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Journal of Applied Veterinary Sciences

Journal Papers (48) Details Call for Paper Manuscript submission Publication Ethics Contact Authors' Guide Line
1 Behavioral alterations induced by Toxoplama gondii during different stages of infection in mice   , Motamed Elsayed Mahmoud , Yoshifumi Nishikawa  
Acute, chronic and reactivation of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infections are approximately found in 30-60% of population world-wide. T. gondii is a pathogen relevant to psychiatric disorders. We have recently found that reactivation of chronic T. gondii induced depressive-like behaviors in mice. In the present study, we aimed to illustrate the behavioral alterations in mice during acute, chronic and after reactivation of chronic T. gondii. Behavioral battery included sucrose preference and forced swim, and fear conditioning tests, and measurement of locomotor activity following T. gondii infection in mice. First, we prepared an ethogram and confirmed that specific pathogen free-BALB/c mice exhibited sickness-like behaviors during acute infection. In addition, reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility in forced swim test (putative indicators to anhedonic and despair-like behaviors, respectively) were exhibited in acute phase. While in chronic stage such symptoms were not exhibited at all. In turn, relapse of depressive- and some of sickness-like symptoms noticed after reactivation of chronic T. gondii infection. Interestingly, increased freezing time in fear conditioning was displayed during acute and reactivated T. gondii but not during chronic infection. Further, despite the well-known contribution of neurotransmitters; serotonin and dopamine in major depressive disorder, low levels of these neurotransmitters were observed in the brain not only in acute but also during chronic infection. Without interpolation of these symptoms to human psychiatric disorders, collectively, our results demonstrated the crucial changes induced by acute and reactivated T. gondii in modifying the behavior of mice.  
2 Efficacy of an experimental E. coli inactivated vaccine in turkey poults   , Gina, M. Mohammed, Shell, W.S., Sayed, M.L., Ibrahim, H.M.,  Hanan,M.H. and Ghada M. El-Sadek
E. coli infections are responsible for great economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide, bringing serious threat to the turkey industry. The present investigation aimed to prepare a potent vaccine from E. coli serogroups O1 and O78 to aid in control of colibacillosis in turkey. One hundred commercial 14 days-old turkey poults were used and divided into three groups; first group was vaccinated twice with 3 weeks interval by prepared inactivated E.coli vaccine adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide gel, second group was vaccinated twice with 3 weeks interval by prepared inactivated E.coli vaccine adjuvanted with montanide ISA70, third group was left as unvaccinated control one. The immune response was measured by MAT (Microagglutination test), ELISA and challenge test. It was found that the protection rate for inactivated vaccine with aluminum hydroxide gel and E.coli inactivated vaccine with montanide ISA70 were 80% and 85%  respectively although it was 30% among the unvaccinated group.  
3 Effect of feed Supplemented with Xylam Enzyme on Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Broiler Chicks   , Abdelbasit B. Habib ,Abdelrahim A.Mohamed 2 ,Ahmed M. Eltrifi  ,Egbal S.Abu shulukh  and Abubaker A.Abubaker   
This experiment was carried out to identify the impact of inclusion different levels of commercial xylam enzyme (zero, 0.5kg, 0.75kg, and 1 kg) in the feed on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of broiler chicks.300 unsexed one- day old (Ross 308) broiler chicks were used in the experiment. The chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments and with each carrying 75 experimental birds. The treatments were subdivided into three replicates; each was given 25 experimental birds. All chicks were fed experimental diets to for five weeks which formulated according to (NRC) to meet the nutrient requirements. The results indicated that addition of xylam enzyme to diet improved significantly (p<0.05) the feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio values of broiler chicks throughout the experimental period. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between all treatment groups in percentages of commercial carcass cuts (breast, drumstick ,thigh and wing) and chemical composition of  breast meat (moisture, fat, and ash), results also showed that no significant differences observed between all treatment groups in some physical properties of broiler breast meat (PH and WHC). It is concluded that adding (1 kg) of commercial xylam enzyme in broiler chicks diets resulted in economic benefits.  
4 Comparison of tuberculin skin test and lateral flow rapid test for detection of bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle   , Nasr E.A.; Marwah M; Lilian F.S. Melika; Abeer A. Tammam; Seham F. Gorge  
Tuberculosis is the most important zoonotic bacterial disease that is hazardous to both man and animals. A huge economic loss which could be direct or indirect is associated with the disease, so rapid diagnostic tests for tuberculosis are needed to facilitate early detection and prevention of disease transmission. The aim of this work is the detection of bovine tuberculosis by application of different serological tests. Tuberculin skin test applied on 1900 cattle, only 50 (2.6%) showed positive results, and then slaughtered. Forty five (90%) of slaughtered animals showed visible lesions on post mortem examination, while the other five (10%) showed non visible lesions. The bacteriological examination of the 50 samples reveled Mycobacterium bovis form 40 processed samples (80%). Results of Anigen Rapid Bovine TB Ab test and ELISA test had detected 42% and 48% of tuberculin positive cattle respectively. It was concluded that the Anigen Rapid Bovine TB Ab kit test is rapid, safe, simple and easy to perform and provide yes or no results within 15 to 20 minutes but it is not efficient for detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle and could be useful as a complementary for tuberculin test.  
5 Assessment of transportation stress in Dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) by using behavioural and physiological measures , H.H Emeash; A.S Mostafa; M. Karmy; Fatma Khalil ; Mohamed Z. Elhussiny 
Transportation is often considered as one of the main causes of stress raising considerable interest, both in animal welfare and economic fields. Stressful transportation of camel may cause severe welfare consequences and economic losses. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the stress resulting from transportation of Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius) by measuring some behavioural and physiological responses. Camels were imported from Dongola quarantine in Sudan to Arqueen (at the borders between Egypt and Sudan) by walking for about 450 km. After that, camels are transported from Arqueen to Abu Simble quarantine in Aswan. According to method of transportation, camels were randomly assigned into three groups; group 1 (camels were transported by trucks for about 150 km, taking about 2-3 h), group 2 (camels were transported by walking for about 90 km, lasting for about 24 h), and group 3 (non-transported camels). In Abu Simble quarantine, 30 healthy males (5-7 years and 300-400 kg b.wt.) were selected for each group (three replicates for each). Some behaviours were selected from the ethogram and are used in the analysis which include comfort (recumbency and standing), ingestive (feeding and rumination), eliminative (defecation and urination) and body care (rubbing, scratching and nipping). All behaviours were recorded in the morning and afternoon by direct personal observation for 60 min with an interval of 5 min and calculated as a frequency per total observation time. Furthermore, blood samples were collected just after arrival of camels (T0) and at 18 h after arrival (T18) for hematological examination (PCV%, total RBCs and WBCs) and measurement of some blood parameters including total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose and cortisol. The results revealed that the frequency of standing, feeding, defecation, urination, scratching and total body care behaviours, were significantly decreased in group 1(81.24, 33.51, 6.48, 9.12, 3.87 and 12.80) and group 2 (10.80, 31.67, 1.40, 2.19, 1.25 and 10.96) including transported camels in comparison to control group (97.26, 47.62, 12.16, 16.44, 12.88 and 21.06) respectively. The frequency of recumbancy was increased in transported groups as compared to control one. The results of haematological examination indicated that there is a significant increase in PCV% and neutrophil count and a significant decrease in lymphocyte count in groups 1 and 2 as compared to control one. Camels transported by trucks had a significant high level of cortisol at T0 (17.21 μg/dl) and T18 (6.14 μg/dl) in comparison to other groups. In conclusion, transportation of camels either by trucks or walk imposes a marked stress upon them as indicated by behavioural and pphysiological measures.
6 Seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and brucella abortus in dairy animals from the Sudan: special emphasis to their serological co-existence   , Abdalla Mohamed Ibrahim, Tamador Elkhansa Elnour Angara, Ahmed Ali Ismail  
Toxoplasmosis and brucellosis are the most common zoonotic food borne diseases worldwide. The abortion caused by these agents is one of the major causes of socio-economic losses in human and livestock. We thus conducted a cross-sectional study during October 2012 to April 2014 to determine the seroprevalence and the co-existence of Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella abortus in dairy cattle and the co-herded camels, sheep and goats in the Khartoum State using different serological techniques. The study revealed over all seroprevalence of 94.9% at herd level and 63.2% at individual level. T. gondii and B. abortus seroprevalence were 46.2% and 22.7% respectively. Seroprevalence of these zoonosis showed highly statistically significant (p<0.01) differences among different localities and different animals species. Antibody to T. gondii was found to be more prevalent in Sheep, goats and camels respectively while antibody against B. abortus was more prevalent in cattle and camels. Mixed antibodies against the two zoonotic agents were detected in almost all seropositive herds (99.1%). Only one seropositive herd (0.9%) revealed a single Brucella abortus infection. Mix-infection was observed in 16.2% out of all seropositive animals. The univariate analysis of different localities and different animal species showed significant (p<0.01) association with mix-infection seropositivity. Increasing odds ratios without significant (p>0.05) associations were observed in the multivariate analysis of districts and animals species (odds=2.588, CI 95%) for cattle and (odds=2.200, CI 95%) for camels compared to goats as reference. Generally, the present results were the first comprehensive data explaining the serological co-existence of T. gondii and B. abortus as zoonotic organisms in Sudanese food animals. We came to conclude that, the exposure to these organisms as well as their co-infection may play a significant role in the economic losses in dairy farm industry in the country. Moreover, the great public health importance of T. gondii, B. abortus and their co-existence could not be neglected. Further studies to elucidate their socio-economic consequences in man and his livestock are recommended.  
