• We are available for your help 24/7
  • Email: info@isindexing.com, submission@isindexing.com


HISTORY, ARCHAEOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY

Journal Papers (18) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Pro-Islamic Neophytes Regarded as Existential “Failure” of Globalization Processes , Rustem Zhangozha
  The article observes the modern ethno-political and religious situation formed in today’s world. In the context of globalization and trans-cultural processes, the new unexplored forms of the ideology that influences social policies and procedures in the various regions of the world occurred. Primarily, these are quasi-Islamic marginalized group movements. In a pilot study, the author ponders the theme of the phenomenon of marginal quasi-religious entities.
2 European Charter and the Issue of Regional or Minority Languages in Georgia   , Ucha Bluashvili  
The policy of international relations within the country, conducted by modern Georgian State is based on rich historical traditions of our country and on the fundamental provisions of the two documents approved by the world international organizations – “European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages” and the “Framework Convention on Human Rights for Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities.” Besides, the European documents give the prerogative to the authorities of concrete countries taking into consideration the democratic principles, to determine the criteria basing on which a certain language spoken in the territory of this or that country will be given the status of an independent language.” It was natural that Russian occupation of Georgia had left its trace in every area of the social life in the country. The people of different nationalities living in Georgia always preferred their children to go to Russian schools which were widely spread all over the country and restrained the area of using the Georgian language. Additionally, it conditioned the low level of civil identification. This in its turn caused the situation in which the ethnic groups living in Georgia perceive themselves as the representatives of their historical homeland, and not as the members of the Georgian society. This is such situation which represents the main peculiarity of Georgia in comparison with Western civilized countries. If the mentioned situation is not taken into deliberate consideration, conducting the right policy of international relations within the country will not be successful. After restoring the independence of Georgia , the motivation to learn the Georgian language has increased among the national minorities living in Georgia. The situation is improving slowly but steadily.The State Language regains its due position which means that the linguistic situation in the country is returning to its natural position. One part of population of ethnic Armenians (in Javakheti) and Azerbaijanians (in Kvemo Kartli) on the ground of the wrong interpretation of the Charter and other related European documents have been insisting on announcing their native languages as the regional ones. It would be the great and unforgivable mistake, while, the Georgian State does everything to deepen the integration of non-Georgian population of these regions in linguistic, cultural, political or economical spheres. Moreover, when the local non-Georgian population show great interest and try to replace the Russian language by Georgian, and when such politics has already shown positive results, introducing the status of regional languages in the mentioned territorial entities will decrease the 9 motivation of learning the Georgian language by non-Georgian population and will impede the ongoing process of integration. On the base of analysis of the conflicts having happened recently, it is not difficult to predict the results of such politics: introducing the status of regional languages will encourage the segmentation of Georgia, will support separatastic attitudes and all this will consequently bring new conflicts. The main sufferers from such situation will be the population of the regions themselves. Thus, instead of improving the situation, which by no doubt is the aim of the Charter, we will receive totally opposite results.The policy of international relations within the country, conducted by modern Georgian State is based on rich historical traditions of our country and on the fundamental provisions of the two documents approved by the world international organizations – “European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages” and the “Framework Convention on Human Rights for Ethnic, Religious and Linguistic Minorities.” Besides, the European documents give the prerogative to the authorities of concrete countries taking into consideration the democratic principles, to determine the criteria basing on which a certain language spoken in the territory of this or that country will be given the status of an independent language.” It was natural that Russian occupation of Georgia had left its trace in every area of the social life in the country. The people of different nationalities living in Georgia always preferred their children to go to Russian schools which were widely spread all over the country and restrained the area of using the Georgian language. Additionally, it conditioned the low level of civil identification. This in its turn caused the situation in which the ethnic groups living in Georgia perceive themselves as the representatives of their historical homeland, and not as the members of the Georgian society. This is such situation which represents the main peculiarity of Georgia in comparison with Western civilized countries. If the mentioned situation is not taken into deliberate consideration, conducting the right policy of international relations within the country will not be successful. After restoring the independence of Georgia , the motivation to learn the Georgian language has increased among the national minorities living in Georgia. The situation is improving slowly but steadily.The State Language regains its due position which means that the linguistic situation in the country is returning to its natural position. One part of population of ethnic Armenians (in Javakheti) and Azerbaijanians (in Kvemo Kartli) on the ground of the wrong interpretation of the Charter and other related European documents have been insisting on announcing their native languages as the regional ones. It would be the great and unforgivable mistake, while, the Georgian State does everything to deepen the integration of non-Georgian population of these regions in linguistic, cultural, political or economical spheres. Moreover, when the local non-Georgian population show great interest and try to replace the Russian language by Georgian, and when such politics has already shown positive results, introducing the status of regional languages in the mentioned territorial entities will decrease the 9 motivation of learning the Georgian language by non-Georgian population and will impede the ongoing process of integration. On the base of analysis of the conflicts having happened recently, it is not difficult to predict the results of such politics: introducing the status of regional languages will encourage the segmentation of Georgia, will support separatastic attitudes and all this will consequently bring new conflicts. The main sufferers from such situation will be the population of the regions themselves. Thus, instead of improving the situation, which by no doubt is the aim of the Charter, we will receive totally opposite results.
