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1 Population Control and Women Health , Yunis Khushi
Asian, African, South American and other poor regions of the globe are being extremely overcrowded due to high population growth rate and the material resources of these regions are being choked, which ultimately affects the quality of life for the masses of these regions and is also affecting the health and life span of women of these regions. More than 50 per cent population of these regions does not have basic facilities like potable water, basic edu-cation, proper health facilities, proper, decent and suitable housing, decent clothing and nutritional food. The living standards of the people of these regions are very poor and majority of them lives below the poverty line.
2 The Role of Radiologist in Conservative Management of Breast Cancer , Tarek Aref1 and Walid Mohamed Ahmed
Breast conserving therapy (BCT) means breast conserving surgery (BCS), followed by a suitable-dose of radiotherapy to eliminate any microscopic residual neoplastic breast disease. BCS is currently considered the most suitable protocol for management of early stage of invasive cancer, that combines both adequate surgical margins and an acceptable cosmetic result. The role of mammography and breast ultrasonography for many years was concerning the diagnosis of breast tumors and local recurrence after treatment. The advent of the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BIRADS) by the American College of Radiology, helps to maximize Radiolo-gist’s role through any factors: standardized the description and recommended management of breast lesions. BIRADS has increased the radiopathological correlation of radiologists’ reports, improving the reports’ reliability and has also established a common lan-guage for all of the physicians involved in multidisciplinary breast disease management team, favoring agreement on decisions, and Furthermore, advances in breast magnetic resonance imaging; functional MRI and image-guided interventional procedures have increased our responsibility in the therapeutic decision-making process. The role of Radiologist in BCT: I- Accurate and early diag-nosis of breast cancer and staging. II- Interventional role of Radiologist in BCT including imaging-guided biopsy of breast masses, stereotactic biopsy of nonpalpable lesions and or microcalcifications guided by mammography or MRI. Post-biopsy-clips insertion, and pre-neoadjuvant chemotherapy localization of malignant lesion by US-guided insertion of a hydromark (clips). Pre-operative localization of non-palpable breast mass or microcalcifications by US-guided insertion of wire. III- Evaluation of response to neoad-juvant therapy using RECIST (Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors).
3 Assessment on Frequency of ABO Blood Group and RH (D) Negative Mothers among Pregnant Women Attending at Antenatal Care Clinic of Sodo Health Center, SNNPR, Ethiopia , Kebreab Paulos
It's important for women to find out their blood type at the start of their pregnancy. Blood will be taken to find out and there are four different types: A, B, AB and O.In addition to blood type, women can have Rh factor (specifically Rhesus D antigen), which is when proteins appear on the surface of the blood. Women who do have Rh factor are classified as Rh positive (A+, B+, AB+ and O+) and women who don't are Rh negative (A-, B-, AB- and O).
4 Effect of Endosulfan Toxicity on 1st Stage of Spermiogenesis Leading to Infertility , Asiya Nisa, Yashowardhan Suman, Mehjabeen1 and Suhail Jeelani Shah
Toxicities of organochlorine pesticides like Endosulfan show adverse effects on many organs and organ systems like liver, kid-ney, testes, muscles, immune system and hematological system. Most of the previous studies focused on effects of organochlorine on activity of spermatogenic cells. However, there is very little research reporting effects of endosulfan on spermiogenesis till date. Therefore, the current study was aimed to assess the effect of Endosulfan on spermiogenesis in the testes of mice model. A 5 mg/gm body wt. Endosulfan was administered to mice by oral gavage method. Normally in the beginning of spermiogenesis, the sperm head gets embedded in the sertoli cell and finally released from the seminiferous tubules. It is very significant to note that the testes in endosulfan treated mice. They were found to get affected at an early stage (from spermatids to 1st stage of spermiogenesis), as com-pared to any other organochlorine pesticide. The present study also confirms that only oral administration (5 mg/gm body wt.) for 20 days shows effect on spermiogenesis in 30% of mice. Furthermore, in 20 days treated mice, notable changes were seen during the 1st stage of spermiogenesis. Significant decrease in testosterone level (P ≤ 0.0001) and sperm count (P ≤ 0.001) was observed after endosulfan exposure. Abnormal spermatozoa in the lumen of seminiferous tubules were found to be very few in number and with a non-motile tail. Approximately 30% of the heads of spermatozoa were found with rounded acrosome, which will lead to infertility.
5 Currently Used Drugs for Prevention and Treatment of Acute Organ Rejection , Vera Maravić-Stojković and Branislav Stojković
It is clear from the knowledge gained from the ancient times that healing is not as simple process as it seems. During long periods of time, major advancements in technology, pharmacology, and medicine have enabled the extraction of countless remedial prod-ucts from the plants. And not only from plants. Natural products have also been extracted from animal organs and later, synthetic equivalents with identical properties have been developed. The fascinating progress of humankind was achieved when the animal organs have become available as a drug. Nevertheless, revolutionary progress in solid organ transplantation was marked by the in-troduction of the cyclosporine A. Transplant immunology has become a leading science in modern medicine. Since then, solid organ transplantation has become a routine procedure accomplished with the help of protocols of immunosuppressive therapy. This article is designed as an overview of currently used immunosuppression in solid organ transplantation. Currently available groups: steroids, antimetabolites, polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies, calcineurin inhibitors, proliferation signal inhibitors, are described closely below. Each transplant center creates their own protocols. Protocols for immunosuppressive therapy offer three major strategies: in-duction, maintenance and therapy for treating acute rejection. The backbone of immunosuppression in organ transplantation recipi-ent: cyclosporine A and tacrolimus, have been widely used as maintenance therapy combined with adjunctive immunosuppressant. These drugs are in use either as a prophylaxis or as the part of the maintenance immunosuppressive treatment. Induction therapy provides immunologic ablation with upstream antibody therapy as prelude to induce graft tolerance. Protocols are briefly described in the text
6 Extramarital Affairs (EMA) for Indian Women: An Overview of its Health Impacts , Sanjeev Davey
Extramarital affairs (EMA) of men and women is becoming a rising Phenomenon in our modern society globally. Both men and women may get sexual and/or emotional motivations for EMA if their marriage is not satisfying in any aspect. EMA can put serious Impact on women if it is not secret. So, Couples should openly communicate regarding their sexual desires and expectations in their Married relationship to their partners
7 Effect of Data Selection on Reimbursement Decisions. Breast Cancer Case , Abdalla Abotaleb
One of the daily challenges for health care policy makers is selecting the right patient for the right treatment with affordable price. If we taking breast cancer treatments at law middle income country, as Egypt's experience with breast cancer, an incidence (15.4) per 100,000 beside the prevalence of HER2-positive breast cancer is approximately 15% to 20% of primary breast cancers. this will lead to economic burden as well as consequences on decision makers. When they decides to treat with monoclonal antibodies like Trastuzumab what is the appropriate time to treat the patient to achieve the efficient management of resources 6 months versus 12 months of adjuvant Trastuzumab in early breast cancer. What will be the best option for the resources and patients outcomes?To answer the previous question an economic study was conducted trying to support decisions makers. The result of economic model showed that selecting one clinical study for deciding shorter time regimen versus standard regimen is might not be strong evidence for taking the decisions because the economic model was so sensitive to the following parameters. Selecting data for health care decision making in oncology should take in consideration.Strength of evidence sensitivity analysis of that data should be conducted to ensure effective health care decisions and losing the previous criteria might lead to negative impact on patients’ outcomes and treatment resources.
8 Knowledge Attitude and Practice of Health Care Workers towards COVID-19 in Nowshera Pakistan , Hamzullah Khan
Corona Virus disease termed as COVID-19, is an emerging highly contagious respiratory disease that is caused by novel corona virus. It was first reported from Wuhan China in December 2019.
9 An Observational Study of Women’s Experience and Health Needs Related to Menopause at the Clinic of complementary medicine in Lucca, Tuscany Region,Italy , Alessia Melacca
Introduction During their life women go through very different phases such as puberty, fertile age, pregnancy, puerperium and menopause. Each phase is defined by important changes and different women’s needs. In particular, menopause determining the end of the fertile age, represents a delicate period which although can be experienced in very subjective way, is generally characterised by a higher psycho-physical vulnerability.
