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Indexed Journal

1 Conservation and Genetic Improvement of Gir Cattle , Vikramjit Singh and Poonam Choudhary
Livestock are the best insurance against the vagaries of nature like drought, famine and other natural calamities. India’s livestock sector is one of the largest in the world it has 56.7% of world’s buffaloes, 12.5% cattle, 20.45% small ruminants, 2.4% camel, 1.4% equine, 1.5% pigs and 3.1% poultry (FAOSTAT, 2015). The total livestock population has decreased by about 3.33% over the previous census. There are fourty three (43) recognized breeds of cattle in India, in addition to large number of non-descript cattle (NBAGR, 2019). In recent times, several of the indigenous breeds suffered decline mainly due to their becoming uneconomical. Draught breeds utility has decreased because of mechanization in agriculture. The indigenous breeds have following merits over exotic breeds viz: Better disease resistance than exotic breeds, more suitable for low input management system, Survive better in local environment, Suitable for draught work and in addition to this existence of superior indigenous breeds can provide valuable research inputs for developing superior breeds. It is therefore im-portant that Indigenous breeds of cattle are conserved, developed and proliferated. Cattle and buffalo genetic improvement will be done taking into consideration the farmers needs, market and agro climate and simultaneously conserving the livestock, biodiversity.
2 Feline Prepucial Urethrostomy , Carretto Gustavo Roberto, Vitale Verónica, Mangione Mauro, Rizzo Magdalena and Ugarte Gabriel
A male feline of 9 years of age with clinical signs of hematuria/dysuria is received and bearing in mind that this is not the first episode it is decided to perform a prep t urethrostomy, This is a permanent surgical procedure, which could be used as an alternative to perineal urethrostomy in felines. It is indicated for the treatment of tumor pathologies, severe trauma, stenosis caused by repeated catheters, relapses of urethral blockages by urinary sediments or lithos.
3 Thoracic Synostosis Associated with Secondary Scoliosis in Arabian Horse Foal , Ahmed F Almomany and Musa A Alshehabat
Congenital or acquired skeletal malformations of the vertebral column of horses are very rare in horses. Thoracic synostosis associated with scoliosis is a rare condition in equine practice. Synostosis is fusion of two or more bones while scoliosis is lateral curvature of the spine. We are reporting thoracic synostosis associated with scoliosis in an Arabian filly. Physical examination revealed obvious deviation of the thoracic section to the left side. Observational gait analysis did not show any gross abnormalities. Neurological examination showed no neurological deficits in the fore or the hind limbs. Radiography was essential to characterize the malformations which showed synostosis of the thoracic vertebrae (T11, T12 and T13). Follow up evaluation of the foal, in six months, did not demonstrate any worsening in gait or neurological status and showed the filly is still ambulating normally. The owner instructed not to ride or work the presented foal. Furthermore, owner was instructed not to breed the foal.
4 Computational and Molecular Characterization of Surface Proteins Neuraminidase and Haemagglutinin from Egyptian Isolates of Avian Influenza H5N1 Subtype , Soliman YA, Maha AN Gamal and Eman MS El-Nagar
Avian influenza isolated from different Egyptian governorate during the period of 2010-2017 have been computationally evaluated for the B-cell and T-cell epitope mapping and MHC II binding sequence prediction. The ten studied isolates showed limited variation on the level of deduced amino acid for the N1 gene, on the other hand H5 gene showed much wider variation. Many B – and T- cell epitopes have been predicted for both H5 and N1 proteins which spanning nearly the entire sequence. B- Cell epitopes have been seen within the cleavage site thus the generated antibody clone might hinder the cleavage of haemagglutinin by the cellular protease and prevent viral entry. Different T- cell epitopes found on the N1 protein can stimulate IFN-γ production and hence inhibit viral replication. These data explain the power of genetic vaccine coding for both H5 and N1 to elucidate high protection rate with minimal shedding level
5 Retrospective Study on Dental Affections in Horses of Equestrian Clubs and their Possible Treatment , Mostafa M Kassem, Ahmed S Korittum and Ahmed S Raslan
