU + FRLE, and 5-FU + Captopril showed morphology similar to that of control and exhib- ited reduced damage to cardiac architecture with fewer areas of congestion along with vacuolization. However, there was congestion of blood capillaries, swelling around the nuclei and focal haemorrhage in between the myocardial bundle. TEM of left ventricular myocardium of 5-FU toxic control group confirmed the light microscopic findings and revealed irregular nuclear envelope, dilated myofibrils with degenerating nucleus, dilatation of nucleus, dilatation of sarcoplasmic reticulum, disorganized, electron-dense and bizarre shaped mitochondria and congestion of blood capillaries. 5-FU significantly altered all parameters in study while groups that received FRLE and CA along with 5FU revealed significant improvement in all the parameters and the values were comparable to control group. Thus, it can be concluded that 5-FU is an anticancer that can cause cytotoxic effect, administration of FRLE altered those effects due to its antioxidant effect.
81 Veterinarian and Mental Health , Amaan Ghazi
Approximately one million people attempt and die by suicide each year due to their helplessness towards their psychological well-being. Numerous researchers and studies have claimed that Veterinarians too suffer from deteriorating mental health while contribut- ing their share of duty and responsibility to the society. Our psychological health generally goes ignored but that of veterinarians isn’t considered for “they are not dealing with humans” but definitely living beings. Despite many researches that have conveyed shocking results about the same, “it is discussed or consid- ered lesser”. In this paper such researches and studies have been reviewed and discussed while providing more suggestions to add onto in order to improve psychological well-being of veterinarians and become aware about the same
82 Render Unto Pets the Things that are Pet’s: More a COVID-19 Victim than a Zoonotic Villain , Isabella Thomaz da Silva, Eliane de O Ferreira and Bruno de A Penna
Based upon genomic sequence analysis [1] and other coronavi- ruses (including SARS-CoV and MERS-Cov), SARS-CoV-2 originates from bats, but further studies are still needed to confirm whether it is or not transmitted directly or through an intermediate host. Other animals, such as ferrets and pangolins, are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 and may be potential intermediate hosts, but there may be several intermediate hosts [2]. Recently, awareness regarding cat’s role in SARS-CoV-2 pan- demics has increased since its susceptibility to COVID-19 has been established. Shi., et al. [3] reported that SARS-CoV-2 infect cats and limited airborne transmission from infected to uninfected cats [3]. Nevertheless, we need to take some things into perspective. Firstly, the transmission rate was meager, with three positive cats trans- mitting to one out of three exposed cats. Secondly, the evaluation of the transmission was far from the reality since animals were dis- played side-by-side in cages for an extended period (at least three days). A second study evaluated a nasal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 from inoculated cats and the subsequent transmission of the virus to cats with no previous contact with the virus [4]. In this study, cats with no prior infection became positive only after two days (one cat) or five days (the other two exposed cats).
83 Comparison Between Two Enrichment Broths for Detection of Salmonella from Reptilian Feces and Cloacal Swabs , Naqa Saleh Mahdi Tamimi, Amir Rostami and Hossein Esmaeili
Reptiles are shown to harbor and shed Salmonella without having any sign of illness and with notable rates that could pose a health hazard for their owners. In order to find a suitable enrichment broth for the recovery of Salmonella from these animals’ feces Rappaport Vassiliadis (RV) broth was compared with selenite F (SF). Two sets of samples were collected from 270 reptiles in Tehran province which belonged to 46 reptilian species of 22 families. The specimens included 171 cloacal swabs, 20 feces, and 79 terrarium water specimens (in which the reptile defecates) according to their availability and reptile species. Each sample was separately en- riched in RV and SF enrichment broths and then inoculated in three culture media to increase the possibility of Salmonella detection (CHROMagar Salmonella, MacConkey agar, and xylosine-lysin desoxycholate) and later checked for their biochemical properties as Salmonella spp. A total of 147 (54.4%) specimens were found positive for Salmonella using both enrichment broths. The positivity rate for RV (49.6%) was significantly higher than SF (40.4%) showing that RV could be considered a better enrichment broth for Salmonella recovery in feces or cloacal swabs (p = 0.031). In addition, the reptilian feces samples were more likely to have positive culture results than cloacal swabs and terrarium water in RV and SF broths (p = 0.001 and 0.000, respectively); suggesting that, feces can be better specimens for detection of Salmonella intestinal shedding in reptiles or other animals.
84 Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Index and Some Biochemical Parameters in Neonatal Calves with Diarrhea , Enes Akyüz and Abdulsamed Kükürt
The aim of this study was to evaluate the total oxidant/antioxidant (TOC/TAC), oxidative stress index (OSI), and alanine amino- transferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine (CREA), and UREA levels in neonatal calves with diarrhea. In the study, 15 calves (0-10 days old Simmental, Swiss brown, or hybrid) brought to the clinic with the complaint of diarrhea formed the disease group. 15 healthy calves under the same care/feeding conditions formed the control group. TAC and TOC concentrations were measured by commercial kits. OSI results were calculated with the formula in which TOC and TAC results were proportioned. Serum ALT, AST, CREA, and UREA concentrations were measured with an autoanalyzer. The findings showed that TAC and TOC con- centrations were affected by clinical diarrhea. Thus, it increased the oxidative stress index (OSI) (p < 0.001). Also, the ALT, AST, CREA, and UREA levels of diarrheal calves were found to be significantly higher than the levels of healthy calves. Consequently, it was ob- served that the oxidative damage in diarrhea caused an increase in OSI levels.
85 Bilious Vomiting Syndrome in Dogs , Süleyman Kozat
Bilious Vomiting Syndrome (BWS) is a condition associated with the patient’s vomiting characterized by bile in the early morning hours. BWS (reflux gastritis/duodenal gastric reflux) is a common disease that develops due to biliary reflux from the duo- denum to the stomach and is characterized by chronic and inter- mittent bile vomiting [1-3]. Vomiting is thought to occur as a result of irritation of the gastric mucosa as a result of reflux of duodenal fluid into the lumen of the stomach. Although the cause is unclear, the primary underlying cause is thought to be gastric hypomotility. No age, race or gender predisposition is reported in the disease. It is mostly observed in the middle-aged dogs [1,3,4]. The disease is mainly symptomatic in dogs that have not received food in the morning and during the night. It is characterized by chronic and intermittent bile vomiting. These dogs have an empty stomach and gastric bile reflux is observed. Body condition of the patients is generally normal. Bile salts cause damage to the gastric mucosal barrier over time, leaving the gastric mucosa unprotected against gastric acid. In dogs with bilious vomiting syndrome, gastric bile reflux and irritation of bile on the gastric mucosa lead to the devel- opment of gastritis over time [1].
86 Traumatized Reptiles: A Retrospective Study of Wild Reptiles Examined in Northeastern Brazil , Roberta da Rocha Braga  and Antônio Rafael Lima Ramos
Physical injuries represent one of the main threats to free-living animals, and interactions with humans perform the leading cau- se of their admission in veterinary care. In the USA, the main causes of physical injuries in reptiles and amphibians were run over, fishing or gardening accidents, and predation by domestic carnivores. Anthropic actions potentially increase the morbidity and mor- tality in reptiles due to traumatic injuries and can cause populations to be isolated in forest remnants, such as urban parks. Fortaleza is a metropolis in northeastern Brazil, that has progressively lost its vegetation cover due to urbanization processes. However, as the ERA “Matinha do Pici”, few urban parks stand out as a hotspot of local fauna conservation. The objective of this work was to report and characterize a sample of traumatized reptiles, received, and examined at LAPS-UFC, in Fortaleza, from 2010 to 2020. Thirty-four cases were included, mostly lizards from the ERA “Matinha do Pici”, with diverse blunt force lesions, mainly caused by domestic car- nivores’ predation, run over or human predation.
87 Gene Banking for Fish Germplasm Conservation , SK Raghuvanshi and S Kumar
During recent years, the importance and need of fish biodiversity conservation has raised widespread concerns at global-level. This is because biodiversity is directly related to improvement of ecological productivity. The population of fishes is decreasing day- by-day due to changing climatic conditions as well as anthropogenic factors like, over-exploitation, habitat destruction, invasion of exotic species as well as urbanization and modernization. As a result, species extinction rate is thousand-times more as compared to the background rate. This emphasizes the need of developing and modernizing the fish seed production technology in eco-regime for stocking the water bodies and developing culture practices for long-term benefits of the inhabitants. In the present situation, where fish stocks are declining at alarming rate, conservation of fish germplasm resources can be considered as a promising and effective measure to counter the depletion rate in the future. Cryopreservation of gametes is basically a technique for storage of sperm/ova at very low temperature (-1960C) for long period of time in viable and fertilizable sate. This paper emphasizes the importance of ex-situ conservation of fish germplasm through gene banking.
88 Effect of Thermal Processing on Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities in Different Milk Types , Vinesh Sharma, Birbal Singh, Gauri Jairath, Jyoti B. Dhar, Rinku Sharma, Devi Gopinath, Neelam Sharma and Gorakh Mal
Present investigation was undertaken to study the effects of various thermal treatments on antioxidant and antimicrobial activi- ties of milk fractions of indigenous cattle, Jersey cross-bred cattle, local non-Gaddi goats and Gaddi goats. The significant (p < 0.05) variation in total phenolic content (TPC) was observed among all the breeds and the significantly higher value was noted in Gaddi goat boiled milk. Thermal processing significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced TPC in boiled milk of indigenous and Jersey cross-bred cattle. Ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in local non-Gaddi goats fresh milk. Antimicrobial activity was detected only in indigenous cattle whey fractions, boiled milk and its whey fractions against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Maximum antimicrobial activity was observed in boiled whey protein fractions against E. coli and S. aureus. SDS-PAGE profiling of milk protein revealed that casein protein fractions were more heat-resistant as compared to whey protein fractions in all milk types. It is inferred that thermal processing of milk led to increased total phenol, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities.
89 Review on Complete Blood Count Parameters of Animals - A Formidable Aid in Veterinary Disease Diagnosis , Harshit Saxen and Shalvi Srivastava
Diagnosis of an ailment is soul of clinical practice and perhaps the biggest challenge as far as veterinary clinical practice is con- cerned. A long array of procedures, diagnostic test and methods are available for a clinician that can aid him to make his interpreta- tion and make a promising opinion about any disease condition. Blood profiling remained one of the most valuable Diagnostic tech- nique since times and in it Complete Blood Count/ Picture is very cardinal test that provide a glance about pathophysiological state of a subject in very quick convenient and economical way. Thus this review aims at understanding different parameters of Complete Blood Count (CBC) test in important farm and companion animals. It also give insights into modern technology that is making these tests more refined and easily accessible to patients as well as to clinicians.
90 Animal Diseases: Retention of Placenta in Cattle , Dr. Loveson Lakhani
The placenta is a huge organ that bureaucracy withinside the animal’s uterus throughout the being pregnant of the animal. It is hooked up to the wall of the uterus typically on the pinnacle side. Umbilical twine connects placenta to fetus. Blood from the mom byskip via the placenta filtering the oxygen, glucose and different vitamins to animal fetus through the umbilical twine. When the fe- tus is born, it ought to be out of the uterus inside 8 to 12 hours and whilst placenta does now no longer expel out from the uterus in- side a sure duration of time, it’s miles known as ‘retained placenta’. There may be numerous reasons of this disease. If the placenta does now no longer pass out at its scheduled time, the petrification technique starts off evolved and the Uterus can do even greater damage. The blood withinside the animal will become poisoned through the placenta, which additionally purpose Septicemia which can cause animal’s death.
91 Fermented Products vs Probiotic Supplemented Drinks as Biotherapies , Nupur Kothari
Gut microbiology holds a central pivotal point in maintaining good health and assist the immune system to fight the diseases. Human GI tract is estimated to be colonised by 1,000 different strains of bacteria. A healthy consortium of gut microorganisms is required to maintain homeostasis especially when usage of an- tibiotics alters the digestive environment, decreasing the number of good bacteria and helping the pathogens and opportunists like yeast to proliferate. What we eat is what we get. Our diet can influ- ence the bacteria in our body, in both positive and negative ways. Nutrients such as vitamins, amino acids or dietary fibre that are consumed by the host are assimilated and converted into other metabolites by intestinal microbes. Fat rich foods and refined car- bohydrates can create intestinal dysbiosis. Incorporating probiotic bacteria (Live microorganisms that show health benefits) contain- ing rich foods in our daily diet can reap the benefits of healthy gut.
92 Bone Mineral Density and Weaning Weight of Piglets from First-Parity Sows Fed Zinc during Gestation and Lactation , Claudia Cassimira Silva, Natalia Barros Petroli Utimi, Larissa José Parazzi, Cristiane Soares da Silva Araújo, Brunna Garcia de Souza Leite, Maitê Vital Mendonça, Yasmin Gonçalves de Almeida Sartore, Vera Letticie de Azevedo Ruiz, Simone Maria Massami Kitamura Martins, Carlos Alexandre Granghelli and Lúcio Francelino Araújo
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of zinc provided to sows and their progeny on reproductive parameters, litter and nursery piglet’s performance, zinc (Zn) concentration in plasma, colostrum and milk, bone densitometry, fecal score and intestinal morphom- etry in piglets. A total of 18 first-parity sows and their hundred and eighty weaned piglets at 21-d-old, were distributed according to a randomized block experimental design in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement into nine treatments, consisting of the supplementation of 100 mg Zn/kg of three different sources (zinc-glycine (ZnGly), zinc amino acid complex (ZnAA) or zinc oxide (ZnO) in the maternal (gestation and lactation) and in the nursery diets. Data were analyzed by MIXED procedures of SAS, and means were compared by the test of Tukey-Kramer. Significance was assessed at P ≤ 0.05 and trends were discussed at P > 0.05 ≤ 0.1. Pregnant sows fed ZnO had greater total feed intake than those fed organic Zn, and lower body weight loss (P < 0.05). Also, piglets from sows fed ZnO had greater ADG (P = 0.05) compared with other treatments. Colostrum and milk Zn concentration were not affected by diet (P > 0.05). Plasma Zn concentration at 21d of lactation in the ZnAA sows were higher than those fed with ZnGly, but it was similar to ZnO (P < 0.05). At 21-d-old, ZnO sows had heavier piglets (P < 0.05) compared to ZnGly sows, but were similar to ZnAA sows. Also, the piglets from sows fed ZnAA had higher (P < 0.05) BMD than those from ZnO sows, but it was similar to sows fed ZnGly the ZnO + ZnGly piglets weaned showed 28.2% of incidence of pasty feces than those in the ZnGly + ZnAA (18.2%) and ZnGly + ZnGly (16.4%) groups, but it similar to the other groups. At 70-d-old, the lowest villus height (P < 0.05) was measured in the duodenum of ZnAA + ZnGly piglets compared to other treatments. The larger CD was observed when the piglets received ZnO and ZnGly (P < 0.05), regardless Zn source from sow. These data suggest that sows fed diets supplemented with ZnO during gestation may be able to increase total feed intake of sow and piglets weaning weight and reduce body weight loss sow. However, in the nursery pig there seems to be very little difference among zinc source on intestinal morphometry, performance and zinc plasma concentration.
93 Management of Abscess in Right Para Lumber Fossa in a Cow - A Case Report , Zahid Bashir Khanday
An abscess is an accumulation of pus that hollows out a cavity in the tissues by destroying and expanding them and surrounded by fibrous tissue. Diagnosis of a skin abscess is usually made based on what it looks like and is confirmed by cutting it open. Ultra- sound imaging may be useful in cases in which the diagnosis is not clear. Successful management of the abscess was presented in fe- male cattle of five years of age. The abscess swelling was unusually located subcutaneously in right Para lumber fossa, behind the last rib. Clinical examination revealed the mass was warm, hard, and painful in the initial stages, and become fluctuating, gas filled and soft on maturation. The animal was successfully treated by regular surgical drainage of pus along with a daily antiseptic dressing of tincture-iodine, parenteral administration of antibiotics (streptomycin and penicillin, for 5 days), and oxytetracycline wound spray. The animal was treated successfully and it recovered after 1 month post-intervention without any other complications
94 Ameliorating Effect of Terminalia arjuna Against 5-Fluorouacil Induced Cardiotoxicity in Wistar Rats , Sushma Ghadigaonkar, A Gopala Reddy, BDP Kala Kumar and M Lakshman
The Terminalia arjuna has traditionally been used as cardiotonic. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extract of Terminalia arjuna on pathological changes after 5-FU administration. Wistar rats where randomly divided into 6 groups: normal control, TRLE alone, Captopril alone, 5-FU alone, 5-FU + TALE and 5-FU + Captopril. Animals were sacrificed and tissue samples from the cardiac muscle were taken and processed for thickness of left ventricle wall measurement, myocardial anti- oxidant parameters and also for both Light and Electron Microscopical examination. 5-FU significantly altered all the parameters in the study while animals received TALE and Captopril along with 5-FU revealed significant improvement in all the parameters and the values were comparable to the control group. Light microscopic examination revealed that administration of 5-FU caused variable signs of cardiotoxicity which are represented by dilatation of cardiac muscle fiber, focal atrophy of cardiomyocyte with severe inter- stitial edema, and dilated blood vessels. Ultrastructural examination of these specimens confirmed the light microscopic findings and demonstrated irregular nuclear envelope, dilated myofibrils with degenerating nucleus, dilatation of nucleus, dilatation of sarco- plasmic reticulum, disorganized, electron-dense and bizarre shaped mitochondria and congestion of blood capillaries. Pre-treatment with TALE and its concomitant administration with 5-FUfor 14 days attenuated 5-FU induced myocardial damage and effectively reverted the abnormal structural changes near to normalcy. In conclusion, these results suggest that Terminalia arjuna has a protec- tive potential in ameliorating 5-FU induced cardiotoxicity
95 Interactive Effects of Glycine and Threonine in Low Protein Broiler Diets on Performance, Blood Ammonia Level, Intestinal Mucosa Development and Nutrient Digestibility , Payam Baghban-Kanani and Saba Azimi-Youvalari
In most parts of the world, about 90% of the diets are based on soy and corn. Due to the excessive increase in the price of food- stuffs in recent years, tendency to decrease the level of protein produced from soy and corn has been increased. Due to the feed - ing of excess AA above requirement and also inefficiency of AA absorption in gastrointestinal tract, about 70 to 75% of ingested nitrogen be excreted. This excreted nitrogen remains in the litter, and part of this is subsequently converted to ammonia by bacterial fermentation and diffuses into the air through volatilize elevated ammonia concentrations in broiler houses and may be cause some problems such as poor performance and immunity and occurring respiratory problems both in the poultry and in humans. An effec- tive strategy to reduce environmental pollution is reducing dietary CP content by supplementation with the adequate commercially available AA. Attempts to decrease CP content of broiler diets have been successful to a point, but most researchers agree that reduc- tion of CP has some noxious effects on performance and appetite. This failure is seen even with providing all requirements for those amino acids considered as essential. F
96 Venomous Snakes of Australia - A Review Part-1. Dangerous Ten Snakes of the Family Elapidae , Abdul Maleque Bhouyain
Australia has many poisonous snakes that are found all around the country. They may be found in a variety of habitats including aquatic, semi-aquatic, grasslands, trees, woods, and plains. Every year, a substantial number of bites occur across the United States. This document describes ten of Australia’s most deadly and venomous snakes from the Elapidae family. These are 1. Rough scaled snake Tropidechis carinatus; 2. Red-bellied black snake Pseudechis porphyriacus; 3. The greater black whip snake/Papuan Whip Snake Demansia papuensis; 4. The lesser black whipsnake Demansia vestigiata; 5. Coastal Taipan Oxyuranus scutellatus; 6. Central Ranges Taipan or Western Desert Taipan Oxyuranus temporal; 7. Inland Taipan Oxyuranus microlepidotus; 8. Common death adder Acanthophis antarcticus; 9. Kimberley death adder Acanthophis cryptamydros; and 10. Barkly Tableland death adder Acanthophis hawkei. Classification, description, and image of the snakes are the content of this paper.
97 Status of Animal Husbandry in Maharashtra , S K Das
Maharashtra is rich source of livestock germplasam particularly in cattle, buffalo and goat. So, due care is needed for veterinary services to keep the animals healthy and productive. So, the state animal husbandry departments should ensure availability of most of the important medicines and vaccine to the livestock owners to enhance production of livestock and to reduce morbidity and mortality of animal. In this review article population dynamics of different species of livestock, breeds of different species available in the state of Maharashtra and their production, existing housing, feeding and health management system, different constraints for the development of livestock sector in Maharashtra and strategies to overcome the bottlenecks were described and highlighted.
98 Back Fat Layer Measurements by Ultrasonography in Camels - A Tool for Measuring the General Health Status , Asim Faraz, Syeda Maryam Hussain, Annamaria Passantino and Michela Pugliese
Since 1950’s ultrasound has been used extensively for measurements in different parts of the body, but the early techniques were very labor-intensive and slow. In 1970, the technology has been improved by the introduction of scanogram and SVC scanner. Recently by using new generations of the portable equipment that are originally designed for medical purposes, the real-time ultra- sonic scanning (RTUS) has offered the potential to produce accurate and quick measurements at lower cost. The applications were described in livestock industry of North America. The computed tomography was proposed as the standard method for quantifying abdominal adiposity since 1990. There has been substantial variability in the relative accuracy while measuring the back-fat thick - ness by ultrasound so require a well-trained examiner and specific equipment. Ultrasonography is a very simple and reliable tech- nique for measuring visceral and subcutaneous fat. In addition to this, ultrasonography is a quick and non-invasive technique having very good reproducibility rates with intra-examination variation less than 1% and lower costs than computed tomography scans. It is very first time in Pakistan, the back-fat layer measurement was measured by ultrasonography in camel herd where slaughtering can’t be performed in breeding stock. This paper will be a useful addition in the field of camel science.
99 Lesser Explored Approaches for Ovulation Induction in Cows , GN Purohit, Amit Kumar, Pramod Mohta and Priyanka Kalani
Ovulation induction in cattle has been traditionally done using either GnRH or hCG. Some of the uncommon approaches for ovula- tion induction include the use of insulin, prostaglandins, anti-estrogens, anti-prolactin’s and aromatase inhibitors which are briefly described in this mini-review. Experiments mentioning the use of these agents have utilized only small numbers of animals and large clinical trials are needed to validate their clinical use.
100 Nest Records, Nesting Colony Selection of Oriental White Backed Vulture (Gyps bengalensis) and Role of Feeding Station in Kangra, Himachal Pradesh , Archi Sehgal and Krishan Kumar
This study aimed to infer nest count for breeding period 2018, identify key variables for nest site selections and understanding the role of distance from feeding station to each nesting colony. The Nest count were conducted during breeding period, each nest categorize into active and inactive nests based on assessment of different components. Simultaneously, different variables (tree height, tree species, elevation and aspect) were recorded for each nest. Aerial distance was used to determine the role of feeding station for selecting nesting colonies. From the 24 nesting colonies, 352 active nests were recorded, and a significant Pearson’s cor- relation for elevation and aspect were drawn. We found, vulture prefer single tree specie for nesting. We also found that, 71% (n = 17) nesting colonies were located within radial distance of 20 km. The study highlights high congregration of active nests within short radial distance from feeding station which signify the positive impact of management of feeding station by the wildlife wing of Forest department since 2008, for the in-situ conservation of critically endangered Oriental White Backed Vulture (Gyps bengalensis).
101 The Earth is for All: Developing a Jurisprudence for Animal Rights , Tapan R Mohanty
The concept of right, justice and equity are sentinels of jurisprudence thus creating a parasol of safety and security for ordinary human beings from a rapacious state at least in a democratic structure. The libertarians have claimed that liberty is essential to the flowering of human personality which is sine qua non for human existence. Though not essential but the presence of a democratic state and existence of ‘rule of law’ are desirable precondition. But this process has been arduous, contested and full of hurdles. But the context and contours for such a concern for animals, our co-inhabitants of earth rather non-existent. The current paper intends to examine the issue of developing an animal jurisprudence based on the foundation of ethics and empathy surrounded by law, justice and equity which it believed will make life better for humans and animals.
102 A Report on Vermicomposting Efficiency of Earthworm Species from Darjeeling Hills and Eisenia fetida , Prishka Pariyar, Avijit Dutta and Dawa Bhutia
Vermicompost is nutrient-rich casts generated by the earthworms that can be used as biofertilizers. Since the potential of fab- ricating vermicompost varies amongst species, the present study was conducted to determine the vermicomposting efficiency of local earthworm species of Darjeeling hills and Eisenia fetida, that was subjected to three different types of treatments for 60 days: monoculture of E. fetida (set 1), polyculture of readily available local species (set 2), and polyculture of E. fetida and local earthworm species (set 3). At the end of the treatment, while harvesting the compost, all the treatments showed an increase in population size and high decomposition of waste materials. The content of major macronutrients such as organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium did not vary significantly between the vermicompost obtained through different culturing techniques, although con- siderable differences in population increase after inoculation were observed. Thus, based on reproductive potential and chemical analysis, it may be concluded that the polyculture of local earthworm species of the Darjeeling region and E. fetida can be utilized in generating vermicompost most efficiently, which in turn can contribute towards organic farming and supplementing to the income of the farmers.
103 The Garden and the Gardeners of the Deep , Sharon Pradhan
When we usually think about the term “garden”, beautiful plants, colourful flowers, different shades of brown soil and sun- light comes to our mind. You all must be wondering what I mean about the term ‘garden and the gardeners of the deep’. Some might even start thinking that can even garden grow under the sea. Yes, it absolutely can. Instead, some beautiful gardens exist un- der the waters only. All gardens are made up of plants, but this garden is made up of only animals. Animals are the sole builders of this garden, and they make this garden so much more beautiful
104 Influence of the Combination of Herbal Extracts and Essential Oils on Meat Quality After Slaughter , Dang Thi Ngoc Anh, Do Tan Duong, Nguyen Van Chanh, Bui Thi Tra Mi, Dang Thi Ngoc Anh, Dang Hoang Dao and Duong Nguyen Khang
The experiment aimed to evaluate the influence of the combination herbal extracts and essential oils on meat quality after slaugh- ter. A total of four hundred fifty crossbred weaned pigs [(Yorkshire - Landrace) x Duroc; 28 days old; 7.21 ± 0.08 kg of BW] were randomly allotted to 3 treatments in a randomized complete design. The 3 treatments included (1) a basal diet, (2) the basal diet + 3 g/kg of feed CHE (a combination of herbal extracts and essential oils) and (3) the basal diet + 5 g/kg of feed CHE. Finishing the study, six pigs (3 barrows and 3 gilts) per treatment were slaughtered at 103.2 ± 1.4 kg of BW). The Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles, were removed from the carcass at the 10th to 15th ribs with a weight of 1.5 - 2.5 kg, vacuum-packed, and stored frozen (4°C) for meat quality parameter. The results showed that using the combination of herbal extracts and essential oils improved the quality pork after slaughter. Specifically, at 24 hours after slaughter, the L* value in the CHE 5 g/kg feed supplement treatment (53.202) was significantly higher (P < 0.001) compared with other treatments. At both time points measurement, the b* values were lower when using CHE - supplemented diet. Similarly, the drip loss rate after 24 hours of slaughter in 3 treatments was 0.358; 0.351; 0.315 with P < 0.05. In addition, the shear force in the treatment supplemented with CHE 5 g/kg feed (20.25 N) was not significantly higher (P > 0.05) than in the treatments supplemented with CHE 3 g/kg feed (18.26 N) and the treatment without CHE (17.48 N). The addi- tion of herbal preparations tended to improve the nutritional profile and fatty acid composition of pork, but this difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.005).
105 Air Pollution , Karim AJ
Since the early industrial revolution, air quality is deteriorat - ing day by day. Negative impacts on the environment as well as on air quality are mainly due to unplanned development. Pollu - tion problems have largely resulted from industry and domestic heating, principally due to emission of sulphur dioxide. In recent years, however, the transportation sector has become the most significant source of both primary pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen dioxide, and second - ary pollutants, like ozone. Air pollution affects millions worldwide and its devastating effects on human health are serious. Previous studies have reported an increase in morbidity and mortality due to air pollution, increased risk of lung cancer, genotoxicity in vari - ous tissues, and mutations [1]. Death was strongly associated with the levels of fine, inhalable and sulfate particles more than with the levels of aerosol acidity, sulfur dioxide, total particulate pollu - tion, or nitrogen dioxide (Table 1). The carcinogenicity of the PAH is dominated by small particles [2].
106 Clinical Response of Whole Blood Transfusion for the Treatment of Theileria Associated Bovine Anemia (TABA) in a Crossbred Jersey Cows , S Yogeshpriya, P Selvaraj, N Prmelatha, M Saravanan, M Veeraselvam and K Jayalakshmi
In a study of 24 anemic cows, which were screened for hemoparasites during the year 2017, 10 were found to have Theileria sp. and among that 6 animals were found to have highly positive and those cows were also severe anemic. Owners failed to report for treatment in a timely manner, and all six cows finally acquired anaemia. Point of care hematology revealed reduced hemoglobin, Packed cell volume and total erythrocyte counts. A single dose of inj. Buparvaquone was given to all of the animals @ 2.5 mg/ kg i/m on the day of presensentation along with oxytetracycline @10mg/kg body weight. Studies in the field of hemotherapy for ruminants are scarce, particularly in relation to blood conservation and responses to transfusion. Based on the laboratory and clinical findings, subsequently all the 6 animals were managed with the aid of whole blood transfusion and other supportive treatment
107 Need for Improved Diagnostics to Screen for Soil-transmitted Helminths , Santosh George
Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), namely Ascaris spp. (round- worm), Trichuris spp. (whipworm) and Ancylostoma spp. (hook- worm) are parasitic worms that infect both animals and humans. Conventionally, the identification of STH species in animals have relied on coprological or post-mortem examination of the adult worms to identify morphological differences across various spe- cies. STH species have also been identified based on egg size (Trichuris spp. [1], Hookworm [2]). Misdiagnosis, on the other hand, might arise due to a mismatch in egg size across species. In recent years, the focus of diagnostics on the veterinary side has shifted from merely detecting the presence/absence of infection, to detecting its influence on productivity., in terms of reduced growth, cost of control (anthelminthics), increased risk of co-infec- tion and potential interference with vaccination. An early sensitive and accurate diagnosis can therefore aid in targeted and accurate treatment, reducing economic losses.
108 Nutritional Important for Livestock Growth in Wetland Halophytes: A Review , M Muthukumaran
Halophytes are highest salt tolerant conditional flora (>200mM) in estuarial wetland and marine ecosystem [1]. It is well known that mangrove wetlands play an important role in supplementing the nutrition of livestock growth and milk production [2,3]. Review of the optimal nutrient composition and bioactive components of mangrove flora and their associates documented on the basis of protein, lipid, carbohydrates, chlorophylls, drugs and other com- ponents [3-5]. Previous studies on mangrove flora in Gujarat, Ahmedabad, Kutch, Bharuch, Maharashtra, Goa, Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry have found that nutrients are an effective fodder in India and beneficial to livestock [6-11]. Similar studies have been reported in worldwide, especially in Africa, New Zealand, the Red Sea, Oman, the Gulf of Aden, China, Iran, Vietnam, Egypt, Qatar, Arabia and Pakistan [12-20]. Avicenna is one among overdomi- nance found in wetland marsh ecosystems in southern India. Ac- cording to Kafaji., et al. [21], the leaves of the A. marina have been reported to be high in protein compared to the stem and root. In addition, the source of the leaves cited important minerals such as selenium, manganese, copper and zinc that provide high milk pro- duction in livestock [7,22,23]. Lipid and carbohydrate levels were also reported higher percent in the leaf area of Avicenna species than in stems and roots reported by Khafaji., et al. [21].
109 Effects of Fat Supplements in Milk-fed Holstein Calves during Temperature Stress , Bahram Mohtashami, Sayyad Seifzadeh, Hamed Khalilvandi- Behroozyar and Jamal Seifdavati
Maintenance energy requirements of calves increase during periods of temperature stress (cold and heat stress). Health and growth of calf as well as its functional characteristics and its eco - nomic life in the future will affect the nutrition of milk in the pre- weaning period. Because milk prices and milk replacements are high, the calf management program has traditionally been focused on limiting milk or milk replacements. Any strategy that reduces fluid intake and increases calf starter intake will reduce each of these variables. Calf starter intake increases rumen develop- ment, increases body weight in the days before weaning and also decreases body weight loss in the days after weaning. In general, alternative heifer management focuses on factors that increase physiological processes and subsequently enhance puberty and production potential. Generally, appropriate growth and propor - tion of genetic capacity of the animal can reduce the age of the first mating.
110 Caring for the Wild: A Welfare Perspective of Dehiwala Zoo , DP Manawadu, HA Anoma Priydarshani and Ishini Wickremesinghe
The latest advancement in scientific knowledge has brought forth an understanding on animal sentience. The field of animal welfare is a young and flourishing field of research. Animal welfare according to World Organisation for Animal Health is how an ani- mal is coping with the conditions in which it lives. An animal is in a good state of welfare if (as indicated by scientific evidence) it is healthy, comfortable, well-nourished, safe, able to express innate behavior, and if it is not suffering from unpleasant states such as pain, fear, and distress. This has led to many changes in modern zoo management prac- tices. Also, the perspective of zoos has changed from being centers of animal display and entertainment to ex-situ conservation and animal rescue centers. Dehiwala Zoological Gardens is the first zoo to be established in Sri Lanka. It was first started as an animal col- lection by John Hargenberg and is now converted to be a part of the Government Department of National Zoological Gardens. It is home to more than 250 species of animals consisting of.
111 A Pathological Report on Rupture of Crop Associated with Parasitism in a Hill Prinia (Prinia superciliaris) , Rakesh Kumar, Mridul Soni, Abhishek Kumar, Anmol Bisht, Devina Sharma and Rajesh Kumar Asrani
A hill prinia (Prinia superciliaris) bird was presented for necropsy examination to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, DGCN, COVAS Palampur in order to access the cause of death. A thorough and detailed examination of the carcass revealed parasitic inglu - vitis along with roundworms leading to the rupture of crop. The roundworms were also recorded over the lungs and peritoneum ac- companied with crop rupture due to heavy parasitism. The lungs exhibited profound pulmonary congestion and oedema. The round worms recovered during necropsy evaluation were collected in were identified as Acuaria subula. The histological investigation of lung section has uncovered the presence of intra-alveolar accumulation of eosinophilic edematous fluid along with fibrinous exudate.
112 Familiarity with Different Types of Goldfish , Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah
In recent years, the distribution of goldfish has spread world- wide and is found almost everywhere on the planet and is an orna- mental fish. Here is a description of the subspecies of this fish. This fish is a fish that is compatible with all kinds of freshwater peaceful fish and is very hardy and can be kept in groups in aquariums. Jikins goldfish This fish is also known as peacock tail. Jikin is from the Wakin family. But it has a much better color variety than vaccines. The storage conditions are not too difficult for her, and the same care that is necessary for other species of goldfish also applies to Jikin. Of course, jeans are more suitable for ponds and pools, but they can also be kept in aquariums. Jikins have white bodies and fins and red tails. This fish is very rare and expensive, even in its coun- try of origin, Japan.
113 Antimicrobial Activity of Fermented Milk Containing Various AqueousHerbal Extracts , Kanik, Birbal Singh, Jyoti B Dhar, Gauri Jairath, Rinku Sharma, Devi Gopinath, Neelam Sharma and Gorakh Mal
Bovine milk has been an inordinate source of nutrition for majority of vegetarian population. The milk obtained from the “Him- achali Pahari cow” of the hill region has been a boon not only in providing health benefits but also in improving the socio-economic status of the farming community. However, due to inaccessibility and geographical barriers, benefits of the Himachali Pahari cow milk are limited to certain regions only. Hence, the present study was conducted with the objective to investigate the antimicrobial poten- tial of the fermented milk supplemented with various herbal extracts of harad (Terminalia chebula), baheda (Terminalia bellirica), amla (Emblica officinalis) and arjuna (Terminalia arjuna). Antimicrobial activity of herbal extracts supplemented fermented milk was evaluated against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Rhodococcus equi, and Shigella flexneri. The fermented milk supplemented with aqueous harad extracts was found to be most effective against B. cereus and R. equi. Pepsin digested fermented milk supplemented with amla and arjuna exhibited comparable antimicrobial activity against R. equi . Results of the present study indicated that supplementation of fermented milk with various aqueous herbal extracts can enhance its antimicrobial potential and can be useful in boosting the immunity against various microbial infections.
114 A Review on Cognitive Impairments in Parkinson’s Disease , Shweta Sharma, Sunil, KP Kochhar and Suman Jain
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most significant medical and social burdens of our time. It is a multifactorial neurodegen- erative disorder, affecting 3.7% of the population over 65 years of age. PD involves degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNPC) with deficiency of dopamine. Anxiety is frequent in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and has a nega- tive impact on disease symptoms and quality of life. The underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Several evidences provide support for involvement of the microbiota-gut-brain axis in PD pathogenesis. In this review, we intend to provide a comprehensive overview of current knowledge on how cognitive behavior deficit occur in PD, and its potential as a new target of therapeutic inter- ventions for PD.
115 Nutritional Intervention for Reproductive Performance in Dairy Animals , Suresh F Nipane, Ravindrakumar I Hatzade, Shweta R Lende, Bharat L Mundhe and Amit D Chikhalikar
Nutrient deficiencies cause a variety of problems in animals, including reduced reproductive performance. Macronutrients are the most important nutrients for dairy cattle reproduction, and they should be given top priority. Micronutrients are required for proper cellular metabolism, growth, and maintenance, as well as animal fertility and health. For a variety of metabolic activities, including reproduction and growth, adequate nutritional supplementation and absorption are essential.