10 DIY Making an Herbal Extract and High-Tannic Wine Treated Nose-Filter against Coronavirus   , Johnson K Gao
This article is based on the current situation that the sudden explosion of coronavirus epidemic causes a shortage of facemask. It is known that Dryopteris root, Radix isatidis have antiviral effect. Tannic acid can fix the cell membrane in electron microscopy sample preparation. Tannic acid could also cause certain degree of fixation or alteration of coronavirus membrane. The Domaine de Moulie red wine is famous in its source of Tannat grapes, which contains higher concentration of tannic acid. This is a suggestion to use Domaine de Moulie red wine to extract antiviral chemicals from herbs to treat gauze, and then use that kind of gauze to make a nose filter in order to decrease the possibility of transmission of coronavirus. However, the effectiveness has not yet been validated
11 Effect of Soy Beans on Women Health   , Sheeba Chellappan
Soybean contains all amino acid essential to human beings and has a positive effect on health. It is widely available in India and many studies reported the positive effects of soybeans. Ingestion of soybeans may help to prevent and control chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cancer and improve  the quality of life in postmenupausal women.
12 Novel Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19): Pregnancy Issues , Goce Kalcev;Ivan Barbov ; Jovan Bozinovski and Elizabeta Zisovska
Immune and physiological changes that occur during a woman's pregnancy place her in a high-risk group for the physical and mental health consequences of various factors [1]. Previous studies showed high rates of maternal mortality, abortion, and preterm labor after pneumonia caused by the H1N1, MERS, influenza A, and SARS viruses [2]. However, information on the impact of COVID-19 infection on mothers and newborns outcomes is veru limited.
13 Endometriosis in Umbilical Hernia , Saud Al Omani and Nouf Yassin
Endometriosis is the presence of functional endometrium tissue outside the uterus. It affects approximately 11% of the population [1]. Here we present a patient with atypicalhistory who was found to have Extra-pelvic endometerosisin the sac of a recurrent  para-umbelical hernia
14 Feto-Maternal Outcome of HIV Positive Pregnant Women on HAART at the Gambia - Case - Control Study , Matthew Anyanwu1,2*, Samuel Anya2, Richard Offiong3 and Bissallah Ekele3
Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in pregnant women remains a huge public health concern globally. There were conflicting reports regarding pregnancy outcome among HIV positive mothers. The aim was to compare pregnancy outcome among HIV-infected and uninfected women at Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital, Banjul the Gambia. Pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at the hospital were prospectively recruited and followed up. HIV positive and negative mothers were matched for age and parity. Recruitment occurred irrespective of gestation age. At the time of delivery, obstetric and neonatal characteristics were entered into computer database. Mothers and their children were followed until 6 weeks postpartum. The data was analyzed with Epi-info version 7.1.5. Chi square at significant level of 0.05 and confidence level of 95% was used to determine significance. A total of 166 mothers, 55 HIV positive and 111 HIV negative controls were in the study. The age range was between 18 to 45 years and parity was 0 to 8. The measured adverse outcome includes; Low Birth Weight; 20% Vs 5.2% odds ratio (OR) 4.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.46-14.2; P- 0.01220 and maternal anaemia (40% Vs 11% OR 5.4 95% CI 2.3 - 12.6; P-0.0001). Both showed statistical significant difference. Preterm delivery; 29.2% and 26.6%; OR 1.14; 95% CI 0.52 - 2.46; P-0.9 and stillbirth, low Apgar score at 5 minutes and NICU admission of 5.45%vs 0-0.9% showed no statistical difference; (OR = 6.3; CI; 0.6 - 6.25; P -0.21). HIV infection was associated with low birth weight and maternal anaemia.
15 Use of Immunomodulators (Etanercept) in a Miniseries with Covid-19 Patients, to Decrease the Progress of Complications and Risks of Entry into Critical Care. Bibliography Review , Adán Oliveros-Ceballos1*, Janeth Gutiérrez-Segura2, Adrian Israel Ramirez-Mendoza3 and Bryan Adan Oliveros-Galeana4
Objective: This study aims to describe the clinical results of a miniseries of 6 patients who presented characteristic COVID-19 symptoms and PCR positive, who were administered Etanercept, to avoid Cytokine release syndrome with the purpose of decreasing admission to the critical care unit. Design: This is a prospective, descriptive observational study. Patients and Methods: 6 patients with (SARS-CoV-2) COVID-19 symptoms were evaluated for the administration of the immunomodulator Etanercept 50 mg. Two groups were aligned: A) Mild: with fever, cough, images compatible with pneumonia, and gastrointestinal symptoms; B) Moderate: with fever, cough, images compatible with pneumonia, gastrointestinal symptoms and respiratory distress considered as L phenotype. Results: A total of 13 patients were identified with suspected infection of the virus (SARS-CoV-2) COVID-19, from which 6 patients accepted the administration of the immunomodulator Etanercept 50 mg (subcutaneous) in a single dose and protocol follow-up. From these 6 patients: 4 patients had fever, cough, headache and risk factors such as pregnancy and obesity; and 2 patients also presented respiratory distress considered as L phenotype. All 6 evolved to improvement. No patient was admitted to the critical intensive care unit and did not require invasive ventilatory support. Conclusion: In this miniseries, the administration of the Etanercept immunomodulator in patients with (SARS-CoV-2) from mild to moderate stage, improved the clinical evolution and reduced the risk of admission to the intensive care unit. However, more patients and more controlled and randomized studies are necessary to recommend immunomodulators.
16 Fetal Sacrococcygeal Teratoma Requiring Emergency Hysterotomy in Second Trimester , Amrit Pokharel1* and Geeta Gurung2
Sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) is the commonest fetal tumor. We report a case of fetal SCT requiring emergency hysterotomy at 21+4 weeks of gestation. A 22 years primigravida, with prior uneventful antenatal care, presented at 21+4 weeks of gestation with on and off pain abdomen and back for 3 days associated with passage of show for 1 day. Vital signs were stable and her abdomen was tense and tender with fundal height of 30 weeks. She was in early labor. Urgent USG revealed a live intrauterine fetus with features suggestive of huge fetal SCT for which she underwent emergency hysterotomy
17 Assessment of Surgical Treatment Outcome of Women Patients with Stress Urinary Incontinence Managed in Jimma University Medical Center, Southwest Ethopia , Chuchu Arega*
Background: Stress Urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common problem in women and with appropriate diagnosis stress urinary incontinence can most often be treated. Jimma University Medical Centre (JUMC) has been performing surgical treatment since the past four years and it was crucial to determine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of surgical treatment done for women with stress urinary incontinence JUMC. Objectives: To determine outcomes of surgical treatment of women with stress urinary incontinence, and associated factors in Jimma University Medical Centre (JUMC). Methods: Hospital based cross sectional study was conducted among 44 female patients with stress urinary incontinence admitted to gynecology ward and underwent surgical treatment in Jimma University Medical Centre (JUMC) over a period of 1 year and 7 months from 1 January/2018 to 30 July/2019 G.C. The collected data was entered into Epidata version 4.1, and then it was exported to SPSS (Version 20.0) for statistical analysis. Result: The study showed that the age of the patients ranged from 14 to 65 years with mean of 35 (± 13) years, 24 (54.5%) patients were house wife, 19 (43.2%) divorced, 33 (75%) were not sexually active, 30 (68.2%) multiparous and 30 (68.2%) patients gave birth by vaginal route. Forty two (95.5%) patients were from rural areas and 27 (61.4%) patients were having stress urinary incontinence for less than 36 months, 17 (38.6%) patients were having stress urinary incontinence for 36 months and above. Thirty nine (88.6%) patents were treated with pubovaginal sling and 36 (81.8%) patients on discharge were continent to urine and were cured of SUI after surgical treatment. Conclusion and Recommendations: In this study the majority of patients had lived with stress urinary incontinence and were treated with Pubovaginal Sling and high success rate was achieved with vulvovaginal Sling procedure.
