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1 (فؤاد سزكَين والفقه الإسلامي (دراسة للمصادر الأولى للمذاهب الأربعة الفقهية, Adem Yıldırım
هذا مقال يبحث في علاقة العلامة التركي فؤاد سزكَين بالفقه الإسلامي، وتعريف الفقه، وتطوره، ومكانته بالنسبة له، لا يدعي اقتناص الشوارد، ولا قيد الأوابد؛ لكنه يكتفي بإيضاح بعض المقاصد. التي تتحدث في التسلسل التاريخي للفقه الإسلامي؛ وتبين بطريقة موجزة سلسلة الفروق بين نظرة العالم الفقهي للفقه، والعالم الحضاري الموسوعي للفقه وأهميته. يتمضن هذا المقال عدة نقاط محورية أهمها المدخل وفيه ترجمة العلامة فؤاد سزكَين موضوع المقال؛ يليها بداية علاقة العلامة فؤاد سزكين بالتراث العربي عامة، وبالفقه الإسلامي خاصة؛ كما توضح مفهوم التراث العربي عند العلامة فؤاد سزكين؛ والذي لا يقصد به كل ما أنتجه الجنس العربي؛ بقدر ما كان يقصد به كل ما أنتجه المسلمون باللسان العربي عربًا كانوا أو عجمًا. يشير المقال إلى أهمية تتبع التسلسل التاريخي للفقه الإسلامي منذ عهد الرسول-صلى الله عليه وسلم- وليس منذ بداية القرن الثاني الهجري كما يحلو للبعض ترسيخ هذه الصورة الذهنية في أذهان المسلمين كأنها حقيقة مُسَلّمٌ بها. وسوف يتبين من خلال المقال مجهود العلامة فؤاد سزكَين في فك هذا الالتباس الفكري الذي نتج عن حقب الاستعمار التاريخي الأجنبي للعالم الإسلامي فكريًا، ومعنويًا، وماديًا؛ حتى صار المسلمون ينظرون إلى الفقه على أنه خاص بالطلاق، والزواج، والميراث، وأحكام العبادات فقط؛ وتغافلوا أو تَناسَوا بقصد أو عن غير قصد حقيقة الفقه الإسلامي الشامله لمعاني تحقيق أسلمة الحياة بتطبيق عملي. لقد كانت وجهة نظر العلامة فؤاد سزكين أنه مِن الظُّلم بمكان أن يُنظَر إلى الفقه الإسلامي على أنه مجرَّد تخصُّص لا غير؛ وأنَّ الاهتمام به إنما يَعني فئةً من المتخصِّصين دون غيرهم؛ مع أنَّ واقع العلوم كافَّة يشهد بأنَّ التاريخ حياةٌ متكاملةٌ؛ تحمل تفسيرًا لشتَّى التخصُّصات؛ وفي طيَّاته نتفهَّم نشأة العلوم وتطوُّرها في الحضارة الإسلامية خاصة، والإنسانية عامة؛ ولا سيَّما ما كان منها مرتبطًا بالجوانب الحياتيَّة ذاتها. وحين نلتفِتُ إلى علم الفقه على وجه الخصوص، فإنَّنا نلحظ بشدَّة مدى ارتباطه بالأوضاع الاجتماعيَّة، والاقتصادية، والروحية الذهنية والنفسية، والعلمية، والأخلاقية العامَّة لكل مجتمع. وقد روى صاحب كتاب الروضتين في أخبار الدولتين النورية والصلاحية أبي شامة عن الإمام الشافعيِّ - رحمه الله - أنه أقام (بمصر) على تعلُّم أيام الناس والأدب عشرين سنةً، وقال: "ما أردتُ بذلك إلاَّ الاستعانة في الفقه" . ومن هذا المنطلق كان هذا المقال. وقد اتبع فؤاد سزكَين الأخلاق العلمية في التحقيق عند دراسة نظريات المستشرقين لتاريخ الفقه الإسلامي، فصحح ما استطاع إلى ذلك سبيلا
2 استراتيجية العثمانيين في تأسيس السلم الاجتماعي )مقارنة بالقرآن الكريم, Mesut Cevher
لقد كان أثر التربية القرآنية واضحا في سلوك حكام الدولة العثمانية ؛ لذلك عملوا على إرساء السلم في مجتعهم ، وقد اعتمدوا في ذلك استراتيجية تتوافق مع المنهج القرآني القائم على التجميع لا التفريق ، فلم يكن لدى العثمانيين التعصب لقومية أو عرق ، بل لعلنا لا نبالغ إذا قلنا إنهم كانوا لا يتعصبون حتى لدينهم ، لذلك عاش في دولتهم جميع الملل والنحل ، ولجأ إليهم المضطهدون في العالم ، ومنهم اليهود الذين فروا من هتلر ليحميهم العثمانيون ، ويقدموا لهم العون والعيش الكريم في دولتهم ،وسوف تتم دراسة هذا الموضوع في فصلين: 1. استراتجية الدولة العثمانية لتأسيس السلم الاجتماعي. 2. استراتيجيات السلم في القرآن .