7 Role of lipoic acid (Thioctic acid) in improving vitality of different tissue culture cells   , Maha , R. Abd El-Fadile and Hussine , A.H.M.  
The present obtained experimental results proved that addition of lipoic acid (LA) with its sodium salt in ratio of 0.1ml mole (mM) in the growth media has improved their physiological activities of different cell lines including MDBK, VERO and BHK21. Such cells remained normal for relative longer time comparing with the cell culture provided with media without lipoic acid (LA). The improvement of used cell lines was ascribed to the addition of lipoic acid (LA) dihydrolipoic acid, (DHLA) as protein free media supplement. As Lipoic acid (LA) and its dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) are involved in several aspects of cell energy and amino acid metabolism, as well as in defense against oxidative stress and apoptosis; both components initiated the production of glutathione which antagonizes the oxidative effect of free radicals on cells that harmfully affects cell metabolism .This study is in need to involve more investigation covering other uses of (LA) especially in its nano form.    
8 (Monitoring the efficacy of Terlipressin acetate in dogs suffering from hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE , El-Mashad, N. E  
In the present study, a therapeutic trial was conducted to assess comparative efficacy of Terlipressin acetate in dogs suffering from hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE). 70 dogs manifesting HGE, presented at teaching veterinary clinic, were selected randomly for the trial. All of them were observed to suffer from moderate dehydration on clinical examination. Terlipressin acetate, dextrose saline infusion 5% were used in combination with antibiotics and symptomatic treatment in the first group and in the second group, the dextrose saline infusion 5%, antibiotics and symptomatic treatment were used, both groups consisting of 35 cases each. The outcome of both treatment groups was evaluated on hematobiochemical parameters, before and after administration of the therapies and compared statistically within and between the two groups. Hematobiochemical parameters of clinically healthy animals were considered as control for comparison. On hematobiochemical examination, no significant alterations were observed in first group and second group. Clinical recovery was faster in the first group than the second group of animals. Laboratory data, efficacies of the Terlipressin acetate were of low importance for recovery in small animals suffering from hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE).  
9 Assessment of welfare and health of dairy cows under different housing and management systems   , Ahmed.S. Mostafa and Hesham. A. Mahran  
This study was conducted in six dairy farms in Beni-Suef Governorate representing the most prevalent systems of housing and management in Egypt to assess the welfare and health of dairy cows kept in these systems. These systems including 1) tie stall barn with daily access to an outside shaded area associated with hand milking twice daily; 2) loose housing in partially sheltered yards on earthy floor represented by 4 farms with different management practices include feeding and milking, and 3) free stall barn with daily access to partially sheltered yards during the day time associated with three times daily milking in a parlour system. Each farm was visited three times over a period of one year. All cows were observed for lying and standing up behaviour and  examined for lameness, mastitis, skin alterations at the knee and hock joints and rest of the body, teat injuries, cleanliness of the hind legs and udder, and body condition score. Results revealed that no restriction for lying and standing up behaviour was observed in all systems indicating that cow comfort was maintained. The prevalence of lameness was higher in loose housing system on earthy floor (0.9, 15.4 and 8.7 %). The prevalence of skin alterations at the knee joint was higher in cows kept in tie and free stall barns (4.7 and 7.5 % respectively) and at hock joints (11.9 %) in tie stall barn on concrete floor. Tie stall system had a higher prevalence of teat injuries (14.3 %) than other systems. High degree of dirtiness of hind legs (90.5, 89 and 99.2 %) and udder (91.4, 91.6 and 100 %) was found in loose housing system associated with increased dampness of the floor and lack of daily cow cleaning regimen.  
10 Assessment of the peste des petits ruminants (ppr) attenuated virus produced by inoculating vero cell line at different stages of cell growth   , El-Dakhly A.T; Youssef M. M; Abeer A.Tammam; and Namaa A. Mohamed  
This work presents cultural characterization of Peste Des Petites Ruminants (PPR) virus in VERO-culture. The VERO cells are currently considered as an acceptable cell substrate to produce a wide range of viruses. This study evaluates the best time for inoculation of PPR virus on VERO cell cultures; the study proved that the optimum time was 24 hours after subculture of VERO cell line using MOI 2: 1. It was also found that the best time of harvstation of virus fluid of PPR was 9th day post inoculation to reach the best titre 6 log10 TCID50 /ml.  
11 Potential Therapeutic Role of Osteopontin Inhibition in Liver Fibrosis -Induced by Thioacetamide in Rats   , Ramadan, A., Nehal A. Afifi , Nemat Z. Yassin , Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman , Sahar S. Abd El-Rahman, Hany M. Fayed   
To examine the effect of osteopontin inhibition by tranilast on liver fibrosis, four groups of rats were used throughout this study. Group I (Control group): rats received the solvent. Liver fibrosis was induced in Groups II, III, and IV by thioacetamide (TAA; 200mg/kg, ip) twice weekly for 6 weeks. Group II served as (TAA group). Groups III and IV (Treatment groups): rats were given tranilast for 6 weeks after TAA discontinuation. Liver osteopontin (OPN), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), alpha-smooth muscle actin (ɑ-SMA)), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were measured. Additionally, expression of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and caspase (Cas)-3 were assigned immunohistochemically. Treatment with tranilast prevented the development of hepatic fibrosis and the activation of stellate cells, and down-regulated the expression of genes for osteopontin and osteopontin-target molecules, including TGF-β and TNF-α and α-SMA.Tranilast significantly decreased MDA and increased levels of GSH, and SOD. Our findings suggest that targeting osteopontin with tranilast represents a new mode of therapy for liver fibrosis.  
12 Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Effects of Tranilast against Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats   , Ramadan, A.1, Nehal A. Afifi 1, Nemat Z. Yassin 2, Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman 2, Sahar S. Abd El-Rahman3, Hany M. Fayed *2  
The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential antioxidant and Hepatoprotective activities of tranilast against TAA-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Methods: Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by intra peritoneal injection of TAA (200 mg/kg) for 6 weeks. Tranilast was administered orally at a dose of 150 and 300mg/kg for 6 weeks before induction of liver fibrosis. Results: Injection of TAA induced hepatic fibrosis that was manifested by a significant increase in the activities of aminotransferases and total bilirubin with a significant decrease in total protein and albumin in serum. Liver homogenate of TAA rats had the lower content of reduced glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) with increased levels of the hepatic malondialdehyde. Histological data presented marked damage in liver sections of TAA rats. Oral dosing of tranilast for 6 weeks before induction of liver fibrosis reversed these altered parameters near to normal values. These results suggest that tranilast could afford significant protection and antioxidant effect in prevention of liver fibrosis.  
13 Monitoring of Early Pregnancy Fetometry in Egyptian Buffaloes Using High Frequency Transrectal B-Mode and Color Doppler Ultrasonography   , Haney Samir*1, Hussein M. Badr2, Mohamed M. Kandiel3, , Mohamed E. Lasheen2, Amal M. Abo El-Maaty4, Mohamed H. Eldawy2  
The current study aimed to screen the growth and viability of embryo from Day 21 to Day 56 post-breeding in Egyptian buffaloes. Twenty buffaloes were synchronized and examined serially by means of real-time B-mode ultrasound equipped with 12 MHz endorectal transducer. The developing embryonic sac diameter (ESD), crown rump length (CRL), head diameter (HD), trunk diameter (TD), and eye ball diameter (EBD) were measured. The heart rate and cardiac blood flow were sequentially examined to verify the fetal viability using color Doppler mode. Data showed the feasibility of first detection and measurement of ESD, CRL, HD, TD and EBD from Day 24.33 ± 0.67, 27.00 ± 1.73, 34.67 ± 1.76, 34.67 ± 0.88 and 33.67 ± 0.88, respectively. The fetal heart rate was 232.00 ± 12.35 beat/min at the day of first examination (Day 24.50 ± 1.30) after breeding. The cardiac blood flow was examined from Day 27 onwards. A highly significant (P< 0.0001) correlations were recorded between the ESD (r2=0.55), CRL (r2=0.85), HD (r2=0.85), TD (r2=0.93) and EBD (r2=0.85) and fetal age in buffaloes. It could be concluded that the high-frequency ultrasonography is a valuable diagnostic tool for the detection of early pregnancy from Day 24-26 post-breeding in Egyptian buffaloes. Verification of fetal heart beating (starting from Day 24-26) and cardiac blood flow (starting from Day 26-27) provide a reliable non-invasive promising technique for the fetal viability evaluation. The high correlation between TD and fetal age signified its clinical value, over other estimated fetometric parameters, in determining gestation period in Egyptian buffaloes during early pregnancy.  