18 Non Communicable Diseases and Women's Health , Oliseneku Damien Uyagu
While there are many gender-specific challenges about women’s health, Non Communicable diseases (NCDs) constitute the most significant threat to women’s health worldwide. The impact of this problem drew the attention of the World Health Organization 10 years ago at the 2010 UN global strategy for women and child health [1]. The summit considered NCDs as a critical element of improving the lives of girls and women worldwide. Ten years after that summit, NCDs remains the highest cause of death among women and girls. Several papers published about women and girls allude to this fact. Global efforts to improve women’s health primarily focused on Sexual and reproductive health while neglecting the number one cause of mortality and morbidity to women and girls. In a recent article titled ‘Women’s health, A new global agenda’ published in the BMJ 4 years ago, attention was drawn to the actual burden borne by women and girls due to the direct effects of NCDs
19 Evaluation of Black Transition to Disharmony Episodes of Private Burnside Pharmacy Institutions in Pune, India , Rahul Hajare
Consuming smelly food at the office desk can affect working conditions. Represents a substantial void in the literature both on corporate governance and international business. The new theoretical proposition of culturally determined agency has suggested. It builds on the recently put forward behavioral theory of corporate governance. This novel theoretical lens in corporate governance merges the under-socialized agency theory, as the dominant institutional logic in corporate governance of domestic firms, and the behavioral theory of the firm, which has probably the only theory of the firm that explicitly treats firms as complex social systems. Finally, three exemplifications of application of this new theoretical construct of culturally determined agency to the analysis of contemporaneous business issues in pharmaceuticals
20 Women Health amongst COVID , Rupinder Kaur
COVID has affected diverse population throughout the world. The female domain exhibit amplified effects of this pandemic. Lockdown implications has exponential impact for women in every sphere of their lives. The multilayered effects have worsened the pre-existing conditions of inequality, informal economy, unsecure jobs, limited social protection, domestic violence and so on. Heightened care demands of family members staying back at home has burdened this very group of community to bear top up household responsibilities. Mismatch in competing both home and job demands has lead her exhausted. Instead of ventilating her feelings she has been subjected to certain neglectful strategiesPsychological abuse, physical and sexual violence in relationship, family abuse and greater reports of intimate partner violence. This has left her all shattered with feeling of worthlessness, anger, humiliation and helplessness. All these have somatic presentation in the form of changes in memory, attention, appetite and sleep with fatigue, body aches and adverse thoughts of self -harm and suicide. Of course there is unpaid care and unequal share in domestic responsibilities but there is likely more chance of women getting infected with virus by comprising 70% in the frontline health care workforce. Amongst this all women has proved to be backbone of recovery in community. The need of the hour is to ensure women safety, foster her health and combat inequalities. Increase awareness and advocacy campaigns. Prioritize legal aid in domestic violence and reproductive health services. All the frontline health workers to be equipped adequately. We should find out ways to include women in response and recovery decision making whether at home or outside.
21 Woman and Breast Cancer - Early Detection Saves Life , Tabassum Kotagasti
Breast Cancer is the most common cancer in Indian women and accounts for 27% of all cancers in women. About 1 in 28 women are likely to develop breast cancer during their lifetime. In the urban areas the incidence is 1 in 22 as compared to the rural areas where 1 in 60 women develop breast cancer. Breast cancer patients experience physical symptoms and psychosocial distress that adversely affect their quality of life (QOL).
22 Role of Healthy Food Daily Consumption on the Forming of the Breasts, Thighs, Buttocks for Getting Healthy, Sexy and Interesting Body , Rosa Lelyana
A person’s body shape is influenced by various factors. Many women who want a healthy body shape, sexy and attractive. One of the parameters of a woman’s attractiveness is the shape and size of her breasts, thighs and buttocks. Unclear understanding the ways to get a healthy, beautiful and attractive body shape because of many factors that influence it. One of many factors is the food factor, but it is still unknown how food affects the formation of breasts, thighs and buttocks. Therefore, this paper aims to discuss the role of food in the formation of breasts, thighs and buttocks in women so that they look healthy, sexy and attractive.
23 Impact of Oocytes Insemination Timing on Fertilisation and Embryo Development Rate , Chandan N*, Raghunandan K, Reeta Janet Jessy I, Saleem M and Shwetha C
Background: Pre-incubation period between oocyte retrieval and injection in Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles improved the percentage of mature oocytes, the preincubation of oocytes prior to in vitro fertilization (IVF) improves the fertilization rate and the quality of embryo formation. Objective: The study was to analyze whether the preincubation of oocytes and microinjection timings on the outcome of ICSI increases rates of fertilization and the quality of embryo formation and also to evaluate the relationship between different pre-incubation periods of oocytes. Design: Retrospective randomized controlled trial. Methods: A total of 129 patients undergoing their Intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles, retrieved oocytes were preincubated for 2 - 6h prior to injection, the injected oocytes were cultured in Culture NX media, fertilization and Embryo development assessment was performed on day 1 and day 3, Patients were randomly divided into different groups. Results: Neither 2 - 3 hour and 3 - 4 hour insemination time of post oocyte retrieval had no significant influence on the fertilisation rate (FR) and showed no significant improvement in Embryo development, fertilization rate showed a significant improvement after inseminating at 2 - 3 hour gives 86% fertilization rate and 95% embryo development rate while FR significantly decreased with the increase of insemination time. Also, inseminating oocytes at 3 - 4 hour post oocyte retrieval gives 81% fertilization rate and 97% embryo development rate.
24 Low Value of Apnea-test on Fetal Survival in Intrauterine Hypoxia is Universal Indicator for Planned Caesarean Section , NA Urakova1 and AL Urakov2
The review is devoted to the justification of apnea-test on fetal survival for hypoxia in a pregnant woman as a criterion for choosing the type of planned delivery through the natural birth canal or by Cesarean section. It is shown that during physiological childbirth in women, the uterus repeatedly worsens the blood supply to the placenta, which causes intrauterine hypoxia of the fetus at each contraction. This is because during contractions, the uterus squeezes not only the fetal bladder with amniotic fluid and the fetus, but also the placenta, as well as blood vessels that are located inside the uterine wall and through which arterial blood flows to the placenta. Therefore, when giving birth through the natural birth canal, the fetus is forced to repeatedly experience periods of hypoxia. However, the ability of fetuses to survive periods of intrauterine hypoxia in future births today is not taken into account when choosing the type of delivery. It has been shown that apnea-test on fetal survival at hypoxia can increase the accuracy of choosing the planned type of birth resolution. It has been established that if the period of immobility of the fetus during respiratory retention by its mother is less than 10 seconds, then childbirth through the natural birth canal is contraindicated, since this can cause drowning of the fetus in amniotic fluid, asphyxia, encephalopathy and pneumonia of the newborn. Planned Caesarean section can improve the prognosis of childbirth.
25 Osteoporosis - Relationship of Bone Mass Density with Body Mass Index and Selected Variables: A Descriptive Survey , Athar Javeth
Osteoporosis is a silent thief of bone which is characterized by decreased bone mass density and gradual decline in bone tissue which increases the susceptibility to bone fracture. The objective of the study is to assess the bone mass density and body mass index and to find out the relationship between them.
26 Holistic Quality of Life in Women during Natural Perimenopause and Postmenopause , Cárdaba-García Rosa María1* and Aparicio-García Marta Evelia
Objective: The goal of the present study was to assess the health status of women during the natural climacteric with respect to physical, mental, and social variables. Design: It is a descriptive correlational study. Setting 419 perimenopausal women are involved on a voluntary basis. 273 women were premenopausal and 146 were postmenopausal. The tools used were the GHQ-12 General Health Questionnaire, and DukeUNC-11 Questionnaire of Functional Social Support. Results: It was found that the youngest women tended to suffer from anaemia more often, and that the oldest women suffered from osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and arthritis. It was also found that postmenopausal women had better mental health. Regarding social support, there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups of women. With respect to holistic quality of life, it was found that the youngest women enjoyed better living conditions. Conclusion: This study provides insight into the health of women during the natural climacteric, and a gender perspective with respect to health research with the aim of removing the possibility of health discrimination by gender.
27 Risk Assessment of Airborne PM2.5 Exposure of Forest and Land Fire Haze to Petrol-Pump Officers in Pekanbaru , Elisa Moetiara.