3 Some Iron Age and Medieval Sites in Göle District of Ardahan   , Sami Pataci, Özlem Oral Pataci
In this paper, an evaluation of some Iron Age and Medieval sites in Göle district of Ardahan is contained. The results of the field surveys conducted by us in Ardahan in 2016 and 2017 are effective in this assessment. The archaeological sites forming the subject of the article are located between the villages of Kuzupınarı and Bellitepe in Göle. The archaeological sites in question are an Iron Age fortress and its settlement in Kuzupınarı, two Iron Age towers, an ancient pen and a Medieval church in Bellitepe and a Medieval archaeological site in Dedeşen.
4 The processes taking place in the USA and Republic of Georgia (October-March, 1990-1991) , Erekle Shvelidze  
The represented work aims to determine the character of attitude of the USA Government and official circles towards the authorities of newly declared Republic of Georgia. The countries of the Western World which recognized the USSR, avoided settling the relations with newly declared former Soviet Republics and especially Georgia among others. Despite this fact the leader state of the West – the USA tried to show their interest in indirect ways towards the national and democratic processes taking place in Georgia. The USA Government greeted the multi-partial elections which brought the communist era to the end. The so called “parallel tactics” announced by the USA was an important initiative n that period of time. It was an important fact that on the day when Referendum was taking place in Georgia the results of which showed that great majority of the population voted for the Independence, ex-president Richard Nixon visited Tbilisi. In its turn, the new government of Georgia was trying to express their support to the USA and other democratic countries of the world in their actions against Iraq.
5 Foreign policy and orientation of the administration of independent Georgia (April-August 1991) , Erekle Shvelidze  
This article examines the foreign policy orientation of the Independent Georgian government in April-August 1991. It analyses the relations Georgia had on international arena in that period. Georgia apparently had the most intensive relations with the existing and the former Republics of the USSR. It is worth mentioning that the best and most intensive were the relations with the Baltic Republics. The contacts with neighboring Armenia and Azerbaijan were also comparatively close. Georgia signed some treaties of political and economical character with them. The interrelations mutual solidarity were continued with the East European countries of so called “Socialist countries” which had already become the independent countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria and others). Those countries could not at that time recognize Georgia’s independence but they tried as far as was possible, to express moral support; the economical-cultural relations were accented to develop. The National Government of the independent Georgia aimed to have interrelations with other countries of the world as well, which was difficult to realize because of the serious obstacles. The fact that Georgia’s independence was not recognized at that time represented the main barrier for the relations. The countries of the Western democracies avoided such official ties and the relations were limited to the humanitarian sphere. Despite this fact, the tendency of growing interest towards Georgia was obvious. Till the August 1991, Georgia’s new government also tries also to fix pro-western orientation. But the processes could not develop in positive way. The international political attitude to the former Soviet republic which had announced their independence, unfortunately changed in unfavorable way. Georgia appeared to be in political isolation. That was conditioned by the demands of the so called mainstream policy and global interests of the USA and USSR. The interests of Georgia were temporarily sacrificed to agreement between the Soviet Union and the USA on reduction of the strategic armament. It was also a mistake made by the Georgian  Government which took a hard-line postion towards the USA administration thus aiding to the process of international isolation of Georgia.