116 Optimization of Dietary Phosphorus Utilization for Eco-friendly Pig Production: An Overview , Papori Talukdar, Lakhyajyoti Bora, Anil Deka, Simson Soren and Dibyajyoti Talukdar
Phosphorus (P) is an important major mineral element required by all livestock species. Dietary phosphorus can’t be fully utilized by monogastric species especially pigs due to several dietary factors. As a result, most of this mineral is excreted through faeces without utilization and is considered as economic loss as well has also environmental impact due to its excess release in the soil and water. The majority of oilseeds and meals used for ration formulation are phytate bound and unavailable to the animal. To overcome the problem various strategies have been developed and it includes dietetic addition of microbial phytase, giving low phytate diet and grains containing a high level of inherent phytase, oilseed meals, and the making of phytase-secreting transgenic animals etc. ‘En- viropig’ is a very recent biotechnological tool through genetic engineering technique that could process phytates and able to digest plant phytate phosphorus. It can produce enzyme phytase in their saliva so that the pigs can degrade normally dietary indigestible phytate. In the present manuscript, the authors discussed the potentiality of Enviropig and its scope in near future for eco-friendly pig production.
117 Role of Flavonoids in Poultry Nutrition , Sudhanya Nath and Aravindkumar K
Supplementation of flavonoids in poultry diets has proved to be effective in terms of nutritional, sensorial and microbiological quality of poultry meat and eggs. Several studies have determined the beneficial role of flavonoids in inhibiting lipid oxidation, re- ducing microbial growth, checking any pH-dependent deterioration and improving colour stability of meat products. Flavonoids are found naturally as secondary plant constituents, and are used as chicken food supplements due to their antioxidative characteristics. These extend the shelf life of poultry products. In poultry, different flavonoids have varying dosage levels, but are generally provided at amounts ranging from 0.049 to 0.19 percent. Flavonoid addition in poultry diet improves the lipid content of eggs and meat by lowering levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Meat colouring can be enhanced up to 5%. Aim of this review is to evaluate how vari- ous flavonoids satisfy the demands of consumer, in terms of quality and safety of products, being a synthetic feed additive substitute in poultry feed industry. This study have aroused interest in further research on various flavonoid classes to determine the most effective compounds and their optimal doses for poultry.
118 Nutritional Characterization of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) Leaves for Forage Use , Rubén Rosales Ramírez, J Jesús Vargas Radillo, Cecilia Neri Luna, Lucía Barrientos Ramírez and Manuel Mateo Hernández Villegas
The aim of this work was to evaluate the nutritional content, amino acids, phytochemical compounds (phenols, tannins and fla- vonoids) in ethanol extract, minerals and fatty acids, in Moringa oleifera leaves under the edaphoclimatic conditions typical of the central-northeast region of Jalisco, Mexico. In animal feed, moringa consumed fresh, directly, as part of a diet, or in silage, has favor - able properties in the nutrition and health of cattle, chickens, fish, goats, pigs and lambs, and has become in an alternative to the traditional grain-based use. Due to its favorable properties, moringa is one of the most used vegetables for forage use.
119 Effect of Sodium Butyrate, Sodium Salt of Medium Chain Fatty Acids (Dicosan) in Combatting Clostridium perfringens Induced Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chicken , Dayaram Suryawanshi, Sonali Shete, Rutuja Shelke, Mrugali Patil, Hrishikesh Kamat and Pavan Pawar
Present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of sodium butyrate, sodium salts of medium chain fatty acids and their combinations against the induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. The study was undertaken on 480 broiler birds. Birds were distributed in 5 groups viz. Normal control (NC), Negative control (NC+C), sodium salt of butyrate (SB+C), Medium chain Fatty acids (Dicosan) (MCFA+C) and SB + MCFA (Dicosan +)+C groups. Standard management practices and vaccinations were carried out. On day 18 birds were inoculated orally with suspension of Clostridium perfringens, and on day 4, 5 and 6 post infections, one bird was sacrificed from each replicate. The gross pathological score out of 4 was 3.4806, 1.882, 1.68 and 0.73 respectively in NC, NC+C, SB+C , MCFA+C and SB+MCFA+C, respectively. Microscopic score was 3.2652, 1.378, 1.296 and 0.7318, respectively for groups NC, NC+C, SB+C, MCFA+C and SB+MCFA+C. Fecal culture was carried out before induction of infection, during course of infection and at the end of experiment i.e. on day 42. Group SB + MCFA+ challenge showed better reduction in clostridium count as compared to other treat- ment groups. Negative control + challenge group showed higher clostridium count as compared to all treatment groups.
120 Foraging Optimization Through Nectar Quality Prediction - Evolution of Feeding Strategy by Common Myna for Butea monosperma Lam. , Subhamay Bhattacharya, Koutilya Bhattacharjee, Partha Ganguly, Sayan Gupta, Suman Pal, Sourav Halder and Apratim Maity
Common Myna (Acridotheres tristis), the most abundant avian omnivore in the Indian Peninsula has a diverse food habit of con- suming natural as well as human left over (HLO) foods. However, they have evolved a foraging optimization strategy of consuming nectar of Palash (Butea monosperma) from late winter to spring as primary food and other food types as secondary. Such food shifting did not alter their Protein - Lipid - Carbohydrate requirement. The study also reveals that birds have evolved strategies to identify better nectar variant of Butea monosperma plants and concentrate on those plants only while neglecting the less profitable one. Seasonal body weight comparison in humanized and natural habitat also correlates with their food choice. From the aforesaid observations it can be assumed that feeding optimization of Common Myna has definite link to its pre-breeding season preparation.
121 The Effects of Thyme and Cinnamon Microencapsulated Essential Oils on Growth Performance, Intestinal Microbial Population and Meat Quality in Broiler Chicks , Farang Rouzmehr, Yadollah Chashnidel, Mansour Rezaei, Majid Pasandideh and Maziar Mohiti Asli
The aim of this study was to study the effects of microencapsulation of thyme and cinnamon essential oils on growth performance, intestinal microbial population and meat quality of broiler chickens. For this purpose, a total of 320 one-day-old male 308 strain chicks were randomly divided into 8 dietary treatment groups consisting of 4 replicates with 10 birds per replicate and fed until d 42. The birds fed diets supplemented with essential oils had significantly higher feed intake (FI) and weight gain (WG) and had improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared with the control group in total rearing period (P < 0.05). Dietary inclusion of encapsulated cinnamon resulted in a higher count of Lactobacillus sp. compared to the other groups on 42 days of age, while any treatments did not significantly affect Escherichia coli count (P < 0.05). The thiobarbituric acid values in thigh meat after 7 and 14 d of storage at 4 °C were linearly decreased in diets inclusion of essential oils (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the addition of thyme and cinnamon to the diet of broiler chickens especially as microencapsulated is recommended.
122 Poultry Litter Management during Rainy Season , P Muthusamy
Now southwest monsoon rain is pouring in southern states of our country. Every year from July to September southwest mon - soon and from October to December northeast monsoon we are getting the rains. Because of the rains getting from monsoon, the poultry farmers getting disease problems. The litter and manure management become the key thing in commercial chicken rear - ing. The most important job in commercial poultry operations is the proper management of litter. Litter management Litter is where the chickens spend all their life, in deep lit - ter system, from the time they are housed until they are sold to the consumers. Paddy husk, saw dust, coir pith, fallen leaves and wood shavings are commonly used litter materials in poultry farming.
123 Parasites in Pets and Humans Cause Cancer by Global Warming , Robert Skopec
Internal parasites are incredibly common in both cats and dogs. Because of their relative ease of transmission and high rate of occurrence, the vast majority of dogs will contract a parasitic infection during their lifetime. Although treatment with parasiticides is reasonably simple and straightforward, many pet owners are unaware of how common these infections are. If left untreated and al - lowed to progress, these infections can create health issues such as anemia or failure to gain weight and some pose a risk of zoonosis
124 Foot and Mouth Disease: Carrier Status , Rajeev Ranjan and Jitendra Kumar Biswal
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, contagious viral dis- ease that affects cloven-hooved domestic animals as well as over 70 wild life species such as elephants, deer etc. Symptoms of the disease include pyrexia, lameness, and vesicular lesions of the tongue, feet, muzzle, and teats [9]. Following a subset of the acute phase of infection, 50- 60% of the bovine population becomes a carrier or is persistently infected with FMD virus (FMDV). A car- rier animal is one from which infectious FMDV virus [10] or ge- nome detection [6] can be recovered 28 days after FMDV infection in the oropharyngeal fluid (OPF). FMDV persistence varies by spe- cies [2] and can occur in both vaccinated and unvaccinated animals [1]. Few researchers have previously reported that FMDV can be transmitted from carrier animals to susceptible naive populations under field conditions [8] or experimental conditions [5] and this could be due to the presence of infectious FMDV in oropharyngeal fluid of seemingly healthy animals [4,7].
125 Fish Epidermal Mucus from Labeo rohita: Hemolytic Activity and Antibacterial Investigation Against Human Pathogen , M Abareethan
The fish mucus was extracted from Labeo rohita by using aqueous solution and the chemical composition showed 27.5% of protein, 5.8% of carbohydrate and 0.21% of lipids. The haemolytic activity of the mucus extract showed 43.47 and 37.73 HT/mg in human blood. Further the antibacterial activity of the mucus extract showed against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, S. typhi, V. cholerae, K. oxytoca, E. coli, V. parahaemolyticus and S. pyogenes were 14, 12, 15, 16, 11, 17, 13 and 12mm at the highest concentration of 100μg/ ml. The fish mucus observed MIC values of 100μg/ml against E. coli and the V. cholerae slightly arrested at the above concentration. The fish mucus showed the MBC values of 100μg/ml against E. coli and the V. cholerae slightly arrested at the same concentration. The above antibacterial activity of the mucus suggested as a source antimicrobial agent in future pharmacological for the development of new antimicrobial drugs.
126 Effects of Selenium Nanoparticles-loaded Chitosan Microspheres on Meat Selenium Content and Oxidative Stability in Broiler Chickens , E Giamouri, S Fortatos, AC Pappas, SN Yannopoulos and G Papadomichelakis
Dietary sodium selenite and selenium-yeast are commonly used to enhance the antioxidant defense in broilers, but they can be toxic. A new form of Se nanoparticles stabilized in chitosan microspheres (CS-SeNP) is well established for low toxicity, but their bio- availability and antioxidant potential has not been investigated in broiler feeding. Our objectives were: a) to synthesize and charac - terize the properties of CS-SeNP and b) to compare the effects of CS-SeNP as a dietary selenium source with those of sodium selenite and selenium-yeast on meat selenium concentration and oxidative stability in broiler chickens. The CS-SeNP were synthesized by chemical reduction and their properties were determined. Four experimental diets were offered to 200 broilers chickens (5 repli - cates/diet, 10 broilers/replicate); one control (C) with no added Se, and 3 diets supplemented with 0.4 mg Se/kg either from sodium selenite + selenium-yeast (1:1 ratio; T1), selenium-yeast and CS-SeNPs (1:1 ratio; T2) or CS-SeNP alone (T3). Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were monitored throughout the trial. At the end of the trial, 10 broilers per diet (2/replicate) were sacri - ficed and breast meat samples were collected. Meat fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Meat selenium content and oxidative stability were determined by hydride (vapor) generation atomic absorption spectroscopy and iron-induced lipid oxidation, respectively. Spherical monodispersed CS-SeNPs of 80.5±20 nm average diameter were obtained. The CS-SeNP were exclusively composed of elemental Se and were encapsulated in chitosan, as indicated by the X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelec - tron spectroscopy surveys, respectively. Growth performance was not affected by the dietary selenium addition and differences were not observed between the dietary selenium sources. Meat selenium content and oxidative stability were similar in T1, T2 and T3 broilers, but significantly higher (P < 0.05) when compared to C broilers. In conclusion, the selenium from CS-SeNP enriches meat with selenium and enhances meat oxidative stability in a manner similar to the commonly-used inorganic and organic forms. Given the well-established low toxicity, CS-SeNP has a very good potential as a dietary Se source in broilers and should be further studied.
127 Effects of Supplementation of Acidifiers in the Diet of Poultry , Ankit Sharma and Deepikesh Joshi
The paper presents a literature review of effects of the acidifiers (the substances which are put into an animal body to produce or become acid) when they are supplemented in poultry rations. An overview of their effects on poultry’s growth performance and immunity along with the effect of supplementation on nutrient digestibility is presented. The literature on antimicrobial activity of organic acids has also been reviewed.
128 Selenium Nanoparticles-loaded Chitosan Microspheres as a Dietary Selenium Source in Rabbits: Impact on Meat Selenium Content and Oxidative Stability , S Fortatos, E Giamouri, AC Pappas, SN Yannopoulos and G Papadomichelakis
Dietary selenium (Se) supplementation is a viable strategy to enhance the antioxidant defense. The commonly-used Se sources (sodium selenite and selenium-yeast) have a narrow margin between beneficial and toxic effects. Se nanoparticles stabilized in chi- tosan microspheres (CS-SeNP) are well established for their low toxicity, but their bioavailability and antioxidant potential has not been extensively investigated in livestock feeding. Our objectives were: a) to synthesize and characterize the properties of CS-SeNP and b) to compare the effects of CS-SeNP as dietary selenium source with those of sodium selenite and selenium-yeast on meat sele- nium concentration and oxidative stability in growing rabbits. The CS-SeNP were synthesized using a chemical reducing method and were characterized by dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Four experimental diets were offered to 96 rabbits; one control (C) with no added Se, and 3 diets supplemented with 0.4 mg Se/kg either from sodium selenite + selenium-yeast (1:1 ratio; T1), selenium-yeast and CS-SeNPs (1:1 ratio; T2) or CS-SeNP alone (T3). Feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion ratio were monitored throughout the trial. At the end of the trial, 12 rabbits per diet were sacrificed and meat samples were collected. Meat fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Meat Se content and oxidative stability were determined by hydride (vapor) generation atomic absorption spectroscopy and iron-induced lipid oxidation, respectively. Spherical monodispersed CS-SeNPs of 80.5 ± 20 nm average diameter were obtained. The CS-SeNP were exclusively composed of elemental Se and were totally encapsulated in chitosan, as indicated by the X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surveys, respectively. Growth performance was not affected by the dietary selenium addition and differences were observed between the dietary selenium sources. Meat selenium content and oxidative stability was similar in T1, T2 and T3 rabbits, but significantly higher (P < 0.05) when compared to C rabbits. In conclusion, the selenium from CS-SeNP enriches meat with selenium and enhances meat oxidative stability in a manner similar to the commonly-used inorganic and organic forms. Given their well-established low toxicity, CS-SeNP have a very good potential as dietary Se source and should be further studied
129 Emergency and Medical Management of Accidental Ingestion of Yellow Phosphorus-based Rat Bait in a Dog , Saravanan M, Yogespriya S, Ramkumar PK, Kannan K  and Senthilkumar S
Accidental ingestion of toxicant/poison is common issues in the pets, such kind of a case of one and half year-old Mongrel dog with the history of accidental ingestion of rat kill paste (Ratol@TM) about 2 hrs back, presented to the Veterinary Clinical Complex, VCRI, Orathanadu. Clinical examination revealed panting, tachycardia, dilated pupil and vomiting. Dog was provided with support was done and gastric lavage was done, followed by dog was kept in CCU for further monitoring. Hematology revealed mild anemia. Serum biochemical and blood gas analysis were within the reference interval. Dog was stabilized with fluids, antibiotics, antiemetic and provided supportive care. Acetylcysteine was initiated as protective measures to prevent acute hepatic damage. Further fluid therapy and supportive care continued for 6 hrs and dog improved by the 3rd hour onwards. The dog was successfully recovered with its normalcy. This case documented recovery followed emergency care which was instituted within 2 hrs.
130 A Case Study on an Unusual but Remediable Incident of Hyperlipidemia in a Female Snow Leopard (Panthera uncia) Housed at Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park, Darjeeling Category: Case Study , Joy Dey, Prishka Pariyar and Basavaraj Holeyachi
The present case study reports a secondary case of hyperlipidemia during the routine blood examination in a female snow leopard aged eleven, weighing almost 31 Kgs, housed at the captive breeding center of Padmaja Naidu Himalayan Zoological Park, Darjeeling. The animal showed no visible symptoms and the diagnosis was based on the visual assessments of serum that was observed to be milky-white, followed by laboratory tests that confirmed high triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Further, the absence of a creamy layer on overnight refrigeration of the blood sample suggested that the lipemia and subsequent hyperlipidemia were caused due to elevated levels of either VLDL, LDL, or HDL. Medication with drugs such as Saroglitazar tablets at a dose of 4 mg/day for thirty days was prescribed, apart from reducing the feed quantity. Blood samples were recollected after a month of treatment, and the serum sample was observed to be normal, straw-colored. The serology reports were also found to be within the reference range prescribed by Species 360. Since disease-related threats to snow leopards are crucial yet less known, our study can be useful to the zoo clinicians for future references, while maintaining these vulnerable species under various captive facilities
131 Copepod Diversity from Seasonal Wetland in Ambajogai of Beed District, Maharashtra, India , VB Sakhare and SG Jetithor
A systematic investigation on diversity and dynamics of copepods from seasonal wetland of Ambajogai town of Beed district (Ma- harashtra, India) was carried out for a period of one year (from October 2018 to September 2019). The present investigation revealed the occurrence of 7 species of copepods. The copepod diversity fluctuated seasonally and the maximum number of 215 organisms/ liter was recorded during month of March and minimum number of 75 organisms/liter during the month of August.
132 Fishery and its Management of Sugaon Lake of East Champaran District of Bihar, India , Kumari Priyanka, Neha Raj and Safal Kumar Mishra
A remarkable physical feature of East Champaran district of Bihar is a chain of lakes, running through the centre of the district. These lakes of which the largest one at Chaknaha, Piprapakri, Bakaya, Kararia, Motijheel, Turkaulia, Sugaon, Phulwari, Sirsa, Chilraon, etc., evidently mark an old bed of the river Great Gandak. Lakes are of natural origin and because of their magnitude as well as pro - duction potential occupy important position in Indian inland fisheries. There is a high rate of primary production in the lakes of plains which suggests that if scientifically managed, the fish production can be augmented to a greater extent. Ichthyologically the condition of Sugaon lake has been deteriorating under the impact of anthropogenic pressure, global warming and fast pace of development and if proper conservative measures are not taken the lake is likely to further deteriorate.
133 Tilapia Reveals: Unsustainable Management by an Organization in Charge of Sustainability , Hussein Valikhani and Milad Khosravi
After a decade, the efforts and persistence of the Iranian Fisheries Organization and Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute for introducing tilapia to the aquaculture industry paid off in Iran. Despite the contentions and resistance of the environmentalists, who believe that this introduction has destructive effects on the biodiversity and natural ecosystems as well as variant socio-econom- ic impacts, the Iranian Department of Environment granted tilapia culture license for this species to be introduced to the aquaculture of five central provinces of the country in 2018. According to some characteristics of the species such as feeding on different food resources, high reproductive potential and high ability in resisting of environmental condition and diseases, if the species intention- ally or accidentally finds the way into the natural inland water bodies from the aquaculture centers, could cause major impacts on the native species and ecosystems. Many experts agree that such unsustainable decisions reflect the structural weakness of the or- ganization at the level of management and administrative structure. After years of running this organization by non-specialists, the improvement of the current situation is strongly felt
134 Phylogenetic and Gene Sequence Analyses of Staphylococcus aureus hlg, E. coli TraT, Streptococcus uberis 16SrRNA and Staphylococcus haemolyticus Tuf Genes Isolated from Cattle Mastitis , MF Azooz, Saffa A El-Wakeel, Abeer S El-Maghraby and HM Yousef
The main aim of this study is to investigate and understanding the molecular epidemiology of the most common and prevalent bacteria (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus) that cause bovine mastitis in Egypt dairies that generate the routine and standard mastitis control measures. Out of 220 (160 sub-clinical and 60 active clinical mastitis), positive milk samples were collected from 20 cattle dairy farms. Locally field isolates were detected and confirmed phenotypic by culturing, gram staining, biochemical and molecular identification to be in overall cow level prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus 11 (5%), Staphylococcus haemolyticus 18 (8.1%), E. coli 40 (18.1%) and Streptococcus uberis 19 (8.6%). PCR identification of hlg gene of Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli TraT, Streptococcus uberis 16SrRNA, Staphylococcus hemolyticus tuf genes isolates revealed TraT gene was found in all forty (100%) E. coli isolates, (tuf) virulence gene was found in all (18) Staphylococcus haemolyticus isolates (100%), (hlg) gene was found in 11 (42.3%) Staphylococcus aureus isolates and (16SrRNA) gene was conserved in all Streptococcus uberis isolates. Phylogenetic analysis, showed clear clustering of isolated E. coli, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Streptococcus uberis Egyptian strain and different strains uploaded from gene bank. In Conclusion: This study focuses and gave a clear vision on the role of human being in transmission of cattle mastitis pathogens in dairy cattle farms. Regular monotiring of Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Streptococcus uberis sequence changes is very important and essential for molecular epidemiologi- cal investigations and also can be used in vaccine development and evaluation studies.
135 Probiotics Interaction with Foodborne Pathogen: A Potential Alternative to Antibiotics , Rana H Raheema
The antibiotics have been considered one of the key tools that are utilized in the present day in the healthcare industry for fight- ing against the bacterial infections; none-the-less, the misuses or the repeated utilization of the antibiotics, resulted in the bacterial resistance, which causes considerable threats for numerous people with the common bacteria infections. Using the probiotics for the enhancement of the gastrointestinal health was suggested for several years. Recently, there was a growing interest in using the probiotic bacteria as substitutes for the antibiotics to prevent or treat a variety of the intestinal infections. Numerous significant un- derlying mechanisms that are responsible for antagonistic impacts of the probiotics on a variety of the micro-organisms include: (a) competitive exclusions for the nutritional sources and the adhesion sites; (b) antimicrobial substance secretion; (c) immunomodula- tion (d) enhancements of the function of the intestinal barrier.
136 Overview of the State of the Art of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning , Paolo Giuseppe Ubaldi, Paolo Galli, Michael Belingheri, Davide Maggioni, Enrico Montalbetti and Francesco Saliu
Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is the most frequently seafood-toxin illness in the world, with big substantial physical and func- tional impact. Toxins produced by Dinoflagellates are often found associated with Macrophyte Algae and dead Corals. Herbivorous fishes become toxic after ingesting macroalgae or parts of dead coral. Herbivorous fishes are preyed upon by carnivorous fishes which in turn become toxic. Man becomes infected by eating fish and poisoned herbivores and carnivores. CTX (Ciguatoxin) is odour- less and tasteless, resists cooking. It caused gastrointestinal, neurologic and/or cardiovascular symptoms which last days to weeks, or even months. The purpose of this review of literature about the toxins, just to clarify causes, species and symptom, treatment, method of analysis, research of quick test and provide information about management and prevention of CFP.
137 Impact of Human Intrusion in Habitat Destruction (HIHD) and Strategic Management Plans for Restoration of Forest Eco System , Keny J Newport and Jeyanth K Newport
Wildlife conservation in India has a long history, dating back to the colonial period when it was rather very restrictive to only targeted species and that too in a defined geographical area. Then, the formation of the Wildlife Board at the national level and enact- ment of Wildlife Act in 1972 laid the foundation of present day “wildlife conservation” era in post-independent India. Henceforth, the Act has been amended several times and the National Wildlife Advisory Board has undergone various changes. In the last few decades, Human Wildlife Conflict (HWC) is considered as the major problem, as it has been projected that animals are destroying the crops of the farmers adjacent to peripheral areas of reserve forests. This has resulted in killing of wild animals to restore the crops by the farmers. HWC is the result of the cause and focus is being given on management plans to tackle HWC. But the crux of the problem is Human Intrusion in Habitat Destruction (HIHD), which is the root cause of the HWC. This paper is analyzing the problem of HIHD and highlights case studies of wild animals inhibiting villages and in adopting management plans and proper policies to restore the natural wildlife habitats thereby minimizing the HWCs. The management plans of HIHD should be at policy level and should be imple- mented at various levels to restore the natural wildlife habitat to sustain the forest eco system.
138 A Case of Ascites Associated with Ancylostomiasis in A 2 ½-Year-old Hungarian Sheepdog (Komondor) , Polycarp Dauda Madaki and Sabo Ruth Manzo
Ascites is the accumulation of excess fluid in the peritoneal cavity and it occurs in response to various pathological processes [1]. A patient can either be presented to veterinarians for clinical signs secondary to fluid accumulation or simply due to a change in appearance because of fluid buildup [2]. Ascites is always a sign of disease; therefore, the investigation should identify the primary underlying problem [3,4]. Ancylostomiasis (hookworm disease) is a disease of worldwide distribution. The most widespread and pathogenic of all hookworm species is Ancylostoma caninum, and it parasitizes dogs throughout the tropics and subtropics [5]. A 2 ½-year-old Hungarian Shepard Dog was presented with a distended abdomen, anorexia, and weakness to the Area Veterinary Clinic Gonin Gora, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The dog was diagnosed with transudate ascites. Abdomino-centesis was performed to relieve the ascitic fluid. Fecal analysis revealed endoparasitic infestation of Ancylostoma sp. The dog was diagnosed with ascites due to hook - worm infestation and was treated with antihelminthic (pyrantel pamoate, Fabentel, and praziquantel) enrofloxacin, iron dextran, and furosemide. The dog recovered after 14 days of treatment.
139 New Locality Record of Bombay Caecilian (Ichthyophis bombayensis Gymnophiona: Amphibia) from Mudumalai Tiger Reserve Tamil Nadu, Western Ghats, India , Samson A and J Leona Princy
Caecilians comprise one of the three surviving orders of amphib- ians. They are reported from several areas in Asia, Africa and South and Central America [1]. Due to burrowing, secretive and nocturnal inhabit, they are recorded in the field occasionally [2]. The Western Ghats of India is recognized as a world biodiversity hotspot and it is home for many Indian and regionally endemic species, especially amphibians including caecilians [3]. Caecilians are well explored in South and Central Western Ghats of India [4]. The present note describes the new locality record of Ichthyophis bombayensis from Tamil Nadu part of the Western Ghats.
140 Incidence of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Cattle from the Different Districts of Sindh, Pakistan , Sindhu Baloch, Rehana Shahnawaz, Yadullah Baqir , Mamoona Ar - shad, Abdul Latif Bhutto , Inayatullah Sarki , Rabia Khalil, Adeela Sharif, Asghar Subhani, Shah Jahan Musakhail, Naila BiBi
The goal of this study was to determine the epidemiology of BLV infection in three breeds of cattle in different districts (Tando Muhammad Khan, Thatta and Hyderabad) of Sindh, Pakistan's. Blood samples n=750 were obtained from three breeds (Holstein Friesian, Jersey and Red Sindhi) each breed n=250 and treated to indirect ELISA to determine BLV incidence by breed, location, and sex. Out of 750 cattle, 20.13% were positive for BLV. There were considerable variances between the breeds and research regions. Holstein Friesian cattle had the highest incidence 29.2%, followed by Jersey 21.6% and Red Sindhi cattle 9.6%. Males and females of the Friesian breed had the highest prevalence P < 0.05. This research implies that BLV is widespread in the area, and that the virus may have been brought in exotic breeds or sperm and spread locally. Furthermore, exotic varieties and crossbred cattle are more susceptible to BLV than native breeds
141 Scientific Wildlife Conservation: Concept and its Propagation , SK Raghuvanshi and S Kumar
In recent years, global population paid a great attention towards wildlife conservation. However, considerable differences can be found in the prevailing concepts of wildlife conservation and wildlife welfare which include the reasonable and legal utilization of wildlife. The key to scientific wildlife conservation is the proper awareness and appreciation of the relationship between wildlife conservation and utilization, which forms the theoretical basis of holistic approach. As such, expansion of the concept of scientific wildlife conservation requires the propagation through several levels. Wildlife conservation researchers should be regarded as the most important propagators of scientific information, along with education in schools and universities of growing importance.
142 Helping the Biodiversity Using Conservation Genetic Tools: The Tip of Iceberg , Fernanda Luiza Facioli and Ricardo Zanella
The anthropogenic action is causing a depletion of the biodi - versity in the planet. Pollution, deforestation, exploitation and in- troduction of exotic species are some examples. Many plants and animal species are suffering the risk of extinction or have been already extinct. Recent studies estimate the existence of eight mil- lion species on Earth, of which at least 15,000 are on risk to disap- pear. In this sense, we are looking at a scenario where the genetic biodiversity has been drastically reduced. Therefore, the survival of our environmental is on human hands. A promising option is the use of genetic approaches for conservation maintenance as an alternative to minimize the human action.
143 Ichthyofauna of the River Punpun of Nabinagar, Bihar (India) and its Fisheries , Neha Raj, Kumari Priyanka and Safal Kumar Mishra
The paper deals with the fish and fisheries of the river Punpun of Nabinagar, Bihar (India). During course of investigation 75 species of inland fishes were recorded dominated by Cypriniformes (32 species) followed by Siluriformes (19), Perciformes (10), Channiformes (04), Mastacembeliformes (03), Osteoglossiformes(01), Symbranchiformes (01) and Tetraodontiformes (01). Among these fishes 21 were vulnerable, 04 exotic, 04 endangered, 01 threatened, 05 lower risk least concern and 21 lower risk near threatened. The existing fishing methods were of conventional type.
144 Clinical Study with Rapid Serological Detection of Rotavirus Infection in Diarrheic Neonatal Calves , Ahmed Abdel-Rady, Ahmed MA Zaitoun and Zainab MA Youssef
Rotavirus is an enteritis causing pathogen in neonatal calves. A total number of 175 neonatal enteric calves were clinically exam- ined. Their feces were sampled to rapidly serotested for Rotavirus detection. The clinical findings on Rotavirus diarrheic calves were anorexia, weakness, arched back with straining during defecation, variable degree of dehydration. Feces were pasty yellowish with and/or without flakes of clotted blood. Body temperature, respiratory and heart rates were varying. The collected fecal samples were serotested by Latex agglutination test (LAT) and Immunochromatographic assay (ICA). Results of LAT and ICA indicated that the pos- itive samples of Rotavirus infection were 9.68% and 8.54%, respectively. It is concluded that Rotavirus infection plays an outstanding role in enteritis of neonatal calves of Assiut Governorate and control measures should be attained. LAT and ICA are effortlessly field serotests in screening of Rotavirus infection in diarrheic neonatal calves.
145 Current Knowledge on Tumour Markers in Veterinary Oncology , Gamze Bilgili, Merve Alpay, Deniz Ceylanli, Sevgi Gençosman, Ça?ri Gültekin, Ahmet Özer ?ehirli  and Serkan Sayiner
Tumour markers, also known as biomarkers, might be proteins, conjugated proteins, peptides, or carbohydrates. Tumour markers are substances that are created by cancer cells or by the organism in response to cancer. According to the dictionary of cancer terms published online by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), a biomarker is “A biological molecule found in blood, other body fluids, or tissues that is a sign of a normal or abnormal process, or of a condition or disease.” These molecules are present in the blood, urine, tissues, and body fluids (cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pancreatic fluid, etc.). However, blood levels are primarily examined. Tu- mour markers are never utilized to make a cancer diagnosis. Mammography, ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging scans, and tumour marker assays are used to aid in the diagnosis, monitor the progression of the disease (prognosis), detect recurrence, and aid in the application of treatment. While these procedures are beneficial for staging cancer, a biopsy is usually re- quired to confirm the diagnosis. Considering tumour markers is an exciting field for both veterinary oncology and human medicine, the purpose of this study is to provide current and relevant information for the future use of tumour markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of increasing cancer cases in animals by reviewing previous studies.
146 Case of Cystic Graffian Follicles in Cattle , Shambhavi, Harshit Saroha, Aditya Kumar and Shubham Kumar
Follicular cyst is an ovarian dysfunction resulting in reproductive failure in dairy cattle. It is recognized as enlarged anovulatory follicle like structures (< 2.5 cm) and persisting for 10 or more days in dairy cows. Accurate diagnosis of follicular cyst currently employs a combination of transrectal palpation, transrectal ultrasonography and plasma progesterone assay. In field conditions the manual rupture of follicle was generally advocated, yet during the past several years single or combined use of GnRH, progesterone and prostaglandins have been in clinical practice. Other therapies include estrogen receptor blocker clomiphene citrate and trans- vaginal ultrasound guided cystic follicle aspiration. Homeopathic medications for the follicular cyst have also come in trend but suc- cess of therapy is governed by many confounding variables such as persistence of the follicles and duration of the pathological condi- tion. The correct choice of treatment and implementation of the preventive measures can help in reducing economic loss caused by the disease to the dairy industries.
147 Clinical Efficacy of Tiletamine-Zolazepam and Ketamine-Diazepam Combination on Quality of Anesthesia for Ovariohysterectomy in Dog , Prashant Dilip Salve, Milind Gonduji Thorat, Ratnakar Vasantrao Raulkar, Ravindrakumar Imdeo Hatzade, Mahesh V Ingawale, Mahesh Babasaheb Pawar and Avinash Ganpat Jadhav
The present study was undertaken to compare the anesthetic efficacy of tiletamine-zolazepam and ketamine-diazepam combina- tion in 12 bitches presented to the TVCC, PGIVAS, Akola for ovariohysterectomies. These 12 dogs were randomly divided into two equal groups. Group I dogs were anaesthetized with tiletamine-zolazepam and Group II dogs were anaesthetized with ketamine- diazepam combination. In both the groups xylazine was used as a pre-anaesthetic. Quality of anaesthesia, assessment of anaesthesia and clinico-physiological parameters were recorded at different time intervals during the study period. The quality of anaesthesia was found to be superior in group I as compared to group II. Induction of anaesthesia was rapid and smooth in both the groups. However, duration of anaesthesia and recovery time was longer in group I as compared to group II. Smooth recovery was observed in both the groups. Rectal temperature and respiration rate was showing decreasing trend in both the groups however, these values were within normal physiological range. Heart rate in both the group was showing decreasing trend with the appearance of brady- cardia during recovery in both the groups. SpO2 level was fluctuating within normal physiological limit in both the groups. Quality of muscle relaxation of tiletamine was better than ketamine and overall quality of anaesthesia of tiletamine-zolazepam was found to be superior as compare to ketamine-diazepam combination.
148 Ash Contents of Trace Metals and Concentration of Oil in the Fresh Water Fish, Notopterus notopterus , Raghavendra Kulkarni
The ash content refers to the inorganic residue remaining by ignition or complete oxidation is a part of proximate analysis for nutritional evaluation and it is an important quality attribute for some ingredients such as minerals. The ash contents of trace macro, micro metals and whole-body oil concentration was determined in the locally available fresh water fish, Notopterus notopterus. This fish is available in large numbers in the aquatic bodies of Kalaburagi and is being consumed as food fish by local population. The ash content was determined by dry weight method and the contents of trace metals determined in the ash by processing for Atomic Absorption spectrometry (AAS). The total body oil concentration was analyzed by boiling the fish sample and oil was extracted. The total ash was found to be 10g/100 gm of fish and the trace metals in the ash was chromium, zinc, iron and lead, whereas copper, mercury and cadmium were not detected in the ash. The oil concentration in whole fish was at 2.85 ml. The free fatty acids (FFA) and acid value of the value of the oil was determined and found to be 1.78 (less than 2) and found suitable for edible purpose. The results indicate that the fish, Notopterus notopterus has lesser amount of trace metals and the fish body oil has been extracted with less quan- tity, may be because of lean body of the fish and it is found to be not a fatty fish. Since the fish has necessary nutritional compositions and this fish can be considered as food fish in the local area.
149 Effect of Litter Size at Birth on Litter Traits and Growth of Broiler Rabbit in Sub Temperate Climate of India , S K Das
Several workers indicated the influence of litter size at birth on different litter traits in India and abroad. In this region of India, no study was done on this aspect. So, an effort was made to find the effect of litter size at birth on different litter traits and growth of broiler rabbit. Data on litter traits i.e., litter size at birth, litter weight at birth, litter size at weaning and litter weight at weaning of 227 numbers of kindling recorded from ten numbers each of New Zealand White, Soviet Chinchilla, Meghalaya Local and Cross Bred rabbits were analyzed. Data analysis revealed that litter size at birth had highly significant (P < 0.01) effect on all the traits except post weaning growth. Litter size at birth had highly significant (P < 0.01) effect on litter weight at birth and individual litter weight at birth. The average litter weight at birth and individual litter weight at birth was recorded to be 310.93 ± 3.01 g and 53.38 ± 0.51 g. Litter size at birth had highly significant (P < 0.01) effect on litter size at weaning and litter weight at weaning. The average litter size at weaning, litter weight at weaning and individual litter weight at weaning were recorded to be 4.41 ± 0.07, 1926 ± 28 g and 442.92 ± 3.59 g respectively.