The forest and land fire situation in Sumatra have led to a haze disaster that contain harmful particulate matter exposing Pekan-baru population. Number of studies concerned with associations between respiratory and cardiovascular health effects and exposure to fine fractions of particulate matter (PM2.5) on polluted air have been reviewed by Kim [1]. Although studies have proven signifi-cance difference of health effect due to haze, currently there is no study to estimate the potential health risk to population exposed to haze in Pekanbaru. This study aims to estimate the risk of PM2.5 in ambient air during haze period that exposed Petrol-pump officers. The risk magnitude is represented by Risk Quotient (RQ) that determined by comparing the PM2.5 exposure intake with exposure dose-response of the workers using the Environmental Health Risk method from The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS). Intake value is generated based on the concentration of PM in the environment, individual activity patterns and anthropo-metric values. Concentration of PM2.5 was using secondary data generated by real-time PM measurement for Pekanbaru. The activity patterns and anthropometric values were collected using questionnaire to 20 Petrol-Pump Officers from 5 different gas stations in Pekanbaru. The calculation of lifetime risk showed that Petrol-Pump Officers who were exposed longer since 2015 haze period, has four times greater health risk compared to those who are just exposed in 2019. Petrol-Pump Officers who just got exposed to PM2.5 in 2019 has RQ ≤ 1, hazard was not a threat - however risk still need to be maintained under 1. While RQ for PM2.5 exposure to Petrol-Pump Officers who has worked since 2015 is > 1, means PM2.5 in haze that exposes Petrol-Pump Officers cause the adverse health effects and the risk needs to be managed.
28 Follicular Fluid Aspiration and Oocyte Retrieval Techniques, Several Flushing, Difficulty Situations Damage Risk to the Cumulus Complex and Complications , Mohamed Zarqaoui1, Mustafa Zakaria2*, Noureddine Louanjli3, Nisrine En-Naciri4, Mohamed Ennaji5, Malak Jamil6, Amal Kabit5, Saadani Brahim7 and Boutiche Romaissa8
In Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART), oocyte retrieval is a vital step. It was initially performed through laparoscopy, which was complex and difficult and of low efficiency. Ultrasound-guided transvaginal oocyte retrieval was safer and more effective; it is presently the standard operation for in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Theoretically, oocyte retention is achievable after the initial aspirate due to abnormal development of the follicle or oocyte and human technical factors, and such retention could be overcome by recurrent follicular flushing. Follicular flushing is considered to maximize the number of oocytes retrieved and thereafter to improve the rate of IVF pregnancy. There are a number of factors that can affect egg collection and/or egg damage. These involve variables like pump vacuum flow, velocity, needle bore size and length, follicle pressure and size and collection techniques. Cook Medical Technology, Brisbane, has developed appropriate equipment to study the factors influencing the success of egg collection and the cause of egg trauma
29 A Prognostic Tool to Predict the Development of Postpartum Endometritis and Haematometra , Bulavenko O1, Ostapiuk Lesia1,2*, Rud V1 and Rud O3
Introduction: Obstetric sepsis remains one of the top 5 causes of maternal death in Ukraine, according to the data collected between 2009 - 2015. Postpartum purulent-inflammatory diseases are the reason of sepsis occurrence. Currently, there is a lack of methods of early diagnostics of postpartum endometritis (PPE). Objectives: The main aim is to evaluate the risks of postpartum endometritis (PPE) among postpartum women and development of means of its early diagnosis using fluorescent spectroscopy. In addition, the reliability of such approach is tested via creation of a prognostic model. Methods: Fluorescent spectroscopy was used, along with the standard diagnostic tools in order to diagnose 170 postpartum patients of the participants cohort and 40 postpartum patients of the control group with uncomplicated course of postpartum period. Results: By statistical analysis using logistic regression, the data was evaluated according to more than 40 indicators and as a result, a prognostic model was derived. This prognostic model enables to assess the probability of development of postpartum endometritis among postpartum patients. ROC-analysis was implied in order to evaluate the quality of the proposed model. Conclusion: Proposed multi-structured model for prognosis of the development of PPE among postpartum women, which enables determination of the patient groups susceptible to develop PPE. The major risk factors in the finalised multi-structured model of the development of PPE are: extragenital pathology, risk of miscarriage, TORCH-infections, colpitis, labour duration > 12 hrs, abnormal labour, lambda (λ) max, fluorescence intensity ≤ 0,845, a number of bed days and the presence of foetal distress. It was confirmed, that the results obtained by using fluorescent spectroscopy have the highest significance among the prognostic tools used in the investigation. Therefore, application of this prognostic tool in clinical practice is a highly feasible way to improve diagnosis and prognosis of the development of postpartum endometritis. .
30 Complete Supracervical Uterine Transection - A Rare Complication of Abdominal Myomectomy , Kunal Rathod1*, Sheela Swamy2, Adam Jakes3, Holland Tom4 and Kumar Kunde4
Iatrogenic disconnection between the uterus and cervix remains an unreported complication post myomectomy. We report a case following abdominal myomectomy and the surgical repair. A 41-year-old presented with secondary amenorrhea and primary subfertility. Ultrasound pelvis and Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the uterine body was entirely separated from the cervix. Successful reanastomosis of uterus and cervix followed by a Hysteroscopy and adhesiolysis which was performed after 6 months led to regular establishment of periodic menstruation
31 An Interaction of Human Health and Soil Fertility: A Lost Opportunity for Producers and Consumers , Sanjay Rode*
The people, plants, animals, and insects are depending on fertile soil for survival and growth. Fertile soil produces quality food and nurture all species. Plants prepare food from soil and provide it to animals and human being. The domestic animals eat fodder and few provide milk. Their reproduction is depending on clean environment, soil, water and fodder. There is large-scale interdependence on each other of human beings, animals and plants. Soil nourishment is very important for high production and growth of all plants.
32 Effect of Pelvic Floor Descent on Posterior Pelvic Floor Disorders in Women with Obstructed Defecation Syndrome , Akira Tsunoda*, Tomoko Takahashi and Hiroshi Kusanagi
Background: The relation between age, parity, and posterior pelvic floor disorders involving obstructed defecation syndrome (ODS) is a matter of controversy. This study aimed to determine the effect of pelvic floor descent (PFD) on the prevalence of posterior pelvic floor disorders in women with ODS. Methods: Data for women with ODS, collected in a prospective pelvic floor database, and were assessed retrospectively. Data on demographic variables and defecography were analyzed. PFD during defecation was estimated by the degree of the anorectal junction in relation to the inferior margin of the ischial tuberosity. Results: Of 334 women with ODS, the most frequently detected defecographic abnormalities were rectal intussusception (58%) and rectocele (45%). Regression analysis showed that the presence of rectocele and enterocele was more common in women with increased PFD. A higher incidence of rectocele and enterocele was found in women with excessive PFD (≧ 30 mm) than those without excessive PFD [58% (68/118) vs. 37% (77/209), P < 0.0001; 23% (27/118) vs. 14% (29/209), P = 0.038, respectively]. Increasing size of rectocele was significantly associated with increasing PFD. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of various posterior pelvic floor disorders between nulliparous and parous women. Conclusions: The prevalence of both rectocele and enterocele increased significantly with increasing PFD in women with ODS, but the incidence of rectal intussusception showed no such relationship.
33 Embryology and Uterine Abnormalities, Shapes and Miscarriage Risks , Mohamed Zarqaoui1, Mustafa Zakaria2* and Noureddine Louanjli3
An abnormal uterus can sometimes be a risk factor for miscarriage and, in some cases, a cause of recurrent miscarriages. however, only some types of uterine malformations increase the risk of miscarriage and require treatment. others may not cause any problems with pregnancy at all. about 18% of women who have recurrent miscarriages have some type of uterine abnormality. Some uterine malformations are present from birth, while others develop during adulthood. most often, women with uterine abnormalities do not have any symptoms and are not aware of these malformations before they become pregnant. Diagnosis of congenital uterine malformations usually comes after a hysterosalpingogram (HSG), but this test can miss some conditions, such as uterine septum. Any abnormal HSG should be followed by a hysteroscopy. A uterine septum (septate uterus) is the most common congenital uterine anomaly, comprising roughly 55% of Mullerian duct anomalies. Congenital means that it is present at birth. A uterine septum is a band of fibrous tissue that partially or completely divides the uterus, usually without a good blood supply. If a fertilized egg implants on the septum, the placenta is unable to grow properly and miscarriage is likely, for women who have a septate uterus, the risk of miscarriage is significant. In fact, in one study nearly 67% of the women in the study with a septate uterus experienced pregnancy loss, for women who do not miscarry, a septate uterus may increase the risk of preterm birth. In fact, the same study found that the likelihood of having a full-term, normal-sized baby was only on 25%. treatment is usually minor surgery, performed during a hysteroscopy, to remove the abnormal tissue. this usually works extremely well to resolve the problem and allow women to successfully carry a full-term pregnancy
34 Women for the Women Leaving Behind in Marginalized Teagarden Community Addressing the Unmet Need for Family Planning , Abu Sayeed Md Abdullah
National maternal and perinatal death surveillance and re-sponses (MPDSR) data of Bangladesh represents that 120 mater-nal deaths occurred in Moulvibazar district during 2014, 39.1% (47 maternal deaths) of which occurred in Tea Gardens catchment areas. Verbal autopsies conducted in those deaths also identi-fied poor care seeking behaviour, access to services; availability and utilization of appropriate MNH services and family planning services including referral.