6 Qaqutsa Cholokashvili’s Ties with the North Caucasus (1923, June-November) , Edisher Narimanidze
The represented work refers to the armed resistence which took place in August-September  1922, one year after the occupation of Georgian Democratic Republic by the Soviet Russia (1918-1921). The resistance movement took place in Dusheti administrative region and mountainous region of Pshav-Khevsureti. It was led by Georgian Democratic Republic Army cavalry Division 1st company commander, colonel Qaikhosro (Qaqutsa) Cholokashvili who was brought up in Sighnaghi administrative region (now Akhmeta region) village Matani. Beginning from March 12, 1922, with his fellow warriors and friends, who were known by the name “shefitsulebi” – sworn men, or “those who fought under the oath,” was camped in the forest. Unfortunately, the resistance was defeated.     This work deals with the ties between Qaqutsa Cholokashvili and his combatants with the North Caucasus from June 1923 till November 1923, through the comparatively large and full investigation. This issue is thoroughly investigated using the source documents, emigrant literature and new archive documents which were considered from the new viewpoint, critically and objectively. The main result of the investigation is that when studying and analyzing the resistance movement in Georgia in 1921-1923, which was aimed to restore independence of Georgia, besides the early known documents, large number of the archive materials being unknown and unpublished till our days, have been now investigated, studied and used to analyze the mentioned important period of time in the Georgian historiography. Those materials mainly refer to the ties between the Georgian movement leader Qaqutsa Cholokashvili and the North Caucasus leaders.     In relation with the situation formed nowadays in the North Caucasus, the scientific work has its practical as well as theoretical importance.  
7 Investigate the World because of the Empirical Sensation of Reality in All Its Universal Completeness and Manifestyle , Rustem Zhangozha
In this article the overview of turbulent processes, in which complex configurations of different ethnocultural discourses is discussed. Dramatic situation is not in parity and absence of actor's consensus of this process, which summons painful reaction of the participants of these contacts.
8 The Role of Georgian Defense Forces in International Participation through Missions in Foreign Policy , Vladimer Natenadze
For Georgia, as for the small country with difficult geopolitics, foreign policy is crucial იn terms of security and ensuring sovereignty. The country, as an important contributor to Euro-Atlantic security, contributes to the strengthening of international stability and security, actively participates in the peacekeeping operations under the auspices of NATO. The main priority of the foreign and security policy of Georgia is integration in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). For the Armed Forces, it is very important to be trained in accordance with the modern standards and gaining experience in international missions, which is essential for raising and strengthening the country's defense capabilities. Besides, NATO institutions were established developed energetic and infrastructure projects that serve to strengthen the country, integrate into Euro-Atlantic space, restore territorial integrity and support strengthening of stability. On the other hand, Georgia, as a member of NATO, will be a source of stability on the Caucasus and the Black Sea, which will create security guarantees in the region.
9 Inscription found on Grakliani Hill , Eduard Maisuradze
The paper deals with the village Igoeti of Kaspi municipality in Georgia During archaeological excavations at Grakliani hill in Igoeti (2007) This year, the head of TSU Professor Vakhtang Licheli) Key inscription discovered. The work represents the present Based on data (inscription execution form, inscription design, Period of inscription completed (XI BC - X BC) The first attempt at scientific inquiry. Georgian alphabet Based on historical references to the origin of the Gracliani Gori inscription The signs / graphics are compared to ancient pre-Christian inscriptions, particularly, Calligraphy of Georgian alphabet in archaic stage and Sumerian hieroglyphic Signs. The focus is on identifying the semantics of inscription marks in the names of the astral deities in the pagan Georgian and Sumerian Pantheons, Which are inscribed in the inscription and are archaeological relevance With the monument space.