150 Protective Effects of Hyssopus Officinalis and Medicago Sativa Extracts in Salmonella-Induced Colitis by Regulating Antioxidant and Inflammatory Mediators , Ehsan Soleimannezhadbari, Hadi Cheraghi, Parmida Choubsaz, Negin Moezzi Nia and Mostafa Razmjoo
Background: Salmonella Typhimurium causes gastroenteritis which is characterized by diarrhea. Nowadays, instead of using anti- bacterial therapies to treat colitis, there is a growing interest in alternative natural products with antibacterial or anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Hyssopus officinalis (Hyssop) and Medicago sativa (Alfalfa), alone and in combination, on salmonella-induced colitis in mice. Methods and results: Graded doses of 50% ethanolic extracts (25, 50, and 75 mg/kg) for 8 days, showed 50 mg/kg for Hyssop and 75 mg/kg for Alfalfa as an optimal effective dose against Salmonella induced colonic damage score which this dosage was further studies in salmonella-induced colitis for other parameters. Our data showed administration of extracts, not only reduced Lipid Peroxidation, myeloperoxidase activity, and nitric oxide levels but also inhibited decreasing of total antioxidant capacity in the colitis group. Also, following oral administration, the extracts had a significant reduction in pro-inflammatory mediators including interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, which had better results in the Mix group. Moreover, the Hyssop and Mix group decreased the histological score and Cox-2 mRNA expression, while Nrf-2 gene expression in the treatment groups did not show a significant change compared to the colitis group. Conclusions: In conclusion, Oral Hyssop and Alfalfa extracts, alone and in combination, alleviate the symptoms, oxidative stress, and inflammation of salmonella-induced colitis, and combination therapy with Hyssopus officinalis and Medicago sativa may provide a promising dietary approach for the management of acute bacterial colitis. Keywords: Hyssopus Officinalis; Medicago Sativa; Salmonella; Colitis; Inflammation; Antioxidant
151 Regenerative Role of l-Lysine Amino Acid on Alimentary Canal of Fresh Water Food Fish Due to Chronic Chromium Toxicity- A Lab Study , Balveer Singh Dhami
The present study was carried out to investigate the preventive role of L-Lysine amino acid in chronic chromium toxicity on ali- mentary canal of freshwater food fish, Clarias batrachus. The trivalent and hexavalent forms of chromium are important for human health and other organisms. Chromium maintains normal glucose tolerance factor. The deficiency of chromium leads atherosclerosis in rabbits and also effects reproduction, life spawn and growth. Moreover, the deficiency of chromium leads anxiety, mental retarda- tion, vision impairment, poor immunity, hypoglycemia and unhealthy level of cholesterol. Toxicity of chromium on liver, stomach and kidney is worked out by many workers in mammals and fish. Chromium is one of the pollutants in urban sewage. It is used in tan- nery, paints, steel, textiles, printing, electroplating, rubber industries, pigments, plating, fungicides, corrosion inhibitors etc. L-Lysine amino acid is an essential amino acid and used as nutritional supplements. It is essential for growth and calcium absorption from intestine. Lysine also used to prevent osteoporosis, and it is also important for collagen synthesis, hormone and antibody production. To investigate the preventive role of L-lysine in chromium toxicity, the fish was exposed to 300 ppm chromic chloride (T2) for thirty days along with control (T1). during this period, the histopathology of stomach and intestine show atrophy of gastric epithelium, reduced mucosal folds and degeneration of gastric glands. The studies with Transmission Electron Microscopy of stomach of control (T1) and treated fish (T2 and T3) were conducted. TEM shows damaged E.R., reduced parietal cells along with reduction in the num- ber of zymogen granules. In intestine, it shows atrophy of epithelium, reduced size and fusion of villi and necrosis also observed. In the combination dose experiment (T3), the fish was given an injection of L-Lysine amino acid @ 0.4 mg/100 gm body weight per day for thirty days. During this study, an improvement was observed after thirty days treatment, and it shows the nearly normal size of mucosal folds, epithelium of gastric mucosa regenerated as normal. In combination dose (T3), after thirty days of exposure, embed- ding of villi, villous atrophy and villous fusion is not seen. Intestinal glands as well as intestinal mucosa were observed nearly normal.
152 Mitigation Strategies for Cold Stress for Enhancing Livestock Productivity in Temperate Areas of Himachal Pradesh , Anjali Somal, Geetanjali Singh, Parul Shukla and Mukesh Kumar Thakur
Himachal Pradesh is a North-western hill state of India having four major agro-climatic zones with different climatic conditions. The animals reared in different zones experience cold stress when the temperature is below the thermo neutral zone. Climate change studies highlight the increasing temperature and unpredictable weather conditions around the globe. The cold- stress is likely to become more common in the future, in the present scenario of climate change. Across the globe, incidents of intense cold waves vary from region to region. Over India, the cold wave is observed during winter season spanning from December-February. The aim of this review is to give a general outlook of the different climatic factors, their effect on animals as well as adaptation and mitigation strategies for the domestic animals reared in Himachal Pradesh.
153 Effect of Dietary Probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus) on the Growth Performance of Labeo Rohita , Amit Sharma, S Kumar and S.K. Raghuvanshi
The present study was carried out to evaluate the influence of dietary supplementation of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus aci- dophilus), on growth performance of Labeo rohita. The probiotic L. acidophilus was procured from the market and the feed was pre- pared by crushing the basal food with probiotic bacteria in different combinations. The feeding trials were conducted in triplicate for 60 days, to determine the effect of dietary probiotics on growth status of fish. For this, the live fishes (L. rohita) were captured from Sagar Taal, Budaun, U.P. After acclimatization for 10 days, the fishes with similar body weight were distributed randomly into five treatment groups at Department of Zoology, Bareilly College, Bareilly, U.P. These fishes were given basal feed containing L. acidophilus in five concentrations viz., 0.5 (T1), 1.0 (T2), 1.5 (T3), 2.0 (T4) and 2.5 (T5). The control group (T0) was fed basal food only, without L. acidophilus for the same period. Growth was analysed by measuring body length and weight, after the interval of every 15 days (at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days). Two treatment groups (T4 and T5) showed better growth of fishes, than any other treatment group. Group T4 showed a weight gain of 20.51 ± 0.64%, while the percentage length gain was 16.40 ± 0.43%. Similarly, the performance of group T5 was also found good (weight gain 20.22 ± 0.61%, length gain 17.05 ± 0.08%). On the other hand, the results of control treatment were comparatively poor (weight gain 19.50 ± 0.49%, length gain 15.37 ± 0.08%). These results suggest that L. acidophilus can be used as an effective probiotic @ 2% or more in the form of dietary supplement, for L. rohita in aquaculture practices.
154 Serotype Specific Antibody Avidity in Multiple Vaccinated Animals Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease , Beenu Jain, Anuj Tewari, Surender Kumar Kadian
In endemic countries FMD outbreaks are controlled by vaccinating the animals by using a trivalent FMD vaccine. The aim of this study was to compare the avidity of antibodies developed against O and Asia 1 FMDV serotypes in multiple vaccinated animals against FMD. In this study, thirty-three serum samples from multiple vaccinated animals, against Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) were collected from field buffaloes. Samples with titre more than 1.4 in LPBE were selected for measuring antibody avidity. The study was conducted to know the post vaccination avidity index of antibodies against O and Asia 1 serotype of FMDV. For this purpose, thir- ty three serum samples from multiple FMD vaccinated animals were tested by O and Asia 1 serotype specific indirect avidity ELISA. It was found that not all samples having high avidity antibodies for O serotype had high avidity antibodies for Asia 1 serotype. Similarly, not all samples having high avidity antibodies for Asia 1 serotype had high avidity antibodies for O serotype. However, no significant difference was observed in the mean avidity indices of antibodies for both O and Asia 1 serotype. As the avidity indices of antibodies may differ against different serotypes in an individual animal, hence, it is paramount to conduct regular post vaccination monitoring using avidity ELISA.
155 Comparative Study of Antibody Avidity in Single and Multiple Vaccinated Animals Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease , Beenu Jain, Anuj Tewari and Surender Kumar Kadian
In this study, serum samples from single vaccinated and multiple vaccinated animals, against Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) were collected from field buffaloes. Samples with titre more than 1.4 in LPBE were selected for measuring antibody avidity. The study was conducted to compare the actual status of the protective antibody generated after vaccination in single and multiple vaccinated animals. The binding affinity of these antibodies were tested using an avidity ELISA. It was found that even after multiple vaccination in some of the animals the avidity was low whereas some of the single vaccinated animals showed high avidity than the multiple vaccinated animals. We conclude that multiple vaccination with strong antibody titre may not be always a true indicator of strong protective response. Hence, regular post-vaccination monitoring of antibody avidity needs to be done where there is a high virus circulation as a measure of herd immunity.
156 Vegetation Choice and Browsing Behavior of Camels in Different Management Conditions , Asim Faraz, Syeda Maryam Hussain, Annamaria Passantino and Michela Pugliese
Like other ruminants, camels are not entirely vegetarian but seem eating bones, charcoal, mummified young gazelles, head and all. Availability of acceptable plant species was an important limitation to the diet quality as well as selection process. Camels com- pensate the declining forage abundance by eating more grasses, leaves, litter, vines and lignified twigs by widening their dietary ac- ceptance range in the dry seasons. Two-humped camels fed on specialized desert vegetation-halophytes, shrubs, sub-shrubs, worm- wood and various thorny plants. Camels prefer to eat salty bushes with rich water contents so the salts present in such plants help to meet the physiological requirements of the animal. Irrespective of the season, the camels spend more than 80% of their total feeding time on dicotyledons and select a diet with higher protein than the other animal species. On typical grazing grounds of the arid trop- ics and subtropics, the dromedary prefers to browse bushes and trees while select feed which is highly digestible, especially rich in easily fermentable carbohydrates and having high water contents. Dromedaries graze a broad spectrum of fodder plants including thorny and aromatic species which are generally avoided by other herbivores on overall basis. Camels are very versatile feeders and fed on perennial grasses and dwarf shrubs having coarse texture and hairy leaves which are avoided by other livestock on the fringes of the great deserts and in dune countries. This paper will describe the grazing behavior of camel; thus, will be a useful addition in the field of camel science.
157 Sero-Epidemiological Study of Toxoplasmosis in Sheep and Goats in Dammam City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia , Ahmed Abdel-Rady
Toxoplasma gondii is intracellular protozoan parasite that are distributed worldwide and of major economic importance in the livestock industry especially sheep and goats. Sheep and goats are thought to be biological indicators of environmental contami- nation with T. gondii oocysts. In addition, in developing countries such as Saudi Arabia, where sheep and goat meat is commonly consumed, T. gondii infection in small ruminants may also affect public health risks. So that we estimate the prevalence of T. gondii infections in small ruminants, by using indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the antibodies to assess the seroprevalence in 130 sheep and 130 goats from Dammam city. A total of 130 sheep were sampled, of which 35 (26.9%) were posi- tive for T. gondii, out of 130 tested goats 31 (23.8%) were positive for T. gondii. Our study also recorded 27 out 52 from the aborted ewes (51.9%) and 22 out 45 from the aborted does (48.8%) were seropositive for anti-T. gondii antibody. Significant differences (p value < 0.0001) were observed among previously aborted females when evaluated as risk factors for T. gondii infection in both ewes and does. In addition, the results revealed that the age in sheep more than 3 years give 31.1% but in goat 23%. Significant differences (p value < 0.0001) were observed among previously ages, sex and the farming system, from the results of this study showed a broad distribution for protozoan parasite (Toxoplasma gondii) in examined sheep and goat flocks. By using ELISA Toxoplasma gondii anti- body test kit that provides a rapid, simple, sensitive and specific method for diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis.
158 Quantitative Trait Loci (Qtl) in Livestock and Poultry: an Review , Olympica Sarma and Preetinder Singh
QTL is a site present on the chromosome at which a gene or group of genes affecting a quantitative trait is located. Techniques like backcross and intercross are used to detect genetic markers. Variation in quantitative trait is correlated with these markers. Moreover, quantification of each locus can be done and amount of variation in the trait can be noted. Specific areas can be target using this information and this knowledge can be used in future for understanding the genome and QTL present in it. However, the genes should be identified in a particular region and their function should be known. Detailed genomic mapping should be done to fully utilized the ability of QTL identification. With the help of QTL mapping, we can detect the variation of a trait in a given popula- tion. Moreover, we can know how much environmental factors play role in variation of a trait. Different type of polymorphic genetic markers is used in QTL mapping and certain techniques involving these markers makes it easier for identification of QTL. This QTL technique will further help in increasing the trait of interest in a population and decreasing the undesirable traits in a population. In future it can help in increasing the trait and profit related to that trait.
159 Socio Economic Context and Disaster Resilience Among the Farmers Involved in Livestock Rearing in Flood Affected Zones of Kashmir Valley , Sanober Rasool, SA Hamdani, A Fayaz, B Zaffer, B Nabi, S Akhtar, S Taifa, A Hai and AH Akand
The present study was purposively carried out in Kashmir Division of Jammu and Kashmir state that was severely hit by devastat- ing floods in September 2014. The main aim of the study was to elaborate the socio-economic profile and disaster resilience among the farmers involved in livestock rearing when floods hit the Kashmir valley in September 2014. The major findings of the study were that majority of the livestock farmers belonged to middle age group of 41 - 60 years with the average age of 50.48 and were mostly illiterate (55.42%) with herd size of 2-3 cattle/buffalo (65.42%) average herd size being 2.00. On the other hand, majority of the respondents (49.58) were having herd size of 1 - 10 with respect to small ruminants (sheep/goat) with the average being 2.32. A size- able portion of respondents (48.75%) were having backyard poultry in the range of 1 - 21 poultry birds per household with the high- est mean of 9 poultry birds per household reported from Bandipora District. Major findings indicated that most of the respondents (96.25%) had no formal social participation except for presence of religion-based participation. With respect to the communication pattern adopted by livestock farmers, majority of them had a low level of extension contact with the informal sources like family members, friends etc. and a medium level of extension contact with the formal sources like Veterinarians, LSA etc. They also had a least exposure to mass media sources related to livestock rearing practices. The findings also showed that the application of indige- nous knowledge in the face of hazards and other threats was almost getting diminished as majority of respondents of the study didn’t rely on the traditional warning practices/indicators for predicting disaster like floods. Careful selection of building materials was one of the preventive measures taken in advance to reduce the impact of flood by the livestock owners. Education and income were found positively and significantly (p < 0.05) related with level of preparedness of respondents. With respect to economic losses only income was positively and highly significantly (p < 0.01) correlated. Cattle/Buffalo herd size was positive and highly significant (p < 0.01) and that of Sheep/Goat herd size was also positive and significant (p < 0.05) in relation with level of preparedness of respondents to meet disasters. Further flock size of Sheep/Goat was negatively but significantly correlated (p < 0.05) with economic losses suffered by re- spondents during floods of 2014. Moreover, mass media exposure was also positively and highly significantly correlated (p < 0.01) in relation with the level of preparedness of respondents to meet disasters like floods and that with respect to economic losses suffered by livestock farmer during floods of 2014 it was negatively but significantly correlated (p < 0.05). As far as awareness about zoonotic disease transmitted and livestock rearing safety practices of respondents was concerned, it was found that they were positively and highly significant (p < 0.01) in relation with level of preparedness of respondents to meet any natural calamity.
160 Small Ruminant Production Systems and Actual Circumstances for Small and Disadvantaged Farmers , Homero Salinas -Gonzalez
Small ruminant farmers are located in marginal areas where the existing agroecosystems make it hard to incorporate new tech- nologies. For extensive production systems, small ruminant farm- ers to obtain enough production prefer to increase the number of animals per flock rather than increase the yield of meat or milk per head through innovation and intensification. Innovation incor- porates, in most cases, initial investment and more labor use that discourage farmers besides the fact that small ruminant products experience price markets uncertainty and excessive milk-meat processing regulations. On the other hand, conventional small ru- minant production systems generally degrade natural resources, reduce biodiversity, and increase negative environmental impacts, such as water contamination and soil erosion. The overgrazing of pasture and subsequent soil erosion contributes to limited region- al agricultural development.
161 Bacterial Recovery from Canine Eyes with Complicated Corneal Ulcerations: Comparison of Direct Plating Versus Culturette Submission: A Pilot Study , Haley E Jost, Christine C Lim , Leslie Sharkey, Julia L Sharp , Michael L Creutzinger  and Michala de Linde Henriksen
Objective: To compare organism recovery from canine corneal ulcers using two different bacterial culture processing methods: culturette inoculation into growth media immediately after collection (direct plating), and transport of culturettes with inoculation at the reference laboratory (culturette). Design: Exploratory pilot study. Animals: Thirteen client-owned dogs diagnosed with complicated corneal ulceration from one referral hospital. Procedures: Bacterial samples were collected by direct sampling of infected corneal ulcerations with a culturette followed by two methods of sample processing: 1) direct inoculation of the culturette onto four culture media (blood, MacConkey, chocolate, Sab- ouraud dextrose) and shipment of plates to an outside laboratory, 2) sample collection by culturette followed by transport to the same outside laboratory for plating there for aerobic bacterial culture and sensitivity testing. Corneal cytology was collected from all corneal ulcerations immediately after culture samples were obtained. Results: Direct plating detected bacterial infection in 5/13 (39%) dogs, culturette submission in 6/13 (46%) dogs. When combining the two culture methods, 7/13 (54%) dogs had positive cultures. The most common bacteria that were cultured from the corneal ulcerations were beta-hemolytic streptococcus spp. (n = 3), and gram-negative bacilli (n = 3). There was not sufficient evidence to suggest bacterial detection differed between the two culture methods (p = 1.00). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Some laboratories recommend direct plating for better bacterial growth from corneal cul - tures. Direct plating is more time consuming than submitting a culturette. This study suggests that submitting a culturette does not result in different bacterial growth than direct plating. Keywords: Canine; Culturette; Direct Plating; Infected Corneal Ulceration; Microbiology
162 Analysis of the Prevalence of Canine Toxocariasis in Matilde Esther, Ecuador, and its Connotation in Human Health , Jorge Luis Sánchez Palomino, Hugo Javier Alvarado Álvarez, Lidia Leonor Paredes Lozano, Gustavo Adolfo Vásconez Galarza and Ketty Beatriz Murillo Cano
Toxocariasis is an invasive, zoonotic and cosmopolitan disease, produced by the biological etiological agents Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. The objective of this research is to give the value that this topic deserves for human health, by investigating its preva- lence in Matilde Esther, Ecuador; It was carried out during the months of September-December 2021; 110 canines were investigated, evaluating the variables, ages, sexes, races, origin, type of feeding, related to the disease, randomly, without discrimination, con- sidering the study, observational, epizootiological, non-probabilistic, applying a non-experimental, descriptive, prospective design, cross; The data were weighted through contingency tables, using the Chi square statistic, plus the SPSS statistical program, where the prevalence of parasites was demonstrated, facilitating their multiplication and development, increasing the risk of damage in humans, in a revealing and alarming. Keywords: Canines; Cosmopolitan; Infestation; Nematodes; Syndrome; Zoonoses
163 An Investigation of the Sociality and Behaviour of Captive Polar Bears Housed in Bachelor Groups , Alice Cavalleri, Alexandra Bell, Kim Wilkins, James Brereton, Richard Preziosi, and Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino
The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a popular and easily recognisable species and has a long history of being housed in zoological collections. However, due to concerns regarding space requirements and welfare, many zoos have since removed this species from their collection plans. Polar bears require spacious enclosures with considerable amounts of enrichment and are susceptible to stereotypy if their needs are not met. Yorkshire Wildlife Park, UK, has set up a large enclosure to demonstrate best-practice care of polar bears. Observations of four male captive polar bears were conducted at the collection, to investigate behaviour and sociality between the individuals. Overall, there was limited social interaction between individuals, with very few instances of aggression observed between individuals. Stereotypical behaviour was also rare in all individuals except one. By contrast, affiliative interactions were observed more frequently, particularly between two bears. Overall, polar bears may possess greater behavioural plasticity and flexibility in social behaviour than wild and captive bear literature suggests. Keywords: Activity Budget; Ursid; Ursus Maritimus; Wildlife Park; Zoo
164 A Survey for Risk Assessment of Groundwater Arsenic Intoxication in Certain Regions of Western up , Priya Bajaj and Baby Tabassum
Heavy metal toxicity is a global health concern. Arsenic is a top ranked toxic metalloid occurring naturally but exposed unavail- ingly because of human interference. Groundwater arsenic contamination is a serious health issue in West Bengal and other states of India. The present study is designed to find out the toxicity status of arsenic in groundwater of three districts in Western Uttar Pradesh viz. Moradabad, Rampur and Bareilly. For this purpose, samples were collected from different depths of marked sites in se- lected districts at various times of the year using the prescribed protocols and subjected to AAS analysis. Thus obtained numerical re- sults were tabulated and analysed statistically to calculate the average arsenic content and contamination factor of selected districts. The results indicate a high level of arsenic content as compared to the WHO permissible limit which is just 0.01mg/L. Although all the three districts are at potential risk, but district Bareilly is on the verge. These results may be due to excessive industrialization, unwise e-waste disposal and extensive agricultural application of arsenic compounds. It is now suggested to control the reckless discharge of industrial and agricultural effluents and maintain strict regulation on illegal e-waste disposal in western Uttar Pradesh.
165 Epidemiological Study of Rotavirus Infection in the Diarrheic Neonatal Calves , ZMA Youssef and AMA Zaitoun
Neonatal diarrhea is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in calves, and Rotavirus is the main viral etiology. The objective of the current study was to study the epidemiological role of Rotavirus infection in diarrheic neonatal cattle and buffaloes 'calves in As- siut Governorate, Egypt. From December 2015 to November 2019, a total number of 315 neonatal calves belonged to different locali- ties of Assiut Governorate, Upper Egypt, were clinically examined. Fecal samples of investigated calves were subsequently collected and serologically tested to reveal-up Rotavirus infection by using latex agglutination test (LAT) and immunochrmatographic assay (ICA). The seropositive samples by LAT and ICA were 16.74% and 8.54%, respectively. The clinical findings of Rotavirus infection in enteric calves were pointed. The percentage of Rotavirus infection was 14.92% (44/295) of clinically diarrheic calves. However, 10% (2/20) of apparently healthy calves (n = 20) harbor Rotavirus in their feces suggesting carrier status. The high percentage of Rotavirus infection (20.13%) was obviously observed in 3 days-4 weeks old calves. There were no significance differences (P < 0.05) between the percentages of Rotavirus infection and sex, species (cattle and buffaloes) and breed (Native and Cross breed) of serologi- cally tested calves. Moreover, there is no significant variations (p < 0.05) between calves under farmer’s hand and calves bred in farm in susceptibility to Rotavirus infection. Based on climatologic conditions of Assiut, seropositive cases were more prevalent (P < 0.001) in cold months (22.67%) than the warm and hot months (7.27%) in Assiut.
166 Canine Distemper, Clinical Update, Based on our Medical Experience and Scientific Evidence , Jorge Luis Sánchez Palomino, Lidia Leonor Paredes Lozano, Javier Alberto Schuldt Cruz, Gustavo Adolfo Vásconez Galarza and Roberto Carlos Medina Burbano
The objective of this research is to provide the clinical update of the canine Distemper, based on our experience with medical practice and scientific evidence, to provide updated support to multidisciplinary medical teams, to describe, address, and identify the most useful methods For diagnosis, apply urgent therapies to try to reduce the high morbidity and mortality caused by this health phenomenon, and be able to predict, considering that it is the most aggressive among many of the pathologies that canines present today and other non-domestic species. It was investigated, between the months of September to December 2021, analyzing the data collected to have a current vision of the behavior of this lethal noxa.
167 Successful Management of Pre Partum Cervico-Vaginal Prolapse Concurrent with Dystocia Due to Incomplete Cervical Dilatation in Surti Buffalo: A Case Report , Ruchika R Sangle, Maheshkumar V Ingawale, S G Deshmukh and C H Pawshe
The present paper reports the successful treatment of cervico-vaginal prolapse and dystocia due to incomplete cervical dilation in buffalo. Eight-year-old Surti buffalo in fourth parity was presented with history of full term gestation, unproductive straining and se- vere degree cervico- vaginal prolapse from past 24 hrs. The cervico-vaginal prolapse was repositioned and per-vaginal examination discovered one finger cervical dilation whereas foetus was in anterior presentation examined by per rectal examination. The buffalo was treated for incomplete cervical dilation with dexamethasone 40 mg, cloprostenol sodium 500 μg and intravenous valethamate bromide 80 mg with periodical fathering of cervix. There was cervical dilation and dead fetus was removed with slight traction. The cervico-vaginal prolapse as well as incomplete cervical dilation during parturition in Surti buffalo was successfully managed.
168 Constraint Analysis in Adopting Mastitis Preventing Technologies in Rural Areas of Punjab, India , Vidya Gajanan Nimbalkar, Harish Kumar Verma  and Jaswinder Singh
Mastitis is considered to be one of the expensive diseases affecting the profitability of milch animals through production loss- es. Various mastitis preventive techniques such as teat dip (TD) and mastitis diagnostic kits (MDK) are recommended to prevent intra-mammary infections and diagnosis at sub-clinical stage. Despite these innovations, very low adoption has been observed at field level, leading to higher prevalence of clinical mastitis. To understand the constrains faced by the dairy farmers in adopting mastitis preventing technologies, a cross-sectional study was carried out in six districts of Punjab, India. The responses were col- lected through personal interview schedule from 600 dairy farmers selected through multistage random sampling technique. The constraint analysis by Garret’s Ranking Technique (GRT) revealed that lack of awareness about the technology, lack of technical knowledge and technical skill, inability to take decisions are the major constraints hindering the implementation of simple beneficial technologies. This study identified a dire need of extensive extension efforts to aware the farmers about their major problems at farms and scientific dairy farming technologies. Extension education can play a pivotal role to motivate farmers at individual, group and mass level for accelerating technology use to achieve optimum and sustainable quality production for maintaining social, eco- nomical and psychological welfare of society.
169 Modern Vaccines- an Overview , H A Bharat
Vaccines are one of the greatest inventions in modern medicine, vaccines have played a significant role in control, eradication of lethal diseases like smallpox and are responsible for the robust improvement in life expectancy over the past 2 centuries. Edward jen- ner pioneered the development of vaccinology by demonstrating immunity to smallpox when inouculated with cow pox scabs. The development of live attenuated vaccines and inactivated vaccines in 19 th played a major role in prevention of diseases like cholera, rabies, anthrax. Early 20th century saw development of sub-unit vaccines which possessed only the antigenic part of microbe making it safer than live attenuated vaccines, with the advent of recombinant DNA technology and proteomics in the later decades of 20 th century modern vaccine delivery platforms like recombinant viral vector vaccines, bacterial vector vaccines, DNA vaccines, Mrna vaccines, DNA vaccines, Outer membrane vesicles, virus like particles had a rapid growth, with many viral, bacterial vaccines being currently used and relatively newer vaccine technologies like Mrna vaccines, DNA vaccines, Virus like particles show a promising future with several vaccine candidates in development pipeline.
170 Clinical Importance of Proper Questioning of the Companion of the Veterinary Patient During the Medical Consultation , Marcelo Erik Zambrano Alarcón, Jorge Luis Sánchez Palomino, Sucel de la Caridad del Valle Valladares, Juan Carlos Valverde Valverde and Edgard Joffre Avilés Camacho
Anamnesis is the set of questions or interrogation that the cli- nician asks the patient’s companion (animal owner, caretaker, or manager), before and during the clinical examination, whose an- swers will guide a probable diagnosis and establish the ideal treat- ment. To obtain the necessary information, the method that the clinician has, and his ability to relate to the patient and the owners or those responsible for them, is essential. You must know what to ask and how to ask. It is the science, and it is the art (because it requires qualities of intelligence and human talent), to elaborate a presumptive diagnosis, basing the clinician, on the questioning of the owner, without having physically and/or additionally ex- amined the patient. Centuries have passed, wonderful discoveries have been developed for the benefit of patients, however, Anamne- sis continues to be one of the most important pillars of medicine
171 Use of Primer Design to Detect the Glycoprotein C Gene of Canine Herpes Virus by Polymerase Chain Reaction , Marco Vargas, María Antonieta Jara and Carlos Navarro
The fundamental difference between a virus and microorganisms lies in the way they generate progeny and some viruses destroy the cell membrane, a phenomenon called cytolysis. The herpes virus has this cytolytic capacity and in veterinary medicine, several important herpes viruses have been described, among which is the Canine Herpes Virus type 1 (CaHV-1) and this study contributed both to the genomic characterization of a national isolate of the CaHV-1 virus -called RP5- as well as to small animal veterinary medi- cine with a specific, sensitive, and fast diagnostic method result. For this, detection of the CaHV-1 glycoprotein C gene was performed by Polymerase Chain Reaction using a pair of primers designed in silico. Using a temperature gradient thermocycler, the alignment temperature (55ºC) was established by the clear and unequivocal observation of a DNA fragment of approximately 200 bp. These fragments were sequenced and a percentage of nucleotide identity (NIP > 94%) was established with respect to the official GenBank data and indicates that the amplified fragment corresponds to the gC gene fragment of CaHV-1. Thus, this methodology constitutes another technique of choice for the detection of CaHV-1 in Small Animal Medicine
172 Identification and Antibiogram of Mastitis Pathogens Isolated from Bovine and Caprine Clinical Mastitis in Wayanad District- Kerala , Ranjini Manuel and Deepa PM
The present study included 30 milk samples from animals affected with clinical mastitis for antibiotic sensitivity tests from TVCC, Pookode, and Ambulatory clinic in Wayanad. 18 were bovine milk samples and 12 were goat milk samples. Most of the cases were presented with swelling in the udder, yellowish milk, flakes of pus, serosanguinous discharge, fibrosis of the udder, low milk yield, and edema. Based on the culture and biochemical characteristics, the organism was identified. Out of 30 samples, 13 (43.33per- cent) was positive for staphylococcus aureus, 7(23.33%) samples for streptococcus agalactiae, 3(10%) samples for E coli, 2 (6.66%) samples for Enterobacter, 1(3.33%) sample for klebsiella, rest 4(13.33%) samples had no growth. Antibiotic sensitivity test showed 66.66 percent samples were sensitive to ceftriaxone/tazobactam, 63.33 percent samples sensitive to cefoperazone, 56.66 percent samples sensitive to enrofloxacin, 53.33 percent samples sensitive to Amoxicillin-clavulanate, 50 percent samples sensitive to tetra- cycline, 40 percent samples sensitive to gentamicin, 26.66 percent samples sensitive to ceftizoxime, 20 percent samples sensitive to co-trimazole and Amoxicillin. The results of the present study demonstrated the growing resistance of frequently used antimicrobi- als in the case of mastitis.
173 An Awakening Call to Save Our Animal Kingdom , Victor Abiodun
Ephesians 5:14a&b (KJV)- “Wherefore he saith, Awake thou that sleepest” ... We’ve all slept enough- permitted poaching, hunted endangered species for games and sports, cared less about even the captive ani- mals in zoos and those in reserve parks and this has done nothing but cost us the health of our ecosystem and ours (as humans) too. The question is, how has this ostensibly great devastation oc- curred? To answer this, few out of a host of a myriad causes will be discussed. One path that we as humans have trod upon in putting the ani- mal world at risk is our indiscriminate felling of trees with little or no replacement. This vice has birthed many others havocs which include: global warming, wildfires, floods, etc. Each of these sec- ondary havocs have also in one way or the other had adverse ef- fects on the health of animals and man. For instance, global warm- ing characterized by a world-wide increase in the temperature, favours many thermophilic pathogens’ growth and spread that ad- versely affect the health of animals. Also, deforestation and its se - quelae- wildfires, has also resulted in the huge loss of habitats for wild animals and in some cases, the loss of the animals themselves.
174 Isolation and Characterization of Bacteriophages Against Aeromonas hydrophila Bacteria Causing Hemorrhagic Septicemia from Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) , Tran Thu Thuy, Luu Huynh Anh, Hua Thai Nhan, Ly Thi Thu Lan and Nguyen Trong Ngu
This study was conducted to isolate and characterize the bacteriophages capable of lysing Aeromonas hydrophila causing hemor- rhagic septicemia in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus). The isolation and characterization were conducted in various samples of water, sludge, intestines and kidneys of animal. It was shown that, a total of 64 bacteriophages (58.2%) were isolated from 110 samples, with the highest value being from sludge samples (100%). When phages were tested in different pH levels (2- 10), the above 64 phages were well adjusted to the pH 5-8 after 24 hours at 28oC, representing a rate of more than 60%. In addition, in one hour, 50% of the phages could survive at different temperatures (4oC, 20oC, 60oC, 80oC, 100oC, and 120oC) with no effects on phages observed at 4oC and 20oC. From the pH and temperature tests, six phages (B.N26, B.N16, B.R18, B.B8, B.R22, and B.N1) were selected to evaluate the lysis capacity against A. hydrophila in tap and river water for 21 days in vitro. The results revealed that the bacteriophages could survive better in river water than in tap water. All six phages could be utilized to investigate the effectiveness of treating A. hydrophila-caused hemorrhagic disease in catfish in vivo.
175 Haematological Profile of Dogs, Treated with Diminazene Aceturate Alone and Diminazene Plus Oxytetracycline, Long Acting , Onyeachonam FO, Onyeyili PA and Saganuwan AS
For haematological profile of dogs treated with Diminazene aceturate (DA) alone and those treated with DA plus Oxytetracycline long acting (Oxytet LA), fourteen apparently healthy Nigerian indigenous dogs were assigned into two groups of seven dogs each. Blood samples were collected at different time intervals post treatment: 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours. Means of PCV (26.63 ± 0.81a/23.44 ± 0.69 b ), Hb (9.15 ± 0.31 a/8.09 ± 0.20 b ), TRBC (4.10 ± 0.16 a/3.70 ± 0.15 b ), Neutrophils (78.37 ± 1.05 a/75.00 ± 0.66 b ) and Eosinophils (3.19 ± 0.28 a/1.89 ± 0.16 b ) were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher in the group treated with DA alone than in the group treated with DA and Oxytet LA but means of the immune cells, Lymphocytes (21.11 ± 0.66 a/16.96 ± 1.19b ) and Monocytes (2.00 ± 0.18a/1.04 ± 0.16 b ) were significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) in the group treated with DA and Oxytet LA than in the DA-alone group
176 BeAware of Pox virus in Animals , Loveson Lakhani and Muhammad Aqeel Khoso
Poxvirus may be a unsafe infection and an irresistible infection that happens in people and creatures. This illness is called by dis- tinctive names, but by the title of each creature for case: – Bovine Pox, Goat Pox, Camel Pox, Horse pox, Sheep Pox, and Chicken Pox. The shape of Poxvirus is like a brick and the size is (240 nm by 300 nm) and have a complicated internal structure that involves a double-stranded DNA genome (130-260kb) and associated en- zymes. Ordinary released virions have an additional outer mem- brane not found on infectious virions artificially elicit from infect- ed cells. Disease is more often than not caused by attack through bro- ken skin and in most cases remains localized. Human monkeypox is procured by contact or by airborne transmission to the respira- tory mucosa. Starting viremia amid the brooding period spreads contamination to inner organs; a moment viremia at that point spreads the infection to the skin.
177 Clinico-Pathological Manifestations of Aqueous Extract of Kolanut Nitida on Four-Month-Old Puppies , Barde Israel Joshua, Igboa Oziegbe Paul, Abubakar Sadiq Abuba- kar , Ishaku Leo Elisha, Leo Shedua Nyam , Shekaro Audu, Logyang Lot Emmanuel, Suleiman Isa, Ugbe Dominic Aondona and Ngulukun Sati Samuel
Background: This study investigated the clinical and pathological manifestations of kola nut on puppies. Kola nut which contains caffeine is used in some regions in Nigeria particularly the south-south to poison stray dogs. Keywords: Kola Nut; Dogs; Caffeine; Clinical Signs; Gross Lesions; Biochemical and Histopathology Materials and Methods: Aqueous extracts of Kola nut nitida was administered to dogs in order to investigate the possible effects on some organs of the dogs. Four dogs were used in the treatment group whereby two doses of the extract (400 mg/Kg and 800 mg/Kg) were daily administered orally to the test animals for a period of 2 weeks. Results: A dose related response was observed. Clinical signs observed include: excitement, polyuria, shivering, dull appearance, rough hair coat, emaciation/ body weight lost, drowsiness, tetanic convulsion, bloody diarrhea, aggressiveness, irritating mood, de- creased pulse rate, decreased body temperature, decreased respiratory rate, sunken eye ball and mucoid diarrhea. Severity of gross lesions in the liver, kidney, Brain, lymph nodes and small Intestine of animals in the infected groups. The laboratory result showed that kola nut extract can be toxic to dogs following the laboratory results gotten from this study as haematology result showed that there is a difference in Red Blood cells, white blood cell, Monocyte, Pack cell volume, Neutrophils, Lymphocyte and Hemoglobin which shows hypochromic condition, while the histopathological lesions shows neuronal necrosis and pyknosis in the brain, gastric erosion with hemorrhage in intestine, necrosis of the renal tubular epithelial cells of the kidney, necrotic myocyte in the heart, thickening of the alveolar septa in the lungs and in the liver necrosis of the hepatocytes. Some of the biochemical parameters showed great statis- tical significance: AST, Urea, Total protein and Creatinine are high compared with the control group. These signify kidney and liver damage. Conclusion: Despite the reported potentially beneficial effects of kola nut, its use as a medicinal plant should be with great caution because of the clinico-pathological manifestations seen in this study
178 Modification of Growth and Gene expression in Coloured Broilers by Early Post-Hatch Micronutrients Supplementation , V Balan, SK Bhanja and AB Mandal
The effect of early post-hatch additional dietary supplementation of Biotin and lysine (B+L), Folacin and lysine (F+L), Biotin (B) or Folacin (F) alone was studied in coloured broilers. Birds under dietary treatments received either control diet or supplemental feed with either additional 0.15 mg biotin or 0.55 mg folacin and with 1100 mg lysine/kg or without lysine for up to 14 days of age depending upon the treatments. The relative hepatic mRNA expression of Chicken Growth hormone (cGH), Insulin like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF-1 and 2) and Myostatin (MSTN) gene were quantified through real-time PCR at 7- and 14-days post-hatch. The results showed that body weight gain during 0-14 and 0-42 days improved (P < 0.001) with folacin and lysine supplementation, while FCR was better during 0-42 days. At 7 and 14 days, there was increase in mRNA expression of cGH and IGF-1 genes in all treatments with maximum expression in folacin + lysine group, while inverse relationship existed in Myostatin expression. However, IGF-2 mRNA expression did not corroborate with body weight gain in any treatments. In conclusion, dietary biotin, folacin and lysine supplementation to chicks during 0-14 days of age enhances early growth by modifying growth related genes expression. Keywords: Early Post-Hatch Feeding; Micronutrients; Growth; Gene Expression; Broilers
179 Chromatographic Analysis of Vitamin E (α - Tocopherol) in Blood of Chicken Under Heat Stress and its Correlation with Serum Muscle Injury Markers , Abhishek Sharma, Madhu Swamy, Kshemankar Shrman, Yamini Verma and Amita Dubey
Study was carried out to determine the effect of heat stress on broiler birds during hot humid climate with mean ambient tem- perature of 42 0C and a 58 per cent relative humidity on the serum muscle injury markers and vitamin E. For the study broiler birds from different poultry outlets covering a population of 1.5 lakh birds were selected. Samples were also collected from 25 apparently healthy birds with no indication of heat stress. Approximately 2-4ml of blood was collected in vacutainers without anticoagulant at the time of slaughter. The two muscle injury markers, creatinine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were found to be significantly raised in the serum of birds under heat stress (p ≤ 0.01). Concentration of vitamin E in the form of α tocopherol was esti- mated by Ultra High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC). A strong linear correlation was determined between occurrence of heat stress and serum vitamin E concentration at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). This study indicates the vitamin E requirement of birds during hot humid climate is more and supplementation of Vitamin E in diet may prevent losses due to heat stress Keywords: Chromatography; Heat Stress; Creatinine Kinase; Lactate Dehydrogenase and Vitamin E.