The present work was carried out in the period between “March 2015 to December 2016” the total number of examined horses was 354 horses, 92 horses 26% had dental affections including 52 Equestrian horses, 34 Riding horses, 6 Funeral dragging horses. These horses were of both sexes and their ages were ranged between 3 years up to 22 years old. The examined horses were collected from Armed Equestrian club, El Gzera club, El haram farms, Cairo stadium, El Shams club and Wadi Degla club.The horses were divided according to usage into 3 groups, first group was used as equestrian horses, second group was used as riding horses and third group was used as funeral dragging horses. First group involved 52 equestrian horses, 49 male horses and 3 female ones. Second group involved 34 riding horses, 13male horses and 21 female ones. Third group involved 6 funeral dragging horses, they all are male horses.The examined horses in this study were subjected to comprehensive study including history, type of horse (Equestrian, Riding and Funeral dragging), the time of last floating, post treatment care and follow-up. The prevalent dental affections in equestrian clubs that were found are dental tartar 81.52%, sharp enamel points 42.39%, dental caries 35.86%, periodontal disease 19.57%, rostral hook 16.30%, diastmata (diastasis dentium) 16.30%, incisor tooth fracture 6.52%, parrot mouth 3.26%, bit seat 3.26%, caudal hook 3.26% and canine tooth fracture 1.087%. Periodical examination is essential in detection and treatment of dental affections; furthermore, using of power float, mouthwashes, curetting of teeth and extraction of teeth gave good results in treatment of these dental affections Neglecting the treatment of dental tartar, sharp enamel points, dental caries, periodontal disease, diastmata, bit seat and caudal hook resulted in some complications as equine colic and ulcer.
6 Emergency Case of Failure in Spay Surgery , Hazem Karem Shafik
A nine years old female cat had been operated a spay surgery due to pyometra but after a week it attempt to our clinic due to looking unwell and continuous moaning due to pain and the surgical suture had lost also the wound is not fine.
7 Impact of Body Condition Score on Performance of Sahiwal Cattle , Vikramjit Singh1, Poonam Choudhary and Arun Kumar Jhirwal.
Livestock plays a pivotal role in the Indian economy. About 70% of India’s population is dependent on agriculture and livestock associated activities. Animal husbandry is probably the most im-portant amalgamated activity providing a means of instant cash to farmers and thus plays a vital role in socio-economic life of live-stock farmers in India. Economical and balanced feeding of live-stock for optimum production is extremely important. The value of milk group stands at Rs. 7,58,417 crores and the livestock sector contributes nearly 4.9% to India’s GDP. India has an enormous livestock population and it ranks 1st in cattle population and milk production too by contributing 21.29% of total milk production throughout world. The total milk production of India stands at 187.7 million tonnes in 2018-19. Cows provide 47.85 % of milk production in India with a production of 89.83 million tonnes in 2018-19. The population of milch Non-descript/Indigenous ani-mals stands at 35.17 million in 2019 and the milk production from these Non-descript/Indigenous cows is 38.57 million tonnes.
8 Ethnoveterinary Practices of Wild Medicinal Plants in Pakistan: A Review , Muhammad Jamil Ahmed, Farooq Ahmed and Javaid Qayyoom Swati.
Today, ethnic communities throughout the world retain sound indigenous ethnoveterinary knowledge and mainly depend on medicinal plants as alternative treatments for various livestock ailments. The present review aims to provide the current compilation of wild medicinal plant species practiced as ethnoveterinary herbal medicine by traditional societies of Pakistan. Data was gathered from online databases regarding ethnoveterinary studies in Pakistan from 2000 - 2018. The botanical name, families, parts used, method of administration and diseases treatments were presented by literature review. The literature search revealed a total of 255 wild plant species belonging to 203 genera and 88 families were being in common use to cure 17 categories of livestock diseases. The highest number of wild plant of Asteraceae, followed by Fabaceae, Lamiaceae Euphorbiaceae, Polygonaceae and Solanaceae were used as ethnoveterinary herbal medicine. The most privilege diseases were abdominal worm, mastitis, ague, foot and mouth diseases, skin diseases, lungs and respiratory disorder. Worms’s infestation and parasitic ailments were treated with 67 plant species followed by gastrointestinal ailments, reproductive ailments and miscellaneous category accounted for 66, 43 and 29 species respectively. The highly consumed parts of plant were leaves (29.59%) followed by whole plants (15.98%), aerial parts (10.65%), roots (10.65%) and fruits (8.28%). It is suggested that, the present review will serve as databank and stimulate further pharmacological, clinical investigation for novel drug discovery from natural resource and benefited worldwide.