14 Studies on some Welfare Aspects of Broilers Reared Under Different Stocking Densities   , Rasha R.Ibrahim; Naglaa M. Abdel-Azeem ; A.S.,Mostafa  and  H.H. Emeash  
Nowadays, there is much concern expressed about stocking density as it is related to the well-being and welfare of broilers, and to define some welfare aspects of broilers in an environmentally uncontrolled conventional house under two different densities, this experiment was conducted using a total number of 120 one day old Cobb broiler chicks that were randomly divided into two groups with three replicates of each in 6 floor pens (1m × 1.6 m). The first group (control) were housed at a density of 1000 cm2/ bird (16 birds/replicate/pen) while the second group (high density HD) were housed at a density of 666.66 cm2/ bird (24 birds/ replicate/pen). Results showed that litter quality was deteriorated (P˂0.05) at HD group especially at the 4th, 5th and 6th week of the growing cycle where the all quality parameter together were the worst. Additionally the incidence of the breast irritation and ammonia burns were greater at higher density group, moreover the severity was increased with limiting floor space due to worsening of the litter condition which adversely (P˂0.05) affect both leg strength as indicated by latency to lie test (LTL) and feather condition as indicated by plumage cleanliness score.  
15 Conjugation Of Foot And Mouth Disease IgY In Chicken Egg Yolk With Horse Radish Peroxidase For Typing Of Foot And Mouth Disease Virus   , Ehab El-Sayed Ibrahim1*, Hamed Adel Hamed El-Helw1, Nermen Guda Shafik2 and Manal Awad Mekhail
Through the present work, anti-FMD IgY immunoglobulins for serotypes O; A, and SAT2 were prepared in chicken egg yolk through immunization of laying hens with locally prepared trivalent FMD vaccine. The antibody titres against three serotypes (O; A, and SAT2) measured by SNT were 2.58; 2.8 and 2.6 respectively and where 2.81; 2.81 and 2.8 respectively when measured by ELISA. Evaluation of Anti-FMD IgY conjugated with Horse radish peroxidase for detection of FMD virus in 100 tongue epithelium; 50 OP fluid samples; 20 nasal swabs from naturally infected cattle, and 100 tissue culture infected fluids revealed sensitivity of 85% indicating the success of preparation of anti-FMD immunoglobulins conjugated with horse radish peroxidase as local product available on request saving cost and time.
16 Physiological Impacts Of Using Clove Powder As Fish Anesthetic On Young Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.) Under Different Levels Of Temperatures   , Nasreen M. Abdulrahman,  Bakhan R. Hassan and Nadir A. Salman  
The anesthetic efficacies of natural anesthetic (clove) in forms of powder were evaluated on young common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) with the mean weight of 60±10 g for handling and health management experiments. These works were conducted in the laboratory of fish research in the Department of Animal Science, Collage of Agricultural Sciences at University of Sulaimani. Safety concentrations of anesthetics type and concentration were assessed by using form of clove (powder); each with three replicates within each replicate five fish used for measuring induction times to anesthesia. The induction time of C. carpio which decrease with increasing concentrations of clove powder, the induction time was less than three minutes for a dose of 400 mg/L, with significant different (P<0.05) from the other dosages. As the concentrations of clove powder increased the ventilation rate in stage I, II and III of anesthesia and recovery increased significantly (P<0.05) compared to the control. There were no mortalities at any of the temperatures or concentrations, 24 hours after recovery. In stage I, II and III of recovery, all three concentrations of clove powder with normal temperature degree showed lower ventilation rate compared to other groups. The lowest cortisol level of anesthesia was found in the low temperature degree with 300 mg/L of clove powder. The lowest and the highest sugar levels were found in low temperature degree with 300 and 400mg/ L of clove powder, respectively. Clove powder of 200 mg/L with normal temperature degree showed the lowest level of red blood cell.  
17 Trial Of Using Germanium Biotite As Immune Stimulant To Foot And Mouth Disease Virus Vaccine In Cattle   , Ehab El-Sayed Ibrahim; Mossad, W. G., and Gamil,M. A.  
This study was established in order to investigate the effect of feeding of germanium biotite (GB) on the immune response of vaccinated calves to FMD trivalent oil vaccine. The study was carried out on two levels: an experimental level followed by field application level. Experimental level applied on 30 calves divided into six groups where group (1) was vaccinated with the trivalent oil FMD vaccine only while groups (2, 3, 4 and 5) were fed two weeks pre vaccination with 1, 2, 3 and 4 gram/100kgm body weight germanium biotite (% B.wt. GB) respectively and group (6) was left as a negative control group. The humoral response of calves were determined by serum neutralization test (SNT) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while the cellular immune response were detected by lymphocyte blastogenesis assay, phagocytic activity  beside estimation the level of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-12. The protective antibody titer in the non-fed vaccinated group and the 1% B.wt. GB feed group extend till 32 weeks post vaccination, while in the 2% B.wt. GB feed group it was extended to 34 week post vaccination. The longest immune duration was achieved in the 3 and 4% B.wt. GB feed group as the protective antibodies extended till 36 week post vaccination. The results of cellular immunity showed the peak of lymphocyte blastogenesis and IL-6  appear earlier at 7 day post vaccination in 3% and 4% B.wt. GB feed groups than the other groups, the phagocytic percentage, phagocytic index and IL-12 peak was achieved earlier at 14 days post vaccination in 3% and 4% B.wt. GB feed groups than the other groups. There is no difference between the 3% and 4% B.wt. GB feeding groups. Field application on 50 calves feed on 3% B.wt. GB 2 weeks before vaccination with trivalent FMD oil vaccine confirm the above results. So it could be concluded that ingestion of GB has a potentiate effect on the immune response of cattle to the trivalent oil FMD vaccine providing high protective antibody levels of rapid onset and long duration when administrated 2 week pre-vaccination with a concentration 3% B.wt. GB.     
18 Phytochemical Screening, Acute Toxicity , Analgesic And Anti-Inflammatory Effects Of Apricot Seeds Ethanolic Extracts   , Ramadan A. , Gehan Kamel, Nagwa E. Awad, Aya A. Shokry*.  
The aim of present study was to investigate the phytochemical screening, acute toxicity and some pharmacological activities of ethanolic extract 70 % and 99.9% of apricot seeds. The phytochemical screening was done for determination of total phenolic compounds by Folin–Ciocalteu method, total flavonoids by aluminum chloride colorimetric method and total carotenoids by colorimetric method. The acute toxicity was done for determination of LD50 in mice by oral administration of upgraded doses of the extracts. The anti-inflammatory activity was done in vivo by formalin-induced paw edema in rats. The analgesic activity was carried out in mice by writhing test and hot plate method. Phytochemical screening revealed that the amount of total phenolic compounds was 179.4 and 191.2 µg gallic acid equivalent / g dry extract and the amount of total flavonoids was 226.18 and 509.34 µg rutin equivalent / g dry extract and the amount of total carotenoids was 0.145 and 0.156 mg/g dry extract for 70 % and 99.9% ethanolic extract, respectively. The acute toxicity revealed that both extracts had no toxic symptoms in rats and no mortalities appear by upgraded doses of 1 g to 10 g / kg b.wt. The 70% and 99.9% ethanolic extracts exhibited significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activites in a dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt. of both extracts. These results suggest that apricot seed extracts contain significant level of safe non-toxic phytochemical substances that have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.  
19 Preparation Of Inactivated Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Vaccine From Classical Strain And Local Variant Isolates   , Nada, A. Fathy and Abd El-Moneam M. M.  