180 Quantification of Gallic Acid, Rutin and Quercetin in Hydro-Ethanolic Extract of Holarrhena Antidysenterica using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) , Swapnil S Mehesare, Sunil P Waghmare, Milind G Thorat, Sunil W Hajare, Ravindrakumar I Hatzade and Mahesh V Ingawale
Holarrhena antidysenterica possesses antidiarrhoeal and antibacterial activity. The present study was focused to detect bioac- tive compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC is a tool to separate mixture of compounds in analytical chemistry (identify, quantify, purify) but cannot be used to establish biological activity. HPLC was performed to separate mixture of compounds with varying molecular sizes like gallic acid, quercetin and rutin in hydro-ethanolic extracts of seeds of Holarrhena antidysenterica. These markers were detected, quantified and compared with standards at 200 - 450 nm wavelength using mobile phase Toulene: Ethyl Acetate: Formic Acid: Methanol (3:3:0.3:0.2) with CAMAG Scanner III system. The hydro-ethanolic seeds ex- tracts of Holarrhena antidysenterica showed peak Rf values which were coinciding with standard Rf value of gallic acid, quercetin and rutin. Comparable Rf values were found for gallic acid, quercetin and rutin in sample and reference standard. This study confirmed the presence of gallic acid, quercetin and rutin in Holarrhena antidysenterica seeds hydro-ethanolic extract might be important for preventing diarrhoea. In conclusion, the hydro-ethanolic extract of seeds of Holarrhena antidysenterica could be a potential source of antidiarrhoeal, antibacterial, astringent and anti-inflammatory drugs. Keywords: Gallic Acid; Holarrhena Antidysenterica; Hptlc; Rutin; Quercetin
181 Surgical Grafting of Pig’s Diaphragm in a Dog with Rectal and Perianal Adenoma and Epithelioma After Removing the tumor Mass; an Alternative for Expensive Chemotherapy Treatment , Anil Kumar Sharma, Roshan Lal, Jyotsna Sharma  and Ankush
Dealing with veterinary oncology cases is often a great challenge for veterinarians in Himachal Pradesh. Only chemotherapy avail- able for benign tumors is Vincristine which is ineffective against perianal and rectal tumors. Not only the wide range of presenting signs and cancer types require a veterinarian to be constantly vigilant, but also the high prevalence rates of some cancers mean that the battle against cancer in pets is seemingly constant. Acellularization of xenogenic biomaterials has been highly desired for implan- tation without considerable adverse inflammatory and immune responses. In a prospective non-randomized study, we evaluated the effectiveness of grafting the pig’s diaphragm (freshly sacrificed) into the dead space created post-surgery in the rectal, anal and perianal regions in a Labrador dog (aged approx 4 years) suffering from perianal adenoma and epithelioma in Veterinary Polyclinic, Rampur Bushahar. The graft got rejected after 8 days of surgery. We performed another grafting surgery with fresh pig diaphragm which again lasted for next 8 days, the healing of the tissue below the grafted pig diaphragm was seen upto 80%. After 2 months of surgery tissue healing upto 90% was observed. This indicates that even if the graft gets selected or rejected the healing of the tissue happens and the post-sugery dead space got healed using this technique. Both way graft has its importance. Hence this technique of xenografting pig’s diaphragm into the skin tissue of dog is better alternative for expensive chemotherapy which is commonly used in peri-anal adenoma treatment. Keywords: Dog; Peri-Anal Tumor; Pig Diaphragm; Grafting; Tissue Healing
182 Assessment and Clinical implication of Aspergillosis in GYR Falcons (Falco rusticolus) , Raseel K and Ramesh Sahsad PT
A study was conducted for the comparative assessment and clinical evaluation of two different anti-fungal agents against aspergil- losis in GYR falcons. Aspergillosis is the most common fungal infection with highest rate of mortality among birds of prey especially in falcons. GYR falons and hybrid GYR falcons are more susceptible to aspergillosis. Aspergillus genus is an opportunistic pathogen which primarily affects the avian respiratory apparatus, including lungs, air sacs and syrinx and occasionally nervous signs. 24 GYR falcons presented in Doha Falcon Clinic with symptoms like progressive emaciation, weakness, lethargy, inability to fly, poor perfor- mance in exercise and training were selected for the study and grouped in to two according to age and body weight. Diagnosis were made by radiographic examination and confirmatory diagnosis were done by endoscopy of abdominal cavity, the lungs and air sac (Coelioscopy). Itraconazole were administered at the dose rate of 15-20 mg/kg q24h for 21 days in group 1 and Voriconozole at the dose rate of 12.5 mg/kg q12h for first three days and continue q24h for 18 days in group 2 with supportive therapy. The birds were re-examined after one month for the effect and recovery of treatment. The birds treated by both therapeutic agents showed positive results and these findings indicated that Itraconazole and Voriconozole can be used against Aspergillosis in GYR falcons as primary treatment with better management practices.
183 Evaluation of Xylazine-Ketamine-Pentazocine Anaesthesia in the Rabbit , Cecilia Omowumi Oguntoye, Fatai Mobolaji Lawal, Adeniran Adetunji  and Saheed Abiola Abimbola
The use of ketamine drug combinations for long duration of action may be indicated in rabbits. For this purpose, the intramuscu- lar administration of xylazine (5 mg/kg), followed 10 minutes later by ketamine (35 mg/kg) with or without pentazocine (10 mg/kg) was evaluated in 6 healthy rabbits, on the basis of selected anaesthetic indices and changes in heart rate, respiratory rate and rectal temperature over a one-hour period. Time to loss of righting reflex by the rabbits given xylazine - ketamine-pentazocine (XKP) (1.3 ± 0.3 min) was significantly (P < 0.05) shorter than that with xylazine-ketamine (XK) (1.8 + 0.3 min). Duration of recumbency with XKP (110.2 + 5.2 min) was signifi- cantly longer than that with XK (73.9 2.9 min). Time to standing with XKP (5.3 + 11min) was not significantly (P > 0.05) different from that with XK (6.3 ± 1.3min). Mean HR ranged from 199.3 ± 6.8 to 214.8 ± 10.6 beats/ min with XKP, and from 174.8 +10.3 to 194.7 10.4 beats/ min with XK. Mean RR ranged from 18.7 ± 1.6 to 38.5 ± 6.3 breaths/min, and from 31.0 ± 2.9 to 94.5 ± 8.3 breaths/min in the XKP and XK, respectively. With XKP, mean RT ranged from 38.1 ± 0.2 to 38.4 ± 0.2 °C and from 38.2 ± 0.4° to 38.7 ± 0.3°C with XK. The addition of pentazocine to xylazine-ketamine combination resulted in shorter induction time and longer duration of recum- bency, as well as higher heart rates but lower respiratory rates which were not outside physiological limits in healthy rabbits not undergoing any clinical procedures. It was concluded that XKP combination will be useful for procedures of long duration in rabbits.
184 Use of Hemostatic Compression in the Making of the Nx 5/6 Experimental Model in Wistar Rats , Fellipe Ferreira Lemos de Medeiros, Natasha Nogueira Ferreira, Cecília Ribeiro Castañon, Patricia Pereira Almeida, Ágatha Cristie Menezes, D'Angelo Carlo Magliano, Milena Barcza Stockler-Pinto, Maria de Lourdes Gonçalves Ferreira, Viviane Alexandre Nunes Degani and Nayro Xavier de Alencar
Objectives: To enhance the technique for the creation of the experimental model for chronic kidney disease with 5/6 nephrectomy and to establish parameters for the postoperative evaluation of animals undergoing the surgical procedure. Methods: Twenty-one male Wistar rats aged over two months were divided into two groups, namely, SHAM (n = 9) and 5/6 Nx (n = 12). The animals were anesthetized intraperitoneally with ketamine, midazolam and tramadol. In the 5/6 Nx group, bipolar ne- phrectomy of one kidney and total nephrectomy of the contralateral kidney were performed in a single surgical procedure, whereas the SHAM group underwent laparotomy without nephrectomy. The following measurements were carried out in both groups: 24-h urinary volume and proteinuria; total body weight; systolic blood pressure; and serum urea and creatinine. Conclusion: The modifications in the technique proved to be feasible, providing longer survival of the animals in the medium term, fewer intraoperative complications and effectiveness for the construction of the experimental model.
185 Clinical Results of Canine Periodontitis in Patients Treated in Quevedo, Los Ríos, Ecuador , Jorge Luis Sánchez Palomino, Edgard Joffre Aviles Camacho, Ketty Beatriz Murillo Cano, Sucel de la Caridad de Valle Valladares and Gustavo Adolfo Vasconez Galaraza
The purpose of this research was to evaluate the clinical results of periodontitis in canines from the city of Quevedo, Ecuador, given its clinical importance; This study was carried out from July to December 2021. Each clinical case was processed with the stan- dard perm formula. dentition, analyzing the total number of teeth, giving it a score, according to the Veterinary Periodontal Index (IPV) that estimates these values. The simple chi square statistic was used, the percentage frequency of periodontal disease was de- termined, the results of periodontal disease in the patients attended were determined, concluding that the highest percentages were 42.2% with gingivitis in the age group of 6 years and older, 26.6% in the same age group with mild periodontitis and 50% moderate periodontitis. in the age group from 3 to 6 years; Another important conclusion was that the patients attended had never received dental cleanings before.
186 Socio Economic Determinants Along with Extension and Traditional Medicine Using Factors Among Livestock Farmers of Central Kashmir , Sheikh Shubeena, Abdul Hai1, SA Hamdani, Insha Amin, Subata Mahboob, Shaista Seedat Un Nisa, AH Akhand, Sanober Rasool, Neha Ayman and Namera Thahaby
The objective of the study was to explore the extension contacts in addition to the traditional medicine usage by the livestock farmers. The present study was carried out in Central Kashmir region of Jammu and Kashmir State that comprises of three districts namely Budgam, Ganderbal and Srinagar. A total of 180 dairy livestock farmers were selected for the present study. The purpose of the study was to inquire about extension contacts and the factors determining the use of traditional medicines by livestock farmers. The majority of respondents (63.89%) were males, belonging to middle age (58.33%) group, were illiterate (63.33%) and having pucca house (42.78%). Majority of farmers were having small herd size with medium level of informal and low level of formal exten- sion contacts. Mass media exposure related to livestock rearing practices was very poor and major agency of linkage to the farmers was veterinary hospitals and least was the KVK and research institutes. The knowledge about the Traditional Medicines (TM) for live- stock rearing was mainly disseminated with family members and neighbours. Farmers were partially dependent on the traditional medicines for treating their animals and these TM were found to be moderately reliable with majority of farmers inclined towards formal veterinary treatments. The extension contacts and the mass media exposure of the farmers need to be improved through dif- ferent means by their active engagement for better production results.
187 The Efficacy of Some Fasciolicides Against Liver Fluke Infection in Cattle , Ahmed Abdel-Rady, Saber Kotb, Safaa S. Malek Asmaa Sayed
This study aimed to detection of the efficacy of some drugs used in the field for treatment of liver fluke infection in the cattle (Bos taurus) in Egypt. Treatment trials used for three groups of naturally infected animals (positive by coprological examination) with some anthelmintic drugs differ in their chemical groups (Ivomec super, Rafoxanide, and Triclabendazole) divided into three groups 10 animals in each one. The dose was repeated twice with 3 weeks in between. Animals were examined clinically and laboratory; also fecal samples were collected and examined microscopically each time for follow-up. Egg counting using (Modified Stoll's dilution technique) was done 3 times in each group (day 1, after 3 weeks post-treatment, 6 weeks post-treatment). The efficacy of the drug is measured by improved clinical state or reduction/ disappearance of Fasciola egg count. In group I (treated by Ivomec super): Egg per gram (EPG) before treatment was 800 egg/ gram and after treatment was 1280 egg/gram, Egg reduction rate (ERR) of Ivomec super was %-60. In group II (treated by Triclabendazole): EPG before treatment was 500 egg/ gram and after treatment was 80 egg/ gram, ERR of Triclabendazole was 84%. In group III (treated by Rafoxanide): EPG before treatment was 480 egg/ gram and after treatment was 160 egg/ gram, ERR of Rafoxanide was 66.6%. The anthelmintic drug wasn’t effective in the treatment of Fascioliasis as no progress in the clinical status of the infected animals and the ERR was less than 90%. Our study concluded that the ERR (egg reduction rate) of used anthelmintic drugs (Ivomec super, Triclabendazole, Rafoxanide) was less than the lower limit of the effective fasciolicides drug and the drugs wasn’t effective in treatment of fascioliasis.
188 Isolation and Biochemical Characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Poultry Carcass Rinse in Sokoto Live-Birds Market Slaughter Section , Farida Abubakar
This study was carried out in Sokoto state Nigeria, to determine the prevalence of MRSA in poultry carcass rinse. A total of 122 samples of poultry carcass rinse were taken using distilled water to carefully rinse poultry carcass and safely transport the carcass rinse to the laboratory for inoculation. Three samples of Tab water used in the slaughter slab was also taken, one before and one after rinsing broiler chicken was taken and another sample after rinsing local chicken was taken. Out of the one hundred and twenty-two samples collected, 37.7% (46/122) were positive on Mannitol salt agar for S. aureus out of which 42.6% (26/61) of broilers were positive for S. aureus and 32.8% (20/61) of local chicken are positive for S. aureus. Following subculture on Oxacillin Resistance Screening Agar Base (ORSAB), 30.3% (37/122) were positive out of which 39.3% (24/61) were broilers and 21.3% (13/61) were local chickens. From the three samples of Tab water used in the slaughter slab, one from broiler chicken and one other from local chicken were all positive on Mannitol salt agar and ORSAB and the sample of water before being used for carcass rinse was positive for S. aureus on Mannitol salt agar and negative on ORSAB.
189 Zoonoses Associated with the Canines in India , Deepali G Kalambhe, Lokesh KM and JPS Gill
India has approximately 6.2 cores of community dog population and it is estimated that the population of pet dogs will be around 31 million by the end of year 2023. Despite this huge dog numbers in India, the knowledge regarding the zoonoses transmissible from dogs to human is highly lacking. Moreover, the climatic conditions in India are also very much conducive for a wide variety of zoonotic pathogens and for most of them canines including community and pet dogs serve as the reservoir host. This literature reviews some of the important zoonotic diseases prevalent in dogs of India that can be passed to humans.
190 Scrub Typhus: A Threat to ‘Tsutsugamushi Triangle’ , Parul, Barkha Sharma, Udit Jain, Raghavendra P Mishra, Gourab Basak and Shikhar Karan Verma
Scrub typhus, caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is an important vector-borne disease that has been classified a neglected tropi- cal zoonosis. The ecology of the disease is complex and less understood thus has more public health implication than other zoonotic diseases. About a million cases of scrub typhus are reported worldwide annually and the disease is associated with high mortality. It is endemic in geographically confined area of the Asia-Pacific termed as the Tsutsugamushi triangle’, which is bound by Siberia and Kamchatka peninsula to the north, Australia to the south, Japan to the east and Afghanistan and India to its west, covering Northern Australia, South and Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent and Pacific Ocean. There has been a resurgence of scrub typhus across India in the recent years and the disease has re-emerged as a major cause of acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses (AUFI) in humans with high morbidity and mortality. Thus better understanding of scrub typhus epidemiology is needed to put in place appropriate public health interventions to reduce the burden of the disease globally. This comprehensive review provides summary of work, investigation of this pathogen in vectors and updates for understanding the complexity of scrub typhus
191 Studies on the Butterfly Diversity in the Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve, Tamil Nadu, India , Vaithianathan Kannan and S Chandrasekaran
A checklist of butterflies of Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve, Sathyamangalam of Tamil Nadu State is presented in this paper. Field investigations were made to record the butterflies in Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve (STR), Tamil Nadu during December 2018 and June 2019. A total of 168 butterfly species were recorded in the present investigation they belongs to 102 genera, six families such as Papilionidae, Pieridae, Nymphalidae, Lycaenidae, Riodinidae and Hesperiidae. The Lycaenidae and Nymphalidae was predominant in terms of species richness (39.2%) followed by hesperiidae (11.3%). The family Riodinidae represents less diverse with single spe- cies (Abisara bifasciata) in the present observation. This study provided an understanding of butterflies in Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve and has prompted further research for restoration of forest habitats in this protected area.
192 Growth and Body Composition of Kampung Unggul Balitnak (KUB) Chicken as Affected by Diets Containing Varying Levels of Protein and Energy , B Indarsih, MH Tamzil, IN Sukharta Jaya and NK Dewi Haryani
Background and Objective: The study was conducted to evaluate three different feeding regimens on growth performance and body composition of Kampung Unggul Balitnak chickens (KUB) during the growing period. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty day old chicks were sexed and fed a commercial crumble diet containing 23% Crude Protein (CP) and 3000 kcal Metabolizable Energy (ME)/kg until 3 days of age after which they were fed according to 17% CP and 3000 kcal ME/kg as Low Protein-Low En- ergy (LP-LE), 19% CP and 3100 kcal ME/kg as Medium Protein-Medium energy (MP-ME) and 21% CP and 3200 kcal ME/kg as High Protein-High Energy (HP-HE). Each feeding regime was designed with three replicates and having 10 birds per replicate. Results: Increasing CP and energy levels in the diet did not improve body weight at 53 days of age, and body weight gain during the overall experimental period (4 to 53 d of age). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was more efficient (p = 0.0416) in higher protein and energy diets than the lower protein and energy diets. Giblets and inedible parts were not affected by dietary treatments. Sex of KUB chicks had significant effects on feed intake, FCR, drumstick, giblet and leg. Conclusions: LP-LE diet (17% and 3000 kcal ME/kg) was sufficient for females while MP-ME diet (19% CP and 3100 kcal ME/kg) was appropriate for the males.
193 Fascioliasis: A Neglected Tropical Disease of Global Public Health Concern , Yagoob Garedaghi
The World Health Organization (WHO) includes fascioliasis in the list of the NTDs (Neglected Tropical Diseases), among the group of food-borne trematodiases [1]. This disease is a parasitic zoonosis caused by two liver fluke species: Fasciola hepatica distributed throughout Europe, Africa, Asia, Oceania and the Americas, and F. gigantica restricted to parts of Africa and Asia [2]. Widely distributed infecting livestock, hu- man infection by Fasciola was considered of only secondary im- portance until 1990 [3]. Human affection by these trematodes be- gan to show its importance from the following decade, with the progressive description of many human endemic areas and an in - crease of human infection reports [4,5].
194 Prevalence and Pathological Investigation of Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection among Goats Affected with Diarrhoea , Ritesh Limbat, Mamta Kumari, Anita Rathore, Poonam and Gunjan
One of the major causes of gastrointestinal pathologies in small ruminants is parasites. The present study was conducted to explore the prevalence of parasitic infection in Goats and the associated gross and histopathological changes. Faecal samples of diarrhoeic goats were analysed and were found positive for strongly sp. (35.29%), Amphistomes sp. (14.7%), Trichuris sp. (17.64%), Monteria sp. (5.88%), Coccidia sp. (14.70%) and mixed infections. Gross and histopathological examination of Goats died with a his- tory of diarrhoea revealed presence of Paraamphistomes spp., Haemonchus contortus, and Coccidia spp. Pathological studies revealed that there was no difference in prevalence of diarrhoeic condition according to age and sex. The major changes were observed in abomasum, intestine and liver. Grossly, the organs were congested, haemorrhagic and oedematous and microscopically, congestion, oedema, haemorrhages and infiltration of leucocytes including few neutrophils and mainly macrophages were evident in the mucosa and submucosa. In case of coccidiosis, different developmental stages of coccidian oocysts were present in the intestinal epithelium, along with infiltration of leucocytes.
195 Study of Average Daily Gain in Weight in Preweaning and Postweaning Life of Lambs , Abdul Waheed, Asim Faraz, Michela Pugliese and Annamaria Pas- santino
Growth rate is important trait of sheep as they primarily reared for mutton production in hilly areas of Pakistan although wool and milk are also gained from them. One hundred sheep containing both male and female equally in numbers were recorded for gain in weight for two hundred days after lambing. Data consisted of their age in days, sex, birth weight, and present weights at the time of recording. Lambs were weaned after 80 days. Pre-weaning and post weaning rate of growths were measured and subjected to one way analysis of variance to test the differences between pre-weaning and post-weaning average daily weight gains and effect of sexual dimorphism on these respective growth rates. Weaning group were significant (P ≤ 0.05) while sexes could not productive significant differences in respective growth rates. It is therefore concluded that better management in pre and post weaning stages could effectively enhance the meat produce in sheep.
196 Efficacy of Sampling Design to Study Macrofaunal Assemblage on Exposed Sandy Beaches , Rathod RH, Barve SK, Shridhankar MM, Indulkar ST, Yewale VG, Lokhande PC and Waghmare SS
Exposed sandy beaches are characterized by ecologically complex environments, which exhibit considerable spatial and temporal habitat heterogeneity. Further, exposed sandy beaches undergo diurnal variations such as desiccation during low tide and submer- gence during high tide. The amount of submergence and exposure varies as per the tidal amplitude and intensity due to lunar cycle. Considering spatial and temporal heterogeneity of macrofauna and variations in sampling designs used in hitherto studies, an at- tempt was made to find out most suitable sampling design with regard to quadrat size and interval between quadrat needed to obtain the most précised estimate of macrofaunal assemblage on exposed sandy beaches must be sampled at least for one complete year after taking appropriate number of transects on the beach with quadrat size of 0.25 sq. m, spaced 12 m apart from each other over a complete transect length to study macrofauna assemblage.
197 Identification of Associations Between Ucp2 and Ucp3 Gene Polymorphisms and Meat Quantity Traits in Three Indigenous Cattle Breeds of Pakistan , Muhammad Mehran Mouzam, Amna Awan and Watiba Danish
In identifying mutations occurring in distinct cow breeds, genetic elements must be taken into consideration. More recently, these hereditary features have gained attention throughout the world. As in many underdeveloped nations, to bridge the deficit in molecular genetics, multiple solutions are required. The inner membrane anion carrier superfamily contains the uncoupling proteins (UCPs), vital to energy regulation. Research on heredity has shown that variations in the Ucp2 and Ucp3 genes are connected to obesity and metabolic syndrome. This research aimed to investigate if any mutation in the Ucp2 and Ucp3 genes are related to many characteristics in Pakistan's three indigenous cattle breeds. The results of this study revealed 07 variations in the Exon 4 region of the Ucp2 gene and 03 variants in the Exon 3 region of the Ucp3 gene using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformation Poly- morphism (PCR-SSCP) followed by Sequencing among 215 indigenous cattle breeds. The association study revealed that the g.C35G mutation in the Ucp3 gene is strongly related to meat quantity characteristics such as carcass weight and drip percentage (P0.05), but not with body height or hip-width (P > 0.05). Sequence analysis showed five distinct diplotypes: AA, BC, AC, CC, and CD. Cattle with the novel heterozygous diplotype BC perform better in carcass trait and drip percentage than animals with other genotypes. The study's findings suggest that the Ucp3 gene may be utilized for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and breed mixing in Pakistan cattle breeds to aid in the country's economic growth.
198 Behavioral Disorders in Companion Animal - a review , Amaan Ghazi
Behavioral disorders in Companion animals are less discussed pathological condition in clinical medicine. The complexity of be- havioral disorder is more in animals when compared to humans, which interfere and deteriorate the functioning within family, and environment. Animal psychopathology is the study of mental or behavioral disorders in animals that encompass the full range from normal to abnormal, and include multiple literature of influence from genetics, environmental. In this paper, collection and organiza- tion of information is about behavioral problem in companion animal along with a clinical approach to treat these disorders.
199 Sub-Clinical Endometritis: A Silent Hurdle of Fertility , Divya Rajaselvi Natchadalingam and Bharathipriya Rajasekaran
Subclinicalendometritis,alsoknownascytologicalendometritis, is a potential hidden determinant that has been shown to produce notable reductions in the reproductive performance of the dairy cow in the current days. It is manifested by uterine inflammation with the accumulation of scanty exudate in the uterine lumen devoid of any signs. Placental retention, mastitis, hypocalcemia, dystocia, aided calving, twin births, and mineral deficiencies such as Cu, Zn, and Fe predispose the animal to develop the syndrome. In addition, pathogens enter the uterus via the vaginal pathway, where they infect the uterus.
200 Clinical Assessment of Articaine and Ropivacaine Hydrochloride for Caudal Epidural Anesthesia in Cattle , SK Gupta, SD Chepte, SV Gaikwad, IP Sarode, NM Karad and S Sajid Ali
The present research work was undertaken to compare the clinical efficacy of 4% articaine hydrochloride with 0.75% ropiva- caine hydrochloride for epidural analgesia in cattle. Total twelve clinical cases of cattle referred to Veterinary Clinical Complex for tail amputation were included in the study. These clinical cases were randomly divided into two equal groups (n = 6) irrespective of age, sex, and breed. On clinical evaluation, articaine produced significantly (p ≤ 0.01) rapid analgesia as compared to the ropivacaine. However, a significantly (p ≤ 0.01) longer duration of action was recorded in the ropivacaine treated group. The clinico-physiological and haemato-biochemical parameters showed non-significant fluctuation in both groups. Articaine 4% percent and 0.75% percent of ropivacaine can be used for caudal epidural analgesia in given doses without any untoward effects. Moreover, articaine hydrochlo- ride has a faster onset of action and could manage intense painful conditions. Similarly, ropivacaine could be successfully used in prolonged surgical interventions.
201 Fish Stem Cell Culture , Jelous Monika E
Stem cells have the ability undergoes a self-renewal and differentiation. Medaka ES cells are excellent model system for differenti- ation. It provides properties for tissue repair, replacement and regeneration. This culture techniques are used to treat cancer, wound healing, drug screening, autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular and neurological disorders. Many cell lines are completely reported. Stem cell cultures have been studied in 3 vertebrate organisms. These are mouse, human and small laboratory fish called medaka. We will focus our review on fish stem cell culture, its applications and advancement.
202 Immunolocalization of Progesterone Receptor (PR) During Different Phases of Estrous Cycle in the Oviduct of Water Buffaloes , Devendra Pathak, Neelam Bansal, Opinder Singh, Kuldip Gupta and SPS Ghuman
The steroid hormone, progesterone, is a key modulator of the normal reproductive functions of animals. The goal of this study was to see how progesterone receptors were distributed in distinct segments of the buffalo oviduct during the follicular and luteal phases of the estrous cycle. Oviducts from twelve buffaloes (six each during both the phases) were collected from the local abattoir. Blood samples were collected before the slaughter of the animal to estimate levels of estrogen and progesterone hormones. The cellular distribution of progesterone receptor (PR) was examined using the immunohistochemical technique. The PR was localized in cells of mucosal lining, connective tissue cells, oviductal glands, muscular layer, and serosal covering in different segments of the oviduct. In lamina epithelialis, both ciliated and secretory cell types were positive for PR. Infundibulum and ampulla had a higher number of PR positive cells which as compared to utero tubal junction was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus showed more population of PR-positive cells during the follicular phase of the estrous cycle when compared to the luteal phase (P < 0.05). The data on the percentage of PR-positive cells and hormone analysis showed that the PR expression was higher during the estradiol dominance.
203 Global Warming: A Threat to Arctic Mammals , Purva Sharan, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Ajay Valiyaveettil Salimkumar and Adarsh Jayanth AB
Climate change is a long term phenomenon, several changes observed in the climate of earth since 20th century are because of anthropogenic activities that includes burning of fossil fuels that increases the level of heat trapping greenhouse gases in the atmo- sphere, and it is raising earth’s average surface temperature. The Arctic has a rich biodiversity and provides shelter to numerous plants and animals including human population of around four million. It also helps in balancing our world’s climate. However, global warming due to anthropogenic activities is increasing the Arctic temperature by melting the sea ice. The root cause of this warming is the rise in concentration of greenhouse gases and the deposition of soot on Arctic ice. This temperature is increasing at a rate twice the global average and it has been estimated by some experts that ocean will rise by 23 feet by 2100 also it will lead to starvation of polar bears which indicates a major threat to Arctic’s flora and fauna as well as a matter of concern. As per the report of NSIDC major drop in arctic sea ice was seen in satellite record on 17th September 2012 that is 3.39 million square kilometres. The average data for extension in the entire month of September 2012 was 3.57 million square kilometres. Changes in the arctic climate is a serious matter of concern for whole world because arctic acts as refrigerator for the entire world – it helps to cool the planet. Changes encountered in the arctic environment may also have effects that falls through the food chain, from phytoplankton to mammals. Hence, the aim of this article is mainly focused on impacts of climate change on Arctic mammals and the steps taken to save this polar habitat.
204 First Record of Planorbella Duryi (Wether by, 1879) (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) (=Helisoma Duryi Wether by, 1879) in Jutiapa, Guatemala , Lorenzo Diéguez Fernández, Milton V. Monzón Muñoz, David del Valle Laveaga, Jaime A. Juárez Sandoval, Rigoberto Fimia Duarte, Irismarys Sosa Cabrera  and Adolfo E. Pérez Arruti
The presence of the freshwater mollusk Planorbella duryi (Gastropoda Planorbidae) (=Helisoma duryi Wetherby, 1879) in Jutiapa Department (Guatemala) is reported for the first time. The seven specimens with different stages of growth were captured in the Güija Lagoon belonging to the "El Güayabo" Village, Asunción Mita municipality
205 A Monograph on Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) and Alternatives Strategies to Counter AMR , Anilkumar Banothu
Antimicrobial agents have been used in human beings, livestock and aquatic animals for life saving against the various disease caused by the infectious organisms like bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungus and cancerous cells since Second World War. Over a period of time, many antimicrobial agents have been invented by scientists and at the same time organism also started to develop resistance to the existed antimicrobial agents which happened due to mainly misuse or inappropriate usage of antimicrobial agents. Nonthera- peutic usage of antibiotics also leads to the development of superbugs that are resistant to many of the existing antibiotics. Further, mutation of gene within the bacteria and passing the resistant (R) gene through horizontal gene transfer could viable method for the contribution of development of resisntance. In this monograph discussed the genetical and biochemical mechanism of develop- ment of resistance by the bacteria and also delineate alternative strategies likes use of phytochemicals, probiotics, biofilm breakers, vaccine, antimicrobial peptide, nano particles, monoclonal antibodies, quarum quencher, anti peristance, lantibiotics, etc., are the possibilities to counter antimicrobial resistance.
206 Differential Responses in Estrus Induced Salivary Ferning Pattern Vis-A-Vis the Ambient Temperature - A Comparative Study in Water Buffaloes and Crossbred Cattle , Gangu Naidu Surla, Ramesh P2, Sireesha K, Murali Krishna M, Prabhakara Rao K
A temperature-humidity index (THI) is a single value representing the combined effects of air temperature and humidity as - sociated with the level of thermal stress. The dairy animals are thought to cope with extreme climatic conditions, especially high temperatures but fertility and milk productions are compromised during the stress period. In the present study, the mean THI values were recorded to be significantly higher during the summer than in the winter season. The present study conducted the impact of THI on salivary fern patterns of 40 Water buffaloes and 40 Crossbred Jersey cattle during winter and summer seasons. This is the first study to know the THI impact on salivary fern patterns of estrus in dairy cattle. The Water buffaloes housed at both farm and field conditions showed better estrus signs and had 55% of typical salivary ferns found positive in the winter season when compared to the summer season had only 30%. The same correlation was also found in Crossbred Jersey cattle that had better estrus symptoms and 70% of typical salivary fern patterns found in the winter season compared to the summer season had only 40% typical fern pat- terns. The mean salivary fern pattern of Crossbred Jersey cows housed at both farm and field conditions was 40%, whereas in Water buffaloes was 30% in the summer season, may be due to the THI impact on these animals during the summer season was high. And also studied the typical salivary fern patterns at farm and field level were 60% and 37.5% respectively in both seasons, this wide dif- ference was due to the water buffaloes and Crossbred Jersey cows were presented to the local dispensary for artificial insemination preferably on the second day of estrus, in those animals the concentrations of Estradiol was low on second day of Estrus. In conclu- sion, the drastic changes in salivary fern patterns results may be due to the lowered steroidogenic capacity of follicles under thermal stress is characterized by Aromatase activity of granulosa cells and lowered Estradiol concentration in the dominant follicle effect lesser amount of chloride ions secreted into the saliva, which is one of the for fern pattern initiation.
207 Effects of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals on Spermatogenesis and Reproductive Hormones in Bony Fishes , Swati Sucharita Panda, Sujata Mohapatra, Rajesh Kumar, Lakshman Sahoo, Ipsita Iswari Das, Jitendra Kumar Sundaray
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are naturally occurring or synthetic molecules present in an ecosystem that have the potential to alter the production, release, transport, metabolism, binding, action, or elimination of natural hormones in the body. They act by mimicking endogenous hormones, antagonizing normal hormones, altering the natural pattern of hormone synthesis or metabolism, or modifying hormone receptors. The chemicals, particularly disrupting the reproductive system, can be androgenic, anti-androgenic, estrogenic or anti-estrogenic. This review provides a brief overview on spermatogenesis, disruption of spermato- genesis and effects of various EDCs on hormones involved in spermatogenesis. EDCs affect spermatogenesis in two ways, by affecting the development and function of male gonads or by disrupting the synthesis and action of hormones involved in spermatogenesis, such as, GnRH, gonadotropin, dihydroandrogen, 11-ketotestosterone, estrogen, and progesterone.
208 Electronic Identification of Cattle: Traceability for Food Safety in Madagascar , Razafinarivo Tsirinirina Donnah, Rakotomanana Olga Rachel, MICHELLE Reine Lucie, Rasoanomenjanahary Auldine, Janelle Jérôme, Salgado Paulo, XavierJuanès and Tillard Emmanuel
The cattle are one of the riches that make the Malagasy people famous, it intervenes in their daily life whether cultural, social or economic. However, due to a lack of traceability, several shortfalls are to be deplored in this sector, including the export of meat to European markets. This document presents the development of an electronic cattle identification system in order to control the sanitary traceability of products from cattle breeding for food safety. This system uses an electronic chip in the form of a ruminal bolus that works by low-frequency radio waves. To do this, about 600 cattle from the FOFIFA station in Kianjasoa, Madagascar, were identified using the electronic boluses and then monitored monthly to determine the retention rate of the identification system. At the same time, all information about each identified animal was collected, over time, to be transcribed and centralized in the LASER database. This makes it possible, on the one hand, to trace the product back to its original rearing in the event of a dispute and, on the other hand, to determine certain zootechnical parameters indicative of the breeding. For example, thanks to this tool, the annual growth rate of the identified herds was calculated at about 30%. This data seems essential to us in order to be able to estimate the demographic evolution of the workforce as well as the quantity of cattle meat to be exported while preserving the current number of livestock. During the first three years of cattle monitoring, the application of boluses showed no particular incident. This identifica- tion system could obtain approval from the International Committee on Animal Identification, as an annual retention rate of 100% was recorded during the study. In addition, this device impossible to falsify will make it possible to considerably reduce the theft of cattle in Madagascar. Thus, traceability, beyond the bond of trust established with consumers, is an important factor in enhancing the value chain and economic recovery of the beef sector in Madagascar.