9 Animal Welfare during Pandemics , Hamza Jawad, Nasir Iqbal, Ayesha Sadiq, Zubair Luqman, Sadaf Aslam, Naveed Hussain and Suwaibatul Annisa.
Simple definition of animal welfare is how does the animal feel? In this CoVID-19 pandemic, animal welfare has become an important aspect of our lives, including pets, livestock and laboratory animals. The dangers posed to animals during COVID-19 should be considered not only from a welfare point of view but also from a zoonotic point of view. Prolonged lockdown has greatly reduced food resources for animals. Due to misconceptions such as COVID-19 can spread by animals the owners of the animals keep themselves away from the animals which has a negative impact on the welfare of the animals. This is situation is worrying for all of us that so far the welfare of animals in lockdown situations has not been mentioned in the media. Effective experiments, including emotionality, are subjective, so they cannot be measured in animals, but the information contains indirect physical and behavioral indicators that can be used carefully to interpret such experiments. There are many forms of animal cruelty such as neglect of animals, misuse of animals, exploitation of animals and testing of animals. People are cruel to animals everywhere. Animals are emotional creatures that deserve our respect and protection. New research is very necessary to find out the present reasons of animal abuse and cruelty during pandemics. We can prevent animal cruelty by raising public awareness about the absence of COVID-19 zoonosis in every community.
10 Assessing the Effectiveness of Acoustic Enrichment for ‘Settling’ Sanctuary Hens , Kirsty Mccalden
The aim of this study was to establish whether certain forms of acoustic enrichment improve settling behaviour in laying hens to a greater extent than others. Based on acoustic enrichments previously applied to captive animals, three acoustics were involved: classical music, white noise and radio. Due on previous findings, it was hypothesised that hens would display more settled (inactive) behaviour when exposed to classical music than when exposed to white noise or radio. It was also hypothesised that hens would display more settled (inactive) behaviour when exposed to white noise than to radio, due to its unpredictable nature. Testing involved one group of 15 laying hens in a Northern Ireland hen rescue centre. Hens were exposed to randomised acoustics (including a control) for 30 minutes, during four consecutive per week, for four consecutive weeks. Video observations were used to assess the level of active and inactive behaviour during exposure as well as overall settling time. No statistically significant results were found in three of four observed behaviours; perching, preening on the perch, lying/sitting on the perch. However, findings appeared to indicate less activity in hens during exposure to white noise, compared to classical music and radio. Therefore, the first hypothesis was rejected. In contrast to expectations, this study appeared to provide support for previous theories of species-specificity regarding classical music. A statistically significant result was found for standing behaviour on the perch which provided support for the second hypothesis. Post-hoc analysis indicated that a higher proportion of observed hens displayed standing behaviour during radio exposure, compared to the control (p = .012). This allowed the second hypothesis to be accepted as hens generally appeared to display less active behaviour overall during exposure to white noise, and statistically more active behaviour during radio exposure. Somewhat conflicting findings emerged in regards to overall setting. 80% of hens settled in a shorter time during radio exposure, than during exposure to white noise. This was also the case when measured at 90%. Although this finding was insignificant it highlights a need for further, more precise research.
11 Wellbeing of Veterinary and Medical Students during COVID-19 Pandemic , Hamza Jawad, Hiba Qasir, Nasir Iqbal, Javeria Azhar, Arooba Mubeen and Muhammad Affaq Azhar.
COVID-19 (coronavirus diseases 2019) has caused a high rate of anxiety, depression, alcoholism and stress in veterinary and medical students. Prolonged closures have created a financial crisis for students. The poor quality of the online education system is not meeting the needs of these students. Many people suffer from psychological distress due to economic losses and loneliness. This review summarizes data from recent research papers that sheds light on the concerns of veterinary and medical students during the COVID-19 lockdown. Suggestions for future pandemics are also summarized. Medical and veterinary education system need new research on teaching methods, especially from a clinical point of view. In addition to improving the quality of online education in preparation for future crises, student well-being should also be considered to mitigate social crises. Because this COVID-19 pandemic has severely damaged the performance of students in academic and social life. More research is needed to improve the veterinary and medical education system during any.