10 Exploratory field research expedition in Aspindza municipality (Tmogvi, Achkhia-Mirashkhani, Saro-khizabavra) , Tamar Matiashvili, Nikoloz Akhalkatsi
The work is presented through Samtskhe-Javakheti State University’s science project – Field research expedition in October of 2018. Expedition group consisted of university professors and students of archeology. Archeological field research was done in Aspinda municipality (villages Tmogvi, Achkhia, Mirashkhani, Saro, Khizabavra). The archeological material which was retrieved during the survey of above mentioned locations have been identified: On Ackhia valley, ceramic material retrieved from around Kurgans is identical to the ones discovered by Meskheti-Javakheti expeditions and thus are dated fromthe end of XVI BC to the first half of XV BC. Materials retrieved from Achkhia village remains are dated late middle ages. Stone box slabs found in village Saro, within the territories of UshangiIvanidze are identified as a burial from the Hellenistic age. Burial items given to us by UshangiIvanidze from the village Saro are dated IV-III BC due to the necklace and burial jar. On the norther side of Khizabavra, large Kurgans were identified, as well as, remains of a church. On the eastern side of Khizabavra, close to the remains of a church where arch of a hall church is visible, ceramic material was retrieved and dated late middle ages. Archeological material was retrieved close to Saint Marinachurch of Tmogvi, mostly clay pottery from the late middle ages.
11 The Political Situation in Georgia at the End of the 50-ies and Beginning of the 60-ies XI Century , Vasil Mosiashvili
The represented work refers to the political situation existing in Georgia at the end of the 50-ies and beginning of the 60-ies of the 15th century. The work has been done taking into consideration the approaches given in our historiography, and also, basing on the available historical sources This period is characterized by opposition between the royal power and noble people, the character of the Byzantine-Georgian political relations, the role of  Turk-Seljuks in the regulation of the relations between Byzantium and Georgia, the reasons of returning Bagrat IV from Byzantium to Georgia, the role of church in returning Bagrat IV to Georgia, his  intensive actions in the  domestic and foreign policies of the country, the steps made towards the church reforms such as inviting the religious figure and scholar Giorgi Mtatsmindeli to Georgia, settling the problem of Tbilisi (the capital), strengthening the royal power, unite different politically opposed groups, settling peace throughout the country, solving numerous other problems existing at that time.   This work analyzes  the  following  issues: why the Byzantine  Empire changed its policy towards the  Georgian  kingdom?    What  were  the  circumstances  that  contributed  to  the      release  of  Bagrat  IV  from        “honorable  captivity"?    How  did  the  king  of  Georgia      overcome  the  resistance  of  Abazasdze        and  Baghvashi  families?  How did he fight for accession of Tbilisi?    The  arrival  of  George  of  Mtatsminda      to  Georgia  and  his  Church  reform  is  also  referred  to  in  the  work.  It  is  shown,  how  powerful  Georgia  was  politically  before  Alp        Arslan’s  invasions. This  work  argues  that  the  further  development  of  Georgia  on  her  way  to  political  progress  had   been  suspended  by  Turk  Seljuk  military  campaigns  under  the  command  of      Alp  Arslan.