209 Impact of COVID-19 on India's Poultry and Dairy Industries and the Lessons Learned , Zulfqar UL Haq, Azmat Alam Khan, Syed Mudasir Ahmad, Mohammad Iqbal Yatoo, Hena Hamdani, Javaid Farooq and Gowher Gull
The animal sector is extremely dynamic globally. It is growing in response to the rapidly increasing demand for livestock products in developing countries. While demand for animal products is stagnant in developed countries, many production systems are in- creasing their efficiency and environmental sustainability. Historical changes in the demand for livestock products have been driven largely by human population growth, income growth and urbanization, and the production response in different livestock systems has been linked to science and technology as well as increases in animal products. In the future, production will be increasingly af- fected by competition for natural resources, particularly land and water, competition between food and feed, and the need to operate in a carbon-constrained economy. Animal products are more likely to be affected by disease restrictions (animal or human diseases) and animal welfare legislation. Future demand for livestock products may be largely governed by socio-economic factors such as human health concerns and changing socio-cultural values. There is considerable uncertainty about how these factors will play out in different parts of the world in the coming decades. In addition, the Covid-19 pandemic has caused an increase in the availability of these products, making it difficult for farmers to put them on the market due to lockdown orders and the sudden high cost of feed and feed materials. This means that there is little/no profit for animal producers at this critical time.
210 Prevalence of Ectoparasites on Large Ruminants in Jabitehinan Woreda West Gojjam Zone Amhara Region Northwestern, Ethiopia , Gizachew Nibret Tilahun and Ayana Selamu Dessie
This study was done from November 2019 to June 2020 to know and understand the prevalence of ecto-parasites and the po- tential risk factors in large ruminants in jabitehinan woreda. A total of 384 large ruminants were examined for presence of ecto- parasites. Accordingly, a total of 54.2% (n = 384) were found infested with one or more ecto-parasites. The major ecto-parasites identified in cattle in order of predominance were ticks (35.2%), lice (16.4%), fleas (2.08%) and mite (0.52%) were observed in order of importance. Three genera of ticks were identified such as Amblyomma, Boophilus and Rhipicephalus and also three genera of lice were identified namely Linognathus, Haematopinus and Damalinia and fleas such as Tunga, Pulex and Ctenocephalides and mite namely Demodex. This study has revealed two important risk factors significantly associated with the occurrence of ecto-parasite prevalence in the study area. It was observed that the prevalence of ecto-parasite infestation was significantly higher in cattle in risk factors of body condition and different age groups. There was significant association (p < 0.05) of external parasitic prevalence of infestation with the risk factors such as different age groups and body condition scores but no existed significant (p > 0.05) infesta- tion with breed and sex groups.
211 Study on Nematode Infections in Horses and Donkeys in and Around Bishoftu, Ethiopia , Eyosiyas Molla, Ayana Selamu and Gizachew Nibret
The study was conducted in and around Bishoftu town from November 2018 to May 2019 in ordered to estimate the prevalence of Gastro intestinal tract nematodes infections and to identify the associated risk factors with the occurrence of nematode parasite in- fections. A fecal sample was taken from 272 horses and 112 donkeys and examined. During the examination, floatation technique, McMaster technique and berman technique were employed to identify the egg, burden of infection and the larvae of lung worm respectively. The parasites encountered were strongyle, Parascaris equorum and Dictyocaulus arnfieldi with respective prevalence of 38.54%, 0.89% and 0.74 respectively. The overall prevalence GIT nematode infections were 26.84% and 71.43% in horses and donkeys respectively. Species, body conditions and origins of the animal having respective p-values of 0.0001, 0.000 and 0.000, were significant effect. The study indicates a mean faecal egg counts (1661) egg per gram in donkeys. Body condition was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in mean EPG. Poor body condition harbors highest EPG than good body condition. Favorable climatic conditions for parasitic egg development, poor animal management, luck of awareness, mixed pasture grazing, and inadequate health services are contribute for highest infestation. Therefore, further study on the impact of the disease on equine, pasture management, use of rotation grazing and regular deworming is recommended.
212 Therapeutic Management of Perianal Fistulation in Dogs , Sawan Kumar, Gopal Jaiswal and Jyoti Chanda Kalita
Most people are not in the habit of inspecting the area under their dog’s tail unless the dog appears to be acting abnormally. Perianal fistulas are chronic, purulent, malodorous, ulcerating si- nus tracts in the perianal tissues of animals, this condition is also known as anal furunculosis. Perianal fistulas are tunnel-like for- mations in the skin and deeper tissues of dogs that surround the anal area. The severity of the lesions varies, but they begin as small oozing holes in the skin. These holes can grow to be quite large and deep, encircling the entire circumference of the anus. It’s most fre- quent in German Shepherds and shepherd mixes, although it can also be found in Irish Setters and Labrador Retrievers. It mostly affects middle-aged dogs, and there haven’t been any reports of it in cats.
213 Ascites In Dogs , Sawan Kumar and Jyoti Chanda Kalita
Ascites is a pathological condition that usually affects your fur- ry friend. Moreover, almost every breed of dog is susceptible to this condition. It is therefore every pet parent should have basic knowl- edge about this detrimental condition of their beloved pet. As an aware pet parent, one should be aware of the signs and symptoms of ascites and the treatment if unfortunately, their beloved pet suf- fers from this disease.
214 Factors Affecting Pre-weaning Kid Mortality in Boer Goats and their Cross with Native Ethiopian Goats Under an Intensive Management , Ayana Selamu Dessie and Gizachew Nibret Tilahun
A retrospective study was conducted from November 2013 to April 2014 at Hawassa university goat farm. The aim of the study was to assess the variation of birth weight, weaning weight and pre-weaning mortality of Boer goat and there cross with native Ethiopian goats. Records of 537 kids that were born alive from 2008 to 2013 were used in this study. The factors considered for birth weight, weaning weight and mortality of kids were birth type, parity, sex, season of birth, year of birth, genotype and dam weight while birth weight was also used as risk factors for kid mortality and weaning weight of kid. In this study the mean birth and weaning weight of kids was 3.04 (± 0.4sd) kg and 13.27 (± 0.18sd) kg respectively. All factors except season of birth had significantly (at least p < 0.05) affect birth weight of kids. Parity and season of birth had not significant (p > 0.05) effect on weaning weight of kids but all the other factors were significant effect at weaning weight of kids. Birth weight, parity and year of birth significantly (p < 0.05) affect pre-weaning mortality rate of kids but not other factors. Male kids had higher (P < 0.05) birth weight (3.1 ± 0.8 kg vs. 2.9 ± 0.7 kg), and weaning weight (13.65 ± 0.25 kg vs. 12.81 ± 0.23 kg) than female kids, but sex had not significant (p > 0.05) effect on pre-weaning mortality rate of kid. Single born kids were heavier birth and weaning weight than twins and triplets, however, type of birth was not significant (p > 0.05) effect on pre-weaning mortality rate of kids. In this study birth weight was increased as parity increased. Dam weight had linear relationship with birth weight and also birth weight had linear relationship with weaning weight. The overall pre- weaning mortality rate of kids in this study was 24.4%. Out of 126 deaths encountered before three months of age, 80 (15.5%) deaths occurred within 30 days of age and the highest mortality (65.4%) was recorded for kids had 2kg or less birth weight, while the lowest mortality rate (13.2%) was recorded for kids had 3 kg or more birth weight. Pre-weaning mortality (birth to 90 days) was affected (p < 0.01) by parity of does, high Pre-weaning mortality was recorded in kids born from the second and first parity of does. Season of birth had not significant effect on pre-90-day mortality of kids. Generally, mortality rate was found to be highest in kids weighing ≤2 kg birth weight and in kids born in the later year. So, improving supplementary feeding for pregnant, very young and old does is recommended to get moderate birth weight and to minimize pre-weaning kid mortality rate.
215 Animal farming for ‘Food and Fuel’ , John Abraham
Livestock is an important sub-sector of Indian agricultural economy which plays a multifaceted role in providing lively hood support to the rural population and food security. The contribution of livestock sector to the agriculture output has significantly increased from 1.8% (1950) to 29.35% in the year 2021 [14]. In India, 18 million people are employed in livestock sector. In the last decade, the socio-economic mobility of people has initiated a dietary diversification from cereal based to protein rich food. From the year 2009 to 2019, there was 16.6% reduction in the consumption of cereals while there was an increase of 25.4% in the consumption of milk, meat, fish and eggs, reiterating the economic principle as income rise, demand tend to shift towards protein rich foods [13]. The livestock sector is gradually getting transformed from traditional to commercial and beyond, which is happening currently. From the perspective of increasing production in 80's and 90’s, the current perspective is productivity, quality, choice and value addition [1].
216 Haematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Broilers Slaughtered at Bukuru Live Bird Market of Jos South Local Government Plateau State Nigeria , Barde Israel Joshua, Habila Stephen Luka, Ishaku Leo Elisha, Leo Shedua Nyam, Isa Suleiman, Rimfa Amos Gambo, Shekaro Audu, Ahmed James Saidu, Ugbe Aondona Dominic, Barde Dorcas Jummai, Dashe Yakubu Gunya and Ngulukun Sati Samuel
Broiler is any chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) that is bred and raised specifically for meat production. Comparatively, they are characterised by fast growth rates, high feed conversion ratio and low levels of activity. They reach slaughter weights between 4 to 7 weeks. Commercial broilers are subjected to very strenuous conditions before slaughter which includes , overcrowding in crates dur- ing transportation, deprivation of feed and water. Haematology helps in examination of cellular and fluid protein of blood. However, the serum is the component that is neither a blood cell nor a clotting factor but a part of blood like water that contains substances called antibodies that fight disease. This study seeks to ascertain the health and physiological status of these birds at the time of slaughter by analysing their blood and serum biochemistry. Fifty commercial broiler chickens were randomly selected at the Bukuru live bird market of Jos south Local Government Area in Plateau State, Nigeria. The haematological parameters of the chickens were PCV 27-42%,RBC 2.2-4.0 × 106 μl, WBC 1.0-9.5 × 103μl L 20.50 and all the values were within normal range. Similarly, all the serum biochemical values in this study were wthin normal range for broiler chickens. This signifies that the broilers slaughtered in the study area are apparently healthy and fit for consumption. We recommend humane handling of these birds and improved sanitary condi- tions at the slaughter premises.
217 Histopathology, Coprology and Bacteriological Survey of Tilapia Fish in Jos Plateau State, Nigeria , Barde Israel Joshua, Bot Ruth Bulus, Ishaku Leo Elisha, Leo Shedua Nyam, Isa Suleiman, Abubakar Sadiq Abubakar, Shekaro Audu, Lot Logyang Emmanuel, Ugbe Aondona Dominic, Barde Dorcas Jummai, Ladan Adamu Aliyu , Ngulukun Sati Samuel, Anjili Ibrahim Waziri, Arinze Samuel Chukwuemeka and Chabiri Ladi Amos
Background: Tilapia fish is commonly consumed in Jos metropolis of Plateau State Nigeria. Consequently, consumers are potentially exposed to harmful chemicals or they can be infected by pathogenic organisms such as bacteria or parasites of zoonotic importance, if such fish are farmed in a contaminated environments. Aim: The study was carried out to assess the histopathology, coprology and bacteriology of apparently healthy tilapia. Results: Our parasitological findings revealed 29 (58%) of the 50 intestinal samples examined had at least one intestinal parasite, two parasites were seen in 4 (8%) and no parasites were observed in 17 (34%) of the samples. Some of the parasites found include Eimeria vanasi, eggs of Dipylidium caninum, eggs of Taenia spp, Ascaris lumbricoides, eggs of Schistosoma spp and so on. Microbiological analyses of the 50 gill samples indicated the presence of Aeromonas spp in 35 (75%) of the examined samples, followed by Bacillus spp 13 (26%) and Proteus 2 (4%). The following bacterial pathogens were found in the intestinal samples: Aeromonas spp 15 (30%), Escherichia coli 33 (66%) and 2 (4%) were Proteus spp. Conclusion: The heavy load of parasites (Taenia and Ascaris spp) and bacteria (Escherichia coli) found in this study established the presence of pathogens of zoonotic relevance and serious veterinary and public health concerns in tilapia fish without gross and histopathological lesions. It is imperative that fish farmers adhere to biosecurity/biosafety measures by improving management and sanitary conditions in fish farms. Additionally, fish consumers should roast or properly cook the fish in order to inactivate or eliminate harmful pathogens before consumption. Public awareness should be supported so as to emphasize the importance of these microorganisms to the health of the fish, man and his environment.
218 Comparative Efficacy of Green Synthesized Silver Nano Particles of Ehretia Laevis and Azadirachta Indica on Wound Healing in Cow , Yeole SS, Raulkar RV, Thorat MG, Hatzade RI, Tingase SS and Choudhury Ashutosh
The present study was conducted on twelve cow with infected wounds, irrespective of wound type, age, sex, breed, divided into two groups, containing six cow each. Cow in Group A and Group B were treated with green synthesized silver nanoparticle ointments of E. laevis and A. indica respectively for 14 consecutive days. Hematological and biochemical changes were recorded at different intervals of time in both the groups. Cow treated with E. laevis ointment showed better wound healing in comparison with A. indica ointment treated group. Hence clinical use of E. laevis silver nano particles ointment can be recommended for wound dressing in cow.
219 Lumpyskin Disease Vaccine: Awareness, Availability and Accessibility to Small-Holder Farmers in Midlands Zimbabwe , Sandra Sigauke, Olalekan T Jeremaiah, Habeeb Oyedele and Faith Dube
A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess small holder cattle owners’ awareness, availability and accessibility of the vac- cine against Lumpy skin disease. This knowledge from the farmers provides an insight into the causes of the recurrent outbreaks in the Midlands province and perhaps throughout Zimbabwe. A total of 108 farmers were involved in the study, an interviewer-admin- istered questionnaire was used to collect data on the vaccine handling, storage and administration practices as well as the accessibil- ity and availability of the LSD vaccine. Findings from this study show that although most farmers (83.3%) have a basic knowledge of vaccine handling, storage and administration they still face problems due to unavailability and inaccessibility of the LSD vaccine. The vaccine is expensive (average $2.00/dose), and most farmers cannot afford to vaccinate their cattle annually due to low income (average $82.00/month). Vaccination is the mainstay of LSD prevention and unavailability of the vaccine may result in outbreaks occurring during every rainy season. Measures should be taken to ensure that the vaccines are made available and accessible to smallholder farmers at affordable prices; this can abate the annual Lumpyskin disease outbreaks in Zimbabwe.
220 Effect of Mastitis on Behavioral Changes of Dairy Cows, its Treatment and Control , Riaz Ahmed Gul, Faisal Abbas, Hamza Jawad, Hira Anjum, Muhammad Ijaz, Muhammad Waseem, Amir Sohail, Arfa Shahzad, Farhan Mehmood, Sana Ullah, Maryam Javed, Muhammad Usman Maqsood, Ibrahim, Zoya Afzal
Livestock sector play an important role in the economy of Pakistan as well as it is a livelihood of farmer. These reared these animals to meet the consumption of milk, meat and other products. Mastitis comes among the one of the common and high paying problem of the dairy industry. It is ranked as a number one pathological condition of dairy farm animal. It effect the both corporate and commercial dairy farm. It contribute a major economic loss in farm income both at small level that is commercial farm as well as at large scale industries like corporates farms. The purpose of this review article is to indicate the major causes of mastitis like clinical as well as subclinical mastitis, its behavioral changes observed in animal, treatment protocol applied and drug of choice used at farm to control the mastitis. We will also point out that why sub-clinical mastitis is more important and what are the major changes that occur in mastitis milk with respect to the mastitis free milk. In this review article we will also discuss the bacteria that are involved in causing mastitis. We will also put a light on pathogenesis of mastitis as well as predisposing and other factor that are helpful in causing mastitis in this article. By this study we will estimate that which method or treatment plan is good for the treatment of mastitis and how we can prevent the occurrence of mastitis. In this review article will also know that what is clinical mastitis, what is subclinical mastitis and what are behavioral changes and treatment protocol that can be used to prevent and control mastitis. We will also gave a quick review to the total losses that are caused by mastitis. For the identification of mastitis, the changes that comes in the behavior of animal is of very important. Mastitis is still one of the major issue of dairy farm that increase the cost of production of milk and if we control it, it will be major achievement in dairy industry.
221 Polymorphism of Interferon-Gamma (INFG) Gene Promoter in High and Low Immunocompetent Aseel Chicken using PCR-RFLP , Shanti Choudhary, Binita Nautiyal and Sanjeev Kumar
The interferon-gamma (INFG) is a significant modulator of macrophage function, one of the candidate genes implicated in the immune response to various avian diseases. The objective of this study was to explore the polymorphism of INFG gene promoter of Aseel, the Indian native chicken using polymerase chain reaction -Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Based on immunological traits, 48 Aseel birds (24 males with high and low titer and 24 females with high and low titer values) were selected from 301 birds. DNA was isolated from blood, and PCR amplification of the INFG promoter region was conducted using two sets of primer, set I for the full-length promoter and set II for a partial-length promoter. Primer set I and set II to produce a product length of 670 bp and 495 bp, respectively. Agarose gel electrophoresis of PCR amplified product and DNA sequencing showed amplification of the INFG gene promoter region. The RFLP analysis of full-length promoter with enzymes, EcoR1 and Taq 1 and partial length pro- moter with enzymes Alu 1, Hinf1, Dde 1, and Taq 1 was monomorphic. However, the full-length promoter with enzyme Tsp5091 was polymorphic and produced 168, 123, 104, 99, 88, 64, and 54 bp size fragments. Allele A (168 bp, 123 bp, 99 bp, 88 bp, 64 bp, and 54 bp fragments) and allele B (123 bp, 104 bp, 99 bp, 88 bp, 64 bp, and 54 bp fragments) showed all possible genotypes A.A., AB, and B.B. with genotypic frequencies of 0.17, 0.30 and 0.53, respectively. Heterozygotes demonstrated more immunocompetence traits (H.A. titer to SRBC, serum lysozyme activity, and IgG level). The INFG gene promoter was mainly monomorphic, and polymorphism was associated with high immunocompetence in Aseel. We conclude that DNA analysis of the IFNG promoter gene may serve as a genetic marker for higher immune responsiveness.
222 Pharmaceutical Importance of Withania somnifera in Aquaculture , Ajay Valiyaveettil Salimkumar and Adarsh K
The use of antibiotics and chemotherapeutics for prophylaxis and treatment in intensive aquaculture has been widely criticized for its negative impact. Enhancement of the immune system seems to be the most promising method of preventing fish diseases. W. somnifera root is used as a Rasayana in the Indian ayurvedic tradition as a dietary supplement promoting rejuvenation, mental and physical health, as well as providing a defence against aging and challenging environmental factors. Order: Solanalis Family: Solanaceae Local Name: Ashwagandha Botanical Name: Withania somnifera Sanskrit Name: Ashwagandha, Balada,Kamrupini, Gandhpatri, Vajini Hindi Name: Asgandha, Asgandh English Name: Indian ginseng or Wintercherry Parts Used: Root, Leaf, Seed.
223 Surgical Management of Closed Pyometra in a Bengal Cat: A Case Report , Parvathy Gopakumar Nair, Sreenu Sreekumar, Theneyan Mohamed, Fredrick Olianga, Francis Pilapil
A four year old female Bengal cat was presented to Al Wasl Veterinary Clinic (Falcon centre) Dubai with distended abdomen and complaint of inappetance. The cat had mating history before 35 days. On clinical examination cat had the rectal temperature of 100.9 F and pale mucous membrane. The vulva was dry and clean. On ultrasonography examination of abdomen, multiple anechoic areas found in the uterine lumen. Complete blood count revealed leucocytosis with neutrophilia and eosinophilia. Based on the above mentioned findings, the condition was diagnosed as feline closed pyometra or Cystic endometrial hyperplasia. Cat was stabilized with antibiotics and supportive intravenous medication. Midventral laparotomy was performed under general anaesthesia. Ovario- hysterectomy was performed in a routine manner. Blood parameters two days post surgery was within the normal limits. The cat had an uneventful recovery.
224 Therapeutic Efficacy of Fresh Leaves of Cynodon dactlyon For Sole Affections in Goat , Akshay M Shinde, Ratnakar V Raulkar, Milind G Thorat, Mahesh V Ingawale, Shivani S Tingase and Saurabh S Yeole
Therapeutic efficacy of fresh leaves of Cynodon dactylon on various sole affections was studied in goat. The research study was conducted on twenty sole affected goats presented at Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex and at different goat farms in and around Akola. Selected twenty goats were randomly divided into two equal groups viz. Group I (n = 10) was subjected to cleaning of hoof with 10% KMnO₄ solution and corrective hoof trimming. In group-II (n = 10) cleaning of hoof with 10% KMnO₄ solution, corrective hoof trimming and topical application of fine paste of C. dactylon fresh leaves was done. The overall prevalence of hoof affections was found to be 48%, with more than one hoof affected in most of the cases of lameness. Cleaning of hoof with 10 % KMnO₄ solution, corrective hoof trimming and topical application of fine paste of fresh leaves of C. dactylon was found effective for management of various hoof affections in goats as compared to cleaning of hoof with 10 % KMnO₄ solution and corrective hoof trimming.
225 Histoenzymic Localization of Phosphatases, Oxidoreductases and Nonspecific Esterase in the Uterus of Canines Collected After Ovariohysterectomy , Kaveesh Chahal, Devendra Pathak, Opinder Singh, Ashwani Kumar  and Kuldip Gupta
The present investigation was aimed at elucidating the localization patterns of the phosphatases, oxidoreductases, and non-spe- cific esterase in the uterus of canines collected after ovariohysterectomy and correlating these enzymes with the stage of reproduc- tion and disease conditions. Cryostat sections of 6-7 μ thickness at -20°C were obtained on glass slides with cryostat microtome and incubated with substrates of different enzymes. A strongly positive reaction of phosphatases and oxidoreductases was seen in the epithelium lining the endometrium and endometrial glands, and blood vessels in the prepubertal, cyclical, and gravid uterus. There was spatial localization of enzymes some of the enzymes (AKPase) were localized in the basal region of epithelium and glands which might be indicative of cellular transport towards the basal compartment while most of the enzymes were localized in the apical region of the cells or in dispersed in the cytoplasm of the cells. The reaction of these enzymes in the diseased uterus was strong to intense in papillary endometrial hyperplasia, cystic papillary endometrial hyperplasia, and cystic endometrial hyperplasia and that could be due to degenerative changes occurring due to infections. It was concluded that the reactivity was higher in the epithelium, glands of pubertal and pregnant animals as compared to the prepubertal group, while the reactivity of most of the enzymes was stronger in diseased animals..
226 Plants of Ethnoveterinary Medicine Importance with Antiviral Activity , Beenu Jain and Anuj Tewari
Indian heritage is rich in diversified flora due to its diversified geographical locations. Amongst these flora, several of them have been in traditional use for the treatment of ailments and several of them are yet to be explored. Out of all, antiviral plants and their activity seeks attention as during past one decade several emerging viral diseases came into existence. RNA viruses are capable of mutating at a faster rate than the DNA viruses, show antiviral resistance and their vaccine development requires quite a lot time. In such a scenario antiviral plant and their pure compounds/extracts can open newer insights for combating the antiviral resistance. Thus, in this chapter antiviral activity of plants against human and animal viruses have been discussed.
227 Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Dog Handlers, Dog Meat Consumers and Risk Factors of brucellosis for Dogs and Handlers in North Central Nigeria , Momoh-Abdullateef Habiba, Enem Simon Ikechukwu, Egwu Godwin Onyemaechi, Ijale Gabriel Ogbaji, Madubuike Stella, Olaolu Olushola Samuel and Ogbu Kenneth Ikejiofor
The increase in dog ownership in Nigeria and in the North Central region in particular is associated with some risk factors that ren- der them vulnerable to brucellosis. Many exotic breeds of dog are not screened before being imported into the country and the prob- ability of importing Brucella species infected dogs is therefore high. This study was undertaken to determine the level of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of dog handlers, dog meat consumers and risk factors for dogs and handlers in North Central Nigeria by means of a structured questionnaire. Five hundred and fifty respondents were interviewed and 550 sera samples collected from dogs pre- sented by these respondents were analyzed using the RBPT. The seropositivity of 239(43.45%) obtained by the RBPT was compared with information provided by the respondents. Seropositivity of dogs managed indoor was 49(25.26%) whereas it was 190(53.37%) in those managed outdoor. A large proportion 296(53.82%) of the respondents lacked knowledge of canine brucellosis. Likewise, 426(77.45%) of the respondents took no precaution before and after handling and large proportion of 286(52%) consumed under- cooked dog meat. The study shows that there is a high risk of exposure of dog owners, handlers and Veterinarians to the disease and therefore enlightenment programs on brucellosis as a zoonosis should be carried out in North central Nigeria.
228 Comparative Efficacy of Chitosan Jelly and Chlorhexidine Mouth Wash for Periodontal Diseases in Dog , Shivani S Tingase, Milind G Thorat, Ratnakar V Raulkar, Ravindrakumar I Hatzade, Prashant D Salve, Ashutosh Choudhury and Shubhangi R Warke
The research entitled "Clinical Efficacy of Dental Scaling, Polishing and Chitosan Compound in Periodontal Diseases in Dog" was undertaken to study the same entitled subject. 32 dogs were screened for the presence of periodontal disease. Out of which 12 dogs aged above two years and having dental tartar were included in the present study irrespective of breed, sex and weight. Chlorhexi- dine mouthwash was given in group I and in group II chitosan jelly was applied with simple massage for the next 14 days after a dental procedure. Dogs with Grade I (33.33%) and Grade II (66.68%) tartar were included in the study. The average age of dogs with grade I and grade II periodontitis ranged between 2-4 and 5-11 years respectively. Findings concluded that dogs fed with cooked food or soft diet has more incidence of dental tartar than a mixed or hard diet. Grade II tartar was seen in dogs fed with soft or mixed diet and Grade I in dogs fed with a hard diet. Regular use of chitosan results in a decreased microbial count with a reduction in infection while regular use of Chlorhexidine results in staining of enamel. Bacterial isolates from the oral cavity identified E. coli spp., strepto- coccus spp, staphylococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp.
229 Canine Mammary Tumor Fine Needle Aspirate Cytology and Identification of Tumor Types , Komal Basra and Ratan K Choudhary
Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a technique that can be used to diagnose canine mammary gland tumors early and easy. This technique may allow a preliminary test for diagnosing and differentiating mammary tumor types in canines. We hypothesize that cells of FNA from canine mammary tumors have tumor-specific cells, and cytomorphological investigation could distinguish between simple vs. complex and benign vs. malignant tumors. In this study, we planned to collect fine-needle aspirates from canine mammary tumors (CMT) and study morphological features of the cells present in FNA to distinguish types of tumors. Additionally, using image analysis software, a comprehensive investigation of quantitative cytomorphological data like cell shape, cell size, nucleus size, size of vacuolar cytoplasm, variable number of the nucleolus, and others will be analyzed. This technique can potentially act as a first-hand diagnostic tool for identifying mammary tumors in canines. Setting up this technique in the veterinary hospital is easy, quick, non-invasive, and cheaper. We can locate simple vs. complex tumors or benign vs. malignant tumors using FNAC without undergoing invasive mammary tissue biopsy
230 Assessment of Immunocompetence Traits of Aseel, an Indian Native Chicken Breed , Shanti Choudhary, Binita Nautiyal and Sanjeev Kumar
In the present study, Aseel chicken was studied to evaluate high and low immune responses by assessing immunocompetence tra- its like hemagglutination assay (HA), serum lysozyme activity, and immunoglobulin G (IgG) in blood. A total of 301 Aseel birds were selected to get all the important immunocompetence parameters. Antibody titers against sheep red blood corpuscles (SRBC) and se- rum IgG levels acted as the humoral immune response indicators. In contrast, the bacteriolytic activity of serum lysozyme acted as an indicator of a non-specific immune response. The mean HA titer, serum lysozyme and IgG levels were 8.14 ± 0.35, 4.85 ± 0.20, 10.82 ± 0.64 in males and 8.15 ± 0.31, 4.48 ± 0.22, and 12.64 ± 0.75 in females, respectively. Sex did not affect immunocompetence traits; however, the average serum IgG concentration was higher in females than in males. In conclusion, we accessed immunocompetence traits of male and female Aseel. A comparison of Aseel's immune competence status with broiler and other fowl chicken would be a piece of valuable information for poultry breeders
231 Managemental And Environmental Causes of Infertility , Anand Kumar Singh, Satuti Sharma, PC Patwal and Divya Pathak
The livestock business suffers greatly from infertility in farm animals. Diseases, poor nutrition, insufficient herd management, inherited and congenital factors, hormonal disruptions, or environmental changes all disrupt these rhythms, rendering the animal infertile and affecting the breeding programmes, even if only temporarily. As a result, each cause must be correctly identified and treated in accordance with the findings of the examination. Some metabolic and nutritional variables have been linked to infertility in recent research. Lower levels may result in anestrus or irregular heats. The lack of energy during the postpartum period decreased luteinizing hormone output and dynamic follicle diameter, although it increased calving interval time. Stress is one of the environ- mental elements that affects livestock handling and production.
232 Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) and Alternatives in Animal Practice, Anilkumar Banothu
Antibiotics are used for the prevention of growth and multipli- cation of bacteria, virus fungi and parasites which are responsible for derailment of human and animal health. Alexander Fleming invented Penicillin in the year of 1927 while working on Straphy- lococcus aureus culture at St. marry hospital, Landon and paved pathway for the subsequent inventions of other groups of antibi- otics like Tetracyclines, Macrolides, Aminoglycosides, Fluroquina- lones etc., Antimicrobial agents are classified according to their mechanism of action as ‘Bactericidal agents’ which interference the cell wall synthesis (or) DNA synthesis (or) RNA synthesis (or) interfering cell membrane function, and ‘Bacteriostatic agents’ which are capable of inhibiting growth and multiplication of bac- teria by interfering protein synthesis (or) inhibition of metabolic pathways, etc.
233 Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) and Alternatives in Animal Practice, Anilkumar Banothu
Antibiotics are used for the prevention of growth and multipli- cation of bacteria, virus fungi and parasites which are responsible for derailment of human and animal health. Alexander Fleming invented Penicillin in the year of 1927 while working on Straphy- lococcus aureus culture at St. marry hospital, Landon and paved pathway for the subsequent inventions of other groups of antibi- otics like Tetracyclines, Macrolides, Aminoglycosides, Fluroquina- lones etc., Antimicrobial agents are classified according to their mechanism of action as ‘Bactericidal agents’ which interference the cell wall synthesis (or) DNA synthesis (or) RNA synthesis (or) interfering cell membrane function, and ‘Bacteriostatic agents’ which are capable of inhibiting growth and multiplication of bac- teria by interfering protein synthesis (or) inhibition of metabolic pathways, etc.
234 Most Important Processes in Rabbit Reproduction, Walied Hussein Kishk
Rabbit females are induced ovulators animals, which meaning that they do not ovulate spontaneously, as happens in other female like cows, buffaloes, and sheep, but it occurs about 10-12 hours after stimulation of the female by different methods of stimulation. Therefore, there is no estrus cycle phases as compared to cows or buffalo cows. But a lot of researchers observed the existence of es- trus cycles which means females are more likely to be fertilized than any other period of their reproductive status. This tendency for mating from male rabbit occurs from 4 to 6 days during which the female accepts the insemination from the male. Many sings of acceptance mating from male like redness of valve. Also there is one famous position can be considered as acceptance of female rabbit to mating. This position is called as rabbit lordosis (exces- sive inward curvature of the spine).
235 Diagnosis of Sub Clinical Mastitis in Buffaloes, Keshamoni Ramesh, Lakshmi Korsapati, Ambica Gadige and Swathi Bommu
In present investigation, a total 440 quarter milk samples of 110 Bubalis bubalis were screened for subclinical mastitis (SCM) to find out the occurrence and the causative agents of SCM in and around Hyderabad. Out of these, 76 quarters from 40 buffaloes were found positive based on bacterial culture. Here cultural examination was taken as standard test. Also, milk samples were subjected to California mastitis test, Somatic Cell Count, milk pH and milk fat to determine qualitative changes in milk and cultural examination were undertaken in the laboratory. Results of California mastitis test reveated trace, weak positive and distinct California mastitis test reactions. The mean values of Somatic Cell Count, milk pH was elevated significant (P < 0.01) as compared to healthy control buffaloes, While, mean values of milk fat decreased non-significantly as compared with healthy control buffaloes.
236 Oligo-Probe Conjugated Gold Nanoparticles for Rapid Detection of Unamplified Bluetongue Viral RNA, Upendra P Lambe, Basanti Brar and Prasad Minakshi
Bluetongue (BT) is an insect born, non-fatal disease of small ruminants, particularly sheep; characterized by inflammation of buc- cal mucosa and coronary bands, nasal discharge, facial edema and cyanosis of the tongue, hence the name Bluetongue. The etiological agent being BT virus belonging to the Reoviridae family is a ds-RNA virus with a segmented genome. Though the disease is non-fatal, causes significant losses to wool and meat industry due to decreased wool production and weight losses in animals. Gold nanopar- ticles (GNPs) is regarded as one of the most stable nanoparticles and also because of their surface charge, they are able to be activated with majority of bio-molecules. Hence in this study we have developed a novel GNPs-based nucleic probe for detection of BT virus with sensitivity of 14.4pg/ul. The GNPs based robust technique can be implemented for diagnosis of other Arboviruses as a potential point of care assay. There is no earlier report on designing of nucleic acid nanoparticles-based assay for detection of Bluetongue virus in India and abroad to the best of our knowledge.
237 Additive Effect of Maca (Lepidium Meyenii) Powder on Semen Characteristic and Testicular Histo-Morphology of Red Sokoto Bucks in Sudan Savanna Zone Nigeria, Garba MG, Gaddafi S and Yahaya MA
Reproduction is central to the continued existence of animal on earth. This study was designed to determine the additive effect of Maca powder on Testicular histo-morphology, semen kinetic and spermatozoa morphological defect of Red Sokoto bucks. A total of twenty-four (24) apparently healthy pubertal Red Sokoto bucks were allotted into four treatments (6 bucks per treatment) compris- es four additive level of maca powdered consisting three replicate and each replicate consist two bucks in a completely randomized design (CRD). The animal were giving four different diet consist of 0g, 2g, 4g and 6g of maca powdered per kg diet. The experiment last for a period of 60days. The result of testicular morphometric in this study revealed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher values of right testis weight, left testis weight, relative testis weight, right testis volume, left testis volume and testes volume. Sperm cell kinetic in this study indicates significant (P < 0.05) difference in percentage motility, progressive motility, linearity, curvilinear velocity, straight line velocity and acrosome integrity. Considerable changes were also observed in seminiferous tubules of Red Sokoto bucks testicular tissue. It is therefore concluded that adding maca powder up to 6g/kg diet has a profound effect on testicular morphometry, sperm cell kinetic and increased percentage of normal sperm cell without deformity. Considerable changes of seminiferous tubules and insterstial cells are the architectural variables observed in this study.
238 A Review on Bacterial Infectious Diseases of Dogs, Marcia Ashmi, Sanjana, Abinaya Kaliappan and Patel Nikunjkumar
In recent years, the tendency of raising dogs as companion animals has increased in urban and semi-urban settings. Amongst other pathogens viz virus, protozoa, dogs are highly susceptible to diseases of bacterial origin. Bacterial infections in dog causes wide range of illness, ranging from self-limited skin conditions to life-threatening systemic diseases. Some diseases such as brucellosis, leptospirosis, tuberculosis, salmonellosis, and bordetellosis will have a significant influence on the economic status and livelihood of pet owner. These bacterial infections, albeit lethal, can be avoided if intervened earlier, and their impact on humans can be reduced to a greater extent. Here, we reviewed common bacterial diseases of dog and discussed disease etiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, treat- ment and zoonotic potential. Raising awareness and continuing to educate veterinarians and pet owners about companion animal diseases would not only limit transmission risk but also improve animal as well human health.
239 The Science of A1 & A2 Milk: Decoding the Enigma, Bagavan Reddy and Athidi Lokavya Reddy
An increase in metabolic diseases globally associated with changing lifestyles mandates continuous research on the food we consume. Though many of the conditions are multifactorial, identifying those risk factors poses a real challenge. One such risk factor currently in limelight is the myth and facts revolving around milk consumption. Milk and dairy products are said to be one of the most common essential commodities relished by people irrespective of age. But there always exists many misconceptions considering milk consumption among both literate and ignorant sectors. Observational, epidemiological, and clinical studies in humans and labora- tory animals revealed potential health hazards concerned with the intake of A1 milk. However, such harmful effects are minimal with that of A2 milk. On the other hand, profound health benefits and medicinal importance were believed to be encrypted behind the con- sumption of indigenous dairy products. Irrespective of all these discussions conclusions on milk consumption is yet to be established. Hence, considering existing facts and beliefs, studies should be encouraged, and efforts are to be streamlined in the conservation and propagation of our indigenous breeds which are the prime source of A2 milk. This review summarised the importance of A2 milk in comparison with that of A1 milk and emphasized the necessity of protecting our natural resources within our Indian subcontinent.
240 A Case Study of a Downer Cow, Fatima Alraeesi
A cross-bred cow in a livestock farm in Al Zubair, Sharjah, had been in sternal recumbency (on the breastbone) for more than 24 hours and was showing signs of downer cow syndrome. The cow did not stand and had become recumbent after being mounted by a significantly larger jersey bull, resulting in nerve damage in the cow. The cow was alert and had a normal appetite and temperature of (38.9°C) but was suspected to have calcium and copper deficiency. A blood sample was obtained to conduct liver enzymes, cre- atinine, urea, copper, and calcium tests. We instructed the owner to use a pulley to encourage the cow to stand. multivitamins were prescribed, and the separation of the cow and the jersey bull had to be made to prevent this from happening again, while the owner did not provide the pulley to support the downer cow to stand up, necrosis has begun in the thighs muscles and the cow was eventu- ally slaughtered.