This study was conducted to assess an inactivated vaccine prepared from local field isolates of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) "local variant and virulent isolates" and a classical strain "bursa vacc" to improve the full control over the problem of IBD in Egypt. This experiment applied on 21 day old SPF chicks divided into six groups, the first group was vaccinated with inactivated vaccine containing (local variant isolate, classical bursa vacc strain and virulent isolate), the second group was vaccinated with inactivated vaccine containing (classical bursa vacc strain and local variant isolate), the third group was vaccinated with classical bursa vacc vaccine, and the group 4 vaccinated with local variant isolate vaccine while last two groups were left as a positive and negative control groups. The immune response of chicks was evaluated in vitro by measuring serum neutralization test (SNT) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and in vivo by challenging birds with 103.5 EID50/ dose of  virulent virus of infectious bursal disease virus (vvIBDV).The highest average antibody level was obtained at the 4th week post vaccination in chicks in group 1 vaccinated with (local variant isolate, classical bursa vacc and local virulent isolate) vaccine, while the chicks in group 3 vaccinated with bursa vacc vaccine showed the lowest antibody level at the same week post vaccination using SNT and ELISA. The challenge of group 1, 2, 3 and 4 showed protection of 97.5%, 90%, 75% and 90% respectively using very virulent IBDV 28 day post vaccination with no clinical signs or lesions on examination. It was concluded that we can use an inactivated vaccine prepared from (classical strain "bursa vacc" and local variant and virulent isolates) of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) virus as a method for control IBD disease in Egypt.  
20 Detection Limits Of Live Attenuated Poultry Viral Vaccine Testing Method For Detection Of Bacterial Contamination   , Hanan M. Ibrahim, Hanan A. Ahmed, Nourhan Nagy, Gina M. Mohamed, Shafai, S.M. and Aly, A.M  
A total number of 27 vaccine vials including 3 batches of 3 different types of live attenuated poultry viral vaccines (tissue culture Gumboro vaccine, egg adapted colored ILT vaccine and egg adapted non colored ILT vaccine) were experimentally contaminated with 1,5,10 CFU of Salmonella typhimurium reference strain/dose then subjected for sterility testing as referenced in OIE. Further dilution was carried out of vaccines showing negative results. The results of statical analysis showed that there is a significant difference between direct inoculation of the vaccines and their dilutions. It could be concluded that the applied testing method is appropriate for testing sterility of living attenuated poultry viral vaccines but testing of some of such vaccines need further dilutions to obtain accurate results.  
21 Reduction Of Microbial Contamination Of Whole Broiler Chicken Carcasses During Processing   , F.A. Khalafalla, N.S. Abdel-Atty, Soad, A. Nasef and Adel, S. Hanafy
Contamination of broiler carcasses during processing with several microorganisms as salmonella, campylobacter, E. coli and staphylococcus aureus is frequently occurring. Scalding, defeathering, chilling are critical points at which cross contamination may occur during processing. Recently several interventions for carcass decontamination have been employed in order to reduce the levels of microbial hazards on poultry carcasses during processing; among which chlorine and organic acids are the most common. This study was carried out in a traditional poultry abattoir in Fayoum Governorate in order to improve the microbial quality of broiler carcasses. During 10 replicate a total of 160 carcasses were collected at 4 sampling points in the processing line (scalding, defeathering, final wash and chilling). Bacterial counts recovered from broiler carcasses rinse were lowered by 1.3, 1.3, 0.3 and 0.5 Log10 cfu\ ml after treatment of scalding water with 100 ppm Calcium hypochlorite in scalding. Adding peracetic acid (PAA) 50 ppm + 0.5 % acetic acid to the defeathering machine spraying system during defeathering lowered the count of coliforms and faecal coliforms significantly (P ≤ 0.05) by 1.5 and 1.6 Log10 cfu\ ml of carcass rinse, while it wasn't significant for E. coli and staphylococcus counts (1.2 and 0.95 Log10 cfu\ ml), respectively. Furthermore, significant differences in the reduction of all bacterial counts were observed in the washing stage (P ≤ 0.05) after treatment of broiler carcasses with a mixture of lactic acid 1 % + acetic acid 1 % in the final washing step. At chilling stage Na hypochlorite 50 ppm reduced the bacterial counts by 2, 2.2, 1.3 and 0.8 log10 cfu\ ml of carcass rinse for coliforms, faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and staphylococcus aureus, respectively. E. coli, salmonellae, staphylococcus aureus and campylobacter spp. were reduced by different percentages. The used interventions effectively or significantly reduced microbial populations on broiler chicken carcasses during processing.  
22 Propagation, Purification And Molecular Characterization Of Rvf Virus (Zh 501) Strain For Vaccine Production In Egypt   , Abo Hatab, E. M., M, H Ali, Atwa, M. H., Abul Magd, D.M., Ahmed F. Soudy and Saad A. Moussa  
Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is an endemic disease in Egypt causing disease in animals and humans since the 1977. Full molecular description of the national vaccine strain is a strategic concern to ensure the antigenic makeup of local vaccine is adequate to provide the required protective immunity for the vaccinated animal species and as a tool of final product quality control. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Gc gene of M segment of RVF-ZH501 strain which used in local vaccine production in veterinary serum and vaccine research institute (VSVRI) were carried out in this study. RVF-ZH501 strain was propagated by passages on BHK cell line and then purified my plaque purification technique. RT-PCR for amplification of the Gc gene of M segment. Sequence analysis of the obtained PCR product carried out by MEGA7 program. The result of the study revealed that RVF strain ZH501 Gc genomic content has 99.5 % molecular identity to the strains firstly isolated in Egypt in 1977, so still suitable for vaccine production.     
23 Weanling Rabbit Mortalities Caused By Enteropathogenic Bacteria: Bacteriological And Pathological Investigation   , Fatma M. Mohamed, Abeer H.M. El Hendy, Mona A. El Shehedi  
Samples of internal organs (liver, heart, spleen, kidney and intestinal contents) were aseptically collected from 120 freshly died newly weanling rabbits and subjected to isolation and identification of the causative bacterial pathogens. The causative pathogens were isolated and identified biochemically. E.coli and Salmonella (the major associated pathogens) were typed serologically and tested for antimicrobial agents. The bacterial infection prevalence rate was Escherichia coli (56.6%), Salmonella spp. (27.5%), Enterobacter spp. (7.5%), Citrobacter spp. (5%) and Proteus spp. (3.3%). Out of the 68 infections with E.coli, 30 were serotyped as O125 (ten), O127 (six), O128 (five), O86 (five) and untyped (four). Out of the 33 Salmonella infections, seven were serotyped as serovar S. goldcoast (four) and serovars S. magherafelt (three). E.coli serogroups were resistant to the majority of used antimicrobial and were sensitive only to Sulphamethazole. Both Salmonella serovars were sensitive to most antimicrobial used in this study but they were resistant to amoxicillin. Both infected rabbit groups with E.coli and Salmonella demonstrated obvious histopathological alterations in the intestine, liver and spleen.  Both E.coli (O86) and Salmonella goldcoast were used for experimental infection of weanling rabbits (6-8 weeks). Five days post-infection and after observation of the clinical symptoms, animals were sacrificed and tissue samples from the intestine, liver, kidney and spleen were examined histopathologically. Utmost care must be taken around the time of weaning in rabbits.  
24 Weanling Rabbit Mortalities Caused By Enteropathogenic Bacteria: Bacteriological And Pathological Investigation   , Fatma M. Mohamed, Abeer H.M. El Hendy, Mona A. El Shehedi  
Samples of internal organs (liver, heart, spleen, kidney and intestinal contents) were aseptically collected from 120 freshly died newly weanling rabbits and subjected to isolation and identification of the causative bacterial pathogens. The causative pathogens were isolated and identified biochemically. E.coli and Salmonella (the major associated pathogens) were typed serologically and tested for antimicrobial agents. The bacterial infection prevalence rate was Escherichia coli (56.6%), Salmonella spp. (27.5%), Enterobacter spp. (7.5%), Citrobacter spp. (5%) and Proteus spp. (3.3%). Out of the 68 infections with E.coli, 30 were serotyped as O125 (ten), O127 (six), O128 (five), O86 (five) and untyped (four). Out of the 33 Salmonella infections, seven were serotyped as serovar S. goldcoast (four) and serovars S. magherafelt (three). E.coli serogroups were resistant to the majority of used antimicrobial and were sensitive only to Sulphamethazole. Both Salmonella serovars were sensitive to most antimicrobial used in this study but they were resistant to amoxicillin. Both infected rabbit groups with E.coli and Salmonella demonstrated obvious histopathological alterations in the intestine, liver and spleen.  Both E.coli (O86) and Salmonella goldcoast were used for experimental infection of weanling rabbits (6-8 weeks). Five days post-infection and after observation of the clinical symptoms, animals were sacrificed and tissue samples from the intestine, liver, kidney and spleen were examined histopathologically. Utmost care must be taken around the time of weaning in rabbits.  