12 On the issue of Akhaltsikhe pasha and the origin of the Jakheli , Kakhaber Gloveli
In 1490 united Georgian feudal government was dissolved and in its place were established kingdoms of Kartli, Imereti and one principality of Samtskhe. This principality which later was called Samtskhe-Saatabago, had quite successful economy and politics and didn’t draw back from the other kingdoms. There was times when its power exceeded those kingdom’s power. Territory of Samtskhe-Saatabago was equal to one third (1/3) of Georgia. Due to its convenient positions it was never forgotten by Georgian kings and foreign invaders. Samtskhe was ruled by famous dynasty of Jakelians. Their Georgian origin was doubtful for Turkish
13 On the issue of Akhaltsikhe pasha and the origin of the Jakheli , Kakhaber Gloveli
In 1490 united Georgian feudal government was dissolved and in its place were established kingdoms of Kartli, Imereti and one principality of Samtskhe. This principality which later was called Samtskhe-Saatabago, had quite successful economy and politics and didn’t draw back from the other kingdoms. There was times when its power exceeded those kingdom’s power. Territory of Samtskhe-Saatabago was equal to one third (1/3) of Georgia. Due to its convenient positions it was never forgotten by Georgian kings and foreign invaders. Samtskhe was ruled by famous dynasty of Jakelians. Their Georgian origin was doubtful for Turkish
14 The idea of an Isani Karavi and Georgian Constitutionalism , Amiran Kurtanidze
The thesis pertains to the modern consideration of circumstance happened in the beginning of governance of Tamar of Georgia, as well as appearance of Kurtlu-Arslan’s group during 1184-1185 who had introduced the unique requirement for that time and following period – establishment of special governing body “Karavi” adjacent to Kingdom Hall in Isani. This had to be the institution like Parliament without attendance of King and Karavi’s members had to determine legislative, judiciary and personnel matters while Tamar of Georgia had to only execute their decisions. The appearance of Kurtlu-Arslani’s group is the historical event and is three years ahead from calling of Cortes in the Kingdom of Castile, Spain, in 1188 and is 30 years ahead from “the Great Charter of the Liberties" forced to John Lackland by the Barons of England in 1215 on the basis of which in 1265 was established the Parliament in England. This was the Georgian model of political authority demarcation of which foundations were elaborated by Locke and Montesquieu during XVII-XVIII centuries, after the five centuries. This was the “Third Estate” uprising for limitation of king’s governance and demarcation of political authority and it had the world-historical meaning.
15 The Village of Akura - Past and Present (According to ethnographic materials) , Medea Burduli
The article describes the dynamics of socio-economic changes in one of the villages in the Kakheti region from the beginning of the 20th century to the present day, which is more or less characteristic of the Georgian village as a whole. In the 20th century, the village of Georgia has twice altered the fundamental of socio-economic development - the form of ownership; This basic changes have led to a kind of deterioration in the labor, social, cultural, economic and psychosocial relations of rural residents. The goal of our work is to show the dynamics of these changes. All major agricultural activities - farming, animal husbandry and viticulture were developed in the village. Many so-called “Ojakhishvili”(good families) i.e. wealthy peasants lived in the village. In the 1930s during the global collectivization they were ascribed to Kulaks and were dekulakized. From today's perspective it appears that these “Ojakhishvili” were ordinary, hard-working peasants who used wage labor to do business. This process severely damaged the Georgian village. According to ethnographic materials, by the 1980s the Akura collective farm was a millionaire, they had all the basic agricultural crops, there were no problems with employment, they worked both on the farm and in the enterprises of the region. Today, due to employment problems, rural migration is growing. After the land reform of the 1990s, because of the high cost of land cultivation and the lack of agricultural machinery, part of the population sold the land they received after the reform and some bought it; hence today the economic level of the villagers is different. Land reform was carried out with deficiencies that have hampered the development of some traditional agricultural sectors. Today in the village, where livestock farming was once the leading field, there are no pastures; because of the fragmentation of the land it is impossible to grow cereals. Currently, the main direction of agriculture in Akura is viticulture and livestock. Rural residents refrain from working together, because of the unstable situation.
16 The Village of Akura - Past and Present (According to ethnographic materials) , Medea Burduli
The article describes the dynamics of socio-economic changes in one of the villages in the Kakheti region from the beginning of the 20th century to the present day, which is more or less characteristic of the Georgian village as a whole. In the 20th century, the village of Georgia has twice altered the fundamental of socio-economic development - the form of ownership; This basic changes have led to a kind of deterioration in the labor, social, cultural, economic and psychosocial relations of rural residents. The goal of our work is to show the dynamics of these changes. All major agricultural activities - farming, animal husbandry and viticulture were developed in the village. Many so-called “Ojakhishvili”(good families) i.e. wealthy peasants lived in the village. In the 1930s during the global collectivization they were ascribed to Kulaks and were dekulakized. From today's perspective it appears that these “Ojakhishvili” were ordinary, hard-working peasants who used wage labor to do business. This process severely damaged the Georgian village. According to ethnographic materials, by the 1980s the Akura collective farm was a millionaire, they had all the basic agricultural crops, there were no problems with employment, they worked both on the farm and in the enterprises of the region. Today, due to employment problems, rural migration is growing. After the land reform of the 1990s, because of the high cost of land cultivation and the lack of agricultural machinery, part of the population sold the land they received after the reform and some bought it; hence today the economic level of the villagers is different. Land reform was carried out with deficiencies that have hampered the development of some traditional agricultural sectors. Today in the village, where livestock farming was once the leading field, there are no pastures; because of the fragmentation of the land it is impossible to grow cereals. Currently, the main direction of agriculture in Akura is viticulture and livestock. Rural residents refrain from working together, because of the unstable situation.