35 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Cervical Cancer Screening and Associated Factors Among Reproductive Aged Women in Ethiopia: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review , Yoseph Merkeb Alamneh1*, Alehegn Aderaw Alamneh2 and Abtie Abebaw Shiferaw3
Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths, accounting for 9% of female cancer deaths. In addition, more than 85% of cervical cancer related deaths are found in low and middle-income countries. Women’s knowledge and attitude are barriers for the uptake of cervical cancer screening service in Ethiopia. Studies conducted on knowledge, attitude, and practice of cervical cancer screening and associated factors among reproductive age women are inconsistent. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate the national level of knowledge, attitude, and practice of cervical cancer screening and associated factors among women aged 15 - 49 years in Ethiopia
36 Improving Handwashing Promotion and Practice in Emergency Contexts: Evaluating Two Novel Approaches in Nduta Camp, Tanzania , Foyeke Tolani1*, Betty Ojeny1, Michelle Ping-Lee D’Amico2, Loveness Raphael1, Liz Barker3 and Jamae Fontain Morris2
Handwashing with soap can disrupt the transmission of diarrhea-causing pathogens, a major cause of morbidity in emergency settings. However, evidence that traditional hygiene promotion activities drive sustained increases in handwashing is weak. We aimed to test: 1) an improved handwashing station and whether it increased handwashing and 2) if pairing improved sta-tions with a behavioral intervention based on emotional drivers further increased handwashing.
37 Impact of Herbal Medicine on Restoration of Post Menopausal Women's Health , Anjum AA1, Tabassum K2* and Banu S
Menopause is a natural biological process occur after 40 years in every women's life. But the physical symptoms, such as hot flashes, and emotional symptoms of menopause may disrupt their sleep, lower energy or affect emotional health. The mean age of menopause is 49.4 years and 130 million Indian women are expected to live beyond menopause into old age by 2015. In India, 19% of women age 40 - 41 have already reached menopause, and the incidence of menopause increases rapidly after 41. By the age of 48 - 49 years two third of women are in menopause. So, the number of women in menopause is increasing with their life expectancy and also with reported problems. Therefore, quality of this population becomes a major issue and understanding of menopause is very important issue. Long term use of HRT (Hormone Replacement Therapy) has been associated with increased risks for venous thromboembolism, coronary heart diseases, stroke and breast cancer. In classical unani text, though menopausal transition is not mentioned as such, but its clinical features can be correlated with complications occurring due to Ehtebase haiz (Amenorrhoea). There are many effective treatments available, from lifestyle adjustments to hormone therapy. In unani system of medicine, many herbal medicines are documented to alleviate these symptoms. Herbal medicines include Asgandh, Soya, Alsi, Todari, Aslasoos, etc. This review paper focuses on herbal medicines which are useful in menopausal syndrome
38 Duration of the Effect of Fertility and Insulin Resistance on IVF or ICSI Results in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome , Mustafa Zakaria1*, Mohamed Zarqaoui2, Noureddine Louanjli3, Nisrine En-naciri4, Mohamed Ennaji5, Amal Kabit6, Naima El-yousfi7and Romaissa Boutiche
The main effects of insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of PCOS, strategies to reduce insulin and improve reproductive param-eters in PCOS patients and should be recommended for all overweight and obese patients, and the effects of insulin resistance on the results of IVF or sperm injection were examined. Intracytoplasmic (ICSI) in women with PCOS. Insulin sensitivity was measured by continuous glucose infusion with a form evaluation test (CIGMA). Insulin-resistant (n = 26) and non-insulin-resistant (n = 30) women with PCOS underwent a total of 100 cycles of long-term down-regulation with poserilin acetate, stimulation with recombinant human FSH, and IVF or ICSI. And the ovarian stimulation period for hormone tests. The insulin-resistant and non-insulin-resistant women had similar concentrations of FSH, LH, testosterone, and androstenedione during stimulation, but the insulin-resistant women had hyperinsulinemia and low concentrations of globulin associated with sex hormones. The insulin-resistant women also had low con-centrations of estradiol during stimulation and required higher FSH doses, but these differences disappeared after controlling for higher body weight in the insulin-resistant group of women. Insulin resistance was neither associated with hormone levels nor with IVF outcomes. Obesity, regardless of insulin resistance, is associated with relative gonadal resistance, necessary to confirm these findings. In conclusion, it has been shown that reducing insulin resistance improves the ovulation rate in PCOS patients, but there is strong evidence to maintain the usefulness of insulin-causing drugs as a treatment option.
39 Non Surgical Management of Stress Urinary Incontinence , Non Surgical Management of Stress Urinary Incontinence
Urinary incontinence is defined as the involuntary leakage of urine. This condition occurs in both men and women, but is much more frequent in women. It is typically related to dysfunction of urinary bladder or pelvic floor muscles which occur after child-birth or due to ageing related to menopause. In women, there are two main types of urinary incontinence - stress incontinence and urge incontinence.
40 Prevalence of TORCH Infections during Pregnancy: A Prospective Cohort Study in Tribal Region of Gujarat, India , Kranti Suresh Vora1,2*, Paridhi Gupta1, Shahin Saiyed1, Bhumika Prajapati1 and Senthilkumar Natesan
Maternal infections are important causes of poor birth outcomes, child morbidity, and mortality. The most common infections during pregnancy causing adverse birth outcomes are TORCH. Few studies have been done in India to know prevalence of TORCH in general population. The objective of this study is to determine the Prevalence of TORCH infections in a tribal area of the Aravalli district in Gujarat, India.
41 The Role of Sporting Activates in Reducing Plastic Surgeries among Women Students at Al-Balqa Applied University , Lubna M Obeidat
Introduction:Beauty is one of God’s blessings conferred on us, especially on women. Our true religion instilled in us love for adorn-ment and being beautified.Objectives: This study aimed to identify the role of sports activities in reducing plastic surgeries as to women students at Al-Balqa Applied University.Methods:The researcher used the descriptive correlation method. The sample consisted of (200) females chosen randomly from the university by implementing the study tool on a sample consisting of (60) items including six domains. Suitable methods were used to ensure validity and reliability, to answer the research used the two-way analysis of variance, the multi-variant analysis of Viviane and Scheffe’s test.Results: The means (3.86 - 3.00) with the highest mean (3.86) for the personal motivations, which ranked first, whereas the academ-ic motivations came last with the mean of (3.00). The means of the tool as a whole reached (3.33). The results of the study showed statistical differences (0.05 = a) attributed to the case effect. They also showed significant statistical differences (0.05 = a) attributed to the impact of the academic year on the aesthetic and health field, with the differences on behalf of the 3rd and 4th women students.Conclusion: The research came out with a set of recommendations among the most prominent of which is the necessity of enhanc-ing the culture and concepts of sports as related sports do the role of sporting activities for women, for such activities have a positive impact on the different walks of life: aesthetic, personal, psychological, social, academic and health issues. It was also recommended that positive motives have to be boasted through exercising sports activities to minimize plastic surgeries
42 Clinical Significance of Pathological Nipple Discharge as a Single Breast Symptom: A Single-institute Experience , Mostafa Ramadan and Rabie Ramadan
Background: Nipple discharge is a common symptom which can cause anxiety although usually caused by benign etiologies and only reported as the presenting symptom in 15% of breast cancer cases. The evaluation and management of nipple discharge is diverse and confusing between breast clinics. The aim of this study was to identify clinical characteristics and preoperative examinations which can be used to identify malignancy as the underlying cause of nipple discharge, thereby facilitating patient tailored treatment.Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients with nipple discharge as a single symptom who attended our insti-tution breast clinic from March 2018 till February 2020. Patients clinical, radiological, lab, pathological, surgical and follow up data were registered. Results:A total of148 patients with nipple discharge were reviewed. Discharge was unilateral in 70.3%, Multiductal in 58.1%, bloody in 23% and induced on squeezing in 62.2% of the included patients. the causes of discharge were ductectasia in 47 patients (51.6%), benign papilloma in 28 patients (30.8%) and carcinoma in 12 patients (13.2%){DCIS in 7 patients (7.7%) and IDC in 5 patients (5.5%)}. Regarding discharge characteristics in cancer patients; it was unilateral (58.3%), uniductal (66.7%), bloody (75%) and induced (75%).Conclusion:Pathological nipple discharge is a common breast complain and may indicate serious condition. Although unilateral, uniductal, bloody and induced discharge in patients above 50 years old with abnormal imaging and suspicious pathology are alarm-ing signs of malignancy; non-bloody, bilateral, multiducatl and spontaneous discharge with normal imaging and non-suspicious pa-thology may still carry the risk of underlying malignancy.