12 Improving Livestock Production Using Auxiliary Reproductive Biotechnology , Hamza Jawad, Nasir Iqbal, Ayesha Sadiq, Zubair Luqman, Sadaf Aslam, Naveed Hussain, Suwaibatul Annisa and Hiba Qasir.
From the beginning, many reproductive techniques have been used in domestic animals to achieve the desired goals. These goals include: Increasing reproductive and productive efficiency, improved genetic makeup of farm animals, reducing the risk of diseases and injury, producing resistance against climate and infectious agents, and research. Major Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) discussed in this brief review are, Artificial Insemination (AI), Estrus Synchronization, Superovulation, Semen Sexing, Cryopreservation, and Embryo Transfer (ET). Artificial insemination is the most basic and widely used technique for improving genetics and increasing conception rate. Estrus synchronization is the technique in which the selected females are targeted to come in heat (estrus) simultaneously in a brief period using different protocols. Super-ovulation is producing multiple ova at a single time using many combinations of hormones. Semen Sexing, as the name implies, is a method in which sperms are sorted out, using different techniques, to gain animal of desirable sex. In Cryopreservation, long-term preservation of living cells and tissues is done at a very low temperature (conventionally -196 ͦC) without compromising the structural and functional integrity of the preserved specimen. Embryo transfer involves producing and collecting embryos in donor animals and then implanting them in recipients. Reproduction is the backbone of any livestock enterprise, and to achieve remarkable results, the use of Assisted Reproductive Techniques (ART) is inevitable. This mini review article will provide a brief comparison of such great reproductive biotechnological methods which are using in livestock farming.
13 Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Germinated Maize on Hematological Parameters of Kadaknath Layers , Akhelesh Kumar Karoriya, Archana Jain, Chouhan Laxmi, MK. Mehta and Rakesh Kumar.
The present research work was undertaken to find out the effect of supplementation of germinated maize at different levels on hematological parameters of Kadaknath layers started from day old stage. The experiment was done on a total number of 128, day old chicks (DOC) of Kadaknath breed belonging to same hatch. On arrival, the chicks were weighed and equally distributed randomly into four treatment groups T0, T1, T2 and T3 with 32 chicks each. Each group was divided into four replicates of 8 chicks each. The control group T0 was given commercial maize - DOC soya based diet. The treatment groups T1, T2 and T3 were given diet containing germinated maize at 50%, 75% and 100% levels of the cereal component, respectively. The experimental chicks were vaccinated against the prescribed schedule of vaccination. All the chicks were housed in deep litter system in the well ventilated and lighted rooms and the feed was given ad lib with plenty of fresh water. Five birds were separated from each group on 30 days, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210 and 240 days for collection of about 2 - 3 ml of blood in EDTA and non EDTA vials for hematological analysis. All observations were analyzed by using ANOVA to compare different treatment groups. There were a significant (P < 0.01, P < 0.05) increase in all hematological parameters such as total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in all the treated groups as compared to control from values taken every 30 days up to 240 days of age.
14 Knowledge; Hygienic Practice among Milk and Cottage Cheese Handlers in Districts of Gamo and Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia , Edget Abayneh, Minale Getachew, Wasihun Seyoum and Ephram Tora.
A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in Arba Minch Zuria and Demba Gofa districts of Gamo and Gofa Zone of the Southern nation nationalities and people’s regional state with the objectives of assessing knowledge of hygienic practice of milk and cheese handlers in both study area. For this a total of 102 farmers who involved in milking, collecting and retailing of milk were included in the study area. Data obtained from questionnaire survey were analyzed by descriptive statistics and Chi-square test, using the Statistical package for social science (SPSS Version 17). The participants of this study were woman of different age group and 27 (52.9%) of participants in Arba Minch Zuria and 32 (64.7%) in Demba Gofa were >36 years old. The majority of participants 21 (41.2%) and 22 (43.1%) were educated up to grade 1-8 in Arba Minch Zuria and Demba Gofa, respectively. This had an impact on hygienic practice of milking and milk handling. The difference in hygienic handling, training obtained and cheese making practice among the study areas were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was also a statistically significant difference in hand washing and utensil as well as manner of washing between the two study areas (p < 0.01). Finally this study revealed that there were no variation in Antibiotic usage and Practice of treating sick animal in both study area (p > 0.05) with significant difference in Prognosis, Level of skin infection and Selling practice among study participants in both study areas (p < 0.05). Good manufacturing; handling practice as well as hygienic milking and cleaning practice should be improved in both study areas.