25 Prophylactic Control Of Mycoplasma Contamination In Starting Biological Materials Used In Viral Vaccine Production   , Ahmed F. Soudy  
Mycoplasma contamination remains a major concern in the biopharmaceutical industry especially in tissue culture based viral vaccine and its presence and/or its endotoxin-like metabolites in the final products can result in pyrogenic responses ranging from fever and chills, to irreversible and fatal septic shock. This study was conducted by in vitro screening of mycoplasma in the different ingredients used in production of Foot and mouth Disease (FMD) vaccine using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using universal primers that are specific to the 16S rRNA region. Tested items include growth media, cell lines, trypsin, seed virus and working virus. Also the study evaluates the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of neomycin, kanamycin, gentamycin, polymyxin B and ciprofloxacin on mycoplasma contaminated cell lines. Our results showed that the prepared growth media, trypsin, seed virus as well as working virus were mycoplasma free and three tested cell lines were also free while another two lines were mycoplasma positive. The mycoplasma positive cell line are poorly grown in comparison with the free line using the same growth media and the virus yield from the apparently normal contaminated line was very low. Ciprofloxacin can be used for treating valuable cell line after 12 days in 25mg/L and after 18 days in 10mg/L. Ciprofloxacin plus regular antibiotic may keep the line sterile for prolonged time but treatment of contaminated cell line is not advisable. So, prophylactic control by strict personal hygiene and personal protective equipment (PPE) and adopt appropriate aseptic techniques is the core solution.  
26 Trials For Preparation And Evaluation Of Inactivated Tissue Culture Newcastle Disease Vaccine From Recent Isolate   , Amani, A. Saleh1, Nada A.fathy1* , Mohamed A. AbdRabo2, Noha A. Helmy1  
The present study was undertaken to development of BHK-21 cell adapted inactivated vaccine of Newcastle disease virus (NDVgenotype VII) from the field isolate from broiler chicken in Egypt during 2015-2016. The isolatesof El-Giza/2015were classified by sequencing as velogenic NDV genotype VII d contains F protein cleavage site motifs (112RRQKRF117). Such virus was propagated in the BHK-21 cell line. and cell adapted virus was confirmed as NDV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using fusion gene-specific primers and used to develop inactivated vaccine adjuvanted with Montanide IMS 1313.Potency test revealed that Vaccinated chicks with 0.5ml of prepared NDV vaccine exhibited HI antibody titer of 8.6 log2 three weeks post vaccination with the highest titer (10.6 log2/ml) at the 6th-week post vaccination, and 3rd weeks post challenge test. Protective antibodies values were persisting till 12th weeks post vaccination. All chicken groups vaccinated with both prepared inactivated tissue culture vaccine using ISA 1313 and VSVRI inactivated ISA70 adjuvant vaccines were passed challenge test (97.5%,97%,96% protective efficiency to SPF chickens) against the isolated virulent NDV, while the control group could not provide any protective efficiency. The present study indicated that, BHK-21 cell adapted recent isolated NDV inactivated vaccine produced a satisfactory antibodies titre that efficient in control of the disease in Egypt.  
27 A Comparative Study On Biochemical Parameters For Mature California And Chinchilla Rabbits In Sohag Governorate , Gehad Seddik, Ahmed A.Aboughaba, Fatma A, Mahmoud, Doaa Salman Motamed E. Mahmoud  
Rabbit as homeothermic species is able to keep its core body temperature within ± 1°C regulatory range. In Upper Egypt where high ambient temperature particularly at summer months, rabbit breeding ceases, by virtue of its fur, there is certain inability to dissipate excess body heat. Under uncontrolled ambient environment, most of the observed mortality at summer is due to heat stasis. In this study, we compared white (California) to black (Chinchilla) mature breeds of rabbits. Blood picture and serum hormonal profiles were assessed. The results showed many similarities between the two breeds in terms of blood picture, the serum concentration of tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), but T3/T4 ratio was higher and corticosterone was lower in California than Chinchilla rabbits (P<0.5). Heat loss was higher in male California than other rabbits. The overall results referred to the higher ability of California breed to withstand heat stress compared to Chinchilla rabbits.  
28 Evaluation Of Egg Quality Conditions In Omdurman Locality   , Ali R. Ibrahim, Abdelbasit B. Habib and Salim Gibril  
This study was carried out to assess the extent of quality deteriorations of eggs sold at Sabrin market, Omdurman and to determine their suitability for human consumption. Hundred eggs produced by Bovans white breed (fifty eggs from the farm and another fifty eggs from an ordinary shop in Sabrin market) in Omdurman North locality were collected and divided into 5 groups each containing 20 eggs. Group one was tested at the time of collection. Each of the rest 4 groups was further subdivided into 2 groups, one stored in a refrigerator and the other under room temperature. Eggs in each group were subjected to quality measurements at the end of week one, two, three and four. Egg weight, shell strength, albumin height and Haugh unit were the parameters measured to test the effects of storage on table egg quality. Results showed significant differences between eggs obtained from the poultry farm and those collected from Sabrin market in egg weight, albumen height and Haugh unit during the different period of storage. No difference in egg shell strength between treatments was seen. The study concluded that eggs sold at open markets such as Sabrin market may have low quality questioning their suitability for human consumption.  
29 Evaluation Of Bivalent Inactivated Infectious Bronchitis Viral Vaccine Prepared From Local Isolates   , Reda, R. Fathy, Magda, M.A.Moustafa, Zyan, K.A, El boraay, I.M , Susan, S. El-Mahdy  
Infectious Bronchitis (IB) is currently one of the most important diseases in poultry flocks all over the world causes huge economic losses in poultry industry. Many IBV outbreaks associated with respiratory distress, nephropathy, and high mortalities were attributed to the circulation of new nephropathogenic IBV variant 2 strains. This study was conducted to development of  bivalent inactivated IBV vaccine by using the local classical and variant isolates (KP279995/2014 and KP279998/2014 respectively) which isolated from poultry farms in Egypt as previous surveillance study during IBV outbreak from Al-Sharkia and Al-Qalubia governorates. The locally prepared vaccine formulated by using formalin for inactivation and MontanideTM  ISA71 RVG as oil adjuvant. The prepared bivalent inactivated (IBV) vaccine was tested for sterility, safety and potency, the efficacy of the prepared vaccine was applied in specific pathogen free chicks (SPF) for monitoring the antibody titers by using of Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA) post vaccination with estimation of shedding parameters by Real-Time RT-PCR in challenging birds with 104.5EID50/dose challenge IBV strains (classical and/or variant). The results revealed that the prepared vaccine free from any bacterial or mycotic contamination also safe after double dose inoculation in SPF chicks. The efficacy of inactivated vaccine showed from 92% to 96% protection against homologous challenge based on assessment parameters. This confirms that poultry industry can be protected from IB disease if using locally isolates in preparing of inactivated vaccine which reduce the economic losses caused by IB infection viruses in Egypt.  
30 Potential Role Of Clostridium Difficile And Clostridium Perfringens As A Cause Of Diarrhea In Horses   , Eman ,F. Farag; Basma  Shalaby ; and Taher Abd El-Hamed  
Diarrhea is a major clinical problem affecting foals and horses at different ages which can be fatal and cause great economic losses particularly in foals. The aim of this study was to identify Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile involved in enteric infections and the associated virulence factors in diarrheic foals and horses. Thirty fecal samples were examined for identification of C.perfringens and C.difficile (bacteriological culturing, microscopical examination, count and molecular detection).  C.perfringens was isolated from young horses less than 6 months age in an incidence of 46.7% with count ranged from 1.3×104- 5.6×108 cfu/g, while from horses of 6 months to one year, it was 20% with count ranged from 1.7×104- 1.9×106 cfu/g, on the other hand, 13.3%  with count ranged from 1.4×103- 2.5×104 cfu/g was the incidence of C.perfringens in horse more than one year. C. difficile was not detected  in all examined samples. C.perfringens type A was the most predominant type detected in an incidence of 58.3% then type B (4.7%). All C.perfringens isolates were sensitive to penicillin, nitromedazole, fluramfenicole and ceftiofur and all are resistant to oxytetracycline. Based on the high count, eight C.perfringens isolates were chosen to be molecular characterized for the presence of some virulence factor genes which  included  ; cpa, cpb2, cpe and netF toxin genes. All examined  isolates have cpa (alpha) and cpb2 (beta 2) toxin genes, 5/8 isolates were found to have netF gene while only 2 isolates harbored cpe (enterotoxin gene). C. difficile tpi gene was not detected in all examined samples (10). This study may throw the light on the synergistic effect of β2 and net F toxins together with alpha toxin on induction of enterocolitis in horse.  