241 First Report of Cardiac Lymphangiectasia in Four-years-old Arabian Mare (Equus ferus caballus), Reza Nikzad , Hadi Hassibi, Mohammad Rouhani, Amin Paidar Ardakani and Mohammad Nikzad
Lymphangiectasia defines as dilated of any lymph vessels and occur in any kind of animal and anywhere that lymphatic vessels exist. In this research, there has been cardiac lymphangiectasia on the apex region separated after necropsy in a 4-years-old Arabian mare that expired cause of acute colic. Pathologic survey shows about ruptured thin wall vessels and the luminal vessels were lack of red blood cells and light edema. Also, a tortuous cyst filled with clear fluid on the epicardial surface of the heart apex. This study is the first report of cardiac lymphangiectasia in Arabian mare from Iran.
242 Rare Unilateral Nictitating Membrane and T Shape Cartilage Prolapse in Two-Years-Old Mix-Breed Cat, Reza Nikzad, Alireza Kaveh Aski, Omid Azari and Mohammad Rouhani
Prolapse of the third eyelid is one of the most common ocular diseases in small animals, that is common in dogs and rare in cats and occurs in various breeds. A mixed female Persian Himalayan cat referred with the sign of prolapse of the left third eyelid with T shape cartilage protrusion. Prolapsed gland corrected by Pocket technique. Also, slight excision of the protruding part of the De- formed cartilage was accomplished. The surgical results were very satisfactory in forthcoming inspections
243 Development and Evaluation of Lysozyme-Pectin Complexes for Antimicrobial Packaging of Chicken Patties, M Prasanna, E Naga Mallika, K Sudheer and T Srinivasa Rao
Background: Edible films are made from biopolymers (pectin, starch, cellulose), gelatin, casein, and other proteins. Among these, pectin is used with no restriction and is considered to be widely accepted as healthy. Due to its constancy across a wide variety of pH and temperature ranges, lysozyme has a significant potential for food preservation. Therefore, this study aimed on development of pectin based edible films with lysozyme and to evaluate their effect on the quality of chicken meat patties. Methods: Pectin films with lysozyme of different concentrations were developed and one best film was selected based on param- eters like thickness, grammature, water vapour permeability, anti-oxidant activity, tensile strength and antimicrobial activity along with control to wrap the chicken meat patties. The product was evaluated for parameters like pH, percent cooking loss, 2-TBARS, microbial analysis and sensory evaluation. Result: Results showed that the thickness, grammature, water vapour permeability, anti-oxidant activity, tensile strength and anti- microbial activity of T3 film were significantly (P≤0.05) higher and lower water sorption compared to T1, T2 and control films. The pH, 2-TBARS, Percent cooking loss and microbial count values were lower in the chicken patties that were wrapped in T3 film.
244 Brood Stock Development, Breeding and Larval Rearing of Three Spotted Frog Fish (Lophiocharon Trisignatus Richardson, 1844) in Captivity, Arun Aloysius and Jaime Sanchez Camara
Purpose of this study is to find the best food which helped the breeding of three spotted frog fish (Lophiocharon trisignatus) together with live food for three spotted frog fish larvae. Breeding of three spotted frogfish was attempted using four feeds such as freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), vannamei shrimp (Litpopenaues vannamei), white baits and capelin. Frog fishes fed with with vannamei, freshwater prawn and white baits released mass of unfertilized eggs, which settled at tank bottom. Frog fishes fed with capelin had eggs attached to the dorsal side of female frogfish after successful mating. It was found that capelin had positive effects on breeding. Fecundity of frog fish was 66. Eggs were white in colour for first two days and later changed to dark colour. The eggs started hatching after a period of twenty five days and hatching was completed in 25 days. Hatchlings were black in colour and had clearly visible orange red coloured yolk sac. Hatchlings mostly stayed at the bottom of the tank and had rare upward swimming movements. Yolk sac absorption was complete in one week. Frog fish juveniles were fed with enriched artemia nauplii for first one week after yolk absorption. As the babies started growing, they were fed with two days old artemia naulplii and later with adult artemia. This study showed the importance of feed in successful breeding of three spotted frog fishes and successful larval rearing was done with live artemia. Breeding of frog fishes will help to increase the trade in aquarium industry by conserving the wild stock.
245 Field Investigation of Infectious Bursal Disease Maternal Antibody Transfer and Decay Rates in Selected Chicken Breeder Flocks and Progeny, Omolade Oladele and Omowoleola Aboaba
Effective control of infectious bursal disease (IBD) is largely dependent on attainment of high level of maternal antibody in chicks. However, outbreaks still occur, and variable antibody titres and duration of immunity have been reported in chicks. Rates of maternal antibody transfer from parent stocks to progeny were determined and decay rates in chicks were evaluated. Four chicken breeder flocks (A, B, C and D) were bled and IBD antibody titers were determined using ELISA. Antibody titres in yolk of eggs laid on the same day of bleeding and chicks hatched from the same batches of eggs at days one and seven, were also determined. Mean titres were compared for significant differences using ANOVA and LSD test of multiple comparisons at p < 0.05. Rates of maternal antibody trans- fer from parent stocks A and B (administered one dose of inactivated vaccine) to their respective progenies were 77.4% and 89.9%, while it was 51.1% and 50.4% in C and D (administered two doses), respectively. However, the rates of decay of maternal antibody from one-day-old to seven-day-old chicks were 58.9%, 48.7%, 24.4% and 54.9% in chicks A, B, C and D, respectively. A negative cor- relation (r = -0.9878) was observed between antibody titres in parent stocks, yolk as well as chicks’ sera and maternal antibody decay rates. Multiple administration of inactivated IBD vaccine by point-of-lay caused low rate of maternal antibody transfer to progeny and low maternal antibody titer at 1-day-old caused higher rate of decay in chicks.
246 Milk-Derived Stem Cells for Cancer Therapy, Shanti Choudhary
Milk consists of not only the nutritional components (carbo- hydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals) but also the non- cellular (immunoglobulins, cytokines, and antimicrobials) and cel- lular (inflammatory cells, lactocytes, and stem cells) components. Nutritional components of milk provide growth and development for young ones and humans. Though the value of non-cellular components of milk is appreciated, the presence of its cellular component, stem cells in milk, is enigmatic. The evidence of stem cells in human milk was first reported by the team of Cregan and Hartman in the year 2007 [1]. Later the presence of stem cells in milk have been reported in human [2,3], murine [4], and bovine [5]. The mixture of human milk-derived cells was hematopoietic (CD34+, CD133+, and CD123+), mesenchymal (CD90+, CD44+, CD271+, and CD146+) [6], endothelial progenitors (CD105+), lactocyte (CD18+), myoepithelial (CK14/SMA+), and embryonic stem-like cells (OCT4+, SOX2+, NANOG+, and TRA 60-1+) [3]. An initial report of cow milk showed the presence of stem cell-like cells and progenitor cells. The study showed a subset (30-40%) of bovine milk-derived cells were mesenchymal (CD90+, CD73+, and CD105+) and pluripotent (SOX2+ and OCT4+) [5], though the nature of milk-derived stem cells (mdSC) to be mesenchymal re- mained inconclusive [3].
247 Ficus Racemosa Extract and Vitamin C Ameliorate Paraquat-Induced Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats, Supriya Yadav, Shivendra K Dixit, Ujjwal K DE , Suhas KS and Pankaj K Patel
Ficus racemosa is an important medicinal plant found ubiquitously. The immunomodulatory potential of this plant has not been delved much. In the present study, we evaluated the in vivo antioxidant potential of Ficus racemosa in paraquat-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. The ethanolic extract of the leaves of F. racemosa was used for the study. For the in vivo study, 5 groups of 6 rats per group, including paraquat-induced oxidative stress were evaluated for responses in a 30-day experimental trial using doses of 250 mg/kg b wt. for F. racemosa extract. Oxidative stress induced by Paraquat caused an increase in ROS, caused severe liver dam- age, increased lipid peroxidation but not many hematological alterations. Group using F. racemosa extract and combination of Ficus extract and vitamin C showed significantly proficient results by decreasing the LPO production and helped in recovering the liver alterations. However, further research is needed to identify the different molecular mechanisms involved in mediating the antioxidant re- sponse.
248 Behavioural and Physiological Responses of West African Dwarf Bucks to Burdizzo Castration After Scrotal Neck Infiltration with Lignocaine or Bupivacaine, Adetoun Olubukola Ademola, Cecilia Omowumi Oguntoye, Adeniran Adetunji
Unmitigated pain in farm animals is associated with suffering and distress and represents a welfare concern. To assess the efficacy of pre-emptive analgesia induced by the scrotal neck infiltration of either lignocaine (LIG) or bupivacaine (BUP) in goats, behavioral, physiological and serum cortisol responses were used as indicators of post- Burdizzo castration distress. Fifteen West African Dwarf male goats, aged between 9 and 11 months and weighing between 6 and 12 kg, were randomly allocated into three groups each treated with the scrotal neck infiltration with lignocaine (LIG), bupivacaine (BUP) or normal saline (SAL) respectively and followed 20 minutes later by Burdizzo castration. Frequency of pain behaviors of the treated goats were recorded over a 3h post-castration period by continuous direct observation from outside the pen. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT) and serum cortisol concentrations were determined at 10-, 90- and 180-minutes post-castration. Restlessness, head turning, bleating, ataxia and extended hind limb were observed in both treatment and control groups, Restlessness was however the most frequent. There were no significant (p > 0.05) differences in mean HR, RR and RT between and within the three treatment groups. In both LIG and BUP treatment groups, serum cortisol concentrations increased but decreased in the control group up to the 90 minutes interval. It was concluded that subcutaneous infiltration of the goats’ scrotal neck with either LIG or BUP did not influence pain behaviors but even tended to increase post-Burdizzo castration pain as measured by serum cortisol concentrations.
249 Fish Composition and Efficiency of Stake Nets in Puthenvelikkara Backwaters of Vembanad Lake, Kerala, India, Ajay Valiyaveettil Salimkumar, Sreekanth G B, Adarsh Jayanth A B, Adarsh K, Aloysious Amal Andrews, Bandi Sumanth Kumar Reddy, Abhiram A, Dheeran P
Vembanad lake is the second largest brackish water lake in India and is known for its rich biodiversity. The study investigates the fish diversity, stake net fishing and seasonal variation in species distribution along the Puthenvelikkara backwaters of Vembanad Lake. A total of 30 sampling events using different gears were made during the period from January 2020 to February 2021. Total 2301 individuals were encountered, comprising 54 finfish species and 7 shellfish species from 34 families, 13 orders and 50 genera. Fish abundance peaked during pre-monsoon season, and the lowest were recorded in post monsoon season. Mugil cephalus, Penaeus indicus, Etroplus maculatus, Etroplus suratensis, Stolephorus indicus, and Ambassis ambassis were found to be the dominant species in the catch. Stake nets are predominantly utilized to target prawns, which waft with the tides. The Gross Energy Requirement (GER) was calculated to be 5.19 GJ.t fish-1, which is surprisingly excessive for a stationary passively operated gear. The obtained energy ef- ficiency ratio was 0.65, while the energy intensity value was 1.54. The high value of GER of this passively operated, non-motorized gear system is due to the low magnitude of landing by the gears.
250 COVID-19: Veterinary Perspective, Dr. K.R. Bhedi, Dr. J. B. Kathiriya and Dr. S.H. Sindhi
In December 2019, the Wuhan health authorities detected a few cases of an atypical pneumonia of unknown aetiology and having symptoms like pyrexia, myalgia, fatigue, coughs, dyspnea, and pneumonia (Shanker, 2020). By laboratory finding, this illness was later confirmed as a novel coronavirus and initially named as a 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). The disease name, as Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) was recommended subsequently by the World Health Organization (WHO). The name SARS-CoV-2 instead of 2019-nCoV was suggested by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. WHO declared this recent ongoing viral out- break as a pandemic on 11 th March, 2020 and as an international public health emergency on 30th January, 2020 [1].
251 Integrity Analysis and Functional Sperm Assessments to Predict Boar Fertility Performance, Tainã F Cardoso, Antonio Sergio Varela Jr, Estela F Silva, Mariana B Jorge, Adalto Bianchini , Carine D Corcini
Methods for estimating the in vitro fertility quality of a semen sample for use in artificial insemination have been investigated for a long time; however, for animals with high reproductive performance, these methods still have many shortcomings. Furthermore, there have been few reports on the peculiarities of swine sperm cells, especially regarding factors that influence fertility. Thus, some characteristics of sperm integrity and functionality may serve as indicators of reproductive performance in swine. The present study evaluated the morphophysiology of spermatozoa from swine with high and low in vivo farrowing rates. Animals with high fertility had higher mitochondrial functionality (p < 0.05), lower plasma membrane fluidity (p < 0.01) and higher total antioxidant capacity (p < 0.01). The last two parameters were positively correlated with in vivo fertility (r = 0.77, p = 0.0003; and r = 0.63, p = 0.0049; respectively). These findings indicate that certain parameters affect fertility and are potentially useful factors for evaluating semen and indicating the farrowing rate in swine.
252 Echinococcosis: A Zoonotic Potential, Sanweer Khatoon, Naresh Kumar and Afroz Jahan
In recent years, the impact that foodborne parasites exert on food safety, food security, quality of life and livelihoods has begun to receive well-deserved global attention. Echinococcosis, an important zoonotic parasitic disease caused by metacestode of Echinococ- cus granulosus, tapeworm of dog. It is an important disease as it causes condemnation of affected visceral organs of domestic animals. In human being it is of zoonotic importance. A year-round study from 2020-21 was conducted in dogs of Navania, Udaipur to assess the zoonotic potential. The results of faecal sample examination revealed the presence of eggs of parasites and regular monitoring of the health and treatment was done in dogs to control the disease occurrence.
253 Integrated Farming Systems: Challenges and Opportunities, Anand Kumar Singh, Satuti Sharma, Divya Pathak, Prashant Verma and PC Patwal
Cropping, animal husbandry, fisheries, forestry, and other agri- cultural enterprises that are integrated have significant potential in the agricultural sector. These enterprises not only assist farm- ers supplement their income, but they also serve to increase fam- ily’s labour employment. The integrated farming system strategy changes agricultural techniques for maximum productivity in the cropping pattern while also ensuring optimal resource utilisation. In the integrated system, farm waste is better recycled or pro- cessed for profitable reasons. According to Paul Harris, "It is a system which comprises of inter-related set of enterprises with crop activity as base, will pro- vide ways to recycle produces and "waste" from one component becomes an input for another part of the system, which reduces cost and improves soil health and production and/or income." Ag- riculture can be integrated with livestock, poultry, and fish at the same location in an integrated agricultural system to offer year- round employment and additional income
254 Conceptual Ignorance - The Underlying Cause of Amphibian Decline, Koutilya Bhattacharjee
Amphibians, the first land vertebrates evolved on this planet are surviving for more than 330 million years [1] and have estab- lished themselves as a major component of the ecological food web. They provide multiple ecosystem services through control- ling insect (including pests, arbovectors etc.) populations, provid- ing prominent secondary production resources as foods, are the biggest sources of natural bioactive components including antimi- crobial peptides and many more. Toad and frog legs are consumed as culinary delicacy in a major part of the world. Last but not the least many of them are kept as pet throughout the world. The last report on global abundance of amphibians published from IUCN describes 5743 species out of which 1856 species fall under IUCN threatened categories comprising nearly one-third of them (32%) [2]. Three major causes of declines reported are over-exploitation, habitat loss and enigmatic causes. Let us try to explore the underly- ing causes of such losses being increased continuously since 1980. But going to that let us concentrate on the statistics available so far.
255 Oestrus Synchronization in West African Dwarf Goat: Effect of Prostaglandin Synchronized Oestrus on In-Vitro Cervical Mucus Sperm Characteristics, Oyeyemi Matthew Olugbenga, Amoo Oluwapelumi Adebanke and Agbugba Linda Chinyere
Oestrus synchronization is a tool that has assisted in maximizing reproductive efficiency in livestock. This study investigated the in-vitro sperm mucus penetration test (ISMPT) of prostaglandin synchronized West African Dwarf goats using eight does and two bucks. The doe goats were randomly divided into two groups namely: Group A (given 1ml of distilled water twice at 11 days intervals) and Group B (treated with 5mg/kg of Prostaglandin F2α twice at 11 days interval). Oestrus detection was done using aproned bucks and vaginal cytology. Cervical mucus was collected at oestrus using standard procedure. Semen was collected via the electroejaculation method. Its evaluation was carried out before and after the introduction of cervical mucus according to standard procedure. The mean value for sperm motility (88.75±3.75 and 50.00 ± 15.14%), liveability (96.00 ± 2.00 and 82.00 ± 11.02%) and total sperm abnormalities (28.71 ± 2.55 and 21.56 ± 2.81%) for Group A before and after ISMPT were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The mean value for motility (87.50 ± 2.50 and 60.00 ± 9.13%), liveability (96.50 ± 0.87 and 77.00 ± 9.95%) and total sperm abnormalities (23.03 ± 2.17 and 18.71 ± 2.56%) for Group B before and after ISMPT were not significantly different (p > 0.05). The mean value for motility, liveability and total sperm abnormalities for Group A and B before and after ISMPT were not significantly different (p > 0.05). This observation shows that the cervical mucus from prostaglandin synchronized doe goats had no deleterious effect on sperm characteristics in-vitro.
256 Genetics and Therapies of Mastitis in Common Milch Animals: A Review, Seeta Dewali, Rimpy Sharma, Mokshi Sharma, Azra Naz, Vishakha Arya, Renu Gahtori, Kiran Arya, Jyoti Garjola, Anshika Tripathi, Palak Narang, Bhawana Fartyal, Kajal Bora, Deepak Kumar Arya, Satpal Singh Bisht and Netrapal Sharma
Domesticated cattle represent not only a large source of sustenance but also a source of income for billions of people. The dairy sector has a very significant role in the Indian economy, but many tasks need to be addressed in order to preserve governmental agencies, in order to maintain the competitiveness and long-term viability of the industry, we have been attempting to identify healthy dairy cows with enhanced or decreased potential. For many years, several diseases in cattle, including the development of mastitis, were reducing the milk industry. Furthermore, the disease has a significant detrimental influence on dairy industry production as a result of poor milk quality and decreased industrial yield. The present review aimed to provide complete information on mastitis in one place and to be helpful for researchers.
257 Pinnal Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Cats: A Report of 4 Cases, Sumanth Bedre M, Gavin Damian Furtado and Sairam R
Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common cutaneous tumour seen in cats. Four cats were presented to Worldwide Veterinary Service (WVS) India, with a history of ulceration, thickening and crusting lesions on the ear pinnae. Histopathological examination of the biopsy samples confirmed squamous cell carcinoma. Hematology, serum biochemistry was performed and thoracic radiographs were taken in all four cases. In addition to squamous cell carcinoma, actinic dermatitis lesions were detected in the contralateral ear of one of the cases. Radical pinnectomy was performed in all the cases. All the cats recovered without any complications.
258 Growth Modelling in Aseel Native Chicken, Amit Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar, Manjari Pandey, Chirag Chaudhari, TS Aruna, Ruhi Meena, Hanumant L Kanadkhedkar, Chandrahas and Med Ram Verma
Aseel, an important Indian native chicken breed, characterized by its aggressive behaviour, fighting ability and majestic gait is being utilized in India for developing crosses for backyard poultry farming. Therefore, information regarding its growth models is a pre-requisite which is yet not available. So, present investigation is first of its kind in India which was carried out to evaluate various non-linear models and to find out the best fitting growth model in Aseel. Data on body weights from second week of age to 20 weeks of age at biweekly intervals were recorded on 1054 progenies from 30 sires and 139 dams hatched in three hatches and maintained at Desi Fowl Unit of Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly. Owing to the non-linear characteristic of growth, three non-linear models namely, Gompertz model, Bertalanffy model and Logistic model were evaluated. Goodness of fit for all the models were checked using coefficient of determination (R2), adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj-R2), Mean Square Error (MSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). The body weights at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 weeks of age averaged 28.18g, 65.94g, 138.99g, 237.06g, 359.95g, 533.74g, 718.28g, 922.33g, 1149.7g, 1321.65g and 1477.14g, respectively in males of Aseel native chicken. The corresponding body weights in females were 27.94g, 64.04g, 128.28g, 214.50g, 317.00g, 462.54g, 615.53g, 782.14g, 956.48g, 1077.65g and 1183.50g, respectively. Out of the three models, the Gompertz model, with R2 = 1.000, Adj- R 2 = 1.000 and AIC = 29.839, best described the growth trend in males. In females, the Logistic model, with R 2 = 0.999, Adj-R2 = 0.999 and AIC = 29.734 was found to be the best. In pooled or combined sex data, Gompertz model, having R2 = 0.999, Adj-R2 = 0.999 and AIC = 30.004, was determined as the best. The study revealed that these models can be used to determine the average body weights at any given point of time in Aseel native chicken under normal conditions. The investigation has generated baseline data on growth modelling and can also be used in other native chicken breeds.
259 Care and Management of Equines, Divya Pathak and Anand Kumar Singh
Equines are extremely sensitive to micro and macro environ- mental changes in feed and handling. Horse care includes under- standing the horse’s need, structure and how the systems in its body function, learning to recognise signs of illness, dealing with injury and disease, and knowing how to use horse equipment and tack. The anatomy, body systems, and natural behaviour of the horse are all adapted for a life as a herd animal and dictate how it should be cared for.
260 Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Pigs Fed Diets Containing Urea-Molasses Treated Rice Husk as a Replacement for Wheat Offal, Mafimidiwo AN, Williams GA, Mafimidiwo ZT, Rabiu LA, Adesanya OF , Sule R, Agba CD and Rosiji CO
The use of non-conventional fibrous feed stuff in pig nutrition to reduce cost requires strategies to increase its utilisation due to its low nutrient content and poor digestibility. This study investigated the effect of graded levels of urea-molasses treated rice husk (UMTRH) as replacement for wheat offal in diet of growing pigs. A total of 60 pigs of about 8 - 10 kg weight were used to investigate the growth performance and carcass characteristics. Pigs were allotted on weight equalisation basis into five dietary treatments. The pigs were randomly allotted into 15 pens and each treatment contained 12 pigs consisting of 3 replicates of 4 pigs each. The diets formulated consists of a standard basal diet Control; (wheat offal based without treated rice husk) and treated rice husk was used to replace wheat offal at 25, 50, 75, and 100% replacement levels in a standardized grower pigs diet. Performance data was collected at the end of 8th and 16th week of the study while carcass measurement was done at the end of 16th week. Cut parts and organs were expressed as % of live weight (% LW). Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance in a completely randomized design. At 8 weeks, total weight gain (TWG) was higher (P < 0.05) for pigs fed control diet (22.25 kg) and those fed diets containing 25% (22.17 kg) and 50% (21.42 kg) UMTRH than those fed diet with 100% (19.42 kg) UMTRH. 25% inclusion of UMTRH in the diet of pigs resulted in better (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR). At 16 weeks, the inclusion 25% UMTRH resulted in improved (P < 0.05) weight gain comparable to the control while pigs fed diet with 100% UMTRH had reduced (P < 0.05) weight gain (21.00 kg). Pigs fed diet with 100% UMTRH had reduced (P < 0.05) dressing percentage (67.59%) compared to that of the control. It was concluded that inclusion of 75% UMTRH supports weight gain of pigs like that of the control diet with comparable dressing percentage.
261 Histoenzymic Studies on Localization of Diaphorases and Esterases in Cyclic Corpus Luteum of Indian Buffalo, Kritima Kapoor, Opinder Singh and Devender Pathak
The current study was conducted on corpus luteum (CL) from healthy buffalo ovaries (n = 40) collected from local slaughterhous- es. The CL was cleaned, observed grossly, and categorized into early luteal (stage I, 1 to 5 days), mid-luteal (stage II, 6 to 11 days), late luteal (stage III, 12 to 16 days), and regressing phase (stage IV, 17 to 20 days) based on their gross morphology, having ten ovaries in each group. The cryosections of CL obtained were incubated with substrates to study the distribution pattern of NADPH-diaphorase, NADH-diaphorase, and Non-specific esterase (NSE). The NADH-diaphorase activity was moderate within the developing luteal cells and weak in connective tissue in corpus haemorrhagicum, with strong to intense reaction in the luteal cells of mid-luteal phase CL and negligible activity in luteal cells of regressing phase. However, luteal cells of mid-luteal phase CL exhibited mixed activity for NADPH-d. In the corpus albicans phase, the NADPH-d activity was almost nil. NSE activity was moderate in the developing luteal cells in the corpus haemorrhagicum phase, strong in the luteal cells in mid-luteal phase, and moderate to weak activity for NSE within the cytoplasm of the regressing luteal cells. Therefore, it can be concluded that increased NADPH during the mid-luteal phase might be correlated to the increased secretory activity of cells as the enzyme is responsible for the conversion of cholesterol to progesterone and fatty acid synthesis. Histoenzymic localization of diaphorases and esterases in cyclic CL of buffalo, therefore, indicated their subsequent role in steroidogenesis.
262 Feeding effect of Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) Pods on Growth Performance in Marwari Goats, Buddha Ram, Rajesh Nehra , Subhash Kachhawaha, Dinesh Jain and Basant Bias
Feeding of non-conventional feed stuffs (NCFR) into the feeding system can serve as one of the alternatives in arid region of Rajas- than. Vilayati babul or Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) pods have also been identified as potential non-conventional feed resources. The ripen pods are highly palatable, which are having moderate in crude protein (12%) and rich in free sugar (15-17%) giving sweet taste to it feeding to the animals. The present experimental study was conducted in Marwari goats at Bikaner. In first phase of the study in vitro experiment was carried out using seven treatment groups of dewbean (Moth chara) straw based complete feed containing P. juliflora pods at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% level of complete feed, respectively in place of equal proportions of de oiled rice bran and barley to decide optimum level of integration of P. juliflora pods in the whole feed. The kids were randomly distributed in two groups viz., control (T1) and treatment (T2). A study was conducted to estimate the efficacy of Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) pods as a non conventional feed resource in animal feeding system. The in vitro analysis of complete feeds revealed that the feed containing 20% levels of P. juliflora pods had significantly (P < 0.01) higher values of IVDMD, IVOMD and IVTGP. Thus, this level was selected for in vivo experiment. In the second phase, incorporation of P. juliflora pods in the diet of experimental goat kids at the level of 20% of complete feed significantly (P < 0.05) improved total weight gain and average daily weight gain (P < 0.01) of kids. No significant dif- ference was observed in the values of dry matter intake, organic matter intake and feed conversion ratio of kids between two groups. Therefore, it could be concluded that incorporation of Prosopis juliflora pods in the diet at 20% level in place of DORB and barley had no adverse effect on performance and nutrient utilization.
263 Aspergillosis in Poultry, Riya Abrol, Satuti Sharma and Anand Kumar Singh
Aspergillosis is a non- contagious respiratory disease caused by fungal species known as aspergillus affecting chickens, ducks, tur- key and many other bird species. Mainly seen in 7-40 days old birds. Aspergillus fumigatus is the main cause of this disease. Infection occurs through inhalation of spores, typically from contaminated litter or other contaminations in hatchery. After inhalation spores mainly penetrate the respiratory system causing granulomas. Itraconazole is one of these drugs that can be used to treat the disease. Prevention is best method of controlling this disease as treatment is not effective. Adequate managemental practices such as sanita- tion, disinfection and ventilation must be adopted. Handling infected birds and animals, inhaling spores from infected feed and litter, poor sanitation and hygiene, and eating undercooked contaminated poultry are all ways for it to spread to humans.
264 Usage of a Non-animal Surrogate model in Veterinary Surgical Education and Training, Vasanthi Balan
Presently offering veterinary surgical and clinical skill training is becoming increasingly challenging for veterinary institutions and profession as a whole. The increasing pressure from public and welfare domain to reduce live animal usage for teaching pur- poses has further complicated the process. Hence, it is imperative to explore various non-animal alternatives to employ in veterinary education and training. Although numerous models are available there has been dearth for indigenous low-cost non- animal models. Therefore, a non- animal surrogate was developed with locally available materials and evaluated for its efficiency as an educational aid. The results showed that it improved the student’s surgical skills and confidence level. The surgical skill gained using surrogates was adaptable to live animal surgery. It reduced student’s apprehension when doing surgery for the first time and decreased the use of cadaver or live animal. It is economical and simple to make and costs approximately one tenth the purchase price of an animal from facility. In conclusion this non-animal surrogate is an effective and less stressful aid for teaching basic surgical techniques to novice surgeons and concurrently favouring animal welfare.
265 Review on the Morphological Structures and Histological Features of the Respiratory System in Birds, Ektifaa Shakir Khayoon
The goal of these reviews was to identify the morphological structures and histological features of the bird’s respiratory system. The respiratory system of the birds consists of the nasal openings, nasal passage, larynx, trachea, syrinx, bronchi, lungs and air sacs. The beak s base holds the nostrils. The nasal and oral parts there are division of pharynx and has a single cavity; oropharynx because the soft palate not present, the upper, middle and lower conchae were found, the rings of trachea were complete, the syrinyx situated at the division of the trachea, the lungs were not lobulated and were fixed in the position, causing them unable to contract and expand in the respiration, absence of the diaphragm, the air sacs extended to the bones and these were have the ability to contact and expand with the respiration. The epithelia which lined the air ways, nasal cavity, larynx, trachea, syrinx and primary bronchi were ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium, but simple cuboidal in the smallest airways. Lamina propria contain loose connective tissues, associated with lymphoid tissues, muscularis mucosa consists of the smooth muscle tissues. There are five types of the epithelial cells can be found that are columnar cells which considered the most abundant type, goblet cells, brush cells that were regarded as a receptor cells, and basal cells as a small rounded, can be differentiated into the other mentioned cell types. Small granule cells have numerous granules; constitute a population of cells of the diffuse neuroendocrine system. The submucosa consists of loose connec- tive tissues accompanied with serous and mucous glands which are absent in the tertiary bronchi. Tunica muscularis contains the outer longitudinal smooth muscles fibers and circular layer internally. Tunica adventitia is a light coat constructed from loose con- nective tissues filled with blood vessels.
266 Genetic Diversity of Vancomycin Resistance Enterococcus Spp. Isolated from Animal, Human and Environmental Origin, Chaitanya Gottapu, Ch. Bindu Kiranmayi, T. Srinivasa Rao, K. Aswani Kumar, N. Subashini, B. Swathi vimala, Srinivas K, Suresh Yasarla, Chaitanya Venkata, B. Bhavana
Enterococci are the common opportunistic pathogens having a worldwide food safety concern. The present study was undertaken to characterize the vancomycin resistant Enterococcus species of animal, human and environmental origin by using ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR assays. Out of 608 Enterococcus spp. isolates recovered by phenotypic and genotypic methods, 125 Enterococcus isolates were identified as Vancomycin resistance Enterococcus genotypically. The vancomycin resistant genes vanB, vanC1 and vanC2 were detected in 14 (11.20%), 69 (55.20%) and 42 (36.60%) Enterococcus isolates, respectively. A greater degree of heterogeneity was observed among 124 VRE isolates (one E. gallinarum isolate did not yield any bands for both ERIC-PCR and REP- PCR) of four species of Enterococcus from different sources as revealed by presence of 122 genotypes and 123 genotypes by ERIC and REP-PCR analysis, respectively. Nineteen different E. faecalis, 15 E. faecium, 57 E. gallinarum and 31 E. casseliflavus subtypes were differentiated by ERIC-PCR, whereas 21 different E. faecalis, 15 E. faecium, 56 E. gallinarum and 31 E. casseliflavus subtypes by REP- PCR. Genotyping of VRE species by ERIC- PCR and REP- PCR were found to be highly significant since discriminatory power > 0.9 are considered highly significant (0.9997 for ERIC-PCR and 0.9999 for REP-PCR). Cluster analysis also revealed a great degree of homogeneity among some VRE isolates recovered from different sources and implied at the chance of cross-contamination of foods of animal origin.
267 On Farm Diagnostics and Preventive Measures for Mastitis in Dairy Bovines Category: Review Article, Gayathri S Lal, Mukesh Bhakat, TK Mohanty and S Maiti
Mastitis is defined as a multi-etiological disease that causes inflammation of the udder. It is one of the costliest production dis- eases accounting for an economic loss of 100 trillion US dollars globally and approximately Rs. 7165.51 crores in India. The incidence and prevalence rate is higher in sub-clinical mastitis than clinical mastitis in most herds throughout the World. It affects the quantity and quality of milk as well as the udder health of dairy animals. Poor sanitation and hygienic measures account for 67.8 percent of total factors responsible for flaring mastitic pathogens such as E. coli, Staph. aureus and Strept. uberis. Effective and early diagnosis of mastitis is highly essential in eradicating the disease from any herd. Along with the effective diagnosis, preventive measures also play a significant role in minimizing the cases of mastitis.
268 Proximate, Anti-Nutritional and Ascorbic Acid Composition of Baobab Fruit Pulp Meal and its Efficiency in Ameliorating the Impact of Heat Stress on Growth and Blood Indices of Broiler Chicks, RJ Wafar, Ojinnaka PE and Ndubuisi DI
Background: As global warming is getting severe, the environmental temperature has continued to rise in the recent years. Heat stress disrupts the performance, physiological, hormones and behavioural attributes of chickens, hence antioxidants are required in micro quantities to counter the deleterious effect of reactive oxygen species [ROS] during heat stress. Aim: A study was conducted to investigate the nutrient and anti-nutrient compositions of Baobab fruit pulp meal [BFPM] as source of organic ascorbic acid and its ameliorative effect on broiler chicks during heat stress. A total of two hundred and fifty-six, day old Cobb 500 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to four experimental treatments [0, 68, 136 and 204 mgAA/kg], with four replicates each in a completely randomized design. All the data that was generated during the study was subjected to general linear model of SAS and means were compared using Tukey’s procedure. Results: Results indicated that BFPM contains substantial amount of nutrients with limited anti-nutritional factors. Growth perfor- mance of broiler chicks were similar [p > 0.05] across the treatments except for FCR which was better [p < 0.05] for birds feed the control diet [1.39g] and 68 mgAA/kg [1.40g]. Feed cost/kg gain was least for birds feed the control diet. Haematological parameters were similar [p > 0.05] and within normal physiological ranges. Serum indices were similar except for low density lipoprotein [LDL] and Alanine Amino-Transferase [ALT]. Chicks fed 68 [111.00 mg/dL] and 136 [123.50 mg/dL] mgAA supplemented diet had higher [p < 0.05] values of LDL than other treatments while ALT was higher in chicks fed 136 [55.50 μ/L] mgAA supplemented diet. Cortisol was down-regulated [p < 0.05] in chicks fed both the control [6.0 ng/mL] and 68 [4.8 ng/mL] mgAA supplemented diet. Thyroxine was similar [p > 0.05] in all groups. Conclusion: Ascorbic acid content of BFPM in this study did not negatively affect the growth and haematology of broiler chicks ex- cept for FCR. Supplementation of BFPM at 68 and 136 mgAA/kg in the diet of broiler chicks during heat stress conditions improved LDL. ALT and cortisol was also improved in chicks fed diet supplemented with 68 mg of ascorbic acid. BFPM can be used as excellent source of ascorbic acid in the diet of broiler chicks during hot temperatures to alleviate the deleterious effect free radicals. Keywords: Ascorbic Acid; Baobab; Growth; Haematology; Serum; Temperature
269 A Possibility for Sustainable Agriculture: Mixed Farming, Riya Abrol, Sakshi Sharma, Rahul Singh Chandel and Vidushi Sharma
Agriculture is a key component of India’s economy. Since ma- jority individuals chose agriculture as their primary source of in- come, it serves as the country’s principal economic engine. How- ever, this source of income is in jeopardy as a result of agriculture’s increased risk associated with harsh climate change and uncertain agricultural markets. In India, there are several issues affecting each specific sub-sector of agriculture, including horticulture, livestock and fisheries. One solution to these issues is the mixed farming system, which increases production while also giving farm owners better financial returns
270 Pasteurellosis in Rabbits, Aditya Sharma, Satuti Sharma and Anand Kumar Singh
Pasteurella multocida is the most common bacterial pathogen in laboratory rabbits. Pasteurellosis refers to a group of illnesses caused by this organism. P. multocida is most commonly found in rabbit nasal cavities, where it causes rhinitis or chronic asymptom- atic infection. Infection from the nasal cavity can spread to other parts of the body. Among other clinical manifestations, this can re- sult in pneumonia, otitis media, conjunctivitis, genital tract infec- tions, abscesses and septicemia.