17 The Village of Akura - Past and Present (According to ethnographic materials) , Medea Burduli
The article describes the dynamics of socio-economic changes in one of the villages in the Kakheti region from the beginning of the 20th century to the present day, which is more or less characteristic of the Georgian village as a whole. In the 20th century, the village of Georgia has twice altered the fundamental of socio-economic development - the form of ownership; This basic changes have led to a kind of deterioration in the labor, social, cultural, economic and psychosocial relations of rural residents. The goal of our work is to show the dynamics of these changes. All major agricultural activities - farming, animal husbandry and viticulture were developed in the village. Many so-called “Ojakhishvili”(good families) i.e. wealthy peasants lived in the village. In the 1930s during the global collectivization they were ascribed to Kulaks and were dekulakized. From today's perspective it appears that these “Ojakhishvili” were ordinary, hard-working peasants who used wage labor to do business. This process severely damaged the Georgian village. According to ethnographic materials, by the 1980s the Akura collective farm was a millionaire, they had all the basic agricultural crops, there were no problems with employment, they worked both on the farm and in the enterprises of the region. Today, due to employment problems, rural migration is growing. After the land reform of the 1990s, because of the high cost of land cultivation and the lack of agricultural machinery, part of the population sold the land they received after the reform and some bought it; hence today the economic level of the villagers is different. Land reform was carried out with deficiencies that have hampered the development of some traditional agricultural sectors. Today in the village, where livestock farming was once the leading field, there are no pastures; because of the fragmentation of the land it is impossible to grow cereals. Currently, the main direction of agriculture in Akura is viticulture and livestock. Rural residents refrain from working together, because of the unstable situation.
18 The Village of Akura - Past and Present (According to ethnographic materials) , Medea Burduli
The article describes the dynamics of socio-economic changes in one of the villages in the Kakheti region from the beginning of the 20th century to the present day, which is more or less characteristic of the Georgian village as a whole. In the 20th century, the village of Georgia has twice altered the fundamental of socio-economic development - the form of ownership; This basic changes have led to a kind of deterioration in the labor, social, cultural, economic and psychosocial relations of rural residents. The goal of our work is to show the dynamics of these changes. All major agricultural activities - farming, animal husbandry and viticulture were developed in the village. Many so-called “Ojakhishvili”(good families) i.e. wealthy peasants lived in the village. In the 1930s during the global collectivization they were ascribed to Kulaks and were dekulakized. From today's perspective it appears that these “Ojakhishvili” were ordinary, hard-working peasants who used wage labor to do business. This process severely damaged the Georgian village. According to ethnographic materials, by the 1980s the Akura collective farm was a millionaire, they had all the basic agricultural crops, there were no problems with employment, they worked both on the farm and in the enterprises of the region. Today, due to employment problems, rural migration is growing. After the land reform of the 1990s, because of the high cost of land cultivation and the lack of agricultural machinery, part of the population sold the land they received after the reform and some bought it; hence today the economic level of the villagers is different. Land reform was carried out with deficiencies that have hampered the development of some traditional agricultural sectors. Today in the village, where livestock farming was once the leading field, there are no pastures; because of the fragmentation of the land it is impossible to grow cereals. Currently, the main direction of agriculture in Akura is viticulture and livestock. Rural residents refrain from working together, because of the unstable situation.