31 Management And Biosecurity Practices On Broiler And Layer Farms In Bahri Locality Khartoum North Omer, A., Salim Gibril and Abdelbasit B. Habib   ,
This study was conducted to evaluate the present status of management and biosecurity practices in broiler and layer farms in Khartoum North, Sudan, and to compare between the biosecurity practices in broiler and layer farms. The primary information included farm characteristics, technical management practices and biosecurity practices carried out in each of these farms. A total of 30 farms (20 broilers and 10 layers) were chosen from Khartoum North .The data were collected using structured questionnaire. The respondents were farm owners, farm managers, and veterinarians. The results showed that the broiler farms had a higher level of biosecurity than the layer farms. The average mortality of the broiler house was 5.5% when compared with 6.45% of the layer, type of bedding material 100% for broiler compering with 70% for layer, close system in the farm visited are 60% and 30% in broiler and layer the biosecurity levels were regarded as high in the chicken meat sector but no assessment was made on the chicken egg sector due to a low response rate and high level of rodent and insect control. In addition, the results indicated that broiler and layer farms do not allow for visitors to enter of about 60% and 40% respectively. Only 10% of visitors change their cloths for layer farms compared with 45% for broiler farms, while 60% and 40% have no animal restriction policy  
32 Enhancement Of Pneumo-4 Vaccine Efficacy By Using Of Carbomere As An Adjuvant   , Maha Raafat Abed EL-Fadil, Rasha, I. EL-Hawary,Walaa. S. Shabana , Ekbal, M. Farok and Naglaa,I.Ali  
The present study aimed to prepare a combined inactivated  pneumo-4 vaccine containing bovine viral diarrhoea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), parainfluenza-3(PI-3) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV)  adjuvanted with carbomere and compare the animal protection scope with its product mate Pneumo-4 adjuvanted alhydragel . Carbomere adjuvant stimulated higher levels and longer lasting antibody to pneumo-4 vaccine than vaccines of equivalent antigenic content containing aluminium hydroxide gel adjuvant. Quality control results proved that the pneumo-4 vaccine adjuvanted either by aluminium hydroxide gel adjuvant or carbomere (different concentration 0.2,0.5 and0.8 %)  was pure and completely safe to be used in calves without any abnomalities.Potency test was performed on five groups of five calves  for each group,Where the first group was vaccinated with pneumo-4 vaccine adjuvant with carbomere 0.2(formula 2), second group was vaccinated with pneumo-4 vaccine adjuvant with carbomere 0.5 (formula 3), third group was vaccinated with pneumo-4 vaccine adjuvant with carbomere 0.8(formula 4),,The fourth group vaccinated with pneumo-4 vaccine with aluminum hydroxide gel(formula 1),  and the fifth last  group was left as non vaccinated control group.compared humoral immune response  using serum neutralization and ELISA expressed by neutralization index of different vaccine formulation was revealed that The prepared pneumo-4 vaccine adjuvant with carbomere 0.5 proved to be highly potent formmula along 6 month after second booster dose applying. Also pneumo-4 vaccine adjuvant with carbomere  was showed  cellular immunity reaction higer than pneumo-4 vaccine with aluminum hydroxide gel using Estimation of nitric oxide activity test.  
33 Detection Of Streptomycin Residues In Sheep Carcasses In Duhok Province, Kurdistan Region, Iraq   , Shereen Ahmed Yousif Ahmed and Dhyaa Mohammad Taher Jwher  
In general, the Iraqi farmers of breeding and fattening of sheep using a broad-spectrum antibiotics like tetracycline and aminoglycosides family for treatment and prophylaxis without considering to the withdrawal periods of these drugs before slaughtering the animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the residues of streptomycin (member of aminoglycosides group) in sheep meat and edible tissues using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. A total of 88 samples including longissimus dorsi, diaphragmatic muscles, liver and kidney were collected from 22 sheep carcasses slaughtered in Duhok abattoir, Kurdistan, Iraq. The result revealed that streptomycin residues were found in 12 samples (54.5%) of the sheep carcasses distributed as following 36.36 %, 45.45 %, 22.72 % and 50 % of Longissimus dorsi, diaphragm muscle, liver and kidney samples., respectively. The minimal streptomycin concentration in ovine meat samples was 3.001 ppb and the maximum concentration was 690.307 ppb. The results of this study show that sheep meat, which is sold in Dohuk governorate, often contains the residues of antibiotics due to slaughtered animals might have been treated with veterinary drugs and the proper withdrawal period was not respected before slaughtering.  
34 Prevalence Of Bovine Tuberculosis In Different Cattle Breeds In Dairy Farm In Egypt   , Nasr, E.A; Saleeb, O.R.; Abdel Rahman, M.; Shereen, A.M.; and Marwah, M  
Due to direct economic repercussions on livestock and indirect consequences for human health, knowing the prevalence rates of bovine tuberculosis is essential to define an effective control strategy. Our study was performed in 32 dairy cattle farms as we subjected 10800 dairy cattle to the Single Intradermal Comparative Tuberculin skin Test (SICTT). The skin test was interpreted according to guidelines of the World Organization for animal health (OIE). Twenty five farms (78%) have reactors to the SICTT. We also studied the relation between physiological variables with breeds, pregnancy, lactation, size of farms and the other risk factors explained in the study. Out of the 10800 tested animals, 228 (2.1%) were reactors to the skin test. The factors identified as possibly enhancing the risk of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) were herd size, age of animal, farming (housing) conditions. Other factors including breed and physiological status of the animal did not contribute to tuberculin sensitivity. The finding that large size and intensively (often poorly) managed herds were at greater risk of bovine tuberculosis and suggests that significance of bTB is increasing in Egypt parallel to an increase in the dairy operation. This surely indicates that if measures are not taken promptly, the impact of the economy and public health could be enormous. It was concluded that bTB continues to infect animals in Egypt but the prevalence was moderate, nevertheless the continued threat of economic loss in animal industry due to the persistence of bTB that should not be ignored.  
35 Protective Effects Of Solanium Nigrum Methanolic Extract Against Isoniazid/Rifampicin Induced Hepatotoxicity In Rats   , Abdel-Hameed M.Fayed, Abeer A. A. Salama, Ismaiel E Ismaiel, Taha A. Attia, Elbatran and Seham A, Azza Hassan  
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is the major health problem that resulted from uses of many drugs especially from serious adverse effect of antituberculosis (ATT) drugs. forty eight rats (200-250g) were allocated into six groups (8 rats in each group), and treated as follow: group I: received normal saline orally; group II: received INH/RFP (50 mg/Kg/day of each) for 28 days orally; group III: received Silymarin (50 mg/kg/day) + INH/RFP for 28 days orally; group IV: received SNME(250 mg/Kg/day) + INH/RFP for 28 days orally; group V: received SNME (500 mg/Kg/day) + INH/RFP for 28 days orally; group VI, received SNME (1000 mg/Kg/day) + INH/RFP for 28 days orally. Co-administration of herbal plant (SNME) with INH/RFP reduced elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and (bilirubin total &direct) levels but also decreased the elevated malondialdehyde (MDA) & tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) contents in liver homogenate. Moreover, co-administration of herbal plant (SNME) with INH/RFP increased glutathione peroxidase (GPX) & adiponectin activity. Solanum nigrum administration to rats, in present study, led to a remarkable alteration of histological changes observed in INH/RFP group. It is concluded that Solanum nigrum might be considered as adjuvant drug in treatment of liver disorder and/or as hepatoprotective therapy with anti-tubercular drugs.  
36 Effectiveness Of The Pigeon Pox Vaccine On The Chicken Vaccinated With Avian Influenza Vaccine   , Christine A. Mikhael and Nada, A. Fathy  
Evaluation of the effectiveness of pigeon pox (PP) vaccine in improvement the required immunity to avian influenza (AI) virus vaccine in birds and reducing its shedding after challenge was the object of this study.Specific pathogen free chicks were vaccinated with PP and AI in 10 groups at 5 and/or 8 days of age and/or boosted after 35 days then challenged after 28 days with virulent highly pathogenic AI virus local Egyptian field isolate. The development of immune responses to AI haemagglutinine was recorded and also AI virus shedding after challenge.Vaccinated 10 groups induced protective immune responses; especially in the groups which were boosterly vaccinated with PP vaccine. All birds vaccinated and experimentally challenged 28 days later were protected against virulent AI (H5N1); mild clinical signs of infection developed in few number of vaccinated birds. In contrast, all unvaccinated birds died within 72 hours of challenge. Vaccination of chicks with PP and AI vaccines provided good effectiveness of the PP vaccine on the immune response of vaccinated birds with AI vaccine and showed decreasing in shedding after challenge; especially in the groups which take a booster vaccination of PP and AI vaccine. Although eradication still remain the 1st of choice for controlling the AI in the circumstances of a continuing and wide spread outbreak, but also the availability of new designing future vaccination regime by using avipox virus vaccine should be applied.  