15 Ovine Tunica Albuginea as Xenograft for Cystoplasty in Rats , Natasha Nogueira Ferreira, Cecília Ribeiro Castañon, Fellipe Ferreira Lemos de Medeiros, Fernanda Moreira da Silva, Bruna Scalzilli, Tábata Maués, Carla Ferreira Farias Lancetta, Viviane Alexandre Nunes Degani and Maria de Lourdes Gonçalves Ferreira.
The purpose of this study was to prove the conserved ovine tunica albuginea (OTA) as a practicable and adequate biomaterial for bladder scaffolds even as its histopathological cicatrization aspects. The conserved heterologous OTA implant was experimentally used for cystoplasty in 20 Wistar rats. The operated bladder areas of all rats from test (n = 20) and simulation (n = 20) groups were examined macroscopically and histologically at 7, 14, 2, 8 and 42 postoperative days. Test group animals underwent partial cystectomy followed by cystoplasty with OTA graft application, and simulation group rats to partial cystectomy. There was no mortality in any group, and all animals showed good post-surgery recovery. Bladders histopathological analysis showed that the test group obtained more intensive blood vessels and had the first signs of total regeneration earlier than the simulation group. Our findings pointed that macroscopic and histological results, easiness of surgical technique and graft availability, OTA can be used as an alternative biomaterial graft for bladder wall reconstruction in rats which represent a valuable animal model to comparative studies with the human being and other species.
16 COVID 19 and the Veterinary Community , Varghese Samuel Mathai
We would have never thought of Living through pandemic let alone having one in this lifetime. COVID-19 has presented us with a lot of unprecedented circumstances, loss of loved ones and a chance to retrospect on the inadequacies of veterinary-human medicine interactions.
17 Study on Prevalence of Toxocara canis in Stray and Pet Dogs of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal , Sabina Lamsal and Rakesh Prajapati
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Toxocara canis in street and pet dogs in Kathmandu valley and to understand the associated risk factors for Toxocara canis (T. canis) infestations in dogs and to assess the awareness on canine helminth zoonoses among pet owners. A cross-sectional study was carried out from February to April 2019 within Kathmandu valley, Nepal. A total of 110 faecal samples were randomly collected from 55 pet and street dogs each per-rectally via the faecal loop. Wisconsin centrifugation flotation method was used to examine the presence of T. canis eggs. A questionnaire survey was conducted among 55 dog owners. Descriptive statistics were calculated using IBM © SPSS statistics version 22 and MS-Excel 2016. We found that 13.64% dogs (15/110) were found for T. canis. Comparatively, prevalence was higher in stray dogs than in pet dogs (20% versus 7.27%); dogs below one year 13.95%; in female dogs 15.63%; in dog getting in contact with other dogs 10.53%; in non-dewormed dogs 23.08%. Out of 55 pet owners surveyed, 41.82% were aware that they can get diseases from dogs but only 14.55% of the owners had some idea about canine helminth zoonoses. T. canis being the parasite having high zoonotic significance, there is a need to carry out awareness programs to educate pet owners regarding canine zoonoses and on appropriate anthelmintic treatment. A viable system should be in place to maintain stray dogs such as animal birth control programs which will help to reduce the prevalence of T. canis among street dogs.
18 Seasonal Cytokine Production and Combinatorial Effect of Recombinant Cytokines and Melatonin on Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Proliferation , Amaresh Kumar Singh and Chandana Haldar
The immune system is influenced by various internal (like hormones) and external (environmental: seasons) factors in which melatonin plays a vital role. Melatonin modulates seasonal immunity by influencing the cell-mediated immune function like cytokine secretion and cellular proliferation in rodents, however, there is a lack of information that how melatonin modulates the secretion of different cytokines in different seasons and directs the cellular proliferation in presence of specific cytokine. Therefore, in the present study, we elucidated the effect of seasonal melatonin variation on peripheral cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-α) level and proliferative response (%SR) of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The effect of recombinant cytokines (rIL-2, rIL-6, and rTNF-α) on the proliferative response of PBMCs was also noted in presence of melatonin under in vitro condition. As a result, we observed that high endogenous melatonin causes an increased level of IL-2, and IL-6 and down-regulates TNF-α during the winter season. Melatonin significantly modulates the proliferative response of PBMCs in presence of rIL-2, rIL-6 and rTNF-α by enhancing the immunomodulatory effect of rIL-2 and rIL-6 and by diminishing immunosuppressive effect of rTNF-α in goat. In conclusion, we may propose that melatonin maintains immune-homeostasis by modulating circulatory cytokines levels during different seasons. Melatonin might influence the secretion of immunomodulatory cytokine (i.e. IL-2 and IL-6) and also regulate the immuno-inhibitory action of TNF-α to modulate cell-mediated immune function.