43 The Possible Association of Female Pattern Hair Loss and Alteration in Serum Cholecalciferol Level , Mohammed S Al-Abadie1, Hussain Tukmatchy2, Ari Ahmad3, Anandadeep Mandal4, Patrick A Ball5 and Hana Morrissey6
Background:Vitamin D has a central role in neuronal, reproductive, autoimmune, infectious, and heart diseases. Female Pattern Hair Loss (FPHL) is described as a non-scarring, progressive thinning of the hair resulting from a decreasing ratio of terminal hairs to thinner vellus hairs. Aim:To explore the possibility of vitamin D deficiency contribution to hair loss in women in the local population in West Midlands England. Method:Records of women from different age groups who were treated in the dermatology outpatient clinic for any skin conditions and had their vitamin D status assessed as part of their usual care. In this study we also examine the impact of vitamin D levels and age on hair loss.Results:The studies reviewed medical records of 48 patients diagnosed with dermatological conditions. Low levels of vitamin D significantly affects the loss of hair (p = 0.046). The odds ratio estimated is 3.545. Our results show that the impact of low vitamin D level is significantly prevalent for the age groups 35 - 45 and moderately impacted age group 55 - 65 years. Conclusion:Vitamin D has a significant role in hair-loss process, and possibly early correction may have a role in prevention and treatment in women aged 35 - 45 year of age
44 A Comparative Cross-sectional Study on Anthropometry and Body Composition of Selected Female Type 2 Diabetics and Non-diabetics , Bhavani S and Jemima Beryl Mohankumar
A study was designed to compare the body composition of female diabetics and non-diabetics in the age group of 35 - 45 years. A validated questionnaire was used to collect background information. The tools used to measure anthropometric measurements were properly calibrated and used according to the NHANES protocol. The Waist-to-Height Ratio (WHtR) and Body Adiposity Index (BAI) are focused in this article. Other anthropometric measurements are also presented. We found BMI to be significantly different (p ≤ 0.05) between the diabetics and non-diabetics. The diabetic women had greater subcutaneous fat in the trunk and legs. The skeletal muscle percentage was also lower. We recommend that body composition may be studied using the hand-held BIA device to make a better assessment of the metabolic condition to suggest suitable management.
45 Women's Health Problems in the 21st Century and Ways to Solve them , Ostapiuk L
The problem of preserving women's reproductive health is a guarantee of the well-being of future generations. At the same time, the problem of maternal mortality is relevant even in the 21st century with its significant progress, including in medicine. Postpartum purulent-inflammatory diseases are on the second place in the world in the structure of maternal mortality and com-plicate significantly the course of the postpartum period.
46 What Information is Available to Women Regarding Coronavirus and Childbirth in Italy? A Mixed-methods Exploration of the Web During the COVID-19 Lockdown , Simona Fumagalli1*, Laura Iannuzzi2, Virna Franca Zobbi1, Romina Sada1, Dominique Mylod2 and Antonella Nespoli
Problem: The world is fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic and an infodemic; Italy is one of the most severely affected countries. Background: The internet represents a popular source of health information. In Italy, its use amongst pregnant women and new mothers has increased during the lockdown. No research has examined the nationally accessible information related to childbirth in these unprecedented circumstances. Aim: To explore online information accessible to Italian users concerning childbirth and coronavirus-related issues. Methods: A mixed methods exploration of the web was conducted involving searches on Google, peer discussion forums and mid-wifery association webpages. Data were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively. A cross-consultation analysis of themes was performed to identify macro categories of information. Findings: A total of 720 results from free searches, 635 interventions from 97 forums and 68 posts from four midwifery associa-tion webpages were analysed. Informative/divulging sources were the most prevalent in Google; pregnancy-related topics appeared more in discussion forums and midwifery association webpages. ‘Prevention’; ‘risks and outcomes’; ‘users’ experiences’ and ‘reor-ganisation of maternity services’ represent the cross-consultation categories of information Discussion: Google emerges as the main contributor to the infodemic; national systems of alert and ranking of web sources are needed. Women’s pragmatic needs are more likely to be addressed by peer-discussion forums and midwifery association webpages during and after COVID-19. Conclusion: This is the first study to investigate childbirth-related web information during COVID-19 in Italy; findings may impact on education, research and practice
47 Uptake of Family Planning Services Among Refugees in South-South Nigeria: The Impact of Medical Outreaches , Abayomi Joseph Afe*, Idowu Araoyinbo, Yakubu Aliyu, Olanrewaju Alabi, Jacque Karungi, Polycap Takou and Theresa Adah
Refugees especially the female adolescents and youths have highly vulnerable due to high risk of sexual violence, exploitation and abuse, and early or forced marriage. Adolescent pregnancies are reported to be higher among refugees or displaced persons than the non-displaced persons at 30 and 19% respectively. They also have low contraceptive prevalence rate and have accessibility and availability challenges in procuring family planning services. To mitigate these challenges, routine family planning outreaches were conducted to two refugee camps in south-south region of Nigeria over a period of 12months.A total of 308 men and women received modern contraceptives during the outreaches. This is about 4% of the total population of men and women within the reproductive age group. Also, only 179 women and girls within the reproductive age group received modern contraceptives during the outreaches, which also account for 4% of all women within reproductive age group residing in the camps. About 46% received condoms only, 54% received implants and condoms, 2% received both injectables and condoms and another 2% received oral pills and condoms.The low uptake of contraceptives in this study is similar to the results in other studies in similar settings. Factors responsible could include inadequate knowledge on contraceptives, fear of side effects, partner prohibitions, poor access to modern contraceptives.The pattern of contraceptive types distributed could reflect availability of contraceptives and fulfilling the eligibility criteria by the clients.