37 Role Of Taurine In Male Reproductive System Performance In Adult Male Rats Exposed To Oxiative Stress By Hydrogen Peroxide   , Nadhem Ahmad Hassan Al-kassim  
The experiment has been conducted to study the role of taurine of the concentration (0.5 & 1%) in the performance of the male reproductive system of rats that are exposed to oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide for six weeks. 32 albino adult male rats aged (12-14) weeks and weighing (252.3 +/- 27.08 gram), divided into four groups: Control Group:- this group is given natural water. Group (2): treated with (H2O2, 0.5%) in drinking water. Group (3): treated with (H2O2, 0.5%) by taurine (0.5%) in drinking water. Group (4): treated with (H2O2, 0.5%) by taurine (1%) in drinking water. The results reveal that this exposure with (0.5 % H2O2) has led to an significant decrease in the body weight and the ano – genital distance, the percentage weight of the testicles, head and tail of eqididymis, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, the percentage of live sperms, the number of Legdig and Sertoli cells, as well as the significant increase in the percentage of abnormal sperms and an significant decrease in the diameter of seminiferous tubules. Treatment with taurine (0.5 & 1%) has led to an significant improvement in the body weight, ano-genital distance, the percentage of the testicles weight, head and tail of eqididymis, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, the percentage of live sperms, the number of Legdig and Sertoli cells, as well as the significant decrease in the percentage of abnormal sperms and an significant increase in the diameter of seminiferous tubules in comparison with the treatment group by hydrogen peroxide. Treatment with taurine (1%) has led to an significant improvement of the sperm count and the percentage weight of the head and tail of the epididymis as well as the number of Legdig and Sertoli cells compared with the control group and the group of taurine (0.5%).  
38 Effect Of Garlic As Feed Additive On Performance, Carcass Characteristics, And Meat Quality  Of Muscovy Ducks Reared In Different Stocking Densities   , Basma M. Bawish , Fayed, R.H., and Abeer H. Abdel Razek  
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of supplementing diet with different garlic powder concentrations (300 and 600gm/Ton) on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality (fat %) of Muscovy ducks exposed to different stocking densities; standard stocking density (4 birds/m2) and high stocking density (8 birds/m2). A total number of 180 one -day -old Muscovy ducklings were used in this experiment. Birds were randomly allocated into 18 symmetrical pens classified into 6 treatment groups (3 replicate / treatment). Groups (C, SS+G300, SS+G600) raised on standard stocking density and fed on basal diet supplemented with (0 , 300 and 600 g. garlic powder,/ton feed ) respectively while groups (HS, HS+G300, HS+G600) raised on high stocking density and fed on basal diet supplemented with (0 , 300 and 600 g. garlic powder/ton feed) respectively. The data of growth performance indicated that supplementation of garlic (600 gm / ton) significantly (p > 0.05) improved performance (body weight gain and FCR ) of ducks in standard stocking density (SS+G600) group and high stocking density  in (HS+G600) group. Concerning carcass characteristic and meat quality, results indicated that, garlic supplementation reduced fat % in thigh and breast muscles. It can be concluded that, adding garlic powder to duck ration can effectively compensate the negative effects of the high stocking density in Muscovy ducks.  
39 Behavioral alterations induced by Toxoplama gondii during different stages of infection in mice , Motamed Elsayed Mahmoud , Yoshifumi Nishikawa
Acute, chronic and reactivation of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) infections are approximately found in 30-60% of population world-wide. T. gondii is a pathogen relevant to psychiatric disorders. We have recently found that reactivation of chronic T. gondii induced depressive-like behaviors in mice. In the present study, we aimed to illustrate the behavioral alterations in mice during acute, chronic and after reactivation of chronic T. gondii. Behavioral battery included sucrose preference and forced swim, and fear conditioning tests, and measurement of locomotor activity following T. gondii infection in mice. First, we prepared an ethogram and confirmed that specific pathogen free-BALB/c mice exhibited sickness-like behaviors during acute infection. In addition, reduced sucrose preference and increased immobility in forced swim test (putative indicators to anhedonic and despair-like behaviors, respectively) were exhibited in acute phase. While in chronic stage such symptoms were not exhibited at all. In turn, relapse of depressive- and some of sickness-like symptoms noticed after reactivation of chronic T. gondii infection. Interestingly, increased freezing time in fear conditioning was displayed during acute and reactivated T. gondii but not during chronic infection. Further, despite the well-known contribution of neurotransmitters; serotonin and dopamine in major depressive disorder, low levels of these neurotransmitters were observed in the brain not only in acute but also during chronic infection. Without interpolation of these symptoms to human psychiatric disorders, collectively, our results demonstrated the crucial changes induced by acute and reactivated T. gondii in modifying the behavior of mice.  
40 Efficacy of an experimental E. coli inactivated vaccine in turkey poults   , Gina, M. Mohammed, Shell, W.S., Sayed, M.L., Ibrahim, H.M.,  Hanan,M.H. and Ghada M. El-Sadek  
E. coli infections are responsible for great economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide, bringing serious threat to the turkey industry. The present investigation aimed to prepare a potent vaccine from E. coli serogroups O1 and O78 to aid in control of colibacillosis in turkey. One hundred commercial 14 days-old turkey poults were used and divided into three groups; first group was vaccinated twice with 3 weeks interval by prepared inactivated E.coli vaccine adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide gel, second group was vaccinated twice with 3 weeks interval by prepared inactivated E.coli vaccine adjuvanted with montanide ISA70, third group was left as unvaccinated control one. The immune response was measured by MAT (Microagglutination test), ELISA and challenge test. It was found that the protection rate for inactivated vaccine with aluminum hydroxide gel and E.coli inactivated vaccine with montanide ISA70 were 80% and 85%  respectively although it was 30% among the unvaccinated group.  
41 Effect of feed Supplemented with Xylam Enzyme on Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Broiler Chicks   , Abdelbasit B. Habib ,Abdelrahim A.Mohamed  ,Ahmed M. Eltrifi  ,Egbal S.Abu shulukh  , Abubaker A.Abubaker   
This experiment was carried out to identify the impact of inclusion different levels of commercial xylam enzyme (zero, 0.5kg, 0.75kg, and 1 kg) in the feed on performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of broiler chicks.300 unsexed one- day old (Ross 308) broiler chicks were used in the experiment. The chicks were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments and with each carrying 75 experimental birds. The treatments were subdivided into three replicates; each was given 25 experimental birds. All chicks were fed experimental diets to for five weeks which formulated according to (NRC) to meet the nutrient requirements. The results indicated that addition of xylam enzyme to diet improved significantly (p<0.05) the feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio values of broiler chicks throughout the experimental period. The results indicated that there were no significant differences between all treatment groups in percentages of commercial carcass cuts (breast, drumstick ,thigh and wing) and chemical composition of  breast meat (moisture, fat, and ash), results also showed that no significant differences observed between all treatment groups in some physical properties of broiler breast meat (PH and WHC). It is concluded that adding (1 kg) of commercial xylam enzyme in broiler chicks diets resulted in economic benefits.  
42 Comparison of tuberculin skin test and lateral flow rapid test for detection of bovine tuberculosis in dairy cattle   , Nasr E.A., Marwah M, Lilian F.S. Melika, Abeer A. Tammam,Seham F. Gorge  
Tuberculosis is the most important zoonotic bacterial disease that is hazardous to both man and animals. A huge economic loss which could be direct or indirect is associated with the disease, so rapid diagnostic tests for tuberculosis are needed to facilitate early detection and prevention of disease transmission. The aim of this work is the detection of bovine tuberculosis by application of different serological tests. Tuberculin skin test applied on 1900 cattle, only 50 (2.6%) showed positive results, and then slaughtered. Forty five (90%) of slaughtered animals showed visible lesions on post mortem examination, while the other five (10%) showed non visible lesions. The bacteriological examination of the 50 samples reveled Mycobacterium bovis form 40 processed samples (80%). Results of Anigen Rapid Bovine TB Ab test and ELISA test had detected 42% and 48% of tuberculin positive cattle respectively. It was concluded that the Anigen Rapid Bovine TB Ab kit test is rapid, safe, simple and easy to perform and provide yes or no results within 15 to 20 minutes but it is not efficient for detection of bovine tuberculosis in cattle and could be useful as a complementary for tuberculin test.  