19 Assessment on Poisonous Plants of Livestock and their Impacts on Livestock Producers in Wondo Genet, Sidama Zone, South Nation Nationalities and People Regional State, Ethiopia , Abdallahi Abdurehman, Shimelis Mengistu, Nigusie Barassa, Nuredin Mohammed, Fayisa Aliye and Mohammed Jafer
This study was conducted in Wondo Genet, Sidama Zone, SNNPRS, Ethiopia from November 2017 to May 2018 to assess toxic plants which well-known among society of the area, potential to cause intoxication of livestock and its significant impacts on livestock producers. Totally, 300 individuals composed of 260 animal owners, 15 animal health practitioners, 13 especially selected knowledgeable people and 12 traditional animal healers were interviewed based on structured questioner. Out of 300 individuals 245 (81.7%) were declared the existence of poisonous plants. During assessment of presence of impacts on livestock producers in different ways 110 (44.9%) of them complained its presence but 135 (55.1%) only heard such impacts from the others and knew the presence of such plants and some information about it. During field visit 30 poisonous plants that suggested by those respondents were collected. From these plants, Amaranthus spp. Aspera (21.2%), Oxalis corniculate (17.6%), Prunus africana (10.2%), “gaggassa’’ (local name) (8.6%), ‘‘haruufichcho’’ (grass sp.) (8.2%), Euphorbia cotinifolia (3.7%), Ricinus communis (3.3%), Brucea antidysenterica (2.9%), Lantana camara (2.5%), Medicago sativa (2.5%) were complained as cause of toxicity frequently. Season of the year and reason why animal consume the poisonous plants were some of conditions which known to aggravate the exposure of livestock to poisonous plants. In this study, rainy season was documented as main season of the year plant poisoning occur and purposeful consumption also accounts majority from reasons why animal consume. The study also indicate that bovine was more susceptibly for number of poisonous plants 25 (83.3%) and followed by ovine for 18 (60.0%), caprine for 17 (56.7%), equine for 4 (13.3%) and all livestock species for 2 (6.7%) as suggested. Bloat, diarrhea, abdominal pain, difficulty breathing, skin lesion/irritation or alopecia, vomiting, abortion, photosensitization, bloody urine and death are mainly and frequently raised adverse effects of poisonous plants. As this assessment shows, there are poisonous plants and impacts on livestock producers at study area; that needs involvement of responsible individuals to do further studies on identification of poisonous plant and extraction of ingredients in it and find solution to alleviate the outcome of poisonous plants.