271 Tyzzer’s Disease in Laboratory Animals, Satuti Sharma, Aditya Sharma and Anand Kumar Singh
The spore-forming bacterium Clostridium piliforme, formerly known as Bacillus piliformis, is the source of Tyzzer’s disease, an acute epizootic bacterial illness that is characterised by focal necrotic lesions on the liver and heart and segmental necrosis of the caecal mucosa. Young, well-fed animals, especially those given high-protein diets, are the animals most commonly affected by the disease. A Gram-negative, obligatory intracellular bacteria with varied shape in tissue sections, Clostridium piliforme. Production of exotoxin by bacteria leads to necrosis of intestinal epithelium. Bacteria can be returned to the lumen by being deposited there, or they can occasionally penetrate farther into the intestinal wall, where they can infect smooth muscle cells or enter the portal circula- tion. Bacteria from the portal vein may infect the heart and/or liver. Mortality is highest at weaning age in rabbits. Tyzzer’s illness in mice can cause perianal discoloration, diarrhoea, and temporary appearances of being skinny and unclean. Additionally, sudden deaths without warning symptoms are possible. In rabbits there is watery diarrhoea leading to staining of hindquarter, lethargy and anorexia. Mortality occurred in weanling rabbits. In adult rabbits wasting disease is very common
272 Biosafety Measures for the Laboratories Engaged in the Diagnosis/Research of SARS-CoV-2, Rajeev Ranjan, Jitendra K Biswal, Jajati K Mohapatra, Shyam Singh Dahiya, Smrutirekha Mallick and Nihar Ranjan Sahoo
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection emerged in Wuhan city of China, December 2019 and subsequently WHO announced COVID-19 pandemic. In the absence of effective antiviral drugs, change in genomic make-up which leads to evolution of new variant, effective biosafety measure in place, front line health care workers or laboratory person- nel engaged in diagnosis and research are always at risk. As per the scientific risk assessments, the SARS-CoV-2 comes under Risk group 3 pathogens, and to prevent laboratory-acquired infections and disease transmission in the local population and environment, adequate biosafety containment levels are required. Therefore, non-propagative work and diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 with inactivated samples should be performed at least under Biosafety Level 2 (BSL2), while diagnosis with non-inactivated samples should be car- ried out under BSL3 or BSL2 with inward unidirectional air flow along with BSL3 safety equipments and work practices. However, SARS-CoV-2 culture and isolation, as well as research and development activities, must take place inside the BSL3 containment facil- ity. We attempted to establish adequate and efficient biosafety strategies for avoiding SARS-CoV-2 infections within the laboratory. This may be accomplished by conducting a systematic and comprehensive biosafety risk assessment on a continuous basis in order to cope with evolving risks in the laboratory setting. Furthermore, the healthcare workers in hospital or researchers in the laboratories may be unaware of the possibility of aerosols and droplets mediated infection in the laboratory during the process of centrifugation, vortexing, pipetting, and so on, or by SARS-CoV-2 infected individual during the process of breathing, coughing and sneezing and that aerosolized virus may travel up to 1- 6 m. Therefore, aim of this review is to describe the importance of biosafety measures against SARS-CoV-2 that should be introduced in laboratories undertaking diagnosis/research on SARS-CoV-2/any mutant form of SARS- CoV-2 like omicron suspected samples.
273 Heavy Metal Toxicity (Cd and As), their Possible Source of Contamination in Food Chain, Toxicokinetic and Ameliorative Measures; A Review, Rangasai Chandra Goli , Marthala Bhuvaneswar Reddy , Nare Swathi, Madhineni Kavitha , Kiyevi G Chishi
Heavy metals by their definition can be defined as those metals having an atomic number greater than 20 and an atomic density more than 5 g cm-3 and must exhibit the properties of metal. Heavy metal contamination of feeds and fodder imposes a great problem for livestock health, which is transmitted to the human body through the food chain by accumulating in milk, meat and egg prod- ucts. Both natural (volcanic eruptions, forest fires) and anthropogenic (mining, burning of fossil fuels, automobiles exhaust, tobacco smoke) sources are responsible for the emission of arsenic into the atmosphere. The atmospheric arsenic will reach the earth’s sur- face through air currents and rainfall which gets accumulated in the soil. The soil concentration of arsenic and cadmium ranges from 0.2 to 40 ppm and 0.1 to 0.5 ppm respectively [19]. Cultivation of fodder crops by excess application of fertilizers (Eg: phosphorus major source of Cd), pesticides (arsenal fungicides) act as a secondary source for contamination of animal feedstuffs and ingredients. Through the contaminated feedstuffs, water and polluted air heavy metals can enter into the animal body systems resulting in severe health hazards in livestock species. Chronic exposure of livestock to heavy metal pollutants causes mutagenicity, carcinogenic- ity, teratogenicity, immunosuppression, poor body condition and impaired reproduction.
274 How do Zoo Evening Events at ZSL London Zoo Affect Sumatran Tiger Behaviour and Enclosure, Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino, Teague Stubbington, Shelby Renee Brereton, James Edward Brereton, Alexandria Gabb, Rosica Stoycheva, Amanda Ferguson, Richard Preziosi
Globally, zoological collections may host public events after usual opening hours including festivals, special tours and evening events, in order to generate income. During the summer of 2014, The Zoological Society of London held a series of nine evening events during which zoos’ opening hours were extended, with entertainment offerings such as tours and visitor events provided. This study investigated the effect of evening events on the behaviour and enclosure use of five Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) at ZSL London Zoo. Instantaneous focal sampling was utilised to collect behavioural data and enclosure zone occupancy. Measures of visitor density, crowd noise volume and flash photography data were collected to identify their effect on behaviour and enclosure use. Overall, there was a significant decrease in feeding, locomotion and playing, and a significant increase in resting dur- ing event evenings. The event behaviours stretching, spraying, rubbing, flehmen and glass banging also occurred significantly more often during events than on control evenings. There was a significant difference in enclosure use between evening event and control nights, with tigers using distant zones more frequently during events. These data suggest that overall, event nights could influence the behaviour of zoo-housed tigers. In addition to altering their behaviour, tigers appear to exercise choice in space use to reduce the impact of visitor presence during evenings. Future studies should explore these potential impacts across a wider range of felids and investigate the effects of the different stimuli produced by visitors. This information can therefore be used to inform planning of effective mitigation strategies.
275 Lumpy Skin Disease: A threat to the Indian Dairy Sector, Upender, Suvidhi Sudesh Kumar and Ajay Kumar
The lumpy skin disease is a nodular eruptive condition of the bovines especially the cattle caused by a lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) characterised by fever, hypersalivation, lachrymation fol- lowed by the development of the nodular lesions on the oro-pha- ryngeal region, udder, genitalia, rectum, hide etc. and occasionally ends into the fatal outcome. It was first reported in Zambia in 1929. Thereafter, it gets spread to Africa region followed by most of the countries of the world by the means of the biting insects, the migration of the flock or animals etc. According to OIE, it is a notifiable disease. It is a transboundary animal disease (TAD) which is highly contagious and have high potential of crossing the national borders and caus- ing the severe socio-economic and public health consequences. First reported in India in 2019 and then, after caused a devastating response till now.
276 The Supplementary Effect of Some Medicinal Plant Mixtures on the Productive Performance of Saidi Lambs, Hamdy Mohamed Khattab , Azza Mohamed Badr , Mahmoud Mohamed Abdelfarrag and Abdalla Mansour Singer
The present study was aimed to compare the effect of two mixtures of medicinal plants as feed additives on the lamb’s perfor- mance. The first additive consisted of a 1:1:1 Rosemary, Thyme, and Peppermint mixture (RTPM). While, the second additive consist- ed of a 1:1:1 Lemongrass, Parsley, and Coriander mixture (LPCM). Twelve male Saidi lambs of 20.49 ± 0.76 kg body weight (BW) were randomly allocated into three groups. The first group received a control diet (concentrate-to-forage ratio: 70:30) without additives, the second group received a control diet supplemented with 1.5% RTPM on a dry matter (DM) basis, and the third group received control diet supplemented with 1.5% LPCM on a DM basis. The experiment lasted for 150 days. The results showed that RTPM had lowered DMI (P = 0.0692) while the LPCM had higher DMI as compared the to control. The supplementation of RTPM or LPCM did not have a significant effect on nutrients digestibility and their nutritive value. Similarly, ruminal pH, ruminal temperature and total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) were not affected (P > 0.05) by RTPM or LPCM, while ammonia-N (P = 0.0043), and total nitrogen (P < 0.0001) were higher for RTPM and LPCM than Control. The average daily gain (ADG), total weight gains (TWG), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the lambs receiving RTPM or LPCM rations were greater (P ≤ 0.0057) than the control diet. The economic efficiency was improved by the RTPM addition (P < 0.0001) while the LPCM diet decreased economic efficiency compared to the control.
277 Pathology and Management of Acute Immature Fasciola Infestation in Sheep and Goats in Western Maharashtra, Dayaram Suryawanshi, Sonali Shete, Erika Alphonso, Omika Pinjari, Mayuri Bhane and Pavan Pawar
Total 204 cases of acute fasciola i.e., immature fasciola were presented for diagnostic post-mortem at Omega Laboratories, Lonand, Maharashtra. Out of 204 case 122 cases were of sheep and 82 were of goats. Higher incidence of fasciola infestations were noticed in month of May. Sudden death in these sheep and goats were noticed due to severe internal bleeding. This internal bleeding was observed due to rupture of liver and rupture of lungs. All the 204 animals showed involvement of lungs which is considered as rare in other countries. Specific treatment with Ivermectin + Clorsulone (Neomec SXTM) and supportive treatment with HemokrutR and TransferrinTM were found to be beneficial for the complete recovery from the disease. Avoiding grazing around the stagnated water, where the population of snails is higher is the crucial step to prevent re-infestation and infestation of fasciola in sheep and goats
278 Effect of Zinc Oxide and Zinc Methionine Supplementation on Skin Coat Condition in Piglets, Pramod Talwar, Bhaskaran R, Mahadevappa D Gouri, Vivek M Patil and Rajeshwari YB
Pig production occupies an important place in modern agriculture. Piglets are far less demanding on nutrients as compared to poultry. The experiment was conducted to know the effect of feeding organic and inorganic sources of additional zinc on growth incidences of gut microbial status in piglets. Sixty graded (Large White Yorkshire) suckling piglets were randomly divided into three treatment group of twenty piglets each on the basis of litter size, parity and live birth weight. Treatment I (T1) served as control and these piglets were fed with deionized water daily . Treatment II (T2) and Treatment III (T3) were fed Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and Zinc Methionine (ZnM) daily (50 ppm) as oral suspension. The hair coat condition was scored based on the general appearance of the hair coat condition during experimental period, rated either 0 (normal) or 1 (poor). “Normal” refers to a hair coat in which hairs are evenly distributed, fine, appropriately oriented on the body. “Poor” refers to a hair coat in which bald patches are present or hairs are unevenly distributed, coarse, woolly, crimped or lying in a disoriented fashion, or appearing dull. The observa- tions during the experiment revealed that the hair coat was similar among all piglets regardless of the treatment groups during the entire period of the study. Statistical analysis revealed there was no significant difference between control (T1), zinc oxide (T2) and zinc methionine (T3) groups respectively. This might be due to lower levels of zinc oxide and zinc methionine used during the experiment.
279 Nutraceuticals in Ruminant Feeding, Sunita Kalita
The notable accountabilities of the diverse and complex microbial communities of ruminant animals apropos of several physiolog- ical functions like digestion, nutrient utilization, immunity system, etc. is remarkable. However, scientists do work on development of more optimum production and better feed efficiency ratio by means of modulation and alteration of this microbial population in ruminants. Nutraceuticals have highly achievable impact on Ruminant health and improvement on production. Various studies have shown the advantages of using Nutraceuticals in Ruminants for gut health and proved impact on production. Through this article an attempt has been made to enunciate the benefits of nutraceuticals in ruminant feeding system.
280 Supplementation of Zinc Oxide and Zinc Methionine on Incidence of Non-Specific Scours in Piglets, Pramod Talwar, Bhaskaran R, Mahadevappa D Gouri, Vivek M Patil and Rajeshwari YB
Pig production occupies an important place in modern agriculture. Piglets are far less demanding on nutrients as compared to poultry. The experiment was conducted to know the effect of feeding organic and inorganic sources of additional zinc on growth incidences of non-specific scours in piglets. Sixty graded (Large White Yorkshire) suckling piglets were randomly divided into three treatment group of twenty piglets each on the basis of litter size, parity and live birth weight. Treatment I (T1) served as control and these piglets were fed with deionized water daily as oral suspensions. Treatment II (T2) and Treatement III (T3) were fed with fed Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and Zinc Methionine (ZnM) daily (50 ppm) as oral suspension. The results showed that the incidence of diarrhoea in control (T1), zinc oxide (T2) and zinc methionine (T3) groups were (35%), (20%) and (25%) respectively. In the control group (T1), only seven piglets were seen with diarrhoea, whereas, in the zinc oxide supplemented group (T2) four piglets were observed with diarrhoea and with zinc methionine supplemented group (T3) five piglets had shown diarrhoea. In the current study supplementation of zinc, reduced the incidence of diarrhoea in piglets. But the possible reason for the non- significance incidence of diarrhoea among the T1, T2 and T3 groups might be due to the feco-oral contamination of zinc, since there was no control over the piglets supplemented with and without zinc.
281 A Study on Management Practices Followed by Organized Stud Farms in Karnataka, Abdul Mateen K W, Uday Kumar, Mahadevappa D Gouri, Vivek M Patil and Rajeshwari YB
A study was conducted on the different management practices followed by organized stud farms in Karnataka. Information was collected by interview method using a structured schedule. The establishments of stud farms ranged from 18 to 19 centuries. The mean stock holding was 97.2 ± 21, with about 30 ± 8.75%, 41.6 ± 10.81% and 22.4 ± 7.0% owning stallions, mares and geldings, respectively. Most of the stables were of close type (100%) and located at an adjacent distance from the residence (100%). Concrete flooring was common (80%) and only 50% of the respondents are using straw 40% wood shavings as a bedding material. Mean stable dimensions were 162 ± 60 sq. ft. 50% of respondents were cleaning Stables every day. Stone feed mangers and feed buckets were commonly used. Majority respondents practiced individual feeding (100%), with oats as the primary fodder, and concentrates fed thrice a day (52.6%). Vitamins, minerals, salts and electrolytes were given as feed supplements by all the respondents, and anti-stressors, amino acids and growth promoters were commonly used. Colostrum was fed to foals within 30 minutes of birth and concentrate feeding was introduced at 3 months of age. Natural mating (60%) with a breeding ratio of 1:5 and conception rate of 72.37%, and artificial insemination (40%) with a conception rate of 70.0%, were commonly practiced. The most common indica- tors of oestrus were valval discharge (50%) and swelling (10%). Most of the respondents preferred sandy surface for training their horses. Regular vaccination was practised for tetanus only. Most respondents regularly practised deworming and dental check-ups. Diarrhoea (100%), colic (100%), laminitis (90%) and endometritis (50%) were commonly recorded conditions. (70%) respondents reported transporting the horses once a month for clinical purposes.
282 General Management of Buffalo Calf - A Review, Harini R, Mahadevappa D Gouri, Ramachandraih M, Vivek M Patil and Umashankar BC
Management of young calves in these days gaining a lot of importance as there is scarcity in availability of good quality future stock for either a dairy cow farm or even for, she buffaloes dairy farms to sustain. Young stock is considered as future herds of any dairy enterprise, the calves care and management are not only essential for sustenance of the dairy industry but is also essential in the wake of preserving and maintaining our good quality germ plasm. Important aspects in calf rearing are health management and proper nutrition. In India majority of the ruminants are reared by small, marginal and landless farmers and most of them do not follow general management practices. Therefore this review was undertaken to provide the pooled information for better care and management of our future stocks, which is the young stock of high production germplasm. There is a need to make the farmers aware about importance of scientific management practices like vaccination. The neglected and poor care of calves in these dairies is creating a great damage to the nation in terms of loss of good quality germplasm. Also the future of dairy industry will be affected if the calf care practices in these dairy farms are not improved. Hence there is an immediate and persistent attention is needed especially in large commercial dairy farms about the significance of rearing calves for profitable and high economic returns in any dairy enterprise.
283 Patterns of Diurnal and Nocturnal Cub-Directed Social Interaction and Guarding Behaviour in Sumatran Tigers, Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino , Charlotte Dougal , Kathryn Sanders , Teague Stubbington , James Edward Brereton and Richard Preziosi
Felids are commonly housed in zoological collections worldwide. While aspects of their behaviour are well studied, there remain questions on best practice husbandry including during reproduction and breeding scenarios. In 2016, the Zoologi- cal Society of London’s (ZSL) London Zoo held a pair of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) for the purpose of breed- ing. While they are believed to be solitary in the wild, many collections maintain their tigers in pairs, with some keeping pairs together during parturition and rearing periods. The aim of this study was to investigate the social interactions between a male Sumatran tiger and cubs when housed in a shared enclosure. The data were collected using CCTV footage in the indoor enclo- sure for the tigers. The CCTV footage ran continuously throughout the day and night, allowing a more holistic overview of be- haviour. These 24-hour recordings were split into 6 equal hour ranges to calculate behaviour activity budgets and proximity of the male from the cubs. Data were analysed using a Chi-squared test for association to determine differences between individu- al behaviour. Overall, the male spent longer than expected engaging in guarding behaviour of the cubs. The male also regularly engaged in affiliative behaviours directed towards the cubs. No cub-directed aggression was observed from the male toward the cubs. Overall, this suggests that maintaining a male tiger with its progeny may be feasible as a management approach in some zoological collections, provided the male’s personality is compatible, and alternative accommodation is available.
284 Effects of Chromolaena odorata Leaf Meal Supplementation on Egg Quality, Semen Characteristics, and Some Stress Markers on Brahma Chicken (Gallus gallus Domesticus), Chouegouong Tuedom Mireille, Nguemmogne Tamdem Ghislaine, Pierrette Ngo Bahebeck, Ghomsi Magne Olivia Sandra, Enamou Mbanga Gatien, Tientcheu Blandine Laure, Mongo Bitjocka Gabriel, Nya Djapo Sidonie, Sulem Yong Nina Nindum, Owona Pascal Emmanuel, Mengue Ngadena Yolande and Etchu Agbor Kingsley
Chromolaena odorata leaf meal (COLM) has been used to feed poultry without adverse effects on growth, however, studies on its effect on the fertility of local chicken are scarce. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of COLM-based diets on egg fertil- ity, semen characteristic, and tissue biochemistry parameters (Protein, cholesterol, catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration) of Brahma chickens. Sixty hens and fifteen cocks, aged 4-5 months were fed three dietary treatments T0, T1, and T2, as containing 0, 1 and 2% COLM, respectively in five replications for two months. Semen samples were collected once a week by double hand massage technique and semen quality parameters (volume, motility, concentration, and sper- matozoa viability) were determined. Data on testicular and epididymis histology and biochemical parameters in testes were also collected during the eighth week of the experiment. During the incubation phase, fertility, and hatchability of eggs, as well as embry- onic mortality of fertile eggs were recorded. The semen analysis showed that spermatozoa concentration and spermatozoa motility (p < 0.05) increased significantly with increased COLM supplementation levels. The biochemical analysis showed an increase in protein, cholesterol, and GSH levels while MDA levels decreased in males supplemented with COLM. The fertility percentage for T1 was significantly higher than in the other treatments, while hatchability and mortality of the embryo showed non-significant differences among the groups. The histopathological analysis also revealed a positive effect of the plant on spermatogenesis. Alto- gether, the addition of COLM up to 1% in local chicken diets improves semen quality, oxidative status level of testes, and egg fertility
285 Empirical Study of Dragonfly, Neurobasis Chinesis as Ecological Indicator in the Freshwater Streams of Keeriparai Forest Eco System of Kanyakumari District, Tamil Nadu, Keny J Newport
This paper focuses on the dragonfly Neurobasis chinesis, which belongs to Odonate family, and their existence determines the health of an ecosystem. The Nerobasis chinesis is also called as gossamer, due to the coloration of their wings. The study of Neurobasis chinesis dragonfly was initiated in the tail-end hill ranges of the Western Ghats, viz., Kanyakumari District (Keeriparai Forest Range). The altitude of the hills ranges from 100 m - 2695 m covered by evergreen forests. Major emphasis was given to observe the Neuroba- sis chinesis dragon fly, from various breeding habitats, viz., slow flowing streams, spring pool and rocky pool. The occurrence of Neu- robasis chinesis dragon fly are observed against water quality and abundance of plants. We could only see a trend towards Neurobasis chinesis dragonfly occurring in freshwater streams at particular altitude in abundance. Neurobasis chinesis dragonfly species richness therefore appears to be positively associated with vascular plants they feed in freshwater habitat and also unpolluted water steams.
286 Do the Access to External Paddock in Collective Pen System Improve Sow and Piglets’ Health and Performance?”, Sharacely Souza Farias, Jonathan Vinicius Santos, Debora Caroline Goncalves de Oliveira, Vera Letticie de Azevedo Ruiz, Messy Hannear de Andrade Pantoja and Cristiane Goncalves Titto
The use of individual gestational crates is responsible for the economic viability of swine production systems and contributes to improved productivity. However, these methods are associated with poor animal welfare. This can be improved using group housing throughout gestation and lactation. The use of collective pens has been studied, although little is known about the effects of access to external paddocks on health and performance during the reproductive and maternity phases. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the health and performance of lactating sows and suckling pigs housed in collective pens with and without access to external paddocks. Thirteen females were allocated to two housing treatments: collective pens with access, and collective pens without access to an external paddock. Animal health and performance were measured in pregnant and lactating sows, and sucking pigs. An indepen- dent t-test (P < 0.05) was used to analyze the data. For data that did not show a normal distribution, non-parametric analysis was used the Mann-Whitney test for comparison between the average pairs of treatments. The results indicated that the sows had increased weight during gestation, lost weight during lactation, and were not affected by the treatments (P > 0.05). The other parameters did not differ between the treatments (P > 0.05). In conclusion, sows housed in collective pens with access to external paddocks had proper and equivalent health indices and performance as their piglets, compared to the ones in collective pens without access to external paddocks, showing that this last system can also be a good option for the reproduction and maternity phases with no productive and health losses.
287 Bioresearch Highlights on Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), and their Applications, Bhawanpreet Kaur and CS Mukhopadhyay
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are an important type of genetic variation that occurs due to differenc- es in one nucleotide between individuals. SNPs are distributed throughout the genome and can occur in both cod- ing as well as non-coding regions. Different SNPs databases and tools for predicting protein-altering variants are avail- able with huge information. For detecting the synonymous and nonsynonmous SNPs for genome-wide studies online and offline tools are accessible. In bioinformatics, SNPs are crucial to understanding the molecular mechanisms of sequence evo- lution, association with human diseases, and variation between individuals in response to drugs and can be used to make per- sonalized medicines. Therefore, in this systematic review, we also discuss the vital role of SNPs in genetic mapping, pharma- cogenomics, gene discovery, pharmacogenetics, diseases, evolution, nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics, and strong biological markers
288 Identification of Microsatellite-Based Markers and Breed-Specific Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Panels for Parentage Assignment in Bovines, Kirtypal Singh, CS Mukhopadhyay, Simarjeet Kaur and JS Arora
Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers are nowadays used as potential markers for parentage determination in bo- vines. Five trios of each of the species, namely, Bubalus bubalis (Indian water buffalo) and Bos taurus (Holstein Friesian crosses) were selected for the study. Parentage conformity of trios (Probability of Paternity = 99.99%) with six fluorescently labelled mi- crosatellite loci was done. Single nucleotide polymorphism-based parentage detection included identification of informative sin- gle nucleotide polymorphism (based on trio-wise allele comparison) followed by exclusion of Mendelian erroneous (MDE) SNPs for minimizing the errors. About 100 to 100 nucleotide long stretches of DNA, harbouring haplotypes (consisting of at least 5 SNPs) were identified PCR amplification followed by Sanger sequencing for validation of SNP-variations in new sets of trios. The principal component analysis (PCA) based on the Minor allele frequency (MAF) distribution was analysed. Principal component analysis have narrowed down the SNP-data to figure out the most informative SNPs. We could identify 51 and 1857 most infor- mative SNPs for buffalo and cattle, respectively, which could explain cumulative variance of up to 95.4% and 95.43% of the com- ponents, respectively. However, the validation results were not much appreciable as some of the single nucleotide polymorphism could not be detected in those amplicons. Hence, the accuracy of parentage assignment using the SNP-based approach was quite less efficient. In conclusion, it can be stated that the microsatellite-based approach for parentage determination is well stan- dardized and efficient in accuracy of parentage assignment has compared to the SNP-based approach for parentage assignment.
289 Immunomodulatory Efficacy of Hedychium Spicatum Rhizome Powder in Long Term Indoxacarb Intoxicated White Leghorn (WLH) Cockerels, Govind Kumar Choudhary , Satya Pal Singh , Manoj Singh , Anil Kumar and Rajeev Ranjan
The present investigation was undertaken to ascertain the immunomodulatory efficacy of Hedychium spicatum rhizome powder (HSRP) in chronic toxicity produced by indoxacarb in white leghorn (WLH) cockerels by determining the levels of serum immunoglobin (IgY), Interferon-γ (INF-γ), Interleukin -2 (IL-2), and lymphocyte stimulation test (LST), Macrophage function test (MFT) and delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH). 49 white leghorn (WLH), 6-8 weeks old chicks were divided into 07 groups consisting of 7 birds in each gr. Group I was maintained at grower ration whereas groups II to VII were given medicated ration upto 16 weeks. The immunomodulant activity of HSRP was determined using both Cell mediated immune response (CMI) i.e., LST, MFT and DTH and Humoral mediated immune response (HMI) i.e., by evaluating antibody titre against bovine serum albumin (BSA) used as antigen. Quantification of chicken IL-2 and INF-γ were carried out by ELISA method as per the manufacture instructions using standard curve method. The result of present finding indicates that the indoxacarb producing the immunosuppression in long term intoxication in WLH cockerels and simultaneous feeding of rhizome powder of H spicatum (HSRP) @ 2000ppm and 4000ppm produced immunomodulatory effects in dose dependent manner by elevation of IgY, INF-γ and IL-2 titres. The decreases in these parameters by indoxacarb reveal the immunosuppression and simultaneous treatment with HSRP improves these values indicating the immunomodulatory properties of H spicatum and can be use Ayurvedic medicines alone.
290 Biotherapeutics an Alternative Way of Treating Metabolic Disorders in Human., Pragati Kumari and Ajay Valiyaveettil Salimkumar
Type 2 diabetes (T2DM), obesity, and other metabolic disorders are relatively prevalent in the population and can affect persons of any age, gender, or ethnicity. These conditions are brought on by low levels of cholesterol and insufficient insulin in the body [32]. According to [22], between 46 to 65 percent of adults worldwide suffer from various forms of metabolic syndrome. In that case, bio- therapeutics serve as a newly developed, cost-effective alternative strategy for treating metabolic illnesses. Probiotics are live micro- organisms that, when taken as a supplement, improve health by re- establishing the balance of the gut flora. They are regarded as safe to consume [6]. In contrast, prebiotics like insulin and oligofruc- tose/glucose help the body’s probiotics function. These substances typically play a role in growth and development [8]
291 Dwindling Ethnoveterinary Alternative Use Among Fulani Pastoralists: A Case Study, Babalobi Olutayo and Olurounbi Deborah
Fula or Fulani or Fulbe (the latter being an Anglicization of the word in their language, Fulɓɓe) are an ethnic group of people spread over many countries, mainly in West Africa (but also in Central Africa and also in Sudan in North Africa). The Fulani form the largest pastoral nomadic group in the world. The Fulani are en- gaged in long-distance trade, generally involving cattle, with their Hausa colleagues. Often the Hausa are also butchers who control West African cattle markets by controlling access to Fulani cattle [1]
292 Clean Milk Production (CMP), Kritika Verma and Dishant Aggarwal
Milk fat (4%), lactose (4.8%), proteins (3.5%), minerals (0.7%), vitamins, and other minor elements such as enzymes and hor- mones are all present in a healthy proportion in standard whole milk. The pH of normal raw milk is about neutral (pH 6.7) with a corresponding titratable acidity of 0.16-0.17 per cent due to the natural buffering capacity of milk proteins and salts. Whole milk should only include a few germs and no foreign things if it has been produced in a sanitary manner.
293 Ethnoveterinary Practices Used at Farmer’s Field, Kritika Verma and Dishant Aggarwal
In developing countries, even if the extensive network of hos- pitals exist to provide the modern veterinary facilities, dwindling financial resources and poorly developed necessary infrastructures (e.g. roads, clinics, laboratories and cold chains to keep heat-sensi- tive vaccines refrigerated at all times) make government-run vet- erinary services unable to provide good quality health.
294 Genomic Characterization of Gaddi breed of Dog to Envisage Molecular Signatures, CS Mukhopadhyay
Dog has been one of the loyal and preferred tamed animals since prehistoric times. They have been associated with hunting and herding activities, as guard dogs for homes, protectors of the family, and affectionate pet. Although more than 350 distinct breeds of dogs have been identified worldwide, the species have been left neglected in developing countries. Our history indicates that Indian dogs have been of great importance to Indian society, Indian kings, and British rulers. The forgotten glory of the indigenous canines has been emphasized to be revived in the recent talk aired by the honorable Prime Minister on 30th August 2020, where he urged on “Bringing home the indigenous dog breeds”. Four Indian dog breeds (Rampur Hound, Himalayan Sheep Dog/Gaddi, Mudhol Hound, and Rajapalayam) were featured on a set of postage stamps to celebrate India’s canine heritage in 2005. Genetic characterization of these breeds needs to be prioritized to conserve and safeguard the indigenous germplasms and make use of them for the betterment of humanity.
295 Keeper-Dragon Behavioural Differences in Two Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis) Brothers During Training, Giovanni Quintavalle Pastorino, Yitzhak Yadid, Daniele Pintus, Massimiliano Di Giovanni, Alice Cavalleri, Richard F Preziosi and Anita Hashmi
Personality in non-human animals is a vast area of research, yet many papers focus on that of mammals or bird species. Many reptile species show complex behaviour but have been historically overlooked in favour of mammal and bird studies. Due to this, reptile species have frequently not received behavioural management such as enrichment, including through training within captive settings, despite their potential level of cognition. Training sessions prepare animals for situations such as routine veterinary proce- dures in addition to acting as enrichment. To assess the use of training sessions in reptiles, it is important to understand their cogni- tive and behavioural capabilities. This small pilot study acts as a case study, examining the personality and cognition of two Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) through video analysis of training sessions and personality questionnaires issued to zookeepers. We also assess the utility of personality questionnaires in a reptile species and the potential effect of intrinsic factors such as keeper per- sonality and sex on their responses. The results display the plasticity of Komodo dragon behaviour and the utility of training through evidence of willing compliance with training regimes.
296 Ultrastructural Observation of Vagina in Pre-Laying and Laying Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica), PN Thakur, JY Waghaye, CS Mamde, SD Kadam and NM Karad
The vagina was collected from 12 birds each at end of 4th week, 5th week (Pre-laying period), 6th week and 7th week (lay- ing period). The birds were sacrificed and entire oviduct starting from infundibulum to vagina was excised by abdominal la- protomy and cranial displacement of sternum. The collected samples were washed with normal saline and were cut into its different segment. The TEM observations revealed that the lining epithelium of the vagina was composed of ciliated, non- ciliated, with few goblet cells. The ciliated cells were characterized by the presence of spherical to oval elongated apically placed euchromatic nucleus with dispersed clumps of chromatin. The cytoplasm showed mitochondria, supranuclear Golgi body, free ribosomes, and rough endoplasmic reticulum. The cilia were attached to the dark basal bodies on the apical border.
297 Transformative Role of Gaushalas in Conversion of Waste to Wealth: A Way Forward to Curb the Stray Cattle Menace, Niha Ayman, Asma Altaf Malik, SA Hamdani, AH Akand, Sanober Rasool, Abdul Hai, Aaliya Fayaz and Sheikh Shubeena
India being an agricultural country, the cattle plays a predominant role as a backbone of agricultural sector. But the owners aban- don these cattle when they become old, sick, disabled and non-productive. These cattle are called stray cattle who roam on the streets in search of food or are sighted sitting in the middle of the street as they have no place or shelter. There are about 5 million stray cattle in India with Rajasthan (1.27 million) at the top followed by Uttar Pradesh (1.18 million), Madhya Pradesh (853,971), Gujarat (343,918) and Chattisgarh (184,993) (20th Livestock census). The problem of stray cattle is always matter of concern for the govern- ment as it has become menace for farmers and general public. The government has intervened numerous times towards the manage- ment of these stray cattle in humane manner. Rehabilitation of these stray cattle is one of the main managemental practices followed across India. Stray cattle are rehabilitated at Gaushalas which act shelters for disowned cattle, breeding station for indigenous breeds where these breeds are developed and preserved. Besides providing income and employment to many people, Gaushala can take India to organic future as food grains, pesticides, fertilizers produced from natural agricultural system with the use of cow-urine, cow dung-based manure are free from chemicals. But to address the problem of stray cattle, it is not sufficient and efficacious that they are kept in Gaushalas; the government needs to look beyond that and should consider taking other options to protect stray cattle from suffering as well as to protect the public from the menace caused by the same.
298 Open Pyometra in Cocker Spaniel Female: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Management using Mifepristone and Misoprostol, Aaditya Sharma
An intact thirteen-year-old female cocker spaniel dog with inappetence and sanguineous mucopurulent discharge from the vagina was clinically diagnosed with open cervix pyometra based on the history, clinical signs, laboratory, and radiographic examination. The dog was treated to full recovery without surgical intervention with a combination of oral medication, hormonal therapy, and intra-uterine treatment.
299 Characterization of the Fodder Resources of the Upper Valley of the Senegal River (HVFS), Cheikh NDIAYE, El Hadji TRAORE , Sékouna DIATTA and Daouda NGOM
The present study is devoted to "the characterization of fodder resources in the transhumance terroirs of the Upper Senegal River Valley". It was conducted in the Pastoral Unit of Malandou which straddles the Valley and the Ferlo and in eleven (11) sites of the ISRA Program, all located in the regions of Matam and Tamba (North- East of Senegal). It focused on the characterization of the herbaceous stratum based on grasses of the genus Aristida spp., Chloris spp., Schoenefeldia... and that of woody whose most fodder species, are acacia albida and seyal, pterocarpus érinaceus ... Grassproduction has been linked to the rainfall recorded and it has been found that the most representative herbaceous species are annual grasses such as Aristida spp.; Chloris spp.; Schoenefeldia gracilis; Cenchrus spp, with a carpet that can be sparse or continuous, a height of 50 - 60 cm and a covering that can vary, depending on the levelof rainfall, from 10 to 8 As for woody fodder, namely, trees, shrubs and bushes, the floristic composition is characterized by the relatively large presence of woody, some of which are, Acacia seyal, Ziziphus mauritiana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Adansonia digitata... , are fodder and has more than twenty (20) species of trees and more than twenty species of shrubs and bushes inventoried. The landscape has a lower and lower density of woody trees as we move north. The counts and calculations made show average densities over all sites, about 41 trees/ha and 209 shrubs/ha, with variations of 20 to 82 trees/ha and 22 to 334 bushes and shrubs per ha,
300 Histomorphological and Therapeutic Evaluation of Chrysophyllum Albidum (G. Don) Leaf Extract in Broiler Chickens Infected with Salmonella Gallinarum, Osho IB, Arogbodo JO and Faluyi OB
This study examined the therapeutic and histomorphological efficacy of ethanol leaf extract of C. albidum (G. Don) on broiler chickens infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum (Gr. D1-1, 9, 12). A total of 108-day old broiler chickens were brooded and allotted into a clinical trial at three weeks old involving six treatments (T1 - T6) replicated thrice with six birds per replicate in a completely randomised design (CRD). T1: Infected birds but not treated (negative control). T2: Infected and treated with standard drug (gentamicin®) which served as the positive control; T3: Not infected and not treated. T4 - T6 were infected and given 100, 250 and 625 mg/kg/day of extract respectively. After the clinical trial, antimicrobial efficacy index of bacterial count was established. Analysed results showed that the therapeutic index was high as depicted in observed results of reduced level of bacterial load count in organs and samples in the different experimental set up. Significant difference (p < 0.05) occurred among post infection, post therapy and controls. Histomorphological examination of the liver and kidney of the experimental birds did not show any significant abnormal presentation. It was concluded that ethanolic leaf extract of C. albidum demonstrated highly significant therapeutic effect without any toxic influence on the vital organs and comparable to conventional antibiotic against Salmonella gallinarum which could be further explored as novel herbal antibiotic formulation against fowl typhoid.
301 Advancement in Assessment of Cerebral and Spinal Circulation using Ultrasonography in Veterinary Practice - A Review, Mamta Mishra, Narayani Yadav and Swapan Kumar Maiti
As clinical and imaging expertise has grown, technology and technique have advanced, and transducers for Doppler and colour Doppler imaging have become more widely available, advancements in neurosonographic diagnosis of cerebro-spinal disorders have progressed. Nowaday not only trans (TCD) and intra (iCD) cerebrospinal ultrasound imaging are being used but are collaborated with the latest possible imaging techniques to get fruitful outcome for a potential treatment of the condition. Some of the develop- ments in neurosonographic diagnosis are discussed in this article.
302 Fertility Assessment of the Male Albino Rats (Wistar Strain) Treated with Aqueous and Ethanol Leaf Extracts of Euphorbia Hirta Linn, Yusuf Abdul Ganiyu, Abiodun Temitayo Wahab and Matthew Olug-benga Oyeyemi
Euphorbia hirta has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of respiratory, digestive problems as well as many other diseases. However, its effects on fertility have not been fully studied. Hence, this study on the effect of the aqueous and ethanol extract of Euphorbita hirta on of the male albino rats (Wistar strain) was studied. Aqueous and ethanol extract of Euphorbia hirta leaf was prepared to qualitative phytochemical analysis using standard methods. Sixty-six (66) rats assigned into six groups A-F with 11 rats each were used in this study. Rats in groups A and B received 500mg/ kg and 1000mg/kg of aqueous extract respectively for 14 days, those in groups C and D received similar dosage for ethanol extract respectively while group E and F received distilled water and 10% DMSO+90% distilled water respectively for 14days. On days 1, 7 and 14 post treatments, three rats were sacrificed from across the group. The testes, epididymis and semen samples were collected for analysis and the Data collected were analyzed. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycoside, anthraquinone, terpenoid, phe- nols, alkaloid and steroids in the ethanol extract of the plant while terpenoid and steroid were absent from the aqueous extract. There were significant increases in the sperm percentage motility, livability at day 14 post treatment compared to days 1 and 7 post treat- ments. Increase in the total number of morphologically abnormal sperm cells observed across the treatment groups at day 1 post treatment falls within the normal range (20%). Gonadometric indices (testicular and epididymal biometry) showed no significant differences Histological features of the gonads (testes and epididymis) showed no observable lesion. Oral treatment of rats with 1000mg/kg aqueous leaf extract Euphorbia hirta increased the sperm motility, livability and count continuously for 14 days of treatment. Therefore, the aqueous plant extract can be used to improve the fertility of male breeding stock at 1000mg/kg bodyweight.