3 SOME SYMBOLIC ELEMENTS IN THE MAWLAWI ORDER, Güldane Gündüzöz
Mawlawiyya is one of the most important of the order that emerged in Anatolia. This order was established in the name of Mawlānā D̲j̲alal al-Dīn al-Rūmī. But in fact this sect was established after the death of Mawlānā. As an original establisment, Mawlawiyya traditions and rituals were not immediately established because Mawlānā had not singled out specific rules. For example, he did not organized any entrance ceremony for those who declare their commitment and he did not apply any specific dhikr. Mawlānā Rūmī’s pupil, Sulṭān Walad, had systematized his father’s thoughts, turning Mawlawiyya into an order with its own rules and ceremonies. Therefore, Sulṭān Walad is accepted as the founder of Mawlawiyya. Symbols are of great importance in the Mawlawī order. Reflecting deep philosophical ideas, symbols are of great importance in the Mawlawiyya and the Mawlawī people often express their deep metaphysical thoughts in symbols. For example the purpose of the symbolic dhikr semāʿ of that Mawlawī is ascends on the way to God. The spinning movement in semāʿ unifies with the musicals. The semāʿ expresses the formation of the universe, the resurrection of man in the world, the transition of love and motion to the Supreme Creator, and the turning towards the “İnsân-ı Kâmil (Perfect Man)”. Mawlawī dervish is like dead in soul. For this reason cap symbolizes tombstone and clothes symbolize shroud. Dervish cardigan is like a grave. Similarly, in the Mawlawiyya, the place where the ceremony held, symbolizes the universe. The right side of this venue represents the material World whereas the left side symbolizes the spiritual realm. The fame of Mawlawī cult had spread all over the world owing to both the ideas of Mawlānā and the sacraments of the order. The analysis of symbols of Mawlawiyya order is the main theme of this paper.
4 HOW TO TEACH ISLAM IN A PHENOMENOLOGICAL RELIGIOUS EDUCATION APPROACH: THE CASE OF ENGLAND, Vahdeddin Şimşek
Religion has emerged as a universal and deeply rooted phenomenon since the existence of mankind. In all periods of human beings’ history, religion has continued to be an inseparable attribute of human life, guiding cultures, creating a lifestyle, and sometimes caused individual or social conflicts. Religions that confront different societies each other sometimes cause very cruel consequences and that case is an important exam of the world's nations. Religions have become an element of conflict via its training, with no doubt. Today, the education of religion / religions could be an important factor threatening social peace as well as aiming to live in peace together in multicultural societies that contain differences. Religious education (RE) is part of the basic curriculum in English public schools. It is equal, in status, to the core and foundation subjects of the National Curriculum whilst remaining outside of the National Curriculum. Christianity and other principal religions, faiths, beliefs and non-religious convictions in Great Britain today are seen as an essential aspect of religious education. These major religions are Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism and Buddhism. However, in this study, entitled by How to teach Islam in Phenomenological Religious Education Approach: The Case of England, we will focus on Islam, one of the major religions. It will be also mentioned some universal norms, such as understanding the others and respecting others, which have been able to live together with different cultures and religions in a harmonious manner and meet the demands of religious education of different religions and sects to the utmost level in the UK Religious Education System, and the Phenomenological Approach on Religious Education identified with the UK, the reasons for its arise, the development process, the UK Religious Education agreed curriculum and some sample units about teaching Islam based on this approach. It has been tried to inform how Islam is included in the Phenomenological Approach and evaluated.
5 Towards Godless Judaism: Humanistic Judaism and Its Basic Values, Muhammed Ali BAĞIR
The Humanistic Judaism movement, which emerged from Reformist Judaism, was founded by Rabbi Sherwin Theodore Wine (1928–2007) in 1963 in Detroit, USA. Particularly among American Jews, it was recognized as the fifth sect in the face of Orthodox, Reformist, Conservative and Reconstructionist movements. The most striking aspect of Humanistic Judaism, which is the newest of the contemporary Jewish sects, is that it advocates a godless understanding of Judaism based on universal values ​​by opening the theological doctrines of Judaism to debate. Because of this feature, it is mostly accepted among the secular Jews who adopt agnostic or atheistic views. It exhibits the most radical stance against traditional Judaism. It regards Judaism as a historical and cultural experience of the Jewish people; religion is only a part of this experience. It believes that human beings are independent of a supernatural authority and are responsible for themselves and their behavior against them, and have the ability to shape their own lives without such power. It thinks that the history of the Jews, just like the history of other nations, consists solely of human and natural phenomena. It argues that the Torah and other religious texts are written by human beings and scientific researches clearly demonstrate that fact. The aim of this research is to emphasize the foundation of Humanistic Judaism by Rabbi Sherwin Theodore Wine and its place in today’s Jewish world by giving information about its basic teachings and practices. Information about Humanistic Jews will be taken as much as possible from the publications made by the members of the movement. These will be presented in comparison with specifically traditional Judaism.