43 Assessment of transportation stress in Dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) by using behavioural and physiological measures , H.H Emeash, A.S Mostafa, M. Karmy, Fatma Khalil , Mohamed Z. Elhussiny
Transportation is often considered as one of the main causes of stress raising considerable interest, both in animal welfare and economic fields. Stressful transportation of camel may cause severe welfare consequences and economic losses. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the stress resulting from transportation of Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius) by measuring some behavioural and physiological responses. Camels were imported from Dongola quarantine in Sudan to Arqueen (at the borders between Egypt and Sudan) by walking for about 450 km. After that, camels are transported from Arqueen to Abu Simble quarantine in Aswan. According to method of transportation, camels were randomly assigned into three groups; group 1 (camels were transported by trucks for about 150 km, taking about 2-3 h), group 2 (camels were transported by walking for about 90 km, lasting for about 24 h), and group 3 (non-transported camels). In Abu Simble quarantine, 30 healthy males (5-7 years and 300-400 kg b.wt.) were selected for each group (three replicates for each). Some behaviours were selected from the ethogram and are used in the analysis which include comfort (recumbency and standing), ingestive (feeding and rumination), eliminative (defecation and urination) and body care (rubbing, scratching and nipping). All behaviours were recorded in the morning and afternoon by direct personal observation for 60 min with an interval of 5 min and calculated as a frequency per total observation time. Furthermore, blood samples were collected just after arrival of camels (T0) and at 18 h after arrival (T18) for hematological examination (PCV%, total RBCs and WBCs) and measurement of some blood parameters including total protein, albumin, globulin, glucose and cortisol. The results revealed that the frequency of standing, feeding, defecation, urination, scratching and total body care behaviours, were significantly decreased in group 1(81.24, 33.51, 6.48, 9.12, 3.87 and 12.80) and group 2 (10.80, 31.67, 1.40, 2.19, 1.25 and 10.96) including transported camels in comparison to control group (97.26, 47.62, 12.16, 16.44, 12.88 and 21.06) respectively. The frequency of recumbancy was increased in transported groups as compared to control one. The results of haematological examination indicated that there is a significant increase in PCV% and neutrophil count and a significant decrease in lymphocyte count in groups 1 and 2 as compared to control one. Camels transported by trucks had a significant high level of cortisol at T0 (17.21 μg/dl) and T18 (6.14 μg/dl) in comparison to other groups. In conclusion, transportation of camels either by trucks or walk imposes a marked stress upon them as indicated by behavioural and physiological measures.
44 Seroprevalence of toxoplasma gondii and brucella abortus in dairy animals from the Sudan: special emphasis to their serological co-existence   , Abdalla Mohamed Ibrahim, Tamador Elkhansa Elnour Angara, Ahmed Ali Ismail  
Toxoplasmosis and brucellosis are the most common zoonotic food borne diseases worldwide. The abortion caused by these agents is one of the major causes of socio-economic losses in human and livestock. We thus conducted a cross-sectional study during October 2012 to April 2014 to determine the seroprevalence and the co-existence of Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella abortus in dairy cattle and the co-herded camels, sheep and goats in the Khartoum State using different serological techniques. The study revealed over all seroprevalence of 94.9% at herd level and 63.2% at individual level. T. gondii and B. abortus seroprevalence were 46.2% and 22.7% respectively. Seroprevalence of these zoonosis showed highly statistically significant (p<0.01) differences among different localities and different animals species. Antibody to T. gondii was found to be more prevalent in Sheep, goats and camels respectively while antibody against B. abortus was more prevalent in cattle and camels. Mixed antibodies against the two zoonotic agents were detected in almost all seropositive herds (99.1%). Only one seropositive herd (0.9%) revealed a single Brucella abortus infection. Mix-infection was observed in 16.2% out of all seropositive animals. The univariate analysis of different localities and different animal species showed significant (p<0.01) association with mix-infection seropositivity. Increasing odds ratios without significant (p>0.05) associations were observed in the multivariate analysis of districts and animals species (odds=2.588, CI 95%) for cattle and (odds=2.200, CI 95%) for camels compared to goats as reference. Generally, the present results were the first comprehensive data explaining the serological co-existence of T. gondii and B. abortus as zoonotic organisms in Sudanese food animals. We came to conclude that, the exposure to these organisms as well as their co-infection may play a significant role in the economic losses in dairy farm industry in the country. Moreover, the great public health importance of T. gondii, B. abortus and their co-existence could not be neglected. Further studies to elucidate their socio-economic consequences in man and his livestock are recommended.  
45 Role of lipoic acid (Thioctic acid) in improving vitality of different tissue culture cells   , Maha  R. Abd El-Fadile , Hussine A.H.M.  
The present obtained experimental results proved that addition of lipoic acid (LA) with its sodium salt in ratio of 0.1ml mole (mM) in the growth media has improved their physiological activities of different cell lines including MDBK, VERO and BHK21. Such cells remained normal for relative longer time comparing with the cell culture provided with media without lipoic acid (LA). The improvement of used cell lines was ascribed to the addition of lipoic acid (LA) dihydrolipoic acid, (DHLA) as protein free media supplement. As Lipoic acid (LA) and its dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA) are involved in several aspects of cell energy and amino acid metabolism, as well as in defense against oxidative stress and apoptosis; both components initiated the production of glutathione which antagonizes the oxidative effect of free radicals on cells that harmfully affects cell metabolism .This study is in need to involve more investigation covering other uses of (LA) especially in its nano form.    
46 Monitoring the efficacy of Terlipressin acetate in dogs suffering from hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE)   , El-Mashad N. E.  
In the present study, a therapeutic trial was conducted to assess comparative efficacy of Terlipressin acetate in dogs suffering from hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE). 70 dogs manifesting HGE, presented at teaching veterinary clinic, were selected randomly for the trial. All of them were observed to suffer from moderate dehydration on clinical examination. Terlipressin acetate, dextrose saline infusion 5% were used in combination with antibiotics and symptomatic treatment in the first group and in the second group, the dextrose saline infusion 5%, antibiotics and symptomatic treatment were used, both groups consisting of 35 cases each. The outcome of both treatment groups was evaluated on hematobiochemical parameters, before and after administration of the therapies and compared statistically within and between the two groups. Hematobiochemical parameters of clinically healthy animals were considered as control for comparison. On hematobiochemical examination, no significant alterations were observed in first group and second group. Clinical recovery was faster in the first group than the second group of animals. Laboratory data, efficacies of the Terlipressin acetate were of low importance for recovery in small animals suffering from hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE).  
47 Assessment of welfare and health of dairy cows under different housing and management systems   , Ahmed.S. Mostafa, Hesham. A. Mahran  
This study was conducted in six dairy farms in Beni-Suef Governorate representing the most prevalent systems of housing and management in Egypt to assess the welfare and health of dairy cows kept in these systems. These systems including 1) tie stall barn with daily access to an outside shaded area associated with hand milking twice daily; 2) loose housing in partially sheltered yards on earthy floor represented by 4 farms with different management practices include feeding and milking, and 3) free stall barn with daily access to partially sheltered yards during the day time associated with three times daily milking in a parlour system. Each farm was visited three times over a period of one year. All cows were observed for lying and standing up behaviour and  examined for lameness, mastitis, skin alterations at the knee and hock joints and rest of the body, teat injuries, cleanliness of the hind legs and udder, and body condition score. Results revealed that no restriction for lying and standing up behaviour was observed in all systems indicating that cow comfort was maintained. The prevalence of lameness was higher in loose housing system on earthy floor (0.9, 15.4 and 8.7 %). The prevalence of skin alterations at the knee joint was higher in cows kept in tie and free stall barns (4.7 and 7.5 % respectively) and at hock joints (11.9 %) in tie stall barn on concrete floor. Tie stall system had a higher prevalence of teat injuries (14.3 %) than other systems. High degree of dirtiness of hind legs (90.5, 89 and 99.2 %) and udder (91.4, 91.6 and 100 %) was found in loose housing system associated with increased dampness of the floor and lack of daily cow cleaning regimen.  
48 Assessment of the peste des petits ruminants (ppr) attenuated virus produced by inoculating vero cell line at different stages of cell growth   , El-Dakhly A.T, Youssef M. M,  Abeer A.Tammam, Namaa A. Mohamed  
This work presents cultural characterization of Peste Des Petites Ruminants (PPR) virus in VERO-culture. The VERO cells are currently considered as an acceptable cell substrate to produce a wide range of viruses. This study evaluates the best time for inoculation of PPR virus on VERO cell cultures; the study proved that the optimum time was 24 hours after subculture of VERO cell line using MOI 2: 1. It was also found that the best time of harvstation of virus fluid of PPR was 9th day post inoculation to reach the best titre 6 log10 TCID50 /ml.