20 Problem Free Pets: A New Model for Companion Animal Veterinary Care , Lowell Ackerman
The current model of companion animal veterinary practice tends to be reactive, often waiting for animals to become ill before pet owners seek veterinary care. By helping to establish appropriate pet owner expectations regarding the care of their animals, veterinary teams can be more proactive and focus on prevention, wellness, and better control of chronic diseases
21 Regression of Symptoms of Trypanosomosis in Mice Dosed Cotrimoxazole-Antivirt®{Al4(SiO4)3 + 3Mg2SiO4 → 2Al2Mg3(SiO4)3} Formulation , MCO Ezeibe, MI Ezeja, CA Akpan, FIO Onyeachonam, ME Sanda, IJ Ogbonna, E Kalu, NU Njoku and MI Udobi
Protozoa require Folic acid for replication and Cotrimoxazole inhibits synthesis of the B-vitamin. So, the drug could be effective for treatment of trypanosomosis (tropical protozoan disease of man and animals). To improve efficacy of such treatment on symptoms of the disease, a formulation of the medicine and The Medicinal synthetic Aluminum-magnesium silicate (Antivirt®) was used to treat mice. Cotrimoxazole improved (P ≤ 0.05) PCV, RBC and HB in uninfected mice (from 47.60 ± 0.51, 7.93 ± 0.09 and 15.87 ± 0.17 to 59.60 ± 0.51, 9.93 ± 0.09 and 19.93 ± 0.12) and in trypanosome-infected mice (from 34.75 ± 0.48, 5.79 ± 0.08 and 11.67 ± 0.14 to 37.67 ± 0.88, 6.28 ± 0.15 and 12.56 ± 0.29) but it worsened fever in trypanosome-infected mice (from rectal temperature: 36.30 ± 0.35 to 46.27 ± 0.79). Stabilizing the drug with Antivirt® reduced (P ≤ 0.05) that adverse effect (fever) from temperature of 46.27 ± 0.79 to 39.50 ± 0.29. Weight of the mice remained approximately (P ≥ 0.05) same in all the groups. Formulation of Cotrimoxazole (anti-protozoan) and Antivirt® could be a new medicine for trypanosomosis (sleeping sickness).
22 The Potential Role of Epigenetics in the Welfare and Behavior of Mammals. , Ricardo Zanella
The term “epigenetic” was introduced by Conrad Waddington in the early 1940s who have suggested the involvement of exter-nal agents in the modulation of the individuals' epigenotype. Since then, several studies have benefited and strengthened with this knowledge. Among them, we can mention the enormous progress of evolutionary studies, developmental biology, and cancer re-search, which have broken enormous barriers, explaining pheno-types not caused by Mendelian inheritance.
23 On-site diagnosis for Infectious Diseases , Barkha Sharma
On site test or Penside or Point-of-care testing (POCT) also known as portable test, field test refers to laboratory testing per-formed on the site, in the proximity of the patient so that prompt and accurate diagnosis can be made and adequate treatment can be given to the patient well in time. Thus, it aims to bring the labo-ratory at the door step of the patient, for the convenience of the doctor as well as the patient. Various rapid diagnostic test/tools with variable sensitivity and specificity in diagnosis of important infectious diseases have been developed to facilitate on field diag-nosis of various diseases in humans as well as in animals. Standard laboratory procedures like blood culture, high-throughput immu-noassays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mass spectrom-etry (MS), which have been hitherto relied upon for their accurate results usually take much longer time and sophisticated laborato-ries with costly equipments and trained people.
24 Artificial Intelligence and Pandemics , Deeptivet
Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human in-telligence in machines that are programmed to think like humans and mimic their actions. It is also known as Machine Intelligence which is any device that perceives its environment and takes ac-tions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. An intelligent agent should be skilled in perception, practical reasoning and have an ability to take action to achieve its goals. It incorporates the skills required to pass the Turing Test, which assesses whether a machine can think like a human? AI makes it possible for machines to learn from experience, adjust to new inputs and perform human-like tasks. The goals of artificial in-telligence include learning, reasoning, and perception.
25 Review on Auromanes Disease , Abduleziz Jemal Hamido
The genus Aeromonas consists of Gram-negative, oxidase posi-tive bacilli that are considered of aquatic environments and are commonly isolated from clinical and environmental samples. Typi-cal habitats for these bacteria are freshwater (ground water, lakes, rivers and reservoirs), chlorinated and un-treated drinking water, bottled water, swimming pools, wastewater, reclaimed waters, brackish waters, and seawater. Aeromonas spp. Can produce sever-al diseases in wild and farmed freshwater and marine fish species impacting the economy of the aquaculture sector. Most common human clinical presentations of Aeromonas infections are diarrhea, wound and soft-tissue infections and bacteremia. Many infections are related to water exposure (traumatic accidents, near drown-ing, natural disasters.
26 Multidisciplinary Vision in the Teaching of Veterinary Medicine , Navarro C
The fabulous world of veterinary medicine has been uncovered years ago in history. The study of some pathologies such as canine distemper is proof of this. There are many others that without the multidisciplinary approach today would still be in a precarious situation, because since Mochizuki., et al., in 1999 described new genotypes of the ca-nine distemper virus that story changed.This brief report does nothing but improve the current multidisciplinary approach of Veterinary Medicine, today more important considering the concept of One Health.