48 PAS Rising Threat to Safe Motherhood , Preeti Sharma
Placenta accreta spectrum is a potentially life-threatening pregnancy complication that occurs in approximately 3 in 1000 pregnancies. The incidence of this iatrogenic disorder is ever in-creasing with the alarming rates of caesarean deliveries and fer-tility enhancing surgeries in the last decade. It occurs when the placenta grows too deeply into the wall of the uterus and is unable to detach at childbirth. The etiology is a defect of the endometrial -myometrial interface (absence of fibrinoid Nitabuchs layer) that leads to a failure of normal decidualization in the area of a uter-ine scar, which allows abnormally deep placental anchoring villi and trophoblast invasion. FIGO has given a classification of PAS in 2019 according to the clinical symptoms and degree of adherence (Luke’s classification) into creta accreta and percreta. WHO has used the wider term Morbidly adherent placenta and used code ICD 10 O42 for international coding
49 Frequency of Complications of Vaginal Delivery in Patients with a History of Cesarean Section , Edgar Allan Villagómez Mendoza1*, Rubén Razo Solano2, Saúl Palapa Ramirez2 and Alan Moisés Santana Ramirez
Objective: To determine the frequency of complications of vaginal delivery in patients with a history of cesarean section. Methods: Prospective, observational, and descriptive study carried out from June 2019 to June 2020, with a total of 45 cases in the study period, 45 patients attended for resolution of gestation were analyzed, all with a history of cesarean section, they were con-centrated in a database in the Excel program and quantitative and qualitative analysis of the study variables was carried out (gesta-tions, maternal age, interpregnancy interval, indication for previous cesarean section, type of complication, obstetric outcome and, if necessary, reasons for a repeat cesarean section measures of central tendency were specified. Statistical significance was made as p < 0.05 and was performed using the Chi-square test and Fisher's exact statistic for nominal variables. Inclusion criteria: patients with full-term pregnancies, history of a transverse segmental cesarean section without contraindication for vaginal delivery, the reason for the previous cesarean section, and interpregnancy interval greater than 18 months. Results: 45 patients were studied, complications were analyzed in 40%, by type of obstetric outcome, complications appeared in 36% of women with childbirth, and in 45% of women with a cesarean section, In patients with a vaginal outcome, the most frequent complication was third-degree B perineal tear in 12% of cases, however, in patients with repeat cesarean section, the most frequent complication in 20% of cases was the obstetric hemorrhage. The complications obtained in the study were not statistically major. Conclusions: Cesarean section is a major surgical procedure that implies higher morbidity and mortality than childbirth, admitting delivery after cesarean section is a safe method in patients with a history of cesarean section with transverse segmental incision without contraindication for vaginal delivery, however, strategies should be developed to improve delivery care, decrease obstetric bleeding, and improve the obstetrician's ability to assess the risk of uterine rupture
50 Male Infertility in Cryptozoospermia or Severe Oligozoospermia is sperm Useful Cryopreservation , Aya AL-ibraheemi1, Mustafa Zakaria2*, Mohamed Zarqaoui3, Mohamed Ennaji4, Wassym R Senhaji5, Ritu S Santwani6, Nisrine En-naciri7, Hafida Tarik7, Romaissa Boutiche8 and Noureddine Louanjli9
Male infertility count for almost 30% of the total cases of infertility. Male infertility can be caused by several and various factors such as environmental, genetics and hormonal factors. Male infertility can be diagnosed through semen sample analysis; a fresh semen sample can indicate different semen abnormalities. A semen sample can indicate Azoospermia, Cryptozoospermia (Co) or Severe Oligozoospermia (ESO), who can cause infertility in male. It is challenging for an andrologist to distinguish between ESO and CO in clinic diagnose since both of them show no sperm in the sample in the initial sample test. In Cryptozoospermia or Severe Oligo-zoospermia, cryopreservation plays a significant part in preserving male fertility by freezing the individual sperm
51 Women's Health Problems in the 21st Century and Ways to Solve them , Ostapiuk L
The problem of preserving women's reproductive health is a guarantee of the well-being of future generations. At the same time, the problem of maternal mortality is relevant even in the 21st century with its significant progress, including in medicine. Postpartum purulent-inflammatory diseases are on the second place in the world in the structure of maternal mortality and com-plicate significantly the course of the postpartum period.
52 Factors Associated with the Utilization of Focused Antenatal Care Among Women in Chiro Town of Oromia Region; Eastern Ethiopia , Abera Worku Foli1*, Fekadu Assefa Jiru2, Ayingida Adamu Walle3 and Zalalem Kaba Babure
Focused antenatal care (FANC) is one of the important factors in dropping maternal morbidity and mortality; mean-while, it is a prevailing challenge in Ethiopia as many women do not access such care. However, little is known about the determinants factor of FANC service utilization in Ethiopia and particularly in Chiro town. Hence, this study was conducted to determine focused antenatal care status and associated factors among mothers who gave birth within 6 months preceding the study in Chiro town
53 Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Associated Risk Factors Among Indigenous Indian Women , Partha Sarathi Datta
Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a bunch of conditions that increases the risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes etc. MetS includes hypertension, diabetes, excess centripetal body fat, abnormal cholesterol levels etc. and it increases a person’s risk of heart attack and stroke. MetS is one of the major causes of death and disability globally. In India, several studies have revealed that various modifiable risk factors are responsible for a huge number of disabilities and deaths due to MetS among indigenous peoples especially among women. Hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes are significantly prevalent among indigenous women, which may indicate the high rate of heart attack and diabetes among them. The MetS are becoming a burden to indigenous women in India because of their proper knowledge and ignorance about their personal health. In remote rural areas, indigenous women have their own ethnic healing meth-ods and rare reluctant to receive modern health care. They still believe that diseases are caused by super natural forces and can only be controlled by supernatural means. In India, the high commonness of MetS risk factors among indigenous women’s societies needs the immediate attention of the policy makers and healthcare providers. Society and at-risk individuals must be prevented by proper strategies to improve their health conditions. The Government of India is responsible for providing quality and modern healthcare to them. In addition to government activities, a number of NGOs are working in healthcare sector among indigenous peoples in India. So, Health and Hygiene awareness camps need to be organized regularly to maintain their regular health.
54 Urinary Tract Obstruction and Stercoral Colitis Complicating Constipation in Geriatric Patient , O Osman1*, Susmitha Dande2, Isaac Trelles3 and Odalys Frontela
Constipation is common among geriatric patients. A prevalence of 40% has been reported which is increasing over the years [1,2]. Geriatric population suffer from constipation due to various reasons such as polypharmacy, endocrine disorders, electrolyte imbalance, insufficient fiber and water intake, neurological conditions and pelvic floor dysfunction in women. In this case report we present a geriatric patient with chronic untreated constipation which leads to urinary tract obstruction and a rare condition called stercoral colitis
55 Etiology, Management, and Treatment of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Systematic Review , Marwa B Bakir1, Samir M Abdel-Mageed2 and Ehab I Mohamed
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which affects 5-20% of women in their reproductive age, is the most common endocrinopa-thy affecting women worldwide. It is a condition characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovarian morphology, with excessive ovarian androgen production being a key feature of PCOS. Metabolic dysfunction characterized by insu-lin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinaemia is evident in the vast majority of affected women. PCOS increases the risk for cardiovalscular diseases, type-2 diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes and other pregnancy-related complications, venous throm-boembolism, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases and endometrial cancer. PCOS is a diagnosis of exclusion, based primarily on the presence of hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovary morphology. Treatment should be tailored to the complaints and needs of the patient and involves targeting metabolic abnormalities through lifestyle changes, medication and po-tentially surgery for the prevention and management of excess weight, androgen suppression and/or blockade, endometrial protec-tion, reproductive therapy and the detection and treatment of psychological features. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the etiology, mechanisms and pathophysiology, diagnosis, screening and prevention, management and future investigational directions of PCOS.
56 Octonians and the EM-Compass , Gudrun Kalmbach HE*
In the first section, the EM compass is described and an application to leptons. Since the octonians are used, a Hilbert subspace lattice structure is described: why the extension from spacetime coordinates to octonians necessary.
57 Screening for Carcinoma Cervix , Shashi Joshi1* and Jose Manuel Perez2
Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women. It is largely preventable by different screening, diagnostic and ther-apeutic procedures. It is the only gynaecological cancer that can be prevented through routine screening. The precursor lesions de-tected take a long time to progress to cancer and can be treated. Hence screening reduces both the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. Till now cytology-based screening has been the main stay for screening of cervical cancer. Pap smear screening has reduced the incidence of cervical cancer by 80% and deaths by 70%. In many low resource settings, it is difficult to maintain high quality and high coverage of cytology-based screening programmes. This limitation can be removed by use of FRD as a screening device.
58 Urinary Incontinence in Elderly Women: Impact of Surgical Correction in Quality of Life and Occurrence of Bacteriuria , Nino José Wilson Moterani Júnior1*, André Aranda Selverio2, Milena Fernandes Castro2, Eduardo Federighi3 Baisi Chagas3 and Zamir Calamita
An almost experimental study in which 19 elderly patients with stress urinary incontinence were submitted to surgical treatment by transobturator sling, with the main objective of evaluating the impact on the quality of life, through questionnaires validated and translated into Portuguese: International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form and King's Health Questionnaire. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the occurrence of infectious and bacterial complications, by uroculture, before and after the surgical intervention. The sample consisted mainly of white women (78.9%), above the normal body mass index, multiparous. The levels of asymptomatic bacteriuria before and after surgery were 15% and 5.3% respectively. There was improvement of all qual-ity of life parameters in the questionnaires used. It was concluded that the surgical intervention had a positive impact on the quality of life of incontinent elderly women. Although there was a drop in the levels of asymptomatic bacteriuria in absolute numbers, there was no statistical significance.