303 Nutritional Significance of Amino Acids on Enhancing Production and Health Status of Tilapia Species, E Prabu, N Felix, Mir Ishfaq Nazir, K Manikandan, G Sathishkumar, T Thiruvasagam, A Monishkumar and K Rajalakshmi
Aquaculture production of finfish has seen rapid growth in production volume and economic impact in the world. By 2030, aqua- culture is expected to be the main source of fish, providing 50% of all fish consumed globally now. This is primarily due to consumer demand and furthermore to the diminishing wild catch fisheries. Tilapia is one of the most important fish species cultured more than 120 countries and territories around the world and contributes more than 10% of worldwide fish production. A balanced feed for fish must include satisfactory amount of all essential amino acids, fats, minerals and vitamins. Amino acids are essential for normal growth, reproduction, health and sustainable maintenance of fish metabolism. Due to high protein content, great amino acid profile, high nutrient digestibility, and absence of antinutrients, fish meal is a crucial protein source utilised to create nourishing fish feed. Replacing fishmeal is a major challenge in growing aquaculture industry to produce cost efficient feeds. Plant based ingredients are regarded as economical and nutritious protein source to replace fishmeal in aquafeed. However, concentrations of the essential amino acids are generally limited in plant based protein sources than in fish meal. Hence, providing well-balanced dietary essential amino acids in aquafeed is essential to regulate growth, health, reproduction and survival of fish.
304 Management of Subclinical Mastitis for Better Yield in Dairy Animals: A Review, Amit Kumar Singh, Upali Kisku, C Bhakat3, A Mohammad, A Chatterjee, A Mandal, DK Mandal, M Karunakaran and TK Dutta
There is a continuous challenge for improving the quantity and quality of milk yield through dairy animals. However, dairy ani- mals from their nature are susceptible towards subclinical mastitis (SM) as their physiology depends majorly upon its management and surrounding conditions. Symptoms of SM is invisible, however, slowly it may deplete the physiology of dairy animals Especially in the case of large dairy farms, the cases of SM are higher than that of small herd or dairy farm. Maintenance of proper management conditions that lowers the chances of dairy animals from getting exposed towards SM is highly recommended. However, behavior of microbes causing SM gets changed with the varying climatic scenarios. Improved management practices such as breeding manage- ment, balanced nutrition, milking practices, hygienic milking, dry cow management, proper handling, plant-derived products; etc may help in preventing and controlling SM cases.SM causes high economic losses the whole dairy farming community and industry and it hampers the health status and well-being of dairy animals. Hence, proper knowledge of factors related to SM etiology and its management becomes necessary for both animals and dairy farmers. Therefore this review has been formulated to provide a better understanding of SM and its management in dairy animals.
305 Hematological and Biochemical Values in Ducks, Archana Jain and Jyotsana Shakkarpude
In today’s world the interest of farmers is also increasing towards the poultry farming as well as in keeping ducks, geese, quail, and other species of poultry and waterfowl for raising their socioeconomic status. The physiologic especially the hematological and biochemical parameters are utmost important to determined their health status, body condition, adaptation to habitat and useful diagnostic tools in veterinary practice and ecological research. The aim of the study was to obtain hematological and biochemical parameters of these birds. Hematological and blood chemical values were determined for Indian captive Ducks. These blood samples were evaluated to establish normal blood values in ducks. Blood samples of twelve were collected from the brachial vein and analy- zed within two hrs. of collection. Hematological parameters such as Hemoglobin, packed cell volume, erythrocyte and totalleukocyte count and biochemical parameters like blood glucose, total protein, alkaline phosphatase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and SGPT were determined. The hematological and biochemical values should prove useful in providing background information and documenting baseline data for intra and interspecies comparisons with normal and diseased birds. The birds sampled in this work were clinically healthy and the means and standard deviations shown give an indication of the normal range.
306 Conflicts between Wildlife Conservation, Animal Welfare and Human Interests, and ways Forward, M Kiley-Worthington
Today, both wildlife conservation and animal welfare concerns are widely publicized, and most people take the positions of one or the other. Wildlife conservationists who considered that the spe- cies is more important than the individual, or the animal wel- fare activists who take the view that the individual is more important than the species. This means that whenever there is a conflict of in- terests between the survival of the species or the individual often the winner is neither the species nor the individual! The third concern which is usually given priority and taken for granted, is how will hu- man interests best be served; here the questions must be asked is: is this local or global human interests, or those of today or of the future?
307 Fatty Acids Profile of Himacahli Pahari Cattle and Gaddi Goat Milk, Vinesh Sharma, Birbal Singh, VK Agnihotri, Rinku Sharma, Devi Gopinath, Gauri Jairath, Jyoti Babu Dhar and Gorakh Mal
Fat is a most important constituents in milk and enhance the nutritional value of milk. The fatty acids profile of milk is associated with many factors such as animal origin, lactation stage, ruminal fermentation, feed-related factors, seasonal and regional effects. The fatty acids composition in Himacahli Pahari cow, Jersey cross-bred cattle, Gaddi goat and local non-Gaddi goat milk was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Maximum levels of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) were present in local non-Gaddi goat (78.80%) followed by Himacahli Pahari cattle (72.58%), and Jersey cross-bred cattle (59.12%) milk. Extremely low levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were present in Himacahli Pahari cattle, Jersey cross-bred, and local non-Gaddi goat milk. In Himacahli Pahari cattle milk, saturated palmitic acid (22.57%), stearic acid (15.92%) and monounsaturated oleic acid (26.17%) were present. In Jersey cross-bred cattle, higher amount of saturated myristic acid (18.42%), stearic acid (29.04%) and monounsaturated oleic acid (31.26%) were detected. The fat present in goat milk was found to be a rich source of medium chain fatty acids. The occur- rence of palmitic acid in higher amount might be responsible for intense flavour in local non-Gaddi and Gaddi goat milk but needs further research. Among all the breeds the saturated fatty acid (SFA’s) content was higher whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA’s) present in lower amount.
308 Fermentation of Manure Yields Ingredient for Fish Feed - An Overview, Hari Krishna Gorkha and J Stephen Sampath Kumar
Rearing of livestock is an age-old practice in India. More than 62% of marginal and small farmers directly associated with live- stock sector [7]. In pursuant with 20th Livestock Census, the total Livestock population is found to be 535.78 million showing an increase of 4.6% over Livestock Census of 2012, in which the to- tal population of cattle is given as 192.49 million accounting the highest portion accounting for 35.94% of total livestock. It is worth mentioning that India remained as the largest producer of milk in the globe for the past few decades.
309 Maxizyme EX Supplementation for Improving Nutrient Utilization from Broken Rice-Based Diet in Broilers, Aashiq Hussain and Shambhavi
Increasing cost of conventional feed materials has made the alternative feed ingredients a necessity for farmers. Maxizyme EX is a cocktail enzyme with combination of NSP hydrolysing enzymes, amylases, proteases and probiotics developed to enhance the digestibility of feed ingredients while maintaining the integrity of gut. The effect of Maxizyme EX was evaluated by changing the con- ventional feed ingredients and opting for easily available feed ingredients for broiler diet at farm level field trial. The study was done using positive control and treatment group (containing Maxizyme EX in the formulation). The results were studied statistically, it was observed that prestarter, starter phases and finisher phase of the birds in the treatment group had 9.8% of improved body weight gain. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) of the birds in the treatment group was observed to be 0.08 points lower than the control group having a maximum improvement of FCR of 0.21 points. Thus, the results clearly depicted the influence of Maxizyme EX on increasing digestibility and absorption capability of feed alternatives.
310 Study on the Efficacy of Garlic Extract Against Cadmium Toxicity of Liver and Kidney in Rats, Noura Mohammed Almaimouni, Moustafa Hussein Roshdy Elnaggar, Mansour Attia Al-Hazmi and Hassan Mohamed Heba
Background: Cadmium (Cd) is widespread pollutant that affected human health. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) against hepatorenal toxic- ity of cadmium in rats. Methods: 32 adult male rats were used and divided equally into four groups each with 8 rat: Group I: Control group, the rats of this group were given normal diet and water for four weeks, Group II: Garlic group, the rats of this group received garlic extract 350 mg/ kg bw by stomach tube every second day for four weeks, Group III: Cadmium group, the rat of this group received 60 mg/kg bw Cad- mium by stomach tube every second day for four weeks, and Group IV: Garlic + Cadmium group, the rat of this group received garlic extract 350 mg/kg bw then 60 mg/kg bw Cadmium by stomach tube every second day for four weeks. At the end of the experiment, samples of blood were taken for biochemical analysis. Then rats were sacrificed and dissected, and samples of liver and kidney were collected for histological studies. Body weight was measured at the beginning and the end of the experiment. Blood samples were collected at experiment end. Sera prepared to measure activities of liver and kidney functions. Results: It was observed that weight gain was significantly decreased in Cd group and Garlic + Cd group versus control and Garlic groups. Percentage changes in body weight were significantly decreased in Cd group and Garlic + Cd group versus control and Garlic groups. Cadmium administration caused significant increases in the activities of ALT, AST and ALP enzymes, and in the values of CRE, URE, UA, TG, CHOL, LDL-c and VLDL-c, but HDL-c was significantly decreased. These changes were ameliorated with administration of garlic. Conclusions: Cadmium administration produces toxic effects that partially improved after garlic administration due to its antioxi- dant and anti-inflammatory effects.
311 Antimicrobial Resistance Pattern of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus uberis Causing Mastitis, Greeshma AJ, Ramani Pushpa RN, Lakshmi Kavitha K and Srinivasa Rao T
It is very important to study and understand the antimicrobial resistance pattern of these infectious agents in order to provide best treatment regime. The present study is on antimicrobial resistance pattern of S. aureus and S. uberis causing mastitis. Disc diffusion test of S. aureus isolates showed that 69.35% of isolates were resistant to Penicillin G, followed by Ampicillin [50%], Erythromycin [30.64%], Methicillin [29.03%], Clindamycin [24.19%], Amoxycillin/Clavulanic acid [20.96%], Streptomycin [20.96%] and least re- sistance was shown to Gentamicin, Cotrimoxazole, Chloramphenicol, Tetracycline and Vancomycin. MRSA and MSSA has shown a great variation in antibiotic resistance pattern, MRSA was 2 to 4 times more resistant to all tested antibiotics. MRSA showed a high resistance to Penicillin G, Ampicillin, Clindamycin and Streptomycin. All MRSA isolates were biofilm producers which may be favour- ing to the increased antimicrobial resistance. All isolates were carrying blaZ gene and all except one isolate was carrying mecA gene. In vitro antibiotic sensitivity test of S. uberis revealed that 59% of the isolates were resistant to Ceftriaxone followed by Streptomycin, Erythromycin, Penicillin G, Tetracycline, Amoxycillin clavulanic acid, Enrofloxacin and most of the isolates were sensitive to Genta- micin, Chloramphenicol and Ampicillin/Sulbactam. Non biofilm forming S. uberis isolates were sensitive to Tetracycline, Chloram- phenicol, Ampicillin/Sulbactam, Amoxycillin/Clavulanic acid, Gentamicin and Enrofloxacin whereas biofilm formers were resistant to these antibiotics by 30.76%, 30.76%, 2.56%, 25.64%, 15.38% and 25.64% respectively.
312 Epidemiological Investigation of Bacterial, Fungal and Parasitic Factors Causing Otitis externa in Dogs and Cats in Northern Iran from 2019 to 2021, Mohammad Asadi Iraee, Mohsen Peysokhan, Mohammad Mehdi Yazdani Rostam, Mohammad Javad Mashayekhnia, Mohammad Reza Roudaki Sarvendani, Shohreh Alian Samakkhah, Alireza Farkhakfar , Helia Aziziha and Ali Zareh
Otitis externa is a multifactorial disease that has 5 to 20 percent prevalence in small animal medicine which can be diagnosed ac- cording to the history and general dermatological and otoscopic examinations. This study aimed to compare the agents that cause Otitis externa in dogs and cats, taking into account the breeds, gender, and age differences of these animals. The samples were taken from 63 dogs and cats that were suspected of having external ear infections and referred to veterinary clinics from north of Iran, including Mazandaran, Guilan, and Golestan provinces, within 24 months (from April 2019 to April 2021). After obtaining the con- sent, sampling was performed from the pinna and the end of the vertical ear canal. The prevalence of infection observed in dogs was: 28.57% for Malassezia, 28.57% for gram-positive bacteria, 11.91% gram-negative bacteria, 16.67% and 14.28% for Otobius megnini and Sarcoptes scabiei respectively, while in cats, the prevalence of Malassezia infections was 9.52%, 23.80% gram-positive bacteria, 19.04% gram-negative bacteria, 19.04% Otobius megnini, and 33.34% Notoedres cati. There was no statistically significant difference between the studied dogs and cats with the variables of age, gender, and breed. Identifying the agents causing external ear infections and paying attention to factors such as etiologies, geographical effects, region climate, disease-causing agents, breed differences, gen- der, and age in Iran is crucial and can improve the rate of success in management and treatment of external ear infections. Therefore, it seems that due to the limited number of these studies in Iran, additional studies in this field are necessary. Among dogs and cats in the north of Iran, this study represents the first assessment of external otitis.
313 External Otitis Associated with Atopy Disease in Dogs: A Case-Control Study, Shohreh Alian Samakkhah, Mohammad Asadi Iraee, Mohsen Peysokhan, Ali Zareh, Yasaman Daneshvar , Amirhossein Entezari , Shabnam Aminoleslami Oskoui , Helia Aziziha, Alireza Farkhakfar and Mohadeseh Ghazalcheh Khamsiyan
Skin is an organ of living beings afflicted with various disorders such as atopic disease. Atopic disease results from an excess of im- munoglobulin E produced due to excessive exposure to non-harmful environmental allergens that affect the skin of various organs, including the ear, leading to external otitis. During this case-control study, 50 dogs referred to clinics in Mazandaran province in Iran with symptoms of atopic otitis were the case group, and 50 dogs with healthy ears were considered the control group. The diagnosis was derived from the clinical findings of the case group, which included itchy skin, redness in the pubic and abdominal area, and ear swelling. The results indicated that 66% of dogs with atopic otitis were in the chronic stage of the disease. Furthermore, there is 4.63 times greater odds of wax secretions in cases of atopic otitis. Additionally, in the case of atopic otitis, the odds of odorous secretions is 5.1 times greater than that of odorless secretions. Lastly, most dogs with this condition had significantly dark ear secretions. Atopic otitis, therefore, is characterized by waxy, odorous and dark secretions in the ears of animals. In general, identifying the causative agent for this disease in dogs is extremely important and can prevent the application of costly and blind treatments. We conducted the first epidemiological study in Iran of external otitis associated with atopy in dogs. These results support a better understanding of the disease
314 miRNA: A Prospective Tool for Gene Regulation, Mayank Patel, Subhash J Jakhesara, Akash Golaviya and Prakash Koringa
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNA molecules with an average of ~22 nucleotides in length, found in plants, animals and some viruses. In mammals, miRNA modulates gene expression either by translational repression or mRNA deg- radation. This is an essential regulatory mechanism to modulate fundamental cellular functions such as differentiation, proliferation, death, metabolism, and pathophysiology of many diseases. In this review, we explore the involvement of several elements in miRNAs pathways as well as the current understanding of both canonical and noncanonical miRNA biogenesis pathways in mammals. We also highlight the available computational tools and algorithms for miRNA target prediction. Finally, we emphasis the various miRNA therapeutic strategies.
315 Antimicrobial Drug Resistance in Sheep Farms in Greece: Assessment of the Current Situation and Investigation Towards Improving Surveillance and Control, Nikolaos Tzimotoudis , Antonia Mataragka, Alexandros Mavrommatis , Chrisovalantis Malesios , Vasiliki Anastasiadi , Dimitrios Galanis , Dorina Timofte , Flavia Zendri , Helena C de Carvalho Ferreira , Erwin Wauters , Eleni Tsiplakou , George Zervas and John Ikonomopoulos
The aim of this study was to assess the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in sheep farms in Greece and identify potential indicators to improve field surveillance. Ninety-four samples of milk, drinking water, animal feed, bedding, and faeces were collected from 5 dairy sheep farms. The sam- ples were processed for isolation of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and the assessment of AMR using conventional microbiology and the polymerase chain reaction. Positivity to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was 38.3% and 16%, respectively (36 and 15 of 94). Detection of Esch- erichia coli in animal feeds was significantly higher compared to the other types of test samples, and the presence of Staphylococcus aureus AMR in the certain types of samples increased probability of its detection in milk by 3.25 times. Investigation for associations between sample positivity with the use of antibiotics indicated that the higher the amount of antibiotics, the higher the proportion of Escherichia coli non-susceptible to at least two antimicrobial categories (AMR+), detected in milk. Escherichia coli isolates were significantly more likely to be AMR+ when the latter pathogen was resistant to ampicillin. The results indicate that AMR is a common problem in the sampled farms, which is associated with high occurrence of mastitis and poor antibiotic stewardship for its treatment. Animal feeds and milk collected from the bulk milk tank proved suitable for the assessment of AMR, as did detection of ampicillin-resistant Escherichia coli. Isolation of AMR Staphylococcus aureus in animal feeds emerged as a promising indicator for monitoring mastitis
316 Zika virus: A Public Health Emergency?, Aditya Sharma, Sheikh Uzma Farooq and Varun Khajuria
Zika virus was first isolated from African zika forest from monkey. It belongs to genus flavivirus. It is a vector borne disease mainly spread by aedes mosquitoes. Previously, it had sporadic outbreaks but due to its spread to new geographical areas, urbanization, it is now an emerging infectious epidemic disease. It is characterized by influenza-like illness but severe manifestations like microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers have been reported. It has horizontal as well as vertical transmission. Reports of virus spread through blood transfusion, asymptomatic sexual partners and intra uterine transmission have been reported. No treatment or a vac- cine is have been found for Zika virus. Hence primarily focus is on preventing infection particularly in vulnerable pregnant women.
317 Semen Characteristics and Scrotal Size of Pubertal West African Dwarf Rams Fed Diets Containing Tetrapleura Tetraptera Fruit Meal, Jinadu KB, Oluwatosin BO , Fasae AO, Abiona JA Olaniyi TA , Popoola MA and Olagbaju OT
The study investigated and explored the potential effect of Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit meal (TTFM) on the spermatozoa attri- butes and scrotal sizes of West African dwarf ram in a 20-week trial. Thirty-five (35) West African dwarf rams with an average weight of 12.80±0.20 were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. The diets included 0% TTFM, 0.5%TTFM, 1.0%TTFM, 1.5%TTFM and 2.0%TTFM designated as treatments 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. Each treatment had seven replicates, while semen was collected from five replicates in each treatment using electro-ejaculator at the pre-experimental and post experimental periods assessed for semen colour, semen pH, semen temperature, sperm motility, sperm concentration, live and dead sperm cells. The result showed that the scrotal circumference ranged from 15.20 to 23.00cm both at the beginning and the end of the experiment which did not differ significantly (p > 0.05). The scrotal length increased significantly (p < 0.05) across the treatment from 13.00 to 15.80cm. The sperm motility ranged from 54.00 to 60.80% though not significantly differed (p > 0.05). The sperm volume increased significantly (p < 0.05) from 0.32 to 0.53ml in rams fed diet containing 2.0% TTFM. Except for sperm volume, inclusion of TTFM up to 2% in the diet of breeding rams did not have direct or adverse effect on the sperm reproductive attributes.
318 Providing Enrichment to Improve the Mental Health of Dogs, Shannon Riley-Coyner
Best Selling Author of The Evolution of Dog Training, Inter- national Speaker, Allied Industry Member of Arizona Medical As- sociation, Sponsor of California Registered Veterinary Technician Association. So often, we only focus on the physical health of the dog, proper nutrition, exercise, physical exams, vaccines, bloodwork, etc. We often fail to recognize the importance of mental health in our dogs. As a Registered Veterinary Technician and Certified Professional Dog Trainer, I often see behavior problems that could have been prevented, avoided or improved if the dog received more mental stimulation.
319 The Hatchery Management of Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT), Sruti TN, Lokesh Pawar and Sri Ranjani K
In order to meet future global food demand, aquaculture posses great potential and is considered as one of the most promising sectors to feed the growing population sustainably with lower carbon output. There are many candidate species which are suitable for aquaculture in tropical and sub-tropical region but one of the species which could help us achieving our sustainable goals such as zero hunger is Tilapia. Tilapia is the most nutrient-dense, and best-suited fish for culture. World Fish Centre (formerly as ICLAARM) came forward with the mono sex production of tilapia through selective breeding which is called as GIFT Tilapia. However, according to research on the state of cultured tilapias, the absence of a viable seed production plan may weaken efforts to assist farmers who are currently growing tilapias and endanger the successful adoption of improved technologies and strains. This article will discuss briefly the origin, biology, and potential of the species in context with global and Indian scenarios. In addition to this, the important aspect related to breeding is discussed based on the small experiment which could benefit the farmers and young professionals to understand the technical aspects of tilapia breeding and culture.
320 Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis, Aditya Sharma, Sheikh Uzma Farooq and Varun Khajuria
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is an arena virus which causes nervous disorders in human beings as well as in mice and hamsters. Mice and hamsters are principal reservoir host of the virus and cover a large geographic area. They infect large number of human population especially during late autumn and early winter due to increase human-mouse contact. It is characterized by aseptic meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis and infected individual have abnormally high levels of lymphocytes during infection. The pathogenecity is determined by whether the virus is acquired postnatally by children or adults or prenatally. The clini- cal manifestations in postnatal infection are aseptic meningitis with good prognosis. However prenatally, LCMV can lead to infec- tion in the fetal nervous system and retina, where it causes substantial injury with permanent dysfunctioning and grave prognosis.
321 Short Communication on Infectious Ectromelia, Sheikh Uzma Farooq, Aditya Sharma and Varun Khajuria
Infectious ectromelia (ECTV) is an infectious viral disease caused by dsDNA virus of poxviridae family. It is an acute, systemic, highly lethal disease of mice. Highly susceptible strains of mice die without shedding the virus but the intermediate susceptible strains recover from infection and shed the virus. It is spread due to direct contact from animal to animal. The spread of disease through shipment of laboratory mice has been reported. It has genetic similarity with variola virus and other subspecies of pox- viridae family. The ECTV mouse model is used by researchers to understand the virus–host relationship, elucidate mechanism of viral pathogenesis and modulate host response. It has also been used as a model for smallpox virus and for testing orthopoxvirus antivirals and vaccines. The mouse pox virus gained attention as super mouse pox virus, which is genomic alteration of mouse pox virus in the C57BL/6 strain of mice. The recombinant virus altered host immune response and caused lethal infection in exposed population as well as re-infected previously immunized population. It can pose threat to immunized population in nearby future if used as biological weapon.
322 Layer Male Chicken Farming: Characteristics and Net Income in west Lombok, Indonesia, Budi Indarsih and Muhammad Hasil Tamzil
Objective: Layer male chicken is considered as an important source of income for the rural livelihoods or household incomes. This study was conducted to assess the characteristics and current net income of layer male chicken farming in West Lombok, Indonesia during the period from June to August 2022. Material and Methods: A total of 40 layer male farmers were visited and interviewed using structured questioner. Data were col- lected from individual growers involved in three different sizes of farm operations. Information relating to socio-economic, rearing practices, credit availability, marketing and emerging problems was collected. Results: The farming practices were almost similar to the intensive system of broiler production and offered new employment op- portunities for young people with less education. No antibiotic use was reported in commercial diet fed the chickens. The average live weight at marketing age (between 30 to 40 days) was approximately from 366 to 442 g. The average mortality of chicks was 5, 3 and 3% for small, medium and large farms respectively. The price of live chickens in the local market was relatively steady. The average rearing was 9.7 batch/year. Net income per bird was IDR 4,172 (USD 0.288); IDR 2,655 (USD 0.183) and IDR 2,286 (USD 0.158) in small, medium and large farm respectively whilst benefit cost ratios of 1.86; 1.43 and 1.35 were for small, medium and large farms. In the retails chain in the local market, women had the advantages of dressed meat and fresh visceral parts for increasing their income. Conclusions: Layer male chicken in poultry production system resembled the broiler production system. The market price was steadier than broilers.
323 In Vitro-Antibacterial Activity of Five Essential Oils against Salmonella enterica Subspecies enterica Serovar Typhimurium of Poultry Origin and their Correlation with Antibiotics, Vaibhav Patil, Shweta Badar, Megha Kaore, Madhuri Hedau, Sandeep Chaudhari, Deepak Rawool, Sukhadeo Barbuddhe, Jess Vergis and Nitin Kurkure
Salmonellosis is the major bacterial disease of poultry, causing heavy economic losses. Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica se- rovar Typhimurium, (S. Typhimurium) is one of the most common serovars responsible for human and animal salmonellosis around the world. The present study aimed to investigate in vitro-antimicrobial activity of five different essential oils (EOs) procured in pure form, against S. Typhimurium (N = 66) and its correlation with MICs of twelve different antibiotics (Abs) which are most commonly used in poultry flocks in India. The broth microdilution method determined the minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of EOs and Abs. Results of MICs (mg/ml) of EOs in ascending order were cinnamaldehyde EO (2.10 ± 0.11), carvacrol EO (2.35 ± 0.13), thymol EO (3.54 ± 0.20), eugenol EO (3.61 ± 0.28) and citral EO (4.08 ± 0.31). The correlation coefficients between MICs of these five EOs and twelve Abs revealed a 60% (36/60) negative correlation. Cinnamaldehyde EO had the lowest MICs and was found to be the most effective against avian S. Typhimurium. The more negative correlations with the MICs of antibiotics were reported for EOs of carva- crol (10/12 Abs) and thymol (09/12 Abs), indicating greater susceptibility of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella toward carvacrol and thymol. Because of the negative correlation between MICs of EOs and Abs, it is concluded that the studied essential oils, particularly cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, and thymol can be used as effective alternatives to conventional antibiotics for treating non-typhoid in- fections caused by S. Typhimurium in poultry.
324 Documentation of Seminal Plasma Protein Profiles in Dromedary Camels, Gorakh Mal, Sumant Vyas, Birbal Singh and Nitin V Patil
The purpose of this study was to establish the protein profile of seminal plasma of dromedary camels with reference to their rut- ting behavior. Semen ejaculates were obtained from seven adult male dromedary Jaisalmeri camels. Five camels were performing copulation successfully and two camels not showing all the signs of rutting. Fresh semen samples were centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 30 min. and clear supernatant of seminal plasma was separated and stored at -20oC until used. Total protein from the seminal plasma was estimated by Lowry Method and the molecular weight was analysed by SDS-PAGE. A total of 10 protein bands were observed in the seminal plasma of rutting camels ranged from 11.7-104.0 kDa, whereas, 9 protein bands were observed in the seminal plasma of non-rutting camels. These 9 protein bands were found to be common in rutting and non-rutting camels. However, additional protein band of 40.0 kDa with very strong intensity was observed only in rutting camels and found to be heat resistant at 38 ºC up to 18 hours. The relevance of 40.0 kDa proteins in the fertility status of dromedary camels deserves further investigation.
325 Survey and Estimation of Endosulfan in Milk from Prone Areas in the State of Kerala, Indu B, P Sudheer Babu, Divya MP and Gokul S
The industrialization of the agricultural sector is increasing, but many times it caused a burden on natural systems, processes, and people. Endosulfan posed many problems to mankind and caused many neurological disorders, DNA damage, characteristic liver changes, and so on. Pesticides after spraying will stay for some time in the soil and if plants and animals are raised on the land, definitely absorb the pesticide left over on the soil. These pesticide residues will get metabolized in the body of the animals and converted into metabolic products and excreted through natural secretions. The pesticide residues will also definitely get excreted through the milk and when the milk is converted into products it also may contain the pesticide residues. An effort was made to ana- lyze the milk samples for endosulfan in Endosulfan-prone areas in Kasargod District, Kerala, India. Forty samples were analyzed and in all the samples the levels of α-Endosulfan, β−Endosulfan, and Endosulfan sulfate were absent at 1ppb level.
326 Associations between Animal and Herd Management Factors and Urinary Tract Disease in Mink (Neovison Vison), Karin Mundbjerg , Michelle Lauge Quaade, Anders Tolver, Peder Elbæk Pedersen , Emil Frank Pedersen and Anne Sofie Hammer
Mink urinary tract disease (MUTD) causes fatal disease in post-weaning mink kits and mortality rates can vary substantially be- tween farms. MUTD is a disease complex associated with urolithiasis and urinary tract infection. In an exploratory observational study, the occurrence of MUTD and associations with potential animal and management factors were investigated on 20 Danish mink farms. A total of 321.781 mink kits were included in the study. Out of 2.676 mink kits died during the month of July a total of 851 were diagnosed with MUTD. Urolithiasis was diagnosed in 46% of the kits. The majority (98%) of uroliths samples from mink kits diagnosed with MUTD were identified as struvite stones. Staphylococcus delphini group A was isolated from 60% of pure cultures and 21% of mixed cultures obtained from bladder swabs from kits with MUTD. By use of univariate linear regression (continuous variables) and ANOVA (categorical variables) farm management factors were investigated for association with MUTD. Average daily feed intake in week 17 (late gestation), average kit weight on day 28 post partum, and the color type black had a sig- nificant positive correlation with increased mortality associated with MUTD. Average daily feed intake in week 24 (late lactation), kit weight gain, and the number of daily feedings in June (late lactation) had a significantly negative correlation with increased mortality associated with MUTD. Use of short kits nets and cleaning of cage manure were also significantly associated with MUTD. Feeding management and cage hygiene during the weaning period and kit growth have been identified as potentially important factors for fatal MUTD in mink kits and are proposed as focus areas for future studies of this important production disease in mink.
327 Management of Milch Animals During Winter Season, Sheikh Uzma Farooq , Aditya Sharma , Sumaiya Bashir Khanday and Khyati Sapra
The energy requirement of the body increases with onset of winter to produce more heat and to maintain the basal body tem- perature. Failure to maintain the basal body temperature in cold weather usually lead to cold stress to the animal. With the onset of stress, the health as well as overall productivity of cattle is affected. To maintain the productivity of livestock and decrease the stress, farmers have to adopt certain measures. This issue of cold stress can be catered in multiple ways, some of which include maintaining appropriate body temperature of animal by rendering lukewarm water for drinking, optimal concentration of hay for heat genera- tion and allocation of warm jackets and blankets for livestock. Proper bedding is also needed to the animals so as to deal with the cold floor
328 Backyard Poultry Farming, Aditya Sharma, Sheikh Uzma Farooq , Varun Khajuria, Yashmeen Kaur and Shagufta Azmi
With increase in population, the demand for protein is increasing. Poultry being a good source of protein and yet cheap makes it an affordable commodity for general people. Poultry rearing gives chances to economical weaker section of society to gain profits however principal constraint to profitability is the high mortality rate in young chicks, due to a combination of disease, predation, malnutrition and climatic exposure. Backyard poultry farming can be of utmost importance in such situations because mostly indig- enous breeds are reared in this type of farming and such breeds are resistant to harmful environmental conditions. Other interven- tions involving vaccination of the flock against disease have been demonstrated to impact dramatically on survival of the birds and on household food security and profitability.
329 Diagnosis and Surgical Management of Struvite Urolith in a Yorkshire Terrier - A Case Report, N Gurunathan, N Vedhavani and C Chimithi
A 4-Year-old, female Yorkshire Terrier was presented with a history of dysuria, hematuria for past 2 months and passaging of calculi in the urine. Physical examination revealed hard and distended urinary bladder. Physiological and hematological parameters were within normal range. Multiple cystic calculi and a large urethral calculus were diagnosed with radiography. Analysis of the voided stone disclosed it as struvite calculi. Midventral laparotomy and cystotomy was performed to retrieve all the cystoliths. Post-opera- tively, antibiotics and analgesics were followed along with medical management to prevent recurrence. Animal recovered unevent- fully without recurrence with follow up for 6 months postoperatively.
330 Comparison of Wound Healing Potential of Curcumin, Alcoholic Extract and Powder of Curcuma longa L. in Rats, Madhuribahen Ratishkumar Patel, Abdul Saddam, Akash Golaviya, W Ramdas Singh, Anshuk Sharma, Sanjay Kumawat and Dinesh Kumar
Wound healing is an integral part of reestablishment of damaged structure. Many studies have reported that turmeric/Curcuma longa L. (C. longa) has significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-infective and wound healing properties. Curcumin, is a one of the main active constituent of C. longa which acts on various stages of the natural wound healing process to hasten healing. In a previous study from our laboratory, it was found out that individual fractions or components and pure phytochemicals are some- times less bioactive than crude, multicomponent extracts, i.e., most of the bioactive constituents possessing synergistic activity are lost during fractionation, isolation or processing. So, in the present study, we have compared the wound healing potential of C. longa preparations such as curcumin, C. longa alcoholic extract (CLAE) and crude C. longa rhizome powder (CLRP) in cutaneous wound model in normal rats by creating an open excision-type wound. The ointments were applied topically on the wound area twice daily for 14 days. The wound photography and contraction measurement were done on days 0, 3, 7, 11 and 14 post-wounding. Portion of granulation tissues were harvested, after euthanizing rats on 14th day, for assessment of pro-healing parameters level, oxidative parameters level and histopathological changes. The gross wound assessment revealed that among all groups, CLRP-treated groups showed greater wound contraction and faster wound closure which was followed by CLAE-treated group, curcumin and control groups. The levels of pro-healing and anti-oxidative parameters were high in treatment groups compared to control group. In histo- pathological study, CLRP-treated groups showed good thickness of epithelialization, marked fibroblast proliferation, angiogenesis, enhanced collagen deposition and low level of polymorph nuclear lymphocytes (PMNL) in granulation tissue compared to other groups. All treatment groups have shown faster wound healing property when compared to control group. Moreover, CLRP showed higher healing potential compared to curcumin and C. CLAE-treated groups. Therefore, findings of the present study revealed that C. longa have efficient antioxidant activities, which might have accelerated the wound healing process by preventing lipid peroxidation mediated damage to the biological structures, and by scavenging free radicals. Our findings further suggest that pure curcumin might not be the only active pharmacological moiety present in C. longa for exhibiting wound healing property.
331 GC-MS Analysis and Wound Healing Potential of Ficus racemosa L. Gum in Wistar Albino Rats, Madhuribahen Ratishkumar Patel, Abdul Saddam, Akash Golaviya, W Ramdas Singh, Anshuk Sharma, Sanjay Kumawat and Dinesh Kumar
Ficus racemosa is Ficus species plant which is popularly known as Country Fig, Udumbara and Gular. Traditionally it is use in vari- ous ailments such as ulcers, wound healing, diarrhea, stomachache and skin diseases. Skin wounds represent a major healthcare problem owing to an increasing number of trauma and pathophysiological conditions. Wound healing is a complex, well-orches- trated and regulated process consisting of series of events. Currently, available treatments are limited due to side effects and cost effectiveness. In line with that, we attempted to explore a natural source to study its potential towards the wound healing process. To the best of our knowledge, till date no documented information and published literature available reporting phytochemical profile using GC-MS (Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry) technique as well as animal studies related to healing properties of gum of F. racemosa plant. This work is the first report about the GC-MS analysis and healing potential of F. racemosa gum (FRG). GC-MS analysis of fine powder of FRG was performed by standard protocol using Perkin Elmer-Autosystem XL GC with TurboMass soft- ware which is, interfaced to MS Perkin Elmer TurboMass. GC-MS analysis identified three phytoconstituents such as, pentadecanoic acid (7.59%), hexadecyne (90.38%) and 1-undecene 9-methyl (2.04%). Then, its potential in wound healing on surgically wounded wistar rats was assessed by conducting two trials of 14 days and 24 days. During trials the wounds were visually observed, photo- graphically documented and the wound area was measured. Results revealed that groups treated with F. racemosa gum (3%FRG and 1%FRG) showed considerable and progressive reduction in wound area (mm2) as well as significant percentage wound contraction and faster complete closure of wounds compare to control group. This study suggested that the gum of F. racemosa might be a poten- tial therapeutic agent for skin wound healing, supporting its traditional medicinal uses.
332 Hantavirus Infection: A Possible Zoonosis!, Aditya Sharma, Sheikh Uzma Farooq, Janvi and Parth Sharma
Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is a severe infectious disease characterized by pulmonary oedema followed by respira- tory disorder and shock. Hantaviruses infects the lung endothelium without causing any cytopathic effect. However, virus causes mircovascular leakage, which is the hallmark of HPS. The HPS associated viruses are member of genus Hantavirus and family Bu- nyaviridae. Hantaviruses worldwide are broadly split into the new world Hantaviruses, which includes those causing HPS, and the old-world Hantaviruses (including the prototype Hantaan virus [HTNV]), which are associated with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Sin Nombre virus (SNV) and Andes virus (ANDV) are the most common causes of HPS. Case fatality of HPS is ap- proximately 40%