6 An Evaluation on the History of Science and Fuat Sezgin, Ali Çetin
The history of science has recently emerged as a scientific discipline. Although it is a new discipline, the history of science has historically old origins. History of science has been put forward as a history of ancient sciences. This tendency has given rise to a perception that science has a Western origin as a history. History of science is a scientific discipline that focuses on the nature, development and content of science, and incorporates quite different approaches. The main objective of all these approaches is to illuminate all aspects of the human mind's efforts to reach reality. One of the names worthy of mentioning in the field of history of science in our country is Fuat Sezgin. Sezgin has carried out his scientific studies in the style of orientalists in all his life and presented the most important elements of the history of Islamic science to the scientific and cultural community. In this study, we will examine the nature and function of the history of science as well as Fuat Sezgin's contributions to our culture in the context of this discipline.
7 القواعد المستفادة من كلام ابن حجر في فتح الباري للتمييز بين السفيانين , Anas ALJAAD
There are no common rules among hadith transmitters about mentioning the names in isnād. Sometimes, they mention only the transmitter’s name or his father’s name or both. Sometimes, they confine oneself to telling only name and tag. Sometimes they mention the transmitter and his father’s full name. And sometimes they mention the name of transmitter’s grandfather and his nickname. All this much available in Hadith books but those names are repeated many times because of their ampleness. We sometimes can see that the name only, sometimes with father’s name and sometimes with nickname. Therefore, we feel the need of something that to distinguish the transmitters name from other names. If a name cannot be distinguished from the other names, scholars called this name as “mühmel”. The distinguishing of “mühmel” names are requiring another wisdom and knowledge. There are simple mühmel names and difficult mühmel names. It is simple the distinguish that if a name called/accepted as a mühmel name because of the difference between the schedule of hadith, as in this case it is understandable the schedule that which the transmitter belonging to. There are two sections for transmitters who are in the same schedule, or who is lived in the same century: 1. Who become different by in teacher and in student. It is simple to distinguish them each other by looking the teacher and his students. In this way, it is simply understandable the transmitters identity. 2. Who become the same by in teacher and in student. The distinguishing here is very difficult if the transmitter did not distinguish them. Because researcher needs to find some evidence for distinguish the transmitter from others. If there are two transmitters who called by same name and one of them weak, and the other is reliable, the distinguishing those two is necessary. Because, adjudging a hadith is depends on the transmitter’s identity. By the transmitter’s identity, daif (weak) hadith and sahih (correct) hadith can be distinguish each other. If those two transmitters (both of them) are reliable, then the other criteria be examined. For instance, looking at being incompletely transmitted or fraud. Therefore, the researcher can identify the transmitter’s idendity, and can adjudge the hadith. Hence this second section is more difficult from the other one. Because we are talking about the transmitter that lived in the same century and his teacher and his students similar with others. Our work is about this second section. As a sapmle, we will examine Sufyân b. Uyeyne and Sufyan b. Sa’id es-Sevrî. This two are arbiters about the defective (ma’lul) hadith’s, transmitters and law (fıqh). So, it is important the mentioning them because of modification the left out transmitter’s name. They are transmitted many hadith and these hadiths are be in the Kutub-u Sitte (The Six Standard Collections). The transmitters that reported hadith from those two, are mentioning their names unconditionally. Many scholars are make effort to distinguish their names in hadith expounds. If one of them be in isnad, the scholars recorded his name as like: Sufyan (Sevrî – Ibn Uyeyne). İbn Hâcer el-Askalânî is one of the expounder that make effort about this subject. His famous work of expound is one of the Bukhari expound called Fethu’l-Bârî. In his work Fethu’l-Bârî, İbn Hâcer has distinguish Sufyân b. Uyeyne and Sufyan b. Sa’id es-Sevrî from each other. When he had distinguished them, he also point out the reasons of prefer one to the other. As a researcher, we gathered and examined those reasons that İbn Hâcer pointed out. Indeed, this reasons and rules although concentrate this two, also important for to determining the other mühmel names. The number of this reasons and rules is fourteen.