59 Being a Healthy Woman , Maithili A Athavale
A woman undergoes various physiological changes during her lifetime. A regular menstrual cycle is an important indicator of a healthy reproductive system. Menstrual cycle is regulated by two hormones, Luteinizing Hormone and Follicle-Stimulating Hor-mone. These are produced by the pituitary gland; they promote ovulation and stimulate the ovaries to produce estrogen and pro-gesterone. The levels of these hormones decide the regularity of cycle
60 Assessment of Neurodevelopment of Infants of Diabetic Mothers 6 Year Follow-up , Jiménez-Quiroz Rosalía1*, López-Vasquez Ethel2, Alvarez-Ramírez Elizabeth3, Conde-Reyes María de la Paz1, Romero-Palencia Angélica4, Fernández-Carrocera Luis Alberto5, Guido-Campuzano Martina Angélica6, Castro-Soto Laura7 and Martínez-Cruz Carlos Fabián
The infant of a mother with gestational diabetes (IDM) is a newborn with high neurological risk and can not ensure an evolution-ary pattern in his neurodevelopment; therefore, he must be monitored during the first years of life. The objective of this research is to describe the neurodevelopment of infants of mothers with gestational diabetes at 1 - 6 years of age born in the National Institute of Perinatology, through a retrospective longitudinal study. The sample consisted of 46 participants; 17 boys and 29 girls, children of mothers with gestational diabetes born between 2000 and 2010, who were assessed with the Bayley II Development Scale at the first and second years of life and the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale 4th ed. at the 3rd, 4.5 and 6 years. The results show that IDM have a slight delay in the Psychomotor Developmental Index in the first two years that does not affect scores in the Intellectual Quotient at 3-6 years, obtaining scores within the normal range
61 Domestic Violence against Women in Hard to Reach Districts: A Cross-sectional Study , Abu Sayeed Md Abdullah*
Globally one in every three women experiences violence in life-time. According to UNODC 2018 report 6 out of 10 women (64%) were killed by their partner or family. Only 36% men were killed worldwide in such circumstances. In Bangladesh, violence stands at sixth position at grade C among ten selected countries. About 55% of married women faced physical or sexual harassment in their lifetime in Bangladesh
62 Psychological Impact of Acne on Women , Ruksana Hamid1, Rayees ul Hamid Wani2, Suhail Hamid Wani3, Ghulam Mustafa Malik4 and Mohammad Sarwar Mir
Background: It is well-known that acne vulgaris is a common malady of adolescence. Objective: To evaluate the level of impact among acne female adolescent students on their quality of life.Methods: A total of 200 patients studied. Acne severity was graded using Global Acne Grading System (GAGS) after the clinical diag-nosis. All the patients went through self administered questionnaire of Cardiff Acne Disability Index (CADI) to fill out, to assess the reflection of patients’ experiences and perceptions.Results:The maximum number of patients was in the age group of 16 - 20 years (142/200, 71%). The impact on quality of life was more in the age-group of 21 - 30 years even though in this age group clinical severity of acne was mild to moderate only. Conclusion: Study found that women with acne had profound emotional, as well as, social impact on their quality of life
63 Comparison of the Effects of Maternal and Postnatal Application of Protein Malnutrition, Testes Morphology and Spermatological Parameters in Adult Rats , Dildan Kavak1, Ömer Satici2 and Vatan Kavak
Our Goal: To investigate the development of male baby rats born from mother rats fed with different diet groups starting from em-bryonal period to adulthood.Objective: To determine the percentage of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa in the caudal epididymis, the slides stained with eosin-nigrosin were prepared.Methodology: Low protein diet (LPD) 4%; Control protein diet (CPD) 24%, Middle protein diet (MPD) 12% and yogurt diet groups fed with different diets were followed by the same method in rats. The female rats whose uterine arteries were ligated on day 17 of gestation bilaterally intrauterine growth restriction began to be fed with Control protein diet (CPD9 24%.The epididymis was finely minced with anatomical scissors in 10 ml of physiologic saline, placed in a rocker for 10 minutes, and allowed to sit at room temperature for two minutes.The fluid obtained from the caudal epididymis with a pipette was diluted to 2 ml with Tris buffer solution.Right testes from the rats were placed in 10% Bouin solution for 24 hours for fixation and further pathologic examination.Statistics: Mann Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis tests were used.Results: The average weight of the experimental groups was different in testis location. Epididymis and vesicula seminalis locations; the mean weight of the experimental groups was different.Conclusion: The spermium development in the locations is examined; the development of testis, epididymis, vesicula seminalis, prostate and motility were found to be different according to the groups. Density did not differ between groups
64 The Role of Educational Institutions in Raising Awareness of the Concept of Empowering Arab Women , Mehany Ghanaiem*
The concept of empowering women is considered relatively re-cent, as it appeared in the mid-eighties of the twentieth century and became one of the common concepts, especially in the field of development and in writings about women and their rights. This concept replaced well-being, combating poverty and community participation, and the concept of empowerment emerged as a re-sult of injustice and marginalization that women suffer. However, the concept remained ambiguous due to the fear of some of it and the misunderstanding of others
65 Scenario of Sexual Assault on Patients at Faridpur Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh , Jasmine Sharifa1 and Rabiul Islam
Violence against women is one of the general offences in Bangladesh. It is increasing day by day although dynamic law against prevention. Rape is one of the silent barbarous sexual offences in our country. Despite potential laws against it, the evil of rape con-tinues to increment. Increasing trend of the voiceless cruel sexual offence (rape) represents a major psychopath sexual illness and public health problem and growth of the country. The goal of the study was to determine the pattern of alleged outrage victim such as physical, sexual and burn victims in a village region of southern part in our country basically faridpur, madaripur, rajbari, shariotpur, gopalgonj district of Bangladesh with the ultimate object to create public awareness about the brutal crime. This retrospective study was carried out from 2012 to 2019 total eight years admitted victim where admitted at One stop Crisis Center (OCC) and Divisional DNA Screening Laboratory (DDSL), Faridpur Medical College Hospital. Among the study subjects highest number of alleged outrage cases were below the age of 20 years. More than two-thirds of the adversary was known to the victims; greatest of the incidents oc-curred in the victims’ houses and neighbor places. The study also revealed that number of physical victims 535, sexual victim 352 and burn victim10, total 897 victims admitted at OCC and received free service of medical, law, police and mental support and service. According to DDSL, total 274 number of sexual assault victim collected DNA sample and stored laboratory freeze finally through the order of judicial magistrate to serve free test service for DNA profiling. Common awareness about rape would be efficient to report in due time with preserving the evidence of crime and new techniques like DNA diagnosis may be of aid to find out the assailant.
66 COVID-19, the Masked Villain in Plain Sight , Emmanuel Unwaha1* and Obehioye Enabor2
The celebration of International Women’s day is often a time to highlight the significance of a systematic, directed, effective ap-proach to the diverse conditions that impinge on women’s health. The world is in a desperate situation due to the ravaging effect of the COVID-19 pandemic; many countries have struggled to cope with the virus leading to a desperate race for vaccine development and the start of aggressive vaccination campaigns. Unfortunately, the burden of diseases and conditions affecting women-pregnancy related complications, gynaecological cancers, reproductive health care and mental health continue to inflict pain in our women’s lives. This has only been made worse by the pan-demic as health workers find themselves and our women engulfed in a mental health crisis, confronted with difficult decisions in cancer care and distracted by the arrival of a new villain in the sphere of women’s healthcare with grave implications for developing countries.
67 ‘Women Empowerment’ Effects on Global Economics: A Quantum Economic Study , Arijit Bag*
Background: Women’s empowerment is a global concern today. But, the effect of women’s empowerment on global economics is not studied explicitly. As several governments are focusing on this matter, it is necessary to know the effect of it. To fulfill this need, present research work is conducted.Objective: In the recent past quantum economics is found very successful to explain the economical problems more accurately. Thus, to solve the problem of women’s empowerment related issue mention earlier, we focus to use quantum economic methodology.Methods: Though quantum economics is as old as 43 years, it is not systematized properly to use for our problem directly. We have transformed various related laws and equations to increase the applicability and accuracy of the method. We have transformed the Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution law to population - income distribution law. We have also constructed the wealth consump-tion function taking the knowledge of Gaussian type orbital function. These two are used to solve our problem.Results: We observed that women’s empowerment is not always related to the positive growth of society. All three possibilities, posi-tive growth, negative growth and no growth are there. We have mentioned the conditions for which what kind of outcome would be expected.Conclusion: From the present study, we conclude that women’s empowerment would produce positive effect on the global economy if the additional job opportunity is created rather substituting of a male employee by a female employee